UBC Undergraduate Research

Solar Thermal Water Heating: A Simplified Modelling Approach and Potential Application for CHBE Bennett, Thomas 2007-04-16

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 CHBE 492 – Undergraduate Thesis    Solar Thermal Water Heating  A Simplified Modelling Approach & Potential Application for CHBE                  Prepared by: Thomas Bennett  Supervisor: Dr. Naoko Ellis Co-supervisors: Alex Bauer, Alan Illic    Submitted: 16 April 2007 Executive Summary   This project took a multi-faceted look at solar thermal water heating technologies, and their potential application for the Chemical and Biological Engineering building at UBC. Estimates of yearly system performance were obtained through development of a simplified modelling procedure, and indicate that such a system has the potential to supply 25% of the annual hot water heating load.  System output is highly weighted towards the sunnier summer months of June through August.  These results were compared with values generated from a RETScreen analysis, and found to be in good agreement.  RETScreen is a renewable energy technology analysis program distributed by the government of Canada and used in over 100 countries worldwide.  The development team has forged partnerships with major international organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Environmental Programme and is well respected as a pre-feasibility analysis technique.  Solar thermal water heating technologies have proven themselves as feasible and practical systems through several large scale installations in BC.  Two notable examples are the Hyde Creek recreation center in Port Coquitlam,  and the Vancouver international airport.  They can qualify for up to 25% subsidy on total installed cost through the federal governments REDI program, are exempt from provincial sales tax, and qualifty towards LEED certification in new and retrofit projects.  A solar thermal installation on the University campus would set a milestone for Universities in Canada, contribute towards the UBC sustainability pledge, and be an excellent demonstration project and learning opportunity for a wide range of disciplines.  The most likely route to such a project would be consideration in the design phase of a new construction project.  Current building are heated using steam,  and already have a supply of hot water in the form of steam condensate which could be utilized in a heat recovery system very similar to what would be required as part of a solar thermal system.  Hard figures on current building energy use could not be found during the timeline of this project, making a proper economic analysis of a retrofit project or a heat recovery project impossible.  ii Acknowledgements   There are many people who deserve thanks for assisting in this project.  Brenda Sawada from the UBC Sustainability office has provided contacts to all the right people on campus, and made this project an official UBC SEEDS initiative. Jorge Marques of the Sustainability office has lent advice and guidance.   Aleksander Paderewski P.Eng and Richard Hugli of UBC Utilities have helped to provide what information they could on current building operation and mechanical systems.  Mark Scott, building management system supervisor with plant operations, has gone out of his way to provide information whenever possible.  Doug Yuen and Dave Roberts of the CHBE shop have granted access to the building plans and helped get a hold of the right people.  Kevin Paquette, construction supervisor during CHBE construction, was helpful in providing details of how the buildings mechanical systems worked initially, even though he had moved on to other projects.  Dr. Andy Black and Rick Ketler of UBC agroecology provided data sets from their climate monitoring station located at the UBC farm.  Morgan Macdonald from Taylor Munro Energy Systems designs systems like this for a living and has been helpful. Thanks also to the British Columbia Sustainable Energy Association (BCSEA), CHBE Sustainability club, and Thermo-Dynamics Ltd®.  Finally, I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Naoko Ellis for providing both an open learning opportunity and guidance when needed on all aspects of assembling this project, and my co-supervisors, graduate students Alan Illic and Alex Bauer.  iii Table of Contents   Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ ii Acknowledgements............................................................................................................ iii Table of Contents............................................................................................................... iv  1.0 Introduction............................................................................................................. 6 1.1 Current Solar Energy Systems ............................................................................ 6 1.2 Project Goals....................................................................................................... 7 2.0 Overview of Solar Thermal Water Heating ............................................................ 8 3.0 Hot Water Heating in CHBE Building ................................................................. 10 4.0 RETScreen Analysis ............................................................................................. 12 4.1 Solar Water Heating Analysis........................................................................... 13 4.2 Results............................................................................................................... 15 5.0 Simplified Modelling Approach ........................................................................... 17 5.1 Model Outline ................................................................................................... 18 5.2 Flow rate Variation and Array Optimization .................................................... 20 5.3 Single year net energy production. ................................................................... 21 6.0 Comparing Results................................................................................................ 25 7.0 Potential Application of Solar Thermal in CHBE ................................................ 26 7.1 Potential for Solar Thermal Outside of CHBE ................................................. 27 7.2 Further Incentives: REDI and LEED certification............................................ 27 8.0 Concluding Remarks............................................................................................. 29 9.0 References............................................................................................................. 31  Appendix I - GVRD Water Quality Report, Temperatures .............................................. 33 Appendix II - CHBE Roof Survey.................................................................................... 34 Appendix III - RETScreen Input Sheets ........................................................................... 36 Appendix IV - Nomenclature............................................................................................ 38 Appendix V - Flow Rate Dependence of FrUL.................................................................. 39 Appendix VI - Sample Calculation for July 2 .................................................................. 40 Appendix VII - Temperature Convergence of model ....................................................... 41 Appendix VIII - Sample calculations for yearly energy production................................. 42 Appendix IX – Large Scale Installations in BC................................................................ 44   iv List of Figures  Figure 1 - Schematic diagram of a solar thermal hot water heating system....................... 9 Figure 2 - Potable and lab hot water heating in CHBE (temperatures approximate). ...... 10 Figure 3 - Monthly energy production related to storage tank size .................................. 16 Figure 4 - Schematic diagram of simplified solar model.................................................. 18 Figure 5 - Energy versus flow rate, array configuration, for a 40 panel system............... 20 Figure 6 - Yearly temperature trend based on sunniest day of each month...................... 22 Figure 7 - Daily variation in solar flux for the month of January..................................... 23 Figure 8 - Monthly distribution of renewable energy production..................................... 24 Figure 9 - City of Vancouver monthly average water temperature, 2005 ........................ 33 Figure 10 - Required spacing between rows of panels ..................................................... 34  List of Tables  Table 1 - Summary of RETScreen system analysis.......................................................... 15 Table 2- Comparison of RETScreen and simulation results............................................. 25 Table 3 - Solar Collectors on Roof ................................................................................... 35 Table 4 - Nomenclature list............................................................................................... 38  List of Equations  Equation 1 – Empirically derived description of collector performance.......................... 19 Equation 2 - FrUL-use, calculation of coefficient at application flow rate........................... 39 Equation 3 - Correction ratio for FrUL............................................................................... 39 Equation 4 - Collector overall heat loss coefficient efficiency factor .............................. 39  v 1.0 Introduction  The sun has been a powerful presence and force throughout the history of human existence on earth.  It has been regarded by many cultures as a god of one form or another, and understood by most to be the ultimate source of life on this planet.  It has also been intentionally exploited by many clever means over the centuries, in order to better utilize this life giving energy.  As far as renewable energy sources go, the sun represents the best and most stable we have.  