UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Change in Jewish religious life Kogen, David Chaim 1951

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CHANGE IN JEWISH RELIGIOUS LIFE by DAVIDICHAIM KOGEN ( i f I F}1$ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Economics, P o l i t i c a l Science, and Sociology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS. -Members of the lefartment of Economics, P o l i t i c a l Science, and Sociolo^ THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 195l« ABSTRACT The aim of t h i s thesis i s to study the problem of change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . At the outset, a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l review of the development of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law i s sketched In order to introduce the reader to some of the r e l i g i o u s problems which have faced the Jews during the past two centuries. The second chapter outlines the four most important modern approaches to the problem of change: Reform, Neo-Orthodox, Conservative, and Reconstructionist. In con-nection with each of these movements, the reader w i l l f i n d a b r i e f history, explanation of p r i n c i p l e s , and evaluation. A study of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n Vancouver i s presented i n the t h i r d chapter to show the extent of s o c i a l change away from the norm of Orthodoxy that has taken place i n the Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e of t h i s community. Wherever possible, comparisons are made with the Jewish community of Minneapolis, one of the fettf that have been studied, i n order to ascertain i f Vancouver i s t y p i c a l . In the l a s t chapter certain conclusions are reached about the need for change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Con-clusions are reached aft e r considering the h i s t o r y of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law, the modern attempts to change t h i s law, and the extent to which contemporary Jews observe Jewish r e l i g i o u s law» CONTENTS Chapter Page I. The Development of Jewish Religious Law.... 1 I I . Modern Attempts to Change Jewish Religious L i f e . . . ... 18 A. Reform Movement 18 B. Neo-Orthodox Movement 37 C. Conservative Movement iio D. Reconstructionist School 57 I I I . Jewish Religious Observance i n Vancouver... 68 A. The Dietary Laws 71 B. Days of Joy and Solemnity 8 l 1. The Sabbath Day 8 l 2. The Major Holidays 90 3 . The Minor F e s t i v a l s 101 C. The Lifetime of a Jew 106 D. The Synagogue 125 E. Religious Education 136 F. The Family and the Home 114-2 0 . Duties of the Heart 157 IV. Some Conclusions and Speculations.... 171 Bibliography 187 Questionnaire on Religious Observance... 190 TABLES I. The Observance of Certain Phases of the Dietary Laws i n Vancouver, 1950 Jl\. I I . A comparison of Observance of Certain Phases of the Dietary Laws i n Minneapolis,I9I4-6, and Vancouver, 1950 •' 75 I I I . The Observance of Certain Phases of the Dietary Laws Outside the Homes, Vancouver, 1950 78 IV. Sabbath Synagogue Attendance by Families of Hebrew School Pupils, Vancouver, 1950 85 V. Religious Practices Observed by Families of Hebrew School Pupils,Vancouver,1950, and Minneapolis, 1914.6 86-89 VI. Burials i n Jewish Cemeteries i n Vancouver, October, 191L5* to September, 1950 123 VII. Synagogue Membership i n Vancouver, 1951* 133 VIII. Students Enrolled i n Jewish Schools In Van-couver, 1950-51 139 IX. Intermarriages i n B r i t i s h Columbia 151 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to acknowledge my gratef u l appreciation f o r the assistance given to me by Professor C.W. Topping of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, under whose supervision t h i s thesis was prepared© CHANGE IN JEWISH RELIGIOUS LIFE CHAPTER I THE DEVELOPMENT OF JEWISH RELIGIOUS LAW Because a l l Jews believed i n one ideology u n t i l about two centuries ago, they were able to survive as a people. A l l Jews believed i n God, i n His moral law, and i n His s a l -vation. They believed that they were a chosen people because they received His revelation on Mount S i n a i . Revelation was considered perfect and complete i n the sacred texts of Judaism. As a revealed f a i t h , Judaism was conceived as something permanent and immutable. Although i t was taught that the righteous of a l l peoples have a share i n the world to come, a l l Jews believed i n the supreme worthwhileness of Judaism. It was assumed that without Judaism no Jew could achieve salvation. F i n a l l y , a l l Jews believed that they constituted 1 a nation i n e x i l e . The basis of the Jewish r e l i g i o n i s the Torah. Torah i s 2 a Hebrew word which i s variously used to mean the Pentateuch; the entire Hebrew Bible; a l l of Jewish sacred l i t e r a t u r e ; a whole body of r e l i g i o u s truth, study, and practice; or that way of l i f e which leads to salvation. Sometimes the word Torah i s translated as "law" or "study", but t h i s l i m i t e d t r a n s l a t i o n applies only to a s p e c i f i c meaning of the term. According to Jewish t r a d i t i o n the Torah was given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai more than thirty-one centuries - 2 -ago. Not only the Ten Commandments were made known to Moses, but everything i n the Pentateuch and i n a l l subsequent Jewish r e l i g i o u s laws. In f a c t , the Pentateuch, although written by Moses, was not his work but the Word of God. It i s an axiom of t r a d i t i o n a l Judaism that a l l Jewish r e l i g i o u s law goes back ultimately to the revelation on Mount S i n a i : "Moses received the Torah on S i n a i , and handed i t down to Joshua; Joshua to the elders; the elders to the prophets; and the prophets handed i t down to the Men of the Great 3 -Assembly....11 These teachings were passed on from generation to generation through leaders, scholars, elders, prophets, scribes, rabbis and teachers* The Pentateuch, and l a t e r the prophetic writings and the other books i n the Hebrew Bible, formed the Written Law. But as time went on, new situations arose which were apparently not covered by the Written Law. The "teachers, judges, and rabbis assumed that the Torah must be interpreted i n order to meet the new conditions. Thus, new decisions i n both c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s law were made mainly on the basis of the teachings i n the Pentateuch. During the course of several centuries these new decisions became numerous, but i t was considered a r e l i g i o u s offense to write them down. Nevertheless, an attempt was made to arrive at some new p r i n c i p l e s upon which to base the Oral Law. Scholars of the law endeavored "to found I t s provisions on a b i b l i c a l basis and support, and to deduce therefrom new pro-visions f o r cases not yet provided f o r . " These new ideas, transmitted from teacher to d i s c i p l e , became known as the Oral Law. F i n a l l y , when the Oral Law was so vast i n scope as to challenge the memory of the scholars, i t was committed to writing by Rabbi Judah Hanasi (the Prince) about the year 200 i n Palestine. The new work, c a l l e d the Mishna, recorded the discussions and decisions of the Jewish teachers who had f l o u r i s h e d during the f i v e centuries before Rabbi Judaic* s l i f e t i m e . The Mishna, written i n a clear and concise Hebrew, was the f i r s t c o d i f i c a t i o n of the o r a l or unwritten law. In time the Mishna became the main subject of study i n the Jewish academies i n Palestine and Babylonia. In each country a new commentary on the Mishna was developed i n the schools. These commentaries were considered as a supplement or completion of the Mishna. The commentaries also contained a vast amount of material which cbe s not have any close con-nection with the Mishna text. This material included l e g a l reports, h i s t o r i c a l and biographical information, r e l i g i o u s and ethical maxims, and h o m i l e t i c a l remarks. In time t h i s amorphous mass of knowledge became known as the Gemara. The subject matter of the Gemara i s generally c l a s s i f i e d as Halacha and Agada. Halacha (law) includes " a l l exposition, discussions and reports explaining, establishing and determinHv l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s and provisions." The Agada includes every-thing which i s not Halacha, f o r example, " a l l h i s t o r i c a l records, a l l legends, and parables, a l l d o c t r i n a l and e t h i c a l teachings and a l l free and unrestrained interpretations of 6 Scripture. 1 1 There were two compilations of the Gemara, one i n Palestine and the other i n Babylonia. The P a l e s t i n i a n version was com-p i l e d i n the fourth or f i f t h century, and the Babylonian version was completed at the end of the s i x t h century. The l a t t e r version has been more popularly studied and more widely interpreted during the past fourteen or f i f t e e n centuries. The Mishna and Gemara together are known as the Talmud. Next to the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud i s the most important product of the Jewish mind. The Talmud i s r e a l l y the Bible i n action i n d a i l y l i f e . The Talmud applies the ideas and ideals of the Bible to every day human a c t i v i t i e s . The emphasis on the im-portance of l i v i n g by law i s a l l the more remarkable since the Jews had no central government from the days of the writing of the Mishna to t h i s day. The Talmud i s considered i n t r a d i t i o n a l Judaism as a l i n k i n the chain which leads i n a straight path back to Moses and S i n a i . The Talmud was used as a guide for new situations i n l a t e r days. Many commentaries were written to cover situations which were p a r a l l e l with those i n the Talmud. The Talmud i s r e a l l y a very d i f f i c u l t set of books to study. Since there are no punctuation marks i n this work, i t i s often - 5 -d i f f i c u l t to separate a question from an answer i n the i n t r i c a t e discussions that are recorded. The style i s very d i f f i c u l t too. It i s not a l l pure Hebrew ( l i k e the Mishna), but rather a mixture of Hebrew, Aramaic and mutilated Persian words. Many commentaries have been writ-ten to help explain the Gemara text. One of the e a r l i e r commentaries was written by Rabbenu Chananel of Kairivan (North Africa) i n the beginning of the eleventh century. The best known commentator was Rabbi Solomon Isaaki of Troyes, Prance (10.ij.0-1105>) who i s usually c a l l e d Rashi. Rashi's commentary, often c a l l e d "the key to the Talmud," i s printed i n a l l editions of the Babylonian Talmud i n a special Rashi s c r i p t . I f i t were not for Rashi's clear, concise, systematic comments, the Babylonian Talmud would have been studied as infrequently as the Palestinian. While Rashi's comments are always printed on the i n t e r i o r margin near the binding of each page of the Babylonian Talmud, the. Tosaphoth (meaning Additions) are printed on the exterior margins. The men who wrote these annotations l i v e d i n Prance and Germany during the twelfth and thirteenth cen-t u r i e s . The f i r s t among them were the sons-in-law and 7 d i s c i p l e s of the Rashi. In a l l the Talmudic mass of l e g a l discussions and commentaries, i t often became d i f f i c u l t , i f not im-possible, to f i n d the law i n a simply-stated form to answer a s p e c i f i c question. To meet t h i s need various codes - 6 -of Jewish law were written by outstanding scholars* Rabbi Isaac A l f a s i ( I O I 3 - I I I 3 ) , who was born i n the c i t y of Fez (North Africa) and died i n Spain, wrote a con-densation of the legal portions of the Talmud which he c a l l e d Halachoth. This work i s generally known by the name of i t s author, A l f a s i or R i f . A l f a s i condensed lengthy Talmudic discussions and added his own decisions wherever the Talmud did not state the decisions. Rabbi Moses Maimonides (1135-1201}.), better known as the Rambam, completed h i s Mishne Torah (Repetition of the Law) i n 1180. "This i s the most comprehensive and system-a t i c a l l y arranged code of a l l the Laws scattered through the two Talmuds, or resulting-from the discussions i n tfee same. Occasionally also the opinions of the post Talmudic 8 authorities, the Gaonim, are added." A t h i r d important code was that of Rabbi Jacob, son of Rabbi Asher< (died I3I4.O). This code was named Turim (Rows of Laws) because i t arranged a l l of Jewish law into four parts or Rows. The f i r s t part, dealing with the duties.of the Jew day by day as well as on the Sabbath and f e s t i v a l s , was named Orah Hayyim (The Path of L i f e ) . The second, giving i n s t r u c t i o n i n r i t u a l law, i n the things forbidden and per-mitted, was c a l l e d Yoreh Deah (Teacher of Knowledge). Next, came a section dealing with the laws of matrimony and pro-h i b i t e d marriages which was named Eben ha-Ezer (The Stone of Help). The f i n a l part, comprising c i v i l jurisprudence and procedure i n courts of j u s t i c e , was c a l l e d Hoshen Mishpat 9 (The Breastplate of Judgment). This code incorporated only those laws which were s t i l l followed by Jews l i v i n g outside of Palestine. It also embodied the rules and customs which 10 were established after the close of the Talmud. For two centuries i t continued to be the most useful code of Jewish law. The man who was destined to write the most popular code was Rabbi Joseph Karo (1^88-1575)• Born i n Toledo, Spain, Karo was taken by his father to Nicopoli, Bulgaria, af t e r the expulsion of the Jews from Spain i n li|92. The family l a t e r l i v e d i n Adrianople. F i n a l l y , Karo s e t t l e d i n the c i t y of mystics, i n Safed, Palestine. Karo spent twenty-five years on h i s magnum opus, the Beth Yoseph (The House of Joseph), which i s usually considered a commentary on the Turim of Rabbi Jacob son of Rabbi Asher. Actually, Karo's work has only, a s l i g h t connection with the Turim. It Is not a com-mentary on the Turim; i t merely follows the order and ar-rangement of the former work. Karo i s very thorough i n t h i s work. He follows the derivation of alljthe laws through a l l the sources up to the Talmud. He quotes a number of opinions and interpretations, analyzes the reasons for the views, and gives his own decisions. It i s obvious that Karo intended the Beth Yoseph to be his code when i t appeared i n iSSh* Later he composed a digest of h i s code to serve as a manual f o r younger students before they took up his larger work. This digest, known as the Shulhan Aruch (The Prepared Table or The Set Table), set - 8 -forth, the s p i r i t u a l food i n a manner ready to be consumed. It was the digest which became the popularly adopted code. Karo's method, i n writing the Shulhan Aruch, was to base h i s decisions upon those of A l f a s i , Maimonides, and Rabbi Asher. Wherever these scholars d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r opinions about any point of law, Karo's p r i n c i p l e was to Since Karo was a Sephardic Jew (of Spanish-Portugese origin) and since two of the three authorities upon whom he r e l i e d based t h e i r decisions on the views of the Sephardic Jews, Karo's code was soon adopted by the Spanish communities. The Jews of northern and eastern Europe, the Ashkenazic Jews, had many customs which d i f f e r e d somewhat from those of t h e i r Sephardic brothers. "This drawback to the use of the code by a l l Jews was overcome when the famous Po l i s h rabbi, Moses Isserles (1530-1572), pointed out i n minute d e t a i l wherein Ashkenazic t r a d i t i o n d i f f e r e d from the regulations set f o r t h by Karo. Isserles thereby suited Karo's work to the needs of his own people. Adherence to t h i s code thereafter became the test of orthodoxy." In order to become what i t ultimately d i d become, the f i n a l code of a l l Jewry, Karo's Shulhan Aruch had to be com-pleted and had to receive many additional decisions which represented the re s u l t s reached by many c o d i f i e r s i n Prance and Germany. Broadly speaking, It may be said that Karo's Shulhan Aruch remains to t h i s day, as i t has been f o r about 11 t h i r d . 12 four centuries, the f i n a l code of Jewish law. Theoretically, Jewish r e l i g i o u s law i s supposed to be brought up to date constantly by the responsa (answers to le g a l questions) of the leading rabbis In each generation. In actual practice, the Shulhan Aruch has been so widely accepted and so highly respected that i t has assumed many aspects of a f i n a l authority f o r a l l time. The code appeared at a very opportune time when the Jews of many lands, l i v i n g under conditions that were characterized by neither s t a b i l i t y nor l e i s u r e for intensive study, rejoi c e d at the appearance of a code which gave them ready, authoritative decisions. Even the mystics, who were interested i n the study of the Kabbala, welcomed the Shulhan Aruch as a time saver i n f i n d -ing decisions. In addition to the wide acceptance of the Shulhan Aruch a as a f i n a l code of Jewish law,there are a number of other factors which make f o r conservatism i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. F i r s t , i t must be remembered that according to t r a d i t i o n t h i s i s a revealed law. The revelation on Mount Sinai was the God-given truth to be followed f o r a l l generations. As long as a l l Jews believed that the Torah represented the complete and perfect revelation, there was l i t t l e chance for planned change. I f the Torah i s revealed, then a l l of i t s precepts must be followed, even i f they apparently do not seem to make sense to the imperfect human mind* - 1 0 -In addition to the emphasis on revelation, there was the grim fa c t of Jewish dispersion. Living i n so many diff e r e n t countries, the Jews have had no c e n t r a l church or authoritative l e g a l body during the Middle Ages and modern times. U n t i l the destruction of the Second Jewish Common-wealth almost nineteen centuries ago, the Sanhedrin was the authoritative r e l i g i o u s parliament. But soon after the d i s -persion of the Jews, r e l i g i o u s leadership was decentralized. Only an outstanding scholar who received universal recog-n i t i o n f o r his superiority was able to pronounce a change aut h o r i t a t i v e l y , and then i t was usually f o r his own com-munity only. One of these scholars was Gershom of Mayence who l i v e d i n the middle of the tenth century. He was known as Rabbenu (Our Teacher) Gershom Meor-ha-Golah (Light of the Dispersion). Jewish law gave him no authority to make sweeping changes. But so great was the esteem i n which he was held that a l l Ashkenazic communities accepted his regulations. Rabbenu Gershom c a l l e d a synod of the leaders of h i s community, and they passed upon h i s new regulations or Takkanot (improve-ments). His most far-reaching Takkanah went contrary to the regulation i n the Bible which permits a man to have more than one wife. According to the new Takkanah of Rabbenu Gershom, anybody who married more than one wife was excom-municated. O r i g i n a l l y t h i s regulation was to be i n force for four hundred years; therefore, i t should have expired - 11 -around, the year 1350• But actually the good sense of the Takkanah has kept i t i n force among a l l Ashkenazic Jews to t h i s day. The authority of the rabbis was not that of a p r i e s t l y c l a s s . Given adequate mental equipment, anybody could study and become a rabbi. The rabbis have been the men who were most learned i n the sacred t r a d i t i o n . Prom t h e i r learning, piety, and devotion to the Torah came t h e i r authority i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Therefore, the rabbis were dedicated to an int e r p r e t a t i o n of Judaism which was i n accord with the t r a d i t i o n . Even outstanding rabbis usually f e l t that they were not learned enough to introduce changes of t h e i r own. Since there was no universal central authority or r u l i n g synod of Jewish law f o r many centuries, one could have ex-pected a great many sects to develop, as i n Protestantism. The danger of r e l i g i o u s fragmentation was avoided however be-cause of the universal acceptance among Jews of the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, and the codes as guides for Jewish be-havior. The emphasis on law helped to keep unity i n Jewish l i f e . Furthermore, Jewish family l i f e and Jewish r e l i g i o u s law were so integrated as to support and strengthen each other. A l l of these factors made for conservatism i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s law, but about two hundred years ago some new forces began to make f o r change. In the last two centuries, Jewish r e l i g i o u s practice - 12 -has undergone as great a change as ever i n the past. A l l the customs, ceremonies, and thought patterns, which were developed by generations and embodied into Jewish law, f i t t e d a type of l i f e which has completely disappeared. Up to about the year 1750* Jewish law was f u l l y observed i n the ghetto communities. Jewish l i f e was l i v e d as a kingdom within a kingdom. The Jews governed themselves by t h e i r own law courts and l i v e d almost e n t i r e l y i n t h e i r own communities. They had l i t t l e contact with the outer world. The Jew l i v e d with other Jews who followed the rules of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. But when the Jew was emancipated from the ghetto and began to be integrated into the larger European community, the Jewish l e g a l structure and the Jewish r e l i g i o u s practices seemed, for the f i r s t time, out of step with the times. For the Jew of Europe, the French Revolution inaugur-ated his Emancipation. In September, 1791, a l l Jews i n France were admitted to French c i t i z e n s h i p . U n t i l 1750* the Jews l i v e d i n t h e i r ghetto quarters just as they had l i v e d i n the fourteenth century or even e a r l i e r . They completely missed the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the new science and philosophy. After the French Revolution, the Jew experienced f i v e hundred years of progress i n f i f t y . He jumped from the Middle Ages into modern times i n one leap. Such was the suddenness of the change i n Western Europe; i n Eastern Europe i t a l l happened much l a t e r * - 13 -But i n Prance, and l a t e r i n Germany, the speed of the Emancipation was overwhelming. The Jew entered modern times without any preparation. External pressures were removed; the Jew was less l i m i t e d s o c i a l l y , economically, and l e g a l l y . He stepped out into a secular, r a t i o n a l i s t i c , s k e p t i c a l , m a t e r i a l i s t i c world which regarded many of the concepts of the Jewish r e l i g i o n as a hodgepodge of superstition. Paced with these new challenges (and with a B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m which shook the Jew's confidence i n tbe d i v i n i t y of h i s regimen of l i f e ) , the Jew lost a l l sense of certainty. Many Jews threw overboard t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l baggage; some clung tenaciously to the old t r a d i t i o n s . Others alleg o r i z e d , r a t i o n a l i z e d , modified, and reinterpreted the old Ideas "to the point where i t was possible to r e t a i n them without':!doing Hi-violence to the mind." Along with t h i s d i s s i p a t i o n of mental climate, went the di s i n t e g r a t i o n of Jewish p r a c t i c e . For the theology and ideelogy had been not merely avenues of mental escape, not merely instruments f o r s u r v i v a l ; they had been theories of sanction f o r a routinized l i v i n g , props and shorings f o r form and ceremony. Once the modem world kicked these i n t e l l e c t u a l found-ations out from under, the collapse of the super-structure was only a matter of time. Ancient group habits were now without a preservative rationale* Once the rationale was gone, Jewish r e l i g i o u s law became an impossible burden to carry. The Sabbath may be consider-ed as an example. Formerly i t was a day of re s t , contem-pl a t i o n , study, and prayer; i t was often c a l l e d "a day of delight." The time-honored observance of the Sabbath included - Ik -prohibitions against thirty-nine d i f f e r e n t types of work on the day of r e s t . But many acts which are only d i s t a n t l y connected with work are also prohibited on the Sabbath. Thus, the f u l l y observant Jew would not only avoid being en-gaged i n gainful employment on the Sabbath day, but he would not think of r i d i n g i n any vehicle, smoking a cigarette, or even turning on an e l e c t r i c l i g h t . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see how many hardships the f u l l , t r a d i t i o n a l Jewish obser-vance of the Sabbath imposes on the emancipated Jew. In a very d i r e c t sense, i t l i m i t s the occupations which he may pursue. S i m i l a r l y , the modern Jew who wants to observe Jewish t r a d i t i o n f u l l y must obey the dietary p r o h i b i t i o n s . He can-not eat pork, many types of seafood, or even some of the best cuts of beef. The meat that he eats must be prepared i n accordance with cert a i n regulations. Because spe c i a l care Is involved i n the preparation of the meat, the price i s higher. It i s also very often inconvenient or even impossible to obtain the type of food which i s kosher ( r i t u a l l y c o r r e c t ) , f o r example, on a t r a i n , i n any c i t y where there i s no Jewish restaurant, or i n the armed forces. Often the laws regarding personal status work untold hardships on i n d i v i d u a l s . A l l the regulations concerning marriage and divorce have t h e o r e t i c a l l y remained i n force i n the form i n which they have been recorded i n the Shulhan  Aruch. Written for another type of society, they can lead - 15 -to involved personal situations. For example, a husband's consent i s necessary f o r a Jewish divorce. In Canada, a Jewish couple may be l e g a l l y divorced i n court as a r e s u l t of an action brought by the wife. In r e t a l i a t i o n , the husband may subsequently refuse to consent to a Jewish divorce so that his wife cannot remarry. An even more tr a g i c personal problem i s that of the Agunah. The Agunah i s a woman whose husband deserted her,or whose husband's death cannot be established. According to Jewish r e l i g i o u s law, an Agunah i s never permitted to re-marry. This problem becomes espe c i a l l y acute after a war when i t i s impossible to prove that many men reported miss-ing i n action are actually dead. In Jewish law there i s no such thing as a seven year waiting period at the conclusion of which a person i s presumed to be dead. These are a few examples of the problems of emancipated Jews who want to l i v e i n accordance with Jewish t r a d i t i o n . Many r e a l i z e that changes i n Jewish law are necessary. Some have completely abandoned Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. And others are steadfast i n t h e i r r e f u s a l to change what they consider a God-ordained way of l i f e . Change usually took place i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e very gradually, almost imperceptibly. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g story i n the Talmud which emphasizes the extent of change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s law through the method of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . - 16 -According to this legend, when Moses ascended to heaven from Mount S i n a i , he found that God was a f f i x i n g coronets or crownlets to certa i n l e t t e r s i n the Torah. Moses ask-ed, "Lord of the Universe, what prevented Thee from having f i x e d the crownlets i n the very beginning?" And the Lord answered, "After a period of many generations there w i l l arise a man, Akiba ben Joseph, who i s destined to inte r p r e t mounds of rules on every t i p of these l e t t e r s . " Moses then requested to see thi s Akiba i n action. God seated Moses i n the eighth row of Akiba 1 s lecture audience and they listened to Akiba 1s discourse upon the Torah. Very soon Moses became despondent because he could not understand the lecture and discussion. F i n a l l y Akiba and his d i s c i p l e s came to one point i n the discussion where one of the pupils asked, "Rabbi, whence do you know t h i s ? " And Akiba r e p l i e d , "This law i s 16 a t r a d i t i o n delivered by Moses on Mount S i n a i . " The author of thi s legend must have written with a twinkle i n his eye. He c e r t a i n l y r e a l i z e d that i n the course of the thirteen centuries between the days of Moses and Akiba the changes i n "the Law of Moses" were so sweeping that even Moses could not recognize the Torah which he had taught» - 17 -In the second chapter an e f f o r t w i l l be made to record the modern attempts to change Jewish r e l i g i o u s law so that emancipated Jews can l i v e as Jews i n t h e i r modern environ-ment. In the t h i r d chapter there i s a survey of Jewish r e l i g i o u s observance In a Canadian c i t y , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, and a comparison with r e l i g i o u s observance i n Minneapolis, Minnesota. While the seconduchapter deals with the theories of change, the t h i r d chapter records the extent of change, mainly i n Vancouver. In the fourth and last chapter cert a i n conclusions are reached about the need for change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Conclusions are reached on the basis of the h i s t o r y of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law, the modern attempts to change t h i s law, and the extent to which the contemporary Jews observe Jewish r e l i g i o u s law* - 17a, -Notes f o r Chapter I 1. Milton Steinberg, A Partisan Guide to the Jewish  Problem, Cornwall, N.Y., Cornwall Press, 19i+5* PP»155-156. 2. The f i r s t f i v e books i n the Hebrew Bible, sometimes ca l l e d the Five Books of Moses. 3 . Talmud, Avot 1:1. 1 + . M. Mielziner, Introduction to the Talmud, New York, Bloch Publishing Company, 1925, p»^° 5 . Ibid., p.56. 6. Ibid., p.57. 7. Ibid., pp.65-67. 8. Ibid., p.73. 9 . Max L.Margolis and Alexander Marx, A History of the  Jewish People, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1930, P»439. 10. Mielziner, op_. c i t . , p.75* 11. Meyer Waxman, A History of Jewish Literature from the  Close of the Bible to Our Own Day, New York, Bloch Publishing Company, 191+3. V o l . 2 , pp. Ikk - l k 7 . 12. Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews from the Baby- lonian E x i l e to the End of World War I I , Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 191+7, P» 1+68. 13• Waxman, op_. c i t . , p.ll+6. 11+. Milton Steinberg, The Making of the Modern Jew, New York, Behrman House, 1943, p.179. 15. Loc. c i t . 16. Talmud, Menahoth, 29b. -18-CHAPTER II MODERN ATTEMPTS TO CHANGE JEWISH RELIGIOUS LIFE A. REFORM MOVEMENT There have been a number of attempts to change Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e so that modern Jews would be at home i n the contemporary world. As f a r as the Jews are concerned, the Reform movement and modernism began at almost the same time. Indeed, i t has been c o r r e c t l y stated that "Reform Judaism i s the oldest of the modern attempts to adjust Jewish 1 practice to modern circumstances." It was the f i r s t attempt to adjust Judaism to the modern state, modern economic l i f e , and modern thought. The man whose work seemed to pay*the way f o r the beginning of Reform Judaism i n Germany was Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786). Mendelssohn came to B e r l i n i n the days of Frederick the Great. There he learned the German language and became a leading figure i n German l i t e r a t u r e . In 1754 he met Gotthold l e s s i n g , the b r i l l i a n t German c r i t i c and dramatist and a leading l i b e r a l s p i r i t of h i s day. When the two became friends, "The e l i t e of fastitirLKaus Prussia looked i n wonder at the spectacle of the leading man of l e t t e r s boasting of an intimacy with an ugly hump-backed 2 Jew." Mendelssohn became a national figure when he won f i r s t prize i n an essay contest sponsored by the B e r l i n Academy on a metaphysical subject. This was a spectacular achievement i n view of the fact that Iramanuel Kant was one of the contestants. From 1778 to 1783 Mendelssohn translated the Pentateuch into German prose. He included the Hebrew o r i g i n a l and the German t r a n s l a t i o n printed i n Hebrew l e t t e r s . He also added a Hebrew commentary which sought to resolve grammatical and l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The o r i g i n a l and the commentary helped many young readers to learn to think and write i n Hebrew while the German t r a n s l a t i o n helped turn t h e i r Yiddish into German. Later the German language opened new f i e l d s of know-ledge to a great number of ghetto Jews. Mendelssohn helped introduce the Jews of the ghetto to modern times. His trans-l a t i o n of the Bible became a symbol of the inner emancip-3 ation. Moses Mendelssohn was orthodox i n h i s Jewish observ-ances. He wanted to add general culture to Jewish culture. His followers however were not so staunch i n t h e i r Judaism. They accepted every c r i t i c i s m of Judaism but made l i t t l e e f f o r t to acquire an appreciation of i t s v i r t u e s . They chafed under the r e s t r a i n t s of Jewish l i f e . After Mendelssohn's death, several of hi s children and grand-children along with a great number of hi s followers became k converted to C h r i s t i a n i t y . In order to understand what happened to many well-to-do Jews of those days, one must consider the general ignorance of Jewish teaching as well as the f a i l u r e of society to recognize Jews as equals. Afte r the Congress of Vienna the l i b e r a l s l o s t t h e i r influence i n Europe. The - 20 -Jews of a r i s t o c r a t i c and wealthy families l o s t t h e i r hope for emancipation as Jews, and many of them flocked to the churches to be baptized. Jewish leaders f e l t that some-thing had to be done to revive self-knowledge and s e l f -respect among t h e i r people. They p a r t i c u l a r l y wanted to remove the stigma of outlandishness with which Judaism had been l a b e l l e d . They thought that t h i s would help to put an end to the conversions and to refute arguments against emancipation. These were the times i n which Reform Judaism was born. The start was made i n the Western German Province of West-phalia while i t was s t i l l under French domination. I s r a e l Jacobson introduced a few changes into the synagogue r i t u a l ; a few Hebrew prayers were to be r e c i t e d i n German; a mixed choir (men and women) was to sing; instrumental music would be played; and a sermon would be delivered i n German. By the standards of today these were mild reforms, but they h o r r i f i e d the majority of German Jews. Subsequently Jacob Herz Beer, father of the composer Myerbeer, and other wealthy Jews organized services i n private homes i n B e r l i n . This was a period of reaction i n Europe and a l l change was under suspicion. Fanatics among the Jews c a l l e d the Prussian Government to t h e i r aid to discontinue such "revolutionary" r e l i g i o u s [services. It was not long before similar services were organized i n the fre e r atmosphere of Hamburg. The houses of worship were - 21 - . not c a l l e d "synagogues" but "temples". The name-changing was an attempt to forget the ghetto and the words which had been associated with i t . About the same time Leopold Zunz (1794-1886) and other i n t e l l e c t u a l s organized a society f o r the s c i e n t i f i c study of Judaism. Although t h i s society, which was founded i n 1819, did not l a s t many years, i t helped give many i n t e l l e c t u a l s a new outlook on Jewish l i f e and l e t t e r s . The influence of the early German reform spread to England, Prance, and the United States. As early as l82i|. a small group of members resigned from the Charleston, South Carolina, Congregation Beth Elohim when the board of directors refused to make provisions f o r English prayers i n the public service and to introduce reforms i n the r i t u a l i n accordance with what had been done i n Hamburg, Germany. There were two outstanding leaders of the German Re-form movement that deserve mention even i n a b r i e f review. The f i r s t was Samuel Holdheim (1806-1860). He was a pro-ponent of extreme reforms. He believed that Judaism must be modified and recast completely to f i t the new age. Man's i n t e l l i g e n c e , not t r a d i t i o n , must r u l e . Although Holdheim had a meagre following i n Germany, h i s influence was much stronger i n the United States a generation l a t e r . Holdheim was himself the o r i g i n a l proponent of denationalized Judaism. He wanted to do away with whatever was l e f t of r a b b i n i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . His basic premise was "The law of the state - 22 -i s supreme," and he concluded that Jewish laws of marriage and divorce must go. Later he had no scruples about of-f i c i a t i n g at mixed marriages, that i s , marriages between Jews and non-Jews. The second leader of German fieform Judaism was Abraham Geiger (I8IO-I87I+). Actually Geiger l a i d the i n t e l l e c t u a l foundations of Reform Judaism. He taught that Judaism was a l i v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , that i t s s p i r i t was sacred and not to be tampered with but that i t s form was subject to change. In s t i t u t i o n s and ideas could be modified and replaced with newer modes of expression. Geiger believed i n the capacity of Judaism f o r new development. However Geiger could not consent to a transfer of the Sabbath