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The influence of positive citizenship rating on behaviour MacKenzie, Russell Keith 1949

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by RUSSELL KEITH MACKENZIE A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ' PSYCHOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH, 1949 M.A.THESIS THE INFLUENCE OF POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING ON BEHAVIOUR ABSTRACT This research deals with the influence of a positive citizenship rating scheme on the behaviour of junior high school students. Techniques of citizenship evaluation now in use are reviewed and their limitations in relation to modern educational objectives and practices pointed out. An investigation into the development of merit rating schemes was carried out. These merit systems are described and criticized as a basis of comparison with the positive citizenship rating scheme evaluated in this study. The general analysis of the positive citizenship rating scheme was approached by means of an investigation of the citizenship records of new students entering the school in June, 1945, as evaluated by the elementary schools. These new students were followed through the three grades in the junior high school as a group, in order to assess the general influence of the scheme. Also, an analysis of merit and demerit scores for grade, sex, achievement groups and teacher concerned for one complete year (1947-48) was conducted. A summarization of these findings are: 1. The elementary school citizenship ratings of new students entering the junior high school show a very high coefficient of correlation between achievement and citizenship (plus .862 ± - .008) . 2. At the end of the third year in the junior high school, i t was found that the coefficient of correlation between achievement and the positive citizenship ratings was plus .408 ± . 0 3 1 . 3. In general, the school citizenship ratings improve as students advance from year to year in the junior high school. 4. The effect of the citizenship rating scheme in terms of "A" merits ( i .e . those issued as records of superior academic performance) is such that the positive influence on individual behaviour is maintained and in most cases increased from grade to grade. 5. There was increased participation in extra-curricular activities and school service as recorded in the issuing of "B" merits ( i .e . those issued as records of school service etc.). 6. In terms of "A" merits, girls participated more than the boys in the citizenship rating scheme at a l l grade levels. 7. In terms of "B" merits, girls participated more than the boys at the grade nine level. 8. Lack of uniformity and inconsistencies appeared in the analysis of number of merits and demerits issued by teachers. 9. The number of students receiving no demerits increased from twenty-two per cent in grade seven to thirty-seven in grade nine. Case studies of a number of student "types" are included as practical examples of the material available in the student bookkeeper's citizenship record books. Finally, a general evaluation and l i s t of recommendations for the efficient administration of the scheme are indicated. Russell K. MacKenzie i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT The writer welcomes the opportunity of acknowledging h i s Indebtedness to the P r i n c i p a l , Mr. H.B. Pit c h , f a c u l t y and students of Templeton Junior High School f o r t h e i r co-operation In furnishing the basic data. R.K.M. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST" OF TABLES. iv LIST OF APPENDICES v i i LIST OP FORMS v i i i CHAPTER 1 THE TRAINING OF RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS 1 Survey of Available Techniques of Rating Citizenship 11 MERIT SYSTEM 14 Merit System - 100 Point Plan The Service Point System Combination Merit Plan Citizenship Rating Plan 111 POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING 27 Major Objectives Explanation and Introduction The Recording of Citizenship Uses Made of Citizenship Records IV GENERAL ANALYSIS OF POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING.... 47 Citizenship of New Pupils The Influence of Positive Citizenship Rating on New Pupils Analysis of w A n Merits Analysis of MB" Merits Analysis of Demerits V CITIZENSHIP RECORDS OP SELECTED STUDENTS 94 VI SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND EVALUATION OF POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING I l l Summary of "A" Merit Analysis Summary of "B" Merit Analysis Summary of Demerit Analysis Evaluation of Positive Citizenship Rating BIBLIOGRAPHY 123 " iv LIST OF TABLES Page 1 DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES AND CITIZENSHIP GRADING FOR EASTER, 1948 . 45 11 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT AND CITIZENSHIP OF NEW PUPILS AS RATED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 49 111 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT AND CITIZENSHIP RATINGS OF SELECTED GROUP DURING YEARS 1945 - 48.. 51 IV NUMBER OF STUDENTS RATED BELOW C IN CITIZENSHIP RATINGS OF SELECTED GROUP DURING YEARS 1945-48 ... 52 V DISTRIBUTION OF MAM MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS 54 VI DISTRIBUTION OF n A M MERITSCORES OF GRADE SEVEN GIRLS 55 V l l DISTRIBUTION OF wA t t MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN BOYS 55 V l l l DISTRIBUTION OF MA" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN GIRLS 56 IX DISTRIBUTION OF MA r t MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN BOYS 57 X PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF "A" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE SEVEN TEACHERS 59 XI DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS 60 X l l DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT GIRLS 61 X l l l DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT BOYS 61 XIV DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT GIRLS 62 XV DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT BOYS 63 XVI PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF "A" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE EIGHT TEACHERS 64 XVII DISTRIBUTION OF WAM MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE STUDENTS 65 V •XVIII DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE GIRLS 66 XIX DISTRIBUTION OF MAM MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE BOYS 66 XX DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CIASSES - GRADE NINE GIRLS 67 XXI DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CIASSES - GRADE NINE BOYS 68 XXII PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF""A" MERITS ISSUED BY' GRADE NINE TEACHERS 69 XXIII DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS 71 XXIV DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN GIRLS 72 XXV DISTRIBUTION OF MB" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN BOYS 72 XXVI DISTRIBUTION OF MB" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN GIRLS 73 XXVII DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN BOYS 7* XXVIII PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF "B" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE SEVEN TEACHERS • 75 XXIX DISTRIBUTION OF "Bw MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS 76 XXX DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT GIRLS 77 XXXI DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT BOYS 77 XXXII DISTRIBUTION OF MB" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT GIRLS 78 XXXIII DISTRIBUTION OF "Bn MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT BOYS 79 XXXIV PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF "B» MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE EIGHT TEACHERS 80 XXXV DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE STUDENTS 81 v i XXXVI DISTRIBUTION OF "B» MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE GIRLS 82 XXXVII DISTRIBUTION OF 11B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE BOYS 83 XXXVIII DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE NINE GIRLS 84 XXXIX DISTRIBUTION OF »B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE NINE BOYS 84 XL PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF WB" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE NINE TEACHERS 86 XLI DISTRIBUTION OF DEMERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS 88 XLII DISTRIBUTION OF DEMERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS 88 XLIII DISTRIBUTION OF DEMERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE STUDENTS 90 XLIV SUMMARY OF OFFENSES FOR WHICH DEMERITS WERE ISSUED - GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE 91 XLV SUMMARY OF MERITS AND DEMERITS ISSUED BY TEACHERS (1947-48) 93 XLVI SUMMARY OF »An MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE 112 XLVTI RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES IN MA" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN GRADES 112 XLVIII SUMMARY OF GIRLSt »A" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND-NINE 113 XLIX SUMMARY OF BOYS1 "A" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE 113 L RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES IN "A" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS 114 LI SUMMARY OF "B" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE 115 LII RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES IN 11B" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN GRADES 116 LIII SUMMARY OF GIRLS* nB" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND-NINE 116 v i i LIT SUMMARY OF BOYS* MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE 117 LV RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES IN "B" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS 117 APPENDICES Appendix Page A. CHASSELL - UPTON CITIZENSHIP SCALES 127 B. GATES CITIZENSHIP RATING SCALE 129 v i i i LIST OF FORMS I "A" MERIT SLIP 33 II "B" MERIT SLIP 35 III "CO-OPERATION" MERIT SLIP 3© IV "CLASS" MERIT SLIP 38 V DAILY CITIZENSHIP SLIP 39 VI CLASS MERIT RECORD 40 VII DEMERIT SLIP 41 VIII MERIT BOOKKEEPER1S RECORD 42 IX SUMMARY OF CITIZENSHIP 43 THE'INFLUENCE OP POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING ON BEHAVIOUR 1 Chapter 1 A. THE TRAINING OF RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS Training f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p i s recognized by most educators as one of the chief functions of public education. The school system, they maintain, must give adequate t r a i n i n g f o r equipping young people to take t h e i r places as good c i t i z e n s i n our modern society. J.E. Nancarrow, i n an address before the National Educational Association convention i n 1941, ably presented t h i s point of view i n stressing the importance of an educated c i t i z e n r y . The people established public education of, by, and f o r the perpetuation of democracy. They r e a l i z e d that t h i s new form of p o l i t i c a l administration could not be preserved unless the people became f a m i l i a r with the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s underlying and making up th i s new philosophical movement. They expected the public schools to turn out i n t e l l i g e n t , u n s e l f i s h individuals.who would assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r passing on these new opportunities and p r i v i l e g e s . The school was expected to develop character i n indivi d u a l s and t r a i n for i n t e l l i g e n t , dynamic leadership.1 School organization, according to modern educators, should be so designed as to permit students to develop judgment, to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n keeping with t h e i r stage of development, to make choices a f t e r having c a r e f u l l y 1. Nancarrow, J.E., "Interpreting Democracy Through The Administration and A c t i v i t i e s Program." Addresses and  Proceedings of the Seventy-ninth Annual Meeting of the  National Education Association. LXX1X (1941). p. 514. 2 weighed the evidence - in general, to develop those traits which they wil l use In adult l i f e . The school is an Institution primarily planned to Improve the behaviour of i ts students and cannot disclaim this responsibility. There are, i t need not be said, many other types of education than those received through the formal school system, but this is the most systematic and most highly organized, most consciously contrived for the purpose of influencing directly the next generation.i The elements which go to make up wholesome and effective social behaviour are information, ski l ls , attitudes and appreciations. To be of value, these must eventuate in action. Good citizenship is a positive quality and depends not on a passive state of goodness but on activity. Knowledge is of value in direct proportion to the effect i t has on its possessors behaviour. The chief responsibility of the school is to teach its students how to use what they know rather than merely to know. Thus, the behaviour of the students In informal situations should occupy an important place in the assessment of citizenship. Ideals and values derive their entire practical importance from the behaviour which results from them. The expression of high ideals accompanied by the doing of wrong Is thoroughly vicious. Education^ therefore, seeks to encourage the mastery of such knowledge, the acquisition of such attitudes, and the development of such habits as make a socially desirable way of l iving likely to be followed by the learner. 2 However, considerable doubt is cast on the efficiency with which the schools are performing this function. H.E. Wilson, 1. Merriam, Charles E..The Making of Citizens; A Comparative Study of Methods of Civic Training, p.89, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1931. 2. Educational Policies Commission, The Purposes of Education  in American Democracy, p.41. Washington; National Education Association and the American Association of School Administrators, 1938. 3 in his report of a study on education for citizenship, states: We have created a vast machinery for public education, largely in the name of "education for citizenship", but the machinery seems faulty when i ts effects on the making of constructive, well motivated, thoughtful citizens are closely scrutinized. A distinction must necessarily be drawn between what the schools have thus far been able or unable to do and what they might do i f they proceeded along different lines. The position taken by Greenough seems appropriate to one investigating citizenship training, particularly i f the findings are to be purposeful and not a mere compilation of data. Can the schools do anything about this? I know that the psychologists hold that our pre-school experiences determine most forcibly our social behaviour. I know also the more pedestrian argument that the school takes the child only for a limited period of time and that therefore its influence is overwhelmed. I don't think we are justified in sheltering behind these which are in effect defeatist arguments. The school is , after a l l , a controlled environment in which emotional health is stimulated, where feelings are freed even as we attempt to free thought. Since the developing of desirable citizenship habits is an accepted aim of education, i t would seem logical that the outstanding elements which contribute to its realization should be recognized in any modern system of appraising, recording and reporting of pupil progress. This is not an easy task. Little has been accomplished in this f i e l d because the evaluation of actions and attitudes is a relatively diff icult 1. Wilson Howard E . . "On the Making of Citizens." Social  Education. I l l (April, 1939), 225. 2. Greenough, A. , "The Training of Responsible Citizens," The New Era in Home and School, XX (January, 1939), 13. 4 problem, as compared with the testing of the student's possession of facts and s k i l l s . It Is an amazing fact that our schools and colleges know l i t t l e of the result of their work. It is even more amazing that they seldom attempt seriously to find out what changes schooling brings about in students. Ask any school what i ts objectives are and you wil l be told that i t seeks to develop character, ability to think clearly, social responsibility, good health habits, readiness for earning a l iving, knowledge of certain facts and mastery of certain s k i l l s . Ask whether the sehool succeeds in doing these things, the answer Is "We know only in part". It-follows then that comprehensive appraising, recording and reporting of results are of vi tal concern to those who seek improvement in the work of our schools and colleges. Unfortunately, too many educators are content to consider excellence in verbal recall as ample proof that learning has taken place. Very l i t t l e progress has been made In the direction of evaluating learning in terms of desirable changes in behaviour. The report cards and pupil records in the past have dealt largely with how well or how poorly facts have been accumulated and retained. Until schools begin to evaluate their influence upon children in terms of bringing about desirable changes in behaviour, they wil l continue to have l i t t l e , i f any, real effect on citizenship training. Recent years have witnessed a marked increase In emphasis on education for citizenship and some experimentation has taken place i n various schools in an attempt to find a sound method of developing, evaluating and recording school citizenship. In view of these generalizations, we may assume that: 1. While other agencies continue to contribute to the 1. Smith, Eugene R., Tyler, Ralph W., and the Evaluation Staff, Appraising and Recording Student Progress.p. x v i i . New York: Harper and Brothers,1942. 5 child's education, the school is uniquely planned, organized and supported by the purpose of preparing future citizens for their places in the community. 2. Considerable doubt is cast on the effectiveness with which the schools are performing this function of citizenship training. 3. The schools generally have done l i t t l e to evaluate the results of this training. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Influence of a positive citizenship rating program on pupil behaviour. The study was made in a large Canadian junior high school in a western community. The problem was studied and the data collected over a period of ten years from 1938 to 1948. B. SURVEY OP AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES OP RATING CITIZENSHIP It has been stated that anything which exists, exists in quantity and therefore can be measured. We may not have a l l of the instruments or standards as yet for measuring everything, and a great deal of our measurement wi l l for a long time be of the comparative type, or greater, smaller, more or less, but the closer we can get to accurate measurement the more intelligent wil l be our educational efforts . ! In the f i e l d of measurement of pupils' actual conduct or behaviour, many ingenious techniques have been devised. Relatively few of these, however,ahave practical significance for the classroom teacher. Many of them must be eliminated 1. McKown, Harry C , Extra Currlcular Activities, p. 581. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1927., •i 6 because of the demand they make on the user of the techniques. Some of these tests may properly be used only by those with specialized training in clinical psychology, while others demand far more training and time than the classroom teacher 1 can give to the problem. Of the many available techniques, those with the highest practical value to teachers at present are: 1. Self-inventories. 2. Tests of conduct. 3. Rating devices. 4. Anecdotal behaviour records. 5 . Merit systems. 1. Self-inventories. These inventories of citizenship habits are essentially a system of self-ratings whereby the pupil records his opinions of himself in areas relevant to his social adjustment. The questions and statements in a self-inventory refer not to facts which can be objectively observed or found in records but rather to subjective opinions concerning one's habitual ways of behaving and reacting to others. Instructions are usually given to work rapidly in an attempt to minimize introspection and reasoning. In general, the self-inventory technique of evaluating behaviour as related to citizenship training may be considered desirable and helpful, but only suggestive of a beginning. The speed, efficiency and low cost of administering the self-inventory make i t likely that, in the hands of intelligent and well-grounded teachers, i t may frequently yield very 1. Information concerning other techniques may be obtained from Symonds, P.M., Diagnosing Personality and Conduct. New York, Appleton - Century Company, Inc., 1931. 7 worthwhile r e s u l t s and quick insights that could otherwise be obtained only through f a r more laborious and demanding procedures. The use of self-measurement scales and of r a t i n g scales bring to the Individual a conviction of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of development. The self-measurement scale , presented i n the Iowa plan i s suggestive of a beginning. 2. Tests of conduct. Many tests have been devised f o r the measurement of pupils' actual conduct or behaviour as rel a t e d to t h e i r honesty, altruism, cooperation, service and e f f o r t In school. Most investigators i n t h i s ' f i e l d believe that these measures provide l i t t l e of p r a c t i c a l value to the classroom teacher, i n the evaluation of social adjustment. One of the major shortcomings of these tests i s the f a c t that their correlations with actual conduct are very low. Remmers and Gage support t h i s conclusion? Since the performance test f o r each t r a i t , such as honesty,persistence of aggressiveness, did not give the same r e s u l t s when measured by techniques which, on the i r face value, apparently approached the same aspect of personality from d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , i t seemed necessary to conclude that the existence of such t r a i t s of personality was doubtful and that each type of behaviour was a separate t r a i t i n i t s e l f , unrelated to other t r a i t s . Consequently, the usefulness of such tests f o r the p r e d i c t i o n and diagnosis of any aspect of adjustment s u f f i c i e n t l y broad to be of practical value was almost n e g l i g i b l e . ^ 3. Rating Devices. One of the best known, early attempts at r a t i n g scales f o r measuring habits of good c i t i z e n s h i p was devised by Chassell and Upton. They made a c a r e f u l analysis 1. Touton.F.C. and Struthers. A.B.. Junior - High - School  Procedure,p. 208, Boston, GInn and Co., 1926. 