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Case-aides in welfare agencies : a review of the values, possibilities, and methods of utilizing case-aides,… Wilson, Deborah 1957

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CASE-AIDES IN WELFARE AGENCIES A Review of the Values, P o s s i b i l i t i e s , and Methods of U t i l i z i n g Case-aides, Paid and Volunteer, i n Various Welfare Settings. by DEBORAH WILSON Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 19S7 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia l i i ABSTRACT There are several Important reasons f o r considering the use of case-aides i n welfare programs. One i s the shortage of p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel and the need f o r trained workers. Further, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l i n order to gain the understanding and f e e l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to support the agencies which are dependent upon the l a y public f o r t h e i r l i f e - b l o o d . Moreover, modern s o c i a l work emphasizes the value of personal relationships i n the help-ing process. Experience i n the use of case-aides, paid or volunteer, i s studied from a review of e x i s t i n g manuals and agency programs which are either currently or recently i n p r a c t i c e In the welfare f i e l d i n the United States and Canada. A canvass of the d i r e c t o r s of selected Casework agencies i n Vancouver provides viewpoints and information f o r comparative use In the study. Current p r a c t i c e s are summarized to suggest standards and opportunities f o r f u r -ther development of t h i s trend In s o c i a l work. Both prob-lems and values are outlined. I t i s the conclusion of the study that a well-formulated ease-aide program can u t i l i z e the helpfulness of the volunteer without r i s k to the profession of s o c i a l work. The success of the endeavor, however, i s dependent upon c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g and supervision of the case-aide, with detailed care i n planning. Case-aides can not only supplement the work of the p r o f e s s i o n a l case-worker, but can extend the services of the agency, perform-ing many tasks needed by the c l i e n t but not appropriate f o r the professional. The crux of the s i t u a t i o n i s "job analysis' 1 which w i l l lead to systematic sharing of respon-s i b i l i t i e s with case-aides, paid or volunteer. In Vancouver, paid case-aides are being used to a li m i t e d extent. Volunteer case-aides are not being used as a part of a formulated program by agencies, singly or co-operatively. The need of the services i s recognized by several d i r e c t o r s and s t a f f members but no programs have yet been inaugurated. Areas which might u t i l i z e such ser-vices include the aged, the handicapped, needy children, immigrants, c h r o n i c a l l y i l l , mental patients, and c l i e n t s and f a m i l i e s of medical s o c i a l service departments. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8\ Canada. Date ACKNOWLEBGMEHTS I wish, to af f i r m ray appreciation f o r the kind and h e l p f u l i n t e r e s t and cooperation that has been extended by the d i r e c t o r s , l i b r a r i a n s , and other representatives of agencies that have been consulted i n formulating t h i s study. I p a r t i c u l a r l y want to thank ray thesis advisor, Mrs. Helen McGrae, f o r the Inspiration and the suggestions that she has shared. To Dr. Leonard G. Marsh, Director of Research, I would l i k e to express ray gratitude f o r encour-agement and d i r e c t i o n that has been given u n s e l f i s h l y . I t has proven to be a r e a l p r i v i l e g e to represent the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia as a student during the c o l l e c t i o n of information f o r t h i s study, both because of the associations and the understandings that have resulted. i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1 . The Basis f o r Using Case-aides In S o c i a l Work-Page Democracy and s o c i a l work. Trends i n voluntary e f f o r t s . The viewpoint of the layman. Are there r i s k s to the profession i n using case-aides? The development of standards f o r the use of laymen,In casework agencies. Scope and method of the present study 1 Chapter 2 . Comparative Experience i n the Use of Case-aides Purposes and standards for the use of case-aides as i l l u s t r a t e d by manuals. Agency use of volunteer case-aides. Agency use of paid case-aides. Programs f o r the use of volunteers or case-aides i n a cross-section of Vancouver casework agencies 2 2 Chapter 3- Current Procedures i n Case-aide Programs The formulation of a program. What i s suitable work f o r ease-aides? Qualifications, of case-aides. Recruitment, selection and placement. Orientation and t r a i n i n g programs f o r case-aides. Supervision. Recognition following evaluation ; 78 Chapter Future Planning f o r Case-aides i n Casework  Agencies Values i n the use of case-aides. Problems i n the use of case-aides. Long-range planning, toward the generalized use of case-aides. P o s s i b i l i t i e s of using case-aides i n Vancouver.... 117 Appendices: A. D e f i n i t i o n s of S o c i a l Work. B. D e f i n i t i o n s of Case-aides (and other terms In t h e s i s ) . c. P r i n c i p l e s and Standards i n the Use of Case-aides. D. Agencies Contacted i n the Present Survey. V CASE-AIDES IN WELFARE AGENCIES A Review of the Values, P o s s i b i l i t i e s , and Methods of U t i l i z i n g Case-aides, Paid and Volunteer, i n Various Welfare Settings.., CHAPTER 1. THE BASIS FOR USING CASE-AIDES IN SOCIAL WORK There i s hardly a community anywhere i n which pr o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers are ava i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers to meet a l l the demands i n p u b l i c and private agencies. As a r e s u l t , case-aides have been used as an emergency measure i n many agencies. From t h i s exper-ience alone, i t should be possible to draw some lessons h e l p f u l i n planning f o r the further and more i n t e l l i g e n t use of case--aides, paid or volunteer. But there i s another reason f o r considering the use of volunteers, even i n t h i s c r i t i c a l area of p r o f e s s i o n a l help; t h i s i s the realm of democracy and c i t i z e n s h i p , and the values of personal p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Though the s o c i a l work profession has proved i t s worth and necessity f o r many functions, there i s the c r i t i c a l question as to whether professional s o c i a l workers should be permitted to "monopolize" the s o c i a l welfare f i e l d even i f s u f f i c i e n t l y available i n numbers to do so. In a democratic form of government, lay rep-resentation i s necessary i n agency planning. True, many important board members are volunteers, but should the layman not also necessarily be a p a r t i c i p a n t In the d a i l y workings of the welfare agency i n order to gain understand-ing of the p r i n c i p l e s and p e r p l e x i t i e s involved? Besides - 2 -o f f e r i n g assistance to an overloaded caseworker i n s u i t -able assignments, a case-aide can o f f e r f r i e n d l y support and divergent s k i l l s not suitable to the r o l e of the pro-f e s s i o n a l caseworker. The need of public understanding, support, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the planning and practice of s o c i a l work has been repeatedly stated by the National Conference of S o c i a l Work. This i d e a l i s c l e a r l y expressed i n the basic philosophy of s o c i a l work whieh recognizes the i n d i v i d u a l worth and rig h t s of every person i n a democratic community; and also to helping every member r e a l i z e the best of h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and to make use of available resources. In emphasizing the importance of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i -pation and community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n carrying out the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l work i n welfare problems, a highly important spokesman, Dr. Eduard C. Llndemen 1 s a i d : I wish I knew how to Induce volunteers to appreciate the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e they play i n furnishing v i t a l i t y to the democratic enterprise. They are to democracy what c i r c u l a t i o n of the blood i s to the organism. They keep democracy a l i v e . Trends i n Voluntary E f f o r t s C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has manifested extremes i n the trends that have developed through h i s t o r y . From the 1 Excerpt from "A Fantasy," prepared for the YWGA of New York! C i t y , 19^2. Eamlly Service Highlights. Dec ember. 19£i>, Family Service Association Publication, New York, N.Y., V o l . XVI, no. 10 , p. 3J4.9. - 3 -early h i s t o r i c a l records we learn that a l l help was given from simple neighborliness which was spontaneous and unorganized. Emphasis through the church gave importance to the v i r t u e of g i v i n g . Then, as a r e s u l t of s o c i a l and economic changes, growing needs brought organized mutual aid. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y was gradually assumed by p u b l i c authorities as well as by developing voluntary agencies. Individual members of a community recognized a need and formed v o l u n t a r i l y In groups. These groups demonstrated a service u n t i l the need was gradually accepted as a public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . By 1900, through experience and increasing demands, a professional emphasis began to develop. The use of volunteers gradually became les s customary. This s i t -uation has progressed to the extent that volunteers are now l i t t l e used i n casework agencies. The present aim i s to achieve a balance of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p r o fessional s o c i a l worker and volunteer. This aim i s necessitated by the f a c t that public and voluntary funds f o r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e are given by the people who are the t o t a l of possible volun-teers. Only by lay p a r t i c i p a t i o n can understanding be gained s u f f i c i e n t l y to awaken the needed support. The professional s o c i a l workers are now faced with the prob-lems of analyzing and describing t h e i r roles and of sharing some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that they have assumed. In a review of the h i s t o r y of s o c i a l work, I t i s apparent that, i n dealing with volunteers, many of the same - k -values and problems have been recurrent through the centuries. Support of a project Is gained through understanding of the need, and t h i s i n turn i s best attained through p a r t i c i -pation. However, unless f r i e n d l y i n t e r e s t i s channeled and directed, i t may cause more harm than good. The h i s t o r y of t h i s "volunteer"—whether as a s o c i a l reformer or as a p r a c t i c a l h e l p e r — I s of course a very long one. The h i s t o r y of the Saint Vincent de Paul Society i s one of the many chapters. Mademoiselle Le Gras, the f i r s t Daughter of 1 Charity, began her work In 1617 under the c a r e f u l super-v i s i o n of St. Vincent de Paul. When she found i t d i f f i c u l t to ask ladies of rank to cook the food intended f o r the sick, St. Vincent de Paul put an end to her h e s i t a t i o n by saying 2: If you now r e l i e v e each member of the charity of the duty of having the food cooked, you w i l l never be able to impose i t In the future; and I f anyone now under-takes to have i t cooked elsewhere at her own cost, out of Charity, she w i l l i n short time f i n d i t expen-sive ... ; then again, a f t e r some time, the Ladies of the Charity w i l l say that the soup should be brought to the sick by the women who prepared i t , and i n t h i s way our Charity w i l l be a f a i l u r e . St. Vincent de Paul perceived the enormous amount of good that could be done by the pious and well-born l a d l e s of x Coste, Pie r r e , CM., The L i f e and Works of Saint Vincent  de Paul, translated by Joseph Leonard, CM., Volume I, The Newman Press, Westminster. Maryland, 19^2, p. 177; (also c a l l e d Louise de M a r i l l a c ) . 2 I b l d . . p. 209. - $ -means : Yet i t was never a question In h i s eyes of merely persuading these wealthy Women to open t h e i r purses, but of setting them to active work .... He wanted, these l a d i e s to get among the poor to acquaint them-selves of t h e i r condition ... and to treat them with respect. 2 About the same time, Madame de Goussault promoted the idea of gathering a band of ladies to v i s i t the sick i n the immense h o s p i t a l of Hotel-Dieu i n Prance and, as a r e s u l t , the Confraternity known as the Ladies of Hotel-Dieu was formed. Previously, a s i m i l a r group had made a nuisance of themselves and had been disbanded. This time permission was gained from the Archbishop of Paris f o r supervision and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be assumed by St. Vincent de Paul. This was the beginning of h o s p i t a l reform i n Europe. In 1873-lj., Octavia H i l l , one of the outstanding pioneers i n working "to help the poor to help themselves," wrote i n a report to the Local Government Board i n London-': I am myself s a t i s f i e d that the scheme i s capable of a f a r deeper influence on the condition of the poor, when the volunteers s h a l l r i s e to the perception that i n dealing with poverty, they must aim at prevention rather than cure, at saving those under t h e i r influence from sinking to the Poor Law l e v e l , rather than merely obtaining r e l i e f f o r them. 1 Maynard, Theodore. Apostle of Charity. The D i a l Press, New York, N.Y., 1939, p. 131. 2 1P1<3. . p. 132. 3 de Schweinitz, C a r l , England's Roacj to S o c i a l Security. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pa., I9I4J, P- lii-9. - 6 -On many occasions, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B r i t a i n has helped to bring about changes i n the administration of public welfare. U p l i f t and reform e f f o r t s were conducted, v o l u n t a r i l y , by members of one s o c i a l class f o r the r e a l or assumed benefit of another, and, i n the course of events, the "struggle between the uncompromising individualism and the concept of government as a s o c i a l force was s t i l l i n the course of being r e s o l v e d . " 1 The Charity Organization Society of London (started i n 1869) was a volunteer I n v e s t i -gation and r e f e r r a l service f o r the administration of r e l i e f . In I878, the movement was imported to the United States at Buffalo, New York, by the Reverend S. Humphreys Gurteen. Miles points out that, between 1900 and World War. I, the "techniques of investi g a t i o n as practiced by the Charity Organization workers and other voluntary agency workers developed from the negative aspects of eliminating fraud p and duplication to a client-centered casework." The techniques of casework were developed f o r the most part i n the United States, though the idea stems from the i n d i v i d u a l investigations begun by pioneers l i k e Reverend Chalmers (179O-I8I4.7) of Glasgow, and the e a r l i e r work of St. Vincent de Paul i n the seventeenth century. 1 Ibid., p. 198. 2 Miles, A.P., American S o c i a l Work Theory. Harper and Bros., New York, N.Y., 195k, P- 993. - 7 -A l i t t l e booklet called the "Charity V i s i t o r / 1 1 f i rs t pub-lished in 1913 in the United States by Amelia Sears, was a manual for "friendly visitors": i t marked the beginning of a detailed and uniform technique of Investigation. In the 1918 edition of Miss Sears* booklet for volunteers, the chapter on "Estimating a Family Budget" by Florence Nesbit led to the f irs t standard budget to be used in a social agency; the procedure is s t i l l used in relief-giving agencies. Mary Richmond's famous formulation of the case-work method in 1917 in her book Social Diagnosis (1917) belongs to the same period. Objectives of Social Work Applied to the Use of Case-aides Modern social work dates more or less from the mid 1930*s and may be most simply described as "more or less skilled service available to any unadjusted person or 3 disorganized group." The concept that has been increas-ingly strengthened in social work since World War I is the development of a client's personality, and the value of helping the person to gain the best adjustment in society of which he is capable. While this is among the honored opinions of professional social work, i t stresses too the values of democratic participation. 1 Ibid., p. 9k. 2 Richmond, Mary E . , Social Diagnosis. Russell Sage Found ation, New York, 1917. 3 Warner, Queen and Harper, American Charities and Social Work. Thomas.Y. Crowell Co., New York, N.Y., 1937, p...5. - 8 -The basic philosophy of S o c i a l Work i s b e l i e f i n the worth of every i n d i v i d u a l , i n h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and change and i n h i s r i g h t to f i n d his most s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l adjustment f o r himself and the community. We also believe that the community has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward the i n d i v i d u a l i n a s s i s t i n g him i n making t h i s optimum adjustment. 1 Gordon Hamilton states i n her book, which i s the modern " b i b l e " of s o c i a l work, that the two major objectives of s o c i a l work are "economic and p h y s i c a l well-being, or a •health and decency 1 standard of l i v i n g , and opportunities f o r s o c i a l growth through s a t i s f y i n g relationships and experiences." The important implications i n a l l these concepts i s that s o c i a l and personal relationships are a necessary ingredient whether i n assistance, s e l f - h e l p , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , or some other service. Can some of t h i s be provided by volunteers? Or, put i n another way, can volunteers and case-aides i n a welfare se t t i n g further and complement the 3 objectives as set out by the s o c i a l work profession? There are good reasons f o r believing i n a p o s i t i v e answer. But to Prepared by M. G u n l i f f e , H. Exner, A. Furness, H. McCrae, Philosophy. Concepts and P r i n c i p l e s of S o c i a l Work.. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work, 195>6. 2 Hamilton, Gordon, Theory and Practice of S o c i a l Case  Work. Columbia University Press, New York, 19if0, p. 12. 3 See Appendix A - l f o r l i s t i n g s from: The Canadian d e f i n -i t i o n of s o c i a l work as presented to the S o c i a l Commission of the United Nations i n 19*1-9 from Training f o r S o c i a l Work. an International Survey. United Nations, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Lake, Success, New York, 19^0, Appendix I, p. 105" See Appendix A-2: "Social work as i t Is a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d on has c e r t a i n very general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l countries," from International Survey of Programmes of S o c i a l Develop-ments" United Nations. New York. 1955. p. 13. - 9 -examine t h i s fundamental base, I t i s important to s p e l l out as c a r e f u l l y as possible the objectives of s o c i a l work as seen from a l o c a l , f e d e r a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l viewpoint. I t i s not necessary that the community understand the steps that are involved i n treatment, but i t i s necessary that the profession display competence and convictions to the p u b l i c . 1 With a l l i t s great achievements and p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s , s o c i a l work i s not generally understood. Ralph H. 2 Blanchard corroborates t h i s f a c t by saying that : ... s o c i a l work rests on a somewhat uneasy base.... and goes on to say that: ... i f t h i s were not so, would there be such bitterness i n our l e g i s l a t i v e h a l l s over health and welfare appropriations? Would community chest campaigns have to struggle so desperately to reach t h e i r ever-increasing goals? Would there be such a struggle to fi n d competent volunteer leadership to share the burdens of the saddle-sore veterans? ... No movement can go forward i n i t s task of meeting human need unless i t engenders on the part of people generally a deeper understanding and a warmer sympathy with i t s basic aims and methods than we seem to have aroused so f a r i n the minds and hearts of the ... people, p a r t i c u l a r l y that part of the people which must foot the b i l l and which s t i l l abhors paying f o r something I t does not understand .... The more the public under-stands s o c i a l work as an ongoing part of democracy, the more i t w i l l understand that i t must grow, evolve and change. That t h i s i s not now understood i s c l e a r l y 1 Seeley, Mrs. R.S.K., "The R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the S o c i a l Worker i n the Community.".The S o c i a l Worker.Ottawa. A p r i l -May, 195>6, Volume 21j., number Ij., p. 15... 2 gLanchard, Ralph H., S o c i a l Work and the Public. 19ij.9, Cleveland, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, the S o c i a l Welfare Forum, Columbia University Press, New York, N.Y., pp. 38-59. Mr. Blanchard was president of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work 191+8-ij.9 and has been Executive Director of the Community Chests and Councils of America, New York, since 191+3. - 10 -indicated i n the astonishment expressed by people that the need f o r s o c i a l and health services should continue and even grow i n times of f u l l employment .... Nor does he (the average c i t i z e n ) understand why the s o c i a l services should cost so much. Welfare needs have not yet been adequately met and i n order to f i l l these gaps e i t h e r through l e g i s l a t i o n or voluntary agencies, understanding and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must be furthered i n and by the general p u b l i c . The team approach has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y developed i n the area of s o c i a l action which would seem to be i d e a l l y suited to i t . Act-u a l l y , professional s o c i a l workers can never handle the problem alone even i f funds and laws are provided. Recruit-1 ment of professional s o c i a l workers has been a serious prob-2 lem so that available caseworkers are over-burdened with heavy case-loads. Perhaps some of the assignments and s p e c i a l d e t a i l s could be performed under supervision by case-aides, volunteer or paid, and thereby make the pro-3 f e s s i o n a ^ s time more generally u s e f u l . The layman can also give many needed services i n a personal way that i s b e n e f i c i a l i n cer t a i n cases, yet may not be even within the r e s t r i c t i o n s of the caseworker's r o l e . Agency programs 1 Kadushkin, A l f r e d , "The Decline i n Enrollment i n Pro-f e s s i o n a l Schools," S o c i a l Casework. January, 195*7. I t i s pointed out that f u l l - t i m e student enrollment i n graduate schools of s o c i a l work In the United States between 19f>0-5>5> was reduced by 16.6 percent, 2 Miles, o p . c i t . . p. 75". "Three-quarters of a l l s o c i a l workers are employed i n casework agencies." (19^4) He points out there i s increasing demand f o r them in„secondary agen-c i e s , h o s p i t a l s , schools, et cetera, p. llf>. 3 Agency time studies show face to face contact with c l i e n t s by professional workers to be not over £0 - 11 -could be extended to include a d d i t i o n a l services quite sep-arate from the professional's interviews, r e f e r r a l s , et cetera, which are the s p e c i a l s k i l l of the caseworker. Some immediate examples of groups which could benefit from the added services of a case-aide are: the aged, immigrants, p h y s i c a l l y handicapped people, mental patients, and needy children. There may well be many others. The Viewpoint of the Layman People are u s u a l l y glad to volunteer public ser-vice i f they only know how and where they are needed. This f a c t has been demonstrated i n wartime and other emergen-cies when increased numbers of volunteers are used. Since the war, the challenge has not been met to u t i l i z e these ^ (Continued) percent. Cornwall, Charlotte Elizabeth, "The Use of Pro-f e s s i o n a l Time i n Relation to Case Content,and Services Rendered,". Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, The Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956, p. 88: (Children's Aid Society of Vancouver Time Study of 1955) "Though it-appears that 23 to 28 percent of workers' time-spent on face-to-face con-tacts i s low, these figures seem roughly comparable to those of other agencies which have done time studies"; p. 22: H i l l , John G. and Orinsby, Ralph, Cost Analysis Method f o r Casework Agencies. Family Service of Philadelphia, 1953. "The u n i t cost of the pro f e s s i o n a l hour with c l i e n t s i n the Family Service Agency of Philadelphia i s $21-. .91; p. 91: Report of the Sub Committee on Job Analysis, from the Report of the Joint Committee on S o c i a l Work Education, Nov. 18-19, 1955, Vancouver, B. G. (Mimeographed material, unpublished, presented at Conference.) Recommendation ten "That agencies be urged to study current p r a c t i c e . . . ; that time studies be made i n r e l a t i o n to c l i e n t contacts and a l l job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , are the kinds of services rendered i n the various f i e l d s of practice, keeping i n mind the place of volunteers and lesser-trained persons." - 12 -these people In capacities commensurate with t h e i r i n t -erest and a b i l i t y . Due to changes i n housekeeping routines and o f f i c e hours, there are increasing amounts of l e i s u r e -time"1' f o r both men and women regardless of economic c l a s s . The lengthening l i f e span of i n d i v i d u a l s , and the customary early retirement-age i n industry have both contributed to making more-highly-qualified volunteers r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r service. 2 Volunteers serve f o r many reasons which are a r e s u l t of t h e i r background and heritage as well as a r e s u l t of t h e i r present way of l i f e . There i s a t r a d i t i o n of help-ing others that can be traced through C h r i s t i a n i t y ; there i s always a desire to put these p r i n c i p l e s into action by giv-ing services to men and women more d i r e c t l y than through money contributions to the Community Chest, et cetera. Man has inherent needs to share s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s with other humans and to f e e l the accomplishments of the group i n which he i s associated. The impersonal atmosphere of a c i t y increases t h i s need; a l s o , women f e e l t h i s vacuum i n t h e i r l i v e s when children assume t h e i r modern independence. Because of family structure In the modern c i t y , a great deal of 1 Hobby, Oveta Culp, " S o c i a l Welfare i n the Decade Ahead," 19J?5, The^Social Work Forum. O f f i c i a l Proceedings of the National Conference o f - S o c i a l Work, Columbia University Press, p. llj.. Mrs. Hobby pointed out that with a l l the reasons which add up. to more leisure-time f o r the average worker, s o c i a l agencies should make t h e i r programs a t t r a c t i y e enough to o f f s e t less constructive leisure-time pursuits. 2 Glasser, Mervin A., "What Makes a Volunteer," Public  A f f a i r s Pamphlet #22k. Public A f f a i r s Committee,-Incorp., August, 1 9 » . - 13 -s o c i a l and rec r e a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n must be sought outside family groups. Further, people, these days, often desire to gain extra knowledge to offset the humdrum routine of specialized d a i l y jobs or to pra c t i c e t h e i r s p e c i a l t a l e n t s and organization s k i l l s i n helping others rather than l e t t i n g t h e i r a b i l i t i e s l i e dormant. For those who have not achieved success i n home or business because of some f r u s t r a t i n g reason, "volunteering' 1 i s an opportunity to gain recognition and to meet the hopes and expectations of themselves or t h e i r f r i e n d s . S o c i a l service can u t i l i z e and r e f l e c t the matur-i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g c i t i z e n s . At the Canadian Conference of S o c i a l Work, i n 191UJ.,1 i t was stated by some pa r t i c i p a n t s that, i n post-war planning, there would be many new f i e l d s available such as recreation, housing, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , immigration, et cetera, and that committees making plans should use the opportunity to incor-porate volunteers into t h e i r accomplishments to help "make good c i t i z e n s i n a workable democracy," pointing out that "we have worshipped the idea of government by the people but have f a i l e d to perceive the heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y such a plan of government puts upon us." "In the future, therefore, our r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l be two-fold. They w i l l be to protect the people who need employment and who need pay f o r the 1 Emerson, Maryn G., "The Part Played by Volunteer Services," from a panel discussion: Assuring Volunteer Services f o r Com- -munity Needs." Canadian Conf erence, of S o c i a l Work, 191+4, p.l&j.. - 1 4 -service they can give; and to protect the willingness and the enthusiasm of people who can give without remuneration ... .We must have a goal which volunteers can help us to achieve, and that goal should be a workable democracy i n which the contribution which every i n d i v i d u a l person can make Is recognized, exercised and appreciated." In June of 1956, the Family Service Association of America issued a pamphlet on "Ideas f o r Building Agency Membership." I t i s suggested that ingenuity and creative planning often flow from d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , 1 and that the areas of unrest currently bringing l o c a l impact are: e f f e c t s of mobility on today's f a m i l i e s with t h e i r f l i g h t to new industries and towns; the disturbing expansion of c r e d i t buying and the pyramiding of^family debts; the e f f e c t s of t r a n q u i l l i z i n g drugs, bringing e a r l i e r release of mental patients; the r i s e i n population and the growth of young f a m i l i e s ; the lack of schoolrooms and teachers; juvenile delinquency; the e f f e c t of the d r a f t on young marriages; the aging population; and the increased l e i s u r e In t h i s age 2 of automation. Are There Risks to the Professions i n Using Case-aides? I t i s becoming increasingly c l e a r that the 1 Ideas f o r Building Agency Membership, by the Family Service Association of America, New York, N.Y., 1955, p. 11. 2 Ibid.. p. £. -1$ -professional s o c i a l worker Is e s s e n t i a l i n guiding and coordinating many phases of human a c t i v i t y , and that there i s also a constant need f o r the services of trained volun-teers to a s s i s t i n the task. Prank D. Watson 1 points out that: ... a volunteer can often render services which the professional cannot ... each person, trained i n the standards of good casework, i s a center from which radiates forces i n t e l l i g e n t l y moulding public opin-ion. This should not be taken to mean that i n many places, as great use of volunteers has been made as i s possible or that there has not been great d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n with the status of that form of volun-teer service known as f r i e n d l y v i s i t i n g . I t i s f a i r , however, to say that even where t h i s . d i s t r u s t i s found, there i s s t i l l f a i t h i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s I t would seem that the r i s k to the profession i s a r e s u l t of poor se l e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g and supervision of volunteers and that the reluctance to use laymen i n casework agencies 2 stems from lack of programming and planning f o r t h e i r use. The Development of Standards Because of the reluctance to use voluntters i n casework agencies, the D i v i s i o n on Families and Adults of the Welfare and Health Council of New York C i t y appointed 3 a committee to develop standards f o r the use of volunteers •*• Watson, Frank D., The Charity Organization Movement In  the United States. The Macmillan Co., New York, N.Y., 1922, p. 418. c F i t z p a t r i c k , Anne L., "Volunteers," Canadian Welfare. Dec. 19J?4, pp. 83-89. Mrs. . F i t z p a t r i c k , i s the past chairman of the Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver. 3 "Volunteers In Selected Casework Programs, Standards f o r Their Use," June 19^6, D i v i s i o n of Families and Adults of the Welfare and Health Council of New York C i t y . - 16 -i n selected casework programs. I t was hoped that the study would "increase understanding of how c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c funct ions can be carr i ed by volunteers" and that "the s tand-ards or guides provided . . . w i l l fur ther st imulate the use of volunteers not only as a means f o r increas ing t h e i r manpower but a l so as one more way of increas ing i n t e r -2 pretat ion of the work of agencies." A questionnaire was sent to one hundred agencies of the Centra l Volunteer Bureau of New York; e ighty-e ight returns were rece ived . The r e s u l t -3 „ ing report " i d e n t i f i e s funct ions f o r volunteers and describes organizat ion f o r t h e i r use" dea l ing with s p e c i f i c s "the jobs f o r which the volunteers are being used; the minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c categories of volunteer jobs: and the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and t i t l e s f o r volunteers . . . . . A good dea l of information i s given on t r a i n i n g pract i ces and superv i s ion ." In th i s repor t , the use of volunteers i s d iv ided under "job pro f i l e s"^; Interviewers , Case-aides ,^ F r i e n d l y 1 See Appendix G-6 f o r reference to the d i scuss ion guide i n the preparatory study of February 2l\., 19^ 6, c a l l e d the "Work K i t of the Workshop oh.Standards for Volunteers i n Selected Case Work Programs." . . . . . . . June study, op. c i t . . p . i , forward. 3 i b i d . . p . i i , preface . ^ I b i d . . p . 8. Loc. c i t . See Appendix B - l f o r de ta i l ed d e s c r i p t i o n . - 17 -V i s i t o r s , Escorts, Big Brothers and S i s t e r s . Each of the f i v e job t i t l e s i s treated i n subheadings as follows: d e f i n i t i o n , s p e c i f i c tasks that may be included, q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t r a i n -ing, supervision, evaluation and recognition. For some categories, the same conclusions -were reached f o r more than one group but i t i s stated that "necessary r e p e t i t i o n accen-tuates t h e i r importance.""1" Scope and Method of Present Study The New York study presents some c r i t e r i a f o r the examination of material collected from casework agencies known to have used case-aides, paid or volunteer, i n Canada or the United States. Recruitment and s e l e c t i o n and place-ment were not considered i n the New York study and ( i n the opinion of the present writer) should preclude any o v e r - a l l planning f o r the use of case-aides. These have, therefore, been added to the c r i t e r i a used f o r the present study. The New York study c l a s s i f i e s volunteer assign-ments i n a more specialized way than seems applicable to t h e i r actual use i n most communities or agencies. The plan seemed to go beyond the readiness of the Vancouver area. Therefore, i n the present study, the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the agency concerned, i t being t h e i r decision that case-aides would be a h e l p f u l addition to t h e i r s t a f f i f a program could be developed. Loc. c i t . - 1 8 -The present study further differs from the New York study in that i t considers both volunteer and paid case-aide programs which have recently been in practice. The subject of this thesis 1 evolved from several questions: Are any casework agencies in Vancouver using case-aides either as volunteers or as paid workers? How can more laymen or volunteers be used advantageously i n Vancouver casework agencies? Are case-aides being used elsewhere in Canada or the united States? If so, where and how are case-aides being used i n these casework agencies outside of Van-couver? Would any of these ideas or programs be applicable to local situations? Information concerning seven Vancouver casework 2 agencies was gained by interviewing the directors of each respective agency. Additional strategic and interested people were also interviewed i n order to get correlated 3 viewpoints. A questionnaire was followed as nearly as possible during the interviews, but In most cases the directors preferred to discuss the pros and cons of the 1 The thesis was originally inspired by a magazine ar t i c l e regarding the experimental use of three Junior League members as case-aides In the Community Service Society of New York City. Knowles, Margaret E., "How Much, of the Professional's Job Can the Volunteer Do?", Family Service Highlights. Decem-ber, 1955, Vol. XV, No. 10, ESA., N.Y., pp.. 11+5-9. -2 See Appendix D - l . 3 See Appendix C - 7 . - 19 -subject from a general or personal viewpoint. This may have been because volunteer case-aides are not currently being used as a part of any organized program i n any Vancouver casework agency. Paid case-aides are being used i n one Vancouver agency as a r e s u l t of job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the p o s i t i o n assigned. Correspondence 1 was conducted i n order to deter-mine where case-aides, volunteer or paid, are being used or have recently been used elsewhere. I t was hoped i n t h i s way to determine the values and problems that would be presented to a Vancouver agency that might consider the development of a case-aide program. Five volunteer and two paid case-aide programs from outside Vancouver are outlined i n t h i s t h e s i s . Desired information was not always a v a i l -able nor was i t always supplied within the time a l l o t t e d f o r the study. There was no centralized source of inform-ation about case-aides and few agencies were aware of any e f f o r t s beyond t h e i r own i n the use of case-aides. However, frequent r e p e t i t i o n of ideas from divergent agencies would suggest s i m i l a r i t i e s and conclusions f o r the development of a general program. In, Chapter I I , the study outlines the s i t u a t i o n regarding case-aides, volunteer and paid, f i r s t , f o r a 1 See Appendix D-2. 2 D e f i n i t i o n s of terms used i n t h i s thesis are i n Appen-dix B-2. - 20 -number of s i g n i f i c a n t welfare settings i n the United States and Canada, and, i n turn, the present circumstances are reviewed f o r a selected number of Vancouver casework agen-c i e s . The material available i s presented i n each s i t u a t i o n according to the same plan: d e f i n i t i o n of the agency, s p e c i f i c tasks assigned to case-aides i n the agency, q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s prerequisite to selection of case-aides, orient-ation and t r a i n i n g provided or required, supervision provided, and evaluation or recognition. Recruitment methods are men-tioned i f material i s a v a i l a b l e . Chapter I I I summarizes the pertinent f a c t s regard-ing the several agencies presented. A d d i t i o n a l ideas are introduced as a r e s u l t of references to the bibliography, and add i t i o n a l interviews or correspondence that was con-ducted i n the i n t e r e s t of the study. The conclusions are presented according to seven sub-headings: 1. The Formul-ation of a Program f o r Using Case-aides, Paid or Volunteer, i n Casework Agencies; 2. Suitable Work f o r Case-aides; 3. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r Case-aides; Recruitment, Selection and Placement of case-aides; 5". Orientation and Training Programs f o r Case-aides; 6. Supervision of Case-aides; 7. Recognition Following Evaluation of Case-aides. The concluding chapter presents the values and the problems that have resulted or may r e s u l t In the use of case-aides. This:.is done separately from the viewpoints - 2 1 -of the c l i e n t , the agency, the profession, and the com-munity and the case-aide. Ideas f o r future planning are a d i r e c t r e s u l t of this thinking, whether i n a p p l i c a t i o n to Vancouver or elsewhere that casework i s being practiced i n a welfare s e t t i n g . CHAPTER 2. COMPARATIVE EXPERIENCE IN THE USE OP CASE-AIDES Experience i n the use of case-aides may be judged from a study of existing manuals and agency programs which are eit h e r currently or recently i n pra c t i c e In the welfare f i e l d i n the United States of Canada. A canvass of the directors of selected casework agencies i n Vancouver has provided viewpoints and information to be used comparatively i n t h i s study. 