UBC Undergraduate Research

Life Cycle Analysis Study of the EOS Main Building at the University of British Columbia Moayedi, Ferya 2010

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          UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report            Life Cycle Analysis Study of the EOS Main Building at the University of British Columbia Ferya Moayedi University of British Columbia CIVL 498C March 2010          Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report.”        	         	      		   				 !" 	" 	!!#"  		   $	" # %"  		! 	%& "  "   '          $()*)+ *,$,,-*.(/)).,0$+ $-$+ 1 /)+ $2)3,$*.(3$$,/ .0$    4(0 (4$25678) -40	'68'99   :      ).(.+ )+ ,  	  	         1..(,-*                                                                                                                                                             ; ,.).(,-*                                                                                                                                                            7 		 		     <).((,                                                                                                                                                                   9  	 $.(0)3$,                                                                                                                                                       =     ,.3),.(+ )3$+*                                                                                                                                            '9 ,)+ ,$$2$*+ *,$,                                                                                                                                                    '   	 	 	 ! 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Floors Basement: Concrete slab on grade with polyethylene (6mil) as vapour barrier; first, second, and third floors: open web steel joists with concrete cover Exterior Walls Basement: sand blasted concrete blocks with 2" fibreglass batt insulation, Polyethylene (6mil), and drywall finish with latex water based paint. First, second, and third floors: steel studs and aluminum cladding with 2" fibreglass batt insulation, Polyethylene (6mil), drywall finish and latex water based paint. Interior Walls Basement: concrete block; first, second, and third floors: steel studs with gypsum board and latex paint on both sides. Windows First, second and third floor windows have glazing (low E tin), double pane, and basement windows have standard glazing, single pane. Roof The roof envelope is commercial steel; open web steel joists, overlain by concrete cover; 2" rigid insulation (expanded polystyrene) and Polyethylene 6mil as vapour barrier. ;      1.+ -,.) 1..(,-* 	    AB  	 )	  . , A)., 0B  	   	 " !       C   "  	 " "  	 >	! " ! 		"   	" " 		!	" "  " " 	).,0! C" 	 	" " 	   	 )., 0 !   L	 	       	 	  > 	  !  8 	   	 !    "  "  "    !  "   !   " 8    !    (	" 8  " 			8	).,0!! 	"  	" 	" % " %!	#!"  8"    	     	    	   ! " " %8		,!.8 	 "  %!" "   .	   8 	8   !      8     C @ 	  " 8    	   	"  "      "   !"    "  "    		@   7      ,.).(,-*  	" !			)., 0!#	" !! $ " 8	" >>		  " C8" " 8	 	).,0!8 		   ..,80)/ .-..1*+ --   "       ! @  "  	  K .D ., %. A.,B  	 	 ,! 0 $D $" )" A$)B!    	     % 	     "  # %8  		  "  8    " "   	 !D      " 	 	8 ., %.  : ? 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Steel Cladding 2081.821 m2 Concrete 20 MPa (flyash av) 1449.9416 m3 Concrete 30 MPa (flyash av) 456.4569 m3 Concrete Blocks 14789.924 Blocks EPDM membrane 642.7415 kg Expanded Polystyrene 4557.162 m2 (25mm) Galvanized Decking 64.7207 Tonnes Galvanized Sheet 13.5023 Tonnes Galvanized Studs 33.3427 Tonnes Hollow Structural Steel 17.408 Tonnes Joint Compound 12.7425 Tonnes Low E Tin Glazing 565.3382 m2 Modified Bitumen membrane 1862.0619 kg Mortar 47.094 m3 Nails 1.2038 Tonnes Open Web Joists 50.0832 Tonnes Paper Tape 0.1462 Tonnes Rebar, Rod, Light Sections 121.8349 Tonnes Screws Nuts & Bolts 21.2679 Tonnes Small Dimension Softwood Lumber, kiln-dried 1.5811 m3 Solvent Based Alkyd Paint 145.724 L Standard Glazing 35.2809 m2 Water Based Latex Paint 1682.7441 L Welded Wire Mesh / Ladder Wire 2.6413 Tonnes Wide Flange Sections 369.8732 Tonnes  	   ! 	 $"  )"   	 !  "   C"  "   	 "  #    	 !  	 