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The placement of adolescent boys : a survey-review of the problems of adolescent boys in care of the… Reed, George Aubrey 1953

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THE PLACEMENT OF ADOLESCENT BOYS A Survey-Review, of the Problems of Adolescent Boys i n Care of the Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, B. ,C. by GEORGE AUBREY REED Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the-Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f - S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of JSocial Work School of Soc i a l Work 1953 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT The b a s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y i s a s u r v e y made b y , t h e V a n c o u v e r C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t boys I n t h e i r c a r e , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s o f adjustment and f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t . S i n c e t h e s c h e d u l e s o f t h e s u r v e y were o f a v e r y g e n e r a l n a t u r e , r a t i n g s c a l e s were d e v i s e d i n an attempt t o g i v e more s p e c i f i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e d a t a . Age at a d m i s s i o n and average number o f f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t s were u s e d &s s t a r t i n g p o i n t s ; and a f o u r f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a d m i s s i o n ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e d e v e l o p -m e n t a l s t a g e s , o r a l and a n a l , o e d i p a l , l a t e n t , and a d o l e s c e n t ) was employed t h r o u g h o u t . The p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d s p r i o r t o a d o l e s c e n c e are b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d as a b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e a d o l e s c e n t adjustment i s a f f e c t e d b y a n x i e t i e s and f e a r s w h i c h have been c a r r i e d o v e r f r o m p r e v i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d s . S e p a r a t i o n o f a c h i l d from h i s p a r e n t s may r e p r e s e n t t o h i m t h e t o t a l l o s s o f p a r e n t a f f e c t i o n upon w h i c h h i s a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t i s b a s e d j the c h i l d i n c a r e may t h u s be p r e v e n t e d f r o m making a s a t i s f y i n g adjustment due t o the a n x i e t i e s o f s e p a r a t i o n . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y d a t a showed t h a t t h e f o u r major groups o f p r o b l e m s among t h e a d o l e s c e n t s were e m o t i o n a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t s , d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i -c u l t i e s and forms o f d i s t u r b e d b e h a v i o u r . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the boys who p r e d o m i n a n t l y showed t h e s e p r o b l e m s had been p l a c e d i n t h e g r e a t e s t number o f f o s t e r homes. A " h a r d c o r e " o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y boys appeared to b e c o m p l e t e l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t , because o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y showed, as w e l l as t h e number o f f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t s t h e y h a d e x p e r i e n c e d . The a n a l y s i s a l s o made c l e a r t h a t c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d t o c a r e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e have t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g to f o s t e r homes. To p r e s e n t a more d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t and p a s t adjustment o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t , c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s were u s e d ; t h e s e l e a d t o s u g g e s t i o n s on r e s o u r c e s o t h e r t h a n f o s t e r homes w h i c h would s a t i s f y t h e a d o l e s c e n t s ' n e e d s . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s emphasize t h e e f f e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e s .. .prior t o a d o l e s c e n c e and t h e damaging e f f e c t o f numerous f o s t e r homes on a b o y ' s a d j u s t m e n t . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s t u d y p o i n t s up t h e n e e d f o r complete d i a g n o s t i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d when he i s f i r s t a d m i t t e d t o c a r e . Prom t h i s d i a g n o s i s a p l a n f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e c h i l d V should be made which w i l l s a t i s f y h i s needs. I f the plan proves inadequate, a complete review of the case should be made i n order to determine the reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of the o r i g i n a l placement, and as a guide f o r preventing future f a i l u r e s . Several types of r e s i d e n t i a l units are suggested which would o f f e r a group l i v i n g experience f o r those boys for wb.om fo s t e r home placement has proven unsuitable. These units could be coordinated into an adolescent boys department. Community assistance would be needed to set up these resources, espe c i a l l y those concerned with the treatment of gross mal-adjustment which i f allowed to go untreated, w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y r e s u l t i n greater damage to human l i v e s and cost to the community. v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Acknowledgements are due to many workers i n the Children's Aid Society, Vancouver. In p a r t i c u l a r I wish to express my thanks to Miss D. Coombe, Executive Director of the Society, who re a d i l y made available case material. Appreciation must also be expressed to Mrs. C, Cornwall, Head of the Child Placing Department, who stimulated my inte r e s t In t h i s topic and offered much encouragement i n many ways throughout. Mr. J. Sanders and Mr. R. Hawkes were very h e l p f u l i n the gathering and selecting of background and case material. To Mrs. Helen Exner I wish to express my thanks f o r her many h e l p f u l suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s on the content of t h i s study. F i n a l l y , an expression of gratitude i s due to Dr. Leonard C. Marsh f o r h i s many hel p f u l suggestions on the d i r e c t i o n and composition of th i s study. His w i l l i n g advice and assistance i n the analysis of the survey material was most h e l p f u l . i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter I The Psychology of the Adolescent i n Placement Page The meaning of separation to the c h i l d . The effects of previous development on the adolescent. Placement of adolescents by the Children's Aid Society. Placement resources currently used for adolescents. Statement of method 1. Chapter II A Survey of Adolescent Boys i n Care The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and r a t i n g scales. Analysis of the survey. Conclusions from the survey 28. Chapter I I I I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Problems i n the Placement of Adolescents  •? Need f o r an observation and study home. Need f o r a treatment home. Need f o r a home f o r working boys. Need f o r a subsidized boarding home. ......59. Chapter IV Implications f o r Working with Adolescent Boys i n Care  Preventive measures to reduce future problems. Recommendations fo r an observation and study home. Recommendations f o r a school boys* home. Recommendations for a treatment home. Recommendations for a subsidized boarding home. Administrative structure for these resources. Case Worker-Adolescent r e l a t i o n s h i p . Use of community resources. ..93. Appendices: A. D e f i n i t i o n of Classifications. Used i n the Survey. I Reasons f o r Admission to Care II Reasons f o r Change i n Placement III Problems Manifested by Adolescent Boys IV Rating f o r S u i t a b i l i t y of Last Placement B. Schedule Used f o r Cases (Example), i i i TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Pag Table I Frequency of problems i n the case load .....35 Table II Frequency of problems compared to the age at admission ...38 Table III Frequency of problems compared to the number of placements 40 Table IV Number of problems per case ................ 44 Table V Frequency of s u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t placement .45 Table VI S u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t placement compared to the problems 46 Table VII S u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t placement compared to the number of problems per boy 43 Table VIII S u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t placement compared to ..... the number of placements 49 Table IX Number of placements compared to the age at admission 51 Table X Number of placements as compared to years i n care 53 Table XI Frequency of reasons f o r admission 54 Table XII Frequency of reason f o r change i n placement ..55 (b) Charts Administrative structure of resources f o r an Adolescent Boys' Programme 106 THE PLACEMENT OP ADOLESCENT BOYS A Survey-Review of the Problems of Adolescent Boys i n Care of the Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, B. CHAPTER I THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE  ADOLESCENT IN PLACEMENT Adolescence i s a period of c o n f l i c t i n g needs, tensions and anxieties; a period of t r a n s i t i o n from the dependency of childhood to the longed f o r independence of adulthood. The adolescent wishes to achieve maturity, "but i s reluctant to give up the security of__childhood. He attempts poise and accomplishments beyond h i s psycholo-g i c a l and physiological maturity. Often, i n retrospect, he regards h i s actions as being c h i l d i s h , but at the same time longs f o r the protection of h i s childhood. He desires the prerogatives of an adult yet cannot accept the concomitant r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The adolescent i s driven on towards maturity by the new physical and emotional drives he i s experiencing. Simultaneously, he i s seeking a new structure of behaviour, a new standard of values and p r i n c i p l e s to act as a guide f o r these new drives. Because of his inadequacy to handle these new drives and because of a residue of problems from e a r l i e r developmental periods which confront him again, the adolescent experiences tensions, anxieties -2-and fears. These may tend to make him aggressive at one time and withdrawing at another as he tests out him-s e l f and society. The most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s period i s the presence, of contradictory and mutually exclusive trends. The adolescent has further been described as being, " a l t r u i s t i c and egocentric, devoted and u n f a i t h f u l , gregarious and s o l i t a r y , b l i n d l y sub-missive to a leader and defiant cf authority, I d e a l i s t i c and cynica l , sensitive and callous, ascetic and l i b e r t i n e , optimistic and pessimistic, enthusiastic and i n d i f f e r e n t . This lack of consistency arouses i n the adolescent the fear of being misunderstood, which further increases h i s Inner c o n f l i c t as he t r i e s to adjust to new demands. Those working with adolescents meet these c o n f l i c t -ing facets i n them and must be prepared to accept and enable the adolescent to understand t h i s c o n f l i c t and to adjust to i t . With adolescents who have experienced many traumatic events such as r e j e c t i o n and abuse from t h e i r own and substitute parents, greater inconsistencies and confusions w i l l be apparent i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and actions. They w i l l tend to be more extreme i n t h e i r 1 S. Hirsohn, "Role of the Male Caseworker with the Adolescent Bov.".The Journal of Social Case Work, v o l . x x i . No. 1, (January-1950), p. 27. -3-reactions, to have greater swings i n mood and d i f f i c u l t y i n forming rela t i o n s h i p s . Many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the adolescent can be traced back to the problems of e a r l i e r developmental phases, and to new stresses and anxieties which appear i n adolescence, but which are affected by e a r l i e r adjustment. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true of the adoles-cent i n placement who has, i n some form or other, suffered the loss of love and a f f e c t i o n of h i s own parents. The Meaning of Separation to the Child The basic reason for separating children from t h e i r own parents and placing them with substitute parents i s that t h e i r own home i s no longer tenable. This physical separa-t i o n i s one of the most traumatic "events a c h i l d can experience. It comes to him as the unwelcome climax to a long series of traumatic and misunderstood events; i t i s the confirmation of h i s worst fears about h i s own 1 u n d e s i r a b i l i t y and the badness of h i s parents. Those children who are separated from t h e i r own parents because of parental neglect or discord, have suffered from rejection^, abuse and the lack of suitable parental figures to i d e n t i f y to and to imitate. Many children i n t h i s category have not known iln..:their:own homes, the harmony that i s essential to t h e i r development. This experience has developed i n 1 D. Hutchinson, "The Parent-Child Relationship as a Factor i n Child Placement," The Family. The Journal of Social  Case WorkT v o l . x x v i i , No.-2, (Ap r i l 1946), p. 47. -4-them anxieties about t h e i r self-worth and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r needs. Separation f o r them may mean that they have f a i l e d to win the love of t h e i r parents and t h i s f a i l u r e may carry with i t feelings of g u i l t . These anxieties and fears may make i t exceedingly d i f f i c u l t f o r them to accept substitute parents. The children who are admitted to agency care because of the loss of one or both parents through si c k -ness, mental incapacity or death are disturbed by t h e i r feelings pertaining to thi s l o s s . They may be experiencing feel i n g s of desertion, or g u i l t f e e l i n g s I f they have wished the removal of a parent. While they may have experienced the best of care p r i o r to t h i s separation, the problem of accepting substitute parents i s a very d i f f i c u l t one. At the time of separation from t h e i r own parents, children are faced not only with t h e i r feelings about t h e i r parents but also with the task of r e l a t i n g to substitute parents, of adjusting to nevr routines, new ways of doing things and new methods of d i s c i p l i n e . Even though they may be able to make this adjustment, they can never completely become part o f a fo s t e r family because of the r e a l i z a t i o n that they are d i f f e r e n t from them, even though i t be i n name only. The anxieties and fears engendered i n the c h i l d during t h i s period of transfer from one family to another, unless completely resolved, can greatly hinder h i s normal development. These anxieties are p a r t i c u l a r l y manifested during the stress of adolescence. The develop-mental period at which the anxiety c? separation occurs w i l l have a s p e c i f i c e f f e c t on adolescent development. The E f f e c t s of Previous Development on Adolescence Problems of adolescence can be described i n terms of the character and severity of the anxieties of infancy 1 and early childhood. The f i r s t anxiety o f the infant i s the fear that h i s i d desires w i l l not be met, that he w i l l lose his mother's love, his source of sustenance. I f h i s physical and emotional needs have been f u l l y met through the love, care and attention of h i s mother, he w i l l have experienced security and w i l l have been able to modify h i s 2 i d desires In a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner. Thus, when i n adolescence he i s faced again with increased i d desires i n the form o f glandular changes, he i s better able to adjust to these desires i f he has experienced previously the s a t i s f a c t i o n of self-worth through h i s mother's love. Where the i n f a n t has suffered from anxiety and f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y i n the o r a l period, he may show h i s i n s e c u r i t y i n aggressive demanding behaviour, or i n depressed withdrawn behaviour. At adolescence, he w i l l again experience feelings of 1 Helen Ross, "The Case Worker and the Adolescent," The, Family, v o l . x v i i , No. 7, (November 1941), p. 231. ~ . 2 O.S. English and G.H.J. Pearson, Emotional Problems of LJLyijig., .New York, W.W. Norton, 1945, p. .29. i n s e c u r i t y , and may exhibit these same behaviour pr obi ems with greater i n t e n s i t y and show greater confusion and d i f f i c u l t y i n seeking a s o c i a l l y acceptable adjustment of them. While an adolescent i n h i s own home may re-experience these anxieties of the or a l period at adolescence, a f o s t e r c h i l d w i l l experience them to a greater degree because of the separation involved In placement. Those children who come under agency care during the f i r s t stage of t h e i r development, the or a l phase, should have the best chance to succeed i n placement i f lo v i n g , permanent foster parents can be found f o r them. Because of t h e i r age, they w i l l not have experienced anxieties, maltreatment and r e j e c t i o n over as long a period of time as an older c h i l d . Nevertheless they may have experienced continual f r u s t r a t i o n at not having t h e i r needs met; their a f f e c t i v e appetite may have been starved, and t h i s , combined v/ith the trauma of placement w i l l arouse tensions, fears, and anxieties i n them beyond what the average c h i l d experiences. Their disturbance w i l l be revealed i n aggressive demanding behaviour or i n depressed withdrawn behaviour. Unless the f o s t e r parents are given a great deal of help from the case worker p r i o r to, during, and af t e r the placement, they may not be able to understand, cope with or accept the reactions of the fo s t e r c h i l d to t h e i r care. This may resu l t i n a further r e j e c t i o n to the c h i l d and a replacement may serve only to increase h i s anxieties, and to delay h i s progress to the next developmental phase. Adolescents who have had t h i s kind of experience i n the f i r s t two years of t h e i r l i f e w i l l experience d i f f i c u l t y i n making an acceptable adjustment to the stresses of adolescence. The adolescent who has not gained s a t i s -f a c t i o n of hi s i d drives through sublimation w i l l s t r i v e f o r t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and w i l l tend to operate on the pleasure p r i n c i p l e . This i s seen i n adolescents, with aggressive tendencies, who want something and see no reason why they should not get i t when they want i t . On the other hand, i f the childhood reaction to being deprived was one of withdrawal and resignation, t h i s w i l l reappear i n adolescence i n a si m i l a r form. I t i s often expressed by adolescents i n such phrases as, "What's the use i n tr y i n g ? " and "Who cares?" M o l esc ent sr.who ~have suffered considerably from these anxieties i n the or a l phase are further handicapped i n that they w i l l have experienced d i f f i c u l t y In the anal and oedipal phases. This w i l l mean a lack of proper and s u f f i c i e n t development of the ego and superego. Where this development i s weak, the adolescent w i l l have further d i f f i c u l t y ' i n c o n t r o l l i n g h i s i d desires, which are strong i n adolescence. The strength of the i d , as compared to the weak ego, creates further tension i n the adolescent. "This increase i n i n s t i n c t u a l tension accompanied by a -8-tremendous increase i n anxiety i s the r e a l and basic problem of adolescence. n l The next anxiety of the c h i l d i s that cantering around t o i l e t t r a i n i n g and the development of the ego. I t i s i n the years between two and four that the c h i l d begins to develop his conscious a b i l i t y to deal with r e a l i t y , to conform to the demands of society and to develop habits which h i s environment impinges upon him. I f t h i s t r a i n -ing i s not carried out successfully and i s r i g i d l y imposed, the c h i l d , i n t r y i n g to achieve control may develop an anxiety that he i s stupid or incompetent. He w i l l develop a low f e e l i n g of personal worth, or a poor ego. With t h i s subjugation of the ego, the ch i l d may tend to become extremely conforming or non conforming, aggressive or withdrawn. This i s h i s way to r e l i e v e himself of the anxiety engendered i n the expectations and demands of the environment and to protect his ego. This anxiety w i l l reappear i n adolescence when he i s struggling for h i s Independence. He w i l l show considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n conforming to the expectations and demands of society, will, have c o n f l i c t with authority and w i l l show d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting guidance and help from h i s elders. & F.J. Hacker and E.R. Geleerd, "Freedom and Authority i n Adolescence," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, v o l . xv (October, 1945), p. 626. -9-The c h i l d i s only able to conform to the demands of society i f he i s secure i n h i s love r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s parents and i s w i l l i n g to give up his own desires i n return 1 f o r t h e i r love. The c h i l d who i s separated from h i s parents at t h i s time, and who has not developed a similar r e l a t i o n s h i p with substitute parents, w i l l experience greater anxiety i n achieving control. His a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to new parents w i l l be made more d i f f i c u l t i f he has experienced i n s e c u r i t y and r e j e c t i o n p r i o r to placement. It i s only through emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n s that the c h i l d 2 i s l i b e r a t e d f o r ne.w experiences and new people. Through achievement of excretory control the c h i l d develops an increased sense off personal worth. The c h i l d who i s given a new set of substitute parents at t h i s time, unless the placements 3s successfully made and unless he i s free of the fear of r e j e c t i o n or punishment, w i l l lack t h i s sense of personal worth. I f he has not been able to achieve control and the acceptance o f authority normal to the anal period, at any time p r i o r to adolescence, then i n t h i s period of stress the anxieties i n regard to authority w i l l be increasingly acute. In adolescence these p? oblems are seen i n a re f u s a l to 'accept the authority and demands of society, i n behaviour 1 O.S. English and G'H.J. Pearson, Emotional Problems of Liv i n g , p. 5. 2 D. Hutchinson, "The Parent-Child Relationship as a Factor i n Child Placement," The Family. The Journal of Social Case Work, ( A p r i l , 1946), p. 47. -10-which i s self-centred either i n an aggressive or a with-drawing form. This i s the adolescent's attempt to es-eape from the demands of society. Also, the adolescent may be showing d i f f i c u l t y i n gaining excretory control through continued enuresis and s o i l i n g . This would indicate that he i s more or l e s s f i x a t e d i n the anal phase. Such adolescents w i l l also l i k e l y show a low sense of personal worth. In the next developmental phase, the c h i l d between three and s i x learns to resolve and develop h i s r e l a t i o n -ship to h i s parents and h i s i d e n t i t y with his own and the 1 opposite sex. This i s the development of the conscience or superego. This development of the superego i s culminated i n the working out of the chil d ' s love r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s parents. It i s an attempt on the part of the c h i l d to bring these authorities with t h e i r increasing demands into some sort of inner harmony, some guide by which he can d i r e c t 2 h i s behaviour. If these authorities have been c o n f l i c t i n g and confusing to the c h i l d , he w i l l experience d i f f i c u l t y i n Integrating them, and the r e s u l t i n g struggle with h i s conscience arouses anxiety i n him. This anxiety may be expressed as a fear of not loving oneself, and i n adolescence 1 O.S. English and G.H.J. Pearson, Emotional Problems of l a d i n g . P. 77. 2 Helen Ross, "The Case Worker and The Adolescent", The  Family. (November. 