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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of the Mothers' Allowances programme in British Columbia Rasmussen, Wilfred 1950

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AN EVALUATION OF THE MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES  PROGRAMME IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by WILFRED RASMUSSEN Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the Department of Social Work 1950 The University of British Columbia Abstract. This study reviews the h i s t o r i c a l background of Mothers' Allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The main emphasis, however, has been on the present organization of t h i s pro-gramme and how i t serves the c l i e n t . The programme has been i n operation i n B r i t i s h Columbia since 1920, and has served numerous families throughout the years without an evaluation being made to determine how i t was serving the public. This study, therefore, analyzes various aspects of t h i s programme and seeks to appraise i t s place i n the welfare f i e l d . The h i s t o r i c a l background of the programme was covered by examining reports, a r t i c l e s and s p e c i f i c books written on the subject. A number of persons were also i n t e r -viewed. Material r e l a t i n g to Mothers' Allowances, as thi s programme i s administered at present, was obtained through interviews, reports and a r t i c l e s . For i l l u s t r a t i v e material, a number of mothers' allowances cases and others were studied. The review of the Mothers' Allowances Programme re-veals a number of weaknesses. (1) The e l i g i b i l i t y regula-tions which are too r i g i d , exclude too many needy f a m i l i e s . (2) Judged by reasonable standards f o r long term maintenance, the allowances granted to families are almost u n i v e r s a l l y i n -adequate. (3) No help i s given to c l i e n t s to meet t h e i r housing needs. As a r e s u l t , many families are forced to l i v e i n crowded and inadequate quarters. (*f) Mothers 1 Allowances cases get less casework service than persons on S o c i a l A s s i s t -ance. (5) The authority for granting allowances to c l i e n t s should be more decentralized. The Mothers' Allowances provide a measure of a s s i s t -ance to families which they would not otherwise have. I t i s comparable to S o c i a l Assistance i n thi s regard, but the study reveals that, i f the Mothers' Allowances Programme i s to con-tinue, the Act and i t s regulations have to be amended and made equal to or better than the S o c i a l Assistance requirements. There i s a need for the Federal Government to a s s i s t f i n a n -c i a l l y i n this f i e l d . I f development followed the l i n e s of the S o c i a l Security Report by Dr. L. C. Marsh, the Mothers' Allowances programmes i n Canada could be repealed, since widows i n need would be covered by Survivors' Insurance. Mothers with children not covered by Survivors' Insurance would be assisted by a reformed system of s o c i a l assistance. The recommendation o£ the present study i s that the Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i f not improved considerably, should be abolished i n favour of s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance for a l l those i n need. I Acknowledgements. I wish to thank very s i n c e r e l y the administrators, the supervisors and the s o c i a l workers of the Vancouver S o c i a l Service Department who so generously gave t h e i r time and e f f o r t s i n order to a s s i s t me i n gathering material f o r this t h e s i s . I also wish to thank the women who assisted me i n various ways and to p a r t i c u l a r l y thank Mrs. C. Bass, Mrs. E. Mortimore, and Mrs. E. Clark. I would l i k e to express my appreciation f o r the assistance given me by Dr. L. C. Marsh, Mr. W. G. Dixon and Mr. Exner of the Department of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Mr. J . Creighton, Chairman of the Old Age Pensions Board, Vancouver, B. C. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Review and Development. Development of Mothers' Pensions i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. The movement to a s s i s t mothers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Royal Commission of 1 9 1 9 . The philosophy behind t h i s 1 programme. The Act i n o p e r a t i o n from J u l y 1920 to 19*+9. Procedure w i t h i n present study. Chapter 2 . E l i g i b i l i t y . C a t e g o r i e s covered. General requirements:- R e s i -dence. N a t i o n a l i t y . C h a r a c t e r . The Means T e s t : -P e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y requirements. R e a l p r o p e r t y r e -quirements. Other a s p e c t s : - S p e c i a l d i s q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s . Documents f o r establishment of e l i g i b i l i t y . R e ferences. Chapter 3 . Adequacy of Allowances. An a n a l y s i s of allowances to 19 l+9. Adequacy of allowances to meet need. The present allowances i n o p e r a t i o n . The e f f e c t of e a r n i n g s . Supplementary allowances. Chapter k. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Programme. The e v o l u t i o n a r y changes:- The Superintendent o f Neglected C h i l d r e n . The Workmen's Compensation Board. The P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s Department. The Department of H e a l t h and Welfare. The present ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers 1 Allowances. R e c i p r o c a l agreements. Chapter 5. S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n the Present programme. Medi c a l S e r v i c e s . Housing. Casework S e r v i c e s . V o l u n t a r y S e r v i c e s . Chapter 6. The F i n a n c i n g of Mothers' Allowances. Review of F i n a n c i n g from 1920 to 19^9. The p r o -v i n c i a l . Revenue,;Sources. The present f i n a n c i n g of allowances. Chapter 7. An A p p r a i s a l . Changiig p h i l o s o p h y of need. The e f f e c t s of c e n t r a l -i z e d c o n t r o l . Arguments a g a i n s t t h i s programme. Recommendations. Appendices A. - The Mothers* Allowances Act B. - Suggested budgets f o r f a m i l i e s on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e and Mothers' Allowances. C. - B i b l i o g r a p h y . Tables i n the Te x t . Table 1: O r i g i n a l , reduced and suggested s c a l e s of pension. (No r e n t paid) Page 56. T a b l e 2: O r i g i n a l , reduced and suggested s c a l e s of pension where ren t i s paid.Page 56. Table 3 : S e r i e s of Sample Minimum Monthly Budgets, (Toronto, 19^9) Page 61 . Table The Mothers' Allowances S c a l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 19*+9 . Page 6V. Table 5 : Trends i n c a s e l o a d and c o s t f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n Vancouver. Page 136. 1 Chapter 1 . Review and Development. Many ch i l d r e n had to endure great hardships during the nineteenth century because there were no proper assistance programmes to help needy f a m i l i e s . In Great B r i t a i n , the United States and Canada, such fa m i l i e s had to apply f o r r e -l i e f , which was not only inadequate but degrading to the fami-l i e s who were forced by d e s t i t u t i o n to apply for I t . Towards the turn of the twentieth century i n the United States, there was a movement afoot to select c e r t a i n categories and remove them from the blanket system of munici-pal poor r e l i e f . This movement, to a s s i s t widows and others, gained momentum during t h e ' f i r s t decade of thi s new century. The various organizations which helped organize the ground work f o r mothers pensions i n the United States, received recognition f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s i n 1 9 0 9 when a s p e c i a l confer-ence was held i n Cook County, I l l i n o i s , on the care of de-pendent children. Its theme was expressed i n the following words: "The most hopeful sign of progress i s the advance that has been made within the past quarter-century i n pre-vention of the need f o r removal of children from t h e i r own homes because of poverty. This far-reaching movement was set i n motion i n 1 9 0 9 by the conference on the Care of Dependent Children held at the c a l l of President Theodore Roosevelt. The discussions stressed children's need of home l i f e as the great moulding force on t h e i r minds and characters - an influence of which they should not be de-prived except for urgent and compelling reasons." 1 Shortly a f t e r t h i s , a beginning was made to keep 1 S o c i a l Work Year Book. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 ^ 9 , Page 1 0 0 . 2 families i n t a c t by providing f i n a n c i a l assistance. This ex-periment i n Cook County led f i n a l l y to the passage of the f i r s t Mothers' Pensions Act, known as The Funds to Parents Act, which was enacted i n the State of I l l i n o i s i n 1911. This was passed amid a storm of protest. Those who opposed i t i n -cluded nationally known so c i o l o g i s t s who believed that the hew scheme would drag the "better" and "more worthy" families into the e v i l s of the poor low. In addition, there was fear that this programme, which was supported by public funds, would grow rap i d l y and eventually replace voluntary charity. Those i n favour were la r g e l y advocating a better method of c h i l d care as d i s t i n c t from poor r e l i e f . Their thoughts are expressed as follows: "The su b s t i t u t i o n of Workmen's Compensation for the un-c e r t a i n t i e s of employer's l i a b i l i t y under the common law and of "mothers' pensions", or more accurately, public aid f o r dependent childre n i n t h e i r own home, for the un-c e r t a i n t i e s and inadequacies of r e l i e f under the poor law or care by charitable agencies were the f i r s t s o c i a l i n -surance measures to be adopted i n the United States." 1 While the controversy raged over pensions to mothers, a systematic campaign was car r i e d on by women's organizations and welfare agencies during the years 1911 to 1913 to educate the public i n t h i s type of programme. The people were won over gradually. The number of states to pass l e g i s l a t i o n pro-viding pensions for mothers increased from 17 i n 1913 to *+6 i n 1933. In 1935 the United States Government passed the So-1 Abbott, Grace, The Child and the State. Chicago, The Univer-s i t y of Chicago Press, Volume 11, 194-7, Page 229. c i a l Security Act, a r t i c l e IV of which provided grants to states under c e r t a i n conditions to help dependent c h i l d r e n . The states accepted federal aid r e a d i l y * by 19^ 9 a l l the states, except Nevada, had established state-federal aid to dependent children. These states have now repealed t h e i r former mothers' pensions acts i n favour of thi s new programme. The main difference between the l a t t e r and the former i s that the federal government, by sharing the costs, can regulate standards and make them uniform. In 19^ 8 the number of fami-l i e s assisted was *+*+8,500 and the number of children benefited was 1,15*+,300, or 2.h per cent of the entire c h i l d population of the United States. The cost of t h i s programme i n 19*+8 amounted to $325,800,000. In Canada, a g i t a t i o n f o r mothers pensions was carri e d on large l y by labour and women's organizations. The labour organizations were well aware of the need to a s s i s t families where the breadwinner had died or been injured by an i n d u s t r i a l accident, or crippled by sickness. The unions, through t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l organizations, c a r r i e d on t h e i r pub-l i c i t y through th e i r own memberships and by delegations to i n -d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c i a l governments. The fact that women received the vote helped to influence the various provinces i n l e g i s -l a t i n g for mothers' pensions. The passage of Workmen's Com-pensation Acts In the provinces also helped to point out the need to a s s i s t widows who were, of course, not covered by thi s l e g i s l a t i o n . The f i r s t mothers' pensions act passed i n Canada was i n Manitoba i n 1916. Saskatchewan, Alberta, B r i t i s h C o l -If umbia and Ontario passed similar legislation between 1917 and 1920. Nova Scotia followed in 1930, Quebec and New Brunswick in 1938, although the New Brunswick legislation did not become effective u n t i l 1943. Prince Edward Island was the last prov-ince to obtain such a programme, the necessary act was not passed u n t i l I9V9. Newfoundland does not have mothers' allow-ances, as such, but gives financial assistance to needy widows, dependent children and orphans. In recent years the caseloads in every province, with the exception of British Columbia, have been increasing. In 19 -^8 the number of families assisted by this programme was 32,669 and a total of 87,013 children were aided at a cost of 112,804-, 0 0 0 . In Great Britain, the problem of the widow and the fatherless children received special consideration in the Re-port of the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws published in 1909. This report stirred considerable public interest in this problem. Agitation was carried on by women's and labour organizations to educate the general public for the need to assist widows financially from 1909 to 1919. It was not unt i l 1919. however, that this problem was brought up in the House of Commons. There was general agreement amongst p o l i t i c a l parties as to the desirability of such assistance, but the de-bates showed divergence of opinion as to the method of financ-ing such a programme. Nothing was done about widows' pensions at this time. In 1923, and again in 1924-, this problem was debated in the House of Commons. It was not u n t i l May, 1925, 5 that the Widows, Orphans, and Old Age Contributory Pensions B i l l was introduced i n the House of Commons and passed shortly a f t e r -wards. This was a s o c i a l insurance scheme, on a d e f i n i t e l y contributory basis, financed j o i n t l y by the employer, employee and the government. This programme became operative i n January, 1926. The Movement to Help Widowed Mothers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In B r i t i s h Columbia, during the hectic c o l o n i a l period which stretched from 1856 to 1871, there was no organized as-sistance to help families i n need. The white population gradually grew during t h i s period from a few white f u r traders at the beginning of the century to 10,586 by 1871. In 1873, a s t a r t was made i n B r i t i s h Columbia to a s s i s t married women with some of t h e i r problems i n regard to support. In t h i s year the B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t u r e passed the "Married Women's Property Act" which set f o r t h the con-ditions whereby a woman could gain control of her husband's property f o r h e r s e l f . This act also assisted women with c h i l -dren i n getting court orders made against deserting husbands so that some assistance could be obtained. In 1880 a p r o v i n c i a l fund known as the "Destitute Poor and Sick Fund" was set up to take care of those who became destitute i n unorganized t e r r i -t o r i e s . In I89O the "Municipalities Act" was passed which stated that the l o c a l m unicipalities had to look a f t e r t h e i r own destitute cases. This was not a serious threat to muni-c i p a l funds for many years due to the small population. The i n d u s t r i a l growth of the province was slow, i r -regular, and subject to rather frequent depressions. The popu-l a t i o n of the province, increasing s t e a d i l y , stood i n 1911 at 392,*4-80. Welfare problems came with the increase i n popula-t i o n . The span from 1911 to 1920 was a rather active period f o r the women of B r i t i s h Columbia. Between the years 1912-16 they started a systematic campaign to obtain the vote, as they r e a l i z e d that without t h i s the l e g i s l a t o r s would not l i s t e n to t h e i r demands. Their e f f o r t s were successful when, i n 1916, they were given the vote. In November, 1916, the "Women's New Era League" was organized and immediately took up the task to get pensions for mothers who, for various rea-sons, had no income. "The Workmen's Compensation Act" which came int o force i n 1917 assisted the women's campaign for mothers' pensions as t h i s provision showed up the need of other women with c h i l d r e n who did not q u a l i f y under t h i s act. During t h i s period the Vancouver Day Nursery was developed f o r the purpose of a s s i s t i n g mothers with children. While the mothers worked the ch i l d r e n were cared f o r at the nursery. In 1918 the number of chi l d r e n benefiting from t h i s service was 8,753 and the number of women using the nurseries t o t a l l e d 9>375. The need to help mothers who were tryi n g to provide for t h e i r c h i l d r e n and keep them at home was great. Many had no alternative but to place t h e i r children i n i n -s t i t u t i o n s which were poorly equipped and overcrowded, and lacked proper segregation. The Women's New Era League organized study groups to examine i n d e t a i l various Acts on mothers' pensions i n 7 other countries. This organization sent speakers to clubs and c i v i c bodies forj the purpose of influencing public opinion i n favour of the pension. The support of every p r o v i n c i a l l y or-ganized society and of the mayors of the larger c i t i e s was obtained. In 1917 a delegation of ho people, representing various clubs, c i v i c bodies, church groups, etc., v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a f o r the purpose of getting some action from the government. The delegation was rather coldly received. The government did not give them any promise that they would pro-vide pensions for needy f a m i l i e s . In 1918 another delegation was organized. It was more impressive than the f i r s t one and was comprised of r e -presentatives of nearly a l l the organizations i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia. The purpose of t h i s delegation was to persuade the government to a s s i s t needy mothers with c h i l d r e n . "The Premier, the Hon. John Oliver, i n eulogizing the delegation, said, ' i t was the most business-like and representative dele-1 gation that had ever appeared before the Government'." This delegation put f o r t h such a convincing argument i n favour of mothers' pensions that the government appointed a commission to report on the a d v i s a b i l i t y of having such l e g i s l a t i o n passed. The Royal Commission of 1919. With the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s i n 1918, Canada was faced with many domestic problems. There was no proper 1 F i r s t Annual Report of the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l - dren and Mothers' Pensions. King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1921, Page 8. ! programme mapped out by the Dominion Government to handle un-employment and sickness. Each i n d i v i d u a l province i n Canada had to take care of i t s own needs i n t h i s f i e l d . This period was complicated by the influenza epidemic of 1 9 1 9 which l e f t many families i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n need of medical and f i n a n c i a l help. The problem at t h i s time was further aggra-vated by the return of soldiers who could not adjust w e l l to c i v i l i a n l i f e , numbers of whom deserted t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Many other s o l d i e r s , wounded or sick, had, i n t h e i r haste to get away from the army, signed away t h e i r r i g h t s to medical at-tention. The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia appointed a Royal Commission i n November, 1 9 1 9 , comprised of the following mem-bers, Mr. E. S. H. Winn, Chairman, Mrs. C. E. Spofford, Mr. T. B. Green and Mr. D. McCallum. The terms of reference governing t h i s Commission was to investigate the need for Health Insurance, Public Health Nursing, Mothers* Pensions and Maternity Benefits. The Commission systematically v i s i t e d various parts of B r i t i s h Columbia and i n each d i s t r i c t held heatings, permit-ting individuals to express t h e i r views on mothers 1 pensions as well as on other topics under review. "Witnesses everywhere welcomed the idea of granting pensions to those mothers who, through no f a u l t of t h e i r own, found themselves unable to support th e i r c h i l d r e n and educate them to become us e f u l e i t i -1 zens". The commission did not encounter any person who was opposed to the idea of granting pensions to mothers, but i n -• 1 Commission on Health Insurance, Report on Mothers 1 Pensions. King's Pri n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1 9 2 0 , Page 6. ' stead found many who expressed t h e i r regrets that t h i s i n v e s t ! gation had not been made long before. The commission also t r i e d to estimate what i t would cost to put such a programme into operation. They obtained figures from the p o l i c e , the municipal c l e r k s , and the women's organizations. Their estimates showed that for a l l the pro-vince the number of families q u a l i f y i n g would be 2JBU-, having 6^ 2 children. The cost of this programme would range from $59»960 to |l6G, l+79. The estimated cost of mothers* pensions i n B r i t i s h Columbia was arrived at by studying s i m i l a r programmes i n Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. The commission also drew up the necessary adminis-t r a t i v e structure to make mothers* pensions operative. The two major recommendations set f o r t h by the commission, which were not accepted, were: that the Department of Education administer t h i s programme and that the municipalities pay h a l f the cost of the pensions. The commission also f i x e d the pension rate at $*+2.50 a month f o r a mother and one c h i l d and $7.50 f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d . The commission, aft e r a thorough in v e s t i g a t i o n of a l l the f a c t o r s , and a f t e r studying reports submitted by the various women's organizations on e l i g i b i l i t y , drew up a report on i t s findings which was sub-mitted to the government on the 22nd of March, 1920. The government, aft e r reviewing t h i s report, f e l t the need to as-s i s t mothers was so evident that the Mothers' Pensions Act was passed i n B r i t i s h Columbia on the 17th of A p r i l , 1920. 1 0 The Philosophy of the Programme. The philosophy of granting pensions to mothers developed gradually throughout the years, both i n the United States and i n Canada. The effects of removing c h i l d r e n from t h e i r mothers when t h e i r fathers had died or were unable to support their f a m i l i e s for various reasons, began to be noticed by interested groups. The various organizations i n B r i t i s h Columbia which helped to have the Mothers 1 Pensions Act passed, stressed i n the i r addresses throughout the province the need f o r family l i f e , and the f a c t that no c h i l d should be separated from i t s mother for poverty reasons only. Theprogramme to aid mothers i n B r i t i s h Columbia was supposed to be based on t h i s p r i n c i p l e : " I t i s the recognition of a widely held and deeply rooted con-v i c t i o n that home l i f e and a mother's care are of such value i n the proper rearing of children, that no c h i l d should be de-1 prived of th e i r benefits on account of poverty alone." In B r i t i s h Columbia the philosophy through the years indicated that the state, i n providing pensions f o r mothers, was protecting family l i f e . I t was f e l t , too, that the prov-ince had an investment i n these c h i l d r e n by guaranteeing security to the families so that the children, thus aided, would grow up to become desirable c i t i z e n s and assets to the community. This thought has been well expressed i n the f o l -lowing l i n e s : 1 F i r s t Annual Reports of the Superintendent of Neglected  Children and Mothers' Pensions. King's Printer, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1 9 2 1 , Page 7 . 11 "The provision, therefore, of mothers' allowances from public funds cannot be considered as a question, sole-l y and e n t i r e l y of the granting of f i n a n c i a l a i d to which the mother iis unquestionably e n t i t l e d , under any circumstances of need, which may a r i s e . It i s rather a measure of s o c i a l investment, on the part of the state, whereby mothers, of whose f i t n e s s f o r these r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s the state assumes i t s e l f , are i n d i r e c t l y subsidized by the public grant, i n exact proportion to th e i r actual needs, to enable them to perform t h e i r parental responsi-b i l i t i e s toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n with the hope that these c h i l d r e n w i l l thus become desirable c i t i z e n s , and s o c i a l assets i n the community." 1 The r e a l philosophy behind mothers' pensions was to a s s i s t every c h i l d to be brought up by i t s mother i n a family s e t t i n g . This basic idea was never properly implemented i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The programme was hindered from the s t a r t by the r i g i d e l i g i b i l i t y regulations. A large number of c h i l -dren born to women out of wedlock have not received assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The only province with a provision to aid unmarried mothers from 1917 to date, i s Saskatchewan. The Act i n Operation from July 1920 to 19-+9. The Mothers' Pensions Act was f i r s t administered by the Superintendent of Neglected Children, D. B. Brankin and his ass i s t a n t , G. Pyke, whose o f f i c e s came within the Attorney Gen-eral's Department. Shortly after the Act was passed, advisory boards i n various l o c a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were set up to deal with cases. In July, 1920, there were six temporary investigators appointed to v i s i t and report on the ap p l i c a -t i o n s . In January, 1922, the Mothers' Pensions Act was 1 Report on The Administration of Mothers' Pensions i n B r i t i s h  Columbia from 1920-1 to 1930-1. Supplement to "Child and Family Welfare", May, 1932, Page 21. placed under the Workmen's Compensation Board. Most l o c a l ad-visory boards automatically ceased functioning when the trans-fer was made, but a number of these were retained i n outlying d i s t r i c t s to help with the work. The number of investigators was reduced to four. In 1924-, by an amendment to the Act, a Mothers' Pensions Board was created, which was made up of the existing Workmen's Compensation Board and one woman member. At this time there were s i x women investigators appointed on a perma-nent basis; f i v e were stationed i n Vancouver and one i n V i c t o r i a . Mothers who were receiving the pension i n remote areas were v i s i t e d once a year by t h i s s t a f f . The chief pur-pose of these v i s i t s was to check on e l i g i b i l i t y . In the re-mote areas the P r o v i n c i a l Police did a l l t h i s work. The fact that mothers, receiving pensions i n 1931, were increasing rather rapidly prompted the government to ap-point Miss Charlotte Whitton, of the Canadian Welfare Council, to study the s i t u a t i o n and make a report. This survey began i n the f a l l of 1931 and lasted u n t i l December when the f i n a l report was submitted to the government. This report did con-siderable harm as the government accepted i t rather too w i l l -ingly and implemented many of i t s recommendations. The two worst recommendations put into effect were, (1) the hard pressed municipalities were to pay f i f t y per cent of the costs of mothers' pensions; (2) s t r i c t e r regulations covering a mother with one c h i l d . In 1931 the Mothers' Pensions Act was amended, pro-viding that the administration of the Act be moved from the Mothers' Pensions Board i n Vancouver to the P r o v i n c i a l Sec-retary's Department i n V i c t o r i a . This change was w e l l ex-pressed i n the annual report of that time, as follows: "The Mothers' Pensions Act as passed by the l e g i s l a t u r e at the l a s t session i n 1931 provided two important changes from the previous Act, requiring a three years' residence instead of eighteen months, and Increasing the assessed value of property which an applicant may be possessed of from $1500 to $2,000 and as well transferred the administration of the Act from the Mothers' Pensions Board to the Superintendent of Welfare with the necessary changes occasioned thereby. On June 1st, l a s t , the head o f f i c e was moved from 4-11 Dunsmuir Street to V i c t o r i a , part of the s t a f f being transferred to head o f f i c e and part remaining i n Vancouver, from where the greater part of the f i e l d work i s carried on," 1 The Mothers' Pensions Act was supervised from June, 1931 to July, 193l+? by William Manson. During t h i s period, the province was divided into ten d i s t r i c t s , and more s o c i a l workers added to the s t a f f . The other major changes brought about at the same time were: the municipalities had to pay h a l f the cost of these pensions, and the regulations regarding e l i g i b i l i t y of a mother with one c h i l d were made very severe. In July, 1934-, Dr. George F. Davidson became Super-intendent of Welfare and administered the Mothers' Pensions Act u n t i l December, 1935. The allowances to c h i l d r e n were i n -creased during t h i s period from $5.00 a month to $7.50 a month. The c h i e f problems of administering t h i s Act at the time were: lack of adequate welfare s t a f f ; problems r e l a t i n g to f i n a n c i a l matters, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; lack of proper p o l i c y with regard to d i s a b i l i t y of a husband; and families with just one c h i l d . The Superintendent of Welfare 1 Annual Report. The Mothers' Pensions Act, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C , September 30, 1931, Page I. was also kept busy during t h i s time gathering material on methods of improving the Act and regulations. The Mothers' Pensions Act was administered by J . H. Creighton from December, 1935 to March, 19*+3. The period was marked by a number of changes i n t h i s programme. In 1936 an amendment provided for an allowance of $7.50 f o r incapaci-tated husbands, and f o r creating a f i v e member advisory board. This board was appointed on the 8th of August, 1936. In the f a l l of 1936 the P r o v i n c i a l Government resumed 4 f u l l f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r mothers• pensions, thus r e l i e v i n g the mun i c i p a l i t i e s . The Mothers* Pensions Act was repealed on the 10th of December, 1937» and a new Act came into operation on the 1st of January, 1938. The chief changes incorporated i n the new Act were: the t i t l e of the Act was changed to "Mothers" Allowances Act"; "domicile" was changed to "residence"; the means test was applied to foster mothers and provisions were made f o r arranging r e c i p r o c a l agreements with other provinces. In 19^2 the allowance to mothers was increased by $2.50 and a further increase could be made i f circumstances warranted i t . The same year the Act was amended providing an allowance to chi l d r e n between the ages of sixteen to eighteen years attending school. In 19*+2 provisions were made to amal-gamate the various welfare programmes and as a r e s u l t of these discussions the Unemployment R e l i e f Board, Mothers* Allowances Administration and C h i l d Welfare Branch Service were brought together under one administration. A new Superintendent of Welfare, C. W. Lundy, was appointed on A p r i l 1st, 19*+3. Medical s e r v i c e s were provided f o r r e c i p i e n t s o f mothers 1 allowances i n 19*+3. The g r e a t e s t problems d u r i n g the p e r i o d from 19H-1 t o 194-9 have been t o secure adequate s t a f f t o render competent casework s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s . The caseloads which averaged 287 per worker i n 19^8, have been too heavy to ensure s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e . The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act which was passed i n February, 1945? i s very f a i r and broad i n i t s scope. Under i t s terms the D i r e c t o r of Welfare was given j u r i s d i c t i o n over i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The t i t l e o f Superintendent of Welfare was a c c o r d i n g l y changed. In October, 19^6, d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n began when r e g i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r s were pe r m i t t e d to grant s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance without having t o r e f e r the case to V i c t o r i a f o r d e c i s i o n . Mothers' allowances are s t i l l under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the D i r e c t o r of Welfare. Procedure W i t h i n Present Study. The present study i s based p a r t l y on the h i s t o r i c a l development of mothers' allowances f o r the p e r i o d 1920 to 19^9, the background of which has now been sketched. I t s main pur-pose i s to evaluate the programme as i t operates a t present. Mothers» allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia have been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , and d u r i n g t h i s time there has been v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h done i n a s c e r t a i n i n g the u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s programme was not m o d i f i e d to any extent throughout the y e a r s , and i t had no comparative r i v a l . S i nce 19*+5> the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act has been i n opera-t i o n and the e l i g i b i l i t y r e g u l a t i o n s governing t h i s Act are not 16 so severe as those governing the Mothers 1 Allowances Programme . As the two Acts have been i n o p e r a t i o n now f o r a few y e a r s , t h i s study w i l l attempt to evaluate the Mothers' Allowance Pro-gramme i n B r i t i s h Columbia and to determine what p l a c e i t has, i f any, i n r e l a t i o n t o the other w e l f a r e programmes. In order to get a c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e on how mothers' allowances are being a d m i n i s t e r e d , the d e t a i l s of s i x t y cases which have been granted allowances s i n c e 19*+5» and one hundred cases of d e s e r t i o n c o v e r i n g the same p e r i o d , have been ex-amined. A sample study of a l l the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases i n one of the u n i t s of the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Depart-ment was a l s o made to a s c e r t a i n how many f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n under e i g h t e e n years o f age were i n r e c e i p t of t h i s form of a s s i s t a n c e , and the reasons why they were not r e c e i v i n g mothers' allowances. The w r i t e r a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d t h i r t y women who had been on mothers' allowances at v a r i o u s p e r i o d s from 1920 up u n t i l the present time. The purpose of these i n t e r -views was to get i n f o r m a t i o n on the workings o f t h i s programme and the a t t i t u d e s of r e c i p i e n t s . A number of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s o c i a l workers were i n t e r v i e w e d at l e n g t h r e g a r d i n g t h i s study. The method of e v a l u a t i n g the Mothers' Allowances Pro-gramme has been to use standards and comparisons wherever p o s s i b l e . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e standards can be taken, f o r example, from the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' programme of Aid to Dependent C h i l d r e n . The best standard on which to r a t e the adequacy of the a l l o w -ance i s the r e c e n t r e v i s i o n of minimum budget needs made by the Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Toronto i n 19*+9. F o r the purpose of comparing similar programmes i n Canada, material from the other provinces can be used. F i n a l l y the S o c i a l Assistance programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s also important for compara-t i v e purposes. Chapter 2. E l i g i b i l i t y . The s t r i c t e l i g i b i l i t y regulations f o r mothers 8 pen-sions imposed by the government i n 1920, were made even more stringent throughout the years. The women who assisted i n hav-ing t h i s programme passed i n B r i t i s h Columbia soon became d i s -appointed with i t s e l i g i b i l i t y requirements as many mothers, with young children, were excluded. These requirements did not serve the purpose f o r which they were intended, that of lessen-ing public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In 1931 there were 3**7 mothers who applied for the pension. Out of that number only 122 were granted the pension, and the remaining 225 were refused due to e l i g i b i l i t y regulations. Since 1920 the trend has been to r e -fuse more mothers the pension than to grant i t . The women interviewed knew of many families who tech n i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d for the pension but did not apply f o r i t because they had heard from other f a m i l i e s who were on pension of the r i g i d e l i g i b i l i t y requirements and the manner i n which the investigators dealt with them. The writer has seen Indian families i n the Queen Charlotte Islands and Prince Rupert area, and i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, who were i n need of the necessities of l i f e , yet under the existing regulations they do not q u a l i f y for the allowance. Many other families with young ch i l d r e n who had no assets, had to endure hardships because they were not te c h n i c a l l y e l i g i b l e . Children brought up i n d i r e poverty and deprived of a comparatively normal home atmosphere have, i n many instances, become l i a b i l i t i e s rather than assets to the community due to the r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the Mothers« Allowances Programme. Proof of t h i s statement w i l l he i n d i c a t e d throughout t h i s study. C a t e g o r i e s Covered. The Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia has not been s o l e l y f o r widows, but has covered a num-ber of c a t e g o r i e s , such as: widows; mothers with d i a b l e d husbands; mothers w i t h husbands i n the penitentiary or i n mental h o s p i t a l s ; mothers whose husbands have d e s e r t e d ; un-married mothers, i n some cases, and mothers who have r e c e i v e d a d i v o r c e or l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n d e c r e e . For t h i s reason, t h i s programme was given the more g e n e r a l t i t l e of Mothers' Pen-si o n s u n t i l 1937 a f t e r which time i t was renamed Mothers * Allowances. Widows: A widow would be granted the pension i n 1920 p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n requirements were met. She had to be d e s t i t u t e and a l s o have one or more c h i l d r e n under s i x t e e n years of age l i v i n g with her. Her husband, at the time of h i s death, had to be a r e s i d e n t of B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1920-21, out of 1,000 a p p l i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d , 66 per cent were from families of this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In 192*+, the Mothers' Pensions Act was amended when this p a r t i c u l a r category was s l i g h t l y changed. I t then be-came the r u l e that the husband had t o be a resident of B r i t i s h Columbia at the time o f the appearance of the d i s -a b i l i t y which caused h i s death. T h i s requirement rendered numerous f a m i l i e s i n e l i g i b l e f o r the pension and i n f l i c t e d many hardships on the c h i l d r e n . In 1936 a f u r t h e r change was made i n the Act. T h i s category was s e t down and amended as f o l l o w s : "A widow whose husband was d o m i c i l e d i n t h i s P r o v i n c e at the time of the ap-pearance i n a s e r i o u s l y d i s a b l i n g form of d i s a b i l i t y which 1 caused h i s death." In 1937 the word d o m i c i l e was changed t o " r e s i d e n c e " f o r t h i s c a t e g o r y . There have been no f u r t h e r changes i n t h i s s e c t i o n s i n c e t h i s amendment. In 19^8, out of a c a s e l o a d of 751> 65 per cent were widows. I t was found on reviewing the s i x t y - s e v e n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases, where there were c h i l d r e n under 18 years of age, that t h r e e were widows with young c h i l d r e n . Take the case o f Mrs. R. who d i d not r e c e i v e the Mothers' Allowance, but had been persuaded t o take a job. A f t e r a s h o r t time of c a r r y i n g out the d u a l r o l e of breadwinner and homemaker,-her h e a l t h broke down and at the time Mrs. R was under a d o c t o r ' s care and was r e c e i v i n g temporary a s s i s t a n c e . The r e c o r d s t a t e s that as soon as Mrs. R c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d employable t h i s a s s i s t a n c e would be d i s c o n t i n u e d . T h i s procedure of 1 "An Act to C o n s o l i d a t e d and Amend the 'Mothers' Pensions Act'", Chapter *+2, S e c t i o n 2, (1) ( a ) , 1 A p r i l , 1931. f o r c i n g a m o t h e r to support h e r s e l f a n d c h i l d u n d e r s u c h s t r e s s , v i o l a t e s t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o n w h i c h t h e M o t h e r s * Allowances Programme i s based, that of providing children with a proper home atmosphere. I t i s found i n comparing sim-i l a r programmes i n Canada and the United States that a l l have a provision for t h i s category. D i s a b i l i t y : Provision was made i n the 1920 Act to provide a mother with the p e n s i o n i f her husband was t o t a l l y disabled from sickness or accident a r i s i n g a t a time when he was domiciled i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Since the incapacitated husband was not g i v e n any allowance i n the family group, his keep had to come out of the regular p e n s i o n which the mother received for herself and her children. In 1920 there were seventy-six women who applied for the pension who had d i s -abled husbands. There were numerous c a s e s where the husband had become s i c k i n another province and was advised by his : d o c t o r to move to B r i t i s h Columbia for his h e a l t h . T h e s e f a m i l i e s did n o t q u a l i f y for t h e pension i f they became destitute i n this province. There was t h e case of M r . X who was a r e s i d e n t of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1923. He v i s i t e d a l o c a l i t y i n Saskat-chewan where he contracted pneumonia. Ee returned to B r i t i s h Columbia a short time after his recovery; his s t a y i n Sask-atchewan was l e s s t h a n s i x months, but s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e - .  