It is infinite with respect to all practical timescales, immensely powerful, understood and predictable in its overall trends and patterns, and for the foreseeable future beyond anthropogenic effects.  In short, the perfect energy source; but it is not without difficulties.  Harnessing the sun as a clean and renewable source of energy has proven to be a challenge over the centuries, and in modern times has fallen off in favour of other technologies which are easier to commercialize and capitalize on.  The last few decades have shown exponential increases in the energy demands and consumption patterns of many countries, who have opted to meet this challenge with more conventional means such as fossil fuels.  However this attitude is beginning to change and we are coming to realize our habits must evolve towards lower impact, both for the good of our planet and ultimately ourselves.  Research into solar technologies has been quietly progressing for decades, and these technologies, generally summarized below, are ready to take on greater roles in a more energy aware society.  1.1 Current Solar Energy Systems  Solar technologies are commonly grouped into three major categories, generally differing in the ways they collect, store and use energy.  They are passive solar, solar thermal, and photovoltaic systems; listed in approximately the order of sophistication and inherent complexity involved.   6  Passive solar systems involve direct utilization of the suns radiation as light or possibly heat.  Examples include energy efficient windows, skylights, greenhouses, and hybrid lighting fixtures1, which use fibre optic cable to transmit sunlight into interior rooms. Next are solar thermal, which collect and use the suns energy as heat.  They are different from passive heating in their ability to store thermal energy for later use.  Modern applications include domestic and industrial water heating, air and space heating, radiant slab heating, and even the operation of heat pumps and stirling engines.  The focus of this report is solar thermal water heating, which will be expanded on in later sections.  A third category is photovoltaic cells, which functionally convert sunlight into electricity.  This is desirable for low draw applications, or where hard wired electricity is impractical or too expensive.  Examples include electronic road signs and help phones, sail boats, and the space station.  1.2 Project Goals  The goal of this project is to conduct an investigation into solar thermal water heating systems, and to be able to relate findings to their potential application for the Chemical and Biological Engineering building on the UBC campus, and beyond.  To get at this, a pre-feasibility analysis will be conducted using RETScreen software; as well a simplified modelling approach will be developed and the final results compared in terms of energy production.  An investigation into current hot water heating methods at UBC, including benchmarking of current energy use and system operational parameters is also looked at.  1 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/solar_lighting.html  7 2.0 Overview of Solar Thermal Water Heating  Modern systems designed for capturing the suns energy and transferring it to water, either for immediate use or as a storage medium, have been studied and put to use since the 1970’s, when they were first used for pool heating in California.  Continued research and innovation has resulted in products feasible in much colder and less sunny climates today.  A schematic diagram of a basic residential solar thermal water heating system is shown in Figure 1.  In addition to an existing conventional hot water heater, the main components are a solar collector panel and an insulated storage tank and heat exchanger.  These are integrated in Figure 1; however, a tank with external heat exchanger could also be used, and such systems are currently on the market.  Also shown is a small electric recirculation pump powered by a photovoltaic (PV) panel, the advantage being a system that does not rely on external energy for operation.  Strictly speaking, however, the pump can be powered by any means, and often, large scale installations require much larger units than a PV panel can power.  Basic system operation involves the pump circulating a heat transfer fluid, typically water or a food safe water/glycol mix, through the solar collector for heating.  This hot liquid then passes through a heat exchanger where it warms up cold feed water before being re- circulated back to the roof.  The cold feed water remains in this storage tank, constantly being heated while the system is operational, until required.  As water is drawn from the existing hot water heater it is replenished with warm water.  In this way the solar thermal system acts as a pre-heater and reduces load on existing hot water heaters but does not replace them.  This coupled arrangement saves energy and also ensures a constant supply of hot water at the desired temperature.   8   Figure 1 - Schematic diagram of a solar thermal hot water heating system   A very clever pumping design by Thermo-Dynamics Ltd® of Nova Scotia involves a photovoltaic cell and variable speed pump, such that the circulating flow rate is proportional to solar flux.  This is a simple way of ensuring efficient performance.  A key feature of these systems is that they are modular and scalable.  Large installations simply have more panels than smaller ones, with necessarily larger heat exchangers, pumps, and pipes.  The principle of operation does not change.  In cold climates anti-freeze protection is a necessary component of system design, and is often accomplished using a drain back setup.  A small tank located inside collects heat transfer fluid, which flows back out of the panel when the system is not operational such as a cold, cloudy day.  9 3.0 Hot Water Heating in CHBE Building   The University of British Columbia’s new Chemical and Biological Engineering Building (CHBE) has been occupied by students and staff for over two years.  Current water heating practices involve a combination of space heating, potable, and laboratory water. The ultimate source of thermal energy is steam from UBC Utilities at the other end of campus.  The space heating loop uses steam to produce hot water for use in radiant space heaters throughout the building.  While no hard figures are available, utilities unofficially estimates that approximately 85% of the winter water heating load is used for building heat, while the summer fraction is essentially 0.  The potable and lab water loops also use steam, and are illustrated in Figure 2.  Temperatures given are approximate and represent reasonable operating range, as exact measurements could not be taken during the duration of this project.   Figure 2 - Potable and lab hot water heating in CHBE (temperatures approximate).  10  Both potable and lab water share a common origin.  Lab water branches off and is isolated from the rest of the system by a series of backflow prevention valves, which eliminates cross contamination of the supply.  Water is kept in motion by a recirculation pump and temperature is maintained via a Raychem® inline electric heat booster which is controlled and monitored in the 3rd floor janitor’s closet.  The potable water loop is kept in continual circulation such to avoid stagnation, minimize cooling in the pipes, and ensure instant flow of hot water at all faucets.  This system is a multi-step process.  Cold feed enters and is passed through a pre heat unit, where hot water returning from the upper floors is used to warm the feed.  It then enters into a shell and tube style, steam to water heat exchanger and is brought up to 60°C.  Both this water and the circulating load flow into a 760 L tank and from there the cycle begins again. This process is controlled based on tank level and heater outlet temperature to control the feed water and steam rates.  The potable and lab water systems are believed to be designed for heating 7600 L of water during one standard 8 hour work day, with a peak daily flow of 1900 L/hour. Operational values could not be confirmed, as utilities only monitors total water and steam flow rates and has no way of separating heat and potable loads.  Also, temperatures are not required to be monitored with the exception of heater outlet, and so those listed in Figure 1 are reasonable guesses.  We know for certain the pressure of steam entering the building since it passes through a standard pressure reducing valve when entering the building, and the hot water set point of 60°C.  All other data is known in terms of sensor percentages and valve positions.  In theory these could be used for indirect relations to process operation, but would produce rough estimates at best.  11 4.0 RETScreen Analysis   RETScreen stands for Renewable Energy Technology, and is a software tool made available internationally and free of charge by the government of Canada.  It is currently used in over 100 countries throughout the world, and cracked the 100,000 user milestone this past March.  A core team of engineers has been responsible for program development since its conception in the 1990’s, working through Natural Resources Canada’s CAMNET energy research and innovation facilities.  The RETScreen team works directly with over 150 academic and industry contributors to ensure up to date information in a wide range of rapidly changing fields related to renewable energy.  In addition, it has partnerships with many international organizations such as the World Bank and United Nations Environmental Programme.  The goal of RETScreen is to encourage and facilitate renewable energy and energy efficiency projects throughout the world.  The program is a decision support and planning tool for use by politicians, technical staff, decision makers and others.   A recent survey of users determined that its two primary functions were in project analysis (49%) and project development (27%). The same survey  has also shown that between 1998 and 2004 RETScreen was used in some capacity during the development of renewable energy projects with a total installed capacity of 1000 MW worldwide and 320 MW in Canada alone.  