1941), p. 2 3 2 . -11-may temporarily be expressed i n the saying, "I;;hate myself." Since the parents are the f i r s t to represent authority to the Child, t h e i r influence i s of the greatest significance i n the formation of the child' s conscience or superego. Confusion and inconsistency i n the authority of the parents w i l l be represented In the development of the superego of the c h i l d . Rigid, severe authority on the part of the parents can r e s u l t i n r e b e l l i o n and delinquency on the part of the c h i l d . Weak, v a c i l l a t i n g authority can r e s u l t i n a weak and flimsy conscience i n the c h i l d which w i l l succumb to any force around him. The development of the conscience i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important at adolescence when the boy i s breaking away from the parental authority. At t h i s time he w i l l experience considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n conforming to society i f he has not developed a stable superego or i n t e r n a l authority. A l l i e d to the development of the superego i s the s i t u a t i o n of the oedipus complex. Unless the ch i l d i s able to reach an adequate solution of t h i s complex, he w i l l experience considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n adolescence when hi s s o c i a l horizon broadens and hi s physiological drives act to bring him into more frequent and closer contact with the opposite sex. While no c h i l d can be e n t i r e l y f r e e from these anxieties during his development, i f they p e r s i s t without melioration then i n adolescence they w i l l be i n t e n s i f i e d and w i l l -12-create d i f f i c u l t problems. The child who i s placed between the years of three and six may be delayed i n or prevented from s> lving the problem of his identity i n relation to his own and the opposite sex by a residue of anxieties and problems from previous years. Moreover, the fact that he i s being separated from his love object and placed with strangers further delays him i n reaching a solution to the problem of his relationship with his parents. If the child i s unable to develop a sufficiently strong relationship with substitute parents or has ^Insufficient contact with his own parents, i t i s doubtful i f he w i l l ever be able to work out his relationship to both sexes. At adolescence, the boy may experience d i f f i c u l t i e s in his social relation-ships because he has never resolved his attachment to his mother. Substitute parents also present a new set of authorities to the child. These authorities may conflict with the ones he has known previously and he w i l l not be able to accept them unless he has a strong relationship with his substitute parents. His guilt over separation from his parents also may prevent him from accepting the authority of substitute parents. This w i l l have an effect on his abil i t y to work out the oedipal situation and w i l l also affect the development of his conscience or superego. A - 1 3 -poorly developed superego w i l l hinder the adolescent adjust-ment. The development of a strong superego i s important for the adolescent i f he i s to keep the increased i d drives in line i n face of a weakened ego. The dangers inherent i n these three periods, the oral, the anal and the oedipal, point up the necessity for care i n foster home placement at this time, i f serious problems are to be diminished or avoided. Replacement, unless very carefully made, only serves to add further con-fusion to the child. I n i t i a l l y , each move means further rejection by parent figures and creates, i n the child, a fear of showing normal love and anger. It increases the existing anxieties and may impair his abi l i t y to form a meaningful relationship to substitute parents and society in general. The child's need to form sound relationships i s fundamental to the solution of his problems. In comparison to the oral, anal and oedipal phase of a child's development, the latent phases i s a relatively quiescent one. One of the most important features of the latent phase i s that the child's social horizons are greatly broadened, llftiereas prior to this time the child spent most of his time within his home, he i s now away from the home a great deal. The child attends school, begins to join i n gang activities and finds a great deal of his recreation, work, leadership and authority outside of his home l i f e . -14-With t h i s moving away from the parents, l i f e f o r the c h i l d becomes more competitive. Also, i t i s a period of homo-sexuality f o r the c h i l d , from which he needs to gain s a t i s f a c t i o n i f he i s going to be able to rel a t e to h i s own sex i n adulthood. This change i n d i r e c t i o n f o r the. c h i l d has c e r t a i n implications f o r those working with, and placing children with substitute parents at t h i s time. In order for the c h i l d to move towards th i s wider experience, he must f e e l secure i n hi s relationship to h i s parents. I f he has doubts about t h e i r continued love and a f f e c t i o n , while he Is away from them, he w i l l be reluctant to make t h i s move. In e f f e c t , he i s separating himself from h i s parents or parent substi-tutes and i f he has experienced considerable anxiety previously through r e j e c t i o n or separation, he w i l l re-experience t h i s to some extent. I f he has not completely resolved the oedipal c o n f l i c t and fears that his father w i l l take away his mother's a f f e c t i o n i n h i s absence, then he w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n leaving the home to attend school. While i n school, the c h i l d w i l l be troubled by t h i s anxiety and t h i s w i l l be evident i n h i s behaviour. He may be aggressive, unwilling to learn, or withdrawn and wrapped up i n hi s day dreams. These, are signs that he i s lacking the security to take the next step. Another sign that the c h i l d has not resolved the ,' -15-oedipal s i t u a t i o n would be i f he had not accepted the parent of h i s sex as-his i d e a l and did not attempt to Imitate the attributes of that parent. This i s seen i n the boy who prefers to be with g i r l s and to play t h e i r games rather than to be with those of his own sex. Here the boy has not accepted the father as his masculine i d e a l . I f the c h i l d i s with substitute parents and has not i d e n t i f i e d with his f o s t e r father, then he w i l l not desire to imitate that parent. The c h i l d who i s not able to move toward t h i s homo-sexual experience i n latency w i l l also face the censure of his playmates of his own sex. Although the development of the superego begins p r i o r to latency, i t i s i n t h i s period that i t i s tested out and developed. P r i o r to the commencement of school, the c h i l d has had the protection of h i s home f o r h i s actions. He has not been on h i s own. In school, the c h i l d i s more responsible for h i s actions and faces a number of new l i m i -tations within which he must guide h i s behaviour. More-over, he faces the group pressure which at times c o n f l i c t s with the l i m i t a t i o n s of the home or school. At such times the c h i l d must make a decision, and such a decision can create a great deal of anxiety for the c h i l d , depending upon h i s . previous and e x i s t i n g security and.relationship with h i s parents. I f the c h i l d brings to latency a residue of anxieties from previous developmental periods, or has been -16-placed w i t h s u b s t i t u t e parents j u s t p r i o r t o t h i s p e r i o d and has not as-yet, been able to adjust t o t h i s move, then l a t e n c y may be anything but quiescent. I t w i l l be a time of a n x i e t i e s and tensions and w i l l be s i g n i f i e d by r e o c c u r r i n g e n u r e s i s , r e t i c e n c e , f e a r s of the unknown, re l u c t a n c e to move beyond the home or by aggressive, h o s t i l e , uncooperative and demanding behaviour. This i n s e c u r i t y , as d i s p l a y e d i n a n x i e t i e s and t e n s i o n s , w i l l handicap the c h i l d i n moving towards, and i n a d j u s t i n g t o the stormy p e r i o d of adolescence. Although a n x i e t i e s i n these developmental phases w i l l a f f e c t adjustment i n adolescence, there are s e v e r a l major problems p e c u l i a r to t h i s p e r i o d . I n h i s s t r u g g l e f o r independence, the adolescent faces the problem of . forming new attachments outside of the f a m i l y and also that 1 of i n t e g r a t i n g new a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h the old.. . These problems are f u r t h e r complicated by the boy's maturation which gives him an inc r e a s e d c a p a c i t y to l o v e and an in c r e a s e d capacity f o r p h y s i c a l and mental achievement. The adolescent has to l e a r n t o channel and d i r e c t t h i s new. d r i v e so tha t he can reach h i s goal of m a t u r i t y . This arouses anxiety i n him i n that he may not be able to handle these d r i v e s • adequately. He may tend to regress t o the s e c u r i t y of 1 Helen Ross, "The Case Worker and the Adolescent," p. 232. -17-childliood temporarily rather than suffer the blows to h i s ego as a r e s u l t of gaucheness. The adolescent's a b i l i t y to form new attachments depends esp e c i a l l y upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n he was able to make with h i s parents. This car r i e s with i t the i m p l i -cation that he has had a good pattern with which to i d e n t i f y , A normal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the parent makes the formation of new attachments easy. 1 Adolescents who, at some time, have been separated from t h e i r ovm. parents, and who have faced the task of r e l a t i n g to one or more substitute parents, w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n forming new attachments i n adolescence. This i s e s p e c i a l l y Important i n the case work rel a t i o n s h i p . The necessity for a strong inner authority or superego has been discussed previously. It i s fundamental to the problem of integrating new authorities with the old, to the channelling of new drives and to the evaluation of new experiences and s i t u a t i o n s . Inner security and standards to meet these problems depend upon the love of and attach-ment to the parents. For adolescents who, because of the continual s h i f t from parents to parent substitutes, have f a i l e d to make enduring attachments and from them develop security of standards, these problems assume major proportions. . 1 Helen Ross, "The Case Worker and the Adolescent," p, 233.'-^ -18-At a d o l e s c e n c e t h e r e i s s t i l l a n o t h e r f o r c e w h i c h a c t s upon t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes o f t h i s p e r i o d and upon t h e p r o b l e m s o f making new a t t a c h m e n t s and I n t e g r a t i n g new a u t h o r i t i e s . T h i s f o r c e i s t h e c u l t u r a l demand p l a c e d upon t h e a d o l e s c e n t . He i s e n c o u r a g e d t o be m a s c u l i n e , a g g r e s s i v e , c o m p e t i t i v e ; t o s e l e c t and p r e p a r e h i m s e l f f o r a d v o c a t i o n ; and t o move i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o t h e r s e x . These demands o c c u r almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t v e n t u r i n g out i n t o t h e s e a r e a s t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f a i l u r e w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e i r weakened ego t o a c c e p t . Most a d o l e s c e n t s have a s t a b l e f a m i l y t i e t o f a l l back on a t s u c h t i m e s . However t h i s i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h o s e who have a l i e n a t e d t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s , who have e x p e r i e n c e d r e j e c t i o n and abuse t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s , o r f o r t h o s e who have no t i e t o a f a m i l y because o f a c o n t i n u a l s h i f t f r o m f a m i l y t o f a m i l y . Such a d o l e s c e n t s have c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g t o and t r u s t i n g i n someone who c o u l d f u l f i l l t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e . These are the a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h whom s o c i a l a g e n c i e s are so f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d . S i n c e t h e a d o l e s c e n t i s a t t e m p t i n g t o emancipate h i m s e l f f r o m p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and t o e s t a b l i s h h i s own i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h i s must be c o n s i d e r e d when s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h i s p a r e n t s i s n e c e s s a r y at t h i s age. I f he i s p l a c e d w i t h s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s who do n o t a s s i s t h i m t o d e v e l o p h i s -19-independerice, his problems wi l l be increased. He may refuse to accept a setting where he wi l l be involved i n personal relationships with substitute parents. In such instances the adolescent needs someone to whom he can look for guidance, understanding, limits and direction, and someone who can relieve the pressures, bolster his weakened ego and can help him understand himself. Because of the unfortunate schism which our society creates between childhood and adulthood, the adolescent needs to re-experience many of the steps taken in his early developmental stages. 1 Whether he can be helped to achieve a socially acceptable adolescent adjustment through placement with substitute parents or i n an institution, w i l l depend upon the abi l i t y of workers to enable the child or adolescent to understand the separation from his parents; to give foster parents help i n meeting the problems presented by those i n their care; to develop a strong supportive relationship with adolescents. The help which a case worker is able to give w i l l be more effective i f i t i s based upon a complete diagnosis of the l i f e experience of the adolescent and his relationships with others. Placement of Molnae.*nta by the Children's Aid Society Until recently there has not been much emphasis upon the special selection of foster homes for adolescent 1 J.C Miner, "Some Determinants in the Differential Treatment of Adolescents," Child Welfare Journal of the  Child Welfare League of America, vol. xxix, No. 8, (October 1950), p. 4. - 2 0 -boys at the Children's Aid Society. Foster parents who had showed an a b i l i t y to work with adolescent boys were used extensively. I f t h i s did not f i l l the need of homes f o r adolescents, the remainder were selected from the general f o s t e r homes available. Also, special advertise-ments were run i n the papers requesting homes f o r boys. This aroused people's i n t e r e s t i n adolescent boys, but since only approximately one out of every f i f t e e n applications received was suitable, the exis t i n g needs were never met. Another d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s method of getting homes was the lack of workers to investigate the applications received. Thus, often by the time the a p p l i -cations were investigated the prospective f o s t e r parents had l o s t i n t e r e s t or had made other arrangements. This s i t u a t i o n was p a r t i a l l y met by assigning one case worker, i n May 1951, to investigate applications pertaining primarily to teen-agers. This has resulted i n some easing of the d i r e need&r homes f o r t h i s age group. There has also been a gradual change i n philosophy i n regard to the type of homes suitable f o r adolescents. This change In philosophy gave greater recognition to the special needs of the adolescent. I t was a change from the philosophy of providing a "good Mommy and Daddy" f o r the adolescent to providing a good physical set up where the boy, unless he wanted to, would not be expected to form an emotional t i e or strong relationship with the f o s t e r parents This required a change i n in t e r p r e t a t i o n to the prospective f o s t e r parents. .The problems involved i n caring for an adolescent were pointed out. His probable lack of considera t i o n and his i n a b i l i t y to accept them as parents were examined as well as the necessity f o r him, during the t r a n s i t i o n to adulthood, to continue his t i e to h i s own parents, regardless of t h e i r inadequacies. This represented a change i n thinking on the part of the agency from the idea that they could remake adolescents, to the idea of preserving the adolescent's own d i g n i t y . Poster parents, instead of deriving an emotional- parental s a t i s f a c t i o n from the place-ment of the teen-ager, gave a professional service to the agency. This professional service was recognized by the payment of a s l i g h t l y higher board rate f o r f o s t e r parents taking adolescents which compensated for the additional service involved. This s p e c i a l board rate was given only i n s p e c i f i c cases at f i r s t . These were generally cases where the agency was experiencing considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g homes which could handle the behaviour problems of a p a r t i c u l a r adolescent. Later t h i s special board rate was extended to a l l new placements and to replacements. The need fo r payment f o r service rendered by foster parents i n medical cases had been recognized by the agency some time -22-previous to this l a t t e r recognition of payment f o r service. At present where medical or emotional problems are involved, a s t i l l higher board -rate may be paid but thi s i s given on an i n d i v i d u a l basis and i s subject to approval by the admini st r at i on • In the past the agency has not developed many variations i n types of f o s t e r homes used f o r adolescent boys. Recently there has been more exploration i n t o and development of f o s t e r homes f o r special purposes. The general foster home has not proved suitable f o r a l l adolescents and the d i f f i c u l t y i n placing boys has brought about some s p e c i a l i -zation of fos t e r homes. This has resulted In homes being used that are geared to the boys*1; special needs,. Placement Resources Currently Used f o r Adolescents Specialized f o s t e r homes have been used f o r medical problems f o r some time. An example of t h i s i s a home used f o r an adolescent suffering from diabetes where the f o s t e r mother has had t r a i n i n g as a nurse. The use of homes where the foster parents have had" some t r a i n i n g i n and experience i n dealing with emotional problems has not been to 0extensive. There are several reasons, f o r t h i s . One reason Is that there has been a lack of emphasis on the need for homes which can handle such problems. Thus, there has not, u n t i l recently, been a drive to r e c r u i t such f o s t e r parents, nor has there been a recognition of the extra service and a b i l i t y of the foster parents by payment of a service fee. There -23-i s also the fact that homes with such q u a l i f i e d parents -are not r e a d i l y available. The use of subsidized foster homes has not been f u l l y explored f o r adolescents. Because of the need f o r placement resources for teen-aged boys, the agency i s faced with the necessity of exploring the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s type of home. A subsidized foster home off e r s d i s t i n c t advantages f o r the placement of adolescents. It provides temporary accommodation where the adolescent Is not expected to make a close r e l a t i o n s h i p to substitute parents u n t i l a more permanent plan can be made. Moreover there can be closer cooperation between the temporary f o s t e r parents and the agency which f a c i l i t a t e s a diagnosis of the adolescent's*needs and anxieties. This type of home off e r s a more neutral se t t i n g f o r the adolescent to adjust to when he i s su f f e r i n g the trauma of separation from h i s own parents or when he i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y ready to give up his own parents and to be able to accept substitute parents. A subsidized home i s also less threatening to an adolescent's own parents and allows them and the boy to work out t h e i r feelings regarding placement without the 1 pressure of the regular f o s t e r home. I t also gives the adolescent reassurance as he can see that there are others 1 G. A. Gllck, "Establishing a Subsidized Poster Home," Child Welfare Journal. Child Welfare League of .Baaerica. -v o l . xxvi, No. 9, (November 1947), p.-6. -24-i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . .,.„. Progress i s being made i n the use of the s t r a i g h t boarding house f o r adolescent boys. I n t h i s case the agency pays the f u l l cost of the board u n t i l the boyj'is able to assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . These homes are not f o s t e r homes and l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n i s exerc i s e d over them. The super-v i s i o n which e x i s t s i s mainly between the agency's worker and the boy. This provides a n e u t r a l s e t t i n g which i s much more s u i t a b l e f o r c e r t a i n adolescents. The agency also uses such agencies as the S a l v a t i o n Army H o t e l , the Y.M.C.A., and the Central C i t y M i s s i o n . Placement i n these agencies i s on a s h e l t e r b a s i s and i s f o r boys needing temporary placement. A f u r t h e r resource that the agency has f o r care of adolescents i s the Boys' Receiving Home. This was opened i n 1950 as an emergency housing u n i t f o r teen-aged boys. The agency was faced w i t h the problems of c a r i n g f o r a number of adolescents who were not s u i t a b l e f o r immediate placement i n the e x i s t i n g resources p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . The group of boys placed i n the R e c e i v i n g Home showed a number of behaviour and emotional problems such as truancy, b u l l y i n g , l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , temper tantrums and a r e f u s a l to cooperate w i t h a d u l t s . Many of these boys had h i s t o r i e s of unsuccesful f o s t e r home placements from which they had run away or had to be removed at the request of the f o s t e r parents. This group of boys l e d to the f u n c t i o n o f the Receiving Home being two f o l d ; , that of being an emergency and temporary s h e l t e r u n t i l new plans could be formulated, and that of a semi-- 2 5 -t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e where more c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t s c o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e s e b o y s . T h r o u g h -out i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , t h i s l a t t e r f u n c t i o n has r e c e i v e d more emphasis so t h a t now i t s f u n c t i o n i s n e a r e r t h a t o f a s t u d y and t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e . i n v i e w o f t h i s change i n f u n c t i o n c e r t a i n changes have been n e c e s s a r y i n r e g a r d t o a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a . Those w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d d e l i n q u e n c y t r e n d s were e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e home. The age g r o u p i n g o f t h e boys was r e d u c e d to between t w e l v e and f i f t e e n y e a r s . The p o p u l a t i o n was r e d u c e d f r o m s i x t e e n t o e l e v e n , and o n l y boys who were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l and who c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e g r o u p s i t u a t i o n were thought o f as b e i n g . s u i t a b l e f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t t h e home c o u l d o f f e r . A male c a s e w o r k e r w i t h a s m a l l case l o a d was made t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e home and was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n a r r o w i n g o f t h e f o c u s o f t h e R e c e i v i n g Home t o t h e p o i n t where i t became more o f a t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a more s e l e c t e d group o f boys b e i n g a d m i t t e d t o t h e home, c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the house p a r e n t s and t h e development o f b e t t e r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i n the community and u s e o f community r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l programme o f t h e home. C o n t i n u a l improvements have been made i n t h i s p h y s i c a l s e t up o f t h e home and a group work programme has been d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e f i e l d p l a c e m e n t o f a m a s t e r student f r o m t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, - 2 6 -Statement of Method This Chapter has presented some of the psychology of the adolescent, and has pointed out how h i s adjustment i n other developmental phases affects his adolescent adjustment, especially as i t i s pertinent to the fo s t e r c h i l d . The importance of the trauma of separation from one's own parents and i t s place i n the development of the c h i l d has also been stressed. The philosophy of the placement of-adolescents at the Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, the resources used i n the past and the current resources have been outlined to give the background f o r an analysis of t h e i r present p o l i c y i n regard to the adolescents i n t h e i r care. The-"material i n Chapter Two has been taken from a survey, by the Children's Aid Society, of t h e i r adolescent male population. C l a s s i f i -cations and r a t i n g scales are used to set up a number of tables which w i l l compare the material. This comparison w i l l show the frequency of problems presented by, the adolescents and w i l l be related to the age at admission, number of placements, and parental background to determine i f there i s any corre-l a t i o n between these and the problems outlined i n the th e o r e t i c a l discussion i n Chapter One. Since the material i n the survey did not give s u f f i c i e n t l y detailed background . information on the problems presented by the adolescents studied, the case i l l u s t r a t i o n method i s used i n Chapter Three to trace as f a r as the records permitted, the underlying -27-causes of adolescent problems. This detailed information i s also presented to show the types of placement resources which might s a t i s f y p a r t i c u l a r needs i n the adolescent. As f a r as i s possible, the case presentations trace through the developmental phases as set out i n Chapter One. ' The implications i n and conclusions of Chapters Two and Three are drawn together i n Chapter Pour so that recommendations can be made regarding the nature of case work services andr.'