t u r n t o B r i t i s h Columbia he became i l l a g a i n and d i e d . His f a m i l y was n o t e l i g i b l e f o r the mothers* p e n s i o n as he had c o n t r a c t e d h i s d i s a b i l i t y i n a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e . By a n amendment t o t h e A c t i n 192*+, t h i s category was changed c o n s i d e r a b l y and p r o v i s i o n was made f o r o n l y those f a m i l i e s w h e r e t h e husband was e x p e c t e d t o be d i s a b l e d f o r a t l e a s t a y e a r . A mother w i t h a n i n c a p a c i t a t e d h u s b a n d , w h e n a p p l y i n g f o r t h e p e n s i o n , h a d t o submit a d o c t o r ' s c e r t i f i -c a t e which would i n d i c a t e the n a t u r e o f t h e d i s a b i l i t y and i t s p r o b a b l e duration. T h e r e h a s b e e n n o f u r t h e r c h a n g e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y throughout t h e y e a r s . I n 191+8 t h e r e were 751 cases on Mothers' A l l o w a n c e s and out o f t h a t number 22 per c e n t w e r e i n r e c e i p t of t h e a l l o w a n c e b e c a u s e o f i n c a p a c i t a t e d h u s b a n d s . T h e w r i t e r i s of the opinion t h a t with the proper approach and s u f f i c i e n t c a s e w o r k q u i t e a f e w o f these m e n , c o n s i d e r e d a s i n c a p a c i t a t e d , c o u l d be r e h a b i l i t a t e d i n t o g a i n f u l . e m p l o y m e n t . There i s a g r e a t need t o i n t e r p r e t t o t h e p u b l i c t h a t e v e r y h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n has a r i g h t to gai n f u l e m p l o y m e n t . This i d e a has b e e n w e l l - e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : " T h e employer s h o u l d a c c e p t a man f o r h i s a b i l i t i e s and n o t r e j e c t 1 him because o f h i s d i s a b i l i t i e s . " T h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t p a s s e d a n A c t i n 19kh f o r t h e purpose o f ass i s t i n g disabled persons. T h e p r i n c i p l e behind t h e B r i t i s h approach i s t h a t a p h y s i c a l h a n d icap i s not neces-1 "'The Labour Gazette" 1, No. 9 , October, V o l . XLV111, 19*4-8, Page 21. s a r i l y an occupational handicap. There has been some usefu l work done by the Special Placement D i v i s i o n of the National Employment Service of Canada i n t h i s f i e l d . There i s s t i l l much work to be done i n educating the public to a s s i s t with such problems. The De-partment of Health and Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia has studied, i n a small way, methods of coping with this problem. In 19^ 9 a survey was made of a l l handicapped persons with a view to teaching them,a trade leading towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In analyzing the sixty-seven s o c i a l assistance cases studied i t was found that there were ten cases where the husbands were temporarily incapacitated and s i x others where i t appeared that the husband might be incapacitated for more than one year. These s i x men were suffering from tuberculosis and f i v e of them were awaiting admission to an i n s t i t u t i o n . It can be stated i n reviewing s i m i l a r programmes i n Canada and the United States, that the category covering incapacitated husbands i s provided i n a l l provinces i n Canada and i n a l l the states with programmes of Aid to Dependent Children. Husbands i n Penitentiary and Mental Hospitals: When the f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted, provision was made for a pension for a married woman whose husband became an inmate of a penitentiary or mental h o s p i t a l at a time, when he was domiciled i n t h i s province. Persons sentenced to Oakalla or to New Haven are sent there f o r a period of less than two years. I f these prisoners have families who are i n need, they are provided with aid through s o c i a l assistance. In 1920, out of a caseload of 1,000 there were 3 per cent receiving a pen-sion because th e i r husbands had been sent either to j a i l or a mental h o s p i t a l . There have been no changes i n t h i s cate-gory since i t was f i r s t written into the Act i n 1920. In 19*4-8, out of 751 cases on mothers* allowances, *t*jr per cent were receiving the allowance on t h i s account. Out of the sixty-seven s o c i a l assistance cases studied there were three mothers with young c h i l d r e n on t h i s allowance whose husbands were i n j a i l . In comparing t h i s category with provisions and simi-l a r programmes i n Canada, i t i s found that a l l the provinces a s s i s t a mother i f her husband becomes insane, but only Sask-atchewan, Quebec and B r i t i s h Columbia a s s i s t mothers i f t h e i r husbands are sentenced to a penitentiary. In the United States a l l the states have a provision i n t h e i r programmes to a s s i s t families where the husband has become insane, but no mention i s made of f i n a n c i a l assistance to families i f the breadwinner i s sentenced to j a i l . A l l families should be helped i f they are i n need regardless of whether the bread-winner i s i n the penitentiary. Desertion: There was provision made, when the f i r s t Act was passed, to a s s i s t this category provided tie desertion occurred i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s shown i n 1920 that out of a caseload of 1,000, 20.3 per cent were from t h i s category. In 192*+ the Act was amended so that e l i g i b i l i t y under t h i s category became more severe. I t was now necessary f o r a mother, i n order to q u a l i f y , to prove that her husband had deserted her i n B r i t i s h Columbia and that she had been de-serted f o r two years. Another s t i p u l a t i o n added at t h i s timers was that an applicant's husband could not be l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia nor could he own any property i n t h i s prov-ince at the time of the application, x A s l i g h t amendment was made to this category i n 1937 which provided that a mother had to prove that she was deserted and that she had made every attempt to obtain support from her husband. There have been no further changes i n the Act r e -garding t h i s category. In 194-8, out of a t o t a l caseload of 751 there were 33 receiving the mothers' allowance on account of desertion. The number of families receiving s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance on account of desertion was 16 or 24- per cent of the 67 cases studied. To i l l u s t r a t e the e ffects desertion and i n -adequate income have on a family i t i s necessary to outline the case of Mrs. C and her three young childre n whose husband had deserted her i n 194-1. The family was destitute and had to depend on inadequate r e l i e f to provide the bare n e c e s s i t i e s . Mr. C would keep coming back and re-unite with his family. This prevented Mrs. C from getting the mothers' allowance. In I9V6 Mr. C deserted again and up to the present time he has not put i n a further appearance. A court order was made out against him i n 1947 which required him to pay his family $20 a week. Mr. C would pay very i r r e g u l a r l y and Mrs. C was a l -ways worried that the money would not a r r i v e . This constant fear was hard on Mrs. C's health. She had a nervous breakdown x The Mothers' Pensions Act was revoked i n 1937 and a new Act known as the Mothers' Allowances Act took i t s place. The new Act included a provision f o r r e c i p r o c a l agreements with other rovinces i n Canada. Details of t h i s w i l l be found i n Chapter l a t e In 19*+7; the c h i l d r e n did not receive the care they need-ed; the oldest c h i l d became a delinquent and was threatened on numerous occasions by the police that they would send him to the Boy's I n d u s t r i a l School. The two younger c h i l d r e n have been frequently i l l . In July, 19*+8, Mr. C refused to pay further f o r his family's support, although he was at that time working i n a logging camp receiving $250 per month. He has never been compelled to pay. Mrs. C has been placed on s o c i a l assistance and i s s t i l l i n receipt of this allowance. A deserted mother i s a p i t i f u l case and needs help to re-solve her inward f e e l i n g s . A deserted mother not only r e a l i z e s the loss of her husband but feels a f a i l u r e because he has l e f t her. She usually withdraws from having too close a contact with the community and as a rule centres most of her time on her family. She i s not only insecure within h e r s e l f but also senses that the people i n the community at large are against her. It i s necessary, when assessing a desertion case, to understand the dynamics of what caused the desertion. x Desertion i s actually the poor man's divorce. In reviewing desertion cases i n the Family Court i n Vancouver i t was found that out of the 100 cases studied, 90 had unpaid court orders a l l varying i n s i z e . The women who x The writer has reviewed many cases where the husbands have deserted t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The same pattern seems to p r e v a i l regarding most of them. The mother i s f e a r f u l and anxious about support and her health often breaks down and the c h i l -dren have to bear the brunt of t h i s i n s t a b i l i t y and lack of economic security. The deserting husbands show a pattern of having had too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y when they were young; after marriage, when things became d i f f i c u l t , they deserted t h e i r f a m i l i e s to escape d u t i f u l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . who are compelled to l i v e by means o f these c o u r t orders have no s e c u r i t y . The d e s e r t e d husband may pay one month and then not pay f o r two months or u n t i l he i s threatened with a sum-mons. The F a m i l y Court has no j u r i s d i c t i o n o u t s i d e the C i t y of Vancouver, and a d e s e r t i n g husband can leave Vancouver and l i v e o n l y a few m i l e s away and he would not be compelled to pay. The f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d through the Family Court i s most inadequate and v e r y i n c o n s i s t e n t . A d e s e r t e d mother should be provided immediately w i t h f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t -ance through p u b l i c funds so t h a t the c h i l d r e n do not have to s u f f e r . There should be a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, i f need be, a d e s e r t i n g husband should be p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n and made t o post a bond on h i s i n t e n t i o n s to pay i f a c o u r t order i s p l a c e d a g a i n s t him. The r e c i p r o c a l agreements between the p r o v i n c e s i n Canada need t o be strengthened to f a c i l i t a t e payment of o r d e r s . There i s at present r e c i p r o c a l agreements between B r i t i s h Columbia and the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e i n England r e g a r d i n g d e s e r t i n g husbands, A mother who has been d e s e r t e d f o r a p e r i o d of three years should be granted an automatic d i v o r c e from her husband which would leave her f r e e to re-marry. This i s the p r i n c i p l e o f the newer p r a c t i c e a t the present time i n f o r c e i n England, I t i s found i n comparing t h i s category i n the B r i t -i s h Columbia Act w i t h s i m i l a r programmes i n Canada, t h a t a l l the p r o v i n c e s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Nova S c o t i a , have p r o v i -s i o n f o r i t . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s a l l the s t a t e s with A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n Programmes p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e f o r c h i l d r e n i f t h e i r f a t h e r continues to be absent from the home and does not contribute to t h e i r support. Unmarried Mothers: No r e a l provision was made i n the o r i g i n a l Act for t h i s category. However, unmarried moth-ers, i n some instances, were granted the pension. They were granted i t under the clause which gave d i s c r e t i o n a l powers to the superintendent to admit a mother i f he thought she was a proper person to receive the assistance. In 1920-21, out of a caseload of 1,000 cases there were 7 unmarried mothers on the pension. In 1931 the number of unmarried mothers receiv-ing the pension reached an a l l time high. Out of the t o t a l caseload for that year, 1568, or U-.87 per cent were unmarried mothers. In 1931, the survey conducted by Miss C. Whitton on mothers' pensions, put this category into bad repute. Since t h i s date the number of unmarried mothers receiving the allowance has r a p i d l y decreased. Provision was made i n February, IShO, under the new • regulations f o r the Mothers' Allowances Act to grant the a l -lowance, to an unmarried mother provided she had co-habited with a man i n the bona f i d e b e l i e f that she was l e g a l l y married to him. There ha«e been no further changes i n this p r o v ision. In 19^8, out of the t o t a l caseload f o r that year, h unmarried mothers received the allowance. The t o t a l number of unmarried mothers i n the s i x t y -seven s o c i a l assistance cases studied was 9. The harmful ef f e c t s on the physical and emotional l i f e of growing children when the unmarried mother i s not adequately provided f o r , i s shown i n the following case of Mrs. S. Mrs. S, an unmarried mother i n 19^ 8 had one g i r l aged 11 and a boy aged 13 with her. Mrs. S had no al t e r n a t i v e but to work i n a restaurant f o r long hours and by so doing she had to neglect her home and children. The children, lacking proper parental supervision, started having sexual relationships with one another and with others i n the community. The children had to be removed from t h e i r mother's home. They are at present i n foster homes where they are unable to adjust s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . These c h i l -dren have been deprived of a proper home atmosphere and their natural mother's love and a f f e c t i o n due to a lack of income i n t h i s home. Both the mother and children were unhappy at being parted and the children havenot been happy In t h e i r foster homes. The g i r l i s beginning to s t e a l . It i s possible that these childr e n may become public l i a b i l i t i e s as they grow older due to the lack of provision f o r unmarried mothers i n this p a r t i c u l a r programme. There i s a great need to educate the public to be more tolerant of the unmarried mother. This problem has been with mankind f o r a long time and w i l l continue to be with us for many years to come. There i s a need to uproot from the public mind the prejudices with which i t Is possessed regard-ing unmarried mothers. Children born out of wedlock i n Canada In 1950 have a much more d i f f i c u l t time than c h i l d r e n born leg i t i m a t e l y . This idea has been expressed i n the following l i n e s : "Although innocent as any other newborn babes, because of our hopelessly outdated laws, customs and atti t u d e s , these c h i l d r e n have two strikes against them from the moment they make t h e i r bawling entry into a h o s t i l e world."! 1 BraTtnwaite, Max, "Born out of Wedlock". Maclean's Magazine, November 15, 19^7, Page 16. In 19^ 5 there were 1,115 c h i l d r e n born out of wed-lock i n Canada out of a t o t a l of 18,885 born that year. The unmarried mother appears to come from every strata of our society. There i s a d e f i n i t e need to a s s i s t every unmarried mother with her emotional problems as well as provide finan-c i a l aid for the c h i l d which has come to be the state's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There i s also a need to teach the youth, through the school system, more about sex and to provide more recrea t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r them. This w i l l help to reduce t h i s problem. It i s seen i n comparing t h i s category i n the B r i t -i s h Columbia Act with the other Mothers' Allowances Programmes i n Canada that the four western provinces have provision i n t h e i r Acts f o r unmarried mothers, provided r i g i d e l i g i b i l i t y requirements are met. The severe e l i g i b i l i t y regulations for th i s category i n B r i t i s h Columbia have prevented many unmarrieds mothers from keeping t h e i r children with them, with d i r e re-s u l t s , as has been i l l u s t r a t e d . Divorce and Separation: These two categories were granted the pension i n 1920 under the d i s c r e t i o n a l clause of the Mothers' Pensions Act. In 1920-21 there were 15 divorced mothers receiving the pension. In 1937 provision was made i n the Act for these categories. The e l i g i b i l i t y for these cate-f o r i e s was rather severe. The regulations are s t i l l i n force i n 1950. A mother, i n order to q u a l i f y has to have a separa-t i o n or a divorce from a court. She d e f i n i t e l y has to prove that she was separated or had obtained a divorce. Another s t i p u l a t i o n i s that a mother must be divorced or separated two y e a r s b e f o r e she i s e l i g i b l e f o r t h e a l l o w a n c e . The moth-e r must a l s o prove t h a t h er husband had been l i v i n g i n the ... p r o v i n c e a t the time o f the d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n , and t h a t e v e r y attempt has been made t o o b t a i n support from him. I n . 194-8, out of a c a s e l o a d o f 751, t h e r e were 20 r e c e i v i n g t h e p e n s i o n under t h i s c a t e g o r y . Others: There i s a p r o v i s i o n i n the A c t a t p r e s e n t which was made i n 19375 t o pay an a l l o w a n c e t o an a u n t , a f o s t e r mother, or t o a s i s t e r i n t h e f a m i l y , p r o v i d e d t h e n a t u r a l mother, on whose b e h a l f t h e a l l o w a n c e i s p a i d , meets a l l t h e e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s t o q u a l i f y f o r t h e mothers' allowance. In 194-8 t h e r e were s i x f o s t e r mothers' r e c e i v i n g t h i s a l l o w a n c e . G e n e r a l Requirements. The R e s i d e n c e Requirement: One o f t h e e l i g i b i l i t y r e g u l a t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l Mothers* P e n s i o n s A c t , was an e i g h t e e n months 1 r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t . T h i s r e s i d e n c e s t i p u l a t i o n was r a t h e r s e v e r e and r e n d e r e d h a r d s h i p s f o r many f a m i l i e s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , h e r e i s an a c t u a l c a s e : Mr. W came from Saskatchewan t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1915 and was m a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Two c h i l d r e n were born to t h i s m a r r i a g e and i n 1922 Mr. ¥ became c o m p l e t e l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d due to i l l n e s s and t h e mothers' p e n s i o n was g r a n t e d t o t h i s f a m i l y . I n 1924-, Mr. V/ was a d v i s e d by h i s d o c t o r that he o n l y had a y e a r t o l i v e . S i n c e he d e s i r e d t o spend t h i s time with, h i s f r i e n d s back i n Saskatchewan he took h i s f a m i l y back t o o . There they remained u n t i l he d i e d n i n e months l a t e r . Mrs. V and the c h i l d r e n t h e n r e t u r n e d t o B r i t i s h Columbia t o be near her f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . As she was now d e s t i t u t e , she a p p l i e d f o r the p e n s i o n , but was informed t h a t because she had been out of the p r o v i n c e more than s i x months she had l o s t her r e s i d e n c e and was not e l i g i b l e f o r the pension. As a r e -s u l t Mrs, W, and her f a m i l y s u f f e r e d severe h a r d s h i p s . In 1931 the r e s i d e n c e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r those apply-i n g f o r the mothers' pension was i n c r e a s e d from e i g h t e e n months to three y e a r s . T h i s three year requirement i s s t i l l i n p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s necessary, i n order t o assess the r e s i d e n c e requirement i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h the other p r o v i n c e s i n Canada, to compare them. The r e s i d e n c e r e g u l a t i o n s i n the other p r o v i n c e s are as f o l l o w s s "Residence i n the p r o v i n c e at the time of a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d by each p r o v i n c e , and the necessary p e r i o d of previous r e s i d e n c e v a r i e s from one year i n Saskatchewan, to two years i n O n t a r i o and Manitoba, three years i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Mew Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and f i v e years i n Quebec. The A l b e r t a Act r e q u i r e s the husband to have had h i s home i n the p r o v i n c e at the time of h i s death, h i s committal to an i n s t i t u t i o n or h i s d e s e r t i o n . " 1 This a n a l y s i s shows that the r e s i d e n c e requirements f o r mothers' allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s three times as severe as found i n Saskatchewan. Only the P r o v i n c e of Quebec i s more severe. The r e s i d e n c e r e s t r i c t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia can be compared w i t h a s i m i l a r , programme, the A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The F e d e r a l Govern-ment s t i p u l a t e s as one of the requirements to q u a l i f y f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e that the S t a t e cannot impose more than a 1 Mothers' Allowances L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada. Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare, Research D i v i s i o n , Ottawa, May, 19^9, Page 2. 33 one-year residence requirement. "The Board i s not permitted to approve any plan which imposes, as a condition of e l i g i b i l i t y for federal a i d , a residence requirement which denies aid to any c h i l d who has resided i n the state for one year immediately preceding application, I f I t s mother had resided i n the state for one year immediately preceding the b i r t h . " 1 In 19*+9, out of hj states having agreements with the Federal Government for funds under the Aid to Dependent Children plan, ho states had a one-year residence requirement and 7 had no residence requirement at a l l . In the United States one of the goals for 1950 to improve the programme of Aid to Dependent Children i s to eliminate a l l residence r e -quirements. As a matter of i n t e r e s t , of the s i x t y cases studied, where the families were on mothers 1 allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the average length of residence was 23 .2 years. Out of sixty-seven s o c i a l assistance cases studied, with children under 18 years of age, i t was found that nine could not q u a l i f y for the mothers' allowance because of the residence regulations. This means that 1 3 . p e r cent of the cases studied could not q u a l i f y on account of the residence requirements and i t i s , therefore, a r e a l issue i n the Mothers* Allowances Programme. In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 19*+9» any mother applying for an allowance had to supply enough information to establish l o c a l residence. Local residence means one year continuous residence i n a certain area i n the province. The purpose of 1 S o c i a l Work Year Book. Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 1937, Page 286. t h i s i s to es t a b l i s h l e g a l residence so that i n the event the family might require extraordinary help, such as medical ser-v i c e , repairs to the home, b u r i a l grants, etc., the t o t a l ex-pense, or part of i t , may be charged against the l o c a l area. To further i l l u s t r a t e the hardships that residence regulations of mothers 1 allowances i n f l i c t on a family i n 19^9» i t i s h e l p f u l to describe the case of Mr. and Mrs. A and th e i r four c h i l d r e n who moved to B r i t i s h Columbia during 19*+8. Mr. A was accidently k i l l e d the same year. This family has not q u a l i f i e d f o r the mothers 1 allowance as yet due to the r e s i -dence r e s t r i c t i o n s . This family applied f o r s o c i a l assistance and was granted temporary assistance pending further informa-t i o n from t h e i r native province regarding i t s share of the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The s o c i a l allowance grant to t h i s family i s the same as they would have receive! i f they had been put on the mothers' allowance. The family i s s t i l l on s o c i a l allowance and i s res i d i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Resident requirements i n the Mothers 1 Allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia have been inconsistent with the Canadian con-cept of i n d i v i d u a l freedom, which includes freedom i n movement to better one's opportunities and to l i v e where one desires. Ithas been proven i n the past that residence requirements for assistance do not deter people from moving from one part of Canada to another. This has been well expressed recently as follows: "Experience has shown that residence requirements f o r assistance do not deter persons from moving. The ef f e c t of residence requirements i s merely to deprive some needy per-sons o f a s s i s t a n c e . " 1 The e f f e c t o f a th r e e y e a r s ' r e s i d e n c e requirement i n the Mothers' Allowances Programme has been used to d e p r i v e some needy f a m i l i e s . The c o s t o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h i s p r o v i s i o n has a l s o been g r e a t . N a t i o n a l i t y : I t was necessary t o be a B r i t i s h sub-j e c t i n order to q u a l i f y f o r the mothers' pension i n 1920. T h i s requirement excluded many n a t i v e born B r i t i s h Columbians. There were many i n s t a n c e s where women who had been brought up i n B r i t i s h Columbia, had married a l i e n s , and by so doing they l o s t t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p . The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s problem brought about a change i n the Act: "In a c e r t a i n case a g i r l may have been born and r a i s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. She may have married an a l i e n and l o s t her B r i t i s h C i t i z e n s h i p . Under the Act as i t was she had t o be r e f u s e d a pension. Now she w i l l be e l i g i -b l e . " 2 T h i s can be c l a r i f i e d by t a k i n g the ca s e of Mr. and Mrs. M. In 1926 Mrs. M. married an American. Two c h i l d r e n were born t o them, and i n 1929 Mr. M. desert e d her. Mrs. M. was denied entry i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s as she was c l a s s i f i e d as a Canadian. She was t h e r e f o r e without a country as she had l o s t her Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p through her marriage. She was i n e l i g i b l e f o r the mothers' pension as she was not a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t . As she was without funds when her husband d e s e r t e d her she had to depend on c h a r i t y f o r an e x i s t e n c e . 1 P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e Goals 194-9'. F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau o f P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , December, 194-8, Page 12. 2 Report and F i n a n c i a l Statement, Mothers' Pensions Act, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 1 s t , 1935 to March 31st, 1936, Page 4-. I n 1931 the Mothers' Pensions Act was amended when p r o v i s i o n was made to broaden the n a t i o n a l i t y c l a u s e . Under the new p r o v i s i o n those who were f o r m e r l y B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s by b i r t h or by n a t u r a l i z a t i o n were e l i g i b l e as w e l l as a c t u a l B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . I t i s found i n comparing s i m i l a r programmes i n other p a r t s of Canada t h a t the requirements i n the nine prov-i n c e s have r e c e n t l y been s e t out as f o l l o w s : " N a t i o n a l i t y i s an important c o n d i t i o n of e l i g i b i l i t y i n a l l p r o v i n c e s except A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and O n t a r i o . In Quebec, the mother e i t h e r must possess Canadian c i t i z e n -s h i p by b i r t h or must have been a Canadian c i t i z e n f o r 15 years or must be the w i f e or widow of a Canadian c i t i z e n . The other p r o v i n c e s e i t h e r r e q u i r e t h a t the a p p l i c a n t be a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t , or t h a t her c h i l d be a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t . In Nova S c o t i a the a p p l i c a n t h e r s e l f must be a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t and i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , New Brunswick and Manitoba, the c h i l d i s e l i g i b l e i f he i s a B r i t i s h sub-j e c t even i f the mother i s not. In B r i t i s h Columbia a mother may be e l i g i b l e i f she i s or was a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t by b i r t h or n a t u r a l i z a t i o n . In New Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a , and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , an allowance may not be p a i d to an I n d i a n , as d e f i n e d by the I n d i a n Act o f Canada." 1 In order to evaluate the n a t i o n a l i t y requirement i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s necessary to examine s i m i l a r programmes i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In 19**9» out of the .1+7 s t a t e s w i t h A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n Programmes i n o p e r a t i o n , *+6 s t a t e s have no n a t i o n a l i t y requirement and one s t a t e , t h a t of Texas, l i m i t s the grant to c i t i z e n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o u l d w e l l p r o f i t from the t r e n d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h r e g a r d t o n a t i o n a l i t y , as c i t i z e n s h i p requirements f o r "Aid t o Dependent 1 Mothers' Allowances L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada, Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Research D i v i s i o n , Ottawa, May 19^9, Page 2. Children" have been eliminated and work i s being done now to abolish t h i s requirement for public assistance. The imposition of a n a t i o n a l i t y requirement i n the Mothers' Allowances Programme res u l t s i n non-citizens having to be cared for through s o c i a l assistance or remaining without f i n a n c i a l assistance. This e l i g i b i l i t y regulation i s also f a i r l y expensive to administer as i t has to be checked with a l l applicants even though i t may apply to only a few. Out of the s i x t y cases on mothers' allowances that were examined. 75 per cent of the recipients were B r i t i s h sub-jects by b i r t h and the remainder had been naturalized. Out of the sixty-seven s o c i a l assistance cases studied, just one was receiving t h i s form of assistance due to a lack of nation-a l i t y requirement to q u a l i f y f o r the mothers' allowance. The requirements i n the Mothers' Allowances Programme and S o c i a l Assistance do not compare favourably for there i s no c i t i z e n -ship clause i n the l a t t e r . Character: In 1 9 2 0 , i n order to q u a l i f y for the pen-sion, a mother had to s a t i s f y the Superintendent of Neglected Children on the following points: (a) "That the applicant i s a f i t and proper person to have the custody of her c h i l d or children; and (b) That i t i s i n the best interests of her c h i l d or child r e n that the applicant should have the custody of them." This requirement i n the Act has barred many needy families from receiving assistance. The investigators set up t h e o r e t i c a l standards i n t h e i r own minds from 1920 to 1950 as to who was a f i t and proper mother to receive the pension. These standards have been based l a r g e l y on the environmental c o n d i t i o n s and not on the emotional needs of the c h i l d r e n , which were overlooked. There i s evidence to show th a t f a m i l i e s have been d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t as there never has been estab-l i s h e d an o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n as t o who i s a " f i t and proper mother". I t i s necessary, t o i l l u s t r a t e what i s meant by t h i s s e c t i o n o f the Act, t o take an a c t u a l case, t h a t o f Mrs. B. and her t h r e e young c h i l d r e n , one of whom was a c r i p p l e from p a r a l y s i s . Mrs. B.'s f i r s t husband d i e d i n 1932 and she was granted the pension u n t i l 1935 when she married Mr. B. i n good f a i t h . Mr. B., however, was a l r e a d y a married man, but he had not t o l d Mrs. B. about t h i s . Mr. B.»s former w i f e l a i d a com-p l a i n t a g a i n s t her husband when she l e a r n e d of h i s second marriage so t h a t he was charged w i t h bigamy. Mr. B. was sentenced t o j a i l f o r some time and on h i s r e l e a s e disappeared. Mrs. B. was r e f u s e d a s s i s t a n c e under the Mothers' Pensions Act because.she had been married t o a b i g a m i s t and t h e r e f o r e was not a f i t and proper person t o r e c e i v e h e l p . The c h i l d r e n s u f f e r e d p h y s i c a l and emotional d e p r i v a t i o n on t h i s account. I t can be s t a t e d that t o deny a s s i s t a n c e t o a c h i l d simply because h i s home i s riot c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e does not improve the c o n d i t i o n s under which t h a t c h i l d i s l i v i n g . The bestmethod of d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s problem i s to grant a s s i s t a n c e to a l l c h i l d r e n who are i n need and t o use the p r o t e c t i v e laws of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r those c h i l d r e n who are being neglected. T h i s requirement has no v a l i d p l a c e i n any a s s i s t a n c e p r o -gramme as th e r e should be no such requirement p l a c e d on those i n need which i s not p l a c e d on the r e s t o f the community. Mothers who were r e f u s e d the Mothers' Allowance on t h i s account i n the past had no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o apply f o r inadequate r e l i e f or seek employment. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , take the case o f Mrs.R who, i n 193*+, a p p l i e d f o r the Mothers' Allowance. She had two c h i l d r e n , a boy and a g i r l . She was r e f u s e d the allowance because the s o c i a l worker beeame p r e j -udiced a g a i n s t her. T h i s s o c i a l worker had made a v i s i t to Manitoba and had l e a r n e d about t h i s woman's r e l a t i v e s who were supposed to have been immoral and s u f f e r i n g from v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e . The s o c i a l worker i n c l u d e d a l l t h i s i n her r e p o r t and made such a c o n v i n c i n g argument t h a t t h i s woman was denied the pension. The onl y a l t e r n a t i v e she had was to go on i n -adequate r e l i e f . I n 19*+8 s i x allowances out o f a t o t a l o f 205 were ' c a n c e l l e d under t h i s s e c t i o n o f the Act. I t i s found, i n com-p a r i n g t h i s c l a u s e o f the Mothers' Allowances Act w i t h the Ai d to Dependent C h i l d r e n , a s i m i l a r programme i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , that a m a j o r i t y of the s t a t e s have a p r o v i s i o n t h a t a s s i s t a n c e can only be granted i f the c h i l d i s l i v i n g i n a s u i t a b l e home. The Mothers' Allowances Act, i n 19*+9, s t i l l r e q u i r e s the c h a r a c t e r e l i g i b i l i t y as found i n the o r i g i n a l Act. T h i s Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s i n the other p r o v i n c e s which r e q u i r e the mother to be a f i t person to e x e r c i s e custody and c o n t r o l over her c h i l d r e n . T h i s c l a u s e i n the Mothers' Allowances Act does not compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia which has no such p r o v i s i o n , but s t a t e s as f o l l o w s : "In the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e there frd s h a l l be no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based on r a c e , c o l o u r , c r e e d , or 1 p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . " T h i s p r o v i s i o n i n the B r i t i s h C o l -umbia Mothers' Allowances Act i s not i n harmony w i t h p r o g r e s -s i v e programmes where human need i s s t r e s s e d . The Means T e s t . P e r s o n a l P r o p e r t y Requirements: The p e r s o n a l p r o -p e r t y requirement t o q u a l i f y f o r the mothers* pension i s the same i n 1950 as i t was i n 1920. T h i s e l i g i b i l i t y r e s t r i c t i o n i s t h a t no mother can be granted the pension i f she possesses, a t the time she a p p l i e s , more than $500 i n cash, bonds, stock or other n e g o t i a b l e s e c u r i t i e s , or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y whatso-ever, except necessary household f u r n i t u r e and wearing ap-p a r e l . T h i s requirement has prevented many f a m i l i e s from r e c e i v i n g the pension from the time the Act was passed up t o the p r e s e n t . I f a mother had $1500 when her husband d i e d , i t was necessary f o r her t o spend a thousand d o l l a r s before she c o u l d q u a l i f y f o r the pension. T h i s p r a c t i c e of f o r c i n g a f a m i l y p r a c t i c a l l y i n t o d e s t i t u t i o n b e f o r e any f i n a n c i a l a s -s i s t a n c e i s g i v e n has been v e r y damaging both p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y t o the e n t i r e f a m i l y . In 194-8, out o f 75 cases which were r e f u s e d the pension, 21 or 28 per cent were f o r e x c e s s i v e p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . The f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the mothers on pension i n 194-9 do not possess much p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the cases s t u d i e d . The average v a l u e of the f u r n i t u r e owned by these f a m i l i e s amounted to $375. There 1 "An Act to Provide S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e " . 2 8 March, 194-5, Chapter 6 2 , S e c t i o n 8. were twelve f a m i l i e s who had f u r n i t u r e valued at $500, and the l e a s t amount was va l u e d at $150. The cash a s s e t s o f these f a m i l i e s were a l s o s t u d i e d . There were *+5 f a m i l i e s w i t h bank accounts, and the l a r g e s t account was $*+76.*+8, and the s m a l l e s t was $10.00. The average came t o $167.Oh. The pre-sent a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s programme has been too hasty i n c a n c e l l i n g an allowance i f a mother, a f t e r her husband's death, r e c e i v e s a s m a l l i n s u r a n c e payment. This can be i l -l u s t r a t e d by the case o f Mr. and Mrs. V who had been on the mothers' allowance s i n c e August, 19l+6. In A p r i l , 19*4-8, Mr. V d i e d . On the 7th o f A p r i l , 19-4-8, a l e t t e r was w r i t t e n from the D i r e c t o r of Welfare's o f f i c e which reads as f o l l o w s : " I t was w i t h r e g r e t t h a t we l e a r n e d o f the pa s s i n g of your husband and we wish to extend t o you our s i n c e r e sympathy i n your bereavement." On the 8th of A p r i l another l e t t e r was sent t o Mrs. V from the Family S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , which reads as f o l l o w s : "As we have been a d v i s e d t h a t you have r e c e i v e d insurance b e n e f i t s i n an amount i n excess of that allowed under the ... Mothers' Allowances Act, i t w i l l be necessary to d i s c o n t i n u e the mothers' allowance which you have been r e c e i v i n g . No f u r t h e r cheques, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be i s s u e d t o you. We under-stand t h a t the Mothers' Allowances R e g u l a t i o n s have been ex-p l a i n e d to you and t h a t you are aware of the n e c e s s i t y o f t h i s a c t i o n . " T h i s method o f d e a l i n g w i t h a woman who had r e c e n t l y l o s t h er husband i s d i f f i c u l t to understand. This woman should have been encouraged, through a s o c i a l worker, t o i n -v e s t the $1000 insurance money on a down-payment on a house so t h a t the c h i l d r e n c o u l d have some s e c u r i t y . As i t turned out the c h i l d r e n were boarded out and the mother went to work. In a s h o r t time the c h i l d r e n became behaviour problems as a 1 r e s u l t of t h i s placement. I n order to p r o p e r l y evaluate t h i s p r o v i s i o n i t i s necessary t o compare i t w i t h s i m i l a r requirements i n other Mothers' Allowances Programmes i n Canada and the A i d t o Dependent C h i l d r e n programme i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n Canada i t i s found that Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, and New Bruns-wick permit an a p p l i c a n t to have $1000 i n cash, bonds or l i q u i d a s s e t s ; Nova S c o t i a permits $800; Manitoba $1200; and A l b e r t a takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l possessions when c o n s i d e r i n g need. The purchasing power of $500 has changed v e r y l i t t l e s i n c e 1920. The c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Canada i n 1920 was 150 and i n March, 1950, i t was 1 6 2 . 