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Microstructures and Trace Element Signatures of Orogenic Quartz Veins in the Klondike District, Yukon.. 2012

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MICROSTRUCTURES AND TRACE ELEMENT SIGNATURES OF OROGENIC QUARTZ VEINS IN THE KLONDIKE DISTRICT, YUKON TERRITORY, CANADA   by  W.R. GARETH WOLFF   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS)  in  THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE (Geological Sciences)   This thesis conforms to the required standard  ................................................................. Supervisor  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) APRIL 2012    © W.R. Gareth Wolff, 2012 ii  ABSTRACT The rich placer gold deposits of the Klondike District in the Yukon Territory are derived from orogenic gold-bearing quartz veins, associated with the metamorphism of the Klondike Schist basement rock. Further understanding of the structural context of these veins may be essential for exploration in the region. Petrographic descriptions were made of 12 polished thin sections of Klondike vein samples, observing vein and host rock mineralogy and microtextures. Two broad textural categories were identified: blocky veins produced by a single fracturing event with dilation rate exceeding the rate of quartz growth into open space; and elongate-blocky to fibrous veins with the average rate of opening equal to the average rate of quartz growth. The structural interpretation of this variation is of an early stage of slow vein growth, producing fibrous quartz grains, as well as gold and sulphides. Later rapid fracturing led to the growth of blocky quartz. This variation in vein textures can be attributed to structural changes, and the progression through the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. Polished blocks of texturally complex samples from the Nugget and Sheba veins were analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS, producing trace element concentrations for the different quartz textures. Aluminium was the most abundant trace element, and orogenic quartz was found to have low concentrations and variability of trace elements when compared with higher temperature magmatic-hydrothermal systems. No significant compositional variations were found, indicating that despite the broad textural differences, there were no significant changes in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz growth, or in the fluid in equilibrium with the host rock.     iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................... iii LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................... viii 1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1 2.0 BACKGROUND & PREVIOUS WORK ........................................................................... 1 2.1 Klondike District: An Overview ...................................................................................... 1 2.1.1 Geological Setting ..................................................................................................... 1 2.1.2 Structural Processes ................................................................................................... 3 2.1.3 Klondike Quartz Veins .............................................................................................. 4 2.2 Orogenic Gold Deposits ................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Trace Elements in Quartz ................................................................................................. 7 2.4 Vein Microstructures and Growth .................................................................................... 8 4.0 METHODS ........................................................................................................................ 12 4.1 Sample Preparation ........................................................................................................ 12 4.2 Laser Ablation ICP-MS .................................................................................................. 13 4.3 Data Reduction and Analysis ......................................................................................... 13 4.4 Petrography .................................................................................................................... 14 5.0 VEIN MICROSTRUCTURES .......................................................................................... 15 5.1 Textural Observations .................................................................................................... 15 5.1.1 Nugget Vein ............................................................................................................. 16 5.1.2 Sheba Vein ............................................................................................................... 18 5.2 Discussion and Interpretation ......................................................................................... 19 5.2.1 Fibrous Veins ........................................................................................................... 19 5.2.2 Structural Interpretations ......................................................................................... 20 iv  6.0 TRACE ELEMENTS IN OROGENIC QUARTZ VEINS ................................................ 21 6.1 Results ............................................................................................................................ 21 6.1.1 Thin Sections ........................................................................................................... 21 6.1.2 Polished Blocks ....................................................................................................... 22 6.2 Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 24 7.0 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................. 26 REFERENCES CITED ............................................................................................................ 28 APPENDIX I: DETAILED THIN SECTION AND ROCK DESCRIPTIONS ...................... 32 APPENDIX II: LOCATIONS FOR LASER ABLATION SPOT ANALYSES ..................... 42 Thin Sections ........................................................................................................................ 42 Polished Blocks .................................................................................................................... 44 APPENDIX III: TRACE ELEMENT DATA TABLES .......................................................... 45    v  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Simplified bedrock geology map of the Klondike District. KSD = King Solomon Dome. (Modified from Chapman et al., 2010a)......................................................................... 2 Figure 2: Schematic diagram of orogenic quartz vein deposit setting. (From Dubé and Gosselin, 2007) .......................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 3: Classification of veins according to grain morphology and crystal growth. Arrows indicate opening direction. m.l.= median line, i.b. = inclusion bands, i.t. = inclusion trails. (From Hilgers and Urai, 2002)................................................................................................... 9 Figure 4: Location Map for studied vein samples. ................................................................. 11 Figure 5: Raw trace element data for sample ‘NG4_thick’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Na23. A = background signal; B = surface Na spike, likely surface contamination; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = integrated window for NIST 612 spot. ............. 14 Figure 6: Raw trace element data for sample ‘SH3_thin’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Al27. A = background signal; B = surface of thin section; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = signal from glass slide; E = integrated window for NIST 612 standard spot. .................................................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 7: Sample MA-11-NG5. a. Photomicrograph of sample, XPL. Dotted line = approximate intersection between different stages of quartz veining. b. Photograph of vein intersection in hand sample, cut surface. ................................................................................. 16 Figure 8: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. A = wallrock; B = syntaxial fibrous quartz; C = approximate line of discontinuity in the growth direction of the fibres; D = syntaxial fibrous to blocky-elongate quartz exhibiting clear growth competition; E = termination of syntaxial fibrous quartz in top half of sample; F = blocky quartz; G = isolated region of fibrous quartz; H = later subhedral blocky prismatic quartz and calcite. ................. 17 Figure 9: Field photograph of the Nugget vein, showing a cross-section from right to left through foliated wallrock, early fibrous quartz associated with sulphides, and later milky blocky quartz. Photo courtesy of M. Allan. ............................................................................. 18 Figure 10: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3. In the vein, a region of fibrous quartz is flanked by two inclusion-rich blocky quartz zones. Euhedral grains of arsenopyrite are associated with the wallrock and the vein wall. ................................................................. 18 Figure 11: Graph of Ti and Al concentrations, comparing the ranges of values and relative errors for the polished blocks (left) and the thin sections (right). ............................................ 22 Figure 12: Trace element correlation plots for polished blocks. ............................................ 23 vi  Figure 13. a: Concentrations measured in quartz from various ore deposits. The polished block results from this study have been plotted at lower right (boxed area). Modified from Rusk et al. (2008). b: Expanded plot of Ti (grey diamonds) and Al (black squares) concentrations from Klondike orogenic quartz vein samples. ................................................. 25 Figure 14: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM2 .................................................... 32 Figure 15: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM3. ................................................... 33 Figure 16: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY1. ................................................... 34 Figure 17: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY2. ................................................... 35 Figure 18: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-MK2. ................................................... 35 Figure 19: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG2. ................................................... 36 Figure 20: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. ................................................... 37 Figure 21: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG5. Dotted line indicates approximate intersection area of the two veins. ............................................................................................ 38 Figure 22: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-OR1. ................................................... 38 Figure 23: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3. .................................................... 39 Figure 24: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VG2. ................................................... 40 Figure 25: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VL2 ..................................................... 41 Figure 26: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thin'. ............................................ 42 Figure 27: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'SH3_Thin'. ............................................. 43 Figure 28: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thick'. ........................................... 44 Figure 29: Labelled locations of spot analyses for ‘SH3_Thick'. ........................................... 44   vii  LIST OF TABLES Table 1: List of Samples Analyzed ......................................................................................... 12 Table 2: Generalized paragenesis of Klondike veins. ............................................................. 16 Table 3: Sample 'NG4_Thin'. 'bd'= below detection limits. ................................................... 45 Table 4: Sample 'SH3_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits. ................................................... 52 Table 5: Sample ‘NG4_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits. .................................................. 61 Table 6: Sample 'SH3_Thick'. 'bd' = below detection limits. ................................................. 65     viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Firstly, I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr Murray Allan, for helping me find this project, the use of his samples, and his invaluable guidance throughout this thesis. I would also like to thank Dr Shaun Barker for the use of the LA-ICPMS equipment and his assistance with sample preparation and data reduction. I am grateful to Dr James Mortensen, Dr Craig Hart and everyone at the Mineral Deposit Research Unit for letting me be a part of the Yukon Gold Project and providing extensive access to resources. I would additionally like to acknowledge Erin Lane and Dr Elspeth Barnes for running the EOSC 449 course and sharing their advice, and my fellow thesis students for the shared experiences. Extensive gratitude is due to my family for their backing throughout my undergraduate career. Finally, many thanks to Jamie Labron for her endless patience, support, and encouragement.    1  1.0 INTRODUCTION   The Klondike District of the Yukon Territory is renowned as one of the world’s richest regions of placer gold deposits, with estimates of total historical production surpassing 13 million ounces of placer gold since its initial discovery in 1896 (Chapman et al., 2010a). The placer deposits have been associated with orogenic gold-bearing quartz veins hosted in the greenschist facies Klondike Schist basement (MacKenzie et al., 2008).  The richness of the placer gold deposits, as well as the relatively small volume of eroded basement rock (possibly as little as 400km 2  of basement (MacKenzie et al., 2008)), suggest very high concentrations of orogenic lode gold in the area. However, until recently very limited research had been published on the geology and structure of the gold-bearing veins.  The Yukon Gold Project is a large, industry-supported multidisciplinary research project by the Mineral Deposit Research Unit at the University of British Columbia, that among its goals attempts to address the geologic context for gold exploration in the region. This includes detailed structural and geochemical analysis of the gold-forming veins in the Klondike.  As a part of the broader study, this thesis aims to use quartz vein microtextures and trace elements to help unravel the structural history of gold-forming veins in the district. Petrographic observations are coupled with laser ablation ICP-MS trace element measurements for a set of samples from cm-scale quartz veins. This will contribute to the body of knowledge on orogenic quartz, as well as potentially determine the controlling factors on the different textures observed in the region, and any textural controls on trace element concentrations.  2.0 BACKGROUND & PREVIOUS WORK 2.1 Klondike District: An Overview  2.1.1 Geological Setting   The Klondike District is a region of the Yukon Territory, near the northeast boundary of the Yukon-Tanana Terrane, about 400km northwest of the city of Whitehorse. The bedrock 2  geology of the district, along with the gold-bearing vein systems it contains, have been discussed and described by Mortensen (1990), Knight et al. (1999), MacKenzie et al. (2008) and Chapman et al. (2010a, b).  