* resources for adolescents. CHAPTER II A SURVEY OF ADOLESCENT BOYS I IT CARE The Vancouver Children's Aid Society have been experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n d i n g s u f f i c i e n t suitable placements f o r t h e i r adolescent boys. The Agency attempted to meet thi s s i t u a t i o n p a r t i a l l y by appointing an additional worker to the fo s t e r home f i n d i n g department f o r the i n v e s t i -gation of homes which would be suitable for adolescent boys. The establishment of a higher fo s t e r home rate which included a service fee to the fo s t e r parents further improved the s i t u a t i o n . Although these two innovations have eased the s i t u a t i o n to some extent, the Agency desired to determine what further problems they would face i n the placement of adolescent boys and the resources that would be needed to meet these problems. Therefore, they undertook a survey of the adolescent boys In t h e i r care. From the survey the Agency desired to determine the number of boys su i t ably and unsuitably placed. The boys suitably placed included those who were secure- and s e t t l e d i n t h e i r foster homes, and those who had become s e l f -supporting and f o r whom the Agency was administratively responsible. The main interest however was i n the boys unsuitably placed and t h i s would include those who had been -29-In a number of f o s t e r homes, who had not been able to f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h e i r needs i n such homes, and who would require a further placement. With the information about the number who would require another placement and the problems involved i n working with such boys, the Agency would be able to plan and develop resources which would meet the needs of th i s group. The survey schedules were completed by a l l the workers who had adolescent boys i n t h e i r case loads. In what follows the material i n the survey has been analysed, c l a s s i f i e d and compared, i n an attempt to determine the problems shown by the boys, as well as to determine the number of boys unsuitably placed. The headings used i n the survey schedule included age at admission, reason for admission, parental i n t e r e s t , p s y c h i a t r i c or vocational examinations and findings, number of placements, earnings (part of f u l l time), board rate and status, reason f o r change i n placement, s u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t placement, and the reason f o r change of l a s t placement. Each worker f i l l e d i n t h i s information for each adolescent boy i n h i s case load. The;- survey, i n t h i s form, would give much of the desired information; yet, on the other hand, i t presented a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n analysing the quantity of material obtained. One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i l l i n g out a survey of t h i s nature i s the case workers' lack of free time. -30-Some o f t h e workers were u n a b l e t o complete t h e s c h e d u l e , and i n f o r m a t i o n on a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f the number of c a s e s 1 was f i l l e d out on a s h o r t f o r m . Some:, w o r k e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who h a d r e c e n t l y t a k e n o v e r a c a s e l o a d , were u n a b l e t o g i v e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d w i t h o u t r e v i e w i n g t h e f i l e s . I n some c a s e s t h e s e r e v i e w s were not made w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e r e were a number o f gaps, i n the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d . I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s t h e workers had n o t h a d r e c e n t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r c a s e s and d e s i g n a t e d some a d o l e s c e n t s as l o s t . However, s i n c e t h e sample o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s was almost c o m p l e t e , and s i n c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l sample f o r whom l i t t l e o r no i n f o r m a t i o n was g i v e n was c o m p a r a t i v e l y 2 s m a l l , the o v e r - a l l r e s u l t s were" n o t g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d . . T h e r e were two f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a s u r v e y o f t h i s n a t u r e . Because o f the l e n g t h o f t h e s u r v e y w o r k e r s were tempted to p o s t p o n e c o m p l e t i n g t h e s h e e t s u n t i l t h e y had more t i m e . An even more i m p o r t a n t d i f f i c u l t y which a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , was t h e l a c k o f c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s and s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e s u r v e y . F o r s t a t i s t i c a l p u r p o s e s , a s s u m p t i o n s h a d t o be made on t h e meanings o f t h e w o r k e r s ' r e m a r k s . A s a f e -g u a r d a g a i n s t t o o g r e a t an e r r o r i n t h i s r e g a r d was t h e u s e 1 See A p p e n d i x B. The " s h o r t f o r m " i s an i n d e x c a r d u s e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e l a r g e r s u r v e y u n d e r s e v e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . 2 T h e r e are a p p r o x i m a t e l y two h u n d r e d and f i f t y a d o l e s c e n t b o y s . i n c a r e and t h e sample i n t h i s s u r v e y c o n s i s t e d o f two h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - e i g h t b o y s . Of t h e s e , i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e p e r c e n t . -31-of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and rating scales. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and Rating Scales A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of reasons f o r admission was adapted from the thesis, How Foster Children Turn Out, by A.L. Langdale^and i s as follows : 1. f i n a n c i a l i n a b i l i t y to provide f o r a c h i l d 2. parental break-up 3. moral incapacity of parents 4. medical incapcity of parents g 5. no parents for the c h i l d . A s i x t h category ("other"), i . e . reasons not coming within the above, was not found necessary i n the present survey. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of reasons f o r change i n placement was arrived at af t e r a t r i a l run through eighteen cases i n 3 one case load. A further category, ("other") was provided f o r those cases'which would not f i t into the above and i t was used only three times f o r "can't f i n d suitable f o s t e r home," I f t h i s l a s t reason had been included with the other main categories, i t i s l i k e l y that greater use would have been made of i t . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f problems of the boys was not made up u n t i l the survey had been completed. The many problems l i s t e d by the workers were divided into nine 1 A.L. Langdale. How Foster Children Turn Out. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 2 See Appendix A I 3 See Appendix A I I for the various categories under reasons f o r change i n placement. - 3 2 -b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s . I t was d i f f i c u l t to d e t e r m i n e t o w h i c h c a t e g o r i e s some o f t h e p r o b l e m s b e l o n g e d . T h u s , t h o s e w h i c h appeared t o be p r i m a r i l y o f an e m o t i o n a l n a t u r e were a s s i g n e d t o t h a t c a t e g o r y , w h i l e t h o s e p r o b l e m s w h i c h appeared t o be i n d i c a t i v e o f a b e h a v i o u r d i s o r d e r were p l a c e d u n d e r t h a t c a t e g o r y . W h i l e b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s may be t h e r e s u l t o f an e a r l i e r e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e , t h e p r o b l e m s a s s i g n e d t o t h i s c a t e g o r y were so p l a c e d on the b a s i s o f t h e i r 1 symptoms, r a t h e r t h a n t h e c a u s e s . I n t h e a p p e n d i x , t h e p r o b l e m s are l i s t e d i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r appearance r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e development o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t . I f a c h i l d i s a b l e to a c h i e v e a n o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p a r e n t s and o t h e r s , t h e n he w i l l l i k e l y be w e l l a d j u s t e d . Where t h e c h i l d has been u n a b l e to r e l a t e s u c c e s s f u l y , t h e symptoms o f t h i s may be a p p a r e n t i n an e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m r o r d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c y . T h e r e f o r e , i f t h e p r o b l e m s were l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g to cause and e f f e c t , t h e p r o b l e m c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s o r a d o l e s c e n t ' s i n a b i l i t y to r e l a t e t o o t h e r s would be f o r e m o s t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e f o s t e r c h i l d b e c a u s e o f t h e f a c t o r o f s e p a r a t i o n from h i s p a r e n t s , and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r h i m t o e s t a b l i s h a sound r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s i f he i s t o p r o c e e d i n h i s e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A s c a l e o f s u i t a b i l i t y o f l a s t p l a c e m e n t was s e t up on t h e b a s i s o f f i v e f a c t o r s n e c e s s a r y f o r a v e r y 1 See Appendix A I I I f o r t h e v a r i o u s problems a s s i g n e d t o e a c h c a t e g o r y . -33-good f o s t e r home f o r adolescent boys. These f i v e factors are: 1. P u l l acceptance of the boy by the f o s t e r parents 2. F u l l acceptance of the f o s t e r parents by the boy 3. Both f o s t e r parents i n the home, 4. Both f o s t e r parents able to cope with problems of the boy,, 5 . F u l l acceptance of placement by the natural parents. Complete acceptance of placement by the natural parents included those cases where the parents cooperated i n the placement of the boy and where t h e i r influence was such as would enable the boy to adjust to another set of parental figures. I t would also include that group of parents who had shown no int e r e s t i n the boy since the time of placement proceedings and with whom the Agency or the boy had had l i t t l e or no contact. For a fo s t e r home to be rated very good, or good, i t i s necessary that both parents be i n the home. A number of cases were noticed where the fost e r parent was a widow. In adolescence, as i n the oedipal period, the boy needs a father figure to whom he can r e l a t e , and with whom he can i d e n t i f y . He needs a father to help him develop h i s masculinity, to strengthen his weakened ego, to help him work out h i s competitive f e e l i n g s , and to provide him with a person from whom he may seek guidance and di r e c t i o n , and i n whom he can confide and f i n d acceptance. The cases where the foster mother was a widow, regardless of the s t a b i l i t y of the placement at the present time, were a l l rated as being - 3 4 -m e d i o c r e . 1 , A n o t h e r f a c t o r not given c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e s u r v e y was t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e l a s t p l a c e m e n t . Some o f t h e p l a c e -ments would be o f a d u r a t i o n o f s i x months o r l e s s and i f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was known i t would have been a check on t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e l a s t p l a c e m e n t . A n a l y s i s o f t h e Survey The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s u r v e y s c h e d u l e s has been p u t i n t o t a b l e s which, show t h e p r o b l e m s and t h e i r e f f e c t u p o n , t h e placement o f a d o l e s c e n t s . I n t h e t a b l e s , good a d j u s t -ment r e f e r s t o t h o s e c a s e s i n the s u r v e y s c h e d u l e s where i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t h a d a c h i e v e d t h i s , or where no p r o b l e m o f any k i n d w i t h t h e a d o l e s c e n t was i n d i c a t e d . "No i n f o r m a t i o n " means t h e a d o l e s c e n t was l o s t o r d i s c h a r g e d . S i n c e i t t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x months t o complete t h e s u r v e y , some o f t h e c a s e s l i s t e d i n t h e s c h e d u l e s were d i s c h a r g e d i n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d . 1 See A p p e n d i x A V f o r t h e c o m p l e t e r a t i n g s c a l e on t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e l a s t p l a c e m e n t . -35-TABLE I FREQUENCY OF PROBLEMS IN THE CASE LOADS Category r".' J of Problems D i s t r i b u t i o n bv Case Loads A-N. 0 P (a) |tfum-3er§ Per Cent Emotional Delinquent Tendencies Behaviour D i f f i c u l t y i n Relating Incontinence Low I.Q. Physical-Medical Di sturbed Sex D i f f i c u l t i e s 39 10 18 48 11 7 17 7 5 17 3 7 15 1 1 14 1 2 7 3 1 5 1 4 5 - 1 67 56 29 27 17 17 11 10 6 19.0 15.9 8.2 . 7.7 4.8 4.8 3.1 2.8 1.7 Sub Total 167 37 46 240 68 ;o Good Adjustment No Information 63 20 10 10 2 8 93 20 26.3 5.7 Total 240 59 64 255 10.O..Q (a) A - N Each case load i s distinguished by a . . l e t t e r / therefore A - N represents a t o t a l of fourteen case loads. 0 and P These two l e t t e r s each represent one case load and are l i s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y because they consist predominantly of adolescent boys. The d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Table I shows the o v e r - a l l pattern of problems. No case was marked under more than four problems. Where a case was marked under more than one problem, there was no' attempt made to d i s t i n g u i s h the primary from the secondary problems. Moreover, there was no i n d i c a t i o n whether the problems enumerated were active, - 3 6 -dormant o r no l o n g e r e x i s t i n g . Such i n f o r m a t i o n would be v a l u a b l e as i t m i g h t a f f e c t t h e p l a c e m e n t o f an a d o l e s c e n t at any t i m e . The f o u r most f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m s shown I n T a b l e I are e m o t i o n a l , d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s , b e h a v i o u r and d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g . E m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e d a l l b e h a v i o u r w h i c h was symptomatic o f an e m o t i o n a l u p s e t s u c h as c o m p u l s i v e o r moody b e h a v i o u r . However, t h e s e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o b l e m s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d and t h e u n d e r l y i n g cause would l i k e l y be i n a p o o r e m o t i o n a l development I n t h e f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . These f u n c t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s may be due t o t h e c h i l d ' s e a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e x p e r i e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h h i s p a r e n t s or p a r e n t s u b s t i t u t e s ; t o t h e trauma o f s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e p a r e n t s , o r t o u n r e s o l v e d a n x i e t i e s and t e n s i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p r o b l e m s i n t h e s e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s p o i n t s up the p o s s i b i l i t y that t h e f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t programme i n r e g a r d t o . t h e e m o t i o n a l development o f t h e c h i l d i s n o t t o o s u c c e s s f u l , n o r are f o s t e r p a r e n t s b e i n g g i v e n adequate case work s e r v i c e s . The emphasis o n , and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c a s e work s e r v i c e s i n h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d r e s o l v e t h e trauma o f s e p a r a t i o n and h i s f e e l i n g s t o w a r d h i s own and s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s may be q u e s t i o n e d a l s o . The number o f p r o b l e m s shown as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s o r d e r s i s s m a l l compared t o the f u n c t i o n a l d i s o r d e r s . The s u r v e y s c h e d u l e s were not c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t t h e y would show t h e e m o t i o n a l -37-problems accompanying c o n s t i t u t i o n a l handicaps such as low I.Q. Although any adolescent showing any of the problems l i s t e d i n Table I could be considered disturbed, the category of disturbed i n t h i s l i s t refers to adolescents whose behaviour showed a pre-psychotic or psychotic trend. The low concentration of problems concerned with sex d i f f i c u l t i e s i s notable when I t i s considered that adolescence i s a period when there i s increased a c t i v i t y i n the sex glands. This would indicate that as f a r as i s known, most of the adolescents had achieved a s o c i a l l y acceptable adjustment i n the area of sex. Approximately one h a l f of the boys i n care do not pose any undue problem at the present time. This group includes those adolescents who have achieved a good adjust-ment and those about whom no information was available. In Table I I the problems are compared to the age at admission and the l a t t e r has been divided i n t o four age groups to represent the developmental periods discussed i n Chapter I , i . e . the oral and anal, oedipal, latent and adolescent periods respectively. This age grouping was selected to determine i f there was any relationship between the problems and the developmental period at which the c h i l d was admitted. I f the trauma of separation i s such that the c h i l d i s unable to resolve his current developmental problems, these same problems w i l l appear during the stress of adolescence. — 38— TABLE II FREQUENCY OF PROBLEMS COMPARED TO THE AGE AT ADMISSION Category Age at Admission Num- Per of Problems 0-3 4-6 7-10 11 j£- bers Cent Emotional 8 5 18 36 67 19.0 Delinquent Tendencies 6 4 20 26 . 56 15.9 Behaviour 2 4 8 15 29 8.2 D i f f i c u l t y i n Relating 5 3 6 13 27 7.7 Incontinence 3 3 2 9 17 4.8 Low I.Q. 6 . 4 3 4 17 4.8 Physical-Medical 3 - 2 6 11 3.1 Disturbed 1 3 1 5 10 2.8 Sex D i f f i c u l t i e s 1 1 - 4 6 1.7 Sub Total 35 27 60 118 240 68-0 Good Adjustment 29 16 14 34 93 26.3 No Information 10 2 2 6 20 5.7 Total 74 45 76 158 353 100.0 The age groups of "7 - 10" and " l l Plus" show the highest concentration of the four major problems. . The . fac t that the adolescents i n these age groups were with t h e i r own parents f o r a longer period of time and may have had a longer damaging and detrimental experience could account f o r t h i s . I t might also s i g n i f y that the placement was not planned to meet the needs of thi s grotip or that t h i s group was not so amenable to an immediate f o s t e r home experience. From t h i s i t would appear that the Agency's programme i s more successful i n the placement of the younger children. The r e l a t i v e l y high appearance of incontinence among the older boys would indicate that the developmental problems of the anal period had not been solved. Through incontinence the boyo exhibits, h i s h o s t i l i t y to his environment and i s c l i n g i n g to an i n f a n t i l e s a t i s f a c t i o n . Also, i t may s i g n i f y that the adolescent cannot meet the stress of t h i s period and has regressed to one i n which he found s a t i s f a c t i o n and security. The f a c t that sex d i f f i c u l t i e s and disturbed personality problems appear frequently during adolescence shows that t h i s period i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y t r y i n g one. Although adjustment to puberty has not been stressed p r i o r to t h i s , the concentra-t i o n of sex d i f f i c u l t i e s i n Table II bears out the f a c t that adolescence i s a period of increased sex a c t i v i t y f o r which s o c i a l l y acceptable outlets must be found. Disturbed personality problems show a high incidence for those admitted during t h e i r oedipal and adolescent periods also. This might be expected since these periods are the peaks of emotional a c t i v i t y i n the development of the c h i l d . One of the common and most important problems facing the c h i l d i n these two periods i s that of forming r e l a t i o n s h i p s . An i n a b i l i t y to do t h i s could r e s u l t i n personality disturbance. -40-TABLE III FREQUENCY OF PROBLEMS COMPARED TO THE NUMBER OF PLACEMENTS Category No. of Placements Num- Per of Problems 0-2 3-4 5-6 14- bers Cent Emotional 13 14 18 22 67 19.0 Delinquent Tendencies 12 10 9 25 56 15.9 Behaviour 4 4 9 12 29 8.2 D i f f i c u l t y i n Relating 4 6 6 11 27 7.7 Incontinence 4 6 3 4 17 4.8 Low I.Q. 3 6 4 4 17 4.8 Physic al-Medic a l 3 3 2 3 11 3.1 Disturbed 2 2 _ 6 10 2.8 Sex D i f f i c u l t i e s 1 2 3 6 1.7 Sub Total 45 52 53 90 Good Adjustment 44 27 9 13 93 26.3 No Information 4 13 - 3 20 5.7 Total 93 92 62 106 . 