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Casework in the return of non-ward care cases to the parental home : a descriptive and analytical study… Morales, Dolores Averna 1957

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CASEWORK IN THE RETURN OF NON-WARD CARE CASES TO THE PARENTAL HOME A Descriptive and Analytical Study of Social Welfare Branch (British Columbia) Cases, 1953-1956 by DOLORES AVERNA MORALES Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1957 The University of British Columbia iv ABSTRACT "Non-ward Garew refers to a child for whom the Super-intendent of Child Welfare has assumed responsibility tempor-ari ly at the request of the child?s parent or guardian. The primary function of non-ward care is the protection of children within their own family unit, the importance to the child of having his own parents accept responsibility for him being re-cognized as a principle basic to child welfare services. Non-ward care, as described in this thesis, is an important service for treating certain family situations in the hope that this treatment wi l l make i t possible for children and parents to help themselves. In the final analysis, the real assessment of the use of the resource of non-ward care depends on the preservation of the family unit. This study was undertaken in an attempt to examine descriptively and analytically the casework services involved in the provision of the resource of non-ward care to families, and to note how the families were being benefited by the re-source. The analysis of the fifteen cases used in this study suggests some correlation between the evidence of improvement in the family situation and the quality of the social work methods and techniques exhibited by the worker during the course of the agency's contact with the family. This is judged by the rating of the progress made by the families as related to the quality of the worker's relationship, and also the extent to which basic social work methods and techniques were used by the worker. In both instances, the cases which showed much improve-ment in the family situation, showed proficient use of the basic social work methods and techniques. The cases which made l i t t l e progress showed weaknesses in some areas of social work methods, particularly the areas which require diagnostic s k i l l , evalua-tion, and the making of a plan based on the diagnosis. The findings of the study are that, in the majority of instances, the resource of non-ward care was being used to-wards the preservation of the families; and that, from the be-ginning the plan was for the children to be returned to their parents1 homes when the situation had been alleviated. There were a few cases, however, in which the original plan for the family seemed to have been lost sight of and children had re-mained in care longer than had been envisaged, while no Improve-ment had occurred in the family situation. The implications here are significant not only for this type of service, but for a l l fields of the social work profession. V A cknowledg ement s I would l i k e to express my sincere apprecia-t i o n to Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent of C h i l d wel-fare, Miss Mary King, Regional Administrator of Region VI, S o c i a l welfare Branch and Mrs. William L i t t l e , Supervisor at the Chilliwack O f f i c e , S o c i a l welfare Branch, Chilliwack, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r co-operation extended me i n obtaining the data f o r t h i s t h e s i s . My sincere thanks to Mrs. Nettie watson and Mr. Adrian Marriage, members of the s t a f f of the Department of Soeial Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the valuable assistance they provided. Most e s p e c i a l l y do I thank Dr. Leonard C. Marsh f o r hi s sincere i n t e r e s t and help i n the preparation and writing of t h i s thesis. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I . Essential Considerations in Non-ward Care The responsibility of the public child wel-fare programs to offer this type of care; Some of the professional social work principles involved; The re-source of non-ward care; Some of the factors involved: the parent-child relationship, the skills of the work-er; The purpose of the present study and the setting; The research methods used 1 CHAPTER II. Casework Planning in Non-ward Care The families (children and parents) studied and their characteristics; Description of problems and other factors that led to the planning for non-ward care; The services provided to the families; The child's adjustment in the foster home and the progress made by the family during the placement; The decision to return the child to the parental home 23 CHAPTER III. The Casework Services Given to the Families The development of the five criteria factors used in the study; The research methods used for the assessment of the casework methods and techniques used by the worker; Indications of the findings; The need for a family-centered casework approach 52 CHAPTER IV. The Use of the Resource of Non-ward Care The findings of the study and their implica-tions; The need for administrative and supervisory attention in this area of service; Implications of the study for future research and administrative planning of programs • 69 i i i Table I . Table II . Table III. Table IV. Table V. Table VI. Table VII. Table VIII. Table IX. Table X. TABLES IN THE TEXT Page Marital Status of Parents of Children in Non-ward Care 26 Number of Parents in the Home at the Time of Referral and Reasons for the Absence from the Home of One or Both Parents. . . . 