The basement that underlies the Klondike District is predominantly composed of three variably metamorphosed rock units, forming an imbricated structural stack (Chapman et al, 2010a), locally separated by lenses of ultramafic rocks (Mortensen, 1990, 1996, MacKenzie et al., 2008). The structurally uppermost units, in which all the known orogenic gold occurrences are hosted, form part of the Klondike Schist. This Late Permian assemblage consists mainly of middle greenschist facies mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks (chlorite- actinolite schist and pyritic quartz-muscovite schist), and their intrusive equivalents (quartz- feldspar augen schist, quartz monzonite gneiss, and metagabbro), as well as interlayered siliciclastic rocks and rare carbonaceous schist (Chapman et al., 2010a).  These uppermost thrust slices of the Klondike Schist are structurally stacked on top of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Nasina assemblage, a package of carbonaceous metaclastics with minor marble. Additionally, metamorphosed greenstones of the Slide Mountain Terrane are present as lenticular bodes along several of the main thrust fault contacts separating individual units of the Klondike and Nasina schists (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a). These generalized bedrock associations can be observed in Fig. 1.  Figure 1: Simplified bedrock geology map of the Klondike District. KSD = King Solomon Dome. (Modified from Chapman et al., 2010a) 3    Uplift in the area was likely initiated in the late Jurassic and continued into the mid- Cretaceous, with deposition of basin-filling conglomerates of the Indian River Formation. Regional extension and normal faulting in the Late Cretaceous affected the Klondike Schist and surrounding region, and was accompanied by the eruption and deposition of Carmacks Group volcanic rocks (MacKenzie et al., 2008). In the Paleocene, the initiation and consequent strike-slip motion of the Tintina Fault caused additional regional extension (Gabrielse et al., 2006, MacKenzie et al., 2008). The Tintina Fault, a major right-lateral strike-slip fault with approximately 400-450km of displacement (Lowey, 2006), offset the Finlayson Lake assemblage in the southeast Yukon from the Klondike District and the rest of the Yukon-Tanana Terrane (Lowey, 2006, Gabrielse et al., 2006, MacKenzie et al., 2008).  Erosion of the Klondike Schist during Late Tertiary regional uplift resulted in the deposition of the Pliocene age White Channel Gravels, in flat-bottomed valleys formed by braided streams (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a). Erosional downcutting of this older drainage system occurred in the Pleistocene to Holocene, with modern streambeds lying up to 70m below the White Channel depositional surface (Chapman et al., 2010a).  Placer gold deposits in the area are associated with both the White Channel Gravel unit and the low-level gravels produced by the younger streams. The gold in the low-level gravels has been either eroded and reworked from the White Channel Gravel, or eroded directly from bedrock in the area (Lowey 2006, Chapman et al., 2010a). The Klondike District was not affected by Pleistocene glaciation, allowing the placer deposits to be connected directly to the local uplift and erosion (Chapman et al., 2010a).  2.1.2 Structural Processes   MacKenzie et al. (2008) undertook a structural study of the Klondike Schist, in order to identify structural controls on the formation of the orogenic veins. They established five different deformation events recorded in the rocks of the Klondike District (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a).  The first of these stages (D1) involves the development of a pervasive metamorphic foliation (S1), that is sheared into parallelism with a second pervasive fabric (S2). Metamorphic segregation quartz veins also developed parallel to S2, on the mm- to cm-scale. The Nasina Schist has similar pervasive foliation, albeit finer-grained, whereas the Slide Mountain Terrane greenstones are mostly unfoliated and contain no biotite. The entire stack 4  has been metamorphosed to greenschist facies, dominated by quartz, muscovite, chlorite and sporadic biotite in the Klondike and Nasina Schists, and albite, chlorite and epidote in the greenstones (MacKenzie et al., 2008).  The third stage consists of thrust emplacement (D3), resulting in post-metamorphic folds (F3) with rounded hinges. A variably developed spaced cleavage (S3), parallel to the axial surfaces of the folds, dominates the rock fabric around hinge zones of recumbent folds in the Nasina and Klondike Schists. In the greenstones, S3 is limited to narrow zones near thrust zones. Chlorite and muscovite recrystallization is present along the spaced cleavage in the Klondike Schist folds, and chlorite is also present in the greenstones. However, in the Nasina Schists there is little mica recrystallization. An additional stage of D3 involves the reactivation of the S2 foliation and/or S3 spaced cleavage on some surfaces, producing a shear cleavage—this is not present in the greenstones. (MacKenzie et al., 2008)  The D4 stage is comprised by two sets of localized, steeply-dipping reverse faults and associated kink folds (F4), mainly striking north-west. The Nasina Schist contains only minor kink folding, and this stage is absent from the greenstones (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a). Orogenic veins in the Klondike (see below) occupy S4 deformation zones (MacKenzie et al., 2008).  Finally, Late Cretaceous normal faulting (D5) occurred during regional extension (Mortensen, 1996, MacKenzie et al., 2008). The faults were mostly localized by pre-existing structural weaknesses, which in the Klondike tend to stem from the D4 stage. The fault zones contain abundant gouge development, and are usually hydrothermally altered, pyritized, and silicified (MacKenzie et al., 2008).  2.1.3 Klondike Quartz Veins   Orogenic quartz veins are extensional veins associated with deformed and metamorphosed terranes, and are examined in more detail below. Two types of orogenic quartz veins are present throughout the Klondike. Segregation veins, lens-shaped, parallel to foliation, and mineralogically similar to the host rocks, are widespread throughout the district and found in all metamorphic lithologies (Rushton et al., 1993, Chapman et al., 2010a). MacKenzie et al. (2008) attributes this first generation of veining as the first two phases of ductile deformation (D1-D2). These veins do not contain gold or sulphides, except where cut by later fractures (Rushton et al., 1993, Chapman et al., 2010a). 5   Meanwhile, massive, milky quartz veins, up to 3m thick and up to hundreds of metres in strike length, are generally discordant to the metamorphic foliation (Rushton et al., 1993). These veins are gold-bearing, and occur both as scattered individual veins and swarms. They generally trend north-northwest, and are apparently controlled by the F4 fold axial surface fractures. The density of veining is highest in zones of locally high strain, related to fault-fold deformation zones. MacKenzie et al. (2008) interpret this vein generation to have formed following (or late in) the D4 deformation event, predating (and locally cross-cut by) the Late Cretaceous normal faulting. The veins are composed predominantly of quartz, with minor Fe- carbonate, barite, scheelite, sulphides and sulphosalts, and gold (Chapman et al., 2010a).  The gold is commonly associated with pyrite, typically in selvages along the margins of veins. Occasional free grains of gold within the vein quartz are also present. The deposition of the gold is suggested as resulting in part from sulphidation of the wall rocks and resultant destabilization of bisulphide complexes in the mineralizing fluids (Rushton et al., 1993, Chapman et al., 2010a). Vein formation appears to be from a single-stage process rather than repeated fluid pulses (Chapman et al., 2010a), although recent field studies have shown vein formation to be much more episodic than previously suggested (M. Allan, personal communication, 2011).  Using trace element concentrations of gold particles from both the lode gold vein deposits and the extensive placer gold in the district, Knight et al. (1999) concluded that the placer deposits were predominantly—if not entirely—derived from the orogenic vein deposits. Lowey (2006) agreed with this conclusion.  2.2 Orogenic Gold Deposits   Orogenic vein gold deposits, also occasionally termed mesothermal, are epigenetic deposits hosted in deformed and metamorphosed rocks. They are typically composed of gold- bearing quartz (and carbonate) fault-fill veins in moderately to steeply dipping, compressional ductile-brittle shear zones and faults (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). In Pre- Cambrian examples, mafic rocks metamorphosed to greenschist (and locally lower amphibolites) facies at intermediate depths (5-10km) provide the dominant host (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007), although Phanerozoic examples are largely hosted by greenschist metasediments. Fig. 2 illustrates a simplified model for these deposit types. A detailed classification study by Groves et. al (1998) allows the placement of these deposits in context with other gold deposit types, although the topic remains controversial. 6    Figure 2: Schematic diagram of orogenic quartz vein deposit setting. (From Dubé and Gosselin, 2007)   A leading model for orogenic gold formation describes veins forming along convergent margins during terrane accretion, translation or collision, in deformed accretionary belts alongside continental magmatic arcs. They are emplaced during compressional to transpressional regimes (Groves et al., 1998, 2003). There is strong structural control on the deposits, generally involving major crustal faults, shear zones, folds, or zones of competency contrasts (Groves et al., 1998, 2003, Dubé and Gosselin, 2007).   The fluids responsible for the formation of the ore have been determined to be low- salinity, dilute, mixed aqueous-carbonic fluids; using isotope studies (Jia et al., 2003) and fluid inclusion studies (Ridley and Diamond, 2000, Groves et al., 2003). Dubé and Gosselin (2007) summarize the ore depositional process as a metamorphic Au-transporting fluid structurally channelled to shallow crustal depths. The gold is transported as a reduced sulphur complex (Groves et al., 2003). Due to fluid-pressure cycling processes, as well as geochemical gradients in temperature, fS2, fO2, and pH, the fluid is then precipitated as vein material or wall-rock replacement, in second and third order structures at shallow crustal levels (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007).  One of the major outstanding problems with the model of orogenic vein gold deposits lies in the source of the fluids. Most workers favour a deep origin, with the input of meteoric waters considered unlikely (Goldfarb et al., 2005, Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). However, options such as deeper levels of the ore-hosting volcano-sedimentary or sedimentary terranes, 7  or deeper metamorphic sources such as subducted oceanic crust, are debated (Groves et al., 2003). The lithological source of the gold is also disputed, in particular whether a crustal pre- concentration is required (Groves et al., 2003).  Other areas where knowledge gaps remain include the configuration of fluid-flow paths in the system, and the fluid flow itself; the timing of mineralization; and the depositional mechanism (Groves et al., 2003, Dubé and Gosselin, 2007).  2.3 Trace Elements in Quartz   Quartz (chemical formula SiO2) is one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth’s crust, and the most important silica mineral (Götze 2009). It is found in veins in a variety of hydrothermal and magmatic systems, precipitating from hydrothermal fluids of a variety of compositions at temperatures from 50-750 o C (Rusk et al., 2008). Quartz may contain varying concentrations of trace elements, with titanium and aluminium among the most common, either through incorporation into the crystal structure or bound as microinclusions (Götze et al., 2004).  Trace elements in quartz are in part a product of the chemistry of the fluid of origin, and therefore may prove representative of the environment of crystallization for the quartz (Landtwing and Pettke, 2005, Donovan et al., 2011). As a consequence, trace element concentrations in quartz have become a focus of study in recent years. For example, Götze et al. (2004) examined trace elements in pegmatitic quartz, as did Beurlen et al. (2011).  Landtwing and Pettke (2005) combined scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence microscopy (SEM-CL) studies with laser-ablation inductively coupled- plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) trace element studies of a porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in Utah, and concluded that more trace elements are incorporated into quartz at higher growth rates, which they concluded as corresponding to greater degrees of disequilibrium. A similar study by Rusk et al. (2006) at a porphyry copper deposit in Montana, also using SEM- CL and LA-ICP-MS, determined that different generations of quartz can be distinguished based on unique trace element contents. This study also correlated titanium with temperature of quartz precipitation.  Similar correlations for Ti concentrations and crystallization temperature of quartz were found in topaz-bearing granites in the Czech Republic by Müller et al. (2003), where an electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) study associated high Ti (>40ppm) with high crystallization temperature and pressure of quartz phenocrysts. Allan and Yardley (2007) also 8  found high Ti correlating with high temperatures, in an SEM-CL, secondary isotope mass spectrometry (SIMS), and LA-ICP-MS study observing CL, oxygen isotopes and trace elements for a magmatic-hydrothermal system in Australia. They also interpreted variations in Al and Li as corresponding to shifts in quartz precipitation rate.  The relationship between Ti substitution for Si in quartz and the temperature of equilibration was investigated in further depth by Wark and Watson (2006), who equilibrated quartz with rutile (TiO2) in the presence of aqueous fluids and/or silicate melt at temperatures from 600 to 1,000 o C, and experimentally developed a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer (referred to as the TitaniQ). Rusk et al. (2008) applied this geothermometer to hydrothermal ore deposits formed between ~100 and ~750 o C, and in addition to reaching the same conclusion on Ti, concluded from bimodal Al concentrations in lower temperature samples that Al concentrations in quartz reflect fluctuations in pH. A further study (Rusk et al., 2011), using LA-ICP-MS to examine four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Au, porphyry-Cu and MVT Pb-Zn), also found variations in Al concentrations of up to two orders of magnitude for samples at temperatures <300 o C, and correlations Li, Na, and K with Al.  2.4 Vein Microstructures and Growth   Veins are formed by the combination of brittle failure and void formation, followed by fluid flow and precipitation through the resulting conduits (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). These processes can happen multiple times, with the result that individual veins can record several crack-seal events (Ramsay, 1980, Hilgers and Sindern, 2005).  During these deformation events, different vein microstructures can develop. Elongate crystals are among the most useful of these structures, due to the kinematic information they provide on progressive deformation in rocks (Hilgers et al., 2001, Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). For the purposes of this thesis, veins are subdivided into three broad textural categories, based on the scheme of Oliver and Bons (2001): (1) fibrous veins (with length to width ratios of 10 to >100); (2) elongate-blocky veins; and (3) stretched crystal veins.  