2. Remmers, H.H. and Gage, N.L., Educational Measurement and  Evaluatlon.p.376. New York,Harper & Bros., 1943. 3. Upton, S.M. and Chassell, CP., "A Scale f o r Measuring Habits of Good C i t i z e n s h i p , " Teachers College Record XX (1919),p.36-65. 8 of the desirable habits and attitudes which they expected children to have. As a result of their findings, they listed one hundred eighty-seven items or aspects of good citizenship. Seventy-four judges evaluated the items in order of importance, giving a score of 10 to those of highest value, 9 to those next in importance and so on to a score of 0 for those of least importance. On the basis of these assigned values, the items were arranged into eight short scales labelled from A to H, each of which contained representative samples of the traits of good citizenship. Scale D is printed in f u l l in Appendix A. These scales deal with a wide range of desirable habits and attitudes and, i f used according to the directions, probably would yield valuable but insufficiently accurate results. The authors presented correlations based on ten different, instances when teachers had rated the same pupil by two of the scales. The average of the ten correlation values was .89, and i t was claimed on this basis that the results from using the scale were reliable. The greatest weakness of the Chassell-Upton.Scales was that their ratings were subjective in character. While recognizing the subjective nature of their methods, the authors claimed that the scales had many valuable features.1 As in the case of self-Inventories, rating devices can furnish valuable but seldom sufficient information concerning the emotional and social adjustment of pupils. The important 1. Chassell, C P . , Upton, S.M., and Chassell, L .M. . "Short Scales for Measuring Habits of Good Citizenship," Teachers  College Record. XX111. 1922, p. 71. factor In the use of rating devices is the training, sincerity, enthusiasm and observational powers of the person who renders the judgment. The type of errors which limit both the validity and rel iabi l i ty of ratings aret (a) The error of lenience or severity - that i s , rating a l l individuals too high or too low. This is frequently referred to as "personal bias" or "personal equation". (b) The error of central tendency or hesitation to give ratings at the extremes of a scale. (c) The "halo" effect in ratings, or the general mental Impression of the person or object being rated. (d) The so-called "logical" error which comes from presuppositions in the mind of the raters and lack of definiteness of the trait rated. In order to minimize these errors, a program of ratings should be preceded by careful training discussions of the importance of the ratings to be made, of the nature of the device to be used and of the precautions necessary to avoid the various kinds of errors mentioned above. A good summary of this aspect of rating scales is given by Remmers and Gage. 4. Anecdotal Behaviour Records. The search for some new device to evaluate social adjustment has led to the development, within the last decade, of a more direct observational approach known as the anecdotal behaviour 1. Remmers H.H. and Gage, N.L. , op_j_cit. pp 363-64. 10 record. This, as the name implies, involves the collection of brief reports of incidents concerning some aspects of pupil behaviour which seems significant to the observer. The majority of those who have worked with the anecdotal method agree that not only problem behaviour should be recorded, but also desirable behaviour and out-standing achievement. Traxler points out that: When anecdotes are prepared for a l l pupils, the use of this method serves to help direct the attention of teachers toward inconspicuous pupils who otherwise might never be really known to their teachers.1 Some schools^ now follow the plan of obtaining a rough quantitative measure of a pupil's general trend of adjustment by designating desirable aneedotes, or those which are in harmony with character objectives, with a plus mark and undesirable anecdotes, or those which are not in harmony with these objectives, by means of some other designation. Objective records are generally held to be much more valuable than subjective ones. One of the crucial requirements of any anecdotal technique is that i t be highly objective. Furthermore, as many different observers as possible should record anecdotes for each pupil, In order to Insure that the sampling of his behaviour wil l be sufficiently broad to provide evidence that can be reliably interpreted. A system of central f i l i n g of anecdotes and a carefully 1. Traxler, A . E . , The Nature and Use of Anecdotal Records. p. 6, Educational Records Bureau, 1939. 2 . Bowes, F . H . , "The Anecdotal Behaviour Record in Measuring Progress in Character," Elementary School Journal. XXXIX, (Feb. 1939) pp. 431-35. 11 worked out plan for summarizing the anecdotal records of each pupil annually, or more frequently, i s essential to the success of the plan. I t should be emphasized that the preparation of anecdotal records, i f they are to be of value, must necessarily emerge from a real interest i n the individual pupil. Teachers must be convinced that the development of each pupil is more important than the teaching of subject matter. Educators and psychologists believe that i f anecdotal records are introduced into a school with the wholehearted participation of the teachers, then a wide range of values and uses may be claimed for this method of observing and recording student behaviour. Emphasis has been placed on the value of records of this type for understanding the basic personality pattern of each individual, creating an awareness of school problems, encouraging teachers to use records, providing guidance data, improving personal relationships between pupils and counsellors, stimulating pupil participation In Individual help programs and remedial work, guiding curriculum construction, modification and emphasis, reporting to schools to which pupils are promoted and aiding c l i n i c a l service. 1 Although most educators agree that the anecdotal behaviour journal is valuable as a source of personal data concerning various students, many objections have been raised to this method of observing and recording pupil behaviour. F i r s t , since It is the teacher who usually determines which incidents merit recording, the impression created by a reading of the anecdotal record may reflect the teacher's opinion of the student as much as i t does the student's behaviour patterns. Thus, the teacher who records a particular student as uncooperative may record every instance 1. Traxler, A.E., op. c i t . . p.28 12 of his failure to cooperate, even though the teacher may overlook similar Instances in which other students are at fault. Despite the apparent emphasis on factual accuracy, the anecdotal behaviour record may be no more objective than is the traditional rating in conduct or behaviour which is recorded at the end of each term. Second, the value of the anecdotal behaviour record varies with the significance of the incidents that are recorded. If the teacher has l i t t l e insight into child psychology or only an inadequate under-standing of the use for which the material is intended, the anecdotal behaviour journal may be nothing more than a bulky collection of petty and irrelevant incidents. Third, when elasses are large, the labor and time consumed in the teacher's writing of the incidents may lead either to unwarranted inroads on the teacher's time with the consequent neglect of other activities that may be more valuable, or to the attitude that the recording of these incidents is a chore to be performed as quickly as possible.1 The introduction of the anecdotal behaviour journal into personnel practice in a school is l ikely to be of l i t t l e value unless these objections are carefully understood, and steps taken to lessen the influence of these weaknesses. The teachers must be convinced of the need and the purpose to be served in using this data in guidance work. 5. Merit Rating Systems. Merit systems of many different kinds have been used extensively during the last twenty-five years by schools throughout America. Despite the fact that merit schemes were common in the early thirties, l i t t l e information on this subject is to be found in educational literature. Moreover, some Canadian educators are definitely opposed to such plans. This view is , however, not common today among school administration authorities in the United 1. Encyclopedia of Modem Education, p. 38. The Philosophical Library of New York, P. Hubner and Co., 1943. 13 States. Since i t had been decided to combine what appeared to be the best features of several plans into the system to be introduced, i t was presumed that, with adequate provision made for the regaining of lost merit points, a merit system could be operated in conjunction with a control or demerit system In order to secure the reaction of school administrators and extra-curricular administration authorities to the proposed plan, i t was decided to send out a letter explaining what was being attempted Those who replied favorably to the questionaire were John C. Almack, Calvin V. Davis, Elbert K. Pretwell, Leonard V.Koos, Harry C. McKown, A.C. Roberts, William A. Smith, Paul W. Terry, Prank C. Touton, and Paul Frederick Voelker.l As this study is an analysis and evaluatien of a positive citizenship rating scheme involving the use of merits and demerits, i t is necessary to trace the develop-ment of merit systems. 1. Lottick, Kenneth V. , "The Evaluation of Ethical Discrimination," The Social Studies. XXXIX (February, 1948), 57. 14 CHAPTER 11 MERIT SYSTEMS Despite the fact that l i t t l e information is to be found in educational literature on the various merit systems, many different schemes are i n use both in the United States and Canada. In many cases, elaborately conceived schemes were discarded because they deteriorated into disciplinary devices. Today, well-chosen and skilfully administered merit systems are becoming more prevalent in an attempt to guide and stimulate participation in extra-curricular activities, act as a socializing agency and afford a method of evaluating, recording and reporting citizenship habits. It has always been customary to attempt to grade or rate deportment of the school child. Formerly this merely consisted in giving a grade or conduct rating which indicated the student's general attitude or response to disciplinary regulations. Merit systems developed as a result of an attempt to find some plan which would give an objective record of citizenship - one which would reflect the student's character, his work habits, attitudes, co-operation and ability to take responsibility. The report of Ida E. Hawes is the earliest description available in the f i e l d of merit systems. Her concluding statement is a summary of the objectives of this early effort. These are some of the plans which are proving successful In Pasadena High School. They are not a panacea for a l l school i l l s but they are helping to build up a fine morale among our students. Most of our 15 problems are caused by carelessness, thoughtlessness, and lack of understanding of the effect on the good name of the school. As boys and girls face these problems fair ly and squarely under the leadership of those of their own age, they are almost sure to respond. After a l l , i t is the greatest privilege and the greatest duty of any school to teach self-reliance and honesty, unselfish interest in Its problems, and a willingness to play a part in their solution - in a word, to give training in good citizenship and in leadership.* In an attempt to quicken an interest in good citizenship, character and leadership, school administrators devised -various merit schemes to recognize and encourage desirable behaviour. The resulting variety of merit systems may be best analysed under the following classification: A. Merit system - 100 point plan. B. Service point plan. C. Combination merit plan - merits accumulated. D. Citizenship rating plan. E. Positive citizenship rating plan. A. MERIT SYSTEM - 100 POINT PLAN This plan, according to L.L.Doig 2 , was by far the most popular among the high schools of California. His survey i n 1929 found that forty-seven per cent of one hundred fourteen senior high schools with merit schemes used a plan similar to the following typical 100 point 1. Hawes, I .E . , "The Attendance Department - A Laboratory of Citizenship," School Review. XXX11,(April, 1924), 275. 2. Doig, L . L . , Citizenship Devices used in Senior High  Schools of Cal ifornla, Master's Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930, p.20. 16 merit system. 1. Description of the 100 point plan; A student begins each semester with 100 points. He must average' 80 merit credits for the four years i f he is to be recommended to college or to any business position upon graduation. No student is given a diploma who has an average of less than 70 merit credits. A merit grade is given at the end of each semester. These grades are sent to other schools or to colleges on the same basis as academic grades. A grade of 80 is required to hold any school office. Merit credits are based on character, conduct and attendance. It is possible to have more than 100 merit credits at graduation as a bonus of 20 credits is given at the end of each semester to a l l students who have a merit record of 95 or above. This is to enable students who have fallen below the requirements in one semester to redeem themselves in the following semesters. It is possible to lose merit credits in the following ways: (a) Tardiness; 5 or more for each tardiness due to carelessness. (b) Unexcused absence, leaving school without permission; 10 or more. (c) Lying or dishonesty; 10 to 20, according to the seriousness of the case. (d) Rudeness, disorderliness in the halls, carelessness with school property, foul language and other conduct unworthy of a-echool student; 5 or more. (e) Forgery, cheating, stealing; 20 or more. A record ia kept by the Recorder of the school which is consulted in determining the punctuality, honesty and dependability of any student who desires recommendation for any business firm. Through the student council, every effort is made to make i t a matter of school spirit and student interest to raise the standards of morality and conduct in the school. 2 . Criticisms of the 1 0 0 point plant An examination of this type of merit system shows that the citizenship appeal is negative. One hundred merits are given outright at the beginning of the semester. Throughout the term, these are systematically taken away i f the student fa i l s to live up to the teacher's idea of good school citizenship. At the end of the semester, he is given certain bonuses i f he has not done certain things. The premium is always placed upon "not doing". This is the most apparent weakness of this merit scheme as a citizenship plan. Despite the fact that the main objective is stated as the improvement of citizenship, . it is simply a disciplinary device or penalty system. It cannot establish a record of citizenship because such a record should show actual behaviour, work habits and ability to take responsibility as developed through action and co-operation. This merit system only records a lack of certain objectionable characteristics. It cannot encourage leadership, student responsibility and a better school spirit because there Is no stimulus to positive action. B. THE SERVICE POINT SYSTEM 18 To make up In a measure for the weakness of the 100 point plan, some schools adopted the service point system, which applies to extra-curricular activities only. The service point system tends to create interest in school activities and to encourage every student to play some part in the school outside of the classroom but prevents individual students from monopolizing the positions of honour in the school. No student is allowed to earn more than a stated number of service points in a year, unless he can show that he is making high grades in a l l his subjects and further, no students is allowed to work for service points who is fai l ing in any subject. 1. Description of the service point system: A wide variation in the different types of service point systems Is reported by E.G.Johnston* in his survey of point systems and awards. However, points are usually awarded for leadership and service to the school. A record is kept of the points earned and these service points are sent with the scholarship record to other schools, to colleges or to business firms. A typical example of the points granted each semester follows: Administration President of the Student Council 15 Members of the Student Council .10 Chairman of committees. 4 Members of c o m m i t t e e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 2 Class Presidents 6 Other class officers 2 1.Johnston, E.G. Point Systems and Awards, p.8. New York, A.S.Barnes and Co., 1930. Cultural Editor of school paper 10 Staff of school paper 6 Editor of school annual 10 Staff of school annual 6 Valedictorian. 5 Debating teams 2 Athletics Captains of teams 5 Managers of teams 4 Members of teams. . . . . . . 2 Yell leaders 2 Many schools have very elaborate l i s t s of serviee point awards. If a student fa i ls to perform creditably the work of his office, no service points are granted. In some cases, a graduated scale of service points is used, the ;. number to be apportioned by the appropriate sponsor of the activity, according to the amount of work done. 2. Criticisms of the service point systems This is apian of regulation of extra-curricular opportunities which aims to achieve one or more of the following purposes; (a) To distribute more widely the opportunities for extra-curricular activities which are available by means of limitation of participation. (b) To stimulate participation in order that a greater number of pupils may derive any probable benefits. (c) To afford'guidance in the choice of extra-curricular activities so that selection may not be left to chance or popularity, but rather based upon educative value to the pupil. A variation in type of point system used may be observed as one or other of these purposes predominates,or 20 as they appear in various combinations. An examination of these purposes in relation to the search for a device for stimulating,evaluating, recording and reporting school citizenship shows many apparent weaknesses. The service point system is obviously planned for stimulating,limiting and in some cases guiding pupil participation in extra-curricular activities only. Since citizenship must necessarily include a l l aspects of student behaviour, such a scheme falls far short of the ideal method. Moreover, can one justify denial of a l l participation in extra-curricular activities to pupils fai l ing in regular school subjects? E.G.Johnston believes that this practice is psychological ly unsound. Failure in school work Is a problem for study of the individual and adjustment of work to him. It is not solved by a blanket prohibition of extra-curricular participation. Exclusion of a pupil from a l l extra-curricular activities on account of failure in one or a l l subjects comprising his program of studies, appears to be unjustified in the light of provision for individual differences and of the psychology of interest.1 Also, some schools, in attempting to stimulate participation in extra-curricular activities, insist that every pupil take part In some activity as a requirement for graduation. The reasons for opposing this are rather obvious. The objectives of extra-curricular activities - the development of initiative and co-operation, practice in the choice of competent leaders, the encouraging of special interests and abili t ies , the development of responsible attitudes towards laws which come from participation in a democratic community - a l l these are dependent upon the l . Ibid , p. 29 21 exercise of free choice by the Individual. The third purpose of point systems - that of providing guidance - aims primarily at helping the pupil to make wise choices among the various extra-curricular opportunities offered. The responsibility of the school for guidance does not stop here. This should be just one phase of the guidance program. The modern high school pupil needs a comprehensive program of individual guidance - social, vocational and educational in the broadest sense, covering a l l phases of school experience. C. COMBINATION MERIT PLAN - MERITS ACCUMULATED This plan was developed as a result of the desire to make the 100 point merit system and the service point system function as a single plan. It permits the accumulation of merits for acts of good citizenship. These are computed in connection with demerits thereby combining the meriting with the demeriting operation. 1. Description of combination merit plan:;:The l i s ts of merits earned and merits lost (or demerits) are almost identical with those found under the service point system and 100 point plan respectively. Every student begins each semester with a rating of 100. At the end of each semester, merits earned are recorded and added to the rating. Merits lost or demerits are recorded daily and deducted from the rating. Students whose ratings reach 80 are reported to the vice-principal for warning and advice. Students whose ratings reach 70 are reported at once to the principal. These 22 students are suspended from school until the principal has had a satisfactory conference with the parents. A student holding office whose rating fa l ls below 90 must resign at once from office and his office f i l l e d by election or appointment. At the end of each semester, the merit rating of every student in the school is computed under the direction of the Registrar. These ratings are sent to the home rooms at the beginning of the following semester, there posted for two days, and then f i l e d by the home room teacher for possible reference. A description of this type of combination merit plan is reported by Carroll Atkinson* of Fremont School, San Luis Obispo, California. 