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Whole building Life Cycle Assessment : three Olympic venues presentation slides Burtwistle, Jason 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Whole Building Life Cycle Assessment: Three Olympic Venues Presentation Slides  Jason Burtwistle Kenneth Kutyn Adam Miller Zack Ross Clare Zemcov Radu Postole Darren Thomas Dennis Fan Sean Geyer Hillary Kernahan Josh Ruddock  University of British Columbia CIVL 498C April 6, 2011   Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. April  6 th,2011 CIVL 498C: WHOLE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT • Introduction • What is LCA? • How can it help? • Goal and Scope • Tools and methodology • Software • Results • Environmental impact potential • Sensitivity analysis • Uncertainties • Conclusion • London 2012 • Recommendations • Where do we go from here? OVERVIEW WHAT IS LCA? Life Cycle Assessment  A technique used to analyze and assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life within a chosen system boundary Goal and Scope Inventory Analysis Impact Assessment Interpretation EVERY PRODUCTS LIFE CYCLE IS CREATED BY THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PROCESSES… AND EACH PROCESS HAS INPUTS AND OUTPUTS TO WHICH IMPACT CAN BE ASSOCIATED WHAT IS LCA? • We can quantify and group these impacts into different environmental impact categories • “Environmental accounting” • Gaining attention as environmental stewardship increases • ISO 14040, ISO 14044 • Evaluate the potential impacts associated with these emissions • Interpreting the results within the context and scope of the study • Get LCA data to facil itate more LCA data GOAL HOW CAN LCA HELP? System Boundary Material Energy Emissions to air Emissions to land Emissions to water  3 Olympic Venues  Cradle to gate  Structure and envelope SCOPE AUDIENCE Everyone !!!  Richmond Olympic Oval  Officially opened on December 12, 2008  Built to LEED Silver standards  Maintained a 400m skating surface during the Olympics  Hosted all speed skating events  Now serves as a general athletics and convention center BACKGROUND Doug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Center  Opened on July 7, 2008  Built to LEED Silver standards  Renovation and Reconstruction of the Thunderbird Winter Sports Complex  Hosted Ice and Sledge Hockey Events  Home of the UBC Thunderbirds Hockey Teams BACKGROUND Thunderbird Winter Sports Center  Originally opened in 1963  Expanded in 1968/1969  3 full -size rinks, curling arena and squash/handball courts  Home of Canada’s first national hockey team (1963)  Father Bauer Arena was retained by the Doug Mitchell Center and used as a practice rink for the Olympics BACKGROUND  The Father Bauer Arena is a portion of the current Doug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Centre that remains from the original Thunderbird Arena construction.  Life Cycle Impacts of Father Bauer Arena apportioned to LCA of Old Thunderbird as it was a part of the initial development. BACKGROUND METHODOLOGY Goal and Scope Inventory Analysis Impact Assessment Interpretation METHODOLOGY Takeoffs  Using On-Screen Takeoff METHODOLOGY – TOOLS USED – Takeoff Examples Area Condition Count Condition METHODOLOGY – TOOLS USED – Takeoff Examples Linear Conditions METHODOLOGY – TOOLS USED – Athena Inputs  Athena Impact Estimator 4.1 METHODOLOGY – TOOLS USED – Inputs from  Inputs Assumption Document Findings entered into IE Used to generate BoM • Helps with Impact Estimator Inputs • Provides transparency for all  assumptions used during the project ASSEMBLY NAME INPUT FIELD MEASURED IE INPUT METHODOLOGY – TRANSPARENCY– Bill of Materials Output METHODOLOGY What do we do with all this information?? • Select impact categories • Category indicators METHODOLOGY Selected Impact Categories include: • Fossil Fuel Consumption • Weighted Resource Depletion • Smog Formation • Global Warming Potential • Ozone Layer Depletion • Eutrophication Potential • Human Health Respiratory Effects • Acidification Potential Source: http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/sab/traci/ METHODOLOGY • Fossil Fuel Consumption Category Indicator: MJ • All fossil fuel, direct and indirect, used to transform or transport raw materials into products and buildings • Characterized by Athena • Expressed in fossil fuel consumption METHODOLOGY • Weighted Resource Use Category Indicator: kg of Resources • The ecological weight of resources used on site • Characterized by: • Land use and areas impacted • Duration of impacts • Ecological significance METHODOLOGY • Smog Formation Category Indicator: kg NOx equivalent • Ground level ozone created through reaction of VOCs and NOx in the presence of sunlight • Effects human health • Can reduce crop yield due to lack of sufficient photosynthesis • Smog is worse in densely populated regions, especially in valley areas = VANCOUVER http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/environment/smog.html METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY • Global Warming Potential Category Indicator: kg CO2 equivalent • Capacity to absorb infrared radiation, which heats the atmosphere • Characterized by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) • 11 of the past 12 years are among the warmest since 1850 • Arctic may have its first ice- free summer by 2040 