Hilgers and Sindern (2005) and Hilgers and Urai (2002) summarize the different growth mechanisms of syntectonic elongate vein microstructures (Fig. 3.), classifying them as antitaxial, syntaxial, and stretched or ataxial. Antitaxial veins consist of fibrous veins growing towards the vein-wall interface. The growth direction is indicated by an increase in the width of the fibres towards the contact between the vein and the wall. Small crystals are 9  positioned along the centre of the vein, forming a ‘median line’. (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). The vein material precipitates at the vein-wall boundary, with a compositional discontinuity thus existing between vein and host rock (Hilgers and Urai, 2002). For such fibrous grains to form, the growth competition between adjacent grains must be limited by a narrow aperture (Oliver and Bons, 2001).   In syntaxial veins, the grains are elongate-blocky rather than fibrous, and grow from the wall into the vein, as epitaxial overgrowths of the wall rock (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). These veins show clear signs of growth competition (Oliver and Bons, 2001).  Ataxial veins, or stretched crystals, consist of columnar fibres with jagged grain boundaries that cross the vein from one wall to the other, connecting grains in the wall rock. They are of the same composition as the material in the wall rock, and are believed to have been formed by repeated fracturing and growth at alternating sites in the vein (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). Ataxial veins usually contain solid and fluid inclusions arranged parallel to the vein-wall boundary (Hilgers and Urai, 2002).  Hilgers and Urai (2002) also mention entirely non-fibrous blocky veins, where the direction of growth is unclear. These are the result of ongoing crystal nucleation after vein formation, which is primarily caused by high supersaturation of vein-forming minerals (Oliver and Bons, 2001).  For the growth of syntectonic veins, crystal morphology is dominantly controlled by the relative rates of crystal growth velocity and dilation, and the width of the opening increment Figure 3: Classification of veins according to grain morphology and crystal growth. Arrows indicate opening direction. m.l.= median line, i.b. = inclusion bands, i.t. = inclusion trails. (From Hilgers and Urai, 2002) 10  (Hilgers and Urai, 2002). Thus, if the vein opens at the same rate as crystal growth, elongate and fibrous textures are formed, whereas if the opening rate is greater than the crystal growth, the crystals grow into a free space and produce blocky or euhedral textures (Hilgers et al., 2001).  3.0 RESEARCH QUESTION  The gold-bearing orogenic quartz veins of the Klondike District contain a variety of microtextures and microstructures, with variation both between veins and across the width of single veins. Different textures of quartz, from the margin to the centre of the vein, may indicate varying growth rates and environments, and may represent discrete stages of fluid flow. Thus, it is possible to infer an evolution in physical and chemical conditions during the lifetime of the vein.  One possible way of tracking this geochemical evolution is an examination of trace element compositions. As reviewed in the previous section, there are several existing studies attempting to use quartz trace element chemistry as an indicator of fluid geochemistry. The goal of this investigation is to refine these existing studies to focus on the trace element concentrations of orogenic quartz veins, an area of study that is currently lacking in detailed research.  Therefore, the question that this thesis seeks to address is: can trace element concentrations of orogenic quartz be used to help interpret the conditions of formation of these veins, and more importantly, whether these conditions changed during vein formation? The study intends to test the hypothesis that different quartz textures are a product of changing physical and chemical conditions of formation, and that these changes will be reflected  in the trace element concentrations. Important variables include the geochemistry and pressure-temperature conditions of the originating fluid. The study combines petrographic examinations of hand samples and polished sections with trace element measurements using laser ablation ICP-MS analysis, for a set of gold-bearing quartz veins in the Klondike District of the Yukon Territory in northwestern Canada (Fig.4).  There is at present little research on the trace element chemistry of lower temperature orogenic quartz veins that have no apparent magmatic input. In particular, the use of Ti in quartz as a geothermometer (Wark and Watson, 2006), a study which did not go below 11  600 o C, may nevertheless serve as a qualitative proxy for temperature in lower temperature systems.  Figure 4: Location Map for studied vein samples.   This study aims to use spatial variations in trace element chemistry as a potential means of explaining the textural variations. By examining cm-scale quartz veins, it is possible to study a cross-section across the entire vein. Such a cross-section may then be scaled up to produce 12  a picture of variations across much larger-scale orogenic veins—although one must be conscious that larger veins may record many more events than the narrower veins.   This pilot study may contribute valuable insight into the fluid geochemistry and formation processes of orogenic veins. The discordant orogenic veins in the Klondike are considered the major origin of the placer gold deposits in the district, as well as containing substantial lode gold resources (Knight et al., 1999). However, the exact mechanisms of vein formation are still poorly constrained. A better understanding of the veins—and consequently, the gold deposits—would be invaluable for future exploration of the region. Additionally, the study contributes to a growing body of literature on how quartz composition varies across different geologic environments.  4.0 METHODS 4.1 Sample Preparation   A set of 14 samples of orogenic quartz veins from the Klondike were selected (Table 1). These samples were collected by Dr Murray Allan during the summer of 2011. Relatively narrow veins were selected to permit microtextural and microchemical analysis across the entire width of the vein, where possible.  Table 1: List of Samples Analyzed VEIN SAMPLE NUMBER NOTES Aime MA-11-AM2 MA-11-AM3 Dysle MA-11-DY1 MA-11-DY2 Lloyd MA-11-LL2 No thin section Mackay MA-11-MK2 Nugget MA-11-NG2 MA-11-NG4 Trace element analysis MA-11-NG5 Orofino MA-11-OR1 Sheba MA-11-SH No thin section MA-11-SH3 Trace element analysis Virgin MA-11-VG2 Violet MA-11-VL2 13   Rectangular billets were cut from the rocks, with two approximately parallel off-cuts from each rock, with approximate rectangular dimensions of 4 x 2cm, and thickness between 0.2 and 1cm. One of each pair of billets were prepared as polished thin sections at the University of Utah College of Mines and Earth Sciences. The remaining off-cuts were ground and polished by hand to a 3 micron polish, for laser ablation.  4.2 Laser Ablation ICP-MS   Trace elements in the quartz from the polished blocks and thin sections were analyzed using a Resonetics RESOlution M-50-LR laser ablation unit connected to an Agilent 7700 series ICP-MS (at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research at the University of British Columbia), with the assistance and supervision of Dr Shaun Barker. A preliminary set of line rasters were run on the blocks. Due to quartz spallation and concerns over surface contamination, the raster method was then replaced by spot traverses.  For samples MA-11-NG4 and MA-11-SH3, both thin sections and blocks were ablated at 5Hz and 80mJ over 64μm spots. The spots were correlated with scanned images of the blocks and photomicrographs of the thin sections (Appendix II). Glass standard SRM 612 from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was used as an external calibration standard, with Columbia River Basalt (BCR) from the U.S. Geological Survey used as an additional standard. Isotopes analyzed were 7 Li, 23 Na, 27 Al, 29 Si, 39 K, 43 Ca, 47 Ti, 57 Fe, 69 Ga, 72 Ge, 75 As, 88 Sr, 118 Sn, 121 Sb, and 137 Ba. The internal standard element was Si in quartz, set to a default concentration of 46.74 wt.%.  4.3 Data Reduction and Analysis   The raw trace element data was integrated using Iolite software from the University of Melbourne (Figs. 5 and 6). For each spot, a window of data was selected, attempting to avoid surface contamination and spikes due to inclusions or spallation during ablation. Additionally, for the thin sections, the selected data window avoided the glass slide (Fig. 6).  The reduced data was then exported to a spreadsheet, and trace elements were plotted for each section, distinguishing between the different quartz textures within each sample. 14   Figure 5: Raw trace element data for sample ‘NG4_thick’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Na23. A = background signal; B = surface Na spike, likely surface contamination; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = integrated window for NIST 612 spot.  Figure 6: Raw trace element data for sample ‘SH3_thin’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Al27. A = background signal; B = surface of thin section; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = signal from glass slide; E = integrated window for NIST 612 standard spot.   4.4 Petrography   Using both reflected and transmitted light microscopy, petrographic descriptions were made of the thin sections. The mineralogy of both vein and wall rock was examined, as were the different microstructures within the veins and their associations at the vein-wall rock interface. Contextual descriptions were also made of the original hand samples from which the billets were cut.  15   5.0 VEIN MICROSTRUCTURES 5.1 Textural Observations   Among the 12 polished thin sections that were examined by reflected and transmitted light microscopy, a limited number of textures were observed. Detailed descriptions of the thin sections can be found in Appendix I.  The host rock is muscovite-chlorite-quartz-feldspar schist, with muscovite and chlorite comprising ~20-70%, and a fine-grained, granoblastic, quartzofeldspathic groundmass comprising the remainder. An exception is sample MA-11-NG2, in which medium-grained laths of plagioclase feldspar make up ~75% of the host rock.  Blocky, subhedral to anhedral intergrown quartz dominates the veins, with varying degrees of deformation. The vein-wallrock boundary is generally characterized by a band of much finer grained quartz. Fine-grained, recrystallized quartz is common along fracture planes and grain boundaries, and most veins contain wallrock inclusions in the form of interstitial and included fine-grained micas, many of which preserve host rock mineralogy and textures. Iron carbonate alteration is present in many samples.  Other quartz textures include elongate-blocky quartz (e.g., Nugget vein samples MA-11- NG2 and MA-11-NG4) and fibrous quartz (e.g., MA-11-NG4 and MA-11-SH3). The Nugget vein has the greatest observed variation in vein textures. Euhedral to subhedral calcite is also present in the Nugget vein samples.   Highly oxidized, subhedral to euhedral sulphides are found in several of the vein samples. Pyrite makes up the bulk of the sulphide content, with arsenopyrite also present (in sample MA-11-SH3). Where present, the sulphides appear either in isolated grains or as a cluster of fine grains, and make up ~1% or less of the overall assemblage. They can be observed in both the host rock (primarily) and the veins, but in all cases are spatially associated with the vein wall and, where present, the fibrous quartz textures.  Based on the spatial associations of the different quartz textures and the sulphides, a paragenetic model for the Klondike orogenic veins can be summarized as an early stage of fibrous and elongate-blocky quartz growth, associated with sulphides and gold, and a later stage of blocky, barren quartz growth (Table 2). Later hydrothermal processes led to widespread recrystallization of quartz and the growth of euhedral to subhedral quartz and calcite into pre-existing voids. 16  Table 2: Generalized paragenesis of Klondike veins.  Early  Late Fibrous + elongate-blocky quartz Arsenopyrite + pyrite Gold Fe-carbonate Blocky quartz Subhedral + recrystallized quartz Subhedral to euhedral calcite  5.1.1 Nugget Vein   Three different samples from the Nugget vein were studied, and a variety of textures were observed. In sample MA-11-NG2, highly deformed, finely fractured elongate-blocky quartz grains grow across the vein, intergrowing with euhedral to subhedral plagioclase laths at the vein boundary.  Sample MA-11-NG5 includes the intersection of two minor veins (Fig. 7) with one cutting almost perpendicularly across the pre-existing vein. The area of intersection contains strongly deformed quartz with abundant inclusions and fine recrystallized interstitial grains. However, both veins are texturally very similar, consisting of anhedral to subhedral blocky quartz.       a . b . Figure 7: Sample MA-11-NG5. a. Photomicrograph of sample, XPL. Dotted line = approximate intersection between different stages of quartz veining. b. Photograph of vein intersection in hand sample, cut surface.  17   Sample MA-11-NG4 (Fig. 8) is texturally complex, containing two stages of fibrous quartz, elongate-blocky quartz, simple blocky quartz, and late subhedral quartz and calcite. As the fibrous quartz extends away from the wallrock, there is evidence of growth competition as grains widen into elongate-blocky crystals (with a length to width ratio of less than 10). This is particularly apparent in the bottom half of the section. Meanwhile, in the top half, at the line labelled ‘E’ on Fig. 8 there is a boundary between elongate quartz fibres and blocky quartz. To add to the complexity of the sample, there is an isolated region of fibrous quartz (‘G’ on Fig. 8), surrounded on all sides by the blocky grains.  In addition, subhedral, blocky quartz grains are scattered throughout the section, particularly clustered along the edge of the largest elongate-blocky crystal, and associated with prismatic calcite (‘H’ on Fig. 8; the calcite is identifiable by its third-order interference colours). These indicate growth into free void space.   Figure 8: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. A = wallrock; B = syntaxial fibrous quartz; C = approximate line of discontinuity in the growth direction of the fibres; D = syntaxial fibrous to blocky-elongate quartz exhibiting clear growth competition; E = termination of syntaxial fibrous quartz in top half of sample; F = blocky quartz; G = isolated region of fibrous quartz; H = later subhedral blocky prismatic quartz and calcite.  The textural variation between fibrous and blocky quartz in the Nugget vein can also be observed at the macroscale in the field (Fig. 9). 18   Figure 9: Field photograph of the Nugget vein, showing a cross-section from right to left through foliated wallrock, early fibrous quartz associated with sulphides, and later milky blocky quartz. Photo courtesy of M. Allan.  5.1.2 Sheba Vein   Sample MA-11-SH3 from the Sheba vein (Fig. 10) is the second of the two samples that contain fibrous quartz, but differs substantially from MA-11-NG4. In this sample there are two clear zones of growth – a region of fibrous grains with, on either side, medium to coarse- grained subhedral to anhedral blocky quartz with extensive microinclusions. The quartz fibres are generally consistent in width throughout the vein, and have no apparent evidence of growth competition between adjacent crystals, or continuity with the wallrock. An inclusion band of wallrock muscovite is present to the left of the fibrous grains.   Figure 10: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3. In the vein, a region of fibrous quartz is flanked by two inclusion-rich blocky quartz zones. Euhedral grains of arsenopyrite are associated with the wallrock and the vein wall. Fibrous quartz Blocky quartz 19  5.2 Discussion and Interpretation   The variety of vein textures and microstructures observed in the different samples can serve as kinematic tracers for the evolution of the veins. As mentioned in Chapter 2, the crystal morphology is largely controlled by the balance between opening rate of the vein aperture and growth rate of the vein minerals.  