1. Purposes and Standards f o r the Use of Case-Aides as  i l l u s t r a t e d by Manuals A. The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare has, through the Bureau of Public Assistance, D i v i s i o n of Technical Training, published a manual of 1 " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n In Public Welfare Programs." I t i s outlined i n t h i s Manual that, In consider-ing a volunteer program, i t i s necessary to know 1. what other volunteer programs are under way i n the community; 2. the kinds of services that are being offered; and 3. i f i t extends i t s services to persons receiving public welfare. The project should be started i n the area of greatest need; i t i s suggested that sometimes volunteers can t e s t out these 1 Weller, Evalyn G. and Kelboume, Elizabeth B., C i t i z e n  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Public Welfare Programs by U.S,. Department pf Health, Education and Welfare, Superintendent of Docu-ment s , U.S. Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C., 1956. - 23 -areas by a simple schedule under supervision, after the s t a f f c l a r i f i e s the areas i n which the Information i s to be sought. The plan, when determined, must be well outlined before being presented to the public; i n t h i s regard, i t would seem important not to be too detailed i n the o r i g i n a l planning i n order to allow i n i t i a t i v e and c r e a t i v i t y on d e t a i l s and i n order to involve the volunteers i n the d e t a i l s of the project. The plan, i t i s said, should be unveiled by a board or advisor, but at least by someone outside of the s t a f f group who has been selected by the agency. There should be a continuing plan f o r keeping the public informed about the volunteer program i n order to keep i n t e r e s t i n the area of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The use of volunteers and case-aides f o r giving supplementary service i s urged f o r several reasons: 1 . During national emergencies "trained volunteers are the l i f e blood of necessary programs"; 2 . I f volunteers understand the function and r o l e of s o c i a l welfare, they can extend services to the aged, adults and children i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g , and provide needed resources ( i . e . , l e g a l a i d ) ; 3 . They can contribute to p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and strengthen i n t e r -agency r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and k- They can also contribute to shaping basic s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y . A s t a f f person must be assigned f o r l i a i s o n and supervision and be given time to do the job. In f a c t , a l l - 2k -s t a f f of the agency should be given time to take the res-p o n s i b i l i t i e s designated In r e l a t i o n to the use of volunteers. The s t a f f must be helped to ^ e c l e a r on the purpose of the project, the kinds of services that are being planned f o r the volunteers to perform, and the expansion that w i l l u ltimately be allowed i n program. Through a l l t h i s the s t a f f should be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e and make suggestions. In recruitment, the agency should be s p e c i f i c as to the jobs that are to be performed. A statement should be made as to the kinds of s k i l l s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s that are needed f o r these jobs. Training should be done f o r the jobs s p e c i f i c a l l y but the agency and the community are determining f a c t o r s . More intensive t r a i n i n g i s needed f o r volunteer services to ind i v i d u a l s ; f o r t h i s , emphasis should be placed on the per-son's capacity f o r acceptance of the c l i e n t and the capacity f o r o b j e c t i v i t y . When the volunteer i s being prepared f o r doing f r i e n d l y v i s i t i n g , i t i s important that he have some under-standing of the setting In which he w i l l f i n d the c l i e n t . I t i s well to know something of the r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y , hobbies, et cetera. I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s o c i a l caseworker to handle the f i n a n c i a l aspects of the case and 1 I t should be cl e a r to the volunteer that he should not become Involved i n t h i s aspect of the case. - 25" -It is important to sustain the interest of volun-teers as this is the motivation when they do not receive pay. They should be made to feel responsible and needed. They must be given projects that meet an ultimate goal or else be helped to realize the importance of their part in the total project. They should be encouraged to participate in group discussion. And they should be recognized at the end of a period of time for quality as well as quantity of work: this may be done by means of a letter, pin, et cetera. B. The Family Welfare Association of America published 1 a book in 19ij2 entitled "Volunteers for Family Service" in an effort to help board and staff members of private family agencies to plan a program that would give volunteers satis-fying jobs to do, augment the services of the social worker, and strengthen the community. It is pointed out that a prog-ram must be carefully planned in advance because once begun i t cannot be discarded lightly. There must be agreement as to the kinds of-jobs that the volunteers are to do. Among the questions to be considered are: How may the special-ized duties of the board and the professional staff be dis-tinguished from the assistance which other people can give through committee or individual service? How can the agency share its interest in family service so that i t may become a Volunteers for Family Service. Family Welfare Association of America, N.Y., 19i|2. - 2 6 -v i t a l concern of the community at large? How can board and s t a f f seek new r e c r u i t s among t h e i r friends and other com-munity groups? How can the c l i e n t ' s confidences be safeguarded, the actual casework treatment be kept i n professional hands and the guidance of the agency be maintained by the board group? What kinds of jobs can volunteers do? Who i s to have charge of the program? The next step, a f t e r the board and s t a f f have decided to plan a volunteer program, i s to assign the respon-s i b i l i t y f o r i t s d i r e c t i o n to one member of the s t a f f . There should then be a study of the jobs i n the agency that may be assigned. This should determine the number and types of volunteers needed, the preparation they should have, and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s needed f o r the job. In order that a volun-teer may know the duties to be performed, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s required should include a de s c r i p t i o n of each job and the time and preparation necessary. Recruitment can be handled i n many ways. I t i s recommended that the s o c i a l agencies cooperate and coordinate t h e i r volunteer planning with the council of s o c i a l agencies. Central volunteer bureaus are i n a l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n to do the f i r s t job of r e g i s t e r i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , and se l e c t i n g volunteers f o r the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the agency. I f the agencies r e c r u i t t h e i r own volunteers, they should always be - 2 7 -cleared through the c e n t r a l bureau i f one e x i s t s , so that volunteer a c t i v i t y i n the community can be coordinated. In discussing the placement or assignment of the volunteer, i t i s recommended that the agency should begin by interviewing each volunteer i n d i v i d u a l l y so that he or she f e e l s she i s applying f o r a job with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A frank discussion of the service needed w i l l lead to a decision as to whether t h i s i s the r i g h t job f o r the r i g h t person and vi c e versa. The r e j e c t i o n may best be done at t h i s time. During t h i s discussion, i t should be possible to get a picture of the s k i l l s and interests of the person and the reason behind the desire to volunteer. If the person i s accepted i n the agency, they should be e n t i t l e d to the same considerations as the regular s t a f f . Then when they report f o r a d e f i n i t e time and a d e f i n i t e job, i t i s important that i t should be ready as expected. Orientation can be planned so that gradual contact Is made with a l l departments or phases of the agency's work. This allows the supervisor to be sure of the placement. Courses f o r orientation and t r a i n i n g may be one of a great v a r i e t y , such as i n s t i t u t e s , forums, or discussion groups. The content of these courses varies according to t h e i r purpose, the commun-i t y ' s size and needs, the interests and background of the volunteer group, and the services of the agency. I t may be given by the agency singly, by several agencies together, or - 28 -by the coun c i l of s o c i a l agencies. The content depends upon whether i t may be planned as an orientation course, a course to be taken concurrently with t h e i r work or an advanced course f o r experienced volunteers. As outlines of new courses are given and are made avail a b l e , they are assembled i n a scrapbook f o r loan to i t s member agencies by the Family Welfare Association of America. I t i s c l a r i f i e d that d i r e c t services to c l i e n t s should be reserved u n t i l there has been adequate evaluation of the volunteer, through the t r a i n i n g course and the job a c t i v i t y . In making a d i s t i n c t i o n between the work suitable f o r the professional and that reserved f o r the volunteer, the fundamental p r i n c i p l e that i s used i s that the problems 1 assigned to the volunteer should not be more complicated than l i m i t a t i o n s set up by i l l n e s s , old age, lack of opportunity, lack of knowledge of f a c i l i t i e s , of f r i e n d s , of language, of country, and so on. This does not mean that volunteers would deal with the problems created by i l l n e s s and old age, but with l i m i t a t i o n s set up by these conditions. In working with c o l l a t e r a l s , a p r i n c i p l e which may help i s that they would be the "kind that would not question whether or not the per-son approaching them i s a volunteer." In such cases as hospitals and schools where the job i s tangible and sound, i t Ibid.. p. 77. 2 I b i d . . p. 78. - 29 -should be made clear to the i n s t i t u t i o n that the worker i s a volunteer and special arrangements should be made before-hand fo r the volunteer to be received, get the data, et cetera. The Family Service Association considers the super-v i s i o n of assignments almost equal i n importance to t h e i r selection and suggests methods of supervision that have,been 1 found h e l p f u l i n guiding the contribution of the volunteer: 1. At the beginning of each assignment the supervisor should review the problem c a r e f u l l y , the work on i t to date, and the r e s u l t s of the work narrowed down to the service needed from the volunteer. The reason the caseworker i s not es s e n t i a l i n t h i s area or at t h i s point should be given as this i s an opportunity to i l l u s t r a t e the difference between volunteer and casework service. 2 . The more able the supervisor i s i n gi v i n g simply the implications of overt behavior and the basic factors i n the s i t u a t i o n , and i n givi n g the agency p o l i c y i n regards to t h i s , the more l i k e l y the volunteer w i l l be d i r e c t and simple i n contacts, not needing to do something about every complication that she "encoun-t e r s . 3. Before each succeeding v i s i t on a case r e q u i r i n g suc-cessive contact, the volunteer should be helped to review what she has found and what she w i l l be l i k e l y to meet so that she may be i d e n t i f i e d with the r objective attitude of the supervisor, and thus more defended against the unpredictable. ij.. Time l i m i t s help the volunteer to see the purpose i n a v i s i t and minimizes the danger of becoming subject-ive, anxious and committed to the c l i e n t . Volunteers must he helped to see the importance and the relatedness of t r i v i a l and routine assignments as related to the t o t a l planning f o r the c l i e n t . 6. A pr o j e c t ^ may be combined with a service to a c l i e n t , thus g i v i n g a volunteer a r i c h e r background f o r enlarging s o c i a l v i s i o n and interpreting the program to the p u b l i c . Ibid., p. 7 9 . 2 Ibid... p. 1$. - 30 -C. "A Manual f o r the Training of Case-aides i n Catholic C h a r i t i e s . " 1 This manual i s intended as a t o o l to be used i n t r a i n i n g courses f o r p o t e n t i a l volunteer case-aides i n the work of Catholic C h a r i t i e s , "saving professional workers f o r areas that demand professional s k i l l s and techniques."^ I t i s hoped that the manual w i l l help the "volunteer to meet her future share of the agency's work more comfortably and more competently ... and i n accordance with the casework 3 approach of the agency." I t i s c l e a r l y stated that case-aides enrich and extend agency programs, and that i t i s up to the successful administrator to c l a r i f y how case-aides are to be used. Selection must be made of the volunteers most suited f o r the jobs. The group must be trained and given supervision of q u a l i t y and quantity. In specifying the ways that case-aides should be used, i t i s suggested that the agency take advantage of the t o t a l personality of the volunteer allowing her to operate as what she i s : a mother, daughter, wife, f r i e n d , et cetera, and not t r y i n g to change her into a p r o f e s s i o n a l . She should be given i n t e r e s t i n g and continuous jobs that are not necessarily "leg-savers." She must have a c l e a r l y defined job, know i t s 1 "A Manual f o r the Training of Case-aides i n Catholic C h a r i t i e s , " by the J o i n t Committee of the National Council of Catholic Women," Washington, D.C, and the National.Conference of Catholic C h a r i t i e s , Washington, D.C, 19I4.8. 2 Ibid., p. 1. 3 Ibid., pp. 2 - 3 . - 31 -l i m i t a t i o n s as well as the degree of success to be expected from the e f f o r t . In l i s t i n g the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the volunteer case-aides i t i s stated that: 1. she be zealous, I n t e l l i g e n t , well informed and with a s p i r i t of charity; 2. she should l i k e a l l kinds of people, get along e a s i l y , and be understanding and t a c t f u l ; 3 . she should appreciate the rights of others to privacy; he discreet and able to preserve confidences; I4.. she should have emotional maturity and s t a b i l i t y ; 5". be dependable, giving prompt, responsible and sustained service; 6. complete the t r a i n i n g course f o r case-aides; 7. have a high school education and two years of college or the equivalent which i s acceptable to the supervisor of case-aides; 8. she should be w i l l i n g and able, along with her ex i s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , to give one-half day each week and about 15>0 hours per year. Orientation and t r a i n i n g Is organized into a prog-ram with f i v e headings: 1. background Information of the agency; 2. elementary casework concepts; 3. f i e l d t r i p s to i n s t i t u t i o n s ; Ij.. use of case material to make teaching more meaningful; and 5>. outside reading assignments. These areas should include the kinds of problems f o r which people ask assistance from a s o c i a l agency, h i s t o r i c a l backgrounds, orientation to the present day structure and function of Catholic C h a r i t i e s , s p e c i f i c c l a r i f i e d picture of the s p e c i f i c agency to which she w i l l be assigned and basic knowledge and attitudes of the agency i n helping people. - 32 -I t Is stressed that the volunteer needs kindly, i n t e l l i g e n t and consistent guidance. The d i r e c t o r of volun-teer services i s asked to work with professional s t a f f to determine jobs f o r volunteers, to make assignments, supervise, and do l i a i s o n . The volunteer should f e e l acceptance and have recog-n i t i o n of her r e a l value. There i s opportunity here f o r two-way evaluation. Appreciation can be shown to the good worker by gradually increased demands by the agency. The case-aide i n a Catholic Charity i s expected to know how to interpret the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s of the Church along with the s o c i a l services that are offered. Except f o r t h i s emphasis i n the preparation of the volunteer, the t r a i n -ing program i s very s i m i l a r to other manuals available on the subject. 2. Agency Use of Volunteer Case-aides A. Community Service Society of New York C i t y . This agency i s the largest voluntary non-sectarian family and health agency, having been active over one hundred years. In i t s work to improve s o c i a l conditions, i t has p i l o t e d many projects, among them the New York School of S o c i a l Work, the f i r s t t r a i n -ing i n s t i t u t i o n i n the United States. This handbook 1 states that t h i s agency has s i x 1 "What Can I Do f o r C.S.S.," by the Community Service Society of New York (not dated). - 3 3 -d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s i n Manhattan, Bronx and Queens with s t a f f s of family caseworkers, and that three have corps of public health nurses. Both professions require a high degree of s k i l l and t r a i n i n g . However, important aspects of the work are non-professional and volunteer help frees the professional staff to serve more f a m i l i e s . A case-aide may be assigned to any of the following: 1. Accompanying children under casework treatment to and from o f f i c e interviews or group therapy ses-sions, making suggested observations and record-ing these f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l workers. 2 . Talking and playing with children not under case-work treatment but whose parents are, observing them i n the waiting room while t h e i r parents are being interviewed, recording observations and s i g -n i f i c a n t discussions f o r caseworker and/or nurse. 3 . V i s i t i n g schools f o r Information regarding young c l i e n t s , or courts f o r records v e r i f y i n g b i r t h dates, marriages, et cetera. ij.. Accompanying adult c l i e n t s with physical handicaps or language d i f f i c u l t i e s to c l i n i c s or doctor's o f f i c e s , to the Housing Authority, et cetera,-and a s s i s t i n g them i n presenting or explaining t h e i r requests or needs. 5>. Caring f o r thermometers, t h e i r regular Inspection and cleaning, weighing patients f o r the nurse. 6. A case-d.de may be asked to perform c e r t a i n of the duties described f o r administrative aides. Administrative aides give routine c l e r i c a l and o f f i c e help at typing, f i l i n g , reception, and switchboard duties. They also care f o r the children's waiting rooms and treatment rooms; with t h i s goes the care of the play mater-i a l s , inventoried and purchased as directed. Care of the l i t e r a t u r e rack i s undertaken by obtaining the l i t e r a t u r e , keeping the rack supplied, keeping track of items most - 34 -frequently taken. Caring f o r the b u l l e t i n board i s another job. Each d i s t r i c t maintains a map Indicating the l o c a t i o n of i t s c l i e n t e l e and the spread of case assignments f o r workers and t h i s i s kept up to date by an administrative aide. Other jobs can u t i l i z e a volunteer's specialized t r a i n i n g , such as l i b r a r y knowledge or tutoring. A year round team of volunteer decorators plan the painting and decorating of the o f f i c e s , residences, and camps and then collaborate with the workroom which supplies the necessary curtains, spreads, et cetera. E s s e n t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a case aide are men-tioned as warmth, o b j e c t i v i t y and judgment. Some forms of volunteer work have special requirements, but i n general a volunteer i s expected to be: responsible, not o f f e r i n g more time than she can give r e g u l a r l y and consistently; depend-able, i n that she arrives on the job when she i s expected or gives p r i o r notice so that her place can be f i l l e d ; f l e x i b l e and cooperative, i n adapting h e r s e l f to the procedures of the work situ a t i o n s ; the good volunteer i s the informed volunteer, who knows the reasons f o r her work. Here i t i s pointed out that the volunteers success i s dependent upon the good human r e l a t i o n s between professional and volunteer so that there i s a clear understanding of each one's part i n the whole. A l l volunteer jobs require a preliminary vocational - 35 " interview. This i s given i n the volunteer o f f i c e at the Society's headquarters, by the chairman or the d i r e c t o r of volunteers. I t i s f e l t to be the agency's part to help the volunteer f i n d the job most suited to her a b i l i t i e s and to be ready to transfer her to another job i f t h i s seems appropriate and possible. A preparatory course f o r Volunteer S o c i a l Work Aides at the New York School of S o c i a l Work i s recommended as a prerequisite f o r the performance of the spe c i a l jobs that have been l i s t e d . The Volunteer Casework Aide Course conducted by the sta f f of the New York School of S o c i a l Work i s the f i r s t of i t s kind, having i t s beginning i n 1951 i n cooperation with the Junior League of New York. The purpose of the course i s to " a s s i s t volunteers (service and administrative) to under-stand and make use of the p r i n c i p l e s of casework i n t h e i r work." 1 The course i s e n t i t l e d "Orientation Course i n S o c i a l Casework f o r Volunteers i n Community Service." Previous volunteer t r a i n i n g and experience are prerequisite f o r admission to the course. In f a c t , i t was considered by the Junior League to be a continuation of the p r o v i s i o n a l t r a i n -ing f o r the members who were now actives but i n v i t a t i o n s were open to other organizations and agencies as w e l l . C r i t e r i a 1 Statement from the Junior League of New York, December, 1955, issued on a mimeographed sheet sent to the agencies i n the area. - 36 -f o r screening the volunteer s o c i a l work aides was as f o l l o w s : 1 1. Potential f o r development i n these d i r e c t i o n s ; warmth, s e n s i t i v i t y and i n t e g r i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; apprecia-t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l differences; imagination and creativeness; spontaneous i n t e r e s t i n and response to people. 2. Some p o t e n t i a l f o r developing a greater awareness of own subjective f e e l i n g s and acceptance of responsi-b i l i t y f o r handling them constructively. 3. Knowledge of the function of the agency and acceptance of the importance of working within established p o l i -cies of the agency. Experience, preferably i n agency service, and Intention to use t r a i n i n g i n volunteer service. 5". Acceptance of the continuing need f o r and developing use of supervision. 6. Interest i n learning about the casework method. 7. Some knowledge of the s o c i a l welfare program of the community. Teaching of t h i s s o c i a l work aide course i s done by the discussion method with use of case records, written and reading assignments. The course w i l l deal w i t h : 2 1. Some of the main concepts i n helping people and the philosophy behind these concepts. 2. Various proven techniques i n helping people. 3. The app l i c a t i o n of these techniques i n practice as shown through case records. Ij.. The partnership between the volunteer and the pro-f e s s i o n a l . The place of self-awareness and s e l f - c o n t r o l In helping others. The fee for t h i s course i s twenty-five d o l l a r s per person and the money-* i s to support a Scholarship Fund which i s to contribute to the continuation of the plan f o r the future. Ibid . , P . 1. p L o c c i t . 3 Begining 19^6, the Central Volunteer Bureau of the Welfare and Health Council of New York C i t y has accepted r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the administration of the Volunteer S o c i a l Welfare Aide - 3 7 -Classes meet each week f o r two hour sessions In a planned period of eight weeks. The placements that were open to the League volunteers a f t e r t h i s course were as case-aides at Riverside Hos-p i t a l (the h o s p i t a l f o r teen-age narcotics users at North Brother I s l a n d l ) ; as interviewers i n the Medical S o c i a l Service Department at St. Luke's Hospital, where the volunteers assisted the.medical s o c i a l workers by discussing with patients t h e i r a b i l i t y to pay f o r t h e i r glasses. Also, our volunteers have been working as assistants to the caseworkers at International Soc-i a l Service and one of the Children's Courts .... Other placements that have been offered are i n the Medical S o c i a l Service Department of the "Hospital f o r J o i n t Diseases"; i n the intake o f f i c e of the V i r g i n i a Day Nursery;»as C l i n i c r e c e p t i o n i s t f o r a C i t y h o s p i t a l . Unfortunately, we did not have enough trained people to f i l l them. 2 In 19$$t a new two year project was sponsored j o i n t l y by the Junior League of the City of New York and the Community Service Society to demonstrate whether selected volunteers can supplement the professional work of a modern-day family service agency. Both organizations share the evaluation and the cost, with the Junior League paying f o r the supervisory time. The Eeague chose three young women with a v a r i e t y of volunteer experience, who had completed 3 (continued) Course given by the New York School of S o c i a l Work. The Sub-committee of the Bureau's Committee on t r a i n i n g seeks.to b u i l d on the experience of the Junior League, the New York School of S o c i a l Work and the findings., of the Div-i s i o n of Families and Adult Committee on "Volunteers in.Case-work Programs." Agencies were asked to consider the content of the course and how i t might be changed, thinking which volunteers from each agency might take the course and what p a r t i c u l a r value the course may have f o r them. See Appendix C - 3 . 2 From a l e t t e r sent March $, 19 $7, from the Vice P r e s i -dent. In Charge of Welfare of the Junior League of the C i t y of New York, Inc. - 38 -the ease-aide course at the New York School of S o c i a l Work, and who had such personal q u a l i t i e s as i n t e l l i g e n c e , maturity, dependability, s e n s i t i v i t y , and f l e x i b i l i t y . After being interviewed at the Community Service Society, they were placed i n the East River D i s t r i c t , where they promised one day weekly, on d i f f e r e n t days, plus one half-day monthly f o r group orientation and t r a i n i n g . Orientation planned f o r these volunteers during the f i r s t year i s broad. During the second year i t w i l l be directed to the deepening;.: of understanding. Their current learning program i n c l u d e s : 1 ... assigned reading, group conferences and v i s i t s , to acquaint them with structure, program and c l i e n t e l e . They w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e on one of each of many types of professional conferences; s t a f f meeting; p s y c h i a t r i c consultation; group therapy integration; caseworker's conference with the public h e a l t h nurse, with home--maker, and at the Department of Welfare with the public assistance worker and the c h i l d placement worker. They w i l l attend a d i s t r i c t committee meeting and l e a r n , about the r o l e of t h i s lay committee. They w i l l meet with s t a f f i n charge of community action and of research a c t i v i t i e s , and with s t a f f executives to learn about administration, business management, int e r p r e t a t i o n , and financing. The job description f o r these volunteers was prepared by the supervisor i n consultation with the s t a f f of the agency, with the Community Service Society lay and professional administrative advisors, and with the League's Knowles, op. c i t . . p. li+7. - 39 -Project Committee. I t was f e l t that eventually the volunteers may be asked to keep i n touch with c e r t a i n c l i e n t s and to give them supportive relationships after active casework i s concluded. I t was expected that these experienced volunteers would i n time be able to take supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r other volunteers and case-aides i n c e r t a i n kinds of work. The agency and the League established guide l i n e s f o r t h e i r evaluation of t h i s project. I f the project proved successful, i t would have been extended through the Community Service Society's other casework centers. The project was considered to be successful at the end of the f i r s t year.'1' During the second year, at the end of the fourth month, i t was necessary to discontinue the pro-j e c t , p r i m a r i l y because s u f f i c i e n t r e c r u i t s were not a v a i l r p able to continue the experiment as planned ; the need of substitution of personnel was not s u f f i c i e n t l y anticipated; other reasons may be indicated i n the report of the experiment. In a most recent report of the use of volunteers in the Community Service Society, separately, i t has been deter-mined that: 1 Stewart, Nancy, "Put Your Values i n Order," Junior League  Magazine. October, 19$$. . (A volunteer recruit-gave a report on the meaning of the experience to her at the end of the f i r s t year as a case-aide i n the experiment.) See Appendix C-ij. f o r detailed report. - i+o -... i n the l a s t f i s c a l year (which ended. September 30, 19^6) we had f i v e s o c i a l service aides, which i s the t i t l e we give to our volunteer case-aides. One of these works approximately h a l f time and c a r r i e s cases of her own--those of older people whose period of active case work i s completed but who need regular contact with the Agency nevertheless. Two others were i n the Junior League project. The remaining two assisted the pro-f e s s i o n a l case worker responsible f o r a demonstration project i n the r e l o c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s who had to move i n order to make way f o r a new housing project .... In addition we had i n the past f i s c a l year seven volunteers who escorted children to group therapy sessions and home again, made observations and provided a f r i e n d l y contact; one who gave remedial reading i n s t r u c t i o n and three who interpreted from Chinese.... During the cur-rent year we have approximately the same number of escorts, we have the one case-aide f i r s t referred to above and we have just placed two volunteers to a s s i s t case workers i n preparation f o r the summer camp program. B. A J o i n t Project of the United Hospital Fund of New York and the North A t l a n t i c D i s t r i c t of the American Association of Medical S o c i a l Workers. This project was begun as a r e s u l t of an expression of i n t e r e s t and need on the part of medical s o c i a l service departments who, because of pressure, could not take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g but could use those who were trained; i t was an experiment i n sel e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and placement of volunteer case-aides i n medical s o c i a l service settings. The project i s based on From a l e t t e r (dated March 19, 1957) , written by Margaret E. Knowles, Director of Volunteers, of the Community Service Society of New York. 2 Volunteer Case Aides i n Medical S o c i a l Service, prepared by the Committee on Publications of the VCA Project, E d i t h G. S e l t z e r , Chairman, Livingston Press, N.Y., 1946. - in -the conviction that the volunteer can e f f e c t i v e l y a s s i s t the medical s o c i a l worker i n i n d i v i d u a l case p r a c t i c e , and i t i s the major purpose of the project to demonstrate the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the use of a trained volunteer as a case aide. The VCA i s defined as a " l a y person who undergoes s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n order that she may undertake s p e c i f i c assignments under professional supervision, and who agrees to serve f o r a designated p e r i o d . " 1 Prom the beginning i t was considered e s s e n t i a l that the s t a f f should have convictions regarding the use of volunteers and have a share i n the planning of t h e i r use, l a r g e l y because i t Is known that volunteers are quick to recognize i f t h e i r job i s f e l t to be e s s e n t i a l or acceptable. Also, because the service program i s c l o s e l y linked to agency function, job analysis was conducted to discover to what extent VCA's could be used and what q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would be required. Pacing the committee were such questions as.: What tasks l e g i t i m a t e l y can be delegated by the case worker? How does the caseworker see the VCA being used? How f a r can the volunteer go i n service to patients? What i s the core of professional a c t i v i t y and function which must be pre-served? I t was decided that the aide would never be involved i n the Interpretation or treatment aspect of s o c i a l I b i d . , p. 92. - 42 -work and that the whole emphasis would be one of service to augment the a c t i v i t y of the medical s o c i a l worker. Each assign-ment should cover a small area, be c l e a r l y defined, and have elements of completion or performance f o r the VCA. S e r v i c e s 1 evolved f o r the VCA can be broadly c l a s s i -f i e d as those involving contact with the professional personnel, with community agencies, with patients, and desk work connected with carrying out casework plans. The area of t h e i r a c t i v i t y was t y p i f i e d by services such as: 1. obtaining vacancies f o r h o s p i t a l , convalescent or nursing care; 2. a s s i s t i n g i n the f i l l i n g out of applications f o r such cases or f o r appliances provided by public agencies; 3. requesting or reporting items of s p e c i f i c information between agencies; requesting l i m i t e d types of v i s i t i n g nurse's services; £. a s s i s t i n g i n follow-up work; 6. escorting patients to c l i n i c s or other resources; 7. f r i e n d l y v i s i t i n g to shut-ins; and 8. r e c r e a t i o n a l services. This a c t i v i t y might be carried out by l e t t e r , f i l l i n g out forms, telephone conversations or personal contacts. I t was recog-nized that the o r i g i n a l l i s t was tentative and would probably have to be revised and expanded a f t e r i t had been applied to concrete s i t u a t i o n s . I t was f e l t that t h i s very tentativeness gave p o s i t i v e value to the l i s t as i t permitted an imaginative and experimental approach to the scope of the VCA a c t i v i t y . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 1 f o r applicants f o r the t r a i n i n g course were as follows: 1. p o t e n t i a l VCA should be at l e a s t eighteen 1 Ibid., p. 82. 2 I b i d . . p. 71. - 43 -years of age; 2 . have the equivalent of a high school educ-ation; 3 . be t a c t f u l and dis c r e e t ; k. f e e l s u f f i c i e n t l y at ease i n a h o s p i t a l to be capable of maintaining a healthy a t t i -tude toward patients who are i l l or convalescing; 5. have both emotional s t a b i l i t y and maturity; and 6 . have warmth toward people; 7* VGA must use judgment and 8 . not i n f r i n g e on the professional s o c i a l worker. In addition, there were two t h i n g s 1 required of the VCA i n her pledge f o r service; f i r s t , that she would go wherever she was sent i n order to balance the demand and supply and, second, that she would serve a minimum of kQ days or 2k0 hours a year upon her completion of t r a i n i n g . Two essentials were specified of the departments to which the VCA's were assigned on completion of t r a i n i n g ; f i r s t , that the VCA would be assigned to perform the services f o r which she had been trained, and, second, that she would work under supervision. Pre-placement interviews were stressed as e s s e n t i a l , also. I t was noticeable i n the experiment that there are i n d i v i d u a l differences among volunteers and that these must be taken into consideration i n placement as well as t r a i n i n g . Some of these problems are motives i n e n r o l l i n g , attitudes brought with them and the tempo and a b i l i t y i n using t r a i n i n g and dev-eloping understanding. If these problems become reasons f o r r e j e c t i o n , i t i s done by an interview. Ibid.. p. 72. - kh -The c r i t e r i a used i n the s e l e c t i o n of the t r a i n i n g . • 1 c e n t e r s were: 1. A b e l i e f i n the v a l u e of v o l u n t e e r s to the m e d i c a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e program. 2. Demonstrated experience w i t h v o l u n t e e r s . 3. E q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t a f f i n r e l a t i o n to case l o a d . A v a i l a b i l i t y of a worker q u a l i f i e d t o s u p e r v i s e students and w i t h an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t . 5". A v a i l a b i l i t y of desk and working space f o r two v o l u n t e e r s a day. T r a i n i n g e n t a i l e d t h i r t e e n weeks o f t h e o r y a t two hours p e r week p l u s t h i r t e e n weeks of f i e l d work at f i v e hours per day, each week. I t was f e l t t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t o r had a d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , to the p r o f e s s i o n and to the v o l u n t e e r s . 