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G	G!G 08 3    A  B  4-7 8  3 0	 '=8 '998 "   )4       ,	%83 A'99B $+               :9      + + )N$)$+ ,-.0)+  Input Values Assembly Group Assembly Type Assembly Name Input Fields Known/Measured EIE Inputs 1  Foundation             1.1  Concrete Slab-on- Grade             1.1.1 SOG_5"             Length (ft) 146.77 177.37       Width (ft) 146.77 177.37       Thickness (in) 5 4       Concrete (psi) 3000 3000       Concrete flyash % - average     Envelope Category Vapour Barrier         Material 4 mil Poly 6 mil Poly       Thichness (in) - -   1.2  Concrete Footing             1.2.1  Footing_TypeA             Length (ft) 18 18      Width (ft) 4.5 4.57      Thickness (in) 20 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #6 #6     1.2.2  Footing_TypeB             Length (ft) 11 11      Width (ft) 5.5 6.70      Thickness (in) 24 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #6 #6     1.2.3  Footing_TypeC             Length (ft) 66 66      Width (ft) 6 7.92      Thickness (in) 26 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #7 #6     1.2.4  Footing_TypeD       :            Length (ft) 20.835 20.835      Width (ft) 4.167 5.08      Thickness (in) 24 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #6 #6     1.2.5  Footing_TypeE             Length (ft) 4 4      Width (ft) 4 4.00      Thickness (in) 18 18      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #5 #5     1.2.6  Footing_TypeF             Length (ft) 80.01 80.01      Width (ft) 2.667 2.667      Thickness (in) 12 12      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #5 #5     1.2.7  Footing_TypeG             Length (ft) 8 8      Width (ft) 3 3.00      Thickness (in) 12 12      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #6 #6     1.2.8  Footing_TypeH             Length (ft) 50 50      Width (ft) 5 5.58      Thickness (in) 22 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #6 #6     1.2.9  Footing_TypeJ             Length (ft) 3.67 3.67      Width (ft) 3.67 3.67      Thickness (in) 18 18      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #5 #5 :'         1.2.10  DeepFooting_1'x1'_Concrete             Length (ft) 22.38 22.38      Width (ft) 22.38 13.63      Thickness (in) 12.00 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #5 #5    1.2.11  DeepFooting_2'6"x1'_Concrete             Length (ft) 39.12 39.12      Width (ft) 39.12 23.83      Thickness (in) 12.00 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #5 #5    1.2.12 DeepFooting_2'x1'_Concrete             Length (ft) 65.91 65.91      Width (ft) 65.91 40.15      Thickness (in) 12.00 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #5 #5    1.2.13  DeepFooting_3'x1'_Concrete             Length (ft) 20.78 20.78      Width (ft) 20.78 12.66      Thickness (in) 12.00 19.7      Concrete (psi) 3000 3000      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #5 #5    1.2.14  Stairs_Concrete_No1/West_64'/11"            Length (ft) 64.00 64.00      Width (ft) 4.167 4.167      Thickness (in) 11 11      Concrete (psi) 4000 4000      Concrete flyash % - average      Rebar #4 #4    1.2.15  Stairs_Concrete_No2/NorthSide_64'/11"            Length (ft) 64.00 64.00      Width (ft) 4.167 4.167      Thickness (in) 11 11      Concrete (psi) 4000 4000      Concrete flyash % - average ::           Rebar #4 #4    1.2.16  Stairs_Concrete_No3/Core_100'/11"            Length (ft) 100.00 100.00      Width (ft) 4.167 4.167      Thickness (in) 11 11      Concrete (psi) 4000 4000      Concrete flyash % - average      Rebar #4 #4    1.2.17  Stairs_Concrete_No4/East_23.3'/11"            Length (ft) 23.30 23.30      Width (ft) 4.167 4.167      Thickness (in) 11 11      Concrete (psi) 4000 4000      Concrete flyash % - average      Rebar #4 #4 2  Walls             2.1  Concrete Block Wall             2.1.1  Wall_External_ConcreteBlock_Basement_10"             Length (ft) 667 667       Height (ft) 3.667 3.667       Door Type Steel Steel exterior door        Number of Doors 3 3       Number of Windows 35 35       Type of Windows standard glazing standard glazing       Total Window Area (ft2) 376 376       Rebar #5 #5       Category Insulation Insulation     Envelope Material batt Insulation Fiberglass Batt       Thickness 2" 2"       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Poly (6mil) Poly (6mil)       Category Gypsum board Gypsum Board       