28 Job Status of the Parents of the Children and the Economic Circumstances at the Time of Referral 30 Sources of Referrals and the Major Problems of the Parent at the Time of the Referral . 32 Personal Problems Known About the Children at the Time of Placement 37 Kinds of Services Provided to the Parents . 4.0 The Provision of Casework Services to the Children 4,2 Attitudes of the Children Toward Place-ment, Helated to an Assessment of Their Adjustment in the Foster Homes . 44 The Progress Made With the Parents During the Placement 4-7 Showing Rating of Casework Principles With the Families in the 15 Cases Studied According to the Evident Use of the 5 Basic Social Work Methods Used In this Thesis as Basic Criteria for Good Case-work in the Provision of Non-ward Care. . . 64. CASEWORK IN THE RETURN OF NON-WARD CARE  CASES TO THE PARENTAL HOME A Descriptive and Analytical Study of Social Welfare Branch (British Columbia) Cases, 1953-1956. CHAPTER I ESSENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN NON-WARD CARE The twentieth century has seen a growing emphasis on children and their needs, so much so that many welfare workers feel i t could be ©ailed "the century of the child". Much literature has been written about children, with many service programs and agencies springing up to help children in various ways. There has also been great developments In the field of public welfare with the recognition of the responsibility of a l l levels of governments for tax-supported child welfare pro-grams. This means that communities have accepted the idea that i t is one of the functions of a public agency to provide social services to benefit children and their families. These child welfare programs have a dual aim: f i r s t , of prevention; second-ly , of protection, and are therefore directed f irst to the con-servation and strengthening of the home for the c h i l d . 1 Social workers today a l l agree in principle that the essential part of any public child welfare program is the case-work help given with the aim of building the home into a reason-ably solid emotional and economic unit. In stressing the above principle, the Division for Children of the Washington State Department of Public Welfare, in a policy statement said, "The 1. Wolfrom, Essey, "Strengthening Services to Children in Their Own Homes", Public Welfare. Nov., 194 ,^ Vol. 6, No. 11, p. 233. primary purpose of any c h i l d welfare program i s to preserve the child's need and r i g h t to grownup i n h i s own home. I t follows therefore that every e f f o r t i s directed toward holding the home and family together."^ Granted therefore, that i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the public agencies to provide such services to children, the next question to be asked i s — have they met t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? The answer to t h i s frequently appears to be i n a negative tone. In some areas, the services avai l a b l e to children requiring special attention are l i m i t e d to the care of those who cannot be provided f o r i n t h e i r own homes. When case loads are heavy i t i s hard to f i n d time to provide casework services i n f o s t e r homes and a c h i l d may be allowed to remain there i n d e f i n i t e l y . The caseloads of c h i l d r e n 1 s agencies reveal a number of c h i l d r e n who have d r i f t e d on i n fo s t e r care year a f t e r year, t h e i r f a m i l i e s often l o s t e n t i r e l y , or maintaining only sporadic i n t e r e s t which may be expressed by a Christmas j j i f t or a v i s i t . For a l l p r a c t i -c a l purposes, the parent had played no active r o l e i n the plann-ing or care of h i s c h i l d . At the same time, children have too often been moved through a succession of fo s t e r homes and have usually experienced a succession of case workers. There has been l i t t l e i n t h e i r l i v e s to which they could hold and c a l l t h e i r own. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n can be seen the roots of every-thing that i s contrary to proven theory concerning the healthy development of children. I t i s i n v i o l a t i o n of the very object-1. Wolfrom, l o c . c i t . ives of c h i l d care programs. This problem of children coming into eare supposedly f o r a temporary placement, but l a t e r d r i f t i n g on i n a sea of casework inde c i s i o n and years of f o s t e r care, has aroused much discussion among workers i n the f i e l d . The following study i s concerned not only with the c h i l d r e n 1 s problem but also with the r o l e of the worker i n trying to keep children and fam i l i e s together. An attempt w i l l be made to analyze the temporary fost e r home placement program of a public c h i l d welfare agency and also to examine the use of the resource of non-ward eare i n helping children and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The temporary f o s t e r home placement i s a resource f a i r l y used today i n the d i f f e r e n t c h i l d care agencies. I t i s drawn upon by workers i n sudden emergencies or to help disturbed situations which may have existed f o r over long periods of time. The reason f o r the req uest of placement may be one of many-sickness, desertion, parental i n e f f i c i e n c y , death of the parent or the ch i l d ' s conduct i n s i d e or outside the home. Some workers use the resource frequently as a device to o f f e r r e s p i t e to a tense s i t u a t i o n i n a home between children and parentsi There may be various arguments against t h i s practice, but i t does have i t s merits. However, i n these cases, i t should r e a l l y be a temporary placement and so planned. I t should have a s p e c i f i c goal and function; be done with a planned objective; and provide r e a l l y intensive casework services f o r the children and the parents. "Unless there i s a purpose set fo r t h and a c l e a r l y defined goal established as to what is expected to be achieved through the placement, children in increasing numbers wi l l con-tinue to drift needlessly through years of foster care." 1 It is not realistic to f a l l back on weak justifications such as saying that any home is better than the one from which the child came. An agency that accepts the responsibility for placement accepts the responsibility of helping both the child and his parents. This means that casework help must be offered toward the end that no child shall be deprived of his own home any longer than is absolutely necessary in his best interests. The resource of non-ward care As mentioned before, communities have accepted the idea of the responsibility of a public agency to provide services to children. The basis of this assumption can be seen from the common-law doctrine that the state through its agents can give care or protection to any minor in danger of becoming dependent, neglected or delinquent. Children are said to be taken into the "care of the state". In British Columbia, the Child Welfare Division of the Provincial Social Welfare Branch, was set up for the purpose of executing some of the laws of the state in regard to the children of the Province. The head of the Division, the Superlntendant of Child Welfare has the designated authority to accept children into the care and protection of the Province. Relevant 1 . Baker, Inez, "Analysis of the Basic Aims and Objectives of Child Welfare Programs, Foster Care and Adoption", Public Welfare. Apr i l , 1 9 5 2 , Vol. 1 0 , No. 2 , p. 4 3 . l e g i s l a t i o n pertaining to the authority of the Superintendent to accept children into non-ward care i s contained i n the Pro-tecti o n of Children Act, P r o v i n c i a l Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the section which explains the powers of the Superintendent to act i n the behalf of children f®r the "amelioration of family conditions that lead to neglect"." 1* The p o l i c y manual of the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n ex-plains that a C h i l d i n Care i s a c h i l d f o r whom the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare has assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y whether permanently through court action, or temporarily at the request of the c h i l d ! s . parent or guardian. After a c h i l d comes int o care, there i s no d i s t i n c t i o n made by the D i v i s i o n as to the type and q u a l i t y of services provided, whether the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d has been gained through the courts or upon the request of the parent. The difference i n the two si t u a t i o n s l i e s i n the area of the pro-cesses involved i n the separation from the parent. When the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare assumes permanent wardship of a c h i l d , apprehension i n court and permanent committal i s c a r r i e d out. I t i s decided that the child* s best i n t e r e s t s may bs served through permanent separation from the parent and the c h i l d Is said to become a ward of the Superintendent. This means the parent w i l l have to apply through the courts to get the c h i l d back. The term Non-Ward Care, i n the C h i l d Welfare Manual, re-fe r s to a c h i l d being placed i n care f o r a temporary period. 