8 . T h i s i s a decrease i n the purchasing power of t h i s money of 8 . 5 per eent. Out of the 4-7 s t a t e s which have i n o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries the programme, A i d t o Dependent C h i l d r e n , 21 have no p r o -v i s i o n l i m i t i n g a s s i s t a n c e on account of p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . T h i s p r o v i s i o n i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Act i s , t h e r e f o r e , o f the s t r i c t e s t found anywhere i n the two c o u n t r i e s . R e a l P r o p e r t y Requirements: An a p p l i c a n t i n 1920 c o u l d not q u a l i f y i f her home were assessed at more than $1500. The r e g u l a t i o n s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t i f a mother had an 1 "Mothers Allowance Case - Mrs. V.A. No. A2035". C i t y of Vancouver, S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, Centre U n i t . e q u i t y over $1500 i n a house she would not q u a l i f y . T h i s e l i g i b i l i t y requirement prevented many f a m i l i e s from r e c e i v -i n g the pension and caused a great d e a l of h a r d s h i p . Take the ease o f Mrs. D and her two young c h i l d r e n . Mrs. D ap-p l i e d f o r the pension i n 1932 and was r e f u s e d as her pro-p e r t y was i n excess o f the r e q u i r e d amount. Mrs. D was d e s t i t u t e and was f o r c e d t o take a job i n a f i s h cannery. Her two c h i l d r e n were cared f o r by neighbors. In a s h o r t time Mrs. D l o s t her p r o p e r t y as she was unable to keep up the mortgage payments. She, t h e r e f o r e , had to move to an un-d e s i r a b l e p a r t of Vancouver t o b r i n g up her children© In 1931 the Mothers" Pensions Act was amended so t h a t the e l i g i b i l i t y requirement r e g a r d i n g r e a l p r o p e r t y was r a i s e d from $1500 t o $2000. In 1937 a f u r t h e r r a i s e was made from $2,000 to $2500. There have been no f u r t h e r changes; i n t h i s p r o v i s i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of t h i s Act i n 1950 take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the r i s e i n r e c e n t years i n the v a l u e o f houses and no a p p l i c a n t i s * b a r r e d at the present time from r e c e i v i n g an allowance i f her house i s valued s l i g h t l y i n excess o f $2500, p r o v i d e d i t i s used as a home. The houses owned by mothers' allowances cases are mostly o l d and i n need of much r e p a i r work. The allowance i s so i n -adequate t h a t the f a m i l i e s cannot a f f o r d t o have these r e -p a i r s made. The r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases i n B r i t i s h Columbia, c o v e r i n g r e a l and p e r s o n a l p r o -p e r t y , are the same as f o r mothers' allowances c a s e s . I t i s found i n reviewing the s i x t y cases s t u d i e d , t h a t t h i r t y owned t h e i r own homes or have an e q u i t y i n such homes. The pr o p e r t y v a l u e ranges from $995 to $6300. The average value f o r the t h i r t y p r o p e r t i e s amounted t o $24-M+. The taxes on these p r o p e r t i e s ranged from $27.50 t o $80.00 per year and the average was $54-.4-2. I t can be c l e a r l y seen i n comparing the r e a l p r o p e r t y requirement i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia Mothers* Allowances Act wit h the Mothers' Allowances Programmes i n the other p r o v i n c e s i n Canada t h a t the r e a l pro-p e r t y e l i g i b i l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Act i s the most severe. There are f o u r p r o v i n c e s which permit a mother to have r e a l p r o p e r t y up to $3000. The Pr o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a has no s e t amount. Saskatchewan has up t o $5000 and On t a r i o up t o $4000. In the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e are twenty-one s t a t e s which have to r e a l p r o p e r t y requirements t o q u a l i f y f o r a s s i s t -ance under the A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n programme. Other Aspects. S p e c i a l D i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : An a p p l i c a n t i s not pe r -m i t t e d to own a car to d r i v e f o r p l e a s u r e purposes. T h i s r e -quirement was w r i t t e n i n t o the Aet i n 1937. I f a mother ap-p l i e s f o r the pension and owns a f a i r l y v a l u a b l e c a r , i t i s counted i n w i t h her a s s e t s , p r o v i d e d she does not need i t f o r some s p e c i a l purpose, such as f o r d r i v i n g her i n c a p a c i t a t e d husband f o r medical treatment. An a p p l i c a n t i s expected, i n most cases, to s e l l her c a r and i f her p e r s o n a l a s s e t s are then over $500, to use i t u n t i l she reaches the p e r m i t t e d amount. The D i r e c t o r of Welfare, a f t e r r e v i e w i n g a l l f a c t o r s decides whether the f a m i l y w i l l be p e r m i t t e d to operate or not. From 1937 up to the present time a few mothers have been granted the p r i v i l e g e o f o p e r a t i n g a c a r f o r s p e c i a l reasons. The case o f Mrs. E i l l u s t r a t e s such a reason. Mrs. E, i n 1938 was i n r e c e i p t of the mothers 1 allowance and was g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n to operate her model T Ford f o r the purpose of going down to the beach to p i c k up wood which her c h i l d r e n used to gather and cut up f o r her. She was only able to operate i t f o r one y e a r as the next year she was unable t o buy the l i c e n s e f o r i t , and was f o r c e d t o s e l l i t . The w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t r e c i p i e n t s of the mothers' allowance should be p e r m i t t e d t o own a c a r . In our modern s o c i e t y i t i s almost a n e c e s s i t y . Mothers who own a car are a b l e t o share more f u l l y i n the community a c t i v i t i e s and by so doing r e l a x some of the a n x i e t i e s o f l i v i n g alone. A ear i s almost a n e c e s s i t y i n the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia where a mother might have t o make a sudden t r i p t o see a d o c t o r w i t h a s i c k c h i l d . I t i s found t h a t i n comparing t h i s requirement w i t h the other p r o v i n c e s i n Canada that the Mothers 1 Allowances P Togramme i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s the only p r o v i n c e which has t h i s s p e c i a l d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s not one of the f o r t y - s e v e n s t a t e s has t h i s . In B r i t i s h Columbia the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme does not have t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n w r i t t e n i n t o i t s Act or r e g u l a t i o n s . Another d i s q u a l i f y i n g f e a t u r e which has been with t h i s programme s i n c e i t s t a r t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s t h a t a mother who i s i n r e c e i p t of the pension cannot have a male boarder i n her home without the a p p r o v a l of the Superintendent of Welfare. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s employed to v i s i t the mothers' pension cases f o r a number of y e a r s , were very s t r i c t with the mothers i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . However, a t t i t u d e s have changed s i n c e 1920. In 1935 i t was agreed by those who ad-m i n i s t e r e d the Act t h a t i f a mother kept two or more male boarders no a c t i o n would be taken. I f a mother had j u s t one male boarder she p l a c e d h e r s e l f open to c r i t i c i s m from the community, and her pension would be cut or d i s c o n t i n u e d . I n 194-9, t h i s s e c t i o n o f the r e g u l a t i o n s i s s t i l l s t r e s s e d by some s o c i a l workers. The f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t : A s o c i a l worker v i s i t i n g Mrs. N's home one day found a s h i r t -l e s s man c u t t i n g wood i n the y a r d . The s o c i a l worker im-mediately concluded t h a t the man must be a boarder and r e -primanded Mrs, N f o r having him t h e r e . I t turned out, how-ever, t h a t t h i s man was a neighbor who had come on a f r i e n d l y gesture t o h e l p Mrs. N w i t h her h e a v i e r chores. I t i s found t h a t by comparing t h i s requirement with the Mothers' Allowances Programmes i n other p r o v i n c e s i n Canada that Manitoba and B r i t i s h Columbia are the only two w i t h t h i s s p e c i a l d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n . T h i s requirement does not e x i s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' A i d t o Dependent C h i l d r e n programme. The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia does not have t h i s requirement e i t h e r . S i n c e t h i s requirement i s not imposed on the com-munity at l a r g e i t should not be imposed on widowed mothers i n need. A mother who has l o s t her husband may r e q u i r e a male boarder to do v a r i o u s heavy chores which she h e r s e l f may not be able t o do. Another d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s a c h i l d I n r e -c e i p t o f the allowance who has not y e t reached the age o f s i x t e e n and who has l e f t s c h o o l w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n o f the D i r e c t o r o f W e l f a r e . There have been numerous cases where- . c h i l d r e n have not measured up i n t h e i r s t u d i e s and because of t h i s have l e f t s c h o o l b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the age of s i x t e e n . When the a l l o w a n c e s were d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e mothers" o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e s have been t o a p p l y f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , or i f i n e l i g i b l e , go out t o work. The w r i t e r i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a mother s h o u l d be g r a n t e d an a l l o w a n c e u n t i l the need no l o n g e r e x i s t s . T h i s s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by a s o c i a l worker who has known the c a s e . There s h o u l d be casework done b e f o r e a widowed mother i s c u t o f f f rom the a l l o w a n c e so t h a t she f e e l s s e c u r e a t b e i n g independent. Only two o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n Canada have s i m i l a r p r o -v i s i o n s i n t h e i r Mothers' A l l o w a n c e s Programme, New B r u n s -w i c k and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the s t a t e s w i t h programmes s i m i l a r t o B r i t i s h Columbia have no such d i s q u a l i f y i n g p r o v i s i o n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of M i s s o u r i and Texas. These two c o n t i n u e the a l l o w a n c e o n l y u n t i l the' c h i l d reaches t h e age of f o u r t e e n . The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e s f o r an a l l o w a n c e f o r a one-c h i l d f a m i l y u n t i l t h a t c h i l d r e a c h e s t h e age o f s i x t e e n , and c a r r i e s on t o e i g h t e e n i f the c h i l d i s a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . Thus i t . can be seen t h a t i n t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t B r i t i s h C olumbia com-pares u n f a v o u r a b l y w i t h o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and s t a t e s . Documents f o r E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f E l i g i b i l i t y . I n 1 Q 2 0 a mother had t o f u r n i s h t h e f o l l o w i n g docu-ments t o s u p p o r t her a p p l i c a t i o n : m a r r i a g e c e r t i f i c a t e , b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r h e r s e l f , her husband, and f o r each c h i l d under the age of 1 6 . Other documents needed, depending on the p a r t i c u l a r case, were: a d i v o r c e decree, decree of j u d i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n , husband's n a t u r a l i z a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e , i f he was not born a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t , her own n a t u r a l i z a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e , and a death c e r t i f i c a t e f o r her husband i f the a p p l i c a n t was a widow. In 1 9 3 6 a s l i g h t change was made which a f f e c t e d n a t i v e born women married to a l i e n s . I f such a husband d i e d l e a v i n g a widow with young c h i l d r e n , she c o u l d apply f o r the pension without p r o v i d i n g a n a t u r a l i z a t i o n paper. The p r a c -t i c e o f forwarding documents t o V i c t o r i a has now been mostly d i s c o n t i n u e d . The s o c i a l worker, at p r e s e n t , must l i s t the documents, which he has i n s p e c t e d , and submit t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n numbers of each document when the a p p l i c a t i o n i s forwarded to the D i r e c t o r ' s o f f i c e . The s o c i a l worker must a l s o forward a l i s t o f a l l documents which he has not seen, and suggest p o s s i b l e ways of o b t a i n i n g them. I f there are documents which can be obtained from other p r o v i n c e s i n Canada, the D i r e c t o r of Welfare w i l l , as a r u l e , w r i t e f o r them, The r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g any documents r e q u i r e d from other c o u n t r i e s r e s t s w i t h the a p p l i c a n t . The w r i t e r i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these documents should not be necessary. I t i s found i n comparing t h i s requirement i n the Mothers' Allowances Act w i t h those of the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t an a p p l i c a n t , when a p p l y -in g f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , i s not r e q u i r e d to produce any o f these documents i n order t o q u a l i f y . The f a c t t h a t many ap-p l i c a n t s f o r the allowance have to wait c o n s i d e r a b l e lengths of time b e f o r e t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s are approved i s due mostly t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v e r i f y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r document. I t was found t h a t out of the s i x t y cases s t u d i e d , the l o n g e s t p e r i o d a mother had to wait w h i l e e f f o r t s were being made to v e r i f y her husband's b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e was 18*+ days. Re f e r e n c e s . The Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia has had t h i s requirement s i n c e i t s t a r t e d i n 1 9 2 0 . I t has been necessary f o r a mother, when a p p l y i n g f o r the a l l o w -ance, t o g i v e the names of two r e f e r e n c e s . The purpose of t h i s was to give the superintendent a b a s i s on which t o form h i s o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the moral f i t n e s s o f the a p p l i c a n t . The r e f e r e n c e s have also served another purpose, t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g the s o c i a l worker w i t h an i n t e r e s t e d person who c o u l d h e l p i n case the f a m i l y needed a s s i s t a n c e of some k i n d . I t has been necessary as f a r as p o s s i b l e f o r the s o c i a l worker to - i n t e r -view the r e f e r e n c e s g i v e n , but i f a d i r e c t i n t e r v i e w i s not p o s s i b l e , i t i s necessary to have the r e f e r e n c e submit a l e t -t e r r e g a r d i n g the p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a n t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has to be passed on to the D i r e c t o r of Welfare who dec i d e s on the e l i g i b i l i t y o f the case. I t can be s t a t e d t h a t i n re v i e w i n g the s i x t y cases s t u d i e d t h a t the a p p l i c a n t s when g i v i n g names of r e f e r e n c e s , s e l e c t e d those who would be the most l i k e l y to g i v e them a f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t . The statements o f the 120 r e f e r e n c e s given v a r y v e r y l i t t l e i n e x p r e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a t y p i c a l statement g i v e n as a r e f e r e n c e : "Mrs. A has known the F's s i n c e they moved i n t o the d i s t r i c t . Mrs. F. i s a good mother 50 who bakes a l l her own bread, helps i n the garden and runs her home v e r y e f f i c i e n t l y . " The Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s i n need of r e v i s i o n with regard t o t h i s requirement. The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia has no such requirement and the programme has f u n c t i o n e d harmoni-o u s l y without i t . Through the years there has been l i t t l e evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the o f f i c i a l s i n charge of t h i s programme have t r i e d t o modify the e l i g i b i l i t y r e g u l a t i o n s and b r i n g them i n t o l i n e w i t h s i m i l a r programmes i n other c o u n t r i e s . The e l i g i b i l i t y requirements f o r Mothers' Allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1950 are r i g i d l y e x c l u s i v e . C h i l d r e n have been brought up i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n poverty because t h e i r mothers d i d not q u a l i f y f o r t h i s allowance. There i s a p r e s s i n g need to e l i m i n a t e a l l c a t e g o r i e s from t h i s programme and t o grant f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to mothers wi t h c h i l d r e n under e i g h t e e n years o f age i f they r e q u i r e i t . The r e s i d e n c e requirement i s too severe and should be a d j u s t e d . T h i s requirement should be put on par with the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e s t i p u l a t i o n which r e -q u i r e s one year's r e s i d e n c e , or a b o l i s h e d e n t i r e l y . The n a t i o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r requirements should be a b o l i s h e d as these are not needed f o r those a p p l y i n g f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance. The p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y s t i p u l a t i o n should be i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y due t o the i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g s i n c e 1939. The r e a l p r o p e r t y requirement needs to be amended to b r i n g i t i n t o l i n e w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n the value o f houses at the present time. S p e c i a l d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t i p u l a t i o n s 52 i n o p e r a t i o n at the presen t should be removed. There i s a l s o the need t o a b o l i s h the n e c e s s i t y o f examining documents as these, i n many cases, prevent a p p l i c a n t s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e promptly. The n e c e s s i t y o f i n t e r v i e w i n g r e f e r e n c e s serves no u s e f u l purpose. The method o f improving the e n t i r e programme of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r c h i l d r e n , and to l e s s e n e l i g i b i l i t y r equirements, has been completely d e a l t w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e c e n t l y by the D i r e c t o r o f the Bureau of P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , Jane M. Hoey, who w r i t e s as f o l l o w s : "Both the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l t o the Senate Committee on f i n a n c e and the House Committee on ways and means, c o n s i d e r e d the inadequacies o f the present program f o r A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n . The presen t law l i m i t s the program t o c h i l d r e n under 18 years o f age who are de-pendent because of death, i n c a p a c i t y , or continued ab-sence from the home of a p a t i e n t . C h i l d r e n i n f a m i l i e s which experience economic need, but i n which none of these f a c t o r s i s present, a l s o s u f f e r acute p r i v a t i o n and undergo d e s t r u c t i v e h a r d s h i p s . As a matter o f f a c t , r e q u i r i n g that a parent be absent from the home before h i s c h i l d r e n can r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e , p l a c e s a k i n d of f i n a n c i a l premium on a broken home and exerts an i n f l u -ence e x a c t l y opposed to the purpose o f the whole A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n program, namely, to keep f a m i l i e s t o g e t h e r . We would, t h e r e f o r e , recommend that the d e f i n i t i o n of a dependent c h i l d be amended to i n c l u d e a l l c h i l d r e n under the age of 18 l i v i n g i n f a m i l i e s where there i s economic need." 1 In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n 1950, progress i s being made i n removing e l i g i b i l i t y r e s t r i c t i o n s which have barred c h i l d r e n f o r many years from r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l and other support. S i m i l a r progress i n the Mothers 1 Allowances Program-me i n B r i t i s h Columbia appears to be l a c k i n g . 1 Hoey, Jane M. "Recommendations to Improve P r o v i s i o n s o f the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A c t " . 20 January. 1950. Pages ^ and M-„ Chapter 3. Adequacy of Allowances. No attempt has been made i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o pro-v i d e an allowance t o mothers on the budget d e f i c i e n c y b a s i s . The allowance w r i t t e n i n t o the f i r s t Mothers 1 Pensions Act was copied d i r e c t l y from the Workmen's Compensation Act passed i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1917. The f i g u r e of $4-2.50 a month f o r a mother and one c h i l d , which the Workmen's Compensation Act p r o v i d e d , was taken over without any f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n on f a m i l y requirements. T h i s allowance has never approached adequacy f o r f a m i l y need. The t h i r t y mothers i n t e r v i e w e d , who had been on the p ension at d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s s i n c e i t began i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a l l expressed t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s about having had to l i v e f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f time on a f i x e d inadequate allowance. They would have p r e f e r r e d a budget allowance based on need. T h e i r sentiments have been confirmed by the v a r i o u s d i r e c t o r s of the 4-9 s t a t e s who a d m i n i s t e r e d Mothers' Pensions laws i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1933. They unanimously s t a t e d : "Ex-p e r i e n c e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Mothers' A i d Laws has shown the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a v o i d i n g s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n o f allowance and o f p e r m i t t i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o be based upon the needs of 1 each i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y . " The f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o mothers i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia has not been b a s i c a l l y changed s i n c e 1920. The f i r s t Act s e t out the amount to be p a i d to each f a m i l y and i n the 1 E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . New York, Volume XI, October 1933, Page 55. Mothers* Allowances Act i n 1950, the same amount i s s t a t e d . These f i x e d inadequate grants have c r e a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f r e -sentment and dependency i n the f a m i l y u n i t s throughout the y e a r s . Many mothers, who had a moderate allowance when t h e i r husbands were p r o v i d i n g , r e c e i v e d q u i t e a shock when they r e -cei v e d t h e i r f i r s t mothers' allowance cheque. A few fought a g a i n s t t h i s low l e v e l of l i v i n g but the m a j o r i t y gave up the s t r u g g l e and s e t t l e d down to a l i f e of drudgery and p a s s i v i t y . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the Mothers* Allowances Pro-gramme of 1950 c o u l d w e l l p r o f i t from a n a l y z i n g the method of how need i s determined i n many p a r t s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s under the A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n programme. The m a j o r i t y o f the s t a t e s determine i t as f o l l o w s : "Need i s g e n e r a l l y determined on the b a s i s o f a budget that takes i n t o account the a c t u a l l i v i n g expenses o f the f a m i l y i n the i n d i v i d u a l community. The amount o f a s s i s t a n c e i s r e l a t e d to the need, as determined, and to the income and other resources that the f a m i l y has a v a i l a b l e . The attempt t o measure the needs o f f a m i l i e s i n terms o f money i s d i f f i c u l t and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y be-cause of wide v a r i a t i o n i n the requirements o f f a m i l i e s as a r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . " 1 The inadequacy of the Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia can l a r g e l y be determined by the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e that i s granted. An A n a l y s i s of Allowances t o 19^9. The c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Canada, when the Moth-ers ' Pensions Act was passed i n 1920, was 150 .5 . T h i s index r e l a t e d very c l o s e l y to the index f o r Vancouver and f o r B r i t -1 S o c i a l ' Work Year Book. New York, P u s s e l l Sage Foundation 193b, Page M-b. 54 i s h Columbia as a whole. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the pension at t h a t time were of the o p i n i o n t h a t the allowance was ade- -quate. In 1922 an agreement was made wit h the d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by which they would pay $10.00 a month t o moth-ers w i t h i n c a p a c i t a t e d husbands or i m b e c i l e c h i l d r e n over s i x -teen years of age l i v i n g w i t h them. T h i s arrangement served o n l y those cases who l i v e d i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s because the p r o v i n c i a l government d i d not pay t h i s e x t r a amount t o moth-ers on pensions l i v i n g i n unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s , x The a t t i t u d e of the mothers on pension d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1920-30 was t h a t they would not apply f o r the b e n e f i t i f they c o u l d do without i t . They s t a t e d t h a t the pension was not n e a r l y enough t o m a i n t a i n even a minimum standard of decency. They a l s o s t a t e d , b i t t e r l y , t h a t some o f them had t r i e d t o supplement t h e i r pension by working, but found i t was d i s c o n t i n u e d when they d i d so. The p e r i o d 1930-4-0 was a d i f f i c u l t one f o r pension-e r s . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were of the o p i n i o n t h a t , as the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Canada had dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y , mothers' pensions should be reduced. In 1930 the c o s t - o f - l i v -i n g index was 1 2 0 . 8 . Using the 1920 index as a base i t was c a l c u l a t e d t h a t a mother and one c h i l d should be p a i d $34-. 11. In comparing the B r i t i s h Columbia pensions i n 1931 x The mothers i n t e r v i e w e d , who had been on the pension d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s t a t e d t h a t they l o s t t h e i r independence when they accepted i t . They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t many women d i d not apply f o r i t as they "would not s e l l t h e i r s o u ls f o r a miser-a b l e p e n s i o n " . w i t h those of other Canadian p r o v i n c e s i t was demonstrated that they compared f a v o u r a b l y . In A l b e r t a a mother and three c h i l -dren r e c e i v e d $60.00 a month. Both Manitoba and B r i t i s h C o l -umbia p a i d $57.50 to a f a m i l y of the same s i z e . The three other p r o v i n c e s w i t h pension schemes p a i d l e s s . The compari-sons, together w i t h the economic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t i n t h i s -p r o v i n c e , i n f l u e n c e d the l e g i s l a t o r s t o reduce the pensions i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1932 arrangements were made w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s to pay h a l f the c o s t o f the mothers' pensions. The muni-c i p a l i t i e s immediately d i s c o n t i n u e d the payment of $10.00 a month to mothers who were c a r i n g f o r i n c a p a c i t a t e d husbands or i m b e c i l e c h i l d r e n . T h i s a c t i o n brought great h a r d s h i p i n a d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d . In 1933 the pension was reduced and the r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a mother with one c h i l d were made more severe. They were l e f t to earn t h e i r own l i v i n g i n a m a j o r i t y of cases. Many women were unable to secure work and had to apply f o r m u n i c i p a l r e l i e f which was even more inadequate than the moth-ers 1 p e n s i o n . The allowance p a i d t o women from 1920-31 was$ f r 2 . 5 0 f o r a mother and one c h i l d , $7 .50 f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d w i t h a r e d u c t i o n of $10.00 a month i f the pensioner owned her own home. In 1933 the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Canada stood at 94-.fr, the lowest i t has ever reached up t o the present time. When the pension was reduced, the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index was not f o l l o w e d e n t i r e l y . I f the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index had -been used as a b a s i s f o r r e d u c t i o n , the pension would have been lowered t o $26.66 f o r a mother and one c h i l d ; i n s t e a d i t was s e t at $30.00 with $5.00 f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d , where no r e n t was p a i d , and $35.00 where there was r e n t p a i d and the same amount f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d . The o l d , new, and sug-gested s c a l e s are s e t f o r t h below: Table 1: O r i g i n a l , reduced and suggested s c a l e s of pension. (No r e n t p a i d ) . Percentage Number of O r i g i n a l E x i s t i n g Percentage Suggested of r e d u c t i o n c h i l d r e n s c a l e s c a l e reduced new s c a l e over o r i g i n a l 1 $ 32 50 $ 30 00 7.7 $ 30 00 7.7 2 ho 00 35 00 12.5 37 50 6.3 3 k7 50 ho 00 15.8 *+5 oo 1+ 55 oo *+5 oo 18.2 52 50 5 62 50 50 oo 20.0 60 00 6 70 00 55 oo 21. h 67 00 3.6 7 77 50 60 00 22.6 75 00 3.2 8 85 00 65 oo 23.5 82 50 2.9 Source: Report and F i n a n c i a l Statement. Mothers' Pensions Act, 1 A p r i l , 1933 to March 31, 193*+, Page 2. T a b l e 2: O r i g i n a l , reduced and suggested s c a l e s of pension where r e n t i s p a i d . Percentage Number of O r i g i n a l E x i s t i n g Percentage Suggested of r e d u c t i o n c h i l d r e n s c a l e s c a l e reduced new s c a l e over o r i g i n a l 1 $.1+2 50 $ 35 00 17.6 $ 35 00 17.6 2 5o oo *+0 00 20.0 *+2.50 15.0 3 57 50 *+5 oo 21.7 5o oo 13.0 65 00 50.00 23.0 57 50 11.5 5 72 50 55 oo 2*+.0 65 00 10.*+ 6 80 00 60 00 25.0 72 50 9.*+ 7 87 50 65 oo 25.7 80 00 8.6 8 95 00 70 00 26.3 87 50 7.9 Source: Report and F i n a n c i a l Statement, Mothers' Pensions Act, 1 A p r i l , 1933 to March 31, 193*+, Page 2. The suggested new s c a l e was worked out by the D i r e c -t o r of Welfare i n 1935 a f t e r s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t s o f the r e -duced s c a l e on l a r g e f a m i l i e s . I t can be seen from these two t a b l e s that the e f f e c t o f the r e d u c t i o n was borne more h e a v i l y by the l a r g e r f a m i l i e s . The l a r g e r f a m i l i e s u s u a l l y had an i n c a p a c i t a t e d husband or some o l d e r member of the f a m i l y t o fee d . Under the o r i g i n a l s c a l e a mother wi t h one c h i l d , who owned her own home, r e c e i v e d $32.50 per month, w h i l e under the new s c a l e she would r e c e i v e $ 3 0 , 0 0 , a r e d u c t i o n o f $2 .50 or 7,7 per cent per month. On the other hand, a mother w i t h eig h t c h i l d r e n , who owned her own home, r e c e i v e d $ 8 5 . 0 0 per month, but under the new s c a l e the same f a m i l y would r e c e i v e only $ 6 5 . 0 0 . T h i s was a r e d u c t i o n o f $20.00 or 2 3 . 5 per cent per month. No attempt was made to implement the suggested s c a l e s worked out by the D i r e c t o r o f Welfare i n 1935 which were f a i r e r to those on t h i s programme. The r e d u c t i o n i n the pension was c a r r i e d out by the l e g i s l a t o r s by l o w e r i n g the ap-p r o p r i a t i o n s a l l o t t e d to t h i s programme without changing the Act. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s l i t t l e economic s e c u r i t y f o r mothers 1 allowances cases i f there i s an economic r e c e s -s i o n . The o p i n i o n of the women, on pension at t h i s time was that the allowance was inadequate. The annual r e p o r t o f 193*+ s e t s f o r t h t h e i r sentiments when i t s t a t e s : " I t i s e v i -dent from the V i s i t o r s * Reports and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from the mothers themselves t h a t the present s c a l e o f allowances i s i n -adequate and t h a t as soon as f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w i l l permit 1 should be i n c r e a s e d . " I n 1935 there was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e made to the moth-ers i n r e c e i p t of t h i s pension. At f i r s t $2.50 was granted to every f a m i l y , but l a t e r , as the v i s i t o r s reviewed t h e i r cases, a d d i t i o n a l adjustments were made on the b a s i s of need. In 1936 the Act was amended t o p r o v i d e f o r an allowance of $7.50 f o r i n c a p a c i t a t e d husbands. There were, i n the p r o v i n c e a t that time, 233 mothers r e c e i v i n g the p e n s i o n who had i n c a p a c i -t a t e d husbands. T h i s improvement i n the Act was l o n g over due as the a t t i t u d e had developed i n these homes that the d i s a b l e d husband was b e t t e r o f f dead. The annual r e p o r t o f 1936 makes the f o l l o w i n g comment on t h i s s u b j e c t : "The i n c a p a c i t a t e d husband i n a Mothers' Pensions home o f t e n f e l t t h a t he was 'eati n g h i s c h i l d r e n ' s food!, and that h i s f a m i l y would be b e t t e r o f f i f he were dead. Some-times mothers and c h i l d r e n developed the f e e l i n g he was a burden." 2 From 1936-*f0 there were minor i n c r e a s e s i n mothers' allowances. T h i s programme, from 191+0 to 19*+9, had undergone a few changes r e g a r d i n g allowances. The c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Canada i n 19*+0 was 105.6. The maximum allowance a mother and one c h i l d r e c e i v e d i n 19*+0 was $35.00 a month. The c o s t -o f - l i v i n g index i n 1920 was 150.5, and the allowance f o r a mother and one c h i l d at that time was $*+2.50. The reason ad-vanced f o r f a i l u r e t o i n c r e a s e the allowance was that there 1 Report and F i n a n c i a l Statement, Mothers' Pensions Act, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 31 March, 193*+, Page 1. 2 i b i d , 1 A p r i l , 1935, to 31 March, 1936, Page 5. was not enough d i f f e r e n c e between what was a c t u a l l y being p a i d and t h a t which should have been p a i d , namely, $29.82 i f the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r 1920 had been used as a base t o i n -crease or decrease the allowance.' In December, 19^0, the L e g i s l a t u r e approved a vote of $5,000 f o r b u r s a r i e s c o v e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l purposes f o r c h i l d r e n over s i x t e e n y e a r s of age whose mothers were on the allowance. In 19H-2, the Act was amended and p r o v i s i o n was m$de t o grant an allowance t o c h i l d r e n up to t h e i r e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y p r o v i d e d they were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . In the same year the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index began t o r i s e ; when i t reached 117 the allowance was i n c r e a s e d by $2.50. In 19hh the a l l o w -ance was i n c r e a s e d t o i t s o r i g i n a l s c a l e of $H-2.50 f o r a moth-er w i t h one c h i l d . I f a mother owned her own home, $5.00 would be deducted from the maximum allowance. The Mothers' Allowances Act has not been amended to b r i n g about a change i n the amount of allowance s e t . In J u l y , 19^8, an i n c r e a s e of $7.50 was made i n the allowance f o r a mother and one c h i l d , and one d o l l a r e x t r a f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d and an i n c a p a -c i t a t e d husband. T h i s was made p o s s i b l e by o u t r i g h t grants from the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Fund of the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Adequacy of Allowances to Meet Need. The c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Canada climbed r a p i d l y a f t e r 19^ 0 and i n June, 19^9, i t was 159.5. T h i s index i s a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e base of p r i c e changes f o r low and moderate i n -come f a m i l i e s . The c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index as s e t f o r t h f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1920 was 150. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f moth-e r s ' allowances throughout the years have used the index as a base t o i n d i c a t e the need t o i n c r e a s e or decrease these a l l o w -ances. The main d i f f i c u l t y i s the allowance i n the o r i g i n a l Act was not based on minimum f a m i l y requirements t o m a i n t a i n h e a l t h anddecency. Mothers 1 Allowances a t present are most inadequate. I n order t o show the inadequacies o f these a l l o w -ances i t i s necessary t o compare them wi t h the most r e c e n t and comprehensive study which has been made i n the f i e l d . I n 1 9 3 9 a s p e c i a l committee of the Welfare C o u n c i l of G r e a ter Toronto made a study o f the spending h a b i t s o f Toronto f a m i l i e s . S i n c e the o r i g i n a l study was p u b l i s h e d , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h has been done w i t h f a m i l y budgets. In June, 19*+9, the Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Toronto p u b l i s h e d another pamphlet, "Guide to F a m i l y Spending". T h i s guide r e f l e c t s the a c t u a l spending h a b i t s o f Toronto f a m i l i e s together w i t h the best a v a i l a b l e knowledge o f n u i t r i t i o n and f a m i l y l i v i n g . Those who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n were a b l e t o use standards which had stood the t e s t o f time, c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and constant use s i n c e 1 9 3 9 , when the o r i g i n a l study was made. The standard o f l i v i n g which t h i s guide proposes i s a minimum one, as the main purpose o f the study was t o a s s i s t the Toronto S o c i a l Agencies p l a n budgets f o r t h e i r c l i e n t s . The standard a r r i v e d at i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n as f o l l o w s . "There w i l l always be disagreement about what c o n s t i t u t e s a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e standard of l i v i n g . Some may c l a i m the standards are too low; others may c l a i m they are too h i g h . T h i s study i s based on a standard which the com-m i t t e e d e f i n e s as one which w i l l m a i n t a i n a minimum l e v e l of h e a l t h and s e l f - r e s p e c t . " 1 1 A Guide t o Fam i l y Spending i n Toronto, Canada Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Toronto, June, 1 9 4 - 9 , Page 1 . T h i s standard, and the c a l c u l a t i o n s from t h i s pub-l i c a t i o n w i l l be used t o assess the grants to Mothers' Allow-ances cases i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P r i c e s o f some goods i n B r i t -i s h Columbia were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than those i n Toronto d u r i n g 1949. In some cases t h i s was due to the f a c t t h a t numbers of e s s e n t i a l goods were imported from other p r o v i n c e s and f r e i g h t charges were added t o the c o s t of such goods. The e s s e n t i a l food items and household a r t i c l e s i n Toronto and B r i t i s h C o l -umbia have r i s e n out o f p r o p o r t i o n t o what the m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s can a f f o r d t o pay f o r them. As a r e s u l t many f a m i l i e s are not buying enough of the necessary items t o m a i n t a i n the r e q u i r e d standard o f h e a l t h . Table 3 - S e r i e s of Sample Minimum Monthly Budgets, (Toronto, 1949). Budget A, Fa m i l y o f 5 w i t h I n c a p a c i t a t e d Man. Members i n D e n t a l F a m i l y Age Food C l o t h i n g Sundries care T o t a l Man 37 $17 49 $ 6 55 $ 13 85 50 $ 38 39 Woman 35 17 10 8 88 7 00 50 33 48 G i r l 4 11 52 4 85 1 29 50 18 16 Boy 7 14 05 5 51 2 82 50 22 88 G i r l 11 15 71 7 17 2 59 50 25 97 T o t a l 75 87 32 96 27 55 2 50 .138 80 Add: S h e l t e r $53.36; o p e r a t i n g expenses $ 21.20. Budget B, Family of 5. (Mother and f o u r c h i l d r e n ) . Members i n D e n t a l F a m i l y Age Food C l o t h i n g S undries v c a r e T o t a l Woman 30 $17 10 $ 8 88 $ 7 00 50 $ 33 ^8 Boy 2 10 28 4 56 1 25 50 16 59 G i r l 6 11 52 7 17 2 25 50 21 44 Boy 10 15 71 5 85 3 16 50 25 22 G i r l 15 18 95 7 94 4 77 50 32 .46 T o t a l 73 56 34 4-0 18 43 2 50 129 19 Add: S h e l t e r $ 50.03 ; o p e r a t i n g expenses | 21.20. 