2. Criticism of the combination merit plan; Those who worked out the combination plan were thinking entirely in terms of creating a unified scheme incorporating the 100 point plan and the service point system. It does unify the rating machinery of the two plans. Otherwise, i t is simply a combination of the two plans furnished with additional administrative devices. The method of calculating the merit record is very crude. In view of the fact that merits may be earned, there seems to be no reason why 100 merits should be presented to the student. Also, a student may only earn merit credits by participating in extra-curricular activities. If the school has a provision limiting participation In these activities 1. Atkinson, Carroll, "A Merit System for Elementary School," Elementary School Journal. XXX11, (December, 1931).294-8.-23 to those students with acceptable scholarship, then some students wil l be unable to earn any merit credits. As a result, this plan is subject to the same criticisms as the two previous schemes. D. CITIZENSHIP RATING FLAN In an attempt to encourage students to assume greater responsibility in"the regulation of their own affairs, L.L. Doigl developed a citizenship rating plan. He maintains that a citizenship plan which is designed primarily to improve deportment or activity in extra-curricular organizations wi l l f a i l because It has left out of consideration many important elements of training in school citizenship. School citizenship devices, according to this author, should present a broad citizenship, should encourage action, should develop co-operation and should inspire leadership and initiation. 1. Description of citizenship rating plan: Distinctive features of the plan are as follows; (a) It rates the students on the basis of characteristics of citizenship possessed by them and also on their activities as members of the student organization. (b) It rates a l l types of activity - curricular and extra-curricular. The plan is administered by the Student Council through three agencies; (a) The citizenship rating clerk - this officer collects data and compiles citizenship ratings. (b) The faculty advisory board - the members of this group grant citizenship points on the basis of 1. Doig, L.L.-, op c i t . . p.42 the classification given below (c) The student court - this organization is composed of a judge, a clerk and chief officer elected by the student body In the regular school elections. A l l cases involving the violation of the student body rules comes before this court. Penalties are imposed in the form of deficiency points which are subtracted from the total of citizenship points earned. Citizenship Point Classification  Class 1 . Personal characteristics and student spir i t . (a (b (c (d (e (f Courtesy and good manners. Work habits. Punctuality. Co-operation with faculty. Co-operation with students. Initiative and leadership. The number of points awarded under this classification is computed on the basis of reports which each advisor procures from teachers. Class 2. Activities. (a (b (c (d (e (f SS (h Scholarship. Athletics. Public speaking and dramatics. News and annual work. Office holding. Musical organization work. Special acts of good citizenship. Club membership. Points awarded under this classification are a matter of record. The student's activities during each semester are evaluated on the basis of the rules governing the earning of citizenship points which followst Rules Governing the Earning of Citizenship Points (a) The number of citizenship points earned by each student is computed at the end of each quarter. (b) One hundred citizenship points are the maximum number which any student may earn. (c) Ten points are the maximum which may be earned 25 under each item of the two classifications. (d) Not more than forty citizenship points may be earned outside of Class 1. (e) The f inal citizenship rating is the number of citizenship points earned minus the number of deficiency points received. General Provisions (a) No student is eligible for election to any position of student leadership whose rating for the preceding quarter was less than 80. (b) No student is recommended to any college or for any position whose average rating in citizenship is below 80. (c) No student is permitted to retain any student office or take part in any student extra-curricular activity whose deficiency point is above 20. 2. Criticism of the Citizenship Rating Plans This plan comes nearer to measuring school citizenship habits than any of the previous schemes. Under any of the foregoing methods, i t is quite possible for a listless student with no interest in anything pertaining to the school to receive a high citizenship rating. It is only necessary to refrain from disorder. The citizenship rating plan demands more than a passive submission in order to be evaluated as a good school citizen. In an attempt to assess such a plan, the following criticisms are pertinent; (a) The three general provisions are of questionable value. For example, the barring of pupils whose deficiency point record is above 20 from a l l extra-curricular activity does not seem justifiable. 26 (b) The plan claims as one of its distinctive characteristics, that i t enables students to be rated in a l l activities - curricular and extra-curricular. A very limited classification is used, however, for the allocation of citizenship points. (c) The teachers award some citizenship points for the student's personal characteristics. No information is available as to whether a l l the student's teachers give ratings - and if so, how final ratings are computed. E. POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING A l l methods of evaluating citizenship which have been described are dependent upon some scheme of rating activities and personal characteristics. The search for a positive, impartial, objective, flexible and yet simple method of estimating and equating citizenship has resulted in a great deal of experimentation in the various schools. One school's attempt to provide such a scheme has resulted in what is known as a positive citizenship rating plan, which is described ful ly in the following chapter. ! 27 CHAPTER III POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING The positive citizenship rating plan affords an opportunity for each student to build up a valuable and enlightening record of his behaviour. Its development required the co-operative efforts of al 1 concerned - pupils, teachers and administrators. The successful and unsuccessful experiences of other schools were studied. This scheme of positive citizenship rating, which is a composite of many ideas, reached its present status only after much open-minded experimentation and modification. A. Major Objectives of Positive Citizenship Rating The establishment of a positive citizenship rating scheme necessarily entails a careful consideration of the objectives of such a program. These may be best classified under two main headings. 1. To develop citizenship and character ideals using a positive approach. A recent research study* has shown that the use of a well-chosen and carefully administered system of citizenship rating tends toward the accomplishment of building character and developing ethical attitudes of conduct. It must be clear that any rating system, while attempting to evaluate a student1s citizenship, should include a l l his activities, curricular and extra-curricular. In their sanctioned and organized form,extra-curricular 1. Lottick, Kenneth V. , op. c i t . p. 60 28 activities are particularly potent i n establishing desirable behaviour patterns. This major objective of a l l education, namely to develop citizenship and character ideals, may be divided into more specific alms as follows: (a) To provide a school program related to the student's present needs and interests which w i l l contribute to making desirable conduct the most li k e l y outcome. If the school is organized and administered so that the student has opportunities and responsibilities somewhat similar i n a small way to those he w i l l have later as a grown-up citizen, he w i l l be the better able to meet and discharge these important responsibilities. » (b) To provide numerous opportunities in which the student may gradually assume increasing responsibility for his own direction. The aim i s to produce an environment in which the student who has learned to control himself may help others to work out their problems and in which the student who has not learned self-control is constantly offered attractive opportunities to form proper habits. (c) To provide an environment i n which students may practise democratic values in a l l their human relationships in the school. Children are and become good citizens only as they acquire s k i l l In human relationships which make for happy and successful l i v i n g both for themselves and others i n 29 the home, the school and the community. 2. To evaluate citizenship by means of observing, recording and equating significant items of student behaviour. Such data constitutes an extremely useful part of an individual's case history. Case data are essential In personnel administration. Teachers and administration officers who accept responsibility for the guidance of children entrusted in their care have problems to solve in educational diagnosis and treatment, which necessitate case knowledge of their pupils as individuals If maladjustment an ong pupils is to be averted or diminished, i t must be detected in i ts incipient stages through definite knowledge of individual ability and performance.^ The following are more specific aims of citizenship evaluation: (a) To provide counsellors and guidance officers with objective evidence of a student's social and emotional adjustment, and to develop through guidance, worthy social attitudes and behaviour. (b) To observe and record significant items of student behaviour so that teachers may become more sensitive as a group to students as growing, dynamic beings. (c) To provide information basic to effective evaluation of citizenship habits. B. EXPLANATION AND INTRODUCTION OF POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING Each year, through the group guidance classes, the plan is thoroughly discussed with the new students. Emphasis is l.Reavis,W.C., Pupil Adjustment in Junior and Senior High  Schools, p. 82, New York, D.C.Heath & Co., 1926. placed on the fact that i t is simply a positive record of the pupil's citizenship which w i l l be of value to the student, the teachers, the counsellors and the administrators of the school. This is done by issuing merits and demerits as records of significant items of behaviour. It has been determined that pupils become concerned with preventing debit entries against their citizenship records only after they have built up a positive "bank balance" surplus of citizenship credits. Every attempt is made during curricular and extra-curricular work to show pupils many opportunities for earning citizenship credits in the form of merits. 1. Kinds of Meritsg (a) "A" Merits: These merits are given for excellent classroom work, superior note books, extra-contri-butions to lesson periods, and improvement of work habits and quality of work. An effort is made to keep the granting of merits as standardized as possible throughout the school. Each department meets regularly to discuss the issuing'of these merits. The following is given as a guide to a l l new teachers who may be in doubt as to how or when or for what reason "A" merits should be issued. English Department i . Spelling (five correct lessons), i i . Reports - biographies etc. i l l . Auditorium work, iv. Exercise books. v. Effort in exercise given. Home Economics 31 Poods i . Assignments - showing extra work done or very special care taken in preparation, i i . Note book work, i i i . Classroom work - work especially well-done, iv . Illustrative material brought in relative to the lesson. Clothing i . Work finished ahead of date set,because of diligence, i i . Extra work beyond requirements, i i i . Illustrative material brought in that would be of special interest to the class and related to the work. Social Studies Department I. Satisfactory note books, i i . Additional work in note books. I i i . Written or oral reports, iv. Better than average contributions to auditorium programmes, v. Donations of illustrative material. Science Department i . For Science note books, i i . For assignments well done. I i i . For suitable classroom material and reports. Shop Department i . Chiefly for improvement in quality of work, i i . Satisfactory note books. Mathematics Department 1. Exercise books, i i . Special effort, i i i . Supplementary material brought to Increase the value of lessons. Physical Education and Health Department Physical Education I. Marked Improvement in physical education as determined by testing. i i . Outstanding achievement beyond expectation of the course. Health i . Outstanding note books. I i . Exceptional work on special assignments, i i i . Bringing material bearing directly on the work in progress. Commercial Department Bookkeeping i . Satisfactory note books, i i . Additional work in note books. Typing i . For papers well done, i i . For effort and improvement. Business Arithmetic I. Satisfactory note books, i i . Accuracy tests. Junior Business i . Oral reports to class, i i . Satisfactory note books, i i i . For effort and Improvement. Art Department I. For extra drawings, i i . For effort and improvement, i i i . Poster work for the school. The application of the above guide is the prerogative of the individual teacher and as such is subjective. However, each department decides the maximum number of merits to be issued in the period between each report (approximately two en d one half months). The following is a sample "A" merit slip issued by teachers in a l l departments. Under "remarks the teacher is required to f i l l in sufficient detail so that the student is given the reason for receiving this merit credit. The guidance teachers and the administration of the school can thus check on the reason for issuing the s l i p . FORM 1 "A" MERIT SLIP 3 3 (b) "B" merits: These merits are issued for service in any form, as a classroom monitor, a member of the regular school monitor staff, or for assistance rendered to the school. Every effort is made to see that a l l pupils are afforded an opportunity to earn citizenship credits in the form of service merits. Teachers are urged to l i s t a considerable number of definite jobs to be performed by pupils and the citizenship credit that each job wil l earn i f It is performed efficiently. The credits are to be allocated on the general basis that one "B" merit should be equivalent to sixty minutes of service. For example, in subject periods such as physical education, about one-quarter to one-third of the pupils could be assigned different tasks such as leaders, assistant 34 leaders, recorders, assistant recorders, valuables monitor, locker monitors, captains, managers, referees, etc. At the end of each month, most of these duties could be rotated and thus every pupil in the class could have sufficient opportunity within the year to earn service merit credits in these periods. In extra-curricular activities, the following is a guide for teachers: Granting of "B" Merits for Extra-Curricular Services i.Members of House Councils, Grade Councils, School Council - 5 merits per quarter. i i . Executive Members of Councils - 3 additional merits besides those earned In #i. i i i . Assistance at evening performances - 3 merits for two hours or more work. iv. Clubs - credit for those members who work for the • benefit of other members of the club, such as secretary etc. - 5 merits per term. v. Participation In programmes of Grade Assemblies -1 merit per programme. v i . Participation in programmes of Noon House Assemblies - maximum of 1 merit per programme. v i i . House Plays - allocated on the basis of time spent in rehearsals - 3 extra merits per performance for evening performances or performances away from the school. v i i i . Referees (after school games) - 1 merit per game. ix. Classroom monitors - 1 merit for two weeks' service. x. Acting efficiently as a guide, counsellor etc. to a new pupil - 1 merit. x i . Outstanding service for the school, class or teacher - 1 to 3 merits. x i i . Monitor staff Regular monitors - 1 merit for sixty minutes of service. Chief monitors - same as above plus 2 extra merits per month. 3 5 x i i i . Merit bookkeepers - 1 merit for one week of service. xiv. Equipment recorders - 1 merit for one week of service. The following is a sample "B" merit slip issued by teachers in all departments. FORM 11 "B" MERIT SLIP (c) "Co-operation" Merits; Although these are called "co-operation" merits, they are classified as "A" merits for purposes of recording. They are awarded each report time by teachers on a special co-operation merit form, one form given to the boys and one to the girls of each class. After each quarter, the co-operation merit reporter cuts off the rating strip (October's ratings, then January's, leaving the.Easter rating) to prevent the ratings being automatically repeated. FORM 111 "CO-OPERATION" MERIT SLIP 36 CO-OPERATION MERITS CLASS IV SUBJECT: fcU-nce TEACHER:; /*/r-. /^Aon ROOM* 2 - 0 / Return to Box / hred \J;//iarr>s Reporter Easter Jan. Oct. 7)<Po'/<J /Kos's / Crr~£>r*d'0 m .fond 3 C'fc • Teachers are urged not to err In measuring students according to their scholastic ability and success rather than their attitudes to work, study, class and school. In an endeavor to make the ratings as objective and definite as possible, the following is suggested: Co-operation Merits 5 - Outstanding work (according to abili ty) ; the pupil generally and voluntarily contributes and initiates in the class "above and beyond the line of duty". 4 - Does good work (within limits of abil i ty) ; rarely needs checking; response free; seldom does voluntary work. 3 - Quite satisfactory in written work; does not need checking; work done on time, not always carefully; 37 willing response; quality of work not necessarily high. 2 - Similar, but the student does not take much active part In lesson unless stimulated by teacher, that i s , activity is dependent upon teacher; work satisfactorily completed under supervision. 1 - Ready and willing but needs pressure; no complaints as to routine, but makes l i t t l e contribution to class. 0 - Negative; work done if pressed; not openly trouble-some. -1 - Requires checking; Is talkative and disturbing; must be checked occasionally to complete routine work. - 2 - Usually needs checking for work which is of poor quality; noisy; books poorly kept; loses things; very forgetful. -3 - No co-operation; becomes a problem. (d) "Class" Merits; These merits count as one-half of a "B" merit. The boys and girls of each class carry an attendance sl ip . At the end of each period, the teacher is required to mark the citizenship of the class for that period. Four steps or gradations of class citizenship rating were decided upon as being enough for the purpose of distinguishing levels of co-operation and at the same time, few enough for convenience. The following class citizenship scale is used;; 3-1- - excellent co-operation. 3 - satisfactory co-operation. 2 - unsatisfactory co-operation, after school r o l l period required. 1 - highly unsatisfactory co-operation, investigation of reasons for poor citizenship by r o l l teacher. 38 Class merits are awarded for: i . Receiving a 3+- citizenship rating from a substitute teacher (if a substitute remains in the classroom for more than one week, he or she wil l be regarded as a regular teacher as far as the Merit System is concerned), i i . Receiving five or six 3+ citizenship ratings in one day. i i i . Exceptionally fine class citizenship while the teacher is absent from the classroom, iv. Receiving 3 or 3+ rating for the r o l l period for ten consecutive school days. The following is an example of a "class" merits s l ip . FORM IV tt CLASS" MERIT SLIP DATE Name Class "CLASS" MERIT Remarks izxce/Zcit' cf/xten tAip — The class merit reporter receives these from the subject teacher or r o l l teacher and is required to keep these in a special folder supplied for this purpose. 39 The attendance slip monitors carry daily attendance sheets which they f i l l out each morning. The lower half of the daily attendance sl ip, shown below, is used for' the class citizenship rating. FORM V DAILY CITIZENSHIP SLIP Citizenship fBRio p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7-t- i r /D A fa 7 7-Where a class is rated as excellent (3-f), the teacher is required to Initial the citizenship rating. A class merit reporter keeps a daily record of class citizenship and at the end of each quarter, turns over this information to the student citizenship bookkeeper in each class. Every opportunity is used by the r o l l teacher and the guidance department to encourage classes to develop a group spirit of co-operation. Wherever possible classes are commended and given a class merit as a record of this group effort. No one can fai 1 to be Impressed with the faithfulness with which pupils live up to group standards which emerge from the development of a sense of "belonging" in a group. The form used by the class merit reporter for recording class merits follows? FORM VI CLASS MERIT RECORD 40 CLASS MERIT RECORD for CLASS: 7 WEEK OF A^/ . TO A/os.. it/*/-? REPORTER: Cjreorqtr /^/sfAeJs No. of CLASS MERITS EARNED: PER.l 2 3 4 5 6 DAY 1 1+ 3^ 3 3h 3h 3-h-DAY 2 3-h 3 3+ 3-h DAY 3 3-h 3-h 3h 3-h 3+ 3-h-DAY 4 3-h 3h 3-h- 3-h~ 3 DAY 5 ? + 3-h 3^ 3 ?h J DAY 6 J ?