352,., 100.0 For those who have had more than two placements, i t can be expected that t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e l a t e has been severely impaired, that they TCELI have feelings of in s e c u r i t y and a low sense of personal worthj i n short they w i l l have feelings of not being wanted, which i s evident i n the concentration of problems i n t h i s group. Each removal and new placement s i g n i f i e s a further r e j e c t i o n and i s a v e r i f i c a t i o n to the c h i l d of hi s unworthiness. The r e s u l t i s that he i s less w i l l i n g to invest a f f e c t i o n -41-and chance further r e j e c t i o n . The attempts by the adolescents to gain s a t i s f a c t i o n or r e t a l i a t e are evident i n the concen-t r a t i o n i n the category of 'delinquent tendencies." A l l other methods of gaining s a t i s f a c t i o n by the adolescents have been unsuccessful or have brought r e j e c t i o n , with, the r e s u l t that these s a t i s f a c t i o n s are gained at the expense of society and i n a more i n f a n t i l e , self-centred manner. This i s i n d i c a t i v e of poor superego development. A strong superego i s dependent upon the precept and example of a" loved person with whom the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e s and the chance of such development i s s l i g h t i n a succession of fo s t e r homes. The damaging effects of ••numerous placements i s also evident i n the increase of sex d i f f i c u l t i e s and disturbed personality behaviour. The following cases are given to show some of the damaging r e s u l t s of numerous fo s t e r home placements. Johnny was admitted to care because of parental break-up at the age of four months and was placed i n seventeen homes i n as many years. He i s now showing psychotic behaviour which has necessitated i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. Because he has been i n so many f o s t e r homes, he would not have experienced any continual security, love and a f f e c t i o n which are so v i t a l to h i s dynamic development. It i s therefore not surprising that he i s now completely disturbed. Bobby was admitted to care when he was one year old and i n the succeeding eighteen years has experienced -42-t w e n t y - e i g h t p l a c e m e n t s . At p r e s e n t Bobby i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l ! z because o f d e l i n q u e n c y . H i s b e h a v i o u r i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e f i r s t f o u r p r o b l e m s shown i n T a b l e I I I . B o t h t h e s e boys were a d m i t t e d when v e r y young and t h e i r chances f o r s u c c e s s i n a f o s t e r home s h o u l d have b e e n q u i t e f a v o u r a b l e . H a r r y v/as a d m i t t e d at t h e age of f o u r t e e n , but h a d s i x t e e n p l a c e m e n t s i n f i v e y e a r s , a i d i s now t e n d i n g t o become p s y c h o t i c . The r e a s o n f o r a d m i s s i o n was p a r e n t a l b r e a k - u p . H a r r y has a s t r o n g n e u r o t i c t i e to h i s r e j e c t i n g m o t h e r . T h i s has made i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t f o r H a r r y t o r e l a t e t o and a c c e p t f o s t e r p a r e n t s . From t h i s l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i t can be seen t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i z e d atmosphere o f a f o s t e r home was u n s u i t a b l e u n t i l H a r r y had b e e n a b l e t o r e s o l v e h i s s t r o n g f e e l i n g s a b o u t h i s m o t h e r . Some o f t h e changes i n f o s t e r homes were t h e r e s u l t o f s i c k n e s s o r moving on t h e p a r t o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s . .While s u c h r e a s o n s f o r change i n p l a c e m e n t may n o t be a v o i d e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e r e a s o n s needs t o be examined i n t h e l i g h t o f the e f f e c t o f r e p l a c e m e n t on t h e f o s t e r c h i l d . I t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t f o r a c h i l d w i t h h i s own p a r e n t s , t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w o u l d r a r e l y mean t h e l o s s o f h i s home. Perhaps f o s t e r p a r e n t s s h o u l d be s u b s i d i z e d d u r i n g such e x i g e n c i e s so t h a t t h e f o s t e r c h i l d can r e m a i n i n t h e home.' I n t h e c a s e o f H a r r y , he was c o n s i d e r a b l y damaged i n h i s a b i l i t y to r e l a t e p r i o r t o h i s a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e - 4 3 -because of his t i e to h i s mother. In present day practice, every attempt i s made, through the giving of case work services and f i n a n c i a l assistance, to keep the chil d ' s own home together as long as possible. There i s . a danger here that, regardless of the services given, the environment of the chil d ' s home can be more damaging than would be the trauma of placement. These three cases are of an extreme nature and are i n no way i n d i c a t i v e of the o v e r - a l l practice of the Agency. I t must be emphasized that nearly f i f t y per cent of the adolescent population i s rated as having no problems. Also, during the l a s t f i f t e e n years the practice of caring f o r children i n f o s t e r homes has changed. However, these three cases were picked to i l l u s t r a t e the severity "and damaging effect of constant replacement upon the boys and upon the Agency's main resources for care of them, the f o s t e r homes. So f a r the tables have shown the frequency of problems compared with the age at admission and the number of placements. In these tables a boy may have shown several problems and they were marked i n the appropriate categories. The next table l i s t s the number of problems shown by each boy. -44-TABLE IV NUMBER OF PROBLEMS PER CASE Defined Problems D i s t r i b u t i o n bv Case Loads A-N 0 P (a) Num-bers Per Cent Boys l i s t e d as having: Four Problems Three Problems Two Problems One Problem 8 4 4 12 6 5 25 1 4 56 3 7 16 23 30 46: 7.0 10.0 13.1 20.5 -Sub Total 81 14 20 115 50.6 Good Adjustment No Information 62 15 16 12 3 5 93 20 40.7 8.7 Total 155, 32- 41, 228 100. Q (a) A - N Each case load i s distinguished by a l e t t e r ; therefore A - N represent a t o t a l of fourteen case loads. 0 and P These two l e t t e r s each represent one case load and are l i s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y because they consist predominantly of adolescent boys. Nearly one quarter of the adolescents are shown as having only one problem. The number of boys showing good adjustment i s the same as i n previous tables. Thus approximately one quarter of the adolescents are shown as having two or more problems. Therefore t h i s Is the group who need intensive case work services and for which I t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d suitable placement resources. This -45-table l i s t s the number of problems but does not indicate the degree of severity of the problems. Thus, the d i f f i c u l t i e s presented by a boy with only one problem might be f a r more severe than those presented by a boy with several problems. TABLE V FREQUENCY OF SUITABILITY OF LAST PLACEMENT S u i t a b i l i t y Distribute on . Num- Per;, . of Last by C a,se Loads PIacement A-N 0 .. P" bers Cent • Very Good 26 3 11 40 17.5 Good ; 46 8 - 54 23.7 Mediocre 24 3 5 32 14.0 Poor 13 6 2 21. 9.2 Very Poor 2 2 3 7 3.0 Self Supporting 16 9 6 31 15.6 Sub Total 127 31 27 185 81.0 No Information 27 5 11 43 19.0 Total 154 36 38 228 1Q0.0 Table V shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t placement i n the several case loads. Approximately twenty-seven perccent of the placements were rated as mediocre, poor or very poor. In this group the greatest number of replacements can be expected and serious con-, sideratlon should be given to closing the homes represented by these placements. Case loads "0" and "P" show a higher -46-percent age of unsuitable placements compared to the other combined case loads. This i s to be expected because the boys with the greater number of problems are concentrated i n these two case loads. These boys require special attention i n regard to placement resources. TABLE VI SUITABILITY OF LAST PLACEMENT COMPARED TO THE PROBLEMS Category S u i t a b i l i t y of Last Placem't Not; BTum-of v;p. — U J -Problems V.G. .. G. M. P. S.S. Siven oers Emotional 14 12 11 10 5 4; 11 67 Delinquent Tendencies 7 10 11 10 5 6; 7 56 Behaviour 1 5 7 5 5 l i 5 29 I n a b i l i t y to Relate 4 7 4 2 2 3. 5 27 Incontinence 1 6 5 2 1 1 • 1 17 Low I.Q. 3 6 2 3 1 1: - 1 17 Physical-Medical 2 3 1 1 1 2i 1 11 Disturbed — 1 3 4 1 -; 1 10 Sex D i f f i c u l t i e s 1 2 — 1 1 — 1 1 6 Sub Total 33 52 44 " 38 22 181 33 240-Good Adjustment 25 24 8 6 - 23 7 93 No Information - - - - - - 20 20 Total 58 76 52 44 22 41 60 353 (a) V.G. Very Good G. Good M. Mediocre P. Poor V.P. Very Poor S.S. Self Supporting -47-Table VI compares the s u i t a b i l i t y of the l a s t place-ment to the category of problems. Placements rated as being very good, good or s e l f supporting are considered to be successful placements. The most frequent number of successful placements appear where the adolescents are c l a s s i f i e d as having achieved good adjustment. This r e s u l t would be expected; a boy rated under good adjustment and also c l a s s i f i e d as having a poor placement would be a most u n l i k e l y s i t u a t i o n . However, t h i s did appear i n s i x cases, the reason possibly being that the placement was of i n s u f f i -cient duration f o r the boy to show problems. A high incidence of emotional problems i s noted under the very good placement category. In such Instances the placement may be s a t i s f y i n g the needs of the boy but the emotional problems have not been completely resolved. A comparatively high number of cases showing poor and very poor placements appear In the categories of emotional problems and delinquent tendencies. I t i s expected that cases showing t h i s low r a t i n g of s u i t a b i l i t y would present a high number of- problems. Such a placement does not lessen problems but i s acting towards increasing the severity of them. Only one t h i r d of the adolescents showing emotional problems and delinquent tendencies were rated as Tbeing s a t i s f a c t o r i l y placed. On the other hand the Agency shows some success i n the placement of adolescents with problems concerning low I.Q., physical-medical and sex -43-d i f f i c u l t i e s . This would indicate that the Agency has l e s s success i n placing "boys v/ith the f i r s t two problems l i s t e d i n the Table. The reason f o r t h i s may be the lack of resources which w i l l s a t i s f y the needs represented by emotional problems and delinquent tendencies. TABLE VII SUITABILITY OP LAST PLACEMENT COMPARED TO THE. NUMBER. OP PROBLEMS PER BOY . Defined S u i t a b i l i t y of Not Num- Per Last Placement Problems V.G M. P. V.P. s.s. Given bers Cent Boys l i s t e d as i Having: ; t i " . ' -Pour Problems 2 3 3 2 3 1 2; 16 7.0 Three Problems 3 1 4 5 3 3 4 23 10.0 Two Problems . 4 12 6 5 — 1 2 30 13.1 One Problem 9 13 8 3 1 3 9 46 20.5 Sub Total 18 2 9 21 15 7 8 17 115 50,6 Good Adjustment , 25 24 8 6 23 7 93 40.7 No Information 20 20 8.7 Tot a l . 43 53 29 21 . 7 31 —4.4. 228 100.0 Table VII i s an extension of Table IV. In Table VII the number of problems shown by each boy i s compared to the s u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t placement. The category of one problem shows the highest concentration of good and very good placements. On the other hand, where there i s -49-more than one problem, the boys are rated as having unsatisfactory placements. .Again t h i s indicates that the greater the number of problems shown by a boy, i . e . the more a n t i s o c i a l type of problems such as delinquent tendencies, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s to f i n d suitable f o s t e r homes f o r such boys. The inference may be that the fos t e r home has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y developed f o r t h i s group or that some other resources are needed f o r these boys. Accordingly t h i s i s further examined and i l l u s t r a t e d i n the case h i s t o r i e s i n Chapter I I I . TABLE VIII SUITABILITY OP LAST PLACEMENT COMPARED. TO.THE NUMBER OF PLACEMENTS S u i t a b i l i t y of l a s t Placement Number of Placements Num-bers Per Cent 0-2 3-4 5-S 7-£-Very Good Good Mediocre Poor Very Poor Self Supporting 23 4 7 8 21 18 6 7 6 10 5 12 4 5 2 9 1 3 3 10 9 3 8 42 52 33 20 7 30 18.4 22.8 14.8 8.7 3.0 13.0 Sub Total 64 . 47 26 47 184 80.1 No Information 22 7 6 9 44 19.3 Total 86 54 32 56 228 100.0' -50-T i i i s t a b l e shows t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s u c c e s s f u l n e s s o f the l a s t p l a c e m e n t f o r e a c h boy and t h e number o f p l a c e m e n t s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i f a boy has e x p e r i e n c e d o n l y s e v e r a l p l a c e m e n t s t h a t t h e l a s t one i s r a t e d as b e i n g good o r v e r y g o o d ; whereas I f he has e x p e r i e n c e d many p l a c e m e n t s t h e l a s t one i s r a t e d as b e i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f f o s t e r homes a boy has b e e n i n , t h e more d i f f i c u l t i t i s to s u i t a b l y p l a c e t h e boy i n t h i s type o f r e s o u r c e . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f t h e p r e m i s e i s a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e more moves made b y a b o y , t h e more s e v e r e l y damaged i s h i s a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t o and a d j u s t t o a f o s t e r home e n v i r o n m e n t . C o n t i n u a l moving o n l y s e r v e s t o a c t i v a t e and a c c e n t u a t e t h e p r o b l e m s o f a b o y . The n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i n t h e t a b l e i s t h a t t h e r e was no p l a c e m e n t r a t e d as b e i n g v e r y p o o r f o r a boy who has been i n two o r l e s s f o s t e r homes. Some boys have had f i v e o r more p l a c e m e n t s , y e t t h e l a s t p l a c e m e n t i s r a t e d as b e i n g good o r v e r y . g o o d . A number o f t h o s e i n t h i s group a r e a t p r e s e n t p l a c e d i n t h e B o y s ' R e c e i v i n g Home and p l a c e m e n t i n t h i s home i s r a t e d as b e i n g good or v e r y g o o d . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t placement i n t h e Home i s b a s e d upon a d i a g n o s i s o f t h e b o y ' s needs a n d , upon t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f whether the home e x p e r i e n c e w i l l s a t i s f y t h o s e n e e d s . O t h e r b o y s a p p e a r i n g -51-i n t h i s category may have been placed i n t h e i r l a s t home only f o r a short time p r i o r to the commencement of the survey and at present seem well s a t i s f i e d . However, over a period of time such a home may not remain so suitable. TABLE IX ; NUMBER OP PLACEMENTS COMPARED TO THE.AGE AT ADMISSION Age Number of Placements ..Num-at uAdmission 0-2 3-4 5-6 bers 0-3 20 10 8 8 46 4-6 4 8 6 13 31 7-10 10 15 8 16 49 33 19 11 16 79 Sub Total 67 52 53 53 205 Discharged - — ~ — " ~ -Total 67 52 35 53 228 The age at admission category i n t h i s Table i s the same as i n Table I I . The age groupings were selected to represent generally the several developmental periods and the purpose of t h i s Table i s to show the c o r r e l a t i o n between the number of placements and. the age at admission. I t i s noticed that the highest proportion of those i n the youngest age group have had the fewest number of placements. This s i g n i f i e s that the younger the child at admission, the greater i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of a successful f o s t e r home - 5 2 -p l a c e m e n t . F o r those a d m i t t e d d u r i n g t h e o e d i p a l d e v e l o p -m e n t a l p h a s e , I . e . t h e age group o f f o u r to s i x y e a r s , t h e r e i s a h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f r e p l a c e m e n t . T h i s phase i s one o f g r e a t e m o t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e c h i l d ' s f e a r o f r e j e c t i o n i s the g r e a t e s t and p l a c e m e n t at t h i s t i m e may hamper t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to r e l a t e i f i t i s n o t made from a d i a g n o s t i c b a s i s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f a d o l e s c e n t s have had o n l y two p l a c e m e n t s . W h i l e I t may appear t h a t t h e f o s t e r home programme i s f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l f o r t h i s g r o u p , t h o s e h a v i n g o n l y two p l a c e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t not q u i t e h a l f o f t h e t o t a l number a d m i t t e d at a d o l e s c e n c e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t group have e x p e r i e n c e d f i v e o r more p l a c e m e n t s , which, i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r some boys a f o s t e r home i s not t h e answer. A number o f boys i n t h i s group are s t r i v i n g t o b r e a k r a t h e r t h a n f o r m f a m i l y t i e s . The c h o i c e o f a f o s t e r home o r some o t h e r placement f o r t h e s e a d o l e s c e n t boys must r e s t upon a d i a g n o s i s o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y , o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p and n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e i r own p a r e n t s . The n e x t t a b l e a c t s as a c h e c k on T a b l e I x , i n t h a t i t shows t h e number o f p l a c e m e n t s i n a s p e c i f i e d t i m e . F o r example, I n t h e p r e v i o u s t a b l e a boy a d m i t t e d i n h i s e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e c o u l d be shown as h a v i n g h a d f i v e p l a c e m e n t s i n as many y e a r s . However, t h e p i c t u r e would be much d a r k e r i f he had h a d t h i s number o f -53-placements i n three years.' Even though the grouping of the years i n care category i s rather large, t h i s table indicates such s i t u a t i o n s . In Table X a l l placements to the right of the stepped l i n e are considered to be too frequent f o r the number of years the boys have been i n -care. TABLE X NUMBER OP PLACEMENTS AS COMPARED TO YEARS IN CARE Years Number of Placements Num^ i n Care 0 - 2 3 - 4 5 - 6- b«r a 0-4 25 21 13 6! 65 5-8 18 10 3 18 49 9-12 8 : 7| 8 13 36 13-16 i 13 12 8 13 45 17-/- 3 21 . 1 3 9 Sub Total 53. S>r>R Discharged - - 23 Total " 67 52 33 53 228 Placements to the r i g h t of the stepped l i n e average approximately a place f o r every year i n care. A number of the boys have nearly two placements f o r every year i n care. Those boys who have not been moved to f o s t e r homes every year obviously have a better chance f o r normal adjustment. -54-TABLE XI FREQUENCY OF REASONS FOR ADMISSION Reasons D i s t r i b u t i o n , Num- Per for by Case Loads Admission (a) A - N 0 . P' bers , Cent 1 7 8 4 19 8.5 2 52 9 10 71 31.7 3 17 6 2 25 10.9 4 30 7 3 • 40 17.5 5 .14 — 5 : 19 8.5 Sub Total 120 30 24, = 174 77.1<; No Information 34 6 14 ; 54 22.9 Total . .15,4 ... 36 38 i 228 100.0 (a) See Appendix A I Over a quarter of the t o t a l number of boys surveyed were admitted to the Children's Aid Society's care because of break-up of t h e i r own homes i n the form of desertion, separation, divorce or j a i l sentence. With the present trend toward the f i n a n c i a l support of and the giving of case work services to such homes and parents, i t i s l i k e l y that now t h i s reason f o r admission has decreased greatly. This trend i s i n accordance with the philosophy that where possible, a child' s own home i s the best f o r him. F i n a n c i a l i n a b i l i t y to care f o r children i s one of the l e s s e r reasons f o r removing them from t h e i r parents, while medical inca-pacity on the part of the parents i s a f a i r l y frequent reason f o r removal. TABLE XII FREQUENCY OF REASON FOR CHANGE IN PLACEMENT Reason for Dis t r i b u t i o n " ' Num- Per Change by Case Loads Cent In Placement (a) A - N 0 P bers 1 10 2 12 5.2 2 13 - - 13 5.8 3 3 - - 3 1.3 4 22 1 2 25 •1018 5 31 7 11 49 2L.6 6 8 1 3 12 5.2 7 3 — — 3 1.3 No Change 20 7 1 28 12.2 Self Supporting 10 6 9 25 11.0 Sub Total 120 24 26 170 74.6 No Information 34 12 12 58 25.4 Total .15* , 36 38 228 1Q0.Q (a) See Appendix A II Behaviour problems of the boys i s by far the most frequent reason given f o r a change of foster homes. This may, i n part be the surface reason for such changes and the underlying reasons would l i k e l y be the i n a b i l i t y of f o s t e r parents to relate to or cope with the boy, or the i n a b i l i t y of the boy to r e l a t e to the fost e r parents. Also, there may have been l e s s emphasis on the behaviour problems of the boy, i f the reason that a suitable f o s t e r home could not be located had been included i n the o r i g i n a l schedule. -56-The incidence o f such reasons f o r change of placement as sickness of foster parents or f i n a n c i a l i n a b i l i t y indicates the need for more s e l e c t i v i t y of fost e r homes. Included i n the group of adolescents i n the survey were a number of Fairbridge Farm boys who had been trasnf erred to the Children's Aid Society when the Farm closed. This group had been used to l i v i n g under i n s t i t u t i o n a l conditions at Fairbridge, and also p r i o r to coming to Canada. Many of these boys were entering adolescence at the time they were placed i n fost e r homes. I t has been observed that a number of these boys experienced considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n adjust-ing to a fost e r home after an extended stay i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . These boys were not able to form the parental r e l a t i o n s h i p necessary for a successful f o s t e r home place-ment. The reason they were unable to form so close a rel a t i o n s h i p was that they had not had the basic parental experience. Conclusions The major problems of the adolescent concern emotional maladjustment, delinquent tendencies, behaviour problems and r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s . The common factor of these four problems i s poor emotional growth during the developmental phases. Adolescents with these problems aaowed the greatest d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting to f o s t e r homes. This may s i g n i f y that a review of d i f f e r e n t resources and the f o s t e r home programme fo r adolescents i s needed. - 5 7 -S i n c e s i x t y p l a c e m e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d u n s u i t a b l e , t h e s e s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d t o d e t e r m i n e the r e a s o n s and whether o t h e r r e s o u r c e s would more a d e q u a t e l y meet t h e needs o f a d o l e s c e n t s . A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s e p l a c e m e n t s would o n l y r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r damage to t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l opment. o f t h e b o y s . The d a n g e r s i n h e r e n t i n c o n t i n u a l r e p l a c e m e n t have a l s o b e e n m e n t i o n e d , and e v e r y agency i s a n x i o u s t o a v o i d t h i s e v i l . U n l e s s c o n t i n u i n g the o l d p l a c e m e n t i s more damaging t o t h e c h i l d than r e p l a c e m e n t , t h e l a t t e r , however c a r e f u l l y made, c r e a t e s and i n t e n s i f i e s some p r o b l e m s f o r the b o y . H i s a b i l i t y to r e l a t e and f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h are a f f e c t e d b y a move t o a new home. The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t h e c h i l d ' s and t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s development was p o i n t e d out i n C h a p t e r I. A n o t h e r n o t i c e a b l e t r e n d was t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s f o r t h o s e b e i n g a d m i t t e d at a d o l e s c e n c e and t h e h i g h e r number o f p l a c e m e n t s f o r t h i s g r o u p . T h i s would i n d i c a t e a need f o r a r e v i e w o f p l a c e m e n t p r a c t i c e s f o r t h i s g r o u p , and i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o t h e r community r e s o u r c e s . The l a c k o f s t r e s s on t h e number o f boys who have a c h i e v e d good a d j u s t m e n t , who have h a d few and s u i t a b l e p l a c e m e n t s may have c r e a t e d the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t boy p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g b u t a s e r i e s o f d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s . T h i s i s not t h e c a s e as a good - 5 8 -percentage of the t o t a l number of cases are s a t i s f a c t o r y i n most respects. The reason f o r the emphasis that has been given i s that t h i s i s primarily a study of the problems i n placement of adolescent boys. As such, t h i s emphasis follows the purpose of the survey and the questions posed i n the preceding chapter. Before leaving the survey i t seems wise to summarize some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n analysing the survey so that they can be avoided i n future surveys of t h i s nature. The f i r s t and most important drawback was the lack of complete and clear cut c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and r a t i n g scales with which each case i n the survey could be graded. The advantages that would have resulted are those of uniformity i n , and ease of grading and greater r e l i a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t i n g information. I f t h i s had been done the survey could have been completed much more quickly and d e f i n i t e conclusions could have been reached. Moreover, such data and c l a s s i f i -cations that would give a weighting to the importance of the problems of the boys, the reasons for admission, the nature of parental attachment etcetera would have been immeasurably valuable i n suggesting recommendations which would help to eliminate or lessen these problesm. With the information available i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine what was cause and what was effect i n the d i f f e r e n t problems. Many of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and r a t i n g scales given here are of a most elementary nature and would need r e v i s i o n for use i n future surveys of t h i s nature. CHAPTER III ILLUSTRATIONS OF PROBLEMS  IN THE PLACEMENT OF ADOLESCENTS The four major problems of adolescence shown by the survey, i . e * emotional maladjustment, delinquent tendencies, behaviour and re l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s are examined i n t h i s Chapter. In order to determine the etiology of these problems, the case i l l u s t r a t i o n s trace the boy's experience p r i o r to admission to care, the reasons for admission and his experience i n fos t e r homes. The e f f e c t of unresolved anxieties and fears of the d i f f e r e n t development phases on the present adjustment of the "adolescents w i