Most vein samples are dominated by blocky quartz, indicating continuing nucleation after the initial vein formation, most likely due to silica oversaturation (Oliver and Bons, 2001). Thus, the predominantly narrow, intergrown blocky veins which are seen in most of the samples are the result of vein dilation rates exceeding crystal growth, allowing the quartz to grow into free space (Hilgers et al., 2001). The bands of finer quartz at the vein wall may be the product of rapid crystallization of the silica in contact with the wall; or may result from higher growth competition along the wall, where many nucleation sites were available after initial fracturing of the host rock. The more elongate textures observed in sample MA-11- DY1, from the Dysle vein, can be determined from hand samples of the rock to be the product of secondary infilling of vugs.  5.2.1 Fibrous Veins   Of the two veins containing fibrous quartz, sample MA-11-NG4 (Fig. 8) is the most texturally complex, as described above. Textural similarities exist between quartz in the wallrock and adjacent vein quartz fibres, with many fibres of approximately equal width to the quartz laminae in the host rock. In addition, muscovite laminae continue into the vein as inclusions trails. These relationships between the vein and wallrock indicate the use of the wallrock quartz as a crystallographic ‘template’ for the vein growth, with possible epitaxial overgrowth from the wall into the vein.  These interpretations are consistent with the formation of either syntaxial or ataxial veins. The lack of a median line would appear to suggest ataxial growth; however, the presence of growth competition and the widening of fibres into more elongate-blocky grains is more consistent with the formation of fibrous to elongate-blocky quartz in syntaxial veins, through a crack-seal process (Oliver and Bons, 2001, Hilgers and Urai, 2002).  The presence of blocky quartz surrounding an isolated region of fibrous quartz in the top half of the section requires more complex interpretations. The blocky quartz would apparently require a greater rate of vein opening than dictated by the elongate crystals. Thus, 20  there is the contradiction of two textures requiring different conditions, apparently forming at the same time alongside each other. This may possibly be explained, if the isolated region of fibrous quartz was at one time attached to the rest of the fibres, and was separated by a later fracturing event that allowed the blocky quartz to crystallize around it. Multiple fractures, both parallel and perpendicular to the existing vein, may have allowed the quartz-forming fluid to flow around the larger, more resistant elongate-blocky grains. It is difficult to make a determination without seeing the wallrock at the other side of the vein.  Sample MA-11-SH3 also contains fibrous quartz textures (Fig. 10), which may be consistent with either antitaxial or ataxial growth, as the relationship between the fibres and wallrock is obscured by the blocky quartz separating the fibrous region from the vein wall. However, the absence of a clearly defined median line, and the lack of evidence for growth competition, suggest ataxial growth as the most likely mechanism (Oliver and Bons, 2001). As described in Chapter 2, ataxial or stretched crystals are columnar fibres that cross the vein, connecting grains in the wall rock (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). The interpretation of this texture is a slow growth of quartz crystals from one wall to the other, at approximately the same rate as the vein dilation.  This differs significantly from the development of the rest of the vein. The regions of blocky quartz flanking the fibres are interpreted to have developed as part of one fracturing event, with the vein opening up on either side of the pre-existing fibrous grains. This timing is supported by the presence of an inclusion band adjacent to the fibrous grains, indicating that at one time the fibres were in contact with the wallrock.  5.2.2 Structural Interpretations   Orogenic gold deposits tend to be structurally hosted, associated with second or higher order faults and restricted to the brittle-ductile transition zone (McCuaig and Kerrich, 1998). As discussed above, the gold-bearing quartz veins in the Klondike are controlled at all scales by F4 fold axial surface fractures, and are thus interpreted as having occurred late in or following D4 deformation (MacKenzie et al., 2008). As D4 post-dates the initial stages of uplift through the brittle-ductile transition in the crust (MacKenzie et al., 2008), a possible explanation is provided for the textural variation. Early stages of brittle behaviour result in episodic opening of small fractures with slow strain rates, leading to fibrous structures strongly associated with the wallrock (hence the syntaxial 21  growth of the elongate-blocky grains in sample MA-11-NG4, using the wallrock quartz as a crystallographic template). Upon further uplift into a more brittle regime, the vein growth transitions into a more rapid fracturing, leading to the development of blocky, coarser quartz crystals. Fracturing in zones of weakness around the pre-existing fibrous quartz results in isolated zones of quartz fibres, such as those observed above (particularly in Fig. 8).  These interpretations are not consistent with the previously published literature on the formation of the veins, such as the statement by Chapman et al. (2010a) that vein formation appears to be from a single-stage process rather than repeated fluid pulses. The varying textures, in addition to the observed spatial association of gold and sulphide mineralization with the fibrous rather than the blocky quartz, suggest more episodic vein growth.  6.0 TRACE ELEMENTS IN OROGENIC QUARTZ VEINS 6.1 Results   Four sets of trace element data were generated by laser ablation ICP-MS: two thin section analyses, ‘NG4_thin’ and ‘SH3_thin’; and two polished block analyses, ‘NG4_thick’ and ‘SH3_thick’. The extended table of results can be found in Appendix III, and the locations for each of the spot analyses in Appendix II. Across these samples, the most variable and abundant trace element was Al, with measured concentrations of 40-50ppm for the thick sections and greater than 1000ppm for the thin sections. The other trace elements that consistently produced results above detection limits in all samples were Li, K and Ti. In general, most elements registered values near detection limits, and with high relative errors.  6.1.1 Thin Sections   Initial laser ablation trials on polished thin sections highlighted limitations to the generation of reliable data. Notwithstanding the relative ease of selecting inclusion-free grains, the quartz tended to spall away leaving an irregular crater. This resulted in an initial pulse of material to the ICP-MS, which tailed off abruptly as the laser ablated into the glue beneath the quartz. Within this narrow window of noisy data, it was difficult to differentiate between trace elements in quartz and surface contamination. 22   Consequently, the results for the thin sections were substantially more variable than the polished blocks, where it was possible to ablate in a more controlled manner, drill deeper, and obtain a relatively spike-free range of data. Apparent concentrations were more than an order of magnitude greater in the thin sections (Fig. 11), and with much larger standard errors, most likely reflecting surface contamination and uncertainties related to the shorter ICP-MS signals and uncontrolled ablation characteristics.     The data collected from the off-cuts is considered valid, whereas the thin section data is judged unreliable and will not be used to draw any conclusions. However, the polished blocks also have certain limitations, such as the greater difficulty in selecting inclusion-free grains for ablation and the increased likelihood of surface contamination, and these must be borne in mind when interpreting the data.  6.1.2 Polished Blocks   There are limited correlations among trace elements (Fig. 12). Primarily among these, Li appears to correlate positively with Al, with an average Li/Al molar ratio of ~0.026.  The values for Ti and K are predominantly low (less than 3ppm for most Ti and less than 10ppm for most K values). The other consistent relationship is that of Ge and Al. Ge values remain mostly steady at around 0.5 – 2.5ppm, over a range of almost 40ppm Al.  Figure 11: Graph of Ti and Al concentrations, comparing the ranges of values and relative errors for the polished blocks (left) and the thin sections (right). 23   SAMPLE ‘NG4_Thick’ SAMPLE ‘SH3_Thick’    Figure 12: Trace element correlation plots for polished blocks. 24   There are also few clear observable variations among the various quartz generations. In ‘NG4_thick’, fibrous quartz appears to have higher average trace element concentrations than the blocky quartz, but this trend does not hold for any of the other sections.  6.2 Discussion   The limited trends that could be identified from the laser ablation analysis of samples MA- 11-SH3 and MA-11-NG4 are for the most part consistent with previous studies. The abundance of Al relative to other trace elements is explained by the ease with which Al 3+  can substitute for Si 4+  in the quartz crystal lattice, due to their similar ionic radii; in addition to the common occurrence of Al in the Earth’s crust (Rusk et al., 2008, Götze, 2009). The correlation between Li and Al for many of the quartz grains has also been documented in literature, and attributed to charge compensation by Li +  accompanying the tetrahedral substitution of [AlO4] -  in [SiO4] 0  sites (Landtwing and Pettke, 2005, Allan and Yardley, 2007). The molar Li/Al ratio of ~0.026 was significantly lower than those reported in previous studies – across several different samples from both high and low temperature deposits, Rusk et al. (2011) found molar Li/Al ratios between 0.125 and 0.5. The low Li/Al ratio suggests that H +  may be the dominant charge-balancing cation for [AlO4] -  substitutional sites.  As discussed in Chapters 2 and 3, correlations have been established in nature between the Ti concentration of quartz and its temperature of crystallization, and have been quantified experimentally above 600 o C (Wark and Watson, 2006, Allan and Yardley, 2007). Wark and Watson (2006) developed a geothermometer allowing the determination of quartz crystallization temperature from the concentration of Ti in quartz, assuming the fluid is in equilibrium with rutle, using the following equation:       (     is the concentration of Ti in quartz (in parts per million by weight). The application of this geothermometer to the trace element data produces a range of crystallization temperatures between 369 o C and 435 o C, with an average crystallization temperature of 407 o C. Orogenic gold deposits are typically found in the 300-400 o C range, although they can form at 220 o  – 600oC (Groves et al., 2003). This suggests that the trace element values are consistent with the expected range of values from an orogenic quartz system. Thus, although 25  the Wark and Watson TitaniQ geothermometer is only calibrated for temperatures above 500 o C, it produces a geologically sensible range of temperature for the Klondike veins.  Rusk et al. (2008) also examined trace elements in quartz, comparing the concentrations of Ti in high-temperature deposits (<10 to ~170ppm) and low-temperature deposits (below detection) with Al concentrations (Fig. 13a). Following this scheme, these samples, sources from low-temperature orogenic veins, would be expected to have very low Ti concentrations. This is indeed the case, with the majority of Ti falling below 3ppm, very close to the detection limit (Fig. 13b).      a b Figure 13. a: Concentrations measured in quartz from various ore deposits. The polished block results from this study have been plotted at lower right (boxed area). Modified from Rusk et al. (2008). b: Expanded plot of Ti (grey diamonds) and Al (black squares) concentrations from Klondike orogenic quartz vein samples. 26   The relationship that was observed between Ge and Al does not appear to have been discussed in the existing literature. A potential substitution is Ge 4+  for Si 4+ . This relationship could be investigated further, although it is important to remember that the detected concentrations of Ge are very low, less than 3ppm, and as such may not be entirely accurate.  The textural variations within samples MA-11-NG4 and MA-11-SH3 are discussed above. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the different conditions of formation interpreted for each quartz type would be reflected in the trace element chemistry. However, there were no statistical differences in the trace element concentration between the different textures.  This leads to the conclusion that the physical and chemical conditions of quartz growth did not vary significantly for the different textural domains throughout the development of the veins, allowing the fluid to remain in equilibrium with the host rock. Thus, the fibrous and blocky textures likely represent a fairly narrow range of fluid compositions and temperatures.  To test the validity of these observations, similar studies should be carried out for more of the samples from different veins. In this way, the variation over a wider range of textures could be compared. To avoid the limitations encountered with thin sections, any future analyses should involve polished thick sections (100-200μm), as opposed to standard polished thin sections. A detailed fluid inclusion study for these veins might also address the formation conditions and fluid chemistry of the vein generations, and reveal more subtle differences.  7.0 CONCLUSION  This thesis has examined a series of samples from gold-bearing orogenic quartz veins in the Klondike District. Vein structures and textures were analyzed, and trace element concentrations were measured.   Examining the quartz textures and structures allowed the veins to be grouped into two broad categories – the blocky veins produced by a single fracturing event with dilation rate exceeding the rate of quartz growth into open space; and the elongate-blocky to fibrous veins that record multiple events of opening, with the average rate of opening equal to the average rate of quartz growth. These textural variations would appear to indicate varying physical and chemical conditions for the formation of the veins, likely due to changing crustal levels, progressing through the brittle-ductile transition within the crust, and increased strain rates. 27   The lack of significant variation in trace element signatures suggests there was little difference between the conditions of formation of the different quartz textures. Thus, the textural differences are likely a product of structural rather than geochemical variations.  From the trace element data, it was possible to conclude that Al is the most abundant element in quartz, and that orogenic quartz veins contain generally low concentrations and variability of trace elements when compared with higher temperature hydrothermal and magmatic systems. A correlation between Al and Li is consistent with other literature on the subject, although the average molar Li/Al ratio of 0.026 was lower than expected; while a possible correlation between Ge and Al may require further investigation.  Evidently, there are limitations to this data, such as the high variability in results, the contrast between the values for thin sections and polished blocks, and the large standard errors. Further studies building on this work should focus on thicker blocks rather than thin sections, and trace element data should be collected for the blocky veins that contain no elongate grains, to allow more extensive comparisons.  