Material drywall Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Category paint paint       Material Latex Waterbased Latex water based     2.1.2  Wall_Internal_ConcreteBlock_Basement_8"             Length (ft) 779 779       Height (ft) 13.67 13.67 :5            Rebar #4 #4     Door Opening Number of Doors 15 15       Door Type Internal doors hollow core wood interior   2.2 Cast In Place             2.2.1  Wall_CastInPlace_Core_AllFloors             Length (ft) 616 616       Height (ft) 13.70 13.70       Thickness (in) 12 12       Concrete (psi) 4000 4000       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar #4 #5       Number of Doors 4 4       Door Type wood dorrs with glass Hollow core wood internal       Thickness - -   2.3  Steel Stud             2.3.1  Wall_External_SteelStud_First and Second Floors_1'7"             Length (ft) 1318 1318       Height (ft) 13.5 13.5       Number of Doors 7 7       Door Type Steel frame doors with glass Steel exterior door       Number of Windows 165 165       Type of windows Low E tin Low E tin glazing       Total Window Area (ft2) 4152 4152       Sheathing Type - -       Stud Spacing 20' 24oc       Stud Weight - Heavy (20Ga)       Stud Thickness 8x8 1 5/8 x 8     Envelope Category Paint         Material Latex Paint Latex water based       Thickness - -       Category drywall Gypsum Board       Material   Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Rigid Insulation Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (in) 2 2       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Poly (6mil) 6 mil :=      Polyethylene       Thickness (in) - -       Category Cladding Cladding       Material Aluminunm panles Steel Cladding - Commercial (26 ga.)       Thickness (in) - -     2.3.2  Wall_External_SteelStud_ThirdFloor_1'7"             Length (ft) 660 660       Height (ft) 13.29 13.29       Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Steel frame doors with glass steel exterior       Number of Windows 76 76       Type of windows Low E tin Low E tin glazing       Total Window Area (ft2) 1873 1873       Sheathing Type - -       Stud Spacing 20' 24oc       Stud Weight - Heavy (20Ga)       Stud Thickness 8x8 1 5/8 x 8     Envelope Category Paint         Material Latex Paint Latex water based       Thickness - -       Category drywall Gypsum Board       Material   Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material batt Insulation Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (in) 2 2       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Poly (6mil) 6 mil Polyethylene       Thickness (in) - -       Category Cladding Cladding       Material Aluminunm panles Steel Cladding - Commercial (26 ga.)       Thickness (in) - -     2.3.3  Wall_Internal_SteelStud_Type2             Length (ft) 3773 3773       Height (ft) 13.7 13.7       Sheathing Type None None :?            Stud Spacing - 16oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 1 5/8 x 6 1 5/8 x 6     Door Opening Number of Doors 103 103       Door Type internal doors Hollow core wood internal     Envelope Category - gypsum board       Material drywall Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness 2" -       Category paint paint       Material Latex Water based Latex water based     2.3.4  Wall_Internal_SteelStud_Type3             Length (ft) 68 68       Height (ft) 13.7 13.7       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 16 oc 16oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 1 5/8 x 3 5/8 1 5/8 x 3 5/8     Envelope Category - gypsum board       Material fire-rated drywall Fire-rated gypsum type X 1/2"       Thickness 2" -       Category paint paint       Material Latex Water based Latex water based     2.3.5  Wall_Internal_SteelStud_Type4             Length (ft) 75 75       Height (ft) 13.7 13.7       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 16 oc 16oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 1 5/8 x 6 1 5/8 x 6     Envelope Category - gypsum board       Material drywall Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness 2" -       Category paint paint       Material Latex Water based Latex water based 3  Columns and Beams             3.1  Concrete Column             3.1.1  Column_Concrete_Basement             Number of 0 0 :;      Beams       Number of Columns 62 62       Floor