2 I t was s t a t e d t h a t : ... s i n c e the VCA would a s s i s t the s o c i a l worker, t r a i n i n g should emphasize present-day p h i l o s o p h y of s o c i a l casework, wi t h the f o c u s on the p a t i e n t and h i s need. S i n c e the VCA would have some c o n t a c t w i t h the p a t i e n t , she should have some knowledge of b e h a v i o r , and the p r i n c i p l e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p , and of the t e c h -niques of I n t e r v i e w i n g . S i n c e the VGA would be making c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s , she should understand what i s meant by an ' o b j e c t i v e r e p o r t 1 . She must be able t o r e c o g n i z e c e r t a i n overt b e h a v i o r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s even though she would be unable to i n t e r p r e t them. She must have a knowledge of community r e s o u r c e s , s i n c e she would be a s s i s t i n g the s o c i a l worker i n a r r a n g i n g con-v a l e s c e n t c a r e , s p e c i a l f o l l o w - u p , f i l l i n g i n forms, et c e t e r a . The f i r s t s e s s i o n of t r a i n i n g was an o r i e n t a t i o n p l u s a b e g i n n i n g of the development of r e s p e c t f o r p r o f e s -s i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . The second s e s s i o n gave the h i s t o r y of 1 I b i d . , p. 71. I b i d . , p, 1$. - h$ -s o c i a l work, showing the modern approach of helping the patient to accomplish his own i n d i v i d u a l purposes and alms. The third session discussed s o c i a l problems and what could be done about them. The fourth session focused on the medical s o c i a l worker, discussing relationships to the doctor, patient, h o s p i t a l , and community. The f i f t h session was a colored s l i d e picture story of one cardiac and two s u r g i c a l cases. The s i x t h session was i n regards to the meaning of I l l n e s s and the c o r r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , behavior and I l l n e s s . The seventh session referred to koda s l i d e s and provided objective reporting as compared to the concept of s u b j e c t i v i t y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The eighth session discussed r e l a t i o n s h i p , defining opinions, prejudices and attitudes and how they a f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The ninth session was about interviewing. The tenth, reviewed cases discussed previously and pointed up professional responsi-b i l i t y of seeing the patient as a whole. The eleventh ses-sion was about judgmental attitudes, presenting the case of an unmarried mother. The twelfth session, a case of psycho-neuroses of puberty, was presented showing the r e f e r r a l to a c h i l d guidance c l i n i c . At the end of the t r a i n i n g period, each VCA was evaluated by the t r a i n i n g supervisor. The f a c t o r s reviewed were: 1. her personal q u a l i t i e s such as a d a p t a b i l i t y , resourcefulness and r e l i a b i l i t y ' 2. her performance; 3. her - 1+6 -a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to the supervisor, to other VCA»s, pro-f e s s i o n a l and c l e r i c a l s t a f f ; and 1+. her general growth and development. A copy of t h i s evaluation preceded the VCA to her placement center, enabling the new supervisor to a n t i c i -pate and plan f o r the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . On the job uniform assignments sheets were used by the supervisors, to be returned with recordings by the student, one copy going to the worker and one to the super-v i s o r . D a i l y t a l l y sheets were used by both worker and supervisors. I t was found that students regarded the most s a t i s f y -ing work to be with patient contact and the least s a t i s f y i n g , with desk or paper work, but that recording added meaning to the t o t a l understanding of the work. Continuity with a patient minimized routine. Contact with professional s t a f f i n the agency lent meaning and i n t e r e s t to assignments. The supervisor was the l i a i s o n between the program f o r the volunteers and the departmental s t a f f . Weekly i n t e r -views between supervisor and volunteer allowed opportunity f o r interpretation of the differences between pr o f e s s i o n a l and volunteer a c t i v i t i e s , and accentuated the importance of the work of the volunteer, not only i n the agency but i n the broad community problems. I t was considered best to stress the p o s i t i v e s and not the l i m i t a t i o n s of the volunteer r o l e . Further evaluation i s done on the basis of conscientiousness, - hi -f l e x i b i l i t y , resourcefulness, r e l i a b i l i t y , and punctuality. The t o t a l program was evaluated i n a workshop of supervisors. During the session, the next t r a i n i n g course and the continuation of the program was discussed. The t h i r d course offered was f o r college students of t h e i r junior and senior year, with the rest of the q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s the same. This was planned not only as a r e c r u i t -ing device f o r the School of S o c i a l Work but also to f i l l the gap of summer vacation when other volunteers prefer not to serve. Gradually the number of t r a i n i n g centers was reduced from f i v e to three i n order to consolidate gains and keep the demand and supply stable. It was decided to con-tinue the central control of the program; i n hopes of main-taining a standardized l e v e l of t r a i n i n g . C. Traveler's Aid Society. In t h i s agency, 1 the volunteers have personal contact with the c l i e n t ; and although the c l i e n t i s always seen by the caseworker who i s the d i r e c t supervisor of the service, the one-to-one 2 contact between the volunteer and the c l i e n t i s often more 1 C o l l i n s , Ralph W., "Developing and Maintaining a Good Agency Volunteer Program from the Standpoint of the Adminis-t r a t o r , " from Values of Volunteer Service. Selected Papers from the 19i?6 V o l u n t e e r Workshop by the Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , United Community Funds and Coun-c i l s of. America, East lj.6th Street, New York #17, N.Y. 2 Ibid.. p. 9. "In 19£f?, approximately f i v e hundred d i f f -erent volunteers contributed more than 60,000 hours of ser-v i c e . " - i+8 -substantial than i s that of the caseworker. P r i n c i p l e s have been set f o r t h that are elementary i n advancing the program of the agencies and the dynamic 1 i n t e r e s t of the volunteer: 1. Volunteers must be c a r e f u l l y selected and they must be recruited only on the basis of t h e i r a b i l i t y to do the work. This requires a p r a c t i c a l approach. The follow-ing prerequisites should be taken into consideration: p h y s i c a l stamina, emotional temperament, educational back-ground, c a p a b i l i t i e s , r e g u l a r i t y i n o f f e r i n g service, and the a b i l i t y to place volunteer assignments ahead of personal and s o c i a l Interests when necessary. I t i s emphasized that " ... value w i l l accrue only i f the r i g h t people are s e l -ected to do a s p e c i f i c job. The public r e l a t i o n s value of 2 volunteering can never become an end i n i t s e l f . " 2. I t i s i m p o r t a n t — i n f a c t imperative—that volun-teers have a s p e c i f i c job to do. "The job must be w e l l defined. Individuals must understand the assignment, as well as knowing why the job has to be done. The volunteer must know the beginning and the end of the l i m i t s of respon-s i b i l i t y . " 1 Ibid., P. 10. 2 Ibid., p. 11. 3 Ibid., P« 10. 3 . Volunteers must have an organized and s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g course. This must apply to the s p e c i f i c s of the job and give orientation to s o c i a l work generally and the agency s p e c i f i c a l l y . This t r a i n i n g program must be well organized even f o r one person. In giving the t r a i n i n g , a l i t t l e d e t a i l to remember i s that the "ind i v i d u a l ' s employer, husband and childre n must be included i n the planning of the t r a i n i n g program ... as every piece of material given to a volunteer i n a t r a i n i n g program may be discussed and tested with r e l a t i v e s and « 1 friends.™ Since those doing the t r a i n i n g w i l l not be ta l k i n g to these people i n a c t u a l i t y , the material must be presented i n such a way that the trainee may interpret her job to them. 4. Volunteers must be supervised and administered i n much the same way as paid employers. This applies to adminis-t r a t i v e structure f o r handling personnel matters. There should be a. an i n d i v i d u a l personnel record for volunteers, b. an appl i c a t i o n form, and c. i f possible,a photograph, d. r e f -erences should be i n writing, e. time cards should be kept, e. a f i l e should show personnel actions, duty assignments and s p e c i a l recognition, f . A plaee should be designated where volunteers may take t h e i r personnel problems and the procedure Ibid., p. 1 1 . - $0 -f o r volunteers to appeal personnel actions should be well understood. In the Traveler's Aid, "the volunteers have prepared and approved t h e i r own personnel p o l i c y , and each volunteer has a copy." 1 5>. Volunteers should have board representation, be included i n information meetings, included i n planning, and s o l i c i t e d f o r contributions the same as others. In other words, i t i s considered that a volunteer program i s inexpen-sive but should not be f r e e . I t i s also pointed out that i t cannot be a simple organization but that i t i s worth the 2 r e s u l t s . The continued pressure of working with volun-teers, though t r y i n g at times, i s healthy f o r the adminis-t r a t i o n as well as the administrators. Volunteers add a s p i r i t of service and require an attitude of s i m p l i c i t y and directness i n the handling of the c l i e n t s ' problems. A sense of basic r e a l i t y i s developed by the administration i n regards to the service concepts. The volunteers prove to be the best medium of Interpretation of service to the community. Further, volunteers can and w i l l r a i s e substan-t i a l funds f o r a service to which they are a f f i l i a t e d and to which they are devoted. I t i s strongly urged that when properly trained and matured i n the service, volunteers do not t r y to become caseworkers or assume functions outside * I b i d . . p. 11. 2 Loc. c i t . - $1 -t h e i r t r a i n i n g and assignment, but they learn to understand t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the caseworker. In order to receive the values available through the use of volunteers i n a casework agency, i t i s believed that some areas of consideration require s p e c i a l attention of administrations as f o r example: 1. Procedures must be developed f o r separation of volunteers from service by established procedure and s k i l l i n public r e l a t i o n s ; i f separation i s not possible service w i l l deteriorate and lose status with the volunteers. 2. Every employee working with the volunteers must have a certain f l e x i b i l i t y of s p i r i t and the administration i s responsible f o r creating t h i s climate. 3. A c e r t a i n amount of administrative time must be allowed to give the recognition that i s wanted by volun-teers; t h i s i s a s p e c i a l part of the programming that requires s k i l l s i n public r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t y beyond the e f f o r t s of the caseworkers or supervisors, ij.. Administrators must be aware of the f a c t that caseworkers r a r e l y graduate from s o c i a l work schools with knowledge or experience, or even favorable opinion concerning the use of a volunteer i n a casework setting, and therefore need s p e c i a l help i n learning how to use a volunteer. C. The Family Service Association of Cleveland, Ohio. The paid Case-aide p o s i t i o n within the agency was discontinued - 52 -i n 1950 and i n 1954 t n e u s e o f volunteer case-aides was discontinued. This came as a r e s u l t of the Increased use of case-work service by c l i e n t s with complex personality and family d i f f i c u l t i e s and the decrease i n tangible ser-vices given by the agency. We, therefore, found very l i t t l e i n the area of the casework p o s i t i o n , other than c l e r i c a l tasks, which could be performed by a non-professionally trained worker .... We have con-tinued to have a large group of volunteers who are used primarily i n the areas of interpreters of the agency-s services, public r e l a t i o n s , members of the Board of Trustees, or occasionally as c l e r i c a l assistants and chauffeurs .... I t has been my exper-ience with case-aides that they can perform a v a l -uable service i f the agency's program involves a number of tangible services and i f the case-aide works under close supervision of a trained case-worker. 1 ... the purpose of the Family Service Association i s so to strengthen family l i f e that within i t s frame-work each i n d i v i d u a l may achieve the design of a l i v e l y peace which best f i t s him and h i s r e l a t i o n -ships with a l l people .... As i t s most valued help i n accomplishing t h i s purpose, Family Service Associ-ation has a large number of 'volunteers 1, people from the community who share-with the Association a r e a l i z a t i o n of the v i t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the work which, j o i n t l y , they are t r y i n g to do .... In what-ever capacity they serve, they are the constant thread which runs through the agency's a c t i v i t i e s and through i t s l i f e - s p a n . Through the years, the body of volunteers remains as the constant symbol of the public who endorse the agency and i t s ser-v i c e . 2 x From the o f f i c e of the Family Service Association of Cleveland, 1001 Huron Road, Cleveland, Ohio, February 28, 1957. Statement, was made by the Assistant Director of Casework of the agency. 2 "The Volunteer-and F.S.A.," A Handbook f o r Volunteers. Family Service Association, January, 1951, p. 1. Issued by the Cleveland agency about themselves. - 53 -In t h i s agency: ... case-aides a s s i s t i n the actual operation of case-work. Case-aides are volunteers with specialized interests and capacities who have learned to a s s i s t the caseworker. Under her supervision, they perform such a c t i v i t i e s as v i s i t i n g f a m i l i e s , examining public records, accompanying c l i e n t s to medical c l i n i c s , obtaining information from school p r i n c i p a l s and teachers, observing and caring f o r c l i e n t s * children i n the d i s t r i c t waiting rooms.' 1 Office aides perform such duties as typing, working on s t a t i s t i c s , keeping pin-maps up to date, making out p a y r o l l and time schedules f o r house-keepers, acting as r e l i e f receptionists and switchboard £ operators, and keeping o f f i c e manuals up to date. Volunteer services i n the agency are centered i n the Advisory Committee, which has o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r stimulating and coordinating volunteer a c t i v i t i e s i n order to extend the agency's usefulness and to release s t a f f time. The committee of t h i r t y members includes o f f i c i a l representatives of agency commit-tees, and people from the community at large who, upon recommendation of a nominating committee, are appointed by the President of the Board f o r two year terms. The Chairman of the St a f f Committee on Volunteer Service.Is a member of t h i s Committee.3 Meetings are held monthly except during the summer. Through the National Recognition Plan**' f o r volun-teers, the Family Service Association issued recognition awards. This plan was administered l o c a l l y by the Central Volunteer Bureau. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , orientation, and t r a i n i n g programs were not set out i n the handbook. 1 Ibid., p. 1 0 . p koc. c i t . 3 Ibid., pp. 8 - 9 . k I b i d . . p. 8 . - $h -3 . Agency Use of Paid Case-aides A. The New England Home f o r L i t t l e Wanderers, Boston, Massachusetts. The program 1 of using case-aides i n t h i s child-care agency i s used as l . a time-saving device to help s o c i a l workers to u t i l i z e l imited time, and 2 . as a r e c r u i t i n g device f o r the f i e l d of s o c i a l work. The agency has the basic philosophy that the prog-ram f o r case-aides must be 1. thoughtfully planned, and 2 . must be a cooperative project, including executive, supervisor, caseworker, and case-aides, 3 . Before tasks are delegated, i t i s important to consider the e f f e c t on the c l i e n t and the client-worker r e l a t i o n s h i p , Each case-aide must be given tasks according to her in t e r e s t and growing experience. 2 One week of orientation i s considered necessary before duties are set out. 1. One of the e a r l i e s t assignments f o r case-aides i s the c o l l e c t i n g of layettes f o r the new-born. 2 . The f i r s t assigned r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the prep-aration of a s o c i a l h i s t o r y summary f o r the study conference within the agency. In making ready f o r t h i s task, the case-1 Swenson,,Jeanet, "Must Caseworkers Do Everything," Child  Welfare. May, .195>6, a.paper delivered at the New England Regional Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, March 2 3 , 195?6. Mrs. Swenson i s the supervisor of Poster Care, New England Home f o r L i t t l e Wanderers, Boston,.Massachusetts. 2 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and ;exact procedure during orie n t a t i o n are not given i n the material a v a i l a b l e . - -a i d e s i t s - i n on a c o n f e r e n c e where a s o c i a l h i s t o r y i s p r e s e n t e d and p l a n s f o r t h e c h i l d a r e d i s c u s s e d . She i s g i v e n an o u t l i n e t o f o l l o w i n w r i t i n g t h e h i s t o r y and she i s o r i e n t e d as t o t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f the i n f o r m a t i o n . 3 . C a s e - a i d e s t a k e o v e r as temporary c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n groups i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e r e f o r e be p r e p a r e d t o accompany t h e c h i l d r e n t o n e c e s s a r y c l i n i c a p p o i n t m e n t s , h a i r c u t s , s h o p p i n g , e t c e t e r a . The caseworker a t t a c h e d t o the s t u d y home t a k e s t h e d i s t u r b e d and u p s e t c h i l d r e n , sometimes accompanied by th e c a s e - a i d e . I n t h e s i m p l e r c a s e s , the c a s e - a i d e i s some-t i m e s accompanied by a v o l u n t e e r . These t r i p s save about two and o n e - h a l f h o u r s each week f o r each c a s e . 1|. Other t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n j o b s t h a t a c a s e - a i d e may do a r e , f o r i n s t a n c e , b r i n g i n g a new-born f r o m h o s p i t a l t o agency f o r a p r e -placement p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , b r i n g i n g a baby f r o m a f o s t e r home f o r a p r e - a d o p t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , m e e t i n g ' a c h i l d r e t u r n i n g f r o m camp i f t h e s o c i a l worker i s on v a c a -t i o n . 5". Cases chosen f o r c a s e - a i d e s g e n e r a l l y f a l l i n t o two g r o u p s : s u p e r v i s i o n of b a b i e s i n f o s t e r homes and p l a c e -ment of p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d f o r temp o r a r y s h e l t e r c a r e . I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e c a s e - a i d has been t r a i n e d i n the o b s e r v a t i o n o f I n f a n t b e h a v i o r and can make r e f e r e n c e t o G e s s e l l and I l g f s b o o k 1 i n r e p o r t i n g on t h e c h i l d ' s x G e s s e l l and I l g , The C h i l d f r o m F i v e t o Ten. Ha r p e r Bros,., New Y o r k , N. Y., 19i|6. ' " . - 56 -development. The aide i s expected to be able to interpret the agency's p o l i c i e s to the foster mother. In most of these situations of temporary care, the placements l a s t about ten days each and there i s another agency or a h o s p i t a l s o c i a l worker active i n the si t u a t i o n or else the family i s an adequate unit except f o r the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . The placement plan generally includes: selection of the fost e r home, transporting the c h i l d to h i s home, introducing the ch i l d to the f o s t e r home family, arranging with the r e f e r r i n g agency or the parents f o r the release of the c h i l d to his own home, c a l l i n g f o r the c h i l d , bringing him to the agency p e d i a t r i c i a n f o r a dismissal examination and returning the c h i l d to h i s own home. There i s clothing to be checked, many important d e t a i l s to be relayed, et cetera. These are c l i e n t s who, i t has been noted, need warmth, assurance and "strong arms f o r refuge" more than interviewing techniques; a hurried case-worker may have reason to resent the time that such an emergency takes from previously scheduled interviews. A warning i s pointed out, here, that i t i s not wise to have the case-aide place the c h i l d i f the case-worker w i l l supervise the c h i l d following placement because the foster mother becomes confused about the agency and the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or some important d e t a i l s may be missed. - $1 -Case-aides are given r e g u l a r l y scheduled super-v i s i o n as i t has been established that, although impromptu conferences are h e l p f u l , they are not as e f f e c t i v e . I t has been found that case-aides want and use supervision and one hour per week Is not enough. Except f o r certain routine r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , assignments come through the supervisor. S t a f f caseworkers are expected to make requests f o r case-aide service, through the supervisor, by the end of the week preceding the time the service i s needed, whenever such early planning i s possible. I t i s hoped that these assign-ments w i l l be i n i t i a l l y s e l e c t i v e so that a simple r e f e r r a l w i l l not develop Into a complex s i t u a t i o n needing Intensive casework. The r e a l problem i s that d i r e c t aid to caseworkers i s often on an emergency basis and that the case-aide program tends to become overly planned so that they have l i t t l e f r ee time to accept these emergency assignments. B. Societe de Service S o c i a l Aux Families, Montreal, Quebec. 1 This agency i s a public assistance i n s t i t u t i o n , founded i n 1938, with the aim of giving s o c i a l treatment to needy f a m i l i e s . I t i s the largest family agency i n Montreal p a r t i c u l a r l y because i t i s the only one of Its kind i n the French Canadian m i l i e u , which, as an ethnic group, represents 1 C l o u t i e r , Mile. Jeanne, "The Preparation of Pr a c t i t i o n e r s — I n - S e r v i c e Training," a paper prepared f o r the Quebec Regional Workshop on S o c i a l Work Education, Dec. 11, 1951+. - 58 -the great majority of the people. Among the o r i g i n a l functions was the placement of children i n need of fos t e r homes. The law was extended to meet the needs of sick adults who could remain at home. As a r e s u l t , the number of c l i e n t s increased u n t i l the service objectives of the founders was endangered. Also, the volume of c l e r i c a l and administrative work proved to be a serious l i m i t a t i o n to the pro f e s s i o n a l service f o r which the s o c i a l workers were employed and f o r which they were trained. The agency f e l t forced to c a l l i n non-professional personnel so that, i n the spring of 1954, services from the agency were reviewed i n hopes of f i n d i n g a solution to the problem. The problem was to meet the demands as adequately as possible and, at the same time, to maintain professional standards. S o c i a l workers had caseloads of 100 to 125; 6 per cent were receiving s o c i a l treatment without f i n a n c i a l assistance, 94 per cent were receiving s o c i a l assistance, and of these, 21 per cent were receiving counselling. In analyzing the problem, comparison was made with h o s p i t a l organization. So i t was considered that i n a family service agency there could be two d i v i s i o n s : the f i r s t , to be comparable to the in-patient department i n a h o s p i t a l , gi v i n g intensive treatment administered e n t i r e l y by profes-s i o n a l personnel; the second, comparable to the out-patient department would give the services of s o c i a l aides supervised - 59 -by a team of experienced s o c i a l workers. The out-patient c l i e n t may receive in-patient care l a t e r i f the trouble warrants i t , and i f the c l i e n t wants i t and w i l l cooperate i n the treatment offered. Further, i t was decided that perhaps s o c i a l aides could be used i f they had the following q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : 1 . i n t e l l i g e n c e ; 2 . s o c i a l judgment; J>. emotional s t a b i l i t y ; and k' a s p i r i t of service. I t was concluded that these non-professional workers could be used under supervision, i n the following ways: 1 . f o r the c l i e n t s with l i t t l e promise of progress who needed protection and assistance, i . e . , feeble-minded and mentally i l l ; 2 . people who come to the agency with s o c i a l problems which they made known i n the f i r s t i n t e r -view and who showed promise of progress but who "did not wish to take advantage of the services offered i n t h i s area." Since September 19$k-, the agency has met requests f o r service i n t h i s way: There i s a s o c i a l treatment center which f i r s t concentrates on s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and the adjustment to r e a l i t y . There i s also a socio-economic center which deals with the requests f o r f i n a n c i a l aid i n the s p i r i t of s o c i a l service. I t was decided to keep, i n the caseloads of s o c i a l workers, only those cases with s p e c i f i c requests f o r casework services and those with r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Workloads of pro f e s s i o n a l personnel was thereby - 60 -reduced to 3J?-j?0. The plan was t r i e d i n four family d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s and the unmarried mothers' d i v i s i o n . In continued study of the d a i l y tasks that could be undertaken by non-professional workers, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The s o c i a l worker must keep i n control of a l l tasks and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which demand per-sonal contact with c l i e n t s , c o l l a t e r a l s or collaborators. 2. The i n i t i a l plan f o r the c l i e n t i s established i n the f i r s t interview with a s o c i a l worker and then the s o c i a l -aide can follow the plan set up under supervision. 3. In the family d i v i s i o n , s o c i a l aides can undertake some cases of placement of children i n f o s t e r homes or i n i n s t i t u t i o n s when the f a m i l i e s or children do not need s o c i a l treatment. The aides can administer the allowances and advise In c e r t a i n cases regarding home management and n u t r i t i o n . Ij.. In the unmarried mothers' section, the social-aides can look after cer t a i n cases of the placement of children when the s i t -uation has become permanent and there i s no immediate p o s s i b i l i t y of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e i t h e r with the unmarried mother or the c h i l d . Special care can be given to. the routine administration and supervision of the placement, noting the normal growth of the c h i l d ; t h i s i s done i n c o l -laboration with the s o c i a l worker from the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n . These social-aides are call e d Class I. Another - 61 -group of social-aides became attached to the socio-economic sector to study the requests f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance. There were forty-two of these paid aides among seven supervisors, a l l forty-nine being experienced social-aides working under the d i r e c t i o n of four experienced professional s o c i a l workers who act as heads of t h e i r respective groups. 6. Another c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of social-aides was put under study as new employees were i n i t i a t e d i n t o the aspects of c l e r i c a l routine. The idea was to r e l i e v e the s o c i a l workers i n the s o c i a l treatment sector of the burden of c l e r i c a l requirements (forms, r e q u i s i t i o n s , l a t e checks, et cetera), research, shopping, and s p e c i f i c duties when there i s no need f o r the s o c i a l worker to do i t h e r s e l f ( i . e . , taking a c h i l d to a c l i n i c or to a camp). Candidates f o r t r a i n i n g were chosen with a v a r i e t y of educational backgrounds, but at least twelfth grade edu-cation was the minimum. Primarily, I t was f e l t that the most Important prerequisite f o r a social-aide was that she must seem capable of establishing good r e l a t i o n s with the p u b l i c . An in-service t r a i n i n g program was established by the agency, beginning September, 1954* At the end of one and one-half years, f i v e groups, 1 making a t o t a l of Ibid; forty-three professional s o c i a l workers were employed simultaneously. - 62 -f i f t y - e i g h t social-aides, had been trained. An intensive t r a i n i n g course i s given f o r one week. A set curriculum was balanced and planned to suit the needs of the social-aides, and Included the following: 1. I t was considered important to r e f l e c t upon the object of the ser-vices, the dignity of the human being, and the concept of the whole person. 2. Students were made aware of the environment i n which they would work and the h i s t o r i c a l evolution of the need and the organization of this environment. 3. The d i r e c t o r of the agency explains the agency obligations, the Public Assistance Law and the socio-economic sector. k. The Director of Personnel i n v i t e s employees to examine Ideas on morality and professional morals, ethics and professional ethics, politeness and professional etiquette, then employer-employee r e l a t i o n s are explained. £. The s o c i a l consultant or supervisor presents to the social-aide the kind of a person she should be and explains to her the d i f f e r e n t tasks she w i l l be asked to perform and the s p i r i t i n which she must do them; t h i s includes o f f i c e interviews, home v i s i t s , records, telephone c a l l s , reports exchanged with other agencies, consultations. Also, i t i s explained what happens i n a f i r s t interview with a c l i e n t , the method to follow i n the study of a case, and the way to a r r i v e at a f i n a l decision. Trainees are shown how to plan and organize t h e i r work so that i t w i l l ;get done. 6. It i s considered imperative that - 63 -a l l employees, professional or not, share a b e l i e f i n the service and, animated by t h i s i d e a l , be conscientious i n t h e i r work and have the same attitude toward each other as to the c l i e n t s . I t i s f e l t that i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important that the s o c i a l workers respect the social-aides. 7• The impor-tance of each job to the t o t a l program i s stressed. As a part of orientation into the agency, the social-aides v i s i t the various departments of the agency. To stimulate non-professional s t a f f to improve t h e i r competency, several things were considered: 1 . Access to promotions was established whereby the social-aide may start working In the o f f i c e as a t h i r d c l a s s , then she may be promoted to the second class i n the socio-economic sector and l a t e r , perhaps to the f i r s t c l a s s . She may be transferred to the intake service, be promoted to s o c i a l -aide supervisor and may be subsequently an assistant to one of the professional directors of the socio-economic sector. Each function Is recognized i n the salary scales according to I t s importance. 2 . I t i s f e l t that t r a i n i n g should be continuous, 1 but that i t should be done a f t e r analysis and synthesis (and thus implies research). I t Is believed that i t should be done a f t e r a c a r e f u l choice of instructors and that the need Is best served by choosing a u n i v e r s i t y educator who possesses a mind f o r research, i n t e r e s t i n 1 In t h i s regard i t i s pointed out that professional s t a f f have,the advantage of more education, meetings, seminars, i n s t i t u t e s , post-grad courses, case conferences, et cetera. - 62*. -today 1s r e a l i t y and who believes i t possible to make good use of non-professional personnel. The hope i s expressed i n t h i s program that t r a i n i n g w i l l continue on a weekly basis by a series of round table discussions, seminars, and workshops, and that i t w i l l benefit not only the s o c i a l -aide groups but also a l l the agency's non-professional s t a f f which would be included. The hope i s also expressed that, i n the future, the t r a i n i n g of s o c i a l aides may be done on an Inter-agency or a regional basis, u n i t i n g the e f f o r t s of the p r a c t i t i o n e r s with those of the authorities of the Schools of S o c i a l Work, the l a t t e r Invited to serve as consultants and to help and guide the e f f o r t s . This should lead to a thorough knowledge of the object of the services which i s an important stimulation to improve competency among workers. It i s the conviction of the d i r e c t o r of t h i s agency that i f one undertakes to define, analyze, evaluate, and c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t tasks involved, one would discover that many services of an agency can be done by persons other than professional s o c i a l workers and that social-aides can be used to advantage according to the needs i n both public and private agencies, always under the d i r e c t i o n of competent personnel. She points out that there i s a great need f o r caseworkers but perhaps there i s an even greater need f o r - 65 " s o c i a l workers with leadership q u a l i t i e s to be used as supervisors and heads of services i n sectors where they w i l l assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r orientation, s t a f f development, and supervision of non-professional s t a f f . She points out further that a l l problems of s o c i a l r e l a -tions should not necessarily be treated by professional s o c i a l workers. The experiment with social-aides i n t h i s agency i s being t r i e d and evaluated with t h i s idea i n view. if. Programs f o r the Use of Volunteers or Case-aides In  a Cross-section of Vancouver Casework Agencies A. Catholic Charities The d i r e c t o r has expressed the opinion that case-aides could be used advantageously i f a program were "thought out" and "carried through." At present, persons known through the agency are asked to help with certain kinds of cases, p a r t i c u l a r l y with old people. Actually, groups of S i s t e r s give volunteer service within the realm of the church, and beyond the scope of t h i s Catholic family agency. B. Catholic Children's Aid Society Recently, t h i s agency has been helping two f a m i l i e s on a continuing basis by assigning a selected volunteer i n each case to re l i e v e some of the pressure under supervision - 66 -of the regular caseworker. This venture was not conceived as a case-aide project though i t has proved to be such. Volunteers have been used sparingly within the agency and i n the receiving home. They are known to be available f o r service either by phoning i n to the agency themselves or because they are known to the agency through board members, fos t e r parents, et cetera. They are used i n the receiving home to escort children to doctors, c l i n i c s , et cetera, and to a s s i s t i n house a c t i v i t i e s , g i v i n g f r i e n d l y support to c l i e n t s . Within the agency bu i l d i n g , volunteers are asked to take clothing inventories on request. A volunteer program has not been considered feasible because of lack of s t a f f time f o r se l e c t i o n , supervision and tr a i n i n g ; other problems seem more pressing; i t i s f e l t that there i s actually no space or f a c i l i t y available i n the present agency lo c a t i o n . C. Children's Aid Society Volunteers are regularly recruited through the Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver 1 f o r taking children by car to c l i n i c or wherever requested; two volunteers go regularly to c l i n i c s . Prom time to time, volunteers have also been used i n some research projects, as c l e r i c a l or c l i n i c assistants, and i n programs f o r receiving homes. 1 up to eight per month i n 19f?6. - 67 -During s p e c i a l periods of stress, as during the Overseas Children's P r o j e c t , 1 volunteers were acting as case-aides i n homefinding. In 19i>3, a "pep t a l k " was given to volunteers about t h e i r job i n the agency. In 19f?lj-» one of the board members entertained agency volunteers at a coffee party i n her home. Since that time, no t r a i n i n g , recognition, or orientation has been given to volunteers used by Children 1s Aid Society. The Public Relations Committee of the Board of the Children's Aid Society has, at various times, discussed the use of volunteers; i t was a member of thi s committee who was chairman of the recent Poster Home Campaign i n the f a l l of 19f?6. This was an innovation i n the program of the Children's Aid Society. Thirty-two volunteers gave 188 hours f o r telephoning. Of t h i s group, twenty ex-social workers volunteered an additional 182 hours to interview the applicants who had been cleared through the index. Previous to the campaign, the volunteers were divided into two groups, each of which attended one discussion session at which time they received a k i t of p o l i c i e s , instructions and resources f o r study at home. It i s the consensus of opinion of the s t a f f of the ^ An e f f o r t to locate homes to be provided on a voluntary basis f o r misplaced children as r e s u l t of World War I I . - 6 8 -agency that i t i s not just the homes that have been produced but also the general interpretation to the public that has been so valuable. As a r e s u l t , at the recent s t a f f meeting, there was some discussion of ways that volunteers could be used by caseworkers i n the agency programs. So f a r , there i s not any arrangement f o r regular and continued use of the volunteers that were recruited f o r the Poster Home Campaign. D. Family Service Agency During the Second World War, the federal govern-ment requested that t h i s agency administer the applications to the Dependent's Allowance Board of Trustees i n t h i s area. As a r e s u l t , case-aides were employed to work under supervision of trained s t a f f i n these years, u n t i l the program was discontinued at the end of the war. At present, the occasional volunteer i s selected and used by an agency caseworker f o r a s p e c i f i c assignment, but the scheduled use of case-aides, paid or volunteer, i s not being discussed i n board or s t a f f meetings. I t i s f e l t , by the d i r e c t o r , that l e s s than f u l l y academic help could contribute i n enabling ways but that f a c i l i t i e s and supervision are limited at t h i s time. He believes that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of job opportunities should lead to f u l l e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n order to keep the volunteer's i n t e r e s t and that plans should be made to give both the volunteer and the - 69 -agency a f a i r deal; t h i s would hopefully prevent the volun-teer worker from being discarded when the one job i s completed. A homemaker service was begun i n 1 9 3 8 1 i n the Family Welfare Bureau of Vancouver. The aim was to r e l i e v e the anxiety of the children and the parents when the mother was out of the home temporarily. The homemakers were paid employees of the agency who worked under i t s supervision and coordinated with the casework service to a s s i s t i n the 2 solution of family problems. In A p r i l 191+9, i n con-junction with the Metropolitan Health Committee, and with the f i n a n c i a l support of the Federal Department of Health, the Family Welfare began a three year project to provide supervised homemaker service to f a m i l i e s when the mother had tuberculosis. At the present time ( A p r i l , 1 9 ^ 7 ) , the Family Service Agency 3 has i n regular employ seven home-makers on a f u l l - t i m e basis and one on a part-time arrangement. P o l i c i e s have been developed f o r the home-makers over the years by the Policy Making Committee of 1 G i l c h r i s t , Margaret D., Homemaker Service i n a Vancouver  Family Agency. Thesis f o r degree of Master of S o c i a l Work at the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952. 2 Bureh, Gwendolyn, Supervised Homemaker Service i n a  Vancouver Family Agency. Thesis f o r degree of Master of Soc i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 ^ 1 . 3 The name of the Family Welfare Bureau has been changed to the Family Service Agency. - 70 -the Board of Directors along with the administrator and the supervisor of the homemaker service. The homemakers have proven to be very valuable aides to the caseworkers. E. Jewish Family Welfare Bureau The Jewish community i s a comparatively small and c l o s e l y knit ethnic group so that help to the c l i e n t i s often more personal. Though the agency does not use volunteers f o r actual casework, they give a great deal of special assistance. One regular volunteer helps with c l e r i c a l work i n the o f f i c e once a week. To commemorate important Jewish holidays, t h i s agency sends hampers to i t s needy f a m i l i e s , Jewish prisoners, and to the Jewish inmates at Essondale; i t i s at t h i s time that the Bureau asks f o r and receives many volunteer working hours through the Vancouver Council of Jewish Women. A member of the board i s l i a i s o n o f f i c e r between the agency and the women volunteers. Other board members are ca l l e d upon to a s s i s t i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program and i n job f i n d i n g f o r c l i e n t s , as f o r example, establishing an immigrant as a t a i l o r or a f u r r i e r u n t i l he can repay the giver. F. Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department (Main Branch, East Unit, South Unit, West Unit) In the f a l l of 19f>6, an experimental plan was instigated between the Pre-Social Work Society of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the C i t y S o c i a l Service - 71 -of Vancouver whereby four student members would be selected on the basis of interest and experience to give one h a l f -day per week during the school year (October 20-March 20), each under supervision of a caseworker of one of the f o u r c i t y u n i t s . The program was a c t u a l l y designed as a method of recruitment f o r candidates f o r the School of S o c i a l Work, though many addit i o n a l values were foreseen i n the use of these volunteers. In the f a l l of 19$6, only one student availed herself of the opportunity. The f i r s t year, the Director of Welfare gave two orientation periods f o r the students before they were assigned to t h e i r u n i t s . Subjects discussed were: the h i s t o r y of s o c i a l service i n Canada and i t s place i n the community today, the attitude to be manifested by the worker, and the services rendered by the four u n i t s . In discussing the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t year's e f f o r t with the four supervisors i n d i v i d u a l l y , i t was the general consensus of opinion that the plan was a commend-able experiment but that more foresight and planning could have made the time more worthwhile f o r the students as well as the agency. The general staff was not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of the plan and therefore did not forward suitable cases that could be assigned under supervision. Nor were suitable cases planned i n advance of the student's a r r i v a l . I t was f e l t that caseworkers need to learn to welcome volunteers. - 72 -In addition, some thought that there had not been enough preparation f o r the giving of service and that the r e s u l t i n g role of the student was more that of an observer. Letters of authority were not allowed from the administration f o r the students so that they could make investigations f o r school reports, et cetera. I t was suggested that specified jobs should be determined and agreed upon by the agency and the p r e - s o c i a l work students so that the volunteers assigned could v i s u a l i z e t h e i r con-t r i b u t i o n and the supervisors could adequately plan to give the help required i n carrying out the plan. Supervisors indicated that they would have liked to have given more time f o r discussion i n personal super-v i s i o n ; students needed help i n v e r b a l i z i n g their respon-s i b i l i t i e s as c i t i z e n s under tax regulations. They needed help, too, with the ethics of s o c i a l work, their f e e l i n g s about c l i e n t s , and the tendency to i d e n t i f y with them. One supervisor requested that a recorded report of experiences be kept by the volunteer assigned to her, so that the agency would have a record of the year's a c t i v i t y and the student's evaluation of the experience. This was done i n addition to recording as applied to case assignments. One of the supervisors mentioned that she had used the f i r s t volunteer i n c i t y s o c i a l service, seven - 73 -years ago. She suggests that there i s a great need to use volunteers i n public assistance, helping old people espec-i a l l y , because, under the present conditions, these persons are usually v i s i t e d only once per year to es t a b l i s h e l i g i -b i l i t y . This worker maintains that only the disturbed and upset people received any extra attention and that the quiet one needs f r i e n d l y v i s i t i n g i n order to help them to "come out of t h e i r s h e l l " before they become r e a l s o c i a l problems; I t was pointed out that i t i s these "undisturbed" c l i e n t s that can most safely use volunteer help. This same case-worker mentioned that she judges the usefulness of a volun-teer by f i n d i n g out i f he or she has unmet needs or i f he or she can "give e a s i l y . " Through supervised service, she f e e l s that many of these volunteer workers learn to give of themselves and "get to f e e l that they have a contribut-ion to make"; as a r e s u l t much of the caseworker's time can be saved i n the many jobs performed. G. Vancouver General Hospital S o c i a l Service Department Paid workers are being used as case-aides. Volun-teers are used i n t h i s same setting. The Women's A u x i l i a r y to the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l 1 was o r i g i n a l l y responsible f o r the development 1 Weaver, Kenneth R., "History and Organization of a Soc i a l Service Department,, 11 Canadian Welfare. Dec. l£, 1956, pp. 228-32. - Ik -of the s o c i a l service department by providing time and money through the years; the members are s t i l l active i n providing many services. In 1926, the h o s p i t a l adminis-t r a t i o n assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s o c i a l services through the nursing department.. Then, i n 1939, the Department of S o c i a l Service was separated from the Department of Nursing and has since been a separate admin-i s t r a t i v e unit within the h o s p i t a l . The S o c i a l Service department was further re-organized under a new director i n 19i?2. U n t i l t h i s date, s o c i a l workers 1 time was being taken up with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r determining e l i g i b i l i t y , admitting, supplying appliances, and providing f i n a n c i a l information. With the help of the Women's A u x i l i a r y , the role of the s o c i a l worker was changed at thi s time to givi n g dire c t casework service on r e f e r r a l to patients. This was possible because, by 195^ +, the volunteers of the A u x i l i a r y had almost completely taken over the job of admitting and checking e l i g i b i l i t y i n the outpatient department. On January 1, 19 5&, the Women's A u x i l i a r y provided the funds to hir e a clerk (case-aide) to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s job, though much i n d i v i d u a l volunteer help i s added to the process; f i f t e e n volunteers per week are supervised by t h i s clerk i n checking e l i g i b i l i t y requests. Another admitting cl e r k screens requirements directed to psychiatry and handles - 75 -most of the applications f o r appliances. 1 This second case-aide was added to the s t a f f of the outpatient department af t e r a job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was set up so that the h o s p i t a l administration could see the usefulness of the move. The administration agreed to gradually assume from the Women's A u x i l i a r y the cost of the worker, on a one-third yearly reduction basis. In t h i s way, the Vancouver General Hospital administration w i l l take f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s worker by 1958. Both of these clerks or case-aides work under supervision of a professional s o c i a l worker who i s the casework supervisor of the department. A volunteer representative of the Women* s A u x i l i a r y meets with the dir e c t o r of the S o c i a l Service department, once per month, to review the applications f o r appliances and i f any of these reports from the case-aide are questioned, an ex-s o c i a l worker from the A u x i l i a r y goes to the home f o r f u r -ther assessment of the need. In the in-patient department, a case-aide has been given a s t a f f placement, with some of the funds allocated f o r a professional worker. This i s to demonstrate that, i n l i e u of the shortage of trained s o c i a l workers and adequate funds, the mechanics of handling certain types of nursing home and boarding home placements can be handled under supervision of a professional s o c i a l worker. Volunteers are available through the Women's A u x i l i a r y , f o r in-patient service, on 1 Funds f o r the appliances are supplied almost e n t i r e l y by the Women's A u x i l i a r y . - 76 -request of professional s o c i a l workers, to carry out assign-ments. These may be i n providing transportation, making home v i s i t s , h o s p i t a l c a l l s f o r l e t t e r w r iting, f r i e n d l y support or whatever i s determined to be suitable as part of the treatment plan. Actually, the caseworkers i n the department need to be encouraged and taught to make more use of t h i s provision. The Women*s A u x i l i a r y has a standing Voluntter Committee whose function i s to supervise recruitment, i n t e r -viewing, placement and orient a t i o n of volunteers. This i s i n addition to the Out-patients Committee, the In-patients Committee, the Surgical Appliances Committee, the V i s i t i n g Committee, and the Library and the Canteen Committees, a l l of which give dir e c t service to patients i n h o s p i t a l and cooperate with the Volunteer Committee and the Executive Secretary of the A u x i l i a r y . Men as well are sometimes assigned to volunteer duties requested of thi s organiza-t i o n . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Volunteer Committee are l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : 1 (a) To be constantly aware of the need f o r a continuing programme to r e c r u i t volunteers, and to formulate plans to carry out such a programme. When neces-sary, to consult with and seek assistance from the "A Manual of the Organization of the Women's A u x i l i a r y of Vancouver General Hospital." - 77 -Public Relations Committee and the Membership Com-mittee i n carrying out a recruitment campaign. (b) To have a regular day each week at the A u x i l i a r y o f f i c e f o r the purpose of interviewing a l l new volunteers, arranging t h e i r placement through the proper Chairman, and being available to other committee chairmen f o r consultation. (It i s the interviewers r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to give a new volun-teer a complete picture of the various services, the t r a i n i n g required and the time necessary to devote so that she may choose wisely the service she prefers.) (c) To arrange orientation courses f o r new volunteers which s h a l l Include the following: 1. A b r i e f h i s t o r y of the Women1s A u x i l i a r y . 2. Presentation of Constitution-and By-Laws. 3« F i n a n c i a l structure and re l a t i o n s h i p to the Hospital Administration, ij.. Hospital e t h i c s . $. Description of Hospital placements and" duties of volunteers. . 6. A tour of the A u x i l i a r y placements i n the Hospital (d) To keep informed at a l l times of the needs of the . various Committees using Volunteers and to see that an adequate number of substitutes and f l o a t e r s i s available to cover a l l Committees. (e) To prepare and present to the Chairman of the .. Volunteer Committee a monthly report on personnel, on the form provided f o r t h i s purpose. Relationships are established and maintained with a l l Committees so that the "requirements of each job and the s k i l l s , energies and Interests of each Volunteer s h a l l be matched." Suggestions and complaints can be channeled from volunteers to hospitals administration through the chairmen of the Committees. This information may be discussed at monthly meetings of the A u x i l i a r y . Every s i x months, the President of the Women's A u x i l i a r y meets with an as s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of the Vancouver General Hospital and the Depart-ment heads of the h o s p i t a l to review plans and suggestions f o r cooperative decisions. CHAPTER 3 . CURRENT PROCEDURES IN CASE-AIDE PROGRAMS The f o r m u l a t i o n of an agency program f o r the use of case-aides r e q u i r e s v e r y much the same procedure, whether workers a r e p a i d or v o l u n t e e r . M o t i v a t i o n o f the case-aide may v a r y t o some ext e n t i f i t i s con s i d e r e d t h a t pay i s giv e n i n one c a t e g o r y and some form of r e c o g -n i t i o n i n the other; but, fundamentally, persons g e n e r a l l y continue i n t h i s a r e a o f s o c i a l work because they a r e i n accord w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of the agency. V o l u n t e e r case-a i d e s r e q u i r e more t r a i n i n g than any o t h e r v o l u n t e e r s . Paid c a s e - a i d e s u s u a l l y r e c e i v e more i n t e n s i f i e d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g because of more e x t e n s i v e or s p e c i a l i z e d a s s i g n -ments . When c o n s i d e r i n g the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p l a n f o r the use of c a s e - a i d e s , an agency must be aware o f i t s reason-i n g and t o t a l purpose i n so do i n g . T h i s i s important In order to be sure t h a t the fundamental o b j e c t i v e s of the agency are being f u r t h e r e d and strengthened, t h a t s o c i a l work standards are being maintained, and t h a t the p r o f e s -s i o n a l s o c i a l worker i s being aided i n acc o m p l i s h i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the agency. Shortage of s t a f f or shortage of money i s not reason enough f o r the use of c a s e - a i d e s ; t h e r e are many other v a l u e s to be r e a l i z e d f o r the community, - 79 -the agency, the s t a f f and the c l i e n t s . These values can be gained i n the use of a case-aide program i n either a public or a private agency. Volunteer case-aides have most value i n promoting public interpretation and under-standing, whereas paid case-aides may give l i t t l e value i n t h i s respect. I t should, of course, be clear that public r e l a t i o n s , important as they can be, are not reason enough f o r a case-aide program e i t h e r . The r e a l importance i n the use of case-aides would seem to be i n strengthening and extending the services of the agency f o r the benefit of the client.. This goal must also be i n focus i f using case-aides as an introduction to s o c i a l work i n hopes of r e c r u i t -ing graduate students f o r the schools of s o c i a l work. Sometimes case-aide programs are needed within an agency, singly, and sometimes as part of a group project. If begun within a separate agency, the use of case-aides would seem to meet an emergency need. The group endeavor would more l i k e l y r e f l e c t a readiness and understanding i n the l a y community ( i f only among a section) and would indicate the p o s s i b i l i t y of continued success i f supply and demand of workers can be s t a b i l i z e d and i f cooperation can develop a standardized system of t r a i n i n g . I d e a l l y , the agencies i n a community would cooperate with a ce n t r a l Volunteer Bureau i n keeping the public informed of needs, i n promoting general t r a i n i n g programs of s o c i a l work - 80 -concepts, and in drawing on people that have been recruited and classified according to qualifications and interests. The agencies would In turn register with the Volunteer Bureau the names of volunteers who have been recruited by other means and are receiving in-service training for a specific job. Before setting up a case-aide program separately within an agency, or before agreeing to cooperate with other groups or agencies on a case-aide project, an adminis-trator must be very sure that staff and board members have a keen interest in sponsoring the endeavor. It must be verified that adequate faci l i t ies can be provided, that staff time can be allocated for job analysis, l iaison, orientation, continued in-service training and regular supervision. Provision must be made for recruitment and selection of case-aides, and i t must be clarified that jobs can be designated to case-aides as a result of job analysis, classification and description. Most important, case-workers of the agency must be willing to share their res-ponsibility and make the case-aides feel respected and wanted. Satisfactions must be planned for case-aides in order to sustain their interest* this may be in daily associations, accomplishments, opportunity for advancement and expression of ideas. Formal recognition or pay are additional items to be planned. - 81 - . Before outlining a program f o r the us© of case-aides, a study should be made of the volunteer services that are being offered i n the community, the general t r a i n i n g that has been available as a background toward the under-standing of s o c i a l work and casework. A single agency i s most endangered i f t h i s f a c t o r i s overlooked. Volunteers can often be used with professional supervision to conduct t h i s piece of research. A plan f o r the use of case-aides within an agency should be developed i n such a way as to allow f l e x i b i l i t y i n the program. In t h i s way, the participants may be encouraged to share i n the continued evaluation and planning and thereby become integrated into the agency.By assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n pursuing the objectives of the agency and accomplishing the purposes f o r which the program was planned, common interests are developed. Opportunity f o r group d i s -cussions and open channels of communication i n administrative set-up allow improvement i n any program. The arrangements f o r the use of case-aides within an agency must be well outlined before i t i s presented to the p u b l i c . A program i s more e f f e c t i v e l y presented by someone i n the capacity of an advisor or a board member, instead of by any member of s t a f f such as an administrator. The person selected to launch the plan must be chosen by the s t a f f and represent t h e i r sincere i n t e r e s t . - 82 -I f a committee or c o u n c i l i s planning to introduce a case-aide program i n a community, i n order to demonstrate i t s value , i t i s best to begin the project i n an area of greatest need; acceptance w i l l more l i k e l y r e s u l t . This Is one of the p r i n c i p l e s of community organizat ion . The need and the readiness of the community to meet the challenges should be surveyed and assessed. Other p r i n -c i p l e s of community organizat ion and the s k i l l s of the s p e c i a l i s t i n th i s f i e l d of s o c i a l work could very w e l l be used i n s e t t ing up a case-aide program. In summary, i t seems quite c l ear that a con-t i n u i n g case-aide program i s , i n the e a r l i e s t stages of i n t e r e s t , and during formulat ion , a job f o r community organizat ion workers. I f more than one agency i s invo lved , community organizat ion p r i n c i p l e s must be cont inua l ly con-s idered . In ac tua l p r a c t i c e , w i th in an agency, the case-aide program becomes a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the agency administrator to e s t a b l i s h and nurture . The continued ef fect iveness of a program f o r the use of case-aides seems to be i n d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n to the amount of planning that i s done not only at the outset but as a r e s u l t of r e -evaluat ion and adjustment. This planning seems to be centered around the job to be done f o r the benef i t of the c l i e n t . One of the f i r s t questions to be answered, then, i n se t t ing up a program would be: What i s suitable work - 83 -f o r case-aides? What Is Suitable Work f o r Case-aides? Basic to the suitable and b e n e f i c i a l use of case-aides i s a decision of agency s t a f f as to whether they are w i l l i n g to think a n a l y t i c a l l y about the jobs which they do " p a r t i a l i z i n g " 1 them so that the components a f f e c t i n g the c l i e n t and the client-worker relationship are known. An agency needs to know i t s t o t a l job and each worker needs to think through the i n d i v i d u a l job, knowing exactly where the time goes and what efforts could reasonably be performed by someone else. Some things the s o c i a l worker must do. Some things may not need doing at a l l . Some things might well be added to services offered. A f t e r studying what i s done and how i t i s done, and what could be done, i t w i l l be evident that some things can be delegated to less than f u l l y trained professional workers and not a f f e c t the client-worker r e l a t i o n s h i p . This requires t o t a l p a r t i c i -pation of s t a f f , a willingness to experiment, and c a r e f u l planning. Inasmuch as the case-aide i s intended to ease, support, supplement and extend the duties of the caseworker f o r the benefit of the c l i e n t , It i s necessary f o r the s t a f f 1 Burns, Mary E., Commentary on "Must Caseworkers Do Everything," Child 'Welfare. June, 19.j?6, p. 10. of an agency to conduct a job study i n order to be able to set up a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the ways that case-aides can be used e f f e c t i v e l y . Suggested l i s t s are a v a i l a b l e ; 1 some of these ideas can be adapted and readjusted to a s p e c i f i c agency; at l e a s t , i n noting l i s t s of job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , which have been set up by other agencies, a study group would have a s t a r t i n g point f o r discussion i n the process of doing t h e i r own job analysis f o r a case-aide program as i t could apply to t h e i r own agency. Any l i s t of jobs would be tentative because as the program develops to meet changing needs, the l i s t would nece s s a r i l y be changed to meet the requirements. A job analysis should not only decide the tasks to be performed and the purpose of the assignment, but the time required, the place where the job i s to be per-formed, the t r a i n i n g required (whether pre-requisite or i n - s e r v i c e ) , the amount and kind of supervision to be provided, the personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the worker needed and the f a c i l i t i e s or equipment that must be provided f o r carrying out the assignment. Broadly speaking, i t i s a p r i n c i p l e that case-aides should be assigned to only those c l i e n t s who have made a moderately good adjustment to t h e i r circumstances but who need help with c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . For See Appendix C-2. - 85 - , . instance, the tasks assigned to the lesser trained person "would not deal with the problems created by i l l n e s s , old age, et cetera, but with the l i m i t a t i o n s set up by the problems." 1 The c l i e n t s who show behavior problems should be handled by the professional s o c i a l worker In a continued re l a t i o n s h i p . Self p i t y , blame, ambivalence, et cetera, are indications of an overly-anxious state and could create r i s k y situations f o r a lesser trained person to handle. A professional member of s t a f f should determine at intake the implications of a case and i f i t necessitates the attention of a caseworker or i f i t could be handled by a case-aide under supervision. I f a case i s taken by a pro-f e s s i o n a l worker, and i n the course of events and af t e r diagnosis, i t seems that a case-aide could be u t i l i z e d i n the treatment plan, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of job assignments would be discussed with the supervisor of case-aides. A job assigned to a case-aide should be d e f i n i t e so as to make i t sound. I t should be limited s p e c i f i c a l l y to the task to be immediately performed and should have out-look of completion of performance. By l i m i t i n g the job assignments, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of jobs i s ^ p ossible, jobs can be described, q u a l i f i c a t i o n s can be determined, t r a i n i n g can be standardized and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n accomplishment can be reali z e d by the case-aide. Volunteers f o r Family Service, op. c i t . . p. 71. - 86 -In assigning cases, the service performed should be i n "a small area and automatically limited by the type of service needed or by the nature of the problem." 1 The job should be one that the supervisor i s c e r t a i n the case-aide as a person can do and f o r which the c l i e n t i s prepared. The assignment should be given and carried out at the time that the s i t u a t i o n i s ready. The job should never i n f r i n g e on the professional worker's area of concern and should never a f f e c t the client-worker r e l a t i o n s h i p . Gase-aides can be assigned to work with c o l l a t e r a l agencies i f the persons being interviewed are aware of the reasons f o r the commission and do not have e t h i c a l reasons to prefer working with a professional s o c i a l worker i n the Instance. C o l l a t e r a l family members would be interviewed by the case-aide only i f the whole case and the c l i e n t receiving the focus of service were within the scope of the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the case-aide program. Research a c t i v i t i e s can well be done by case-aides under the d i r e c t i o n of a professional worker as long as the person doing the assignment r e a l i z e s the r e a l purpose and values of the effort. Special committees within the agency are often b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h i s purpose. Administrative and c l e r i c a l duties can be used Ibid.. p. 77. - 8 7 -advisedly i n setting up a case-aide program. Many of these duties are good routine assignments as a part of an o r i e n t -ation schedule, gradually allowing the case-aide to become integrated into the agency and to progress into more s k i l l e d assignments as more t r a i n i n g i s received. Also, by combining project assignments with casework a c t i v i t i e s , these a u x i l i a r y workers may be made availa b l e f o r emergency requests from caseworkers. Case-aides can be most h e l p f u l i n meeting emergency requests as i t i s i n t h i s way that caseworkers so often f e e l the need of a helper i n the treatment plan. In order to use a u x i l i a r y workers i n t h i s way, however, the s t a f f must be e n t i r e l y clear on the l i m i t a t i o n s of the case-aides and use them f o r the jobs f o r which they are trained and not just as a convenience or stop-gap. Follow-up work i s something that could well be considered by casework agencies as they set up t h e i r schedule of job assignments. Case-aides can give continued support to c l i e n t s who are making an adjustment as r e s u l t of casework service and are not coming regul a r l y to the agency at t h i s time; i n so doing, they may c o l l e c t Information to be used i n evaluating the actual effectiveness of casework techniques and methods as practiced i n the agency. This may be done under d i r e c t i o n of the caseworker who understands the case. (It should be remembered that some p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained - 88 -persons are available f o r volunteer service.) Just as caseworkers are expected to take respon-s i b i l i t y to a s s i s t i n the job of public education and i n t e r -pretation and the promotion of understanding of ideals and needs i n s o c i a l work, so the case-aide can be taught and helped to a s s i s t the casework agency i n t h i s important phase of work. It Is another way of making the case-aide's assign-ments more meaningful to himself or h e r s e l f as well as to the community. In t h i s way, special projects and assignments may accompany the routine, making the assignments more per-sonally i n t e r e s t i n g . Professional men and women are available i n advis-ory capacities from f i e l d s of law, insurance, teaching, n u t r i t i o n , et cetera, as consultants, tutors, Interpreters, et cetera. These persons may be used on a part-time schedule or on s p e c i a l assignments but would benefit from preparatory t r a i n i n g i n the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l work and agency p o l i c i e s before being given assignments according to t h e i r own s p e c i a l -ized a b i l i t i e s . They must understand the difference between the work of the volunteer and the professional s o c i a l worker and work as part of the team i n the treatment plan of the caseworker assigned to the c l i e n t to be helped. Case-aides seem to be e s p e c i a l l y suited f o r ser-vice i n areas of family and c h i l d welfare, health, education, and recreation. S p e c i f i c a l l y , need f o r case-aide service - 89 -i s being expressed i n dealing with old age, the handicapped, dependent children, chronic h o s p i t a l eases, immigrants, and court cases. New phases of s o c i a l work are continually requiring more caseworkers, making the need of job analysis more pressing. Professional s o c i a l workers are being added to the s t a f f s of h o s p i t a l s , p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s , community centers, juvenile and adult courts, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centers, i n d u s t r i a l plants, schools with v i s i t i n g teachers, centers f o r the aged, et cetera. The challenge to the profession i s to determine where and how the t r a i n i n g of the pro-f e s s i o n a l worker can be u t i l i z e d to the f u l l e s t extent and how the work load can be shared with lesser-trained workers. Suitable work f o r case-aides i n general would be determined according to the agency objectives, the community setting, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the candidates f o r case-aide programs, and the t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to the persons who are to give service. The client-worker r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a f o c a l point i n any e f f o r t to c l a s s i f y and divide r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s within casework agencies. The ultimate goals of the i n d i v i d u a l agency would determine the c r i t e r i a f o r setting up the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and making assign-ments to selected case-aides within that agency to be consistent with the q u a l i t y of the agency's p r a c t i c e . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agency through a diagnostic - 90 -interview to f i n d the job most suited to the talents of the case-aide, paid or volunteer. This e f f o r t i s s i m p l i f i e d i f the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s p e c i f i e s the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s required. 0 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Case-aides The s p e c i f i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to be sought of case-aides, naturally, d i f f e r according to the tasks to be per-formed, and t h i s must be determined by the assignments that are made available through the job analysis and planning of the i n d i v i d u a l agencies. A job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should state the personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s prerequisite to the assignments. Levels of desirable education and t r a i n i n g may also be deter-mined i n this way and thereby a s s i s t u n i v e r s i t i e s , schools, and community groups to plan toward the development of suitable c i t i z e n s who would l i k e to make themselves a v a i l -able f o r community service, paid or unpaid. Factors to be considered i n determining the per-sonal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of an i n d i v i d u a l to be selected, are: age, sex, physical health, personality, education, t r a i n i n g , experiences, s k i l l s , time available, special needs, s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s , reasons f o r wanting to serve as a case-aide, and attitudes. Adults with necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are selected to be case-aides"regardless of age. However, persons of - 91 -middle years (J4.O-6O) are considered most desirable f o r s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g as case-aides because of t h e i r experience and understanding i n working with c l i e n t s , t h e i r contacts i n the community, and t h e i r chances to give continued and uninterrupted service to the agency. Both men and women are desirable as workers in, a casework program. On a paid basis, women are more frequently available as men of such necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would probably be employed at a higher rate of pay and responsi-b i l i t y . On a volunteer basis, however, men of unusually f i n e a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s can be u t i l i z e d . Women of exceptional a b i l i t y are often available on part-time basis, paid or volunteer, because they are p r i m a r i l y obligated to th e i r family needs and take pleasure i n sharing t h e i r time with the community i n some constructive way. Good health i s usually e s s e n t i a l f o r a case-aide, e s p e c i a l l y to the extent that i t would a f f e c t dependability i n keeping a schedule. Physical handicaps need not neces-s a r i l y l i m i t a person's a b i l i t y to serve as a case-aide, though handicapped persons should be u t i l i z e d . f o r s p e c i f i c categories of work where t h e i r usefulness would not be affected. In some cases, an Individual with a phy s i c a l handicap may be able to give more understanding help than a normal person. Personality q u a l i f i c a t i o n s most frequently l i s t e d - 92 -as part of an i d e a l are as follows: emotional maturity, judgment, i n i t i a t i v e , f l e x i b i l i t y , dependability, sensi-t i v i t y , a b i l i t y to form rel a t i o n s h i p s , to be objective, to be t a c t f u l , to be cooperative and to show p o t e n t i a l growth on the job. Educational lev e l s considered desirable f o r a case-aide may vary. The minimum of high school graduation plus a d d i t i o n a l experience and t r a i n i n g i n volunteers service, business, et cetera, are prerequisite f o r a volun-teer case-aide. One year of graduate s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i s often considered prerequisite f o r a p o s i t i o n as a f u l l -time paid case-aide. In l i s t i n g t r a i n i n g as a q u a l i f i c a t i o n of case-aides, we must consider i f t h i s i s i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l service or whether i t i s an experience i n another f i e l d of i n t e r e s t . In the area of s o c i a l work, t r a i n i n g may have been general through community courses that offer i n s t r u c -t i o n toward understanding of general concepts, resources, needs, et cetera, or i t may have been s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n an area of sp e c i a l i n t e r e s t . Again, i t may have been agency in-service t r a i n i n g i n an area of service such as c h i l d welfare, family welfare or medical s o c i a l ser-v i c e , et cetera. A case-aide must be w i l l i n g to accept further t r a i n i n g f o r the s p e c i f i c agency to which he or she i s a f f i l i a t e d i n order to understand the general aims and - 9 3 -functions of that agency and i n order to perform the p a r t i c u l a r job to be assigned. Previous experience of a person i s an excellent clue to h i s or her present a b i l i t y (health, age, et cetera). Those who have always shown success i n t h e i r undertakings w i l l generally continue to do so i n whatever capacity they are assigned providing the job i s within t h e i r a b i l i t y . Those who express a keen desire to perform a new task or to develop a new s k i l l w i l l l i k e l y appreciate the oppor-t u n i t y and i n turn benefit the agency o f f e r i n g the t r a i n -ing. For some, with other q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s o c i a l work i s an opportunity to express latent a b i l i t i e s that have not been expressed because of lack of experience. This f a c t o r must be taken into consideration during the process of recruitment, placement, and t r a i n i n g . S k i l l s sometimes predetermine the placement of a person as a case-aide. Agencies, i f wise, consider simul-taneously, a person's interests which may be f o r an outlet quite d i f f e r e n t from the thing that they seem best q u a l i -f i e d to do without further t r a i n i n g . Continued s a t i s f a c t i o n i n doing the work assigned may be hinged to t h i s f a c t o r . A case-aide must have time available to give regul a r l y over an extended period of time. The agency puts a considerable investment i n t h i s person by giving i n -service t r a i n i n g and supervision, whether paid or volunteer, - 9k -and expects continued and dependable service i n return. Special needs required may be such things as a car and/or transportation costs. These needs of a volunteer or paid case-aide can often be supplied by the agency and as the r o l e of the case-aide comes to be recognized; agency budgets are taking t h i s f a c t o r into consideration, thus s h i f t i n g t h i s prerequisite from the worker to the agency. Special interests may or may not be t i e d to the reasons f o r wanting to serve as a case-aide. Special i n t -erests may be combined with s k i l l s already required or to those desired and not yet acquired because of lack of opportunity to t h i s date. Special interests w i l l be the q u a l i f i c a t i o n that must be considered i n placement, supervision, and opportunity f o r advancement. The reasons f o r wanting to serve as a case-aide, paid or volunteer, can often reveal emotional problems, prejudices, attitudes, or personality problems that would af f e c t the person's a b i l i t y to serve objectively. Attitudes of i n d i v i d u a l s toward the agency and toward the c l i e n t s w i l l c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t t h e i r use of knowledge and of s k i l l s . In working d i r e c t l y with c l i e n t s , a p o s i t i v e attitude i s e s s e n t i a l . In working with the agency, i n any part of the casework program, there must be a willingness and a b i l i t y on the part of the case-aide to conform to established methods and procedures of s o c i a l work and to adapt to the standards of p r a c t i c e , conduct and appearance established by the agency. There must be a willingness to accept and - 95 -use the d i r e c t i o n and help of others i n authority. Further, i t i s important f o r the worker to subjugate personal pleasure and i n t e r e s t to the needs of others, at l e a s t f o r the required length of time while g i v i n g service; judg-ment must set l i m i t s i n t h i s regard as well. Discussion of attitudes points up the p r i n c i p l e s of a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p to clients:" 1" ... s e l f d i s c i p l i n e i s a prerequisite f o r the helping process; helpfulness i s founded on p o s i t i v e a t t i -tudes toward people; methods of helping people are based on constructive use of p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g , knowledge and understanding. In summary, personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s prerequisite to case-aide service are determined according to the job to be done. Attitude i s fundamental; i n some instances, i t can be changed through understanding. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r each person must be c l e a r l y set out, just as p l a i n l y as the l i s t i n g s of suitable work available i n order that selection and placement can follow. Recruitment. Selection, and Placement These phases of a case-aide program may be d i s -cussed together since i n practice they seem to be i n t e r -woven. Successful recruitment may be done through groups or through i n d i v i d u a l s to meet immediate needs within an 1 S i l l s , Dorothy H.. Volunteers i n S o c i a l Service. National Traveler 1 s. Aid Association, 1+25 1+th Avenue, New York C i t y , N.Y., 191+7, P- 18. - 96 -agency. In either case, i t i s es s e n t i a l that the need be interpreted and that the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s be e x p l i c i t . I f immediate recruitment i s done on a broad basis, such as through newspaper and radio channels, Individual i n t e r -pretation must be done by subsequent interviewing. This becomes burdensome and the large percentage necessarily rejected do not contribute to good public r e l a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work. When broad volunteer t r a i n i n g programs are adver-t i s e d and made available to the public as an educational measure, recruitment can na t u r a l l y follow on an organized basis. These programs are best planned j o i n t l y by represent-atives of the agencies i n need of volunteers, lay represent-atives of these trainees and professional persons representat-ive of the f i e l d s of s o c i a l work concern. Schools of s o c i a l work should be consulted whenever possible i n order to further the understanding between the l a y and professional groups and i n order to give status to the endeavor. From these general volunteer t r a i n i n g programs, r e g i s t r a t i o n may follow i n a community r e c r u i t i n g center. A s p r i n k l i n g of suitable case-aide r e c r u i t s may resu l t either during the screening process or because individuals are made aware of the needs and requirements and thereby make d i r e c t applica-t i o n . - 97 -A v a i l a b i l i t y of q u a l i f i e d case-aide workers, paid or unpaid, i s p r i m a r i l y dependent on community understand-ing and appreciation of the r o l e of the professional s o c i a l worker, the objectives of the agencies and the needs of the populace. Suitable people w i l l present themselves only i f they f e e l that they are needed and that they are i n accord with agency objectives. Unless q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a job are e x p l i c i t y stated by an agency f o r a p a r t i c u l a r job that needs doing, and unless personnel practices and agency objectives are established f o r presentation and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s and groups cannot a s s i s t e f f e c t i v e l y i n recruitment f o r agencies. This applies to paid or volunteer case-aides. Paid case-aides are recruited i n a business l i k e fashion the same as any other agency employee. Advertising may be necessary. Application blanks are f i l l e d and r e f e r -ences presented. Diagnostic interviewing s k i l l i s e s s e n t i a l i n making a se l e c t i o n from possible applicants. Volunteer case-aides are i d e a l l y r ecruited through a volunteer bureau or centralized agency which i s widely representative of c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t and c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d with the l o c a l community planning agency of which the casework agencies are active p a r t i c i p a n t s . The centralized agency can conduct regular on-going recruitment programs and i n so doing should r e g i s t e r volunteers i n a standardized - 98 -form according to q u a l i f i c a t i o n s l i s t e d and they screen and di r e c t volunteers into suitable channels of service. By knowing the agency needs, these volunteers can be given both general background t r a i n i n g and special s k i l l s t r a i n -ing as a preparation f o r in-service t r a i n i n g offered within the agency structure. Volunteers suitable f o r case-aide assignments can be referred to agencies as needed. Because of the fact that a volunteer bureau Is usually composed of many lay membership groups, s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups can thereby be tapped f o r s p e c i a l s k i l l s when requested by the agencies. The major point to be stressed i n t h i s regard i s that the agency must have the sole and f i n a l say as to which r e c r u i t s w i l l be f i n a l l y selected and placed within t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; r e f e r r a l from the volunteer bureau or ce n t r a l organization on request does not assure acceptance by the agency. With a volunteer case-aide as well as with a paid case-aide, the f i n a l screening before acceptance must be done i n a business-like interview by a professional s t a f f member of the agency. Rejection of an applicant by an agency must be done t a c t f u l l y , of course. The volunteer should f e e l that he or she i s receiving i n d i v i d u a l attention and that i n being re-directed back through the volunteer bureau, i s being helped to f i n d the a c t i v i t y f o r which he or she i s best suited and can thereby make the greatest contribution - 99 -to the community. In reference to the essentials of successful screening by interviewing, i t should be mentioned that rapport must be established In order to get a f a i r impres-sion of an i n d i v i d u a l . F r i e n d l i n e s s , cheerfulness, p o l i t e -ness and i n t e r e s t should be expressed by the interviewer. The conference should be protected from interruptions. Unique q u a l i t i e s should be noted i n addition to usual q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The interviewer must think of not only the prospective case-aide as a person but the needs of the organization and i n turn should interpret to the person a clear understanding of what would be expected of him or her as a case-aide. The plus value of t h i s e f f o r t i s the r e s u l t -ing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l work that w i l l be carried into the community. With both paid and volunteer case-aides, diagnostic s k i l l i n the personal interview must determine the r e a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the applicant as compared to the f r o n t presented by the i n d i v i d u a l or the recommendations given by others. Interviewing techniques are extremely important i n t h i s regard. By d i r e c t discussion of l i k e s and d i s l i k e s and a b i l i t i e s , personal problems and emotional adjustments may be assessed through i n d i r e c t methods. I n i t i a l screening prevents l a t e r r ejections and i l l f e e l i n g s : "the rejected volunteer does not love the agency and the agency needs to - 100 -be loved." Se l f - e l i m i n a t i o n or s e l f - d i r e c t i o n by the volun-teer may be gained through at least one tr a i n i n g meeting f o r r e c r u i t s previous to the i n i t i a l screening interview; the volunteer becomes aware of advantages and disadvantages by gaining an understanding of the need and the extent of the prerequisite q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Interpretations i n the i n t e r -view become easier as a r e s u l t of the t r a i n i n g toward a more common understanding of s o c i a l work and agency aims. Regularity, r e l i a b i l i t y , l o y a l t y , and other such standards should be stressed i n t h i s f i r s t general t r a i n i n g meeting so that the standards f o r a case-aide can be met and maintained. The continued success of a recruitment program fo r volunteers i s dependent on many fac t o r s . The ce n t r a l volunteer bureau and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies must main-t a i n a mutual respect, understanding, and cooperation; t h i s i s usually done through scheduled workshops. By standard-i z i n g the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and background courses f o r r e g i s -tered volunteers who desire to serve as case-aides, the demand and supply may be kept i n balance and int e r e s t among the volunteers can thus be more e a s i l y maintained. An on-going recruitment program f o r either paid or volunteer case-aides would depend on the successful 1 Larken, Kathleen,0rmsby, "For Volunteers Who Interview," Volunteer Bureau, Welfare Council of Chicago,. 123 W. Madison Street, Chicago, I l l i n o i s (no date), p. 3. - 101 -experience of the workers In the agencies who make the assignments and the placements. I t can be expected, how-ever, that a case-aide w i l l develop a d d i t i o n a l awareness and improved attitudes during additional t r a i n i n g , ade-quate supervision, and s t a f f cooperation. "Follow-up" 1 from the agency back to the c e n t r a l -ized r e c r u i t i n g agency as to the use of the volunteer i s an important phase of the cooperative e f f o r t . This allows the bureau to keep contact with the agency's work and to maintain a standard f o r recruitment. Many volunteer bureaus w i l l accept requests from only those agencies who do report back the information f o r the f i l e s , provide i n -service t r a i n i n g and supervision as a part of a planned program within the agency and who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the general community educational program f o r r e c r u i t i n g volunteers. It i s l a r g e l y through the process of recruitment that the volunteer case-aide program i s taken out of the dubious c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . By recognizing volunteers' per-sonal problems from the viewpoint of a professional s o c i a l worker and by having a clear picture of agency needs, volunteer case-aides can be successfully recruited, selected, and placed into a casework agency program. 1 Newbold, Florence L., "The Community-wide Volunteer Placement Bureau," 1935, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, p. 476. - 102 -U n t i l agencies make t h e i r job situations and in d i v i d u a l requirements cl e a r to interested schools, groups, et cetera, the agencies w i l l have to f a l l back on t h e i r own resources f o r f i n d i n g people that are suitable to be paid case-aides. Careful interviewing during screen-ing, d e f i n i t e in-service t r a i n i n g and supervision w i l l determine the ultimate success of t h e i r appointments. Successful selection of case-aides then i s lar g e l y dependent on careful recruitment. The person selected must meet the agency's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the job set up to be done. In turn, the agency must make the e f f o r t to be sure that the placement w i l l prove to be i n t e r e s t -ing, s a t i s f y i n g and completely within the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the person selected. It.'is important to be r e a l i s t i c about the applicants' motivations; are they lonely? do they l i k e p u b l i c i t y ? have they had any business experience? what prejudices or biases do they seem to need to control? With understanding and experience, attitudes w i l l change, but t h i s w i l l be gradual and must be assessed i n making placements. Thus i t can be concluded that, providing c a r e f u l interpretations and explanations are presented, the orient-ation of the case-aide begins with recruitment and con-tinues through selection and placement Into the t r a i n i n g provided by the agency giving the assignment. - 103 -Orientation and Training Programs f o r Case-aides Increasingly better performance i s being expected from case-aides whether they are paid or volunteer, and agency t r a i n i n g i s thus directed toward the goal of better service to the c l i e n t being served. Every case-aide i s e n t i t l e d to s p e c i f i c apprenticeship t r a i n i n g f o r the job assigned, whether he or she be one person or a part of a group of r e c r u i t s . Informal t r a i n i n g i s conducted f o r one or a few. Formal t r a i n i n g i s desirable f o r larger numbers of r e c r u i t s . General understanding of s o c i a l work and casework may have been gained through experiences and the general community tr a i n i n g courses such as those offered by the volunteer bureau, Junior League, adult education programs, or other agency t r a i n i n g courses. This i s a l l general background orientation t r a i n i n g and helps immeasurably i n understanding community problems and In understanding the difference between professional and lay r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . When i n d i v i d u a l agencies cannot afford the time and expense of t r a i n i n g volunteer case-aides i n an intensive in-service program they sometimes combine i n a group to plan a t r a i n i n g program that w i l l q u a l i f y persons f o r c e r t a i n job assignments that are standardized among the several agencies concerned. 1 This requires addi t i o n a l 1 A j o i n t project of the United Hospital Fund of New York and the North A t l a n t i c D i s t r i c t of the American S o c i a l Workers. - l O i j . -cooperative planning than that* given to a volunteer bureau which may be the r e c r u i t i n g source Tor candidates f o r the plan. The advantage i s not only i n the savings of time and expense involved but the possible control of supply and demand of suitable trained workers. In most communities, the use of case-aides has not developed to the extent that agencies can combine t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Agency in- s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s generally e s s e n t i a l therefore to the use of case-aides. Sometimes th i s i s done along with supervision i n assignments that are a part of gradual orientation u n t i l the t r a i n i n g prog-ram i s completed. Sometimes the in-service t r a i n i n g i s completed before the job assignments begin. In any case, in-service t r a i n i n g i s given i n a predetermined manner by a c e r t a i n agency i n a p a r t i c u l a r setting f o r an assigned job which has been c l a s s i f i e d f o r performance by a person of s p e c i f i e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The purpose of in-service t r a i n -ing i s the "preparation f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n so that i t may be done most e f f e c t i v e l y . " 1 This i s i n contrast to professional education which aims at a "generalization of p r i n c i p l e s and methods i n the development of a basic d i s c i -2 p l i n e . " 1 Vecic, C l a i r e St. John, The S t a f f Development Program  of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch. Thesis f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , 19%, P. 101.. ^ Loc. c i t . - io5 -A f t e r the job assignment, continuous t r a i n i n g should be made available both i n general community meetings and in-service programming. I t i s e s s e n t i a l i n keeping the interest of the case-aide, i t prepares the workers f o r promotions and i t makes the workers more adjustable to the changing needs i n the agency and i n the community. The case-aides involved can often make h e l p f u l suggestions toward planning and i f the group shares the planning, the tr a i n i n g i s more acceptable. The s t a f f may e a s i l y over-look simple but important pointers. Though the case-aide in-service t r a i n i n g must be f o r a s p e c i f i c job, I t must be related to the t o t a l program and the agency objectives, p o l i c i e s , and goals. I t should r e l a t e to the structure of the agency and to the sett i n g which includes relationships with other agencies, l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , f e d e r a l and in t e r n a t i o n a l . This kind of orient-ation gives purpose, understanding, and appreciation of the assignment. Also, through understanding, the case-aide can be integrated into the agency and he helped to i d e n t i f y with i t . Training may be done i n many ways; lectures, i discussion groups, v i s u a l aids, demonstration workshops, f i e l d v i s i t s , assignments eith e r biographical or written, i n d i v i d u a l conferences, supervised tryouts on the job, et cetera. Discussion has proved to be more h e l p f u l than straight lectures, i f s k i l l f u l l y directed i n small - 106 -groups (not over t h i r t y - f i v e persons). 1 Repetition of basic ideas by various means i s considered to be h e l p f u l f o r the sake of emphasis. Introduction of a v a r i e t y of agency personnel during the t r a i n i n g program i s bene-f i c i a l i n adding interest as well as i n accomplishing orientation along with t r a i n i n g . A v a r i e t y of q u a l i f i e d speakers or discussion leaders adds interest and value to the t r a i n i n g . The actual success of an in-service t r a i n i n g program f o r case-aides i s dependent on many f a c t o r s . The candidates vary i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to acquire and use information. Instruction may be more e f f e c t i v e l y presented i n some ways and by some persons than by others. Assign-ments must immediately follow instructions i n order f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n to be applied and thereby u t i l i z e d . By g i v i n g immediate assignments at the completion of the course, anxiety of the case-aides as to t h e i r own a b i l i t y can be channeled into constructive use. This uneasi-ness can be allayed also by the knowledge of the concrete steps necessary i n accomplishing the assignment. Acquain-tance with the supervisor during t r a i n i n g i s an a d d i t i o n a l assurance to the case-aide. More i n s t r u c t i o n a l material i s needed where there i s less supervision a v a i l a b l e . This must be c l e a r and x Experience of Junior League i n giving p r o v i s i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses. - 107 -s p e c i f i c i n d e t a i l but not to the extent of l i m i t i n g the i n i t i a t i v e and ingenuity of the case-aide. I t has been found to be most e f f e c t i v e to give "statements of p r i n c i p l e , preferably i l l u s t r a t e d with concrete examples." 1 Basic routines, procedures and information w i l l need to be given i n pre-service and repeated and amplified as the case-aide becomes more f a m i l i a r with the duties. Assimilation of ideas increases with added understanding and experience. A p o l i c y manual i s very h e l p f u l f o r r e f e r r a l and f o r setting standards. In any assignments that involve contact with c l i e n t s , case-aides should be trained and prepared to recognize problems that should be referred to a profes-si o n a l worker. This i s one of the d i f f i c u l t areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the case-aide to handle and f o r the agency to supervise. The lesser-trained person can develop t h i s a b i l i t y to make r e f e r r a l but may need more help from s t a f f i n t h i s regard than i n others. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that 2 the s t a f f member "report back" on these r e f e r r a l s so that the case-aide can know whether i t was r i g h t to have referred the c l i e n t ; the aide need not know the d e t a i l s of the prob-lem or the techniques used i n helping the c l i e n t but they usually want to know whether the c l i e n t was able to get 1 Glasser, o p . c i t . . p. 20. 2 S i l l s , op. c i t . . p. k$. - 1 0 8 -help with the problem and i n general what was troubling the person. In t r a i n i n g a case-aide to give services on the basis of f r i e n d l y v i s i t i n g , i t i s important that the representative of the agency be trained to check on the background, s e t t i n g , and needs of the c l i e n t to be helped; t h i s may include information about age, r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y , hobbies, education, physical condition, housing, et cetera. The case-aide must be c l e a r i n these instances not to become involved i n the f i n a n c i a l aspects of the case. In t r a i n i n g case-aides to record observations as, f o r instance, i n a children's or a family agency, i t i s important that the worker study normal c h i l d behavior and be given an outline to point up important f a c t s . If case-aides are going to interview c o l l a t e r a l s such as schools, they must be instructed i n the courteous and routine procedures that are practiced between the agencies. If case-aides are going to a s s i s t i n the adminis-t r a t i o n of funds i n a routine manner, they must be clear as to the rules and regulations and be prepared to make r e f e r r a l s or get advice i f unforeseen problems develop. Other s k i l l s that may be taught a case-aide are interviewing techniques and c e r t a i n aspects of the case-work method, correspondence routine, and the use of - 109 -s t a t i s t i c a l forms, f o r agency records and f o r research purposes. By education and t r a i n i n g through an in-service program, along with proper supervision and understanding, many c i t i z e n s develop a new sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and develop q u a l i t i e s hitherto unrecognized. Some learn to give u n s e l f i s h l y f o r the f i r s t time i n t h e i r l i v e s . Some become capable of doing supervision of volunteers themselves though t h i s i s always, of course, kept under the d i r e c t supervision of a professional worker. By good t r a i n i n g , case-aides are not only more e f f e c t i v e and self-confident on the job, but they have a broader inter e s t i n s o c i a l problems and the support of community services. Service to c l i e n t can be increased by the use of trained case-aides. Supervision "Adequate supervision i s both a means of insuring a f a i r test and a way of measuring e f f e c t i v e n e s s " 1 i n a case-aide program i n any setting. The nature of the supervision may vary with the job being supervised. The extent and the qu a l i t y of supervision deter-mines the successful use of personnel i n a casework agency. Burns, op. c i t . , p. 8. - 110 -By serving as the l i a i s o n between the case-aide program and departmental s t a f f , the supervisor responsible f o r a case-aide can give both orientation and on-going t r a i n i n g by describing the broad base of the plans of the agency, broadening the knowledge of community, interpreting the differences between the professional and the volunteer, setting standards, insuring f a i r treatment, continuing t r a i n i n g , giving encouragement when needed, allowing per-sonal development, evaluating successes through assignments and keeping the i n t e r e s t of the case-aides. To supervise h e l p f u l l y , a person must be secure both personally and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y ; t h i s means a re-examination of one's own role and one's own s k i l l s . A successful supervisor 1 would probably have good common sense and s e n s i t i v i t y , would necessarily be free of negat-ivism and psychological problems, would be successful i n a personal sphere of l i f e and have an experienced background i n public r e l a t i o n s . To assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y q uickly and i n the face of handicaps, he or she should have a mature attitude toward taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , casework experience and t r a i n i n g , a concern f o r others, and hours to give to the e f f o r t . To supervise orientation requires s k i l l and t a c t . F i r s t i s the personal interview to e s t a b l i s h rapport and 1 Brown, Madison B., M.C., "What Makes a Successful Director of Volunteers," Hospital Management. October, 1955, p. 60. - I l l -create a f r i e n d l y work atmosphere. The physical set-up of the agency and the p r e v a i l i n g use of f a c i l i t i e s must be presented. Introductions are made to a l l s t a f f with whom the case-aide w i l l have contact. Relationship with the supervisor Is explained i n d e t a i l . Personnel pr a c t i c e s and agency p o l i c i e s are outlined. Discussion i s encouraged to include mention of the tedious and objectionable aspects of a job. Clear d e f i n i t i o n s of job assignments should be made i n such a way as to avoid misunderstandings. It i s well to explain the amount and nature of recording or reporting that i s expected. The case-aide should be Informed that the work w i l l be evaluated and be given the c r i t e r i a to be used. Continued t r a i n i n g i s offered through supervision so that growth on the job i s possible and the worker can make f u l l use of the time allowed. The case-aide i s helped to understand the t o t a l agency program, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the agency to the community, and the importance of the p a r t i c u l a r job assignments. I n i t i a t i v e and creativeness i s encouraged. The benefits of past experiences may be gradually u t i l i z e d . New s k i l l s may be taught, Wider r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be offered. A supervisor must also be aware of the motivations of the case-aide so as to make best use of the assignments that are selected f o r the person. Through supervision, jobs can be assigned i n such a way as to give the most immediate! help to s t a f f i n carrying - 112 -out the agency services f o r the benefit of the c l i e n t . Likewise, the job should be assigned within the a b i l i t y of the case-aide and thus allow s a t i s f a c t i o n i n accomplishment. Positive aspects of the case are stressed and not the negative as the case-aide i s not involved i n treatment aspects. It i s e s s e n t i a l that the case-aide understand why in s t r u c t i o n s are given. In giving casework services, supervision of a case-aide may be done by the caseworker of the c l i e n t , the caseworker's supervisor or a professional s t a f f member assigned to the o v e r a l l supervision of the case-aide prog-ram. In other areas of job assignments, a trained volun-teer may give supervision, under the d i r e c t i o n of a pro-f e s s i o n a l s t a f f person. Supervision should follow a plan i n order to provide continuity and security f o r the worker. The d i s -cussions may be b u i l t on written or o r a l reports of the c a s e - a i d e s ' a c t i v i t i e s . Forms can be developed f o r submitt-ing Information. The frequency of the conferences depends upon the nature of the assignments but the time should be r e g u l a r l y scheduled i n advance. Impromptu discussions, though e f f e c t i v e , are not as b e n e f i c i a l as regular, uninterrupted, and planned conferences. Relationships should be protected by supervision. The attitudes shown toward the c l i e n t are subject to constant scrutiny. Personal tangles with s t a f f of the - 113 -agency can be unsnarled i f misunderstandings or problems a r i s e . Unless the administrator and the t o t a l s t a f f of the agency create a f r i e n d l y and cooperative atmosphere, the supervisor i s at a loss to succeed i n helping the case-aide to make a suitable adjustment, however. The Interest of case-aides can be sustained through supervision, by several means. Most important, the case-aide must feel.needed, accepted, and responsible. Dis-cussions give s a t i s f a c t i o n s by allowing growth and under-standing. Evaluation of q u a l i t y and quantity of work allows f a i r recognition of services; t h i s should be a mutual e f f o r t between case-aide and supervisor. Evaluation and future planning of the case-aide program should be done with the case-aide during super-v i s i o n . The r e s u l t i n g suggestions can be taken by the supervisor to s t a f f and inter-agency meetings f o r general discussions i n o v e r - a l l planning; t h i s may be both f o r the purpose of improving program procedures and f o r arranging means of recognition of services. I t should be remembered that many volunteer case-aides have heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s beyond the agency i n church, parent-teacher associations, c i v i c groups, et cetera. These volunteers may be accustomed to leadership roles as well. Therefore a supervisor would need to be aware of the danger of underestimating or over-rating a b i l i t y . - Ilk -In summary, i t i s the general consensus of opinion that the supervision of volunteer case-aides i s seldom a saving of s t a f f time, but that the time required f o r t r a i n -ing and supervision i s j u s t i f i e d by the q u a l i t y and quantity of service that i s thereby given i n the agency program. A paid case-aide need not require more supervision than the average f u l l y employed worker; t h i s would depend on care-f u l s e l e c t i o n of the worker and a c a r e f u l l y planned job assignment. If case-aides receive needed t r a i n i n g and super-v i s i o n , professional attitudes are developed. Further, the question of evaluation i s c l o s e l y tied to the means of supervision. An Important Corollary to Evaluation i s that Recognition  Should Follow Paid case-aides receive recognition f o r t h e i r services i n the form of pay and opportunity f o r advancement. Correspondingly, volunteer case-aides should be given some kind of formal recognition. This should be an i n d i c a t i o n of quantity as well as q u a l i t y of work. A record should show time given. Evaluation of work should be done as a co-operative e f f o r t between the worker and the supervisor. The acknowledgement may be i n the form of a c e r t i f i c a t e , pin,badge, l e t t e r , card, et cetera, and may - 1 1 5 -be given personally, by mall, at a tea, banquet, award ceremony, et cetera. Newspaper p u b l i c i t y i s often u t i -l i z e d . Increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s valued. In order to f e e l recognized, whether paid or volunteer, case-aides need to f e e l f r i e n d l y acceptance of themselves as a person and of the efforts being put f o r t h i n the work assigned. The name of the case-aide should be remembered, written, and pronounced c o r r e c t l y . If one i s away, inquiry should be made. I f one Is i l l , proper notice should be taken. If there i s a s t a f f function, case-aides should be included. They should receive as much concern and attention as any other employee. They should be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a f f a i r s i n behalf of the agency. Every opportunity should be taken by s t a f f and administrator to say thank you f o r cooperation i n the day-to-day work load. Suggestions from case-aides should be considered and credit given where due. Recognition involves a process. An agency must e s t a b l i s h a precedent and the case-aide should know: i n advance the possible recognition that may be earned. I f well handled, the means of recognition can benefit the. status of the agency and the profession i n the community. Certainly, the recruitment of case-aides f o r the agency w i l l be d i r e c t l y affected. The r i s k to the profession, - 116 -i f there i s one, i s a " r e s u l t of poor selection, t r a i n i n g and supervision."^ Recognition need not be given unless i t i s r i g h t f u l l y due. 1 F i t z p a t r i c k , Anne L., "Volunteers," Canadian Welfare. December, 1954- PP- 83 -89 . (Mrs. F i t z p a t r i c k i s past Chairman of the Board of the Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vane ouver.) CHAPTER if. FUTURE PLANNING FOR CASE-AIDES IN CASEWORK AGENCIES If professional s o c i a l workers are w i l l i n g to analyze the p e r p l e x i t i e s of modern casework agencies, they w i l l , of course, recognize that t h e i r source of support i s dependent upon the understanding of the general public beyond the lay representation of the board of d i r e c t o r s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a program i s the most d i r e c t method of gaining active support. Even then, i f s u f f i c i e n t funds were forthcoming f o r adequate f a c i l i t i e s and personnel, provisions would necessarily have to be made f o r r e c r u i t -ment and t r a i n i n g of suitable aides to available profes-sional workers. The f i r s t step toward these conditions would very well be a discussion of the values and the problems i n the use of case-aides, paid or volunteer. These values and problems can be sorted out and i l l u s t r a t e d as they apply to the c l i e n t , the profession, the agency, the community, and the case-aide, paid or volunteer. In order to c l a r i f y these d i v i s i o n s , sugges-tions of values and problems have been brought f o r t h i n l i s t form. Then, long-range planning toward the general-ized use of case-aides i s discussed i n further d e t a i l . In conclusion, suggestions are focused toward the use of caseraides i n Vancouver. - 118 -1. Values i n the Use of Case-aides A. Values f o r the C l i e n t a. Impulsive help i s often the worst kind. A case-aide program sets a standard f o r service to the c l i e n t as compared to the spontaneous and undirected e f f o r t s of occasional well-meaning volunteers. b. The services of a case-aide can be separate and i n addition to those of the professional caseworker and thus extend the resources available to the c l i e n t . c. Extra attention by a case-aide separate from and i n addition to professionals can mean therapeutic success. Warmth and assurance can be offered i n ways not e n t i r e l y suitable and not within the time schedule of a s o c i a l worker. d. A case-aide serving as a f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r to a shut-in i s a v i t a l contact to the outside community. e. Much personal service i s needed i n a community and i s b e n e f i c i a l In many ways i n helping people to gain strength and confidence to help themselves. The tremendous demand never can or should be met by pro f e s s i o n a l workers alone. f . Some c l i e n t s do not want or cannot use the intensive treatment offered by a professional caseworker when they apply f o r "some" help from a casework agency. Trained case-aides can often handle the case adequately In - 119 -the instance. g. Through friendly v i s i t i n g , et cetera, preventive casework help can be received and resources can be suggested before more severe problems develop or multiply. B. Values for the Agency a. By the use of case-aides, the agency program can be intensif ied, supplemented and expanded or extended. Better service may be offered to the c l ient . b. Objectives of the agency must be c lar i f i ed and focussed and verbalized in order to formulate a case-aide program. c. Analysis of services and administrative routine must be accomplished in order to set up job c la s s i -f icat ions, qualif icat ions, training required, et cetera. d. Agency pol ic ies must be examined and formal-ized so that they can be understood and used by the case-aide . e. Resulting information from agency analysis explains often times such puzzles as: why does the service cost so much? How efficient i s the setting of the agency? What are the tools and techniques available or being used in casework or in training or in supervision of personnel? What are the preventive aspects of the agency program? et cetera. - 120 -f . Sounder practices are in e v i t a b l y developed because of questions and d i f f e r i n g opinions that r e s u l t with the introduction of lay personnel. g. Case-aides can bring a gauge of community reaction to the agency service program and p o l i c i e s . h. Case-aides can give and create verbal support to the agency i n the community. i . Case-aides can give and create f i n a n c i a l support f o r the agency i n the community. j . Volunteer case-aides can be trained toward more i n t e l l i g e n t board membership, also. The t r a i n i n g program f o r case-aides can be used as orientation f o r those persons elected to the board of the agency. k. Agency s t a f f i s stimulated to cooperation i n mutual e f f o r t i n setting up or carrying through a case-aide program. 1. By the use of case-aides, more agency s t a f f i s freed f o r spe c i a l projects i n research or community organization, or f o r supervision within the agency. m. Volunteers bring freshness of v i s i o n f o r future planning f o r the agency. C. Values f o r the Profession a. Case-aides can make i t possible f o r a case-worker to maintain professional standards and f o r the profession as a whole to rais e i t s requirements. Caseworkers - 121 -can l i m i t t h e i r r o l e to using t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s — the handling of behavior problems and the demonstration of leadership through supervision and spe c i a l projects. b. With the help of a case-aide under d i r e c t supervision, a caseworker has more time f o r face-to-face contact with a c l i e n t , thus increasing the value and reduc-ing the cost of h i s or her appointment as a s o c i a l worker. c. I t has been proven that people can carry more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and d i f f e r i n g kinds of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I f i t i s defined and self-committed In an organized and d i s c i p l i n e d way. Job analysis makes personal e f f i c i e n c y more possible. d. With more time to give to projects such as research and community organization, the status of the s o c i a l worker i s elevated and h i s p o s i t i o n becomes more desirable i n the public eye. e. Cooperation i n the use of case-aides and r e s u l t i n g t r a i n i n g programs brings understanding and support to the goals of s o c i a l work. f . Case-aides are a v i t a l contact with the com-munity and can give constructive c r i t i c i s m . Professionals are forced to explain t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i n terminology that Is generally understandable. At the same time, the profes-sionals are forced to express t h e i r attitudes to laymen.. In so doing, they are able to judge the response. - 122 -g. A case-aide program i s a method whereby the professional can reach the lay p u b l i c . h. Volunteers bring enthusiasm that i s contagious to the professional who may otherwise become quite s t a t i c . 1. Case-aides can i n many instances prove to be good r e c r u i t s f o r graduate Schools of S o c i a l Work and membership i n the Canadian Association of S o c i a l Workers. D. Values f o r the Community a. Case-aides can maintain a preventive program of casework f o r the community as compared to the treatment aspects which are more d i s t i n c t l y a part of the professional s o c i a l worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Case-aides can best help with those c l i e n t s who do not present behavior d i f f i c u l t i e s j t h i s leaves more time available from the caseworker f o r the benefit of the c l i e n t s who show p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . b. The lay person i s a v i t a l part of the community organization process and the democratic form of government. c. Unmet needs can be recognized and i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l welfare i s r e v i t a l i z e d through the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of laymenvin casework programs i n the community. d. Case-aides become an educated and experienced section of the community from which information and interpretations about s o c i a l work can be radiated. Husbands, fa m i l i e s and friends become dire c t contacts f o r the agency - 123 -Into the community and vice versa. e. Leadership i s developed i n the community; personality, character, s k i l l s , i n t e r e s t s , et cetera, are registered, recognized, and encouraged among volunteers; caseworkers are found f o r more contributions i n thi s f i e l d as part-time workers. As a r e s u l t , a community i s better prepared to handle emergencies and catastrophies. In t h i s age of automation, many s k i l l s might otherwise remain l a t e n t . f . Frustrated c i t i z e n s and groups who would l i k e to make po s i t i v e e f f o r t s toward a better community may channel their "desire to do something" by serving as a case-aide. Experimentation i s the possible r e s u l t as c i t i -zens are allowed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n current programs and express t h e i r opinions. When they receive explanations as well as jobs to take actions under professional leadership, new hope i s offered to laymen that t h e i r natural i n t e r e s t i s u s e f u l . g. Q u a l i t i e s of unselfishness are developed i n c i t i z e n s l i k e honesty and decency, through example and experience, and through education f o r adult r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . h. Simple homely jobs can have great value when considered as a part of the whole. It i s thus more pos-s i b l e to see the impact of the aggregate on the o v e r a l l community welfare. I. Through the development of a community program f o r the use of case-aides i n casework agencies, inter-agency - 121+ -cooperation i s necessary. This accomplishment can be used f o r further advances f o r community ben e f i t . j . Through the i n t e l l i g e n t use of volunteers as case-aides, confidence i s increased i n the community i n the use of f o s t e r homes, adoption services, family counselling, and other casework services. k. In the well-planned use of case-aides, the community benefits from more detailed administration of agencies by the setting-up of agency records, s t a t i s t i c s , et cetera, because better research could thus eventually be conducted. Case-aides can a s s i s t i n research projects i n many ways; some volunteers are s p e c i a l i s t s i n some area of the s o c i a l sciences and can make great contributions to s o c i a l work as well as to the community. E. Values for the Case-aides a. A l l ages, e s p e c i a l l y older people, can meet q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to serve as a case-aide i n some way. b. A f e e l i n g of giving and sharing i s fundamental to happiness as i s the f e e l i n g of being u s e f u l . Acting as a case-aide, a man or a woman can s a t i s f y these needs. c. New s k i l l s may be learned as a case-aide. Not the least of these i s the opportunity to act u n s e l f i s h l y . d. Leisure time pursuits of c u l t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and r e l i g i o u s (et cetera) interests can be u t i l i z e d f o r the benefit of the c l i e n t s . - 125 -e. Homemaking s k i l l s , group work experience, business t r a i n i n g and other normal c a p a b i l i t i e s can be shared as a case-aide. 2 . Problems i n the Use of Case-aides A. Problems for the C l i e n t a. U n t i l volunteers develop understanding and experience with certain groups and c e r t a i n settings, they are f e a r f u l of v i s i t i n g some of the l o n e l i e s t c l i e n t s , such as the aged, the c h r o n i c a l l y i l l ; mental patients, handi-capped, immigrants, et cetera. b. I t i s important f o r volunteers as case-aides to give continuity of service i n order to give support and security to the c l i e n t . Summer vacations i n f a m i l i e s some-times keep these volunteers at home. c. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y must be respected i n working with c l i e n t s and case-aides must sometimes learn t h i s to be trusted. d. A case-aide must learn to recognize a need f o r r e f e r r a l to a professional caseworker i f a c l i e n t shows behavior problems or a need f o r resources unknown to the acting worker. Otherwise, a c l i e n t i s at a disadvantage i n being assigned the services of a case-aide. e. A case-aide must learn to accept h o s t i l i t y i n order to give the c l i e n t an opportunity f o r development of personality. - 126 -f . A case-aide must learn interviewing s k i l l s i n order to be objective and h e l p f u l to the c l i e n t . Otherwise the c l i e n t may become confused and discouraged. g. Case-aides can best be oriented to an agency by administrative assignments, work with c o l l a t e r a l r e f e r -ences, et cetera, but, unfortunately f o r the c l i e n t , case-aides prefer face-to-face contacts and thereby are w i l l i n g to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y beyond t h e i r a b i l i t y at times. h. A r e a l i n t e r e s t i n community needs can best be s t i r r e d when people work with human beings and t r y to understand them and t h e i r problems. This part of community work has been the special job of the caseworker and has not been shared with the layman to the extent that i s necessary f o r increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n welfare needs. I t i s the problem then of the c l i e n t to share h i s concerns with the volunteer as well as the professional. B. Problems f o r the Agency i n Using Case-aides a. A case-aide program i s not easy to i n s t i g a t e or to carry along. b. I n f i n i t e d e t a i l i s necessary. I t Is an admin-i s t r a t i v e job that i s time consuming and needs community, board, and s t a f f cooperation. c. Resistance from busy professional workers i s i n e v i t a b l e . d. Though inexpensive and valuable, a case-aide program requires a d d i t i o n a l time and money, subject to - 127 -board approval. e. Administrative time i s necessary on a continued basis i n addition to the supervisor's time. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to convince s t a f f and board of the ultimate time-saving p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the t o t a l agency. f . The s p i r i t that animates the successful volun-teer begins with the d i r e c t o r and fans out through the board and s t a f f to be r e f l e c t e d i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s . Some-times a change of mind i s as necessary as a change i n approach i n establishing a successful program. g. Gase-aides need personnel p r a c t i c e s , a p o l i c y manual, f a c i l i t i e s , orientation, t r a i n i n g , supervision, and recognition, a l l to be planned within the agency and focused on the objectives of the agency. h. To present a preventive program successfully, i t must coincide with the readiness and enthusiasm of the lay p u b l i c. i . An agency must be able to se l e c t the r i g h t person f o r the r i g h t job i n order to safeguard the c l i e n t . j . Agencies are faced with the problem of elimin-ating case-aide- applicants who are incompetent, immature, neurotic, dominating or motivated by personal gain. k. It i s d i f f i c u l t to eliminate through the years the volunteer ease-aides who diminish i n value and yet keep t h e i r prestige and goodwill. - 128 -1. There i s the problem of keeping the i n t e r e s t of case-aides aft e r they are trained. It i s important to i n s p i r e personnel to e f f i c i e n c y as well. m. Many agencies could use trained and q u a l i f i e d case-aides but cannot take time to t r a i n r e c r u i t s . n. Lay suggestions should be given a channel through supervision to administration. It i s d i f f i c u l t to maintain t h i s i d e a l . o. Emergency requests from caseworkers should receive consideration f o r assignments by supervisors along with routine jobs. p. Agency planning should t r y to take advantage of the p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g available to them through the case-aide selected. This can be by assignment to special projects and committees. C. Problems f o r the Profession;. a. A s o c i a l worker must have a clear understanding of professional functions and adhere to sound p r o f e s s i o n a l practice i n order to be secure i n sharing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i n order to gain the respect of the layman. b. Professional terminology must be explained i n lay terms or not be used. c. A professional s o c i a l worker needs to examine his or her attitude toward case-aides and be sure accept-ance i s being shown and appreciation i s being expressed - 129 -f o r t h e i r contribution. Otherwise, laymen f e e l insecure and become i n e f f e c t i v e . d. Pew caseworkers i n schools of s o c i a l work are trained to use volunteers. e. So c i a l caseworkers are accustomed to working with one person at a time f o r the most part so that i n a volunteer case-aide program i t i s a problem to turn group resources to constructive use. The willingness of a group to give service must be established. Decisions of individuals that concern the group must be referred back to the group. With guidance toward r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Important and tedious d e t a i l can thus be placed on the group and i n t h i s way mature i n d i v i d u a l s can be more r e a d i l y attracted into service. f . Direct contact with professional s t a f f adds personal meaning to the work of case-aides. S o c i a l r e l a -tions between professionaHs and laymen need development. g. There must be equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t a f f and caseload i n order f o r a caseworker to have time to set up a cooperative arrangement with a case-aide. h. New areas of service must be accepted as a supplement to intensive casework. i . In using case-aides, the supervisor must r e a l i z e her r o l e as an interpreter of s o c i a l work, the agency objectives, analysis of services, administrative - 130 -routine and the need f o r s t a f f cooperation. j . Those who t r a i n and supervise case-aides must be accepting and understanding of the varied attitudes and learning a b i l i t i e s . k. Regardless of convictions and b e l i e f s i n the value of a case-aide program, the professional caseworker cannot operate beyond the climate of public opinion and the readiness of the agency and s t a f f f o r t h e i r use. D. Problems f o r the Community a. Problems to be met i n s o c i a l casework sta r t with the people.and work back to the agencies, thus developing a new pattern of attack. Agencies, however, are often laggard i n adjustment to community needs as f o r instance i n the use of case-aides. b. The community needs must be determined before laymen can be interested or trained to meet these needs. c. Planning should represent the major int e r e s t s concerned and not be ready-made or handed-down. d. It i s d i f f i c u l t to combine readiness and enthusiasm of lay people with community programs and agency need. e. A case-aide program i s a community organization assignment. Agency cooperation i s necessary while estim-ating the need. In order to r e c r u i t laymen'for the purpose, t r a i n i n g should be somewhat standardized. - 131 -f. A case-aide program operates most effectively on a community-side basis. This is because of several factors. A standardized placement procedure can control supply and demand for a l l casework agencies. Development of a community aim is prerequisite to long range planning. In order for agencies to continue to subscribe to a program, community objectives must be met. g. The community must have confidence in the effectiveness of the caseworker's profession and what the social workers think are the unmet needs. Planning has been difficult because of the public's limited concept of welfare. h. Planning is never f inal though often consid-ered for the present only. i . The value of lay participation in casework agencies must be demonstrated in order to prove the need. j . Community persons who are experienced with volunteers and who have a belief in their value, must be willing to devote time for the development of a program for their use. k. Success of a case-aide program is dependent on the ratio of professional and lay leadership. 1. The community should protect the positions of those who are employed for pay and, at the same time, in order to protect democracy, uti l ize the willingness and enthusiasm of those citizens who are willing to serve without pay. - 132 -m. There i s value to the community only i f the r i g h t person i s selected by the agency f o r the r i g h t job. n. There i s no centralized source of up-to-date information about the use of case-aides as currently practiced i n casework agencies. E. Problems f o r the Case-aides a. Case-aides must prove they can be dependable and objective and that they can develop a p r o f e s s i o n a l viewpoint though performing separate tasks from the professional caseworkers. b. Costs are involved f o r volunteers i n giving service. Some useful people would be available i f expenses such as transportation were defrayed by the agency. c. Laymen are sometimes overwhelmed by the extent of an agency program sothat they become f e a r f u l of t h e i r a b i l i t y and usefulness. Case-aides may need help and praise when they seem to f a i l . (Working through a group can be a reassuring antidote.) d. Case-aides must r e a l i z e that they need more than beginning enthusiasm to be u s e f u l . I t i s a duty to keep a sustained interest and in:so doing to learn to supplement and not supplant a caseworker. - 133 -e. The job f o r which a layman seems b e s t s u i t e d on f i r s t glance i s not always of the most i n t e r e s t to a c a s e - a i d e . f . New f i e l d s of concern are c r e a t i n g new a r e a s of p r e r e q u i s i t e t r a i n i n g f o r c a s e - a i d e s . Examples would be community c e n t e r s , housing p r o j e c t s , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n s , immigration, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d use of p a r o l e , e t c e t e r a . g. P r o f e s s i o n a l caseworkers do not always cooperate or o f f e r a f r i e n d l y or h e l p f u l a t t i t u d e toward v o l u n t e e r s . 3. Long-range Planning Toward the G e n e r a l i z e d Use of  Case-aides In order t h a t w e l f a r e agencies may s i n k t h e i r r o o t s i n t o the t o t a l community, they must work w i t h broad r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a l l groups of s o c i e t y . I t i s important to i n c l u d e laymen of v a r i e d circumstances and i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to r a c e , n a t i o n a l i t y , r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and economic c o n d i t i o n . T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e the time of p r o f e s s i o n a l workers f o r l e a d e r s h i p beyond casework s u p e r v i s i o n d u t i e s . D i f f e r e n c e s a l s o need to be r e c o g n i z e d and i n t e -g r a ted between n a t i o n a l and l o c a l , government and v o l u n -t a r y , l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups. Suggestions have been - 134 " made that some form of a Canadian national committee on 2 volunteers be formulated with a professional social worker 3 in charge to direct the channels of communication. Eventually, we may have a set of standards for volunteer service,^" generally recognized and approved by the Associa-tion of Volunteer Bureaus. The use of case-aides could well be a part of this shared information and f a c i l i t a t e their programming, whether paid or volunteer. With the changing patterns of society and the varying interests of people, a general and concerted effort should be advanced, periodically, in order to At the present time, there is not any formal national organization for Volunteer Bureaus in Canada. It is con-sidered a central community- service responsibility lying in the Community Chests and Councils Division of the Canadian Welfare Council. The Canadian organizations are related; however, for the most part, to the American organization, the Association of Volunteer Bureaus, which is connected with the United Community Funds and Councils of America. At present, work i s being done regards volun-teers and citizen participation in welfare programs, jointly, by the National Social Welfare Assembly, and the United Community Funds and Councils of America, both at 345 E. 46th, New York, N.Y. It is the practice of the National Conference of Social Work, in the United States, to provide for a meet-ing of the Association of Volunteer Bureaus to which both Canadian and American agencies send representatives. This information has been gained from the Community Chest and Councils Division of the Canadian Welfare Council, in a letter sent March 1, 1957. 2 Ferguson, Mrs. G.V., "The Future Organization of Volunteers in Canada," Panel Discussion, Canadian Con-ference of Social Work. 1944,-P- 189. 3 Larkin, Kathleen, "Standards,. Training and Consultant Service, to agencies,".from the Proceedings of the 1955 Volunteer Workshop at-the National Conference of Social Work, San Francisco, by the Association of the Volunteer - 135 -assess the new needs t h a t have been cre a t e d In w e l f a r e and i n o r d e r to determine the best p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r meeting the r e q u i r e m e n t s . ! I t i s suggested by t h e w r i t e r t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n t use of the layman, w i t h i n casework agencies, should be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of a team approach w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s o c i a l work at t h i s time. Per-haps we are being l e d to a new stage of development t h a t would have proved n e c e s s a r y even i f we had s u f f i c i e n t numbers of s o c i a l workers. The b i g o p p o r t u n i t y f a c e d the agencies a t the end of World War I I when people of v a r i e d s k i l l s had become accustomed t o s h a r i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n the community; these people w i l l continue to g i v e , however, on l y i f they f e e l they have commen-surate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Needs are g l a r i n g but i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l h e l p l e s s without p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . Old p e o p l e , handicapped, mental p a t i e n t s , immigrants, d e l i n q u e n t s , et c e t e r a , o f f e r a g r e a t c h a l l e n g e to the p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work. A c t u a l l y u n t i l the r o l e of these needy people I s seemingly more a t t r a c t i v e and more g e n e r a l l y understood, i t i s 3 (continued) Bureaus of the. Community Chests and C o u n c i l s o f America. k (from p. 13k) Young, Mary A., Handbook f o r V o l u n t e e r s . Standards f o r Agencies U s i n g V o l u n t e e r s , as a r e s u l t of symposium 1952, Chicago, i n a_ speech "How V o l u n t e e r s and P r o f e s s i o n a l s Work Together." 1 Ross, Murray G-., Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , Harper Bros., New York, 1955, p. 32"! "Ways and means must be found t o p r o v i d e , t h e average c i t i z e n w i t h some source o f p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , and c o n t r o l over, h i s changing environment." - 136 -d i f f i c u l t t o r e c r u i t unpaid laymen t o g i v e p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s i n t h i s area, though the demands can bes t be met on a p r e v e n t i v e b a s i s which i m p l i e s s u i t a b l e t a s k s f o r c a s e - a i d e s . An example of v a l u a b l e community s e r v i c e , v e r y much s i d e t r a c k e d a t the pr e s e n t time, i s i n regards t o ol d people. S t u d i e s , r e p o r t s , and e d i t o r i a l s are p r e p a r -i n g the way but machinery has not been c r e a t e d t o t a c k l e the s i t u a t i o n by community understanding and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Old people who cannot a d j u s t t h e i r savings t o the r i s i n g c o s t of l i v i n g are o f t e n t o t a l l y unprepared to cope w i t h the p r i c e s and inconveniences of s h i f t i n g f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and u r b a n i z a t i o n ; s m a l l comforts and r e c r e a t i o n are needed t o m a i n t a i n a l e v e l of decency and a sane outlook. Some of these f a i l u r e s of our s o c i e t y are due to ... the confused ideas about the nat u r e of the aging p r o c e s s . Some are due to the lag g a r d pace at which o u r . s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a d j u s t to changing age d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n our p o p u l a t i o n . Some are due to p h i l o s o p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l i nadequacies i n our a t t i t u d e s toward o l d age and r e a l i z a t i o n of I t s highe r v a l u e s . I t i s the job of a l l concerned w i t h s o c i a l p l a n n i n g t o t r y to remedy these shortcomings i n such a way t h a t the l a t e r p e r i o d o f l i f e need not be s u b j e c t to s o c i a l handicap but may become the season, as In a l l n a t u r e , f o r the f i n a l f l o w e r -i n g and f r u i t i o n of the pr o c e s s of growth .... 1 In another a r e a of concern, handicapped persons are sometimes more l i m i t e d i n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l i t y x Wickenden, E l i z a b e t h , The Needs of Older People, prepared f o r the Committee on Agin g of the American P u b l i c Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 19%, p. 8. - 137 -development than they are with physical l imitations. For instance, the epileptic i s greatly misunderstood by the general public . It i s not so much a problem of finding employment for these cases, because that is not always a poss ib i l i ty ; i t is a need for fr iendly relationships with those in the busy world. "Extra attention that an emotionally i l l person gets while hospitalized often spells the difference between .,1 therapeutic success and f a i l u r e . As a transit ion from the inst i tut ion , planned experiences for these mental cases in normal home and community settings can be for a 2 day at a time. Mental patients who are ready to be inte-grated into community l i f e should be given that opportunity, but is the community ready to provide suitable boarding-home care along with friendly support? Families from which these mental patients came are often the contributing factors to their i l lness and, unless different f a c i l i t i e s can be provided, w i l l bring a recurrence of the mental i l l -ness. Another group needing acceptance i n the community are the immigrants who are unaware of the resources in social agencies and are needing endless services. Tutoring, 1 Lauber, Joan F e l l , The Volunteer in Psychiatric Prog-rams, loc. c i t . , 1955 Volunteer Bureau Workshop. 2 Unitarian Church women give this service to mental patients at Cleveland State Hospital , U.S.A. Former pro-fessional social workers act as observers and reporters in the project. - 138 -housing, and r e c r e a t i o n a l outlets are some of the f i r s t requirements. S t i l l another example of preventive work that should be developed i s i n the area of parole and d e l i n -quency where people have often been the victims of circumstances beyond t h e i r control; much of t h i s could be traced to poor housing and economic stresses i n early home l i f e . Perhaps a case-aide program would a l e r t the public to better understanding and, with professional guidance, i n t e r e s t the public i n voluntary studies and discussions toward prevention of these wicked c i r c u i t s i n society. Miles says that: Inadequate housing not only causes su f f e r i n g among adults but a f f e c t s the moral standards of children today and i n the future. The health of the family i s affected and t h i s i n . t u r n affects family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , one of the major concerns of caseworkers. 1 Complexities of l i f e are growing simultaneously with rapid i n d u s t r i a l expansion and technical developments, increasing urbanization and family breakdown. Resulting human problems l i k e narcotics and alcoholics are r e q u i r -ing s k i l l e d help and understanding. The need f o r preventive help i s also imminent i n t h i s regard. The effectiveness of casework, as i t i s being practiced, might be more e f f i c i e n t l y evaluated i f Miles, op. c i t . , pp. 61^ -65". - 139 -p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained workers could take time to observe and report on "follow-up" work with c l i e n t s a f t e r cases have been closed by an agency worker. Retired profes-sional workers could be used part-time as case-aides, i n t h i s capacity. Other research projects f o r the benefit of soc-i a l welfare could be conducted under the supervision of professional s o c i a l workers by persons e s p e c i a l l y trained i n other s o c i a l services but who have free time as case-aides to make and share t h e i r contributions. Such a procedure could correlate findings i n the s o c i a l sciences and aid i n developing a more a n a l y t i c a l and r e f i n e d approach to casework methods and agency p o l i c i e s . 1 The 19^6 International Conference of S o c i a l Work at Munich gave a plea f o r "research, s o c i a l planning and s o c i a l a c t i o n . " 2 In long range planning, the educational objectives • Miles, op. c i t . . pp. 221-23. "The research attitude must become basic to a l l p r a c t i c e , i n s o c i a l work. Open-mindedness and freedom of thought must be more than t o l e r -ated; they must be encouraged. The experimental a t t i t u d e must become a hallmark of practice i n the f i e l d . Individual s o c i a l workers must become devoted to the d i s c i p l i n e d sub-j e c t i v i t y (usually referred to as o b j e c t i v i t y ) that per-meates the s o c i a l sciences... (1) An intensive and detailed analysis should be made of the actual practice of s o c i a l work ... (2) A f t e r such an analysis, cooperative s o c i a l science research could aid i n developing a more s o p h i s t i -cated i n t e l l e c t u a l base f o r the practice of case work ... (3) F i n a l l y , the acceptance of a broad s o c i a l - s c i e n t i f i c point of view by s o c i a l work pr a c t i t i o n e r s would give s t a b i l i t y to such research." Sheibley, G. Evangeline, "Impressions of the Internat-ional Conference of S o c i a l Work,1 S o c i a l Casework. Vol. XXXVIII No. 10, Dec. 19%, p. 493. - lifO -of a case-aide program must be considered. Just as case-work t r a i n i n g i s considered to be generic, cannot case-aide t r a i n i n g stem from a general base of understanding? Can tec h n i c a l schools or i n s t i t u t i o n s of lower academic l e v e l s prepare personnel f o r a l e v e l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n performing s p e c i f i c tasks i n a casework agency? These questions can be answered only i f the professional workers are w i l l i n g to conduct a job analysis and to share t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Can high school and undergraduate college students 1 be channelled to s o c i a l service i n the hopes of developing good c i t i z e n s h i p , cooperation and a sense of c i v i c respon-s i b i l i t y ? This reservoir of energy, time, enthusiasm and f l e x i b i l i t y may be very u s e f u l i n a case-aide program. Some areas are u t i l i z i n g t h i s resource during vacation 2 periods as a recruitment f o r schools of s o c i a l work, at the same time r e l i e v i n g volunteers who prefer to be at home with t h e i r f amilies during the summer months. I t should be 1 According to the Family Service Association of America i n a l e t t e r received February 2$, 195>7, paid work experience i s being offered i n several agencies during summer months f o r college students who are considering s o c i a l work as a career. Information can be secured from the Executive D i r -ectors at the following addresses: The Welfare Federation of Cleveland, 1001 Huron Road, Cleveland, Ohio. New York Recruiting Committee, 20ij. East 39 Street, New York, N.Y. Eastern Massachusetts S o c i a l Work Recruitment Committee, lf.3 Mount Vernon Street, Boston 7, Massachusetts. 2 See Appendix 0-5* f o r minutes of the Family Service Assoc-i a t i o n Conference^on Recruitment, A p r i l 30, 19$$. - up . -considered here, also, that many more children i n need of casework services are at loose ends during summer months as compared to the school year. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the Scandinavian 1 solution of requiring work exper-ience i n the s o c i a l f i e l d p r i o r to admission to further study i s a t t r a c t i n g widespread attention. In welfare planning, nothing i s f i n a l . As p o s s i b i l i t i e s are recognized f o r the use of case-aides, within an agency, cooperation may be encouraged on an inter-agency and perhaps a regional basis. U n i v e r s i t y knowledge and help can then best be u t i l i z e d for the benefit of the sum t o t a l . The influence of a University School of S o c i a l Work i s very important i n the planning f o r case-aide programs. Here again i s a t o o l to be used i n recogniz-ing and solving differences between public and p r i v a t e , lay and professional, local., and national, et cetera. The Schools of S o c i a l Work must, i n turn, as part of t h e i r curriculum, stress the importance of the use of volunteers and laymen i n any welfare agency. Students of s o c i a l work should be taught to deal with the public not only as community organization leaders and board members but as part of agency personnel. Case-aide t r a i n i n g programs can be u t i l i z e d f o r general education i n agency p o l i c y and s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s , 3 "Training f o r S o c i a l Work, An International Survey," United Nations, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Lake Success, New York, 1950, p. 95. - 142 -i f attended by board members and other laymen responsible f o r agency objectives. Such a measure could be set as a prerequisite f o r the honored appointments. A Community Chest and Council or other centralized agency would need to be the core f o r the formulation of a successful case-aide program i n a community. This, of course, could be strengthened by regional and national work shop planning. The f i r s t step i s l o c a l cooperation between casework agencies toward a mutual objective to be engineered through the central body. The general understanding should eventually emerge that case-aides are an added expense i n time and money, p a r t i c u l a r l y u n t i l the new venture i s organized, and therefore allowance should be made i n the budget. I t would seem s u f f i c i e n t l y important that to offset t h i s debit, add i t i o n a l services are provided and the time of the professional s t a f f can be concentrated toward the tasks to which they should be dedicated. Perhaps the r e s t r i c t i o n on funds f o r services i s one of the things that prevents administrators from considering a case-aide program to check the vicious c i r c l e and jump the hurdles. The caseworkers are too busy to think or plan d i f f e r e n t l y toward helping themselves to solve t h e i r own pressures. Paid case-aides can be a very dependable stop-gap to meet the pressures within an agency. The success of t h e i r performance i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h e i r s election and - 143 -in-service t r a i n i n g f o r s p e c i f i c designated tasks. Their values to the agency can be more e a s i l y proven as a sort of p i l o t plan. However, as voluntary e f f o r t s have been the source of a l l s o c i a l welfare agency programs through h i s t o r y , the volunteer case-aide can give add i t i o n a l con-trib u t i o n s through s k i l l s and interpretations gained and shared i n the wider community. When "The Use of Volun-teers" i s mentioned i n general terms, i t more often implies doing l e f t - o v e r jobs that receive no t r a i n i n g or super-v i s i o n and therefore do not allow growth i n understanding of professional s o c i a l work and a l l i t can imply. Professional s o c i a l work i s : ... based on p r i n c i p l e s that are compatible with our r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , and economic background. Like a l l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t has faced many crises throughout i t s h i s t o r y . Each time a c r i s i s has been met and conquered, s o c i a l work has gone forward as a greater instrument f o r human good. Progress i n s o c i a l work, as i n other f i e l d s , has been born i n controversy. The charity organization movement was i n combat with, the lack of system i n r e l i e f - g i v i n g . The case-work method was struggling against the i n t u i t i v e methods of f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r s . Public welfare services were p i t t e d against the voluntary r e l i e f - g i v i n g s o c i e t i e s . Federated fund r a i s i n g was not welcomed by the voluntary agencies, who wished to continue t h e i r poorly organized independent methods of fund r a i s i n g . But nothing i s as inevitable as change, and come i t must. 1 Perhaps laymen w i l l necessarily be used as case-aides to meet urgent needs i n casework agencies and in, so doing prove t h e i r ultimate values i n helping the Miles, op. c i t . . pp. 222-23 . - Hi4 -professional s o c i a l worker to maintain t h e i r standards and reach t h e i r objectives. As Dr. E l i z a b e t h Govan stated i n her address to the Lower Mainland Branch of the Canadian Association of S o c i a l Workers i n 1957, the main task that faces the profession i s to decide what people should be trained f o r and then plan the t r a i n i n g . She emphasized that i f the profession does not face t h i s task, outside pressures w i l l take over without the guidance of professional s o c i a l workers and without using the knowledge of s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s . Cooperation i s needed at a l l l e v e l s , l o c a l and in t e r n a t i o n a l , i f our ideals are to be r e a l i z e d . If the basis f o r cooperation i s not present i n the i n d i v i d u a l countries and the l o c a l communities, our i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s are i n vain. Individuals must f e e l that they are a part of the services that must be shared. k' P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Using Case-aides i n Vancouver Vancouver does not seem quite ready to consider a case-aide program on a general scale. For the most part, MacDonald, Dorothy Mary, Voluntary Service i n Welfare  Agencies, Thesis f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, 1955, the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work, abstract, p. i v , "The survey revealed that there i s considerable contemporary in t e r e s t i n the subject of volun-teers. However, understanding of the p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i -butions, which volunteers i n the s o c i a l welfare setting can make seems to require i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . There seems lacking, too, any u n i f i e d understanding of some of the elements i n a good volunteer program." P. 13, "There are many jobs that trained s o c i a l workers are doing that are a waste of pro-f e s s i o n a l time." - -l o c a l administrators of casework agencies seem very f e a r f u l of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of using laymen i n the near future. Though less than f u l l y - t r a i n e d workers are being paid i n some agencies f o r casework duties, they are not considered to be case-aides 1 and do not receive the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and supervision f o r a c l a s s i f i e d job f o r which they would, according to standards, be selected. Administrators usually recognize the possible values of case-aides to the agency but usually have not instigated discussion of the idea at board or s t a f f l e v e l . Even more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t that inter-agency cooperation i n the i n t e r e s t of volunteers i s not f i r m l y established and f r e e l y used within the Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver. Yet, unless some p i l o t plan i s established and general future planning i s instigated as an inter-agency endeavor, the i n t e l l i g e n t use of volunteers i n casework agencies w i l l be completely obliterated and opportunity f o r public understanding and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be further f o r f e i t e d . 2 There i s need to f e e l community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Vancouver. Experience seems to prove that an attitude '''Except Vancouver General Hospital S o c i a l Service Depart-ment where, the case-aides are more commonly called " c l e r k s . " ^During the Annual Meeting, Feb. 1957* of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, the President, Mr. Harry "M." Boy ce, mentioned t h i s idea as a reason why the f i n a n c i a l g o a l was not reached i n the l a s t campaign, i n the f a l l of 1956. - 1^ 6 -of "not" assuming community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the f a c t that too few c i t i z e n s are personally involved i n or affected by the s o c i a l welfare programs at a l o c a l l e v e l and the effectiveness of democratic action at government l e v e l i s not appreciated. The Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver has (1957) taken a forward step i n the hopes of bringing case-work agencies into active cooperative planning toward the more i n t e l l i g e n t use of volunteers. In order to f i n d the extent of a need f o r volunteers i n agencies and i n order to plan community t r a i n i n g courses that are e n t i r e l y u s e f u l to the agencies concerned, the Volunteer Bureau i s forming an Advisory Committee. The S o c i a l Planning D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Council i s being asked to send representatives from i t s d i v i s i o n s to serve as committee members along with non-chest organization representatives from community centers, h o s p i t a l s , et cetera, who are interested i n volunteers. A temporary sub-committee w i l l eventually be struck to plan and carry out t r a i n i n g courses within areas of p a r t i c u l a r concern. These courses would be given i n addition to the general volunteer t r a i n i n g course given by the Bureau each year. 1 At the present time, agencies using r e c r u i t s of the Volunteer Bureau do not seem 1 "A Preparatory Course f o r Volunteers" co-sponsored by the Adult Education Department' of the Vancouver School Board, October, 1956. The course ins t r u c t o r was Mrs. Ernest H i l l f o r s i x sessions. Registration was % . Previously, In 1954, a 1 1^ again'in 1955, the Director and Several s t a f f members of the School of S o c i a l Work of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia participated as regular l e c t u r e r s . - 1 4 7 -to keep any records of how many of the volunteers have taken the tr a i n i n g programs offered, nor does the t r a i n i n g course given seem to be prerequisite to the tasks assigned. Perhaps the Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver 1 2 should consider a "Self Study" as has been done recently i n San Diego, C a l i f o r n i a . Several conclusions of t h i s report seem applicable i n the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . I t was suggested that a service budget be set up a year i n advance to anticipate hours of volunteer service to be needed within each agency. The agency i n turn could educate the community as to the need and bring attention to various appointments f o r service. A speakers' bureau could lead the way. An up-to-date l e a f l e t might be published to present to each x "Analysis of Self Study by the San Diego Volunteer Bureau, 1 9 5 5 V o l u n t e e r Bureau Workshop was held at the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, San Francisco, by the Association of Volunteer Bureaus of the Community Chests and Councils of America, Inc. This report was a part of the Proceedings. October, 1 9 5 6 . the Welfare Council of Greater Winni-peg published an Analysis of purpose, structure and operation to meet.changing needs.• Volunteer organ-izations of San Diego, San Francisco, New Orleans, and Toronto provided reports o f . t h e i r s e lf-studies as guides. - 114.8 -new volunteer o u t l i n i n g necessary attitudes and responsibi-l i t i e s . I t was hoped that volunteers could be trained f o r special brackets, such as case-aides. I t was advised that the e f f o r t be made to determine whether volunteers were being recruited through other sources than the Volun-teer Bureau by necessity or by choice and i f there was over-lapping. It was suggested that a l i a i s o n committee of the Volunteer Bureau Advisory Board be set up s p e c i f i c a l l y to meet with the s t a f f of each agency and smooth out problem areas i n the relationship between agency and bureau. I t was also hoped to be able to catalogue the unknown force i n the community: church groups, service clubs, et cetera, as part of the t o t a l p i c t ure. When i t i s r e a l i z e d that some \\$0 volunteers are l i s t e d with the Volunteer Bureau of 1 Greater Vancouver and 196 have regular assignments, we may know that much remains to be done i n a c i t y the size of Vancouver. Such a self-study report might suggest revisions In program and procedure and perhaps i n con s t i t u t i o n or by-laws i f that seemed indicated. Such a committee : as has been suggested f o r i n t e r -agency cooperation can e s t a b l i s h channels of communication, not only among themselves but to the p u b l i c . In using volunteers or laymen, the corresponding answers w i l l be re-directed i n return, i f opportunity i s provided. Standardized practices can be established f o r general background t r a i n i n g , recruitment and sel e c t i o n i n the, Volunteer Bureau and f i n a l 1 Prom the annual report published i n the Province. January 3 l ) 1 9 £ 7 . - 149 -selection or r e j e c t i o n f o r further t r a i n i n g , supervision and recognition, i n the agency. The use of case-aides, as with any other project, cannot be forced or handed down by any planning committee, however. I t should be the r e s u l t of a planning "process" and should be dependent, f o r Its inception, as well as i t s success, upon the community interest and voluntary associations. The execution of the program would neces-s a r i l y \be done by a group small enough to be e f f i c i e n t , 1 but the group should be a f a i r representation of a l l con-2 cerned. The focus should at f i r s t be on the "means to the end" 3 and not on the "end" i t s e l f . The focusing may bring a new pattern f o r accomplishment. In order, to bring focus to the case-aide program, objectives must be agreed upon by the ones concerned. The contributions to be made by case-aides should be stressed not i n terms of money saved or given, but on the basis of possible service to the c l i e n t and the need f o r such creative e f f o r t . The r e c r u i t s desired must be able to anticipate the s a t i s f a c t i o n s to be r e a l i z e d i n the 1 This f a c t o r was taken into consideration i n setting up the recent planning committee i n the Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver. 2 I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to trace i n the h i s t o r y of the Bureau, the extent of representation as to race, creed, n a t i o n a l i t y , geographic location of housing, et cetera. 3 Ford, Lyman S., "The E f f e c t of World War I I on Commun-i t y Organization ,for-.Health and Welfare," 19kk.National  Conference of S o c i a l Work. Columbia University Press, p. kOO. - i5"o -1 e f f o r t , whether they be paid or volunteer. This description, to be given i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of suitable r e c r u i t s , i s pre-supposing job analysis by each agency interested i n the program. As with the Vancouver General Hospital, a paid case-aide can be assigned to a designated section of a workload i n tasks suitable f o r the lesser-trained personnel but a part of the casework job. Each agency w i l l have to make a f i n a l analysis of t h e i r own job descriptions according to t h e i r own purposes f o r case-aides, paid or volunteer. However, a general break-down of categories among agencies might prove h e l p f u l i f done on a cooperative basis, such as with the New York 2 Study. For well-conceived planning, the casework agencies w i l l need to work together as well as separately and keep good rel a t i o n s h i p s between si m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s at a l l l e v e l s . This means that time must be allowed the s t a f f members of each agency so that they may give leadership and maintain public r e l a t i o n s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l that competent and regular leadership be paid i n order that well-meaning but non-professional leadership not be allowed 1 The Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver has discontinued t h e i r p o l i c y of an annual recognition through p u b l i c i t y channels. p Chapter 1. of t h i s thesis describes b r i e f l y the report of the committee of the D i v i s i o n on Families and Adults of the Welfare and Health Council of .New York C i t y . "Volunteers i n Selected Casework Programs," June, 1956. -151 -to gain control. Otherwise, planning may be worked out at one l e v e l with the enthusiasm of a "cause" 1 and not - p allowed to develop "with an adequate i n t e l l e c t u a l base" by f a c t f i n d i n g and community organization process to become a "function." Another important reason f o r using p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained persons i n setting out the case-aide program i s because of the need f o r diagnostic interviewing techniques i n recruitment. This f a c t would apply to the screening pro-cess at the Volunteer Bureau or centralized agency as well as i n the i n d i v i d u a l agency where placement i s decided. Professionally trained workers are supposedly competent to deal with groups. Caseworkers, as such, have sometimes become so highly specialized i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s that they forget t h e i r need f o r s k i l l i n t h i s regard, though the basic approach i s considered to be very much the same. In the present day m i l i e u of group organization, case-workers need to u t i l i z e t h i s resource f o r case-aides and unless they are w i l l i n g to do so, they are s a c r i f i c i n g a valuable resource that i s part of a prominent trend. "Today's volunteer i s quite l i k e l y to be an active, p a r t i c i p a t i n g member of a group." 