On the side of the textures, further analysis is also warranted – other samples from the same veins could assist in constraining the structural variations, particularly in unravelling the opening history of the Nugget vein.  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G., Lowers, H. A., & Reed, M. H. (2008). Trace elements in hydrothermal quartz: Relationships to cathodoluminescent textures and insights into vein formation. Geology, 36(7), 547-550. Rusk, B. G., Reed, M. H., Dilles, J. H., & Kent, A. J. R. (2006). Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana. American Mineralogist, 91(8-9), 1300-1312. Rusk, B., Koenig, A., & Lowers, H. (2011). Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. American Mineralogist, 96(5-6), 703-708. Wark, D. A., & Watson, E. B. (2006). TitaniQ: A titanium-in-quartz geothermometer.  Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 152(6), 743-754.  32  APPENDIX I: DETAILED THIN SECTION AND ROCK DESCRIPTIONS Sample: MA-11-AM2  Vein Mineralogy: 90%  Blocky, subhedral to anhedral quartz. Coarse crystals predominantly containing fine  quartz inclusions. Interstitial very fine quartz, likely recrystallized. Grains fine  towards vein centre.  Extensive microinclusions. 10%  Fine-grained massive Fe-Carbonate. Predominantly dark orange-brown, in 2  elongate bands, 2-3mm wide, approximately parallel to vein. 1 band is near the vein  centre, one at the wall-vein interface. Fine bladed calcite at edges of bands.  Effervesces in dilute HCl.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 70%  Medium-fine rounded-elongate quartz, with possible fine feldspar. Fines away from  boundary with vein. 20%  Elongate muscovite, foliated, with orange rims. 5%  Fine carbonate alteration. 5%  Oxidized pyrite, disseminated throughout wallrock and associated with vein-wall  interface. Euhedral to subhedral.  Vein Textures: The sample covers approximately half the width of a quartz vein. The vein is characterized by blocky, intergrown quartz, most likely forming in one event, with later fine recrystallization along grain boundaries.   Figure 14: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM2  Sample: MA-11-AM3  Vein Mineralogy: 90%  Blocky, subrounded, anhedral intergrown quartz. Mildly deformed, extensive  inclusions. 33  7%  Fine-grained quartz, at vein-wall interface and interstitial to the coarser, blocky  quartz. 3%  Fine muscovite, inclusions in the blocky quartz and infilling deep fractures.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 45%  Muscovite, elongate, foliation approximately parallel to vein. Orange alteration rims. 33%  Fine-grained quartz, rounded to elongate grains, foliated. Larger fragmented grains at  wall, with mica inclusions. 20%  Fine-grained calcite and fine carbonate alteration. 2%  Fine, subhedral to euhedral pyrite. Extensively oxidized.  Vein Textures: The sample extends from one vein wall to within 1cm of the opposite wall. Blocky quartz decreases in size in both directions from the centre of the vein towards the wallrock, with substantially finer grains precipitating at the vein-wall boundary. The vein likely precipitated from one fracturing event, with later fine-grained recrystallization along grain boundaries.   Figure 15: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM3.  Sample: MA-11-DY1  Vein Mineralogy: 100% White vuggy quartz, mildly deformed to undeformed. Predominantly coarse grains,  elongate horizontally across vein. Anhedral to subhedral. Regions of finer interstitial  recrystallized quartz. Extensive very fine inclusions in coarser grains, leading to  ‘dusty’ look. Grains vary from >6mm to <0.5mm diameter.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 70%  Fine muscovite and chlorite, elongate, fractured, foliated. Fe-carbonate alteration  rims. 30%  Fine anhedral quartz, subrounded.  Vein Textures: The sample extends across the entire vein, with blocky to elongate-blocky quartz grains. In hand sample, the section consists of coarse, vuggy quartz, growing into space from the vein 34  edges. Scattered subhedral medium-grained quartz and fine interstitial recrystallized quartz likely crystallized later.   Figure 16: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY1.   Sample: MA-11-DY2  Vein Mineralogy: 97% Anhedral, blocky quartz, heavily deformed. Undulatory extinction, extensively  fractured. Finer grains at wall-vein interface. Elongation of fine boundary grains in  the same direction as the host rock micas. 3% Fine mica inclusions at wall-vein interface.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 40%  Fine to very fine quartz and feldspar. Albite-twinned plagioclase, fine-grained  perthite. Deformed quartz and feldspar twins. 30%  Muscovite and chlorite, fine-grained, foliated. 20%  Iron oxide alteration, predominantly interstitial and on grain boundaries. 10%  Coarse deformed quartz grains, fractures infilled with fine quartz and feldspar from  the groundmass.  Vein Textures: Vein is approximately 2-3 grains in width (~11mm), consisting of anhedral coarse intergrown blocky quartz growing across the vein, with a narrow band of fine quartz at the vein walls.  35   Figure 17: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY2.  Sample: MA-11-MK2  Vein Mineralogy: >90% Quartz, intergrown equant crystals, anhedral to subhedral. Grain size varying from  <0.5mm to 5mm in diameter. Deformed crystals with extensive undulatory extinction. 5%  Pyrite, clustered, occasional simple twinning. Extensive oxidation at rims. <5% Fine grained muscovite and chlorite, interstitial to quartz grains, likely wallrock  inclusions.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 65% Foliated chlorite and muscovite. Fine-grained. Abundant patchy orange alteration. 35% Fine-grained foliated quartz and feldspar. Anhedral, subrounded. Thickness of slide  leads to anomalously bright purples and blues in XPL.  Vein Textures: Blocky quartz. Vein-wall interface cuts across mica foliation, at 60-80 o . Minor overgrowth of quartz onto wallrock.   Figure 18: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-MK2.  36   Sample: MA-11-NG2  Vein Mineralogy: 97% Quartz. Elongate-blocky, highly deformed, finely fractured with ‘dusty’ very fine  inclusions. Predominantly coarse-grained (>5mm diameter). Abundant fine interstitial  quartz, possibly recrystallized. Minor orange-brown iron alteration along fractures. 3%  Plagioclase feldspar laths, with fine polysynthetic twinning. Restricted to one corner  of section.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 75% Plagioclase feldspar, medium-grained laths. Extensive deformed and fractured  polysynthetic twins. Direction of elongation varies, averaging approximately at right  angles to the vein wall. Intergrowth with vein quartz. 20% Very fine-grained quartz and feldspar massive assemblage, subrounded to elongate,  with orange alteration along fractures. Interstitial to coarser plagioclase laths. 5% Fibrous muscovite, with extensive iron alteration. Oriented in the same direction as  the plagioclase and quartz (~90 o  to vein wall). <1% Oxidized pyrite, euhedral, medium-grained.  Vein Textures: The vein consists of elongate-blocky quartz growing towards the wallrock (only one wall is visible in the sample). Plagioclase laths may have grown over the boundary at a later time.   Figure 19: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG2.  Sample: MA-11-NG4  Vein Mineralogy: 90% Quartz. Fibrous, elongate-blocky, and blocky. Anhedral to subhedral, with extensive  microinclusions in the blocky and elongate-blocky grains, and strong fracturing. 5% Muscovite. Fine-grained wallrock inclusion trails, predominantly interstitial to the  quartz fibres near the vein wall. 3% Calcite. Euhedral to subhedral rhombohedral crystals, and more fine-grained  aggregate. Concentrated in one region of the slide. 37  2% Pyrite. Fine-grained (<0.5mm in diameter), subhedral , scattered throughout the vein  and wallrock.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 60%  Foliated muscovite, very fine-grained, elongate bands. Orange-brown alteration. 40% Fine-grained quartz and feldspar. Anhedral, intergrown, predominantly quartz.  Vein Textures: Fibrous to elongate-blocky syntaxial quartz grows from the wallrock, in continuity with the growth direction of the wallrock quartz. Grain width increases away from the wallrock. In the top half of the slide, an isolated region of fibrous quartz is surrounded by blocky grains. Subhedral, blocky quartz grains and calcite are later replacement textures.   Figure 20: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. A = wallrock; B = syntaxial fibrous quartz; C = approximate line of discontinuity in the growth direction of the fibres; D = syntaxial fibrous to blocky-elongate quartz exhibiting clear growth competition; E = termination of syntaxial fibrous quartz in top half of sample; F = blocky quartz; G = isolated region of fibrous quartz; H = later subhedral blocky prismatic quartz and calcite.  Sample: MA-11-NG5  Vein Mineralogy: 97% White milky quartz. Blocky intergrowths, subhedral to anhedral grains up to 5mm in  diameter. Regions of fine interstitial quartz grains, possibly recrystallized. Abundant  fine inclusions in large crystals. Variably deformed. 3% Scattered interstitial muscovite, host rock inclusions, most abundant near vein-wall  interface.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 80% Quartz and feldspar fine-grained assemblage. Anhedral, foliated, extensive simple  and albite twinning. 20%  Muscovite. Elongate, predominantly in feathery folia. Orange-brown rims. ~15% of  muscovite present as non-oriented grains contained within the quartz/feldspar folia.  Vein Textures: Intersection of two veins, marked by a region of strongly deformed quartz with abundant inclusions. Jagged grain boundaries and recrystallization present throughout sample. Coarse- grained vuggy quartz present in hand sample.  38   Figure 21: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG5. Dotted line indicates approximate intersection area of the two veins.  Sample MA-11-OR1  Vein Mineralogy: >99% Quartz. Anhedral blocky quartz stretching across entire width of vein. Deformed,  oriented approximately perpendicular to vein flow direction. Extensively fractured.  Anhedral, fine grained quartz at vein-wall interface, <0.5 to 5mm in diameter. <1% Muscovite and chlorite, fine-grained, infilling fractures in quartz.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 35% Fine-grained quartz, with possible very fine feldspar. Rounded, anhedral crystals. 30%  Elongate chlorite, oriented ~45 o  to vein. Fine-grained, low order interference colours. 20% Muscovite, fine-grained, elongate, oriented. 10% Actinolite? Altered, elongate, bladed to feathery, dark brown. Possible amphibole  cleavages observable. Coarse-grained. 5% Coarse to fragmented quartz, deformed. Subrounded to elongate/elliptical grains,  possibly associate with the vein.  Abundant brown-black alteration throughout host rock. Iron alteration along grain  boundaries, fractures, and the vein-wall interface.  Vein Textures: Vein is predominantly one-grain wide, growing across the vein, likely in one event. Fine- grained quartz at the vein-wall interface precipitated first. Mica-filled fractures cut continuously across both the fine-grained boundary quartz and the massive blocky quartz.   Figure 22: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-OR1. 39   Sample: MA-11-SH3  Vein Mineralogy: >95% Quartz. Region of elongate, fibrous grains and sets of fine grains forming elongate  paths, flanked by anhedral, blocky intergrown quartz. Blocky quartz contains  extensive microinclusions trails. 5%  Interstitial fine-grained muscovite and talc, both disseminated and forming an  inclusion band parallel to the fibrous-blocky quartz interface. <1%  Arsenopyrite, euhedral to subhedral, associated with both edges of the vein. Oxidized  on rims and face, one grain completely replaced fine-grained talc.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 35%  Chlorite and muscovite, mildly foliated, stubby elongate grains. Orange/brown  alteration rims. 30%  Anhedral quartz, fine-medium grained. 20%  Fine grained talc. 15%  Subhedral plagioclase laths, concentrated in one area. <1%  Euhedral to subhedral arsenopyrite. One crystal overprints vein-wall interface.  Vein Textures: Region of fibrous, antitaxial quartz, flanked by blocky quartz. Blocky quartz fines rapidly at vein wall. Fine recrystallized quartz interstitial to blocky grains.   Figure 23: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3.  Sample: MA-11-VG2  Vein Mineralogy: >99% Vuggy, blocky quartz. Highly fractured, subhedral to anhedral. Medium-grained at  the centre to fine-grained at the walls. Finer-grained quartz inclusions. No interstitial  mica inclusions. <1% Magnetite? Sulphide grain <0.5mm in diameter. Moderate reflectance, highly  oxidized rims. Subhedral. 40   Host Rock Mineralogy: 40% Fine-grained quartz and feldspar. 35% Foliated muscovite (±chlorite). Fine-grained, elongate. 20% Quartz. Fractured, anhedral, fine- to medium-grained. 15% Plagioclase. Medium-grained, polysynthetic and simple twinning. Extensive sericite  alteration.  Abundant iron alteration throughout the host rock, concentrated near the vein and  fractures.  Vein Textures: The vein is approximately 3-4 grains across, with coarsest grains in the centre and very fine grains at the edges. Boundary is mostly well-defined, although there is one instance of a possible lens of vein quartz extending into the wall rock. Vein cuts the foliation of the micas at an angle of approximately 50-60 o .   Figure 24: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VG2.  Sample: MA-11-VL2  Vein Mineralogy: 85% Quartz. Blocky, anhedral, heavily deformed with undulatory extinction, fractured. 15% Feldspar. Euhedral plagioclase laths with albite twinning and minor antiperthite. Also  finer grained anhedral crystals. Strongly altered, ‘dusty’ with extensive fine-grained  carbonate and clay alteration (mild effervescence of hand sample in dilute HCl).  Cream to beige-coloured in hand sample.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 60% Fine-grained quartz and feldspar intergrowth, anhedral. Rounded quartz inclusions  present within larger feldspar grains. <40% Muscovite, fine-to medium-grained, subhedral, foliated, oriented around  quartzofeldspathic assemblage. Predominantly pleochroic green, distinguished from  chlorite by second order birefringence. <1%  Pyrite, euhedral, fragmented. Associated with vein wall, on both sides of vein.  41  Vein Textures: The vein is approximately 1-2 quartz grains (5-8mm) in diameter. Euhedral feldspar laths appear to have grown onto the blocky quartz of the vein from the wall, leading to a loss of definition of the vein boundary. Extensive carbonate and possible clay alteration are evidence of later, shallower processes.   Figure 25: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VL2     42  APPENDIX II: LOCATIONS FOR LASER ABLATION SPOT ANALYSES Thin Sections  Figure 26: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thin'.  43     Figure 27: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'SH3_Thin'.  44  Polished Blocks  Figure 28: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thick'.  Figure 29: Labelled locations of spot analyses for ‘SH3_Thick'. 45  APPENDIX III: TRACE ELEMENT DATA TABLES  Table 3: Sample 'NG4_Thin'. 'bd'= below detection limits.  