to floor height (ft) 14.5 14.5       Bay sizes (ft) 47.00 40.00       Supported span (ft) 16.17 19.91       Live load (psf) 100 100   3.2 Steel Column             3.2.1  Column_Steel_FirstFloor_HSS             Number of Beams 33 33       Number of Columns 30 30       Floor to floor height (ft) 13.5 13.5       Bay sizes (ft) 47.00 40.00       Supported span (ft) 16.67 23.04       Live load (psf) 100 100     3.2.2  Column_Steel_SeocndFloor_HSS             Number of Beams 33 33       Number of Columns 37 37       Floor to floor height (ft) 13.5 13.5       Bay sizes (ft) 47.00 40.00       Supported span (ft) 19.17 35.94       Live load (psf) 100 100     3.2.3  Column_Steel_ThirdFloor_HSS             Number of Beams 33 33       Number of Columns 37 37       Floor to floor height (ft) 13.29 13.29       Bay sizes (ft) 47.00 40.00       Supported span (ft) 19.17 35.94       Live load (psf) 100 100 4  Floors             4.1  Concrete Suspended Slab             4.1.1  Floor_ConcreteSuspendedSlab_FirstFloor            Floor Width (ft) 1,037.50 1,037.50       Span (ft) 16.67 16.67       Concrete (psi) 3000 3000       Concrete flyash % - average :7            Live load (psf) - 75   4.2 OWSJ             4.2.1 Floors_OWSJ_SecondFloor             Floor Width (ft) 1,224.45 1,224.45       Span (ft) 19.17 19.17       Concrete (psi) 3000 3000       Concrete flyash % - average       Live load (psf) - 75     4.2.2 Floors_OWSJ_ThirdFloor             Floor Width (ft) 1,224.14 1,224.14       Span (ft) 19.17 19.17       Concrete (psi) 3000 3000       Concrete flyash % - average       Live load (psf) - 75 5 Roof 5.2  OWSJ             5.2.1  Roof_OWSJ             Roof Width (ft) 1,223.00 1,223.00       Roof Span (ft) 19.17 19.17       Decking Type 1/2' Steel deck -       Decking Thickness 1/2' 5/8     Envelope Category Insulation Insulation       Material Rigid Insulation Fiberglass Batt       Thickness 2" 2"       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material 6mil Poly 6mil Polyethylene       Thickness - -       Category SteelRoof System SteelRoof System       Material - Commercial  :6       + + )N$)$+ ,,,0$.+ ,-.0)+  Assembly Group Assembly Type Assembly Name Specific Assumptions 1  Foundation  The Impact Estimator, SOG inputs are limited to being either a 4” or 8” thickness.  Since the actual SOG thicknesses for the EOS Main building were not exactly 4” or 8” thick, the areas measured in OnScreen required calculations to adjust the areas to accommodate this limitation.  The Impact Estimator limits the thickness of footings to be between 7.5” and 19.7” thick.  As there are a number of cases where footing thicknesses exceed 19”, their widths were increased accordingly to maintain the same volume of footing while accommodating this limitation.  Lastly, the concrete stairs were modelled as footings (ie. Stairs_Concrete_TotalLength).  All stairs had the same thickness and width, so the total length of stair was measured and were combined into a single input.   1.1  Concrete Slab-on-Grade         1.1.1 SOG_5" The flyash used is assumed to be average. The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (25167 x (5”/12))/(4”/12) ]    = 177.37 feet   1.2  Concrete Footing         1.2.1  Footing_TypeA The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintained, thicknesses were set at 19.7” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19.7”/12)  = [(4.5’*4) x (20”/12)] / (19.7”/12) 59       = 4.57 feet     1.2.2  Footing_TypeB The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintain, thicknesses were set at 19.7” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19.7”/12)  = [(5.5’*2) x (24”/12)] / (19.7”/12)  =  6.7 feet     1.2.3  Footing_TypeC The rebar used in building is #7 but in Athena there's only #4,5,6, therefore rebar #6 was chose.    The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintain, thicknesses were set at 19.7” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19.7”/12)  = [(6’*6) x (26”/12)] / (19.7”/12)  =  7.92 feet     1.2.4  Footing_TypeD The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintain, thicknesses were set at 19.7” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19.7”/12)  = [(4.167’*5) x (26”/12)] / (19.7”/12)  = 5.08 feet 5          1.2.7  Footing_TypeH The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintain, thicknesses were set at 19.7” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19.7”/12)  = [(5’*10) x (22”/12)] / (19.7”/12)  = 5.58 feet    1.2.10  Deepfooting_1'x1'_C oncrete The area of this  was measured and multiplied by the cited thickness to get the volume.  