62 Budget C, T y p i c a l Family of 3 . Members of Dental Family Age Food C l o t h i n g Sundries care T o t a l Woman 26 $17 10 |10 71 $ 7 17 50 $ 35 *+8 G i r l 3 10 28 10 28 1 17 50 22 23 Boy 6 11 52 5 51 2 28 50 19 81 T o t a l „ 38 90 26 50 10 62 1 50 77 ?2 Adds S h e l t e r $ 31.5*+; operating expenses $ 17.10." Budget D. Family of 2. (Mother and s m a l l c h i l d ) . Members of Dental family Age Food C l o t h i n g Sundries care T o t a l tfoman 25 $17 10 $10 71 $ 7 17 50 1 35 M-b1 Boy k 11 52 *+ 83 1 37 50 18 22 Total 2b 62 15 5*f 8 5*+ 1 00 53 70 Add: S h e l t e r $ 21 .76; operating expenses $ 11 .59. Source: "A Guide t o Family Spending i n Toronto. Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Toronto, June, 19*+9. These budgets, f o r f o u r d i f f e r e n t s i z e d f a m i l i e s , r e v e a l the amount that each r e q u i r e s i n order to maintain a minimum standard of l i v i n g , and i n c l u d e funds f o r sundries and operating expenses f o r each f a m i l y . They were compiled from a recent study made by the Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Toronto, published i n June, 19*+9. This i s the best m a t e r i a l yet pub-l i s h e d i n Canada on minimum budgets. I t can the r e f o r e be used to compare the f i n a n c i a l allowances granted to f a m i l i e s under the Mothers' Allowances Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Sundries i n c l u d e : C l o t h i n g upkeep, personal care, r e c r e a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , reading m a t e r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n equipment, toys, r e l i g i o n , by "reasonable allowance". Operating expenses i n c l u d e : House furnishings, laundry, e l e c -t r i c i t y , gas, h e a l t h s u p p l i e s , newspaper, r a d i o , f a m i l y enter-tainment, cle a n i n g s u p p l i e s , heating c o s t s , hot water c o s t s , water. The p e r i o d s e l e c t e d f o r comparative purposes 1 i s mid-summer, 194-9. The c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Toronto i n June, I 9 4 9 , was s l i g h t l y lower than t h a t o f Vancouver f o r the c o r -responding p e r i o d . I f the d i f f e r e n c e i n the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r these two urban areas had been added the budget f i g u r e s would be s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . T h i s was not done because an examination of food; c o s t s f o r d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia g i v e n f o r May, 1949, shows t h a t p r i c e s f o r Vancouver were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . I t can t h e r e f o r e be argued t h a t c o s t -o f - l i v i n g i n Toronto and Vancouver i s near enough f o r the Toronto f i g u r e s t o be used without change when making a com-p a r i s o n w i t h Mothers" Allowances i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e p r i c e s have r i s e n f u r t h e r s i n c e 1949. I t can be seen i n examining these budgets t h a t d i f f e r e n t ages of the i n d i v i d u a l members of the f a m i l y a f f e c t some o f the items. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f food, sun-d r i e s and c l o t h i n g . In comparing the f i r s t two budgets given, each o f which i s composed of f i v e members, the t o t a l budget c o s t i s d i f f e r e n t . The f i r s t f a m i l y r e q u i r e s approximately $213.00, w h i l e the second needs $200.00. T h i s v a r i a t i o n alone i n d i c a t e s the need f o r a more f l e x i b l e budget f o r Mothers' Allowances cases and r e f u t e s the v a l i d i t y of the st a n d a r d bud-get. These budgets a l s o p r o v i d e , under s u n d r i e s , a s m a l l amount f o r t o y s , r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment, and f o r r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , which i n c r e a s e s f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s not x The c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index f o r Toronto i n June, 1949, was 156 .1 ; f o r Vancouver, 1 6 2 . 0 . ( B a s i s • 1 0 0 ) , p r o v i d e d under the Mothers' Allowances Programme. These bud-gets , p r o v i d e as w e l l , a s m a l l amount f o r d e n t a l s e r v i c e s , x Only very extreme cases are g i v e n a t t e n t i o n under the Mothers' Allowances Programme. Table 4- - The Mothers' Allowances S c a l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n Mothers 8 S o c i a l Group Allowance A s s i s t a n c e T o t a l Mother and 1 c h i l d $ 4-2 50 : $ 7 50 $ 50 oo Mother , husband, 1 c h i l d 50 oo 8 50 58 50 Mother and 2 c h i l d r e n 5o oo 8 50 58 50 Mother and 3 c h i l d r e n 57 50 9 50 67 00 Mother and 4- c h i l d r e n 65 oo 10 50 75 50 Mother and 5 c h i l d r e n 72 50 l l 50 84 oo Mother and 6 c h i l d r e n 80 00 12 50 92 50 iMother and 7 c h i l d r e n 87 50 13 ?o 101 00 S i n c e June, 194-9, the Mothers' Allowances S c a l e has been supplemented by p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e funds t o make i t equal to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g r a n t s . Family allowances, of course, are a l s o p a i d f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . Women with i n c a -p a c i t a t e d husbands a l s o r e c e i v e $8.50 per month f o r the hus-band's support. I n a d d i t i o n , Mothers' Allowances cases r e -c e i v e f r e e m e d i c a l and h o s p i t a l c a r e . Comparing the Mothers' Allowances i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia w i t h Budget A i n Table 3, i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the v a r i a t i o n s i n the t o t a l amounts are q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l . Budget A g i v e s the minimum needed as $213.4-4- w h i l e the Mothers' A l -x As d e n t a l s e r v i c e was not provided f o r the m a j o r i t y of Moth-e r s ' Allowances cases i n 19^9, i t was necessary t o estimate the c o s t of d e n t a l care f o r each person. The f i g u r e of 50<£ was a r r i v e d at by e s t i m a t i n g about one-quarter of $1.80, which i s the amount set f o r medical and d e n t a l s e r v i c e s by the F e d e r a l D r a f t B i l l f o r H e a l t h Insurance i n 194-4-. lowances s c a l e f o r the same s i z e f a m i l y i s $75.50, p l u s ap-p r o x i m a t e l y $18.00 f a m i l y allowance, or a t o t a l of $93.50. T h i s i s $120.00 s h o r t of the d e s i r e d amount f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a minimum standard, x I n March, 191+9, the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e i n Vancouver drew up a suggested budget f o r f a m i l i e s on Mothers' Allowances. In examining the M e t r o p o l i t a n budget f o r a f a m i l y of f i v e , two a d u l t s and t h r e e c h i l d r e n , the r e n t allowance i s $18.00. I t i s found i n comparing t h i s f i g u r e with the amount pe r m i t t e d f o r s h e l t e r i n Budget A, t h a t i t f a l l s s h o r t of xx $25.36. I l l u s t r a t i n g the harmful e f f e c t s o f p r o v i d i n g i n s u f -f i c i e n t funds f o r a s h e l t e r , i t i s e n l i g h t e n i n g to f o l l o w the case of Mrs. E. who l i v e s i n her own four-room house i n one of the most d i l a p i d a t e d d i s t r i c t s i n Vancouver. Her house was v a l u e d at $995*0° i n 19*+9. and she pays taxes at the r a t e of $1+0.60 per y e a r . The r e c o r d s read: "The house c o n s i s t s o f f o u r rooms, s h a b b i l y f u r n i s h e d ; no l u x u r y i s i n evidence. I t Is badly i n need of p a i n t -i n g and r e p a i r work. T h i s house c o n s t i t u t e s s h e l t e r , but l i t t l e more. The e a r t h f l o o r i n the basement i s damp and the e x t e r i o r of t h i s house has not been p a i n t e d f o r many y e a r s . I t would seem almost i m p o s s i b l e t o con-t r o l the dust t h a t gathers i n t h i s house." Mrs. E has two boys going t o s c h o o l at p r e s e n t . The o l d e s t one, who i s 16, had to repeat grade 10 due t o the f a c t he had to work l o n g hours a f t e r s c h o o l i n an endeavour to make x See Appendix B, Page 163. xx Mothers 1 Allowances cases do not r e c e i v e h e l p w i t h t h e i r housing problems i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In Vancouver temporary a s s i s t a n c e i s g i v e n i f a f a m i l y i s e v i c t e d to p r o v i d e time f o r them t o f i n d new q u a r t e r s . some extra money for h i s mother, and had no time f o r his home-work. Mrs. E owes $133.61 i n back taxes. She stated that she i s planning to pay $40.00 t h i s year on her taxes, and thus hold her property for another year. The fear of l o s i n g her property i s a constant source of worry, and she i s at present seeking employment to supplement her budget. Completing the comparison of Budget A with the Mothers' Allowances scale for the same size family, Budget A permits $75.87 for food while the Mothers' Allowances scale allows $60.00, a difference of $15.87; Budget A permits $27.55 for sundries while the Mothers's Allowances scale a l -lows $3.00, a difference of 818.3 per cent. The Mothers' Allowances scale permits $8,00 for operating expenses, while x Budget A provides $21.20, a difference of $13.20. The c l o t h -ing item under the two scales brings out even more extremes. Budget A permits an allowance of $32.96 while the Mothers' A l -lowances scale i s $4,50, a difference of $28,46. Even i f the three children involved are permitted to receive two pairs of shoes a year through the Vancouver Clothing Committee at an estimated price of $5.00 a p a i r , this would amount to $2.50 a month. There would s t i l l be a discrepance of $25.96. The next budget, Budget B varies somewhat i n struc-ture from Budget A. The Mothers' Allowances scale, plus fami-l y allowance, for a mother and four children i s $101.50. while x Children of Mothers' Allowances cases are e l i g i b l e f or shoes through the Vancouver-Clothing Committee, but clothing i s not provided unless there i s an emergency and then i t i s obtained through the Red Cross. Budget B p r o v i d e s $200.12, a d i f f e r e n c e of 87.1 per cent. I t can be s t a t e d i n comparing the c l o t h i n g p r o v i d e d i n Budget B and the amount p r o v i d e d i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Budget f o r Mothers• Allowances cases, t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i s very g r e a t . The a-mount provided by Budget B i s $3l+.l+0 w h i l e under the Mothers 1 Allowances Programme i t i s $*+.50, a d i f f e r e n c e of $29.90. To i l l u s t r a t e f u r t h e r the inadequacy of the c l o t h i n g grant, an a c t u a l case may be c i t e d . Mrs. F i s a mother of t h r e e c h i l d r e n . One of her sons, a 16 year o l d boy, was forced to l e a v e s c h o o l because he d i d not have proper c l o t h i n g t o a t -tend. The r e c o r d r e a d s : "He was p r a c t i c a l l y out of c l o t h i n g and shoes, but has commenced t o get h i m s e l f o u t f i t t e d . " Her other two c h i l d r e n had to work l o n g hours a f t e r s c h o o l i n order to make money to buy c l o t h e s and other n e c e s s i t i e s . One of her c h i l d r e n worked f o r t h r e e months as an usher i n a t h e a t r e , but the work was so strenuous she was f o r c e d to g i v e i t up as her h e a l t h was being impaired and her s t u d i e s were n e g l e c t e d . I t can be c l e a r l y seen t h a t the remaining items of Budget B are much l a r g e r than the amounts s t a t e d i n the Moth-e r s ' Allowances budget f o r f i v e people. Budget B p r o v i d e s $50.03 f o r s h e l t e r , w h i l e the Mothers' Allowances Programme permits $18 .00, a d i f f e r e n c e of $32.03. In comparing the two budgets f o r food allowance, Budget B p r o v i d e s $73.56 w h i l e the Mothers' Allowances s c a l e permits $62.50, a d i f f e r e n c e of 12.3 per c e n t . The d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e g a r d i n g s u n d r i e s and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s between Budget B and the Mothers' Allowances budget are even more extreme. I t can be s a i d i n a n a l y z i n g Budget C and comparing i t w i t h the Mothers' Allowances budget allowed f o r t h r e e people that the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amounts f o r each item a re q u i t e l a r g e . In f u r t h e r a n a l y z i n g these d i f f e r e n c e s , the t o t a l a-mount f o r Budget C i s $126.16, w h i l e the Mothers' Allowances s c a l e i s $69.50 i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y allowance. T h i s i s a d i f -ference o f $56.66. I n the f a c e o f such inadequacy, a mother w i t h two young c h i l d r e n , i s unable t o p r o v i d e f o r her f a m i l y the t h i n g s they should have f o r normal development. The food allowance i n Budget C i s $38.90 w h i l e the Mothers' Allowances s c a l e p r o v i d e s $43.00. T h i s item i s adequately p r o v i d e d f o r i n the Mothers 8 Allowances s c a l e , but due t o the inadequacies of the other items, the amount a l l o t t e d f o r food cannot be budgeted i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . T h i s i s shown by the experience of Mrs. H who l i v e s with her two c h i l d r e n i n one of the poores t p a r t s o f Vancouver. Her o l d e s t son i s s i x and has j u s t s t a r t e d s c h o o l . He i s a l r e a d y a d i f f i c u l t problem at s c h o o l having been charged w i t h p e t t y s t e a l i n g . He was examined at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c and was diagnosed as " f e e l i n g i n s e c u r e " . Regarding t h i s c h i l d ' s c l o t h i n g , the r e c o r d reads, "Miss G says the boy comes to s c h o o l i l l - c l a d and unkempt even on days when s p e c i a l t r e a t s have been planned f o r the c h i l d r e n . " Mrs. H i s a t present l i v i n g i n a four-room tenement r e n t i n g f o r $23.00 per month. F u e l c o s t s amount t o $10.50 a month d u r i n g the w i n t e r . The approach t o the tenement i s very bad. The windows i n the rooms f i t badly and, as t h e r e i s no c o n t r o l l e d h e a t i n g , Mrs. H f i n d s i t hard t o keep the p l a c e warm. The rooms are p o o r l y f u r n i s h e d and the r e c o r d s t a t e s t h a t Mrs. H i s s u f f e r i n g at present from n e u r i t i s i n her arms. On a r e c e n t v i s i t t o t h i s f a m i l y the worker observed that the c h i l d r e n were t h i n w i t h unhealthy s k i n s . Hungry as they looked, theyhad n o t h i n g b e t t e r t o gnaw on than l e t t u c e , x At p r e s e n t Mrs. H i s t r y i n g t o get a job so that she w i l l be able t o get away from t h i s unwholesome environment. Completing the comparison o f Budget C w i t h the regu-l a r Mothers' Allowances budget f o r t h a t s i z e f a m i l y , the Moth-e r s 1 Allowances budget f o r the remaining items i s much too i n -adequate. In Budget C $ 3 1 . 5 * + i s allowed f o r s h e l t e r , w h i l e under the Mothers' Allowances s c a l e i t i s $ l * + . 0 0 , a d i f f e r e n c e of 1 2 5 . 3 per cent. The inadequate s h e l t e r allowance i n the Mothers' Allowances s c a l e f o r c e s many women t o seek accommoda-t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r range. These accommodations are u s u a l l y i n -adequate i n many ways and have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t oh the growing c h i l d r e n . The remaining items i n Budget C show even g r e a t e r extremes when comparing them w i t h the Mothers' Allow-ances s c a l e . T h i s i s shown by the item of s u n d r i e s which i n Budget C a l l o w s $ 1 0 . 6 2 . In the Mothers' Allowances s c a l e the a l l o t m e n t i s $ 2 . 5 0 , a d i f f e r e n c e o f $ 8 . 1 2 . The f o u r standard budgets p r o v i d e 5 0 cents f o r each member of the f a m i l y per month f o r d e n t a l c a r e . Mothers' A l -lowances f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have l a r g e l y t o depend x At one time Mrs. H caught the l a n d l o r d w i t h her 5 year o l d daughter i n h i s bedroom w i t h h i s hands under her bloomers. on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s t o get such c a r e . C h i l d r e n i n the Van-couver Schools r e c e i v e f r e e d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n up to grade t h r e e , but not beyond t h i s . I f a mother u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e s a t o o t h p u l l e d , t h i s may, at times, be arranged through the d e n t a l c l i n i c at the Out P a t i e n t s 1 D i v i s i o n o f the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , the case of Mrs. D may be c i t e d . She had one son 15 years o f age as w e l l as an i n c a p a -c i t a t e d husband. The boy had been complaining t e r r i b l y about h i s t e e t h f o r some time, but n o t h i n g was done about i t due to l a c k of funds. The boy was having too many toothaches and these were a f f e c t i n g h i s h e a l t h and s c h o o l p r o g r e s s . When arrangements were f i n a l l y made f o r him to be examined by a d o c t o r , the l a t t e r d e c l a r e d : "This the worst l o o k i n g mouth and s e t of t e e t h I have ever examined i n a l l my p r a c t i c e . " Some t e e t h had to be e x t r a c t e d , and the balance a l l had to be f i l l e d , some i n two or three p l a c e s ; the d o c t o r ' s view never-t h e l e s s was t h a t i f the boy had had e a r l i e r v i s i t s h i s t e e t h would have been i n good c o n d i t i o n now. The l a s t , Budget D, repeats the p a t t e r n o f the p r e -vious budgets i n comparison w i t h the Mothers' Allowances s c a l e . There i s a d i s c r e p a n c y of $32.05 between Budget D and the Mothers' Allowances budget f o r a mother and one c h i l d . The amount s t a t e d f o r Budget D i s $87.05 and f o r the Mothers' A l -lowances s c a l e , $55.00. The Mothers' Allowances budget p r o -v i d e s more f o r food t han Budget D, the former amount being $34.00 and f o r Budget D $28.62, a d i f f e r e n c e o f $5.38. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n the food s c a l e would be a good t h i n g i f i t were a c t u a l l y so, but t h i s i s not the case i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . The amount provided i n a Mothers" Allowances budget t o cover the other items i s so s m a l l t h a t the food allowance i s g r e a t l y r e -duced to the detriment of the members i n the f a m i l y . I t can be seen, i n f u r t h e r comparing these budgets -n • t h a t Budget D permits $21.76 f o r s h e l t e r w h i l e i n the Mothers' Allowances budget i t i s s e t at $12.00, a d i f f e r e n c e of $9.76. The l a c k of funds to p r o v i d e s h e l t e r has t o be made up some-how and the u s u a l method i s to buy l e s s n o u r i s h i n g food, or l i v e under t e r r i b l e housing c o n d i t i o n s . The c o n t r a s t between the remaining items of the two budgets i s even g r e a t e r . The c l o t h i n g allowance under Budget D i s $15.5*+ and the same item under the Mothers' Allowances budget i s $3.00, or a d i f f e r e n c e of $11.5*+. The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h i s great even though the c h i l d i n t h i s case i s p e r m i t t e d to have two p a i r s of shoes f r e e a t an estimated p r i c e of $6.00 a p a i r . The amount p e r m i t t e d i n Budget D f o r s u n d r i e s i s $8.5*+ and f o r o p e r a t i n g expenses i t i s $11.59. The Mothers* Allowances s c a l e permits only $2.00 f o r s u n d r i e s and $1+.00 f o r o p e r a t i n g expenses. The inadequacies of these f i g u r e s i n the Mothers' Allowances budget can be r e a d i l y seen when the items t o be taken care of under o p e r a t i n g expenses a r e : h e a t -i n g , f u e l f o r cooking, l i g h t , telephone, c l e a n i n g m a t e r i a l s , r e p a i r s , replacement and a l l c o s t s i n c i d e n t a l t o r u n n i n g a home. The Present Allowances i n Operation. A mother a p p l y i n g f o r the allowance i n 1950 must complete two a p p l i c a t i o n forms and these, w i t h the other necessary documents, are forwarded t o the D i r e c t o r of Welfare's o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a . He, or the s u p e r v i s o r of the Family Divir-s i o n , reviews the m a t e r i a l submitted. I f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a m i -l y owned p r o p e r t y and d e r i v e d income from i t , t h i s money i s t r e a t e d as unearned income. Ten d o l l a r s of i t i s exempt and the balance i s s u b t r a c t e d from the allowance. I f , on the other hand, the woman r e c e i v e s dependents' allowance, t h e r e i s no. ex-emption and t h i s income i s deducted one hundred per cent from the allowance. I f r e n t i n g rooms i n her home, the a p p l i c a n t i s p e r m i t t e d an exemption of $20.00. The r e s t i s deducted from her allowance. I f she r e c e i v e s the v e t e r a n s ' allowance, m i l i t a r y pension, widows' allowance, workmen's compensation b e n e f i t s , or superannuation, a p a r t i a l d e d u c t i o n , depending on i n d i v i d u a l c ircumstances, i s made. A f t e r a l l f a c t o r s i n any p a r t i c u l a r case have been assessed, the woman i s n o t i f i e d by l e t t e r on the d e c i s i o n . I f a woman i s granted an allowance, a cheque i s mailed t o her at the end of each month d i r e c t from the D i r e c t o r of Welfare's o f f i c e . Along with the cheque she r e c e i v e s a l i s t of r e g u l a -t i o n s she must observe i n order t o have the allowance con-t i n u e d . She must n o t i f y the D i r e c t o r of Welfare's O f f i c e i f , 1. Any change of address i s made, whether temporary or permanent. 2. Any of her c h i l d r e n leave home. 3. Any of her c h i l d r e n cease t o a t t e n d s c h o o l . 4. Any i n c r e a s e takes p l a c e i n her income or a s s e t s . 5. A death occurs i n her f a m i l y . 73 6. Her husband r e t u r n s home. 7. She r e c e i v e s any i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h regard t o her husband's whereabouts or death. 8. She r e m a r r i e s . Such p r e v e n t i o n s may be necessary; but the women on allowances s e e . i t , they have t o account " f o r p r a c t i c a l l y every-t h i n g they do". The allowance i s so s m a l l t h a t many of the mothers have t o t r y t o supplement i t i n one way or another i n order t o ma i n t a i n some standard f o r t h e i r f a m i l y . The f a m i l i e s who do not t r y to supplement the allowance are u s u a l l y l i v i n g i n some o l d d i l a p i d a t e d house without much'furniture. The atmosphere w i t h i n such homes i s d e p r e s s i n g f o r young c h i l d r e n . Nor i s there much encouragement f o r women t o work, because as soon as they b e g i n t o earn a s m a l l s a l a r y to b r i n g t h i s budget up t o the d e s i r e d amount they are taken o f f the allowance. Women who must care f o r i n c a p a c i t a t e d husbands are handicapped i n t h i s way, f o r they cannot supplement t h e i r allowance by employ-ment. These women have a d i f f i c u l t time i n making ends meet. One woman i n Vancouver walks three m i l e s each day i n order to shop where the goods are the cheapest. By doing so she saves a few pennies to h e l p her hard-pressed budget. A s m a l l adjust-ment i n her allowance would permit her to shop l i k e o t h e r women i n her d i s t r i c t . As i t i s the f a m i l y has been e a r -marked by the r e s i d e n t s i n the community as being on the Moth-er s ' Allowance. B e s i d e s the p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n invoked, t h i s woman wastes c o n s i d e r a b l e time which she cannot a f f o r d t o do as she has three members of her f a m i l y i l l and i n need o f her The E f f e c t s o f E a r n i n g s . 1 E a r n i n g s of mothers and t h e i r o l d e r s i n g l e c h i l d r e n have i n most cases been taken i n t o account i n f i x i n g the a-mount of the pension. In 1921 a mother working p a r t - t i m e had no d e d u c t i o n made i n her pension. However, she was not g r a n t -ed the pension at a l l i f she had c h i l d r e n over 16 years o f age capable o f earning s u f f i c i e n t money t o support the f a m i l y . Throughout the years i n v e s t i g a t o r s have kept a c l o s e check on the whereabouts of employable c h i l d r e n o f mothers i n r e c e i p t of the allowance. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f t e n used poor judgment i n ad-m i n i s t e r i n g the p o l i c y . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the case o f Mrs. N who, i n 1935> had a g i r l of 15 and a boy 16 years o l d not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . The i n v e s t i g a t o r was c o n s t a n t l y v i s i t -ing the home to f i n d out what these c h i l d r e n were do i n g . The mother and her c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , l i v e d under co n s t a n t f e a r t h a t the pension might be d i s c o n t i n u e d . As soon as the g i r l o btained employment the i n v e s t i g a t o r was there t o get a l l the p a r t i c u l a r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r would a l s o make v i s i t s t o the arena t o determine whether the boy was g e t t i n g p a i d f o r p l a y -i n g the o c c a s i o n a l game of j u n i o r hockey. These v i s i t s were very embarrassing t o the boy. The i n v e s t i g a t o r should have helped these c h i l d r e n c o n s t r u c t i v e l y by a s s i s t i n g them i n s e l e c t i n g a course to take or h e l p them f i n d a job s u i t e d t o t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n s , and she should have helped the c h i l d r e n get f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r jobs before any c o n s i d e r a t i o n 75 was g i v e n t o r e d u c i n g the pension. In 1950 the p o l i c y of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the earnings o f mothers and t h e i r s i n g l e c h i l d r e n i s s t i l l c o n t i n u e d . I f a mother i s working, $20.00 of her income i s exempt. For the income over $20.00, a percentage r e d u c t i o n i s made on a M-0-60 b a s i s ; ho per cent of the amount over $20.00 i s reduced from the pension and the mother i s pe r m i t t e d t o r e t a i n 60 per cen t . When the earnings of the mother equal the pension she i s r e -c e i v i n g , the pension i s e n t i r e l y d i s c o n t i n u e d . T h i s s a l a r y c a l c u l a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the one f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases i n B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t the r e c i p i e n t s of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e are p e r m i t t e d o n l y a b a s i s $10.00, exemption. The D i r e c t o r of Welfare should have a budget s c a l e based on what the v a r i o u s s i z e f a m i l i e s r e q u i r e t o meet t h e i r needs. A mother, who i s employed, should be p e r m i t t e d t o r e -t a i n her e n t i r e allowance u n t i l her allowance and earnings equal t h a t s c a l e . When a woman makes over t h i s amount, con-s i d e r a t i o n c o u l d then be giv e n t o r e d u c i n g the allowance on some formula b a s i s . The best s o l u t i o n would be t o pr o v i d e an adequate allowance so that the mothers do not have to sup p l e -ment i t by employment. I f a mother has s i n g l e c h i l d r e n who are employed, her allowance i s reduced whether they are at home or not. The amount o f the r e d u c t i o n i s e i t h e r 7 per cent o f each c h i l d ' s gross earnings or 100 per cent o f the amount he saves i n i n -1 ^ L e t t e r w r i t t e n t o Mr. H. C r e i g h t o n - , Superintendent o f Wel-f a r e , by the p r e s i d e n t o f the Mothers' Pensions A s s o c i a t i o n , December. 16th, 1935. • 76 come tax, because of a c l a i m made f o r dependents. I f a s i n g l e c h i l d earns $65.00 or l e s s , t h e r e i s no de d u c t i o n made i n the pension. E x c e p t i o n s are made i n r e d u c i n g the pension, depend-ent on the circumstances i n each i n d i v i d u a l case. The s o c i a l worker has to c o n f i r m the earnings o f mothers or of s i n g l e c h i l d r e n and c a l c u l a t e the r e d u c t i o n t h a t should be made i n the allowance by the Fami l y S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n i n V i c t o r i a . The S u p e r v i s o r of the Family D i v i s i o n , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the D i r e c t o r of Welf a r e , makes the f i n a l adjustment i n the a l -lowance. T h i s p r o v i s i o n , p e r t a i n i n g t o earnings of s i n g l e c h i l d r e n I n the Mothers' Allowances Programme, i s a l s o a p p l i e d to the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a t the present time, l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e r e l a t i v e s have t o support a p p l i c a n t s f o r a s s i s t -ance. In many i n s t a n c e s i t i s knownthat r e l a t i v e s are not c o n t r i b u t i n g to the support of the a p p l i c a n t , y e t a s s i s t a n c e i s denied. I t i s the o p i n i o n o f w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s t h a t r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be a b o l i s h e d . I t has been r e c e n t l y s t a t e d t h i s way: "We recommend that s t a t e s e l i m i n a t e d from t h e i r p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e laws p r o v i s i o n s c o n d i t i o n i n g e l i g i b i l i t y f o r a s s i s t a n c e on the a b i l i t y o f 1 r e l a t i v e s t o support the a p p l i c a n t . " T h i s s u g g e s t i o n should be f o l l o w e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h a view t o e l i m i n a t i n g com-p l e t e l y s i n g l e sons' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r mothers' keep. 1 " P u b l i c , A s s i s t a n c e Goals 1949", F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau o f P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , December, 1948, Page 14. , The case of Mrs D i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t s of reduc-ing the allowance because of employed children. Mrs. D has two employed boys and two childre n going to school. The boys l e f t school i n 1948 without learning any s p e c i a l trade. They have not had steady employment and usually work as helpers to tradesmen. In 1949 they were both unemployed f o r a number of months and used up a l l th e i r savings during that period. They were unable to a s s i s t t h e i r mother f i n a n c i a l l y . Mrs. D 8s a l -lowance was reduced, however, as soon as the boys took employ-ment to conform with these r i g i d regulations. In July, 1949, their s a l a r i e s averaged |100.00 a month. The two sons found i t d i f f i c u l t to manage on t h e i r s a l a r i e s without sending money home. One son has never sent anything home, but the other occasionally sends $5.00 a month. Mrs. D i s at present i n debt at the l o c a l store and she does not know how she i s going to pay th i s arrears. Her home needs a great deal of repair and she requires many items f o r i t . This state of a f f a i r s has depressed Mrs. D to the extent that she i s at present i n poor health. I f she i s permitted to continue under th i s hope-less condition, her health i s l i a b l e to bread down completely. Out of s i x t y Mothers' Allowances cases studied, there were nine single children f u l l y employed at an average wage of $133,00 a month. The average reduction per month i n the Mothers' Allowance grant on th i s account was $7«73. There were also a number of childre n going to school who had part-time employment and there were twenty-one mothers who had part-time jobs. Their s a l a r i e s ranged from $10.00 to $40*00 a month and the average the women earned was $13.83 per month. In comparing t h i s p r o v i s i o n w i t h s i m i l a r programmes i n other p r o v i n c e s i n Canada, i t i s found that A l b e r t a , New Brunswick and Nova S c o t i a c o n s i d e r a s s e t s when de t e r m i n i n g need. Saskatchewan and Quebec permit a mother t o earn $25.00 without any r e d u c t i o n i n the pension. Manitoba permits a moth-er t o earn $20.00 and a s i n g l e c h i l d t o earn $55.00 a month without any r e d u c t i o n . O n t a r i o reduces the pension granted -to f a m i l i e s when c h i l d r e n reach s i x t e e n years o f age. The p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia of r e d u c i n g the pension on account of the earnings of the mother and o f s i n g l e c h i l d r e n i s one of the most severe i n Canada. Supplementary Allowances. The Mothers' Allowances cases throughout the years have not been a s s i s t e d t o any marked degree by supplementary allowances. There was no organized supplementary a s s i s t a n c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l October, 19l+3, when the Emergency H e a l t h A i d p l a n s t a r t e d . The women who had e x t r a o r d i n a r y ex-penses before that date had to depend on v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . These v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s i s t e d a few f a m i l i e s who had major expenditures but they d i d not have the funds to cope w i t h a l l t h e i r requirements. In 1950 Mothers' Allowances cases can be a s s i s t e d through the Emergency H e a l t h Fund w i t h some of t h e i r major and more p r e s s i n g needs. The a s s i s t a n c e which mothers can r e c e i v e from t h i s fund i s w e l l expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : "From time t o time requests are r e c e i v e d to supplement o l d age pensions or the a s s i s t a n c e granted under Mothers 1 A l -lowances and S o c i a l Allowances. These requests are f o r v a r y i n g reasons, but are u s u a l l y because some e x t r a o r d i n a r y expense has a r i s e n and which cannot be met by the o l d age pension or the e x i s t i n g allowance. I t may be r e p a i r s t o the home are necessary, l o s s o f pos s e s s i o n s by f i r e , a stove r e q u i r e s r e p a i r s or replacement, or some oth e r s i t u a t i o n has developed which i f not met w i l l r e s u l t i n a c t u a l b o d i l y s u f f e r i n g . " 1 A mother can a l s o be a s s i s t e d with a f u r t h e r grant i f her jusband has t u b e r c u l o s i s and i s l i v i n g at home. In such cases an a d d i t i o n a l allowance o f $7.50 f o r the husband and $5.00 a d d i t i o n a l f o r each member o f the f a m i l y i s p a i d i f a u t h o r i z e d by the T u b e r c u l o s i s D i v i s i o n . In 1947 seventy-one mothers r e c e i v e d t h i s supplementary allowance. C h i l d r e n o f e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y can be a s s i s t e d through the B r i t i s h Columbia Youth Foundation Fund. Through t h i s fund, c h i l d r e n who are recommended by t h e i r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s f o r a t e c h n i c a l or u n i v e r s i t y course, are p r o v i d e d w i t h funds f o r t u i t i o n and a l i b e r a l l i v i n g allowance. These grants are i n the nature of a l o a n , t o be p a i d back onee the r e c i p i e n t f i n i s h e s the course and takes employment. In 1948 f i f t y c h i l d r e n were a s s i s t e d whose f a m i l i e s were on the Moth-er s ' Allowance or S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . S i n c e May, 1947, Mothers' Allowances cases have been e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e a "comforts allowance" at the r a t e o f $3.00 per month i f they are i l l i n a h o s p i t a l . A few mothers are s t i l l a s s i s t e d w i t h some o f t h e i r requirements by l o c a l 1 '' S e r i a l L e t t e r 31/P - 13/M". Department. of Hea l t h and Wel-f a r e , S o c i a l Welfare Branch, V i c t o r i a , B. C , October 1 s t , 1943. v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Many c h i l d r e n o f ex-servicemen have been helped w i t h c l o t h i n g , books, e t c . , through l o c a l veterans' o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Mothers' Allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia have never been adequate to meet f a m i l y need. Some adjustments and sup-plements t o the o r i g i n a l Mothers' Allowances s c a l e , however, have been made throughout the y e a r s . There i s a need a t the present time to p r o v i d e adequate allowances t o f a m i l i e s on an i n d i v i d u a l budget b a s i s . The a u t h o r i t y t o grant such a l l o w -ances should be d e c e n t r a l i z e d . Mothers' Allowances should be adequate to permit a mother t o st a y a t home and take care o f her c h i l d r e n p r o p e r l y . The r e g u l a t i o n s governing s i n g l e c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a s s i s t t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i t h funds should be e l i m i n a t e d from t h i s programme. T h i s r e g u l a t i o n i s c o s t l y and d i f f i c u l t t o ad m i n i s t e r and u s u a l l y renders a d d i t i o n a l h a r d s h i p s to the f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d . The e f f e c t s of inadequate a s s i s t a n c e on a f a m i l y u n i t are numerous and f a r - r e a c h i n g . Grants p r o v i d e d t o Moth-e r s ' Allowances cases at present are so inadequate t h a t they permit f a m i l i e s to buy only a p o r t i o n o f what they need. The r e s u l t i s that f a m i l i e s are r e n t i n g the worst accommodations p o s s i b l e and the c h i l d r e n are being underfed and c l o t h e d . There are many f a m i l i e s on t h i s allowance where the c h i l d r e n are d e v e l o p i n g symptoms of i l l - h e a l t h or v a r i o u s behaviour problems due to i n s u f f i c i e n t income. I f adequate allowances were p r o v i d e d to f a m i l i e s now the a d d i t i o n a l expenditure would 81 pay o f f i n the f u t u r e by p r o v i d i n g the communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h h e a l t h i e r and b e t t e r a d j u s t e d c i t i z e n s . 82" Chapter 4 . The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Programme. '•Public w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the management of p e r s o n n e l , f i n a n c e s , and equipment t o accomplish the purposes and c a r r y out the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s f o r which the w e l f a r e 1 agency i s e s t a b l i s h e d . " The government o f f i c i a l s , who were f o r c e d by p u b l i c o p i n i o n to pass the Mothers 1 Pensions Act i n 1920, f a i l e d , l a r g e l y through ignorance, to organize an e f -f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e to ensure i t s success. The l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , h i n d e r e d t h i s programme from doing an e f f e c t i v e job. The numerous f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t of mothers' pensions at v a r i o u s times s i n c e the Act was passed, have been prevented from r e c e i v i n g adequate case work s e r -v i c e s owing t o l a c k of proper a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Aththe b e g i n -ning of t h i s programme th e r e were no case workers a v a i l a b l e . The p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s were very slow to grasp the need f o r improving the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of mothers' pensions. One of the reasons why they d i d not improve i t was because they la c k e d i n s i g h t i n t o the fundamental nature of the programme. The Mothers' Pensions Act was, t h e r e f o r e , p e r m i t t e d to be ad-m i n i s t e r e d by a s t a f f inadequate i n t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e and p e r s o n n e l . Many a u t h o r i t i e s on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have expressed the o p i n i o n that p e r sonnel i s the key to e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n : "Many a u t h o r i t i e s f e e l that p e r s o n n e l i s the c e n t r a l p o i n t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of any o r g a n i z a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l casework where the s e r v i c e i s u l t i m a t e l y g i v e n i n the f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p of c l i e n t and worker, t h i s would seem 1 Stevenson, M a r i e t t a , P u b l i c Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , The MacMillan Company, New York, 193tf, Page 107. 