Sample Number Li7 Na23 Al27 K39 Ca43 Ti47 Fe57  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) BCR Standard BCR_Standard_1 17.98 0.48 45120 320 143100 1700 32440 300 91600 1700 26270 300 95500 560 BCR_Standard_2 17.75 0.46 45090 290 143600 1700 32240 260 91800 1600 26240 310 98350 730 BCR_Standard_3 17.08 0.47 45320 280 144900 1800 32160 250 90600 1500 26020 330 102790 680 N IS T  S ta n d ar d  G_NIST612_1 41.63 0.62 104800 1600 11160 150 69.7 1.6 84000 1300 43.5 1.1 52.9 1.9 G_NIST612_2 42.31 0.47 104200 1200 11330 160 65.52 0.91 86900 1400 44.7 1.3 51.3 1.8 G_NIST612_3 42.27 0.72 104300 1500 11020 170 65.3 1.1 85200 1300 44.7 1.4 49.5 1.9 G_NIST612_4 41.51 0.68 102600 1200 11070 190 65.6 1.1 84900 1400 44.1 1.6 50.3 2.2 G_NIST612_5 41.93 0.82 103000 2300 11110 230 66.9 1.5 83600 1800 43.6 1.4 50 2.2 G_NIST612_6 41.76 0.75 102200 1500 11190 160 67.2 1.3 84700 1200 43.6 1.2 49.8 1.8 G_NIST612_7 42.48 0.66 105000 1300 11170 150 66.4 1.4 85200 1100 43.4 1.4 51.3 1.8 G_NIST612_8 41.81 0.68 103200 1400 11220 130 66.1 1.1 84500 1100 44.5 1.1 50.8 2 G_NIST612_9 41.98 0.68 105500 1700 11120 160 66.5 1.2 85800 1300 44 1.3 52.6 1.9 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_1 8 19 2400 2100 3900 1400 2800 2500 36000 65000 73 49 2700 1600 Vein_Quartz_2 0.25 0.32 22 10 17.8 2.9 bd 12 bd 290 1.24 0.87 20.2 9.9 Vein_Quartz_3 bd 4.1 390 210 159 45 bd 280 1800 7200 30 23 410 250 Vein_Quartz_4 5 17 590 540 340 130 bd 530 20000 29000 23 27 760 890 Vein_Quartz_5 0.42 0.53 83 21 34.9 9.9 bd 25 bd 590 1.6 1.5 20 24 Vein_Quartz_6 33 16 370 400 2400 1600 bd 630 8100 9900 bd 9.1 2200 2400 Vein_Quartz_7 bd 6.2 820 760 680 430 bd 470 5000 6800 240 470 100 890 Vein_Quartz_8 3 1.3 bd 42 104 20 bd 230 bd 1600 bd 2.3 640 710 Vein_Quartz_9 6.9 4.8 2100 3300 590 360 bd 360 11000 12000 bd 22 80 500 46  Vein_Quartz_10 15.4 6.2 120 280 295 79 bd 380 60000 12000 bd 24 230 470 Vein_Quartz_11 2.1 2.9 720 610 1500 1200 280 170 1800 5600 bd 13 1240 840 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_12 2.8 3.9 290 140 207 35 240 250 12500 6700 bd 5.2 bd 170 Vein_Quartz_13 9.6 6.9 410 180 142 34 250 230 9400 4800 19 23 120 180 Vein_Quartz_14 bd 4.1 370 240 214 93 39 44 bd 2500 34 31 290 510 Vein_Quartz_15 bd 3.8 780 600 220 100 370 400 10300 8500 2.8 4.7 bd 270 Vein_Quartz_16 1.5 4.8 230 330 270 110 60 280 2600 7800 0.8 5.5 bd 240 Vein_Quartz_17 bd 4.4 700 250 460 110 180 210 3200 7600 bd 5.3 1140 540 Vein_Quartz_18 bd 1.4 750 300 240 210 230 190 bd 2400 24 34 900 1000 Vein_Quartz_19 4.4 6.9 720 290 231 53 bd 280 bd 7900 bd 12 290 200 Vein_Quartz_20 9.2 8.6 850 330 216 72 150 240 4000 7900 bd 12 200 160 Vein_Quartz_21 0.64 0.47 81 30 14.8 3.3 77 27 bd 530 bd 0.94 13 19 Vein_Quartz_22 8.4 4.5 660 260 110 32 430 200 4200 6000 11 12 290 170 E lo n g at e- B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_23 14.2 4.9 820 300 117 37 250 250 7200 7300 5.6 8.2 70 120 Vein_Quartz_24 0.33 0.29 81 21 24.5 2.7 28 18 480 540 bd 0.35 bd 15 Vein_Quartz_25 15 12 690 290 120 110 610 400 70000 13000 49 55 110 210 Vein_Quartz_26 bd 1.3 80 170 81 34 190 100 2100 4700 13 16 36 93 Vein_Quartz_27 bd 4.3 550 230 151 41 400 330 6000 6400 bd 1.6 290 230 Vein_Quartz_28 9.6 8.8 580 320 480 230 780 390 12000 11000 bd 17 420 680 Vein_Quartz_29 7.9 7 550 320 740 770 450 230 bd 5600 8 20 bd 200 Vein_Quartz_30 bd 5.3 150 240 107 57 210 220 bd 4700 bd 3 50 130 Vein_Quartz_31 8.8 6.9 230 240 164 44 bd 190 5400 5600 bd 1 230 190 Vein_Quartz_32 3.7 4.3 520 340 166 42 bd 210 5500 5600 1.4 2.7 270 180 Vein_Quartz_33 2.3 1.1 55 25 38.1 5.2 bd 24 bd 680 1.25 0.84 22 23 Vein_Quartz_34 0.69 0.41 20 24 24.5 5.6 bd 18 600 680 2.2 1.9 bd 16 Vein_Quartz_35 1.6 5.4 330 200 206 56 bd 300 12000 7500 55 42 190 290 Vein_Quartz_36 0.9 3.8 160 300 184 64 bd 220 2900 4400 bd 7.2 bd 190 Vein_Quartz_37 7.3 7.4 300 260 187 66 bd 180 9600 6200 13 26 bd 170 47  Vein_Quartz_38 bd 2.7 380 240 138 30 bd 220 5700 5000 bd 1.8 bd 160 Vein_Quartz_39 2.4 4 310 310 137 41 100 210 5500 4000 bd 5.9 120 150 Vein_Quartz_40 5.9 4 370 170 108 26 bd 140 6700 4300 bd 2.5 bd 100 Vein_Quartz_41 7.9 3.1 330 180 77 33 bd 160 2300 5800 bd 2.3 bd 140 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  3  Vein_Quartz_42 2.6 3.4 590 240 130 42 bd 260 bd 6200 8 11 bd 200 Vein_Quartz_43 12.7 6.6 400 190 146 36 bd 230 6300 8100 10 12 bd 150 Vein_Quartz_44 bd 2.5 710 440 280 140 470 260 14100 8400 bd 1 bd 240 Vein_Quartz_45 bd 0.16 42 12 17.8 2.8 15 11 520 380 0.67 0.52 7.4 9.8 Vein_Quartz_46 2.8 3.7 510 250 122 22 180 230 11900 7600 2.3 4.1 50 170 Vein_Quartz_47 0.44 0.22 38 16 11 1.9 bd 9.7 260 230 2.5 1.6 bd 8.6 Vein_Quartz_48 7.2 4.1 620 370 173 59 80 170 12200 6500 30 39 bd 160 Vein_Quartz_49 3.4 3 690 440 142 31 bd 180 10700 5400 bd 1.4 90 150 S u b h ed ra l B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_50 10.3 5 840 300 178 43 130 170 12600 5500 8 11 250 210 Vein_Quartz_51 6.2 4.3 610 270 152 41 bd 280 4900 6800 bd 1.8 160 210 Vein_Quartz_52 1.18 0.73 134 51 39.3 8.1 59 39 bd 1100 2.4 2 42 32 Vein_Quartz_53 13.5 9.1 480 180 191 42 bd 220 7200 6300 10 12 220 180 Vein_Quartz_54 18 13 420 380 600 280 70 280 16700 9300 6.9 7.9 320 260 Vein_Quartz_55 bd 0.049 7.6 4 10.3 3 bd 6.2 bd 98 0.79 0.28 bd 3.3 E lo n g at e- B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_56 27 16 1560 840 177 67 120 310 10500 7400 21 24 310 210 Vein_Quartz_57 0.92 0.49 74 33 19.7 3.6 bd 20 890 320 0.58 0.56 bd 13 Vein_Quartz_58 8 4.6 550 250 97 30 bd 200 2600 3300 3.6 7.2 80 130 Vein_Quartz_59 12 12 1000 1200 299 97 bd 630 24000 15000 4.7 8.2 490 600 Vein_Quartz_60 23 14 470 440 257 81 bd 330 14000 16000 bd 1 230 310 S u b h ed ra l B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_61 17 16 510 450 260 120 bd 250 80000 11000 bd 0.1 170 240 Vein_Quartz_62 8.8 8.6 750 370 480 500 540 330 11000 10000 4.2 9.9 4300 3100 Vein_Quartz_63 11.2 7.6 690 300 510 220 190 310 100000 14000 1.9 6 710 440 Vein_Quartz_64 8.2 1.2 75 25 67.6 5.5 bd 11 bd 380 0.64 0.69 bd 10 Vein_Quartz_65 bd 4.4 470 320 270 73 170 240 15000 9700 35 32 200 190 48  W al lr o ck  Q u ar tz  Wallrock_1 9 12 550 390 246 74 bd 310 100000 11000 bd 1.9 230 260 Wallrock_2 2.3 4.2 460 660 1310 560 760 730 100000 11000 bd 7.2 550 330 Wallrock_3 6.4 6.5 410 350 310 110 bd 320 bd 6800 bd 14 310 310 Wallrock_4 18 12 320 590 206 59 200 250 80000 10000 9 17 300 280 Wallrock_5 13.2 6.4 bd 210 430 180 50 300 8600 6800 bd 12 190 240 Wallrock_6 12 12 bd 250 500 200 100 260 6400 7200 6 18 220 300 Wallrock_7 4.1 7.3 340 210 334 80 bd 250 10500 5900 bd 6.9 330 140 Wallrock_8 bd 4.3 570 280 1180 450 830 590 11700 9400 38 35 730 360 Wallrock_9 2.5 5.4 500 330 212 66 bd 280 13000 7100 bd 9.7 250 270 Wallrock_10 12 11 1120 750 410 140 bd 640 90000 12000 35 42 150 650 Wallrock_11 bd 3.6 520 330 640 230 bd 200 2100 5500 4 9.8 230 330 Wallrock_12 13.7 9.9 290 300 440 190 bd 310 3300 6400 9 12 bd 240    Sample Number Ga69 Ge72 As75 Sr88 Sn118 Sb121 Ba137  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) BCR Standard BCR_Standard_1 134.2 1.8 3.79 0.41 1.11 0.54 611 10 6.16 0.33 0.7 0.11 1215 20 BCR_Standard_2 129.9 2.1 4.1 0.35 2.42 0.48 609 10 6.69 0.36 0.71 0.11 1204 22 BCR_Standard_3 125.6 1.6 4.1 0.45 1.37 0.59 604 10 7.23 0.28 0.673 0.096 1191 22 N IS T  S ta n d ar d  G_NIST612_1 35.68 0.63 35.18 0.67 35.4 1 77.2 1.1 37.33 0.72 36.91 0.66 38.8 1 G_NIST612_2 36.36 0.57 34.85 0.66 39.2 1.3 79.6 1.2 37.96 0.53 38.55 0.65 39.68 0.94 G_NIST612_3 36.45 0.68 34.73 0.81 38.3 1.1 78.7 1.6 38.1 0.62 39.23 0.74 40.8 1.1 G_NIST612_4 36.01 0.49 35.21 0.63 37.03 0.87 79.2 1.4 38.41 0.71 38.28 0.61 40.12 0.87 G_NIST612_5 35.37 0.66 35.05 0.97 36.9 1.2 79.1 1.4 38.81 0.72 37.72 0.83 39.75 0.85 G_NIST612_6 36.04 0.61 35.15 0.73 36.3 1.2 77.9 1.3 37.97 0.55 37.48 0.66 39.22 0.86 G_NIST612_7 35.81 0.65 34.5 0.68 36.6 1.1 78.3 1.1 38.42 0.68 37.98 0.56 40.1 0.78 G_NIST612_8 35.7 0.49 35.04 0.79 37.1 1 78 1.1 37.4 0.61 38.11 0.62 38.8 0.91 49  G_NIST612_9 36.55 0.56 35.36 0.84 37.1 1.1 78.6 1.3 37.88 0.54 37.84 0.7 40.1 1 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_1 48 57 210 210 590 530 1.01 0.91 80 140 21 36 30 15 Vein_Quartz_2 bd 0.25 2.8 1.8 11.8 5.7 0.08 0.058 3 1 0.6 0.52 0.25 0.22 Vein_Quartz_3 bd 5.7 9 37 168 87 0.018 0.037 11 21 3 9.3 1.4 2.7 Vein_Quartz_4 20 20 bd 170 740 480 bd 1 bd 79 17 37 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_5 bd 0.59 bd 3.7 15 10 0.112 0.095 2 2.4 4.3 1.4 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_6 27 20 bd 66 240 160 8.2 9.4 bd 27 41 25 12 13 Vein_Quartz_7 bd 6.6 40 89 bd 140 1 2.1 bd 22 7.3 9.5 3.7 5.2 Vein_Quartz_8 1.7 1.2 bd 9 21 17 0.81 0.49 bd 3.8 7 4.3 5.8 4.8 Vein_Quartz_9 19 22 bd 81 260 240 2 1.7 50 110 33 23 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_10 7.5 9.8 bd 49 160 120 4.8 3.6 bd 27 29 17 7 10 Vein_Quartz_11 bd 4.3 bd 33 41 78 2 1.7 9.4 7 4 10 1.6 1.9 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_12 1 5.4 bd 32 bd 66 0.39 0.41 bd 17 7 11 0.1 0.2 Vein_Quartz_13 bd 5.1 11 36 77 64 0.27 0.35 16 13 13 10 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_14 1.6 4.2 bd 25 26 42 1 1.6 bd 8 1.7 7.1 0.23 0.3 Vein_Quartz_15 bd 6.2 28 33 bd 64 2.6 2.5 bd 18 17 13 0.8 1.3 Vein_Quartz_16 bd 5.7 bd 37 bd 83 0.016 0.024 bd 23 17 13 2.2 2.6 Vein_Quartz_17 bd 6.2 bd 46 57 77 0.87 0.94 bd 23 19 13 0.11 0.22 Vein_Quartz_18 bd 2 8 19 14 18 0.59 0.45 bd 5.3 5.9 6.8 bd 0.44 Vein_Quartz_19 5.2 7.2 19 48 bd 77 0.4 0.59 36 28 2 13 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_20 7.9 6.6 bd 31 bd 85 0.52 0.6 37 23 15 11 bd 0.43 Vein_Quartz_21 bd 0.39 bd 3.1 bd 6.6 bd 1 4 2.3 0.74 0.72 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_22 4.6 4.7 bd 28 29 46 0.18 0.36 12 16 7.5 8.9 bd 1 E lo n g at e- B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_23 6 5.2 bd 28 17 55 0.09 0.12 12 14 15 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_24 bd 0.32 bd 2.3 bd 5.9 0.07 0.05 5.3 1.7 0.9 0.75 0.15 0.14 Vein_Quartz_25 4.9 9.1 bd 49 90 120 0.47 0.53 17 33 17 15 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_26 bd 2.1 bd 17 10 28 0.16 0.19 1.8 8.3 5.1 5.6 0.032 0.063 Vein_Quartz_27 bd 7.9 bd 38 37 83 0.1 0.2 45 22 6.6 7.7 12 15 50  Vein_Quartz_28 bd 7.6 bd 55 100 110 1.9 2.7 23 18 19 20 1.5 2 Vein_Quartz_29 bd 4.4 16 42 bd 60 1.2 1.2 35 26 24 12 0.17 0.26 Vein_Quartz_30 bd 2.7 bd 49 bd 72 0.1 0.1 4 13 bd 8 1.3 2.7 Vein_Quartz_31 bd 5.4 32 31 51 61 bd 1 8 20 17.2 9.2 1.3 2.6 Vein_Quartz_32 bd 3.8 19 31 bd 59 0.08 0.15 bd 16 15 9.6 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_33 bd 0.54 bd 4.4 9.6 6.8 0.029 0.033 3.7 2.2 1.1 1.3 0.18 0.2 Vein_Quartz_34 bd 0.4 bd 2.6 18.2 6.4 bd 1 5.6 1.9 bd 0.95 0.024 0.033 Vein_Quartz_35 bd 6.9 bd 43 140 64 bd 1 29 25 10 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_36 bd 5.2 bd 34 114 55 0.54 0.72 18 19 bd 8 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_37 bd 5.9 bd 41 150 63 0.18 0.35 40 26 5.4 9.5 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_38 bd 4.1 bd 38 119 57 0.42 0.42 30 16 14 10 0.3 0.6 Vein_Quartz_39 bd 3.4 bd 32 290 100 0.14 0.28 31 20 bd 7.2 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_40 3.7 3 9 24 174 59 0.033 0.045 24 14 8.1 6.1 0.17 0.28 Vein_Quartz_41 bd 2.6 56 27 29 50 bd 0.034 24 13 13.8 6.5 1.3 1.8 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  3  Vein_Quartz_42 bd 3.5 38 28 bd 66 bd 0.19 31 22 12.1 8.7 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_43 bd 3.9 bd 28 53 99 0.74 0.9 13 15 17 10 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_44 bd 6.5 bd 43 bd 120 0.028 0.04 28 22 18 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_45 bd 0.23 bd 1.5 bd 4.6 0.108 0.053 4.7 1.3 0.55 0.57 0.059 0.069 Vein_Quartz_46 5.8 5.9 bd 45 bd 85 0.22 0.29 14 15 3.1 7.7 0.33 0.65 Vein_Quartz_47 bd 0.14 bd 1.1 bd 2.7 0.25 0.13 4.48 0.78 bd 0.38 0.57 0.34 Vein_Quartz_48 bd 3.8 bd 27 130 100 bd 1 9 16 bd 7 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_49 4.4 4.6 bd 27 230 100 0.41 0.44 23 18 2.4 8.3 bd 1 S u b h ed ra l B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_50 bd 3.7 bd 24 210 99 0.018 0.026 37 19 bd 8.8 0.01 0.02 Vein_Quartz_51 3.1 4.1 bd 30 60 92 0.056 0.08 24 19 bd 9 0.12 0.24 Vein_Quartz_52 bd 0.8 bd 5.4 bd 16 0.043 0.05 4.9 3.6 bd 1.9 0.78 0.89 Vein_Quartz_53 1 4.5 bd 35 bd 90 0.23 0.36 9 17 bd 7.2 1.5 2.3 Vein_Quartz_54 4.7 8 bd 45 bd 150 1.1 1 39 34 8 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_55 bd 0.061 1.3 0.7 bd 2.3 0.031 0.014 3.23 0.71 bd 0.1 0.076 0.051 51    E lo n g at e- B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_56 bd 3.9 bd 46 bd 140 1 1 30 20 9 11 0.13 0.26 Vein_Quartz_57 bd 0.32 bd 3 bd 10 0.036 0.038 9.7 2.5 bd 0.69 0.01 0.02 Vein_Quartz_58 3.5 3.9 bd 30 bd 100 bd 1 20 12 19.3 8.3 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_59 17 29 bd 80 bd 200 0.17 0.29 14 33 48 21 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_60 bd 7 bd 79 290 210 0.4 0.8 bd 30 8 16 bd 1 S u b h ed ra l B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_61 bd 7.1 62 53 bd 160 0.34 0.68 bd 26 24 12 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_62 5.8 7.5 bd 28 90 120 4.6 3.3 9 14 21 11 0.54 0.67 Vein_Quartz_63 1.3 4.3 22 37 220 130 8.5 9.2 15 17 7 10 11 13 Vein_Quartz_64 bd 0.22 2.7 1.7 bd 4.9 0.071 0.055 15.8 2.6 4.35 0.99 0.028 0.057 Vein_Quartz_65 bd 5.7 13 36 bd 97 31 46 47 24 11 10 2.8 3.1 W al lr o ck  Q u ar tz  Wallrock_1 1.7 5.2 23 53 bd 130 0.49 0.53 28 26 20 18 0.02 0.04 Wallrock_2 4.3 5 15 30 bd 84 0.81 0.64 30 19 19 12 6.5 6.3 Wallrock_3 1.6 4.3 46 48 bd 97 3.2 2.1 19 43 9 10 0.07 0.14 Wallrock_4 1.5 5.3 44 41 bd 86 0.051 0.061 22 20 24 13 2 2.8 Wallrock_5 bd 4.4 49 42 bd 81 3 2 31 21 24 11 bd 1 Wallrock_6 5.3 6 43 49 32 73 3.7 2.1 40 21 bd 13 2.8 2.4 Wallrock_7 bd 4.3 95 39 bd 72 6.3 2.9 50 25 bd 7.6 4.6 5 Wallrock_8 bd 4.7 41 37 bd 91 7.5 3.7 35 22 bd 12 42 23 Wallrock_9 bd 4 71 49 bd 93 4.4 3 28 22 bd 12 13 11 Wallrock_10 bd 6.6 72 52 bd 88 1.4 1.6 70 54 5 24 bd 1 Wallrock_11 1.4 5.8 41 29 bd 130 0.39 0.37 18 14 3.4 8.8 6.8 9.5 Wallrock_12 1 5.6 77 47 bd 81 2.1 1.8 10 22 16 13 22 20 52  Table 4: Sample 'SH3_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits.  Sample Number Li7 Na23 Al27 K39 Ca43 Ti47 Fe57  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) BCR Standard BCR_Standard_1 9.38 0.33 24380 160 74630 610 17560 130 48260 900 13520 130 40160 310 BCR_Standard_2 9.27 0.34 24280 170 75530 640 17470 100 46940 630 13470 120 43600 360 BCR_Standard_3 9.43 0.24 24420 150 76550 650 17630 130 48740 840 13860 120 49460 360 N IS T  S ta n d ar d  G_NIST612_1 41.58 0.52 103070 880 11180 130 66.4 1.1 84900 1100 44.2 1.2 53.6 2.2 G_NIST612_2 42.11 0.53 104200 1200 11270 110 66.6 1.1 86000 1300 43.6 1.4 51.7 2 G_NIST612_3 42.77 0.57 104770 950 11200 110 66.39 0.93 85100 1200 44.4 1.3 52 1.7 G_NIST612_4 41.94 0.6 103300 1100 10950 140 65.9 1.1 84400 1100 43.5 1.4 49.9 2 G_NIST612_5 41.9 0.61 104200 1300 11120 130 66.6 1.1 84900 1500 44.7 1.3 50.8 1.9 G_NIST612_6 41.64 0.58 104600 1100 11210 140 66 1 85200 1200 44.3 1.2 47.8 1.6 G_NIST612_7 42.14 0.57 103200 1300 11120 130 65.96 0.95 84200 1400 43.7 1.7 50.7 1.8 G_NIST612_8 42.08 0.84 104100 1900 11030 200 65.5 1.3 84600 1700 43 1.7 51.1 1.8 G_NIST612_9 41.37 0.98 103300 2100 10850 260 66.2 1.2 84200 1800 42.5 1.4 49.5 2.4 G_NIST612_10 42.13 0.6 105800 1700 11340 180 67.9 1.4 86100 1900 44.1 1.5 51.6 2.3 G_NIST612_11 42.43 0.71 104800 1700 11230 140 66.4 1.1 85800 1300 44.8 1.6 52.8 2 G_NIST612_12 41.55 0.76 102500 1100 11200 140 66 1.3 84600 1600 44.8 1.5 52.3 2.5 B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_1 bd 0.9 300 77 50 13 bd 65 bd 1600 3 3.5 25 51 Vein_Quartz_2 bd 0.56 156 32 43.5 6 bd 34 490 890 bd 1.2 17 23 Vein_Quartz_3 0.39 0.36 183 63 40.6 4.9 17 28 1280 730 3.8 2.9 18 15 Vein_Quartz_4 0.9 0.99 181 47 36.8 5.3 bd 26 960 880 7.6 4.1 bd 19 Vein_Quartz_5 0.61 0.12 19.2 6.7 32.3 1.9 bd 4.3 165 94 1.62 0.46 9 13 Vein_Quartz_6 7.2 5 800 230 200 41 170 180 5900 4200 bd 3.3 19 85 Vein_Quartz_7 bd 3.3 660 170 194 38 180 170 4600 4800 bd 5.6 190 170 Vein_Quartz_8 1 3.2 670 300 128 32 bd 180 4400 4500 bd 9.9 77 87 Vein_Quartz_9 3.7 6 880 340 169 68 bd 350 6900 6000 bd 18 260 210 Vein_Quartz_10 5 21 1260 800 220 210 160 700 90000 26000 bd 59 bd 340 53  Vein_Quartz_11 19 20 790 330 360 160 bd 400 17000 12000 bd 9.5 180 210 Vein_Quartz_12 4.9 4.8 840 270 184 53 bd 200 11800 5800 bd 5.8 90 130 Vein_Quartz_13 bd 3.6 690 260 151 39 60 220 6700 7200 bd 12 60 130 Vein_Quartz_14 bd 4.1 800 280 240 83 bd 190 6100 5600 4 17 160 310 Vein_Quartz_15 20 17 570 320 296 76 570 450 12100 8100 18 25 bd 280 Vein_Quartz_16 3 17 2400 3600 30 390 200 1100 bd 95000 bd 38 120 700 Vein_Quartz_17 1.87 0.93 196 66 67 11 59 50 2700 1700 bd 3 bd 28 Vein_Quartz_18 0.26 0.17 46 14 25 3.1 bd 9 bd 260 1.4 0.97 bd 6.9 Vein_Quartz_19 0.97 0.61 47 17 19.2 2.7 13 11 bd 320 1.39 0.89 bd 7 Vein_Quartz_20 7.1 4.7 1320 460 320 130 360 170 2600 5400 46 35 190 160 Vein_Quartz_21 0.3 0.19 60 15 34.2 3 14 12 