1 Lee, Porter, S o c i a l Work as Cause and Function. Colum-b i a University Press, New York, 1 9 3 7 , P« 4* 2 Miles, op. c i t . . p. 9. 3 Lange, Winifred C , "New Avenues f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i -pation, a paper from the 1956 Volunteer Bureau Workshop, from the National Conference of .Social Work, St. Louis, May, 1956, p. .1. Published by the Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , United Community Funds and Councils, N.Y. - 152 -Groups as such can assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a project assigned by a caseworker, whether i t i s performed by an i n d i v i d u a l or a group and whether i t i s to benefit an i n d i v i d u a l or a group. V i s i t i n g can be kept on a con-tinuing basis to res t homes, et cetera. Holiday c o n t r i -butions need not be r e s t r i c t e d to Christmas giving. Small contributions from groups can be put to creative use f o r the benefit of a person or a group as i n furnishing s t a t -ionery, postage stamps, extras f o r diabetics, spending money f o r orphans or whatever the idea suggested by the caseworker. Larger contributions can be assigned to a project f o r the benefit of a group as i n the development of a game room or the purchase of a t e l e v i s i o n set. Some children need s p e c i a l educational opportunities or scholar-ships. Couples can provide home p r i v i l e g e s f o r teenagers on weekends. "A case-aide, acting as a f r i e n d l y grown-up taking the c h i l d or adolescent to the movies, the zoo or the park does not detract from the client-worker r e l a t i o n -ship, but by putting another f r i e n d l y element into the ch i l d ' s world can add to h i s capacity." 1 In some instances, as f o r example, a group project with puppets i n the treatment program of psychotics, the e f f o r t can have research value. Cooperation with churches i s another progressive angle to be considered i n any discussion of the development Burns, op. c i t . , p. 9 . - 153 -of a case-aide program. Many sects are taking a new approach to human dilemmas. 1 The community planning of a case-aide program w i l l do well to include representatives from churches as interested c i t i z e n s . The Province Achievement Plan f o r teen-agers suggests that i n t e r e s t i s awakening i n helping young people 2 of Vancouver to assume t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as c i t i z e n s . Perhaps some one agency could take t h i s clue and st a r t a p i l o t project available to teen-agers who would l i k e to make further contributions toward bettering the s i t u a t i o n i n which they l i v e . The Women1s A u x i l i a r y of the Vancouver General Hospital reported^ that during the past year, 1,932 volunteers gave 27,872 hours to volunteer service. The Women's A u x i l i a r y of the Health Center f o r Children of the same h o s p i t a l gave 1,614 voluntary hours and raised #11,178 x The Department of Chr i s t i a n S o c i a l Service of the Anglican Church of Canada at 600 Ja r v i s Street, Toronto, cooperates with the S o c i a l Science Department at.the University of Toronto and issues an.annual report of a c t i -v i t i e s . One of the recent speakers sent by the church to the campus of the Univer s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was a Doctor of Psychiatry. Social service of the church, l o c a l l y , i s carried out through a S o c i a l Service Committee and a Women's A u x i l i a r y . A recent project has been aid to the Hungarian refugees. 2 February, 1957, announced i n coordination with the Kiwanis Club to recognize the "Teen-of-the-Month" through-out the year. A f i f t y d o l l a r bond i s the monthly-award. Annual reports published i n the Province, Feb. 1, 1957-- l$k -during the same 195>6 season. Here i s a huge storehouse of power and energy that could probably be interested i n a community case-aide plan as an additi o n a l l e v e l of Interest 1 f o r as many members as were needed. Another group resource f o r the recruitment of case-aides might r e s u l t d i r e c t l y to the Family Service Agency i f they followed the "ideas f o r Building Agency Membership." The Family Service Association of America considers that the membership part of the agency i s one of the four e s s e n t i a l parts, s t a f f , executive and board being the other three. The pamphlet outlines the ways of developing the membership, stressing the p r i n c i p l e of demo-c r a t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and control. In answer to the question "How do we get time to do a l l t h i s ? : " I f the agency has time consuming waiting l i s t s and too l i t t l e money, perhaps more time spent i n developing ' c i t i z e n power' to bring the agency to the fore i n the community and also before budget committees might r e s u l t i n larger grants and lessened wait-'s ing l i s t s . " "Volunteer help can cut down on time and expense."^ 1 Cooperative planning f o r t r a i n i n g case-aides e s p e c i a l l y f o r h o s p i t a l service might be considered on a community basis with a l l Vancouver hospitals p a r t i c i p a t i n g . Vancouver i s the hospital, center f o r a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 Pamphlet issued from a Report of the Committee on Cur-rent and Future Planning, June 195>6, Family Service Assoc-i a t i o n of America., 192 Lexington, Avenue, New York. 3 Ibid.. p. 6. k Loc. c i t . -155 -The B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n of the Canadian Mental Health Association i s a "group of public s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s and s c i e n t i s t s who dedicate part of t h e i r time, v o l u n t a r i l y , to further good mental health i n our province." 1 At the present time, t h i s group serves as aides to the plans of the doctors and the nurses, and not as aides to the case-workers who are of a d i f f e r e n t department. Here again i s an area f o r future development of a case-aide program when a s u f f i c i e n t nucleus of caseworkers has been established and time available allows f o r the execution of the idea of bringing added f r i e n d l i n e s s and hope which i s so needed in an i n s t i t u t i o n a l type of l i v i n g . Perhaps a special agency f o r old people would give most benefit by i t i l i z i n g suitable oldsters from the group i t s e l f to serve as case-aides i n helping those who are becoming unadjusted i n modern l i v i n g and are d e s i r i n g a 2 casework service. The Vancouver population of aged i s proportionately larger than many sections of Canada, because of the climate and recreational opportunities. Many of these persons would l i k e to be u s e f u l i f only given the leadership. 1 Gee, A.M., M.D., Director of Mental Health Services quotes i n the forward.of the "Handbook f o r Volunteers" issued by the B.C. D i v i s i o n of. the Canadian Mental Health Association. 1956 L i f e Insurance Pact Book published by the Insti t u t e of L i f e Insurance, 488 Madison Avenue, New York, pp. 98 -99 , "at. the age one the expectation of l i f e years: I8J4.3-58 was 47.94 and the deaths per 1000.were 64.49 1949-51 was 69.16 and the deaths per 1000 were 2 . 3 0 . - 1^6 -Old people need to have services made available to them and not done f o r them, i n most cases. With ca r e f u l planning, ex i s t i n g agencies could u t i l i z e t h i s source of r e c r u i t s . The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia has been com-paratively forward i n providing basic needs f o r Its c i t i z e n s through l e g i s l a t i o n . Many voluntary agencies supplement these conditions and provide casework services when i n d i -cated to the extent that i s possible with available pro-f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . Lesser trained s t a f f could f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r programs by performing s p e c i f i c routine duties and, i n addition, by offering f r i e n d l y support and sharing special i n t e r e s t s . (Hobbies of books, music, a r t , garden-ing, et cetera, can be more personally s a t i s f y i n g to a c l i e n t , i f shared.) The present aim i n casework agencies needs to be a balance of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the professionals and the laymen so that public understanding i s gained through p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the laymen, directed and q u a l i f i e d by the professionals. The objectives of s o c i a l work would be more nearly gained by meeting welfare needs according to the highest possible standards. Professional goals of 1 International Survey of Programmes of S o c i a l Development, prepared by the Bureau of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , United Nations Secretariat, United Nations, N.Y., 1955, P- Hj-O. "The com-plex problems of the welfare of the aged have been.discussed — a t the l o c a l , national and international l e v e l — a t an ever-Increasing number of meetings and conferences on geron-tology; ... programmes f o r the aged are tending more and more to approach the problems of old age i n t h e i r entirety, rather than to be exclusively concerned with the question of economic well-being. The aim i s to keep the aged person integrated i n the l i f e of the community... to help him to function as an asset rather than a l i a b i l i t y , and to convince the rest of the community to regard him as an asset." - 157 -s o c i a l work are not being met i n a l l Vancouver agencies at the present time but the p o t e n t i a l f o r planning i s evident. Experiments i n other communities could further studies and give d i r e c t i o n to l o c a l planning. Casework agency objectives may not need to be forever li m i t e d or cu r t a i l e d by heavy caseloads i f administrators, s t a f f , and boards are w i l l i n g to incorporate the laymen, t h e i r supporters and interpreters, into active p a r t i c i p a t i o n with the services to the c l i e n t . Perhaps, through a p i l o t plan, gradually, with acceptance and experience, a community wide case-aide program could eventually be established i n Vancouver. Without a centralized control of the demand and supply of r e c r u i t s , a continuing program would meet snags. Agencies must i n turn meet the standards necessary f o r maintaining the i n t e r e s t of laymen. Of course, u n t i l the agencies gain community support of the project they are somewhat t i e d . On the other hand, even though the need i s recog-nized i n the community, the casework agencies themselves must agree as to the need and express a willingness to cooperate to the extent that i s necessary. In the c i t y of New York, the Junior League has p i l o t e d plans that have led to the extensive use of case-aides i n several agencies. Perhaps, with encouragement, the Junior League of Vancouver could be interested i n s i m i l a r p i l o t plans. - 1^8 -As W.C. Lange has s a i d i n the a r t i c l e p r e v i o u s l y q u o ted, " S u c c e s s f u l v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e i s an outgrowth of an i n f i n i t e c a p a c i t y f o r d e t a i l .... Some of t h i s seem-i n g l y t e d i o u s e f f o r t can be p l a c e d s q u a r e l y on t h e group. But i t t a k e s g u i d a n c e t o b r i n g members of the group t o an .,1 a c c e p t a n c e of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " There i s danger, i n our i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s o c i e t y , t h a t s o c i a l w e l f a r e programs w i l l become an i d e a l beyond r e a l i z a t i o n . We are l i a b l e t o l o s e the v e r y v a l u e s t h a t make l i f e w o r t h w h i l e by f a i l i n g t o u t i -l i z e t h e h e l p f u l n e s s a v a i l a b l e by i n c r e a s e d c i t i z e n p a r -t i c i p a t i o n i n w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . To keep a l i v e the " s o c i a l " i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e , t h e l a y p u b l i c must be encouraged t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A c a s e - a i d e program i s a d e f i n i t e way of g a i n i n g p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n c o n t a c t s between a g e n c i e s and t h e i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c , t h e r e b y r e l e a s i n g the p o s s i b l e v a l u e s . Lange, op. c i t . t p. 2. - 159 -APPENDICES Appendix A. D e f i n i t i o n s of S o c i a l Work A - l . United Nations, S o c i a l Commission: Canadian d e f i n i t i o n , 1949. A - 2 . United Nations, International Survey; developments common to a l l countries, 1950• Appendix B. D e f i n i t i o n s of Case-aides (and other terms i n thesis) B - l . Welfare and Health Council of New York C i t y , 1956. D e f i n i t i o n of "case-aides," from "Volunteers i n S e l -ected Casework,Programs." -B - 2 . "Case-aides" and other terms used i n the present t h e s i s . Appendix C. P r i n c i p l e s and Standards i n the Use of Case-aides C - l . Community Chests and Councils of America, New York C i t y . (Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n cooper-ation with the National S o c i a l Welfare Assembly, New York. A statement of P r i n c i p l e s of Volunteer Services, adopted 1945.) C - 2 . Welfare and Health Council of New York' C i t y . Central Volunteer Bureau Workshop on Standards f o r Volunteers in Casework Agencies, February, 1956. A report on a job-c l a s s i f i c a t i o n plan (200 d i f f e r e n t kinds of volunteer jobs)* C - 3 . A report of the Director of S o c i a l Service of the'City of New York Department of Hospitals to 'the Junior League of New York City about the volunteers that have been" assigned i n the Riverside Hospital, North Brother Island, New York, 1953. C-lf. A report and an attachment of the demonstration by the Junior League and the Community Service Society of the C i t y of. New York, February 1957. C - 5 . A summary of the Minutes of the Meeting of the Conference of Representatives of the Family Service Association of America Subcommittee on Recruitment and Scholarships and Schools of So c i a l Work, A p r i l 30, 1955. - 160 -C-6. A discussion guide to be considered i n developing basic standards f o r volunteer jobs i n casework agency programs, from the Workshop on Standards f o r Volunteers i n Selected Casework Programs, February, 195>6. C-7. The questionnaire used during the Vancouver interviews. Appendix D. Agencies Contacted i n the Present Survey D-l . L i s t of Vancouver Agencies where directors were i n t e r -viewed. D-2. L i s t of Agencies with whom correspondence was conducted. Appendix E. Bibliography - 161 -APPENDIX A - l . The Canadian d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l work as presented to the Social Commission of the United Nations i n 1949 i s as follows: "Objectives of a s o c i a l worker; to r e l i e v e , remove and/or, i f possible, prevent s o c i a l maladjustments so that there may be a sa t i s f a c t o r y interplay of the forces d i r e c t i n g human l i f e , i n order that there may be the most e f f e c t i v e expression of human capa c i t i e s . " " F i e l d of operation of a s o c i a l worker; s o c i a l maladjus-tments i n i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and communities; and between i n d i v i d u a l and i n d i v i d u a l , and/or group and/or community." "Techniques of a s o c i a l worker; the observation of evidence of existing s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; the precise record-ing and continued i n t e r e s t i n and study of these evidences; the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the same as indicating agents with power to retard or a s s i s t development; a knowledge of a v a i l -able community resources, and from these, the provision f o r the subject of opportunity for the development of latent strengths within him." The entire lack of any one of the t h r e e — a n awareness of the objectives of the work, the f i e l d of operation, or the necessary technique f o r i t — p r e c l u d e s the worker from being called a " s o c i a l worker." 1 Taken from the International Survey. United Nations, Department of So c i a l A f f a i r s , Lake Success, New York, 19^0, Appendix I, p. 10J?, e n t i t l e d "Training f o r S o c i a l Work." - 162 -APPENDIX A-2. The 19^0 International Survey of the United Nations (page 13) has pointed out that: S o c i a l work has very general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l countries of the world where " s o c i a l work i s recognized as an organized a c t i v i t y . " Developments are not the same In a l l countries but a "few conceptions have been singled out that are common to a l l these countries" and they are l i s t e d as follows: 1. " I t i s a helping a c t i v i t y , designed to give assistance i n respect of problems that prevent i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and groups from achieving a minimum desirable standard of s o c i a l and economic well-being. 2. I t i s a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , carried on not f o r personal p r o f i t by p r i v a t e p r a c t i t i o n e r s but under the auspices of organizations, governmental or non-governmental or both, established f o r the benefit of members of the community regarded as requiring assistance. 3. It i s a l i a i s o n a c t i v i t y , through which disadvantaged i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and groups may tap a l l the resources i n the community available to meer t h e i r u n s a t i s f i e d needs." - 163 -APPENDIX B - l . Case-aides " D e f i n i t i o n : The volunteer case-aide works, without pay, under the supervision of a case worker or supervisor. The major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y centers on carrying out s p e c i f i c a l l y assigned tasks which do not require s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , experience or the continuity available through f u l l time t r a i n i n g . S p e c i f i c tasks may include: talking with c l i e n t s or with persons having a c o l l a t e r a l i n t e r e s t to secure specified information; v e r i f y i n g recorded information regarding b i r t h s , deaths, mar-raiges, divorces, work records, etc.; securing s o c i a l h i s t o r y information; making home condition reports i n answer to out of town or other i n q u i r i e s ; t a l k i n g , playing with children at the o f f i c e while parents are t a l k i n g to a case worker; recording information secured i n r e l a t i o n to these tasks. These tasks may be carried out through face to face interviews, telephone conversations, and/or correspondence. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : Primary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are willingness to com-mit time on a planned basis and emotional maturity. One day a week of volunteer time i s a minimum requirement. The job of case aide i s one of the most responsible of the volunteer jobs, requiring a substantial agency investment i n t r a i n i n g and supervision. Therefore regular service should be assured i n order to make the program economically worth while. Godd physi-c a l condition i s e s s e n t i a l . Volunteer case aides may be required to climb s t a i r s and to perform other p h y s i c a l l y exacting functions. An i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y to learn on the job also i s es-s e n t i a l . For example, volunteer case aides should have the same q u a l i t i e s as paid personnel. They include warmth, sympathy, in t e r e s t i n and acceptance of people, i n i t i a t i v e and f l e x i b i l i t y , a capacity f o r o b j e c t i v i t y , and a s e n s i t i v i t y to proper dress f o r the job. With respect to age, the middle years (I4.O to 60) have been found to be the most desirable, i n part, because home.responsi-b i l i t i e s may be less thus assuring the agency r e g u l a r i t y of service. Persons, male or female over 21 years of age are, however, acceptable. Educational requirements specify college graduation as one measure of the volunteer case aide's a b i l i t y to absorb and use the t r a i n i n g provided f o r the job.-High school graduation i s considered the i r r e d u c i b l e minimum.. Substitutes for a college degree considered acceptable are business t r a i n i n g , s e l f -education, comparable past volunteer job experience or other volunteer experience supported by an evaluation of p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Some demonstrated f a c i -l i t y or the written word i s e s s e n t i a l f o r recording information. - 164 -Training; Agencies should plan and develop a s p e c i f i c formal t r a i n i n g program under a designated person. They should assign a s p e c i f i c member of the professional s t a f f to conduct t r a i n i n g i n the casework content of the agency's function and i n o v e r a l l agency program and p o l i c y . To say it-another way, i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g or agency orientation should emphasize: the community, p o l i c i e s and structure of the agency, and i t s casework service and prog-ram. In other areas of agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g and orientation of volunteers may be assigned to agency trained volunteers. The s k i l l s - t r a i n i n g formally provided by the agency to i t s case aides should include information on the meaning of behavior, casework philosophy and method. S k i l l s should further be developed i n "on the job t r a i n -ing" or "inservice t r a i n i n g " ( i n contrast with " i n i t i a l " or "orientation" t r a i n i n g ) . These can be developed by conferences with the supervisor, staff.meetings, s t a f f i n s t i t u t e s . Although there i s no general rule to apply, volunteer case aides should be included i n as many s t a f f a c t i v i t i e s as pr a c t i c a b l e . Of para-mount importance i s continuity of tr a i n i n g opportunities with a clear demarcation between the orientation t r a i n i n g and the "on the job t r a i n i n g . " Formal community courses (not related to a s p e c i f i c agency) f o r volunteers, where volunteers from various agencies can learn, together and share t h e i r experiences, while being of great value, should be a preparation, not a substitute f o r formal t r a i n i n g by the agency where the volunteer works. Supervision: A plan f o r supervision of the volunteer case aide i s e s s e n t i a l . The plan may vary i n form but i t should be true to i t s two-fold,purpose, i . e . , to assure that the q u a l i t y of case work services i s maintained by the agency and to a s s i s t the case aide to develop and use the s k i l l s required. A c o r o l l a r y i s to help the volunteer derive s a t i s f a c t i o n from his job. Except i n unusual circumstances the supervisor should be a pro-f e s s i o n a l s t a f f member. For example, i f a volunteer i s supplement-ing a case worker he should be supervised by eithe r the worker or h i s supervisor. In other areas supervision may be assigned to a trained volunteer. Tools f o r supervision include observation of a volun-teer on the job, conferences and written records and reports. While the frequency of supervisory conferences and t h e i r formal-i t y may vary, they should be reg u l a r l y scheduled. Evaluation and Recognition: Evaluation of the work of the volun-teer case aide i s linked with the supervision of h i s work. Recognition of his work i s a step i n the evaluation process. Since the agency i s responsible f o r the q u a l i t y of i t s case-work services, the agency, should arrange f o r the evaluation of the volunteer's work to."be on a planned and continuing basis. - 165 -I t may be either formal or informal or written or o r a l . The key i s the continuity of the process. The frequency depends on the requirements of the agency and the amount of time the volunteer gives to the agency. The volunteer case aide should be informed by the agency during his orientation t r a i n i n g that his work w i l l be continuously evaluated and he should know the cr i t e r i a : : to be applied. He should share i n the process to determine h i s progress, h i s usefulness to the agency and h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h i s assignment. The evaluation should be used f o r the development of both the agency 1s program of casework services and the capacities of the volunteer. Recognition should be an Integral part of the agency's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to i t s volunteer case aide. Factors to be considered i n giving recognition to volunteers are continuity and time and length of service. Recognition should be based pr i m a r i l y on the q u a l i t y of h i s service and should be given neither p e r f u n c t o r i l y nor excessively. Whether formal or informal, recognition should be planned and honestly related to the q u a l i t y of the volun-teer case aide's work. Formal recognition may take the form of badges, awards, l e t t e r s of recommendation. Whether formal or informal recog-n i t i o n should come not only from the professional s t a f f member responsible f o r supervising the volunteer but also from the administrative head of the agency." - 166 -APPENDIX B-2. D e f i n i t i o n s of terms used i n t h i s thesis are as follows: Casework: "The main assumptions i n a l l the accepted d e f i n i t i o n s are: the.individual and society are interdependent; s o c i a l forces influence behavior and attitudes, affording opportunity f o r self-development and contribution to the world i n which we l i v e ; not only are a l l problems psychosocial; inner and outer; but most casework problems are interpersonal, that i s , more than one person i s l i k e l y to be involved i n the treatment of the i n d i v i d u a l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n casework i s the family u n i t involved; the c l i e n t i s a responsible p a r t i c i p a n t at every step i n the solution of h i s problems. At the center of the casework process i s the conscious and controlled use of the -j. worker-client r e l a t i o n s h i p to achieve the ends of treatment." Caseworker: A person p r o f e s s i o n a l l y educated and trained and e s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d to practice casework, i n any welfare s e t t i n g . Case-aide or group aide: (Less than one year of graduate s o c i a l work training.) "This l e v e l includes the a b i l i t y to a s s i s t i n giving material aid and d i r e c t service and/or to work inslmple groups using basic programme s k i l l s . The case or group aid must have as personal attributes an i n t e r e s t i n people and t h e i r welfare, kindness, and good group management."2 A case-aide may be volunteer or paid, but must be e s p e c i a l l y selected, oriented and trained within the agency i n which he or she serves. Volunteer: An unpaid worker or a " f r e e - w i l l " ^ worker. "Quali-f i c a t i o n s required i n a volunteer w i l l vary according to the type of service he i s to give." 4 The work may require l e s s t r a i n i n g than that of a case-aide..Certain p r i n c i p l e s of service should be observed.5 1 Hamilton, op. c i t . . p. 22. 2 Statement submitted by Vancouver work group on job c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n and the competence of the s o c i a l worker, etc. 1956. This d e f i n i t i o n i s used because i t stresses the importance of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r a c t i c e of casework. The group was a sub-committee of the Workshop on S o c i a l Work Education held Dec. 1956, Quebec. Funds provided by Carnegie Foundation 3 Roget's International Thesaurus, Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, N.Y-., 1950. k- MacDbnald, D.M., Voluntary Service i n Welfare Agencies. M.S.W. Thesis, U.B.C., 1955, p. 11. ™ £ Appendix C - l i s a statement of p r i n c i p l e s adopted, 1945, by Community Chest and Councils of America. - 167 -APPENDIX C - l . Prom Work K i t of the Workshop on Standards f o r Volunteers i n Selected Casework Programs prepared by the Committee f o r the Development of Standards f o r Volunteers i n Selected Case Work Programs, D i v i s i o n on Families and Adults, and the Central Volunteer Bureau, Welfare and Health Council of New York C i t y , February 2^ ,.1956, p. 3. "A Statement of P r i n c i p l e s of Volunteer Services was developed and adopted i n 1945 by the. Advisory Committee on C i t i -zen P a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Community Chests and Councils of America Inc., and the National S o c i a l Welfare Assembly. The major points made i n t h i s statement are: . Volunteer Service i s that voluntary e f f o r t , given without pay, by any i n d i v i d u a l i n a community who wishes to share wherein the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of those democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned with the advancement of human welfare. The opportunities of a l l C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n are the p r i v i l e g e and obligation of a l l . Because the solution of c i v i c , economic, education, p o l i -t i c a l and s o c i a l problems depends to a large extent upon the q u a l i t y of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the continuing development of more e f f e c t i v e volunteer service through which the best poten-t i a l leadership i s found and trained, i s of r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Recognition of a r e c i p r o c a l relationship b u i l t on mutual respect and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the volunteer and the pro-f e s s i o n a l , each with i n d i v i d u a l areas of competence defined and understood, i s necessary to the best development of a s o c i a l attitude and an i n t e l l e c t u a l technique with which to approach common objectives. Volunteers should never be used i n jobs or services f o r which money has been provided f o r paid personnel, or, f o r which money could be secured through proper channels and action. Exceptions might be i n 1. e s s e n t i a l jobs impossible to f i l l with paid personnel because of man-power conditions, provided the p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t of these conditions does not r e s u l t d i r e c t l y from poor personnel practices i n comparison with s i m i l a r oper-ations; 2. i n situations where money might be made available f o r i n i t i a t i o n or extension of services upon demonstration by volunteers of the need f o r and value of such services. There are basic p r i n c i p l e s fundamental to g i v i n g and to receiving volunteer service. Giving a f f e c t i v e volunteer service requires sincere i n t -erest i n the work to be done, willingness to accept the neces-sary t r a i n i n g and supervision, and a business-like approach to the job. A good volunteer should be as dependable as a. paid worker. Receiving volunteer service requires recognition of the usefulness of such workers to the agency's program, respect f o r t h e i r desire to contribute time and e f f o r t without pay, and constructive interest i n t h e i r education and supervision." - 168 -APPENDIX C-2. In February, 1956, i n the Workshop f o r Standards f o r Volunteers i n Casework Agencies: "The Central Volunteer Bureau of the Welfare and Health Council (of New York City) has developed a job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n plan, covering some 200 d i f f e r e n t kinds of volunteer jobs, as an aid to agencies, organizations and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e i r work of determining what part of the t o t a l agency program and which p a r t i c u l a r tasks or group of tasks might be carried out by volunteer workers. These 200 jobs are grouped within eight mutually exclusive service c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which are: Individual and Family Services Child Care Services Health Services Education, Recreation and Leisure Time Services Research, Planning and Promotion Service Of f i c e Services Production, Repair and D i s t r i b u t i o n Services S p e c i a l i s t s Services" " i n some organizations or programs, one person may be performing tasks involved i n more than one job t i t l e , and i n more than one service c l a s s ; i n other organizations or programs, many people may be performing the same job, and there may be an even f u r -ther p a r t i a l i z a t i o n within i n d i v i d u a l job t i t l e s . This i s true i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of a l l broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n plans. This does not, of course, invalidate a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n plan since i t s major purposes are 1. to help to e s t a b l i s h some common termin-ology f o r jobs. 2. to serve as a guide to agencies as they seek to define t h e i r own jobs and determine appropriate q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and 3«- to f a c i l i t a t e the findings of these jobs into the plan or organization f o r t h e i r t o t a l s t a f f , whether the workers are paid or volunteer." • ("There i s further mentioned i n the June, 1956, report that !Uniformity i s a desirable and u s e f u l device i n developing s k i l l s - t r a i n i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l jobs and as a means of f a c i l i t a -t ing transfer of a volunteer's talents from one agency to another.") . ,. The kinds.of jobs volunteers perform i n r e l a t i o n to an agency's casework program f a l l within the f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " i n d i v i d u a l and Family Services" which i s defined as follows: "Volunteer assistance to individuals or family groups with personal or family problems." Under the general d i r e c t i o n or immediate supervision of the professional s t a f f s of agencies, organizations and i n s t i t u t -ions, volunteers may help by conducting interviews with a p p l i -cants f o r the agencies' service, by being aides to caseworkers, or v i s i t i n g nurses; by being f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r s to the aging,handicapped or home bound; by serving as big brothers or s i s t e r s ; by serving - 169 -as escorts for the agencies' c l i e n t s . These jobs are performed f o r family service agencies, health organizations and h o s p i t a l s ; i n s t i t u t i o n f o r children, aged or handicapped; and settlement or neighborhood houses." Among other s p e c i f i c job t i t l e s grouped within the class are the following which r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y to agencies' case-work programs: Intake Interviewers Case-aides Escorts F r i e n d l y V i s i t o r s Big Brothers or S i s t e r s The major focus of the volunteer jobs may be: 1. to supplement the work of the casework s t a f f by taking over tasks which do not require professional t r a i n i n g and experience or the continuity provided by f i l l - t i m e paid s t a f f . 2. to enrich the casework program by providing service beyond i t s usual scope; or opportunities f o r the agencies' c l i e n t s to have a meaningful relationship with another person as a part of the casework plan. In jobs of t h i s sort the fact of the volun-teers "giving" of himself, h i s time and talents are d i f f e r e n t from "being paid" to provide a service i s an important element. - 170 -APPENDIX C - 3 . C i t y of New York Department of Hospitals Riverside Hospital North Brother Island May 27 , 19^3. Letter to the Junior League from the Director of S o c i a l Service. Volunteers have been assigned to the Psychiatric S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n , c l o s e l y supervised by the S o c i a l Work s t a f f . A s s i s -tance to the s o c i a l worker i n our Screening C l i n i c which works i n close proximity to the Narcotics Term Court. "They have been extremely h e l p f u l i n orienting both the applicant.and h i s family to the program and a c t i v i t i e s of the h o s p i t a l , to the adminis-t r a t i v e rules, v i s i t i n g hours, etc. This primary orientation i s so very important i n that both the prospective patient and his family have a great many fears and questions about enter-ing t h i s unknown area. The volunteer service i n the Screening C l i n i c interviews the r e l a t i v e s or guardians to secure face-sheet information which l a t e r can be incoroporated into the case h i s t o r y . They are also active i n contacting r e f e r r i n g agencies and court workers i n informing them of the acceptance or r e j e c t i o n and d i s p o s i t i o n of the indiv i d u a l s referred. Their aid to the s o c i a l worker as a l i a i s o n person between the hosp-i t a l and the r e f e r r i n g agencies and courts has a most important public r e l a t i o n s value and also serves to interpret the program of the h o s p i t a l and the c r i t e r i a used f o r admission." "The bulk;of the volunteers see service within the h o s p i t a l proper." On withdrawal and Study Service they a s s i s t the s o c i a l worker i n completing the case h i s t o r y by gaining such information from both parent and r e l a t i v e interviews and by contacts with interested agencies. They work c l o s e l y with Occupational Therapy personnel on the same service. They gather observations notes and encourage completion of material from the various a u x i l i a r y departments of the h o s p i t a l , such as the school, occupational therapy, recreation, vocational r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n , nursing service, etc. They a s s i s t i n reception and management of v i s i t o r s . Several.have been language i n t e r p r e t e r s . A selected number have been able to form "big s i s t e r s " r e l a t i o n -ship with patients .and have supplied a warm and meaningful adult r e l a t i o n s h i p to a youngster. Those with specialized s k i l l s and interests have been able to work with patients on a s p e c i a l hobby basis. They have been most h e l p f u l i n compiling community - 1 7 1 -resources and revealing f i l e s and under d i r e c t i o n of a s t a f f member have been able to v i s i t agencies interested i n accept-ing r e f e r r a l s from the h o s p i t a l to interpret needs and program of the h o s p i t a l and to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of other agen-cies rendering services to the patient. Evening volunteer s o c i a l work aides were assigned to the even-ing A f t e r Care C l i n i c (June 1, 195>3) to help determine the functioning of the patient back i n the community, seeking out sources of r e f e r r a l f o r these patients f o r group work and recreation, boarding home placement etc. These same :. volunteers have been acting as recorders f o r therapy groups. The aides attend s t a f f conferences and i t i s f e l t they have made s i g n i f i c a n t contributions at the meetings. - 172 -APPENDIX C-k. Limited D i s t r i b u t i o n , Welfare Advisory Council N. Y. J. E. New York Junior League February 1957 Demonstration by the Junior League of the C i t y of New York and the Community Service Society A REPORT ...In recognition that there i s a need to demonstrate how and to what extent supplementation by volunteer s o c i a l work aides;can supplement modern day case-work i n a family service setting, the Community Service Society and the Junior League of the C i t y of New York agreed to undertake a Demonstration i n which League volunteers would be used by a Community Service Society D i s t r i c t O f f i c e . Appended to t h i s report i s a pre-liminary draft of a statement prepared by a staff of the East River D i s t r i c t of Community Service Society which outlines more f u l l y the purpose, scope and method f o r the Demonstration. In concurring with that statement, the Junior League indicated that i t attached primary importance to the use of volunteers as outlined i n the "job description" i n d i r e c t service capacities and preferred that the Demonstration not include volunteers i n r e l a t i o n to administration. It was hoped that the Demonstration might c l a r i f y the value of volunteer s o c i a l work aides f o r wider use i n family service agency settings. This report has been prepared by the Junior League and discussed with appropriate persons at Community Service Society who recognize the need of the League to report to i t s Welfare Advisory Council and perceive no objection to the substance. During a four-month period from October 1955 through Jarv^. uary 1956 the League supplied two volunteers. A t h i r d withdrew af t e r one month and the League found i t Impossible to replace her. Community Service Society supplied the service of one supervisor. The costs of supervision were shared by the League which contributed.