These projects have totalled $1.8 billion2 and $750 million, respectively, saving some $600 and $240 million in energy costs, and with GHG emissions reductions of 630 kT CO2/year and 130 kT CO2/year.  An interesting case study is the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI) which used RETScreen in a due diligence analysis for a new 6.5 MW hydroelectric installation in Honduras before approval3   2 All dollars in CDN. 3 RETScreen® International: Results and Impacts 1996- 2012, p 6.   12 The program itself takes the form of a series of Microsoft excel spreadsheets.  Each spreadsheet contains a series of workbooks where project details are entered, as well as links to multiple databases with detailed information on relevant equipment specifications, costs,  physical parameters, weather statistics and more.  The range of topics currently covered by RETScreen sheets include wind power, small hydro, photovoltaics, biomass to heat, solar air heating, solar water heating, passive solar, and ground source heat pumps.   Online help and engineering reference manuals, as well as a live help forum moderated by RETScreen staff and industry professionals are also available for use.  4.1 Solar Water Heating Analysis  The module used for the purpose of this project was for solar water heating.  For our purposes there were two main worksheets, the energy model and solar resource and load information, requiring information on weather, load, and system configuration.  Climate data is automatically retrieved from an online data base for the weather office selected.  Vancouver international airport was chosen for its proximity and similarity to the UBC campus.  Monthly average daily solar radiation (w/m2) and monthly average daytime temperature (°C) are the key numbers.  Relative humidity and wind speed are also included but not used in energy calculations with the style of panel we are using.  Heating load data includes an estimate of daily hot water use, desired final temperature, days per week the system will operate, and inlet feed water temperature.  These values are used to determine yearly energy demand for hot water heating.  The design value of 7600 L/day was used, along with 7 days/week operation.  This is based on my experience as an undergrad, with the building being occupied most weekends, especially near exams. Feed water can either be left as the default, or user defined.  City of Vancouver water temperatures, which vary between 6°C and 16°C annually as given in Appendix I from a 2005 water quality report, are used.  13   Certain system specifications must also be entered, which involve basic engineering and preliminary system design.  Based on the required heating load, RETScreen decided upon a 40 panel system.  This is based on the smallest system that could potentially supply all of the required heating load if operating at 100% efficiency and capacity.  In this manner RETScreen will not automatically oversize any system.  A survey of the CHBE roof also concluded that 40 panels could potentially fit, so this number was used.  Rough calculations are shown in Appendix II.  Panels were selected to be TDL G32 series, manufactured by Thermo-Dynamics Ltd. ® out of Dartmouth, Nova Scotia.  They were selected on the basis of a strong company reputation, and on operating a very informative website which could be used as an information resource during later stages of the project.  Based on general rules of thumb4, the panels were oriented due south and at an angle of 45° to the horizon, approximately equal to the latitude of Vancouver in degrees.  Panels in the northern hemisphere should always be oriented due south except when specific installations prohibit this, such as flush mounting on a roof that does not face due south. Setting the angle against the horizon approximately equal to the locations latitude has been found to provide excellent, year round performance.  Storage tank size is also required, and the current 760 L tank was at first chosen to minimize extra equipment and cost.   The analysis was also done using a much larger storage tank with a volume of ~11,000 L, the maximum recommended size in RETScreen.  Finally a heat exchanger efficiency of 85% was chosen, which is on the high end of the recommended range in RETScreen but definitely within reasonable expectations.  Inefficiencies are included in the model as losses due to dirt and snow on the panel, as well as thermal pipe and tank losses.  Each was set at 5%, mid way in the recommended range of up to 10%.  Copies of these two excel spreadsheets can be found in Appendix III.   4Designing a Commercial Solar Heating System.  14 4.2 Results  Based on the above inputs, energy calculations in RETScreen yield the numbers listed in table 1:  Tank Size (L)    760  11,000 System Capacity (KWth):  78  78 Specific Yield (kWh/m2):  305  460 System Efficiency (%):  23  35 Solar Fraction (%):   23  34 Renewable Energy (MWh):  36  55        130 GJ  196 Table 1 - Summary of RETScreen system analysis  System capacity is based on a 2004 recommendation of the International Energy Association (IEA), stating that for overall energy statistics the installed capacity of a system can be given by its installed area multiplied by 0.7, and stated in units of thermal kW5.  Solar fraction refers to the total fraction of heating load that can be supplied by solar energy, in the first case 23% and equivalent to 36 MWh or 130 GJ.    System efficiency is the fraction of total yearly solar radiation that is converted into usable thermal energy, equal to 23%.  As can be seen, the RETScreen model is relatively sensitive to storage tank size.  The physical effect of this tank is storage of thermal energy so that differences between supply and demand are buffered, allowing the system to utilize a greater portion of total thermal energy.  Figure 3 shows the effects of this tank on a monthly basis.  Of particular note is that in winter months, this model predicts a larger tank is required to extract any useful energy.  The basis for this condition is there is not sufficient residence time for water to heat up in the small tank, before it passes through and is used.   5 Referenced to RETScreen Online user guide.  Originally referenced to IEA SHC 2004.  15 mo nt h Ja nu ar y Fe bu ar y Ma rc h Ap ril Ma y Ju ne Ju ly Au gu st Se pte mb er Oc to be r No ve m be r De ce m be r 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Month small tank big tank  Figure 3 - Monthly energy production related to storage tank size  Also notice there is a dip during the month of June.  This is simply due to the available weather statistics for Vancouver showing both May and July as sunnier months than June.  People living in Vancouver have split opinions on whether this is true or not, but it is statistically shown.  One of the strengths of RETScreen we were not able to utilize was its capacity for economic analysis.  While some system components were able to be priced out accurately, cost analysis is based on current base case energy consumption, which was impossible to determine, and therefore made meaningful economic analysis virtually impossible at the time.  16 5.0 Simplified Modelling Approach  Computational methods related to solar thermal processes generally fall into two categories; design procedures and simulation techniques.  Design procedures include methods such as the utilizability-Φ, or f-chart methods, and are used for predicting long term performance on a monthly basis, such as in RETScreen.  They are useful due to the low levels of input data required and their computational simplicity.  Simulation techniques include programs such as WATSUN and TRNSYS, both developed for research purposes6.  These work by rigorously solving the governing equations for each component in the system, and work is being done improve their flexibility by adding more modules for equipment like tanks and heat exchangers.  They require detailed input parameters for weather and heating load and are computationally intensive, but provide dynamic system responses to various inputs allowing for sensitivity analysis and process control design amongst other things.  Vast improvements to desktop computing power in the last decade have made these tools available and practical for the system design engineer, and spurred the patent holders to extract fees for program use.  In 1985, Elasfouri and Hawas7 developed a simplified model for simulating dynamic performance of solar thermal systems, in an attempt to fill the computational gap between design method and the current simulation techniques which were impractical for many researchers to use due to available computing power.  Their main simplifications involve component parameters, input metrological data, and solution methods.  Their work was motivation for the simplified modelling approach described below.  A full list of nomenclature, including physical meanings and units can be found in appendix IV.  6 Detailed discussions of all the above methods and simulators can be found in the text by Duffie, in chaptaers 19 through 21. 7 Elasfouri  17 5.1 Model Outline  Detailed metrological data is available through the Department of Agroecology at UBC, who maintain a climate monitoring station at the UBC farm.  Ambient temperature and solar flux (w/m2) in 30 minute intervals over a three year period from 2001-2004 were provided.  This eliminated the need for climate assumptions.  The focus of this modelling project is on panel performance and optimization, including a study of different panel array configurations, i.e., series versus parallel flow.  The panels are coupled to a storage tank and heat exchanger through only a heat exchanger efficiency relationship, set to 85% for consistency with RETScreen, and ignoring any effects of tank dynamics.  This also assumes the tank is well mixed and not stratified in any way.  Finally a 5°C driving force temperature difference is maintained within the heat exchanger.  