to Sunday as was done i n the B e r l i n Reform synagogue under the ministry of Hold-heim* He would have considered t h i s to be a concession to C h r i s t i a n i t y , whose claims to s p i r i t u a l i t y he constantly 5 fought. In the United States most of the immigrants were fa m i l i a r with the t r a d i t i o n of Rabbinic Judaism. However, new conditions i n America often made changes necessary. As mentioned above, the f i r s t attempt was made i n Charleston In l82i|.. By 181+1 the f i r s t Reform temple was dedicated and i t s prayer book was modelled upon the r e v i s i o n of the Hamburg German congregation. But i t was not u n t i l a f t e r 181+8 that Reform Judaism made much headway i n America. At that time the German l i b e r a l s , who appeared i n the New World when t h e i r revolution was crushed, gave a fresh im-- 23 -petus to Reform. Congregations were established In New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, C i n c i n n a t i i and other c i t i e s . The leader of Reform Judaism i n the flew World was Isaac Mayer Wise (1819-1900). Wise came to the United States from Bohemia i n 181+6. His f i r s t p u l p i t was i n Albany, and he l a t e r went to Cincinnati where he served the Bene Yeshurun Congregation f o r 1+5 years. It was i n t h i s second p u l p i t that Wise made a profound impression upon the development of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e In America. He introduced a great number of reforms i n the r i t u a l of the synagogue. He was a great believer i n change and adaptation. His revised prayer book, the Minhag America (American R i t e ) , was used by Reform congregations u n t i l the closing years of the nineteenth century. Wise was i n a p o s i t i o n where he had to f i g h t con-servatives to accomplish reform and to oppose r a d i c a l s to maintain a semblance of t r a d i t i o n . The greatness of Isaac Mayer Wise was to be found i n his a b i l i t y as an organizer. For many years he agitated f o r a union of Reform congregations. F i n a l l y i n 1873 he succeed-ed i n organizing the Union of American Hebrew Congregations. This organization has remained the central body of Reform temples i n the United States and Canada and numbered 1+08 congregations i n 1950. Wise also f e l t the need of a semin-ary to t r a i n rabbis f o r the new world. F i n a l l y , i n 1875> he opened the Hebrew Union College i n Cinc i n n a t i , and eight years l a t e r ordained i t s f i r s t class of rabbis. Wise also campaigned f o r an organized conference of rabbis to govern -2k-the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of Reform Jewry, His e f f o r t s were marked with success i n 1889 with the creation of the Central Con-6 ference of American Rabbis* By 195>0> t h i s group of Reform rabbis numbered six hundred. In Canada the Reform movement has not made any great headway. There are three f l o u r i s h i n g temples, one i n each of the following c i t i e s : Montreal, Toronto and Hamilton. The doctrine of the United States Reform movement was c r y s t a l l i z e d i n 1885 i n the "Pittsburg Platform". It emphasized the prophetic ideals of the Bible as against the regulations of the Talmud. It declared some of the Mosaic l e g i s l a t i o n no longer applicable, among these dietary laws. It rejected a return to Palestine. It denied the expectation of a Messiah and substituted the hope f o r a messianic era, that i s , an era of peace and perfection which would come to the world through c u l t u r a l and s c i e n t i f i c progress. It argued that the Jews were a group with a mission of spreading godliness among the peoples of the -world. In many ways American Reform Judaism thus went much farther than European Reform, farther, i n f a c t , than a great many American Jews were w i l l i n g to go.'"' As mentioned above the Pittsburg Platform declared some of the Mosaic l e g i s l a t i o n no longer v a l i d . In t h i s manner Reform Judaism repudiated the authority of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law and many portions of the Shulhan Aruch. In other words, the solution to the problem of change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e was to repudiate the past and to start a l l over again by choosing only those elements of the t r a d i t i o n which appealed to leaders i n the New World. At t h i s point i t might be in t e r e s t i n g to see exactly how Reform Judaism breaks with Jewish t r a d i t i o n i n synagogue r i t u a l . The Reform temple introduced into the United States instrumental music i n the r e l i g i o u s service, mixed choirs - 25 -(freqently non-Jews sing i n these c h o i r s ) , the sermon i n English rather than In Yiddish, family pews wjpre men and women could s i t together, and prayers i n the vernacular. There i s so very l i t t l e Hebrew used i n the Reform r e l i g i o u s service that i t has been characterized by a wit as a Unit-arian service with three Hebrew words: Kodosh,Kodosh,Kodosh. (Holy, Holy, Holy). Conspicuous by t h e i r absence at Reform services are the T a l i s (prayer shawl f o r men), hats or s k u l l caps for men, and, i n many places, the reading from the s c r o l l s of the Torah. Many congregations introduced the Sun-day morning service as the main r e l i g i o u s service of the week. However, i n recent years many Reform congregations have substituted a late Friday evening service instead. In general Reform temples do not conduct the d a i l y Minyan, the morning and evening service, which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t r a d i t i o n a l synagogue. The Sunday school replaced the d a i l y Hebrew school as the school f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Reform temples. Instead of a t r a d i t i o n a l Bar Mitzvah ceremony fo r boys when they reached the age of thirteen, the Reform movement has Introduced confirmation for both boys and g i r l s on the model of many of the Protestant C h r i s t i a n groups. In breaking with the Mosaic law and i t s development through the Shulhan Aruch, Reform Judaism has changed many other practices. For example, the holidays which are ob-served for two days by a l l Jews outside of Palestine are - 26 -celebrated, only one day by the Reform Jews. The r e s t r i c t -ions which apply to the Sabbath day, such as no r i d i n g or cooking on the Sabbath, have been removed. The dietary laws were declared to be i n v a l i d . What i s even of greater importance to Orthodox Jews i s the fact that Reform rabbis w i l l accept the decisions of c i v i l courts on rulings of divorce, death of missing persons, and other matters of personal status. Another cause of major concern f o r Orthodox Jews i s the easy manner i n which converts are ad-mitted to Reform Judaism. No circumcision or r i t u a l im-8 mersion i s required for these conversions. So much for the break between Reform Judaism and Orthodoxy i n r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l . It might be i n t e r e s t i n g to compare also the Reform and t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of Judaism. The t r a d i t i o n a l view of a supernatural being who controls the universe remained almost the same i n the early formul-ation of Reform Judaism as that formulated by the medieval Jewish philosophers. Reform also retained the Orthodox ideas' about the e f f i c a c y of prayer, immortality, reward and 9 punishment, and the l i f e hereafter. But Reform Judaism departed from t r a d i t i o n i n i t s con-ception of the character of the Jewish people. The trad-i t i o n a l view held that the Jewish people was a nation i n e x i l e which would one day be returned to Palestine. Accord-ing to the Orthodox teaching, the Jewish people had been dispersed from the Holy Land because of i t s sins. When the sins were f u l l y expiated, the Messiah would lead the people back to Palestine. - 27 -The Reform view i n s i s t e d that the Jews were merely adherents of a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o n and that t h e i r nation-hood was something of the past. Their nationhood was merely a preliminary phase of t h e i r experience which could now be dispensed with. The return to Palestine was no longer con-sidered a v a l i d hope. Jerusalem was no longer the Zion of the Jewish people. Instead, B e r l i n or Washington or London or Paris were the new Zions. The theory behind the Reform b e l i e f was, of course, that the Jews were now c i t i z e n s of the countries i n which they l i v e d , and to continue Jewish nationhood would be d i s l o y a l to those states. The Reform theory expressed i t s e l f i n eradicating reference to Zion from the prayer book, decrying the use of Hebrew except as a language of prayer, and attempting to discourage the use of Yiddish among Jews. Furthermore, the laws by which the Jews were governed were those of the state, and a l l Jewish laws regulating c i v i l r e l a t i o n s were deemed obsolete, at least where they c o n f l i c t e d with state law. Under the Reform view the purpose of Jewish law was to emphasize the moral and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of Judaism, and only those p r i n c i p l e s were r e l i g i o u s l y binding. A l l laws which were designed to keep the Jews separate and to em-phasize t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n from other peoples were discarded. The universal aspects of Jewish law alone were stressed© The Reform movement held that Jewish law was i n effect 10 abrogated. Reform Judaism evolved the mission theory of I s r a e l -28-which held that i t was the mission of the Jews to demon-strate monotheistic r e l i g i o n to the world, and that the Jews had been dispersed f o r the purpose of carrying out t h e i r mission of leading the rest of the world to the adoption of a universal r e l i g i o n . For t h i s purpose, the i n s t i t u t i o n of the Jewish home had to be assured by continu-ing the p r o h i b i t i o n of intermarriage with those of other f a i t h s , and cer t a i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the synagogue had to be continued. Reform Jews believed that the Emancipation of the Jews heralded the beginning of the Messianic era — the brotherhood of man under the fatherhood of God. In view of the l i b e r a l tendencies of the age, t h i s b e l i e f seemed plausible at that time. The Jews, with t h e i r s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n , should, according to Reform, be i n the forefront of the movement to bring about the Messianic age. The cessation of r e l i g i o u s persecution com-bined with the extension of the basis of c i t i z e n s h i p to men of a l l creeds, made i t seem reasonable to believe the Jews could' be d i f f e r e n t from gentiles i n r e l i g i o n and l i k e them i n everything else. Cultural changes were also involved i n t h i s change i n viewing the character of the Jewish people. We have seen "tKa.t the Hebrew language was neglected, the r i s e of Yiddish d i s -couraged, and the primacy of the language of the country stressed. According to Reform, Hebrew was important only because i t was the language i n which the great r e l i g i o u s c l a s s i c s had been written, but Reform wanted no connection with the idea of a national language, or any special Jewish language* Next, i t would be advisable to compare the Reform and Orthodox attitudes towards the Bible, Talmud, and Revel-ation. In the t r a d i t i o n a l view, the Torah, including the Oral Law formulated i n l a t e r years, had been revealed to Moses on Mt. S i n a i . The rabbinic laws, which were not d i r e c t l y derived from the Bible, but were based on discus-sions of the Rabbis, were supposed also to have been made known to Moses but to have been forgotten u n t i l rediscovered by the Rabbis. Reform did not accept the t r a d i t i o n a l version of divine Revelation, though Reformers r a t i o n a l i z e d i t rather than discarded i t completely. Under t h e i r theory, Moses and others to whom God was said to have revealed Himself, were superior people, who had unusual s e n s i t i v i t y f o r r e l i g i o u s thought and ideas. They were i n a p o s i t i o n to understand more than other people. Thus, i n Reform doctrine, Religious S e n s i t i v i t y i s substituted f o r Revelation and the Jews be-come a people with a peculiar genius f o r r e l i g i o n . Moses was prepared to receive Revelation; other peoples were not yet ready. Reform believes i n continuous revelation; i t also believes that other peoples have 'received revelations from God. But Jewish Revelation represents more of truth than any other, and therein l i e s i t s su p e r i o r i t y . Since, however, the Holy Writings were d i v i n e l y i n -spired but written by human beings f o r a c e r t a i n age, some of these Holy Writings are no longer applicable i n modern - 30 -times. Thus Revelation did not obligate Jews to observe a l l the laws but only those that had universal s i g n i f i c a n c e . Reform emphasized the Prophets rather than the Torah. This was a r a d i c a l break with t r a d i t i o n since, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the Torah was the h o l i e s t of writings; then came the Prophet-i c writings which were considered divine oracles to give admonition and encouragement to the Jewish people; and then followed a l l the other Scriptures which were held to be the works of individuals inspired by God. Neither the prophetic nor other writings had the force of the Torah. The Prophetic writings and other sacred scriptures, according to the t r a d i t i o n a l view, attempted to guide the nation i n i t s r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l attitudes, but only from the Torah could laws be derived. Reform Judaism, however, regarded the teach-ings of the Prophets as the essence of Jewish doctrine. One of the i n t e r e s t i n g theories of Reform Judaism i s the Mission Theory to which some reference has already been made above. Its basis i s , of course, the denial of Jewish nationhood, coupled with the desire to continue Jewish l i f e . I f the Jews are not a nation, there must be some ro l e which must be played by the Jewish people. The t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f . was that the Torah was given to I s r a e l as an expression of God's love by which Jews i n t h e i r own land could regulate t h e i r l i f e i n conformity with God's w i l l and thereby achieve salvation. Because of t h e i r sins, however, they were exiled from t h e i r land and dispersed among the nations. Eventually, however, God would have compassion on them and, under the - 31 -leadership of the Messiah, a descendant of King David, He would restore I s r a e l to i t s land. Then a l l the nations would see that the Jews were indeed the chosen people and a l l nations would adopt the Jewish God. This was the t r a d i t i o n a l theory of the h i s t o r i c r o l e of the Jewish people. The Reform doctrine on the other hand, held that the Jews were dispersed so that they might bring the truths i n Israel's r e l i g i o n to a l l people. I f the Jews l i v e d up to the e t h i c a l and moral code which expressed the w i l l of God, they could lead the whole world to accept i t and thus bring about universal brotherhood. Dispersion was then not to be regarded as a punishment but as a divine decree 11 to help the Jews carry out t h e i r divine mission. At the 1937 meeting of the Central Conference of American Rabbis i n Columbus, Ohio, a declaration e n t i t l e d "Guiding P r i n c i p l e s of Reform Judaism" was adopted to re-place the Pittsburg Platform of 1885. It i s obvious from these guiding p r i n c i p l e s that the leaders of the Reform movement have made some changes i n the d i r e c t i o n of a return to Jewish t r a d i t i o n . In a sense i t could be said that the newer trend i n the Reform movement has been less extreme than the c l a s s i c a l Reform. This i s apparent from a comparison of the Pittsburg Platform of 1885 and the Guiding P r i n c i p l e s of 1937* While r e i t e r a t i n g the general p o s i t i o n of the P i t t s -burg Platform i n respect to revelation, the superiority - 32 -of the Jewish God-idea and the mission of I s r a e l , the new formulation has affirmative recommendations i n respect to the peoplehood of I s r a e l , Palestine, the Hebrew language 12 and Jewish observance. On the peoplehood of I s r a e l , the Guiding P r i n c i p l e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y state: "Judaism i s the soul of which I s r a e l i s the body." In respect to Palestine, i t declares: "In the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Palestine, the land hallowed by memories and hopes, we behold the promise of renewed l i f e f o r many of our brethren. We affir m the obl i g a t i o n of a l l Jewry to aid In i t s upbuilding as a Jewish homeland by endeavoring to make i t not only a haven of refuge f o r the oppressed but also a center of Jewish culture and s p i r i t u a l l i f e . " In regard to Jewish practice i t commends the retention and development of "such customs, symbols and ceremonies as possess i n s p i r a t i o n a l value, the c u l t i v a t i o n of d i s t i n c t -ive forms of r e l i g i o u s art and music and the use of Hebrew, together with the vernacular i n our worship and in s t r u c t i o n * " It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that many Reform Rabbis have taken positions of leadership i n the Zionist movement i n recent years and have been instrumental i n helping to r e -b u i l d the Jewish state i n I s r a e l . It may be even more in t e r e s t i n g to watch many Reform Congregations re-adopt a great number of t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l practices. At the 1950 Biennial Convention of the Union of American Hebrew Congreg-- 33 -ations, the congregational body of American Reform Judaism, a report showed that t h i r t y Reform Congregations now observe "almost every d e t a i l of t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . " Many of these Congregations have re-introduced the Bar Mitzvah ceremony f o r boys. Others have permitted the wearing of hats by men at weddings. And s t i l l others indicated t h e i r willingness to help arrange a Get, a Jewish r e l i g i o u s divorce, through an Orthodox Rabbi. One of the speakers at the 19^0 Convention explained t h e i r return to r i t u a l i n these words: "The early builders of our movement f a i l e d to recognize that man cannot l i v e by reason alone, that he needs to sate h i s emotional hunger f o r poetry and beauty, for the mysticism and drama which are to be found i n meaning-13 f u l symbolism and ceremonialism." Another i n d i c a t i o n of the p a r t i a l return of Reform Judaism to t r a d i t i o n was apparent at the same meeting of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations. "An informal and impromptu vote on the introduction of Hebrew into the Reform school c u r r i c u l a showed an almost complete affirmative vote." Only two out of seventy-five participants i n the workshop on education voted against t h i s motion. These changes back to t r a d i t i o n would have shocked the men who formulated the Pittsburg Platform. They now indicate that the leaders of the Reform movement have become aware of the i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s of c l a s s i c a l Reform. - 34 -In evaluating the accomplishments of Reform Judaism, one must keep i n mind that Reform had a two-fold motive o r i g i n a l l y : f i r s t , to f a c i l i t a t e the integration of the Jews into the society of the countries i n which they l i v e d ; second, to r e t a i n the continuity of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Reform f a i l e d to achieve the f i r s t object-ive, integration, because i t did not reckon with the r i s i n g tide of nationalism. I t assumed that Jew-hatred was merely • a form of r e l i g i o u s intolerance and that, I f Jews were recognized as being merely a r e l i g i o u s community, and i f freedom of r e l i g i o n were established, Jews could be accept-ed by Christians as equals. But the supernationalisra, superpatriotism, and chauvinism of more recent years le d to intolerance of m i n o r i t i e s . Jew-hatred was changed from a hatred of a r e l i g i o u s group to a hatred of a supposedly r a c i a l group. So the Reform formula could not achieve th i s objective of integration. Now, l e t us see i f Reform was successful i n maintain-ing the continuity of Jewish l i f e . In renouncing the peoplehood of I s r a e l (and a l l connections with and a s p i r -ations for peoplehood i n Judaism, such as the hope of national restoration i n Palestine, the Hebrew language, and many of the Jewish folkways), c l a s s i c a l Reform reduced the basis of Jewish unity to a mere theological one, a b e l i e f i n e t h i c a l monotheism. But that was not a s u f f i c i e n t basis f o r maintaining the continuity of Jewish l i f e . - 35 -E t h i c a l monotheism i s no monopoly of Judaism; i t i s shared by Unitarian Christians and Moslems* C l a s s i c a l Reform leaders t r i e d to preserve the kernel of Judaism and discard the s h e l l . They "accordingly pro-ceeded to divest Jewish r e l i g i o u s observance of one after another of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l forms, since none of them seemed absolutely indispensable. F i n a l l y they reduced Judaism to a few abstract platitudes. These were so f a r removed from the s p e c i f i c experiences of the Jews as a people that they had no emotional appeal. They seemed irre l e v a n t to the more l i v e l y i nterests which Jews found i n secular pursuits© The Reform movement f a i l e d i n several other respects as pointed out by I r a Eisenstein: Jews continue to be i n d i f f e r e n t to Jewish l i f e . A great deal of inter-marriage s t i l l goes on. And what i s more important: the children of Reformist Jews are less and less Jewish from generation to generation. Even Reformist rabbis have to be drawn from the ranks of the Orthodox and Conservative Jews.. Furthermore, Reformism seems to appeal almost e n t i r e l y to Jews of one cl a s s , the well-to-do Jews. By emphasizing the importance of belonging to congreg-ations, and by having to maintain b e a u t i f u l temples, highly paid rabbis, and expensive choirs, Reformism has made membership i n i t s ranks a very expensive matter. The emphasis which Reformism places on the idea of God and on ethics would lead one to expect that i t would develop great r e l i g i o u s thinkers or e t h i c a l teachers; but, unfortunately, i t has f a i l e d to do so. Most intel3e ctual Jews have not joined the ranks of Reformism, -^ J-But i n any evaluation of the Reform movement one must also stress the p o s i t i v e contributions. Although Reform f a i l e d i n many of i t s objectives, i t must, nevertheless, - 36 -be regarded as an experiment through which certa i n p r i n c i p l e s of p o s i t i v e value to the survival and development of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e emerge. Reform was the f i r s t movement to recognize the need of some planned change i n the theory and practice of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n order to make possible i t s functioning under the new conditions of l i f e created by the Emancipation 0 The Reform movement was also the f i r s t e x p l i c i t application to Judaism of one of the major p r i n c i p l e s of the Enlightenment, freedom of r e l i g i o u s thought from the bondage of authoritarian dogma. Furthermore, Reform success-f u l l y restored the prophetic emphasis on the preeminence of the e t h i c a l over the r i t u a l aspects of r e l i g i o n . F i n a l l y , by recognizing the p r i n c i p l e of evolution and change i n r e l i g i o n , the Reform movement contained i n i t s e l f the power of s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n as evident i n the newer trends within the Reform movement to which attention has been c a l l e d above. - 37 -B. NEO-ORTHODOX MOVEMENT It was evident from the evaluation of Reform i n the above pages, that Reform represented a minimal program i n respect to Jewish r e l i g i o u s observance. Obviously i t s a b o l i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l usages long held sacred might have been expected to encounter resistance. The opposition to Reform naturally f e l t obligated to meet i t s challenge. The res u l t was the movement known as Neo-Orthodoxy. Neo-Orthodoxy originated i n Germany. It was an attempt to adjust Jewish l i f e to the changing conditions on the basis of a maximum of Jewish t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f and prac t i c e . While Neo-Orthodoxy arose because of d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n with the changes promulgated by Reform, i t had nevertheless i n i t s own way to take into account the con-diti o n s which gave r i s e to Reform. Its program therefore, was not wholly i d e n t i c a l with the pattern of Jewish thought and l i f e that prevailed before the Emancipation and the Enlightenment. That i s why i t i s designated as Neo-Orthodoxy ( i . e . , new Orthodoxy) rather than merely as Orthodoxy, although i n popular parlance no such d i s t i n c t i o n i s made. The chief exponent of Neo-Orthodoxy was Sampson Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888). Hirsch p a r t i c i p a t e d with Holdheim, Geiger, and Prankel i n some of the conferences of the so-ca l l e d "modern" rabbis which were held i n Germany between l8iu+ and 181+6 to see i f some common action could be i n i t i a t e d . While Holdheim represented the extreme l e f t , - 38 -Geiger was l e f t of center, and Prankel was right of center. Hirsch became the exponent of the extreme r i g h t , "not the old-fashioned Orthodoxy, but one that was reared anew, a 15 foe worthy of the modernists' s t e e l . " Hirsch outlined hi s f u l l programme i n the Nineteen Letters of Ben U z z i e l , published i n 1836. In subsequent writings he merely worked out the d e t a i l s * In taking cognizance of the changed circumstances under which Jews had to l i v e i n the modern era, Neo-Orthodoxy maintained not that Judaism must change i n conformity with the conditions of the times, but that those conditions must be changed to conform to Judaism, which was eternal and 16 unchangeable. It regarded the Torah as d i v i n e l y reveal-ed i n i t s entirety. Even the Oral Torah was divine. A l l r i t u a l laws, no less than the moral laws and e t h i c a l maxims of the Torah, were the word of God. To j u s t i f y t h i s b e l i e f , Neo-Orthodoxy advanced the following argument: There are obvious l i m i t a t i o n s to human reason. The human i n t e l l i g e n c e i s not capable of attai n i n g unaided a knowledge of how men should l i v e to f u l f i l l the w i l l of God and achieve for themselves the salvation which can only come when man f u l f i l l s h is destiny as planned by God. Only God knows what i s good for man, and we. must assume that He revealed to men what was necessary for t h e i r salvation. The precepts of the Torah must therefore be obeyed whether, to - 39 -our imperfect human judgment, they make sense or not. Despite i t s theoretic insistence on preserving t r a d i t i o n a l Judaism int a c t i n i t s entirety, Neo-Orthodoxy was nevertheless forced to make certai n concessions to the s p i r i t of the times. Jewish t r a d i t i o n before the Emancipation regarded I s r a e l as a nation i n exile and Palestine as i t s national home. I s r a e l , i t was assumed, had been exiled i n punish-ment f o r i t s sins, but when these sins would be expiated, God would send His Messiah to gather up the remnants of Is r a e l and restore them to t h e i r land. This, t r a d i t i o n a l doctrine, however, was a great stumbling block i n the path of the Emancipation. To remove i t , Reform eliminated a l l references to Zion from i t s r i t u a l and reduced the use of Hebrew to a minimum. Neo-Orthodoxy also favored Emancip-ation. It could not, i n view of i t s attitude to revelation, follow the Reform procedure. Nevertheless, i t , too, had to reckon with t h i s obstacle. Like Reform, i t maintained that Judaism was exclusively a r e l i g i o n , though i t defined the r e l i g i o u s obligations of the Jews d i f f e r e n t l y . I t rejected the p o l i t i c a l concept of Jewish n a t i o n a l i t y , but retained the r e l i g i o u s one. The b e l i e f i n the Messiah played no active part i n the l i f e of the Neo-Orthodox. They reaffirmed the s c r i p t u r a l promises with reference to h i s coming, but relegated that event to a remote future and assumed that i t would be accompanied by such supernatural manifestations that a l l peoples would acknowledge the - ko -Messiah and acquiesce i n Israel's return. In the meantime, Jews could l i v e l i k e t h e i r neighbors, except i n respect to r e l i g i o u s observance. The demands of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s observance were such, however, that much of the national culture of the Jews was thus preserved as indispensable to t h e i r r e l i g i o n * Like Reform, Neo-Orthodoxy sought to j u s t i f y the continued existence of the Jews as an i d e n t i f i a b l e group on the assumption that t h i s was necessary to f u l f i l l a r e l i g i o u s mission. I t , too, held that the dispersion of Jewry was not designed primarily to punish I s r a e l f o r i t s sins, but rather to enable i t to f u l f i l l i t s mission as God's chosen people by bringing the r e l i g i o u s truths of Judaism to the rest of the world. I t , of course, d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y from Reform as to how t h i s mission was to be carr i e d out. In i t s view, what was necessary was f o r the Jews to demonstrate by t h e i r obedience to the Torah the absolute t r u t h of i t s divine revelation. The example of Isra e l ' s constancy both i n r e s i s t i n g coercion through persecution and temptation through assimilation would pro-vide the testimony-Since Neo-Orthodoxy wanted to a v a i l i t s e l f of the new c i v i l l i b e r t i e s held out by the Emancipation, i t had to recognize the authority of the state as supreme i n c i v i l r e l a t i o n s . This meant a surrender to the state of an - k l -important area of Jewish law, f o r , u n t i l then, Jews had been governed, so f a r as t h e i r mutual re l a t i o n s were concerned, e n t i r e l y by Jewish c i v i l law. Only i n matters involving domestic r e l a t i o n s , such as marriage and divorce, was Jewish c i v i l law considered to be s t i l l obligatory, and even i n t h i s f i e l d Jews were required to obey the laws of the state as well as those l a i d down by Judaism, In business relations Jews now resorted to the c i v i l instead of to the rabbinic courts with the f u l l sanction of Neo-Orthodoxy. Neo-Orthodoxy also showed the influence of the times i n i t s encouragement of the new esthetic and c u l t u r a l interests of Jews, The f i r s t impulsive response of t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s to the Enlightenment, when i t s corroding effects on Jewish f a i t h became apparent, was to condemn the study of the science, philosophy, l i t e r a t u r e , and art of the European nations. Neo-Orthodoxy, however, encouraged general s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the culture of the peoples among whom Jews l i v e d to the extent that i t did not i n t e r -fere with the s t r i c t observance of Jewish r e l i g i o n . Like Reform, i t encouraged the use of the vernacular f o r Jewish preaching i n the synagogue, and i n s i s t e d on decorum and esthetic appeal i n the conduct of r e l i g i o u s services© In one other respect, Neo-Orthodoxy d i f f e r e d from the Orthodoxy of pre-Emancipation days, at least i n i t s emphasis. In Medieval Jewish r e l i g i o n , as well as i n the Chr i s t i a n and - k2 -Moslem r e l i g i o n , b e l i e f i n the world to come, i n reward and punishment of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a l i f e a f t e r death, played an important, i f not a dominant r o l e i n motivating r e l i g i o u s behavior. Although Neo-Orthodoxy did not deny thi s doctrine, since b e l i e f i n the revelation of the Oral Torah involved i t s acceptance, i t nevertheless f a i l e d to assign importance to i t as motivation for Jewish l o y a l t y . It based i t s appeal rather on the absoluteness of God's authority to rule over His creatures. In the soft-pedalling of the b e l i e f i n resurrection and the world-to-come, Neo-Orthodoxy showed i t s e l f to be more profoundly influenced by the s p i r i t of the times than i t was prepared to admit even to i t s e l f . Otherworldliness has i t s roots i n an age when people despair of improving t h i s world and bolster .their confidence i n the ess e n t i a l worth and dignity of human l i f e by assuming that the i l l s of t h i s world w i l l be redressed i n an imagined other world. But i n the Emancipation Era, conditions seemed to be r a p i d l y -improving, and men became more interested i n improving l i f e here than i n projecting t h e i r hopes f o r a better l i f e into another world beyond the grave. Although the advocates of Neo-Orthodoxy did not r e a l i z e i t , t h e i r f a i l u r e to appeal to other-worldly motivations r e f l e c t e d the influence of the times. In evaluating Neo-Orthodoxy i t must be stressed that t h i s movement provided a rationale f o r those who f e l t a deep emotional need f o r complete r i t u a l obedience. Many Jewish - k3 -values that might have been l o s t were thus preserved by Neo-Orthodoxy. In contrast to Reform, Neo-Orthodoxy was maximalist i n i t s demands on Jewish r e l i g i o u s observance. By sanctifying most of the v i s u a l and tangible manifest-ations of Jewish l i f e , the things that people could see, hear,and do as Jews, i t preserved these elements of Jewish culture. For example, by stressing the holy character of the Hebrew language and i t s importance f o r the synagogue, i t helped to preserve the language. By stressing the duty of r e l i g i o u s observance, i t helped to preserve much of the poetry and symbolism of Judaism i n the synagogue and home. On the other side of the ledger, i t s dogmatism tended to alienate further a l l those who could not, without s a c r i f i c i n g t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y , accept Its assumptions. Moreover, i t s intransigence alienated a l l those who were not prepared to jeopardize the economic and s o c i a l welfare of themselves and t h e i r families i n order to conform to the minutiae of t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l . Nothing i n Neo-Orthodoxy offered a program f o r changing the con-diti o n s that made the t r a d i t i o n a l forms of Jewish l i f e so d i f f i c u l t to maintain. It could only condemn and exclude non-conformists but could not help them i n t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l and p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s with Jewish t r a d i t i o n . By stamp-ing a l l such people as d i s l o y a l , Neo-Orthodoxy introduced a dangerous element of divisiveness into Jewish l i f e . Moreover by surrendering the body of c i v i l law, which - kk -gave l e g a l expression to the s o c i a l ideas of the Jewish people, and i n s i s t i n g on absolute obedienceto r i t u a l law, Neo-Orthodoxy tended to make r i t u a l observance the sole test of Jewish l o y a l t y . It thus presented a dist o r t e d , one-sided picture of Judaism. Instead of^X^oarry-sided r e l i g i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n , Judaism was converted into a mere r e l i g i o u s c u l t . Thus while comparing favorably with Reform i n recog-n i z i n g the importance of maintaining the c u l t u r a l forms and symbols of Jewish r i t u a l observance, i t f e l l short of Reform i n other respects. It rejected, along with the negative emphasis i n Reform, also Its p o s i t i v e contribution to the development of Judaism: i t s emphasis on the e t h i c a l as of greater importance than the r i t u a l , i t s recognition of the need f o r change and development In accordance with the best insights of every age, i t s superior tolerance and 17 freedom from dogmatic authoritarianism. In the United States and Canada today there are about one thousand Orthodox rabbis. The old-timers among them usually belong to the Agudath Harabbanim (Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada). These are mainly the bearded, Yiddish speaking, Talmudic scholars who lead the extreme r i g h t . About ij.25 of the younger, college-educated, English-speaking Neo-Orthodox rabbis, now belong to the Rabbinical Council of America. These younger men men have been ordained by the Isaac Elchanan Theological - hS -Seminary (New York C i t y ) , the Hebrew Theological College (Chicago), and a few smaller schools. The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America includes about f i v e hundred synagogues. But many Orthodox synagogues have no national 18 a f f i l i a t i o n . In Canada there i s at least one Orthodox synagogue i n every c i t y where any large number of Jews re-side. The central academic i n s t i t u t i o n of Orthodox Jewry i n the United States and Canada i s Yeshiva University i n New York Cit y . Yeshiva University includes the Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, Yeshiva College, the Teachers I n s t i t u t e , and a graduate school. In the near future i t w i l l also include medical and dental colleges* - k6 -C. CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT Conservative Judaism i s more vague and d i f f i c u l t to define than Reform or Orthodox. In a sense Conservative Judaism i s a moderate Reform. In another sense i t may be considered to be a 1B f t wing of Orthodoxy. Conservative Judaism has t r i e d to stress both continuity and progress i n Jewish l i f e to the extent that i t has assumed a h a l f way p o s i t i o n between Reform and Orthodoxy. The background of Conservatism Includes the work of Leopold Zunz and h i s Society for the Culture and Science 19 of the Jews. Zunz and h i s fellow scholars intended to emphasize that Judaism developed through the ages, that evolutionary changes occurred i n the development of Jewish l i f e . Zechariah Prankel (1801-1875), the Rabbi of Dresden, gave the new movement Its f i r s t name, "Positive H i s t o r i c a l Judaism." Prankel p a r t i c i p a t e d with the Reform rabbis i n the Frankfurt Conference of German rabbis i n lQl\$, but he withdrew on the t h i r d day of the Conference because he d i s -agreed with some of the extreme positions of Reform. Frankel allowed f o r c r i t i c a l researches into the past, but he i n s i s t -ed that t r a d i t i o n must be honored. According to Frankel, Judaism had undergone many changes i n i t s h i s t o r y , but no person de l i b e r a t e l y made these changes. They came into being themselves /as an adjustment to l i f e . And so Frankel • - kl -objected, to making deliberate changes and stressed the point of view that changes would come of themselves and would be in. conformity <6$> the s p i r i t of Judaism and of the environment. 