+- %• 3-h-(e) Demeritst No l i s t of acts for which demerits wi l l be imposed is supplied because of i ts negative suggestion, but the general understanding is that the commission of any act 41 or acts militant to the best interests of the group wil l be cause for demerit. The demerit is the record of the act. Breach of classroom discipline is considered a matter for the individual teacher, not to be handled by giving demerits except as a record of specific punishment. , The following is an example of a "demerit" s l i p : FORM V l l DEMERIT SLIP Name Date / l / i i / . * * - / V / Class / V DEMERIT One 0) Remarks P^^a jcAoo/ C. THE RECORDING OF CITIZENSHIP The recording of merits and demerits is done by student bookkeepers who have been elected by members of each class. In cases of large classes and mixed classes, several bookkeepers are elected. These bookkeepers receive the merit slips directly from the students or teachers and record them in their record books. Demerits are placed in the guidance teachers' mail boxes, are noted by these teachers and then are turned over to the student bookkeepers. For each entry in this record book, the 42 citizenship recorder must have a corresponding citizenship sl ip, each of which must be Initialled by the issuing teacher. At any time, a student may ask the bookkeeper to show him his present standing. The book must be ready at any time for auditing by the president of another class. A sample page from a record book kept by a student bookkeeper Is given below* FORM V l l l MERIT BOOKKEEPER'S RECORD Name: Jfvhn Par-kef Class 2.0 MERITS Date Reason Teacher A B ^xtra uJori. /in t^n^//iJ> / / Oct , /v/ on/lor U)»r/< f./<. > Oct. /O £*trP /4rt~ u)arA /?•/? / Oct. " A/OOrt - />OL/y //?/• e qrjrnm <? Oct- * /QSi'/S'tjnce at Csrn/y/* / f./< Oct. J~0 c /s / J^uc/i *s no to AooA. Ajd\J. 7 C^u/c/ *t f? fu) -A><y/> i / /"/. / /JoJ. /O ^/^jo/c mor?' t sp.d. / etc -DEMERITS Date Reason Teacher Oct V ^/'itufA/vct C/ZSJ / J 43 At the end of each quarter, the citizenship bookkeeper totals the number of merits and demerits. The co-operation merit reporter and class merit reporter supply the bookkeeper with summaries of these merits. On a mimeographed form, given below, the bookkeepers compute the total citizenship credits. FORM IX SUMMARY OF CITIZENSHIP ' CLASS / * / CITIZENSHIP STANDING- FOR MONTHS OF Uj?^ - Oct/ NAME T O T A L C L A S S MERITS MERITS T O T M D E M WORK G R A D E r " Co-op- nm.fr CtAJJ /9 S /S 9 s> 0 S'-o St 8-X 3 / *•/ // / 7f-o 7f /?-Cooped, cJohn x4 r / C-h /J?9vf(S . rfeef %/ 7 %f s /o ro 6 5~0-0 so 8-17 '1 // Co 0 Co-o £0 $ %6 4 if /o /O fi 0 3-/-JobjCrt . Pe/cS %l 4 %4 /0 43 O 43 l> s~ 30 f? C r f 0 rt-o *9 8-X3 r if 1/ 72- 0 7X- s+-XI 3 xf 4 /o 3f 3f'-4 ?<4 Pee 6/0 s. ?/// %7~ 4 U 0 JO 1/6 O 40-0 4o X3 3 x7 X3 // O *4-o £4 3 INSTRUCTIONS TO BOOKKEEPERS: 1. Add a+ Co-op4 B+js. CI. Merit Columns to get total. 2. If pupil has only ONE demerit, do not subtract. 3. If pupil has more than one demerit, then subtract DOUBLE that number from total. 44 These summary sheets are turned over to the guidance teachers who record these citizenship totals for each pupil on a large sheet of squared paper. When the scheme was f i r s t Introduced, zero was taken as the dividing line between acceptable and unsatisfactory citizenship and was rated C. A l l standings above zero were rated C+ or better. A l l below zero were rated C- or lower. No attempt was made to follow a normal distribution because a very large majority of the student body should be acceptable or better i n their citizenship. These ratings were computed separately for the boys of each grade and the g i r l s of each grade. The citizenship ratings were then given to the r o l l teachers for recording on the pupils's report card. After several years experience, i t was found that on this basis, citizenship ratings were i n many cases too high. It was decided to rate a l l grades together and include both boys and g i r l s i n the distribution. Any score below zero was rated as E, and scores above zero to vary from D- to Af, depending on the size of the score. This was based on the idea that any positive score could not be rated as an E, and that i t took a f a i r l y large positive score to obtain a C or better citizenship rating. A committee of guidance teachers works out this actual distribution of grading, each quarter. The total scores, which are supplied by the citizenship bookkeepers, were found to vary sufficiently so that ten point intervals gave a f a i r l y normal distribution. However, It was necessary to increase the class interval with the higher scores to avoid an excessive range. 45 Table 1 gives the citizenship distribution for Easter, 1948. TABLE 1 DISTRIBUTION OP SCORES AND CITIZENSHIP GRADING FOR EASTER, 1948 Scores Frequency Citizenship Grade 2 8 A+ 6 5 A 6 6 A-1 2 9 B+ 1 6 0 B 2 2 5 B-1 7 9 c + 1 4 8 C 9 3 C-5 7 D+ 1 3 D 7 D-2 E D. USES MADE OF CITIZENSHIP RECORDS The whole plan of positive citizenship rating is closely linked with the guidance program of the school. The scheme works admirably too, with the pupil monitor system which includes a student court conducted by the executive officers of the monitor system and the teacher sponsor. Students, teachers and the administration of the school, over a period of ten years, have expressed themselves as definitely in favour of the plan. The following are some of the more important advantages claimed for this plant 1 . The student of mediocre capacity is not discouraged with mediocre achievement in academic subjects when he knows that the school is observing and making records of the fact that he is acquiring habits and attitudes most conducive to successful l iving. 2. A l l students are encouraged to participate f u l l y in the extra-curricular act i v i t i e s of the school. 3. Teachers are urged to help students to capitalize on their special a b i l i t i e s so that they feel that they have a real contribution to make to school l i f e . In this way, the citizenship scheme gives teachers information regarding pupils' outstanding a b i l i t i e s . 4. Classes which one might expect to be rather trouble-some are quite evidently doing their best to co-operate to the best of their a b i l i t y . 5. The system has proved to be an agency for ethical and social education. The teachers have realized that their task is not that of preventing a l l misconduct and errors, but of guiding their students i n such a way that misconduct w i l l not be too detrimental to the errant pupil and that he w i l l learn from his mistakes and be the better for them. 6. As adequate records are available, the guidance teachers are able to Investigate problems In pupil -teacher relationships and aid in the development of attitudes and habits appropriate to good citizenship. 7. The i n i t i a t i o n of such a plan provides a stimulus for the work of d l student organizations. 8. By the use of this plan, a l l students are put on a parity because no certain activity is rewarded more than another. 47 CHAPTER IV GENERAL ANALYSIS OP POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING The influence of the positive rating plan on school citizenship Is shown more clearly by an analysis of the pupil's actual behaviour than by any other factor. In fact, i t might be said that socially, desirable behaviour - behaviour that is considerate of the best interests of the pupils, individually and collectively in relation to their school l i f e - is the ultimate goal of citizenship training. Unfortunately, the available information related to the students' citizenship prior to entering this junior high school Is extremely meagre. The application for enrolment cards received from the seven contributing elementary schools come with the following brief information:: name, address, phone, age, date of birth, parent's name, I .Q. , one letter grade covering achievement in a l l academic subjects evaluated by standardized tests, and a letter grade in citizenship rated by principals and teachers. A progress record card also gives cumulative academic information for the f i r s t six grades. A medical record card completes the available information. By analysing the records of these new pupils and by following them through the three grades as a group, a general pattern of the influence of the plan has been obtained. The new pupils entering the school in September, 1945 were selected for this part of the study. Also, by checking the information available from the 48 student merit books in a l l grades for one complete year, the general efficiency of the scheme has been assessed. In the case of "A" and "B" merit credits, an analysis was made of the number issued to each pupil, the teacher concerned, and the subject or activity involved. Demerits were carefully classified and an attempt has been made to evaluate the reasons for imposing these. A check was made on how each teacher was using the scheme to determine i f the positive approach was being maintained by a l l staff members. To do this, a relationship between the number of merit credits given and demerits issued was established. Comparisons between teachers within the school and within departments were also attempted. The school year 1947-48 was selected for this general survey of the merit system. A. CITIZENSHIP OF NEW PUPILS An examination of the application for enrolment cards of new pupils from the seven elementary schools in the junior high school district reveals a high positive relationship between the achievement and citizenship ratings. Previous studies of extra-curricular participation in relation to intelligence and to average school marks established a much lower positive correlation. W.J.Hayes1 found a positive correlation of plus .39 ± .026 between participation in voluntary school activities and intelligence. K.V.Lottick 2 , in a 1. Hayes. W.J.. Some Factors Influencing Participation in  Voluntary Group Activities. Contributions to Education, No 419. p.71. New York, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930. 2. Lottick, K.V. , op. c i t . . p.59. 49 monographic study of the operation of a merit system in a small high school, found a positive correlation of plus .368 between participation in the system and average school marks. As the citizenship grading given by the elementary school is frankly subjective and as the positive correlations in a l l schools concerned are extremely high, i t was decided to compare these ratings from the various schools and attempt to evaluate the influence of the positive citizenship ratings plan on this new group of pupils entering the school. The coefficients of correlation* between achievement and citizenship ranged from plus.782±.028 to plus .929±.014 for the seven elementary schools. When the achievement and citizenship ratings.were pooled, the resulting coefficient was plus . 862± .008. A breakdown of the data by separate schools is given in Table 11. TABLE 11 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT AND CITIZENSHIP OP NEW PUPILS AS RATED BY THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Elementary School Number of Pupils r P.E.r 89 plus .904 .013 86 plus .782 .028 56 plus .890 .019 44 plus .875 .024 45 plus .929 .014 35 plus .901 .021 73 plus .861 .020 428 plus .862 .008 As these citizenship ratings agree to a marked extent with the general achievement of the pupils and are entirely 1. Reference Is made to Pearson coefficient of correlation. ' 50 subjective, one cannot help being skeptical of their value. It would seem that these elementary school teachers judge pupils' citizenship to a marked degree on the basis of scholastic records. In discussing the evaluation of personal characteristics, writers frequently point out that every attempt should be made to have some kind of descriptive accounts of actions causing the teacher to rate the student in the manner decided upon. This would provide evidence supporting the decision and would encourage careful consideration and objective observation of students in advance of the rating. An example of a descriptive rating scale as developed by J.W.Gates^ is given in Appendix B. The forms dealing with personal characteristics should be descriptive rather than in the nature of a scale. Therefore "marks" of any kind or placement, as on a straight line representing a scale from highest to lowest should not be used Characteristics studied should be such that teachers wil l be likely to have opportunities to observe behaviour that gives evidence about them.2 B. THE INFLUENCE OF POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING ON NEW PUPILS In order to study the influence of the positive citizenship rating plan on the new pupils entering the school in September, 1945, an analysis of the relationship between achievement and citizenship ratings was made for each of the three years at the school. In June 1946, the coefficient of correlation was plus , 5 5 9 ± . 0 2 2 . At the end of the second 1.Gates. John W.. The Civic Competence of High School Seniors. p. 148. Doctor's Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1945. 2.Smith, Tyler, and the Evaluation Staff, op.ci t . . pp.467-68. 51 year in the junior high school, the coefficient of correlation was plus .457j;.027. At the end of the third year, in June 1948, it was found that the correlation between achievement and citizenship yielded the lowest coefficient of the three years, v i z . , plus , 4 0 8 ± . 0 3 1 . A l l these coefficients are considerably lower than those found In the examination of the elementary school data. Common sense would dictate that one would not expect a l l students of high achievement to be rated as superior school citizens, and a l l students of low achievement to be rated as unsatisfactory citizens. By comparing these coefficients with those secured by Hayes^, i t appears that the following correlations, given in Table 111, are entirely normal. TABLE 111 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT AND CITIZENSHIP RATINGS OP SELECTED GROUP DURING YEARS 1945 - 1948 Grade Number of Pupils r P . E . r Grade Seven (1945-46) 428 plus .559 .022 Grade Eight (1946-47) 394 plus .457 .027 Grade Nine (1947-48) 325 plus .408 .031 In compiling the correlation data, i t appeared significant that the number of students rated below C in citizenship decreased from grade seven to grade nine. Starting 1.Hayes, W.J., op. c i t . . p.71. with approximately thirteen per cent in grade seven (June, 1945), the number of students rated below C in citizenship decreased to seven per cent in grade nine (June, 1948), Data in Table IV gives warrant, in general, for stating that the school citizenship ratings improve as students advance from year to year in the junior high school, under this positive plan. As the operation of the citizenship rating scheme for the year 1947-48 has been analysed and evaluated in detail later in this study, no attempt has been made to analyse and enlarge this generalization at this point. TABLE IV NUMBER OP STUDENTS RATED BELOW C IN CITIZENSHIP RATINGS OP SELECTED GROUP DURING YEARS 1945-1948 Citizenship Ratings Below C Grade Seven 1945-46 Grade Eight 1946-47 Grade Nine 1947-48 No. i No. % No. C- 28 6.5 20 5.0 14 4.3 D+ 20 4.6 10 2.5 6 1.8 D 6 1.4 4 1.0 2 0.6 D- 1 0.2 - - 1 0.3 Total 55 12.7 34 8.5 23 7.0 53 C. ANALYSIS O P " A " MERITS The "A" or academic merit i s issued by a l l teachers for excellent classroom work, note books, extra contributions to lesson periods, improvement of work habits and quality of work.• In order to assess the influence of these merits, an analysis was made of the number earned by a l l pupils at the different •grade levels. It should be noted that the total number of "A" merits includes the co-operation merits issued each quarter. Tables were compiled of the number of merits earned by the boys and the girl s in each grade in order to study any significant differences. Also, two classes in each grade were selected and compared. As this school has grouped classes homogeneously according to school achievement, a relationship between achievement and the number of merits earned was obtained. At the grade nine level, the reasons for issuing " A " merits were tabulated and analysed. This proved of l i t t l e value and was not completed for a l l classes. However, interesting and pertinent material was found In the survey of the number of merits the various teachers issued in each department. In order to determine the number of "A" merits voluntarily issued by the teachers, co-operation merits were not included In these tables. The following material is the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis at the different grade levels. An attempt to evaluate the citizenship rating scheme on the basis of this analysis w i l l be made in Chapter VI. 1. Grade Sevent In grade seven, "A" merit scores ranged from 31 to 261. The median score was 118.09; the mean was 118.04. The frequency distribution of the "A" merits earned by the grade 54 seven students during the year is given in Table V, TABLE V DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES'OP GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS Scores Percentage of Class Interval Frequency Students In Each Group 250 - 269 1 0.2 230 - 249 2 0.4 210 - 229 5 1 190 - 209 12 3 170 - 189 23 5 150 - 169 55 12 130 - 149 89 18 110 - 129 92 19 90 - 109 84 17 70 - 89 54 11 50 - 69 33 7 30 - 49 29 6 Total 479 *1 " - 90.39 M - 118.09 Q 3 - 144.61 A considerable difference was found in the "A" merit scores of the boys and the girls in grade seven. The median score for the girls was 128.75; the mean was 128.34. The median score for the boys was 104.50; the mean was 106.60. Tables VI and V l l give the actual frequency distribution of the scores for each group. When the number of "A" merits earned by the girls in the highest achievement class were compared with the scores in the lowest achievement class, a considerable difference was found. The median score for the girls in the high achievement group was 159.50; the mean was 166.60. The median score in the low achievement group was 99.50; the mean was 104.80. This difference between high and low achievement groups is to be 55 TABLE VI DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES OP GRADE SEVEN GIRLS Scores Percentage of Class Interval Frequency Students in Each Group 250 - 269 1 0.4 230 - 249 2 0.8 210 - 229 2 0.8 190 - 209 9 4 170 - 189 15 6 150 - 169 39 15 130 - 149 56 22 110 - 129 53 21 90 - 109 38 15 70 - 89 19 7 50 - 69 9 4 30 - 49 9 4 TOTAL 252 Q-L - 103.18 M - 128.75 Q 3 - 152.06 TABLE V l l DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN BOYS Scores Percentage of Class Interval Frequency Students in Each Group 210 - 229 3 1 190 - 209 3 1 170 - 189 8 4 150 - 169 16 7 130 - 149 33 15 110 - 129 39 17 90 - 109 46 20 70 - 89 35 15 50 - 69 24 11 30 - 49 20 9 TOTAL 227 0^ - 76.79 M - 104.5 Q 3 - 133.29 56 expected as "A" merits are issued as records of excellent academic work and general improvement of work habits and not for participation in school activities or service to the school. It wil l be noticed that even in the lowest achievement group that the upper quartile is considerably higher than the mean for the entire grade seven group. Table V l l l gives the dis t r i -bution of "A"merit scores for the two gir ls ' classes. TABLE VIII DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN GIRLS 1 Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency ' Percentage Frequency' Percentage of Students of Students 250 - 269 1 4 230 - 249 1 4 210 - 229 . • .. 190 - 209 3 11 170 - 189 3 11 1 4 150 - 169 11 40 4 14 130 - 149 7 26 3 10 110 - 129 1 4 4 14 90 - 109 5 17 70 - 89 7 24 50 - 69 3 10 30 - 49 2 7 TOTAL 27 29 High Achievement Class* q x - 145.95, M - 159.50, Q 3 - 177.83 Low Achievement Class : - 76.93, M - 99.50, Q 3 - 133.25 A comparison of "A" merit scores earned by the boys of high and low achievement classes gave a distribution somewhat similar to the gir ls ' scores. The median score for the boys in the high achievement class was 157.0; the mean was 153.60. The median score in the low achievement group was 82.83j the mean 57 was 95.40. Although the boys' scores are lower than those of the gir ls , the upper quartile in the low achievement group is considerably higher than the median for the grade. Table IX gives the distribution of "A" merit scores for these two boys' classes* TABLE IX DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES OP HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN BOYS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Of Students Of Students 210 - 229 1 4 1 4 190 - 209 3 12 • • • • 170 - 189 6 24 • • 150 - 169 4 16 2 9 130 - 149 4 16 2 9 110 - 129 5 20 3 14 90 - 109 . . • • 2 9 70 - 89 1 4 3 14 50 - 69 1 4 6 27 30 - 49 • • • 3 14 TOTAL 25 22 High Achievement:: Ql - 112.5, M - 157.0, Q 3 - 182.0 Class Low Achievement Classr. ^ - 57.83, M - 82.83, Q 3 - 126.16 An analysis of the number of "A" merits issued by the teachers of the grade seven classes revealed many weaknesses and inconsistencies. No attempt was made to include the co-operation merits in this survey, although they count as "A" merits when the student bookkeepers compute citizenship totals. Teachers are required to award co-operation merits each quarter. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain the number of "A" merits that teachers issued during the year in regular class-room work. As each teacher had under his care a varying number 58 of grade seven students, this information was meaningless unti l the average number of Issued merits was computed in relation to the number of students. It was determined that the average number of "A" merits issued by teachers during the year in relation to the number of students ranged from 0.04 to 18.00. When this information was computed for the boys, the range was from 0.09 to 18.90; and for the girls , the range was from 0.04 to 17.58. These inconsistencies were not entirely due to differences in subjects taught, as in many cases a considerable range was found within the same department. Thirteen of the thirty-four grade seven teachers issued less than one merit per student during the school year. At the other extreme, eight teachers issued more than eight "A" merits per student during the year. Table X gives the actual number of "A" merits issued, number of students concerned and the average number of "A" merits issued per student by the grade seven teachers. 