The model loop and relevant equations are shown in Figure 4.   Figure 4 - Schematic diagram of simplified solar model  Temperatures in this model are derived using simple energy balances along with mass flow and heat capacity for each stream.  Tfeed is once again know. Qu, is useful energy gain from the collector array in watts.  Divided by collector area this yields specific  18 energy gain per m2 of panel, and again divided through by solar flux gives an expression representing panel efficiency.  The majority of solar thermal panels on the market today are tested by the Solar Ratings and Certification Corporation (SRCC), an independent and not-for-profit laboratory.  It has been found that panel performance in terms of weather conditions and inlet temperatures can be accurately represented by the linear equation shown as Equation 1. In this equation Qu is the useful thermal energy in watts.  A is the area of the collector in m2, and G represents solar flux in W/m2. Tci is the fluid inlet temperature and Ta is the ambient temperature, both in Celsius.  Frτα is a number between 0 and 1 representing a solar absorptivity coefficient, essentially giving the upper limit of panel efficiency.  FrUL is the thermal loss coefficient in units of W/m2 °C.  In some instances a higher order differential equation has been developed to describe performance based on the same parameters.  This is almost always converted into the linear form found below which has been found over time to be within acceptable accuracy limits8.  *[ *( )]u ULQ A Fr G Fr T Tτα ∗= − ci a−   Equation 1 – Empirically derived description of collector performance   Both empirical coefficients can theoretically be derived from first principles and a knowledge of panel construction, but this is rarely done in practice.  Rather, the values are determined by the SRCC and made available through a variety of sources including SRCC documents, manufacturer websites and the RETScreen database.   The main utility of these equations today is similar to the way cars are tested for miles per gallon, in that they give system designers and consumers a way to compare products from different manufacturers.   8 RETScreen online user manual, Technical note 1.  19 5.2 Flow rate Variation and Array Optimization  Consider variations in the way a set of panels can be installed; all in parallel, series, or some combination.  One limiting case is 40 panels in parallel.  Moving to a configuration of 20 parallel sets of 2 panels each in series will cause the flow rate in each panel to double.  This increase in flow rate will decrease FrUL, hence decreasing thermal losses from the system.  The governing equations are given in Appendix V.  A competing effect is that the 2nd panel of each series has a higher inlet temperature, Tci, than the first, causing a decrease in efficiency according to equation 1.  The question is which configuration maximizes energy as a function of the interplay of these two effects.  The balance of these effects was calculated during one full day on July 2, 2003.  Net energy gain  is plotted in Figure 5, as a function of array configuration at two different flow rates.  Sample calculations for the case of 20 groups of 2 panels at 40 l/min on July 2nd are given in Appendix VI.  Figure 5 - Energy versus flow rate, array configuration, for a 40 panel system   20 1560.0 1580.0 1600.0 1620.0 1640.0 1660.0 1680.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 # of Parallel Collector Arrays En er gy  (M J/ da y) 100 L/min 40L/min The optimization curve shown is a straight line, indicating that you might want to operate at the limit of all panels in parallel.  This suggests the decrease in efficiency from panels in series is dominant over the increase in efficiency from lower thermal losses. Furthermore, as the flow rate is increased from 40 L/min to 100 L/min the line becomes less steep, suggesting that at increased flow rates the effect of FrUL is more important but not yet dominant.  A practical limit is that only the circled data points above correspond to realistic flow rates.  With too many panels in series, the flow rate can exceed maximum operating limits.  Practically speaking, the difference between maximum and minimum in Figure 5 is only on the order of 6-7%.  While the relative trends noticed are reasonable, the absolute changes noticed are insignificant.  In all examples of large installations, the array has been set up with several parallel sets of 3-5 panels in series.  The benefit of such an arrangement is higher exit temperatures for the heat transfer fluid, and hence better downstream heat exchanger performance.  Simply put, it is better to have a smaller volume of hotter fluid.  5.3 Single year net energy production.   Vancouver’s solar resource is characterized by strong seasonal variation.  Our model was used to calculate the highest solar flux day of each month, in order to gain an understanding of what seasonal performance variations could be expected.  Here an iterative calculation was required in order to converge temperatures coming out of the heat exchanger.  An estimate of Tci was made and the net daily energy production was determined, and this energy total was used to calculate the possible temperature increase for 7600 L of feed water, again on a daily basis.  Tci was then adjusted in order to converge with the predicted preheat water outlet temperature.  A sample of this calculation is given in Appendix VII.   In this way our model ignores the effect of tank size and assumes all energy extracted by the solar panels is useful, and simply multiplied by a heat exchanger efficiency.  Figure 6 plots feed temperature along with inlet  21 temperature of the solar collectors and the pre-heated water temperature, kept at a 5°C difference.   The 3 months of June through August show little variation in Tci and Tho. Water enters the system at ~15°C and is brought up to 50°C, representing approximately 80% of the water heating load.  Between January and May, and again between September to December, performance decreases approximately linearly, and in the peak of winter the maximum attainable temperature rise is only on the order of 10°C.   Yearly Temperature Trend 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Jan-03 Mar-03 May-03 Jul-03 Sep-03 Nov-03 Date Te m pe ra tu re  ( C ) Tfeed Tci Tho  Figure 6 - Yearly temperature trend based on sunniest day of each month  Solar flux in summer months is relatively more constant than in winter months.  So while the temperature rise indicated above is a good estimate of summer performance, winter performance will be somewhat less.  Figure 7 shows the daily variation in solar flux for the month of January, indicating that over half of the days are well below values the above temperature was calculated at.  22 Solar Flux in January 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1-Jan 6-Jan 11-Jan 16-Jan 21-Jan 26-Jan 31-Jan Date W /m ^2  Figure 7 - Daily variation in solar flux for the month of January  The next computational step was to determine system performance over the course of an entire year.  An array configuration of 10 groups of 4 panels in series was chosen as described above.  A major assumption in this calculation is that the panel inlet temperature remains constant on a monthly basis, and is set at the monthly values of Tci given in Figure 6.  This has several ramifications.  First of all, it eliminates the need to perform iterative calculations for each data point during the year.  It also produces a very conservative estimate of system performance as described below, even though this statement is at first counter intuitive.  Consider Equation 1, where panel performance is inversely proportional to inlet temperature.  At any time, this inlet temperature is proportional to solar intensity, such that on sunny days the system operates at higher temperatures.  If that operating temperature remains constant but the panel receives less sun it will operate at less than its most efficient.  The operating temperature will tend to move towards a lower equilibrium value with lower sun levels.   So even through the plot of temperatures above is a best case scenario for each month, using the given Tci values will produce a final result that is very conservative.   23 With the above assumptions in place, the model was used to calculate energy output for every data point during one full year, and the results summarized by month and year. After including the 85% heat exchanger efficiency and 10% inefficiency for optical fouling and thermal losses, our model predicts 156 GJ of renewable energy produced, approximately equal to 26% of the yearly heating load.  Sample calculations are given in Appendix VIII.  In an attempt to simplify this data set, all points that did not correspond to the minimum solar flux required to activate the system were filtered out.  Monthly breakdown is shown below in Figure 8, and can be seen to follow closely the temperature curve of figure 6.  It also approximately follows the RETScreen distribution shown in Figure 3.  What this figure indicates is that the 6 winter months from October through March contribute approximately 26 GJ of renewable energy, or 17% of the yearly energy production of the system. Monthly Energy Production, 2003 Year Total: 156 GJ 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Month En er gy  D el iv er ed  (G J)    Figure 8 - Monthly distribution of renewable energy production  24 6.0 Comparing Results   RETScreen is a feasibility analysis tool which uses the f-chart design method to predict monthly performance for a solar thermal system.  This involves seemingly simple calculations using a few key input parameters and monthly average weather data. However the f-chart method which is used actually calls upon the results of a large number of simulations conducted in the past, and the method is anything but simple even though final calculations are easy by comparison.  The modelling approach taken in this report uses a detailed metrological data set, relatively simple equations to describe system performance, and energy calculations done on an hourly basis.  