20 Although Geiger was instrumental i n establishing a Rabbinical Seminary i n Breslau (1851+), he was passed over i n favor of Frankel when i t came to the appointment of the dir e c t o r . Frankel imparted to the Breslau Seminary i t s Conservative character. This Seminary became the center 21 between the extreme positions of right and l e f t . I t was simi l a r i n s p i r i t to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, which was l a t e r to be founded on t h i s continent as the school f o r Conservative rabbis. In the United States the early leader of what was to become the Conservative group was Isaac Leeser (1806-1868). Leeser came to America i n 1821+ as a young man. By 1829 he had become the Rabbi of the Sephardic Mlkveh I s r a e l Synagogue i n Philadelphia. Leeser was e s s e n t i a l l y a pedagogue. There-fore, he wrote a number of much needed texts to help i n the teaching of Hebrew s p e l l i n g and Jewish r e l i g i o u s doctrine. He also prepared prayer books with the Hebrew o r i g i n a l text and English t r a n s l a t i o n . His greatest accomplishment was the t r a nslation of the Scriptures into English (l8j?3)* This t r a n s l a t i o n was considered to be the authorized one f o r American Jews u n t i l the Jewish Publication Society of America issued i t s newer version i n 1917* Leeser preached h i s sermons - 1+8 -i n English, He edited the Occident, a monthly magazine, from 181+3 u n t i l his death i n 1868, Leeser did not l i k e 22 Reform Judaism and fought against i t . When the Pittsburg Platform was adopted i n 1885 by the Reform rabbis, i t was too extreme f o r many leaders of American Jewish l i f e . Sparked to action by the Pittsburg Platform, they became opponents of Reform Judaism. Sabato Morais (1823-1897)> the successor to Leeser at Mikveh I s r a e l i n Philadelphia, was one of these. O r i g i n a l l y he had sup-ported the Hebrew Union Colls ge i n Cincinnati 1 . But when i t became clear that radicalism would triumph over moderation i n the Reform movement, Morais began to plan a new school for rabbis. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America was the r e s u l t . It was opened i n New York City i n 1886 with Sabato Morais as i t s f i r s t president. The school struggled along u n t i l 1902 when Solomon Schechter was brought from 23 England to re-organize and r e - v i t a l i z e i t . Solomon Shechter (181+7-1915) was born i n Roumania and studied at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Vienna and the University of Vienna. In B e r l i n he l a t e r met Claude G. Montefiore, a member of an Anglo-Jewish a r i s t o c r a t i c family and a prominent English scholar and leader i n Jewish l i f e . Montefiore i n v i t e d Schechter to come to England as h i s tutor i n rabbinic l i t e r a t u r e . During h i s stay i n England, Solomon Schechter wrote a series of essays explaining and c l a r i f y i n g t r a d i t i o n a l Judaism to the English speaking world. - 49 -Schechter attained world fame by discovering a v e r i t a b l e treasure of some 100,000 ancient valuable Hebrew manuscripts i n Cairo i n 1896. This c o l l e c t i o n was destined to be the stimulus of many studies i n Jewish hi s t o r y , philosophy and l i t e r a t u r e . Shechter, who was on the teaching s t a f f at Cambridge when he discovered the manuscripts i n Cairo, was i n v i t e d i n 1902 to become the President of the re-organized Jewish Theological Seminary of America. In t h i s new role he l e f t a permanent imprint on American Jewish l i f e by the influence which he exerted through the Seminary, the United Synagogue, and t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d organizations. To t h i s day, the Jewish Theological Seminary i s frequently c a l l e d 24 "Schechter's Seminary". Schechter did not want to create a platform to define the type of Judaism he represented. He stressed that d i f -ferencesoof opinion are permissible i n Judaism but he also i n s i s t e d that these differences should be b u i l t on a fundamental unity. He emphasized Jewish t r a d i t i o n , know-ledge of the past, and understanding of the present. Unity, t r a d i t i o n , scholarship — these were Schechter's program for "Catholic I s r a e l " . Given these, the rest would take care 25 of i t s e l f . Catholic I s r a e l was Schechter's conception of a people, not a mere r e l i g i o u s ^^O^S^^IOSL, but a people which was imbued with r e l i g i o u s nationalism. When Schechter organized the United Synagogue of America, the organization of Conservative Synagogues, i n 1913* be thought that he was merely strengthening the t r a d i t i o n a l party i n Judaism, not - 50 -s t a r t i n g a new one. Here i s what Schechter had to say on the occasion of the founding of the United Synagogue of America. Indeed, what we intend to accomplish i s not to create a new party, but to consolidate an old one, which has always existed In t h i s country, but was never conscious of i t s own strength, nor perhaps r e a l i z e d the need of organization. I r e f e r to the large number of Jews who, thoroughly American i n habits of l i f e and mode of think-ing and, i n many cases, imbued with the best culture of the day, have always maintained conservative p r i n c i p l e s and remained aloof from the Reform movement... They are sometimes stigmatized as the Neo-Orthodox. This i s not correct. Their Orthodoxy i s not new. It i s as o l d as the h i l l s , and the taunt "new" can only be accounted for by the ignorance of those who took i t into t h e i r heads, that an observant Jew, who has taken a degree i n college, Is a new phenomenon, representing a mere paradox. A better knowledge of Jewish h i s t o r y would have taught them that culture combined with r e l i g i o n was the rule of the Jew; culture without r e l i g i o n was the exception.... I am very reluctant to denounce any party i n e x i s t -ence. But close observation for ten years and more has convinced me that, unless we succeed i n e f f e c t i n g an organization which, while l o y a l to the Torah, to the teachings of our Sages, to the t r a d i t i o n s of our fathers, to the usages and customs of I s r a e l , s h a l l at the same time introduce the English sermon, and adopt s c i e n t i f i c methods i n our seminaries, i n our t r a i n i n g of rabbis and schoolmasters f o r our synagogues and Talmud Torahs, and bring order and decorum into our synagogues, — unless t h i s i s done, I declare unhesitatingly that t r a d i t i o n a l Judaism w i l l not survive another generation i n t h i s country... .2o In addition to Schechter there are other architects who helped to b u i l d the structure of Conservative Judaism. Some of the ideas of the c u l t u r a l Zionism of Ahad Ha'am (1856-1927) were included i n the new movement. Professor I s r a e l F r i e d -lander (1876-1920) taught that Judaism was a complete culture, not merely a creed, and he believed i n the future of American - 51 -Jewry. Louis Ginsberg (born 1873) stressed the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic theories of the Talmud. He explain-ed that Judaism remained a l i v e by re - i n t e r p r e t i n g ideas and practices. Mordecai M. Kaplan (born 1881) emphasized the method of re-int e r p r e t a t i o n and came to the conclusion that 27 Judaism i s a r e l i g i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n . These were some of the theoreticians of the Conservative movement. At t h i s point i t might be in t e r e s t i n g to note the differences between the Conservative and the Orthodox groups. One of the main differences i s that Conservative Judaism approaches the study of the Bible and rabbinic l i t e r a t u r e i n a more s c i e n t i f i c manner. In other words, while Orthodoxy remains fundamentalist i n i t s approach to the study of the Holy Books, Conservatism i s modernist i n i t s approach. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, f o r example, teaches b i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m . Conservative synagogues stress a high standard of decorum at services. In the United States and Canada they use the English language for sermons and for in s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s schools. In the synagogue services men and women s i t together. Very often a mixed choir w i l l be used, but the choir members are in v a r i a b l y a l l Jews. A small number of Conservative congregations have introduced instrumental music into the services, but these groups are s t i l l i n the Conservative movement because they consider themselves to be l o y a l to t r a d i t i o n a l Judaism i n a l l other respects. Most Conservative synagogues emphasize - 52 -the l a t e Friday evening service as the main service of the week, but many of them s t i l l r e t a i n the Saturday morning services as the most important. The changes i n l i t u r g y have been few and minor. In the new prayer book, which was issued by the Rabbinical Assembly and the United Synagogue of America for Conservative congregations i n 191+6, the editors stated that they have been guided by three p r i n c i p l e s : continuity with t r a d i t i o n , relevance to the needs and ideals of modern 28 times, and i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y . The main change incorporated into t h i s Conservative prayer book i s the elimination of any reference to the restoration of the s a c r i -f i c i a l c u l t i n the days to come. Whenever t h i s prayer book mentions s a c r i f i c e s i t refers to them i n the past tense as something which i s a matter of h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h . The Ortho-dox prayer book, f o r example, states, "May i t be Thy w i l l , 0 Lord our God and God of our fathers, to lead us up i n joy unto our land, and to plant us within our borders, where we w i l l prepare unto Thee the offerings which are obligatory 29 for us." Then the Orthodox prayer book l i s t s some of the offerings which were to be brought d a i l y and on the Sabbath day. The Conservative prayer book contains the following text, "May i t be Thy w i l l , 0 Lord our God and God of our Fathers, to lead us j o y f u l l y back to our land, and to estab l i s h us within i t s borders where our forefathers pre- pared the d a i l y offerings and the t r a d i t i o n a l Sabbath 30 o f f e r i n g s . " - 53 -The Conservative movement stressed the importance of the t r a d i t i o n a l Sabbath; of a f u l l Jewish education, i n -cluding a knowledge of the Hebrew language; of devotion to the Zionist cause; of the dietary laws; and of the import-ance of Halacha (Jewish r i t u a l law). In these respects Conservative Judaism i s In agreement with Orthodoxy. In 1950 the Rabbinical Assembly, the organization, of Conserv-ative rabbis, accepted two changes i n Jewish law. These were the most r a d i c a l changes that have as yet been accepted by Conservative Judaism. The f i r s t was to give permission to people to ride to the synagogue on the Sabbath. The second change permits the turning on of e l e c t r i c l i g h t s on the Sabbath. Obviously these are minor changes i n comparison to what Reform Judaism accepted i n the Pittsburg Platform i n 1885- But even these changes were not u n i v e r s a l l y accepted i n the Conservative movement. In general It may be stated that Conservative Judaism attempts to maintain the authority of the Shulhan Aruch, the Orthodox code of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. Because of t h i s adherence to the Shulhan Aruch, Conservative Judaism finds i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to make changes: The Rabbinical Assembly i s again featuring the work of i t s Law Committee, which i s s t i l l grappling with the problem of the Agunah, the woman whose husband i s missing i n war or has abandoned her without giving her the Get,which would permit her to remarry. Committed to an approach to Jewish practice, which adheres clos e l y to the Halacha, the Conservative rabbis f i n d the going exceedingly rough. That i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n those matters, such as marriage and divorce, In which decisions not only aff e c t the followers of the Conservative rabbinate but also involve t h e i r r e l a t i o n s - 54 -with members of other r e l i g i o u s groups i n Jewish l i f e , and i n which innovations i n the Halacha cannot well be effected without the consent of those groups.31 In 1950 there were about four hundred Conservative con-gregations i n the United Synagogue of America and over four hundred rabbis i n the Rabbinical Assembly of America. In Canada Conservative Judaism Is stronger than Reform Judaism. There are three congregations i n Montreal, two i n Toronto, two i n Winnipeg, and one each i n London (Ontario), Edmonton, V i c t o r i a , and Vancouver. In addition, f i v e other Canadian congregations maintain a p a r t i a l a f f i l i a t i o n with the Con-servative movement. The reasons for the greater strength of Conservative Judaism than Reform Judaism i n Canada may be three. F i r s t , Canadian Jews are a generation closer to Eastern Europe and to Orthodoxy than American Jews. There-fore, they have not been attracted by the extremes of Reform. Second, some Conservative Congregations, l i k e the Beth I s r a e l i n Vancouver, include within t h e i r membership both Conserv-ative and Reform elements, with the former i n the vast majority. Third, i n recent years many Reform congregations i n the United States have readopted the trappings of Jewish t r a d i t i o n and have come closer to the Conservative p o s i t i o n . Therefore, there i s not so much of a need to develop Reform congregations i n Canada where the mild Reform or Conservative synagogue has already developed. It i s quite possible that i f Conservative Judaism had been stronger i n the United States two generations ago, extreme Reform would not have developed. Instead a mild Reform l i k e the Conservative group would have attracted the majority of those Jews who went - 55 -into the Reform synagogues. Naturally, t h i s Is only a speculation, but i t i s based, on what happened i n Germany, where the mild Reform triumphed. In c r i t i c i z i n g the Conservative movement, i t must be stated that while Conservatism admits the necessity of change, i t has evaded the problem of giving d i r e c t i o n and guidance to the process of change. It lays claim to being dynamic because i t sanctions change. But i t i s not enough to be merely dynamic; there must be a goal and objective to change. Dynamism i s a method; change must be i n a d i r e c t i o n . In examining whether Conservatism o f f e r s anything that Reform and Orthodoxy do not o f f e r the people, when one ob-serves c l o s e l y , he can see no r e a l change that Conservatism has i n i t i a t e d . It has operated with an extension of ideas proposed by Reform or Orthodoxy but has not advanced a po s i t i v e program of i t s own f o r insuring needed change and needed s t a b i l i t y . The Conservative leadership has made compromises, not fundamental changes. The membership i n Conservative synagogues i s la r g e l y Orthodox, at l e a s t i n t h e i r theory of what constitutes Jewish l o y a l t y . What the Conservative element has r e a l l y done i s not to i n i t i a t e change but to sanction changes which have already been adopted for opportunistic reasons. For example, r i d i n g to the synagogue on the Sabbath was permitted only af t e r i t became an almost universal p r a c t i c e . The r e a l question i s — should changes be made on the - 56 -basis of thought or plan? Is change something that should be conscious? Conservative Judaism has sanctioned changes only after they had been made, and has shown great r e l u c t -ance to planning change. Both Reform and Orthodoxy set up p r i n c i p l e s . Conserv-ative Judaism has no r e a l set of p r i n c i p l e s of i t s own. It merely maintains, In e f f e c t , that what the majority of Jews w i l l want over a period of time i s Judaism. Being cautious of r a d i c a l change, i t seeks a middle ground between Ortho-doxy and Reform through compromise. But there i s no middle ground between some of the issues of c o n f l i c t . Conservative practice has been to evade conflicts© There can be no compromise between supernaturalism and naturalism. I f the Torah i s supernaturally revealed, then Orthodoxy i s l o g i c a l , and a l l change i n r e l i g i o u s law i s i l l e g i t i m a t e . I f not, then i t i s ar b i t r a r y to say that the observance of the dietary laws, f o r example, i s o b l i g -atory on the modern Jew, unless the value of i t s observance can be rooted i n some new set of p r i n c i p l e s , which must be defined. I f one views Conservatism not as a philosophy but as a segment of Jewish l i f e , then i t i s reasonable to say that i t i s the most promising and v i t a l segment. It has emancip-ated i t s e l f from dogma and has been cautious about hasty innovations, a wholesome attitude. But there i s s t i l l needed a philosophy of Jewish l i f e which w i l l give that guidance that Conservatism has f a i l e d to supply* - 57 -D. RECONSTRUCTION!ST SCHOOL The Reconstruction!st school of thought i s much newer on the North American scene than either the Reform or Con-servative movements. The Reconstructionists have never aimed to create a new and competing denomination. Their purpose i s "to focus attention, amidst d i s t r a c t i n g circum-stances, upon the r e a l and c r u c i a l task at hand, namely, the u n i t i n g of Jews on the broadest possible base f o r the 32 advancement of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l welfare." The b r i e f h i s t o r y of the Reconstructionist school of thought centers about the biography of Its founder and leader, Mordecai M.Kaplan, rabbi, philosopher, and educator. Kaplan was born i n Lithuania i n 1881 and was brought to the United States at the age of eight. He was educated i n New York City, attended the City College of New York (B.A. i n 1900) and Columbia University (M.A. i n 1902) , and was ordained as a rabbi by the (Conservative) Jewish Theological Seminary of America (1902) . As a rabbi i n New York City, Kaplan organized the f i r s t synagogue-center i n 1 9 l 6 . When hi s ideas proved to be too progressive f o r h i s members, he resigned (1921) and l a t e r organized the Society f o r the Advancement of Judaism(1922). To t h i s day the Society f o r the Advancement of Judaism i s "dedicated to the advancement of Judaism as a r e l i g i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n , to the upbuilding of Eretz Y i s r a e l , and the furtherance of universal freedom, j u s t i c e and peace." - 58 -Professor Kaplan's greatest influence has been through the classroom. As founder and dean of the Teachers I n s t i t u t e of the Jewish Theological Seminary, he taught thousands of po t e n t i a l Hebrew teachers h i s ideas about Judaism. As professor of homiletics and philosophies of r e l i g i o n i n the Rabbinical School of the Seminary, he discussed his new ideas with hundreds of future rabbis. Kaplan explained h i s new approach to Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n the l i g h t of the advances that have been made i n the s o c i a l sciences© F i n a l l y , he committed h i s ideas to writing i n his f i r s t book, Judaism  as a C i v i l i z a t i o n , published i n 1934» To apply the teachings expounded i n t h i s book, the Reconstructionist movement was founded. From the very outset t h i s movement served as a ferment In Jewish l i f e , primarily because i t avoided becoming a "denomination" p a r a l l e l to Orthodoxy, Conservatism and Reform. Reconstructionism, as evolved by Dr.Kaplan and h i s followers, has three major aspects: r e l i g i o n , ethics, and culture. These elements form the c i v i l i z a t i o n of a s o c i a l group which must l i v e indepenfi^-l y i n I s r a e l and as an integrated s p i r i t u a l community i n the United States and Canada. The Reconstructionist movement became a "Uransparty school of thought" which seeks, as Dr.Kaplan has desired, to point out the weaknesses and strengths of a l l three r e l i g i o u s groups i n Judaism, and to e l i c i t maximum cooperation among them and with secular groups. - 59 -The program of Dr.Kaplan and h i s followers was further developed through The Reconstructionist. a magazine f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s founded i n 1935* The rabbis, educators, social.workers, and other i n t e l l e c t u a l s who contribute to t h i s magazine come mostly from the l e f t wing of the Conservative movement and the ri g h t wing of the Reform movement. In 1950t on the f i f t e e n t h anniversary of the founding of The Reconstructionist magazine, Kaplan's 33 d i s c i p l e s published "A Program f o r Jewish L i f e Today." This program aims to unify those Jews who are l i b e r a l i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s thinking. t Dr.Kaplan's personal d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s not only i n the breadth of h i s scholarship and h i s penetrating insights into the culture of the Jewish past, but i n h i s insistence that Jewish scholarship s h a l l be relevant to the problems that confront the Jewlin h i s day to day l i v i n g . This led him to a complete revaluation of Jewish t r a d i t i o n and the adoption of a philosophy by which Jewish l i f e can be so reconstructed as to insure i t s perpetuation and growth© An attempt w i l l be made here to explain Kaplan's Reconstructionist philosophy by giving the answers to three questions: What i s Judaism? why Judaism needs to be re-constructed? And, f i n a l l y , how Judaism needs to be re-constructed? F i r s t , what i s Judaism? It i s the evolving r e l i g i o u s - 60 -c i v i l i z a t i o n of the Jewish people: It i s a c i v i l i z a t i o n and not a r e l i g i o n i n the denominational sense, because i t includes language, l i t e r a t u r e , law, folkways, art, and music, as well as r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and pra c t i c e s . It i s a r e l i g i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n because i t i s dominated by the purpose of making Jewish l i f e supremely worthwhile or holy. It i s an evolving c i v i l i z a t i o n , growing out of the l i f e experiences of the Jewish people as they reacted to the changing circumstances of l i f e . No b e l i e f i n the miraculous i s necessary to explain t h i s development. It i s the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the Jewish people and hence the common bond that unites Jews throughout the world. The second question i s : Why Judaism needs to be reconstructed? Because s o c i o l o g i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l changes have made i t impossible f o r the Jewish people to continue i n the path l a i d down by t r a d i t i o n . Before the emancipation movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Jews were considered a nation i n ex i l e and were almost completely segregated i n self-governing communities. Today they are c i t i z e n s of the lands i n which they l i v e and must, therefore, l i v e i n two c i v i l i z a t i o n s simultaneously, the Jewish and that of the nation of which they are c i t i z e n s . Simultaneous with t h i s change went a change i n the world's thinking which convinced many informed and i n t e l l i g e n t Jews that miracles do not happen and, hence that the Torah l i t e r a t u r e was not a supernatural revelation. As a r e s u l t , the uniformity of Jewish b e l i e f and practice have broken - 6 l -down, and a new foundation needs to be found to insure the i n t e g r i t y of the Jewish people and the perpetuation of i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n * The l a s t , and most important, question i s : How does Judaism need to be reconstructed? By doing today what Jews did i n every c r i s i s that endangered the future of Judaism— re v i s i n g i t to s a t i s f y the requirements of the new s i t u a t i o n 8 Below i s a summary of the program recommended by Dr.Kaplan's followers on the occasion of t h e i r teacher's seventieth birthday: 1. Jewish unity must henceforth be based not on common b e l i e f s or common forms of behavior but on common purposes and in t e r e s t s . A l l who regard themselves as Jews and want to perpetuate Judaism as a heritage for t h e i r children must be regarded as l o y a l Jews, irrespect i v e of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r b e l i e f s or practices. 2. To insure the maximum opportunity for the perpetuation and c r e a t i v i t y of Jewish c i v i l i z a t i o n , i t needs a homeland where Jews can constitute the majority of the population and exert the predominant influence on i t s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Eretz Y i s r a e l i s the h i s t o r i c homeland of the Jewish c i v i l i z a t i o n . Hence, the Jewish community of I s r a e l should serve as the c u l t u r a l center of world Jewry. To that end i t i s important that both I s r a e l i and Diaspora Jewry regard themselves as belonging to one people and maintain r e l a t i o n s of mutual helpfulness. 3. In the diaspora, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n North America, the reestablishment of Jewish unity depends on the creation of a network of organic Jewish communities. By an organic community i s meant one i n which a l l parts are concerned In preserving the whole and the whole of the community i s concerned with the welfare of every part and of every i n d i v i d u a l . Federations and Community Councils represent a stage i n the evolution of the organic Jewish community. But Jews must learn to unite not only for f i s c a l c purposes, but to cooperate i n insuring the perpetuation and enhancement of Jewish l i f e generally. - 62 -The p r i n c i p a l functions of the organic Jewish community must be the following: to promote Jewish r e l i g i o n and ethics; to fost e r Jewish education, culture and the arts; to r e l i e v e Jewish di s t r e s s both here and abroad; to organize l o c a l p a r t i -cipation of Jews i n support of the e f f o r t to make I s r a e l i Jewry the c u l t u r a l center of world Jewry and maintain mutually b e n e f i c i a l contact with i t ; to cooperate with other l o c a l r e l i g i o u s , c i v i c and c u l t u r a l groups for the general improvement of human rel a t i o n s * While recognizing a l l forms of Jewish r e l i g i o n as having a legitimate place i n the Jewish community, r e l i g i o u s progress c a l l s for the following changes i n our r e l i g i o u s a t titudes: T r a d i t i o n must not be viewed as authoritarian and pre s c r i p t i v e , but as the stored up wisdom of the past, f o r the best use of which the l i v i n g generation should assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . It Is necessary therefore, to re-evaluate Jewish t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s and practices from the stand-point of t h e i r value to contemporary l i f e . Our r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f should be developed with a view to bringing i t into harmony with our con-ception of the world In which we l i v e . I f we accept the s c i e n t i f i c view of natural law i n our secular l i f e , we must not i n our r e l i g i o u s think-ing assume that miracles which contradict natural law actually took place. We must t r y to make our ideas about God consistent with a l l our other Ideas of what i s true about nature and the world we l i v e i n . Changes i n our r e l i g i o u s ideas c a l l for changes i n forms of worship which w i l l make worship a sincere expression of our r e l i g i o u s ideals and sentiments. We must endeavor to be creative i n the realm of r i t u a l as were our forefathers i n e a r l i e r ages. B e l i e f that Judaism has evolved by natural pro-cesses demands that we change not only our ideas about God but also our ideas about the Jewish people. While retaining the sense of the dedication of the Jewish people to enhancing the sacredness of human l i f e , the denial of the miraculous o r i g i n of Judaism involves a r e j e c t i o n - 63 -of the t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f that the Jews are God's chosen people. We must believe that God i s equal-l y accessible to a l l peoples and has no f a v o r i t e s . e. Likewise, our conception of Torah and Talmud Torah must be modified and extended. The concept of Torah must henceforth be broadened to include not only the sacred l i t e r a t u r e of our people, although that i s indispensable f o r our self-knowledge as Jews, but also a l l other study that i s motivated by the desire to sanctify l i f e by improving the human personality and human r e l a t i o n s . It i s obvious from the statement about how the Recon-s t r u c t i o n i s t s would l i k e to rebu i l d Judaism that the new school of thought i s admittedly not Orthodox. Dr. Kaplan has said on numerous occasions that he i s not t r y i n g to reach those Jews who are s a t i s f i e d with Orthodoxy. His philosophy Is for those to whom Orthodoxy has no meaning any more. The Reconstructionists are w i l l i n g to co-operate with Orthodox Jews on those projects which they both deem to be important, f o r example, the upbuilding of I s r a e l , the ad-vancement of Jewish arts, and the teaching of the Hebrew language• It has already been stated that the Reconstructionists reject the t r a d i t i o n a l doctrine that the Jews are the div i n e l y chosen people just as they re j e c t the b e l i e f i n miracles. S i m i l a r l y , the Reconstructionists do not accept the t r a d i t i o n "that God supernaturally revealed the Torah, In i t s present text, to Moses on Mount S i n a i . But the' c r i t i c a l analysis of the text by modern scholars and the s c i e n t i f i c outlook on hi s t o r y render t h i s b e l i e f no longer tenable. We know now that the Torah i s a human document, - 6k -recording the experience of our people i n i t s quest for God during the formative period of i t s h i s t o r y . The sacredness of the Torah does not depend upon i t s having been super-naturally revealed. The t r u t h i s not that God revealed the Torah to I s r a e l , but that the Torah has, in.every successive generation revealed God to I s r a e l . It can s t i l l reveal God 35 to us." The Reconstructionists "stress the sacredness of the Torah In other ways than by affirming that i t was super-naturally revealed to Moses on Mount S i n a i . Another doctrine rejected by the Reconstructionist i s that of the "personal Messiah, who, by supernatural i n t e r -vention, w i l l redeem I s r a e l from e x i l e , and usher i n an era 37 of universal j u s t i c e and peace." The Reconstructionists look ahead to a Golden Age of mankind to be attained i n time as a "universal redemption through the struggles, hopes, v i s i o n and w i l l of a l l good men." It goes without saying that Dr.Kaplan and h i s followers do not accept the doctrine that the s a c r i f i c i a l c u l t w i l l someday be restored and that animal s a c r i f i c e s w i l l again be brought i n a r e b u i l t Temple i n Jerusalem. The new Reconstructionist:; Sabbath Prayer Book (1945) "contains the prayer that we may learn to make s a c r i f i c e s of our resources and energies i n behalf of worthy causes, and that a restored 38 Eretz Y i s r a e l may once again in s p i r e us to serve God." The Reconstructionists alsoys reject the Orthodox doctrine of r e t r i b u t i o n . "To the extent that obedience to the moral law spells happiness and peace f o r mankind, ai d - 65 -disobedience spells disaster and war," the i n t u i t i o n of the ancient Jews "that the moral law was as i n t e g r a l to the structure of the universe as natural law" was correct. "But that the very r a i n f a l l i s influenced by human conduct, 39 we know, i s not true." F i n a l l y , the Reconstructionists do not accept the doctrine of Resurrection which states that the dead w i l l one day come to l i f e . But they do believe i n a l i m i t e d doctrine of the immortality of the soul "that the soul i s Immortal i n the sense that death cannot defeat i t , that the human s p i r i t , i n cleaving to God, transcends the b r i e f span of the i n d i v i d u a l l i f e and shares i n the eternity of the Divine L i f e . . . . " Although these ideas are not as far removed from t r a d i t i o n a l Judaism as the Pittsburg Platform was, they made a profound impression on Orthodox Jews when the Reconstruction-i s t Prayer Book was published i n 1945» On.June 12, 1945* the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada held a special meeting to deal with t h i s " h e r e t i c a l " book. After f i e r y speeches were made, the Orthodox rabbis unanimously voted to issue a Herem, a writ of excommunication, against Dr.Kaplan. Nevertheless, Dr.Kaplan and h i s ideas have continued to be a tremendous influence i n both the Conservative and Reform movements. Dr.Kaplan's Reconstructionism has proved to be a common meeting ground fo r a l l non-Orthodox Jewish i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Reconstructionism may eventually help to unify the Conservative - 66 -and Reform movements. At the very l e a s t , Dr.Kaplan and his d i s c i p l e s have helped the Reform and Conservative groups to cooperate i n searching f o r a solution to common problems. The basic c r i t i c i s m of the Reconstructionists i s that they have made i t d i f f i c u l t for laymen to understand them. Most of t h e i r publications, e s p e c i a l l y Dr.Kaplan's, are written i n a heavy s t y l e . The r e s u l t i s that only a l i m i t e d number of i n t e l l e c t u a l s have the patience and a b i l i t y to read t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e . Since Reconstructionism has not become a denomination l i k e Conservative or Reform Judaism, i t s p r a c t i c a l innovations cannot be c r i t i c i z e d so r e a d i l y . Nevertheless, the Recon-s t r u c t i o n i s t s have gone on record i n favor of changes i n prayers and i n the dietary laws. Some of these changes were carried out when t h e i r new Sabbath Prayer Book was published. Prom these changes i t i s apparent that the Reconstructionists do not consider themselves to be bound by Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. Their approach i s that of r e l i g i o u s s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . They think i n terms of r e l i g i o u s mores which must become part of the l i f e pattern of the environment i n which they l i v e . Therefore, i n theory they are closer to Reform Judaism than to Conservative or Neo-Orthodox Judaism. Small wonder then that a leading Reform rabbi stated that "l+OO of the 500 American Reform congregations have taken the Reconstructionist 41 road toward a more meaningful concept of Judaism." The opponents of Reconstructionism are concerned - 67 -over the readiness with which the Reconstructionists would modify t r a d i t i o n a l forms. The v i t a l question i s t h i s : Is i t possible to tamper with t r a d i t i o n a l practices without i n v i t i n g t h e i r ultimate disintegration? It-was explained above that the Reform movement gained so much momentum In th i s d i r e c t i o n between l88£ and 1937 that It had to stop the watering down process and begin a return to some t r a d i t i o n a l forms. Some c r i t i c s ask t h i s question: Since Reconstructionism teaches no p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s doctrine, leaving such matters for the i n d i v i d u a l to determine, w i l l i t s ultimate r e s u l t not be so much v a r i a t i o n i n Jewish practices as to lead to confusion and disunity? The Reconstructionists reply to t h i s charge that confusion, disunity, and dis i n t e g r a t i o n are a present condition of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e and that Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e cannot be saved, "unless i t i s systematically, boldly, yet reverent-42 l y , recast." Nevertheless, the Reconstructionists are c r i t i c i z e d on a l l sides. Those Jews who consider r e l i g i o n to be the essence of Judaism accuse the Reconstructionists of d i l u t i n g and d i s t o r t i n g the ancient f a i t h . S i m i l a r l y , those Jews who consider Hebrew or Yiddish culture to be central i n Judaism contend that the Reconstructionist insistence on the c e n t r a l i t y of r e l i g i o n i s unfortunate© -67a-Notes f o r Chapter II 1. Solomon B.Freehof, Reform Jewish Practice and Its  Rabbinic Background. Cincinnati, Hebrew Union College Press, 1944- P.12. 