560 350 2 1.3 5 10 Vein_Quartz_22 0.39 0.21 70 18 21.6 2.2 bd 11 600 370 bd 0.46 bd 7 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  Vein_Quartz_23 bd 0.12 253 88 52 16 32 16 bd 210 3.2 1.6 14.3 7.9 Vein_Quartz_24 bd 3.7 540 200 257 58 30 280 20000 10000 bd 8.2 60 150 Vein_Quartz_25 1.57 0.15 32.6 5 37.5 2.1 6.3 1.9 101 54 2.88 0.84 bd 1.2 Vein_Quartz_26 bd 8.1 1900 1300 410 210 450 650 39000 29000 7 21 1000 1300 Vein_Quartz_27 bd 0.036 11.7 2.7 13.3 1.8 3.7 3.9 bd 57 2.21 0.99 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_28 0.07 0.045 25.8 5.8 11.63 0.75 bd 1.7 bd 36 1.53 0.46 bd 1.1 Vein_Quartz_29 0.063 0.025 10.9 2.3 10.3 1.8 bd 0.88 bd 27 1.56 0.34 2.1 1.4 Vein_Quartz_30 0.119 0.089 28.5 8 10.9 1 bd 3 bd 110 1.4 0.68 bd 2.3 Vein_Quartz_31 0.073 0.035 28.9 9.9 10.8 1.2 2.6 1.3 bd 39 1.59 0.42 bd 1.2 Vein_Quartz_32 bd 0.035 21.5 4.7 7.9 1.6 5.9 3.5 bd 76 1.67 0.62 bd 1.6 Vein_Quartz_33 12.3 9.6 2120 860 240 110 750 700 13000 12000 9 18 190 440 Vein_Quartz_34 0.9 5.2 1010 700 480 120 370 440 7200 7000 bd 1.1 170 230 Vein_Quartz_35 2.9 7 1040 610 372 98 510 230 bd 5500 4.4 5 210 190 Vein_Quartz_36 bd 0.11 58 32 41 22 23 23 bd 97 1.9 1.2 12.7 7.1 Vein_Quartz_37 bd 0.32 83 35 22.8 5.2 23 16 bd 270 1.29 0.81 bd 6.5 Vein_Quartz_38 bd 3.6 1440 600 330 130 350 290 bd 5500 bd 1 bd 160 Vein_Quartz_39 bd 3 3100 1300 340 160 280 250 bd 4500 29 38 bd 170 54  Vein_Quartz_40 1.7 1.7 236 35 69 20 bd 67 bd 1900 8.6 6.7 bd 33 Vein_Quartz_41 1.54 0.23 10.3 3 28.8 1.2 2 1.5 78 35 2.3 0.45 bd 0.48 Vein_Quartz_42 3 4.8 2500 1800 290 180 570 490 bd 8500 7 19 170 160 Vein_Quartz_43 0.93 0.098 64 88 37.4 8.1 9 11 80 100 3.51 0.63 bd 1.2 B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_44 4.2 4.4 1120 370 202 60 110 360 9900 5500 bd 8.9 130 180 Vein_Quartz_45 6.5 7.5 1810 830 340 110 270 390 bd 7400 bd 1.2 160 260 Vein_Quartz_46 3.1 5 910 390 320 190 bd 530 60000 14000 33 64 bd 210 Vein_Quartz_47 1.35 0.85 111 35 32.4 2.8 bd 17 520 510 0.6 1 bd 17 Vein_Quartz_48 6.3 6 1190 410 290 110 bd 320 bd 7800 bd 1.5 50 130 Vein_Quartz_49 8.7 4.1 890 350 176 82 bd 210 2400 5000 12 17 bd 180 Vein_Quartz_50 0.7 0.53 169 51 41.4 8.9 bd 26 600 490 bd 0.012 bd 19 Vein_Quartz_51 bd 0.18 68 14 18.9 5 bd 11 1050 660 1.3 1.5 29 13 Vein_Quartz_52 2 3.9 670 270 205 82 350 230 12100 9300 20 25 70 170 Vein_Quartz_53 4.2 3.6 1040 360 266 57 380 200 bd 3600 11 16 118 85 Vein_Quartz_54 4 5.9 3500 2400 270 190 240 260 5800 6900 16 26 150 220 Vein_Quartz_55 9.6 8 670 400 146 67 bd 290 2600 5400 bd 1 bd 170 Vein_Quartz_56 4.2 5.4 1900 1200 270 90 350 430 12500 8500 10 20 bd 220 Vein_Quartz_57 2.9 5.3 3800 3400 440 190 1010 690 4000 6500 11 15 440 340 Vein_Quartz_58 9.2 8.6 1740 600 210 75 bd 470 1900 6500 bd 1 190 350 Vein_Quartz_59 5.3 5.5 1070 450 136 52 bd 200 9900 7500 8 11 bd 140 Vein_Quartz_60 24 18 1200 510 240 61 bd 280 100000 13000 bd 1 260 260 Vein_Quartz_61 bd 2.5 950 300 197 88 bd 150 7600 5200 7 8.5 370 250 Vein_Quartz_62 6.9 6.7 760 440 380 180 140 260 13300 8300 bd 1 bd 260 Vein_Quartz_63 3.7 4.9 890 320 113 32 bd 190 4500 4300 1.3 2.1 180 130 Vein_Quartz_64 4.9 4.1 800 230 178 40 130 130 3700 4600 bd 1 130 120 Vein_Quartz_65 1.1 5.5 560 410 153 50 bd 260 11200 6400 18 32 40 290 Vein_Quartz_66 2.1 4 1100 460 188 50 30 230 6100 6800 8.5 8.6 210 190 Vein_Quartz_67 2.1 5.7 570 290 280 120 210 210 7800 7200 3.8 7.6 80 130 Vein_Quartz_68 2.6 5.6 630 400 194 47 140 230 9970 7800 21 18 80 130 55  Vein_Quartz_69 2.2 4.9 940 270 186 59 140 240 5900 5400 6 7.2 bd 180 Vein_Quartz_70 bd 6.4 330 380 187 54 110 270 15000 12000 0.025 0.051 bd 130 Vein_Quartz_71 0.24 0.14 163 47 13.9 3 10.9 5.8 380 290 2.7 1.3 9 7.5 Vein_Quartz_72 0.47 0.43 153 31 20.4 3.8 44 19 950 510 1.7 1.2 bd 18 Vein_Quartz_73 5.8 4.6 840 360 166 39 280 150 bd 4200 3.4 6.6 bd 130 Vein_Quartz_74 4.6 5.6 360 250 236 76 220 230 4900 6500 4.2 6.1 bd 220 Vein_Quartz_75 1.3 3.9 520 220 219 69 180 220 16000 11000 0.69 0.94 170 200 Vein_Quartz_76 3.6 6.7 130 270 316 65 bd 310 12000 12000 4.9 9.9 bd 300 Vein_Quartz_77 1 2.9 210 180 147 38 260 190 6300 6600 11 15 bd 180 Vein_Quartz_78 3 4.4 1550 990 370 110 340 420 40000 17000 18 25 bd 300 Vein_Quartz_79 0.37 0.39 410 270 80 33 106 36 bd 520 3.4 3.7 26 27 Vein_Quartz_80 0.7 3.3 930 390 322 90 220 330 17000 14000 20 28 bd 250 Vein_Quartz_81 5 4 620 270 269 64 320 190 9000 5500 10 11 bd 170 Vein_Quartz_82 3.1 6.1 340 350 300 160 190 420 12000 10000 61 62 bd 280 B o rd er  Q u ar tz  Vein_Quartz_83 6.2 4.3 630 200 293 50 340 310 6500 6300 bd 1 bd 210 Vein_Quartz_84 5.4 3.2 550 210 250 150 120 210 1500 5800 0.45 0.64 90 130 Vein_Quartz_85 11 7.7 250 220 286 90 140 200 bd 5600 0.22 0.43 40 180 Vein_Quartz_86 0.54 0.68 134 36 257 51 157 35 bd 1500 4 3.9 41 38 Vein_Quartz_87 3 1.6 126 71 114 23 39 82 bd 3300 bd 1 bd 71 Vein_Quartz_88 4 3.9 bd 200 208 63 bd 200 1500 6900 23 26 40 180 Vein_Quartz_89 13.3 9.3 130 200 410 140 190 300 bd 6100 8 16 200 380 Vein_Quartz_90 4.3 3.1 350 250 196 58 60 200 7800 7200 16 19 220 180 Vein_Quartz_91 7.4 5.1 120 220 223 74 bd 290 60000 11000 bd 0.57 bd 160 W al lr o ck  Q u ar tz  Wallrock_1 3.3 8.3 460 260 1190 750 540 410 13900 7300 bd 14 bd 300 Wallrock_2 37 24 610 270 12100 3500 8500 2100 8100 5600 25 43 700 260 Wallrock_3 9.4 6.7 320 200 660 190 540 240 21000 8100 bd 27 bd 490 Wallrock_4 14 6.1 357 77 1620 440 460 140 940 930 4.7 9.1 800 1200 Wallrock_5 147 36 620 260 36400 6400 660 350 10200 7200 18 28 15900 4100 Wallrock_6 16.5 8.9 690 450 4800 3600 230 320 bd 2200 120 140 4200 3300 56  Wallrock_7 32 14 610 200 4700 1300 bd 370 9500 7600 bd 9.9 2500 1000 Wallrock_8 67.1 6.2 61.5 4.3 35700 2900 223 13 bd 72 67.9 6.6 21300 1500 Wallrock_9 1.4 7 1310 380 890 330 bd 400 80000 10000 bd 0.66 440 380 Wallrock_10 bd 1.9 590 160 192 76 bd 150 bd 3600 5.3 7.4 bd 91 Wallrock_11 bd 4.7 1250 390 940 340 130 160 4800 4800 5.8 6.4 610 430     Sample Number Ga69 Ge72 As75 Sr88 Sn118 Sb121 Ba137  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) BCR Standard BCR_Standard_1 71.4 1.1 1.99 0.27 0.72 0.38 316 3.8 3.06 0.21 0.495 0.087 636.1 9.8 BCR_Standard_2 70.15 0.93 1.78 0.28 0.58 0.65 311.6 3.3 2.95 0.23 0.391 0.082 634.6 7.6 BCR_Standard_3 70.54 0.87 2.14 0.28 0.85 0.36 315 3.4 3.32 0.26 0.367 0.072 644.6 8.9 N IS T  S ta n d ar d  G_NIST612_1 36.47 0.4 35.22 0.68 35.9 1.2 78.2 1.2 38.18 0.54 37.17 0.59 39.71 0.82 G_NIST612_2 35.69 0.47 35.4 0.57 35 1.1 79.2 1.1 37.74 0.56 37.66 0.55 40.49 0.64 G_NIST612_3 36.16 0.46 35.53 0.61 38.79 0.99 79.1 1 38.75 0.61 38.71 0.45 39.63 0.82 G_NIST612_4 35.66 0.51 34.64 0.7 37.14 0.91 77.2 1.2 38.14 0.48 37.91 0.56 38.89 0.69 G_NIST612_5 35.99 0.54 34.08 0.63 37.5 1.1 78.46 0.99 37.8 0.57 38.47 0.51 39.75 0.81 G_NIST612_6 35.76 0.39 34.24 0.64 37.35 0.91 78.1 1.1 37.9 0.58 37.89 0.48 39.94 0.81 G_NIST612_7 35.82 0.55 34.69 0.81 37.02 0.86 78.24 0.93 37.08 0.63 38.19 0.63 39.15 0.7 G_NIST612_8 35.54 0.66 35.31 0.81 37.3 1 76.7 1.4 37.92 0.86 38.07 0.8 39.05 0.98 G_NIST612_9 35.4 0.8 35.23 0.82 37.2 1.2 77.7 1.7 36.29 0.89 37.08 0.86 38.8 1.1 G_NIST612_10 36.88 0.6 35.57 0.99 37.6 1.4 79.6 1.2 38.27 0.95 38.62 0.83 40.36 0.88 G_NIST612_11 35.99 0.63 35.16 0.96 36 1.1 79.2 1.2 38.57 0.74 38.07 0.64 40.5 1 G_NIST612_12 36.24 0.52 35.27 0.65 36.4 1.1 78.1 1.3 38.54 0.55 37.43 0.63 40.2 1.1 B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_1 1.2 1.2 bd 8.9 bd 17 bd 1 bd 5.8 2.2 2.7 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_2 bd 0.63 bd 4.1 11 8.5 0.048 0.041 3 2.5 1.7 1.4 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_3 bd 0.61 4 5 22.5 9.9 0.038 0.046 3 2.6 bd 1.3 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_4 bd 0.38 bd 4.1 21 12 0.124 0.098 bd 2.1 bd 1.4 0.038 0.075 57  Vein_Quartz_5 0.121 0.07 2.01 0.64 5 2.3 0.0257 0.0098 1.37 0.3 bd 0.19 0.0049 0.007 Vein_Quartz_6 bd 2.5 9 21 39 51 0.11 0.12 16 14 bd 6.3 0.18 0.22 Vein_Quartz_7 bd 3 bd 27 bd 53 0.033 0.051 25 14 bd 8.4 0.13 0.22 Vein_Quartz_8 bd 2.7 bd 22 217 89 0.038 0.055 bd 16 1.4 8.3 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_9 bd 5.8 6 48 350 210 0.013 0.016 35 47 7 13 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_10 bd 11 bd 170 180 130 0.0035 0.007 66 59 16 47 0.23 0.3 Vein_Quartz_11 bd 6.5 bd 46 bd 120 1.7 2.4 20 34 5 16 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_12 1.7 4.2 bd 24 bd 61 0.22 0.32 12 17 20 13 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_13 3.5 5.6 bd 37 bd 57 0.028 0.039 bd 21 9.3 7.2 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_14 1.3 6 bd 29 193 74 0.117 0.096 bd 25 6.7 9.8 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_15 2 6.2 bd 40 bd 120 0.06 0.071 18 29 18 12 0.35 0.65 Vein_Quartz_16 16 19 bd 50 bd 710 0.38 0.46 12 30 bd 47 0.09 0.12 Vein_Quartz_17 bd 0.74 bd 7.1 32 18 bd 1 7.5 4.2 bd 2 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_18 bd 0.21 bd 2.3 13.8 4.8 0.017 0.02 3.8 1.2 bd 0.44 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_19 bd 0.23 bd 1.2 11.1 5.8 0.015 0.014 4 1.2 bd 0.39 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_20 bd 3.5 bd 37 270 130 0.35 0.49 27 23 17 12 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_21 bd 0.2 bd 1.9 bd 4 0.069 0.085 1.8 1.3 0.74 0.63 0.009 0.017 Vein_Quartz_22 bd 0.22 bd 1.5 bd 4.3 0.098 0.055 2.5 1.3 0.52 0.65 1.19 0.78 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  Vein_Quartz_23 bd 0.18 bd 1.9 bd 2.3 0.17 0.13 1.6 1.3 bd 0.46 0.07 0.14 Vein_Quartz_24 4 5.6 15 50 200 150 bd 1 7 46 8.1 7.4 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_25 0.094 0.043 1.54 0.27 2.6 1.1 0.101 0.031 0.85 0.15 0.22 0.11 0.27 0.13 Vein_Quartz_26 bd 16 bd 94 490 240 17 17 bd 62 20 30 1.6 3.2 Vein_Quartz_27 bd 0.045 1.33 0.42 2.27 0.99 bd 1 1.21 0.24 bd 0.12 0.13 0.11 Vein_Quartz_28 bd 0.045 1.24 0.23 4.6 1.3 0.028 0.018 1.04 0.3 bd 0.1 0.054 0.051 Vein_Quartz_29 0.066 0.028 1.3 0.19 2.53 0.8 0.09 0.023 1.17 0.13 bd 0.046 0.038 0.031 Vein_Quartz_30 0.223 0.085 1.73 0.54 2.5 1.9 0.07 0.034 1.26 0.52 bd 0.16 0.11 0.12 Vein_Quartz_31 bd 0.032 1.28 0.37 bd 0.78 0.0137 0.0083 0.89 0.21 0.118 0.071 0.05 0.053 Vein_Quartz_32 0.099 0.077 1.22 0.52 bd 1.1 0.0032 0.0048 1.54 0.45 bd 0.1 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_33 bd 7.9 17 42 480 220 0.65 0.89 bd 42 bd 15 bd 1 58  Vein_Quartz_34 bd 3.3 bd 25 400 280 0.81 0.8 5 21 6.1 9.9 1.9 3.4 Vein_Quartz_35 bd 3.3 bd 27 330 170 0.16 0.19 bd 8.6 6 13 0.3 0.61 Vein_Quartz_36 bd 0.061 2.23 0.97 3.5 3.2 0.068 0.08 1.22 0.61 0.26 0.17 0.15 0.16 Vein_Quartz_37 bd 0.12 bd 0.87 8.9 5.7 bd 1 1.8 0.91 bd 0.4 bd 0.19 Vein_Quartz_38 bd 4.5 bd 14 210 120 bd 1 bd 12 bd 7.8 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_39 bd 3.4 bd 53 310 290 0.34 0.53 bd 27 9 12 1.6 3.2 Vein_Quartz_40 bd 1.2 bd 4.4 bd 7.5 0.44 0.46 bd 5.4 2.1 2.8 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_41 0.058 0.031 1.65 0.33 bd 0.81 0.0155 0.0092 0.96 0.14 0.124 0.072 0.027 0.031 Vein_Quartz_42 bd 4.8 bd 56 620 570 4 3.4 bd 22 12 12 3.7 6 Vein_Quartz_43 0.076 0.047 2.02 0.21 4.1 2 0.09 0.1 1.15 0.27 0.183 0.083 0.15 0.19 B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_44 bd 4 bd 33 50 120 1.3 1.3 bd 15 bd 12 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_45 bd 5.4 bd 33 220 180 1.6 1.5 38 34 3 14 3.7 5.8 Vein_Quartz_46 3 13 46 34 430 310 bd 1 19 24 18 21 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_47 bd 0.34 bd 2.3 33 14 0.041 0.057 2.6 1.3 bd 0.53 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_48 bd 4.3 bd 32 300 180 0.043 0.085 22 32 29 19 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_49 bd 5.4 bd 36 410 180 0.39 0.75 17 16 8.9 6.5 0.07 0.13 Vein_Quartz_50 bd 0.57 bd 3.2 bd 14 0.16 0.15 3 3.1 1 1 0.09 0.18 Vein_Quartz_51 0.36 0.37 bd 3 bd 10 0.1 0.11 3.6 1.8 bd 0.67 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_52 2 4.1 21 25 240 170 bd 1 13 17 4 13 bd 0.17 Vein_Quartz_53 1.9 3.4 bd 20 400 220 0.26 0.25 33 27 11 12 2.7 5.2 Vein_Quartz_54 bd 5.2 18 25 250 170 0.35 0.48 bd 13 5 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_55 2.5 4.3 bd 20 690 270 0.11 0.15 11 35 5.6 9.5 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_56 7.1 7.8 bd 33 680 250 1.4 2 bd 28 3.7 9.5 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_57 bd 3.7 bd 35 530 350 4.1 6.1 16 17 bd 8.8 49 79 Vein_Quartz_58 5.7 6.7 11 35 1020 380 0.13 0.19 21 28 bd 13 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_59 bd 4.6 bd 27 290 180 0.44 0.63 21 25 bd 10 0.37 0.49 Vein_Quartz_60 4 7 bd 46 460 270 bd 1 bd 30 7 14 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_61 bd 3 5 31 bd 140 0.078 0.093 bd 20 bd 8.3 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_62 bd 2.6 10 38 400 230 0.07 0.13 bd 18 11 12 bd 1 59  Vein_Quartz_63 bd 3.5 bd 29 240 120 0.39 0.58 7 17 bd 8.1 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_64 bd 2.3 bd 16 90 93 0.36 0.43 bd 13 10 9.1 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_65 bd 5.6 bd 35 240 170 bd 1 12 29 15 16 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_66 bd 4.2 bd 27 230 160 0.2 0.21 bd 13 bd 6.5 0.31 0.51 Vein_Quartz_67 1.1 4.1 bd 33 370 160 0.006 0.013 25 24 5 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_68 2.2 5.3 bd 32 290 180 0.47 0.56 16 18 6 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_69 5.1 6.5 bd 36 390 210 0.27 0.31 9 26 2.4 9.9 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_70 bd 4.8 bd 35 500 380 0.32 0.4 30 40 11 13 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_71 bd 0.15 bd 0.92 5.4 6.3 0.077 0.04 4.2 1.2 0.35 0.33 0.0044 0.0089 Vein_Quartz_72 bd 0.39 bd 2.3 14 12 0.018 0.02 2.8 1.6 1.05 0.54 0.056 0.063 Vein_Quartz_73 1.3 3.7 bd 21 143 98 0.2 0.23 11 12 11.6 6.4 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_74 bd 3.9 bd 30 60 140 1.5 1.3 13 26 3.3 8.7 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_75 bd 3.8 bd 27 bd 100 0.086 0.093 24 27 9 12 0.66 0.96 Vein_Quartz_76 3.3 9.2 20 50 bd 200 3.2 2.8 35 40 bd 15 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_77 4.6 4.8 bd 31 20 120 1.2 1.5 35 23 bd 11 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_78 6 6.1 bd 54 130 160 0.17 0.19 100 110 12 23 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_79 bd 0.31 4.8 9.2 30 25 0.4 0.37 bd 1.8 bd 0.76 0.037 0.074 Vein_Quartz_80 3.5 6.2 bd 40 130 160 0.8 1.1 39 29 8 15 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_81 4.2 4.2 bd 29 bd 98 1.2 1.1 22 22 8.8 9.6 0.053 0.088 Vein_Quartz_82 3.2 5 15 49 bd 130 bd 1 22 42 bd 12 bd 1 B o rd er  Q u ar tz  Vein_Quartz_83 10.9 7.5 bd 35 50 120 0.35 0.59 21 21 bd 9.6 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_84 4.8 4.9 bd 28 11 60 0.044 0.047 14 20 11.7 9.3 0.24 0.34 Vein_Quartz_85 1.7 4 bd 35 90 110 0.044 0.062 bd 11 bd 6.9 0.036 0.073 Vein_Quartz_86 1.9 1.1 bd 8.4 bd 21 0.35 0.39 8.4 3.7 2.3 2.1 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_87 bd 1.5 bd 15 21 53 0.17 0.24 14 10 bd 4.2 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_88 bd 3.3 bd 26 80 120 0.31 0.62 15 19 7 12 0.07 0.14 Vein_Quartz_89 bd 4.1 bd 28 bd 94 2.8 2.2 bd 23 5.2 9.5 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_90 3.1 3.1 bd 27 100 120 0.75 0.67 bd 17 12 10 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_91 5.2 5.3 bd 44 60 150 0.62 0.71 21 34 19 15 0.046 0.093 60  W al lr o ck  Q u ar tz  Wallrock_1 bd 5.3 33 59 23 79 20.6 6.9 bd 30 34 17 2 2.9 Wallrock_2 13 10 5 27 81 50 9.9 4.4 15 15 11.7 7.9 54 27 Wallrock_3 bd 3.8 bd 33 23 48 14.2 5.9 bd 21 28 11 9.4 7.2 Wallrock_4 2.4 2.6 bd 8.3 bd 12 2.8 1.2 4.9 6.1 6.8 2.3 8.2 4.5 Wallrock_5 4.5 3.9 bd 32 150 130 3.7 1.7 bd 22 18.5 8.8 11 7.5 Wallrock_6 7.3 6.3 bd 9.6 24 24 4 2.4 bd 6 3 2.7 1.9 2.7 Wallrock_7 4.7 4.7 bd 30 225 99 2.9 1.6 bd 18 28 14 0.5 0.79 Wallrock_8 4.53 0.35 bd 0.27 105 22 1.5 0.2 0.99 0.27 3.23 0.26 1 0.22 Wallrock_9 8.1 6.3 bd 31 330 130 20 30 bd 30 32 14 0.53 0.9 Wallrock_10 bd 2.1 bd 12 bd 39 0.2 0.28 bd 9.5 12 7.3 bd 1 Wallrock_11 bd 3.4 bd 32 bd 66 1.7 1.3 bd 22 8 10 2.5 3.8   61  Table 5: Sample ‘NG4_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits.  