Given all of the inherent assumptions and simplifications mentioned previously, these two approaches give remarkably similar results, as shown in Table 2.  Calculation Type Energy Delivered (GJ) Simulation  156 GJ RETScreen – existing tank 130 GJ RETScreen – very large tank 198 GJ           Table 2- Comparison of RETScreen and simulation results   One important factor our model did not consider was the effect of storage tank size on system performance.  Solar flux and load profile generally do not match, and a storage tank is needed to buffer supply and demand. This buffer is often the storage and preheat tank.  The larger this tank, the better the system is able to capture and utilize energy during non peak hours or during high loads.  In not considering tank size or dynamics, our model implicitly assumed an infinite buffer size such that all energy could be collected irregardless of load or time.  RETScreen analysis using the existing 760 L tank showed 130GJ of energy produced.  However 760 L is below the recommended size of storage tank for a system this size.  More appropriate would be a tank between 4,000 – 10,000 L.  Using the upper end of this range, we find the RETScreen analysis to yield 198 GJ of energy.  These two predictions bracket our models predicted value.  25 7.0 Potential Application of Solar Thermal in CHBE   The initial driving force for this work was to determine potential feasibility of a solar thermal water heating system in the CHBE building.  It was realized early on in the project that all buildings on the UBC campus already have an ample supply of hot water in the form of steam condensate.  This condensate is normally sent directly back to UBC utilities without further heat recovery attempts.  While some of this thermal value is realized with a hotter feed temperature at the utility boilers, a large fraction of the heat is lost to ambient during transmission across campus.  These transmission losses could be minimized by instead returning a cool liquid, after extracting thermal energy in each building.  To the best of my knowledge no such projects are in the works at UBC.  In terms of solar hot water heating, the question now becomes why make hot water when you already have it?  The greatest need for hot water comes during winter months when undergraduate classes are in session, which is when the supply of steam condensate is greatest.  A case could potentially be made for solar thermal in the summer months when the system would function best, but at this time the demand is expected to be lower with only researchers, faculty,  and staff occupying the building.  Interestingly, summer demand has been increasing with more summer classes and researchers with offices in the building.  Building the economic case for such a system would  require a very detailed analysis of both current energy use and the proposed system.  Unfortunately it has proven to be extremely difficult to obtain the required metrics on current energy consumption, in many instances because they are simply not measured.  The  building is considered non-billable by utilities, and is brand new, so detailed energy records and breakdowns are not available.  Also, these values will change when the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC), a wing of the CHBE building, starts operating at full capacity, as  both share a common mechanical room.   26 Ultimately, engineering aims to teach common sense through rigorous analysis of scientific principles applied to realistic situations.  It also teaches us to recognize opportunities that warrant further work and those that likely do not, the approach taken here.  Unknown and uncertain heating loads, an ample supply of hot water already available and difficult mechanical integration into the current system are challenges. Ultimately I believe the money such a project would cost could be better utilized for other projects on campus, such as condensate heat recovery.  7.1 Potential for Solar Thermal Outside of CHBE  Solar thermal has a proven record of feasible operationg when it comes to both residential and industrial installations in the province of BC.  This is evident through two major installations that have come online in recent years.  First is the Vancouver International Airport, which installed 100-4’x8’panels in May 2003, as part of a large energy efficiency retrofit.  A second project is the Hyde Creek Recreation Center in Port Coquitlam, a 42 panel installation designed by Taylor Munro Energy Systems in conjunction with Coral Engineering.  The installation was part of a larger energy retrofit including two heat reclaim units to collect evaporating pool water and a “demand” based ventilation system.  The GVRD has been monitoring energy use since the project went online in January 2004, and estimates savings  of $40,000 - 50,000 per year, with $4000 from the panels alone.  Based on the success of these projects the GVRD is actively pursuing similar installations at other recreation facilities.   Appendix IX contains more information on these projects.  7.2 Further Incentives: REDI and LEED certification.  The government of Canada, through its Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI), now also called the ecoEnergy Renewable Initiative, will pay up to 25% of the design and installation cost of solar energy systems, including solar thermal9, with the  9 http://www2.nrcan.gc.ca/es/erb/erb/english/View.asp?x=68  27 assistance increasing to 40% for projects in remote communities.  As an added financial benefit, the sale of solar thermal equipment is exempt from 7.5% in provincial sales tax in the province of BC.  Solar thermal systems are also beneficial for buildings trying to obtain Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, a widely accepted way of rating the environmental impact of new and renovation construction projects .  The number of LEED points for a solar thermal system will depend on many factors, and is best considered on a case by case basis by qualified designers.  Taylor Munro of Delta, BC, has experience in this field.    28 8.0 Concluding Remarks   There are two main techniques for the analysis of solar thermal engineering projects, namely design methods and simulation techniques.  These procedures differ in their approach, required input data, calculation methods, and type of results.  In general, design methods give predictions of long term performance, while simulation techniques give immediate dynamic system responses.  For this project a simplified modelling approach was developed based on the governing equations for a collector array, which was coupled to a heat exchanger described using only a heat transfer efficiency factor.  In its current form the model functions well as a design method, but has the capacity to serve as a basis for a more detailed simulation if several assumptions are more rigorously dealt with.  The principle assumption here is a very simple linear relation between collector panels and heat exchanger.  A more accurate model would necessarily include factor such as tank volume, temperature distribution or stratification, and instantaneous heat transfer rates.  A more rigorous calculation procedure would also be used.  Using a detailed meteorological data set, out model looked at variations in system performance on a monthly basis, showing the expected strong seasonal dependence which characterizes Vancouver sunshine.  Different plumbing configurations of parallel and series panels for the array were investigated.  Net effects are minimal, and a strong practical consideration is given to systems using 3-5 panels in series, in order to obtain higher temperature rise for the heat transfer fluid.  Net energy production for one full operational year was determined to be 155 GJ, approximately one quarter of the yearly hot water heating load required in CHBE.  The actual seasonal variation as indicated above would be heavily weighted towards summer months, where upwards of 80% of the heating load could potentially come from renewable solar energy.  This estimate for yearly energy production is in close agreement with the results of a RETScreen analysis also conducted.  The RETScreen model was heavily dependant on storage tank size, which acts as a buffer between solar supply and heating load demand.  29 Using a current 760L tank in the CBHE basement, renewable energy production was predicted to be 130 GJ, however, using a much larger 11,000L tank would increase this value to 198GJ.  Our model implicitly assumes a large tank but is also conservative in nature, and gives a value intermediate between these two.  Monthly variations predicted by RETScreen were similar to our model.  Solar thermal water heating systems are a very simple and ingenious source of energy, having the potential to contribute clean, renewable energy in a wide range of systems. Several successful large scale projects exist in the province of BC and more are on the drawing board.  It is common to see retrofit applications in the residential market, and two high profile, large scale installations have been part of larger energy efficiency retrofits, both at the Vancouver International airport in 2003 and Hyde Creek Recreation Center in 2004.  With demonstrated economic feasibility, it is time to start considering solar thermal water heating systems from the design stages of new construction projects. Further incentives are that projects can qualify for funding by the federal government through their REDI program, are exempt from provincial sales tax, and qualify towards LEED certification.  30 9.0 References  Duffie, John A., Beckman, William A.,  Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes.  2rd edition.  John Wiley and Sons.  1991.  Elasfouri, A.S., M.M Hawas, A Simplified Model for Simulating Solar Thermal Systems. Energy Convers Mgmt, Vol 27, No 1, 1987. pp 1-10.  Knowles, Ralph L.  Sun Rhythm Form.  Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  1981.  Santamouris, M (Ed).  Solar Thermal Technologies for Buildings.  The State of the Art. James and James.  London, UK.  2003.   