2. Abram Leon Sachar, A History of the Jews, second edition, revised to 1940, New York, A l f r e d A.Knopf, 1943, p.268o 3» Marvin Lowenthal, The Jews of Germany, a Story of  Sixteen Centuries, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1944, pp.204-205. I4.. Grayzel, op. c i t . , p.583. 5 . Margolis and Marx, op. c i t . , pp. 659-662. 6. Sachar, op_. c i t . , p. 308a. 7. Grayzel, op_. c i t . , p.632. For text of Pittsburg Platform see David Philipson, "Reform Judaism," The Universal  Jewish Encyclopedia, 1942, v o l . 6, p.241. 8. Rabbi's Manual, Cincinnati, Central Conference of American Rabbis, 1936, pp. 147-206. 9. Albert I.Gordon, Jews In Transition, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1949, p.74* 10. Cyrus Adler, "The Seminary Aims to Preserve the Knowledge and Practice of H i s t o r i c a l Judaism," In A z r i e l Eisenberg, ed., Modern Jewish L i f e i n L i t e r a t u r e , New York, United Synagogue Commission on Jewish Education,194^, p . 2 l 8 . 11. From notes on a lecture by Rabbi Eugene Kohn at the Reconstructionist Youth I n s t i t u t e , New York City, January 26, 1947. 12. For f u l l text of "Guiding P r i n c i p l e s of Reform Judaism" see David Philipson, "Reform Judaism," The Universal  Jewish Encyclopedia,1942, vol . 6 ,pp.2 4 2 - 2 4 3 . 13. G.M.Cohen, "Wide Return to R i t u a l by U.S.Reform Jewry Reported i n Survey," The National Jewish Post, November 17, 1950, p.12. 14. Ira Eisenstein, Creative Judaism, New York, Behrman House, 1936, pp.39-40* 15. Margolis and Marx, op_. c i t . , p. 663. -67b-16. Jacob B.Agus, "Obsolescence i n Jewish Law," Con- servative Judaism, v o l . 7 (June,1951)* P«9« 17. Eisenstein, op_. c i t . , pp.47-54* Also notes from a lecture by Rabbi Eugene Kohn at the Reconstructionist Youth I n s t i t u t e , New York City, March 30, 1947. 18. P h i l i p S.Bernstein, "What the Jews Believe," L i f e , September 11, 1950, p.174* 19. See above, p.21. 2 0 . See above, p.22. 21. Margolis and Marx, op.cit., p.663. 22. .Ibid., p.650. 23. Grayzel, op. c i t . , p.696. 24. A z r i e l Eisenberg, Modern Jewish L i f e i n L i t e r a t u r e , New York, United Synagogue Commission on Jewish Education, 1948, p.253. 25. Grayzel, op_. c i t . , p.697* 26. Solomon Schechter, "It Is 'A Work of Heaven' to Which You Are Invited," i n Eisenberg, Modern Jewish L i f e i n  Literature, op. c i t . , pp. 220-222. 27. Robert Gordis, Conservative Judaism, An American  Philosophy, New York, Behrman House,1945, PP» l b - 2 3 . 28. Sabbath and F e s t i v a l Prayer Book, IhebRabbinical Assembly of America and The United Synagogue of America,194^, p. VI. 29. The Authorized Daily Prayer Book of the United Hebrew  Congregations of the B r i t i s h Empire, London, Eyre and Spottls-woode Limited, 1935* p.162. 30. Sabbath and F e s t i v a l Prayer Book, op. c i t . , p.141. 31* "Some Problems Being Discussed by the Rabbis," The  Reconstructionist, v o l . 1 7 , No.10 (June 29 , 195D» pp.5-6. 32. "A Statement of Objectives of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Fellowship," The Reconstructionist, Vol . 1 6 , No.19 (January 26, 1951) p.25. 33» The Reconstructionist, Vol . l 6,No. 1 (February 24, 1950), pp.!2-iy. ~ - 6 7 c -3k. "Mordecai M.Kaplan and His Philosophy of Judaism," Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, New York, 195>1, pp.1-3. 35* Sabbath Prayer Book, New York, The Jewish Recon-s t r u c t i o n i s t Foundation, 1945* P« XXV. 36. Ibid., p. XXVI. 37* Loc. c i t . 3 8 . Ibid., p. XXVII. 39. Loc. c i t . 1+0. "A Challenge to Freedom of Worship," New York, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 191+5, p.2. 1+1. "Reconstructionism Takes Over Reform, " The National  Jewish Post, July 6, 1951,; p . l . lj.2. Milton Steinberg, "Current Philosophies of Jewish L i f e in' America", i n Oscar I. Janowsky, ed., The American  Jew: A Composite P o r t r a i t , New York and London, Harper Brothers, 191+2, p.229. - 68 -CHAPTER III JEWISH RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCE IN VANCOUVER Chapter II dealt with modern attempts to introduce systematic change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . The h i s t o r y and rationale of four modern movements were reviewed i n order to discover the theoretic extent of change i n modern Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . An e f f o r t w i l l be made i n t h i s chapter to record the extent of s o c i a l change which'has taken place i n the Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e of a changing community, namely, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. According to the 19^1 census, Vancouver Jews resided throughout the c i t y , although the heaviest concentration was i n the Fairview d i s t r i c t . By r a c i a l o r i g i n there were 2,812 Jews i n Vancouver; by r e l i g i o u s adherence there were 2,7i|-2 1 Jews i n the c i t y (about one percent of the papulation). Today there are many more Jews i n Vancouver than there were i n 1941* The Greater Vancouver area probably has s i x t y - f i v e hundred Jewish residents. (In t h i s area are included New Westminster, Burnaby, North and West Vancouver, the univ e r s i t y area, as well as the c i t y of Vancouver.) I t i s estimated that there are at least seventeen hundred Jewish families i n Greater Vancouver as well as several hundred Jewish individuals who l i v e alone. A l l organized Jewish i n s t i t u t i o n s of the c i t y of Vancouver serve the Greater Vancouver area. A l l synagogues, Hebrew schools. Jewish butcher shops, the Jewish community centre, and the - 69 -Home for the Aged are located i n Vancouver proper. For the purpose of th i s study a l l the Jews of Greater Vancouver w i l l be considered as the Vancouver Jewish community. The majority of Vancouver Jews are "newcomers" who set t l e d i n the area during the past decade. Many young Jews who were stationed on the West Coast during the war, or who passed through t h i s area while i n the armed services, deter-mined to set t l e i n Vancouver after the war. They came to Vancouver from the p r a i r i e towns and c i t i e s i n great numbers after 1914-5• Most of them were able to e s t a b l i s h themselves and remained as residents of the ra p i d l y growing c i t y . A few returned to t h e i r old homes afte r they f a i l e d to adjust to the new environment. In the study of Jewish r e l i g i o u s observance i n the homes, which i s included i n th i s chapter, only f o r t y - s i x out of eighty-two Hebrew school pupils, who answered the question-naire were born i n Vancouver. Among the youngest school children the percentage of those born out of town may be even higher. In one group of t h i r t y - f o u r Hebrew school pupils, twenty-one had been born out of town, and most of these twenty-one had been In Vancouver only a few years. Another i n d i c a t i o n of the rapid growth of the Vancouver Jewish community i s the fact that i n 191+9 there were almost as many contributors to the Vancouver United Jewish Appeal (2263, mostly family heads) as there were Individual Jews by r e l i g i o u s adherence i n Vancouver i n 19h.l (27k2). - 70 -In order to determine the nature and extent of the s o c i a l change which i s taking place i n the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the Jews of Vancouver, t h i s study w i l l deal with the observance of the dietary laws, the Sabbath, and the f e s t i v a l s ; the personal ceremonies i n the l i f e t i m e of a Jew; the synagogues and r e l i g i o u s education; the family and the home; and some charitable projects. - 71 -A. The Dietary Laws The extent of change i n contemporary Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n a community can be i l l u s t r a t e d through.a study of the observance of the dietary laws. In former years the dietary laws occupied an extremely important place In Jewish l i f e . Prominent i n the Jewish dietary r i t u a l i s the purchase and preparation of "kosher" meat, that i s , prescribed sections of animals r i t u a l l y slaughtered by a s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d slaughterer, c a l l e d a Shochet. A sal i e n t feature i n the orthodox household consists of the arrangements i n the kitchen, which are subject to special dietary laws. A l l meat foods must be kept s t r i c t l y separate from milk foods, as the contact of one with the other--such as meat with milk,butter, or cheese— would render both u n f i t f o r consumption. This regulation involves the use of two sets of u t e n s i l s , both f o r cook-ing and eating, the one set being reserved f o r meat dishes and the other for milk or butter dishes, and the crockery and cutlery of the one set being kept rigorously apart from those of the other. This separation of things F l e l s c h i g (meaty) from things M i l c h i g (milky) i s ob-served by the s t r i c t housewife i n every conceivable d i r e c t i o n : there are separate tablecloths and napkins, separate cruets, separate basins for washing the crockery . and separate towels f o r drying; and i n more elaborate kitchens, there are even separate cooking-ranges, dressers, and sinks. There i s a spe c i a l u t e n s i l f o r the preparation of meat, from which.the blood must be drained i n accordance with the B i b l i c a l command (G-en.ix.l;; L e v . i i i . l 7 ) « It i s a slanting board or piece of wicker-work upon which the meat, after having been soaked i n water h a l f an hour, i s besprinkled with s a l t ; a f t e r another hour, the s a l t i s rinsed away, and the meat i s ready f o r cooking. On the Feast of Passover, special crockery and cutlery must be used, and as separate sets are necessary f o r meat and milk, the orthodox household must be provided i n a l l with four sets of cooking and eating vessels. The Passover sets are usually stored i n some out-of-the-way place, where they are safe from contamination by anything "leavened," i . e . the customary food of the rest of the year.^ This was the practice i n Orthodox Jewish homes before the - 72 -Emancipation, and i t i s s t i l l the practice i n Orthodox homes today. A few generations ago It was unthinkable that any Jew would v i o l a t e the dietary laws either within h i s home or outside. However, time has wrought many changes In the actual practices of contemporary Jews. As indicated above, f o r the sake of t h i s study, the Vancouver Jewish community w i l l be used as an example of the extent to which change has occurred i n contemporary Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . The approach here w i l l attempt to measure the extent of deviation from the Orthodox norm of former days. An e f f o r t w i l l also be made to compare the practices of Vancouver Jews with those of the Jews i n Minneapolis i n order to indicate the extent to which Vancouver i s a representative c i t y . For the sake of t h i s comparison, an attempt w i l l be made here to follow the methods used by Rabbi Albert I.Gordon i n h i s very fine study of Minneapolis Jewry recently published under the t i t l e Jews i n Transition. It i s obviously impossible to obtain exact information on the number of people who observe the dietary laws. Never-theless, ce r t a i n facts can be ascertained through the informatioi which i s available from the kosher butchers. In the summer of 19^1 there were three kosher meat markets to serve Vancouver's seventeen hundred Jewish f a m i l i e s . Two of these markets were pr i v a t e l y owned, and the t h i r d was a co-3 operative venture. Together they had 802 regular customers i n addition to a number of families who buy f o r special - 73 -occasions only* Allowing for some duplication, since some families bought meat from two butchers, i t i s s t i l l safe to assume that almost f o r t y - f i v e percent of the Jews i n Vancouver purchase kosher meat. In comparison, Gordon shows that no more than twenty percent of the Jews i n Minneapolis buy kosher meat fo r home use. He states further that of the two thousand Jewish families on the West Side of Minneapolis, only three hundred are regular customers of the one kosher meat market i n k that area. It i s a well known fact that many Jews who observe the dietary laws within t h e i r own homes pay no heed to them out-side t h e i r homes. Gordon assumed that there were only ten percent i n Minneapolis who observed the dietary laws both with-i n and outside t h e i r own homes. In order to determine the extent of observance of the dietary laws i n Vancouver, a series of questions was asked of three groups of pupils attending the Jewish r e l i g i o u s schools In the spring of 1950. Two of the groups were from the Talmud Torah, the community Hebrew school which has an Orthodox orientation. The f i r s t Talmud Torah group consisted o f A t h r e e children between the ages of eight and fourteen who were the pupils of Classes.3 , 4 * &nd 5 i n the after school Hebrew classes. The second group of Talmud Torah children consisted of the f i f t e e n children i n Class 2 of the Talmud Torah's parochial school (fourteen of them were seven years o l d ) . For the sake of comparison a group from the Beth I s r a e l Religious School was used. The Beth I s r a e l Religious School i s operated - IK -as a private, after-school Hebrew school by the Conservative Synagogue. The responses are given In Table I. Table I. The Observance of Certain Phases of the Dietary Laws i n Vancouver ,1950* T.T.Glasses 3,4,5 T.T.Parochi a l Class 2 . - Beth I s r a e l Yes No Yes No Ues No 1. In our home we eat our meat meals with-out butter,milk, or 29 4 12 3 9 25 2. In our home we have separate meat and 28 5 12 3 7 27 3 . My mother buys meat i n a kosher meat 32 0 15 0 10 13 (Sometimes: 1) (Sometimes:11) My mother makes meat kosher before cook-30 2 11 4 l k 20 For the sake of comparison, Table II includes the r e s u l t s obtained when the same questions were asked i n Min-neapolis. The West Side families i n Minneapolis i n t h i s table are members of a Conservative synagogue comparable to the Beth I s r a e l i n Vancouver. TABLE I I . A Comparison of Observance of Certain Phases of the Dietary Lgws i n Minneapolis, 1946, and Vancouver, 1950. West Side Total Beth Israel Total Minneapolis Minneapolis Vancouver Vancouver Yes Uo Yes No Yes Ho Yes Ho 1. In our home we eat our meat meals without butter, milk or oream.•••..»••••••••••, 2. In our home we have separate meat and milk dishes........ 3. My mother buys meat i n a kosher meat market...••••••• 4. My mother makes meat kosher before cooking i t . . . . , . . . . . 10 13 31 29 20 19 116 50 114 55 25 27 50 32 47 35 138 22 10 13 57 13 (Sometimes:11) (Sometimes:12) 126 23 14 20 55 26 -76-From Table II i t may be noted that while the Vancouver Conservative families are s l i g h t l y , but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y , more observant of the dietary laws than the Minneapolis Con-servative families,the Vancouver t o t a l s show less observance than the Minneapolis t o t a l s , i n spite of the fact that Table I indicates that the Vancouver Talmud Torah children come from families which are quite s t r i c t i n t h i s matter. The reason for t h i s i s that Gordon had a low proportion of Con-servative pupils while a high proportion of Conservative pupils was used i n the present Vancouver study. What i s much more i n t e r e s t i n g i s the fact that eleven out of t h i r t y -four Beth I s r a e l children indicated that t h e i r mothers buy kosher meat "sometimes", although there was no space f o r th i s on the mimeographed questionnaires. This was a s i l e n t "write-in campaign." It seems that some families buy kosher meat fo r special occasions only, for cert a i n holiday meals and f o r meals served to v i s i t i n g grandparents. It i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that some Vancouver housewives purchase meat which i s slaughtered i n a non-kosher manner and then soak i t and s a l t i t ("make meat kosher") i n accordance with the dietary regulations. Such meat can never be "made kosher" according to Jewish re-l i g i o u s law, but t h i s does not deter some of the house-wives from following what would be considered an inconsistent practice by the c r i t e r i o n of Orthodoxy. In Vancouver the kosher butchers are obliging enough to t h e i r customers to soak and salt t h e i r meat upon request. -77-This may account f o r the fact that a few of the Talmud Torah children (Table I) reported that t h e i r mothers buy kosher meat but do not "make meat kosher" before cooking i t . Regarding food served at public gatherings of the Jew-is h community of Minneapolis, Gordon has th i s to say: Most of the Jewish a f f a i r s held i n the community are non-kosher, unless they occur i n Orthodox or Con-servative synagogue buildings. There Is seldom any objection raised, except by some of the rabbis, i n re-gard to serving nonkosher meat at public gatherings. At o f f i c i a l Jewish dinner meetings f i s h i s usually served i n order to avoid offending those few persons who f e e l the importance of observing the dietary laws. However, the f i s h i s served i n nonkosher dishes, that i s , dishes that have been used for nonkosher meats. Silverware, d e f i n i t e l y not kosher i n the Orthodox sense, i s also used./ S t i l l , l i t t l e complaint i s heard about these matters." In t h i s respect the s i t u a t i o n i s quite similar i n Vancouver. A hue and cry i s raised p e r i o d i c a l l y by the Orthodox rabbis, usually a f t e r some public a f f a i r which they did not attend. Were they to attend, they would take small consolation i n the fact that a few people usually ask f o r (and are served) a f r u i t salad or f i s h at these dinners. In determining the extent of observance of the dietary laws i n Vancouver, a number of questions about eating food i n non-kosher restaurants were asked of those pupils i n the Beth I s r a e l Religious School and the Talmud Torah who indicated that t h e i r homes were either s t r i c t l y kosher or p a r t l y kosher. The re s u l t s are shown on Table I I I . (Technically, according to Jewish r i t u a l law, there i s no such thing as "partly kosher," but i n the Vancouver Jewish community many people f e e l that t h e i r homes are p a r t l y kosher.) TABLE III. The Observance of Certain Phases of the Dietary Laws Outside the Homes, Vanoouver.1950 T.T. Classes 3,4,5 T.T.Parochial Class 2 Beth Israel S t r i c t l y Partly Hot at a l l Striotly Partly Hot at a l l Striotly Partly Hot at a l l 1. Our home is kosher... 23 10 0 8 7 0 6 15 13 2. If your home i s kosher or partly kosher, ansv/er the following questions* T.T. Classe3>3,4,5 T.T.Paroohial Class 2 Beth Israel Yes Ho . Yes Ho Yes Ho , a. When I go out, I eat "co non-kosher meat in. a j restaurant.. 17 16 6 9 19 2 b. When I go out, I eat f i s h i n a restaurant..* 21 12 9 6 16 5 c. When my parents go out, they eat non-kosher meat i n a restaurant 18 15 6 9 18 3 d« When my parents go out, they eat f i s h i n a restaurant 21 10 9 6 17 4 - 79 -From Table III It i s apparent that the majority of those who make some attempt to keep a kosher home, f e e l no com-punction about v i o l a t i n g the dietary laws when eating i n a public restaurant* (There are no s t r i c t l y kosher restaurants i n Vancouver just as there are none i n Minneapolis). This "double standard" i n observing the dietary laws r e s u l t s , ac-cording to Gordon, "from a desire to respect the opinions of one's parents, who may on occasion come into the home of t h e i r children and eat with them, or from a certain nostalgia which prevents a complete and utter break with habits and 7 t r a d i t i o n s acquired i n childhood." It would also appear that some people f e e l that they can control everything with-i n t h e i r own homes, but that they must accept conditions as they are outside. Nevertheless, many people who eat non-kosher meat outside t h e i r homes s t i l l avoid eating pork or s h e l l f i s h i n a restaurant. A large number of Jewish housewives, who make no pre-tense at keeping a kosher home, s t i l l take pride i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to prepare Jewish d e l i c a c i e s similar to those which t h e i r mothers used to serve. They go through the bother of preparing G e f i l t e (stuffed) f i s h f or the Sabbath or f o r the holidays because they f e e l that a Sabbath or holiday meal would be incomplete without some of the special dishes which they associate with the "good old days." Many factors have caused people to change t h e i r attitude toward the importance of the dietary laws during the past generation. Gordon sums up a l l the most frequently mentioned - 8 0 -causes. Observance of the dietary laws has dropped be-cause, even though they are b i b l i c a l i n o r i g i n , there i s l i t t l e f e e l i n g that these are "God-ordained" i n -junctions. They are not regarded as v i t a l or neces-sary for the preservation or sur v i v a l of the Jewish people. Observance i s d i f f i c u l t f or persons who eat out. It i s easier to follow the practices of one's friends. Kosher meats are no longer regarded as clean-er or more hygienic than nonkosher. F i n a l l y , i t i s "r i g h t " to follow the majority of Americans i n such matters. Change the word "Americans" to "Canadians" i n the l a s t sentence, and t h i s summary applies to Vancouver as well as to Minneapolis* - 8 1 -B* Days of Joy and Solemnity  1 . The Sabbath Day The t r a d i t i o n a l Sabbath was a day of r e s t , study, contemplation, and happiness to Jews everywhere. It was r i g h t f u l l y known as the Day of Delight. Special preparations were made by Jewish housewives for the Sabbath day: House-cleaning, shopping, and cooking the special dishes such as G e f i l t e (stuffed) f i s h , chicken, noodle soup, Challos (twists of bread), Challent (meat soup with barley and potatoes), and many d e l i c a c i e s . Before sundown the children were bathed and dressed i n t h e i r best clothing. Mother kindled the Sabbath candles, whichiwere placed on a white tablecloth, as she r e c i t e d the Hebrew blessing inaugurating the Sabbath. Father attended the Sabbath eve service i n the synagogue, and, upon returning home, he chanted the Kiddush ( s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of the wine) and r e c i t e d the blessing over the challos at the Friday evening meal. Between courses, Zemlros ( r e l i g i o u s songs) were sung or hummed by a l l the members of the family. F i n a l -l y , grace after meals was r e c i t e d or chanted, and the b i b l i c a l portion f o r the week was reviewed. So, the eve of the Sabbath was a family evening devoted to a l e i s u r e l y 9 welcome of the Day of Rest. To most Jews i n Vancouver the t r a d i t i o n a l Sabbath i s almost unknown. In many instances, Friday evening i s s t i l l the occasion f o r a family gathering, but most of the t r a d i t i o n a l Sabbath practices are ignored. This i s r e f l e c t e d - 82 -i n the small synagogue attendance as well as i n the diminishy-ing number of homes i n which the Sabbath candles are l i t and the Kiddush r e c i t e d . Not infrequently, these practices are abandoned by young parents who want to be "modern", only to be r e - i n s t i t u t e d upon the insistence of t h e i r children of r e l i g i o u s school age. In a few instances the children l i g h t the candles and chant the Kiddush f o r t h e i r parents. It goes without saying that very few Vancouver Jewish housewives prepare t h e i r homes for the Sabbath as c a r e f u l l y as t h e i r mothers did. A very small number of people attend the t r a d i t i o n a l synagogue service inaugurating the Sabbath every Friday evening at sunset. Women never attend these services. In the f a l l and winter most men are s t i l l at t h e i r place of work while these services are being conducted i n the Orthodox synagogues. The result i s that each of the two Orthodox synagogues has an attendance of about twenty men at these services. Almost txtfo decades ago a Conservative congregation was organized with the aim of i n s t i t u t i n g a late Friday evening service so that worshippers could attend at about 8:00 P . M . after t h e i r Sabbath eve meals. Although dubbed a "mushroom synagogue" i n i t s early years, the Conservative congregation has continued to exist and has i n turn influenced one Orthodox synagogue to inaugurate a late Friday evening service sporadically. The Conservative synagogue, with a membership of 302 f a m i l i e s , has averaged an attendance of about, two hundred at the l a t e Friday evening services during the past - 83 -two years. The larger Orthodox synagogue, with a membership of 3i+3 f a m i l i e s , i n s t i t u t e d l a t e Friday evening services i n the f a l l of 1947 and abandoned the experiment two years l a t e r . The o f f i c i a l reason for putting an end to the l a t e Friday evening services i n t h i s synagogue was that the rabbi f e l t that i t was preferable f o r his congregation to stay at home on Friday evening rather than v i o l a t e the Sabbath by r i d i n g to the synagogue. (Apparently the attendance was poor also.) But i n the f a l l of 1950 the late Friday evening service was r e - i n s t i t u t e d at t h i s Orthodox synagogue and the attendance for the f a l l and winter of 1950-51 averaged about one hundred. If they do not attend the synagogue, how do the Jews of Vancouver spend t h e i r Friday evenings?" Some stay home with t h e i r families or v i s i t t h e i r friends. Others attend hockey or basketball games, wrestling matches, moving picture shows, or other forms of commercial recreation. The Sabbath morning services are characterized by an extremely small number of worshippers. Thirty people (mostly men) attend each of the two Orthodox synagogues re g u l a r l y . About twenty adults and twenty-five children attend the Conservative services. On special Sabbaths when there i s a Bar Mitzvah (the confirmation of a boy) the attendance may be as high as 150 or two hundred (mostly women). The small attendance on Sabbath mornings i s a r e s u l t i n no small measure of economic pressures. In a c i t y where most r e t a i l shops are closed Wednesday and Sunday, the Jewish Sabbath-day cannot be observed without a tremendous f i n a n c i a l - 8 k -l o s s . The result i s that the young men are conspicuous by t h e i r absence on Sabbath mornings. For the women and children the Sabbath has become a day of recreation rather than a day of rest and prayer. Mothers do t h e i r shopping or attend moving picture theatres and teas. Some children have a good time watching movies, playing b a l l , or attending p a r t i e s . Other children take special lessons (dancing, elocution, music, dramatics) or go to the ortho-dontist. The sampling study of students from the Beth I s r a e l Religious School and the Talmud Torah, to which reference was made i n the discussion on the dietary laws, may help to provide an o v e r - a l l picture of Sabbath observance among the Jews of Vancouver. (See Tables IV and V.) These figures w i l l be compared to Gordon's res u l t s i n Minneapolis. (See Table 10 V.) In general, they support the contention that Sabbath observance has become weak i n Vancouver, perhaps even weaker than i n Minneapolis. TABLE I V . Sabbath Synagogue Attendance By F a m i l i e s o f Hebrew Schoo l P u p i l s , Vane ouver , 1950• 1. Do the f o l l o w i n g a t tend synagogue on F r i d a y n i g h t ? T . T . C lasses 3> 4 , 5 R e g u l a r l y Sometimes Never I ( p u p i l ) 0 19 14 Father 1 21 10 Mother • 0 17 15 Older b r o t h e r ( s ) . . . « 1 6 3 Older s i s t e r ( s ) . . . . . 1 6 2 2 . Do the f o l l o w i n g a t tend synagogue on Saturday morning? T . T . P a r o c h i a l C l a s s 2* Beth I s r a e l R e g u l a r l y Sometimes Never R e g u l a r l y Sometimes Never 0 1 0 0 0 7 8 20 12 2 7 7 8 20 4 4 11 5 24 5 1 0 3 3 2 3 0 3 6 1 Co vn i I ( p u p i l ) F a t h e r . . • M o t h e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . Older b r o t h e r ( s ) . . . Older s i s t e r ( s ) . . . . T . T . Classes 3 . 4 , 5 T . T . P a r o c h i a l C lass 2 Beth I s r a e l 10 10 13 0 3 12 18 13 3 2 8 21 0 3 12:) 2 15 15 0 8 21 0 1 14 0 23 11 2 1 3 0 0 2 4 2 3 0 3 3 0 1 2 3 0 7 * The c h i l d r e n i n t h i s c l a s s are too young t o a t t end s e r v i c e s . TABLE V. Religious Practices Observed by Families of Hebrew -School Pupils, Vancouver, 1950, and Minneapolis,1946, 1. Do the following attend synagogue on Friday night? Vancouver Minneapolis I (pupil) Father................ Mother • • • *. Older brother(s)...... Older sister( s ) . . . . . . . 2. Do the following atte I (pupil) • Father ••••• Mother Older brother(s) Older sister(s) 5. My father does not go to work on Saturday................ Passover. Shavuot Rosh Hashonah........... Yom Kippur Sukkot 4. On Saturday my mother Regularly Sometimes Never Regularly Sometimes Never 20 38 24 9 93 48 10 48 21 20 84 40 5 45 31 7 76 59 4 10 5 3 31 32 4 15 3 0 32 36 synagogue on Saturday morning? 28 26 28 71 60 24 4 26 48 12 69 74 0 32 46 1 62 93 6 3 8 5 22 32 3 4 12 2 26 41 Never Cooks Vancouver 6 41 21 63 64 19 Warms up Cooked Foods Mi rmpapol is 24 35 30 131 132 28 Cooks Regularly i CD o I Vancouver: Minneapolis: 4 20 41 90 37 49 5. We play our radio on Saturdays Yes Vancouver: Minneapolis: 6,a. We have musical instruments i n our home b. We play v i o l i n , etc., on Saturdays 7. Riding on Saturdays i n our family 75 117 Vancouver Yes Yes 67 47 I (pupil) Father.. Mother••.••.••••••••••* Older brother(s)....... Older sister(s)........ 8, Writing on Saturday I(pupil) Father•.•••••••••••••«« Mother................. Older brother(s)......« Older sister(s)........ Vancouver Do Hot Ride 2 2 3 1 1 Do Hot Write 29 9 25 6 7 Do Ride 80 75 77 20 22 Do Write 53 68 54 15 16 Ho 6 11 Minneapolis Yes 92 Yes 62 Minneapolis Do Hot Ride Do Ride 17 152 17 145 26 139 7 49 8 48 Do Hot Write Do Write 62 107 47 112 58 100 18 40 18 47 9. Smoking on Saturday Vancouver Father...... Mother.......... Older brother(s), Older si3ter(s). Do Hot Smoke 21 26 11 8 10. Shopping on Saturday Do Hot Shop I (pupil) I Father. ......... 9 Mother........... • 6 Older brother(s)....... 4 Older sister(s) • 1 11. Putting on lights in our family Do Hot Put on Lights I(pupil)............... 2 Father.... 2 Mother................. 2 Older brother (s) 1 Older sister(s)........ 1 Do Smoke 52 40 2 7 Do Shop 69 64 75 13 20 Do Put on Lights 79 74 78 20 22 Do Hot Smoke Do Smoke 29 26 14 9 85 51 18 12 Do Hot Shop Do Shop 28 S3 23 13 10 137 88 140 30 39 Do Not Put Do Put on on Lights Lights 15 14 6 20 130 19 136 8 40 4 50 Regularly 12©a. Mother lights oandles on Friday night...... 50 b. Mother lights oandles on holiday nights .... 46 o. My father lights candles on Chanukah........»• 69 d. My father recites kiddush on Friday nights ...... 25 e. My father recites kiddush on holiday nights ...... 45 13. My father 3ays a prayer before meals on Weekdays............ 4 Saturdays......**... 12 Holidays...•.......» 33 14. My father says grace (prayers) after meals on Weekdays • 2 Saturdays........... 4 Holidays....... 27 Minneapolis Never:- Regular ly Sometime Never 12 116 35 13 12 113 36 16 3 113 22 18 31 42 44 63 10 68 48 38 66 10 25 115 51 23 26 102 21 63 45 51 67 62 33 8 15 36 19 18 37 103 113 56 -90-2. The Ma.lor Holidays The major Jewish holidays are those ordained i n the Pentateuch. They include the High Holidays (Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippur) and the three Pilgrimage F e s t i v a l s (Pesach, Shavuot, and Sukkot). The High Holiday season i s ushered i n by the Sellhot services. At a midnight service on the l a s t (or sometimes the second from the l a s t ) Saturday night before Rosh Hashonah, the Jewish New Year, Sellhot or p e n i t e n t i a l prayers are chanted i n the synagogues. Although great numbers of people used to attend the Sellhot service a generation ago, the numbers of worshippers have been d r a s t i c a l l y reduced i n a l l the synagogues during the l a s t few years. Very few young people attend. Including the "old timers" the attendance usually numbers from one to three hundred In each synagogue. But t h i s picture i s changed on Rosh Hashonah. The Jewish New Year occurs sometimes between the middle of September and the beginning of October. Starting with the two-day observance of the New Year, as ordained by t r a d i t i o n , the Ten Days of Repentance are concluded with the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). During these High Holidays Jews ask forgiveness for t h e i r offenses against God and man. According to Jewish t r a d i t i o n , God judges man during these ten days. "On New Year's Day the decree i s inscribed and on the Day of Atonement i t i s sealed, how many s h a l l pass away and how many s h a l l be born; who s h a l l l i v e and who - 9 1 -11 s h a l l die..." For reasons which may be d i f f i c u l t to under-stand the synagogues are f i l l e d to overflowing on Rosh Hashonah. Jewish homes r e f l e c t the s p i r i t of the High Holiday season too. The homes are c a r e f u l l y cleaned, candles are l i t as on the Sabbath eve, and appropriate blessings are r e c i t e d . The holiday meal i s similar to the t r a d i t i o n a l Sabbath meal i n that i t begins with Kiddush ( s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of the wine) and the Motzl (grace before the meal). In keeping with the s p i r i t of the High Holiday season, the meal i s begun by eating a s l i c e of apple dipped i n honey and r e c i t i n g a special blessing: "May i t be Thy w i l l , 0 Lord our God and God of our 12 fathers, to renew unto us a happy and pleasant year." The two new Vancouver synagogues were b u i l t with due regard f o r the number of seats required on the High Holidays. The new Orthodox synagogue, b u i l t i n 1947, to seat almost twelve hundred people, i s f i l l e d only on Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippur. (During the rest of the year, the large seating capacity only emphasizes the fact that so few congregants attend services.) In the new Conservative synagogue, erected i n 19i|-8# provisions were made for seating f i v e hundred wor-shippers on an ordinary Sabbath and eleven hundred on the High Holidays. (This i s done by opening up f o l d i n g doors and u t i l i z i n g the space which i s used as an auditorium for s o c i a l events during the rest of the year.) The small Orthodox synagogue moves into the auditorium of the Jewish Community Centre where three hundred worshippers may p a r t i c i p a t e i n -92-the services on Rosh Hashonah and Yom'Kippur. In a l l three synagogues a s p i r i t of reverence, devotion, and piety manifests i t s e l f . The Conservative synagogue includes a number of English prayers i n the services; It also departs from t r a d i t i o n i n permitting women to sing i n Its choir. But otherwise the Conservative synagogue and the two Orthodox synagogues attempt to create a special atmosphere of awe and at-oneness with t r a d i t i o n . Rosh Hashonah services are held on the eve of each of the two days of t h i s solemn f e s t i v a l for about an hour. Then the services are resumed early the next morning, and they continue u n t i l a f t e r noon. The t r a d i t i o n a l heart-rending melodies are performed by the cantor and choir and the ram's horn i s blown to c a l l people to repent. Orthodox and Conservative congregations are supposed to observe two days of Rosh Hashonah and of each of the Pilgrim-age F e s t i v a l s . During the past few years, however, i t has been noted, es p e c i a l l y i n the Conservative synagogue, that an increasing number of men absent themselves from the synagogue i n order to attend to business. Although t h i s happens when both days Rosh Hashonah are weekdays,- the reverse may be true when Rosh Hashonah f a l l s on Saturday and Sunday. In the l a t t e r instance, the attendance i s higher the second day (Sunday) than the f i r s t . Obviously, the economic factor plays a r o l e here as well as i n the Sabbath morning attendance. Almost a l l Jewish children are absent from school on both days Rosh Hashonah and on Yom Kippur. The synagogue - 9 3 -arranges special services for children of public school age. The Sabbath between Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippur i s known as Shabbas Shuvah (the Sabbath of Repentance or the Sabbath of Return), Formerly, t h i s was an occasion f o r a very large synagogue attendance and a long discourse by the rabbi on the special theme of t h i s Sabbath, the need for men to repent t h e i r misdeeds. In the Orthodox synagogues a few more men attend on t h i s Sabbath than on an ordinary Saturday, but otherwise the Jewish community does not seem to be aware of a special occasion. Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, i s ushered i n with an impressive service on the eve of t h i s f a s t day. The service begins at sundown with the Kol Nidre prayer which i s sung according to an ancient, haunting melody. The mood of the Day of Atonement can be captured only when i t i s r e a l i z e d that the overwhelming majority of worshippers s t i l l abstain from a l l food and drink for over twenty-four hours. The theme of t h i s day also contributes to the solemnity of the occasion. This i s the day of judgment when God's decrees concerning man are signed* In Vancouver, the Kol Nidre services s t i l l begin before sunset, as ordained by Jewish t r a d i t i o n . In Minneapolis, the Reform and Conservative congregations f i n d that i t i s exeeedingly d i f f i c u l t for some of t h e i r members to arrive i n the synagogue that early "without f o r f e i t i n g the right to 13 enjoy a meal before the beginning of the Great White Fast." They/have, therefore, arranged t h e i r services to begin as - 9 k -late as 7:30 or 8:00 P.M. The three Vancouver synagogues are crowded on Yom Kippur and es p e c i a l l y on Kol Nidre Eve* In the Conservative synagogue seats are assigned to a l l dues-paying members without charge. In the Orthodox synagogues, a separate charge i s made for the High Holiday seats. Those who are not members of any synagogue are accommodated as well as possible. In the old building of Congregation Schara Tzedeck, at Heatley and Pender, the men used to s i t on the main f l o o r , while the women sat upstairs i n a special women's g a l l e r y . When the new Schara Tzedeck Synagogue was erected i n 1947» provision was made for the women to s i t i n elevated sections on either side of the men's section on the main f l o o r . In the smaller Orthodox synagogue, men and women s i t i n separate sections on the same f l o o r . The Conservative congregation has, since i t s inception, seated men and women side by side i n family pews. On the Day of Atonement services continue without interruption from about eight o'clock i n the morning u n t i l the darkness of night signals the end of the fast day. In the Conservative synagogue there i s usually an Intermission of about an hour at about four o'clock i n the afternoon. This intermission i s made possible by the abbreviation or elimination of some of the prayers. Even with t h i s i n t e r -mission, many congregants f i n d i t too d i f f i c u l t to remain i n the synagogue a l l day. Prom time to time men and women take a walk to get some fresh a i r or to v i s i t the services at another synagogueo _95-In the evening, when the conclusion of the service i s marked by the blowing of the ram's horn, families return to t h e i r homes to break the fast together. After a short re s t , many young couples attend a post-Yom Kippur dance sponsored by a B'nai B ' r i t h lodge. Although i t i s not considered i n good taste for Jewish-owned places of business to remain open on the High Holidays and especially on Yom Kippur, many establishments conduct business as usual. Many Jewish owners leave everything i n the hands of non-Jewish employees, but some Jewish business-men spend at least part of the day at t h e i r place of business. Why do so many people attend the synagogues on the High Holidays? Why do many Jews never enter a synagogue between one Yom Kippur and the next Rosh Hashonah? A number of reasons may be suggested. Some Jews admit frankly that they are not r e l i g i o u s . Nevertheless, they want to be with t h e i r families and friends for special Jewish occasions. On the other hand, there are many Jews who f e e l that they are e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s but that they cannot think i n terms of re p e t i t i o u s d a i l y (or even weekly) prayers. Somehow, the High Holiday prayers are more personal, dealing as they do with the themes of l i f e and death, health and sickness. Many Vancouver Jews must have t h e i r own personal reasons for observing these special days. Whatever the reasons may be, i t i s obvious that the High Holidays continue to play a special role i n the l i v e s of almost a l l Jews i n t h i s community. -96-The same importance i s not attached by most Vancouver Jews to the three Pilgrimage F e s t i v a l s : Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot. Although e x p l i c i t l y ordained i n the book of Exodus ' (3i|:23) that a l l male Jews should "appear before the Lord God," that i s , i n the central sanctuary, "three times i n the year," t h i s has been impossible since the Temple i n Jerusalem was destroyed l 8 8 l years ago. After the destruction of the Temple, prayers were i n s t i t u t e d to replace the s a c r i f i c i a l c u l t . It i s , therefore, incumbent on a l l male Jews to at-tend synagogue services on these f e s t i v a l s . But comparatively few Jews attend the synagogue on these three f e s t i v a l s . Of the Pilgrimage F e s t i v a l s , Pesach seems to have main-tained the greatest popularity. Although the Passover spring f e s t i v a l i s not supposed to be more important than Sukkot or Shavuot — a l l three were o r i g i n a l l y holidays marked by pilgrimages to the holy Temple i n Jerusalem — the basic idea of Passover seems to have captured the imagination of Jews everywhere. Commemorating as i t does the Hebrews" release from Egyptian bondage more than thirty-one centuries ago and'the subsequent struggle to make freedom a r e a l i t y , i t s message seems to be most pertinent f o r the middle years of the twentieth century: In every generation each person must see himself as i f he personally were redeemed from Egypt, that i s , every generation must win freedom f o r i t -s e l f . According to t r a d i t i o n , no leaven i s supposed to be eaten i n Jewish homes on t h i s eight day f e s t i v a l . Jews eat Matson (unleavened bread) during the Passover week. They are also required to use separate dishes and cutlery accord-ing to the Orthodox r i t u a l . Many foods must be s p e c i a l l y prepared for Passover to be r i t u a l l y correct. In spite of a l l t h i s inconvenience, some semblance of the t r a d i t i o n a l home Seder service i s s t i l l observed by most Vancouver Jews. Many families share t h e i r Seder with guests: friends, v i s i t o r s from other c i t i e s , or u n i v e r s i t y students. It i s true, however, that most families celebrate only one Seder instead of the two ordained by t r a d i t i o n . It i s also true that the r i t u a l i s not followed as cl o s e l y as i t was a generation ago because fewer people now read Hebrew f l u e n t l y . . Nevertheless, the Seder retains i t s strong hold on the Jewish imagination because i t s message i s relevant to the times, i t s ceremonies are centered i n the home, and i t i s b u i l t around the interests of children. Other r i t u a l observances on Passover are not maintained to the same degree as the Seder. While some Matsoh i s eaten i n almost a l l Jewish homes, bread and other leavened foods f i n d t h e i r way Into many homes. A few business men s t i l l come home for lunch during the Pesach week. Others carry the special foods to be eaten at t h e i r places of work. But many Jews eat i n the public restaurants on Passover© Many food products are now available i n Vancouver for those who wish to observe the f e s t i v a l i n a s t r i c t manner. Candy, pastry, prepared vegetables, and many other products with labels affirming t h e i r r i t u a l correctness may now be - 9 8 -purchased. But the Vancouver rabbis have made no arrange-ments for the preparation of milk, cream, or butter for Passover as i s done i n other c i t i e s . Consequently t h i s makes fo r an unbalanced, heavy diet of meat, f i s h , and eggs. Synagogue attendance on Passover i s larger than on the other two Pilgrimage F e s t i v a l s or on an ordinary Sabbath morning, but not nearly as great as on the High Holidays. The modern Orthodox Schara Tzedeck Congregation has an at-tendance of about one hundred on each Passover morning, while each of the other two congregations gets a l i t t l e more than h a l f of that number. On the eighth day of Passover, when memorial prayers are r e c i t e d f o r the dead, 1^0 to two hundred worshippers attend the modern Orthodox and the Conservative congregations, and about one hundred attend the old Orthodox synagogue. In 1950, when the l a s t day of Passover occurred on a Sunday, almost four hundred worshippers attended the Conservative synagogue for the combined Passover and memorial service. Shavuot, the feast of Pentecost and the second Pilgrim-age F e s t i v a l , i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y celebrated f i f t y days a f t e r Passover as a two-day f e s t i v a l . According to t r a d i t i o n , i t was on Shavuot that the Ten Commandments were given to the I s r a e l i t e s through Moses. Synagogue attendance i s quite small on t h i s f e s t i v a l . Except for those who come to say the memorial prayers on the second day, the attendance i s almost l i k e that on an ordinary Sabbath morning. In 19lj.7, the Conservative synagogue experimented by holding a confirmation - 9 9 -service on the f i r s t day of Shavuot which happened to f a l l on a Sunday. About 550 people attended. Although the ex-periment was highly successful from the point,of view of attendance, i t was decided, f o r the time being, not to hold confirmations on the f i r s t day of the f e s t i v a l f o r two reasons. F i r s t , t h i s day does not necessarily f a l l on a Sunday each year. Second, at present no instrumental music i s permitted i n the Conservative synagogue on the Sabbath or major f e s t i v a l s , and a piano accompaniment i s almost essential to the confirmation program. Eventually, i t i s planned to introduce instrumental music f o r such occasions i n the Con-servative synagogue. Sukkot, the t h i r d Pilgrimage F e s t i v a l , i s known as the Feast of Tabernacles or the Feast of Booths. This f e s t i v a l , which begins f i v e days after Yom Kippur and l a s t s seven days, was t r a d i t i o n a l l y a very happy harvest f e s t i v a l . Booths or tabernacles were constructed as a reminder of the f r a i l dwellings of the children I s r a e l during t h e i r wanderings i n the wilderness. The f r a i l Sukkah was erected by each family i n the past, and a l l meals were eaten i n the Sukkah. Each morning the blessing was r e c i t e d over the Esrog and Lulav ( c i t r o n and palm branch). Today, very few private houses can boast of a Sukkah. Each synagogue builds one, however, and the Conservative synagogue goes to great pains to decorate i t s Sukkah i n the s p i r i t of the harvest f e s t i v a l . The synagogues also have the Esrog and Lulav available f o r each worshipper to - 1 0 0 -make the appropriate blessings. Synagogue attendance i s quite small during the Sukkot f e s t i v a l . But on Shemini Atzeret (the Eighth Day of Assembly) when the memorial prayers are r e c i t e d , a large number of worshippers attend. That evening, which i s the eve of Simhat  Torah (Rejoicing of the Law), several hundred children come to each synagogue with t h e i r parents to march around with the S c r o l l s of the Torah. This special day marks the con-clusion of the reading of the Pentateuch for the past year and the commencement of the reading for the coming year. -101-3. The Minor F e s t i v a l s Minor f e s t i v a l s are those which are not mentioned i n the Pentateuch, such as Chanukah and Purim. Chanukah, the Feast of Dedication or the Feast of Lights, commemorates the rededication of the Temple i n Jerusalem by the Maccabees 2156 years ago a f t e r t h e i r v i c t o r y over the Hellenized Syrians. The Maccabean triumph over the forces of the Syrian king., Antiochus Epiphanes, was the f i r s t v i c t o r y for a people's right to the freedom of worship. The f e s t i v a l i s characterized by the l i g h t i n g of the eight-branched candelabra. One l i g h t i s kindled the f i r s t evening and an-other i s added each succeeding evening u n t i l , on the l a s t night, eight candles are l i g h t e d . Blessings of thanksgiving and songs appropriate to the occasion are sung at the candle l i g h t i n g ceremony. Formerly each of the children received Chanukah g e l t , a g i f t of money i n honor of the joyous f e s t i v a l . Today most children receive small presents, rather than money. The whole family enjoys the delicacy of the f e s t i v a l , potato Latkes (pancakes). Chanukah occurs at the same time as Christmas or a l i t t l e e a r l i e r . This has created problems i n the minds of some of the young Jewish parents i n Vancouver and elsewhere. They convinced themselves that there was nothing " r e l i g i o u s " about Christmas and introduced the C h r i s t i a n s o l s t i c e f e s t i v a l as a substitute f o r the Jewish Chanukah. Ten or , f i f t e e n years ago i t was quite i n vogue to compromise and celebrate both. But more recently Chanukah seems to have -102-come back into i t s own. For example, of seventy-nine children answering the question about the l i g h t i n g of the Chanukah candles, only three indicated that t h e i r fathers ' Ik. never l i g h t them* Some homes are decorated i n Chanukah themes. Many parents present t h e i r children with eight d i f -ferent Chanukah g i f t s , one f o r each night of the f e s t i v a l , i n order that they should not be jealous of t h e i r C h r i s t i a n playmates' Christmas presents. Chanukah parties are held i n the .Talmud Torah and i n the Beth I s r a e l Religious School as well as i n private homes and i n the Jewish Community Centre* In the Conservative synagogue the rabbis have endeavored to popularize Chanukah. They have taught both parents and children how to celebrate t h i s f e s t i v a l at home. The r e s u l t has been that Chanukah, a minor f e s t i v a l , i s celebrated by more members of the Conservative synagogue than Shavuot or Sukkot, which are t e c h n i c a l l y major f e s t i v a l s . Another minor f e s t i v a l i s Purim, the Feast of Lots, which commemorates the deliverance of the Jews of Persia from extermination by Haitian through the intervention of Mordecai and Esther, as recorded i n the Book of Esther. The Megillah, a s c r o l l consisting of the Book of Esther, i s read, on the eve of Purim and on the morning of the f e s t i v a l , i n the synagogues. The synagogue attendance on Purim morning i s quite small, but on the eve of Purim hundreds of children come with t h e i r parents to blot out the name of Haman by whirling t h e i r Greggers (noisemakers) whenever the v i l l a i n ' s - 1 0 3 -name i s mentioned during the reading of the Megillaho In the Conservative synagogue the rabbi includes English i n t e r -polations and explanations i n the Megillah reading. Purim i s celebrated i n the Talmud Torah and the Beth I s r a e l Religious School through class p a r t i e s , the exchange of g i f t s , masquerades, concerts, and carnivals. There i s today a great emphasis on the s o c i a l aspects of the holiday. Some-times a youth club presents a streamlined, modern version of the Purim story i n the form of a play which pokes innocent fun at p e r s o n a l i t i e s involved i n current events. Adult organizations feature Purim dances. Tishah B'Av, the ninth day of the Hebrew month Av, i s important as a f a s t , commemorating the destruction of the F i r s t Temple by the Babylonians more than twenty-five centuries ago and the Second Temple by the Romans almost nineteen centuries ago. On t h i s day Orthodox Jews used to gather i n t h e i r synagogues i n great numbers to chant the Book of Lamentations, i n which the prophet Jeremiah pictures the desolation and hopelessness a f t e r the destruction of the F i r s t Temple and the F i r s t Jewish Commonwealth. Today the Book of Lamentations i s s t i l l chanted i n each synagogue. But very few people attend the services or ob-serve the day as a f a s t . Tishah B'Av probably began to lose meaning a generation ago. Today many people claim that there i s no reason f o r mourning and f a s t i n g since I s r a e l has been founded as a homeland fo r a l l Jews who wish to go there* In 1950, the Conservative Synagogue experimented with -10k-a new approach to Tlshah B'Av. In t h i s experiment an attempt was made to combine the t r a d i t i o n a l lamentations with a dedication to the constructive ta'ks which l i e ahead i n the e f f o r t to r e b u i l d the ancient homeland. Thus, the Book of Lamentations was chanted and explained and a token fas t was observed from supper time on the eve of Tishah B'Av u n t i l the conclusion of the afternoon service at two o'clock the next day. Then the t h i r t y participants i n t h i s experiment broke bread together and entered into a discussion of the problems that were faced by the State of I s r a e l i n " r e - p a t r i a t i n g " thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, from the Arab states, and from elsewhere. In review, i t becomes apparent that the holidays and fast days do not a l l have the same importance i n contempor-ary Jewish l i f e i n Vancouver. Of the major f e s t i v a l s , the High Holidays have remained important occasions f o r the vast majority of the people. Passover, with i t s family Seder, continues to play a leading role i n the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of Vancouver Jews, but Shavuot and Sukkot have, for the time being at l e a s t , become less meaningful i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l form. Of the minor f e s t i v a l s , Chanukah has become more widely observed i n recent years, and Purim has been holding i t s own. Tishah B'Av and a l l the minor fast days have d e f i n i t e l y l o s t ground. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that those celebrations which take place i n the evenings or on Sundays have managed to maintain some popularity i n most cases. S i m i l a r l y , holidays -105-that are celebrated mainly i n the home and that focus t h e i r attention on children, l i k e Passover and Chanukah, have re-gained a great deal of popularity i n recent years. The status of holiday observance i s quite s i m i l a r i n Vancouver and Minneapolis. It should be noted, however, that Purim seems to have retained more appeal i n Vancouver while the observance of Shavuot and Sukkot have been r e v i t a l i z e d i n Minneapolis through the introduction of the confirmation -and consecration ceremonies* -io6-C. THE LIFETIME OF A JEW Theoretically the Shulhan Aruch i s supposed to be the authoritative code of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law which governs the l i v e s of Orthodox and Conservative Jews. But i n actual practice the Shulhan Aruch i s v i o l a t e d constantly by most of those who consider themselves to be t r a d i t i o n a l Jews almost as much as i t i s vi o l a t e d by the Reform Jews who have formally repudiated Its authority. It has already been indicated i n the preceding pages that c e r t a i n changes have occurred i n Vancouver i n the observance of the dietary laws, the Sabbath, and the holidays. In the next few pages an attempt w i l l be made to point out the extent of change that has taken place i n those ceremonies that are associated with important events i n the l i f e t i m e of a Jew. An ancient Jewish r e l i g i o u s law requires that each male c h i l d should be circumcized on the eighth day afte r b i r t h . This ceremony, c a l l e d B r i s M i l l a h (covenant of circumcision), r e c a l l s the covenant made between God and Abraham, the f i r s t Hebrew. When births took place i n the homes, the circumcisions were also performed there. The r i t e was performed by a pious Jew, who had been approved by the rabbis, as a Mohel ( r i t u a l circumcizer) but had no r e a l medical t r a i n i n g . He used a sharp surgical knife. After the operation he gave the 'baby a Hebrew name, usually the name of a deceased r e l a t i v e . The ceremony was performed i n the presence of a Minyan, ten adult male Jews who constitute a quorum f o r -107-public r e l i g i o u s services. Following the B r i s , there was a b r i e f celebration i n the home. Today almost a l l Jewish circumcisions i n Vancouver are performed i n the hosp i t a l s . Jewish mothers who give b i r t h to sons are permitted to stay nine days, one day beyond the date of the B r i s . (In Seattle, most of the Jewish mothers leave the hospitals after the f i f t h day, consequently, a Bris there usually takes place i n the home.) Since the hos p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s are lim i t e d , there are rules at each of the hospitals i n Vancouver permitting only three or four people to be present at a B r i s . The author of t h i s paper was interested i n having a Minyan present at the circumcision of each of h i s two sons. To make t h i s possible, he arranged to have the f i r s t one circumcized at home. For his second son, he obtained a special r u l i n g from the ho s p i t a l permitting ten men to be present at the B r i s , providing that i t should be c l e a r l y understood that t h i s was an exception made only for a rabbi. During the l a s t three or four years there has developed some discontent concerning the services of the only Mohel i n the c i t y . Young p a r e n t s are hesitant about permitting a person who i s untrained i n medical science perform t h i s minor operation on the i r sons. They prefer to have a doctor perform the operation and a rabbi make the appropriate blessings and name the c h i l d . In Minneapolis, as i n many other c i t i e s i n the United States, there i s a growing ten-dency to have doctors perform the circumcisions. In -108-Vancouver, the Orthodox rabbis refuse c a t e g o r i c a l l y to sanction any circumcision performed by a doctor under any circumstances. During the past year the Conservative rabbi has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a few exceptional cases i n circumcisions performed by Jewish doctors© I f a son i s the f i r s t born to h i s mother,- Jewish r i t u a l law requires that he be redeemed from the service of God by h i s father through the payment of f i v e s i l v e r coins to a Cohen or p r i e s t . The Cohen uses t h i s money f o r charitable purposes. This practice of redeeming the f i r s t born son, c a l l e d Pidyon Ha-Ben, i s beginning to disappear i n Vancouver. In the Conservative congregation the rabbi has attended t h i s type of ceremony about twice each year for the past f i v e years. A l l Jewish children i n Vancouver are given English names by which they are always c a l l e d . In addition, each boy received a Hebrew name at h i s circumcision and a major-i t y of the g i r l s are given Hebrew names i n the synagogue, usually on the Sabbath following the b i r t h . For a l l ceremonial purposes i n the synagogue a person i s c a l l e d by his or her Hebrew name and the Hebrew name of h i s or her father, for example, "David, son of Meyer" or "Naomi, daughter of Meyer." In order to name a daughter, the father i s supposed to attend the synagogue on a day when the Torah (Pentateuch) i s read from a s c r o l l . This may be a Sabbath, holiday, or any Monday or Thursday morning. The father i s c a l l e d to -109-the Torah, r e c i t e s the proper benediction, and l i s t e n s to the rabbi name the newborn c h i l d and bless i t s parents. Sometimes, when the father i s unable to attend the synagogue, a grandfather takes h i s place. The Hebrew name chosen f o r the c h i l d i s usually that of some deceased member of the family, never that of a l i v i n g close r e l a t i v e . Occasionally, the parents f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to name a boy afte r a deceased woman or a g i r l a f t e r a deceased man. Then the rabbi i s c a l l e d upon to f i n d the nearest male (or female) equivalent for the Hebrew name which the parents wish to perpetuate. The rel a t i o n s h i p between the Hebrew and English names i s often very s l i g h t ; usually . both names begin with the same l e t t e r or the same phonetic sound. Thus the Hebrew "Avraham" (Abraham) may become "Alv i n " or "Albert," and the Hebrew "Sarah" may e a s i l y prove to be "Sandra" or "Shirley". Obviously, the English names are frequently so f a r re-moved from the o r i g i n a l Hebrew as to be unrecognizable. Aside from a few names l i k e "Judith" and "David", b i b l i c a l names are d e f i n i t e l y not popular among the younger generation of Vancouver Jews. Here i s a l i s t of names of children and th e i r fathers, c u l l e d from the r e g i s t r a t i o n l i s t for the 1951-52 academic year at the Beth I s r a e l Religious School, to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s trend: Name of Child Name of Father Lola Charlotte Freddie Jacob David Samuel - 1 1 0 -Name of Child Name of Father Je r r a l d Martin A l l a n Arthur B i l l e e Nora Diane Shirley David Abraham Joseph Samuel Jacob Ben j amin Barbara Kenneth Samuel Nathan In three cases the trend was reversed: Judith Sandra I s r a e l David Harold Leon Howard Of eighty-nine fathers on the school l i s t , twenty-six had one of the following six names from the Hebrew Bi b l e : Samuel ( 1 0 ) , David ( 6 ) , Benjamin (1+.), Joseph ( 3 ) , Abraham ( 2 and Jacob ( 2 ) . The r i t e of Bar Mitzvah (Son of the Commandment) i s ob-served when a boy reaches h i s thirteenth birthday. Theoretic l y , the boy i s expected to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for h i s actions at that time. As a token of having reached h i s re-l i g i o u s majority, he may henceforth be counted as a member of a Minyan, the quorum of ten adult male Jews required as a minimum fo r public worship. A generation or two ago there was l i t t l e or no special preparation required by a boy for t h i s r i t e . The grand-fathers of today's Bar Mitzvah boys, e s p e c i a l l y those who come from Europe, r a r e l y remember t h e i r own Bar Mitzvah ceremonies. The reason f o r t h i s i s that boys used to start t h e i r Hebrew studies at a very early age and used to be prepared well before t h e i r thirteenth birthday to be c a l l e d up to the Torah and to chant the prophetic portion of the -111-week. Some of the talented youngsters even prepared a Talmudic discourse f o r the occasion. Today the Bar Mitzvah ceremony i s very popular i n Vancouver. Parents who are otherwise removed from Jewish r i t u a l , i n s i s t that t h e i r sons he confirmed i n the t r a d i t i o n -a l manner. The ceremony becomes a motivation for the learning of at least one s p e c i f i c aspect of Jewish r i t u a l . Some boys are prepared by private tutors, but most of them study i n the Talmud Torah or the Beth I s r a e l Religious School. In the two Orthodox synagogues there are no special prerequisites for the Bar Mitzvah ceremony except that the boys be Jewish, thirteen years of age, and prepared to chant the blessings for the Torah reading and the prophetic portion with i t s blessings. The Conservative synagogue requires that each Bar Mitzvah boy s h a l l have attended three or more years as a regular p u p i l i n either the Talmud Torah or the Beth I s r a e l Religious School. In addition to the Torah blessings and the blessings and reading of the prophetic portion, each Bar Mitzvah boy i s required to chant the Kiddush ( s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of the wine) at the late Friday night service and to lead the congregation i n reading and chanting some of the prayers i n the Saturday morning service. In the Orthodox synagogues the boys usually del i v e r an address, ghost-written by t h e i r teachers, i n which they thank th e i r parents for a l l t h e i r kindness and i n which they declare #hat henceforth they s h a l l perform a l l the duties incumbent upon them. ("Today I am a manJ") The Conservative synagogue -112-has eliminated the Bar Mitzvah speeches on the ground that they are not written, understood, or carried into practice by the boys. After the services there is a reception or luncheon in the synagogue. Sometimes there is also a reception at the home of the Bar Mitzvah Saturday or Sunday evening. Last May the Conservative synagogue instituted a Bas  Mitzvah ceremony (the equivalent of Bar Mitzvah for girls). Twelve girls who had attended the Special Hebrew Classes in the Beth Israel Religious School for three or more years participated in this group ceremony which was held on a Friday evening. The girls l i t the Sabbath candles, particip-ated in th£.;;service, recited a prophetic portion, and presented a special choral reading which interpreted the meaning of the Ten Commandments in the contemporary world. Every year the Conservative synagogue also conducts a confirmation ceremony for children who have reached the age of fifteen or sixteen and have completed at least five years of study in a religious school. Although this ceremony was originally borrowed by Reform Judaism from the Lutherans, i t has become very popular in the Vancouver Conservative synagogue. Twelve children were confirmed at the last ceremony. About seven hundred people f i l l e d the synagogue or stood in the aisles and the hallway, and fully three hundred were turned away for lack of space. In Jewish tradition marriage is considered to be the ideal goal for a l l young Jewish men and women. Young people -113-are encouraged to marry by t h e i r eighteenth birthday. Former-ly * e s p e c i a l l y i n East European countries, the Shadchen (marriage broker) was a f a m i l i a r figure. "Marriages were con-tracted on the basis of family Yichus (pedigree) and the scholastic attainments of the groom. The concept of romantic love was foreign to Jewish people u n t i l recent times. Nobody knows how much "love" there developed i n Jewish marriages, but the family l i f e was known to be stable and divorces, although comparitively easy to obtain under Jewish r i t u a l law, were rare. Months before the wedding T'no-im (conditions) were written, usually on a Saturday night or on a minor holiday, at what might be considered as an engagement party. The T'no-im stipulated the amount of money to be paid as a penalty by the person who broke the engagement. Many people considered i t worse to break the T'no-im than to be married and divorced. On the Sabbath before the wedding the groom was honored by being c a l l e d to the Torah i n the synagogue. Gordon describes the t r a d i t i o n a l Jewish wedding ceremony b r i e f l y : The marriage, always a r e l i g i o u s ceremony, usually took place i n the synagogue or i t s courtyard. The bride took the prescribed r i t u a l bath on the day preceding the marriage. Both bride and groom fasted on t h e i r wedding day in- expiation of t h e i r sins. The ceremony took place under the flhupa, the wedding canopy. The rabbi pronounced the t r a d i t i o n a l blessings and gave the bride and groom a cup of wine. The Kesubah (marriage contract) was read i n Aramaic, the vernacular of the Jews of ancient Babylonia, i n the presence of the .. parties of the marriage. Over the second cup of wine the seven concluding blessings of the service were chanted. The glass was crushed under the foot of the groom to symbolize Israel's g r i e f over the loss of -11!+-r Jerusalem* Then came the cry Mazel Toy, Mazel Tov ("Good Luck, Good Luck"). The marriage ceremony was thus concludede 5 Today i n Vancouver the Shadchen (marriage broker) i s a thing of the past. It i s also quite unusual f o r young men and women to get married by t h e i r eighteenth birthdays. Marriages are popularly believed to be a r e s u l t of " f a l l i n g i n love." Parents object strenuously to marriages between Jews and non-Jews. This objection i s voiced equally strong-l y by those who consider themselves to be r e l i g i o u s and by those who are not. Par from seeking aft e r Yiohus (pedigree) or money, most Jewish parents are content that t h e i r sons should marry "any nice Jewish g i r l . " T'no-im are r a r e l y written; the author of t h i s paper has heard of only one case i n the last f i v e years. The groom sometimes attends the synagogue on the Sabbath before h i s wedding; more often he does not because he i s "too busy"—although he i s never too busy.to attend the vulgar "stag" arranged by h i s friends* None of the Conservative brides and very few of the Orthodox take the r i t u a l bath before the wedding. A small minority of the brides and grooms fast on t h e i r wedding day. But when i t comes to the wedding proper, the rabbis invariably i n s i s t on having the f u l l t r a d i t i o n a l ceremony. A l l males wear s k u l l caps or hats. The ceremony takes place under a Chupa or wedding canopy. The t r a d i t i o n a l blessings are pronounced, and the bride and groom drink twice from a cup of wine. The groom gives the bride a wedding ri n g . The Kesubah (marriage contract) i s read i n Aramaic and para--115-phrased i n English. And, f i n a l l y , the glass i s broken. The Conservative rabbi includes a number of English prayers i n the wedding ceremony and explains the significance of a l l the Hebrew r i t u a l . He conducts a double-ring ceremony even though t h i s practice i s not t r a d i t i o n a l . Before the two new synagogues were b u i l t , most large weddings took place i n one of the downtown hotels. But i n the spring of 1949 the Conservative rabbi read about an innovation that was to be introduced i n Minneapolis and St. Paul. The rabbis of the Twin C i t i e s announced that after March, 1949, they would not o f f i c i a t e at hotel weddings. They would o f f i c i a t e only i n the synagogues or i n private homes. The Conservative rabbi c a l l e d t h i s news item to the attention of his two Orthodox colleagues, and a l l of them agreed that after June, 1949, they would o f f i c i a t e i n the following places only: the synagogues, the Talmud Torah, the Jewish Community Centre, and private homes. This r u l i n g has been i n effect now f o r over two years. During t h i s time there was only one instance when the wedding was held i n the Conservative synagogue and the reception i n a downtown hotel. In the Orthodox synagogues t h i s has occurred a few times. In Minneapolis no objection i s made to dinners or receptions at hotels providing the wedding ceremony takes place i n the synagogue. There i s some instrumental music at almost a l l synagogue weddings. The Orthodox synagogues permit v i o l i n music while the Conservative synagogue permits a l l instrumental music -116-that Is i n good taste. Secular songs l i k e "Because" or "0 Promise Me" are not permitted to be sung i n the Con-servative synagogue either before or during the ceremony. For lack of good Jewish music, "Lohengrin" i s p r a c t i c a l l y required for the processional. Following a ceremony which takes place i n a synagogue there i s usually a reception or dinner i n the s o c i a l auditorium of the synagogue building. The t r a d i t i o n a l Sheva Berochos (Seven Benedictions) are ra r e l y chanted a f t e r a wedding any more. Although the. Shulhan Aruch was designed to be a code of Jewish r i t u a l law covering a l l aspects of l i f e , i t i s now most s t r i c t l y observed only where death i s cioncerned. Jews who may be estranged from the Jewish community for years make a point of asking s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a Jewish burials For example, a woman who was married to a Christian i n Nelson, B.C., died several years ago; and when her w i l l was read, i t was discovered that she s p e c i f i c a l l y requested a Jewish funeral and b u r i a l . Gordon explains the Orthodox timer-honored r i t u a l s connected with death and bu r i a l s According to Jewish t r a d i t i o n a l practice, when death was near, the person was expected to r e c i t e the Viddui (confession of s i n s ) . I f possible, he was to say the Shema ("Hear, 0 I s r a e l , the Lord our God, the Lord i s One"). After a l l signs of l i f e had ceased,the eyes were closed, and the corpse was washed and pre-pared for b u r i a l by the Chevra Kaddisha (b u r i a l society), which regarded i t as a r e l i g i o u s duty to serve i n t h i s capacity. Autopsies and embalming were forbidden by Jewish law. The body was placed upon a board on the f l o o r ; candles were lig h t e d and a pious -117-Jew was expected to "watch" the body u n t i l the time f o r the funeral. The Tachrichim (linen b u r i a l shrouds) 'covered the body. It was not permitted to dress the body i n a business suit or dress, i n accordance with the rabbinic degree that " a l l must be uniform i n death." I f the deceased*$s a male, a T a l l l s ( p r a y e r shawl) was placed across the shoulders. B u r i a l was required with-i n twenty-four hours after death.