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news METHODOLOGY • Characterized by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) • Increased UVB reaching the earth • Ozone Layer Depletion Category Indicator: kg CFC-11 equivalent • Destruction of the upper atmospheric ozone column due to the emissions of  substances (HFCs and Halons) relative to CFC-11 www.dilg.gov.ph METHODOLOGY • Eutrophication Potential Category Indicator: kg Nitrogen equivalent • Aquatic Eutrophication occurs when bodies of water are enriched with nutrients from waste water discharge resulting in algae over growth • Characterized by US EPA • Kills fish and shellfish • Toxicity to human, marine mammals, livestock • Effects recreation, industry, and ecosystem METHODOLOGY • Characterized by USA EPA • Effects human health • Coughing, wheezing • Worsens asthma, heart disease, pneumonia • Human Health Respiratory Effects Category Indicator: kg PM2.5 equivalent • Exposure to airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in size http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/78657/E88189.pdf METHODOLOGY • Acidification Potential Category Indicator: moles of H+ equivalent • Capacity to form H+ ions from SO2 and NOx, increasing acidity of soil and water systems • Characterized by US EPA • Ecosystem changes • Plant and animal mortality METHODOLOGY • Interpreting Results • Grouping Impacts • Local, Regional, Global • Normalizing Impacts • Benchmark comparisons • Completeness Check – Sensitivity Analysis • How sensitive/responsive certain categories are to changes in the model • What contribute most to the system (extraction, manufacturing, end of life) Study Results Building Characteristics BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS - Thunderbird Old - Building System Specific Building Characteristics Structure Concrete and steel columns supporting concrete suspended slabs Floors Ground Floor: Concrete slab on grade; First Floor: Suspended slab Exterior Walls 8” Concrete block with several smaller sections of cast-in-place walls Interior Walls 8” and 6” Concrete block construction with some wood stud partitions Windows All windows assumed to be standard glazing Roof Built-up roofs, Glulam and steel trusses BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS - Thunderbird New - Building System Specific Building Characteristics Structure Reinforced Concrete Frame, Concrete Block Floors Foundation: Concrete Slab on grade; floors are precast concrete double T Exterior Walls Foundation: Cast-in-place walls; Ground and the rest of the floors: concrete tilt-up and block, and wood stud Interior Walls Foundation: Cast-in-place walls; Ground and First Floors: wood stud with plywood sheating Windows All windows operable with aluminum frame and standard glazing Roof Concrete Precast Double T BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS - Richmond Oval - Building System Specific Building Characteristics Structure Concrete columns support concrete suspended slabs and concrete buttresses all with steel reinforcement Floors Floors are a concrete slab and slab band system, with hollow core concrete panels supporting a significant portion of the activities deck. Exterior Walls North and South sides: fixed curtain wall with no glazing and aluminum frame.  On the third floor of the South side, polycarbonate cladding overlays the glass. Interior Walls Mainly steel stud walls with various amounts and types of gypsum board.  Also concrete block walls with no envelope material and concrete cast-in-place walls. Windows Interior doors are either solid wood or hollow metal.  Exterior doors are either hollow metal or sliding glass. Roof Concrete Precast Double TComposite beams composed of Glulam and structural steel support the main span of the roof, WoodWave engineered structural panels composed mainly of softwood lumber span between the composite beams and are filled with fibrous mineral wool insulation. BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS - Bill of Materials - Study Results Impact Categories IMPACT ASSESSMENT - Global Warming Potential per Building - 0 5 10 15 20 25 T o n n e s  C O 2  E q u iv a le n t Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Global Warming Potential Earthworks Construction Manufacturing IMPACT ASSESSMENT - Global Warming Potential per Sq.Ft. - 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 k g  C O 2  e q u iv a le n t/ ft 2 Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Global Warming Potential Earthworks Construction Manufacturing IMPACT ASSESSMENT - UBC Average Comparison - 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 k g  C O 2  e q u iv a le n ts /f t 2 UBC Academic Building Average Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Global Warming Potential IMPACT ASSESSMENT - Weighted Resource Use per Building - 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 T o n n e s Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Weighted Resource Use Earthworks Construction Manufacturing IMPACT ASSESSMENT - Weighted Resource Use per Sq.Ft. - 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 k g /f t2 Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Weighted Resource Use Earthworks Construction Manufacturing IMPACT ASSESSMENT - UBC Average Comparison - 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 