Spot Label Li7 Na23 Al27 K39 Ca43 Ti47 Fe57  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) S ta n d ar d s G_NIST612_1 41.8 0.54 104120 880 11221 86 70.3 5.4 85200 940 43.6 1.2 50.5 2 G_NIST612_2 42.39 0.51 103960 860 11104 92 71.8 5.7 84700 1000 44.1 1.2 52.5 1.8 G_NIST612_3 41.91 0.52 102800 1100 11170 110 64.9 2.1 85400 1200 45.4 1.4 49.7 2.1 G_NIST612_4 41.97 0.4 103800 1100 11130 78 65 1.9 84580 870 43.3 1.3 49.7 2.3 G_NIST612_5 41.98 0.52 104250 970 11224 94 70.8 3.5 85270 860 43.9 1.5 52 2.2 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_1 bd 0.02 3.4 3.1 17.3 2.8 5.6 1.1 86 51 2.36 0.55 3.8 1.8 Vein_Quartz_2 0.465 0.091 9.3 1.9 35.9 8 9.4 1.6 35 26 1.98 0.5 bd 0.82 Vein_Quartz_3 bd 0.016 23.3 3.8 17.1 1 14 3.2 42 32 1.75 0.47 bd 0.9 Vein_Quartz_4 bd 0.028 6.3 1.5 13.3 1.8 5.8 1.4 42 31 1.52 0.43 bd 1.3 Vein_Quartz_5 1.48 0.24 14160 560 18100 400 105.5 4.4 77 30 1.47 0.34 14.3 6.6 Vein_Quartz_6 0.16 0.055 7.6 2.2 17.9 4.7 1.8 1.2 16 37 2.01 0.37 bd 1.3 Vein_Quartz_7 0.72 0.16 2.8 1.4 14.4 1.1 bd 2 32 67 1.45 0.47 bd 1.5 Vein_Quartz_8 0.492 0.071 13.2 1.6 23.5 8 8 10 49 32 1.83 0.4 bd 1.4 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_9 0.07 0.044 17.1 3.3 25.1 1.7 5 1.2 2 43 1.88 0.61 bd 1.5 Vein_Quartz_10 0.584 0.074 9.8 1.2 20.34 0.8 4.19 0.95 27 32 1.53 0.41 2 1.5 Vein_Quartz_11 0.046 0.029 9.2 2.5 11.7 1.8 4.7 1.6 32 50 1.84 0.52 3.3 3.1 Vein_Quartz_12 0.24 0.08 7.3 1.8 21.48 0.69 3.8 1.3 9 33 1.37 0.43 bd 1.5 Vein_Quartz_13 bd 0.02 8.6 1.2 14.63 0.64 3.41 0.76 bd 26 1.02 0.3 9.1 2.4 Vein_Quartz_14 0.581 0.076 28.4 2.7 28.8 1.4 6.27 0.97 bd 26 1.03 0.36 1.9 1.1 Vein_Quartz_15 1.87 0.41 17.7 2.3 55 11 7 1.5 bd 20 1.2 0.3 bd 1.1 Vein_Quartz_16 0.142 0.068 5.5 2.2 12.8 2.2 2.1 1.1 bd 29 1.55 0.5 3.6 3.2 Vein_Quartz_17 0.273 0.067 12.5 2.4 20.3 0.87 2.91 0.97 5 29 1.27 0.31 43 59 Vein_Quartz_18 bd 0.02 14.6 1.4 24.74 0.83 4.86 0.68 66 37 1.28 0.32 17.1 2.5 Vein_Quartz_19 0.067 0.028 10.3 2.1 15.65 0.82 2.5 1.4 43 24 1.22 0.34 bd 0.94 Vein_Quartz_20 1.47 0.31 17.7 2.4 37.5 5.6 5.3 1.7 27 28 1.57 0.42 bd 0.86 62  B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  Vein_Quartz_21 0.128 0.043 6.7 1.3 11.91 0.54 bd 1.1 64 43 1.08 0.32 bd 0.91 Vein_Quartz_22 0.189 0.056 11.2 2.9 15.7 7 bd 0.81 30 25 1.55 0.45 bd 0.94 Vein_Quartz_23 bd 0.018 15.5 2.8 13.4 1.2 3.33 0.95 66 28 1.25 0.32 4.1 5.3 Vein_Quartz_24 0.259 0.074 17.6 3.3 23.69 0.83 1.9 2.1 80 39 1.02 0.41 bd 1.7 Vein_Quartz_25 bd 0.052 22.5 3.3 20.63 0.76 4 1.9 38 51 1.07 0.44 bd 1.3 Vein_Quartz_26 0.093 0.033 28 1.6 25.1 1.2 6.1 1.2 13 29 1.15 0.37 bd 0.55 Vein_Quartz_27 0.11 0.047 7.6 1.3 17.86 0.69 bd 1 39 37 1.48 0.35 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_28 bd 0.012 7.2 1 9.8 1.9 2.4 4.6 31 33 1.05 0.28 20 25 Vein_Quartz_29 bd 0.022 4.14 0.79 7.76 0.98 bd 1.5 65 38 1.25 0.33 bd 0.83 Vein_Quartz_30 bd 0.025 5.3 1.7 10.99 0.55 bd 0.82 21 29 1.46 0.41 2.1 1.4 Vein_Quartz_31 0.53 0.15 7.6 2 36.9 5.6 4.5 1.2 49 30 1.37 0.32 bd 0.75 Vein_Quartz_32 bd 0.016 9.2 2.2 17.7 1.3 8.77 0.87 31 21 1.06 0.27 6.5 2 Vein_Quartz_33 bd 0.015 bd 0.89 7.58 0.8 bd 0.99 7 29 0.83 0.29 bd 1.1 Vein_Quartz_34 bd 0.019 29.6 3.1 11.26 0.42 5.07 0.79 36 24 1.25 0.29 bd 0.51 Vein_Quartz_35 0.183 0.041 8.16 0.99 19.98 0.73 5.44 0.96 34 33 1.22 0.35 bd 0.74 Vein_Quartz_36 0.049 0.019 30.8 4.6 10.89 0.5 5.7 0.97 27 17 1.24 0.24 bd 0.72 Vein_Quartz_37 0.03 0.02 6.34 0.73 15.74 0.83 bd 0.88 37 23 1.22 0.36 bd 0.81 Vein_Quartz_38 0.062 0.026 28.6 3.7 12.32 0.95 2.5 1 58 35 1.17 0.32 bd 0.79 Vein_Quartz_39 0.096 0.03 17.3 1.9 11.96 0.86 3.4 1.3 37 31 1.03 0.24 bd 0.94 Vein_Quartz_40 0.17 0.048 26.8 1.7 26.81 0.93 8.5 1.7 52 42 1.19 0.4 bd 0.95    Spot Label Ga69 Ge72 As75 Sr88 Sn118 Sb121 Ba137  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) S ta n d ar d s G_NIST612_1 36.1 0.35 34.55 0.68 36.5 1.6 78.5 1.1 38.2 0.77 37.42 0.56 40.03 0.82 G_NIST612_2 35.93 0.39 35.35 0.79 36.4 1.2 77.81 0.82 38.07 0.57 38.46 0.48 39 0.75 G_NIST612_3 35.9 0.55 35.34 0.62 38 1.2 79.03 0.91 37.47 0.65 38.14 0.58 40.05 0.79 G_NIST612_4 35.85 0.37 35.24 0.64 38.4 1.1 78.62 0.93 38.13 0.51 38.4 0.46 40.24 0.87 G_NIST612_5 36.16 0.38 34.54 0.66 35.89 0.97 78.06 0.97 38.07 0.6 37.5 0.47 39.35 0.84 63  F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  1  Vein_Quartz_1 0.219 0.042 1.23 0.24 bd 0.31 0.152 0.032 1.19 0.1 0.114 0.052 0.81 0.21 Vein_Quartz_2 0.157 0.045 1.18 0.27 bd 0.35 0.144 0.035 1.34 0.16 0.31 0.12 0.59 0.18 Vein_Quartz_3 0.114 0.031 0.83 0.23 0.73 0.5 0.229 0.055 1.38 0.16 0.398 0.099 0.53 0.18 Vein_Quartz_4 0.193 0.057 1.58 0.31 bd 0.44 0.079 0.032 1.37 0.11 0.175 0.079 1.95 0.54 Vein_Quartz_5 1.359 0.08 1.19 0.22 bd 0.25 16.2 1.7 1.5 0.14 0.376 0.078 5.56 0.43 Vein_Quartz_6 0.153 0.049 1.58 0.31 bd 0.33 0.08 0.051 1.43 0.15 0.19 0.056 0.094 0.078 Vein_Quartz_7 bd 0.045 1.69 0.47 bd 0.72 0.02 0.016 1.22 0.24 bd 0.064 bd 1 Vein_Quartz_8 0.104 0.041 1.42 0.23 bd 0.41 0.138 0.03 1.48 0.16 0.63 0.11 0.44 0.35 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  2  Vein_Quartz_9 0.217 0.094 0.93 0.29 bd 0.5 0.214 0.036 1.19 0.15 0.59 0.13 1.82 0.37 Vein_Quartz_10 0.095 0.037 2.26 0.3 bd 0.36 0.053 0.018 1.34 0.12 0.363 0.088 0.325 0.087 Vein_Quartz_11 bd 0.049 2.2 0.67 bd 0.45 0.42 0.21 1.29 0.27 0.61 0.14 0.21 0.12 Vein_Quartz_12 0.097 0.049 2.7 0.32 bd 0.33 0.092 0.021 1.15 0.14 0.58 0.12 0.5 0.2 Vein_Quartz_13 0.215 0.058 2.11 0.29 bd 0.34 0.099 0.032 0.91 0.14 0.206 0.062 2.05 0.31 Vein_Quartz_14 0.27 0.056 2.13 0.23 bd 0.28 0.401 0.053 1.27 0.1 0.487 0.088 2.61 0.36 Vein_Quartz_15 0.177 0.04 2.58 0.26 bd 0.25 0.237 0.037 1.1 0.12 1.3 0.23 1.33 0.25 Vein_Quartz_16 0.139 0.048 1.72 0.34 bd 0.31 0.105 0.044 1.23 0.21 bd 0.059 0.77 0.3 Vein_Quartz_17 0.174 0.043 1.92 0.29 bd 0.35 0.237 0.039 1.3 0.15 0.23 0.063 1.12 0.27 Vein_Quartz_18 0.575 0.084 2.19 0.31 bd 0.25 0.36 0.069 1.08 0.14 0.246 0.072 5.87 0.58 Vein_Quartz_19 0.162 0.038 2.03 0.23 bd 0.17 0.39 0.11 1.17 0.14 0.131 0.059 0.54 0.13 Vein_Quartz_20 0.171 0.044 1.47 0.28 bd 0.29 0.382 0.06 0.88 0.13 0.324 0.071 1.18 0.23 B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  Vein_Quartz_21 0.093 0.035 2.13 0.23 bd 0.33 0.041 0.015 1.31 0.18 bd 0.05 0.13 0.067 Vein_Quartz_22 0.135 0.043 1.93 0.25 bd 0.24 0.157 0.03 1.36 0.14 0.31 0.064 0.49 0.18 Vein_Quartz_23 0.174 0.043 2.06 0.3 bd 0.25 0.228 0.093 1.36 0.12 0.366 0.067 1.01 0.22 Vein_Quartz_24 0.206 0.056 2.2 0.37 bd 0.43 0.169 0.042 1.09 0.14 0.58 0.13 1.63 0.27 Vein_Quartz_25 0.187 0.063 2.16 0.35 bd 0.69 0.219 0.04 1.31 0.21 2.14 0.24 1.77 0.45 Vein_Quartz_26 0.227 0.068 1.85 0.29 bd 0.27 0.401 0.072 1.19 0.18 0.439 0.083 2.19 0.32 Vein_Quartz_27 0.179 0.057 2.08 0.4 bd 0.33 0.115 0.032 1.15 0.13 0.205 0.071 1.63 0.32 Vein_Quartz_28 0.115 0.032 1.39 0.18 bd 0.22 0.054 0.017 1.22 0.092 0.338 0.067 0.45 0.12 64  Vein_Quartz_29 0.088 0.032 2.19 0.3 bd 0.27 0.041 0.017 1.49 0.19 0.081 0.047 0.259 0.09 Vein_Quartz_30 0.128 0.047 1.7 0.26 bd 0.26 0.079 0.024 1.32 0.14 0.267 0.065 0.36 0.11 Vein_Quartz_31 0.157 0.04 2.22 0.23 bd 0.22 0.067 0.021 1.85 0.19 0.303 0.057 0.81 0.29 Vein_Quartz_32 0.17 0.039 1.78 0.18 bd 0.22 0.221 0.04 1.17 0.12 0.755 0.086 0.577 0.093 Vein_Quartz_33 0.224 0.051 2.37 0.24 bd 0.3 0.016 0.0088 1.62 0.15 bd 0.035 1.42 0.28 Vein_Quartz_34 0.129 0.033 2.41 0.25 bd 0.19 0.301 0.046 1.7 0.18 0.432 0.062 0.46 0.11 Vein_Quartz_35 0.123 0.029 1.76 0.27 bd 0.2 0.094 0.024 1.3 0.14 0.536 0.083 0.182 0.074 Vein_Quartz_36 0.112 0.034 1.47 0.18 bd 0.28 0.077 0.019 1 0.12 0.324 0.05 0.414 0.095 Vein_Quartz_37 0.163 0.036 1.36 0.28 bd 0.18 0.265 0.034 1.43 0.16 0.529 0.089 1.23 0.15 Vein_Quartz_38 0.17 0.043 1.3 0.25 bd 0.31 0.135 0.028 1.3 0.19 0.581 0.094 0.71 0.22 Vein_Quartz_39 0.2 0.054 1.86 0.24 bd 0.27 0.48 0.12 1.12 0.16 0.299 0.069 0.7 0.13 Vein_Quartz_40 0.234 0.047 1.95 0.25 1 0.3 0.724 0.071 1.29 0.18 2.55 0.2 1.11 0.19   65  Table 6: Sample 'SH3_Thick'. 'bd' = below detection limits.  Sample Number Li7 Na23 Al27 K39 Ca43 Ti47 Fe57  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) S ta n d ar d s G_NIST612_1 42.03 0.36 104110 570 11222 53 66.4 2.4 85110 640 43.3 1.2 52.5 2.3 G_NIST612_2 42.08 0.42 103790 690 11097 63 65.7 3.2 84730 780 45 1.4 49.5 1.8 G_NIST612_3 41.75 0.4 103400 740 11096 66 68.2 4.2 85060 860 44.3 1.2 51.5 1.6 G_NIST612_4 42.21 0.46 103590 560 11205 67 65.8 2.3 85120 920 44.1 1.3 50.7 1.9 G_NIST612_5 41.99 0.52 104670 870 11201 76 66.5 2.8 84980 900 43.4 1.5 51.4 2.2 B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Quartz_Vein_1 0.675 0.077 bd 0.81 26 1.2 3.6 0.92 bd 32 1.51 0.36 bd 2.2 Quartz_Vein_2 2.79 0.18 4.11 0.86 35.96 0.9 3.9 0.84 bd 30 1.96 0.38 bd 0.72 Quartz_Vein_3 1.06 0.11 3.36 0.53 37.92 0.85 4.95 0.87 bd 26 1.92 0.44 bd 0.8 Quartz_Vein_4 bd 0.017 bd 0.92 5.35 0.27 1.8 1.1 bd 30 1.88 0.36 bd 1.2 Quartz_Vein_5 0.3 0.054 2.37 0.94 19.64 0.75 bd 0.99 bd 43 1.46 0.36 bd 0.95 Quartz_Vein_6 0.146 0.092 6.9 2.7 11.06 0.8 bd 0.98 bd 28 1.5 0.34 bd 1.1 Quartz_Vein_7 bd 0.026 bd 1.1 5.44 0.34 bd 1.3 bd 46 1.41 0.42 bd 1.3 Quartz_Vein_8 0.058 0.022 2.86 0.78 5.84 0.37 1.44 0.86 bd 24 1.53 0.37 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_9 5.03 0.18 2.42 0.54 36.4 1 bd 0.69 bd 21 1.82 0.27 bd 0.47 Quartz_Vein_10 1.5 0.1 2.33 0.81 33.89 0.82 bd 0.9 bd 26 1.8 0.37 bd 0.84 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  Quartz_Vein_11 0.277 0.05 10.4 1.6 9.89 0.48 5.2 1.1 bd 20 1.51 0.34 bd 0.82 Quartz_Vein_12 0.915 0.096 3.24 0.76 26.96 0.84 4.2 1.2 bd 26 1.7 0.35 bd 1.6 Quartz_Vein_13 0.526 0.063 bd 0.67 6.81 0.42 bd 0.78 bd 24 1.32 0.26 bd 0.74 Quartz_Vein_14 0.054 0.026 3.73 0.75 8.81 0.66 2.7 1.5 bd 36 1.26 0.46 bd 1.2 Quartz_Vein_15 1.4 0.14 5.9 1.3 21.11 0.53 bd 0.86 bd 30 1.31 0.26 bd 0.74 Quartz_Vein_16 0.297 0.066 bd 0.78 11.01 0.94 bd 0.85 bd 31 1.54 0.34 bd 0.73 Quartz_Vein_17 0.148 0.04 8.9 2.5 32.8 4.4 10.8 2.3 bd 33 1.81 0.38 36 19 Quartz_Vein_18 0.678 0.06 11.2 1.6 30.67 0.61 3.86 0.81 bd 22 1.39 0.31 bd 0.65 Quartz_Vein_19 0.18 0.04 9.1 1 21.2 0.82 4.12 0.93 bd 24 1.47 0.38 9 2.8 Quartz_Vein_20 0.729 0.084 bd 1.2 26.59 0.99 bd 0.83 bd 28 1.36 0.33 bd 1 66  B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Quartz_Vein_21 1.56 0.22 bd 1.8 24.39 0.84 4.1 1.1 bd 25 1.44 0.31 bd 0.88 Quartz_Vein_22 bd 0.014 bd 1.4 3.65 0.31 3.01 0.87 bd 32 1.59 0.41 bd 1.6 Quartz_Vein_23 0.473 0.086 bd 1.6 8.95 0.44 2.3 1 bd 36 1.42 0.37 bd 0.89 Quartz_Vein_24 0.398 0.059 bd 0.64 19.78 0.55 3.65 0.93 bd 23 1.5 0.31 bd 0.72 Quartz_Vein_25 0.561 0.084 bd 0.83 16.16 0.55 2.7 1 bd 21 1.42 0.45 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_26 0.563 0.067 bd 1.1 4.48 0.33 bd 0.89 bd 27 1.11 0.32 bd 0.91 Quartz_Vein_27 0.191 0.044 2 1 4.35 0.21 2 1.1 bd 30 1.43 0.36 bd 0.8 Quartz_Vein_28 1.45 0.11 4.8 1 29 1 2.53 0.88 bd 25 1.5 0.31 bd 0.7 Quartz_Vein_29 0.62 0.13 10 2 10.72 0.57 bd 1.2 bd 41 1.61 0.49 bd 1.2 Quartz_Vein_30 bd 0.031 bd 1.1 4.4 0.3 bd 1.1 bd 39 1.76 0.42 bd 0.97 Quartz_Vein_31 2.18 0.42 24.9 5.1 15.6 1.5 4 1.4 bd 25 1.57 0.35 bd 0.83 Quartz_Vein_32 2.02 0.11 bd 0.82 25.24 0.74 bd 0.54 bd 28 1.47 0.28 bd 0.62 Quartz_Vein_33 1.6 0.17 bd 1.2 24.31 0.79 3.14 0.99 bd 38 1.34 0.38 bd 0.93 Quartz_Vein_34 0.286 0.072 bd 0.92 7.11 0.39 2.21 0.92 bd 25 1.35 0.38 bd 0.7 Quartz_Vein_35 0.425 0.083 9.3 1.6 6.82 0.35 bd 1.5 bd 50 1.02 0.44 bd 2.3 Quartz_Vein_36 0.233 0.065 6.2 1.4 13.6 1.3 4.2 1.8 bd 54 0.96 0.42 bd 1.5 Quartz_Vein_37 bd 0.028 bd 1.1 3.67 0.37 bd 0.98 bd 35 0.72 0.31 bd 2.1 Quartz_Vein_38 0.575 0.095 6.88 0.88 14.54 0.89 bd 1.3 bd 34 1.35 0.47 bd 0.83 Border Quartz_Vein_39 0.163 0.071 31.3 4.3 12.79 0.69 8.9 1.9 bd 50 0.89 0.42 bd 1.7 Quartz_Vein_40 0.091 0.048 9.6 2.2 3.86 0.3 bd 1.3 bd 34 0.67 0.36 bd 0.96 Quartz_Vein_41 0.064 0.025 bd 1.1 7.74 0.34 bd 1.5 bd 36 1.86 0.59 bd 0.88   Sample Number Ga69 Ge72 As75 Sr88 Sn118 Sb121 Ba137  (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) (ppm) 2SE (ppm) S ta n d ar d s G_NIST612_1 35.89 0.41 34.84 0.47 35.7 1.2 78.14 0.64 37.96 0.4 37.5 0.51 39.45 0.87 G_NIST612_2 36.02 0.31 35.03 0.6 38 1.2 78.42 0.76 38.03 0.47 38.52 0.6 39.83 0.76 G_NIST612_3 36.16 0.38 35.64 0.6 37.89 0.94 79.25 0.72 38.08 0.51 38.65 0.48 39.79 0.82 G_NIST612_4 35.96 0.35 34.64 0.67 37.49 0.9 78.01 0.66 38.01 0.52 37.74 0.46 39.91 0.72 G_NIST612_5 35.94 0.42 34.88 0.59 36.22 0.79 78.3 0.78 37.92 0.62 37.82 0.43 39.43 0.8 67  B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  1  Quartz_Vein_1 0.136 0.047 1.58 0.22 bd 0.34 0.0108 0.0078 1.179 0.097 bd 0.032 0.024 0.034 Quartz_Vein_2 0.109 0.037 1.71 0.28 bd 0.31 0.0203 0.0087 1.71 0.18 0.214 0.056 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_3 0.094 0.03 1.74 0.31 bd 0.35 0.001 0.0019 1.07 0.12 0.224 0.064 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_4 0.088 0.028 1.44 0.21 1.14 0.56 0.0017 0.0024 0.98 0.17 bd 0.033 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_5 0.1 0.045 1.63 0.23 bd 0.42 0.0024 0.0033 1.48 0.21 bd 0.043 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_6 0.142 0.044 1.93 0.24 bd 0.4 0.096 0.042 1.32 0.16 0.16 0.063 0.92 0.17 Quartz_Vein_7 bd 0.034 1.13 0.33 bd 0.33 bd 1 0.84 0.15 bd 0.042 0.022 0.031 Quartz_Vein_8 0.081 0.036 1.47 0.27 bd 0.38 0.071 0.017 1.25 0.16 bd 0.025 0.089 0.045 Quartz_Vein_9 0.059 0.025 1.92 0.23 bd 0.2 0.0005 0.0011 0.989 0.095 0.28 0.042 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_10 bd 0.03 1.43 0.26 bd 0.3 0.0033 0.0031 1.23 0.14 0.281 0.074 bd 1 F ib ro u s Q u ar tz  Quartz_Vein_11 0.127 0.034 1.4 0.21 1.48 0.46 0.179 0.03 1.16 0.12 0.122 0.046 0.366 0.096 Quartz_Vein_12 bd 0.02 1.89 0.31 bd 0.32 0.026 0.01 1.29 0.14 0.122 0.06 0.064 0.047 Quartz_Vein_13 0.089 0.031 1.5 0.23 bd 0.26 0.0028 0.0033 1.28 0.17 bd 0.032 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_14 bd 0.038 1.28 0.24 bd 0.33 0.034 0.015 1.79 0.25 bd 0.059 0.025 0.027 Quartz_Vein_15 0.089 0.03 1.83 0.29 bd 0.29 0.033 0.013 1.71 0.17 bd 0.048 0.0046 0.0091 Quartz_Vein_16 0.095 0.03 1.44 0.19 bd 0.28 0.002 0.0022 1.56 0.17 bd 0.03 0.0031 0.0061 Quartz_Vein_17 0.153 0.042 1.51 0.3 1.77 0.97 0.34 0.14 1.79 0.2 0.6 0.13 0.74 0.23 Quartz_Vein_18 0.098 0.025 1.79 0.21 bd 0.23 0.053 0.015 1.39 0.14 0.162 0.052 0.317 0.088 Quartz_Vein_19 0.076 0.028 1.74 0.24 1.6 0.63 0.12 0.029 1.79 0.15 0.191 0.056 0.222 0.073 Quartz_Vein_20 bd 0.032 2.07 0.29 bd 0.29 0.0142 0.0083 1.67 0.17 bd 0.043 bd 1 B lo ck y  Q u ar tz  2  Quartz_Vein_21 0.085 0.038 1.55 0.38 bd 0.3 0.0103 0.0075 1.71 0.14 bd 0.052 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_22 0.075 0.035 1.09 0.21 bd 0.34 bd 0.0034 1.44 0.13 bd 0.04 0.015 0.022 Quartz_Vein_23 0.077 0.042 1.38 0.31 1.8 1.2 0.107 0.026 1.42 0.16 bd 0.056 0.066 0.05 Quartz_Vein_24 bd 0.026 1.8 0.23 bd 0.25 0.0124 0.0076 1.82 0.18 bd 0.035 0.009 0.013 Quartz_Vein_25 0.079 0.037 1.57 0.21 bd 0.29 bd 1 1.63 0.16 bd 0.04 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_26 bd 0.032 1.2 0.22 bd 0.21 bd 1 1.57 0.19 bd 0.031 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_27 bd 0.027 1.52 0.18 bd 0.3 bd 1 1.43 0.19 bd 0.048 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_28 bd 0.035 1.45 0.26 bd 0.17 0.074 0.019 1.43 0.15 bd 0.038 0.102 0.044 Quartz_Vein_29 bd 0.038 1.53 0.35 bd 0.34 0.021 0.015 1.49 0.23 bd 0.035 0.01 0.019 68  Quartz_Vein_30 bd 0.029 1.55 0.29 bd 0.28 bd 1 1.78 0.15 bd 0.038 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_31 bd 0.032 1.94 0.23 1.27 0.32 0.06 0.023 1.46 0.13 bd 0.033 0.11 0.051 Quartz_Vein_32 bd 0.019 1.97 0.24 0.44 0.2 0.0058 0.0042 1.47 0.12 bd 0.031 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_33 bd 0.031 1.75 0.32 bd 0.31 0.0087 0.0068 1.54 0.15 0.114 0.051 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_34 0.08 0.033 1.37 0.28 bd 0.3 0.0009 0.0018 1.53 0.14 bd 0.035 0.009 0.013 Quartz_Vein_35 0.097 0.045 1.31 0.29 bd 0.46 0.0057 0.0088 1.63 0.22 0.163 0.057 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_36 0.135 0.075 1.27 0.35 bd 0.27 0.0066 0.0095 1.57 0.22 bd 0.053 0.053 0.048 Quartz_Vein_37 0.064 0.04 1.56 0.26 bd 0.43 bd 1 1.61 0.21 bd 0.051 bd 1 Quartz_Vein_38 0.091 0.032 1.3 0.25 bd 0.3 0.134 0.031 1.51 0.19 bd 0.053 0.012 0.017 Border Quartz_Vein_39 0.129 0.039 0.84 0.27 1.01 0.39 0.295 0.056 1.87 0.2 0.293 0.081 0.57 0.21 Quartz_Vein_40 bd 0.04 1.31 0.31 bd 0.37 0.019 0.014 2 0.2 bd 0.045 0.01 0.019 Quartz_Vein_41 bd 0.032 1.41 0.28 bd 0.25 0.002 0.0028 1.77 0.18 bd 0.051 0.007 0.015  

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