Then the calculated volume was divided by the square root of the measured area and then divided again by 19.7" to get the width of the footing at 19.7".  This was done using the following calculations;  = [[(Measured Area) x (Cited Thickness)] / sqrt(Measured Area)] / (19”/12)]  = [[(501 ft2) x (12"/12)] / (501')^(1/2)] / (19.7”/12)  =  13.63 feet    1.2.11  Deepfooting_2'6"x1'_ Concrete The area of this  was measured and multiplied by the cited thickness to get the volume.  Then the calculated volume was divided by the square root of the measured area and then divided again by 19.7" to get the width of the footing at 19".  This was done using the following calculations;  = [[(Measured Area) x (Cited Thickness)] / sqrt(Measured Area)] / (19”/12)]  = [[(1530 ft2) x (12"/12)] / (1530')^(1/2)] / (19.7”/12)  =  23.83 feet 5'         1.2.12  Deepfooting_2'x1'_C oncrete The area of this  was measured and multiplied by the cited thickness to get the volume.  Then the calculated volume was divided by the square root of the measured area and then divided again by 19.7" to get the width of the footing at 19.7".  This was done using the following calculations;  = [[(Measured Area) x (Cited Thickness)] / sqrt(Measured Area)] / (19”/12)]  = [[(4344 ft2) x (12"/12)] / (4344')^(1/2)] / (19.7”/12)  =  40.15 feet    1.2.13  Deepfooting_3'x1'_C oncrete The area of this  was measured and multiplied by the cited thickness to get the volume.  Then the calculated volume was divided by the square root of the measured area and then divided again by 19.7" to get the width of the footing at 19.7".  This was done using the following calculations;  = [[(Measured Area) x (Cited Thickness)] / sqrt(Measured Area)] / (19”/12)]  = [[(432 ft2) x (12"/12)] / (432')^(1/2)] / (19.7”/12)  =  40.15 feet     1.2.14  Stairs_Concrete_No1 /West_64'/11" The thickness of the stairs was calculated to be 11 inches based on the cross-section structural drawings and details. Lengths were calculated by multiplying the stairs length by 2*number of floors on which they extend 2  Walls  The length of the concrete cast-in-place walls needed adjusting to accommodate the wall thickness limitation in the Impact Estimator. It was assumed that external steel stud walls were heavy gauge (20Ga) and interior steel stud walls were heavy gauge (25Ga).   2.1  Concrete Block Wall         2.2.1 Wall_External_Concr eteBlock_Basement_ 10" Athena's concrete blocks are standard 200mm x 200mm x 400 mm (8" x 8" x 15"), so the 10" concrete block wall is modeled as 8". No sanblast finish available in IE so no finish was selected for the walls. Doors were set to steel exterior doors.     2.2.1 Wall_Internal_Concr eteBlock_Basement_ 8" In Athena, doors were selected as hollow core wood interior. Drywall was not an option for wall finish in IE so gypsum wallboard was selected instead of drywall for all wall types.   2.2  Cast In     5:      Place     2.2.1 Wall_CastInPlace_C ore_AllFloors Doors were set to hollow core wood.   2.3 Steel Stud         2.3.1  Wall_External_Steel Stud_First and Second Floors_1'7" Because 1st and 2nd floors have the same assembly and same floor to floor height, the length of wall and all openings were added up to represent one assembly. Doors (entrance and exit) were steel framed with glass, however, Athena does not have such doors therefore, steel exterior doors were selected. Entrance and exit doors (2 side doors) were counted twice to compensate for the smaller "door size" in Athena     2.3.2 Wall_External_Steel Stud_ThirdFloor_1'7" Exterior walls are covered with aluminum panels on the outside, however, Athena does not have aluminum panels as wall cladding therefore commercial steel cladding was selected. Also, steel exterior doors were selected in Athena.     2.4.3 Wall_Internal_SteelS tud_Type2 Stud spacing was assumed to be 16 o.c. 2" thick drywall was used on both sides but Athena does not have that type of drywall as part of wall assembly, therefore regular gypsum 5/8" was selected. All walls have Latex water based paint.     