$ 3 6 5 . 0 0 and by Community Service Society which absorbed the. additional cost through i t s regular p a y r o l l funds. One hundred and twenty nine hours spent i n service, supervisory conferences, and orientation sessions were con-tributed by the three League volunteers; 3 6 . 5 hours were spent i n supervision by the East River D i s t r i c t . In February 1956 the Demonstration was discontinued p r i o r to f r u i t i o n a f t e r a second volunteer had withdrawn. - 173 -Since the Demonstration lasted only if months, no p o s i t i v e conclusion could be reached nor any r e a l assumptions made. However, should such a demonstration project be undertaken i n the future, by the same organizations or by other s i m i l a r organizations, the following points merit consideration: 1. Channels should be established and kept open throughout the demonstration project between the agency placing the volunteers and the agency using t h e i r services to assure continued oversight of the project. 2 . S u f f i c i e n t time should be a l l o t t e d to the demonstration project to permit both the family service agency and the volunteers to make adjustments i n the o r i g i n a l plans f o r the demonstration where practicable and to work through d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the plan should they a r i s e ; there should be s u f f i c i e n t number of volunteers to assure where practicable substitutions i n cases of absence; the plan f o r supervision should consider more than one supervisor i n order to keep the base of the experiment as broad as possible, so that s p e c i f i c personality relationships not be a determining fa c t o r In evaluating the success or f a i l u r e of the project. 3.A job description prepared by the agency u t i l i z i n g the volunteers and agreed upon by the agency placing them should be discussed with and agreed upon by the volun-teer candidates p r i o r to t h e i r acceptance of the assign-ment. Job descriptions should include gradation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to experience, t r a i n i n g and time spent by the volunteers on the jobs. if. Volunteer candidates p r i o r to t h e i r acceptance by the agency should be interviewed by persons responsible f o r the content of the program i n which the volunteer w i l l be working. 5 . Volunteers wishing to take such assignments should be able and w i l l i n g to r e t a i n a somewhat f l e x i b l e personal time schedule f o r those jobs In family service agencies requiring d i r e c t contact with c l i e n t s . A schedule of hours should be agreed between the agency and the volun-teer. 6. Volunteers should be w i l l i n g to v i s i t any l o c a t i o n in the c i t y as required by the agency, including economi-c a l l y disadvantaged areas. 7. As an aid in the work of the volunteer, the agency should share case record material. - 174 -The agency should develop a plan of work f o r the volunteer which includes orientation, regular super-visory conferences and evaluation of the work of the volunteer, along the l i n e s of the appended prelim-inary d r a f t statement. - 175 -N.Y.J.L. February 1957 Attachment Volunteer Program (Community Service Society-New York Junior League) East River D i s t r i c t Purpose of the New York Junior League Five years ago the Junior League of the C i t y of New York decided to explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of demonstrating the use of trained volunteers i n s o c i a l case-work agencies. In order to implement t h i s , a t r a i n i n g course was devised and i s given by the New York School of S o c i a l Work. Volunteers have been placed as Case-work Aides i n the Social. Service Departments of Riverside Hospital, and St. Luke's Hospital. At t h i s point, the League wishes to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of the use of Case-work Aides i n a new setting, i . e . , that of a family case-work agency. I t i s with t h i s i n mind that the New York Junior League has entered into an agreement with the Community Service Society f o r the expansion of the project into the area of family case-work. Purpose of the Community Service Society The purpose of t h i s project f o r Community Service Society i s to demonstrate how and to what extent volunteer supplement-ation to modern-day family case-work and to i t s public health nursing service may be carried out, and to determine i n what areas volunteers can make the most e f f e c t i v e contribution to the program and p r a c t i c e of a family case-work and health agency. In other words, can the volunteer, with a continuous, well thought out and planned program of in-service t r a i n i n g , with regular supervision, and with a planned program of f i e l d p r a c t i c e , acquire aptitudes and s k i l l s which w i l l enable her to perform a v a r i e t y of tasks i n a family agency i n the area not only of d i r e c t work with i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s but of supervision and administration as well. These assignments would be those aspects of the professional worker's job as p r a c t i t i o n e r , super? v i s o r , and administrator which do not require f u l l professional education. To some extent volunteers are now helping professional workers i n family agencies. The Community Service Society i t s e l f i s i n constant debt to a .small but devoted group of women who perform services supplementary to case-work, among many who help inoother ways. This i s true also i n c e r t a i n other family agencies i n t h i s country. That i s what gives us con-fidence that such a project i s p r a c t i c a l and could be f r u i t f u l . - 176 -Such volunteer service as i s now given i n family agencies i s , however, usually conducted too much under the pressure of immediate needs and too l i t t l e on the projected planned basis, to determine the answers to our questions about the p o t e n t i a l services of volunteers i n a family agency. The focus of t h i s project Is thus to place emphasis on t r a i n i n g the volun-teers f o r a f u l l , well rounded service to the agency rather than p r i m a r i l y to meet the immediate or emergent exigencies which confront the professional worker i n h i s day-to-day job. As volunteers gain proficiency, i t i s to be hoped that they w i l l : (1) free professional s t a f f time f o r extended service and/or (2) offer c l i e n t s help which Community Service Society would not otherwise be able to off e r them. I t i s agreed that the project w i l l s t a r t with three volunteers to be placed i n the East River D i s t r i c t of Community Service Society. As i t proves successful, i t Is hoped that i t w i l l be extended throughout the Society's D i s t r i c t and other case-work u n i t s . Selection of Volunteers The volunteers are to be selected by the New York Junior League to work i n t h i s setting. They are chosen from among the League members who have had the Volunteer S o c i a l Work Aide Course and who have been deemed suitable by the Placement Off i c e of the League. They are Interviewed by the Community Service Society and upon proving s a t i s f a c t o r y s h a l l be placed i n the Community Service Society f o r in-service orientation, t r a i n i n g and work. In addition to the completion of the Volun-teer S o c i a l Work Aide Course, fac t o r s to be taken into consid-eration i n selection are i n t e l l i g e n c e , maturity, dependability, s e n s i t i v i t y , and f l e x i b i l i t y . Personnel Practices Each volunteer w i l l give one day a week (di f f e r e n t days) on a r e g u l a r l y scheduled basis plus an a d d i t i o n a l h a l f day a . month f o r group orientation, t r a i n i n g , and discussion. They agree to remain with the agency on a mutually agreed upon basis f o r a minimum of one year. The year w i l l be considered 8^ -months, from October 1st through June 15th. During t h i s time, they w i l l expect to conform to regulations which apply to a l l s t a f f with respect to c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , regular and punctual attendance, n o t i f i c a t i o n of the supervisor i n the event of i l l n e s s or lateness, and planning f o r emergencies that might require adjustment of schedule. Orientation In order to work e f f e c t i v e l y within an agency, a volunteer must have a broad knowledge of the agency's structure and program - 177 -as well as knowledge of other community agencies with which the family agency most frequently works. Thus the following plan includes orientation to both the Community Service Society and to other community resources. It should be noted that orient-ation during the f i r s t year i s aimed at breadth and during the second year at deepening i n t e r e s t and understanding. 1. D i s t r i c t orientation Agency structure Description of d i s t r i c t ( c l i e n t . services, boundaries, etc. D i s t r i c t program case-work . group therapy (including obser-vation of groups with int e r p r e t -ation by Dr. Scheidlinger) public health nursing service observation of reception process F i e l d t r i p s to such places as: .. East Harlem Protestant Parish Union, Settlement Children 1s Court and G i r l s ' Term Court, etc. Dept. of Health C l i n i c s Child Health Stations Correlary reading Annual Report, 1955 "Before Trouble P i l e s Up" Some facts about C.S.S. Fro n t i e r s i n Human Welfare Nancy Clark, S o c i a l Worker Paper given by: Miss Regensburg at Detroit Family Agency's Annual Meeting, 1955 -Report on S o c i a l Case-work Academy of Sciences Problems and Poli c y i n Public Assistance -Leyendecker 2. Agency orient a t i o n Department of Public Interest - inter p r e t a t i o n business management, and o v e r - a l l administration of C.S.S. (Mr. Davies, Mrs. Bright, et al.) V i s i t s to Dosoris, Boys House, Youth Bureau, and Tompkins Square House (role of volunteers and lay committees) Bureau of Public A f f a i r s - Housing (role of lay committee) Attend meeting of Homemaker. Club D i s t r i c t Committee, meeting 3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n professional conferences (hopefully one of each) (a) Attend selected s t a f f meetings (one to be planned to .. include discussion by Home Economist) (b) Attend ps y c h i a t r i c consultations. (c) Attend group therapy integration conference. (d) Attend conference of public health nurse and case-worker involving nurse as consultant to case-worker, and case-worker as consultant to nurse; attend con-ference on a case car r i e d j o i n t l y by case-worker and public health nurse. (d) Attend conference where homemaker service i s involved . , and s i t i n on casework interview with homemaker. - 178 -(f) Attend conference with Department of Welfare and Child Placement Service i n DW-office. Job Description A volunteer may be c a l l e d upon to perform any or a l l of the following duties, with the primary emphasis on direct service: In r e l a t i o n to d i r e c t service to c l i e n t s : 1. Establishing f r i e n d l y yet objective r e l a t i o n s h i p s with children i n case-work treatment; accompanying them (CAS comprehensive l i a b i l i t y insurance covers anything that anyone does f o r the Society) to and from o f f i c e interviews or group therapy as needed; making suggested observations and recording these; p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n appropriate p s y c h i a t r i c , medical, or supervisory con-sultations regarding the children. With childr e n who are not themselves In treatment, but whose parents are: ta l k i n g , playing with, and observing them i n the wait-. ing room while t h e i r parents are being interviewed; recording observations and s i g n i f i c a n t discussions f o r case-worker and/or nurse. Establishing "big s i s t e r " relationships with selected g i r l s s i m i l a r to the Jewish Board of Guardians. 2. V i s i t i n g schools f o r information regarding young c l i e n t s or courts f o r records v e r i f y i n g b i r t h dates, marriages, etc..Writing up the information f o r the case record. 3. Accompanying adult c l i e n t s with physical or psycho-l o g i c a l handicaps or language d i f f i c u l t y to c l i n i c s or doctors' o f f i c e s , Housing Authority, etc., and a s s i s t -ing them as needed i n presenting or explaining t h e i r requests or needs. Recording observations and a c t i v i t i e s . ij.. In time, c e r t a i n cases may be assigned to the volunteers to keep i n touch with c l i e n t s and give them supportive relationships as needed a f t e r the period of active case-work i s concluded-. 5". U t i l i z a t i o n of any specialized language or educational s k i l l s that the volunteer may have. In r e l a t i o n to administration: 1. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s t r i c t operational studies such as regular analysis of intake, income l e v e l s of f a m i l i e s , receiving service, etc. 2. Care of the children's waiting room and treatment room; inventory of play material so that items can be replaced and repaired as needed; purchasing items as - 179 -directed. 3. Purchase of supplies f o r group therapists. This w i l l involve the agency's group therapy program, seeing the group therapy f i l m , s i t t i n g i n on s p e c i f i c p s y c h i a t r i c group therapy consultations, etc. ij.. Assistance with camp program -- camp placements within and outside the agency. $. Pin maps which indicate location of the unit's c l i e n t e l e and the spread of case assignments to workers need to be started and kept up to date. This and point (7) are extremely important administratively. 6. Library — organization of, indexing, etc. 7 . Literature rack — obtaining l i t e r a t u r e , keeping rack supplied, keeping track of items most frequently taken, etc. In r e l a t i o n to supervision I t i s anticipated that an experienced volunteer would be able to resume supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r other volunteers and case aides i n certain areas of work. Evaluation Expectations of supervisor 1. Running record of i n d i v i d u a l conferences with each volunteer. (Subjects covered preparation of volunteer f o r assignments given, volunteer's response, appraisal of the adequacy of preparation.)-2. (a) Evaluate with the volunteer, performance i n various areas of work at regular i n t e r v a l s . (Simple r a t i n g scale to be developed.) (b) Evaluate with chairman of Junior League Committee, at regular i n t e r v a l s , the performance of each volunteer. (c) Evaluate the progress of the project In group sessions with the chairman of the Junior League Committee, the volunteers and the supervisors. 3. Estimate value of various aspects of orientation. k. Keep track of time spent i n face-to-face i n d i v i d u a l and group conferences (keep separated) j keep accurate track of a l l other time involved i n supervision of volunteers. - 1 8 0 -Keep accurate track of a l l assignments made to each volunteer. 6. Guide l i n e s f o r supervisor's and agency's o v e r - a l l evaluation. A. Value to the agency (a) How has the volunteers' preparation, through VSWA . course at the New York-School of So c i a l Work, benefited them In th i s volunteer service? (b) To what extent have t h e i r previous volunteer . experiences, League committee work and Provis-i o n a l t r a i n i n g benefited them i n t h e i r service i n a family case-work agency? (c) What advantages and disadvantages are seen i n . sponsorship by two organizations: one represent-ing the volunteers, the other the professional agency i n which the volunteer i s placed. (d) Indicate any advantageous features of the volun-. teer's service which are d i s t i n c t i v e of her as a volunteer ( i n contrast with p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained st a f f member), aside from advantages to the com-munity v i a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t r a i n i n g f o r Committee and Bord membership. B. Value of service and supervision to the i n d i v i d u a l volunteer. C. Evaluation of the VSWA Course content as i t applies to wokk i n a family case work agency. Expectations of volunteers 1. Evaluate s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n various areas of work assigned ( i . e . , how much s a t i s f a c t i o n did she get from each of the areas of work assigned). (Simple r a t i n g scale to be developed.) , 2. Rate value of various aspects of orientations. (Simple r a t i n g scale to be developed.) 3 . Written statement at end of f i r s t year of o v e r - a l l evaluation of her experience with suggestions f o r the second year. The Community Service Society and the Junior League are p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n having this.evaluation include responses to the points outlined i n 6A, B, and C, above. Compare differences between t h i s and other volunteer experiences. if. Evaluation with supervisor of volunteer's performance. - 181 -APPENDLX C-$ PSA of America August, 1955 Summary Minutes of Meeting of the conference of Representatives of FAS Subcommittee on Recruitment and Scholarships and Schools of S o c i a l Work, Sat. A p r i l 30 , 1955, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. "A small survey made by the Recruitment and Scholarship Subcommittee of f i v e agencies using case aides showed that generally the f i v e agreed that the case aide was not a substitute but an assistant to the caseworker. They may have acted as rec e p t i o n i s t s , taken children to medical and other appointments, shopped f o r children's clothing, summarized public agency records, secured v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , helped i n camp planning, made v i s i t s to selected aged c l i e n t s on f r i e n d l y v i s i t basis. Agencies with f o s t e r home programs sometimes use case aides to make i n i t i a l study. In a homemaker program, they sometimes helped with the shop-ping. Supervisory plans varied with the caseworker, exec, or sup. There was evidence of only one agency using t h i s plan as a,definite recruitment t o o l ... Others f e l t recruitment was an i n d i r e c t r e s u l t . One of the conclusions of the small survey was that the program seemed to function well i n agencies with children's or homemaker programs. A small agency would have some d i f -f i c u l t y i n employing case aides because they would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d enough suitable duties to constitute a fu l l - t i m e job f o r an aide. In some instances the p a r t i a l l y trained and untrained per-sonnel handle regular casework jobs the best they can, be-cause there i s no-one else to do them. ... I f the case aide position i s seen as a recruitment t o o l we w i l l need not only to i d e n t i f y f o r the f i e l d those parts of the job that do not require f u l l t r a i n i n g but whether there i s another case aide job that w i l l have recruitment to a school of s o c i a l work as i t s r e a l goal. Can a case aide employed with the understanding that he w i l l l a t e r enter a school of s o c i a l work give d i r e c t help to c l i e n t s through a more s u p e r f i c i a l - 182 -type of casework? What kind of in-service t r a i n i n g , super-v i s i o n , can be developed to make t h i s possible? This question, implied i n the H o l l i s - T a y l o r report, needs f u l l and con-scientious exploration. We would not want the use of case aides as a recruitment device to in t e r f e r e with the very valuable use of board members and voluntters. However, the summer job program would probably not i n t e r f e r e with t h i s . " - 183 -APPENDIX C - 6 . Discussion Guide Points to be considered i n the development of Basic Stand-ards f o r Volunteer Jobs i n Agency Case Work Programs. I. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s What are the minimum requirements and desirable q u a l i f i -cations f o r each job i n terms of -a) Physical Requirements -. Age Sex Health and Physical Condition b) Background and Experience Formal Education Training Previous Experience c) Personal Charac t e r i s t i c s Attitude Personality Appearance d) Time Available Hours per week, month Months per year Continuity, required, desired. I I . Training 1. What should the t r a i n i n g requirements be i n terms of: a) Orientation: 1) To the community 2) To case work service 3) To the program, p o l i c i e s and structure of the .. agency b) S k i l l s Training 1) Human re l a t i o n s s k i l l 2) Other s k i l l s c) In-Service Training - 1) Staff meetings 2) Conferences 3) Institutes d) Refresher Training - 184 -2. Who should give the training? 3. Should there be formalized courses, on the job training? I I I . Supervision 1. Who should provide i t ? 2. Should there be regular occasional supervisory con-ferences? 3. What tools for supervision are needed—case record-ing, monthly reports, verbal reports, etc.? 4. What kind of supervision should be provided on the ... job? IV. Evaluation of Volunteers' Performance 1. On what basis should t h i s be done? 2. Who should do i t ? 3. Should i t be formal, informal, written or verbal? 4- How often should i t be done? What do volunteers need to know about the evaluation process? 6. How should volunteers p a r t i c i p a t e i n evaluation? 7. What use should be made of evaluations? V. Recognition 1. On what basis i s recognition given - amount of service (time), q u a l i t y of service? 2. What form of recognition i s most appropriate f o r the various jobs? 3. Who provides i t ? 4' Should i t be formal or informal? 1 Work K i t of the Workshop on*"Standards f o r Volunteers i n  Selected Case Work Programs, l o c . c i t . - 185 -APPENDIX C-7. Questionnaire used interviewing directors of Vancouver case-work agencies, i n preparation f o r the writing of t h i s t h e s i s : 1. Numbers and Kind of volunteers a. Are volunteers used i n your agency? b. What services do they perform? c. Are these jobs described and sp e c i f i e d as t o : q u a l i f i c a t i o n s needed duties to be performed numbers needed hours given i n d i v i d u a l l y 2 . Selection a. How are the volunteers obtained? b. Are the volunteers selected? How selected? 3. Training, Orientation and Interpretation a. Is each volunteer given any orientation about the agency? b. Is the volunteer given any specified t r a i n i n g f o r the job assignment? c. Is supervision of volunteers assigned within the agency? d. How many volunteers were used i n the past year (June 55~6) . Did these persons take any of the three courses offered through the Volunteer Bureau, adult education department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Vancouver night schools? October 1955—Miss Smith—Advanced t r a i n i n g course Mrs. McCrae--Introductory t r a i n i n g course February 1956-Work with Children Training course 1|. Functioning ., a. Do you consider that any of the volunteers i n your agency are case-aides? b. What do these case-aides do as distinguished from the other volunteers? c. How selected? d. How trained? -e. What additional services could the case-aides perform? (make check l i s t ) f . I f you could select volunteers f o r s u i t a b i l i t y and dependability, would you want to use case-aides i n your v. agency? Has t h i s been considered? - 186 -5. Possible Development a. Are volunteers or case-aides given an opportunity to express t h e i r suggestions, c r i t i c i s m s or reactions? b. Is the function of the agency explained and described tothe volunteer or the case-aide f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the community? c. Is the volunteer given a broad understanding of the s o c i a l work profession and the t r a i n i n g required of the s o c i a l worker as compared to the volunteer or case-aide? d. Are volunteers or case-aides i n the agency helped to understand the importance of i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between agencies i n community planning? e. How have volunteers or case--aides been most use-f u l ? f . Where have they not been us e f u l , as t r i e d ? g. If not using volunteers or case-aides, what are the obstacles? Is job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n involved? Is time sequence related? What else? . > h. Do you f e e l your agency i s making f u l l use of the volunteers available? I f not, why not? Check L i s t Administrative assistants pin maps c l e r i c a l work l i b r a r i a n s community surveys public i n t e r p r e t a t i o n supervision of other volunteers receptionists i n waiting room tea hour hostesses within agency f o r workers Casework aides f r i e n d l y support to c l i e n t s v i s i t i n g immigrants aged mental patients delinquents d i f f e r e n t i a l use with children, f o s t e r parents v i s i t s to schools, etc. for information f o r caseworker v i s i t s to other agencies f o r d i r e c t service escorts f o r patients or c l i e n t s - 187 -APPENDIX D - l . Vancouver Agencies Whose Directors Were Interviewed Catholic C h a r i t i e s Catholic Children's Aid Society Children's Aid Society C i t y S o c i a l Service South Unit West Unit Central Unit East Unit Community Information Service Family Service Agency Jewish Family Welfare Bureau Vancouver General Hospital Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver - 188 -APPENDIX D-2. A g e n c i e s W i t h Whom Correspondence Was Conducted Agency A s s o c i a t i o n of the J u n i o r Leagues of A m e r i c a , I n c . C a l i f o r n i a A s s o c i a t i o n o f V o l u n t e e r Bureaus C a n a d i a n M e n t a l H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , B.C. D i v i s i o n The Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l Community S e r v i c e S o c i e t y o f New Y o r k F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of Americ a F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f C l e v e l a n d The J u n i o r League o f Vane ouver N a t i o n a l T r a v e l e r s A i d A s s o c i a t i o n The New Y o r k S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, C l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y S o c i e t e de S e r v i c e S o c i a l Aux F a m i l i e s S t a t e Department of P u b l i c W e l f a r e P l a c e The W a l d o r f - A s t o r i a , New Y o r k , 22, New Y o r k P r e s i d e n t l o c a t e d w i t h t h e V o l u n t e e r Bureau o f San Mateo County, 1229 Burlingame Avenue B u r l i n g a m e , C a l i f o r n i a 5 E a s t Broadway, Vancouver 10, B. C. 55 P a r k d a l e Avenue, Ottawa 3, Canada. 105 E a s t 22 S t r e e t New Y o r k , New Y o r k 192 L e x i n g t o n Avenue, New Y r k 16, New Y o r k 1001 Huron Road C l e v e l a n d l 5 , Ohio. 997 Dunsmuir S t r e e t , Vancouver 1, Canada If25 F o u r t h Avenue, New Y o r k 16, New Y o r k 2 E a s t N i n e t y - f i r s t S t r e e t New Y o r k 28, New Y o r k 31+15, Rue S a i n t - U r b a i n Montre a l , 18, Quebec. Houston 2, Texas U n i t e d Community Funds and C o u n c i l s of A m e r i c a 345 E a s t ij.6 S t r e e t New Y o r k , 17, New Y o r k . - 189 -APPENDIX E. BIBLIOGRAPHY a. Major References Books; Volunteer Case Aides i n Medical S o c i a l Service. An Exper-ience i n Selection, Training and Placement. (A j o i n t project of the United Hospital Fund "of New York and the North A t l a n t i c D i s t r i c t , American Association of Medical S o c i a l Workers.) Prepared by the Committee oh Publications of the VCA. Project, E d i t h G. Seltzer, Chairman, 1946, Livingston Press, Livingston, Columbia County,..New York. Volunteers f o r Family Service. Family Welfare Associa-t i o n of America, New York, N.Y., 194 2« Weller, Evalyn G., and Kilbourne, Elizabeth B. C i t i z e n  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Public Welfare Programs.. Supplemen-tary services by volunteers. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,, S o c i a l Security Administration, Bureau of Public Assistance, D i v i s i o n of Technical Training, Superintendent of Documents, United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington,..D.C., 1956. Pamphlets. A r t i c l e s and Reports: Cl o u t i e r , Mile. Jeanne. "The Preparation of P r a c t i t i o n e r s — In-service Training,", a paper prepared f o r the Quebec Regional Workshop.on„Social Work Education, December 11 , .1954- ... • . . . . Knowles, Margaret E. "How Much of the Professional's Job Can the Volunteer.Do?" Family Service Highlights.. December.. 1955, Volume..XVI, Number 10 , Family Service Association of America, 192 Lexington Avenue, New . York, 16, N.Y. "A Manual f o r the Training of Case Aides i n Catholic ..Charities," by, j o i n t committee of National Council of Catholic Women and the National Conference of Catholic Charities,. Washington, D.C, 1948« - 190 -Organization Manual, Women's A u x i l i a r y , Vancouver General Hospital. S i l l s , Dorothy H. Volunteers i n S o c i a l Service, National Traveler's Aid Association, New York, 1947. Swenson, Jeanet. "Must Caseworkers Do Everything?" Paper delivered at New England Regional Conference. Boston, Mass., March 2 3 , 1956. "The Volunteer and F.S.A.," A Handbook f o r Volunteers. Family Service Association, 1001 Huron Road, Cleveland, Ohio, January, 1 9 5 l . Volunteers i n Selected Casework Programs. Standards f o r t h e i r use. Welfare and Health Council of New York City, D i v i s i o n on Families and Adults, kk East 23 Street, New York C i t y , N.Y., June, 1956. What Can I Do i n C.S.S.?, by the Community Service Society ~ of New York, 105 E. 22nd Street, New York 10 , N. Y., Stanley P. Davies, General Director (no date). Work K i t of the Workshop on Standards f o r Volunteers i n Selected Case Work Programs. Prepared by the Committee f o r the Development of Standards f o r Volunteers i n Selected Case Work Programs, D i v i s i o n on Families and Adults and the Central Volunteer Bureau, Welfare and Health Council of New York C i t y , February 2k, 1956. b. Secondary References Books: 1956 L i f e Insurance Fact Book. Published by the Ins t i t u t e of L i f e Insurance, N.Y. Coste, Pierre, CM. The L i f e and Works of Saint Vincent De  Paul. Translated, by Joseph Leonard, CM. Volume 1, The Newman Press, Westminster, Maryland, 1952. de Schweinitz, K a r l . England's Road to S o c i a l Security. (1349-1947.) University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1947. Gessell and I l g . The Child from Five to Ten. Harper Bros., New York, 19467 ; " \ - 191 -Hamilton, Gordon. Theory and Practice of S o c i a l Casework. Vblumbia University Press, New York, 191+-0. Lee, Porter. S o c i a l Work as Cause and Function. Columbia University Press, New York, 1937-Maynard, Theodore. Apostle of Charity. The L i f e of St. Vincent De Paul. The D i a l Press, New York, 1939. Miles, Arthur P. American S o c i a l Work Theory. Harper & Bros., New York, 1954. Richmond, Mary E. S o c i a l Diagnosis. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1917-Ross, Murray D. Community Organization. Theories and P r i n c i p l e s . Harper Bros., New York, 1955. S o c i a l Work Year Book 1954. "Volunteers." V i o l e t M. Sieder, Volunteers in. S o c i a l Work, pp. 538-54^* Warner, Queen, and Harper. American Charities and S o c i a l  Work. Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, 1937-Watson, Frank Debber. The Charity Organization Movemeht  i n the United States. Macmillan Co., New York, 1922. Wickenden, Elizabeth. The Needs of Older People and Public Welfare Services to meet them. Prepared f o r the Committee on Aging of the American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1953. Pamphlets. A r t i c l e s . Reports, and Theses: Blanchard, Ralph H. " S o c i a l Work and the Public." National Conference of S o c i a l Work, Cleveland, The S o c i a l Wel-fare Forum, Columbia University Press, New York, 1949. Brown, Madison, B., M.D., Executive Vice-President and Medical Director, Hahnemann Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., "What Makes a Successful Director of Volunteers," Hospital Management. October, 1955, /pp. 60.-61. Burch, Gwendolyn. Supervised Homemaker Service i n a Family  Agency. Thesis f o r the degree of Master of Social.Work, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 l . - 192 -Burns, Mary E. "Commentary on 'Must Caseworkers Do E v e r y -t h i n g ? ' " , C h i l d W e l f a r e . June, 1956. B u r t o n , Robbie Hunt. "Placement P o i n t e r s on V o l u n t e e r S e r -v i c e , " A s s o c i a t i o n o f J u n i o r Leaguers of A m e r i c a , New York,-November, 1950. -C o r n w a l l , C h a r l o t t e E l i z a b e t h . "The Use of P r o f e s s i o n a l Time i n R e l a t i o n t o Case Content and S e r v i c e s Rendered." T h e s i s f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1956. Emerson, Maryn G., "The P a r t P l a y e d by V o l u n t e e r S e r v i c e s , " C anadian C o n f e r e n c e of S o c i a l Work, p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n , -" I n s u r i n g V o l u n t e e r S e r v i c e s f o r Community Needs." (19114-50.) F e r g u s o n , G.V. " F u t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f V o l u n t e e r s i n Canada," Canadian Conference of S o c i a l Work, p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n . (191)4-50.) F i t z p a t r l c k , Anne L. " V o l u n t e e r s , " Canadian W e l f a r e . December, 1954 • F o r d , Lyman S. "The E f f e c t o f World War I I on Community O r g a n i z a t i o n - f o r H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , " 1944 N a t i o n a l  C o n f e r e n c e of S o c i a l Work. C l e v e l a n d , Ohio, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . G i l c h r i s t , M a r g a r e t D. "Homemaker S e r v i c e i n a Vancouver F a m i l y Agency." T h e s i s f o r the degree of M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1952. G l a s s e r , M e r v i n A. "What Makes a V o l u n t e e r . " P u b l i c A f f a i r s pamphlet,No. 224. P u b l i s h e d by t h e P u b l i c A f f a i r s Committee, a n o n - p r o f i t e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n whose purpose i s t o make a v a i l a b l e i n summary and i n e x p e n s i v e f o r m the r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h on economic problems t o a i d i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g development, August, 1955. Handbook f o r V o l u n t e e r s , ' i s s u e d by t h e B.C. D i v i s i o n o f t h e Canadian M e n t a l H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n . H i l l , John G., and Ormsby, R a l p h . "Cost A n a l y s i s Methods f o r Casework A g e n c i e s . " F a m i l y - S e r v i c e o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa. 1953. - .. - 1 9 3 -Hobby, Oveta Gulp. " S o c i a l Welfare i n the Decade. Ahead." San Francisco, The S o c i a l Welfare Forum O f f i c i a l Proceedings, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, Columbia University Press, 1955. "Ideas f o r Building Agency Membership," Pamphlet by Family Service Association of America, New York 16, N. Y., June, 1956. "International Survey of Programmes of S o c i a l Development." United Nations, New York, 1955-Kadushln, A l f r e d . "The Decline i n Enrolment i n Professional Schools," S o c i a l Casework. Vol. XXXVIII, Number 1, January,-19^7. Lampe, W. "Recruitment," The S o c i a l Worker, April-May, 1956, Vol.. 2k, Number k. . . Larkin, Kathleen Ormsby. "For Volunteers Who Interview," Volunteer Bureau, Welfare Council of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (No date.) Lindeman, Eduard C. "A Fantasy." Prepared f o r Y.W.C.A. of New York C i t y , 1952 (an excerpt e n t i t l e d "Volunteers Keep Democracy A l i v e , " i n Family Service Highlights. Dec. 1955, p. 4 9 . Loan Folder on F r i e n d l y V i s i t i n g . Community Chest and Councils of ..America, Inc., New York. McDonald, Dorothy Mary. "A Survey of the Use of Volunteers . and P o l i c i e s Relating to Them Among Agencies A f f i l i a t e d to the Greater Vancouver Community Chest and Council," Thesis f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955-Newbold, Florence L. "The Community-Wide Volunteer Place-ment Bureau, Montreal, Canadian National Conference of  S o c i a l Work. 1935. Philosophy, Concepts and Pr i n c i p l e s of S o c i a l Work. Prepared by M. C u n l i f f e , H. Exner, A. Furness, H. McCrae, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of So c i a l Work, 1956. - 1 9 4 " Proceedings of the 1955 Volunteer Bureau Workshop at the  National Conference of S o c i a l Work, San Francisco, by the Association of Volunteer Bureaus of the Community Chests and Councils of America, Inc. "Analysis of Self Study by the San Diego Volunteer Bureau. Byron, Evelyn S., "The Re s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Volunteer Bureau i n Volunteer.Services f o r Senior C i t i z e n s . " Lauber, Joan F e l l , "The Volunteer i n Psychiatric P r o g r a m s , " . . . . Larkin, Kathleen, "Standards, Training and Consultant Service to Agencies." Thaxer, Marjorie, "Volunteers i n Public Welfare." Vickery, Florence, "The Responsibility of the Agency to...the Volunteers Working with Senior C i t i z e n s . " Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Cost of the  National Health Service. Presented to Parliament by the Minister of Health and the Secretary of State f o r Scotland by Command of Her Majesty, January, 1956, London, Her Majesty's Stationery O f f i c e . Report of the Sub Committee on Job Analysis. Report of the Joint Committee on S o c i a l Work Education, November 18-19 , 1955, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. (Mimeographed material, unpublished, presented at Conference in Vancouver, November 18-19 , 1955, cited by Cornwall, Char-l o t t e Elizabeth, "The Use of Professional Time i n Relation to Case Content and Services Rendered." Thesis f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956. Seeley, Mrs. R.S.K. "The R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the S o c i a l Worker i n the. Community, The Social Worker. April-May, 1956, Vol. 2k, Number if. Self-Study Report, October, 1956, of the Central Volunteer Bureau of The Welfare Council of Greater Winnipeg, by G.H. Boyes, Chairman, Self-Study Committee of the Central Volunteer Bureau. Selman, Laura. "Volunteers in..a Mental Hospital." Canadian Welfare.December 15, 1956. - 1 9 5 -Sheibley, G. Evangline. "Impressions of the International Conference of S o c i a l Work," S o c i a l Casework, Vol. XXXVIII, Number 1 0 , December, 1 9 5 6 . Stewart, Nancy. "Put Your Values i n Order," Junior League  Magazine» September-October, 1 9 5 5 . (Reprinted from the Observer. New York League.) Training f o r S o c i a l Work, An International Survey. United Nations, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Lake Success, New York, 1 9 5 0 . Values of Volunteer Service, Developing and Maintaining an  E f f e c t i v e Agency Volunteer Program. Selected papers from the 1 9 5 6 Volunteer Workshpp by Advisory Committee on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , United Community Funds and Councils of America, New York, N. Y. C o l l i n s , Ralph W. "Developing and Maintaining a Good Agency Volunteer Program, from the Standpoint of the Administrator." Lange, Winifred T. "New Avenues f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i -pation." Vecic, C l a i r e St. John. "The Staff Development Program of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch." Thesis f o r the degree of Master of So c i a l Work, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 4 . Volunteer Bureau Handbook. Community Chests and Councils of America, September, 1 9 5 2 , New York, N. Y. Weaver, Kenneth R. "History and Organization of a S o c i a l Service Department," Canadian Welfare. December 1 5 , 1 9 5 6 . Williams, Jane. "Report of Experiment i n Use of Volunteer Workers," Licensing O f f i c e , Houston, Texas, 1 9 5 5 (Dec. 3 J + ) . Young, Mary A. Handbook f o r Volunteers, from Symposium, May, 1 9 5 2 , Palmer House,. Chicago. Speaker, Mary Young "How Volunteers and Professionals Work Together." 

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