2. Grade Eight:: In Grade eight, "A" merit scores ranged from 30 to 255. The median score was 128.69; the mean was 130.52. If we compare the mean of the scores of the grade eight students with the mean of the grade seven group, we find that the mean has increased 12.48. The frequency distribution of the "A" merits earned by the grade eight students during the year is given in Table XI. 59 PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OP "A" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE SEVEN TEACHERS Teacher "A" Merits Issued Number of Students Average per Pupil Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 1 162 537 699 227 252 479 0.71 2.13 1.46 2 5 M 5 103 - 103 0.05 0.05 3 165 m» 165 103 - 103 1.60 — 1.60 4 7 - 8 52 - 52 0.13 - 0.13 5 436 - 436 103 - 103 4.23 — 4.23 6 11 - 11 92 - 92 0.12 0.12 7 179 254 433 51 40 91 3.51 6.35 4.76 8 - 2 2 56 56 _ 0.04 0.04 9 • 22 22 - 135 135 _ 0.16 0.16 10 - 355 355 - 155 155 mm 2.29 2.29 11 - 120 120 - 124 124 -' 0.97 0.97 12 - 598 598 - 216 216 • 2.77 2.77 13 - 56 56 - 252 252 - 0.22 0.22 14 65 - 65 227 - 227 0.29 - 0.29 15 365 - 365 126 - 126 2.98 - 2.89 16 327 601 928 36 75 111 9.08 8.01 8.36 17 756 668 1424 40 38 78 18.90 17.58 18.00 18 133 419 552 10 55 65 13.30 7.62 8.49 19 63 589 652 61 75 136 1.03 7.85 4.79 20 880 852 1732 74 59 133 11.89 14.44 13.02 21 313 625 938 51 57 108 6.14 10.96 8.69 22 - 123 123 - 29 29 mm 4.24 4.24 23 282 - 282 22 — 22 12.82 12.82 24 66 178 244 10 26 36 6.60 6.85 6,78 25 46 163 209 10 53 63 4. 60 3.08 3.32 26 267 233 500 53 61 114 5.04 3.82 4.39 27 36 - 36 69 - 69 0.52 mm 0.52 28 683 464 1147 52 88 140 13.13 5.27 8.19 29 - 120 120 - 115 115 mm- 1.04 1.04 -30 59 134 193 110 138 248 0.54 0.97 0.78 31 39 26 65 39 62 101 1.00 0.42 0.64 32 2 4 6 10 26 36 0.20 0.15 0.17 33 5 9 14 57 50 107 0.09 0.18 0.13 34 1638 2510 4148 227 252 479 7.22 9.96 8.66 60 TABLE XI DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS Scores ' i Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency in Each Group 250 - 269 1 0.2 230 - 249 6 1.4 210 - 229 9 2 190 - 209 19 5 170 - 189 32 8 150 - 169 55 13 130 - 149 81 20 110 - 129 86 21 90 - 109 55 13 70 - 89 42 10 50 - 69 13 3 30 - 49 14 3 TOTAL- 413 Q x - 101.95 M - 128.69 Q3 - 156.32 The median "A" merit score for the girls in grade eight was found to be 144.85; the mean was 146.30. The median score for the boys was 115.19; the mean was 114.80. The mean difference between the girls and boys In grade seven was 21,74. In grade eight, the mean difference increased to 31.50. In grade seven, the median gi r ls ' score was 128.75 - In grade eight i t increased to 144.85. For the boys, the median score increased. 10.69. Tables XII and XIII give the actual frequency distribution of the scores for each group. A comparison of the "A" merit scores of the girls in a high achievement grade eight class with a low achievement class reveals a somewhat similar situation to that found in grade seven. The median score for the girls In the high achievement group was 199.5; the mean was 193.3. The median score in the low achievement group was 133.25; the mean was 132.60. The 61 TABLE XII DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES OP GRADE EIGHT GIRLS Scores Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency in Each Group 250 - 269 1 0.5 230 - 249 6 3 210—229 7 3 190 - 209 17 8 170 - 189 20 10 150 - 169 42 20 130 - 149 43 21 110 - 129 35 17 90 - 109 18 9 70 - 89 10 5 50 - 69 4 2 30 - 49 3 1.5 TOTAL 206 Q x - 118.93 M - 144.85 Q 3 - 169.26 TABLE XIII DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT BOYS Scores Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency In Each Group 210 - 229 2 1 190 - 209 2 1 170 - 189 12 6 150 - 169 13 6 130 - 149 38 19 110 - 129 51 24 90 - 109 37 18 70 - 89 32 16 50 - 69 9 4 30 - 49 11 5 TOTAL 207 Q x - 89.34 M - 115.19 Q 3 - 137.53 62 lower quartile in the low achievement class is the same as the lower quartile in the entire grade eight gir ls ' group. Table XIV gives the distribution of "A" merit scores for these two gi r l s ' classes. TABLE XIV DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES OP HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT GIRLS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class lass Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage of Students of Students 230 - 249 3 20 210 - 229 3 20 190 - 209 3 20 170 - 189 1 7 150 - 169 3 20 3 16 130 - 149 1 7 8 42 110 - 129 1 7 6 32 90 - 109 2 10 TOTAL 15 19 High Achievement Class? ^ - 161.17, M - 199.5, Q 3 - 224.5 Low Achievement Class:: Q x - 118.67, M - 133.25,Q3 - 145.13 In an analysis of the boys' scores for the high and low achievement classes, the distribution of "A" merits in Table XV shows more "A" merits were issued to the low boys' group in grade eight than to the low boys' group in grade seven. The median score for the boys in the high achievement class was 157.5;; the mean was 158.0. The median score for the low achievement group was 123.79; the mean was 122.0. The median scores in the low achievement group in grade seven was 82.83, resulting in an increase of 40.96 in grade eight. On the other hand, the high achievement groups of both grades have the same median. TABLE XV 63 DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES OP HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT BOYS 1 Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency i Percentage of Students of Students 210 - 229 1 5 • 190 - 209 2 10 170 - 189 4 20 150 - 169 5 25 3 15 130 - 149 4 20 5 25 110 - 129 3 15 7 35 90 - 109 1 5 2 10 7 0 - 8 9 2 10 50 - 69 1 5 TOTAL 20 20 High Achievement Class: Q x - 134.5, M - 157.5, tQ 3 - 179.5 Low Achievement Class :: ^ - 109.5, M - 123.79, Q 3 - 141.5 The average number of "A" merits issued by grade eight teachers in relation to the number of students ranged from 0.02 to 10.42. Forty per cent of these teachers awarded less than one merit per student during the school year as compared to thirty-seven per cent found in the grade seven survey. However, half as many grade eight teachers gave over eight merits per student during the year as did the grade seven teachers. Definite inconsistencies appeared in the same departments. One teacher gave only 3 "A" merits during the school year while another teacher, who was instructing an equal number of students in the same subject, gave 1494 "A" merits. A complete l i s t of the actual number of students concerned and the average number of "A" merits awarded per student by the grade eight teachers is given in Table XVI. TABLE XVI 64 PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OP "A" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE EIGHT TEACHERS Teacher "A" Merits ] Cssued Number of Students Average per Pupil Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boy Girls Total 1 269 1073 1342 207 206 413 1.30 5.21 3.25 2 3 mm 3 170 - 170 0.02 — 0.02 3 415 - 415 170 - 170 2.44 — 2.44 4 27 mm 27 170 - 170 0.16 mm 0.16 5 1494 mm 1494 170 - 170 8.79 - 8.79 6 8 3 11 18 16 34 0.44 0.19 0.32 7 - 21 21 - 93 93 - 0.23 0.23 8 mm 113 113 - 143 143 - 0.79 0.79 9 - 191 191 - 191 191 - 1.00 1.00 10 - 166 166 - 27 27 - 6.15 6.15 11 - 13 13 - 78 78 0.17 0.17 12 - 28 28 128 128 _ 0.22 0.22 13 29 - 29 207 - 207 0.14 — 0.14 14 8 48 56 46 53 99 0.17 0.91 0.57 15 4 3 7 29 42 71 0.14 0.07 0.10 16 54 166 220 12 15 27 4.50 11.11 8.15 17 48 61 109 80 92 172 0.60 0.66 0.63 18 111 432 543 47 75 122 2.36 5.76 4.45 19 126 211 337 38 58 96 3.32 3.64 3. 51 20 46 147 193 38 58 96 1.21 2.53 2.01 21 - 1583 1583 mm 206 . 206 - 7.68 7.68 22 - 72 72 - 29 29 mm 2.48 2. 48 23 257 420 677 28 37 65 9.18 11.35 10.42 24 582 1432 2014 92 114 206 6.33 12.56 9.78 25 123 240 363 37 35 72 3.32 6.86 5.04 26 1 - 1 31 - 31 0.32 — 0.32 27 21 288 309 33 59 92 0.64 4.88 3.36 28 18 mm 18 31 - 31 0.58 - 0.58 29 68 197 265 21 30 51 3.24 6.57 5.20 30 7 9 16 12 16 28 0.58 0.56 0.57 31 103 122 225 105 80 185 0.98 1.53 1.22 32 40 210 250 30 94 124 1.33 2.33 2.02 33 24 159 183 38 78 116 0.63 2.04 1.58 34 209 573 782 207 206 413 1.01 2.78 1.89 35 44 127 171 8 27 35 5.50 4.70 4.89 65 5. Grade Nlnet The grade nine "A" merit scores ranged from 30 to 250. The median score was 135.53; the mean was 136.31. When we compare the mean of the scores for the three grades, we find that from grade seven to grade eight the mean increased 12.48 and from grade eight to grade nine, the mean increased 5.79. The over-all increase was 18.27. The frequency distribution of the "A" merits earned by the grade nine students during the year Is given in Table XVII. TABLE XVII DISTRIBUTION OP "A" MERIT SCORES OP GRADE NINE STUDENTS Scores Percentage of Pupils Class Interval Frequency in Each Group 250 - 269 1 0.3 230 - 249 3 1 110 - 229 10 3 190 - 209 27 8 170 - 189 32 10 150 - 169 49 15 130 - 149 58 18 110 - 129 62 19 90 - 109 36 11 70 - 89 22 7 50 - 69 10 3 30 - 49 15 5 TOTAL 325 % - 108.53 M - 135.53 Q 3 - 166.13 The median "A" merit score for the girls in grade nine was found to be 153.37; the mean was 152,40. The median score for the boys was 119.75; the mean was 120.4. The mean difference between the boys' and gir ls ' scores in grade nine was 32.0. This corresponds closely to the mean difference of 31.50 found in grade eight. If we compare the median gir ls ' scores for the three grades, we find that there is an increase of 16.10 from grade seven to 66 grade eight and an increase of 8.52 from grade eight to grade nine. In the case of the boys, the median score increased 10.69 from grade seven to grade eight and only 4.56 from grade eight to grade nine. Tables XVIII and XIX give the actual frequency distribution of the "A" merit scores for each group. TABLE XVIII DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE GIRLS Scores Class Interval Percentage of Students in each Group 250 - 269 230 - 249 210 - 229 190 - 209 170 - I89 150 - I69 130 - 149 110 - 129 90 - 109 70 - 89 50 - 69 30 - 49 TOTAL 0.6 2 6 12 14 19 19 14 4 4 3 3 Q/L - 126.32 M - 153.37 Q,3 -182.98 TABLE XIX DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE BOYS Scores Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency i n each Group 190 - 209 8 5 170 - 189 9 6 150 - 169 18 11 130 - 149 27 17 110 - 129 40 24 90 - 109 30 18 70 - 89 15 9 50 - 69 5 3 30 - 49 11 7 TOTAL lo3 0^ - 96.00 M - 119.75 Q 3 - 145.24 67 iA comparison of the" "A" merit scores of the girls in a high achievement grade nine class with a low achievement class reveals less difference than was found in the other two grades. The median score for the girls i n the high achievement group was 1^6.17; the mean was 159 .0. The median score in the low achievement group was 159.5; the mean was 139.20. If we compare the mean differences in the gir ls T scores for each high and low achievement group in the three grades, we find that in grade seven the mean difference was 61.80, In grade eight 60.70, and in grade nine 19.80. Table XX gives the distribution of "A" merit scores for the high and low achievement g i r ls 1 classes in grade nine. TABLE XX DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT - CLASSES -• GRADE NINE.GIRLS Scores 1 High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency » Percentage Frequency Percentage of Students of Students 210 - 22 9 2 10 190 - 209 3 15 170 - 189 3 15 5 21 150 - I69 3 15 5 21 130 - 149 4 20 4 16.5 110 - 129 3 15 5 21 90 - IO9 2 10 4 16.5 70 - 89 • • • • 1 4 TOTAL 20 24 High Achievement Class: - 129.5, M - 156.17, - 189.5 Low Achievement Class: 0^ - 113.5, M - 139.5, ~ 1 65.5 In an analysis of the boys1 scores for the high and low achievement classes, the distribution of "A*1 merits in Table XXI shows that more merits were issued to the low achievement 68 group. The median score for the hoys in the high achievement class was 119• 5, "the mean was 120.80. The median score for the low achievement group was 125.5; the mean was 134.44. If we compare the mean differences in the boys1 scores for each high and low achievement group in the three grades, we find that i n grade seven the mean difference was 58.20, i n grade eight 36.0, and in grade nine the low achievement group was the higher by 13.64. TABLE XXI DISTRIBUTION OF "A" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE NINE BOYS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency j?er cent age Frequency percentage of Students of Students 190 - 209 1 4 3 17 170 - 189 • • • • 1 5 150 - 169 4 18 1 5 130 - 149 3 13 3 17 110 - 129 7 30 5 28 90 - 109 4 18 3 17 70 - T89 3 13 2 11 50 - 69 • • .. .. • * 30 - 49 1 4 • • TOTAL 23 18 High Achievement Class: - 98.25, M - 119.5, - 144.5 Low Achievement Class: Qt. - 106.17, M - 125.5, - 159.5 It was determined that the average number of "A" merits issued by the grade nine teachers during the year in relation to the number of students ranged from O.02 to 19.68. One third of these teachers issued less than one merit per student. Two teachers awarded more than eight merits per student. One of these teachers had an average of 18.83; the other had 19.68. 69 TABLE XXII PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF "A" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE NINE TEACHERS Teacher. "A" Merits ] [ssued Number of S1 budents Averag e per Pupil .Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 1 180 6 3 6 816 163 1 6 2 325 1.10 3.93 2.51 2 7 — 7 I 6 3 — 1 6 3 0.04 0.04 3 324 - 324 1 6 3 - 1 6 3 1.93 — 1.93 4 4 — 4 163 _ I63 0.02 0.02 5 10^6 - - 1 0 5 6 I 6 3 — 163 6.48 — 6.48 6 - 1 6 1 6 - 92 92 - 0 . 1 7 0 . 1 7 7 - 14 14 130 130 0.11 0.11 8 659 - 6 5 9 I63 — I63 4.04 _ 4.04 9 - 1154 1154 - 1 6 2 162 em 7.12 7.12 10 - 3 3 - 51 5 1 — 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 6 11 - 2 6 2 6 — 110 1 1 0 _ 0.24 0.24 12 3 - 3 I63 — 163 0.02 _ 0.02 1 3 37 144 1 8 1 101 1 0 0 2 0 1 0.37 1.44 0 . 9 0 14 1 3 7 221 358 58 51 1 0 9 2 . 3 6 4.33 3 . 2 8 1J 72 444 516 1 8 91 1 0 9 4.00 4.88 4.73 1 6 92 158 2 5 0 2 9 44 73 3.17 3.59 3.42 X Z 1 ? 1 848 979 9 43 52 14.56 19.72 1 8 . 8 3 1 8 267 334 9 48 57 7.44 5.56 5.86 1 9 1518 1375 2 8 9 3 8 3 64 147 18 . 2 9 21.48 19.68 20 571 141 712 71 31 102 8.04 4.55 6 . 9 8 21 144 811 955 59 64 1 2 3 2.44 12.67 7 . 7 6 22 I63 97 2 6 0 108 34 142 1.51 2 . 8 2 I . 8 3 2 3 - 249 249 - 8 3 8 3 3.00 3.00 24 - 7 1 - 37 37 «. 1.92 1.92 25 122 416 538 8 2 64 146 1.49 6 . 5 0 3.68 2 6 - 42 42 - 6 2 6 2 _ 0.68 0.68 21 3 8 66 104 10 32 42 3.80 2 . 0 6 2.48 2 8 79 764 843 1 8 9 1 1 0 9 4.39 8.40 7.73 2 9 2 3 5 163 1 6 2 325 0.01 0.02 0.02 3 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 5 115 1.04 1.04 70 As a result of the two extremely high averages, the grade-nine teachers had the widest range of the three grades. In one department, a teacher who met a l l grade nine students for two periods each week, issued only 5 "A" merits during the year. In the same department, the grade seven teacher issued 4148 and the grade eight teacher 782. Such inconsistencies appeared in several departments. Table XXII gives the actual number of "A" merits issued, the number of students concerned and the average number of "A" merits issued per student. D. ANALYSIS OF "B" MERITS The 11B" or service merit is issued by a l l teachers for service in any form, as a classroom monitor, a member of the regular school monitor staff, or for assistance rendered to the school. In order to assess the influence of these merits, an analysis was made of the number earned by a l l pupils at the different grade levels. It should be noted that the total number of "B n merits includes the class merits which count as one-half of a "B" merit for purposes of recording. Tables were compiled of the number of "B" merits earned by the boys and the girls in each grade in order to study any significant 1 differences. As in the case of the "A" merit analysis, one high and one low achievement class in each grade were selected and compared. In order to determine the number of "B" merits issued voluntarily by the teachers at the different grade levels, class merits were not included in these tables. 1. Grade Seven; The grade seven MB" merit scores ranged from 11 71 to 225. Tae median score was 8 4 . 3 5 ; the mean was 8 7 . 8 5 . These scores are considerably lower than those found i n the "A" merits. The difference between the means of the scores for the "A" and nB w merits issued was 3 0 . 1 9 . Table XXIII gives the frequency distribution of the nB" merits earned by the grade seven pupils during the year. TABLE XXIII DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS Scores Percentage of Pupils Class Interval Frequency i n each Group 210 - 229 2 0 .4 190 - 209 3 0.6 170 - I 8 9 14 3 150 - I 6 9 17 4 130 - 149 41 8 110 - 129 48 10 90 - 109 89 19 70 - 89 99 21 50 - 69 72 15 30 - 49 64 13 10 - 29 30 6 TOTAL 479 Q x - 5 6 . 6 5 M - 8 4 . 3 5 Q3 - 1 11 .69 The median "B" merit score for the gi r l s i n grade seven was found to be 8 6 . 8 3 ; the mean was 9 0 . 0 8 . The median score for the boys was 8 0 . 5 3 ; the mean was 8 5 . 3 7 . The mean difference between the boys* and G i r l s f s scores In grade seven was 4 . 7 1 , as compared to a mean difference of 2 1 . 7 4 found i n the "A" merit analysis of the same grade. Tables XXIV and XXV give the frequency distribution of the scores for each group. When the number of nB n merits earned by the g i r l s i n the highest achievement class were compared with the scores i n the lowest achievement class, a much smaller mean difference was TABLE XXIV DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN GIRLS 7'2 Scores Percentage of Studei Class Interval Frequency i n each Group 210 - 229 2 1 190 - 209 • •' • • 170 - 189 6 2 150 - I 6 9 9 4 130 - 149 21 8 110 - 129 3 1 12 90 - 109 49 20 70 - 8 9 60 24 5 0 - 6 9 34 13 3 0 - 49 27 11 10 - 2 9 13 5 TOTAL 252 Q x - 6 3 . 0 3 M - 8 6 . 8 3 Q5 - 1 1 3 . 3 7 TABLE XXV DISTRIBUTION OF nB" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN BOYS Scores Percentage of Studenl Class Interval Frequency i n each Group 190 - 209 3 1 170 - 189 8 4 150 - I 6 9 8 4 130 - 149 20 9 110 - 129 1 7 7 90 - 109 40 18 7 0 - 8 9 39 17 5 0 - 69 38 1 7 3 0 - 49 37 1 6 10 - 2 9 1 7 7 TOTAL 2 2 7 Q/L - 5 0 . 9 5 M - 8 0 . 5 3 0,3 - 1 0 9 . 1 3 7 3 found between the scores than was the case with "A" merit scores. The median MB" merit score for the high achievement group was 1 1 9 . 5 ; the mean was 1 2 3 . 7 , Tfce median score for the low achievement group was 9 0 . 9 3 ; the mean was 9 3 . 7 9 . The mean difference for the "B" merit scores was 2 9 . 9 1 as compared with a mean difference of 6 1 . 8 0 for the "A" merit scores of the same two classes. Table XXVI gives the distribution of nBM merit scores for these two gir ls 1 classes. TABLE XXVI DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN GIRLS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Class Interval of Students of Students 2 1 0 - 2 2 9 1 4 1 9 0 - 2 0 9 • » • • 1 7 0 - 1 8 9 2 7 1 5 0 - 1 6 9 2 7 1 3 . 5 1 3 0 - 149 5 1 9 2 7 1 1 0 - 1 2 9 7 2 6 5 1 7 9 0 - 1 0 9 6 2 2 7 24 7 0 - 8 9 3 1 1 8 2 8 5 0 - 6 9 1 4 5 1 7 3 0 - 4 9 . • .. 1 3 . 5 TOTAL 2 7 2 9 High Achievement Class: 0 ^ - 9 8 . 6 7 , M - 1 1 9 . 5 , §j - 142.5 tow Achievement Class: Q,^  - 7 2 . 7 3 , M - 9 0 . 9 3 , 0 ^ - 112.5 A comparison of "B" merit scores earned by the boys of high and low achievement classes gave a distribution somewhat similar to the girls* scores. The median score for the high achievement group was 1 2 3 . 5 ; the mean was 124.0. The median score for the low achievement group was 1 0 5 . 5 ; the mean was 1 0 5 . 4 5 . The mean difference for the "B" merit scores was 1 8 . 5 5 7 4 as compared with a mean difference of 58 .20 for the "A" merit scores of the same two classes. It w i l l be noted that the median nBM merit score for the low achievement group is considerably higher than the median "B" merit score for the entire grade seven group. Table XXVTI gives the distribution of "B" merit scores for these two boys1 classes. TABLE XXVTI DISTRIBUTION OP »Bn MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE SEVEN BOYS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage of Students of Students 1 7 0 - 1 9 0 1 4 1 4 . 5 1 5 0 - 1 6 9 6 24 . • .. 1 5 0 - 149 4 1 6 4 1 8 1 1 0 - 129 5 2 0 5 2 3 9 0 - 1 0 9 5 2 0 5 2 3 7 0 - 8 9 3 1 2 4 1 8 5 0 - . 6 9 1 4 2 9 3 0 - 4 9 • • . • 1 4 . 5 TOTAL 2 5 2 2 High Achievement Class: Q.^  - 9 8 . 5 , M - 1 2 3 . 5 , - 1 5 2 . 0 Low Achievement Class: Q,^  - 8 2 . 0 , M - 1 0 5 . 5 , 0 ^ - 1 2 7 . 5 The average number of "B" merits issued by the grade seven teachers in relation to the number of students ranged from 0 . 0 5 to 1 2 . 2 1 . Thirty-eight percent of these teachers issued less than one merit per student during the school year. Twenty-nine percent of the teachers issued more than four MBW merits per student during the year. These were a l l teachers who sponsored extra-curricular activit ies . In one department, a check was made of the number of "B" 7 5 merits issued for classroom monitor work. The average number of "B" merits ranged from 0 . 4 8 to 2 . 4 5 per student. Table XXVIII gives the actual number of "B" merits issued, the number of students concerned and the average number per student. TABLE XXVIII PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF "B" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE SEVEN TEACHERS «BM Merits Issued Number of Students Average per Pupil Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 1 1 2 5 2 0 8 3 3 3 2 2 7 2 5 2 479 0 . 5 5 O . 8 3 0 . 7 0 2 1 5 7 mm 1 5 7 1 0 3 - 1 0 3 1 . 5 2 — 1 . 5 2 3 6 0 - 6 0 1 0 3 - 1 0 3 0 . 5 8 - 0 . 5 8 4 41 - 41 5 2 mm 5 2 0 . 7 9 _ 0 . 7 9 5 2 1 8 2 1 8 1 0 3 mm 1 0 3 2 . 1 2 - 2 . 1 2 6 54-2 - 542 9 2 - 9 2 5 . 8 9 - • 5 , 8 9 7 41 2 7 6 8 5 1 40 9 1 0 . 8 0 0 . 6 8 0 . 7 5 8 mm P i 3 - 5 6 5 6 — 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 3 9 - 8 9 8 9 - 1 3 5 1 3 5 — 0 . 6 6 0.66 1 0 - V V - 1 5 5 1 5 5 - 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 0 11 - 8 3 8 3 — 124 124 - O . 6 7 0 . 6 7 12 - 1 6 6 9 I 6 6 9 - 2 1 6 2 1 6 - 7 . 7 3 7 . 7 3 1 3 - 1 0 1 1 0 1 - 2 5 2 2 5 2 - - 0.40 0.40 14 9 0 - 9 0 2 2 7 — 2 2 7 0.40 0.40 1 5 3 8 - 1 5 3 8 1 2 6 - 1 2 6 1 2 . 2 1 1 2 . 2 1 1 6 2 3 1 3 2 1 5 5 3 6 7 5 1 1 1 0.64 1 . 7 6 1.40 x2 2 3 3 3 5 2 5 8 5 40 3 8 7 8 5 . 8 3 9 . 2 6 7 . 5 0 1 8 5 4 2 8 7 341 1 0 5 5 6 5 5.40 5 . 2 2 5 . 2 5 1 9 7 5 6 6 2 7 3 7 6 1 7 5 1 3 6 1 . 2 3 8 . 8 3 5.42 2 0 2 3 6 0 0 6 2 3 74 5 9 1 3 3 0 . 3 1 10 .17 4 . 6 8 2 1 104 164 2 6 8 5 1 5 7 1 0 8 2.04 2 . 8 8 2.48 2 2 - 1 0 1 0 - 2 9 2 9 — 0 . 3 4 0 . 3 4 2 3 1 1 - 1 1 2 2 - 2 2 0 . 5 0 _. 0 . 5 0 24 1 5 7 1 7 5 3 3 2 1 0 2 6 3 6 1 5 . 7 0 6 . 7 3 9.22 2? 4 5 4 9 9 4 1 0 5 3 6 3 4 . 5 0 0 . 9 2 1.46 2 6 2 4 6 5 3 6 1 114 0.04 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 5 21 7 6 6 - 7 6 6 6 9 — 6 9 1 1 . 1 0 _ 11 .10 28 1 6 5 247 412 5 2 8 8 140 3 . 1 7 2 . 8 1 2 . 9 4 2 9 - 1 9 9 1 9 9 - 1 1 5 1 1 5 — - 1-25 1 . 7 3 3 0 3 3 4 5 3 4 8 6 8 1 1 0 1 3 8 248 3.04 3 . 8 6 3 . 5 0 3 1 3 2 0 3 1 9 6 3 9 3 9 6 2 1 0 1 8 . 2 1 5 . 1 5 6.33 3 2 41 2 0 6 1 1 0 2 6 3 6 4 . 1 0 0.77 I . 6 9 3 3 84 8 3 1 6 7 5 7 5 0 1 0 7 1*47 1.66 1 . 5 6 3 4 5 0 5 7 9 0 1 2 9 5 2 2 7 2 5 2 4 7 9 2 . 2 2 3 . 1 3 2 . 