1. "Protection of Children Act", P r o v i n c i a l Statutes  of B r i t i s h Columbia. Chapter 47, 1943, C. 5, S. 1., V i c t o r i a , B.C., Queen 1s P r i n t e r . Authority to bring the child into this type of care is given by the District Supervisor, and the family's e l ig ibi l i ty for this resource is dependent only upon the worker* s diagnosis of the family 's need for the resource. Legally, the Superintendent of Child Welfare or the social worker has no control over the return of the child, and there is only a written agreement between the parent and the district office. The parental responsibility for the child has not yet been severed by court action, as in the case of children who are wards. The non-ward care child is placed in a foster home upon the request of and with the approval of his parent. The worker relies mainly on casework sk i l l and her relationship with the parent to help the placement serve the purpose for whidh i t was originally initiated. The primary function of the use of the resource of non-ward care may be said to be the protection of children with-in their own family unit, the importance to the child of having his own mother and father to accept responsibility for him being recognized as a principle basic to child welfare services. "The child's own home should be the source of healthy emotional reserves, affection, well being, self-esteem and protection from dangers, those arising within himself as well as those con-fronting him from his external env ironment .To the end that this may be assured the child, non-ward care, togtefcher with family casework techniques, is aimed at keeping together the 1. Schour, Esther, n l Believe in Parents", Child  Welfare. May, 1954, Vol. 23, No. 5, p. 9. c h i l d ' s natural family whenever possible, through strengthening those who care f o r him, and attempting to re b u i l d h i s home int o a reasonably s o l i d emotional and economic u n i t . Only when these e f f o r t s have f a i l e d or are unavailing and when the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s may best be served through permanent separation from the parent, should apprehension and permanent committal be car r i e d out. I t can be said that non-ward care i s e s s e n t i a l l y that given a c h i l d away from home during the period when the parent i s s t i l l working with agency help towards having the c h i l d r e-turned to him or reaching a decision that t h i s cannot happen. In t h i s service, the dynamic f a c t o r of time i s e s s e n t i a l i n helping the parent know h i s feelings and come to a decision that i s r i g h t f o r him and the c h i l d . The c h i l d himself i n non-ward care i s aided In under-standing what i s being planned f o r him, why he needs care and under what conditions he w i l l be able to return home. He i s also given an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the planning. I f h i s relationship to h i s parents i s a problem, he i s helped to under-stand i t s nature and to c l a r i f y h i s a t t i t u d e s . At the same time the parent i s helped to understand h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining the parental r o l e , to plan f o r the ch i l d ' s return, or to make use of other services necessary f o r solving d i f f i c u l t i e s that i n t e r f e r e with treating the problem on a r e a l i s t i c basis. When and how does non-ward care f i t Into a pattern of community service to f a m i l i e s and children? When does i t seem - 8 -to be a better way than any other to help parents with problems i n earing f o r children? How does the worker decide that t h i s i s the most suitable resource to use? The following i s a discussion of the f e e l i n g s of the various people involved i n t h i s type of decision and also the s p e c i a l factors which may serve as guide-posts i n seeking answers to the above questions. The placement can perhaps best be considered as a group of inter-connecting processes involving the agency, the c h i l d himself, h i s parents or r e l a t i v e s , f o s t e r parents or various professional i n d i v i d u a l s who share h i s care. The balance i s always an extremely d e l i c a t e one, since i t has to do with constantly moving factors, the purposes of parents, the growth of children and the d u r a b i l i t y of f o s t e r parents. The c h i l d and the importance of h i s relationships i n the natural  family Today s o c i a l workers f e e l they know more about children's needs than they did f i f t y years ago. C e r t a i n l y , homes are broken up f a r l e s s r e a d i l y and more recognition i s given to the deep importance i n a child* s l i f e of the emotional