-'-" It i s usual to place a small bag of sand from the Holy Land under the deceased before b u r i a l . Only a simple, i n -expensive wooden casket i s used. The mourners make a rent i n one of t h e i r outer garments as a symbol of mourning. At the cemetery, while the pallbearers carry the casket to the grave, seven momentary stops are made;between each stop the f i r s t part of Psalm 91 i s r e c i t e d . U n t i l recently i n a l l b u r i a l s at the Orthodox cemetery i n Vancouver, the casket was opened before i t was lowered into the grave. Small pieces of broken china were placed over the eyes. Then the c o f f i n was closed and lox^ered into the grave. The grave was covered with earth; r e l a t i v e s and friends f e l t i t was t h e i r duty to place a shovelful of earth on the c o f f i n . Then the funeral service was read and the mourner's Kaddish (memorial prayer f o r the dead) was r e c i t e d by the sons of the deceased, or, i f there were no sons, by a close r e l a t i v e . F i n a l l y , the cantor chanted the E l Moley  Rach&min% a t r a d i t i o n a l Hebrew memorial prayer. It was customary for the friends of the family to form two l i n e s near the gate of the cemetery through which the mourners passed. As the mourners walked through the l i n e s , t h e i r friends spoke the t r a d i t i o n a l Hebrew words of con--118-solation, "May the Lord comfort you among a l l the mourners of Zlon and Jerusalem." Before leaving the cemetery, every-body was expected to pour water over h i s hands as a symbol of washing away the "impurity" associated with the dead. In the homes, mirrors and pictures were covered with sheets or towels during the period of Shiva, the seven days of mourning. Mourners stayed home during the week of Shiva. They did not work; neither did they shave or cut t h e i r h a i r . Friends came i n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the services held every morning and evening. The rabbi usually conducted a period of study of a sacred text before the evening service. Friends of the family v i s i t e d the home of mourning to express t h e i r sympathy. After the week of Shiva, the period of mourning con-tinued i n a modified form f o r another twenty-three days u n t i l the end of Shloshim ( t h i r t y days). The next ten months were observed as a further period of modified mourning. Un-t i l eleven months after the death of a parent, a son was expected to attend synagogue services morning and evening to r e c i t e the Kaddish (memorial prayer). On the Yahrzeit (anniversary of death) the Kaddish was r e c i t e d by sons i n the synagogue, and a Yahrzeit lamp was kindled at home. There has been remarkably l i t t l e change i n the observ-ance of the ceremonies connected with death, b u r i a l , and mourning i n Vancouver 0 The Chevra Kaddisha (holy society) to t h i s day pre-pares every corpse f o r b u r i a l . Members of t h i s society, -119-which i s associated with the Schara Tzedeck Synagogue, re-ceive no remuneration for t h e i r work which i s considered to be a Hesed Shel Ernes, an act of true loving-kindness for the dead. Burials are s t i l l simple. Every corpse i s dressed i n white l i n e n shrouds. A l l c o f f i n s are a l i k e ; they are a l l made of wood i n one simple s t y l e . U n t i l 1929 a l l Jewish b u r i a l s took place i n the Jewish section of the Mountain View Cemetery at Praser and East 37 Avenue. This cemetery i s s t i l l used occasionally. Although i t i s owned by the c i t y , i t i s under the management of the Schara Tzedeck Synagogue. In the f a l l of 1929, the Schara Tzedeck Synagogue, xjhich was then synonymous with the Jewish community of Vancouver, opened i t s new cemetery on South East Marine Drive, near New Westminster. During the summer of I9J4.6 the Beth I s r a e l Synagogue consecrated i t s own cemetery on Willingdon Avenue near the Lougheed Highway i n Burnaby. Before 19i|i|, the Chevra Kaddisha used the f a c i l i t i e s of a non-Jewish mortuary f o r the preparation of a l l bodies for b u r i a l . The funeral services were held i n the chapel of the same mortuary and at the cemetery. In 19kl+, 'the Schara Tzedeck Synagogue,- with support from the entire Jew-i s h community, completed the renovation of a smallxfuneral chapel of i t s own at 155 West Broadway. This chapel proved to be too small and quite inadequate i n many respects. F i n a l l y , i n the summer of 1951* the Schara Tzedeck purchased the b u i l d ing of a professional mortuary on West Broadway - 1 2 0 -near Alma. There Is, at the present time, a standing agreement between the Beth I s r a e l and the Schara Tzedeck that a l l Beth Is r a e l funerals be conducted i n the Schara Tzedeck Chapel and that a l l corpses be prepared by the Schara Tzedeck Chevra Kaddisha.. As t h i s paper i s being written negotiations are i n progress f o r a long term extension ( f i f t e e n or twenty years) of the present arrangements. Some years ago the Beth I s r a e l began to introduce minor changes i n the r i t u a l i n order to make the b u r i a l procedure less gruesome. Some of these changes were strenuously op-posed by the Schara Tzedeck at f i r s t , but were l a t e r adopted by the Orthodox congregation too. For example, u n t i l recently a l l co f f i n s were opened at the Schara Tzedeck Cemetery f o r the mourners to have "a l a s t look" and for the Chevra Kaddisha to place broken pieces of china over the eyes of the corpse. This practice was eliminated by the Beth Isr a e l i n 191+6. Several years l a t e r the Schara Tzedeck agreed to eliminate t h i s practice wherever the family of the deceased s p e c i f i c a l l y requested th i s i n advance. More recently the Schara Tzedeck passed a r u l i n g that no co f f i n s would be opened at the cemetery unless the family of the deceased s p e c i f i c a l l y requested the old practice before the funeral. This i s a very in t e r e s t i n g example of r i t u a l change. Except f o r the elimination of the compulsory opening of the c o f f i n at the cemetery, l i t t l e e f f o r t i s made by the -121-Schara Tzedeck to hide the stark r e a l i t y of death. The earth i s s t i l l thrown over the grave u n t i l the c o f f i n i s covered. At the Beth I s r a e l Cemetery, evergreen boughs cover the grave, and the c o f f i n i s merely lowered through the ever-green branches. • A green mat covers the earth which i s l a t e r to be used to f i l l ;:the^grave aft e r the mourners and th e i r friends 1B ave the cemetery*. The Beth I s r a e l has also introduced an element of decorum and order into the funeral service at the chapel. It has made the cutting of the mourners' garments into a private a f f a i r instead of a public spectacle. The rabbi makes a small cut i n an outer garment for each mourner, or, i f requested, i n a b k c k ribbon which i s pinned on the mourner's outer garment. The Beth I s r a e l rabbis have also introduced English prayers into the funeral service. But aside from these few changes most of the customs connected with b u r i a l s are s t i l l observed by the vast major-i t y of Vancouver Jews. Two rows are formed at the cemetery, and the Hebrew words of consolation are spoken by the rabbis. The week of Shiva i s observed i n some form by a l -most a l l mourners. It i s quite noticeable that a smaller number of men say Kaddish every day during the eleven months after the death of a parent. But even many of those who do not carry out thi s r i t e f a i t h f u l l y , s t i l l observe the Yahrzeit of t h e i r parents by attending the synagogue and r e c i t i n g the Kaddish as well as by l i g h t i n g a memorial lamp at home. Occasionally, a son w i l l engage an old man to say -122-Kaddish for his parents during the eleven month period that i s r i t u a l l y required* This vicarious form of piety i s sometimes the only way out fo r t r a v e l l i n g salesmen who are on the road a good part of the time. Only Jews are buried i n the Jewish cemeteries. I f a Jew was inter-married, the non-Jewish spouse cannot be buried i n a Jewish cemetery unless previously converted to Judaism formally. During the past f i v e years there have been at least two cases where a Jew who had been married to a non-Jewess was buried In a Christian cemetery. A l l three Jewish cemeteries are well kept. The oldest one, on Praser, has many large tombstones of the type that were used a generation ago i n many Jewish cemeteries. The Schara Tzedeck Cemetery on Marine Drive has smalle r tomb-stones, more or less uniform i n size. The Beth I s r a e l Cemetery has one uniform small headstone marking each grave. Tombstones are usually dedicated formally a year after the b u r i a l . Cremation i s contrary to Jewish law and Is not prac-t i c e d among the Jews of Vancouver. During the past f i v e years, 2 l 6 b u r i a l s have taken place i n the Jewish cemeteries as indicated i n Table VI. In other words, approximately forty-three b u r i a l s took place each year* -123-Table VI. Burials i n Jewish Cemeteries i n Vancouver, October, 191+5* to September, 1950. October, 191+5, to September, 191+6..... October, 191+6, to September, 191+7 October, 191+7* to September, 19l)-8. ...» October, 191+8, to September,19^9 October, 191+9, to September,1950. . . . . Total Schara Tzedeck and Mountain View Beth I s r a e l 29 k9 39 31 189 2 8 8 5 J L 27 In Minneapolis there have been more changes i n the b u r i a l procedure and mourning r i t e s . Professional Jewish undertakers take care of about eight-five percent of the funerals. Embalming takes place i n seventy-five percent of the cases. Half the corpses are dressed i n regular clothes over the shrouds. Cosmetics are used to make the body look a l i v e . Funeral services often take place i n the synagogue. About twenty percent of the people buy metal vaults i n which they place the casket i n the grave. In more than seventy-f i v e percent of the cases only three days of mourning are observed. Few people wash t h e i r hands a f t e r the funeral 18 service. In comparison to Minneapolis, Vancouver has remained -12k-a c i t a d e l of orthodoxy, at least as f a r as funeral and mourning r i t e s are concerned. It may be i n t e r e s t i n g to note at t h i s point that according to. t r a d i t i o n only a rabbi or an outstandingly pious Jew i s accorded the honor of having a funeral service i n the synagogue. This practice, i s s t i l l adhered to i n Vancouver. A l l other funeral services are held i n the Schara Tzedeck Chapel. -125-D» THE SYNAGOGUES Most of the Jews i n Vancouver have t h e i r family o r i g i n i n East European towns where the only synagogues i n ex i s t -ence were the old-time Orthodox ones. In each of these towns the synagogue was the centre of Jewish l i f e . I t was a house of worship i n which prayers were r e c i t e d morning and evening by a l l male Jews l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y . It was the place of s o c i a l gathering, exchange of views, d i s -cussion of p o l i t i c s , a sort of second home. As a second home i t may not have been too decorous at times, but i t was s t i l l a synagogue. And i t was also the house of learning for advanced students who pored over ancient f o l i o s of the Talmud as well as fo r the working man or merchant who joined the d a i l y study of the Pentateuch or Mishna which was con-ducted by a more learned member of the group. In the old synagogues of the East European towns the rabbis were chosen for t h e i r erudition i n Talmudic learning. The rabbis were scholars, teachers, arbiters i n a l l matters of Jewish r i t u a l and even judges i n c i v i l disputes. They were pious men, highly respected and revered i n t h e i r communities. When the early s e t t l e r s came to Vancouver, i t was natural that they should open an Orthodox synagogue similar to those they had known i n Europe. Several attempts were made to organize Orthodox congregations. Neither the Bonai Yehuda nor the Bnai I s r a e l was destined to have a long h i s t o r y . But on June l k , 1917, the Schara Tzedeck (Gates of Righteousness) was incorporated as a congregation that -126-was destined to l a s t to t h i s day. For some time the High Holiday services of t h i s congregation were held i n O'Brien Ha l l at Homer and Hastings. But i n 1921 the congregation b u i l t i t s f i r s t synagogue at Heatley and Pender. This structure was i n continuous use u n t i l the f a l l of I9I+7, when the new Schara Tzedeck Synagogue was f i r s t used f o r the High Holiday services. In the old synagogue, men sat on the main f l o o r and women were confined to the upstairs g a l l e r y . In the new building, men s t i l l sat on the main f l o o r , but the women now have two s l i g h t l y elevated sections i n which they may s i t on the same f l o o r . For many years (1918 to 191+6) the driving force be-hind the Schara Tzedeck a c t i v i t i e s was Reverend Nathan Mayer Pastinsky. Although not an ordained rabbi when he came to Vancouver from Winnipeg i n 19l8,the European-born scholar acted as pastor of the fl o c k f o r so many years that he was c a l l e d "Rabbi" by most people. Actually he served as Shochet ( r i t u a l slaughterer of c a t t l e and fowl), Mohel (circumcizer), and Chazan (cantor or leader i n chanting the r i t u a l . He acted as rabbi whenever the Schara Tzedeck did not have an ordained rabbi. During the time that Reverend Pastinsky served the Jewish community of Vancouver, Rabbi Solomon P. Wohgelernter and Rabbi J.L. Zlotnick-were each brought to Vancouver by the Schara Tzedeck for short periods of time. (The former arrived i n Vancouver i n 1926 and the l a t t e r i n 1935*) When Reverend Pastinsky suffered a heart attack i n -127-19k6, the Schara Tzedeck began i t s search for a younger man to replace him. Rabbi Nathan Burstyn answered the c a l l and came to Vancouver f o r one year, beginning with the f a l l of 1914-7• F i n a l l y , i n I9I4.8 a young graduate of Yeshiva College and the Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, Rabbi Leon M. Mozeson, was c a l l e d to the Schara Tzedeck pul p i t and has been there for the past three years. The Schara Tzedeck may be c l a s s i f i e d as a Neo-Orthodox congregation. It st r i v e s to maintain a l l the r i t u a l laws of the Shulhan Aruch. Yet a few changes have been i n t r o -duced to make the synagogue r i t u a l more meaningful to the members. Some sermons are s t i l l delivered i n Yiddish, but increasingly the rabbi uses more English from the pu l p i t both i n sermons and i n explaining some of the Hebrew prayers. Some ef f o r t s are being made to improve the decorum, but, as an exasperated usher once exclaimed, " I f we seat a l l the women together, how can we expect i t to be quiet?" An e f f o r t has been made during the past few years to have a l l worshippers use a standard prayer book so that the pages on which important prayers are found can be announced from the p u l p i t . This may seem l i k e a t r i v i a l thing to the outside observer, but i t i s not easy to accomplish i n the 'Heimish (at-home-like) atmosphere of an Orthodox synagogue. The old-timers, e s p e c i a l l y , resent being depriv-ed of the pr i v i l e g e s that they enjoyed so long i n the synagogue. In addition to the Sabbath and holiday services -128-descrlbed elsewhere, d a l l y services are held at 7:00 A.M. and at sunset. Formerly the Talmud Torah was under the auspices of the Schara Tzedeck, but today i t i s an independent organiz-ation with i t s own school building. Last year the Schara Tzedeck organized a Sunday school but, apparently, t h i s new venture w i l l not be continued i n the future. For the past few years th i s synagogue has conducted a class f o r teen-agers known as the STAR (Schara Tzedeck Academy of Re l i g i o n ) . The rabbi teaches t h i s class, which meets one evening each week, as well as the adult Talmud study group, which meets once each week. During the past few years a s o c i a l program has been organized at the Schara Tzedeck. The Sisterhood and Men's^ Club sponsor dances (even a New Years Eve dance for the c i v i l New Year), bazaars, and other fund r a i s i n g schemes. From time to time the synagogue also makes arrangements for young people's dances to be held i n i t s s o c i a l auditorium. Since the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are characterized by a far greater attendance than the Sabbath services, i t would seem that even i n the Neo-Orthodox synagogue prayer i s becoming a l o s t a r t . In I9I4-I another Orthodox synagogue was organized. The Beth Hamidrosh (House of Study) was planned as an o l d - l i n e Orthodox congregation. It was designed to make the o l d -timers i n the community f e e l at home. The Beth Hamidrosh follows, as closely as possible, the pattern of the East -129-European synagogue. Rabbi Chaim B.Ginsberg, an erudite Talmudic scholar who had l o s t his family i n the Nazi holo-caust i n Europe, was brought to Vancouver to serve the new congregation soon after i t was formed. An old building at Heather and West l 6 t h Avenue was purchased and converted into a house of worship. The small super-Orthodox congreg-ation holds regular services d a i l y at 7:00 A.M. and sunset. Rabbi Ginsberg gives i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Pentateuch and Mishna d a i l y before the evening service. It goes without saying that a l l i n s t r u c t i o n and sermons are i n Yiddish. No attempt i s made at organizing a s o c i a l or youth program. This i s b a s i c a l l y a synagogue i n the old t r a d i t i o n f o r the old generation. Vancouver's only Conservative congregation i s the Beth I s r a e l (House of I s r a e l , organized and incorporated under the Societies Act on October 23 , 1932. The object of t h i s congregation, as set f o r t h i n i t s charter, was to "establish and maintain a Synagogue and such additional r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and recreational a c t i v i t i e s as would strengthen t r a r l ' d i t i o n a l Judaism." Organized i n the depths of the depression, the new congregation found i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to make any progress toward the building of a synagogue. It made arrangements to hold services, classes, and s o c i a l events i n the Jewish Community Centre. Later the High Holiday services were conducted i n more spacious quarters at the Peter Pan dance h a l l and the Park Theatre. F i n a l l y , i n I9I4.8, a new building was erected to provide a l l the f a c i l --130-i t l e s needed by the congregation and i t s a f f i l i a t e d groups. A l l except one of the rabbis of the Beth I s r a e l have been graduates of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Rabbi Ben Zion Bokser served as the f i r s t s p i r i t u a l leader of t h i s congregation. He was followed by Rabbi Samuel Cass who remained with the congregation seven years. The author of t h i s paper has.been rabbi of the Beth I s r a e l Congregation f o r f i v e years. These graduates of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America have given the congregation a Conservative o r i e n t -ation. They introduced and maintained a steady program of late Friday evening services as the major r e l i g i o u s services of the week. Under t h e i r leadership decorum has been excel-lent. They delivered a l l sermons i n English and made a point of explaining important prayers. They included English prayers i n the services. In some cases they abbreviated services. At the Beth I s r a e l men and women s i t together i n family pews. A standard Conservative prayer book i s used by the congreg-ation. The musical aspect of the services i s enhanced by the singing of a professional cantor who also t r a i n s a mixed choir (men and women). Esthetic aspects of the services are stressed; a recent innovation i s the wearing of uniform black s k u l l caps by the men instead of the f e l t hats worn by the men i n other Vancouver synagogues. Daily services are held at 8:30 A.M. ("A gentleman's MinyanJ") and 6:00 P.M. (not at sunset). They are somewhat abbreviated. ("An e f f o r t i s made to cover fewer pages i n the -131-prayer book with a l i t t l e more devotion per page.") In order to have a Minyan (ten adult males, the minimum re-quired f o r public services), some of the men of the congreg-ation volunteer to attend one day each week. This "voluntary-d r a f t " i s unique i n Vancouver, and i t helps get younger men to attend the d a i l y services with some r e g u l a r i t y . Once each month the Men's Club sponsors a Sunday morning service and brunch f o r men and post-Bar Mitzvah boys. On these oc-casions the rabbi leads i n a discussion of current Jewish problems and answers questions about Jewish customs and ceremonies. The Beth I s r a e l Congregation sponsors a r e l i g i o u s school for the children of i t s members. The Beth I s r a e l Religious School was formerly a Sunday school. Later, classes were added Thursday afternoon from ij_r3° to 6 : 0 0 . Four years ago, Tuesday afternoon classes were introduced. Instruction i s given i n Hebrew, Jewish his t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e , Bible, customs and ceremonies, current Jewish events, and associated subjects. The enrolment during the 19k6-k7 school year was sixty-three children. During the 1950-51 school year, 125 children attended i n eight d i f f e r e n t classes,, Although some t u i t i o n i s charged, the synagogue subsidizes the Religious School. The rabbi of the Congregation acts as p r i n c i p a l , and the cantor teaches music and prepares boys for t h e i r Bar Mitzvah. School f a c i l i t i e s , on the ground f l o o r of the synagogue building, are excellent. For the past f i v e years the Beth I s r a e l has organized -132-l t s Young People's League, mainly f o r those who are i n t h e i r twenties. The program of t h i s group i s both educational and s o c i a l . Meetings, held on alternate Sunday evenings, open with a symposium or lecture on a Jewish or general c u l t u r a l topic. This i s followed by a discussion period. The l a s t hour of the meeting i s a s o c i a l period given over to s o c i a l dancing and refreshments^ Several attempts have been made to organize a teen town i n the synagogue; but aft e r the i n i t i a l enthusiasm wore o f f , the teen town disappeared. It may be i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the Jewish Community Centre has also had i n d i f f e r e n t success i n a si m i l a r project. Most of the teenagers belong to the AZA (for boys) and the BBG (for g i r l s ) . The college students are usually a f f i l i a t e d with the B'nai B ' r i t h H i l l e l Foundation on the campus. From time to time the rabbi arranges adult study classes i n Hebrew, Jewish history, and customs and ceremonies. Oc-casionally, the parents of the Religious School pupils meet for a lecture and discussion about a s p e c i f i c holiday which i s currently being taught to t h e i r children. The Sisterhood and Men's Club of the congregation are active i n sponsoring s o c i a l functions just l i k e t h e i r counter-parts i n the Schara Tzedeck (except that they have never sponsored a New Years Eve dance). The Sisterhood co-sponsors the Religious School with the congregation. The Men's Club looks after youth a c t i v i t i e s and supports a forty-piece concert orchestra, which gave three concerts f o r adults and -133-one f o r children during the past year* The leading congregations i n Vancouver, both i n member-ship and status i n the community are the Neo-Orthodox Schara Tzedeck and the Conservative Beth I s r a e l . The Beth I s r a e l i s at times accused of being exclusive, i t s membership dues being higher than those i n the other congregations. But the Beth I s r a e l dues a r e . a l l - i n c l u s i v e ; no extra charges are made for High Holiday seats or for honors (such as being c a l l e d to the Torah reading). On the High Holidays,, a l l honors are distr i b u t e d i n alphabetical order at the Beth I s r a e l * In the other synagogues they are sold to the highest bidder* Table VII gives the membership of each synagogue i n 1951* TABLE VII. Synagogue Membership i n Vancouver,195l> Synagogue Membership (in families) Beth Hamidrosh (Orthodox) 60 * Beth I s r a e l (Conservative).... 302 Schara Tzedeck(Neo-Orthodox).. 3k3 Total 705 -«-This i s an approximation Since there are some families that belong to two congreg-ations, i t may be said that about t h i r t y - e i g h t percent of Vancouver's seventeen hundred families are o f f i c i a l l y af-f i l i a t e d with some synagogue* In actual practice, a great many additional families use the f a c i l i t i e s of the synagogues and a v a i l themselves of the services of the rabbis. Neverthe-le s s , prayer i s becoming a l o s t art among the younger generation. Young people do not understand the Hebrew prayers as well as t h e i r grandparents did, and they f e e l less need for prayer whether i t be i n Hebrew or English. In Table V i t can be seen that only four out of seventy-seven fathers of Hebrew school pupils say a prayer before meals regularly on weekdays. Even though the members of the congregations usually do not practice a l l the r i t u a l s i n home l i f e , they are very slow to permit change i n the synagogue r i t u a l . They also expect the rabbis to l i v e i n accordance with the r i t u a l . Thus while a l l Beth I s r a e l Religious School pupils indicated that they and a l l the members of th e i r families r i d e on the Sabbath, i t would cause a sensation i n the Jewish community i f the Beth I s r a e l rabbi ware to ride on the Sabbath. In a sense, then, the rabbis are becoming a professional class of holy men i n that they are the only ones f u l l y observing the r i t u a l s of t h e i r denominations. This s i t u a t i o n i s rather new i n Jewish l i f e . U n t i l recent years the rabbis were merely the experts i n Jewish r i t u a l law and the teachers of t h e i r communities. It may be in t e r e s t i n g to note at t h i s point what i s expected of a rabbi by his congregation i n Vancouver. It i s taken for granted i n a l l three congregations that the rabbi i s supposed to be an example of piety and scholarship. He i s expected to preach on the holidays and Sabbaths and to o f f i c i a t e at weddings, funerals, Bar Mitzvahs, and other ceremonies. He i s expected to v i s i t the sick, to console -135-mourners, to give advice to those who come for personal consultation. In the Beth I s r a e l and Schara Tzedeck, the congregants would l i k e t h e i r rabbis to be good mixers s o c i a l l y , able administrators, active participants i n com-munal a f f a i r s , and ambassadors of good w i l l to the non-Jews. One in t e r e s t i n g point of comparison ought to be made between the Vancouver and Minneapolis synagogues. Gordon states that many gradual changes have been introduced into t h e O r t h o d o x a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e s y n a g o g u e s of M i n n e a p o l i s . "The change within the Reform congregation i s less marked only because so great a change was effected i n r i t u a l and 19 general conduct i n i t s very inception." In thi s respect Vancouver's Beth I s r a e l , although Conservative, compares with the Minneapolis Reform congregation-in o r i g i n . Each was organized as a non-Orthodox congregation from i t s i n -ception. The three Minneapolis Conservative synagogues originated as Orthodox congregations and gradually went over into the Conservative f o l d . In 19k5, there were 2 l 6 9 family memberships i n the synagogue?of Minneapolis out of a t o t a l Jewish population of 2 0 , 0 0 0 . Vancouver's 6,500 Jews accounted f o r 705 family memberships i n the synagogues during 1951. Prom these figures i t would seem that the same proportion of Jewish families have o f f i c i a l l y joined the synagogues i n Vancouver and Minneapolis© -136-•E. RELIGIOUS EDUCATION At one time a l l Jewish r e l i g i o u s education i n Vancouver was under the auspices of the Schara Tzedeck congregation. The Talmud Torah (community Hebrew school) was even housed i n the f i r s t Schara Tzedeck Synagogue at Heatley and Pender. Subsequently, when the Jewish population began to move into the Pairview d i s t r i c t , and even further south, the Talmud Torah was housed i n the Jewish Community Centre on Oak Street near West Eleventh Avenue. Thejnext step for the Talmud Torah was the purchase of an o l d house on West II4. Avenue and the conversion of that house into a school. F i n a l l y , i n I9J4-8, the Vancouver Talmud Torah erected a modern, fir e p r o o f , con-crete school building on the corner of Oak Street and West 27 Avenue and became the next door neighbor of the new Beth I s r a e l Synagogue. The Talmud Torah i s now an independent organization. Its pupils come from families that may or may not happen to be a f f i l i a t e d with any synagogue. The children usually attend about an hour and a h a l f i n the afternoon aft e r t h e i r public school elasses on Mondays through Thursdays and also on Sun-day mornings. The Vancouver Talmud Torah thus acts as a supplementary school whose aim i t i s to provide a knowledge of the Hebrew language and culture to i t s pupils. Although i t s orientation is t r a d i t i o n a l and Zi o n i s t , i t does not i n -s i s t on uniformity of thought or action among i t s pupils. Nevertheless, the pupils who attend the Talmud Torah are mainly -137-from homes in which a certain amount of Jewish ritual is observed. Out of forty-eight Talmud Torah pupils answering the questionnaire about the observance of the dietary laws in their homes, thirty-one stated that their homes are "strictly" kosher and seventeen that their homes are "partly-," kosher. None of the pupils came from homes that were "not at all" kosher. The Talmud Torah curriculum is like that of the Beth Israel Religious School only more intensive. It stresses the knowledge of the Hebrew language, Bible in the original, Jewish history, Zionism, and Jewish customs and ceremonies. In addition to the afternoon classes, the Talmud Torah also has a pre-school kindergarten class for children between the ages of four and five. In the spring of 1951* there were thirty-two children in the Talmud Torah kindergarten. For a number of years many parents felt that they wanted their children to receive an intensive type of Hebrew educa-tion, such as the Talmud Torah offers, without^deprivfcdL •fchoir ohildron of the opportunity to play or to take music lessons and other types of lessons in the afternoons. Thus the Talmud Torah day school was born. Starting with grade one in the fa l l of 194-8, the school has added one grade each year so that grade four will be opened in the f a l l of 1951* Classes are small in the day school. In the spring of 1951 there were forty-six children in the three classes of the day school, or an average of about fifteen children per class. The day school has the same type of Hebrew curriculum as the afternoon classes of the Talmud Torah. Here, too, no effort -138-l s made to Inculcate the s t r i c t standards of Orthodoxy i n thought or action. As a r e s u l t , day school classes f i t more nearly i n the category of a "private" school, rather than a "parochial" school. Precisely because the Talmud Torah day school and afternoon classes were not deemed to be s t r i c t l y Orthodox, the Schara Tzedeck has begun to experiment with a Sunday school of i t s own, as mentioned above 8 During the past tw? years, the Talmud Torah has been sending one of i t s teachers out to New Westminster on Thursday and Sunday afternoons to teach the Jewish children of the Royal City. Last f a l l there were 108 children i n the afternoon classes of the Talmud Torah and f i f t e e n pupils i n New Westminster. Together with the f o r t y - s i x pupils i n the day school and the thirty-two kindergarten children, the Talmud Torah had a t o t a l of 201 pupils, mainly between the ages of four and fourteen. Another Jewish school, not connected with any synagogue, i s the Peretz School, which has a non-religious (not nec-e s s a r i l y an a n t i - r e l i g i o u s ) and Yiddish (rather than Hebrew) orientation. Though t h i s school cannot be considered a re-l i g i o u s school, i t ought to be mentioned even in a b r i e f survey of Jewish education i n Vancouver. Last year 50 children attended the afternoon classes of the Peretz School and 25 were enrolled i n the kindergarten. The Beth I s r a e l Religious School has already been described i n the section dealing with the synagogues and -139-t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Table VIII shows the last,year's enrolment.figures for each of the Jewish educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Vancouver. TABLE VIII. Students Enrolled i n Jextfish Schools i n Vancouver, 1950-51 School Number of Students Beth I s r a e l Religious School 125 Peretz School Afternoon classes ... 50 Kindergarten ... 25 Peretz School t o t a l 75 75 Schara Tzedeck Sunday School STAR (Teenagers) Schara Tzedeck t o t a l 21* 10* 31* 31* Talmud Torah Afternoon classes . . . 1 0 8 New Westminster ... 15 Day School ... 1+6 Kindergarten ... 32 Talmud Torah t o t a l 201 201 Total 1+32 -«-This i s an approximation The Talmud Torah provides bus service f o r day school and kindergarten pupils and for the youngest children i n the afternoon classes. This school i s currently supported by t u i t i o n fees, contributions, and a subsidy from the Vancouver United Jewish Appeal. Although the Vancouver Talmud Torah shows great promise for the future, i t cannot as yet compare to the Minneapolis Talmud Torah. The l a t t e r i s considered one of the best Hebrew schools on the North American continent. For almost two generations i t has been a leading i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the - l k O -transmission of Hebraic culture. Minneapolis also has a small day school which, unlike the day school of the Vancouver Talmud Torah, can t r u l y be considered an Orthodox parochial school. The Minneapolis parochial school has no connection with the Minneapolis Talmud Torah and receives no support from l o c a l communal funds. Minneapolis also has a large Sunday School enrolment. In 194k i t was eight hundred; by 19k6 there were nine hundred children i n the Jewish Sunday schools. A few years ago, when Vancouver's Beth I s r a e l trans-formed i t s Sunday school into a three-day-a-week school, i t seemed that the l o c a l Sunday school era was closed forever. However, a very unusual development occurred l a s t year. The Orthodox Schara Tzedeck Synagogue opened a Sunday school. Since the Orthodox synagogues are usually the main support-ers of a more intensive Talmud Torah type of Jewish education, Vancouver i s now witnessing the paradoxical phenomenon of the Conservative synagogue supporting a more intensive r e l i g i o u s school than the Orthodox. The trend throughout the United.States and Canada for the past decade has been to abolish Jewish Sunday schools and to substitute more intensive schools i n t h e i r stead. According to the 1 9 k l census there were 2 ,7k2 Jews i n Vancouver by r e l i g i o u s adherence. In the r e l i g i o u s school age group (from f i v e to fourteen) there were four hundred children or roughly one-seventh of the Jewish populations If the Jewish population of Greater Vancouver i s now s i x t y --11+1-f i v e hundred, there should be about nine hundred children who are p o t e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s school pupils. With a t o t a l enrolment of 1+32 l a s t year i n a l l the Jewish schools (including the secular Peretz School), a l i t t l e l ess than h a l f the children who should have attended some sort of Jewish school were actually enrolled. According to a pre-liminary announcement based on a recent survey of Jewish education by the Canadian Jewish Congress, 1+8.6 percent of the Jewish children of school age i n the Dominion receive a Jewish education. Vancouver, with i t s 1+8.0 percent, i s just about as close to t h i s average as any c i t y can get. -11+2-F. THE FAMILY AND THE HOME Jews have always cherished home l i f e as the foundation of the good l i f e . Throughout the ages the Jewish family has been maintained on a high moral l e v e l under the strong i n -fluence of the Jewish r e l i g i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the Hebrew language has only one word for "home" and "house". To designate either one of these two English words, Hebrew uses the word Bayls. Many a Jewish leader has drawn a moral from t h i s : A house -is not a f i t place for people to l i v e unless It i s a home. In the t r a d i t i o n a l Jewish home, the symbols of Judaism were ea s i l y recognized. Invariably, a Mezuzah, a l i t t l e parchment s c r o l l containing two paragraphs from the book of Deuteronomy (6:l+-9 and 11:13-21), was to be found on the righthand doorpost of every room i n the home. Every home had one or more prayer books, a Hebrew Bible (often with a Yiddish t r a n s l a t i o n ) , pictures of Jewish interest (especial-l y on the Mizrach, east wall), and the objects used for ceremonial occasions. These objects included Sabbath candle s t i c k s , an eight branched candelabrum for Chanukah, a special candle and spice box fo r Havdolah (the ceremony which bids farewell to the Sabbath, a T a l i s (prayer shawl for men) and T e f i l i n (phylacteries), a goblet f o r Kiddush ( s a n c t i f i c a t i o n over wine), and an embroidered cover f o r the Sabbath Challos (twisted white breads). In the t r a -d i t i o n a l Jewish home the dietary laws were observed. Since the giving of charity was stressed i n Jewish l i f e , - 1 4 3 -a charity box (ca l l e d a Pushke) was almost invar i a b l y found i n the Jewish home. Before l i g h t i n g the Sabbath candles, and on other occasions too, the housewife dropped a few coins into the charity box. In a great many Vancouver Jewish homes the blue and white Jewish National Fund box i s to be found today as a substitute f o r the old charity boxes. Col-lections are made every few months, usually by members of Zionist youth organizations, and the funds are ultimately used to purchase land i n Isr a e l i n the name of the Jewish people. But most Jewish homes i n Vancouver, as i n other Canadian and American c i t i e s , can boast of few Jewish art or ceremonial objects aside from the Sabbath eve candlesticks. Recently the Beth I s r a e l Sisterhood undertook a g i f t shop project i n order to make Jewish women aware of the wealth of Jewish books, art objects, and ceremonial objects that are a v a i l -able. Unfortunately, most of these objects are not made i n Canada. This means that additional expense and inconvenience are involved i n seeing them through the customs. Frequently, the duties are so high as to make i t p r o h i b i t i v e to import these objects. Jewish reference books are not ea s i l y available i n Vancouver. The Jewish Community Centre, the B'nai B ' r i t h H i l l e l Foundation at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the synagogues a l l have •.. very few books i n t h e i r l i b r a r i e s . The rabbis and a few other members of the Jew-i s h community usually have a better selection of books i n - I k k -t h e i r personal l i b r a r i e s . Many Vancouver Jewish homes are without a single Hebrew or Yiddish book, or even a book writ-ten i n English on a Jewish subject. Wherever a Mezuzah i s found i n the Jewish homes i n Vancouver, i t i s usually attached to the outer doorpost only, not to the doorpost of every room. Thirty years ago, when a number of East European Jews immigrated to Vancouver, the