k g /f t2 UBC Academic Building Average Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Weighted Resource Use IMPACT ASSESSMENT - Fossil Fuel Consumption per Building - 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 T e ra jo u le s Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Primary Energy Use Earthworks Construction Manufacturing METHODOLOGY • Where do we go from here?? • Normalization • Benchmark against average Fossil Fuel Consumption = 582 Houses Annual Energy Use Thunderbird Arena (New) http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/tablestrend s2/res_ca_1_e_4.cfm?attr=0 IMPACT ASSESSMENT - Fossil Fuel Consumption per Sq.Ft. - 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 M e g a jo u le s /f t 2 Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Primary Energy Use Earthworks Construction Manufacturing IMPACT ASSESSMENT - UBC Average Comparison - 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 m e g a jo u le s /f t 2 UBC Academic Building Average Thunderbird Old Thunderbird New Richmond Olympic Oval Primary Energy Consumption Study Results Sensitivity Analysis SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% Sensitivity Analysis of the Thunderbird Arena (New) + 10% Rebar 0.84% 0.18% 0.39% 0.39% 0.30% 2.02% 0.00% 0.10% + 10% 30MPa Concrete 1.73% 6.87% 3.22% 3.81% 3.72% 2.06% 5.94% 5.27% + 10% Foam, PolyIso 0.24% 0.02% 0.32% 0.22% 0.12% 0.05% 0.04% 0.14% + 10% Concrete Block 0.33% 0.03% 0.45% 0.57% 0.54% 0.23% 0.62% 0.58% + 10% PVC Membrane 0.90% 0.07% 0.38% 0.97% 0.39% 0.13% 0.00% 0.44% Fossil Fuel Consump Weighted Resource Use Global Warming Potential Acidificati on Potential HH Respirato ry Effects Eutrophic ation Potential Ozone Depletion Potential Smog Potential SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% Global Warming Potential Effect 0.38% 0.45% 0.32% 3.22% 0.39% + 10% PVC Membrane + 10% Concrete Block + 10% Foam, PolyIso + 10% 30MPa Concrete + 10% Rebar SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS - Functional Areas - • First ever life cycle assessment of Olympic Venues • To be included in Olympic Games Impact (OGI) Study… • Addition of Thunderbird to the UBC LCA Database • Richmond Oval the beginning of extension into GVRD OUTCOMES -600% -400% -200% 0% 200% 400% 600% 800% 1000% Math Geography EOS - Main Music Scarfe Klink CEME Chemistry Curtis Angus Kaiser Chemistry - South Henn Buchanan All EOS - East Chemistry - North Hebb FNH Wesbrook AERL Lasserre Chem Physics EOS - South Curtis Addition ICICS/CS MacMillan FSC ChemBio Kenny Di ffe re nc e fro m  A ve ra ge  Im pa ct  (% ) Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Weighted Resource Use (kg) Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq) Acidification Potential (moles H+ eq) HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq) Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC-11 eq) Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) How do we compare? GLOBAL APPLICATIONS: LONDON 2012 Entire Scope of Carbon Study - Pre-games (venues, structures etc.) - Games (spectators, operations…) - Legacy (use after Olympics) Identified 4 venue `biggest hitters`: - Olympic Park Works = 48% - Olympic Village = 23% - Media Centre = 8% - Stadium/Aquatics Centre = 7% LONDON 2012 LONDON 2012 RICHMOND OVAL Seating: 8000 CO2eq: 23 kilo-tonnes Tonnes/seat: 2.875 LONDON 2012 STADIUM Seating:80,000 CO2eq: 129 kilo-tonnes Tonnes/seat: 1 .6125 These buildings do not serve the same function, however... Given that 55,000 seats in the London Stadium are temporary (and lighter structure), and the heavy earthworks required in Richmond. Conclusions LCA is a symptom of the change in the way we design products. • Our reports are publicly available at the UBC SEEDS Library! http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/seeds -l ibrary CONCLUSIONS LCA data shows us the link between decisions, products, processes and the environment. CONCLUSIONS “You can’t manage what you can’t measure” CONCLUSIONS “Call yourself green? Prove it.” CONCLUSIONS • LCA is ideally applied during the design process • Cost Effective • Change the way we make building design decisions • An LCA is only as good as the methods used and databases available • Still plenty of chances for uncertainty to accumulate • Improve the methodology • Improve the databases • Provide the tools for specialists to contribute • Create online tool to more easily share reports and results RECOMMENDATIONS Globally, LCA is currently being integrated at all scales of sustainable development guidelines. The most recent developments include: • LEED for New Construction 2009: Innovation & Design Credit 1 • LEED 2012 Pilot • ASHRAE 189.1 • International Green Construction Code (IgCC) • ISO 21931-1: Sustainability in Building Construction GLOBAL APPLICATIONS THANK YOU! Dr. Paul McFarlane, Department of Civil Engineering, UBC SEEDS Program, UBC Sustainability Office, UBC Records Department Kasian Architects, Cannon Design, City of Richmond CIVL 498C 2008/09 CIVL 498C 2009/10 • Introduction • What is LCA? • How can it help? • Goal and Scope • Tools and methodology • Software • Results • Environmental impact potential • Sensitivity analysis • Uncertainties • Conclusion • London 2012 • Recommendations • Where do we go from here? THANK YOU!

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