2.4.4 Wall_Internal_SteelS tud_Type3 Stud spacing was assumed to be 16 o.c. Firerated drywall was used on both sides, Athena does not have that drywall as part of wall assembly, therefore Fire Rated Type X Gypsum 1/2" was selected. Paint is on both sides and latex water based is selected     2.4.5 Wall_Internal_SteelS tud_Type4 Stud spacing was assumed to be 16 o.c. 2" thick drywall was used on one side, Athena does not have that drywall as part of wall assembly, therefore regular gypsum 5/8" was selected. Paint is on one side and latex water based is selected 3 Columns and Beams The method used to measure column sizing was completely depended upon the metrics built into the Impact Estimator.  That is, the Impact Estimator calculates the sizing of beams and columns based on the following inputs; number of beams, number of columns, floor to floor height, bay size, supported span and live load.  This being the case, in OnScreen, since no beams were present in the EOS Main building's basement and first floor, concrete columns were accounted for on each floor, while each floor’s area was measured.  The number of 55      beams supporting each floor were assigned an average bay and span size in order to cover the measured area, as seen assumption details below for each input.  The hollow structural steel (HSS) columns in the EOS Main building were modelled in Athena as HSS columns with the given live load of 100 psf.   3.1  Concrete Column Basement contains concrete columns of different shapes and sizes (some circular and some square). The most common type was chosen to model the building's basement.     3.1.1  Column_Concrete_B asement Because of the limitation of bay size (up to 40ft. ) in Athena, the area was recalculated based on bay size 40ft. The new span size is calculated as shown:  = (Original span)/ ( Origianal floor width) * (Measured Supported Floor Area) / (40 ft. * 2)  = (16.67ft) / (181 ft) * ( 17,292 /80 )  = 19.9 ft   3.2 Steel Column         3.2.1  Column_Steel_FirstF loor_HSS Because of the limitation of bay size (up to 40ft. ) in Athena, the area was recalculated based on bay size 40ft. The new span size is calculated as shown:  = (Original span)/ ( Origianal floor width) * (Measured Supported Floor Area) / (40 ft. * 2)  = (19.17 ft) / (width/50*2) * ( 17,292 /80 )  = 23.04 ft The area used for first floor is less than second and third floor becuase not all of it is OSWJ, there is also a slab used in first floor (due to different elevations in footigns) which is calculated as part of the concrete SOG. Beam type is selected WF Gerber. 5=          3.2.2 Column_Steel_Seco ndFloor_HSS Because of the limitation of bay size (up to 40ft. ) in Athena, the area was recalculated based on bay size 40ft. The new span size is calculated as shown:  = (Original span)/ ( Origianal floor width) * (Measured Supported Floor Area) / (40 ft. * 2)  = (19.17 ft) / (area/50*3) * ( 23,469/80 )  = 35.94 ft     3.2.3 Column_Steel_Third Floor_HSS Because of the limitation of bay size (up to 40ft. ) in Athena, the area was recalculated based on bay size 40ft. The new span size is calculated as shown:  = (Original span)/ ( Origianal floor width) * (Measured Supported Floor Area) / (40 ft. * 2)  = (19.17 ft) / (area/50*3) * ( 23,463 /80 )  = 35.94 ft 4  Floors The Impact Estimator calculated the thickness of the material based on floor width, span, concrete strength, concrete flyash content and live load.  The only assumptions that had to be made in this assembly group were setting the live load to 75psf. Second floor, third floor, and roof structures all have concrete slabs covering steel material which is included in Athena IE.   4.1 Concrete Suspended Slab         4.1.1 Floor_ConcreteSusp endedSlab_FirstFloor To calculate the floor width, divide the floor area by span size of 19.17ft. = 17292 sq ft/  19.17 ft = 1037.53 ft.   4.2 OWSJ         4.2.1 Floors_OWSJ_Seco ndFloor To calculate the floor width, divide the floor area by span size of 19.17ft. = 23469 sq ft/  19.17 ft = 1224.45 ft.     4.2.2 Floors_OWSJ_Third Floor To calculate the floor width, divide the floor area by span size of 19.17ft. = 23463 sq ft/  19.17 ft = 1224.14 ft. 5  Roof The live load was assumed to be 75 psf and the concrete strength was set to 4,000psi instead of the specified 3,500psi.   

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