women not only cared f o r t h e i r children and homes, but also helped t h e i r husbands who were struggling to get a foothold i n a new country. As the hus-bands became established and improved t h e i r economic l o t , the wives gave up working outside t h e i r homes. Many could afford to take i n domestic help. As time went on, the women sought more freedom. They introduced labor-saving devices into t h e i r homes, and many r e l i e d on t h e i r maids to look after the children almost e n t i r e l y . Some of these women, who are now i n t h e i r f i f t i e s , haveedevotedla great deal of t h e i r time to communal projects, and es p e c i a l l y to Jewish women's organizations, such as Hadassah, B'nai B ' r i t h Women, the National Council of Jewish Women, and the Sisterhoods of the synagogues. The women's groups have a fine reputation f o r constructive .work, and Hadassah has raised large sums of money for medical and c h i l d rescue projects i n Palestine. The younger married women also p a r t i c i p a t e i n the above mentioned clubwork to the extent that they can f i n d free time from t h e i r home duties. Aside from clubwork, what do the Jewish women do with t h e i r l e i s u r e time? Some attend a great number of teas and luncheons. Others spend a great deal of time going to the moving pictures, "shopping", or playing cards. Only a small number do serious reading or take advantage of lectures and courses offered by the Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. But a great number of them attend symphony concerts, performances of guest a r t i s t s , plays, and such musical comedies as are presented by the Theatre Under the Stars. Both husbands and wives seem to patronize musical and dramatic performances i n much greater numbers than one would expect from a small Jewish population. The Jewish women dress well; they keep up with the l a t e s t fashions. They probably spend more than other women i n t h e i r income brackets for clothing. In respect to c l o t h -ing, automobiles, and homes there seem to be a s p i r i t of "keeping up with the Joneses" i n the Jewish community; Jewish couples are often to be found i n the expensive restaurants and night clubs. Women usually smoke, just as t h e i r husbands do. Moderation rather than abstinence, i s the ru l e for both men and women when i t comes to drinking. As a r u l e , Jews do not drink on "licensed premises." Many take a drink at home during a f e s t i v e meal. At a wedding, Bar Mitzvah, or other public celebrations where drinks are served, most people take one or two drinks only. Drunken-ness i s very uncommon among Jews i n Vancouver (and elsewhere, too). Crimes of violence and passion are unknown i n the -11+6-Vancouver Jewish community. In the spring of 1951* there were three Jewish prisoners at Oakalla and six i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary; most of the l a t t e r were Jew-i s h boys from the eastern provinces and only one or two were l o c a l men. During the past f i v e years not one Jewish g i r l has been a juvenile delinquent and only two boys have been. Some of the younger women i n the Jewish community continue to work outside t h e i r homes after they are married. But most of them quit working when they begin r a i s i n g a family. A few women who have been trained i n professions have gone back to them after t h e i r c h i l d bearing years. Jewish families are smaller than they were a generation ago. Although the one-child family has gone out of s t y l e , many young couples are s a t i s f i e d with two children, especial-l y i f they have a boy and g i r l . Of the 129 children who were registered i n advance f o r the 1951-52 school year of the Beth I s r a e l Religious School, there were eleven i n the only-child category. Oh the other extreme, three four-child families were represented on the r e g i s t r a t i o n l i s t . Seven-teen three-child families and f i f t y - e i g h t two-child families were also represented. It i s an open secret that b i r t h control i s practised i n the Jewish community almost univer-s a l l y . Although children are highly prized, there, are some cases of c h i l d l e s s marriages. In congregation Beth I s r a e l , f o r example, out of 302 f a m i l i e s , there are today f i f t e e n - 1 4 7 -c h i l d l e s s couples who have been married for ten years or longer. A few of these couples have succeeded i n adopting Jewish children, usually from out-of-town. But since the demand i s always greater than the number of Jewish children available for adoption, some of these couples have adopted children who were born of non-Jewish parents (with the con-sent of the natural parents, of course). One s o c i a l worker stated that she knew of "at least s i x " Jewish couples who had adopted babies born of non-Jewish parents "during the past year or so." The t r a d i t i o n a l Jewish attitude of the sanctity of marriage prevails among the Jews of Vancouver. There i s a high standard of f i d e l i t y i n marriage. It i s almost unknown that a Jew should keep a mistress. A few men who have been disappointed i n th e i r marriages have turned to excessive gambling. Others have sublimated t h e i r e f f o r t s into con-structive communal and organizational a c t i v i t i e s . But adultery i s extremely rare. Men and women do not want to endanger t h e i r family structure. I f i t were to become known that a Jew or Jewess were g u i l t y of adultery or p r o s t i t u t i o n , t h i s would be considered a H i l l u l Hashem (profanation of the Divine Name) and a disgrace to the entire Jewish community. Jewish r e l i g i o u s law permits divorce. But as a matter of fact Jews have always frowned upon th i s practice and Jew-i s h divorces have been rare. According to Jewish r i t u a l law, a b i l l of divorcement ( c a l l e d a Get) may be granted to any couple by a rabbi i n the presence of two witnesses i f the -Un-couple cannot make a success of t h e i r marriage. In actual practice today, a rabbi w i l l not grant a Get unless the c i v i l divorce has already been obtained. Although" a l l Jew-is h divorced couples should, according to Jewish law, obtain a Get, very few do so. Orthodox and Conservative rabbis w i l l not remarry any divorced person who has no Get. Reform rabbis accept c i v i l divorces as f i n a l . No o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s are available about the extent of divorce among the Jews of Vancouver because divorce decrees i n B r i t i s h Columbia do not show the r e l i g i o u s de-nominations of the parties involved. The general impression i n the Jewish community i s that the divorce rate i s increas-ing among Jews, although i s i t not as high as i n the general community. Since there are no o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s about divorce according to r e l i g i o u s denominations i n B r i t i s h Columbia, an e f f o r t was made to arrive at some u n o f f i c i a l estimate of the extent of divorce among Vancouver's Jews. The author of t h i s paper, who i s a rabbi, together with a b a r r i s t e r , who has been active i n tlje Jewish community and who has handled the majority of Jewish divorces during the past few years, examined the r e g i s t e r of divorces f i l e d i n Vancouver fo r the years 191+8,191+9,1950 and the f i r s t h a l f of 1951.' They attempted to f i n d a l l the Jewish names i n the r e g i s t e r . Obviously t h i s technique has many drawbacks. Many Jews have Anglicized t h e i r names, and a number of non-Jews bear t y p i c a l l y Jewish names. The b a r r i s t e r was, of course, able -Ik9-to point out which of his c l i e n t s were Jewish. After t h i s examination of the directory, the rabbi and b a r r i s t e r had two l i s t s of names. One was made up of those who were d e f i n i t e l y Jewish,and the other was a l i s t of doubt f u l names. The doubtful names were checked with three other b a r r i s t e r s , those who were most l i k e l y to have as t h e i r c l i e n t s Jews seeking divorces. (Of these three men, two are longtime Vancouver residents; a l l are, or have been, com-munal leaders). The b a r r i s t e r s were asked i f they recog-nized these names as being Jewish. On the basis of t h i s procedure, most inadequate as i t was, a minimum number of divorces i n which Jews were involv-ed was ascertained. It can be stated, then, that there were at least eight divorces granted to Jews i n 19k8, of which one was an intermarriage. In 19k9, there were at least three divorces, of which one was an intermarriage. And dur-ing the year 1950 there were at least f i v e divorces, a l l intermarriages. For the f i r s t h a l f of 1951* there was a minimum of four Jewish couples divorced. I t i s , obviously, more d i f f i c u l t to f i n d the intermarriages i n which the wife i s Jewish than those i n which the husband i s a Jew, since the wife acquires the husband's name. Intermarriage i s an important problem i n the Jewish community of Vancouver. As used here, the term i n t e r -marriage refers to a marriage between a Jewish person and one whose mother (or both parents) weus; not Jewish. Jews have always regarded intermarriage as a calamity. There -150-are parents i n Vancouver today who have "sat Shiva" (ob-served the t r a d i t i o n a l seven days of mourning, as for a dead person) for a son who intermarried. When intermarriage seems in e v i t a b l e , or i n many cases after i t has occurred, members of the family or close friends make an e f f o r t to secure a formal conversion of the non-Jew -to Judaism. A conversion can take place i f the non-Jew vo l u n t a r i l y desires i t and has undertaken the equivalent of a confirmation course i n the study of Judaism. For men the r i t e of circumcision i s required. For both men and women, immersion i n the Mikveh ( r i t u a l bath) i s required. In Vancouver the Orthodox rabbis have not performed any con-versions during the past f i v e or six years. In the past f i v e years the Conservative rabbi has converted two women who were about to marry Jewish men and two women who had a l -ready married Jewish men some years ago. The same rabbi formally converted two young men who had been born of Jewish fathers and Ch r i s t i a n mothers and had been reared as Jews. For these six conversions i n f i v e years the Conservative rabbi has been severely c r i t i c i z e d by some members of the Orthodox synagogues B In Vancouver, as i n Minneapolis, intermarriage takes place i n increasing numbers. There i s a tendency to accept intermarried persons into the synagogue and other Jewish organizations. Some of the most ardent Hadassah workers are Christian women who have married Jewish men. Among the 302 members i n the Beth I s r a e l Synagogue, twenty-five are i n t e r -married. In only ten of these cases has the non-Jew converted -151-to Judaism. There are also three cases of intermarriage i n the families of Beth I s r a e l members, that i s , three children of members have married outside the f a i t h . A l l twenty-eight cases stem from the marriage of a Jewish man to a non-Jewish woman. In most instances the Jewish men are f i n a n c i a l l y better o f f than the women they married. It i s commonly believed that i n a l l intermarriages the grooms are Jewish, as i n the Beth Israel's cases above. Actually t h i s i s not true, as may be seen i n Table IX. 20 TABLE IX. Intermarriages i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1921 1926 1931 1936 191+1 19J4-6 19lj-9 Jewish groom with non-Jewish bride.... 3 3 2 7 6 16 20 Jewish bride and non-Jewish groom.... _J> 3, 0 3 6 12 8 Total number intermarriages 6 6 2 10 12 28 28 Jewish groom and bride.... i 13 11 llj- 20 30 1+5 lj-3 Total number of marriages i n which Jews were involved.. 19 17 16 30 1+2 73 71 Percentage of Jew-i s h intermarriages..3 1 . 5 7 35.29 12.5 33.33 28.57 38.35 39.1+3 Since more'than ninety percent of the Jews i n B r i t i s h Columbia l i v e i n Vancouver, It i s safe to assume that almost a l l the Jewish marriages i n the l a s t decade took place i n Vancouver, including the intermarriages. The author of thi s paper was shocked when he learned that there were twenty--152-eight intermarriages i n 191+6 and the same number i n 191+9• He had expected to f i n d f i v e , or at the most ten, i n each of these years. After receiving the information from the D i v i s i o n of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s and other o f f i c i a l sources, he asked a number of leaders i n the Jewish community to give t h e i r personal estimates of how many intermarriages take place annually i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Most of them thought there were f i v e or six such marriages. When they were t o l d about the s t a t i s t i c s for 191+6 and 191+9, they i n s i s t e d that the vast majority of those intermarrying were not l o c a l people, but had come from the eastern provinces i n order to get away from parents and friends who would not approve of these marriages. (This would be d i f f i c u l t to v e r i f y since the marriage r e g i s t r a t i o n forms do not indicate how long the bride and groom have resided i n B r i t i s h Columbia.) Why have there been so many intermarriages i n Vancouver? Part of the answer may be, as suggested above, that many young couples from the East who were contemplating taking th i s step f e l t that t h e i r marriages could not possibly suc-ceed i n t h e i r home towns because of the opposition of parents r e l a t i v e s , and friends. Consequently, they came to Vancouver to get married and to reside there. It would seem more l o g i c -a l , however, to assume that most of these couples were married at a c i v i l ceremony i n the East before coming to Vancouver to take up residence. Another reason for the large number of intermarriages i n Vancouver stems from the c o r d i a l relationships between man -153-Jews and non-Jews. The author of t h i s paper believes that Jews st i c k to t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s more stubbornly when they are persecuted than when they have the goodwill of t h e i r neighbors. Jews manage to r e t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y under duress but not when they are l e f t alone. In other words, Jews can stand the test of adversity but not the test of prosperity and well being. Under the l a t t e r circumstances they i n t e r -mingle with t h e i r neighbors and f i n d i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to draw a l i n e of separation. Jewish teenagers often ask: "Should we date non-Jews?" Too often t h e i r parents are per-plexed and can give them no guidance. I f c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n -ships are to continue between the Jewish youngsters and t h e i r non-Jewish friends, why not go out on dates with them? But i f there i s to be such dating, why not intermarriage? And the youngsters know that t h e i r parents are vehemently opposed to intermarriage. They r e a l i z e that they may be driv i n g a wedge between themselves and t h e i r parents i f they marry out of the f a i t h . One more factor should be taken into consideration i n any interpretation of the s t a t i s t i c s on intermarriage. Un-t i l a few years ago, many young people i n Vancouver who were contemplating intermarriage went down to Seattle and were married by the Reform rabbi who was known to be lenient about such matters. More recently, about eight or nine years ago, t h i s rabbi was replaced by.another man who i s not quite so lenient. This change of rabbis has caused a number of intermarriages to take place i n Vancouver as c i v i l -15ft-marriages instead of taking the form of a r e l i g i o u s ceremony i n the Reform temple i n Seattle. This fact would help to make i t appear that less intermarriage occurred i n the 1920's and 1930's than there had actually been. Even ac-cording to available s t a t i s t i c a l records, from 1926 through 1936> B r i t i s h Columbia had the highest intermarriage rate among Jews of any province i n Canada (26.03 percent of a l l 21 marriages i n which Jews took part were intermarriages). Recently, a person who was extremely interested i n the problem of intermarriage had t h i s to say. "I can understand why there were so many intermarriages i n Vancouver f i f t e e n or twenty years ago. The Jewish population was so small that the youngsters were almost forced to date Christians. But now, when we have a much larger Jewish community, with a l l the clubs and other opportunities for meeting young people, why should there be so much intermarriage? Maybe our young people don't care anymore." Said a young Jewish professional man: "I have a problem. I am i n love with a gentile g i r l . About a year ago I s t a r t -ed going with her because she was more i n t e r e s t i n g than any g i r l I had ever met. The Jewish g i r l s always want t h e i r boy friends to spend a l o t of money on a date. This g i r l was s a t i s f i e d to go for a walk or to stop i n at the drug store for a coke. I know my parents w i l l be heartbroken i f I marry thi s g i r l . When we started going around together, I t o l d her that we could never marry. But why shouldn't I marry her;? She's the f i n e s t g i r l I have ever met." - 1 5 5 -A non-practicing Catholic g i r l said t h i s : "Of course I would marry one of the Jextfish boys. They don't get drunk, and they don't beat t h e i r wives." Do intermarriages succeed i n Vancouver? This i s a d i f -f i c u l t question to answer, esp e c i a l l y i n view of the fact that the Jewish community i s always ready to point out the f a i l u r e s . Most community leaders, even i n the secular Jewish organiz-ations, believe that i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t f or an i n t e r -married couple to make a success of the i r marriage. They point to several cases where the non-Jewish wives have dropped a l l Jewish associations and returned to t h e i r o r i g i n a l church.groups. They f e e l that the children are not brought up as Jews and that these children do not know where they belong. There i s a general impression that intermarried couples often "don't get along." (In 1950 Vancouver Jews were i n -volved i n f i v e divorces. Each of these divorces dissolved an intermarriage.) Several Jewish husbands of non-Jewish wives have confided to the author of thi s paper that i f they had known as much about the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n intermarriage at the time that they were getting married as they know today, they would never have married out of the f a i t h . In the spring of 1951* a curious set of circum-stances came to the attention of the author. A young Jewish man ( c a l l him Abraham) had been married to a non-Jewish woman (Jane) f o r several years. Their friends, a Jewish g i r l (Sarah) and her non-Jewish husband (John) had been married less than a year. Both couples started divorce proceedings i n 1950. A short time l a t e r , -156-Abraham married Sarah, and John married Jane. But, ad-mittedly, t h i s i s a most unusual case. Though intermarriage continues to be a problem, family s o l i d a r i t y i s s t i l l an important factor i n maintaining the continuity of Jewish l i f e i n Vancouver. Considering the many problems of family l i f e i n an urban society, the Jew-i s h family i n Vancouver i s s t i l l remarkably strongo -157-G. DUTIES OF THE HEART More than 2 1 centuries ago, a Jewish sage said that "the world was based on three things; upon the Torah (study), upon Divine service (prayer) and upon the practice of 2 2 charity." In Vancouver, a s elsewhere, the synagogues and the Hebrew schools are the i n s t i t u t i o n s which are mainly con-cerned with study and prayer. But almost every Jewish organization i s d i r e c t l y concerned with the "practice of charity." Charity involves man's recognition of the duties of brotherhood to h i s fellow-man. It i s one of the"duties of the heart." Jews are trained to be generous. And, by and large, Vancouver Jews are no exception to t h i s r u l e . Their generos-i t y has been esp e c i a l l y marked during the past three years. Since the creation of the State of I s r a e l , every per-secuted Jew i n the world has had the right to come to the new-old land of h i s fathers. More than h a l f a m i l l i o n have come from the displaced persons camps of Europe and from the ghetto quarters of the Near East. These immigrants have no money, few s k i l l s , and nobody to care f o r them. Jews from a l l countries have helped pay for th e i r passage, usually by boat, but sometimes (in case of danger of p i O i g r o m s ) " on the wings of eagles" (Douglas Skymasters) as i n operation "Magic Carpet" when more than f o r t y - f i v e thousand Yemenite Jews were flown to the Promised Land by the American Joint D i s t r i b u t i o n Committee. -158-The Jews of Vancouver organized the United Jewish Appeal i n 191+8. That year, spurred by the tremendous needs for funds to pay for the immigration and settlement of re-fugees i n I s r a e l , the Jews of B r i t i s h Columbia contributed | 2 3 8 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 to the United Jewish Appeal. In 191+9 the t o t a l contributions amounted to $ 2 2 8 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , and i n 1950 they were $ 2 0 2 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . In order to understand the generosity of the Jews of Vancouver, i t must be remembered that t h i s small community b u i l t one synagogue i n 191+7 and a second synagogue and the Talmud Torah i n 191+8. Furthermore, as has been pointed out by James G.McDonald, "no matter how generously they con-tribute to I s r a e l or to American-Jewish i n s t i t u t i o n s , our Jewish c i t i z e n s contribute generously also to the non-23 denominational l o c a l and national appeals made to them." Many virtues are taught i n Jewish home l i f e . Some of them are forgotten, but others are remembered and practiced throughout l i f e . Technically, according to Jewish r e l i g i o u s law, anybody who i s born of a Jewish mother i s Jewish. But the giving of charity i s so important that some community leaders are ready to write o f f any Jew who i s i n a po s i t i o n to contribute to philanthropic causes and refuses to do so. As a matter of f a c t , i t i s well known i n Jewish communities everywhere that the Chevra Kaddisha (Jewish b u r i a l society) w i l l refuse to bury a prosperous Jew who has not been generous i n h i s l i f e t i m e unless a sizable donation i s made by his family. Small wonder then that there were 1,557 donations to the United Jewish Appeal i n 191+8; 2,263 i n -159-191+9; and 2,28l i n 1950. Most of these contributions r e-present family heads, but many of them represent firms i n which several family heads may be involved. The main b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the United Jewish Appeal are the United I s r a e l Appeal (formerly the United Palestine Appeal) and the Canadian Jewish Congress. The funds which the Canadian Jewish Congress receives are used primarily f o r refugee projects, that i s , primarily f o r the mainten-ance and transportation of Jewish refugees abroad (through the o f f i c e s of the American Joint D i s t r i b u t i o n Committee) and secondarily for the integration into Canadian l i f e of Jewish refugees who have immigrated here. The United I s r a e l Appeal uses i t s funds for s e t t l i n g refugees i n I s r a e l . The United Jewish Appeal also subsidized the Talmud Torah and the Peretz School i n 191+9 and 1950, as mentioned above. The synagogues co-operate with the United Jewish Appeal. The rabbis of a l l the congregations urge the wor-shippers to contribute l i b e r a l l y to thi s cause. On Yom  Kippur (the Day of Atonement) appeals are made i n a l l synagogues for the Jewish National Fund. This money i s used f o r the purchase of land i n I s r a e l i n the name of the entire Jewish people. The land i s leased to immigrant families or to colonies of immigrants rent free for f o r t y -nine or ninety-nine years, provided that they (or th e i r descendants) c u l t i v a t e the land. Jewish women's clubs i n Vancouver a l l have one project i n common. They a l l raise funds f o r philanthropic causes. -i6o-As a matter of fa c t , the Women's Di v i s i o n of the United Jewish Appeal, which was organized i n 191+9, induced 1100 Jewish women to make contributions i n 1950. For the 1951 campaign the women have already l i s t e d l650 prospective donors who w i l l a l l be approached f o r contributions. Even the schoolchildren are conscious of the need to give charity. Youth organizations i n e v i t a b l y include a philanthropic plank i n t h e i r platform. The children of the Beth I s r a e l Religious School contributed $125.00 to the United Jewish Appeal i n 191+9 and $90.00 i n 1950 through t h e i r Keren Ami (Fund of My People). Every winter, i n con-nection with the Jewish arbor day, they conduct a special fund r a i s i n g project to plant trees i n the Holy Land. In the early months of 1950 they contributed $177.00 ("plant-ed" 118 trees) and i n 1951 they gave $227.00 (about 152 trees) . It has always been an accepted p r i n c i p l e i n Jewish com-munal l i f e that the Jews "take care of the i r own." In order to minister to the needs of poor Jewish families i n Vancouver, the Jewish Family Welfare Bureau has been formed. The s o c i a l worker at thi s Bureau actually looks after many other types of cases, for example, transients, adult refugees, and old age pensioners. The Bureau i s supported through Community Chest funds. Although the Jewish Family Welfare Bureau re-presents a t r a n s i t i o n from the in d i v i d u a l giving of charity to an organized communal system of taking care of the needy, the Bureau s t i l l practices some of the old neighborly methods - i 6 l -of giving a hand i n time of need. The s o c i a l worker, or members of the small executive board of the Bureau, often arrange for the granting of a loan or an outright g i f t to give somebody a new start i n l i f e . Often supplementary milk t i c k e t s w i l l be given to a family with children or clothing w i l l be provided. Jewish t r a d i t i o n has always paid great respect to the elders. By and large, old people s t i l l receive a great amount of respect from t h e i r families and the community. Usually they l i v e with children or i n t h e i r own quarters. But there are times when parents and children may not get along together. The old father may i n s i s t on eating kosher meals, but h i s daughter-in-law does not want to be bothered with " f o o l i s h " r i t u a l s i n her kitchen. At other times one i s reminded of the saying that "one parent can support ten children, but ten children cannot support one parent." Then, too, there are lonely old men and women, who have nobody to care f o r them, who may have very l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l re-sources or none at a l l , and who want to l i v e i n a Jewish environment. For a l l these people the Jewish Home f o r the Aged of B r i t i s h Columbia was opened i n 19lj.6 at 1190 West 13 Avenue. Usually there are between ten and fourteen, residents i n the home. Unfortunately, the Home f o r the Aged i s a converted private dwelling which does not lend i t s e l f too well f o r i t s new use. The o l d people have to climb too many steps, and lavatory f a c i l i t i e s are poor. Several unsuccessful attempts - 1 6 2 -have been made recently to raise funds for a new home« Since the Home for the Aged does not provide any sort of recreational program f o r the people who l i v e there (only room and board), the l o c a l chapter of the National Council of Jewish Women has organized a Golden Age Club during the past year. On Monday afternoons, the Council members ar-range a program of readings, bridge, bingo, music, and other forms of similar recreational a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l those i n the Jewish community who have passed the age of sixty* Actually, t h i s program caters to the residents of the Home fo r the Aged and to those older people (above s i x t y - f i v e ) who would o r d i n a r i l y have no opportunity to have any other form of recreation. A l l the meetings are held at the Jew-i s h Community Centre. Arrangements are made for the trans-portation ( i n private automobiles or taxis) of a l l members of the Golden Age Club to and from meetings 0 Another type of project undertaken by the Jews of Vancouver which comes under the heading of "duties of the heart" i s refugee r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In Hebrew thi s type of good deed i s c a l l e d Pidyon Sh'vuyim (ransoming captives). Jews have always made a virtue of helping t h e i r co-r e l i g i o n i s t s from other lands who had met reverses i n th e i r fortunes. In Canada t h i s type of project i s carried on mainly through the Canadian Jewish Congress. The Canadian Jewish Congress was organized i n 193ft for the following purposes: "(a.) To safeguard the c i v i l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, and re l i g i o u s rights of the Jews. :. -163-r "(b.) To combat anti-Semitism. "(c.) To study problems r e l a t i n g to the c u l t u r a l , economic, and s o c i a l l i f e of the Jewish people, and to seek a solution to these problems. "(d.) To as s i s t the Jewish Agency i n i t s program of work fo r Palestine. "(e.) To co-operate with World Jewry when deemed advisable. " 2M-Since 1945 two important refugee projects have been carried out i n Vancouver under the auspices of the Canadian Jewish Congress. One project has dealt with those families or individuals who managed to escape from China when the Communists came to power. Most of these refugees merely passed through Vancouver. Ultimately, they were destined to set t l e i n the United States or i n eastern Canada. But the second project has been much more i n t e r e s t i n g . It has dealt with Jewish orphans who were brought into Canada from Europe under the guardianship of the Canadian Jewish Congress. An i n t e r e s t i n g and tr a g i c tale forms the back-ground of t h i s story. In July, 1942* when the f i r s t authenticated reports of the mass slaughter of Jews i n Europe reached t h i s continent, the Canadian Jewish Congress brought the vast tragedy before the attention of the Canadian government. At that time the Nazis were tightening t h e i r hold on Vichy., Prance, and were deporting thousands of Jews to t h e i r certain death i n Poland. Many of them were able to leave t h e i r sons and daughters be-hind i n France, but these children remained forsaken and i n the most imminent danger of following t h e i r parents and hundreds of thousands of other Jews into the furnaces of Poland. - l 6 f t -T h e C a n a d i a n J e w i s h C o n g r e s s p e t i t i o n e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t , o f C a n a d a t o a s s i s t i n t h e r e s c u e o f s o m e o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t v e r y q u i c k l y g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o t h e C o n g r e s s t o b r i n g o n e t h o u s ^ ^ b f t h e s e J e w i s h o r p h a n s f r o m P r a n c e t o C a n a d a . P l a n s w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y s e t a f o o t t o i m -p l e m e n t t h i s g e n e r o u s p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t . A r r a n g e m e n t s w e r e m a d e w i t h e a c h p r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o p l a c e t h e s e c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g f r a m e -w o r k o f c h i l d w e l f a r e ] p r a c t i c e . N o t i m e w a s l o s t a n d p a s s a g e w a s a c t u a l l y s e c u r e d f o r t h e f i r s t g r o u p t o b r i n g t h e m t o C a n a d a . M e d i c a l e x p e r t s a n d n u r s e s w e r e l i n e d u p t o c a r e f o r t h e m d u r i n g t h e v o y a g e a n d u p o n a r r i v a l . I n P r a n c e , c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s w e r e g e t t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n r e a d y t o e m b a r k . M a n y o f t h e m w e r e a l r e a d y a t a s s e m b l y p o i n t s w h e n t h e c o u r s e o f w a r b r o u g h t a t r a g i c h a l t t o t h e e n t i r e m o v e m e n t . T h e a l l i e s a t t a c k e d N o r t h A f r i c a a n d t h e G e r m a n s i m -m e d i a t e l y o v e r r a n V i c h y P r a n c e . T h e r e s c u e m o v e m e n t s t o p p e d a n d a l l t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e s e i z e d b y t h e G e r m a n s . I n t h e f a l l o f 19ft7» t h e D o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t g a v e t h e C a n a d i a n J e w i s h C o n g r e s s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r i n g o n e t h o u s a n d s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e o r i g i n a l t h o u s a n d o r p h a n s t h a t w e r e t o h a v e b e e n a d m i t t e d f i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r . A f e w m o n t h s l a t e r V a n c o u v e r w e l c o m e d t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n . B e f o r e l o n g t h e r e w e r e f o r t y - s e v e n n e w a r r i v a l s , m o s t o f t h e m b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f f o u r t e e n a n d s e v e n t e e n . ( T h e r e w e r e a l m o s t n o J e w i s h i n f a n t s i n a l l o f N a z i - d o m i n a t e d E u r o p e . ) T h e C a n a d i a n J e w i s h C o n g r e s s w a s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e -165-Dominion Government fo r the care of a l l the youngsters u n t i l they reached t h e i r majority or for f i v e years after t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada, whichever date came l a t e r . In Vancouver, the day-to-day s o c i a l work tasks were carried on by Jewish s o c i a l workers from the Children's Aid Society. A number of men and women from the Vancouver Jewish community, organized by the l o c a l branch of the Congress, as a co-ordinating com-mittee f o r the orphan project, did everything i n t h e i r power to integrate the children into t h e i r new environment. The co-ordinating committee organized evening classes i n the English language for the older children and made arrangements for the younger ones to attend the public schools. Some of the children were placed i n homes where they received f u l l care at no expense to Congress. The majority were destined to go into paid boarding homes, and a l l t h e i r expenses were met by Congress. During the f i r s t few years the l o c a l Jewish physicians gave the children free medical care. Pour of the younger children were enrolled at the Beth I s r a e l Religious School on t u i t i o n scholarships. A sub-committee of the co-ordinating committee began to f i n d jobs for those who did not attend school during the day time. A few of the children were not happy i n Vancouver - and were permitted to leave for Winnipeg or Montreal. But, aside from these few exceptions, a l l the rest remained and made Vancouver t h e i r home. It goes without saying that these children had, and some of them continue to have, emotional -166-p r o b l e r a s w h i c h a r e a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e i r y e a r s o f h o r r o r u n d e r t h e N a z i s . A w o r d , u s e d c a r e l e s s l y o r u n w i t t i n g l y b y s o m e b o d y i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n , o f t e n g i v e s t h e m g r e a t a n g u i s h . O n e f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d g i r l w a s a s k e d i f s h e w a n t e d t o s p e n d a f e w w e e k s i n C a m p H a t i k v a h ( t h e s u m m e r c a m p s p o n s o r e d b y t h e Z i o n i s t O r g a n i z a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . T h e p o o r c h i l d , u n d e r t h e m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t a n y " c a m p " w a s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p o r e x t e r m i n a t i o n c e n t r e , w a s t h o r o u g h l y ( a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b l y ) f r i g h t e n e d . M a n y p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w e r e h a n d l e d b y t h e p e o p l e a t w h o s e h o m e s t h e c h i l d r e n l i v e d . B u t e v e n t u a l l y t h e s y m p a t h e t i c c h a i r m a n o f t h e c o - o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e o f C o n g r e s s b e c a m e t h e m o t h e r - c o n f e s s o r o f m a n y o f t h e o r p h a n s . A t t h e e n d o f J a n u a r y , 1951* a f t e r t h e o r p h a n p r o j e c t h a d b e e n u n d e r w a y f o r t h r e e y e a r s , t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e c o -o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e , w a s a b l e t o s t a t e i n h e r r e p o r t t o C o n g r e s s " . . . w i t h j u s t i f i a b l e p r i d e a n d c o n f i d e n c e , t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a s a g r o u p h a v e a c h i e v e d a f u l l e r a n d h a p p i e r l i f e . . . . T h e d e p r i v a t i o n s a n d s o r r o w s w i t h w h i c h t h e y c a m e t o u s , a r e f a d i n g i n t o t h e p a s t f o r m o s t o f t h e m . . . P a t i e n t g u i d a n c e , t h e a d v i c e o f e x p e r t s , a n d a c t u a l t h e r a p e u t i c t r e a t -m e n t h a v e b e e n t h e m e t h o d s u s e d i n h e l p i n g t h e m t o w a r d s a p e r s o n a l a s w e l l a s s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . I t h a s b e e n a h e a r t -b r e a k i n g a n d p a i n s t a k i n g t a s k , a n d w e a r e a w a r e o f o n e o r t w o p a r t i a l f a i l u r e s a m o n g t h e m . " -167-During 1950* at least ten of the youngsters were comple-t e l y self-supporting. Among these were factory workers, a foreman i n a meat packing plant, a clothing cutter, an auto mechanic and a motor salesman, a department store clerk, and a proprietor of a haberdashery store. A number of the young people received vocational t r a i n i n g . Included among these was a student nurse, a hairdresser, and an apprentice i n a dental laboratory. Three boys attended the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The unive r s i t y students worked at logging camps and resorts during th e i r summer vacations i n order to earn enough money for t h e i r l i v i n g expenses. They received t u i t i o n scholarships from the Vancouver Branch of the National Council of Jewish Women. Of these three university students, one i s studying law, a second plans to enter the f i e l d of s o c i a l work, and the t h i r d i s interested i n bio-cheraistry. Eight of the younger children (between the ages of eleven and sixteen) are public school pupils. Several of the older orphans have already been married. During 1950, four weddings took place. By January, 1951* there were s t i l l t h i r t y - s i x out of the o r i g i n a l forty-seven youngsters who. remained i n the care of the Vancouver branch of the Canadian Jewish Congress. In 19ft8* Congress spent $20,000 on the care of the children i n Vancouver. By 1950 many of the orphans had become f u l l y or p a r t i a l l y s e l f -supporting (or were i n free homes), so that the expenses for that year were h a l f of what had been spent i n 19ft8. -168-The t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a good Jew has bean modified i n Vancouver. Most of the emphasis on Jewish r i t u a l has been removed. Pew people are concerned with the theological concepts of Judaism. The good Jew, ac-cording to the popular concept, i s he who has performed the "duties of heart." It i s the person who i s generous, charitable, sympathetic, and f r i e n d l y . He has a high standard of moral and e t h i c a l values and actually l i v e s up to this standard i n his d a i l y l i f e . The good Jew works for a united Jewish community and f o r the welfare of his c i t y and country. F i r s t , l a s t , and always he endeavors to l i v e up to the "duties of the heart." - 169 -Notes f o r Chapter III 1. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Eighth Census of Canada, 19ft l , Ottawa, V o l . 2 , p .6ft6, and pp.516-517. 2. I s r a e l Cohen, Jewish L i f e i n Modern Times, London,191ft, p.51* quoted by Gordon i n Jews i n Transition, op. c i t . pp .83-8ft. 3 . The Co-operative Kosher Meat Society opened a kosher meat market i n the spring of 19ft5 i n order to set a standard for service and cleanliness for the other Jewish meat markets. It has proved to be a rather unique and successful venture. ft. Gordon, op.cit., p.8ft. ' 5» Ibid*> P ' 8 5 « 6. Ibid., p.86. 7. Ibid., p.87. 8. Ibid., p.90 • 9. Ibid., pp.91-92. 10. Ibid., pp.97-99 • 11. Morris Silverman, ed., High Holiday Prayer Book, Hart-ford, Prayer Book Press, 1939, p.lftti. 12. Deborah M.Melamed, The Three P i l l a r s , New York, The Women's League of the United Synagogue, 1927, p.87. 13. Gordon, op_. c i t . , p . 103. lft. See Table V above, pp.70-72. 15. Gordon, op_. c i t . , p . 1 3 0 . 16. Ibid., p.139. 17. Compiled from the o f f i c i a l records of the Chevra  Kaddisha. 18. Gordon, op. c i t . , pp . l ft2-lftft, 19. Ibid., p.166. 20. These s t a t i s t i c s are compiled mainly from the public-ations of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa, as follows: V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s of 1921, Table 28, pp.678-679. - 170 -V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s of 1926, Table 39, pp.k60-66l. V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s of 1931, Table 37, PP . 3 9 k - 3 9 5 « V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s of 1936, Table 66, pp.jj.00-ij.01. V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s of 19kl , Table 65, pp.k58-k59-V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s of 19kb, Table 73, pp.68k-685. The s t a t i s t i c s for the year 19k9 were compiled from inform-ation supplied by the Di v i s i o n of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The method of f i g u r i n g the percentage of intermarriage was that of Louis Rosenberg, Canada's Jews: A Social and Economic Study of the Jews of  Canada, Montreal, Bureau of So c i a l and Economic Research, Canadian Jewish Congress, 1939, p.105. 21. Ibid., Rosenberg, p.106. 22. Talmud, Avot 1:2. 23. James G.McDonald, My Mission i n I s r a e l , New York, Simon and Shuster, 1951, p .28?. 2k. Quoted by Judith Seidel, The Development and Adjustment  of the Jewish Community In Montreal, M.A. Thesis, McGill - 1 7 1 -CHAPTER IV  SOME CONCLUSIONS AND SPECULATIONS In t h i s study of change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e , an attempt was made i n the f i r s t chapter to trace the develop-ment of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. It was indicated that Jewish law i s based on the revelation to Moses on Mount S i n a i . This revelation was recorded i n the Pentateuch (Written Law) and the Talmud (Oral Law). Later generations saw the compilation of codes of Jewish law. F i n a l l y , the Shulhan Aruch was written by Joseph Karo almost four hundred years ago and be-came accepted as a sort of f i n a l code of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. Almost two centuries ago, when the emancipation of the Jews from the ghetto began, certa i n problems developed. It became increasingly d i f f i c u l t to observe a l l the minutiae of Jewish r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l i n the modern environment of en-lightened Western culture. Synagogue attendance became an unusual event, rather than a d a i l y act. The dietary laws were honored more i n t h e i r breach than i n t h e i r observance. Home ceremonials suffered. The i n t e l l e c t u a l foundations of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e were undermined by modern thought. Unfortunately, Jewish r e l i g i o u s law has undergone no major changes since the writing of the Shulhan Aruch almost four hundred years ago. This lack of o f f i c i a l change, com-bined with the rapidly changing l i f e i n modern times, has produced many problems i n Jewish l i f e . Some of the problems are i n the area of personal status and personal r e l a t i o n -ships. For example, a Jewish woman whose husband has l e f t - 1 7 2 -her without giving her a Jewish divorce becomes an Agunah and can never remarry. Other problems include such questions as these: Should the dietary laws be maintained? Should i t be permissible to ride i n a vehicle on the Sabbath day? In the second chapter an attempt was made to record the most Important modern e f f o r t s to change Jewish r e l i g i o u s laxv. The Reform, Neo-Orthodox, and Conservative movements and the Reconstructionist school were b r i e f l y described. In each case, the his t o r y and p r i n c i p l e s of the movement were i n -cluded. It was also explained to what extent each movement departed from the c r i t e r i a of Orthodox Judaism as set f o r t h i n the Shulhan Aruch» It was pointed out that each of these e f f o r t s aimed at integrating the emancipated Jew into Western culture without losing his Judaism i n the process. The survey of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n Vancouver i n the t h i r d chapter was an e f f o r t to measure the extent of s o c i a l change which has actually taken place i n one community. The comparisons with Minneapolis were made wherever possible i n that chapter to indicate the extent to which Vancouver i s a representative c i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s chapter deals with the observance of the dietary laws, the Sabbath and the f e s t i v a l s , and the personal ceremonies i n the l i f e t i m e of a Jew. It also attempts to describe the status of the synag-ogues, r e l i g i o u s schools, the family and the home, and some charitable projects» The present chapter w i l l o f f e r some conclusions and speculations about s o c i a l change i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . -173-Although i t would be most d i f f i c u l t to bring s t a t i s t i c -a l proof, i t would seem to an impartial (but interested) observer that i n actual day-to-day l i v i n g the categories of Orthodox and Conservative are of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l meaning i n Vancouver. Some members of the Conservative Beth I s r a e l Synagogue tend to be more observant i n matters of Jewish r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l than many members of the Neo-Orthodox Schara Tzedeck Synagogue. And many families that are not o f f i c i a l l y a f f i l i a t e d with any synagogue are quite observant i n t h e i r homes. Prom the comparison of Talmud Torah students (mainly from Orthodox homes) with students of the Conservative Beth I s r a e l Religious School, i t can be stated that the Talmud Torah students come from homes In which the dietary laws are observed much more closely than i n the homes of the members of the Conservative Synagogue. On the other hand, almost no one i n either group observes dietary laws when eating i n a public restaurant. When i t comes to Sabbath services, the Conservative Synagogue has the greatest weekly attendance on Friday evenings. Except for those Sabbaths when there i s a Bar  Mitzvah ceremony, none of the three synagogues has a large attendance on Saturday mornings. So, that while the Ortho-dox group probably observes more home ceremonies, the Conservative congregants attend synagogue services more f a i t h f u l l y . -Ilk' It i s also safe to state that people usually j o i n a synagogue, because t h e i r friends belong to i t , not because they are convinced that they have found the congregation which represents more clos e l y the r e l i g i o u s environment which they seek. Gordon found t h i s also to be the case i n Minneapolis. In Minneapolis a Jewish family does not "belong" unless It joins a congregation. But i n Vancouver there i s not so much pressure to j o i n , and there i s l i t t l e or no s o c i a l pressure used to persuade the members of one congregation to j o i n another. A number of changes have been introduced into the synagogue services of the two leading congregations. But these changes, l i k e most changes i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e , have been introduced i n a haphazard manner. One of the most important conclusions of t h i s study i s that c r i t e r i a f o r acceptance of change are necessary i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e i f Judaism i s to be a v i t a l r e l i g i o n . It has been noted above that Reform Judaism was d r a s t i c i n introducing sweeping changes i n i t s Pittsburg Platform of 1885. Eventually, i t had to modify i t s stand i n the Guiding Princi p l e s of 1937» Conservative Judaism, on the other hand, has talked a great deal about change but has done very l i t t l e . It has only recognized changes after they have been univer s a l l y accepted. For example, i n 19f?0, the Committee on Law of the Conservative Rabbinical Assembly approved, i n a half-hearted manner, the practice of r i d i n g to the synagogues on the Sabbath and holidays. In Vancouver th i s -175-o f f i c i a l change had some effect i n only one case where an elderly lady was on the verge of deciding to ride to services. Many members of the Conservative Beth Is r a e l Synagogue would l i k e to see changes introduced, but they are confused because they have no c r i t e r i a by which to judge proposed changes. For example, some worshippers would l i k e to i n t r o -duce organ music into the Conservative services. But thi s i s d i f f i c u l t to achieve because there i s no guiding p r i n c i p l e i n Conservative Judaism, no decision which may be regarded as authoritative. Practice i s likewise confusing. A majority of the Conservative synagogues do not have i n -strumental music at Sabbath and major f e s t i v a l services, but a minority do 8 Furthermore, i t would seem to the writer, that from the standpoint of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law, the observance of the dietary laws and the Sabbath are much more important than having or not having an organ i n the synagogue. A Yet, i n . many instances, the very people who do not observe any vestige of the dietary laws or an i o t a of the Sabbath are the loudest i n opposing the introduction of an organ into the synagogue. By the same token, some of those who have kosher homes and wbo make an attempt to observe the Sabbath as much as they can, would prefer to have organ music at the Sabbath services. So the f i r s t need i s for c r i t e r i a of change. After a l l the theories are expounded, what type of p r a c t i c a l changes -176-are to be permitted i n Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e ? It would seem l o g i c a l to attempt to maintain the most important elements of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law at a l l costs and to be more lenient about the less important laws. S p e c i f i c -a l l y , the Mws of the Torah (Pentateuch) ought to be guarded more zealously than the ordinances of l a t e r rabbis which were introduced i n order "to b u i l d a fence around the Torah," that i s , to safeguard the more important laws. In other words, Jewish r e l i g i o u s leaders ought to concentrate a l l t h e i r energies i n an e f f o r t to persuade t h e i r followers to l i v e up to the more important laws. Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e has reached the point where many Jews do not observe any-thing because they f e e l i t i s impossible to observe every-things The second need i s f o r c r i t e r i a of group a f f i l i a t i o n . What minimum standards of Jewish r e l i g i o u s behavior are re-quired of a person who i s to j o i n an Orthodox synagogue? What are the prerequisites for taking out membership i n a Conservative synagogue? Or, do the synagogues merely expect to continue taking dues paying members regardless of t h e i r b e l i e f s and t h e i r practices? There i s a certain type of f a l s e modesty i n the Ortho-dox rabbinate, and to some extent i n the Conservative rabbinate too. Those who are entrusted with the leadership of the r e l i g i o u s groups that s t i l l believe i n Jewish law are extremely reluctant to interpret the law f o r th i s day and age. They point to the "good old days" and resort to a -177-hero worship which proclaims "There were giants i n those daysi" In truth the s c i e n t i f i c study of Judaism has made tremendous strides i n the l a s t century and a h a l f . Some of the leading scholars i n the Yeshiva University and at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America have access to pri c e l e s s documents about the existence of which t h e i r more acceptable predecessors had no knowledge. Unfortunately, the vast majority of Jews i n the United States and Canada are ignorant of the progress of Jewish scholarship. There i s an urgent need today to popularize for mass consumption many of the scholarly achievements. Most Jews who are well educated by Canadian or American standards are woefully ignorant Jewishly. Most Jewish c o l -lege students stopped t h e i r Jewish education on the thirteen-year-old l e v e l , i f indeed they had any Jewish learning. But the i r general formal education continued for another eight years. When they look back at t h e i r Jewish studies through t h e i r university trained eyes, a l l Jewish learning seems to be c h i l d i s h . When they learn of b i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m i n college, they never dream that the Conservative and Reform scholars of the Bible are i n the modernist camp. In other words, most young Jewish i n t e l l e c t u a l s are woefully ignorant i n the f i e l d s of Jewish scholarship. This general ignorance of Judaism on the part of many Jews leads to great numbers of paradoxical situations. An increasing number of Jews have no idea of the r e l a t i v e importance of the various r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s of the home - 1 7 8 -and the synagogue. As a result i t often happens that a person who i s himself a non-conformist w i l l i n s i s t that the t r a d i t i o n a l synagogue r i t u a l be maintained as i t always has been. Thus i t i s that a person who does not keep a kosher home, does not observe the Sabbath or holidays, and never attends the synagogue (except on the High Holidays) objects to any change In the synagogue r i t u a l * Another disturbing trend i s the development of vicarious Judaism. Many Jews have l e f t a l l Jewish r i t u a l observance to the rabbis. The re s u l t i s that the rabbis are ra p i d l y becoming a professional class of holy men delegated to the f u l l observance of Jewish r i t u a l . Jewish r e l i g i o u s law has never distinguished between the r i t u a l obligations of clergy and l a i t y . In fa c t , the strength of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e has been based on the f u l l acceptance of r i t u a l by the laymen. The rabbis of the past were merely the experts i n Jewish r i t u a l law and the teachers of t h e i r fellow Jews. Today a diff e r e n t standard of observance i s ^ expected from the rabbi as compared to h i s congregation. As a matter of fa c t , as far as the congregants are concerned, there are no standards of r e l i g i o u s conduct for themselves which they would consider reasonable or be prepared to observe* In view of the general non-observance i n so many f i e l d s of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e , why do so many people observe certa i n r i t u a l s and attend certain services? Why do they attend the synagogue on the High Holidays i f they never come to a service the rest of the year? Why do so many families -179-bother having a Passover Seder i f they do not observe other r i t u a l s i n t h e i r homes? Some Jews admit frankly that they are not religious» Nevertheless, they want to be with t h e i r families and friends for special Jewish occasions. They f e e l that the High Holidays have a more personal message fo r them than the Sab-bath services. There are also a great number of Jews who are e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s , but who cannot f i n d any r e l i g i o u s i n s p i r a t i o n i n the repetitious d a i l y or weekly prayers. To them the High Holiday prayers are more personal because they deal with the universal themes of health and sickness, l i f e and death. Regarding the Passover Seder, i t may be concluded that t h i s home celebration retains i t s popularity for two reasons. F i r s t , the message of Passover i s pertinent f o r the twentieth century: "In every generation each person must regard him-s e l f as i f he personally were redeemed from Egypt," that i s , every generation must win freedom for i t s e l f . The second reason f o r the popularity of the Seder i s that i t i s a home ceremonial b u i l t around the interests of children. The whole purpose of the Seder i s to impress the message of the holiday upon the children. And there i s very l i t t l e that Jewish parents would not do for t h e i r children. Many parents have admitted to the writer that they conduct a Seder for the sake of t h e i r children only. ("I'm not r e l i g i o u s , but I want my children to enjoy the Seder just as I did when I was t h e i r age,") -180-S i m i l a r l y , i t has been found that any of the synagogue ceremonials centering about children are popular. In Vancouver, a Bar Mitzvah (confirmation of a boy) often at-tracts anywhere from one hundred to three hundred people. The 1950 confirmation ceremony brought more than seven hundred men, women, and children to the Conservative synagogue. Even the annual consecration ceremony for the kindergarten children i n the Beth I s r a e l Religious School brings approximately three hundred adults to the services. It may be concluded, then, that those synagogue ser-vices which have a special appeal to sentiment or which are centered about children s t i l l r e t a i n t h e i r popularity. S i m i l a r l y , those home ceremonials which evoke a nostalgia for the past or which are centered about children have been maintained i n some form. On the other hand, i t musjt be frankly admitted that the overwhelming majority of Jews do not observe t h e i r r e l i g i o u s customs as f a i t h f u l l y as th e i r grandparents did. Why i s there so l i t t l e observance of Jewish ceremonials today? For many young Jews the basic rationale f o r the observance of the ceremonials i s gone. The ceremonies are not relevant to th e i r d a i l y experiences; they are meaning-less acts out of a dim past. Other Jews would l i k e to attend the synagogue on the Sabbath and holidays, but they f e e l that they must work on these days i n order to make a l i v i n g . A t h i r d group i s represented by those who c a l l -181-themselves "the lost generation". These are usually men and women between the ages of t h i r t y and f o r t y whose parents came to t h i s continent as immigrants. In many cases there was a clash between the Yiddish, European, Orthodox outlook of the parents and the English, Canadian, "modern" view-point of t h e i r children. As a result of t h i s clash, the children rejected many positive c u l t u r a l values which they i d e n t i f i e d with t h e i r parents' old way of l i f e , including most r e l i g i o u s values. The " l o s t generation" lacks respect for the past. Coming as i t does from a home background i n which the emphasis was on doing without understanding, th i s generation has no appreciation for the significance or the beauty of ceremonials. For the f i r s t time i n many centuries of Jewish l i f e t h i s group presents the spectacle of ignorance without sHaame. ("I never read a Jewish book, and I'm proud of i t . " ) But i t must be said to the credit of t h i s " l o s t gener-ation" that they are usually w i l l i n g and anxious to give t h e i r children some- sort of Jewish education. Unfortunately, the children learn one standard of Jewish observance i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s schools and f i n d an altogether d i f f e r e n t standard at home. This double standard of Jewish observance merely helps to confuse the children. To the d i s c r e d i t of the " l o s t generation" i t must be said that they are often c r i t i c a l about conditions and abuses that no longer e x i s t . Many of them i n s i s t that they -182-do not attend synagogue services for esthetic reasons. ("I can't stand seeing the old men spit on the f l o o r . " ) They do not r e a l i z e that the unesthetic Heimish ("at-home-l i k e " ) elements of the East European synagogue have been completely eliminated i n the modern Canadian synagogue. But they go on mouthing the same cliches nevertheless. In view of the above discussion i t may be r e a d i l y understood why fewer than two out of every f i v e Vancouver Jewish families have formally joined a synagogue. When the u n a f f i l i a t e d are asked why they do not j o i n , they usually reply that they are good Jews anyway. ("You mean to t e l l me that I'm not a good Jew just because I'm not a member of a synagogue!") Many young married couples f e e l that as long as t h e i r parents are synagogue members, that i s enough. They wi 11 become a f f i l i a t e d when t h e i r children reach Hebrew school age. There are others i n the Jewish community who do not j o i n a synagogue because they cannot understand the services, cannot afford to pay dues, or are not interested. At t h i s point i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g to consider one youth project that has f a i l e d both at the Jewish Community Centre and at the Beth I s r a e l Synagogue, namely, the teen toivns. It would seem to the present writer that there are' two basic reasons for t h i s f a i l u r e . F i r s t , the essence of a successful teen town l i e s i n getting together a large number of youngsters of the same age who are interested i n dancing -183-and i n meeting other young people. In t h i s respect a Jewish teen town cannot compete with the much larger and better organized teen town sponsored by St. John's Anglican Church. The second reason why the teen towns f a i l e d i s that they had nothing to of f e r except s o c i a l dancing. There was no Jewish content i n th e i r program. Other Jewish youth clubs, l i k e the AZA for boys and the BBG f o r g i r l s , have succeeded because they included a l i t t l e Jewish culture, some community services, and sports i n addition to s o c i a l dancing. It Is the contention of t h i s writer that Jewish teenagers today need a varied program of constructive a c t i v i t i e s , not merely a teen towna S c i e n t i f i c progress has wrought more changes i n the dai l y l i f e of Americans and Canadians i n the past f i f t y years than had been introduced i n E^uropean history for f i v e hundred years before the beginning of t h i s century. As time goes on, there w i l l be more and more changes. Rapid change i s becoming part of the order of l i v i n g . It i s no longer possible to ignore change. The Jewish r e l i g i o n ought to make provisions for recognizing changes, for approving or disapproving change. There has been some discussion i n Orthodox c i r c l e s about r e - i n s t i t u t i n g a Sanhedrin, a sort of Jewish r e l i g i o u s parliament, to deal with the problem of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law. While the Sanhedrin, i f and when i n s t i t u t e d , may prove to be a conservative body (as a l l law-making bodies should be), i t would nevertheless be an i n -strument of authority which would conceivably be used to -18ft-introduce changes eventually. A recognized authoritative body i s needed to deal with the problems that arise out of the integration of Judaism into modern l i f e . Whenever Judaism was a v i t a l r e l i g i o n , i t was well integrated into the c u l t u r a l l i f e of the people. This does not mean that being Jewish was made easy. On the contrary, the demands made of the f a i t h f u l were often exacting and taxing, but they were understandable and accepted as reason-able. For example, two thousand years ago the Pharisees taught a way of l i f e which was much more d i f f i c u l t to folloxtf than the Judaism taught by the Sadducees. But the masses accepted the Pharisaic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Judaism because i t was more meaningful to them. S i m i l a r l y , the Jews of the European ghetto communities i n the Middle Ages f e l t that t h e i r f a i t h had a special meaning f o r them i n t h e i r day-to-day l i f e and were, therefore, w i l l i n g to make many s a c r i f i c e s i n order to remain Jews© Today, many of the d a i l y ceremonies are not observed by the majority of the Jews because the r i t u a l s have no meaning for the people. Judaism i s becoming synonymous with synagogue attendance to an ever increasing number of Jews. This i s a new approach to Judaism; i t may eventually reduce a l l of Judaism to a once-a-week (or once-a-year) church attendance;and i t may even lead to the complete d i s -solution of American and Canadian Jewish l i f e . An ever-increasing number of Jews l i m i t t h e i r contact with Jewish - 185 -l i f e to an hour's attendance i n the synagogue on the Day of Atonement. Granted that c r i t e r i a and methods of change fo r Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e can eventually be worked out, what approach to Judaism holds most promise of appealing to the Jews on th i s continent? This approach would have to include some emphasis on t r a d i t i o n , and yet i t would have to be w i l l i n g to accept change. Perhaps i t w i l l be on the left-wing of the Conservative group, somewhat akin to the present Re-constructionist School of Mordecai M.Kaplan which emphasizes Judaism as a " r e l i g i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n " . I t would stress not only r e l i g i o n , but also Zionism, Hebrew education, music and art. There would probably be less emphasis on numerous da l l y r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s , such as the Conservative groups attempt to teach at present. But there would probably be an insistence on certain minimum standards of observance. This type of Judaism may perhaps be more meaningful In the c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s climate of the twentieth century. But a l l of these proposed ideas are only a form of speculation of what may happen i n the future judging by what has happened i n the past. One thing i s ce r t a i n . The future development of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e on t h i s continent should be very i n t e r e s t i n g to follow. Nobody can predict x>rith any p r e c i s i o n just what w i l l happen. But those people who are interested i n the problems of Jewish r e l i g i o u s law agree that some special e f f o r t s w i l l be necessary to main-t a i n the continuity of Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e . The course v - l 8 6 -of t h i s action should be J f u i d e d by both theory and practice. Only a course based on a sound t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l approach can hope to succeed i n maintaining and enhancing Jewish r e l i g i o u s l i f e on the North American continent. -187-BIBLIOGRAPHY (The following books, periodicals, newspapers, and pamphlet have been consulted in the writing of this thesis.) I. BOOKS I. The Authorized Daily Prayer Book of the United  Hebrew Congregations of the British Empire, London, Eyre and Spottlswoode Limited. Central Conference of American Rabbis, Rabbi's  Manual, Cincinnati, 1936. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Eighth Census of Canada, 1941, Ottawa, Vol.2,p.0)4.6 and pp. 5 1 6 - 5 1 7 . Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Vital  Statistics of 1921, 1926, 1931, 1936, 1941, and 191|.b. Eisenberg, Azriel, ed., Modern Jewish Life in Literature,,. New York, United Synagogue Com-mission on Jewish Education, I9I4-89 Eisenstein, Ira, Creative Judaism, New York, Behrman House, 1 9 3 6 . Preehof, Solomon, Reform Jex^ish Practice and  Its Rabbinic Background, Cincinnati, Hebrew Union College Press, 1944* Gordis, Robert, Conservative Judaism, An American  Philosophy, New York, Behrman H o u s e d 1945* Gordon, Albert I., Jews in Transition, Minneapoli University of Minnesota Press, 1949* Grayzel,, Solomon, A History of the Jews from the  Babylonian Exile to the End of World War II, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America. II. Hirsch, Samson Raphael, The Nineteen Letters of  Ben Uziel, translated by Bernard Drachman, New York, Bloch Publishing Company, I9I4.2. 12. The Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, Sabbath  Prayer Book, New York, 1945» 13. Lowenthal, Marvin, The Jews of Germany, A Story  of Sixteen Centuries, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1 9 4 4 . 2. 3 . 4 . 5 . 6. 7. 8 . 9. 10. -188-lft. McDonald, James G., My Mission i n I s r a e l , New York, Simon and Schuster, 1951* 15• Margolis, Max L., and Marx, Alexander, A History  of the Jewish People, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1938. 16. Melamed, Deborah M., The Three P i l l a r s , New York, The Women's League of the United Synagogue,1927. 17. Mielziner, M., Introduction to the Talmud, New York, Bloch Publishing Company, 1925. 18. Philipson, David, and others, "Judaism i n America," The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 19ft2, v o l . 6 , pp.237-2L+b. 19. Rabbinical Assembly of America and United Synagogue of America, Sabbath and Fes t i v a l Prayer Book,19ft6. 2 0 . Rosenberg, Louis, Canada's Jews: A Social and Economic Study of the Jews of Canada, Montreal, Bureau of Social and Economic Research^ Canadian Jewish Congress, 1939» 21. Sachar, Abram Leon, A History of the Jews, second edition, revised to 19ft0, New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 19ft3. 22. Seidel, Judith, The Development and Adjustment of the Jewish Community i n Montreal, M.A. Thesis, McGill University, 1 9 3 9 . 23. Silverman, Morris, ed., High Holiday Prayer Book, Hartford, Prayer Book Press, 1939» 2ft. Steinberg,Milton, "Current Philosophies of Jei\rish L i f e i n America" i n Oscar I. Janowski, ed., "The American Jew: A Composite P o r t r a i t , New York and London, Harper Brothers, pp.205-&30. 25. Steinberg, Milton, The Making of the Modern Jew, New York, Behrman House, 19ft3» 26. Steinberg, Milton, A Partisan Guide to the Jewish Problem, Cornwall, N.Y., Cornwall Press, 19ft5» 27. Talmud, Avot 1 :1-2; Menahoth,.29, b. 28. Waxman, Meyer, A History of Jewish Literature from the Close of the Bible to Our Own Day, New York, Bloch Publishing Company, 19ft3« V o l . 2 . - 189 -. PERIODICALS, NEWSPAPERS, AND PAMPHLETS 1. Agus, Jacob B., "Obsolescence i n Jewish Law," Conservative Judaism, Vol . 7 (June,1951)* PP* 9-19. 2. Bernstein, P h i l i p S., "What the Jews Believe," L i f e , September 11, 1950, pp . l 6 l - 1 7 9 . 3 . "A Challenge to Freedom of Worship," New York, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1945* 4. Cohen, G.M., "Wide Return to Ritual by U.S.Reform Jewry Reported i n Survey," The National Jewish  Post, November 17, 1950, p.12. 5 . Kohn, Eugene, notes on lectures delivered at the Reconstructionist Youth I n s t i t u t e , New York City, January 26 and March 30, 1947. 6» "Mordecai M.Kaplan and His Philosophy of Judaism," Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, New York, 1951* 7. "A Program for Jewish L i f e Today," The Recon-s t r u c t i o n i s t , V o l . l 6 , No.l (February 2 k , 1 9 5 0 ) , pp.12-19. 8. "Reconstructionism Takes Over Reform," The National Jewish Post, July 6, 1951, p . l * 9. "Some Problems Being Discussed by the Rabbis," The Reconstructionist, v o l . 1 7 , No.10 (June 29, 1 9 5 D , PP.5-b. 10. "A Statement of Objectives of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Fellowship," The Reconstructionist. v o l . l 6 , No.19 (January 26,1951), pp*24-25* - 190 -QUESTIONNAIRE ON RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCE Please answer the following questions frankly and honestly. Do not write your name on the paper. We do not want to know who answered any set of questions. We only want to get the honest and confidential opinion of a group of young people in Vancouver. Please cooperate. Age ___ Place of Birth (Town) (Province or State) How long have you l i v e d in Vancouver? Jrears. 1 . Do the following attend synagogue on Friday night? Attend Attend Never Regularly Sometimes Attend I Father Mother . Older brother ( s ) . . . . . . Older s i s t e r ( s ) 2. Do the following attend synagogue on Saturday morning? Attend Attend Never Regularly Sometimes Attend Saturday Passover Shavuot Rosh Hashonah Yom Kippur... Sukkot.". 4. On Saturday my mother Never Cooks Warms up Cooks Cooked Foods Regularly 5. V/e play our radio on Saturdays Yes 6 . a. We have musical instruments in our home b. We play v i o l i n , e t c . , on Saturdays 7 . Riding on Saturdays in our family Do Not Ride Do Ride I Father '  Mother Older brother(s) Older s i s t e r ( s ) 8. Writing on Saturday Do Not Write Do Write I _ _ Father Mother Older brother(s) Older s i s t e r ( s ) I Father Mother __ Older brother(s) Older s i s t e r ( s) 3. My father does not go to work on No Yes No. Yes No. 9. S m o k i n g o n S a t u r d a y -F a t h e r M o t h e r O l d e r b r o t h e r ( s ) O l d e r s i s t e r ( s ) . D o N o t S m o k e D o S m o k e 11. P u t t i n g o n l i g h t s i n o u r f a m i l y 10. S h o p p i n g o n S a t u r d a y D o N o t S h o o D o S h o p I F a t h e r v  M o t h e r O l d e r b r o t h e r ( s ) O l d e r s i s t e r ( s ) D o N o t P u t o n D o P u t o n L i g h t s L i g h t s I F a t h e r M o t h e r O l d e r b r o t h e r ( s ) O l d e r s i s t e r ( s ) . 1 2 . a . M o t h e r l i g h t s . c a n d l e s o n R e g u l a r l y S o m e t i m e s N e v e r F r i d a y n i g h t _ b . M o t h e r l i g h t s c a n d l e s o n h o l i d a y n i g h t s . . . . . . * ' ; c. ' M y f a t h e r l i g h t s c a n d l e s o n C h a n u k a h , _ _ _ _ _ d.-< My father r e c i t e s o n Friday nights. e . " M y f a t h e r r e c i t e s k i d d u s h o h h o l i d a y - n i g h t s . • kiddush. £• X, tt 3 13. M v f a t h e r s a y s a p r a y e r b e f o r e m e a l s o n R e g u l a r l y S o m e t i m e s N e v e r W e e k d a y s . _ _ S a t u r d a y s H o l i d a y s 14. M y f a t h e r s a y s g r a c e ( p r a y e r s ) a f t e r m e a l s o n R e g u l a r l y Sometimes N e v e r W e e k d a y s ' S a t u r d a y s _ t Holidays..•.......*..* _.„__,. _ _» «»*»• &©_« we eat meals w i t h o u t fes N o b u t t e r . m i l k , o r " c r e a m i f t h e m e a l i s a m e a t m e a l • I n o u r h o m e w e h a v e s e p a r a t e m e a t a n d m i l k d i s h e s M y m o t h e r , . . . b u y s , m e a t , i n , a . k o s h e r . _ mea'tv m a r k e t . • . . . •,.. >.. ' < • • • v • M y m p t f o e r i m a k e s . : m e at' k o s h e r ' . b e f o r e c o o k i n g ' i t . . . -3-S t r i c t l y Partly Not at a l l Our home i s kosher If your home i s kosher or partly kosher,answer the following questions. Yes No When I go out, I eat non-kosher meat in a restaurant When I go out, I eat f i s h i n a restaurant When my parents go out, they eat non-kosher meat in a restaurant When my parents go out, they eat f i s h in a restaurant...» l 6 . I go to mixed parties(boys and Yes No g i r l s ) , school dances, or teen towns Always Sometimes Never I l i k e to go with a Jewish? "date" . ... My parents want me to go with a Jewish "date" 

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