7 0 7.6 2. Grade Eight: In grade eight, "Bn merit scores ranged from 20 to 246. The median score was 90 .07; the mean was 100.24. If we compare the means of the scores of the grade seven and grade eight students, we find that the mean has increased 12 .39 in the latter grade. The frequency distribution of the nB" merits earned by the grade eight students during the year is given in Table XXIX. TABLE XXIX DISTRIBUTION 0E "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS Scores Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency in each Group 2 3 0 - 249 3 0.7 210 - 22 9 8 2 190 - 209 12 3 1 7 0 - 1 8 9 12 3 150 - 1 6 9 21 | 1 3 0 - 149 33 8 1 1 0 - 1 2 9 53 13 90 - 1 0 9 1A 1 8 70 .- 8 9 84 21 5 0 - , 6 9 74 1 8 3 0 - 4 9 34 8 1 0 - 2 9 5 1 TOTAL 413 Q,! - 66.86 M - 92 . 0 7 Q3 - 124.12 The median "B" merit score for the girls in grade eight was found to be 94.76; the mean was 104.08. The median score for the boys was 89.25; "the mean was 96.43. The mean difference between the boys' and gir ls 1 scores in grade eight was 7.65 as compared to a mean difference of 4.71 found in grade seven. Tables XXX and XXXI give the frequency distribution of the scores for the two groups. TABLE XXX DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT GIRLS Scores Percentage of Student Class Interval Frequency i n Each Group 2 3 0 - 249 2 1 2 1 0 - 2 2 9 3 2 1 9 0 - 2 0 9 8 4 1 7 0 - I 8 9 7 3 1 5 0 - 1 6 9 1 0 5 1 3 0 - 149 1 3 6 1 1 0 - 1 2 9 3 0 1 5 9 0 - 1 0 9 3 8 1 9 7 0 - 8 9 44 2 1 5 0 - 6 9 3? 1 9 3 0 - 4 9 6 3 1 0 - 2 9 4 2 TOTAL 2 0 6 0 ^ - 7 0 . 6 4 M - 9 4 . 7 6 Q 3 - 1 2 5 . 1 7 TABLE XXXI DISTRIBUTION OF nB M MERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT BOYS Scores Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency in Each Group 2 3 0 - 249 1 0 . 5 2 1 0 - 2 2 9 3 1 1 9 0 - 2 0 9 4 2 1 7 0 - 1 8 9 5 3 1 5 0 - 1 6 9 1 1 5 1 3 0 - 149 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 - 1 2 9 2 I 11 9 0 - 1 0 9 3 6 1 7 7 0 - 8 9 40 1 9 5 0 - 6 9 5? 1 7 3 0 - 4 9 2 8 14 1 0 - 2 9 1 0 . 5 TOTAL 2 0 7 $ 1 - 6 2 . 5 M - 89.25 (£3 - 1 2 2 . 7 6 7 8 A comparison of the "B" merit scores of the girls in a high achievement grade eight class with a low achievement class in the same grade shows a mean difference of 1 8 . 2 3 . The median score for the girls in the high achievement group was 144.5; the mean was 146 .67. The median score in the low achievement class was 1 2 7 . 0 ; the mean was 1 2 8 . 4 4 . It w i l l be noted that the median "B" merit score for the low achievement group is considerably higher than the median "B" merit score for the entire grade eight g i r ls 1 group. Table XXXII gives the distribution of nB"'merit scores for these two girls* classes. TABLE XXXII DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT GIRLS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage of Students of Students 2 1 0 - 229 1 7 190 - 209 1 7 1 7 0 - 189 3 2 0 2 . 1 0 . 5 1 5 0 - 169 2 13 3 1 6 1 3 0 - 149 2 1 3 4 2 1 1 1 0 - 129 3 2 0 4 2 1 9 0 - 1 0 9 2 1 5 4 2 1 7 0 - 8 9 1 7 2 1 0 . 5 TOTAL 1 5 1 9 High Achievement Class: Qi - 114.5, M - 144.5, - 1 7 7 . 8 3 Low Achievement Class: Qi - 1 0 3 . 2 5 , M - 1 2 7 . 0 , - 1 5 1 . 1 7 In analysing the grade eight boys1 scores for the high and low achievement classes, i t was noted that the distribution of "B" merit scores in Table XXXII showed that both groups received fewer merits than the girls* classes. The median score for the boys in the high achievement group was 134.5; the mean 7 9 was 1 3 7 . 0 . The median score for the low achievement group was 1 1 2 . 8 3 ; the mean was 1 1 0 . 0 . The mean difference between the two boys» groups was 2 7 . 0 , as compared with a mean difference of 3 6 . O found in the "A" merit analysis of the same two classes. TABLE XXXIII DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE EIGHT BOYS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage of Students of Students 2 3 0 - 2 4 9 1 3 2 1 0 - 2 2 9 1 5 1 9 0 - 2 0 9 1 5 1 7 0 - 1 8 9 2 1 0 1 5 0 - 1d 9 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 3 0 - 1 4 9 4 2 0 3 1 5 1 1 0 - 1 2 9 2 1 0 6 3 0 9 0 - 1 0 9 3 1 3 4 2 0 7 0 - 8 9 3 1 5 2 1 0 3 0 - 6 9 1 5 3 1 5 TOTAL 2 0 2 0 High Achievement Class: Q/L - 9 6 . 1 7 , M- 1 3 4 . 5 , Q 3 - 1 6 9 . 5 Low Achievement Class: Qi - 8 9 . 5 , M- 1 1 2 . 8 3 , 0 , 3 - 1 2 9 . 5 It was determine! that the average number of WB" merits issued by the grade eight teachers during the year in relation to the number of students ranged from 0 . 0 6 to 1 2 . 6 0 . Thirty-one per cent of these teachers awarded less than one merit per student. Four teachers issued more than nine merits per student. Only two of these four teachers were sponsors of extra-curricular activities. When this data was compared with the grade seven analysis, i t was found that the grade eight teachers issued more "B" merits than the grade seven teachers. A complete l i s t of the actual number of "B" merits issued, the number of students concerned and the average number of "B" merits awarded per student by the grade eight teachers is given in Table XXXIV. 8 0 TABLE XXXIV PERTINENT DATA ON NUMBER OF WBW MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE EIGHT TEACHERS Teacher "B n Merits Issued Boys Girls Total Number of S1 budents Average per Pupil Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 20? 206 413 0 . 0 8 2 . 2 8 1 . 1 7 1 7 0 - 170 4.36 - 4.36 170 - 1 7 0 2 . 6 1 - 2 . 6 1 1 7 0 - 170 1 . 3 0 - 1 . 3 0 1 7 0 - 1 7 0 2 . 8 9 — 2 . 8 9 1 8 16 34 3.72 0.75 2.32 - 93 93 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 6 143 143 0.06 0 . 0 6 - 1 9 1 191 - 0.64 0.64 - 27 2l — 1.70 1 . 7 0 - 78 78 _ 12.60 12.60 - 128 128 - 0.75 0.75 2 0 7 - 2 0 7 0.06 0.06 46 33 99 1.24 2 . 1 9 1.75 29 42 71 0.10 1 . 0 7 0.68 12 15 2 7 0.58 7 . 8 7 4.63 8 0 92 1 7 2 0.33 0.18 0.25 47 75 122 1.74 2.44 2 . 1 7 3° 96 2 . 7 1 3.90 3.43 38 5 8 96 0.08 1.00 0.64 - 206 206 — 9.74 9.74 - 2 9 2 9 — 4.83 4 . 8 3 2 8 37 65 I . 8 9 3.43 2.77 92 114 206 3 . 2 7 3 . 2 6 3.27 37 35 72 0.49 0 . 0 3 0 . 2 6 3 1 - 3 1 2 . 5 8 2.58 33 59 92 0 . 8 2 0 . 8 1 0 . 8 2 31 - 31 12.26 _ 12 . 2 6 21 3 0 51 2 . 3 8 5.47 4.20 12 16 2 8 0.75 2.13 1.54 105 80 185 4 . 6 7 15.45 9.33 3 0 94 124 0.33 0.46 0.43 48 78 1 1 6 1.95 0.92 1 . 2 6 207 206 413 O . 6 7 2.08 1.37 8 2 7 35 5 . 3 8 3.63 4 . 0 3 1 1 6 469 2 742 -3 443 -4 221 — 5 492 _ 6 6 7 12 7 6 8 mm 8 9 _ 122 10 mm 4 6 11 — 983 12 - 96 13 12 _ 14 57 116 15 3 4 5 1 6 7 118 1 7 26 1 7 1 8 8 2 1 8 3 19 1 0 3 2 2 6 20 3 58 21 - 2 0 0 7 22 - 140 23 53 127 24 301 372 25 1 8 1 2 6 8 0 2l 2 7 48 2 8 380 -2 9 5 0 164 30 9 34 3 1 4 9 0 1236 32 10 43 33 74 72 34 1 3 9 428 35 43 98 4 8 5 742 4 4 3 2 2 1 492 7! 8 1 2 2 4 6 9 8 3 9 6 1 2 1 7 3 4 8 1 2 5 43 2 6 5 3 2 9 6 1 2 0 0 7 140 1 8 0 6 7 3 I9 8 0 7 5 3 8 0 214 4 3 1 7 2 6 5 3 146 5 6 7 141 8 1 3 . Grade Nine: The grade nine "Bn merit scores ranged from 1 7 to 2 6 ° . The median score was 113.44; the mean was 1 1 5 . 4 5 . When we compare the mean of the scores for the three grades,-we find that from grade seven to grade eight, the mean increased 1 2 . 3 9 ; from grade eight to grade nine, the mean increased 1 5 . 2 1 . The over-a l l increase was 2 7 . 6 0 , as compared with an over-all increase of 1 8 . 2 7 found i n the "A" merit analysis. The frequency distribution of the "B" merits earned by the grade nine students during the year i s given i n Table XXXV. TABLE XXXV DISTRIBUTION OF "B» MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE STUDENTS Scores Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency i n Each Group 2 5 0 - 2 6 9 5 2 2 3 0 - 249 6 2 2 1 0 - 229 6 2 1 9 0 - 2 0 9 13 4 1 7 0 - I 8 9 27 8 1 5 0 - I 6 9 3 4 1 0 1 3 0 - 149 4 5 14 1 1 0 - 1 2 9 ?2 1 0 90 - 1 0 9 3 6 1 1 70 - 89 3 0 9 50 - 69 42 1 3 30 - 4 9 41 1 3 1 0 - 29 7 2 TOTAL 3 2 5 Ql - 65.33 M - 113.44 - 155.24 The median "B" merit score for the g i r l s i n grade nine was found to be 125.06; the mean was 125.19. The median score for the boys was 105.77; "tbe mean vas 99.5. The mean difference between the boys1 and g i r l s * scores in grade nine was 19.42. This i s considerably higher than the mean difference of 7.65 found i n grade eight. If we compare the median g i r l s * scores 82 for the three grades, we find that there i s an increase of 7*93 from grade seven to grade eight and an increase of 30.30 from grade eight to grade nine. In the case of the boys, the median score increased 8.72 from grades seven to eight and an increase of 10.25 from grades eight to nine. Tables XXXVI and XXXVII give the actual frequency distribution of the "B" merit scores for each group. TABLE XXXVI DISTRIBUTION OP »B» MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE GIRLS Scores Class Interval Percentage of Students in Each Group 250 - 269 230 - 249 210 - 229 190 - 209 170 mm 189 150 - 169 130 - 149 110 - 129 90 - 109 70 - 89 50 - 69 30 - 49 10 - 29 TOTAL 2 1 I 10 12 14 11 13 10 10 7 1 % - 82.63 - 125.06 0^3 - 163.72 TABLE XXXVTI DISTRIBUTION" OF:1'B» MERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE BOYS 83 Scores Percentage of Students Class Interval Frequency i n Each Group 250 - 269 2 1 230 - 249 3 3 210 - 229 1 1 190 - 209 3 2 170 - 189 11 7 150 - 169 13 9 130 - 149 22 14 110 - 129 15 9 90 - 109 15 9 70 - 89 14 9 50 - 69 26 16 30 - 49 29 17 10 - 29 5 3 TOTAL I63 - 34.69 M - 99.5 Q3 - 146.09 A comparison of the "B" merit scores of the g i r l s i n a high achievement grade nine class with a low achievement class shows a mean difference of 15.0. The median score for the g i r l s i n the high achievement group was 149.5; the mean was 150.0. The median score in the low achievement group was 133.5; the mean was 135*0. I f we compare the mean differences in the g i r l s ' scores for each high and low achievement group i n the three grades, we find that i n grade seven the mean difference was 29.91, i n grade eight 18.23 and i n grade nine 15.0. Table XXXVUI gives the distribution of "Bw merit scores for these two g i r l s ' classes. In an analysis of the boys' scores for the high and low achievement classes i n grade nine, the distribution of "B" merits i n Table XXXIX shows that more merits were issued to the high achievement group. The median score for the boys in the TABLE XXXVIII 84 DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT CLASSES - GRADE NINE GIRLS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage of Students of Students 230 - 249 • • • • 1 4 210 - 229 2 10 • • * • 190 - 209 2 10 2 8 . 170 - 189 5 25 3 13 150 - I69 1 5 2 8 130 - 149 3 15 5 21 110 - 129 2 10 2 8 90 - 109 2 10 4 17 70 - 89 3 15 5 21 TOTAL 20 24 High Achievement Class: - 109.5, M - 149.5, - 185.5 Low Achievement Class: 0^  - 94.5, M - 133.5, Q3 - 169.5 TABLE XXXIX DISTRIBUTION OF "B" MERIT SCORES OF HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVEMENT - CLASSES - GRADE NINE BOYS Scores High Achievement Class Low Achievement Class Class Interval Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage of Students of Students 190 - 209 2 9 2 11 170 - I89 5 21.5 1 5.5 150 - 169 3 13 2 11 130 - 149 5 21.5 2 11 110 - 129 2 9 3 16.5 90 - 109 2 9 4 22 70 - 89 4 17 2 11 50 - 69 • • • • 1 5.5 30 - 49 • • 1 5.5 TOTAL 23 18 High Achievement Class: Qj. - 107.0, M - 143.3, - 174.5 Low Achievement Class: - 92.0, M - 116.17,0,3 - 154.5 high achievement class was 143.5; the mean was 140.87. The median score for the low achievement group was 116.17; the mean was 122.22. If we compare the mean differences i n the boys' scores for each high and low achievement group i n the three grades, we find that i n grade seven the mean difference was 18.55, in grade eight 27.0 and i n grade nine 18.65. I t was determined that the average number of "BM merits issued by the grade nine teachers during the year in relation to the number of students ranged from 0.02 to 22.82. Twenty-three per cent of these teachers awarded less than one merit per student. Four teachers issued more than eight merits per student. One of these teachers had an average of 22.82. As a result of this extremely high average, the grade nine teachers had the widest range of the three grades. A l l teachers who issued more than four merits per student were sponsors of extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . In one department, a teacher, who met a l l grade nine students two periods each week, issued 83 "B" merits during the year. In the same department, the grade seven teacher issued 12°5 merits and the grade eightteacher 567 merits. Such inconsistencies appeared i n several departments. Table XL gives the actual number of "B" merits issued, the number of students concerned and the average number of "B" merits issued per student. 86 TABLE XL PERTINENT DATA ON" NUMBER OF "B" MERITS ISSUED BY GRADE NINE TEACHERS Teacher "B" Merits Issued Number of S1 nudents Average per Pupil Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 1 7 384 391 163 162 325 0.04 2.37 1.20 2 476 — 476 I63 mm 163 2.92 2.92 3 173 - 173 163 mm I63 1.06 _ 1.06 4 3 - 3 163 _ 163 0.02 _ 0.02 5 276 - 276 I63 — I63 1.69 — 1.69 6 - 5 5 - 92 92 - 0.05 0.05 7 - 64 64 - 130 130 - 0.49 0.49 8 2191 - 2191 163 _ 163 13.44 _ 13.44 9 - 2226 2226 - 162 162 - 13.74 13.74 10 - 19 19 — 51 51 mm 0.37 0.37 11 - 194 194 - 110 110 - 1.76 1.76 12 15 - 15 I63 - I63 0.09 — 0.09 13 102 I l l 213 101 100 201 1.01 1.11 1.06 14 125 319 444 58 51 109 2.16 6.25 4.07 13 25 287 312 18 91 109 1.39 2.77 16 5 30 35 29 44 73 0.17 0.68 0.48 x2 114 482 596 9 43 52 12.67 11.21 11.46 18 148 203 9 48 57 6.11 3.08 3.56 19 284 235 519 83 64 147 3.14 3.67 3.53 20 377 725 71 31 102 4.90 12.16 7.11 21 1678 1129 2807 59 64 123 28.44 17.64 22.82 22 417 170 587 108 34 142 3.86 5.00 4.13 23 - 446 446 - 83 83 - 5.37 -5.37 24 — 201 201 - 37 37 — 5.43 5.43 25 32 124 156 82 64 146 0.39 1.94 1.07 26 - 243 243 - 62 62 - 3.92 3.92 21 66 129 195 10 32 42 6.60 4.03 4.64 28 227 337 564 18 91 109 12.61 3.70 5.17 29 18 65 83 163 162 325 0.11 < 0.40 0.26 30 164 — 164 115 — 115 1.43 - 1.43 E. ANALYSIS OF DEMERITS Demerits are issued by a l l teachers as a record of specific punishment. No l i s t of acts for which demerits are to be imposed is supplied because of the negative approach. The general understanding i s that any act or acts militant to the best interests of the group or school w i l l be cause for demerit. In order to assess the influence of these demerits, an analysis was made of the number imposed at the different grade 87 levels. As it"was determined that from twenty-two' per cent of the students in gradeseven to thirty-seven per cent i n grade nine received no demerits, those with zero scores'were eliminated from the distribution. Tables were compiled of the number of demerits imposed on the boys and g i r l s i n each grade in order to study any significant differences. The reasons for imposing the demerits were classified. Also a check was made on how each teacher was using demerits in relation to the number of "A" and "B" merits issued during the year. 1. Grade Seven; In an analysis of the number of demerits imposed on grade seven students, i t was found that fourteen per cent of the boys and thirty per cent of the g i r l s had no demerits. When the entire group was considered, twenty-two per cent of the grade seven students received no demerits. With the zero scores eliminated, the median score for the boys was 4.44; the mean was 5.32. The median score for the g i r l s was 2.54; the mean was 3 .63. When the whole group was -considered with the zero scores eliminated, the median score was 3.38; the mean was 4.52. Table XLI gives the actual distribution of the number of demerits imposed on the grade seven students. 2. Grade Eight; It was determined that twenty-three per cent of the boys and thirty - five per cent of the g i r l s i n grade eight received no demerits. When the entire group was considered, twenty-nine per cent of the students had no demerits. When these percentages are compared with grade seven, the number of zero scores has increased nine per cent in the case of the boys and five per cent for the g i r l s . There was an over-all increase of TABLE XLI DISTRIBUTION OF DEMERIT SCORES OF GRADE SEVEN' STUDENTS Scores • Per Cent Per Gent \ Per Cent Class Boys Each Girls Each Total Each Interval Group Group Group 19 - 20 1 0.4 2 0.8 3 0.6 17 - 18 2 1 1 0.4 3 0.6 15 - 16 3 1 1 0.4 4 0.8 15 - 14 5 2 2 0.8 7 1 11 - 12 11 5 2 0.8 13 3 9 - 1 0 15 7 4 2 19 4 7 - 8 28 12 7 3 35 7 5 - 6 32 14 25 10 57 12 3 - 4 35 16 45 18 80 17 1 - 2 64 28 87 34 151 32 Zero 31 13 76 30 107 22 TOTAL 227 252 .479 TABLE XLIX DISTRIBUTION OF DEMERIT SCORES OF GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS Scores Per C ent Per Cent Per Cent Class Boys Each Girls Each Total Each Interval Group Group Group 19 - 20 1 0.5 1 0.5 2 0.5 17 - 18 2 1 1 0.5 3 0.7 15 - 16 2 1 2 1 4 1 13 - 14 3 1.5 1 0.5 4 1 11 - 12 3 1.5 2 1 5 1 9 - 1 0 4 2 3 1.5 7 2 7 - 8 12 6 6 3 18 4 5 - 6 31 15 8 4 10 3 - 4 39 19 39 19 78 19 1 - 2 62 30 70 34 132 32 Zero 48 23 73 35 121 29 TOTAL 209 206 413 89 seven per cent i n the zero scores for the grade eight students. With the zero- scores eliminated, the median score for the boys was 3.40; the mean was 4.34. The median score for the gi r l s was 1.90; the mean was 3.35. When the entire group was considered with the zero scores eliminated, the median score was 2.86; the mean was 3•95* I f we compare the median and the mean scores for the grades seven and eight students, we find that the median in grade eight decreased 0.52-and the mean decreased 0.57. Table XLII gives the actual distribution of the number of demerits imposed on the grade eight students. 3. Grade Nine; In an analysis of the number of demerits imposed on the grade nine students, i t was found that thirty-one per cent of the boys and forty-three per cent of the g i r l s had no demerits. When the entire grade was considered, thirty-seven per cent of the grade nine students received no demerits. With the zero scores eliminated, the median score for the boys was 2.50; the mean was 4.21. The median score for the g i r l s was 1.46; the mean was 3.28. When the whole group was considered with the zero scores eliminated, the median score was 1.71; the mean was 3.70. If we compare a l l three grades, we find that the zero scores have increased seven per cent from grade seven to grade eight and eight per cent from grade eight to grade nine, giving an all-over increase of 15 per cent in-zero scores. I f we compare the mean of the demerit scores with the zeros eliminated, we find that the mean decreased 0.57 from grade seven to grade eight and decreased 0.25 from grade eight to grade nine. In a l l grades, the g i r l s had the higher percentage of zero scores and 90 the lower mean of the- demerit scores. Table XIIII gives the actual distribution of -the number of demerits imposed on the grade nine students. TABLE XLIIT DISTRIBUTION OF DEMERIT SCORES OF GRADE NINE STUDENTS Scores Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent Class Boys Each Girls Each Total Each Interval Group Group Group 1 9 - 20 1 0.6 1 0.6 2 0.6 17 - 18 2 1 1 0.6 3 1 13 - 16 2 1 1 0.6 3 1 13 - 1 4 3 2 2 1 • 5 2 11 - 12 2 1 2 1 4 1 9-10 3 2 2 1 3 2 7 - 8 4 3 2 1 6 2 5 - 6 12 7 4 3 16 5 3-4 27 17 1 4 9 4 1 12 1-2 36 34 63 39 119 37 Zero ?1 31 70 43 121 37 Total 163 162 323 4 . Reasons for Imposing Demerits: In an analysis of the reasons given by teachers for imposing demerits, i t was found that there was considerable variety i n offenses. The frequency with which these reasons appeared also showed an extremely wide range. Those offenses that appeared less than ten times have been omitted as they were not significant to the analysis. The most frequent single reason given for imposing a demerit was detention. Pupils may be sent to detention by any teacher for misbehaviour in halls, cafeteria, assemblies, on school grounds and for any other violation of school regulations which does not concern individual room discipline and citizenship. One demerit is issued by the teacher in charge of 91 the detention room to a pupil when he or she has. been to detention three times. When the records of a l l three grades were analysed, 971 demerits had been imposed for this reason. Other offenses which were frequently recorded during the year included the following: failure to prepare assignments, 767 demerits; disturbing the class, 385 demerits; forgotten equipment, 274 demerits; disobedience, 2$2 demerits; overdue books, 111 demerits; and truancy, 110 demerits. Table XLIV gives a l i s t of reasons for imposing demerits which appeared at least ten times during the school year. TABLE XLIV SUMMARY OF OFFENSES FOR WHICH DEMERITS WERE ISSUED GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE Reason for Demerit Number of Demerits Detention Failure to prepare assignments , Disturbing class , Forgotten equipment Disobedience , Overdue books Truancy Inattention to work Corporal punishment , Cheating .... Failure to report • , Rudeness and lack of co-operation . . . Monitor court Damaging property Name on attendance sheet three times (misbehaviour) , Lying Foul language Theft Leaving room without permission . . . . . Extreme carelessness Breaking school regulations 971 767 383 274 252 111 110 61 36 42 41 28 24 20 19 17 16 13 15 14 12 92 5. Demerits Imposed i n Relation to Merits Issued: In order to determine how each teacher was using the citizenship rating plan, a check was made of the number of "A" and "B" merits issued and the number of demerits imposed. Such information i s d i f f i c u l t to interpret u n t i l the actual duties, both curricular and extra-curricular, are clearly defined. An examination of the information in Table XLV shows that Teacher 2 issued 1391 MB" merits, 15 "A" merits and 3 demerits. As this teacher sponsored one extra-curricular activity, i t was obvious that he was using only the service merit part of the scheme. In the same department, a colleague issued 884 "A" merits which suggests that many opportunities were afforded where academic merit credit could be recorded. Teacher 34 awarded 7397 "B" merits, 1223 "A" merits and 133 demerits during the year. As this teacher was the sponsor of the student monitor force and the monitor court, these large scores are not unusual. The extremely high "B" merit score simply indicates a great deal of student participation in the monitor organization. The highest number of demerits was imposed by Teacher 42 who issued 158 nA M merits, 167 "B" merits and 288 demerits. As this teacher did not have any administrative duties in the school, such a large demerit score in relation to the number of merits issued suggests that the citizenship scheme was being used negatively. It was possible to conclude from the data that some teachers were not using the citizenship plan to any great extent while others were simply using i t as a disciplinary device. TABLE XLV SUMMARY OF MERITS AND DEMERITS ISSUED BY TEACHERS (1947-48) Number of "A" Number of "B" Number of Tea eher Merits Issued Merits Issued Demeri ts 1 2846 1182 124 2 15 1391 3 3 884 676 0 4 31 262 7-5 2996 986 0 6 12 546 9 7 442 214 32 8 16 24 23 9 44 96 36 10 482 263 48 11 311 129 2 12 679 2974 206 13 1817 4878 243 14 72 159 85 1? 