American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) publications • Active Solar Heating System Design Manual  -ISBN # 0-910110-54-9; 1988.  City of Vancouver publications • City of Vancouer, Engineering Services. Water Quality Report 2005 http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/engsvcs/watersewers/water/quality  Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) documents • Operation and Maintenance Instructions for Recirculating Type Solar Water Heating Systems on Florida Schools.  1991.  Government of Canada Publications • Designing a Commercial Solar Heating System • Solar Water Heating Systems: A buyer’s guide • Commercial Solar Heating Systems http://www.cansia.ca/information.asp  • RETScreen® International: Results and Impacts 1996- 2012. http://www.retscreen.net/ang/impact.php  Solar Rating Certification Corporation Publications • Methodology for Determining the Thermal Performance Rating for Solar Collectors.  (Document # RM-1; April 1994) • Test Methods and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Collectors           (Document # OG-100-05; September 2005) • Operating Guidelines for Certifying Solar Collectors.  (Document # OG- 100-06; September 2006.)   31 Websites  www.ashrae.org -American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers  www.BCSEA.org  -British Columbia Sustainable Energy Association  www.californiasolarcenter.org -California Solar Center.  An information distributor and advocacy group.  www.cansia.ca -Canadian Solar Industries Association  www.eere.energy.gov - US department of Energy  www.fsec.ucf.edu - Florida Solar Energy Center  www.nrcan.gc.ca - Natural Resources Canada  www.retscreen.net -RETscreen resource center  www.solarthermal.com -Thermomax Industries Ltd. Victoria BC.  www.solar-rating.org -Solar Rating Certification Center, Florida.  www.taylormunro.com -Solar system design engineers, Delta BC  www.thermo-dynamics.com -ThermoDynamics Ltd, Dartmouth, NS.  www.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca Canadian Weather Office  http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/sustainability/casestudies/HydeCreekRecreationCentre.htm  -GVRD Case study           32 Appendix I - GVRD Water Quality Report, Temperatures   The city of Vancouver collects 40 water samples per week from a series of 52 dedicated sampling stations throughout the city, encompassing source, high and low flow, and dead end distribution lines.  All samples are instantaneously tested for physical properties including turbidity and temperature; results of the latter are displayed below as the average monthly temperatures.  The 15°C aesthetic objective is a Canadian guideline for drinking water temperature, aimed at limiting microbial growth which can affect water taste, odour, and colour.  As piece of mind, microbial activity did not increase in the city of Vancouver water supply during August, indicating sufficient levels of residual chlorine treatment.    Figure 9 - City of Vancouver monthly average water temperature, 2005   33 Appendix II - CHBE Roof Survey   The CHBE roof is a combination of open space as well as heavy duty HVAC equipment and laboratory and fume hood ventilation.  It is fully service accessible.  The roof itself is constructed of thick concrete layer, capped with heavy duty drain cloth and a layer of +1” rock.  Three open zones were considered for panel placement.  Their measurements were taken, and the number of panels that could fit was determined.  Each 4’x8’ panel was assumed to be installed on its side, and the spacing between adjacent rows was calculated to be 10.6’ as shown below, such that they would  not shade each other.  This was assuming an angle of the sun with the horizon of 20°, which is typical for mid morning to mid afternoon in winter months.  Also, the panels were assumed to pack very close to each other side to side, as all piping fixtures are on the bottom and top.   X = 4’ * sin (45°)   =  2.82’  Y = 2.82’ / tan (20°)   = 7.75’    X+Y = 10.6’    Solar Panel Sun 20° 4’ 45° y        Roof  x  Figure 10 - Required spacing between rows of panels   34 The roof was then divided into 3 zones that were found to be suitable the installation of solar thermal collectors, the number of collectors that could fit in each was determined a shown in the table below.  Zone Size # Rows Panels per row # Panels 1 64’ x 13’ 7 1 7 2 92’ x 10’ 9 1 9 3 20’ x 56’ 3 7 21 Total                                                                        37 Panels         Table 3 - Solar Collectors on Roof   Based on this very rough estimate, the roof should be able to hold 37 panels.  It can likely accommodate more, but when measuring I was careful to leave a lot of room around the present equipment and the edge.  Also, this was not considering the roof space located on top of CERC, which could potentially be used as it has a lot of open space but was not measured.  Based on this result, it was decided that 40 panels would be used in our model, which is in agreement with the RETScreen suggestion.    35 Appendix III - RETScreen Input Sheets  36 RETScreen® Energy Model - Solar Water Heating Project Internet Forums Site Conditions Estimate Notes/Range Project name CHBE Building See Online Manual Project location Vancouver, BC Nearest location for weather data Vancouver Int'l. A, BC Complete SR&HL sheet Annual solar radiation (tilted surface) MWh/m² 1.32 Annual average temperature °C 9.9 -20.0 to 30.0 Annual average wind speed m/s 3.2 Desired load temperature °C 60 Hot water use L/d 7,600 Number of months analysed month 12.00 Energy demand for months analysed MWh 158.49 System Characteristics Estimate Notes/Range Application type Service hot water (with storage)   Base Case Water Heating System Heating fuel type - Other Water heating system seasonal efficiency % 50% 50% to 190%   Solar Collector Collector type - Glazed See Technical Note 1 Solar water heating collector manufacturer Thermo Dynamics See Product Database Solar water heating collector model G32 Gross area of one collector m² 2.96 1.00 to 5.00 Aperture area of one collector m² 2.78 1.00 to 5.00 Fr (tau alpha) coefficient - 0.74 0.50 to 0.90 Fr UL coefficient (W/m²)/°C 5.25 1.50 to 8.00    Temperature coefficient for Fr UL (W/(m?°C)²) 0.00 0.000 to 0.010 Suggested number of collectors 40 Number of collectors 40 Total gross collector area m² 118.4   Storage Ratio of storage capacity to coll. area L/m² 100.0 37.5 to 100.0 Storage capacity L 11,120   Balance of System Heat exchanger/antifreeze protection yes/no Yes Heat exchanger effectiveness % 85% 50% to 85% Suggested pipe diameter mm N/A 8 to 25 or PVC 35 to 50 Pipe diameter mm 25 8 to 25 or PVC 35 to 50 Pumping power per collector area W/m² 0 3 to 22, or 0 Piping and solar tank losses % 5% 1% to 10% Losses due to snow and/or dirt % 5% 2% to 10% Horz. dist. from mech. room to collector m 10 5 to 20 # of floors from mech. room to collector - 7 0 to 20 Annual Energy Production (12.00 months analysed) Estimate Notes/Range SWH system capacity kWth 78 MWth 0.078 Pumping energy (electricity) MWh 0.00 Specific yield kWh/m² 460 System efficiency % 35% Solar fraction % 34% Renewable energy delivered MWh 54.47 GJ 196.09 Version 3.1 © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 1997-2005. NRCan/CETC - Varennes Complete Cost Analysis sheet RETScreen® Solar Resource and Heating Load Calculation - Solar Water Heating Project Site Latitude and Collector Orientation Estimate Notes/Range Nearest location for weather data Vancouver Int'l. A, BC Latitude of project location °N 49.2 -90.0 to 90.0 Slope of solar collector ° 45.0 0.0 to 90.0 Azimuth of solar collector ° 0.0 0.0 to 180.0 Monthly Inputs Month Fraction of month used (0 - 1) Monthly average daily radiation on horizontal surface (kWh/m²/d) Monthly average temperature (°C) Monthly average relative humidity (%) Monthly average wind speed (m/s) Monthly average daily radiation in plane of solar collector (kWh/m²/d) January 1.00 0.78 3.0 84.5 3.3 1.39 February 1.00 1.56 4.7 82.0 3.3 2.44 March 1.00 2.81 6.3 78.5 3.6 3.61 April 1.00 4.14 8.8 75.0 3.6 4.38 May 1.00 5.61 12.1 73.5 3.1 5.22 June 1.00 5.86 15.2 73.5 3.1 5.14 July 1.00 6.17 17.2 73.5 3.1 5.56 August 1.00 5.33 17.4 75.5 3.1 5.41 September 1.00 3.64 14.3 80.0 2.8 4.42 October 1.00 2.00 10.0 84.0 3.1 3.02 November 1.00 0.94 6.0 83.5 3.3 1.58 December 1.00 0.67 3.5 85.0 3.3 1.28 Annual Season of Use Solar radiation (horizontal) MWh/m² 1.21 1.21 Solar radiation (tilted surface) MWh/m² 1.32 1.32 Average temperature °C 9.9 9.9 Average wind speed m/s 3.2 3.2 Water Heating Load Calculation Estimate Notes/Range Application type - Service hot water System configuration - With storage     Building or load type - Other    Number of units - -    Rate of occupancy % - 50% to 100%    Estimated hot water use (at ~60 °C) L/d N/A    Hot water use L/d 7,600    Desired water temperature °C 60    Days per week system is used d 7 1 to 7 Cold water temperature - User-defined    Minimum °C 6.0 1.0 to 10.0    Maximum °C 16.0 5.0 to 15.0 Months SWH system in use month 12.00 Energy demand for months analysed MWh 158.49 GJ 570.54 Version 3.1 © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 1997-2005. NRCan/CETC - Varennes Return to Energy Model sheet (Note: 1. Cells in grey are not used for energy calculations; 2. Revisit this table to check that all required inputs are filled if you change system type or solar collector type or pool type, or method for calculating cold water temperature). See Weather Database     37 Appendix IV - Nomenclature    Symbol Description Units A Collector array total area m2 Ac Panel area m2 Cp Thermal heat capacity J/(g °C) F’UL Collector overall heat loss coefficient efficiency factor kg/(s3 °C) FrUL-test Thermal loss coefficient at testing conditions W/(m2 °C) FrUL-use Thermal loss coefficient at operating conditions W/(m2 °C) Frτα Solar Absorptivity coefficient n/a G Solar flux W/m2 m Mass flow rate of heat transfer fluid in collector kg/s Qu Solar thermal energy produced W Ta Ambient temperature °C Tci Collector inlet temperature °C Tfeed Feed water temperature °C Tho Preheat water temperature °C  ε Heat exchanger efficiency %    Table 4 - Nomenclature list  38 Appendix V - Flow Rate Dependence of FrUL   The following equations describe flow dependence of the thermal loss coefficient.  