l l be examined i n order to determine the resource that w i l l s a t i s f y t h e i r emotional and psychological needs. This : background information i s presented because the adolescent problems are not only a r e s u l t of the stress of t h i s period but also of a l l previous developmental periods. Because the case records d i d not contain complete information on the develop-ment of the adolescents, i t w i l l not be possible to present a complete picture of this development. This Chapter i s concerned with examining cases f o r which the present resources of the Agency have proved -60-inadequate and suggesting seme resources which might s a t i s f y the needs of adolescents. The case i l l u s t r a t i o n s used here emphasi ze the problems which cause continual replacement among adolescents; not those with which the Agency has had considerable success i n t h e i r placement ,s programme. Need for an Observation and Study Home Don B. was born on August 28, 1958. His early home l i f e was very disturbing and unsettled. When Don was two years o l d h i s father deserted him and h i s mother. Don's father was described as being an inadequate person, " a poor type, with a p o l i c e record." Prior to coming to B r i t i s h Columbia, Don was placed p r i v a t e l y In several homes. After coming to t h i s province, Don's mother was forced to work to support h e r s e l f and her c h i l d . Conse-quently, Don was l e f t to h i s own devices and he received l i t t l e supervision. Don began to wander about the community and he joined a gang of boys and eventually -became involved i n vandalism. He was f i r s t sent to the Boys' Detention Home but was eventually removed from this i n s t i t u t i o n and placed i n a fo s t e r home on October 30, 1948, at the age of ten. In the period from October 30, 1948 to July 2, 1951, Don experienced four unsuccessful and damaging -61-fos t e r home placements. In thi s regard Don comes within the category of more than one placement per year as outlined i n Table X, Chapter I I . For the f i r s t few weeks i n each of these f o s t e r homes, Don's behaviour was reported as being good, but a f t e r t h i s period he began to show delinquent tendencies -and emotional and behaviour problems. His behaviour caused h i s removal from these homes. At t h i s time he could not accept any soc i a l relationship or d i s c i p l i n e . He also possessed an extreme fear of physical i n j u r y . The school report at t h i s time indicated that he lacked i n i t i a t i v e , was introverted, moody, lethargic and ea s i l y l e d . After the fourth f o s t e r home placement, Don was placed i n the Boys' Receiving Home on July 11, 1951 because of his i n a b i l i t y to accept a f o s t e r home. Don was thi r t e e n years old at t h i s time. While i n the Boys' Receiving Home he made considerable and consistent progress. He learned to cooperate, do h i s chores, and was able to adjust to the li m i t a t i o n s of the semi i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings The school report indicated that he was showing improvement and was not a " d i s c i p l i n e problem." He.appeared happy and was taking an active part i n school sports. His personal appearance was much improved and he seemed to be more secure, happy and healthy. One of the most important fac t o r s i n t h i s case, was -62-Don's extremely strong t i e to hi s mother. The personalized atmoshpere of the f o s t e r home appears to have constituted a very r e a l threat to thi s parental t i e . I t not only hampered work with Don but also made more d i f f i c u l t any. attempt to of f e r protective case work services to Don's mother, because fo s t e r home placement represented to her the p o s s i b i l i t y of his taking on new parents. The Agency was unable to secure the cooperation of Don's mother i n the placement of and i n the work with Don. Home v i s i t s between Don and h i s mother were not a s a t i s f a c t o r y experience as the l a t t e r was constantly watching f o r signs of transfer of allegiance. On the other hand, the Boys' Receiving Home allowed Don a "less threatening" setting i n which to work out h i s mixed up feeli n g s of r e j e c t i o n caused by hi s separation from hi s mother and h i s experiences i n f o s t e r homes. Don's attempts to test out the fee l i n g s of foster parents f o r him only strengthened h i s conviction that he was rejected by them. Don's mother was more abie to accept h i s placement i n the Receiving Home because this-was not so great a threat to her rel a t i o n s h i p with him. This allowed the worker to give Don's mother case work services and to enable her to understand Don's problems to a greater extent. With t h i s understanding she was able to r e a l i z e that the Agency and the worker were tr y i n g to help her toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of her-s e l f and her son. With t h i s support and encouragement from the worker, she was able to f i n d more suitable accommodation for, Bon and herse l f , and the re l a t i o n s h i p between them was strengthened. During Don's stay i n the Receiving Home he was allowed to v i s i t h i s mother weekly and on occasions to spend the weekend with her. These v i s i t s proved s a t i s f a c t o r y and no i l l effects resulted a f t e r each v i s i t . Six months af t e r h i s placement i n the Receiving Home, Don was placed with h i s mother on a temporary order which was, at a l a t e r date made permanent. During the temporary placement with h i s mother, Don received continued supervision and support from the ' worker. The worker records that Don continued to show favourable progress and development. There are several points i n this case which bear emphasizing. When Don was admitted to care he was, just beginn-ing to enter adolescence. His problems are not due to the stress of this period but rather point to unresolved in s e c u r i t y and anxiety from h i s e a r l i e s t moments. Considering the type of person h i s father was, i t seems l i k e l y that, u n t i l his desertion, the home atmosphere was often unpleasant and confusing f o r Don. Although he was s t i l l very young at the time of desertion and though we have no records to indicate h i s f e e l i n g s at t h i s time, Don probably interpreted t h i s desertion as r e j e c t i o n . This would increase the anxieties and i n s e c u r i t i e s previously engendered through the home atmosphere and would add to his low feeli n g s of personal worth which werce apparent at his admission. These feel i n g s -64-would be increased i n the years following the desertion as he received less attention from h i s mother because of her absence from the home i n order to support h e r s e l f and her son. There i s also l i t t l e information about Don during h i s years from three to six when he was going through h i s oedipal development.. I t appears, considering h i s present adjustment, that he has been able to resolve, t o some extent, h i s relationship to each sex. The extent of h i s succes3 i n the oedipal period would be clearer i f he had reached the point i n adolescence where he was again faced with this r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s evident though, that he has a very strong t i e to his mother, and t h i s would indicate that he has not completely resolved the oedipal s i t u a t i o n . This t i e i s further reinforced by the lack of stable and suitable father figures i n h i s development. Moreover, with the desertion of Don's father, h i s mother may have invested a greater part of her intere s t i n the boy. This would act to compensate f o r h i s low fe e l i n g s of personal worth, yet would at the same time hamper him i n his attempts to move beyond t h i s small c i r c l e . In summary i t can be said that to Don h i s mother represented some security, and any breaking of t h i s t i e represented the in s e c u r i t y he had experienced since he was two. - 6 5 -Although nothing i s known of Don's placement experience p r i o r to admission to the Children's Aid Society, i t i s possible that the fo s t e r homes he was i n helped to condition h i s negative•feelings about any home other than h i s own, which may be another reason why he was not able to accept f o s t e r home placement by the Children's Aid Society. His experience i n t h i s Agency's fo s t e r homes was not a p o s i t i v e one. His anxiety over h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s own mother was increased by. his re j e c t i o n by f o s t e r or sub-s t i t u t e parents, which i n many ways p a r a l l e l e d the desertion of h i s father, and apparent desertion of his mother when she went to work. Thus early traumas were reinforced. These feeli n g s of i n s e c u r i t y made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the case worker to help Don and h i s fee l i n g s toward f o s t e r parents would be diffused to the worker. Replacement of Don by the worker only served to increase his fee l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y and to alienate Don from the worker. The Receiving Home did net constitute so great a threat to Don. The atmosphere was l e s s personali zed and he could keep i n t a c t his allegiance to h i s mother. The atmosphere of th i s home provided a set of regulations and l i m i t a t i o n s which were the same for a l l the boys. Prom t h i s Don gained strength i n the f e e l i n g that there were others the same as he. Through v i s i t i n g he was allowed to keep h i s t i e to h i s mother. Encouragement of v i s i t i n g while i n the -66-f o s t e r home might have helped Don, his mother and his f o s t e r parents to a clearer understanding of t h e i r r e l a t i o n -ships. In h i s attempt to move out into areas beyond the home, he received f r i e n d l y guidance, support and d i r e c t i o n from h i s worker. The success of t h i s placement and the evidence that i t was l e s s threatening and more s a t i s f y i n g to Don's needs i s seen i n the change i n his appearance, attitude and personality. This case i l l u s t r a t e s the use of and need f o r a receiving and study home. Don's d i f f i c u l t i e s were not of the proportions where a treatment centre was necessary. The Agency knew l i t t l e about Don p r i o r to placement. .The strength and importance of hi s t i e to his mother was not recognized or dealt with u n t i l he was. placed <'in the Receiving Home. The. fo s t e r home placements .were not based upon a thorough diagnosis of h i s needs and emotional development. His needs were not recognized at the f a i l u r e of the f i r s t plac;ement. At t h i s time there should have been a fur t h e r analysis made of the case to determine i f Don's emotional needs could be more adequately met through any available f o s t e r home or through other means. I t can be seen that the replacements only accentuated Don's problems. I f he had been placed i n a receiving and study home f i r s t , there would have been several advantages. In t h i s setting i t would have been f a r easier f o r the worker to estab l i s h a relationship with Don and t h i s relationship could have been used; to gain an under-standing of h i s peculiar psychology and to help Don move - 6 7 -i towards, and accept f o s t e r home placement i f that was indicated. Moreover, p o s i t i v e work could have been begun with Don's mother much e a r l i e r , with the p o s s i b i l i t y of Don's returning home much sooner. F i n a l l y , and most important of a l l , Don would have been spared most of the feelings of insec u r i t y that he experienced and would not have f e l t the necessity to display these feelings through emotional and delinquent behaviour. What fears and. trepidations he did have about coming into care could have, i n i t i a l l y , been handled more e a s i l y and adequately i n the Receiving Home setting. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case, i t may have been impossible for Don, because of his emotional make-up and apparent i n a b i l i t y to accept substitute parents, to succeed i n a foster home placement even after a period of observation and study i n a receiving home. Since the purpose of a receiving home i s primarily::for observation and study of a case i n order to arrive at a complete diagnosis of a boy's needs i n regard to placement, or i s f o r temporary shelter purposes, a boy such as Don would not have been able to remain i n the home after t h i s i n i t i a l period. This raises the question, i f f o s t e r home placement i s unsuitable what then for a boy attending school who does not require intensive treatment? The answer would seem to be a long term resident home other than a receiving or treatment home, which would provide group l i v i n g , adequate supervision, support and encouragement f o r the residents without involving them i n the parental r e l a t i o n -ship of a f o s t e r home. This type of resource i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable f o r adolescents boys attending school who have a strong relationship to one or both of t h e i r own parents and who cannot accept the re l a t i o n s h i p with substitute parents. It i s suitable also f o r those who have reached that period i n adolescence where they have begun to emancipate themselves from the parental rel a t i o n s h i p or where t h e i r parents cannot allow them to accept placement. Generally speaking what has been outlined above would constitute an acceptable c r i t e r i o n f o r admission to t h i s type of home. Another group of school boys who would be p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable for t h i s type of resource are those who have spent a long period i n an i n s t i t u i o n and who are aeiit:er>ing t h e i r adolescence. The group p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable f o r t h i s i n the care of the Children's Aid Society are those who came from the Fairbridge Farm School. Because of t h e i r long experience i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , many of these boys found the f o s t e r home setting p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t . This resource would not only decrease the shortage of suitable f o s t e r parents f o r adolescent boys but would also prevent the damage to p o t e n t i a l l y good f o s t e r parents, who have often had t h e i r f i l l of boys who are unable to r e l a t e to them and adjust to th e i r routine. Since f o s t e r homes are the Agency's main and most valuable resource, i t i s extremely important that unnecessary s t r a i n s , pressures and unsatisfactory experiences -69-be. avoided ?/here possible. The Need for A Treatment Home Two cases may now be reviewed to i l l u s t r a t e s i t u a -tions where the boys' needed a placement f o r an extended period of time i n a study and treatment home before they would be suitable f o r foster home placement. Tom was born i n July 1937, the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d of Mrs. W. Mrs. W. refused to take the c h i l d with her from the h o s p i t a l because she was penniless and could not plan f o r h i s care, nor would her parents assist her. However, Mrs. W. did assume f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Tom u n t i l November 1938. Tom had been boarded out during most of th i s time. There i s no record of Mrs. W's. health during pregnancy, or of Tom's development u n t i l he came into the care of the Children's Aid Society i n November 1938. At th i s time he was i n good physical condition, although h i s abdomen was markedly enlarged. He began to walk at thirteen months. Tom was placed i n a fost e r home while plans f o r adoption proceeded. He appeared to s e t t l e i n t h i s home f a i r l y well although there was some s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . His development appeared normal but the worker f e l t that he received l i t t l e i nterest or a f f e c t i o n . He i s described as being a quiet, s t o l i d l i t t l e boy with a p o l i t e and f r i e n d l y manner, although somewhat shy. At times he was stubborn i n the f o s t e r home but was usually quite obedient and caused - 7 0 -l i t t l e trouble. It i s stated that he played well with other children but did not i n i t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s orftake any lead-ing part i n the games. At age six, i t i s noted that Tom was beginning to masturbate and was p u l l i n g h i s h a i r out. When he was discovered, Tom was ashamed of h i s actions. A year l a t e r , he developed a b l i n k i n g i n h i s l e f t eye. The school reported that he needed to learn to cooperate and that he lacked a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In 1945 i t was reported that he was f i g h t i n g a great deal at school and was continually coming home l a t e from classes. He was punished f o r t h i s behaviour by the f o s t e r father. The home that Tom had known up to t h i s time i s described as being good i n so f a r as the physical care of the f o s t e r children was concerned. However, i t i s f e l t that the f o s t e r children received l i t t l e love and a f f e c t i o n and that the f o s t e r mother had l i t t l e concern f o r how or with whom the children occupied themselves as long as they came when c a l l e d . In 1945 Tom was t o l d by the f o s t e r parents that they were not h i s own parents but that he was to have parents of hi s own. Prom the record i t appeared that t h i s explanation was handled f a i r l y successfully. In the meantime, Tom's mother had married and she and her husband requested the return of Tom. With t h i s plan i n mind, v i s i t s were arranged between Tom and his parents so that they could become gradually acquainted before they were reunited. Tom v i s i t e d h i s mother on several occasions but was quite disturbed after -71-these v i s i t s , Tom's mother overfed him with candy and made a number of promises to him which she did not keep. This r e j e c t i o n further disturbed Tom. His school behaviour became worse; he was uncooperative, b u l l i e d the other children, and seemed to f e e l the world was against him. Tom had a change i n fo s t e r homes i n October 1945 and t h i s one la s t e d u n t i l January 1951. This home i s described as being cold and r i g i d . The record indicates that Tom made a pa i n f u l attachment to the fo s t e r parents as i t was the only place he though he could be. The lack of warmth i n t h i s home, undue s i b l i n g r i v a l r y and Tom's unpreparedness to meet the demands of s o c i a l and family relationships resulted In great h o s t i l i t y i n him. This h o s t i l i t y was repressed i n the f o s t e r home and came out i n the open at school. Here he was uncooperative, did not work to capacity, could not handle the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d i s c i -p l i n e and continually fought with the other school children. Another outlet f o r h i s h o s t i l i t y was i n the playing of soccer and i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s area he had reached considerable.proficiency. The school reported that Tom was very unhappy. Es p e c i a l l y noticeable were h i s f e e l i n g s whenever a discussion arose In the classroom concerning family units and fathers and mothers. At such times Tom would begin to cry or put hi s head down and not look anyone i n the face. There i s nothing i n the record to Indicate that t h i s was ever -72-discussed with him by the worker. Another example of h i s feelings of r e j e c t i o n was seen i n his reaction to punishment. When chastised over small Incidents, Tom cried e a s i l y and his dejection indicated that he f e l t he was being picked on because he was Tom W. He was noted as t r y i n g hard to please i n an e f f o r t to gain acceptance and was very discouraged and unhappy i f he f a i l e d . Arrangements were again made f o r Tom to v i s i t h i s parents i n May 1950. At this time Tom was thirte e n . His reaction to t h i s v i s i t was p o s i t i v e and Tom was happy, t a l k a t i v e and proud of the v i s i t . . Shortly after this v i s t Tom's mother and step father stated they did not want Tom with them. In September 1950 Tom's f o s t e r father died. In January 1951 the f o s t e r mother requested Tom's removal. Tom stated that the home was "Okay" u n t i l the fo s t e r father died and after that he could not please the f o s t e r mother. Tom did not seem to mind moving from the foster home and he appeared pleased with h i s new fo s t e r home i n i t i a l l y . This placement lasted f o r four months, after which time Tom was removed because the fost e r parents found having f o s t e r c h i l d r e n too demanding of t h e i r time and attention. The record indicates that Tom laked t h i s home but h i s behaviour showed no improvement. The foster parents complained that Tom dawdled over h i s chores, was l a t e i n coming home from school, would not do h i s homework and spent every spare minute reading -73-coraic books. Tom's feelings about f o s t e r homes are recorded as being a place where, "you have to work a l l the time and everything, and the people don't look aft e r you," Prom t h i s l a s t f o s t e r home, Tom was placed i n the Boys' Receiving Home, and he has been there since. Tom has shown a good deal eof progress during his stay i n the Receiving Home, although he has d e f i n i t e periods of regression. He s t i l l quarrels somewhat with the older boys and h i s school adjustment i s s t i l l poor. However, Tom has made progress i n this setting and appears to be reaching out f o r understanding and the closer r e l a t i o n s h i p of family l i f e . Although he i s confused and unhappy, he does respond i n a pos i t i v e manner to warm encouragement and support. Thus the prognosis f o r a c a r e f u l l y planned move into a s p e c i a l l y selected foster home i s f a i r l y good. Tom has experienced a t o t a l of seven f o s t e r homes and has had fourteen workers while i n Agency care. There are numerous points i n t h i s case that bear discussion but only a few of them w i l l be dealt with here. Tom's relationship with his mother was a most unsatis-factory experience and one of the bases f o r h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n i t i a l l y , Tom was not wanted by h i s mother and was probably quite rejected f o r the f i r s t sixteen months while he was i n her care. The seal f o r h i s basic fee l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y was - 7 4 -sown i n thi s f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The damage to Tom might have been remedied i f h i s need f o r love and aff e c t i o n had been met i n the f i r s t f o s t e r home. Tom was i n thi s f o s t e r home f o r the greater part of the f i r s t three developmental phases, the o r a l , the anal, and oedipal. That he was not progressing favourably through these three phases i s evident i n hi s somewhat withdrawn personality, h i s lack of i n i t i a t i v e , i n the symptoms of h a i r p u l l i n g , masturbation and blin k i n g of the eye. At thi s time Tom lacked the love and af f e c t i o n necessary for growth and instead experienced anxieties, fears, feelings of r e j e c t i o n j and a low sense of personal worth. 1 With the r e a l i z a t i o n by Tom that he did not have h i s own mother and with his negative experience with her at a l a t e r date, the emotional disturbance noted above was accen-tuated. The change of, and the types of foster homes did not o f f e r Tom any a f f e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to enable growth. The increase i n h i s emotional di s'turbance was p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable at school where he was compared with children who had early parental support. Tom's s e n s i t i v i t y to h i s lack of parents was very noticeable at school. Fortunately f o r Tom he was able to release much of h i s h o s t i l i t y through sports and outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . This provided,a s o c i a l l y acceptable compensation wherein he could receive praise rather than r e j e c t i o n . The question might be raised, why not another f o s t e r -75-home placement where Tom would get love, a f f e c t i o n , encourage-ment and an increased f e e l i n g of personal worth, rather than a treatment placement? Aside from the d i f f i c u l t y of fi n d i n g such a home, Tom's a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to parental figures had been severely damaged by his previous, foster home experience. He indicated h i s feeling;::that f o s t e r homes were no good. Tom needed a l e s s personalized setting where he could move at his own pace, where the l i m i t a t i o n s were the same for a l l , where he could test out his relat i o n s h i p with the house father and mother without the fear of re j e c t i o n . He needed ego bui l d i n g and he needed to establish a sound relationship with a1 worker.. This rel a t i o n s h i p can act as a s t a f f to support him i n his future move into a fos t e r home. Tom i s now entering this•step i n h i s development. When he f i r s t came to the Agency, Tom could have been adopted, but was considered not adoptable by the Child Guidance C l i n i c because there was supposed to be a minute trace of Indian blood i n him. At a l a t e r conference with the Child Guidance C l i n i c adoption was turned down because paternity was not established. Many of Tom's problems might have been avoided i f he had been adopted at an early age. Under present day pr a c t i c e , Tom would l i k e l y 1 have been adopted. 