1 p a r t i c u l a r l y so." I t f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t i n a p u b l i c w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t i s e s s e n t i a l to m a i n t a i n a w e l l - t r a i n e d s t a f f . T h i s s t a f f must be l a r g e enough t o render adequate casework s e r v i c e s to the c l i e n t . P r i o r to 19*4-6, the w e l f a r e programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia had been ad m i n i s t e r e d by d i f f e r e n t govern-ment departments w i t h no proper c o - o r d i n a t i o n of t h e i r s e r -v i c e s . The g r e a t e r p a r t of t h i s work, however, was grouped under the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s Department. The c r e a t i o n of the Department of H e a l t h and Wel-f a r e i n 19*+6 was a forward step and i n harmony w i t h r e c e n t trends i n the f i e l d o f w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " I n t e g r a t i o n means the b r i n g i n g together of r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s i n t o one o r g a n i z a t i o n on one l e v e l of govern-ment i n an ordered r e l a t i o n s h i p . The purpose i s to e l i m i n a t e o v e r - m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies t h a t l a c k c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h e i r s e r v i c e s , and s u b s t i t u t e a w e l l - b a l a n c e d mechanism whose p a r t s r e l a t e to each other i n a1 smooth o p e r a t i o n . " . 2 I i i e v a l u a t i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Al l o w -ances i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r o p e r l y , i t i s h e l p f u l to i n d i c a t e the progress which has been made i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g s i m i l a r programmes i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 193*+) the Mothers» Pensions Acts i n t h i r t y - s e v e n s t a t e s were administered l o c a l l y . An o u t s t a n d i n g a u t h o r i t y on a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n s i n the p u b l i c w e l f a r e f i e l d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , writes 1 The F a m i l y J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Case Work, February, 19*+5» Volume XLV, No. 10, Page 377. 2 Stevenson, M a r i e t t a , P u b l i c W elfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , The M acMillan Company, New York, 1938, Page 130. 84 as f o l l o w s J "For t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a century the S t a t e s have been e s t a b l i s h i n g c e n t r a l c o n t r o l and s u p e r v i s i o n over l o c a l p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . T h i s movement a l r e a d y mentioned, became g e n e r a l and i m p r e s s i v e a f t e r 1917. But when f u l l weight i s given t o the importance of f e d e r a l and s t a t e p u b l i c w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the f a c t remains t h a t most of the s e r v i c e s are rendered by the s t a f f of a l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t of a f e d e r a l or s t a t e agency." 1 - . The S t a t e governments were able to impose standards f o r the l o c a l u n i t s to f o l l o w as they provided most of the funds f o r these programmes. I t was found through experience that by t h i s method of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the c l i e n t r e c e i v e d b e t t e r s e r v i c e . T h i s i d e a has been r e c e n t l y expressed t h i s way; "Even w i t h i n one c i t y where the p o p u l a t i o n i s l a r g e and spread over a s i z e a b l e area, d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n may be advan*-"2 tageous i n g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e to c l i e n t s . " T h i s i n d i c a t e s a t r e n d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which i s being f o l l o w e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In 1949, f o r t y - s e v e n s t a t e s had signed agreements with/; the F e d e r a l Government of the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g a r d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r dependent c h i l d r e n . The s t a t e s , when s i g n i n g such agreements, had t o accept c e r t a i n standards r e g a r d i n g the method i n which t h i s programme was to be ad-m i n i s t e r e d . These standards are: 1. The programme has to be S t a t e wide. 2. There must be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery f o r f a i r h e a r -i n g s . 1 White, C.R., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P u b l i c Welfare, American Book Company, New York, 1940, Page 115-. ~ 2 Stevenson, M a r i e t t a , P u b l i c Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The MacMi11an Company, New York, 1938, Page 14>. 3 . The i n f o r m a t i o n taken from c l i e n t s must be c o n f i d e n t i a l h. Payments must be made i n money. 5. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must be e f f i c i e n t , and i t must use the m e r i t system p e r t a i n i n g t o s t a t e and l o c a l person-n e l . These standards w i l l be used throughout t h i s study to i n d i c a t e weaknesses i n the Mothers' Allowances Programme. The Superintendent o f Neglected C h i l d r e n . The Mothers' Pensions Act which was passed i n A p r i l , 1920, was f i r s t a d m i n i s t e r e d by Mr. D. B r a n k i n , Super-inte n d e n t of Neglected C h i l d r e n , and h i s a s s i s t a n t , Mr. George Pyke who came w i t h i n the Attorney-General's Depart-ment. The Superintendent o f Neglected C h i l d r e n was respons-i b l e to the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l i n the l i n e of a u t h o r i t y . As soon as the Act came i n t o f o r c e , a d v i s o r y boards were ap-p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l , i n the v a r i -ous p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, to d e a l with cases making ap-p l i c a t i o n f o r the pension. These a d v i s o r y boards u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of f o u r or f i v e members and were appointed from the membership o f the two major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a t the time, L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e . The p r e d i c t i o n s made by the R o y a l Commission o f 1919, as to the number of cases needing h e l p , were not sub-s t a n t i a t e d . By June, 1920, the o f f i c e of the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n had r e c e i v e d 390 names and addresses of f a m i l i e s a p p l y i n g f o r the pension. There had been no pro-per a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery set up to d e a l with these cases. In J u l y , 1920, s i x temporary i n v e s t i g a t o r s were appointed to i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t on the a p p l i c a t i o n s made. These i n -v e s t i g a t o r s had no t r a i n i n g . i n t h i s type of work, but were s e l e c t e d because of t h e i r d e s i r e and a b i l i t y t o work w i t h and h e l p people. They were s t a t i o n e d as f o l l o w s : two were t o serve Vancduver and the surrounding d i s t r i c t , one f o r the un-organized d i s t r i c t s o f the mainland, one f o r the C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , one f o r the other p a r t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d , and one was to serve i n the head o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a . U n t i l January, 1922, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Pensions l a c k e d u n i f o r m i t y . The a d v i s o r y boards began to q u a r r e l amongst themselves and s p l i t up along p a r t y l i n e s , w i t h each d i v i s i o n sending i n i t s own r e p o r t about a p a r t i -c u l a r case. A f t e r r e c e i v i n g two r e p o r t s from an a d v i s o r y board, the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n had t o r u l e a r b i t r a r i l y on c e r t a i n cases, and sometimes made unpopular d e c i s i o n s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s were g r e a t l y overworked and l a c k -ed the a u t h o r i t y t o d e a l promptly w i t h cases. Numerous cases had to wait f o r long p e r i o d s of time be f o r e they were i n v e s t i -gated and g i v e n a t t e n t i o n . F o r example, one case had t o wait s i x months a f t e r making an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the mothers' pen-s i o n b e f o r e an i n v e s t i g a t o r could v i s i t h er. In December, 1921, the Mothers* Pensions Act was amended so t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Act was t r a n s f e r r e d from the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n to the Workmen's Compensation Board l o c a t e d i n Vancouver. The reasons f o r t h i s t r a n s f e r were to remove the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Pen-87 s i o n s from p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e and to make i t more e f f i c i e n t . Another reason was to overcome the f e a r t h a t many women had about g e t t i n g t h e i r p e n sion from a department which was con-nected with c h a r i t y work. The Workmen's Compensation Board. The Mothers' Pensions Act was admi n i s t e r e d by the Workmen's Compensation Board from January, 1922, to June , 1 9 3 1 . The Workmen's Compensation Board was r e s p o n s i b l e to the M i n i s -t e r of Labour at V i c t o r i a . The members of t h i s board were, E. S. H. Winni,; chairman, H. B. Gilmour and Parker W i l l i a m s . These members served w i t h t h i s board d u r i n g the p e r i o d men-tio n e d above. The Workmen's Compensation Board was an a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e board which c o n s i s t e d o f th r e e members. These members were appointed f o r a c e r t a i n l e n g t h o f time and a t the ex-p i r a t i o n of t h e i r appointment, they could be r e - a p p o i n t e d . The Workmen's Compensation Board f u n c t i o n e d q u i t e harmoniously as the chairman was a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y and was able t o dom-i n a t e the other two members without too much resentment. An a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s f i e l d has d e s c r i b e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: "In order t o operate a t a l l a p l u r a l ex-e c u t i v e has to d i v i d e d u t i e s : there may be r i v a l r y among the members, one of them may completely dominate the o t h e r s , or 1 they may work together w i t h reasonable harmony." The Work-men's Compensation Board, d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , d i v i d e d i t s v a r i -1 White, C. R., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P u b l i c W e lfare. American Book Company, New York, 19^0, Page 1 0 0 . ous d u t i e s between i t s d i f f e r e n t members and as a r e s u l t was a b l e to f u n c t i o n b e t t e r . The best type of board i s the a d v i s o r y board. I t u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of between *+ to 8 members and draws up r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n to f o l l o w . One of the members of the board i s appointed to c a r r y out i t s d e s i r e s . He i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r and becomes c h a i r -man of the board. The e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r t h e r e f o r e , has power to implement the p o l i c i e s . He r e p o r t s to the board at p e r i -o d i c a l i n t e r v a l s on the f u n c t i o n i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f he proves i n e f f i c i e n t he can be removed. As soon as the o f f i c i a l t r a n s f e r had been made, the members of t h i s board reviewed a l l the mothers' pensions cases f o r the purpose of a d j u s t i n g some and b r i n g i n g others i n t o l i n e with the e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . Most l o c a l a d v i s o r y boards ceased f u n c t i o n i n g when the t r a n s f e r was. made, but a number s t i l l had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h i s work and the Workmen's Compensation Board used them as v i s i t i n g committees with d u t i e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e towns somewhat s i m i l a r to the Board's r e g u l a r v i s i t o r s . The v i s i t i n g committees sent i n r e -p o r t s on f a m i l i e s under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n every t h r e e months, and on cases which r e q u i r e d more a t t e n t i o n , more fre q u e n t r e - . p o r t s i f necessary. The v i s i t i n g committees were used i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia and on Vancouver I s l a n d . The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e were to give t h i s s e r v i c e i n the remote areas o f the p r o v i n c e . Four temporary i n v e s t i g a t o r s were appointed soon a f t e r the Act was t r a n s f e r r e d to the Workmen's Compensation Board. They had no s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , but were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e , experience, and sense of decency. These i n v e s t i g a t o r s served the C i t y of Vancouver and the d i s t r i c t s of the Lower Mainland. When a request f o r a s s i s t a n c e was r e c e i v e d , one of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s would go out and v i s i t the case and then x submit h i s f i n d i n g s t o the a s s i s t a n t c l e r k . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s were i n s t r u c t e d t o g i v e the f a c t s as they found them and were not allowed t o express t h e i r own o p i n i o n concerning the cases or o f f e r s u g g e s t i o n s . When the a s s i s t a n t c l e r k had reviewed the case as t o i t s e l i g i b i l i t y requirements, i t was forwarded to the c h i e f c l e r k , who checked the r e p o r t s t o see t h a t a l l the d e t a i l s had been g i v e n before he passed i t on t o the Workmen's Compensation Board f o r f i n a l a p p r o v a l . The members of t h i s board continued i n o f f i c e u n t i l the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Act was t r a n s f e r r e d t o V i c t o r i a . Mr, G. Pyke continued t o serve i n the c a p a c i t y o f c h i e f s e c r e t a r y of the Mothers' Pensions Department u n t i l 1929, when he was succeeded by Mrs. A. McNabb, In 1924, by an amendment t o the Mothers' Pensions Act p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the establishment o f a Mothers' Pensions Board. T h i s board was formed the same ye a r . I t con«* X The women i n t e r v i e w e d , who had been on pension d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s t i l l remember wit h a shudder the way i n which these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out. These women c a l l e d the i n -v e s t i g a t o r s "snoops" and :government " s t o o l pigeons", and the i n v e s t i g a t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d amongst the women f o r t h e i r l a c k of v o l u n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , and became known as " $ i g h t - l i p p e d f l i n t y o l d maids". s i s t e d of the members of the Workmen's Compensation Board t o -gether with a woman member. The woman who served on t h i s board from 192-f to 1931 was Mrs. M. S u t h e r l a n d . When the new board was formed, two more i n v e s t i g a -ors ;,were added t o the s t a f f . These new i n v e s t i g a t o r s , along w i t h the fou r former ones, were now p l a c e d on a permanent b a s i s . Women i n v e s t i g a t o r s were used e x c l u s i v e l y , and were s t a t i o n e d as f o l l o w s : f i v e i n Vancouver and one i n V i c t o r i a . In most i n s t a n c e s , due to t h e i r l a c k o f t r a i n i n g , these i n -v e s t i g a t o r s were unable t o d e t e c t i n t h e i r c a s e l o a d s , symptoms of s e r i o u s mental, p h y s i c a l , and s o c i a l d i s o r d e r s , which should have r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n . These i n v e s t i g a t o r s were underpaid and g r o s s l y overworked throughout t h i s p e r i o d . In 1931 the s i t u a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : "The l o c a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s , s t a g g e r i n g under an over-whelming lo a d o f cases t h a t allowed them to do l i t t l e more than m a i n t a i n auotmatic checks on t h e i r f a m i l i e s almost without e x c e p t i o n , throughout the ye a r s , have made commendable e f f o r t s to handle a mounting t i d e of problems t h a t i n any family'agency o f good standard, would have been e n t r u s t e d to a s t a f f , at l e a s t t w i c e the present B r i t i s h Columbia s t a f f , and under a s k i l l e d s u p e r v i s o r . y ' . Of the s i x f i e l d workers, one was c a r r y i n g 300 c a s e s , one 288, one 276, one 153 cases i n one area and 193 pensions or i n d i g e n t cases s c a t t e r e d elsewhere; two others were supposed to gi v e a l l the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e r v i c e s provided on an " i n t a k e " o f 896 cases l a s t year, and, i n a d d i t i o n , "help out" on the follo w - u p work i n the f i e l d . One of these workers, i n a d d i t i o n , had l l 1 * s i c k and i n d i g e n t i n q u i r i e s , 105 pension cases on f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and 135 more under g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n . Under such i m p o s s i b l e l o a d s , and w i t h s t a f f c o n c e n t r a t e d i n Vancouver, but without c e n t r a l s k i l l e d d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l , i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t inadequacy o f o r g a n i -z a t i o n and s e r v i c e s should have developed and p e r s i s t -ed t o such an extent t h a t the task of o r g a n i z a t i o n , of procedure, o f d i r e c t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l , now i s one of the mmst d i f f i c u l t p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be o f f e r e d t o the most s k i l l e d and experienced s o c i a l worker i n the Dominion." 1 The Mothers' Pensions Board was fa c e d w i t h many d i f f i c u l t i e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d i t ad m i n i s t e r e d the A c t . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s used v a r i o u s d e v i c e s t o p l a c e cases on t h i s pension. One of the f a v o r i t e d e v i c e s used was to lower the assessment on p r o p e r t y so t h a t a mother would q u a l i f y . P o l i t -i c a l p r e ssure was a l s o used through i n d i v i d u a l members o f parliament to get a d i f f i c u l t f a m i l y r e s i d i n g i n a m u n i c i p a l -i t y on t h i s form of a s s i s t a n c e . The Mothers' Pensions Board had t o accept a number of these cases even though, t e c h n i c a l l y , they d i d not q u a l i f y . The Mothers' Pensions Board was too d i v i d e d i n i t s work to f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y . Three o f i t s members formed the Workmen's Compensation Board and t h e i r d u t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d took up most of t h e i r time. "Even when the Workmen's Compensation Board was m o d i f i e d to p r o v i d e a form of Mothers' Pensions Board, the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the m a j o r i t y o f i t s members l a y i n another f i e l d , and, i n e v i t a b l y , w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t time and inadequate s t a f f f o r a l l i t s d u t i e s , the Mothers' Pensions a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d not r e c e i v e t h a t i n t e n s i v e study and d i r e c t i o n t h a t alone can assure e f f e c t i v e and s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n . " 2 The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Mothers' Pensions was h a n d i -capped throughout t h i s p e r i o d because of inadequate super-v i s i o n a t the top l e v e l , and by the l a c k o f enough q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers t o work wi t h c l i e n t s . 1 Report on A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Pensions i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia. 1920-1 to 1930-1. Supplement t o " C h i l d and F a m i l y Wel-f a r e " , May, 1932, Page 23 . 2 i b i d , Page 23 . The P r o v i n c i a l Secretary's Department, x The Mothers' Pensions Act was administered by v a r i -ous superintendents of welfare who came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Pr o v i n c i a l Secretary's Department from June, 1931 u n t i l October, 19*+6. The f i r s t superintendent of welfare was Mr. W. Manson who administered the Act from June, 1931 to July, 193*+. The Superintendent of Welfare was d i r e c t l y responsible to the Deputy P r o v i n c i a l Secretary during t h i s period, who i n turn was responsible to the Minister of t h i s Department. The change of the administration seat from Vancou-ver to V i c t o r i a was vigorously protested by the C i v i l i a n Widows, Mothers and Orphans Association and other women's organizations. These women f e l t that the administration of the pension should be carr i e d on from Vancouver where approxi-mately h a l f of the cases were located. They believed, and with j u s t i f i c a t i o n , that the Mothers' Pensions Boafd was able to a s s i s t the mothers with medical, l e g a l and other help which they would not get from an administration located i n V i c t o r i a . In 1932 the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, for ad-ministrative purposes, was divided up into ten d i s t r i c t s . In order to provide better service f o r the c l i e n t , f i v e new i n -x The women on pension, during the early t h i r t i e s , were able to compare the two administrations and they found that the Mothers' Pensions Board had treated them generously compared to the treatment they were receiving from this new administra-t i o n . The mothers stated that under the l a t e r administration they were treated discourteously, unkind language was used by the investigators, they were threatened and t o l d that the a l -lowance granted to them was i n the nature of charity. The mothers stated that they never knew from month to month i f the allowance would be given to them. They, therefore, l i v e d i n constant fear of not being able to maintain their homes and :. . keep the i r children with them. v e s t i g a t o r s , or v i s i t o r s ^ as they were now c a l l e d , were ap-po i n t e d , two of these, however, f i l l e d v a c a n c i e s . The v i s i -t o r s were d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : f o u r at Vancouver, one of whom had t o make y e a r l y t r i p s t o the n o r t h e r n p a r t s o f the province, one a t New Westminster, one at Kamloops, one a t Nelson, one at Nanaimo, and one at V i c t o r i a . Miss E . King of the C o u n c i l of C h i l d and Family Welfare was loaned t o the p r o v i n c e t o be-come the f i r s t s u p e r v i s o r f o r the f i e l d s t a f f . Her o f f i c e was at f i r s t i n V i c t o r i a . When a new case was r e p o r t e d t o a v i s i t o r , a c a l l would be made t o the home and a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n needed would be gathered. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would be forwarded to the s u p e r v i s o r , who i n t u r n , would review i t f o r d e t a i l s . I f ev e r y t h i n g was i n order the case would go to the S u p e r i n t e n d -ent of Welfare f o r d e c i s i o n . The v i s i t o r s were g r e a t l y overworked as they had to c a r r y a l a r g e c a s e l o a d from other c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as a l l the work connected w i t h mothers' pensions cases. The caseload, i n 193*+, was 276 per v i s i t o r . Because of the great amount of t r a v e l l i n g a v i s i t o r had to do, onl y a l i m i t e d amount o f case-work co u l d be accomplished. The main aim of the v i s i t o r , i n a s o - c a l l e d v i s i t , was t o determine whether a f a m i l y which was r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e , was e l i g i b l e . D uring the year 193*+—35 the s u p e r v i s o r ' s o f f i c e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Vancouver. The purpose of t h i s was to u n i t e the f i e l d s t a f f more d i r e c t l y under the Mothers' Pensions Branch. T h i s was the beginning o f the present Welfare F i e l d S e r v i c e S t a f f . The'Mothers'-. Pensions Act was administered by Dr, &• F. S&vidson from the l&th July* 193^ u n t i l the 1st' December.9: 1935a. .'Is' 1935s•'within t&.fe Provincial Secretary's Departsest, a l l the existing; social welfare adiilnistr&tiotis «er.e dram to--, gather under- a ''Director of Social Welfare,, ffee f i r s t Mreetc-r of -Social Welfare was &r. E. Cassldy, Els position was -equal, to - that of a Deputy Minister i n the Provincial Secretary's ftepartisent' £or ue-ifare duties* She most d i f f i c u l t probies fac-ing the -administration at this tlsse' was lack of adequate staff to cover the - entire province. • The northern .regions" aot! i s - ' terior areas «ere neglected, to'the extent of only one u l s i t a year, ' This situation, prevailed along the tfest Coast trcm SQuamish, norths . the Mothers' Pensions Act was administered from the 1st December, 1935* to March, 1943, by Mr* H. Creighton, who succeeded Dr, G. P.- Savldson as- Superintendent of .Welfare,. The- administration, s t i l l - c a s e under ;the Provincial Secretary's -Departoent* .Since this department was growing: rapidly:,, work •of health and welfare*'Quite overshadowed tfce •original tasks .of the: provincial Secretary. ' &® time passed; this departeent' feeeaee unwieldy because of .too' ©any "odds and ends" which i t administered* ' • . . ' . The administration of the Mothers' 'Pensions Act under the provincial Secretary »s. Departmentreceived about the same rceopjition of .importance that i t had experienced .while under the .administration.of the Workmen1s.• €aapensatlon . Board,. . In the ©pinion -of-the government o f f i c i a l s * the ad-ministration of-this l;ct was aot teb important and-eould he • e n t r u s t e d t o an a l r e a d y crowded department as something e x t r a . The e f f e c t of t h i s arrangement g r e a t l y hampered the working machinery throughout t h i s p e r i o d . I n 1936, the Act was amended so that an a d v i s o r y board c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . "For the more e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s A c t , the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y may appoint an A d v i s o r y Board, t o c o n s i s t of not more than f i v e persons, a m a j o r i t y of whom . s h a l l be women. Each member s h a l l be appointed f o r a term of t h r e e years and s h a l l be e l i g i b l e f o r r e -appointment. A l l members s h a l l serve without remunera-t i o n , but they may be reimbursed f o r the a c t u a l and necessary t r a v e l l i n g and l i v i n g expenses i n c u r r e d by them i n the d i s c h a r g e of t h e i r o f f i c i a l d u t i e s . The Board s h a l l meet from time to time at the c a l l of the , P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y . I t s h a l l be the duty o f the Board to a d v i s e the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y with r e s p e c t to the o p e r a t i o n of t h i s A c t . " 1 The a d v i s o r y board was appointed by the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y on the 8th of August, 1936. The members of the f i r s t board were, Dr. G. F. Davidson, chairman, Mrs. W. R. F. Richmond}, Mrs. F. W. Smelts, Mr. R. Bone and Dr. 0. J a r d i n e . The appointment of t h i s board i n d i c a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of a d e s i r e t o improve the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f mothers' p e n s i o n s . From 1936 t o 1944, the a d v i s o r y board met on the average of three times a year and was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f o r m u l a t i n g a p o l i c y on v a r i o u s matters such as, housing, b u r s a r i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , assigned pay, and dependents' allowances. The board a l s o a s s i s t e d i n c l a r i f y i n g many p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Allowances. In June, 1934, Dr. G. F. Davidson r e s i g n e d from the board and was succeeded by Dr. O.Jardine as chairman. Mr. H. E. P a t t e r s o n was appointed to the board to f i l l the vacancy r e s u l t i n g from Dr. Davidson's 1 "Mothers' Pensions (Amendment)", Chapter 38, No. 6, S e c t i o n 10, 1st A p r i l , 1936. r e s i g n a t i o n . The present members of the board a r e : Mrs. F. W, Smelts, chairman, Mrs. W. R. F. Richmond, Mrs. A. S. C h r i s t i e , Mr. H. E. P a t t e r s o n and Mr. P. Gomery. In January, 1938, a new Act came i n t o o p e r a t i o n which invoked changes, one of which was the change i n name x from Mothers 1 Pensions Act to Mothers' Allowances A c t . The c a s e l o a d from 1937 t o began to r i s e r a t h e r r a p i d l y even though the p o l i c y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was not to a d v e r t i s e t h i s programme. In October, 19l+2, the Unemployment R e l i e f Board, the Mothers' Allowances A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the C h i l d Welfare Branch, were amalgamated under the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Branch. The c h i e f e x e c u t i v e of t h i s branch was given the t i t l e o f A s s i s t a n t Deputy p r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y . The s t a f f was a l s o brought under t h i s d i v i s i o n . The p r o v i n c e was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e r e g i o n s and f i v e s u p e r v i s o r s were s e l e c t e d . t o a i d i n b r i n g i n g a more un i f o r m s e r v i c e ; t o the c l i e n t s . In February, 19*+3, Mr. C r e i g h t o n became chairman of the Old Age Pensions Board, and Mr. C. Lundy, the present D i r e c t o r of Welfare, became Superintendent of Welfare. During the year 19*+3*"I+l+, f u r t h e r amalgamation was put i n t o e f f e c t . The m u n i c i p a l f i e l d s t a f f s of Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and Burnaby x In 1938 the name of t h i s programme was changed from Mothers' Pensions to Mothers' Allowances. The reason f o r the change was to h e l p mothers t h i n k of t h e i r allowance as a temporary a s s i s t a n c e and not as something permanent. Many women thought when the programme was c a l l e d Mothers' Pensions t h a t these pensions were f o r l i f e . The new name, t h e r e f o r e , helped to c l a r i f y t h i s . were amalgamated w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l F i e l d S e r v i c e S t a f f , and by t h i s arrangement the s e r v i c e g i v e n t o the c l i e n t s g r a d u a l l y improved. The f a c t remains however, t h a t the s e r v i c e rendered to the c l i e n t was made worse by t h i s amalgamation f o r some time due to u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n the f i e l d . T h i s c o n d i t i o n has been r e c t i f i e d as the f i e l d s e r v i c e s t a f f has developed and c l e a r e r p o l i c i e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d . The q u a l i t y and quan-t i t y o f the f i e l d s e r v i c e s t a f f had been improving s i n c e 193*+. The Department of H e a l t h and Wel f a r e . The,Department o f H e a l t h and Welfare was e s t a b l i s h - ' ed i n October, 1 9 * t 6 . The t i t l e o f Superintendent o f Welfare had been changed i n February, 19*+5, to D i r e c t o r o f Welfare, when the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act was passed. Mr. C. Lundy con-t i n u e d on under the new t i t l e . So much progress had been made s i n c e 19U-2 i n improving the s t a f f and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h a t by 19*+6 d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n c o u l d be s t a r t e d . "Thus a u t h o r i t y f o r g r a n t i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was del e g a t e d by the D i r e c t o r of Welfare to the R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r s , (now renamed R e g i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) and d e c i s i o n s with r e s p e c t to the s o c i a l workers p l a n n i n g w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t s was d e l e -1 gated t o Case-work Supervisors.'* While steps were taken to d e c e n t r a l i z e the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n order t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r s e r v i c e f o r the c l i e n t , no s i m i l a r a c t i o n has as y e t been taken by the Welfare Department t o do the same f o r Mothers' Allowances. The Present A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Allowances. 1 Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, P r i n t e d by Don McDiarmid, P r i n t e r to the King's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, V i c t o r i a , B. C , 3 1 , March, 19*+8, Page 2 7 . The Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia i s a t present a d m i n i s t e r e d by Mr. C. W. Lundy, D i r e c t o r of W e l f a r e . The D i r e c t o r of Welfare was appointed t o . t h i s p o s i t i o n due to h i s e x t e n s i v e experience i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the r e l i e f programme i n t h i s p r o v i n c e p r i o r to 19LK3. ^he l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y s t a r t s w i t h the M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h and Wel-f a r e , Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Welfare, aid then the D i r e c t o r of Welfare. The D i r e c t o r o f Welfare has an a d v i s o r y board t o a s s i s t him i n making p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g Mothers' Allowances. This board i s s t r i c t l y a d v i s o r y and has no a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . The D i r e c t o r o f Welfare has de l e g a t e d most of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t e r i n g Mothers' Allowances t o the Family D i v i s i o n . The Family D i v i s i o n i s an agency l o c a t e d i n V i c t o r i a and i t s purpose i s to s u p e r v i s e and keep a check on c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of f i n a n c i a l and casework a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s d i v i s i o n i s headed by a w e l l q u a l i f i e d casework s u p e r v i s o r , Miss M. R i d d e l l . Miss R i d d e l l i s i n constant touch w i t h the D i r e c t o r of Welfare's o f f i c e r e g a r d i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Mothers' Allowances Programme. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n r e g a r d -i n g the e l i g i b i l i t y o f b o r d e r l i n e cases r e s t s with the D i r e c -t o r . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , of t h i s programme i s c o n t r o l l e d from a c e n t r a l o f f i c e . I t was suggested, by an o u t s t a n d i n g a u t h o r i t y on p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 19*+5, that t h i s programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia be . d e c e n t r a l i z e d . He w r i t e s as f o l l o w s : "Operating f u n c t i o n s should be r e d i s t r i b u t e d between the p r o v i n c i a l government and the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , w i t h the p r o v i n c e t a k i n g over complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e , and medical care f o r the needy, w h i l e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of o l d age and b l i n d pensions, mothers* allowances, and of any new c a t e g o r i c a l a i d s , should be p r o g r e s s i v e l y delegated to the l o c a l w e l f a r e u n i t s , under p r o v i n c i a l s u p e r v i s i o n , so as to u n i f y p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l s . " 1 T h i s forward step o f d e c e n t r a l i z i n g the a u t h o r i t y to grant Mothers' Allowances at the l o c a l l e v e l has not y e t been taken. However, i n v e s t i g a t i o n of new cases and f o l l o w up v i s i t s t o mothers i s done at the l o c a l l e v e l . S u p e r v i s i o n of the casework s e r v i c e s rendered t o Mothers' Allowances cases has been d e c e n t r a l i z e d . By d e c e n t r a l i z i n g the S o c i a l A s s i s t -and Programme i n 19*+6 i t has been p o s s i b l e to render more e f f e c t i v e h e l p to people who have been i n need of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . As t h i s programme i s province-wide, B r i t i s h C o l -umbia has been d i v i d e d , f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes, i n t o f i v e r e g i o n s . Each r e g i o n i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a r e g i o n a l adminis-t r a t o r who has c e r t a i n powers and d u t i e s . In the l i n e of . a u t h o r i t y the r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s come d i r e c t l y under the D i r e c t o r of W elfare. The f i v e r e g i o n s are then d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t s , each w i t h an o f f i c e and an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and i n most cases a casework s u p e r v i s o r . At the bottom of the l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y are the s o c i a l workers who render the casework s e r v i c e s t o the c l i e n t s . For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes, the C i t y o f Vancouver 1 C a s s i d y , Harry, P u b l i c H e a l t h and Welfare R e o r g a n i z a t i o n , The Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, 19*+5, Pages 276-77. i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s t r i c t s . These d i s t r i c t s are c a l l e d , C entre, West, South and E a s t u n i t s . There i s an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and a casework s u p e r v i s o r over each u n i t . In Vancouver, i n December, l S ^ , there were 210 Mothers' Allowances c a s e s . The Department of Welfare, i n 19*+8, had 155 s o c i a l workers r e n d e r i n g casework s e r v i c e s t o c l i e n t s i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s . Out of t h i s number 67 per cent had r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g x from a s c h o o l of s o c i a l work. The s t a f f of the Department of W e l f a r e , i n c l u d i n g the s o c i a l workers, comes under the c i v i l s e r v i c e r e g u l a t i o n s o f the p r o v i n c e and the members are p r o -moted on the b a s i s of s e n i o r i t y and a b i l i t y . The c a s e l o a d s , which s o c i a l workers c a r r y i n a l l the d i s t r i c t s of the p r o v i n c e , c o n s i s t of v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s such as: c h i l d w e l f a r e work, o l d age p e n s i o n e r s , s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance and mothers' allowances cases, e t c . In Vancouver the s o c i a l workers have as t h e i r c a s e l o a d s , j u s t the t h r e e c a t e -g o r i e s d e a l i n g with f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The s i z e o f the c a s e l o a d prevents the s o c i a l workers from doing a q u a l i f i e d casework job. The g e n e r a l c a s e l o a d f o r s o c i a l workers i n d i f f e r e n t areas o f B r i t i s h C o l -umbia i n l ? ^ ^ , was 287. The c a s e l o a d .for workers i n Vancou-ver f o r 19*+9} was kll. These l a r g e caseloads have prevented s o c i a l workers from making frequent v i s i t s t o the homes of Mothers' Allowances c a s e s . Out of the s i x t y cases s t u d i e d , the number of v i s i t s averaged about once i n seven and a h a l f x There appears to be discontentment amongst the f i e l d s e r -v i c e s t a f f i n B r i t i s h Columbia due t o l a c k of proper job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and inadequate b a s i c s a l a r y . months. The frequency spread i n v i s i t s ranged from f i f t e e n days t o twenty-four months. The l e n g t h of time between v i s i t s has prevented the s o c i a l worker from e s t a b l i s h i n g proper r e -l a t i o n s h i p which i s the key t o f r u i t f u l casework. R e c i p r o c a l Agreements. In December, 1 9 3 7 , the Mothers 1 Pensions A c t was r e -p e a l e d and a new Act came i n t o f o r c e . T h i s new Act, which was known as the Mothers' Allowances Act, made p r o v i s i o n f o r r e -c i p r o c a l agreements. By r e c i p r o c a l agreements i s meant that a mother moving from some other p r o v i n c e t o B r i t i s h Columbia co u l d be granted t h i s allowance p r o v i d e d r e c i p r o c a l agreements e x i s t e d between the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia and the other p r o v i n c e . The g r e a t e s t b a r r i e r i n g r a n t i n g the a l l o w -ance to f a m i l i e s who have j u s t moved i n t o t h i s p r o v i n c e i s l a c k of the three y e a r s ' r e s i d e n c e requirement. T h i s c o u l d be overcome i f the p r o v i n c e or m u n i c i p a l i t y , where the f a m i l y o r i g i n a l l y l i v e d , assumed f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The pro-v i s i o n i n the new Mothers' Allowances Act makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the Lieutenant-Governor-im-Council of B r i t i s h Columbia to enter i n t o r e c i p r o c a l agreements wi t h the other p r o v i n c e s . These agreements would be on a p e r m i s s i v e r a t h e r than a manda-t o r y b a s i s . There are only two p r o v i n c e s i n Canada w i t h pro-v i s i o n f o r r e c i p r o c a l agreements w r i t t e n i n t o t h e i r A c t s , namely, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia. P r i o r to 1 9 5 0 , there were no agreements signed between the two p r o v i n c e s . R e c i p -r o c a l agreements w i t h A l b e r t a c o u l d be worked out a t any time and t h e r e would be no d i f f i c u l t y i n implementing such agree-ments. The reason that no agreements have been s i g n e d i s due to the f a i l u r e on the p a r t of those charged w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Act to implement i t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Allowances i n B r i t -i s h Columbia has changed s l o w l y throughout the y e a r s . The major d e f e c t s of t h i s programme, up to 19*+2, have been the l a c k o f adequate s u p e r v i s i o n and i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f . The ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s not yet complete. The a u t h o r i t y to grant allowances to c l i e n t s i s s t i l l c e n t r a l i z e d . The admin-i s t r a t i o n i s s t i l l prevented from r e n d e r i n g competent s e r v i c e to Mothers• Allowances cases due t o an i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f of t r a i n e d case workers. Chapter 5. S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n the Present Programme. The v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t i m u l a t -i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n favour o f a Mothers' Pensions Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not press hard enough f o r accompanying s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to the c l i e n t . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s through the ye a r s , have been hindered i n p r o v i d i n g proper s e r v i c e s by the f a c t t h at adequate funds have not been a v a i l a b l e . Too much emphasis has been placed on p r o v i d i n g a mother w i t h a c e r t a i n f i x e d sum of money. Many other e q u a l -l y necessary s e r v i c e s were overlooked or n e g l e c t e d e n t i r e l y . The i d e a t h a t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s not enough, has been w e l l expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : "The experience of many we l f a r e agencies has proven over and over a g a i n that f i n a n c i a l a i d i s not the t o t a l answer, and to be t r u l y con-s t r u c t i v e and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e , i t must be supplemented by the 1 other s e r v i c e s which strengthen i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . " Those who have been e n t r u s t e d with the a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n of the Mothers' Pensions Act have l e a r n e d through ex-p e r i e n c e the t r u t h o f t h i s statement. From 1920, up t o the pres e n t , v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s have been added to a s s i s t mothers i n meeting a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n s w i t h which they are. f a c e d . These s e r v i c e s are analyzed i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t the allowance, f o r many 1 S t a t e of Main, Department of H e a l t h and We l f a r e . B i e n n i a l Report, 191+6-19l+8, Page ¥ f . ~~ y e a r s , remained at a f i x e d l e v e l of $'+2.50 f o r a mother and one c h i l d , w i t h $ 7 . 5 0 f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d , per month. Th i s amount was supposed to i n c l u d e m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n . I t soon became evident t h a t i t was inadequate f o r t h i s purpose. P r i o r to the i n a u g u r a t i o n of the m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s p l a n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 19l+3, mothers i n need of medical a t t e n t i o n went to the Out P a t i e n t s ' Department of the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l i f r e s i d e n t i n the c i t y . Those i n other p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e had to r e l y on the f r e e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e i r l o c a l d o c t o r s . At d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the Act t r i e d to i n t e r e s t some business man or l e a d i n g c i t i z e n i n c e r t a i n areas to take an i n t e r e s t i n these f a m i l i e s and h e l p them with t h e i r medical problems. •The l a c k of an a u t h o r i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n to p r o v i d e medical s e r v i c e s tended to focus a t t e n t i o n on the mothers and make them f e e l they were burdens on the community. As a r e -s u l t , many mothers d i d not seek m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e u n l e s s i t was a b s o l u t e l y necessary. V a r i o u s d o c t o r s i n Vancouver and throughout the P r o v i n c e d i d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of compassionate work f o r mothers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . In Vancouver, p a r t i c u l a r l y , the s c h o o l d o c t o r s have o f t e n g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e even beyond the c a l l of duty. I t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r many mothers t o debase themselves by r e c e i v i n g medical a t t e n t i o n on a pauper b a s i s . Many put up w i t h t h e i r ailments as long as they c o u l d r a t h e r than seek a i d and submit to what they regarded as c h a r i t y . A l a r g e percentage s i n c e r e l y d e s i r e d t o be as i n -dependent as p o s s i b l e and wanted to pay t h e i r way i n s p i t e of t h e i r meagre incomes. The l a c k of medical a t t e n t i o n was w e l l s t a t e d i n one of the annual r e p o r t s of t h i s p e r i o d as f o l l o w s "In the course of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t there was a number of cases where members of the f a m i l y were s u f f e r 1 i n g from l a c k of m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n . " The Workmen's Compensation Board, when a d m i n i s t e r -i n g the Mothers' Pensions Act, were a b l e to a s s i s t some f a m i l i e s through t h e i r own medical d i v i s i o n . S t a f f d o c t o r s of t h i s Board c o u l d a l s o a s s i s t mothers i n g e t t i n g a s p e c i a l -i s t ' s a t t e n t i o n i f such s e r v i c e s were.needed. The s t a f f o f the Workmen's Compensation Branch used to c o n t r i b u t e a p e r -centage of t h e i r wages each month towards a "Help Fund" and the money thus c o l l e c t e d was used f o r v a r i o u s purposes, but mostly to pay d o c t o r s a s m a l l f e e f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . Before 1926, a mother needing drugs, had t o pay f o r them out o f her allowance. T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the c a s e of John A., a boy who had a bad kidney a i l m e n t . The d o c t o r had p r e s c r i b e d drugs but h i s mother had to wait a number of days f o r her allowance cheque before being able to purchase the p r e s c r i p t i o n . In 1926, the Mothers' Pensions Board made an agreement with the d r u g g i s t s whereby c l i e n t s c o u l d r e c e i v e drugs p r e s c r i b e d by a d o c t o r f r e e of charge. This s e r v i c e was commendable but much too inadequate. The mothers f e l t the same way towards t h i s p l a n as they d i d towards the s e r -1 Annual Report, The Mothers' Pensions Act, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , September 1922, Page 2 . v i c e s rendered by the d o c t o r s . The stigma of c h a r i t y was a t -tached to i t . The Workmen's Compensation Board a l s o a s s i s t e d mothers with some of t h e i r d e n t a l needs. T h i s i s borne out by the f o l l o w i n g statement: "In a d d i t i o n to the c o - o p e r a t i o n so generously extended by p h y s i c i a n s a number of f a m i l i e s have been put i n touch w i t h d e n t i s t s who have, without charge, a t -1 tended to most p r e s s i n g d e n t a l needs." Up u n t i l 19*4-3 the d e n t a l s e r v i c e s were most inadequate and many mothers had to pay f o r t h e i r own needs. The mothers who v i s i t e d d e n t i s t s on a f r e e b a s i s u s u a l l y came away with the f e e l i n g t h a t they were the r e c i p i e n t s of c h a r i t y . T h e i r p r i d e was h u r t and f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n was dreaded. Mothers on pensions at v a r i o u s stages from 1920 to date were o f the o p i n i o n they had r e c e i v e d b e t t e r m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n from 1920 to 1931 than they d i d from 1931 to 19*4-0. T h i s was a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that the Mothers' Pensions Board, which was l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, where at l e a s t h a l f of the mothers' pension cases were r e s i d i n g , c o u l d make use of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e with the medical p r o f e s s i o n t o get m e d i c a l care f o r needy cases. In 1931 the Mothers' Pensions Board moved to V i c t o r i a and thus became too f a r removed from a l a r g e percentage of cases they served to r e a d i l y a s s i s t them wi t h t h e i r m e d i c a l problems. In comparing Mother's pension and r e l i e f cases d u r i n g 1 Annual Report. Mothers' Pensions A c t , Sept. 30 , 1928, Page 1 ® the! t h i r t i e s , the l a t t e r were: given better medical attention.-There was some organized medical assistance for people on re-l i e f but women i n receipt of the mothers 1 pension had to re l y on voluntary care which proved inadequate. This was we l l ex-pressed i n one of the annual reports of that time as follows: "In addition, medical attention and ce r t a i n other 'extras 1 are obtained by such a family on r e l i e f , whereas they are not 1 provided as 'extras' for pensioners." In 19*+3 a new approach to t h i s problem was made. An agreement was made between the medical profession of B r i t i s h Columbia and the p r o v i n c i a l authorities whereby doctors were to render medical service* to mothers' allowances cases for a certain fixed fee. This amounted to $ 5 . 0 0 and was paid to a doctor for his services for a home v i s i t . The fee for an o f f i c e c a l l was one-third the doctor's regular charge. The doctor was also paid mileage on his car for v i s i t s to c l i e n t s who l i v e d out of town. A family unit on an allowance could now receive the services of a q u a l i f i e d doctor, and drugs, when needed. A few municipalities did not agree to th i s medical service plan and i t was not applied i n some areas. Under.the new medical plan a mother was issued, an-nually, a medical card which gave the names of her dependents e n t i t l e d to medical care. I t was necessary to present t h i s card whenever a doctor's services were needed. This card 1 Annual Report. Administration of the Mothers' Pensions Act of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936-1937, Page 5. would have a a certain number stamped on i t and the doctor would copy the name of the patient and the number of the card ,;. down i n order to get paid for his services. This medical plan was uniform for the province i n a l l the d i s t r i c t s where i t was being applied. The plan was limi t e d i n scope as i t was necessary for a mother, i f she was i n need of medical at-tention, to contact the doctor i n the d i s t r i c t where she l i v e d . There are clear indications that mothers were denied medical attention due to the r e s t r i c t i o n s on the doctor they could 1 choose. During this period the o f f i c e of the Director of Medical Services was established i n Vancouver to co-ordinate the medical services given to c l i e n t s . When a mother applied for an allowance, a medical report on a special form had to be completed by a doctor and forwarded to th i s d i v i s i o n . I f there was an incapacitated husband,, a medical report covering bis physical condition also had to be forwarded. The Medical Service D i v i s i o n used t h i s medical information to help deter-mine e l i g i b i l i t y to as s i s t i n getting medical attention. I f a mother, or her dependents required medical treatment i n Vancouver, the Medical Services D i v i s i o n arranged the trans-portation. In June, 19*+9, a new medical plan was started. This permits a mother to obtain medical attention from a doctor out-side her own d i s t r i c t . The plan also permits broader i n t e r -1 "Mothers' Allowance Case No. MA9351", Region 11, Sechelt D i s t r i c t , Department of Welfare, Court House, Vancouver, B.C. pretation of "extras", such as f a l s e teeth and glasses. In August, lS^y, there were 200 families receiving mothers' allowances l i v i n g i n Greater Vancouver. The medical treatments to which they were e n t i t l e d were: physicians' services,• h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n and drugs. They were also e n t i t l e d to receive, free of charge: glasses, dentures, trusses and orthopaedic appliances, provided they had no resources with which to buy them. A mother was e n t i t l e d to a pre-natal allowance of $5.00 a month for the f i n a l four months of preg-nancy. . Transportation was provided to and from c l i n i c s or the doctor's o f f i c e , and i f a mother needed to go to the h o s p i t a l , ambulance service was provided. The mothers i n other parts of the province received about the same medical care as those i n the C i t y of Vancouver. This medical programme i s exactly the same for s o c i a l assistance cases. The B r i t i s h Columbia plan compares favourably with those of Alberta and Saskatchewan. I t i s superior to plans i n the remaining provinces i n Canada, as i t has a better coverage. "In Manitoba and Ontario, minimal med-i c a l services are available and i n Quebec recipients may use 1 community health services where they are organized." Those on mothers' allowances i n 19*+9 seemed s a t i s f i e d with the med-i c a l treatment they received. Housing. Not much assistance has been given to mothers by • v i s i t o r s or administrators i n helping them solve t h e i r housing 1 Mothers' Allowance L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada, Research D i v i s i o n , Department of National Health and Welfare, May l,19-+9, Page 7. problems. In 1920 there were numerous vacant houses i n Vancou-ver which could be rented for as low as $12.00 per month, but even so, a percentage of mothers l i v e d i n congested areas and i n unsanitary buildings. The v i s i t o r s who were keenly aware of the e x i s t i n g housing problems, t r i e d i n a limited way to help families f i n d more suitable homes, and encouraged them to move to less con-gested areas. Although a few cases were helped, many had to endure t h e i r predicament as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following ex-, treme case: Mr. and Mrs. C. and t h e i r two children l i v e d i n the i r own house i n South Vancouver, and owned two other houses. In 1922 Mr. C. was st r i c k e n with Bright«s Disease and confined to a wheel-chair. In a short time they had exhausted their resources, including the proceeds of the sale of t h e i r three houses. They were forced to move into the only shelter they could f i n d , which was a barn they shared with four-cows. This family was refused the mothers' pension u n t i l the municipality of South Vancouver could f i n d a house or more suitable ac-commodation for them. The family i s known, to have l i v e d i n the barn.for a number of years. The mother did odd jobs, milked the cows, and sold the milk. When the chil d r e n grew up they became non-contributory c i t i z e n s because of t h e i r 1 early environment. There-.rwere numerous other instances i n Vancouver of poorly furnished and crowded quarters with l i t t l e constructive work being done to help the occupants. 1 "Past President New Era League", 223 E. 13th Avenue, Vancou-ver, B. C. C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s e u n s a n i t a r y homes p r e v e n t e d the c h i l d r e n from g e t t i n g normal s a t i s f a c t i o n s from l i f e and t h i s caused them t o become a n t i - s o c i a l and d e v e l o p o t h e r b e h a v i o u r and p e r s o n a l i t y problems. I n 193*+- the h o u s i n g problems f a c i n g mothers on pen-s i o n were f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d . The d e p r e s s i o n s e v e r e l y reduced the p r o v i n c i a l budget and c u t s were made i n the mothers' pen-s i o n s . The maximum p e n s i o n per month f o r a mother and e i g h t c h i l d r e n was 170.00. The i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s r e d u c t i o n on mothers w i t h a l a r g e f a m i l y was h o p e l e s s l y d i s c o u r a g i n g even though r e n t s had dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y . Due t o the g r e a t l a c k of employment many o l d e r c h i l d r e n , who n o r m a l l y would be s e l f -s u p p o r t i n g , were out o f work and l i v i n g a t home. T h i s r e s u l t -ed i n f u r t h e r burdens f o r a mother. I n 1937 the A d v i s o r y Board o f the Mot h e r s ' A l l o w -ances D i v i s i o n formed a committee f o r the purpose o f d e t e r m i n -i n g the a c t u a l c o s t t o a f a m i l y o f o p e r a t i n g a house. T h i s survey was completed on A p r i l 1 2 t h , 1937, and i t s f i n d i n g s i n f l u e n c e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m i n g a p o l i c y whereby a woman l i v i n g i n her own home, w i t h a c l e a r t i t l e , would have her p e n s i o n reduced by *\. 5.00 a month. The f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n r e n t e d homes or rooms had argued t h a t t h e home owners had an advantage over them by b e i n g a b l e t o d e r i v e more from t h e i r a l l o w a n c e because t h e y d i d not have t o pay r e n t . The r e s u l t -i n g p o l i c y d i d not h e l p e i t h e r s i d e . T h i s s u r v e y c o v e r e d some 83 homes i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f Vancouver. I t was found t h a t 3*+ out o f t h e 83 houses were i n good c o n d i t i o n , but t h e r e m a i n i n g *+9, or 59 per c e n t , were i n only f a i r or poor condition. Although lim i t e d i n scope, this survey brought to l i g h t many factors which needed atten-t i o n i n the housing f i e l d . Many-mothers on the r i g i d allow-ance found i t very d i f f i c u l t to maintain th e i r homes. During this period the welfare workers became conscious of the harm-f u l psychological effect of these l i v i n g conditions on the children, and they t r i e d to exert t h e i r influence by complain-ing about them. In 19^0 another housing survey was conducted to de-termine the actual cost of housing to families on mothers* allowance. This survey revealed that out of 1505 cases studied, 137 families were s t i l l t r y i n g to buy t h e i r homes; 1+43 owned their homes outright, and 925 were paying rent. This survey also revealed that mothers buying t h e i r homes were paying between 6 and 7 per cent interest on the out-standing p r i n c i p a l . Many were kept i n constant fear l e s t they lose t h e i r homes and their investment. In 1948 the housing conditions facing mothers were far worse than when the Act came Into force. Rents had i n -creased, i n some instances, to three times what was being paid i n 1920. The corresponding increase i n allowance*of |7.50 per month t e l l s i t s own story of being only barely enough to cover increased costs of food and clothing. This $ 7 . 5 0 i n -crease was expected to cover a l l the essentials with the ex-ception of medical services. The housing need of cases on allowance i s not yet solved. Rental accommodation i s d i f f i c u l t to fi n d and con-s i s t s of dilapidated houses hardly f i t for human beings. In the case of rooms r e n t e d i n houses, the e x i s t i n g atmosphere and c o n d i t i o n s are t o t a l l y u n f i t f o r c h i l d r e n . The w r i t e r has i n -terviewed a number of mothers on allowances l i v i n g under un-b e l i e v a b l y bad c o n d i t i o n s . For example, some are so badly i n need of r e p a i r that i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o keep out mice and r a t s , to say nothing of the wind and r a i n . The l a c k of a s s i s t a n c e i n 19h8 to h e l p the mothers s o l v e t h e i r housing needs, and the r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t on growing c h i l d r e n can be i l l u s t r a t e d by another example; Mr. and Mrs. V/. and t h e i r seven c h i l d r e n were f o r c e d to l e a v e Vancouver i n because they c o u l d not f i n d s u i t a b l e l i v i n g accommodation. Mr. W. was t o t a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d . The'family sought s h e l t e r i n a r u r a l area of B r i t i s h Columbia where they were a b l e , not without d i f f i c u l t y , t o r e n t one of the poorest houses i n the d i s t r i c t . The e f f e c t of t h i s environment on the c h i l d r e n go-i n g to s c h o o l made i t s e l f apparent by the f a c t t h a t they were not c o n s i d e r e d equals by t h e i r classmates. In 19*+5, the f a m i l y took over a five-room house which had f o r m e r l y belonged to an i n t e r n e d a l i e n . There they remained u n t i l they s u f f e r e d the m i s f o r t u n e of having i t burn down i n 19*+6. The community had become h o s t i l e t o t h i s f a m i l y because of the manner i n which they had to l i v e and seemed r e l u c t a n t t o help them f i n d ac-commodation. T h i s f a m i l y f i n a l l y had to r e s o r t to an o l d c h i c k e n coop as t h e i r s h e l t e r . They e x i s t e d i n t h i s one-room c h i c k e n coop from e a r l y i n 19.-+6 to some time i n 19-+8. The seven growing c h i l d r e n have had to bear the brunt of t h i s d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n and have become badly mal-a d j u s t e d , both at s c h o o l and i n the home. Not only i s t h e i r s c h o o l work poor but other c h i l d r e n have o s t r a c i z e d them to a marked degree as i s shown by t h e i r remarks, "We are not as-s o c i a t i n g with c h i l d r e n who l i v e i n a c h i c k e n coop." The i n d i g n i t i e s these c h i l d r e n have had to s u f f e r have l e f t t h e i r marks i n more ways than one. T h e i r h e a l t h has s u f f e r e d . Unless a s s i s t e d adequately i n the near f u t u r e the c h i l d r e n stand to become maladjusted a d u l t s , i l l - e q u i p p e d t o become a p a r t of s o c i e t y and c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r share. Instead they w i l l probably f o l l o w the delinquency e s t a b l i s h e d by many before them i n s i m i l a r c ircumstances. The housing p o l i c y f o r mothers 1 allowance cases i s the same as f o r cases on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n Vancouver. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of these two programmes do not p r o v i d e r e n t a l allowances u n t i l . i t becomes necessary f o r the f a m i l y to be e v i c t e d . Then some temporary f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s g i v e n i f the f a m i l y has to take up r e s i d e n c e i n a h o t e l f o r a few days u n t i l other q u a r t e r s are found. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e room f o r improvement i n a s s i s t i n g mothers s o l v e t h e i r housing problems throughout B r i t i s h Columbia f o r -the sake o f h e a l t h . and w e l f a r e of the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . Casework S e r v i c e s . There was, from the time the Act came i n t o f o r c e , so much work to be done i n a s s i s t i n g mothers t o o b t a i n the pension, that the v i s i t o r s r a r e l y had much time t o do case-work. During the e a r l y y e a r s , these v i s i t o r s a s s i s t e d the mothers i n e s t a b l i s h i n g e l i g i b i l i t y f o r the pension and by so doing they improved the outlook for many fa m i l i e s . Before re-ceipt of the pension, mothers, i n many instances, had to place the i r children i n orphanages. When the Act was administered by the Workmen's Com-pensation Board a l i m i t e d amount of casework was provided. The v i s i t o r s , i n many instances, could only a s s i s t the mother by l i s t e n i n g sympathetically to her complex problems; the caseloads were too high to permit the workers to offer much constructive casework. The v i s i t o r aided the mother and her older children to f i n d suitable employment whenever possible. I f a mother could not assume a f u l l time job she was encour-aged to take part time employment. The purpose of t h i s was to build up a desire for self-help on the part of the mother. The Workmen's Compensation Board and the v i s i t o r s worked to-gether i n close harmony to a s s i s t needy families with some of the i r problems. "Where i t was found that a family was facing any p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y , no matter what i t was, every en-1 deavour was made to a s s i s t them i n a solution of same." The v i s i t o r s helped mothers who became i l l and had to go to the h o s p i t a l by making suitable arrangements for the care of the children while the mother was absent. When there was sickness i n a family the v i s i t o r kept i n closer touch with the family by more frequent v i s i t s to a s s i s t them i n whatever way possible. The fact that someone cared and was interested i n t h e i r welfare often cheered and brightened t h e i r outlook considerably. 1 Annual Report, Mothers' Pensions Act, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C , September 3 0 t h , 1925, Page 1. From 1920 to 1931 the casework was done under great s t r a i n . The v i s i t o r s were mostly untrained and emphasis was placed on determining the mother's e l i g i b i l i t y for a pension. When a pension was granted, a return v i s i t was made to estab-l i s h the state of her finances and determine whether there had been an increase i n the i n t e r v a l . In some instances i n t e r -pretation of the regulations was not made clear to the mother. This resulted i n the fee l i n g on the part of the mother that the v i s i t o r s were investigators for the government, interested only i n saving the government money wherever and whenever possible. This f e e l i n g developed into much fear and suspicion amongst the c l i e n t s . During the early t h i r t i e s so much r e l i e f and aid existed that the v i s i t o r s were greatly overworked. V i s i t s to applicants and recipients became mere routine; l i t t l e actual casework was done, and this did.not foster much mutual respect between the interviewer and the c l i e n t . Mothers f e l t that they would try to do without assistance rather than suffer the i n d i g n i t i e s they f e l t accompanied the assistance. Only occasionally did t h e . v i s i t o r s encourage the mothers to j o i n clubs or organizations which were available to them; con-sequently, many led a very lonesome and frustrated existence. The v i s i t o r * s attitude was not always one of help; indeed, often i t increased the fears of the c l i e n t s l e s t t h e i r pen-sions be discontinued. This atmosphere made the mothers i l l at ease and extremely nervous, which i n turn aroused the suspicions of the v i s i t o r that information regarding t h e i r finances was being withheld. In some cases the v i s i t o r s assisted children who were i n need of school books by arranging for t h e i r own friends to give or lend the necessary books. The v i s i t o r s also helped a few boys who desired to take a technical course by arranging th e i r admittance to technical school. The attend ance of children improved. The annual report states that, "One of the most s t r i k i n g effects that "receipt of assistance has made on the families helped has been the improvement i n 1 the progress of the children i n school." In 1937 attempts were made to help mothers re-estab-l i s h themselves on a self-supporting basis. Arrangements were made by the Advisory Board and the Vancouver School Board for mothers to take refresher courses at night schools with a view to giving them new vocational i n t e r e s t s . These courses served only a small number. The v i s i t o r s did not do enough construc-ti v e work i n aiding mothers to become more self-supporting, especially when children coming of age were to be discontinued from the mothers' allowance. There i s evidence that the women especially those of middle age, were unable to face the labour market again; while i n many cases employers;refused to hire or consider' them. These mothers were l e f t with no alternative but to apply for r e l i e f ; something which they dreaded. The v i s i t o r s , i n some instances, instead of encour-aging a widowed mother to r e h a b i l i t a t e herself to her best- ad-vantage by going out and taking her proper place i n the com-munity, were apt to discourage t h i s due to the character 1 Annual Report, Mothers' Pensions Act, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C , September, 192*+, Page 1. regulations of the Act. I f the v i s i t o r suspected a mother had a male friend they would search the house or room f o r e v i d e n c e which might suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y of immoral conduct on the ; part o f the mother. This attitude on the part of the v i s i t o r s made i t extremely d i f f i c u l t and often embarrassing for a mother who might have had an excellent opportunity to r e h a b i l i t a t e herself and her children by marriage to a responsible man. The quality of casework services to mothers has gone through an evolutionary change since 1920 to date. Since 19^ +0 the services have been greatly improved and broadened. As s o c i a l workers handling t h e s e cases have been b e t t e r trained more help has been g i v e n t o t h e mothers with t h e i r v a r i o u s problems. The s o c i a l workers, during the war years, a l t h o u g h w o r k i n g under great s t r a i n , helped mothers w i t h many complex d i f f i c u l t i e s . A b e t t e r relationship between the s o c i a l w orkers and the mothers was established. In recent years the s o c i a l workers have assisted many families where the husband was disabled by helping him f i n d some suitable work. By u s i n g t h e i r influence on managers o f industry, by a thorough interpretation of the predicament of a disabled p e r -son and h i s need f o r a chance to r e h a b i l i t a t e himself, a better understanding has developed and many industries have employed disabled p e r s o n s . The assistance t h a t a s o c i a l worker can r e n d e r to a mother now i s much g r e a t e r t h a n i n the twenties. The s o c i a l workers have at thei r d i s p o s a l many community resources w i t h which to help mothers. I f a mother becomes i l l and needs h e l p a homemaker can be s e n t into the home t o take c a r e of the children u n t i l the mother i s able to resume her duties. Many mothers have voiced t h e i r approval of t h i s service where they have f e l t i t aided t h e i r recovery. In the Ci t y of Vancouver p a r t i c u l a r l y , a mother who desires the services of a n u t r i t i o n i s t to help her with her budget or dietary needs, can arrange to receive t h i s service by the help of a s o c i a l worker through the Metropolitan Health Service. In cases of emergency, through loss of goods by f i r e the Emergency Health Aid w i l l provide funds with which to buy furniture and household supplies. Throughout B r i t i s h Columbia the s o c i a l workers a s s i s t mothers with c h i l d behaviour d i f -f i c u l t i e s by v i s i t i n g the school and e n l i s t i n g "the help of teachers and other interested groups. The worker also sug-gests that children with behaviour problems be taken to Child Guidance C l i n i c for help. The casework services throughout B r i t i s h Columbia to mothers on allowances are f a i r l y uniform, but due to the large general caseload of a worker, not much time can be a l -lotted to intensive casework. The urgent problems are dealt with but those who do not happen to have any d i f f i c u l t i e s are not given much attention. A worker v i s i t s them every s i x months unless some problem arises i n the i n t e r v a l . This long period does not permit the worker to keep i n very close touch with a mother or a s s i s t her toward p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n by a job or some means of part time work. A large percentage of the casework rendered these mothers i s rather inadequate and consists mainly of checking the e l i g i b i l i t y of the c l i e n t to receive the pension, ^he casework service to mothers i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s t h e same as t h a t g i v e n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s . V o l u n t a r y S e r v i c e s . The a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d t o f a m i l i e s t h r o u r h l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s has been r a t h e r l i m i t e d i n scope. Many mothers on a l l o w a n c e s , have been made t o f e e l t h a t they a re unwanted c i t i z e n s o f the community. Though the mothers were h e l p e d m a t e r i a l l y , i n a s m a l l measure, the e f f e c t s o f t h i s a i d on the morale o f a fam-i l y was q u i t e damaging. The v a r i o u s women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a s s i s t e d needy mothers w i t h c l o t h i n g and o t h e r u s e f u l household a r t i c l e s . They a l s o h e l p e d a few f a m i l i e s by p r o v i d i n g a homemaker w h i l e the mother was i l l . . .. • I n 1926 the K i w a n i s C l u b took q u i t e an i n t e r e s t i n mothers' a l l o w a n c e s c a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where t h e r e were young boys. The- v a r i o u s members o f t h e c l u b would have a boy a s -s i g n e d t o them f o r h e l p . The members would a c t i n t h e capa-c i t y of " b i g b r o t h e r s " , h e l p i n g the boys t o j o i n groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s which would h e l p them d e v e l o p i n s o c i e t y . Con-s i d e r a b l e a i d was a d m i n i s t e r e d ' h e r e because o f i t s manner o f d i r e c t approach. T h i s C l u b a l s o a s s i s t e d the boys d u r i n g t h e summer v a c a t i o n . They would a r r a n g e summer camping f o r a number o f them and f o r o t h e r s they a r r a n g e d g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n planned r e c r e a t i o n . As a r u l e t h e K i w a n i s C l u b a s s i s t -ed about f o r t y boys i n Vancouver and about twenty i n New West-m i n s t e r . Throughout B r i t i s h C olumbia t h e r e have been or g a n -121 ized d i v i s i o n s of the Parent-Teachers' Association, which help mothers on allowances with some of th e i r most pressing needs. This organization encourages mothers to attend meetings by ar-ranging baby-sitters for the children at home and providing transportation. They also a s s i s t the mothers to j o i n other clubs. In Vancouver the Vancouver Clothing Committee helped a mother with clothing i f she were s t r i c t l y a needy case - such was the basis of thei r operations. The Red Cross helps a fami-l y i f the home i s l o s t through f i r e or flood, but the condition of t h i s aid i s very r e s t r i c t e d . The Y.M.C.A. and various churches help a great deal by providing a summer vacation for some of the needy children to their various camps. Children on mothers' allowances q u a l i f y for t h i s help. The Fresh Ai r Fund also gives mothers a vacation; something they would un-l i k e l y receive otherwise. Some help i n t h i s l i n e and other services needed by a mother on allowance are rendered by groups and organizations which exi s t i n c i t i e s and r u r a l areas, such as Fraternal Societies. These societies a s s i s t mothers with toys for th e i r children, books, and some entertainment for the family. The various s o c i a l services rendered to mothers' allowances cases such as medical, housing, casework and voluntary services, have improved to some measure throughout the years. Although the medical plan has been expanded since 19^3? i t i s not yet complete. The means test applied to cer-t a i n d i v i s i o n s of the medical service should be abolished and t o t a l coverage provided. The services given to mothers regard-ing t h e i r housing problems has not altered much since the Act came into force. There i s evidence to show that mothers are worse o f f today than they were during the e a r l i e r years be-cause of-the increase i n purchase costs and rents. A vigorous -approach i n t h i s f i e l d i s most apparent. More frequent v i s i t s to mothers should be undertaken. The 'semi-annual v i s i t s to determine the e l i g i b i l i t y of the c l i e n t should be replaced by a more positive approach i n favour of encouraging the c l i e n t to better herself through r e h a b i l i t a t i v e measures. The volunteer assistance given mothers' allowances cases should be expended. This could be done by encouraging volunteers to ass i s t caseworkers. The volunteers could be trained as casework aids and be entrusted with the routine services to c l i e n t s . Used i n this way they would not only render a valuable service to families but would also serve as interpreters of the s o c i a l .workers' functions i n the com-munity. Chapter 6. F i n a n c i n g of Mothers' Allowances. Throughout the e a r l y development o f B r i t i s h C o l -umbia, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s bore the major share o f f i n a n c i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r needy f a m i l i e s . In 1913 the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p a i d 53.9 per cent o f the cost of p u b l i c h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , the P r o v i n c i a l Government paid 2 8 . 7 per cent, the Dominion Government paid 17.*+ per cent. The P r o v i n c i a l Government e v e n t u a l l y recognized the heavy f i n a n c i a l burden t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had t o bear and i n 1920, when the Mothers' Pensions Act was passed, i t took over the f i n a n c i n g o f t h i s programme. This was the f i r s t time i n B r i t i s h Columbia that a major welfa r e programme had been f i n a n c e d e n t i r e l y from p r o v i n c i a l funds. The tendency f o r the Dominion and P r o v i n -c i a l Governments to pay l a r g e r shares of w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s continued from t h i s time u n t i l 19-4-0 when the Dominion Govern-ment p a i d 36.2 per cent, the P r o v i n c i a l Government *+1.5 per cent and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 22.3 per c e n t . S i n c e 1920, f i n a n c i n g o f Mothers 1 Allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been of a r a t h e r r o u t i n e nature. Each year those i n charge of t h i s programme have drawn up estimates which have been based mainly on the previous year's c o s t s . Since these have been f r e q u e n t l y i n c o r r e c t , towards the end of a number of f i s c a l y e a r s , t h i s programme has not had s u f -f i c i e n t funds to complete the year. One a u t h o r i t y i n the f i e l d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o i n t s out the reason why e s s e n t i a l programmes l a c k funds to c a r r y on towards the end of a f i s c a l 12h y e a r : "The seasonal v a r i a t i o n s i n w e l f a r e expenditures are well-known, but i n d i v i d u a l agencies f r e q u e n t l y encounter d i f -f i c u l t i e s toward the end of t h e i r f i s c a l year because they f a i l e d to budget t h e i r funds on the b a s i s of adequate a n a l y s i s 1 of past experience." At no time has there been any attempt made to ap-p r o p r i a t e adequate funds so t h a t the f a m i l i e s on Mothers' A l -lowances c o u l d be helped with t h e i r f i n a n c i a l requirements on an i n d i v i d u a l budget b a s i s . Lack of adequate funds t o p r o -v i d e f a m i l i e s with a t l e a s t a minimum standard o f l i v e l i h o o d has l a r g e l y been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the inadequacy of t h i s p r o -gramme i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The need has been w e l l expressed r e c e n t l y by two s o c i a l workers, w r i t i n g on some of the p r o -blems i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : "There are more important th i n g s than money, y e t no good programme can be b u i l t on an in-adequate or badly managed f i n a n c i a l b a s i s ; and poor f i n a n c i n g 2 may mean bad management q u i t e as much as l a c k of funds." The Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia, through-out the y e a r s , has s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y on account o f i n s u f f i c i e n t funds t o provide adequate allowances to f a m i l i e s . Review of F i n a n c i n g from 1920 t o 19*+9. The P r o v i n c i a l Government f i n a n c e s Mothers' Pen-si o n s from the C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue Fund from 1920 to 1932. 