All can be found in the text by Duffie, p 317-318.  This coefficient remains constant during test conditions, and by using a ratio r, as shown in equation 2, can be corrected for the application flow rate.  This ratio term is found by using equations 3.  This equation depends on  F’UL, the so called “overall heat loss coefficient efficiency factor”, which is in turn calculated from equation 4.  All equations essentially depend on mass flow rate through the collector panel, m, as all other terms remain constant.  Derivations of these equations, for interested readers, can be found referenced in the above text.  *UL use UL testFr Fr r− −=  Equation 2 - FrUL-use, calculation of coefficient at application flow rate  [1 exp( ' / )]p c UL p c UL mC A F mC us Ar Fr test − − = e ' ' UL UL F use r F test = Equation 3 - Correction ratio for FrUL    ' ln(1 )p UL usUL c p mC Fr AF A mC − e c−= −  Equation 4 - Collector overall heat loss coefficient efficiency factor  39 Appendix VI - Sample Calculation for July 2     Array - 20 Groups of 2 Panels in series each Time Solar Flux Temp Panel 1 T1 Panel 2 T2 Constants W/m2 C W C W C Fr(ta) 0.738 July 2, 2003 00:00 0.6 18 0 45.2 0 45.2 Fr(UL) 5.247 W/m2 C July 2, 2003 00:30 1.2 17 0 45.2 0 45.2 Ac 2.87 m2 July 2, 2003 01:00 0.6 16 0 45.2 0 45.2 Cp(H2O) 4184 J/kg s July 2, 2003 01:30 1.2 16 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 02:00 0.6 15 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 02:30 1.2 15 0 45.2 0 45.2 Flow Correction Factor July 2, 2003 03:00 0.6 15 0 45.2 0 45.2 m 1 L/min/panel July 2, 2003 03:30 1.2 14 0 45.2 0 45.2 0.0333 kg/s July 2, 2003 04:00 0.9 14 0 45.2 0 45.2 Fr'UL test 5.394 W/m2 C July 2, 2003 04:30 6.0 14 0 45.2 0 45.2 Fr'UL use 5.552 W/m2 C July 2, 2003 05:00 15.6 14 0 45.2 0 45.2 ratio 1.03 July 2, 2003 05:30 39.3 15 0 45.2 0 45.2 FrUL 5.402 W/m2 C July 2, 2003 06:00 145.9 16 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 06:30 226.5 17 48 45.6 42 45.9 July 2, 2003 07:00 143.1 18 0 45.2 0 45.2 Panel Inlet Temp Calculation July 2, 2003 07:30 221.7 18 52 45.6 46 45.9 Hx efficiency 50% July 2, 2003 08:00 564.2 19 786 50.8 699 55.9 Tin(from city) 15 C July 2, 2003 08:30 444.3 19 539 49.1 479 52.5 Tci 45.22 C July 2, 2003 09:00 252.0 20 141 46.2 126 47.1 July 2, 2003 09:30 542.2 21 770 50.7 685 55.6 possible delta T 25.22 July 2, 2003 10:00 664.8 21 1034 52.6 919 59.2 **plus 5C as the delta T in  heat exchanger July 2, 2003 10:30 854.7 21 1441 55.5 1280 64.7 July 2, 2003 11:00 922.0 21 1584 56.6 1408 66.7 Net Energy 1599.41 July 2, 2003 11:30 964.3 22 1675 57.2 1489 67.9 July 2, 2003 12:00 954.1 22 1662 57.1 1477 67.7 45.22 July 2, 2003 12:30 965.6 22 1691 57.3 1503 68.1 0.00 July 2, 2003 13:00 913.0 23 1582 56.6 1406 66.6 July 2, 2003 13:30 936.1 23 1637 57.0 1455 67.4 July 2, 2003 14:00 901.5 23 1564 56.4 1390 66.4 July 2, 2003 14:30 857.1 23 1473 55.8 1309 65.2 July 2, 2003 15:00 805.3 23 1365 55.0 1214 63.7 July 2, 2003 15:30 707.6 23 1149 53.5 1021 60.8 July 2, 2003 16:00 471.0 23 651 49.9 578 54.0 July 2, 2003 16:30 511.1 23 735 50.5 653 55.2 July 2, 2003 17:00 494.2 22 694 50.2 617 54.6 July 2, 2003 17:30 466.8 22 628 49.7 558 53.7 July 2, 2003 18:00 376.9 21 430 48.3 383 51.0 July 2, 2003 18:30 266.5 21 190 46.6 169 47.8 July 2, 2003 19:00 168.6 21 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 19:30 81.9 20 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 20:00 23.4 19 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 20:30 5.8 19 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 21:00 1.2 19 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 21:30 1.3 19 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 22:00 0.6 18 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 22:30 1.3 18 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 23:00 0.6 18 0 45.2 0 45.2 July 2, 2003 23:30 1.3 18 0 45.2 0 45.2 Array Output watts 23521 20907 MJ 846.764  752.643  40 Appendix VII - Temperature Convergence of model     The following example is for July 1, 2003.   Known constants  Frta  = 0.738  HX efficiency ε = 85% FrUL  = 5.160 W/m2 °C Tfeed   = 14 °C Ac  = 2.87 m2 Cp (H2O) = 4184 J/kg K  Example of panel performance for a  half hour interval at 10am  Panel 1:  Qu  = A*[Frta*G-FrUL(Tci-Ta)]  = 2.87m2*[0.738*807.7 W/m2 – 5.160W/m2°C*(57.4°C-16°C)]  =  41 Appendix VIII - Sample calculations for yearly energy production  Note, these results are truncated at the end of January, but were done for an entire year.   Time Solar Flux Temp Water T T0 Panel 1 T1 Panel 2 T2 Panel 3 T3 Panel 4 T4 Net Energy w/m2 C C C W C W C W C W C MJ Constants January 2, 2003 10:00 107.5 1 6 18.85 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0.0 Fr(ta) 0.738 January 2, 2003 13:00 249.6 2 6 18.85 269 19.8 255 20.7 241 21.6 229 22.4 35.8 Fr(UL) 5.247 W/m2 C January 2, 2003 14:00 131.3 2 6 18.85 25 18.9 24 19.0 23 19.1 22 19.2 3.4 Ac 2.78 m2 January 3, 2003 12:00 209.9 -4 6 18.85 99 19.2 94 19.5 89 19.9 84 20.2 13.2 Cp(H2O) 4184 J/kg K January 3, 2003 15:00 132.3 -3 6 18.85 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0.0 January 4, 2003 14:00 371.4 -4 6 18.85 434 20.4 411 21.9 390 23.3 369 24.6 57.7 January 5, 2003 10:00 159.7 -5 6 18.85 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0.0 Flow Correction Factor January 5, 2003 14:00 261.4 -5 6 18.85 195 19.5 185 20.2 175 20.8 166 21.4 25.9 m 1 L/min/panel January 5, 2003 15:00 181.0 -5 6 18.85 25 18.9 23 19.0 22 19.1 21 19.2 3.3 0.0667 kg/s January 6, 2003 10:00 190.1 -6 6 18.85 26 18.9 25 19.0 23 19.1 22 19.2 3.5 Fr'UL test 5.394 W/m2 C January 6, 2003 11:00 284.0 -6 6 18.85 220 19.6 209 20.4 198 21.1 187 21.8 29.3 Fr'UL use 5.389 W/m2 C January 6, 2003 12:00 335.2 -5 6 18.85 337 20.1 319 21.2 302 22.3 287 23.3 44.8 ratio 1.00 January 6, 2003 13:00 337.9 -5 6 18.85 347 20.1 329 21.3 312 22.4 296 23.5 46.2 FrUL 5.243 W/m2 C January 6, 2003 14:00 290.7 -5 6 18.85 254 19.8 241 20.6 228 21.4 216 22.2 33.8 January 6, 2003 15:00 200.4 -4 6 18.85 76 19.1 72 19.4 68 19.6 65 19.9 10.1 January 7, 2003 10:00 194.9 4 6 18.85 180 19.5 171 20.1 162 20.7 153 21.2 24.0 Panel Inlet Temp Calculation January 7, 2003 11:00 283.3 4 6 18.85 365 20.2 346 21.4 328 22.6 311 23.7 48.6 Hx efficiency 50% January 7, 2003 12:00 335.1 4 6 18.85 477 20.6 452 22.2 428 23.7 406 25.2 63.5 Tin(from city) 10 C January 7, 2003 13:00 262.1 4 6 18.85 327 20.0 310 21.1 293 22.2 278 23.2 43.5 Tci 41.38 C January 7, 2003 14:00 123.3 4 6 18.85 42 19.0 40 19.1 38 19.3 36 19.4 5.6 January 8, 2003 10:00 184.7 7 6 18.85 204 19.6 193 20.3 183 20.9 173 21.5 27.1 January 8, 2003 11:00 277.1 8 6 18.85 405 20.3 384 21.7 364 23.0 345 24.2 53.9 January 8, 2003 12:00 289.1 8 6 18.85 439 20.4 416 21.9 395 23.3 374 24.7 58.5 January 8, 2003 13:00 314.8 9 6 18.85 506 20.7 480 22.4 455 24.0 431 25.6 67.4 Net Energy 203.3 GJ January 8, 2003 14:00 241.7 9 6 18.85 356 20.1 338 21.3 320 22.5 303 23.6 47.4 155.93 GJ January 9, 2003 10:00 194.4 7 6 18.85 220 19.6 209 20.4 198 21.1 188 21.8 29.3 (includes 85% HX efficiency, 10% losses January 9, 2003 11:00 285.3 7 6 18.85 406 20.3 384 21.7 364 23.0 345 24.2 54.0 for thermal and dirt and wind) January 9, 2003 12:00 330.8 7 6 18.85 502 20.6 475 22.4 451 24.0 427 25.5 66.8 January 9, 2003 13:00 343.0 7 6 18.85 528 20.7 500 22.5 474 24.2 449 25.8 70.3 January 9, 2003 14:00 249.5 7 6 18.85 341 20.1 323 21.2 306 22.3 290 23.4 45.4 January 9, 2003 15:00 136.5 7 6 18.85 113 19.3 107 19.6 101 20.0 96 20.3 15.0 January 10, 2003 10:00 209.8 8 6 18.85 272 19.8 257 20.7 244 21.6 231 22.5 36.2 January 10, 2003 11:00 341.8 8 6 18.85 545 20.8 516 22.7 489 24.4 464 26.1 72.5 January 10, 2003 12:00 354.4 8 6 18.85 574 20.9 544 22.9 516 24.7 489 26.5 76.5 January 10, 2003 13:00 364.3 8 6 18.85 594 21.0 563 23.0 534 24.9 506 26.7 79.1 January 10, 2003 14:00 311.2 8 6 18.85 486 20.6 461 22.2 437 23.8 414 25.3 64.7 January 10, 2003 15:00 173.1 8 6 18.85 203 19.6 192 20.3 182 20.9 172 21.5 27.0 January 12, 2003 13:00 234.8 10 6 18.85 350 20.1 332 21.3 314 22.4 298 23.5 46.6 January 12, 2003 14:00 209.3 9 6 18.85 288 19.9 273 20.9 259 21.8 245 22.7 38.3 January 13, 2003 13:00 110.6 10 6 18.85 91 19.2 86 19.5 82 19.8 78 20.1 12.1 January 14, 2003 10:00 168.8 11 6 18.85 229 19.7 217 20.4 206 21.2 195 21.9 30.5 January 14, 2003 11:00 270.9 11 6 18.85 443 20.4 420 21.9 398 23.4 377 24.7 59.0 January 14, 2003 12:00 166.0 11 6 18.85 231 19.7 219 20.5 207 21.2 196 21.9 30.7 January 14, 2003 13:00 389.6 11 6 18.85 689 21.3 653 23.7 619 25.9 587 28.0 91.7 January 14, 2003 14:00 287.2 11 6 18.85 479 20.6 454 22.2 430 23.7 407 25.2 63.7 January 14, 2003 15:00 188.4 11 6 18.85 274 19.8 259 20.8 246 21.6 233 22.5 36.4 January 15, 2003 12:00 131.6 11 6 18.85 156 19.4 148 19.9 140 20.4 133 20.9 20.8 January 15, 2003 13:00 116.7 11 6 18.85 118 19.3 112 19.7 106 20.1 100 20.4 15.7 January 15, 2003 14:00 107.9 10 6 18.85 90 19.2 86 19.5 81 19.8 77 20.0 12.0 January 16, 2003 11:00 169.8 8 6 18.85 195 19.5 185 20.2 175 20.8 166 21.4 26.0 January 16, 2003 12:00 289.0 9 6 18.85 444 20.4 421 22.0 399 23.4 378 24.7 59.1 January 16, 2003 13:00 120.9 8 6 18.85 87 19.2 83 19.5 79 19.7 74 20.0 11.6 January 16, 2003 14:00 136.1 7 6 18.85 110 19.2 105 19.6 99 20.0 94 20.3 14.7 January 17, 2003 10:00 182.8 7 6 18.85 199 19.6 189 20.2 179 20.9 170 21.5 26.5 January 17, 2003 11:00 195.9 8 6 18.85 238 19.7 225 20.5 214 21.3 202 22.0 31.6 January 17, 2003 12:00 334.0 8 6 18.85 533 20.8 505 22.6 479 24.3 454 25.9 71.0 January 17, 2003 13:00 171.6 8 6 18.85 192 19.5 182 20.2 172 20.8 163 21.4 25.5 January 17, 2003 14:00 147.0 8 6 18.85 142 19.4 135 19.8 128 20.3 121 20.7 18.9 January 17, 2003 15:00 132.0 8 6 18.85 112 19.2 106 19.6 100 20.0 95 20.3 14.8 January 18, 2003 10:00 105.0 7 6 18.85 43 19.0 41 19.1 39 19.3 37 19.4 5.7 January 18, 2003 11:00 114.8 7 6 18.85 66 19.1 63 19.3 59 19.5 56 19.7 8.8 January 18, 2003 12:00 172.9 7 6 18.85 188 19.5 178 20.2 169 20.8 160 21.3 25.0 January 18, 2003 13:00 140.4 7 6 18.85 122 