54 290 193 16 32 21 4 Xl 65 92 7 18 244 536 12 19 727 2252 87 20 740 537 71 21 109 43 20 22 1179 1 7 . 1 .5 23 558 284 76 24 1441 969 4 2 5 367 481 35 26 1008 437 66 27 2235 2747 47 28 1725 IO36 70 29 2004 1086 67 30 1141 303 7 31 3115 532 1 32 2850 1750 4 33 743 123 172 34 1223 7397 133 35 n 9 89 15 36 809 75 123 314 1929 71 38 1958 1645 14 39 409 33 40 248 1244 4 41 767 370 38 42 158 167 288 43 390 2481 20 44 1113 676 24 4 5 190 270 13 46 11 369 20 4 Z 5 177 7 48 766 1311 3 49 4470 1182 166 50 168 248 3 CHAPTER 7 CITIZENSHIP RECORDS OF SELECTED STUDENTS 94 In the preceding chapter, a general analysis of the available information concerning the positive citizenship rating plan has been made. The purpose of this chapter, which includes citizenship histories of selected students, i s to provide data that could be evaluated i n terms of a record of ac t i v i t i e s , service to the school and episodes of disturbing behaviour. An examination of the individual records of students for the three years at the junior high school suggests a general classification of pupils into five major groupings. These groupings or "student types" are purely arbitrary and are not i n any sense all-inclusive. Five case histories have been selected to represent each of these groupings. In the general analysis, i t was found that from twenty-two per cent of the students i n grade seven to thirty-seven per cent i n grade nine received no demerits. This large group included two types of students: A. Those who received a considerable number of both "A" and "BM merits. B. Those who received only academic or only service merits but not both. Three general types are found in the large group of students receiving demerits: C. Those who earned a number of "A" and "B" merits. D. The non-academically inclined students who received 95 few "A" merits but were very Interested in extra-curricular activities, thus receiving a large number of "B" merits. E . The non-academic students who were not involved in any school activity and who usually created a disciplinary problem. From each of the five groups, one typical student was selected and followed through the three years. These students attended the school from September, 1944 to June, 1947. The citizenship history of each student for the f i r s t year in the junior high school has been given exactly as recorded in the bookkeeper's record book. The compiled citizenship histories for the second year, 1945-46 and the third year, 1946-47 are given in summary form, showing the influence of this rating scheme on the school citizenship of the selected students. A. CASE OF STUDENT Gl - REPRESENTING TYPE A Name: Gl Bookkeeper's Record,1944-45 Grade: 7 Class: 25 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Sept.12 Excellent map M.F. 1 Sept.15 Splendid auditorium work S.E.G. 2 Sept.l6 Five A's in Math. G «G • J • 1 Sept.20 Room monitor L . L . 2 Oct. 1 Improvement in Science L.R .H. 2 Oct. 10 Room monitor L . L . 1 Oct.15 Extra art work H.C. 1 Oct.25 Turning, in wallet W.M. 1 Oct.31 Social Studies notebook S .E . G . 5 Oct.31 Service in art room M . F . . . ; 2 Oct.31 Monitor work S »E «G. 2 Oct.31 Total 12 8 Co-operation Merits 24 Class Merits 14 Oct.31 Total 36 22 96 Date Reason Teachei A B Nov. 3 Book Service G.J. 2 Nov. 7 Noon hour programme M.K.R. 1 Nov.12 Library service W.M. 4 Nov.13 Indoor track meet M.K.R. 2 Nov.30 Excellent map M.F. 1 Dec.3 Library report W.M. 2 Dec.14 House 1 executive J.H. 2 Dec.20 Room monitor L.L. 1 Jan. 5 Extra art work H.C. 1 Jan .l6 Team leader i n gymnasium M.A. 2 Jan.20 Math, notebook G.G.J • 3 Jan.24 Social Studies notebook M.F. 4 Jan.24 Carrying time-sheet L.H. 2 Jan.24 Total 13 14 Co-operation Merits 28 Class Merits (i) 19 Jan.24 Total 41 33 Jan.31 Science notebook L.R.H, 2 Jan.31 Room service L.L. 2 Feb.l6 Book service G.J. 2 Feb.28 Noon hour programme M.K.R. 1 Feb.28 Library service W.M. 2 Mar.10 Math, notebook G.G.J. 3 Mar.21 Guidance report S.E ,G. 1 Mar .21 Grade Seven monitor M.R. 4 Mar.31 House Executive work J.H. 2 Easter Total 8 11 Co-operation Merits 29 Class Merits (§) 35 Easter Total 37 46 May 5 Table hostess B.A. 6 May 7 Monitor i n 201 S .E .G . 2 May 12 Guidance report S.E.G. 1 May 14 Science summary L.R.H. 1 May 17 Excellent i n i t i a t i v e M.F. 2 May 22 Math, notebook G.G.J. 4 June 10 Extra art work H.C. 1 June 15 Grade Seven monitor M.R. 4 June Total 9 12 Class Merits (£) 12 June Total 9 24 SUMMARY: June. 1945 97 Date "A" Merits nB" Merits Demerits October 3o 22 0 January- 41 33 0 Easter 57 46 0 June 9 24 0 Total 123 125 0 Summary: June. 1946 Date "A1* Merits "B" Merits Demerits October 4b 44 0 January 50 58 0 Easter 52 45 0 June 8 11 0 Total 15b 158 0 Summary: June. 1947 Date "A" Merits "B" Merits Demerits October 54 50 0 January 63 61 0 Easter 52 52 0 June 25 44 0 Total 194 207 0 This type of student, as represented by Case Gl, i s typical of those pupils who are excellent students and who are interested in the school a c t i v i t i e s and student organization. The nA M and "B" merit scores increase each year and they receive no demerits in their three years at the school. B. CASE OF STUDENT Bl - REPRESENTING TYPE B 98 Name: Bl Bookkeeper's Record, 1944-45 Grade: 7 Class: 26 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Sept.7 Five A»s in Math. G.G.J. 1 Sept.11 Excellent map M.F. 1 Sept.15 Bringing material for class M.F. 1 Sept.22 Guidance report G.J. 1 Sept.JO Room service M.T. 2 Oct. 2 Excellent English work S.R. 1 Oct. 9 Auditorium speech S.R. 1 Oct.14 Extra Art work H.C. 1 Oct.23 Math, notebook G.G, J . 3 Oct.31 Excellent Science book L.R.H. 3 Oct.31 Social Studies notebook M.F. 4 Oct .31 Total 17 2 Co-operation Merits 24 Class Merits (|) 14 Oct.31 Total 41 16 Nov. 5 Extra Art work H.C. 1 Nov.12 English auditorium work S.R. 1 Nov.30 Room service M.T. 2 Dec.14 Guidance report G.J. 1 Dec.20 Bringing material to class M.F. 1 Jan . l6 Book monitor L.R. 1 Jan.24 Excellent Science notebook L.R.H. 3 Jan.24 Social Studies notebook M.F. 4 Jan.24 Total 11 3 Co-operation Merits 26 Class Merits (i) 18 Jan.24 Total 37 21 Jan.31 Excellent English work S.R. 1 Feb.4 Chairman of meeting G.J. 1 Feb.16 Social Studies report M.F. 1 Feb.28 Room service M.T. 2 Feb.28 Health notes C J . 1 Mar.18 Math, notebook G.G.J. 3 Mar.31 Social Studies notebook M.F. 3 Mar.31 Science notebook L.R.H. 3 Easter Total 13 2 Co-operation Merits 28 Class Merits (•£) 15 Easter Total 41 17 99 Date Reason Teacher A B May3 Guidance report G.J . 1 May 11 Extra Art work H.C. 1 May 22 Science summary L.R.H. 1 June 1 English auditorium work S.R. 1 June 1 Social Studies report M.F. 1 June Total 3 0 Glass Merits (•§) 10 June Total 5 10 SUMMARY: JUNE. 1945 Date "A" Merits "B» Merits Demerits October 41 16 0 January 37 21 0 Easter 41 17 0 June 5 10 0 Total 124 64 0 SUMMARY: JUNE. 1946 Date "A" Merits n B" Merits Demerits October 38 18 0 January 35 22 0 Easter 46 21 0 June 17 11 0 Total 136 72 0 SUMMARY: JUNE. 1947 Date "A" Merits "B» Merits Demerits October 46 21 0 January 42 23 0 Easter 52 26 0 June 14 16 0 Total 154 86 0 This boy's citizenship record reveals that he is a capable student, that he has actively participated in the class-room work but that he is not interested in extra-curricular 1G0 a c t i v i t i e s . Most of the "B" merits that he' received were i n the form of class merits. He received no demerits during his three years at the junior high school. In this general group, we also find other students who obtain a high "B" merit score but who are not particularly active i n the regular work of the class-room. The "A" merits that they receive are largely i n the form of co-operation merits issued by the teachers each quarter. They never become a problem i n elass and receive no demerits during the three years at the school, C. CASE OF STUDENT G2 - REPRESENTING TYPE G Name: G2 Bookkeeper's Record, 1944-45 Grade: 7 Class: 2b Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Sept. 9 Five A»s i n Math. G.G.J. 1 Sept.15 Guidance report S.E.G. 1 Sept.16 Room service L.L. 1 Sept.22 Monitor - 2 weeks C.F. 1 Sept.30 Book service B.I. 2 Sept.30 Class executive S.E .G. 2 Oct.l Health notebook Z.A. 2 Oct.l Library assistant W.M. 3 Oct.9 Room monitor L.L. 2 Oct.15 Correct exercises - French J.H. 1 Oct.24 Citizenship report S.E.G. 4 Oct .31 Science notebook L.R.H, 3 Oct.31 Social Studies notebook M.F. 4 Oct .31 Total 14 13 Co-operation Merits 22 Class Merits (£) 15 Oct.31 Total 36 28 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Number Sept.16 Disturbing class S .E .G . 1 Sept.22 Failure to report L.R.H. 1 Sept.26 Health assignment not done M.A. 1 Demerits 101 Date Sept.JO Oct. 3 Oct. 9 Oct.15 Oct.24 Oct.31 Reason Detention Monitor court Overdue book Disobedience Detention Total Teacher G.L.W. M.R. R.L. S.E .G. G.L.W. Number r~ 1 1 1 1 8" Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Nov. 7 Noon hour programme M.K.R. 1 Nov. 9 Book service B.I. 2 Nov.12 Five A»s i n Math. G.G.J. 1 Nov.13 Monitor - 2 weeks C F . 1 Nov.22 Bringing material to class M.F. 1 Dee.4 Health notebook Z.A. 2 Dec.10 English auditorium work S.R. 1 Dec.20 Correct exercises - French J.H. 1 Jan. 5 Library assistant W.M. 3 Jan. 9 Math, notes G.G.J. 3 Jan.14 Social Studies notebook M.F. 4 Jan.24 Science notebook L.R.H. 3 Jan.24 Citizenship reporter S.E.G. 4 Jan.24 Class executive S.E.G. 2 Jan.24 Carrying time-sheet S.E,G. 2 Jan.24 Team leader in gymnasium M.A. 2 Jan.24 Total 18 15 Co-operation Merits 20 Class Merits (£) 19 Jan.24 Total 38 34 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Numbe: Nov. 7 Disturbing class L.R.H. 1 Nov .12 Leaving room - no permission S.A. 1 Nov.23 Disobedience S.E.G. 1 Dec.20 Failure to report L.L. 1 Jan.14 Detention G.L.W. 1 Jan.20 Overdue book R.L. 1 Jan.24 Total 6 102 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Jan.26 Improvement in English. S.R. 1 Jan.30 Room service L .L . 2 Jan.31 English auditorium work S.R. 1 Feb. 7 Guidance report S .E .G . 1 Feb.15 Correct exercises - French L.H. 1 Feb.22 Monitor - 2 weeks L . L . 1 Feb.28 Bringing material to class M.F. 1 Mar. 8 Five A»s in Math. G «G . J . 1 Mar.10 Noon hour programme M.K.R. 1 Mar.20 Math, notebook G .G • J . Mar.31 Citizenship report S »E *G . 4 Mar.31 Science notebook L.R.H. 3 Mar.31 Social Studies notebook M.F. 4 Mar.31 Library assistant W.M. 4 Mar.31 Class executive S *E .G . 2 Mar.31 Book service B .r . 4 Mar.. 31 Health notebook Z.A. 2 Mar.31 Team leader - gymnasium M.A. 2 Mar.31 Room service L . L . 3 Easter Total 20 21 Co-operation Merits 23 Class Merits (£) 20 Easter Total 43 41 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Number Jan.30 Being a nuisance L.R.H. 1 Feb.15 Disturbing class S »E .G . 1 Mar.7 Detention G.L.W. 1 Mar.21 Disobedience S.E.G. 1 Easter Total 4 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B May 5 Table hostess B.A. b May 8 Guidance report S *E .G. 1 May 14 Science summary L.R.H. 1 May 17 English auditorium S.R. 1 May 23 Correct exercise - French J .H. 1 June 10 Room service L . L . 2 June 15 Choir work K.A. 4 June Total 8 8 Class Merits (&) 10 June Total 8 18 Summary: June. 1945 105 Date "A" Merits "B" Merits Demeri ts October • 36 28 8 January 38 34 6 Easter 43 41 4 June 8 18 o Total 125 121 18 -Summary: June. 1946 Date "A" Merits "B» Merits Demerits October 35 37 2 J anuary 37 41 3 Easter 45 36 1 June 20 16 2 Total 137 130 8 Summary: June. 1947 Date "A" Merits "B" Merits Demerits October 37 33 0 January 42 47 1 Easter 44 46 1 June 22 16 0 Total 145 142 2 This type of student, as represented in G2fs citizenship record, is typical of those pupils who are satisfactory in scholastic work and who are active in extra-curricular school functions. However, some of their behaviour in the classroom is of the self-assertive, status-seeking type. Often they interfere with learning activities in the classroom by distracting or annoying others or by drawing attention to them-selves. The "A" and "B" merit scores increase each year and the number of demerits gradually decrease from grade seven to grade nine. D. CASE OF STUDENT B2 - REPRESENTING TYPE D 104 Name; B2 Bookkeeper's Record, 1944-45 Grade: 7 Class: 36 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Sept.22 Room service R.H. 1 Sept.30 Turning in wallet W.M. 1 Oct.l Room monitor C .E »L. 2 Oct.l Service in Art room S.D. 2 Oct.10 Extra Art work S.D. 1 Oct.25 Co-operation merit report I . J . E . 1 Oct.31 Co-operation merit reporter I .J .E . 5 Oct.31 Total 2 11 Co-operation Merits 16 Class Merits (£) 13 Oct.31 Total 18 24 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Number Oct.10 Detention G.L.W. 1 Oct.28 Disobedience C.F.L. 1 Oct.31 Total 2 Meri ts Date Reason Tea cher A B Nov. 3 Lost and found monitor M.C. 2 Nov.12 Ushering C D . 1 Nov.15 Indoor track meet M.K.R. 2 Nov.28 Team leader in gymnasium A.G. 2 Nov.30 Science improvement L.R.H. 1 Dec.l Bike shed guard C .E ,R« 1 Dec.10 Extra Art work S.D. 1 Jan.l6 Lost and found monitor M.C. 2 Jan.20 Co-operation merit report I . J .E . 1 Jan.24 Co-operation merit reporter I . J . E . 5 Jan.24 Total 3 15 Co-operation Merits 14 Class Merits (£) 19 Jan.24 Total 17 34 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Number Jan.20 Detention G.L.W. 1 Jan.24 Total 1 Merits 105 Date Reason Teacher A B Jan.31 Room service R.H. 2 Feb. 7 Ushering CD. 1 Feb.16 Extra Art work S.D. 1 Feb.28 Team leader In gymnasium A.G. 2 Feb.28 Bike shed guard C.E.R. 2 Mar.l Lost and found M.C. 2 Mar.10 Room monitor C .E «L. 2 Mar.18 Co-operation merit report I.J.E. 1 Mar .31 Cafeteria work G.V.J. 5 Mar.31 Bike shed guard C.E.R. 2 Mar.31 Lost and found monitor M.C. 2 Mar.31 Co-operation merit reporter I.J.E. 5 Easter Total 2 Co-operation Merits 18 Class Merits (§) 21 Easter Total 20 46 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Number Feb.15 Mar.20 Failure to report Disturbing class, G.V.J. R.H. 1 1 Easter Total Merits 2 Date Reason Teacher A B Apri l 30 May 1 May 25 June 1 June 10 Lost and found monitor Bike shed guard Parade and competition Cafeteria work Guidance report M.C C »E. R. B.C. G.V.J. I.J.E. 1 2 2 3 5 June Total Class Merits (i) 1 12 10 June Total Summary: June, 1945 1 22 Date "A" Merits «B" Merits Demerits October 18 24 2 January 17 34 1 Easter 20 46 2 June 1 22 0 Total 56 126 5 Summary: June, 1946 106 Date "A" Merits "B" Merits Demerits October 19 38 1 January 21 42 2 Easter 20 51 0 June 2 27 0 Total 62 15b" 3 Summary; June. 1947 Date "A*1 Merits "B" Merits Demerits October lb1 43 0 January 22 45 1 Easter 25 49 0 June 2 26 0 Total 67 163 1 This type of student, as represented by Case B2, i s typical of those pupils who are non-academically inclined but who are v i t a l l y interested i n a l l school a c t i v i t i e s . An examination of the "A" merit scores shows that 8 of the 56 "A" merits received during 1944-45 were issued for specific, aeademic work. The remaining 48 "A" merits were issued as co-operation merits. The service merit score, on the other hand, shows that this boy was keenly interested i n act i v i t i e s and was making a real contribution to the school. The demerit score i s usually very low for this type of student because of his interest i n building up a positive citizenship score. E. CASE OF STUDENT B3 - REPRESENTING TYPE E Name: B3 Bookkeeper's Record, 1944-4-5 Grade: 7 Class: 37 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Sept.22 Extra Art work S.D. 1 Oct.l Equipment monitor C .E «L. 2 Oct.31 Room monitor M.T. 1 Oct.31 Total 1 3 Co-operation Merits 9 8 Class Merits (•£•) Oct.31 Total 10 11 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Number Sept.15 Disturbing class P.D. 1 Sept.30 Detention G.L.W. 1 Oct.7 Failure to do assignment M.R. 1 Oct.23 Damaging desk S.D. 1 Oct.31 Total 4 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Nov.30 Equipment monitor C «E «L. 2 Dec.15 Christmas Art work S.D. 1 Jan. 24 Room monitor M.T. 2 Jan.24 Total 1 4 Co-operation Merits 11 Class Merits (£) 9 Jan.24 Total 12 13 Demerits Date Reason Teacher Number Nov .5 Disobedience W.M. 1 Nov.19 Persistent talking W.A. 1 Dec.15 Detention G.L.W. 1 Jan.16 Monitor court M.R. 1 Jan.20 Corporal punishment W.M. 1 Jan.24 Total 5 Merits Date Reason Teacher A B Feb.15 Mar.31 Excellent drawing Equipment monitor S.D. C .E .L. 1 2 Easter Total Co-operation Merits Class Merits (£) 1 9 2 9 Easter Total Demerits 10 11 Date Reason Teacher Number Jan.28 Feb.14 Feb.28 Mar.20 Mar.24 Disturbing class Truancy Foul language Disobedience Detention W.M. G.V.J . M.R. M.R. G.L.W. 1 1 1 1 1 Easter Total Merits 5 Date Reason Teacher A B May 30 June 2 Room service Extra drawings M.T. S.D. 1 2 June Total Class Merits (£) 1 2 6 June Total Demerits 1 8 Date Reason Teacher Number April 29 May 5 May 22 June 1 Failure to do assignment Corporal punishment Detention Disturbing class W.M. G.V.J . G.L.W. P.D. 1 1 1 1 June Total 4 .Summary: June. 194-5 109 Date "A" Merits "BM Merits Demerits October 10 11 4 January 12 13 5 Easter 10 11 5 June 1 8 4 Total 55 43 18 Summary: June. 1946 Date nA" Merits »B" Merits Demerits October 12 13 5 January 10 11 3 Easter 11 12 2 June 3 9 2 Total 36 45 12 Summary: June. 1947 Date "A" Merits "B" Merits Demerits October 11 12 3 January 13 14 2 Easter 12 13 3 June 2 9 1 Total 38 48 9 This boy's citizenship record reveals him as a behaviour problem to some teachers. The only subject i n whichha received "A" merits was Art. The service merits were earned for room monitor service or as class merits. There is no evidence of an interest in any extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . This type of pupil is usually antagonistic to authority, does not conform to class-room order and routine, does not make the necessary application to prescribed school work and often violates school regulations. It i s usually found that this type of student is a behaviour problem to certain teachers only. With other teachers, where a good inter-personal relationship i s established, he w i l l co-operate more readily, showing less antagonism and opposition to authority. With the help of the guidance department, these pupils can often be encouraged to take a more active part in school a c t i v i t i e s . Where this i s successful, the number of demerits shows a marked decrease, as the student concerns him-self with building up a positive record of citizenship. I l l CHAPTER VI SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND EVALUATION OF POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a positive citizenship rating scheme on pupil behaviour. The problem was approached by investigating the citizenship records of new students entering the junior high school. These data showed that the elementary schools, using a purely subjective rating, were judging pupils' citizenship to a marked extent on the basis of scholastic records. These new students were followed through the three grades as a group in order to establish a general pattern of the influence of the citizenship rating plan. It was found that, in general, the school citizenship ratings improved as students advanced from year to year. A further study of the student citizenship record books (1947-4-8) was made in order to determine the number of "A" merits, "B" merits and demerits that were issued at each grade level . A summarization of these findings and their significance follows: A. SUMMARY OF "A" MERIT ANALYSIS When we compare the means of the "A" merit scores for the three grades, we find that from grade seven to grade eight the mean increased 12.48, and from grade eight to grade nine the mean increased 5.79• The over-all increase from grade seven to grade nine was 18.27. The trend, summarized in Table XLVT, indicated that students increased their participation in the citizenship scheme in terms of receiving "A" merits as they progressed from grade to grade. TABLE XLYT SUMMARY OF "A" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE I Statistic Grade Number Mean Standard Deviation Standard Error of Mean 7 479 118.04 41.0 1.87 8 413 130.52 42.20 2.08 9 325 136.31 44.60 2.47 TABLE XLVII RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES IN "A" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN GRADES Grades Compared Differences Between Means S.D. Diff Dif f /S .D. Diff Chances in 100 8 - 7 12.48 2.80 4.46 100+ 9 - 8 5.79 3.23 1.79 96 9 - 7 18.27 3.10 5.89 100f When the differences between the means were tested statistically, the results shown in Table XLVII were obtained. In the light of the observed data, we may conclude that the significant differences found between grades seven and eight, and between grades seven and nine are certainly reliable ( i . e . , in which the Diff^.D.p,, ^ r is 3.00 or more). The effect of the 113 c i t i z e n s h i p r a t i n g scheme i n terms of "A" merits i s such that the p o s i t i v e influence on i n d i v i d u a l behaviour i s maintained and i n most cases increased from grade to grade. Sex differences i n the number of "A" merits received were rather s t r i k i n g . Tables XLVII! and XLLX give a summary of these scores f o r the boys and g i r l s of each grade. When these differences were tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y , the r e s u l t s shown i n Table L were obtained. As these differences are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t , we may conclude that the g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t ed more than the boys i n the c i t i z e n s h i p r a t i n g scheme at a l l grade l e v e l s . TABLE XLVTII SUMMARY OF GIRLS 1 "A" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, . EIGHT AND NINE S t a t i s t i c Grade Number Mean Standard Deviation Standard E r r o r of Mean 7 252 128.34 39.00 2.45 8 206 146.30 41.60 2.90 9 162 152.40 44.20 3.47 TABLE XLLX SUMMARY OF BOYS* "A" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, - -EIGHT AND NINE S t a t i s t i c Grade Number Mean Standard Deviation Standard Error of Mean 7 227 106.60 40.20 2.68 8 207 114.80 36.40 2.53 9 163 120.40 39.GO 3.05 TABLE L RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES IN "A" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS Grade % - MB S . D . D i f f D i f f / S . D . D i f f Chances in 100 7 21.74 3.63 5.99 100 •+ 8 . 