1 There were a number of cases i n the survey which, under present practice would be considered f o r adoption rather than fost e r home placement. -76-Jack C., now fourteen was f i r s t admitted to care i n A p r i l 1949. L i t t l e was known of his background p r i o r to admission and i t would have been advantageous i f he could have been placed i n an observation and study home p r i o r to making plans f o r f o s t e r home placement, i n order to diagnose what would be the most suitable resource f o r h i s needs. Jack's mother died In July 1941 and h i s father was i n the Ai r Force at t h i s time. Up to t h i s time there i s nothing to indicate that Jack's development was anything but normal. After Mrs. C'&s death, Jack and his s i s t e r were placed p r i v a t e l y a number of times. L i t t l e i s known about Jack's experience i n these placements other than he had a number of parental figures to r e l a t e to during h i s anal and oedipal phases. Jack only saw h i s father spasmodically over these years. Mr. C. appeared to be a rather i n e f f e c t u a l person who was interested i n h i s children but who was unable to plan successfully f o r them. In the private boarding homes, Jack had exhibited a pattern of l y i n g and s t e a l i n g . I t i s recorded that the boarding home parents had unsuccessfully t r i e d a variety of methods of dealing with t h i s behaviour. It was because of hi s behaviour that the private boarding home parents requested h i s admission to care. Jack did not wish to leave the private boarding home and he went into a temper tantrum when he was removed. Up to t h i s time Jack had -77-attended f i v e d i f f e r e n t schools. Upon admission to care Jack's general physical health was good. He has not revealed any outward concern about h i s physical condition but he has had a very strong fear of a l o c a l anaesthetic and some feelings about the use of a hypodermic needle* Jack has always been a very a c t i v e youngster with average s k i l l s i n most a c t i v i t i e s . Jack has always found school very d i f f i c u l t , and has had d i f f i c u l t y i n making h i s grades, although he i s of low average i n t e l l i g e n c e . .School reports have noted that he i s immature i n h i s attitudes and that he i s not working to capacity. Jack claimed that the school work was too hard and h i s teacher was "too crabby." He was placed i n a special class but whenever things did not go his own way he refused to go to school. He was expelled from school because of his aggressive and disruptive behaviour. Jack was unable to accept the r u l e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the classroom. Upon admission to care, Jack was. placed i n a home with three other boys of a sim i l a r age. He continued h i s stealing a c t i v i t i e s while i n t h i s home and the foster mother attempted to meet t h i s behaviour by holding the threat of removal over h i s head. ^  After h i s s t e a l i n g a c t i v i t i e s Jack was always remorseful and confessed that he did not know wh/y he did i t . He seemed overly anxious to please and worked very hard i n and around the foster home. -78-So far Jack had been unable to form a relationship with his social worker. Every attempt that she made to establish a relationship with Jack was rejected by him. To Jack the worker represented authority as she was primarily responsible for seeing that he attended school, and he rebelled against any authority. Jack was removed from the foster home to the Boys1 Receiving Home by this worker i n April 1951. Jack did not wish to leave the foster home and broke into tears when the time came for the move to be made. He said to the worker, "Don't you touch mej " When asked what was wrong he replied, "None of your business." Jack expressed the feeling that everyone, Including the "Aid", was against him.. During the f i r s t few months In the Receiving Home, he f e l t that he was "picked on." Jack also showed considerable sensitivity and feeling about his father. He would cry when asked about him, and expressed a desire to see him. Shortly after Jack went to the Boys' Receiving Home a male worker was assigned to him. Jack found i t d i f f i c u l t at f i r s t to adjust to the limitations of the home. At approximately weekly intervals he had violent outbursts of temper which could only be handled by long talks with his worker. Jack continued to make l i t t l e progress u n t i l the house parents were changed i n the summer of 1951. With the new house parents Jack was able to form a good relationship and his conflict with authority and delinquenty tendencies -79-began to l e s s e n . He began to move c l o s e l y to the house mother and he re c e i v e d a good d e a l of a f f e c t i o n and a t t e n t i o n , A very n o t i c e a b l e change came over Jack. He was happy, made f r i e n d s e a s i l y , took p r i d e i n h i s personal appearance and was cooperative and h e l p f u l around the home. Unfortunately the house parents l e f t unexpectedly and Jack immediately regressed back to h i s o l d behaviour p a t t e r n . He began to s t e a l c o n s t a n t l y and outbursts of temper reappeared, although not qu i t e so f r e q u e n t l y . The s i t u a t i o n became so acute that Jack's worker had to warn him that f u r t h e r acts of delinquency would r e s u l t i n commitment to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. Since t h i s warning, Jack has been watching h i m s e l f very c a r e f u l l y . Jack has again s t a r t e d to r e l a t e s l o w l y but s u r e l y t o the new house parents. He i s being able to accept and keep w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the Receiving Home. His s t e a l i n g tendencies have diminished c o n s i d e r a b l y as have h i s emotional o u t b u r s t s . He has begun to show a g r e a t e r acceptance of, and i n t e r e s t i n h i s school work. Jack s t i l l f i n d s f r u s t r a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s hard to take but with supportive help from h i s worker i s being enabled to manage these f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l l y . Jack has had two placements w i t h the Children's A i d Soci e t y counting the present one, and has had f o u r workers. The most outstanding f e a t u r e of Jack's e a r l y l i f e i s h i s constant moving from place to pl a c e and home t o home. -80-He has undoubtedly experienced many feelings of r e j e c t i o n and desertion since the death of h i s mother and the resultant break up of the home. Although Jack has indicated tender fee l i n g s f o r h i s father, the l a t t e r has not been able to do anything f o r Jack and has seldom v i s i t e d him. Never-theless, Jack has a need to c l i n g to the family i d e n t i t y . While with the Children's Aid Society, Jack appears to be able to relate more e a s i l y to male figures as he had a stronger relationship with his f o s t e r father, his male worker and the Receiving Home Father. His i n a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to female figures may be explained i n his f e e l i n g s of deser-tioftbliy h i s mother, by experiences i n private boarding homes at the time when he was working out h i s rel a t i o n s h i p s , and by his experiences with a female fig u r e who represented authority to him. When he l e t down hi s defenses and began to relate to women, such as one of the Receiving Home mothers, he met r e j e c t i o n i n the form of her disappearance. This p a r a l l e l s h i s f i r s t f eelings of desertion with his own mother. Together with t h i s lack of r e l a t i o n s h i p to a mother fig u r e , Jack has had d i f f i c u l t y i n handling the demands and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of so c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and l i m i t a t i o n s outside of the family c i r c l e . This lack of development of the superego f u r t h e r indicates that he has not completely worked out the oedipal s i t u a t i o n , although he i s making progress i n t h i s direction,. Jack has been completely -81-confused by the number of adults i n his early l i f e . Along with t h i s confusion there has been a lack of af f e c t i o n and security. Thus Jack has developed many fears and anxieties and a low sense of personal worth. His li m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , combined with further negative experiences at school have combined to Increase h i s feelings of r e j e c t i o n and to make school repulsive to him. He has lacked the incentive to do his.best. His need to prove h i s smartness i s seen i n the delinquent episodes that he has engineered but i n which he has not taken an actual part. Although at f i r s t the Boys' Receiving Home did not appear to be a suitable placement, i t has proven i t s e l f otherwise over a period of time. There i s a danger that those placed i n the Receiving Home may, at f i r s t , regard i t as something similar to a sentence to the Boys' Indu s t r i a l School. Thus they may test out the home to see i f t h i s i s true. Jack's reluctance to go to the Receiving Home, besides being a fear of the unknown, may have been representative of the above f e e l i n g . The Boys ' Receiving Home did provide Jack with the necessary l i m i t a t i o n s that he needed to control h i s i d impulses. At f i r s t he rebelled emotionally against these l i m i t a t i o n s , but t h e i r imposition supported h i s ego and reinforced h i s week superego i n i t s struggle to keep i n check h i s strong i d drives. The proximity of the Receiving -82-Home to the Agency allowed Jack to e s t a b l i s h a closer relationship to h i s worker and enabled him to gain suppor-t i v e help from the worker as he needed i t . The atmosphere of the Receiving Home also helped a l l e v i a t e Jack's f e e l i n g s of being alone as he could see that there were others i n the "same boat." Jack repeatedly showed hi s need for love and aff e c t i o n . In many of the placements he had experienced .rejection and th i s need was not s a t i s f i e d . In the Receiving Home he was, f o r a short time, able to s a t i s f y t h i s need and even though he had an unfortunate experience i n t h i s regard he s t i l l had gained some benefits from i t . After the departure of the house parents, Jack regressed to h i s former methods of reacting,,but t h i s regression was not so deep and he was s t i l l able to make another attempt to s a t i s f y h i s basic needs. At present he i s receiving s a t i s f a c t i o n and i s gaining more inner security and s e l f confidence d a i l y . Because of the depth of his r e j e c t i o n i t w i l l s t i l l be some time before he can move into a l e s s protective atmosphere. Both the- cases of Tom W. and Jack C. i l l u s t r a t e the use of a treatment home f o r boys with considerable emotional disturbance.. I t i s only recently that a treatment programme has been developed but, as can be seen from the preceding cases, i t i s showing p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Only two cases have been selected f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes, but there are a number of other boys who can benefit from a group l i v i n g -83-experience i n a treatment focussed s i t u a t i o n . Need f o r a Home f o r Working Boys Up to the present the concern has been s o l e l y with boys who are attending school; however there are many boys who are becoming s e l f supporting and who need a f a i r l y depersonalized l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , yet one where they can get d i r e c t i o n and support i n th e i r move into the working world, Alan N, i s one of these, Alan was born i n September 1935 and was admitted to care i n February 1937. He i s the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d of an Oriental g i r l . The mother f e l t her pregnancy was a great disgrace and was especially f e a r f u l of her family knowing of her condition. Thus, she was unable to cal 1 upon her family f o r support. There i s l i t t l e information In the record pertaining to Alan's development prior to admission to care. The mother's attitude toward A l l a n appeared to be p o s i t i v e and reveals a sincere concern f o r h i s welfare. Before h i s admission to care, his mother had made four unsuccessful attempts to place him p r i v a t e l y . After admission, Alan's f i r s t f o s t e r mother reported that he apparently had not had any t o i l e t t r a i n i n g . There were large urine scalds on his buttocks and legs. Alan was a year and a h a l f old at t h i s time and was s t i l l using a bot t l e for feeding. However he soon began to achieve some excretory control and i t was also noted that he l i k e d a good deal of petting. Alan was discharged to h i s mother i n November 1937, ten months a f t e r h i s admission to care. Upon discharge he was reported to be i n good physical condition. He was noted as being a stubborn and s e l f i s h c h i l d who was most d i f f i c u l t to t r a i n i n t o i l e t habits. In the intervening years Alan's mother, with the help of her maternal aunt, t r i e d to care f o r him. Alan was readmitted to care In February 1940. From November 1937 to May 1944 the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n supervised t h i s case and at t h i s l a t e r date supervision was trans-ferred to the Children's Aid Society. By t h i s time Alan had experienced f i v e private placements. In one of these homes he presented many behaviour problems and was troubled with enuresis. His behaviour d i f f i c u l t i e s increased after the outbreak of war with Japan. Alan was described as i n t e l l i g e n t and a t t r a c t i v e but disobedient and troublesome i n school. One f o s t e r mother admitted to beating Alan with a rubber hose and threatening him with placement i n a Japanese camp. Alan was approximately eight years old at t h i s time. From May 1944 to February 1950, one adoption and seven foster home placements f a i l e d . In most of these place-ments Alan's behaviour revealed a severe disturbance. He suffered from incontinence; he was uncooperative, unmanageable, l i e d , s t o l e , was d e c e i t f u l and disobedient. He was also very retarded i n school. In February 1950 he -85-was placed i n the Boys,''Receiving Home. I t must be remembered that the Agency experiences considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d -ing suitable homes for boys of mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n . Alan stayed i n the Receiving Home from February 1950 to August 1952. In this setting he was able to s e t t l e , f a i r l y well, to f i n d new security and begin a new adjustment. His school progress was poor and he was allowed to, leave when of agg* Alan found employment with the Canadian P a c i f i c Rai lway but after several months changed to a job i n a grocery store. After s t a r t i n g t o work, Alan seemed to progress i n every way. He appeared happier, more secure and outgoing. He had adjusted to the Receiving Home very well and was building a relationship with both parents. Alan began to save money from his weekly'pay and undertook some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Pa^t of the payment of h i s board. In view of his amazing progress, the p o s s i b i l i t y of a boarding home was discussed with Alan. He agreed that he should be on his own and away from the younger children and regulations of the Receiving Home. In consideration of t h i s , Alan was placed i n a boarding home and supplied with a complete o u t f i t of clothing and his room and board paid i n advance -for one month. Alan had changed jobs shortly before t h i s placement and appeared keenly Interested i n his new work on a car l o t . However he quit t h i s job just p r i o r to h i s placement i n the boarding home. After the placement Alan was not interested i n seeking employment. -86-He soon began to d r i f t and his whereabouts became unknown. He was picked up by the po l i c e and returned to the boarding home on probation. Attempts were made to f i n d employment and another placement f o r him but before t h i s could be accomplished he was found g u i l t y of delinquency and placed i n the Boys' Industrial School. Alan presents a very disturbed development. He lacked most of the essentials i n h i s early years that are conducive to normal adjustment. His behaviour i n the fos t e r homes after h i s second admission shows unresolved anxieties of the o r a l , anal and oedipal phases. His feelings of Insecurity and low sense of personal worth are quite pronounced. Another f a c t o r against Alan was h i s mixed r a c i a l background. His adjustment i n the Boys' Receiving Home would indicate that i t was s a t i s f y i n g many of his needs. His removal from the Receiving Home may have been made before he had had a chance to consolidate the gains he had made there. Premature as this removal may have been, i t was necessary because the Receiving Home focus and programme was directed toward group treatment of boys attending school. Therefore Alan presented a special case with a special set of l i m i t a t i o n s and regulations i n a setting not equipped to -handle t h i s . To allow Alan special treatment was u n f a i r and detrimental to the other boys i n the Home. However, placement i n a boarding home - 8 7 -was more than A l a n c o u l d h a n d l e at t h i s s t a g e of h i s d e v e l o p -ment. He was r e a c h i n g f o r h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e and e m a n c i p a t i o n b u t s t i l l needed t h e s u p p o r t , g u i d a n c e , d i r e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y he f o u n d i n t h e R e c e i v i n g Home. I f t h e Agency h a d b e e n a b l e t o p l a c e A l a n i n a Working ^ o y s T Home, s i m i l a r t o that a d v o c a t e d f o r s c h o o l b o y s i n t h e f i r s t case p r e s e n t e d , the r e s u l t s may have been much more e n c o u r a g i n g . Such a home w o u l d a l l o w w o r k i n g boys as much freedom and i n d e p e n d e n c e as t h e y c o u l d a d e q u a t e l y h a n d l e , ^t would a l s o p r o v i d e them w i t h a n e u t r a l s e t t i n g where t h e y c o u l d g e t s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e as t h e y needed i t . Boys i n s u c h a home c o u l d be encouraged t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n d e p e n d e n c e as t h e y were a b l e to by t h e p a r t i a l and f u l l payment o f t h e i r " k e e p , " and c o u l d b e a l l o w e d t o be dependent where t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y became too g r e a t f o r them. When r e a d y , t h e y s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o assume t h e t o t a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m s e l v e s by m o v i n g out of t h e home t o a s t r a i g h t b o a r d i n g s i t u a t i o n . W i t h A l a n , as w i t h many o t h e r b o y s , i t was too l o n g a s t e p f o r h i m t o t a k e f r o m R e c e i v i n g Home t o B o a r d i n g Home w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p d e s c r i b e d above. Heed f o r A S u b s i d i z e d B o a r d i n g Home The f i n a l c a s e - i n t h i s Ghjapter i l l u s t r a t e s t h e need f o r a s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g home f o r f a i r l y c a p a b l e boys who are w e l l a l o n g t h e r o a d t o i n d e p e n d e n c e and for-whom t h e -88-personal relationship of a f o s t e r home i s unsuitable. Ted A. presents many of the features which make him suitable f o r placement' i n such a resource. Ted was born i n October 1935 and was admitted to care at the age of f i f t e e n i n 1950. Upon admission, he was placed In the Boys' Receiving Home. His father died when Ted was s i x years old. His mother was very dependent upon her husband and after his death began to show signs of mental i l l n e s s of a schizoid type with parenoidal trends, and was l a t e r committed to the Prov i n c i a l Mental Hospital. Mrs. A. could not get along with her mother and l e f t her to come to Vancouver with her children. After the death of her husband Mrs. A's. only in t e r e s t s were her children and her r e l i g i o n . Prom her children she expected and demanded much affe c t i o n and gratitude. At the same time she was ambivalent i n her preference of which boy she l i k e d the most. The effect of thi s home l i f e may be seen i n Ted's development. He was shy and r e t i r i n g , had few friends and although he was rated as being of very superior" i n t e l l i g e n c e , his attendance at school was poor and he was noted as not working to capacity. He attended the church of h i s mother's f a i t h regularly. While Ted presented emotional and behaviour problems, they were not of the aggressive nature that has been presented i n the previous cases. Ted was courteous and cooperative but was also passive and introverted. Although Ted was placed i n the Boys' Receiving Home, -89-he was r e l u c t a n t about b e i n g a d m i t t e d t o ' c a r e and d i d n o t a c c e p t the A g e n c y ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as w e l l as d i d h i s b r o t h e r . T h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e s i b l i n g r i v a l r y between t h e s e two boys and f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e y w e r e p l a c e d s e p a r a t e l y . Ted r e s i s t e d any a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t o f the worker t o d i s c u s s w i t h h i m the r e a s o n s f o r h i s a d m i s s i o n . Ted showed a g r e a t d e a l of i n d e p e n d e n c e , b o t h i n w a n t i n g t o s u p p o r t h i m s e l f and i n r e f u s i n g t o become i n v o l v e d i n a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t a l f i g u r e , o r w i t h o t h e r b o y s . He g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n of b e i n g s e l f s u f f i c i e n t . . Most of T e d ' s a c t i v i t i e s have b e e n w i t h t h e A i r F o r c e C a d e t s , S c o u t s and t h e c h u r c h , o f w h i c h he i s an e l d e r . T e d ' s attachment t o h i s mother i s i n d i c a t e d I n h i s g u i l t f e e l i n g s about h e r m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n and i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o h e l p h e r . Ted h a s o f t e n m e n t i o n e d h i s d e s i r e to l i v e w i t h h L s m o t h e r , h i s n e e d t o h e l p h e r and t o s u p p o r t h e r a f t e r d i s c h a r g e from t h e h o s p i t a l , even t h o u g h t h i s may mean q u i t t i n g s c h o o l i n o r d e r to seek employment. T h a t Ted had d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g h i s m o t h e r ' s i l l n e s s i s s e e a i n t h e f a c t t h a t h e would always r e f e r t o h e r as b e i n g i n T r a n q u i l l e . A l t h o u g h t h e i l l n e s s was r e g a r d e d as b e i n g c h r o n i c , Ted s t i l l f e e l s he has to p l a n f o r h i s m o t h e r ' s r e t u r n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was c l e a r e d up somewhat b y h a v i n g M r s . ' A ' s . d o c t o r at t h e m e n t a l h o s p i t a l g i v e Ted a c o m p l e t e e x p l a n a t i o n o f h e r i l l n e s s over a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l -90-interviews. Ted was also encouraged to v i s i t h i s mother i n h o s p i t a l . Ted's adjustment to the Receiving Home was quite favourable. He exhibited leadership q u a l i t i e s and was able to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Although he d i d not contribute to his maintenance, he purchased h i s own clothing. His worker has t r i e d to interpret to him that he would be i n a better p o s i t i o n to support and care f o r h i s mother i f he f i n i s h e d his schooling and took up a career such as the A i r Force, i n which he i s presently interested. His response to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been rather slow. Ted was placed i n a f o s t e r home i n October 1951 as he had asked to be removed from the Receiving Home. He was a good deal older and more mature than the other boys i n the Home and did not