19.3 116 19.7 110 20.1 104 20.5 16.3 January 18, 2003 14:00 122.3 7 6 18.85 85 19.2 80 19.4 76 19.7 72 20.0 11.3 January 20, 2003 11:00 135.6 6 6 18.85 92 19.2 87 19.5 83 19.8 78 20.1 12.2 January 20, 2003 12:00 316.1 6 6 18.85 465 20.5 441 22.1 418 23.6 396 25.0 61.9 January 20, 2003 13:00 291.5 6 6 18.85 413 20.3 391 21.7 371 23.1 352 24.3 55.0 January 20, 2003 14:00 158.1 6 6 18.85 133 19.3 126 19.8 120 20.2 114 20.6 17.8 January 20, 2003 15:00 125.5 6 6 18.85 67 19.1 63 19.3 60 19.5 57 19.7 8.9 January 21, 2003 14:00 126.9 6 6 18.85 77 19.1 73 19.4 69 19.6 65 19.9 10.2 January 23, 2003 11:00 310.3 6 6 18.85 450 20.5 427 22.0 404 23.4 383 24.8 59.9 January 23, 2003 12:00 274.0 6 6 18.85 381 20.2 361 21.5 342 22.7 324 23.9 50.7      42  January 23, 2003 13:00 170.0 6 6 18.85 162 19.4 154 20.0 146 20.5 138 21.0 21.6 January 23, 2003 14:00 323.0 6 6 18.85 478 20.6 453 22.2 429 23.7 407 25.2 63.6 January 23, 2003 15:00 121.8 6 6 18.85 56 19.1 53 19.2 51 19.4 48 19.6 7.5 January 26, 2003 10:00 109.9 3 6 18.85 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0.0 January 26, 2003 11:00 277.3 3 6 18.85 336 20.1 318 21.2 302 22.3 286 23.3 44.7 January 26, 2003 12:00 339.3 4 6 18.85 474 20.5 449 22.2 426 23.7 403 25.1 63.1 January 26, 2003 13:00 265.6 4 6 18.85 334 20.0 317 21.2 300 22.3 285 23.3 44.5 January 26, 2003 14:00 121.0 5 6 18.85 46 19.0 44 19.2 42 19.3 39 19.5 6.2 January 26, 2003 15:00 113.1 5 6 18.85 30 19.0 28 19.1 27 19.2 25 19.2 4.0 January 26, 2003 16:00 164.3 5 6 18.85 130 19.3 123 19.8 117 20.2 111 20.6 17.3 January 27, 2003 11:00 320.4 4 6 18.85 436 20.4 413 21.9 392 23.3 371 24.6 58.0 January 27, 2003 12:00 405.7 3 6 18.85 606 21.0 574 23.1 544 25.0 516 26.9 80.7 January 27, 2003 14:00 226.3 4 6 18.85 244 19.7 231 20.6 219 21.3 208 22.1 32.5 January 27, 2003 15:00 330.7 3 6 18.85 451 20.5 428 22.0 405 23.5 384 24.8 60.0 January 27, 2003 16:00 147.5 3 6 18.85 69 19.1 66 19.3 62 19.6 59 19.8 9.2 January 28, 2003 10:00 123.1 7 6 18.85 73 19.1 69 19.4 66 19.6 62 19.8 9.7 January 28, 2003 11:00 132.6 7 6 18.85 105 19.2 99 19.6 94 19.9 89 20.2 13.9 January 28, 2003 12:00 103.8 8 6 18.85 49 19.0 46 19.2 44 19.3 42 19.5 6.5 January 28, 2003 13:00 175.1 8 6 18.85 197 19.6 187 20.2 177 20.9 168 21.5 26.3 January 28, 2003 14:00 258.0 8 6 18.85 368 20.2 348 21.4 330 22.6 313 23.7 48.9 January 28, 2003 15:00 255.8 8 6 18.85 363 20.1 344 21.4 326 22.5 309 23.7 48.3 January 31, 2003 10:00 105.2 4 6 18.85 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0 18.9 0.0 January 31, 2003 11:00 165.7 5 6 18.85 142 19.4 134 19.8 127 20.3 121 20.7 18.9 January 31, 2003 12:00 180.3 3 6 18.85 144 19.4 137 19.9 129 20.3 123 20.8 19.2 January 31, 2003 13:00 284.4 3 6 18.85 354 20.1 336 21.3 318 22.5 302 23.5 47.1 January 31, 2003 14:00 204.9 4 6 18.85 203 19.6 193 20.3 183 20.9 173 21.5 27.1 January 31, 2003 15:00 172.2 4 6 18.85 141 19.4 133 19.8 126 20.3 120 20.7 18.7 February 1, 2003 11:00 101.0 4 6.5 28.98 0 29.0 0 29.0 0 29.0 0 29.0 0.0 February 1, 2003 13:00 133.7 5 6.5 28.98 76 29.3 0 29.3 0 29.3 0 29.3 2.7 February 1, 2003 14:00 118.6 6 6.5 28.98 54 29.2 0 29.2 0 29.2 0 29.2 2.0 February 2, 2003 11:00 155.9 6 6.5 28.98 126 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 4.5 February 2, 2003 12:00 228.1 5 6.5 28.98 263 29.9 101 30.3 96 30.6 91 31.0 19.8 February 2, 2003 13:00 110.9 4 6.5 28.98 17 29.0 0 29.0 0 29.0 0 29.0 0.6 February 2, 2003 14:00 137.4 4 6.5 28.98 69 29.2 0 29.2 0 29.2 0 29.2 2.5 February 3, 2003 09:00 122.8 4 6.5 28.98 34 29.1 0 29.1 0 29.1 0 29.1 1.2 February 3, 2003 10:00 255.0 5 6.5 28.98 314 30.1 150 30.6 142 31.2 135 31.6 26.7 February 3, 2003 11:00 399.5 4 6.5 28.98 608 31.2 429 32.7 407 34.2 385 35.5 65.9 February 3, 2003 12:00 454.2 5 6.5 28.98 728 31.6 542 33.5 514 35.4 487 37.1 81.7 February 3, 2003 13:00 301.5 5 6.5 28.98 422 30.5 253 31.4 240 32.3 227 33.1 41.1 February 3, 2003 14:00 376.5 6 6.5 28.98 582 31.1 404 32.5 383 33.9 363 35.2 62.4 February 3, 2003 15:00 431.4 6 6.5 28.98 699 31.5 515 33.3 488 35.1 462 36.7 77.9 February 3, 2003 16:00 166.6 6 6.5 28.98 152 29.5 0 29.5 0 29.5 0 29.5 5.5 February 4, 2003 09:00 131.5 5 6.5 28.98 67 29.2 0 29.2 0 29.2 0 29.2 2.4 February 4, 2003 10:00 253.6 5 6.5 28.98 316 30.1 152 30.7 144 31.2 136 31.7 26.9 February 4, 2003 11:00 366.7 5 6.5 28.98 557 31.0 380 32.3 361 33.6 342 34.9 59.0 February 4, 2003 12:00 422.9 6 6.5 28.98 687 31.4 503 33.2 477 35.0 452 36.6 76.3 February 4, 2003 13:00 443.7 7 6.5 28.98 731 31.6 545 33.6 517 35.4 490 37.2 82.2 February 4, 2003 14:00 396.7 6 6.5 28.98 629 31.2 449 32.8 425 34.4 403 35.8 68.7 February 4, 2003 15:00 282.4 7 6.5 28.98 413 30.5 244 31.3 231 32.2 219 33.0 39.9 February 4, 2003 16:00 187.0 7 6.5 28.98 207 29.7 49 29.9 46 30.1 44 30.2 12.4 February 5, 2003 09:00 135.8 3 6.5 28.98 41 29.1 0 29.1 0 29.1 0 29.1 1.5 February 5, 2003 10:00 271.2 3 6.5 28.98 327 30.2 162 30.7 154 31.3 146 31.8 28.4 February 5, 2003 11:00 377.1 4 6.5 28.98 554 31.0 377 32.3 357 33.6 339 34.8 58.6 February 5, 2003 12:00 411.7 4 6.5 28.98 627 31.2 447 32.8 424 34.4 402 35.8 68.4 February 5, 2003 13:00 437.1 4 6.5 28.98 683 31.4 500 33.2 474 34.9 449 36.5 75.8 February 5, 2003 14:00 409.9 4 6.5 28.98 627 31.2 447 32.8 423 34.3 401 35.8 68.3 February 5, 2003 15:00 312.7 4 6.5 28.98 424 30.5 254 31.4 241 32.3 228 33.1 41.3 February 5, 2003 16:00 182.7 4 6.5 28.98 160 29.6 4 29.6 4 29.6 4 29.6 6.2 February 6, 2003 09:00 147.1 7 6.5 28.98 127 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 4.6 February 6, 2003 10:00 274.8 7 6.5 28.98 386 30.4 218 31.1 207 31.9 196 32.6 36.2 February 6, 2003 11:00 234.8 7 6.5 28.98 306 30.1 142 30.6 135 31.1 128 31.5 25.6 February 6, 2003 12:00 157.6 8 6.5 28.98 158 29.5 2 29.6 2 29.6 2 29.6 5.9 February 6, 2003 13:00 200.9 10 6.5 28.98 281 30.0 118 30.4 112 30.8 106 31.2 22.2 February 6, 2003 14:00 178.9 10 6.5 28.98 237 29.8 77 30.1 73 30.4 69 30.6 16.5 February 6, 2003 15:00 156.3 9 6.5 28.98 178 29.6 21 29.7 20 29.8 19 29.8 8.6 February 6, 2003 16:00 156.4 8 6.5 28.98 168 29.6 12 29.6 11 29.7 10 29.7 7.2 February 7, 2003 11:00 137.7 7 6.5 28.98 109 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 3.9 February 7, 2003 12:00 121.9 8 6.5 28.98 89 29.3 0 29.3 0 29.3 0 29.3 3.2 February 7, 2003 13:00 158.0 8 6.5 28.98 163 29.6 7 29.6 7 29.6 6 29.6 6.6 February 7, 2003 14:00 132.1 8 6.5 28.98 112 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 0 29.4 4.0 February 8, 2003 11:00 161.2 6 6.5 28.98 143 29.5 0 29.5 0 29.5 0 29.5 5.1 February 8, 2003 12:00 207.0 6 6.5 28.98 242 29.8 81 30.1 77 30.4 73 30.7 17.0 February 8, 2003 13:00 168.3 7 6.5 28.98 166 29.6 10 29.6 9 29.6 9 29.7 7.0 February 8, 2003 14:00 199.4 6 6.5 28.98 225 29.8 65 30.0 62 30.2 59 30.5 14.8   43 Appendix IX – Large Scale Installations in BC     44   45  Hyde Creek Recreation Centre (solar water heating technology) Project in Brief The City of Port Coquitlam has completed an energy retrofit of its Hyde Creek Recreation Centre, resulting in substantial annual cost savings. The installation of a high efficiency boiler, heat recovery system and a solar thermal system has contributed to reducing the energy consumption and costs.  “Aquatic facilities are one of the most expensive and energy intensive facilities a municipality operates. Energy and resource management programs and the use of renewable and sustainable energy resources are an essential part of the short- and long-term business plan for their economical sustainability and environmental impact.” Project Description and Objectives Energy consumption is one of the major costs at swimming pools in municipal recreation centres. In 2003, the GVRD released a report that documented the advantages of municipalities replacing natural gas systems with solar systems to heat swimming pools.  46  The City of Port Coquitlam, already advocating solar heat, completed a retrofit of its Hyde Creek Recreation Centre in 2004. Forty-two solar thermal panels were installed, primarily for use in heating domestic water, but with the capability of heating the pool in the future.  To recover the significant amount of energy lost through pool evaporation, two heat reclaim units were installed. One unit redirects previously lost heat back to the pools, while the other directs its recovered energy to heat domestic hot water. A ‘demand' ventilation system was installed in the gym, where outdoor air is added as the C02 increases in the gym. Results • With the panels installed, the solar thermal energy is almost free, because only one small pump is required. • The panels have resulted in annual savings to the city of $4,000. • The entire retrofit resulted in a 30% energy reduction at the centre, and total annual savings of between $40,000 and $50,000. The entire retrofit resulted in a 44% reduction in natural gas consumption and a 13.5% reduction in total energy use in 2005. (These numbers take into account an increase in the electrical load and a decrease in the natural gas load.) • Total annual savings on energy costs were $14,400 for 2004 and $21,250 for 2005.  Next Steps The Hyde Creek Infrastructure Project was the first of several projects that incorporate energy efficient technology into major renovations and new buildings. • The Terry Fox Library in Port Coquitlam is receiving funding from the Canada – British Columbia Infrastructure Program to implement energy efficiency upgrades that are in progress.  47 • The Leigh Square Arts Village is a recently started project that includes a new building designed to meet the requirements for Silver LEEDS accreditation.  Lessons Learned • Solar thermal water heating can be an important part of a greater energy reduction initiative. • Researching and developing energy efficient proposals can help provide alternative funding for projects.  Partners • Canada – British Columbia Infrastructure Project (BCIP) • Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI) • Coral Engineering • Quantum Lighting  Contact Bob Smejkal Physical Plant Maintenance City of Port Coquitlam Parks and Services Tel: 604-209-6375 Fax: 604-927-5408 e-mail: smejkalb@portcoquitlam.ca    48

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