1 White," R. C l y d e . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P u b l i c W elfare, New York, American Book Company, 19-+0, Page l+21+. 2 Cohen, M a r t i n , and Wallace, E l i z a b e t h , Some Problems of Ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 19'+'+, Page 17. the p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s p r o v i n c e had been s t e a d i l y r i s i n g due to immigrants from Europe as w e l l as a movement of Canadians from other p r o v i n c e s . The t o t a l c o s t of mothers 1 pensions d u r i n g 1920-21 amounted to $ 2 8 7 , 1 1 0 . 1 7 , which i n c l u d e d s a l a -r i e s , o p e r a t i n g expenses and the pension provided to mothers. The number of cases helped t o t a l l e d 636, and the per c a p i t a c o s t to operate t h i s programme amounted to .56 c e n t s . The settlement of immigrants i n B r i t i s h Columbia durin g t h i s p e r i o d d i d not f o l l o w any p a t t e r n . The P r o v i n -c i a l Government d i d not have any p l a n n i n g to h e l p s e t t l e r s f i n d s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s . Many of these s e t t l e r s p i c k e d i s o -l a t e d spots and l a t e r demanded roads, schools and the mothers' pension, i f a f a m i l y needed i t . The long d i s t a n c e s between settlements c r e a t e d e x t r a c o s t s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of mothers' pensions. In 192^-25 the p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia had r i s e n t o 57^)000, an i n c r e a s e of 12.1 per cent over the 1920-21 f i g u r e , (511,kOO). In 192 lf-25 there were 8*+7 cases on mothers' pensions, or an a d d i t i o n of 33.2 per cent over the f i g u r e s t a t e d f o r 1920-21. T h i s r i s e was due mostly t o the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n and to the l a c k of economic o p p o r t u n i t y p r e v a i l i n g i n t h i s p r o v i n c e at that time. Many mothers t r i e d to take care of t h e i r c h i l d r e n through employment. During t h i s p e r i o d , however, the economic c o n d i t i o n s were such that r mothers c o u l d not f i n d employment, which l e f t them no a l t e r n a -t i v e but to apply f o r the pension. The c o s t of t h i s programme rose as w e l l d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , although the allowances were not i n c r e a s e d i n any way. In 192 l+-25 the t o t a l c o s t of mothers 1 pensions i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia amounted t o $-+37,572.00 an a d d i t i o n of $150.-+63.00 over the previous f i g u r e g i v e n . The t o t a l expenses of o p e r a t i n g t h i s programme, e x c l u d i n g s a l a r i e s f o r the year under review, amounted to $3,22*+. 0 0 . The p e r i o d from 1925 to 1930 i n B r i t i s h Columbia was one of u n c e r t a i n t y . The people of t h i s p r o v i n c e l i v e d under c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n as the demand f o r the primary prod-u c t s produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia and s o l d on the world market began to d e c l i n e . B r i t i s h Columbia was p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r -able t o unfavourable t r a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n world markets. World c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t e d the revenues o f B r i t i s h Columbia j u s t when these revenues were needed most. In 1929-30 there were 1370 cases on mothers• pen-sions , an i n c r e a s e of 6 2 . 9 per cent over the 1921+-25 f i g u r e . T h i s i n c r e a s e was a g a i n due p a r t l y t o the i n c r e a s e i n popula-t i o n , b u t a l s o tb the f a c t t h at many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s used v a r i o u s means to get f a m i l i e s on to t h i s pension. The muni-c i p a l i t i e s , by g e t t i n g f a m i l i e s on the mothers' pension, saved c o n s i d e r a b l e money and at the same time r i d themselves of some vexing s o c i a l problems from t h e i r c a r e . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia were hard-pressed f o r funds at t h i s time due to the economic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h i s p r o v i n c e and the demand o f v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s from them. The o f f i c i a l s i n charge of a number of these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , used v a r i o u s devices to h e l p f a m i l i e s get f i n a n c i a l support through the Mothers' Pensions Programme. T h i s was done mostly f o r f i n a n -c i a l reasons. The p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, at t h i s time, was 650,000, an i n c r e a s e o f 13.2 per cent' over the f i g -ure f i v e years e a r l i e r . The t o t a l c o s t of t h i s programme f o r 1929-30 was $777,916.00 or an i n c r e a s e of $299,8^0.00 over the f i g u r e g i v e n f o r 192^-25. The expenses of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n amounted to $ 3 , ^ 0 3 . 0 0 or .^3 per cent of the c o s t o f the amount paid out f o r allowances and s a l a r i e s . The per c a p i t a c o s t had a l s o r i s e n from .78 cents i n 192^-25 t o $1.19 i n 1929-30, or an i n -crease of 52.5 per c e n t . The p e r i o d from 1930 to 19*+0 was marked by a long severe d e p r e s s i o n which a f f e c t e d many f a m i l i e s a d v e r s e l y . The p r o v i n c i a l revenue was a l s o a f f e c t e d as the major i n d u s t r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were not producing v e r y much d u r i n g a g r e a t e r p a r t of t h i s p e r i o d . As the revenue of the P r o v i n c i a l Government was d e c l i n i n g , the c o s t of unemployment and other s e r v i c e s was r i s i n g . As a r e s u l t the government became alarmed at the r i s e i n the c o s t o f the Mothers' Allowance Pro-gramme and had an enquiry conducted i n 1931 by Miss C h a r l o t t e Whitton. T h i s survey recommended numerous changes f o r t h i s programme; one of these r e q u i r e d the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o pay h a l f the c o s t f o r mothers' pensions cases r e s i d i n g w i t h i n t h e i r b o r d ers. In 1932 the P r o v i n c i a l Government acted on t h i s r e -commendation and arranged with the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o pay f i f t y per cent of the c o s t of mothers' pensions cases r e s i d i n g w i t h -128 i n t h e i r boundaries. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s which had l e s s than 5,000 r e s i d e n t s were not i n c l u d e d and the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment s t i l l continued to pay f o r the c o s t of cases i n such m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In 193*+-35 the t o t a l c o s t of t h i s programme amount-ed to $589*622.00 and out of that amount the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p a i d $232,987.00 or 3 9 . 5 per cent of the t o t a l c o s t . The .case-l o a d f o r that year was l * f l 0 , an i n c r e a s e of *f0 over the 1929-30 f i g u r e . The reasons why the number of Mothers' Allowances cases had not i n c r e a s e d t o any marked degree d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were t h r e e f o l d : . (1) Mothers w i t h only one c h i l d were not granted the pension i n most cases, and these f a m i l i e s had to seek employment or inadequate r e l i e f . (2) The u n w i l l i n g -ness o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s towards paying f i f t y per cent of the c o s t r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r not r e p o r t i n g e l i g i b l e mothers; they p l a c e d them i n s t e a d on r e l i e f which c o s t them l e s s . (3) the allowances were reduced d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and the d i s -p a r i t y between r e l i e f and mothers' pensions was not too g r e a t . The p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 193^-35 was 736,000, an i n c r e a s e of 86,000 or 13.2 per cent over the pre -v i o u s p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e given. The per c a p i t a c o s t f o r that year was . 8 0 cents, a decrease of 32.9 per cent over the 1929-30 per c a p i t a c o s t . On-the 1s t o f A p r i l , 1937, the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment a g a i n resumed the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Mothers' Allow-ances. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s a c t i o n the ca s e l o a d began to r i s e a gain, which was due, p a r t l y to the continued i n c r e a s e o f the p o p u l a t i o n , and to the f a c t t h a t when the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had t o pay f i f t y per cent of the pension many mothers were d i s -couraged from a p p l y i n g f o r the p e n s i o n . T h i s a c t i o n on the p a r t of the m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s had the bad e f f e c t of p r e -v e n t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of d e s e r v i n g and e l i g i b l e moth-ers from r e c e i v i n g the pension. P r e v i o u s l y , • i n 1936, the Mothers' Pensions Act had been amended to p r o v i d e $7.50 per month f o r wives wi t h i n -c a p a c i t a t e d husbands. T h i s a c t i o n on the p a r t of the govern-ment, c o s t $26,370.00 i n 1936 as t h e r e were 293 mothers with i n c a p a c i t a t e d husbands. In 19*+0 the p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia was 8 0 5 , 0 0 0 , an i n c r e a s e of 69,000 over the 193l+-35 f i g u r e . The i n c r e a s e i n the p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was i n f l u e n c e d very l a r g e l y by the drought and severe economic c o n d i t i o n s on the p r a i r i e s which brought many fa m i -l i e s t o B r i t i s h Columbia. The c a s e l o a d and c o s t of Mothers' Allowances had a l s o i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h i s f i v e year p e r i o d . In March, 19*+0, the c a s e l o a d was 1672, and the t o t a l c o s t of these allowances f o r t h i s f i s c a l year was $ 8 1 0 , 6 8 8 . 0 0 . I t i s found i n compar-i n g the c a s e l o a d of 19*4-0 with t h a t o f 193*4-35 t h a t a sub-s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e had taken p l a c e . The i n c r e a s e i n the case-l o a d was 262 or 18 .5 per cent. The i n c r e a s e i n the c a s e l o a d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was due to a number of f a c t o r s , such as: i n c r e a s e i n the p o p u l a t i o n ; s l i g h t amendments to the Act; more p u b l i c i t y i n c o n n e c t i o n with t h i s programme, e s p e c i a l l y when the Act was being amended i n 1937, and the f a c t that the m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s now urged the mothers to apply f o r t h i s allowance. The c o s t o f t h i s programme had i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r -ably over the 193^-35 f i g u r e . T h i s i n c r e a s e amounted t o $221,066.00 i n 19^0, and was due to a number of reasons. The c a s e l o a d had r i s e n c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e 1935; the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g had i n c r e a s e d s i n c e 1933, and some of the c u t s made i n the, a l -lowances a t that time had been r e s t o r e d ; the P r o v i n c i a l Government had a l s o made an allowance f o r i n c a p a c i t a t e d hus-bands. In May, 19^0, the c a s e l o a d f o r Mothers' Allowances reached an a l l time h i g h of 1778 c a s e s . In December, 19^0, the l e g i s l a t u r e approved a vote o f $ 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 to be p a i d as b u r s a r i e s f o r c h i l d r e n of Mothers 1 Allowances cases who had the academic a b i l i t y and d e s i r e d to continue with t h e i r s t u d i e s at the u n i v e r s i t y or i n the t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s . These b u r s a r i e s were d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 19*+3 when the Act was amended to p r o v i d e $7 .50 per month f o r c h i l d r e n up to 18 years of age, p r o v i d e d they stayed i n s c h o o l and made s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s . In 19^5 the p o p u l a t i o n , i n B r i t i s h Columbia was 9*4-9,000, an i n c r e a s e of 1 ^ , 0 0 0 over the 19*t0 p o p u l a t i o n f i g -u r e . The number of f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t of Mothers' Allowances i n B r i t i s h Columbia had decreased over the f i g u r e g i v e n f o r 19^0 as the caseload f o r 19M+-U-5 was 9^ +0. T h i s was a reduc-t i o n o f 732 over the f i g u r e provided f o r 19^0. The main r e a -son f o r t h i s decrease was the economic p r o s p e r i t y which t h i s p r o v i n c e experienced d u r i n g the war. Many mothers who had been f o r c e d f o r years t o l i v e on a s m a l l allowance, obtained employment and were ab l e to get along without t h i s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s was not a genuine r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as many c h i l d r e n had to be. .boarded out and were n e g l e c t e d w h i l e t h e i r mothers worked. The t o t a l c o s t s of Mothers' Allowances have a l s o been d e c l i n i n g s i n c e 19-+0. The c o s t o f t h i s programme during the f i s c a l year 19lfLi--^5 was $528,M4-3.00, a r e d u c t i o n o f $282,2-4-5.00 over the f i g u r e s e t down f o r 1939~I+0. T h i s de-crease was due mainly t o the r e d u c t i o n i n the c a s e l o a d as the allowances were i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h i s f i v e year p e r i o d . The per c a p i t a c o s t had d e c l i n e d by .23 c e n t s . The c o s t o f med-i c a l c a r e f o r 2*4-,061 o l d age pe n s i o n e r s , mothers' and s o c i a l allowances cases f o r the year 19l+5-1+6 amounted t o $1-4-6,270.00. The Mothers' Allowances c a s e l o a d from 19"+5 to 19*+9 has been f u r t h e r d e c r e a s i n g . The reason f o r t h i s d e c l i n e , even though the p o p u l a t i o n has been s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g , has been p a r t l y due to the economic p r o s p e r i t y of t h i s p r o v i n c e f o l l o w i n g the war. Another reason, and the main one, has been the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e programme s t a r t e d i n 19*+5 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p o l i c y at present, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s , i s to grant s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o a l l f a m i l i e s i n need and t h i s a c t i o n has "greatly reduced the Mothers' A l l o w -ances c a s e l o a d . The Mothers' Allowances c a s e l o a d i n March,-19-+9J was 681, a decrease of 259 cases over a f o u r year period. The p o p u l a t i o n i n f i v e years rose t o 1,082,000, an i n c r e a s e of 15 per cent. The t o t a l c o s t o f Mothers' Allowances f o r the year 19-+8--+9 was $389,3*+7.00, a decrease o f $139,095.00 over the c o s t s t a t e d f o r 19-+-+--+5. The t r e n d a t present i n the Mothers' Allowances c a s e l o a d i s a decrease of f i v e or s i x cases each month. P r o v i n c i a l Revenue Sources. The revenue o f the Government of the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the f i s c a l year 19-+8--+9 was $92£00,910.00. T h i s amount was d e r i v e d from v a r i o u s sources, but the l a r g e r amounts came from the s a l e of l i q u o r , g a s o l i n e tax, r e n t a l fees f o r l e a s e d tax f i e l d s , and the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and muni-c i p a l tax. These f o u r sources r e a l i z e d seventy per cent of the government income. The amount c o l l e c t e d through the three per cent s a l e s tax amounted t o $1*+,335,119.00 f o r a nine month p e r i o d . >• The expenditures o f the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the same p e r i o d amounted t o $87 ,^35,963.00 l e a v i n g a s u r p l u s of $*+,5P1+,91+7.00. The Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, d u r i n g t h i s ; p e r i o d , spent $1*+, 068,-+19.00 or 15.2 per cent o f the t o t a l revenue. T h i s money was spent on the v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s i t has under i t s c o n t r o l . The d i v i s i o n of h e a l t h spent over $ 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , l e a v i n g $10 ,788,375 .00 t o be spent by the w e l f a r e d i v i s i o n . The Department of Welfare spent $1+,02 l+,9 l+8.00 of t h i s amount on allowances f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases i n B r i t -i s h Columbia. The amount a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r the Mothers' A l -lowances Programme f o r the year 19*+8-*+9 was $ 5 2 9 , 3 9 1 . 0 0 , and 133 of t h i s amount $M+5,927.00 was spent, w i t h $ 8 3 , ^ 6 ^ . 0 0 put back i n t o the C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue Fund. T h i s sum of money could have been used to i n c r e a s e the grants to Mothers 1 Allow-ances cases who were so hard-pressed f o r funds because of the i n c r e a s e d c o s t of l i v i n g . The three per cent s a l e s t a x imposed on the people of B r i t i s h Columbia on the 1 s t of J u l y , 19^8, was t o be used f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and m u n i c i p a l a s s i s t a n c e . The m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s , from J u l y 1 s t , 19*+8 to March 3 1 s t , 19*+9, r e c e i v e d one-t h i r d of the c o l l e c t i o n s from t h i s t a x , amounting to $*+, 7 0 7 , 2 0 5 . 0 0 . The p r o v i n c e r e c e i v e d the sum of $ 9 , ^ 1 ^ , 6 0 9 . 0 0 which was to be used by the Department of H e a l t h and Welfare to i n c r e a s e the allowances and s e r v i c e s to those i n need. The s a l e s tax has proven to be a h i g h revenue pro-ducer. The P r o v i n c i a l Government a n t i c i p a t e s a r e t u r n of ap-proximately twenty-two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r the f i s c a l year of I9I+9-50. T h i s new revenue has not been used to i n c r e a s e the grants a v a i l a b l e f o r Mothers' Allowances and S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e cases i n the two-year p e r i o d i t has been i n e f f e c t , y e t these f a m i l i e s have had to bear a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of the revenue of t h i s s a l e s tax. I t was r e p o r t e d r e c e n t l y i n one of the Vancouver papers t h a t Mr. H a r o l d Winch, M.L.A.,(leader of the o p p o s i t i o n ) , " d e c l a r e d h i s r e s e a r c h showed t h a t people i n the low income b r a c k e t s pay as h i g h as $18 .27 i n s a l e s tax f o r e v e r y thousand d o l l a r s of income, while those i n the top 1 brackets pay<only $ 5 . 2 5 per thousand of income." Whether • 1 "The Vancouver Sun", March 9 t h , 19*+9, Page 2 8 . these a r e t h e exact f a c t s or n o t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e s a l e s t a x i s r e g r e s s i v e and i s borne most h e a v i l y by the lower income groups. Not only can t h i s group l e a s t a f f o r d to pay a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s on t h e i r purchases, but as o f t e n happens when s m a l l i n d i v i d u a l items a r e bought, t h i s tax becomes more than three per cent. Present F i n a n c i n g o f Allowances. The t o t a l amount a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r Mothers Allow-ances cases i n lyhQ-hy was $ 5 2 9 , 3 9 1 . 0 0 . Of t h i s amount, a sum of $-+75,000.00 was a l l o t t e d t o the main Mothers 1 Allowance Programme, based on p r e v i o u s c o s t s and the remaining $5*+,391 was r e t a i n e d f o r any expected i n c r e a s e s i n the allowances that year. The r e c i p i e n t s of Mothers' Allowances r e c e i v e d an i n -crease on the 1st of J u l y , 19*+8, which amounted t o $7 .50 per month f o r a mother and one c h i l d , and £8.50 per month f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d or an i n c a p a c i t a t e d husband. T h i s i n -crease was p a i d out o f the s p e c i a l grant mentioned, which o r i g i n a l l y came out o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e funds. The i n c r e a s e i n these allowances from J u l y , 19^8, to the end o f March, 19-+9, c o s t the p r o v i n c e $5*+,391.00. The P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment , f o r the f i r s t time, granted a Christmas bonus o f $3.20 per f a m i l y to Mothers' Allowances cases. T h i s c o s t amounted t o $2,188.80 and t h i s was charged t o the Mothers' Allowances vote. In March, 19*+9> there were 681 cases on t h i s programme c o n s i s t i n g o f 2,227 i n d i v i d u a l s who were r e c e i v i n g , on the average, f16.68 a month per person. T h i s amount was f a r too inadequate to meet i n d i v i d u a l requirements. No breakdown of the c o s t of medical s e r v i c e s f o r Mothers' Allowances cases has been made as y e t . The M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , which i s connected w i t h the Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, i n c l u d e s i n i t s f i n a n c i a l statement the t o t a l cases. T h i s d i v i s i o n p a i d 1^66,^70.00 d u r i n g the f i s c a l year under review f o r medical care t o those i n need, i n c l u d i n g Mothers' Allowances cases. How much o f t h i s was f o r Mothers' Allowances cases alone i s not known, but as the need f o r Moth-e r s ' Allowances i s d e c r e a s i n g i n number and cos-t, the S o c i a l Allowances Programme i s i n c r e a s i n g i n the same manner. In 19^7, when the p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia was 1 , 0 ^ 2 , 0 0 0 , the s o c i a l allowances c a s e l o a d was 10 ,753, and 19^-8-^9 the p o p u l a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d t o 1 ,082,000 w i t h 15,230 on s o c i a l , allowances. The p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the three year p e r i o d i n -creased ^ 0 , 0 0 0 , or 3 . 8 per cent, and i n c o n t r a s t t h e number of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases showed a r a p i d i n c r e a s e by the a d d i -t i o n o f cases or hi,6 per c e n t . The c o s t o f the opera-t i o n of t h i s programme i n c r e a s e d by $1 ,079,566.59 i n 19^8-^9 over the f i g u r e l i s t e d f o r 19*4-7. The i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s due to a number of reasons. (1) There i s a l a c k of economic o p p o r t u n i t y f o r those a b l e and w i l l i n g t o work;. (2) A number o f r e t i r e d c i t i z e n s are unable t o manage on t h e i r s m a l l f i x e d r e t i r e m e n t pension because of r i s i n g c o s t s ; (3) A number o f mothers who are t e c h n i c a l l y e l i g i b l e f o r the Mothers' Allowance, have been placed on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; (k) The s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e allowances to r e c i p i e n t s have been i n -136 creased and e x t r a s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . In the C i t y o f Vancouver where approximately o n e - t h i r d o f the Mothers' Allowances cases are r e s i d i n g , the t r e n d has been f o r these cases to decrease and the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases t o i n c r e a s e . Table 5 - Trends i n c a s e l o a d and c o s t f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n  Vancouver. Year Number of cases Popu-l a t i o n C o s t t o C i t y of Vancouver Cost t o P r o v i n c e I n t e r M u n i c i -p a l c o s t T o t a l 19ftf 1946 19«+7 1948 194? 1936 2200 2380 2860 3540 323,850 335 ,278 339 ,350 350,642 421,471 $211,447 231,681 238,619 3^9,028 444.920 $544,601 621,781 780,901 1,081,400 1,469,089 §9 , 1 15 10,307 13,039 22,076 31,224 $ 765,164 854,770 1 ,032,560 1,453,000 1,945.234 Source: Annual f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s o f C i t y of Vancouver, 1945-9. The number of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases i n Vancouver have been i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y s i n c e 1945 while the Mothers* A l -lowances cases have decreased d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , ftom 246 i n 1946 to 208 i n 1949. I t can be seen t h a t the c a s e l o a d o f 1946 was 2200 and i n 1949 i t was 3540, an i n c r e a s e o f 1340, or s i x t y per cent. T h i s i n c r e a s e i n the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e case-l o a d i n Vancouver i s l a r g e l y due to economic c o n d i t i o n s prev-a l e n t i n the c i t y . The c o s t o f t h i s programme, both f o r the C i t y of Vancouver and f o r the p r o v i n c e , has been r a p i d l y i n -c r e a s i n g s i n c e 1946. The i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t o f s o c i a l a s -s i s t a n c e over the f o u r - y e a r i n t e r v a l was 93 per cent f o r the C i t y of Vancouver and f o r the p r o v i n c i a l share of the cases r e s i d i n g w i t h i n Vancouver, the r i s e was 136.3 per c e n t . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n charge of the c i t y s o c i a l ser-v i c e department i n Vancouver favour having a l l cases on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and a b o l i s h i n g the Mothers' Allowances category. T h i s i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t as there are 2 0 8 Mothers' Allowances cases i n Vancouver at the present time. T h e i r argument i s t h a t i t c o s t s more than t h e i r share of the twenty per cent p a i d f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases to keep d u p l i c a t e f i l i n g and accounting s e c t i o n s f o r t h i s c a t e gory. A l s o , the time and money spent i n e s t a b l i s h i n g e l i g i b i l i t y f o r these f a m i l i e s c o s t s the c i t y more than i f a l l the Mothers' Allowances cases were on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and the c i t y p a i d twenty per cent of the c o s t as i s r e q u i r e d f o r such cases. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n Vancouver have a l s o suggested t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment should pay a l l the c o s t s f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases and p e r i o d i c a l l y charge each m u n i c i p a l i t y twenty per c e n t of the c o s t , based on p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s would e l i m i n a t e the r e s i d e n c e requirement. I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s p l a n has worked s u c c e s s f u l l y over the past year on drugs f o r r e c i p i e n t s of c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . The P r o v i n c i a l Government pays the c o s t of a l l drugs then charges each m u n i c i p a l i t y twenty per cent of the c o s t on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s . In comparing the method of f i n a n c i n g the Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h s i m i l a r p r o-grammes i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i t i s found t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia programme i s supported s o l e l y by p r o v i n c i a l funds w i t h regard to cash grants to f a m i l i e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , however, p§y twenty per cent of the c o s t f o r m e d i c a l c a r e , emergency h e a l t h a i d , e t c . , f o r cases which are t h e i r r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y , and the P r o v i n c i a l Government pays e i g h t y per cent of the c o s t s . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the A i d t o Dependent C h i l d r e n Programme i s supported on the f o l l o w i n g b a s i s : f e d e r -a l , *+2.6 per cent, s t a t e , *+6.*+ per cent, and l o c a l , 11 per cent. T h i s i s a much b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n p l a n on the c o s t s o f the programme than i s found i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In the United S t a t e s , at the present time, a g i t a t i o n i s growing f o r the f e d e r a l government t o pay more o f the c o s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the poorer s t a t e s so that the allowances t o f a m i l i e s can be i n c r e a s e d and on a more uniform b a s i s throughout the coun-t r y . In the other p r o v i n c e s o f Canada, the method of , f i n a n c i n g the Mothers' Allowances Programmes i s s i m i l a r t o B r i t i s h Columbia. The P r o v i n c i a l Governments pay the major share of the costs and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as a r u l e , have t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e x t r a or supplementary grants t o f a m i l i e s , on a percentage b a s i s . The f i n a n c i n g of t h i s programme from 1920 up to the present has been l e f t mostly to p r o v i n c i a l funds. Funds ap-p r o p r i a t e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r t h i s programme have been i n s u f f i c i e n t to pr o v i d e f a m i l i e s with even a m i n i -mum standard of l i v i n g . At the pr e s e n t time not enough of the p r o v i n c i a l revenue i s being spent to a s s i s t f a m i l i e s i n need, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e revenue i s now a v a i l a b l e from the r e t u r n s of the three per cent s a l e s tax which was invoked f o r t h i s v e r y reason. There i s a need i n Canada a t the present time f o r a comprehensive programme on s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . I f such a p r o -gramme were adopted along the l i n e s o u t l i n e d i n the "Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada", widows i n need would be ade- . q u a t e l y a s s i s t e d f i n a n c i a l l y . The Dominion Government would have to d e v i s e ways and means of f i n a n c i n g such a scheme. The r e p o r t r e f e r r e d t o above has o u t l i n e d the method adopted by other c o u n t r i e s of f i n a n c i n g s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and has a l s o sug-gested ways of f i n a n c i n g a comprehensive programme i n Canada. Chapter 7. i > I . An A p p r a i s a l . There was a time when women and c h i l d r e n had no r i g h t s and o f t e n had to endure t h e i r h a rdships i n s i l e n c e . G r a d u a l l y , through the slow process o f human enlightenment, women began t o exert themselves and demand t h e i r r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . T h i s i d e a has been w e l l - e x p r e s s e d r e c e n t l y I I as f o l l o w s : There was a time when c h i l d r e n had no r i g h t s and a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them was, a t best, i n c o n s i s t e n t . The r i g h t s o f women had t o be e s t a b l i s h e d before the r i g h t s o f 1 c h i l d r e n were e x p l o r e d . " There was a l s o a time when there were no c a t e g o r i e s such as o l d age pensions, mothers' allowances, s o c i a l a l l o w -ances, e t c . , i n the w e l f a r e programme, but only a b l a n k e t system o f indoor or outdoor poor r e l i e f f o r those who were i n need. T h i s method of p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e to a f a m i l y i n need was most inadequate, and i t was s u b j e c t to many abuses. Gov-ernment p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these programmes at th a t time was a l -most n e g l i g i b l e . I n t e r e s t e d groups of men and women who s t u d i e d the abuses of outdoor and indoor poor r e l i e f , and used every de-v i c e at t h e i r d i s p o s a l to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n , g r a d u a l l y brought about changes. The process was slow, and i t was c o s t -l y i n human s u f f e r i n g . One category a f t e r another was taken out from under the bl a n k e t system of poor r e l i e f and put on a 1 A r n o l d , M i l d r e d , "The Scope and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f P u b l i c C h i l d Welfare", C h i l d Welfare a t the Cro s s r o a d s , F e d e r a l Secu-r i t y Agency S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, Washington, D.C., 19M-9, Page 8. h i g h e r l e v e l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . At the same time, governments began to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n these c a t e g o r i e s both i n improving standards and f i n a n c i a l aid., Greater government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the w e l l - b e i n g of i t s c i t i z e n s has continued t o grow n h t i l at p r e s e n t the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the w e l f a r e of a l l c h i l d r e n r e s t s with the s t a t e . The p u b l i c r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the needs of c h i l d r e n has been w e l l expressed r e c e n t l y i n an a r t i c l e by M i l d r e d A r n o l d , D i r e c t o r of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, wherein she w r i t e s : " I t i s a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be c e r t a i n t h a t neces-sary s o c i a l s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n i n need of them, r e g a r d l e s s of r e s i d e n c e , economic s t a t u s , r a c e , r e l i g i o n , or any c o n d i t i o n s of e l i g i b i l i t y other than need f o r s e r v i c e . F r e q u e n t l y we are too g l i b i n s a y i n g every c h i l d i s our concern. We must f a c e the f u l l meaning of that easy phrase; 'every c h i l d ' means more than those a l r e a d y i n our c a s e l o a d s , more than c h i l d r e n of s e l e c t e d races and communities, and more than those w i t h needs that f i t the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r c a r e . Every c h i l d i n need means every c h i l d , r e g a r d l e s s of h i s whereabouts, the nature of h i s problem, or i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e s . The s e r v i c e s must be a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n i n the l o c a l -i t i e s where they l i v e . They must be known and a c c e s s i b l e . They must stand out i n the community as a f l a s h i n g l i g h t of hope and o p p o r t u n i t y that a l l can see." 1 I t has t h e r e f o r e become p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to see t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n i n need, r e c e i v e the form of a s s i s t a n c e they r e q u i r e . T h i s does not mean t h a t a l l c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r -v i c e s have to be p u b l i c . I t means t h a t the government has to m a i n t a i n proper standards of s e r v i c e f o r c h i l d r e n . There 1 A r n o l d , M i l d r e d , "The Scope and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f P u b l i c C h i l d Welfare", C h i l d Welfare at the Crossroads, F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, Washington, D.C, 191+9, Page 9. should be p l e n t y of encouragement g i v e n t o p r i v a t e agencies to c a r r y on some aspects of c h i l d c a r e , p r o v i d e d the a g e n c i e s ' i standards r e a c h the d e s i r e d l e v e l of performance. The great v a l u e of p r i v a t e agencies i s t h a t they can experiment w i t h new i d e a s . These experiments are necessary as the p r i v a t e agen-i e s are able to push t h e i r programmes of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s be-yond the minimum requirements and by so doing e v e n t u a l l y pro-mote a more adequate programme f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . E f f e c t s of C e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process of g r a n t i n g allowances to mothers i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s v e r y slow. I t took from 20 to 184 days to grant the allowances to the s i x t y Mothers' A l -lowances cases studied,, and the average l e n g t h of time was 56 days. The main reason found f o r these lo.ng^ delays i n approv-ing a p p l i c a t i o n s was because a document had t o be v e r i f i e d . The women wit h young c h i l d r e n had to s u f f e r w h i l e these docu-ments were being v e r i f i e d , and they d i d not r e c e i v e any r e t r o -a c t i v e allowance c o v e r i n g the p e r i o d they had to w a i t . In t h i s r e s p e c t the Mothers' Allowances cases i n B r i t i s h Columbia are worse o f f than those a p p l y i n g f o r the o l d age pension. A p p l i c a n t s f o r the l a t t e r pension are p a i d , under c e r t a i n circumstances, from the f i r s t of the month f o l l o w i n g the date of r e c e i p t of a p p l i c a t i o n showing s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o o f of age and r e s i d e n c e . There were only f i f t e e n per cent of the s i x t y cases s t u d i e d who were granted s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w h i l e they waited f o r t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s to be approved. The remaining e i g h t y - f i v e per cent had to get along the best they c o u l d , even though the m a j o r i t y were n e a r l y d e s t i t u t e . I t i s found i n comparing a p p l i c a n t s f o r the Moth-er s ' Allowances w i t h a p p l i c a n t s f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , t h a t the former programe does not measure up v e r y f a v o u r a b l y . So-c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases can be p r o v i d e d with an emergency grant the same day they apply, i f the need i s such as to warrant i t . The c e n t r a l o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a has t o w r i t e numerf ous l e t t e r s t o the f i e l d o f f i c e s f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on n e a r l y every Mothers' Allowance case. These l e t t e r s are sent from the Family D i v i s i o n i n V i c t o r i a to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the u n i t passes the i n f o r m a t i o n on to the s u p e r v i s o r and the s u p e r v i s o r to the worker. The worker has to make a v i s i t t o o b t a i n t h i s ad-d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and then pass i t back i n the same manner i t was requested. The average l e n g t h o f time f o r a request f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to be c o l l e c t e d and sent to V i c t o r -i a i s f i v e days. The c l i e n t has to wait and s u f f e r w h i l e de-" c i s i o n s are being reached i n a roundabout f a s h i o n . I f a mother a p p l i e s f o r the allowance i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i s r e f u s e d , she has no-way of a p p e a l i n g t h e de-c i s i o n . On the other hand, a c l i e n t who a p p l i e s f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e can appeal the d e c i s i o n of the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e i f he i s r e f u s e d a s s i s t a n c e t h e r e , simply by i n f o r m i n g the D i r e c -t o r of Welfare to t h i s e f f e c t . The D i r e c t o r o f Welfare then has to appoint a Board of Review to i n v e s t i g a t e the c a s e . The Board of Review examines h i s case and r e p o r t s i t s f i n d i n g s to the D i r e c t o r of Welfare who informs the c l i e n t of the d e c i s i o n . Arguments Against t h i s Programme. Throughout i t s h i s t o r y the Mothers' Allowances Pro-gramme i n B r i t i s h Columbia has excluded many c h i l d r e n i n need. In p r e v e n t i n g c h i l d r e n from r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e , t h i s p r o -gramme has v i o l a t e d the fundamental p r i n c i p l e on which i t was based, and t h i s s i t u a t i o n s t i l l e x i s t s . The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia has embodied i n i t , a t r u e r aspect of the p h i l osophy on which Mothers 1 Allowances were supposed to be based, namely, t h a t o f a s s i s t i n g f a m i l i e s i n need. The i d e a p e r s i s t e d , u n t i l 19*+6, that a woman who had been granted the Mothers' Allowance had been g i v e n a pro-motion. Mothers' Allowances were c o n s i d e r e d a p r e f e r r e d c a t e -gory. This i s no longer t r u e , as t h e r e i s a programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia which supersedes i t . The women who r e c e i v e t h i s allowance at the present time and v/ho s t i l l p r e f e r i t t o s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e have not been informed of the f a c t s about the new programme. Those who were in t e r v i e w e d i n the course o f the present study seemed to l a c k the b a s i c knowledge r e g a r d i n g both programmes. The o p i n i o n of the m a j o r i t y was t h a t they d i d not care i f they were p l a c e d on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d the new programme was equal t o , or b e t t e r than the Mothers' Allowances. When a p p l y i n g f o r the Mothers' Allowance, the ap-p l i c a n t must have a number of the f o l l o w i n g documents v e r i f i e d : marriage c e r t i f i c a t e , b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e s , death c e r t i f i c a t e , a d i v o r c e decree or s e p a r a t i o n decree, and a n a t u r a l i z a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e i f she i s a n a t u r a l i z e d Canadian, as the case may be. An applicant applying for s o c i a l assistance i s not re-quired to produce or v e r i f y any of these documents. The Mothers' Allowances Act defines the categories which are e l i g i b l e for t h i s assistance. These categories are subject to q u a l i f i c a t i o n s before an applicant becomes e l i g i b l e for the allowance. The So c i a l Assistance Act has no cate-gories, but provides f i n a n c i a l help to families i n need. The residence requirement for those applying for Mothers' Allowances i s three years continuous residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This regulation i s too severe and compares unfavourably with s i m i l a r programmes i n the United States. Families applying for s o c i a l assistance must have resided i n the province for one year only p r i o r to application. Those applying for the Mothers' Allowance must be B r i t i s h subjects or former B r i t i s h subjects by b i r t h or natu-r a l i z a t i o n . This s t i p u l a t i o n i s not made i n applications f o r s o c i a l assistance. The applicants for Mothers' Allowances must s a t i s f y the Director of Welfare that they are f i t and proper mothers to receive the allowance. Discrimination i s possible under this clause i n the Act. The Soc i a l Assistance Act has no such requirement but provides an allowance to a l l classes of people regardless of race, colour, creed or p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . There are additional d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n the Moth-ers' Allowances regulations to the effe c t that a mother cannot operate a car without permission; she cannot have a male boarder i n her home without the approval of the board; and 146 c h i l d r e n on whose b e h a l f the allowance i s paid must be a t t e n d -i n g s c h o o l . There are no such requirements i n the S o c i a l As-s i s t a n c e r e g u l a t i o n s . The Mothers' Allowances r e g u l a t i o n s a l s o r e q u i r e the a p p l i c a n t to submit the names of two r e f e r e n c e s . These people are i n t e r v i e w e d i n s t i l l another step towards proof of e l i g i b i l i t y . The r e f e r e n c e s p r o v i d e d by a p p l i c a n t s have been of l i t t l e v a l u e i n determining f i t n e s s of c h a r a c t e r . Never-t h e l e s s , t h i s procedure s t i l l c o n t i n u e s . There i s no r o u t i n e of t h i s nature i n an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The a u t h o r i t y to grant Mothers' Allowances through the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e has not y e t been g i v e n . As a r e s u l t ap-p l i c a n t s o f t e n wait c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h s of time b e f o r e t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s are approved. On the other hand, those who apply f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e are provided w i t h an allowance through the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e and the i n e v i t a b l e w a i t i n g p e r i o d i s r e -duced. Mothers' Allowances cases, due to the f a c t the pro-gramme i s p a r t i a l l y c e n t r a l i z e d , do not r e c e i v e the same a t -t e n t i o n as the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s . S o c i a l a s s i s t -ance cases are v i s i t e d , as a r u l e , every three months while Mothers' Allowances cases are seen on the average of once i n every seven and a h a l f months. The erroneous.; i d e a s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n the present a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t a f a m i l y i n r e c e i p t of Mothers' Allowances does not need as much casework a t t e n t i o n as a s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e case. Arguments have been advanced f o r r e t a i n i n g Mothers' Allowances because of the f i n a n c i a l aspect. The P r o v i n c i a l Government pr o v i d e s a l l the funds f o r t h i s allowance. The c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g an allowance to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases i s shared on a percentage b a s i s by the P r o v i n c i a l Government with the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The P r o v i n c i a l Government pays e i g h t y per cent of the c o s t and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s pay twenty per cent. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Depart-ment, having approximately o n e - t h i r d of the Mothers' Allowances cases, favour a b o l i s h i n g Mothers' Allowances because they be-l i e v e b e t t e r s e r v i c e can be given through s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Furthermore, the over a l l expense i n v o l v e d i s reduced when a l l a p p l i c a n t s come under the same programme. R e c i p i e n t s of Mothers' Allowances have no more s e c u r i t y than those on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . In 1933, a p e r i o d of economic r e c e s s i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , the l e g i s l a t i o n s lowered the a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h i s programme and by so doing f o r c e d a r e d u c t i o n i n the allowance to mothers. Many mothers have c o n s i d e r a b l e f e a r t h a t they w i l l not be a b l e to r e h a b i l i t a t e themselves once t h e i r c h i l d r e n l e a v e s c h o o l or come o f age. F a m i l i e s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e do not have t h i s worry as a s s i s t a n c e i s continued u n t i l i t i s no longer necessary. Rec ommendations. The Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia has not been f l e x i b l e enough to meet the needs of a l l f a m i l i e s i n want. T h i s programme has been too r i g i d i n i t s e l i g i b i l i t y requirements, and s t i l l i s . ih8 However, some f e a r s t i l l e x i s t s i n the minds of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia as to the a d v i s a b i l i t y of a b o l i s h i n g t h i s programme. T h i s doubt i s w e l l expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : "The c u r r e n t movement toward a broad, blanket program of a s s i s t a n c e i s c o n t r a r y to the e a r l i e r movement to take " p r e f e r r e d " groups out from the poor low system. Does t h a t mean we have reached a p o i n t of development i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e at which..all needy people have escaped-- the o l d ^ s t i g m a t i z e d r e l i e f and w i l l be p r o-v i d e d f o r i n a program based on new t h i n k i n g and a new k i n d of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? Or does i t mean that we are moving backward toward the o l d system ag a i n . Could i t be t h a t we are p r e p a r i n g t o get up a g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e program which might produce a l l the abuses of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i e f - i n f a c t are we s e t t i n g up a modern co u n t e r p a r t of the mixed almhouses? There seems to be no q u e s t i o n but t h a t from the r e a l -i s t i c p o i n t of view, the m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s i n which there are dependent c h i l d r e n c o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r i n a g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e program. T h i s i s o n l y t r u e , however, i n those j u r i s d i c t i o n s where the p r o v i s i o n of a s s i s t a n c e and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of i t have reached a h i g h l e v e l . I t would appear t h a t j u s t as s u r e l y i n those p r o v i n c e s without a s t r o n g g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e program, i t would be e s s e n t i a l to continue the c a t e -g o r i c a l programs u n t i l there was a b e t t e r , widespread understanding o f the needs of people. We have reached what acceptance we have of the i d e a of a s s i s t a n c e f o r a l l i n need through the appeal of c a t e g o r i e s . " 1 I f t h i s programme i s to continue to serve f a m i l i e s i n need i n t h i s p r o v i n c e the Mothers' Allowances Act and r e g u l a t i o n s should be amended. A l l c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d i n t h i s Act should be e l i m i n a t e d and'in t h e i r . p l a c e should b e . w r i t t e n t h a t a l l f a m i l i e s i n need , with c h i l d r e n under e i g h t e e n years of age, should be g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e . The r e s i d e n c e requirement should be e i t h e r reduced from three years to one y e a r to com-1 Smith, M. J . "Whither Mothers' Allowances", B r i t i s h C o l - umbia's Welfare, January, 1950, Volume 8, Numbers 9-10, Page pare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e g u l a t i o n s or a b o l i s h e d e n t i r e l y . The n a t i o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r r e g u l a t i o n s have no p l a c e - i n the modern concept of p u b l i c w e l f a r e and should be a b o l i s h e d . The means t e s t f o r Mothers' Allowances cases should a l s o be r e v i s e d . F a m i l i e s should be permitted t o own a home r e g a r d l e s s of i t s v a l u e , provided i t i s used as such. The s t i p u l a t i o n i n the presen t r e g u l a t i o n s o f l i m i t i n g a i d to f a m i l i e s who have p r o p e r t y valued above $2VSOO »00 i s not sound and should be amended. The p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y requirement of l i m i t i n g a i d t o those having $500.00 or less- i s not c o n s t r u c -t i v e . The c o s t o f l i v i n g has r i s e n s h a r p l y i n Canada i n the l a s t t e n years and t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n should be changed i n order to keep abreast with the times. T h i s requirement should be r a i s e d to $820.00 to cover the a d d i t i o n a l l i v i n g c o s t s . The s p e c i a l d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as o u t l i n e d i n the r e g u l a t i o n s c o v e r i n g the ownership of a c a r , boarders, and c h i l d r e n who leave s c h o o l b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the d e s i r e d age, should be a b o l i s h e d . The n e c e s s i t y of p r o c u r i n g documents such as b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e s , death c e r t i f i c a t e s , d i v o r c e d decrees, decrees of j u d i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n , and n a t u r a l i z a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e s should be e l i m i n a t e d . The n e c e s s i t y f o r an ap-l i c a n t to submit the names of two r e f e r e n c e s serves no u s e f u l purpose and should be a b o l i s h e d . I f t h i s programme i s to be maintained, t o pave the way f o r a hi g h e r standard o f l i v i n g f o r f a m i l i e s on allowances, there i s a need t o i n c r e a s e the allowances c o n s i d e r a b l y . The allowances s c a l e has been p i t i f u l l y low d u r i n g the years i t has been i n o p e r a t i o n and there i s a need f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e im-provement. The Mothers 1 Allowances s c a l e should be worked out to p r o v i d e a minimum standard of h e a l t h and decency as sug-gested i n t h i s study. Mothers should be encouraged to remain i n the home and p r o v i d e proper care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I f a mother wanted to work and she was not r e c e i v i n g the f u l l a l -lowance a c c o r d i n g to the s c a l e worked out, she should be per-m i t t e d to earn the d i f f e r e n c e between what she i s g e t t i n g and the e s t a b l i s h e d s c a l e b e f o r e any r e d u c t i o n i s made i n her b a s i c allowance. Anything earned above that c o u l d be a d j u s t e d on a percentage b a s i s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s i n g l e sons having t o con-t r i b u t e t o the f a m i l y support should be e l i m i n a t e d , as there i s too much evidence to show that these boys, even though working, r a r e l y c o n t r i b u t e a f i x e d amount over any l e n g t h of time and the mothers and younger c h i l d r e n are the s u f f e r e r s . S i n g l e sons should, however, be encouraged to a s s i s t w i t h more expensive items of household f u r n i t u r e r e q u i r e d and w i t h r e p a i r work needed on the house. The a u t h o r i t y to grant allowances to mothers should be d e c e n t r a l i z e d . I f t h i s were done f a m i l i e s would not have ... to w ait c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h s of time f o r t h e i r f i r s t cheque. There i s a need to a s s i s t mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n t o f i n d proper housing accommodation. Too many f a m i l i e s are l i v -i n g i n damp, u n s a n i t a r y , d i l a p i d a t e d b u i l d i n g s , and have no a l t e r n a t i v e but to remain i n such. I f the allowances were i n -creased as suggested, many f a m i l i e s would be able t o s o l v e t h i s problem themselves. Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n need a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of casework s e r v i c e s and should be v i s i t e d f r e q u e n t l y t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r e c o r d s r e v e a l t h a t the casework done at present c o n s i s t s mostly of j u s t o b t a i n -i n g the m a t e r i a l f a c t s and s o c i a l workers have n e g l e c t e d the emotional and human component. A s o c i a l worker has t o e s t a -b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p with Mothers' Allowances cases so t h a t . a l l the f e a r and re p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s are brought out. By so doing the mothers are made to f e e l f r e e t o enjoy community a c t i v i t i e s . More funds should be made a v a i l a b l e from c o l l e c t ; t i o n s o f the three per cent s a l e s t a x to f i n a n c e t h i s p r o -gramme. A s u f f i c i e n t grant should be a p p r o p r i a t e d to all o w f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n p r o v i d i n g incomes t o f a m i l i e s . A b e t t e r method of d e a l i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s i n need would be through a p r o p e r l y i n t e g r a t e d S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Pro-, gramme. I f the recommendations, as o u t l i n e d i n the "Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada" by Dr. L. C. Marsh, were c a r r i e d out, the Mothers' Allowances Programmes as they e x i s t across Canada at pre s e n t , would l a r g e l y d i s a p p e a r . T h i s r e -port.jreads i n part:. "To the extent, t h e r e f o r e , that the recommendations made i n t h i s r e p o r t with r e s p e c t t o f a m i l y allowances and other types o f insurance are c a r r i e d out, the g r a f t i n g o f s u r v i v o r ' s b e n e f i t on t o the insurance programme f o r d i s a b i l i t y and o l d age would very l a r g e -l y make Mothers' Allowances i n t h e i r present form un-necessary. Assuming t h a t s u r v i v o r ' s b e n e f i t s are not prov i d e d i n the manner suggested, but that c h i l d r e n ' s allowances are pr o v i d e d ( o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , assuming that the widow i s i n e l i g i b l e f o r s u r v i v o r ' s b e n e f i t s 152 because o f the f a c t t h a t her husband was not an i n -sured person), t h e r e would s t i l l seem to be l i t t l e case f o r Mothers' Allowances i n t h e i r present form, s i n c e the proper way to supplement the c h i l d r e n ' s allowances, i n order to p r o v i d e maintenance f o r the widow, would be through a reformed system o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . " 1 I f the Dominion Government implemented an insurance programme f o r v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of need, i n Canada, on a con-t r i b u t o r y b a s i s , those who are at p r e s e n t r e c e i v i n g Mothers' Allowances would have t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h grants p a i d by the Dominion Government u n t i l the i n s u r a n c e fund was b u i l t up. Those not covered by t h i s i n surance programme would have t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e through a reformed pro-gramme of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . I f the Mothers' Allowances Programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s not improved c o n s i d e r a b l y by mid-1951, then i t should be a b o l i s h e d as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r t h a t date and a l l f a m i l i e s at p r e s e n t on Mothers' Allowances p l a c e d on so-c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n t h i s p r o v i n c e has embodied i n i t the newer approach of h e l p i n g a l l f a m i l i e s i n need. The b i g g e s t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme at present i s the inadequate allowance p r o v i d e d . t o f a m i l i e s . In order to remedy t h i s , the F e d e r a l Government should be urged to c o n t r i b u t e a p r o p o r t i o n o f the c o s t . The F e d e r a l Government c o u l d do t h i s by a s t r a i g h t per c a p i t a grant each year t o the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The P r o v i n c i a l 1 Marsh, L. C , Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada, P r i n t e r t o the King's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, Ottawa, 19M-3, Page 98. Government would then c o n t r i b u t e i t s share of the c o s t s . The amount of money se t a s i d e each year f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e work i n B r i t i s h Columbia should, t h e r e f o r e , be enough t o permit s o c i a l workers i n the f i e l d to help f a m i l i e s w i t h t h e i r f i n a n -c i a l needs on a budget b a s i s . There i s a need to extend the boarding home pro-gramme and, by so doing, make a fund a v a i l a b l e f o r the care of c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. T h i s i d e a has been expressed r e c e n t l y i n an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n on Mothers' Allow-ances i n B r i t i s h Columbia as f o l l o w s : " I t was s t a t e d above t h a t r e a l i s t i c a l l y the m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s c o u l d be cared f o r through a good blank e t a s s i s t a n c e program. Are t h e r e not some o t h e r s , a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l group i t i s t r u e , whose needs would not be met? There are f a m i l i e s where f i n a n c i a l , a s s i s t -ance i s d e f i n i t e l y r e q u i r e d but where problems c e n t e r -in g around proper c h i l d care are p r e s s i n g . In some ways the needs of those f a m i l i e s should be met through a more f l e x i b l e program than one c e n t e r e d p r i m a r i l y around e l i g i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l h e l p . As an answer i t i s suggested t h a t thought should be g i v e n t o extend-ing the boarding home programe so t h a t a fund would be a v a i l a b l e f o r the care of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. A fund such as t h i s would have to be used with utmost d i s c r e t i o n and s k i l l both from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p r a c t i c e s t a n d p o i n t s . The p h i l o s o p h y behind such ah arrangement must r e s t on c h i l d c a r e , and the watch word of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must of n e c e s s i t y be. f l e x i b i l i t y . Can a p u b l i c w e l f a r e program achieve s u f f i c i e n t f l e x -i b i l i t y f o r such a program? There i s no reason why i t cannot, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p r a c t i s i n g s t a f f have reached a h i g h p o i n t of development." 1 I f such a fund were made a v a i l a b l e i t c o u l d be used f o r p r e v e n t i v e work. The number o f c h i l d r e n who have to be removed from t h e i r homes each year would be reduced con-s i d e r a b l y through such a scheme. T h i s fund c o u l d be used f o r 1 Smith, M. J . , "Whither Mothers' Allowances, B r i t i s h Columbia  Welfare, January, 1950, Volume 8, Numbers 9-10, Pages 5 and 6, v a r i o u s purposes such as, p r o v i d i n g p s y c h i a t r i c h e l p t o d i s -turbed p a r e n t s , a homemaker s e r v i c e , s p e c i a l treatment f o r very d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , r e s e a r c h , parents and c h i l d r e n ' s h o l i d a y s , e t c . The l a r g e caseloads which the s o c i a l workers have c a r r i e d up t o the pr e s e n t time should be reduced as soon as p o s s i b l e . T h i s would enable s o c i a l workers t o co n c e n t r a t e on r e n d e r i n g b e t t e r casework s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l workers have placed too much emphasis on t r y i n g t o a s s i s t t h e i r c l i e n t s to f i n d employment, when a c t u a l l y the mothers should be a t home t a k i n g care of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Mothers should be h e l p e d ^ i n every way p o s s i b l e by the s o c i a l workers and encouraged to f i n d i n t e r e s t s i n the a f f a i r s of the community. 155 Appendix A. Mothers 1 Allowances A c t . ACT - passed December 10, 1937. 1. T h i s Act may be c i t e d as the "Mothers' Allowances A c t " . 2. In t h i s Act, u n l e s s the context otherwise r e q u i r e s : - "Bene-f i c i a r y " means a woman who i s granted an allowance under t h i s A c t : "Resident i n the P r o v i n c e " i n r e s p e c t o f any persons means tha t the person has h i s main p l a c e of abode i n t h i s Prov-i n c e , t o which whenever he i s absent he has the i n t e n t i o n of r e t u r n i n g , but i n no case s h a l l a person be c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e n t i n the Pr o v i n c e d u r i n g any p e r i o d of absence from the P r o v i n c e which exceeds s i x months: "Superintendent" means the Superintendent o f Welfare. 3 . E v e r y woman s h a l l be q u a l i f i e d t o become a b e n e f i c i a r y under t h i s Act who, being the mother o f , or having the custody of one or more c h i l d r e n under the age of s i x t e e n years r e s i d i n g w i t h her and under her p e r s o n a l c a r e , i s un-ab l e t o provide proper support f o r such c h i l d or c h i l d r e n , and who:-(a) Is r e s i d e n t i n the Pro v i n c e and has been r e s i d e n t i n the Provi n c e f o r at l e a s t three c o n s e c u t i v e years im-mediately p r i o r to the date o f her a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an allowance; and who (b) Is a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t or was fo r m e r l y a B r i t i s h sub-j e c t by b i r t h or n a t u r a l i z a t i o n ; and who (c) (1) Is a widow whose husband was r e s i d e n t i n the P r o v i n c e at the time o f t h e appearance, i n s e r i -o u s l y d i s a b l i n g form, o f the d i s a b i l i t y w hich caused h i s death; or I s a woman whose husband became an inmate of a penetentiary or public hospital for insane a t a time when he was r e s i d e n t i n t h e P r o v i n c e ; or Is a woman whose husband i s unable to support his family by reason of t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y which arose at a time when he was resident i n the Prov-ance and which d i s a b i l i t y may reasonably be ex-pected to continue for at least one year; or Is a woman to whom a Court has granted a separa-t i o n from her husband or a divorce from her hus-band a t least two years prior to the date of her application for an allowance and at a time when her husband was resident i n the P r o v i n c e , and who i s u n a b l e , a f t e r making every r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t , to obtain support from her separated or divorced husband; or I s a woman who has been deserted by her husband at least two years p r i o r to t h e date of her ap-p l i c a t i o n for an allowance and at a time when he was resident i n the Province, and whose husband i s , so far as can be ascertained, not i n t h e Province nor the owner of property within the Province, and who i s unable, after making every reasonable e f f o r t , to o b t a i n s u p p o r t from him; or 157 .i (6) Is any other woman w i t h i n the scope of the r e g -u l a t i o n s R.S. 1936, c. 194,ss. 2(1),*+ ( a l t e r e d ) . 4. No woman otherwise q u a l i f i e d to become a b e n e f i c i a r y s h a l l be d i s q u a l i f i e d by reason o f the f a c t t h a t she, or her hus-band, or. her husband 1s e s t a t e , or her c h i l d r e n are posses-sed of prope r t y , r e a l or p e r s o n a l , wheh:-(a) The t o t a l v a l u e of the p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y , i n a d d i -t i o n t o necessary household equipment and wearing-a p p a r e l , does not exceed f i v e hundred d o l l a r s ; and (b) The r e a l p r o p e r t y i s used by her as a home and does not exceed two thousand f i v e hundred d o l l a r s i n as-sessed v a l u e above encumbrances thereon. 5. (1) Subject t o the p r o v i s i o n s of s u b s e c t i o n ( 2 ) , any woman s h a l l be deemed to be q u a l i f i e d t o become a b e n e f i c i a r y under t h i s Act i f , having p r e v i o u s l y moved i n t o t h i s Province from some other Province of the Dominion, she i s q u a l i f i e d to become a b e n e f i -c i a r y except on the grounds of l e n g t h of re s i d e n c e i n the Province under the p r o v i s i o n s o f c l a u s e (a) of s e c t i o n 3, and except on the grounds of r e s i d e n c e i n t h i s P r o v i n c e of her husband under the p r o v i s i o n s of c l a u s e ( c ) of s e c t i o n 3. (.2) The li e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may enter i n t o a r e c i p r o c a l arrangement w i t h the E x e c u t i v e Government of any other Province o f the Dominion to pro v i d e that o b l i g a t i o n s s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same as those s et out i n s u b s e c t i o n (1) s h a l l be assumed by th a t Govern-ment or by the municipalities or that other Prov-ince i n respect of any woman who moves from t h i s Province to that other Province, and thereupmthe Lieutenant-Governor i n Council may by order declare that the Provisions of subsection (1) s h a l l during the continuance of the arrangements apply i n respect to that other Province. Every arrangement so made s h a l l be subject to the further conditions and r e s t r i c t i o n s set out therein and to cancellations by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council (new) In the case of every woman who, being the mother of or hav-ing custody of one or more children, applies for an allow-ance under t h i s Act, the Superintendent of s h a l l cause an inquiry to be made into her circumstances, and i f after thorough inquiry i t i s established to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Superintendent thats-(a) She i s q u a l i f i e d to become a beneficiary under this Act: and that (b) She i s a f i t and proper person to have the care and custody of the c h i l d or children; and that (c) I t i s i n the best interests of the c h i l d or children that she should receive an allowance — the Superintendent s h a l l forthwith recommend that she be-come a beneficiary under th i s Act; and an allowance s h a l l be granted to her, to be paid i n such manner and at such times as the regulations may prescribe, for the support or p a r t i a l support of the woman and the c h i l d or children and 15* her d i s a b l e d husband ( i f any). 7. Every woman whom, immediately p r i o r to the commencement of t h i s Act, i s i n r e c e i p t of an allowance under the "Mothers* Pensions A c t " , and who, under that Act, would have been en-t i t l e d to continue i n r e c e i p t o f an allowance, s h a l l , f o r t h -w i t h upon the commencement of t h i s Act, become a b e n e f i c i a r y s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Act, and s h a l l r e c e i v e an allowance, (new) 8. S u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Act and the r e g u l a t i o n s , the amount of the allowance t o be p a i d to any b e n e f i c i a r y s h a l l be such as the Superintendent deems necessary, i n the l i g h t o f the circumstances, t o a s s i s t the b e n e f i c i a r y and her dependents; but the maximum amounts payable t o a bene-f i c i a r y under t h i s Act s h a l l b e i -(a) Forty-two d o l l a r s and f i f t y cents per month i n re*» spect o f h e r s e l f and one c h i l d under the age of s i x - , teen y e a r s ; and (b) Seven d o l l a r s and f i f t y cents per month i n r e s p e c t of each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d under the age of s i x t e e n y e a r s ; and (c) Seven d o l l a r s and f i f t y cents per month i n r e s p e c t o f her husband, i f he i s t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d and r e s i d i n g with h e r 0 9. The superintendent may at any time order t h a t an allowance s h a l l no longer be pa i d i n r e s p e c t o f any b e n e f i c i a r y , i f he i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t she has ceased t o be e n t i t l e d to an allowance pursuant to the p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n s 3 to 7o 10. The Department of the Pro v i n c i a l Secretary s h a l l be charged with the Administration of t h i s Act; and there s h a l l be i n that Department an o f f i c e r to be known as the "Superintend-ent of Welfare", who, under the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, s h a l l administer and carry out the provisions of th i s Act. 11. For the more ef f e c t i v e administration of th i s Act, the Pr o v i n c i a l Secretary may appoint an Advisory Board, to con-s i s t of not more than f i v e persons, a majority of whom shall be e l i g i b l e for reappointment. A l l members s h a l l serve without remuneration, but they may be reimbursed for the actual and necessary t r a v e l l i n g and l i v i n g expenses i n -curred by them i n the discharge of thei r o f f i c i a l duties. The Board s h a l l meet from time to time at the c a l l of the Pr o v i n c i a l Secretary. I t shall'be the duty of the Board to advise the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary with respect to the opera-t i o n of t h i s Act. 12. In the absence of any special appropriation of the Legis-lature available f o r the purposes of this Act, a l l moneys necessary to meet the allowances payable under this Act and the salaries and expenses necessarily incurred i n the ad-ministration of t h i s Act s h a l l be paid out of the Consoli-dated Revenue Fund. 13. (1) The accounts of the Superintendent's administration under t h i s Act s h a l l be made up to the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of March and the t h i r t i e t h day of September re-spectively i n each year, and at such other times as may be determined by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l ; and i n every case the Superintendent s h a l l prepare a balance-sheet and a statement of account and submit the same to the C o m p t r o l l e r - G e n e r a l for. h i s c e r t i f i c a t i o n . ( 2 ) Copies o f the above balance sheets and statements of accounts s h a l l be f o r t h w i t h l a i d b e f o r e the L e g i s -l a t i v e Assembly i f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i s then • i n s e s s i o n , and i f not then i n s e s s i o n s h a l l be l a i d before the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly w i t h i n f i f t e e n days a f t e r the opening o f the next s e s s i o n . 14. The Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a -t i o n s , not i n c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s Act, as he c o n s i d e r s necessary f o r the proper, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the A c t . 15- The "Mothers 1 Pensions A c t " being chapter 194. of the "Re-v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 3 6 ".is r e p e a l e d . 16. T h i s Act s h a l l come i n t o o p e r a t i o n on a day to be f i x e d by , the Lieutenant-Governor by h i s Pr o c l a m a t i o n . Chapter 4 2 . AN ACT TO AMEND THE "MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES ACT". (assented to, March 1 8 t h , 1943). 1. T h i s Act may be c i t e d as the "Mothers' Allowances Act Amend-ment Act, 1943". 2 . The"Mothers' Allowances Act", being chapter 53 of the S t a t -utes of 1937, i s amended by i n s e r t i n g t h e r e i n the f o l l o w i n g as s e c t i o n 3A;— "3A. Notwithstanding the p r o v i s i o n s of s e c t i o n 3? an a l l o w -ance may be p a i d s u b j e c t t o the c o n d i t i o n s set f o r t h i n the regulations, i n respect o f : — "(A) A c h i l d over sixteen but under eighteen years of ag or; "(B) A c h i l d temporarily residing apart from his mother. .Suggested Budgets f o r Famili'. T h i s form i s a sample breakdown c si n c e every • GROUP I II I] S i z e of Family Man or Woman Man & OR Woman j& Woman c h i l d Man,Woman QF & 1 c h i l d INCOME 35.00 50.00 50.00 5.00 58.50 5.00 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 1. Family Allowance T o t a l 35.00 50.00 55.00 63.50 BUDGET 10.00 20.00 2.50 2.00 .50 12.00 12.00 31.00 3*+. 00 3.oo -+.00 3.00 3o00 1.00 2.00 ih.-oo 39.00 5.oo 3.50 2.00 Rent Allowance Food 2. Operating 3. C l o t h i n g •+.' E t c . 1. F a m i l y Allowance:- No. of .Chi l d r e n B i r t h to 5 years 5 years to 9 yrs, 5.00 5.00 6.00 5.00 6o00 5.00 6.00 5.00 '6.00 h e a t i n g , f u e l f o r cooking, c o s t s i n c i d e n t a l to running 3. C l o t h i n g expenses are c a l c u l a t e d ' a s 6% of S o c i a l A s s i s t a E t c . expenses i n c l u d e - c a r f a r e , i n s u r a n c e , amusements, 1 2 I . 5 . 5.00 2. Operating Expenses i n c l u d e 163 Appendix Bo S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e and Mothers' Allowances. jxpenditures and i s to be used only as a guide l i l y i s a law unto i t s e l f . 1 IV' V l VI foman & c h i l d . Man, Woman QR Woman & & 2 c h i l d . 3 c h i l d . Man,Woman QR Woman & & 3 c h i l d . 'if c h i l d . Man,Woman nj> Woman & & h c h i l d . 5 c h i l d , ^58.50 ,11.00 69.50 67.00 67.00 11.00 18.00 78,00 85o00 75.50 ' 75.50 18.00 26.00 93.50 101.50 8-+.00 8-+o00 26.00 31.00 110.00 115.00 ;l-+.00 >3.00 6.00 3.50 2.50 16.00 16.00 *+9.50 55.00 6.00 7.00 •+.00 h.00 2.50 3.00 18.00 18.00 60.00 65.50 . 8.00 9.00 •+.50 -+.50 3.00 1+.50 20.00 20.00 71.00 75.00 9.00 10.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 ears 12 y r s . ..00 .00 ,00. 12 years to 16 y r s . T o t a l 5.00 11.00 18.00 8.00 26.00 8,00 31.00 (ht, telephone, c l e a n i n g m a t e r i a l s , r e p a i r s , replacement and a l l home. f i g u r e e x c l u s i v e of f a m i l y allowance, bs, tobacco, newspaper, e t c . MHN. 3.*+9 Appendix C B i b l i o g r a p h y . G e n e r a l References. Books: 1. Beavers, Helen P.. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the Y.W.C.A., The Woman's Press, New York, 19l+i+. ' """ 2. C a s s i d y , Harry M., P u b l i c H e a l t h and Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n . The Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, 19*+^ 3 . De Sc h w e i n i t z , K a r l , England's Road to S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania Press, P h i l a d e l p h i a , l S ^ . h. L e i r f a l l o m , J a r l e and Drake R u s s e l l P., O r g a n i z a t i o n and  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the L o c a l P u b l i c Welfare S e r v i c e s , Amer-i c a n P u b l i c W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n , 1913, E a s t S i x t i e t h S t r e e t , Chicago 37, I l l i n o i s , December 1, 191+3. 5. Mielspough, A r t h u r C , P u b l i c Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n , The Brookings I n s t i t u t e , Washington, D . C , 1935, Pages 3-+5-381. 6. Stevenson, M a r i e t t a , P u b l i c Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , The MacMill a n Company, New York, 1938. 7. White, C.R., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P u b l i c Welfare, American Book Company, New York, 19*+0. A r t i c l e s and Repo r t s . 1. A Guide t o Family Spending i n Toronto, Canada, 19*+9, Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Toronto. 2« B i e n n i a l Report, S t a t e Department of He a l t h and Welfa r e , Main, 19l+6-191+8. 3. " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S t a t e P l a n s , Old Age A s s i s t a n c e , A i d to the B l i n d , A i d to Dependent Children",. F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau of P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , Washington, D . C , A p r i l 1 s t , 19*+6. *+. " P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e Goals ,191+9",. F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau of P u b l i c A s s i s t -ance, December, 19-+8. 5. "The Fam i l y " , J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Casework, February, 19^5, Volume XXV. No. 10, Pages 375-381. S p e c i f i c R eferences. Books. 1. Abbott, Grace, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , Volume I I , The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1947. 2. Anthony, K a t h e r i n e , The Endowment of Motherhood, R. W. Hueback, Inc., New York, MCMXX. 3 . B u l l o c k , Edna D., S e l e c t e d A r t i c l e s on Mothers' Pensions, The H.W. Wilson Company, White P l a i n s , N.Y., and New York C i t y , 19^5. 4. S o c i a l Work Year Book, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 19^9, Pages 9b-109o A r t i c l e s and R e p o r t s . 1. Annual F i n a n c i a l Reports, C i t y of Vancouver, 1945-49 2. A r n o l d , M i l d r e d , "The Scope and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of P u b l i c C h i l d Welfare, C h i l d Welfare a t the Crossroads". 3 . An H i s t o r i c a l Review of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e of the Govern-ment of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948. 4. Report on Housing C o n d i t i o n s of R e c i p i e n t s o f Mothers' Pensions i n C e r t a i n S e c t i o n s of Vancouver, A p r i l 12, 1937. 5. Report on Housing Expenditures i n Mothers 1 Allowances F a m i l i e s . January 23. 1941. 6. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n  and Mothers' Pensions, P r i n t e d by W i l l i a m s H. C u l l i n , P r i n t e r t o the King's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, May 1st,1921. 7. Annual Reports Made Under Mothers' Pensions A c t , King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C., September, 1922 t o March, 1936. 8. Annual Reports, S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Branch Department of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , P r i n t e d by Don McDiarmid, P r i n t e r t o the King's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, V i c t o r i a , B. C., March 31st, 1943 to March 31st, 1946. 9. Annual Reports o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Mothers' .Allow-ances Act of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Welfare Branch, Department of the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C., March 31st, 1936 to March 31st, 19*+3* 10. Annual Reports of S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , P r i n t e d by Don McDiarmid, P r i n t e r to the King's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, V i c t o r i a , B.C., March 31st, 1946, to March 31st, 1948. 11. Hoey, Jane M. "Recommendations to Improve P r o v i s i o n s of the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Act", 20 January, 1950. 166 12. Marsh, L. C , Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada, P r i n t e r to the King's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, Ottawa, 1943. - , 13. Mothers' Allowances L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada, Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare Research D i v i s i o n , Ottawa, May, 1949. 14. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, P u b l i c Accounts, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B..C., March, 1949. 15. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, A Review of Resources, P r o d u c t i o n and Governmental F i n a n c e s , Department of Fin a n c e , King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , J u l y 15, 1949. 16. Report on Mothers' Pensions, Commission on H e a l t h Insur-ance, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C , 1920. 17. Report on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mothers' Pensions i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1920 to 1930-1, Supplement to C h i l d  and F a m i l y W e l f a r e , May, 1932. 18. "Towards a 1950 White House Conference on C h i l d r e n and Youth, Conference on S t a t e P l a n n i n g f o r C h i l d r e n and Youth, March 3 0 t h - A p r i l 1 s t , 1949. 19. "Vancouver Sun Paper", March 9 t h , 1949, Page 28. 

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