care f o r the s t a f f . After a d i f f i c u l t beginning Ted began to show good progress i n t h i s home. His appearance was much better and he seemed to be more sure of himself, happier, outgoing and more s e l f determined. He has become attached to the f o s t e r mother's daughter and this has p r e c i p i t a t e d a request for h i s removal. It i s f e l t that the f o s t e r mother has some negative f e e l i n g s about t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Ted, because of h i s attachment to h i s mother and h i s general independence, needs a placement i n a s i t u a t i o n where he can be independent and not be involved i n a personal re l a t i o n s h i p , and where he can receive supervision and support -91-from h i s worker. At t h i s time he i s revealing anxiety over his inadequacy to plan for the future and i s showing a lack of f e e l i n g of personal worth. The most notable feature i n t h i s case i s Ted's attach-ment to his mother. His father's death occurred before Ted had resolved the oedipal s i t u a t i o n . Thus death meant the removal of his most serious competitor f o r his mother's love and a f f e c t i o n and i t enabled him to take his father's place. Therefore he f e e l s a very d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to care f o r and support h i s mother. Because of her mental condition, she has encouraged t h i s r elationship. This has prevented Ted from forming attachments outside the home and the responsi-b i l i t y served to increase h i s f e e l i n g s of independence and to mature him. In the beginning, the Boys' Receiving Home offered a suitable placement f o r Ted, although h i s need for* a t r e a t -ment setting was not so great as for other boys. However, i t did not involve him i n a close parental r e l a t i o n s h i p at a time when he was unable to form such a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Although Ted did, at a l a t e r date, make a f a i r adjustment to a foster home i t did not end as a p o s i t i v e experience. This has helped to increase h i s lack of f e e l i n g o f personal worth. Ted has the a b i l i t y to continue h i s education on to u n i v e r s i t y . However, t h i s may involve more pressure than he i s able to cope with. A career i n the R.C.A.F. does o f f e r him considerable security and independence but on the otbearhand i t may represent -92-a more complete s e p a r a t i o n , p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , f r o m h i s m o t h e r , t h a n he i s a b l e to s t a n d . P r o g r e s s w i t h Ted can b e s t be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s w o r k e r . A s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g home s e t t i n g would a l l o w Ted the i n d e p e n d e n c e he c a n h a n d l e and w o u l d n o t i n v o l v e h i m i n a g ? e a t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s t h a n he would d e s i r e . H i s i n d e p e n d e n c e c o u l d be encouraged by a l l o w i n g h i m to assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s m a i n t e n a n c e ; he c o u l d be g r o u p e d w i t h boys n e a r e r h i s own age and he c o u l d c o n t i n u e h i s s c h o o l i n g . None o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d r e s o u r c e s c o u l d as a d e q u a t e l y meet t h e s e n e e d s . The p r o b l e m s shown by t h e a d o l e s c e n t s i n these c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e f o u r major p r o b l e m s r e v e a l e d by t h e s u r v e y . I t has a l s o been n o t e d that t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e a r e a s o n f o r t h e numerous changes o f f o s t e r homes f o r many b o y s . The a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e case i l l u s t r a t i o n s have been a d m i t t e d t o c a r e at d i f f e r e n t ages and f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . I n t h i s C h a p t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f o t h e boys has n o t o n l y b e e n on t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d o l e s c e n c e b u t a l s o on p r e -v i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s ; t h e i n s e c u r i t i e s and a n x i e t i e s t h a t have a f f e c t e d adjustment i n a d o l e s c e n c e . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l development o f t h e s e b o y s have n o t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e normal dynamic development o f t h e c h i l d and t h e a d o l e s c e n t . A b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e s u g g e s t e d r e s o u r c e s t o meet t h e s e a d o l e s c e n t s * p r o b l e m s has been g i v e n a f t e r t h e c a s e d i s c u s s i o n s . These r e s o u r c e s and the I m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e s u r v e y a r e summarized as recommendations i n t h e n e x t C h a p t e r . CHAPTER IV IMPLICATIONS FOR WORKING  WITH ADOLESCENT BOYS IN CARE The two major problems i n fo s t e r care of adolescents are the d i f f i c u l t i e s of continual replacement and the close connection between frequent replacement and the four major "problem areas" c l a s s i f i e d i n the survey, namely emotional, delinquent, behaviour and rela t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s . The eff e c t and imp act of replacement on these problems of the adolescent were noted i n the case discussions. Preventive Measures to Reduce Future Problems The lack of complete and adequate diagnoses of the child's needs at admission were notably absent i n the case records. It would seem f a r better to delay, i f necessary, the placement of a c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home i n order that a complete diagnosis could be made, rather than to place him i n a foster home more or less at random and then have to replace him again shortly thereafter, or leave him i n an unsuitable s i t u a t i o n u n t i l problems mount to the breaking point. Two preventive measures can be taken to avoid the problems caused by these inadequacies i n placement. They -94-involve some time and e f f o r t on the part of workers, but do not involve the setting up of special resources at a l a t e r date to meet problems engendered by inadequate placement practice. The f i r s t preventive measure that can be taken is a complete diagnosis of the child' s needs i n placement. This diagnosis should be concerned with the child's emotional, mental and physical development. It should explore very f u l l y the nature of the child' s relationship to h i s parents and his s i b l i n g s . As far as possible, from obtainable f a c t s , a detailed analysis of his development i n the o r a l , anal and oedipal periods should be made. The strength of h i s emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n , h i s feelings of personal worth and security should be determined. I f this was done and expressed i n dynamic terms, the Agency would have a fa r better picture of the c h i l d that they are about to place, and they would be i n a f a r better p o s i t i o n to determine and select the most suitable resource that would s a t i s f y the child's needs. Such a diagnosis would be f r u i t l e s s i f the actual mechanics of placement were not c a r e f u l l y watched. It Is at th i s i n i t i a l period that the c h i l d forms h i s idea of the Agency and i t i s here that h i s i d e n t i t y with the Agency begins. If t h i s i d e n t i t y with the Agency i s strong, the c h i l d i n care w i l l be better able to withstand the unavoidable -95-change i n workers. When the c h i l d i s f i r s t admitted to care, i t Is exceedingly important that he receive support, under-standing and acceptance of h i s feelings about leaving h i s parents and s i b l i n g s , about h i s fears and apprehensions i n regard to his ne?/ parents. The worker acts as a bridge betwe these two sets of parents and experiences, and that bridge must be strong both i n r e l a t i o n to the c h i l d and to both sets of parents, i f the c h i l d i s to cross t h i s gap successfully. The success achieved here w i l l determine, to a large extent, the child's a b i l i t y to adjust to the placement and h i s relationship with the Agency as well as the f o s t e r parents;!, a b i l i t y to understand and accept the c h i l d . For many reasons i t i s easy for workers to become i n s e n s i t i v e to. the subtle signs of di s t r e s s exhibited by the c h i l d when f i r s t coming into care. However,, i t i s necessary that great care and caution be taken at thi s period i f l a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s are to be avoided. Recording of the diagnosis, the plan and the child's reaction to each step of the plan can, i f simply and c l e a r l y done, be an immeasurable aid f o r future care. I f the diagnosis of the c h i l d at the time of admis-sion has been c a r e f u l l y worked out, and i f the resource for placement has been c a r e f u l l y selected i n accordance with the results of the diagnosis, and i f the i n i t i a l placement has been c a r e f u l l y made, then the chances f o r the c h i l d to succeed i n placement are greatly increased and the chances f o r the appearance of problems at a l a t e r date are greatly - 9 6 -l e s s e n e d . However, t h i s does n o t mean t h a t r e p l a c e m e n t may n o t be n e c e s s a r y , f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s s u c h as s i c k -n e s s o r d e a t h o f the f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The more f i r m l y and c a r e f u l l y the c h i l d , f o s t e r p a r e n t and, i n many i n s t a n c e s , n a t u r a l p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are worked out b y p r e p l a c e m e n t and e a r l y p o s t p l a c e m e n t i n t e r v i e w s , the l e s s t h e placement w i l l be a f f e c t e d by p r e s s u r e s . I t i s recommended that i f a r e p l a c e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s be c a r e f u l l y e x p l o r e d b e t w e e n t h e worker and h i s s u p e r v i s o r b e f o r e a n o t h e r p l a c e m e n t i s made. A l s o , a f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e dynamic development o f t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be made to a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f the f i r s t p l a c e m e n t on t h e c h i l d . Replacement can t h e n be made I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s e v a l u a t i o n and t h e c a s e c o n f e r e n c e . I n t h e event o f a n o t h e r p l a c e m e n t , whether w i t h i n a s h o r t o r l o n g t i m e a f t e r t h e s e c o n d p l a c e m e n t , a f u l l s c a l e c o n f e r e n c e s h o u l d b e h e l d on t h e case b e f o r e t h e p l a c e m e n t i s b e g u n . T h i s c o n f e r e n c e c o u l d c o n s i s t o f t h e w o r k e r , t h e s u p e r v i s o r , t h e h e a d o f t h e C h i l d P l a c i n g Department and a member o f the ?ome F i n d i n g D e p a r t m e n t . P r i o r to t h e c o n -f e r e n c e , a f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d , a n d h i s f o s t e r homes s h o u l d b e made, p r e f e r a b l y w i t h p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a -t i o n , and t h i s s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e I n an attempt t o f i n d out why the p l a c e m e n t s were n o t s u c c e s s f u l . E v e r y r e s o u r c e o f t h e Agency s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r -97-to f i n d the most suitable resource f o r the c h i l d . The danger and e v i l s inherent i n continual replace-ment cannot be over emphasi zed or stressed, because the damage to the c h i l d r e s u l t i n g from replacement i s considerable." In the survey the co r r e l a t i o n between the present problems of the adolescent boys and the number of placements was very evident. For these reasons, i t i s strongly recommended that any possible preventive measures should be taken. Some of the measures outlined here should do much to r e l i e v e the problems of children reaching adolescence at_ a future date. An administrative check on the amount of and reasons f o r replacement could be established i n the monthly s t a t i s t i c s of the c h i l d placing workers. I f each worker, on his s t a t i s t i c a l form, indicated which children were replaced and attached a statement of reasons, the administration would have a barometer which would indicate the amount of and reasons f o r replacement. This barometer would indicate the success of any measures taken to prevent t h i s e v i l . A monthly s t a t i s t i c a l report of the number of v i s i t s to and regarding each c h i l d should be set up so that the effects of preplacement planning, contact with the natural parents and postplacement v i s i t s can be studied. It i s also recommended that the survey analyzed i n Chapter II be extended to cover a l l those i n care, es p e c i a l l y those who have not reached adolescence. Before t h i s i s done, 1 D* Kline and H.M. Overstreet, "Maintaining Foster Homes Through. Case-Work S k i l l s . " Social Service Review, v o l . x x i i , No. 3 (September 1948), p. 324. - 9 8 -the s u r v e y would need some r e v i s i o n , as h a s been o u t l i n e d , i f v a l i d r e s u l t s on which d e f i n i t e recommendations and p r e v e n t i v e measures c o u l d be b a s e d were t o be o b t a i n e d . Such a s u r v e y would i n d i c a t e f u t u r e p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e Agency may have to f a c e and f o r w h i c h a r e v i e w o f t h e i r t o t a l programme may b e n e c e s s a r y . I f t h e s u r v e y c o u l d be i n c o r -p o r a t e d i n t o a m o n t h l y r e p o r t by t h e w o r k e r s , t h e Agency would have a c o n s t a n t p i c t u r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c a r e . T h i s would be i n v a l u a b l e i n the p l a n n i n g o f t h e i r programme. Recommendation,s f o r an O b s e r v a t i o n and Study Home The f i r s t case I n C h a p t e r I I I i n d i c a t e d t h e n e e d f o r a R e c e i v i n g Home. T h i s home would a c t as an o b s e r v a t i o n and s t u d y c e n t r e and a l s o as a s h e l t e r f o r t h o s e who would be i n c a r e f o r a l i m i t e d t i m e . F o r m e r l y t h e B o y s 1 R e c e i v i n g Home s e r v e d t h i s p u r p o s e b u t does not any l o n g e r s i n c e i t s f o c u s has b e e n on t r e a t m e n t . A s i d e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t i t I s n o t a d v i s a b l e t o m i x t r e a t m e n t and study c a s e s , t h e r e i s no accommodation i n t h e B o y s ' R e c e i v i n g Home f o r t h i s type o f c a s e . Moreover, i f an attempt i s t o b e made t o p l a c e c h i l d r e n i n the b e s t p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e , such ahhome would be v a l u a b l e and v e r y much needed w h i l e d i a g n o s t i c e v a l u a t i o n s were b e i n g made. The m a i n emphasis i n such a home would b e t o e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b o y and t h e w o r k e r , and d e v e l o p a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Agency. -99-At the same time work with the boy's parents should be continued i n order to secure t h e i r cooperation i n , and understanding of placement. Such a home would need to be close to the Agency so that there may be frequent contact between the boy and h i s worker and also so that the boy may v i s i t and become f a m i l i a r with the Agency. I f a strong posi t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s established, between the Agency and the boy, the chances f o r success w i l l be greatly Increased. The programme i n such a home would need to be f a i r l y f l e x i b l e as the population of the home would be constantly changing. In order that the atmosphere does not become too impersonal, i t i s suggested that each unit group of the home be approxi-mately s ix to eight. Whether those i n the home would be a l l of one sex or of a special age group cannot be determined here as there i s no d e f i n i t e information on the number that would need such a placement. With the expansion of the programme of finding the most suitable placement f o r a p a r t i -cular c h i l d , i t may be found that several homes or several units i n one home are necessary and ch i l d r e n could be placed i n them according to sex and age group. Recommendations for a School Boys' Home The next resource that was Indicated as being necessary was that of a home f o r boys attending school. This home would be f o r boys who themselves, or whose parents are not able to accept substitute parents, yet who do not need the intensive treatment of a Treatment Home. This would include boys who -100-have a strong neurotic attachment to t h e i r parents, who have experienced such r e j e c t i o n that they cannot accept substitute parents, or those who have been so long i n an i n s t i t u t i o n that they cannot accept parental f i g u r e s . It i s suggested that t h i s home include only boys attending school as i t Is d i f f i c u l t to mix them with working boys, not only because of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s , but also because of d i f f e r e n t sets of rules, regulations and programmes. Since placement i n such a home would be more permanent than i n the one previously mentioned, a group work programme f o r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s would be a desirable asset, although such a programme i s applicable also f o r the Receiving Home. The values of such a programme have been experienced by the Agency with the placement of a masters student i n the Boys' Receiving Home."*" The boys i n a School Boys' Home should also be. encouraged to take part i n community a c t i v i t i e s . Every attempt should be made to make the l i f e and atmosphere of t h i s home f o r the boys as near that as Is experienced by boys i n t h e i r own homes. Recommendations f o r a Treatment Home The Agency's experience with a home f o r boys needing a treatment s i t u a t i o n has been considerable and i s developing, ste a d i l y . I t i s suggested that such a development receive a l l 1 A. B i l l i n g t o n , Group Work Practice i n a Receiving Home fo r Bo vs.. Master'of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953. -101-possible encouragement, as there are a number of boys whose problems are of such proportions that they need s p e c i a l i z e d treatment. Also, the present experience with a treatment setting i s showing encouraging r e s u l t s . Boys who are not i n the present treatment home, the Boys' Receiving Home, and who are i n d i c a t i n g the need f o r such a placement, are those who are continually being replaced. Another group, though not so noticeable are thoseboys who exhibit withdrawn behaviour. Even though t h e i r problems may be as severe or more severe these boys are not so noticeable because of the nature of th e i r behaviour. A treatment home should be r e s t r i c t e d to school boys as they are a more workable group f o r treatment purposes. In t h i s home espec i a l l y , each boy needs i n d i v i d u a l attention, as well as group and community a c t i v i t y . Some i n d i c a t i o n was given i n the case i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the type of boys with problems who would be suitable f o r admission to t h i s home.. No attempt i s being made to give a detailed analysis of the requirements for a treatment r e s i -dence as this would take more space than can be allowed here. Moreover, no attempt has been made to study the Agency's present treatment residence as t h i s has been studied from a 1 group work basis i n a thesis by A. B i l l i n g t o n . The group 1 A. B i l l i n g t o n , Group Work Practice i n ,a Receiving Home  for Bovs. 1953. -102-work programme i n the present home should be continued on a f u l l time basis by a trained group worker i f sustained values are to be achieved. The f i n a l focus of such a home i s the return of the boys i n i t to the normal community l i v i n g . This may mean placement i n a foster home or i n one of the other resources suggested. This move has to be c a r e f u l l y plannedj the placement has to be selected i n accordance withethe boy's needs, l i m i t a t i o n s and strengths and the boy and placement resource selected must be f u l l y prepared i n advance f o r the move. After the move, the boy w i l l need even more than the usual case work attention i n order to support him i n the new relationship and to help r e l i e v e h i s anxieties about the placement. Refiommendations f p r a Working Boys' Home An example has been given i n Chapter I I I i l l u s t r a t i n g the need f o r a home f o r working boys. Working boys are generally older and much more advanced i n t h e i r adolescence than boys attending school. By v i r t u e of having experience i n the working world, they are generally more mature and independent and their scope of i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r from that of school age boys. Thus i t i s suggested that a separate resource be set up f o r t h i s class of adolescents. Boys wao would be suitable f o r t h i s type of home are those who have achieved a considerable degree of independence, - 1 0 3 -who, b y r e a s o n o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n a f o s t e r home, have shown t h a t t h e y are u n a b l e t o a d j u s t to t h i s s e t t i n g and t h o s e whose p a r e n t a l t i e i s s u c h t h a t t h e y c a n n o t a c c e p t s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s . The atmosphere o f such a home would have t o be f a i r l y i m p e r s o n a l . At t h e same t i m e t h e r e s h o u l d be someone f r o m whom the b o y s c o u l d seek c o u n s e l and d i r e c t i o n to h e l p them meet t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y a r e f a c i n g i n t h e i r work. The need f o r a group work programme i s n o t so g r e a t i n t h i s s e t t i n g as i n t h e t r e a t m e n t s e t t i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t would be u s e f u l i n such a home. Through a group work programme, t h e boys c o u l d be h e l p e d t o p l a n t h e i r l e i s u r e t ime a c t i v i t i e s , and t h r o u g h group d i s c u s s i o n s t o b r i n g o u t t h e i r p r o b l e m s , c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r work and t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h much o f t h i s c o u l d , and would be h a n d l e d on a c a s e work b a s i s , a d o l e s c e n t a r e e s p e c i a l l y r e s p o n s i v e to group i n f l u e n c e s . The group work a p p r o a c h h e l p s the i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h group i n t e r a c t i o n t o . seek h i s own s o l u t i o n , w h i c h i s a l s o a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e g r o u p . T h i s w i l l t a n d t o i n c r e a s e h i s f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h . Recommendations f o r , a S u b s i d i z e d B o a r d i n g Home The l a s t c a s e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I was u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e u s e o f a ' s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g home. I f the o t h e r r e s o u r c e s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d were a v a i l a b l e , t h i s l a s t r e s o u r c e c o u l d p o s s i b l y be d i s p e n s e d w i t h . However, i f t h e s e -104-o t h e r r e s o u r c e s are n o t a v a i l a b l e . , t h e u s e o f a s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g home would n e e d to b e e x p l o r e d q u i t e f u l l y . I n t h e case i n C h a p t e r I I I t h e s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g home was recommended f o r an o l d e r , more mature and i n d e p e n d e n t boy who was s t i l l a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l and who m i g h t c o n t i n u e on t o u n i v e r s i t y . Because o f h i s t i e to h i s m o t h e r , t h i s boy f o u n d a f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t d i f f i c u l t . A l s o , he h a d r e a c h e d a s t a g e o f m a t u r i t y where he f e l t he was i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e y o u n g e r , l e s s mature, s c h o o l b o y s . Because o f h i s i n d e p e n -d e n c e , he was a b l e and w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t p a r t of t h e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s f o r h i s m a i n t e n a n c e . T h i s boy i n d i c a t e d t h e n e e d o f a p l a c e m e n t where he c o u l d be a l l o w e d t h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e . A s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g home would seem to f u l f i l l t h i s n e e d . I n s u c h a home, the boy would n o t be e x p e c t e d t o f o r m a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e p a r e n t s , and he would be a l l o w e d almost u n l i m i t e d f r e e d o m . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s would be p a i d on t h e b a s i s o f a s e r v i c e f e e t o compensate f o r t h e l a c k o f s a t i s f a c t i o n f o u n d i n the i m p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e b o y . I n . s p e c i a l c a s e s f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n o f a l l ages t h i s s e r v i c e f e e might be c o n s i d e r e d . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s would n o t be e x p e c t e d to s u p e r v i s e t h e b o y , b u t r a t h e r w o u l d c o o p e r a t e , w i t h t h e Agency i n g i v i n g a r e p o r t o f t h e b o y ' s adjustment to t h e home and on h i s a c t i v i t i e s . Such s u p e r -v i s i o n of t h e b o y , as i s n e c e s s a r y , would be done by t h e case worker i n h i s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e b o y . -105-AdminlatT>fl,i-five Structure f o r these Resources The resources that have been suggested, would not be as e f f e c t i v e as they could be i f there was not an adequate administrative structure within which they could function. Administrative l i n e s of authority and delegation of t h i s authority would have to be made clear, and the programmes of these resources would need to be coordinated with, and integrated i n t o , the t o t a l placement programme. . I t i s there-fore suggested that a department be set up to administer the adolescent boys' programme. The head of t h i s department would be i n a dire c t l i n e under the head of the Child Placing Department, so that the work of these two departments could be coordinated. The supervisor of various homes would each be i n a d i r e c t l i n e of authority to the head of the Adolescent Boys' Department. Workers with adolescent boys i n t h e i r case loads would come under the Department Head f o r general administrative supervision, and under the super-visors of the various homes f o r supervision of boys placed i n these homes. The administration of an adolescent programme would be f a c i l i t a t e d i f a l l adolescent cases were grouped into several case loads. Since foster home placement i s an in t e g r a l part of the boys* programme, i t should be coordinated i n the programme i n the capacity of a resource or s t a f f • function. A possible administrative outline of an Adolescent - 1 0 6 -B o y s ' Programme i s n o t e d b e l o w . HEAD OP THE CHILD PLACING . .DEPARTMENT D i r e c t o r o f Group Work Pro gramme Head o f A d o l e s c e n t B o y s 1 Department -S u p e r v i s o r o f O b s e r v a t i o n & Study Home S u p e r v i s o r o f W o r k i n g B o y s 1 Home-P o s t e r Home F i n d i n g Department I S u p e r v i s o r o f Treatment Home 1 S u p e r v i s o r o f S c h o o l B o y s ' • Home -S u p e r v i s o r o f S u b s i d i z e d B o a r d i n g Home W o r k e r s W h i l e t h i s s t r u c t u r e may appear to be r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d , i t s h o u l d s e r v e t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e a c b l e s c e n t b o y s ' programme more f u l l y t h a n i t i s at p r e s e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n c e r n h e r e I s p r i m a r i l y w i t h t e e n - a g e b o y s , t h i s s t r u c t u r e c o u l d i n c l u d e a l l a d o l e s c e n t s and t h e o t h e r r e c e i v i n g homes o f the Agency. I f a . g r o u p work programme i s d e v e l o p e d , as s u g g e s t e d i n t h e s e v a r i o u s homes, s e v e r a l workers would be r e q u i r e d . T h e i r work c o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d under a D i r e c t o r o f Group Work Programme, and c o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e department i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f a s t a f f f u n c t i o n from t h e Head o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t . W h i l e t h e Agency i s p r i m a r i l y o f a case work o r i e n -t a t i o n , t h e v a l u e s o f group work i n an a d o l e s c e n t programme -107-- cannot be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . A group work programme c o u l d a l s o be i n s t i t u t e d as one u n i t o f a t o t a l programme f o r f o s t e r p a r e n t d i s c u s s i o n s . These f o s t e r p a r e n t s c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r f o r p e r i o d i c m e e t i n g s , i . e . m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s , t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y are e x p e r i e n c i n g w i t h t h e a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r c a r e , and t o l e a r n how o t h e r f o s t e r p a r e n t s are m e e t i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s . B o t h case and group w o r k e r s c o u l d be u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t the A g e n c y ' s p o s i t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e boys i n the f o s t e r homes, and a l s o t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e a d o l e s c e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r . T h i s would r e s u l t i n a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Agency and t h e i r m a i n r e s o u r c e , t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The v a l u e of f o s t e r p a r e n t s t o the s u c c e s s o f a p l a c e m e n t programme c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s c a n be g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i f t h e y f e e l t h e y are an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e Agency. Such a i d s as a f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' news l e t t e r and s p e c i a l h o n o u r s t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s might be u s e d . The S u p e r v i s o r s o f t h e v a r i o u s homes would be r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f , and f o r t h e programme i n t h e s e homes. A l s o , t h e y c o u l d b e t h e c a s e worker f o r some o f t h e boys i n t h e home. A s t a r t h a s been made i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n b y a s s i g n i n g a l l t h e b o y s who are I n the Boys I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l to o n e - w o r k e r , and most o f t h e boys who are i n t h e B a y s ' R e c e i v i n g Home t o t h e S u p e r v i s o r o f t h a t home. A f u r t h e r r e s o u r c e p e r s o n t h a t would be, h e l p f u l to t h e programme i s an employment and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r . -108-This might be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Supervisor of the Working Boys' Home. Such a person should be i n constant touch with the employment opportunities i n the community, He would establish a relationship with the employment bureaus, the apprenticeship department of the Pr o v i n c i a l Government, with the Vocational Schools, with the Trade Unions, and other possible employers. This would immea-surably save the time of the various workers t r y i n g to discover possible employment f o r the boys i n t h e i r case loads, and would also r e s u l t i n a better p o s i t i o n being found f o r the boy. Ca&e Worker - Adolescent Relationships The nature of the relationship between the case worker and the adolescent boy i s very important and i t bears emphasis here. Since the adolescent i s s t r i v i n g f o r h i s independence the relationship between him and the case worker possesses some spe c i a l features. A general descrip-t i o n of t h i s relationship i s given by Sid Hirsohn i n the statement that the "Caseworker's task i s to help, the insecure adolescent f e e l , f i r s t , that, other people and the world are not so unfriendly and dangerous as he believes and, second, that he himself has a b i l i t i e s and attitudes and can get along as well as others." 1 This relationship might be 1 S. Hirsohn, "Role of the Male Caseworker with the Adolescent Bov.".Journal of S o c i a l Casework, v o l . x x i , No, 1, (January, 1950), p. 24. -109-described as being of a supportive nature, which i s designed to strengthen the adolescent's weakened ego. One of the objects of - the relationship would' be to bring about a r e a l i g n -ment of and balance between the i d , ego and superego. This would have the ef f e c t of making the adolescent f e e l more self-worthy and would eliminate the need to appear as such through aggressive type of behaviour. I t would also lessen his need to seek protection f o r h i s feelings of i n s e c u r i t y i n a return to a childhood s i t u a t i o n . A relationship of t h i s nature w i l l enable the adolescent to see that l i f e i s not 1 as harsh as he expected i t to be. At adolescence, the normal b o y I s beginning to break the t i e s to h i s parents. With the adolescent i n placement thi s may not be such a d i f f i c u l t problem as these have been broken to some extent through e a r l i e r placements and the lack of contact with hisrparents through the years. However, th i s does not provide the adolescent with an acceptable person from whom he may seek guidance, d i r e c t i o n s , and l i m i t s as'he f e e l s he needs them. The adolescent needs to f i n d a person who l i s t e n s to him, who i s interested i n h i s ideas and who w i l l respect him f o r h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Adolescents i n t h e i r own home often f i n d such a male i d e a l among t h e i r neighbours, t h e i r sports coaches, t h e i r associates at work. 1 J.G. Milner, "Some Determinants i n the D i f f e r e n t i a l Treat-ment of Adolescents," Child Welfare,. Journal of the Child  Welfare League of America, v o l . xxix, No. 8, (October, 1950) p. 4 . -110-To such persons they w i l l confide matters and f e e l i n g s that they would not consider confiding to t h e i r parents because of the fear of reproach and the need to lessen rather than strengthen the t i e between them. With adolescents i n placement, the male case worker i s i n an excellent p o s i t i o n to become the confidant of the boy. In such situations the case worker not only has the oppor-tunity to give some r e a l support to the adolescent's strengths but i s also afforded a good view of things which might be disturbing the adolescent. This w i l l further enable the case worker to know the d i r e c t i o n i n which the adolescent needs more help. It might be that the adolescent needs help i n working out his relationship to his parents, that he i s f e a r f u l of competition, that he i s asking for d i r e c t i o n i n matters of behaviour, s o c i a l relationships, vocation etcetera or that he i s asking f o r protection from his feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y or from increased i d drives i n the form of the setting of l i m i t s . "The granting of unlimited freedom leaves the adolescent unprotected from the throes of anxiety, induced by his i n s t i n c t u a l urges and i s a c t u a l l y experienced 1 by the patient as increased dangers." The s e t t i n g of l i m i t s acts as a reinforcement to the superego and thus .enables the superego to keep the i d drives i n check. I t . i s a reassurance 1 F.J. Hacker and E.R. Geleerd, "Freedom and Authority i n Adolescence," American Journal o f Orthopsychiatry, v o l . xv (October, 1945), p. 630. - i n -to the adolescent and can enable him to reach an understand-ing of the problem he faces because i t reduces anxiety. Adolescents tend to scorn the giving of too much freedom by the case worker. They are d i s t r u s t f u l of such freedom, unable, because of th e i r psychology to handle i t , and are made more susceptible to feel i n g s of g u i l t with the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l u r e confronting them. Where adolescents have been f r e e l y given t h e i r own way, they are i n c l i n e d to regard the giver as "an easy touch." Success i n the se t t i n g of l i m i t s depends not only upon the strength of the relationship between the worker and the adolescent but also upon the consistency or dependability i n the use of t h i s t o o l . I f the se t t i n g of l i m i t s becomes inconsistent or haphazard i t approximates too c l o s e l y the ambivalence the adolescent i s experiencing. The necessity for a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p In the use of l i m i t s as a thera-peutic tool i s pointed out by John Siawson i n the statement, "...authority, i f consciously and purposefully planned, i s accepted by the c l i e n t only i f he i s assured of the acceptance, the sympathy and understanding on the part of the worker." The setting of l i m i t s i s also very applicable to those who came into care at an early age by reasons of neglect, etcetera and who have ncwreached adolescence. Many of these boys demand that the case worker or the Agency make up to 1 John Siawson, "The Use of the Authoritative Approach i n Social Case Work i n the F i e l d of Delinquency," The American  Journal of Orthopsychiatry, v o l . v i i i , Bd. 1, (October, 1938), p. 6 7 3 . -112-t h e i r deprivation. An example of this i s seen i n the state-ment often uttered by adolescents, that the agency w i l l do something f o r them or w i l l give them something beyond what thet Agency re g u l a r l y supplies. "If these demands are s a t i s f i e d by the worker the pattern may not only be perpe-tuated but even exaggerated."^ In t h i s s i t u a t i o n the worker' takes on the r o l e of an indulgent parent and thus loses the respect of the adolescent. In summary i t can be said that the case worker should not assume the r o l e of the parent or t r y to be an equal of the adolescent. His i s a supportive r o l e , meant to provide f o r the adolescent acceptance and understanding, d i r e c t i o n and guidance, reassurance, encouragement and honest praise to the end that the boy's ego w i l l be supported so that he can function on a more mature l e v e l with a greater f e e l i n g of security. Use of Community Resources There may be a further group of boys whose behaviour i s so aggressive or withdrawn that they cannot be adequately handled i n any of the previously mentioned resources, with-out disturbing the programmes of these resources. For this reason, and because of t h e i r knowledge and experience, the 1 John Siawson, "The Use of the Authoritative Approach i n Social Case Work-in the F i e l d o f Delinquency," p. 67.5. - 1 1 3 -Agency s h o u l d t a k e an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e p l a n s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e i n t h i s community. The Agency h a s a l r e a d y moved i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n w i t h t h e p l a c e m e n t o f one o f t h e i r members on t h e p l a n n i n g committee o f t h i s p r o p o s e d t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s u r v e y and t h e case i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l p r o v e o f some v a l u e i n a s s i s t i n g t h e Agency i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e i r programme f o r a d o l e s c e n t b o y s . W h i l e i t i s f e l t , t h a t f o r many r e a s o n s t h e Agency may n o t be a b l e , o r r e g a r d i t as d e s i r a b l e , t o implement a l l of t h e s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h i s C h a p t e r , i t i s hoped t h a t t h e y w i l l be h e l p f u l t o t h e Agency i n m e e t i n g t h e complex and d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d by many o f t h e s e b o y s . Where t h e r e a s o n s f o r n o t b e i n g a b l e t o make t h e s e changes a r e f i n a n c i a l , t h e Agency may need t o p r e s e n t t h e s e p r o b l e m s t o t h e community as t h e y a r e a community agency. I f a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d by a s m a l l group o f the boys i n c a r e i s n o t f o u n d , t h e c o s t , at a l a t e r d a t e to t h e community, w i l l be g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . A l t h o u g h o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e boys i n c a r e have spent a p e r i o d o f t i m e i n s u c h c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e B o y s ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , O k a l l a , t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y and the P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H o s p i t a l , t h e c o s t o f t h e i r i n c a r c e r a t i o n would go f a r t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s e p r e v e n t i v e measures and r e s o u r c e s . The s t i l l more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s t h e damage done t o t h e s e boys and t o o t h e r l i v e s . -114-I f the stress and focus of the Agency i s upon early preventive measures, then the private functiori^of the Agency w i l l be more adequately and completely f u l f i l l e d . The importance of enabling the boys i n care to reach a s a t i s f y i n g and successful adjustment,' f o r themselves and society i n general, cannot be overly emphasized. -115-APPENDIX A DEFINITION OF CLASSIFICATIONS . USED IN-THE SURVEY .. Reasons fo r Admission to Care 1 . F i n a n c i a l . - I n a b i l i t y to provide for c h i l d Social Assistance Neglect 2. Parental Break-Up ... -Desertion Separation Divorce J a i l Sentence 3. Moral Incapability of Parents : -Drunkenness. Cohabitation Father immoral Prostitution 4. Medical Incapability  bXiParents -Sickness Death of one parent Mental Health 5. No Parents f o r Child -Death of both parents., p ; Parents or r e l a t i v e s abandoned c h i l d Unmarried mother 6« Other -Specify Reason . II Reasons f o r Change i n Placement 1 . Family Interference 2. Sickness of Foster Parents 3. Fi n a n c i a l I n a b i l i t y of Foster Parents to Care for the Chi l d -116-4. I n a b i l i t y of Poster Parents to Cope with or Relate to the Boy 5. Behaviour Problems of the Boy ( i . e . , other than relat i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t ies) 6. I n a b i l i t y of Boy to Relate to Foster Parents 7. I n a b i l i t y of Agency to f i n d Suitable Foster Home III Problems Manifested by Adolescent Boys 1. Emotional Problems 2. Delinquent Tendencies -Over-sensitive Over-conforming Demand! ng Hyperactive Over-dependent Compulsive Impulsive Moody Unsettled Poor Emotional Tone Low sense o f Personal Worth Withdrawn Insecure -Del inquent Lying Stealing Destructive Bullying Defiant Rebellious A n t i - s o c i a l 3. Behaviour Problems -Truancy Running Away Conflict with Authority Hostile Suspicious Cheeky Contrary Uncooperative Bad Language Non-conforming Lack of Ambition Lazy -117-4. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Relating 5. Incontinence 6. Low I.Q. 7. Physical-Medical 8. Disturbed 9. Sex D i f f i c u l t i e s 10. Good Adjustment 11. No Information -Cannot r e l a t e to own age group, or elders Rejection by Parents Strong Parental Tie S i b l i n g Rivalry . -Enuresis S o i l i n g Unci e anlines s -Includes up to low average - Spas t i c E p i l e p t i c Diabetic Migraine headaches Bli n d Poor Eyesight Speech D i f f i c u l t i e s - h a i r l i p etc. -Pre-psychotic Psychotic -Sex Behaviour Masturbation Femininity -Good Adjustment or no problems indicated - I n s u f f i c i e n t Information to c l as s i f y Discharged Returned to Parents; or discharge not completed IV Rating f o r S u i t a b i l i t y of Last Placement VG Very Good - F u l l acceptance of the boy by the f o s t e r parents F u l l acceptance of the foster parents by the boys Both foster parents i n the home Both f o s t e r parents able to cope with problems of the boy Complete acceptance of placement by the natural parents -118-Good - A c c e p t a n c e o f t h e boy by t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s A c c e p t a n c e o f the f o s t e r p a r e n t s b y t h e boy B o t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s i n t h e home P o s t e r p a r e n t s have o c c a s i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y i n c o p i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s Good a c c e p t a n c e o f p l a c e m e n t by t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s M e d i o c r e - Some a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e boy b y t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s Some a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s b y t h e b o y Only one p a r e n t i n t h e home P o s t e r p a r e n t s o f t e n have d i f f i c u l t y i n c o p i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s L i t t l e a c c e p t a n c e o f p l a c e m e n t by n a t u r a l p a r e n t s - t e n d to i n t e r f e r e Poor L i t t l e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e boy by t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s L i t t l e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s by t h e boy Only one p a r e n t i n t h e home P o s t e r p a r e n t s have c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n c o p i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s No a c c e p t a n c e o f p l a c e m e n t by t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s V e r y P o o r - No a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e boy by t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s No a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s by t h e b o y Only one p a r e n t i n t h e home F o s t e r p a r e n t s cannot cope w i t h p r o b l e m s No a c c e p t a n c e o f p l a c e m e n t by t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s -much i n t e r f e r e n c e on t h e i r p a r t - 1 1 9 -APPEHDIX B S c h e d u l e Used f o r Gases (Example) Age Age at No. o f Name a d m i s s i o n p l a c e m e n t s Y e a r s S u i t a b i l i t y L e n g t h o f B o a r d Rate i n o f l a s t l a s t and c a r e placement p l a c e m e n t S t a t u s Reason f o r a d m i s s i o n P a r e n t a l I n t e r e s t B o y ' s P r o b l e m - Reasons f o r change i n E m o t i o n a l e t c . p l a c e m e n t P a r t o r P u l l t i m e Work E a r n i n g s R e v e r s e S i d e o f C a r d P s y c h i a t r i c o f V o c a t i o n a l E x a m i n a t i o n F u t u r e p l a n s -120-BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Aichorn, August, Wayward Youth. New York, Viking Press, 1945. B i l l i n g t o n , A., Group Work Practice i n a Receiving Home  for B O Y S . Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953. English, 0. Spurgeon, and Pearson, Gerald, H.J., Emotional Problems of Li v i n g . New York, W*W. Norton.and Company, 1945. Langdale, A.L., How Foster Children Turn Out. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951. Redl, F., and Wineman, D., Children Who Hate. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , The Free Press, 1951. . Zachary, Caroline. B., Emotion and Conduct i n Adolescence. New York, Appleton-Century, 1940. A r t i c l e s : Clothier, Florence. " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Needs i n the Field of Child Welfare." The Nervous Child. Vol. 7.. A p r i l , 1948. Foster, F.E., "Basic P r i n c i p l e s i n the Case Work Treatment of Adolescents," The Family, vol 22., No. 6.,.October, 1939. .. . Glick, G.A., "Establishing a Subsidized Foster Home," Child Welfare Journal. Child Welfare .League, of America, v o l . 27., ifo. 9, November, 1947. Gula, Martin, "Study and Treatment Homes f o r Troubled Children,".Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1947. pp. 333-343. Hacker, F.J., and Geleerd, E.R., "Freedom and Authority i n Adolescence," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, v o l . 25, October, 1945. . -121-Hirsohn, S., "Role of the Male Caseworker with the Adolescent Boy," The Journal of Social Case Work, v o l . 31., No. 1, January, 1950. Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Parent-Child Relationship as a Factor i n Child Placement," The Journal of Social Case Work, v o l . 27, No. 2., A p r i l , 1946. Kline, D. and Overstreet, H.M., "Maintaining Foster Homes Through Case Work S k i l l s , " Social Service Review, v o l . 22, No. 5., September, 1948. Milner, J. G., "Some Determinants i n the D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment of Adolescents," Child Welfare Journal. Child  Welfare League o f America, v o l . 29, No. 8, October, 1950. Ross, Helen, "The Case Worker and the Adolescent," The  Family, v o l . 22, No. 7, November, 1941. Siawson, J., "The Use of the Authoritative Approach i n Social Case Work i n the F i e l d o f Delinquency," The  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, v o l . 8, No. 1, October, 1938. 

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