31.50 3.85 8.18 100 + 9 32.00 4.62 6.93 100 + By comparing the number of "A" merits issued to high and low achievement groups, i t was found that a considerable difference in the mean scores between these groups existed at the grade seven and grade eight level. This difference between high and low achievement groups is to be expected as "A" merits are issued as records of excellent academic work. As the groups were so small, no attempt was made to test these differences statistically. However, i t should be noted that at the grade nine level, the difference between the means of the g i r l s ' scores drops sharply and that in the case of the boys, the low achievement group received more "A" merits than the high achievement group. At a l l grade levels, many inconsistencies were apparent in,the analysis of the number of "A" merits issued by teachers. It was determined that approximately thirty-seven per cent of a l l teachers issued less than one merit per student instructed, while other teachers issued as high as nineteen merits per student instructed. This range and lack of uniformity in the same department and between departments revealed a very definite weakness in the citizenship rating scheme. Teachers must agree within departments as to the approximate number of merits they intend to issue each term. What is needed is » uniformity in the execution of the citizenship rating plan which would be more conducive to better teacher-pupil relation-ships. B. SUMMARY OF "ffl MERIT ANALYSIS The summary of findings in Table LI indicated that there was a noticeable trend to increased participation in the citizenship scheme in terms of receiving "B" merits as students progressed from grade to grade. Although the mean of the "B?1 merit scores is lower than the mean of the MA" merit scores at a l l grade levels, the difference between the means are a l l significant. TABLE LI SUMMARY OF »'B" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE Statistic Grade Number Mean Standard Deviation Standard Error of Mean 7 4-79 87.85 40.90 1.87 8 413 100.24 44.80 2.21 9 325 115.45 57.20 3.17 In the light of the statistical data given in Table LIT, we may conclude that the students' in the junior high school increased their participation in activities and school service under this positive citizenship rating plan. 116 TABLE L I I RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES I N "B" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN GRADES Grades Compared D i f f e r e n c e s Between Means s , D * D i f f D i f f / S . D . D i f f Chances i n 100 8 - 7 12.39 2.90 4.27 100 + 9 - 8 15.21 3.86 3'.94 100 4 9 - 7 27.60 \ 3.68 7.50 100 4 Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the number o f "B" m e r i t s r e c e i v e d were c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h o s e found i n t h e "A" m e r i t s u r v e y . T a b l e s L I I I and LEV g i v e a summary of t h e s e s c o r e s f o r the boys and g i r l s of each g r a d e . When t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were t e s t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y , t he r e s u l t s shown i n T a b l e LV were o b t a i n e d . As i t i s u s u a l l y customary t o t a k e a D i f f / S . D . ^ f ^ of 3 o r more as i n d i c a t i v e o f complete r e l i a b i l i t y , i t w i l l be seen t h a t o n l y a t t h e grade n i n e l e v e l i s t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . We may conclude t h a t t h e g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t e more tha n t h e boys i n terms o f a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o o l s e r v i c e a t t h e grade n i n e l e v e l . TABLE L I I I SUMMARY OF GIRLS' "B" MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE S t a t i s t i c Grade Number Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f Mean 7 252 90.08 38.80 2.44 8 206 104.08 45.60 3.18 9 162 125.19- 53.80 4.23 TABLE LIV SUMMARY OF B0YS» n F ' MERIT SCORES FOR GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT AND NINE Statistic Grade Number Mean Standard Deviation Standard Error of Mean 7 227 85.37 43.00 2.86 8 207 96.43 43.60 3.03 9 163 105.77 57.40 4.48 TABLE LV RELIABILITIES OF DIFFERENCES IN n B" MERIT SCORES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS Grade MQ. - Mg s * D « D i f f D i f f / S . D . D i f f Chances in 100 7 4.71 3.76 1.25 89 8 7.65 4.39 1.74 96 9 19.42 6.16 3.15 100 + By comparing the number of "B" merits issued to high and low achievement groups, i t was found that a considerable difference in the mean scores between these groups existed at a l l grade levels. In the case of the g i r l s 1 classes, the high achievement groups averaged 21.05 merits higher than the low achievement groups. A similar conclusion was reached for the boys1 classes as the high achievement groups averaged 21.40 merits higher than the low achievement groups. This difference between high and low achievement groups is to be expected in 118 view of the positive correlation found between citizenship ratings and achievement. As these groups were small, no attempt was made to test these differences statistically. The problem of evaluating the number of "B" merits issued by teachers is complicated by the fact that some teachers were extremely active sponsors of extra-curricular activities. However, i t is evident from the analysis made at the different grade levels that certain teachers on the staff were not using the scheme to any great extent. Thirty-one per cent of a l l teachers issued less than one "B" merit per student instructed. As some of these teachers were sponsors of at least one activity, the number of merits issued for classroom monitor work must have been low indeed. The recommendations included in the nAn merit summary apply equally well to "B" merits. Uniformity and consistency are essential for good teacher-pupil relationships. The fact that one "Bn merit is issued for sixty minutes of service should be sufficient guide for teachers, who are not using the many opportunities in regular classroom routine to award citizenship credits to students. C. SUMMARY OF DEMERIT ANALYSIS In the demerit analysis, i t was determined that the number of students receiving no demerits increased from twenty-two per cent in grade seven to thirty-seven per cent in grade nine. Also, the mean of the demerit scores with the zero scores eliminated decreased from 4.52 in grade seven to 3.70 in grade nine. In a l l grades, the girls had the higher percentage of 119 zero scores and the lower mean of the demerit scores. However, when these differences found in the survey were- tested statistically, they were found to he not significant. In the analysis of the reasons given by teachers for imposing, demerits, i t was found that twenty-one offenses appeared most frequently. This information regarding socially unacceptable behaviour in the various classrooms should prove extremely valuable to the guidance teachers. Where difficulties in pupil-teacher relationships arise, the student can be given help in building habits of behaviour useful to himself and acceptable to others. The fact that demerits decrease from grade to grade suggests that valuable work is being done under the positive citizenship rating plan in developing students1 interests and providing outlets for their energies. One of the greatest dangers of this citizenship scheme is that some teachers w i l l use demerits not as records of punishment but as the punishment i t se l f . Where this happens, the scheme quickly degenerates in the minds of the students. Constant checking is necessary to avoid the negative approach. D. EVALUATION OF POSITIVE CITIZENSHIP RATING In the past, merit schemes were regarded by most educators as extrinsic motivation. Those administrators who made use of merits as awards argued that before an intrinsic interest in activity can be aroused, the pupil must be induced to participate in the activity and hence the use of the award. Positive citizenship rating is not a system of awards 120 and punishments. It i s simply a record of school citizenship. Students are made aware of the fact that the school, with their help, i s keeping careful records of significant items of behaviour. It i s as a record-keeping technique that the scheme has been evaluated in this study. Any citizenship plan may f a i l i f not s k i l f u l l y administered. Also, some plans may work effi c i e n t l y i f put into operation by understanding teachers who have leadership qualities. Organization counts for much in that i t indicates carefully worked out procedures. I t also permits insights into the motives which have prompted these procedures. It i s with this i n mind that the following aspects of positive citizenship rating have been evaluated, 1. The whole plan of positive citizenship rating i s closely linked with the guidance program of the school. I t i s introduced and administered to a great extent in the group guidance classes. As these records of significant items of behaviour are available to the guidance teachers, many problems in pupil-teacher relationships can be investigated and improved. However, i t i s imperative that these guidance teachers be regarded as personal counsellors and not i n any sense responsible for the discipline of their students. Discipline, both i n terms of classroom organization and school administration, must remain the prerogative of the individual teacher and the administrators of the school. 2. This study has shown the need for a co-ordinator of the citizenship rating scheme. His duties might well include the following: 121 (a) Liaison .between the teachers, guidance department and the administrators of the school. (b) Act as chairman of department committees to establish uniformity in the issuing of merit credits. (c) Provide leadership and guidance in a program of teacher education to establish the scheme as a record-keeping device and not as an award-punishment plan. (d) Provide an assessment of the scheme once a year in terms of i t s contribution to school citizenship and efficacy of administration. 3. Because'of the unfortunate connotation of the words "merit" and "demerit", this terminology might be replaced by "citizenship credits" and "citizenship debits". 4. The in i t i a t i o n of such a plan provides a stimulus for the work of a l l student organizations. The scheme operates admirably with the^ pupil monitor system and monitor court. 5. Much of the c l e r i c a l work involved in the operation of the scheme i s done by student officers. In accordance with accepted principles of junior high school administration, there should be a joint pupil-teacher committee responsible for the supervision of the scheme. 6. Any revisions of the citizenship rating scheme should be based, in so far as possible, on definite data collected from teachers and pupils concerned. 7. I t i s generally agreed.that progress toward the modern ideal of individualized education i s dependent to some extent on the nature of the records which the school attempts to keep. I f 122 these records are to he of value, they must be cumulative, objective and must present a clear picture of each student's ac t i v i t i e s , attainments and growth. Positive citizenship rating contributes valuable data for this aspect of student records and as such, deserves the careful consideration of school administrators• BIBLIOGRAPHY 123 Books Almack, John C. Education for Citizenship. Boston, Houghton Miff l in Co., 1924. Broome, E .C. and Adams E.W. Conduct and Citizenship. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1926. Burdette, Franklin L. Education for Citizen Responsibilities. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press for National Foundation for Education in American Citizenship, 1942. Draper, E.M. and Corbally, J .E . Extracurricular Credits. New York, A.S. Barnes & Co., 1932. Foster, Charles H. Extra-Curricular Activities in the High  School. Johnson Publishing Co., Richmond, Va. , 1925, Greene, Edward B. Measurements of Human Behavior. New York, The Odyssey Press. 1941, McKinnon Kathern Mae. Consistency and Change in Behavior  Manifestations. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1942, McKown, Harry C. Extra Curricular Activities, New York, The Macmillan Co., 1927. Merriam, Charles E. The Making of Citizens. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1931. Merriam, Charles E, Civic Education in the United States. New York, Charles Scribne^s Sons, 1934, Meyer, Harold D. A .^ Handbook of Extra-Curricular Activities in  the High School. A.S. Barnes and Co.. New York City. 1926. Reavis, W.C. Pupil Adjustment in Junior and Senior High Schools. New York, D.C.Heath & Co., 1926. Reavis, W.C. and Judd, Charles H, The Teacher and Educational Administration. Boston, Houghton Miff l in Co., 1942, Remmers, H.H. and Gage, N.L. Educational Measurement and  Evaluation. New York, Harper & Bros., 1943. Roomer, Joseph and Allen, Charles F. Extracurricular Activities  in Junior and Senior High Schools. Boston, D.C.Heath & Co., 192V: : BlBLIOGRAPHY(continued) 124 Smith, Eugene R., Tyler, Ralph W. and the Evaluation Staff. Appraising and Recording Student Progress. New York, Harper & Bros., 1942. Symonds, P.M. Diagnosing Personality and Conduct. New York, Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1931* Touton, F.C. and Struthers, A.B. Junior High School Procedure. Boston, Ginn and Co., 1926. Articles Atkinson, Carroll. "A Merit System for Elementary School." Elementary School Journal. XXXII, December, 1931. Bowes, F.H. "The Anecdotal Behaviour Record i n Measuring Progress in Character." Elementary School Journal,XXXIX. February, 1939. Butler, Charles E. "Character through Merit Systems." Ohio  Schools. VII, A p r i l , 1929. Chassell, C.F., Upton, S.M. and Chassell, L.M. "Short Scales for Measuring Habits of Good Citizenship." Teachers College  Record. XXIII, 1922. Greenough, A. "The Training of Responsible Citizens." The New  Era in Home and School. XX, January, 1939. Hauser, L.J. "Educating for Service in a Democracy." Journal  of the National Education Association. XXVIII, May, 1939. Hawes,I.E. "The Attendance Department - a Laboratory of Citizenship." School Review. XXXII, April, 1924. Holt, Mary E. "Constructive Discipline by Merits." Popular  Education. XLII, September, 1924. Koos, L.V. "Evaluating Extra-Currieular A c t i v i t i e s . " Extra- curricular A c t i v i t i e s . Twenty-fifth Yearbook, Part 2, National Society for the Study of Education, Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Company, 1926. Lottick, Kenneth V. "The Evaluation of Ethical Discrimination." The Social Studies. XXXIX, February, 1948. Moore, Helen L. "Service Point Systems, with Special Reference to the Los Angeles Schools." Los Angeles School Journal, X, May, 1927. 125 Bl ELIOGRAPHY(continued) Upton, S.M. and Chassell, C.F. "A Scale for Measuring Habits of Good Citizenship." Teachers College Record. XX, 1919. Vaughan, T.H. "Point System and Record Card for Extracurricular Activit ies ." School and Society. XVI, December, 1922. Wilson, Howard E. "On the Making of Citizens." Social  Education. I l l , Apri l , 1939. Reports Educational Policies Commission. The Purpose of Education in  American Democracy. Washington: National Education Association and the American Association of School Administrators, 1938. Nancarrow, J .E . "Interpreting Democracy through the Administration and Activities Program." Addresses and  Proceedings of the Seventy-ninth Annual Meeting of the  National Education Association. LXXTX, 1941. Monographs Doig, L .L . Citizenship Devices Used in Senior High Schools  of California. Master's Thesis]^ University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930. Gates, J.W. The Civic Competence of High School Seniors. Doctor's Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1945. Hayes, M.L. A Study of the Classroom Disturbances of Eighth  Grade Boys and G i r l s . Doctor's Dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1943. Hayes, W.J. Some Factors Influencing Participation in Voluntary Group Activi t ies . Contributions to Education, No. 419, Doctor's Dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930. Johnston, E.G. Point Systems and Awards. Doctor's Dissertation, New York, A.S. Barnes and Co., 1930• Encyclopedia Encyclopedia of Modern Education. The Philosophical Library of New York, F.Hubner and Co., 1943. BIBLEOGRAPHY(continued) Pamphlets Templeton Junior High School, Vancouver, B.C. Student Handbook, 1947. Traxler, A.E. The Nature and Use of Anecdotal Records. Educational Records Bureau, 1939. APPENDIX A 127 CHASSELL - UPTON CITIZENSHIP SCALES SHORT SCALE D Score in Points Average Score in Per Cent Score in Per Cent on Scales D and Name Age Trs.... .Mos... Sex Grade School Pupils marked by..... .Date.... 0 1 2 3 Puts on or takes off overshoes quickly. 0 1 2 3 Puts work away quickly. 0 1 2 3 Avoids passing i n front of others. 0 1 2 3 Keeps hands and material away from mouth and fingers away from nose and ears. 0 1 2 3 Is careful of his eyes, not reading i n a dim light or when lying down; taking care that the sun does not shine on the page, and that the light comes over the l e f t shoulder when he i s working or reading; and keeping the book or the paper at a proper distance (about fourteen inches) from the eyes. 0 1 2 3 Conforms to the rules governing the study period. 0 1 2 3 Is systematic in saving money. 0 1 2 3 Is ready with helpful suggestions as to better ways of doing things. 0 1 2 3 Is pleasant i n greeting, and ( i f a boy) raises his hat or cap. 0 1 2 3 Is free of coarseness or crudities in speech and manner. 0 1 2 3 Is resourceful in finding new tasks when those assigned have been f u l f i l l e d . 0 1 2 3 Submits gracefully to an unavoidable injury or loss. 0 1 2 3 Claims no more than his f a i r share of time and attention, particularly i n the recitation period. 0 1 2 3 Expresses himself coherently and clearly. 0 1 2 3 Is a good loser. 0 1 2 3 Helps to carry out worthwhile suggestions made by others. 0 1 2 3 Is not cowardly when unjustly attacked. 0 1 2 3 Is tactful, avoiding saying or doing that which would unnecessarily pain or annoy another. 0 1 2 3 Appreciates mastery i n intellectual lines and strives for thoroughness and accuracy in his own work. 0 1 2 3 Guards confidences, provided his principles are not~ violated by doing so. APPENDIX A (continued) 128 0 1 2 3 Is sympathetic with the opinions of others including those who d i f f e r with him. 0 1 2 3 Makes the most of his opportunities. 0 1 2 3 Is true to family and friends. 0 1 2 3 Tells the truth without flinching or compromise, trying to give a correct impression. Published by Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. Copyright, 1922, by Teachers College APPENDIX B 129 GATES CITIZENSHIP RATING SCALE Name of Pupi 1 Date, Fil led in by Please return t o , . . BEHAVIOR RATING BLANK A. How prompt is be in meeting Ms obligations? —-1.Always prompt; begins work ahead of time, 2.Prompt;begins work on time, 3.Usually prompt. 4.Prompt under pressure, 5.Never prompt. B, How orderly are his work habits? 1.Exceptionally orderly;completed work is well organized, neat and accurate, 2.Orderly when he sees the need for i t . 3.Orderly when required. 4 .Usually careless; makes unnecessary mistakes. 5.Never orderly; completed work is unorganized, carelessly prepared, sloppy. Please record here instances that support your judgment. Please record here instances that support your judgment. C. How effective and thorough are his Please record here work habits? instances that support -—l.Very effective; works carefully, your judgment. thoughtfully, independentlyjuses his initiative and is resourceful. 2 .Effective; work habits enable pupil to achieve a l l that could usually be expected of one of his abi l i ty . —3.Adequate; uses l i t t l e ini t iat ive ; habits show promise of becoming adequate• 4.Inadequate; work habits are adequate only for simple situations; needs much help. 5.1neffective; is careless and negligent; work habits keep him from working up to his abi l i ty . APPENDIX B (continued) 130 D, Does he get others to do what he Please record here wishes? instances that support 1.Displays very marked abili ty your judgment. to lead his fellow; makes things go. 2.Strongly affects the opinions ideals and activities of his associates. 3.Sometimes leads in minor affairs . 4.Lets others take the lead. —-3.1s easily influenced by others. E . Does he co-operate with others? Please record here 1.Works unusually well with others instances that support. in a tactful and helpful way; your judgment, offers assistance to others, 2.Works well with others, 3.Usually does his share of the group work, but is inconsistent in ability to adjust to some groups, 4.Prefers to work by himself, 5.Antagonizes others; unwilling to sacrifice own interests for good of the group. F. Does he have an inquiring mind? —1.Has many deep intellectual interests; resourceful and original thinker; carries through whatever is under-taken . 2.Has a few active and deep interests. 3.Investigates and explores only problems assigned. 4.Acts only when both the plan and the details of procedure are definitely outlined, 5.Has l i t t l e or no desire or abili ty to investigate and explore. Please record here instances that support your judgment. G, How well does he control his emotions? 1.Unusual balance of re-sponsiveness and control, 2.Well balanced, 3.Usually well balanced. 4a,Tends to be unresponsive. b.Tends to be over emotional. Please record here instances that support your judgment. APPENDIX B (continued) 131 -5a.Unresponsive,apethetic. b.Too easily moved to ex-cessive emotional states: 1. elation 2. depression 3. anger 4. fear Strong points and special a b i l i t i e s Weaknesses and particular d i f f i c u l t i e s Gates, John W. Civic Competence of High School Seniors. pp. 148-50. Doctor's Dissertation, The University of Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1Q45. 

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