t i e s with h i s own parents, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s mother. The keynote of t h i s i s found i n the sound conclusions of Bowlby, "that maternal care i n infancy and e a r l y childhood plays an important part i n l a t e r mental health", and that "the parent and the c h i l d have a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " . * S o c i a l workers have gradually 1. John Bowlby, Maternal Care & Mental Health. World Health Organization, P a r l a i s Des Nations, Geneva, 1952, p. 59. r e a l i z e d that there i s never a perfect subst i tute f o r a c h i l d ' s own fami ly , and were among the f i r s t to recognize that when a c h i l d has a parent , he has a r i g h t to l i v e with that parent i f i t i s a t a l l pos s ib l e . S o c i a l agencies who work with c h i l d r e n are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of the importance to a c h i l d o f belonging to a parent, or when t h i s i s no longer p o s s i b l e , o f even seeming to belong to a parent i n the eyes of h i s peers . Many s o c i a l workers today f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to assess fo s t er home care r e a l -i s t i c a l l y . Workers who have witnessed how hurt c h i l d r e n can be by a dis turbed re jec t ing parent and at the same time how c h i l d r e n have blossomed i n the warmth o f a fos ter home, are i n c l i n e d to over-rate the fo s t er home program. Frequently they f a i l to recognize that a c h i l d may not be able to take the l o v -ing care prof fered so generously i n a fos ter home jus t as they may f a i l to recognize the worth that even a troubled parent may have to h i s c h i l d . For many years caseworkers operated on the assumption that a c h i l d ' s need for family l i f e i s we l l provided f o r i n a fo s t er home. S o c i a l agencies even took measures to exclude parents e n t i r e l y , or treat them i n a manner which d i s -couraged a l l but the most pers i s t ent from making e f f o r t s to r e -t a i n a place i n the l i f e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Some caseworkers took p a r t i c u l a r pr ide i n having c h i l d r e n spend t h e i r e n t i r e childhood i n a fos ter fami ly and making the fo s t er home the c h i l d r e n ' s home base even a f t e r they reached matur i ty , These workers f i n d i t hard to exp la in however, why the c h i l d r e n who - 10 -had spent long years In f o s t e r homes where they seemed happy, sought out t h e i r own parents—even n e g l e c t f u l ones—and invest-ed a l l t h e i r energy and a f f e c t i o n i n establishing a home with them. I t i s becoming more and more evident to caseworkers that the l i m i t a t i o n s of f o s t e r home care inhere not so much i n what the f o s t e r family has to o f f e r children as i n the unique and natural t i e of the c h i l d to h i s own parent. Parent and c h i l d have r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p Many factors disturb healthy parent-child r e l a t i o n -ships. I t i s almost axiomatic that the parents own personality and attitudes and behavior are overwhelmingly powerful i n i n -fluencing t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c h i l d . The c h i l d ' s behavior and personality i n turn, also influences the parents* reaction. Esther Schour has stressed the mutuality of parent-child rel a t i o n s h i p s . The mother's response to her baby i s motivated not only by her motherliness, her own capacity to love and pro-tect a baby but by the kind of baby she has. A baby who i s i r r i t a b l e , r e s t l e s s , has nursing d i f f i c u l t i e s , may be very f r u s t r a t i n g to the mother who wants to nurse, give comfort and s a t i s f a c t i o n to her baby. Her f r u s t r a t i o n and anxiety then i s communicated to the c h i l d , who may respond with more i r r i t a b i l -i t y . This can begin a mutually unsatisfactory r e l a t i o n s h i p which may extend throughout childhood. "As the c h i l d grows, hi s own unique patterns of behavior which he uses to get what he needs, provoke counter-reactions i n the parent's f e e l i n g to-ward him. Often the c h i l d , as well as h i s parents, needs help - 11 -i n modifying h i s behavior.""*" Experience has taught s o c i a l workers that a clean cut cannot be made between a c h i l d and h i s parents i n regards to t h e i r mutual needs and influence on one another. Except i n un-usual cases, parents do not t o t a l l y r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r c h i l d , nor does the c h i l d sever h i s t i e s to h i s parents. Even parents who appear h o s t i l e and r e j e c t i n g , unable to provide guidance and care, have some pos i t i v e f e e l i n g s f o r the c h i l d . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s known that deprived children, struggling f o r a sense of self-worth and i d e n t i t y c l i n g to t h e i r parents f o r the smaill love and security they have found with them. Furthermore, parental attitudes and values have become a part of the c h i l d 1 s own character. They continue to exert influence from within the c h i l d , and the parent himself continues to exert Influence from without. To some people, temporary care may sound simple and not p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i f e of the placed c h i l d . I t i s a service, however which has a more far-reaching s i g n i f i -cance than i t s name implies. S o c i a l workers who attempt to help children and parents through t h i s resource know that the service i s important because of i t s meaning to the c h i l d whe3feher he r e -mains i n care f o r eight days or f o r several months. The act of placement i n i t s e l f sometimes creates what i s known as a separation trauma. "To the c h i l d the trauma of separation s p e l l s out the ultimate i n r e j e c t i o n by parents, even 1. Esther Schour, OP.dt.. p. 8. - 12 -though he has experienced r e j e c t i o n before placement."*'' Separation c r y s t a l l i z e s feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y i n the c h i l d and leaves him with pain d i f f i c u l t to bear, so that he reacts with withdrawal or striking-out behavior. In the c h i l d whose parents remain In the picture, i n contrast to the one whose placement i s pre c i p i t a t e d by t h e i r death, h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , or desertion, confusion i s added to pain and other reactions. Separation from l i v i n g parents may even be more d i f f i c u l t f o r the c h i l d to bear than actual loss of parents through death. The separation and i t s attendant pain w i l l be compounded with the struggle set up by the question of why the parent, although present cannot take care of him; yet the answer i s denied by the c h i l d himself because he cannot tole r a t e the meaning of i t . He hates h i s parents because they are abandoning him to a strange and h o s t i l e world, but he i s crushed by h i s own conviction that i n some way he has deserved t h i s . When the parents i n an attempt to escape from t h e i r own g u i l t blame him, they only confirm h i s fear and h i s f e e l i n g that he i s "no good". He cl i n g s to h i s parents even when he knows that placement i s a certainty since they represent the only security that exists f o r him. At l e a s t they are h i s own parents and however unhappy he has been with them, that f o r the moment seems better than strangers. He cannot believe that strangers could want him when h i s own parents do not, and to him placement must promise only greater iansliness 1. Henrietta Gordon, "Limitations of Poster Home Care", C h i l d Welfare. J u l y . 1953, V o l . 21, No. 6, p. 7. - 13 -and greater unhappiness. Herein may l i e many reasons for the failure of the placement and the child* s inability to make a satisfactory adjustment in the foster home. When a child goes from his own home and family to l ive in some substitute environment, no matter what the reason, a process of readjustment is necessarily set in motion. When again he is returned to the parental home, the child has to deal with a l l the attitudes and .feelings which have come to the fore by the mere fact of the strange experience he has faced. Studies of the psychological processes involved In the growth of an individual from infancy to emancipation, from dependency to mature self-control have added greatly to the professional understanding of the development of children in relation to their own families. Further study of these pro-cesses as they operate when a child is moved to and from a sub-stitute home seems to be needed for the development of under-standing and sk i l l in dealing with the social andpsychological problems of foster home care of children, temporary and perman-ent. The parent and his problem Parents at the point of requesting temporary placement for their children, are often beset with feelings that are pain-ful and conflicting. Many of them have * profound sense of failure. Society makes i t clear that the duty and responsibility of any parent is to care for his own child and in placing his child, the parent publicly acknowledges that he no longer feels - 14 -able to do t h i s . Few people can face so fundamental a f a i l u r e i n themselves without shame and a deep sense of worthlessness. The parents know that they have i n e f f e c t said that they cannot carry the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of normal adult l i f e , and they may attempt to conceal the truth, both from themselves and from others i n a var i e t y of ways. They may be arrogant and demand-ing; they may be vague and evasive; or they may i n s i s t desperate-l y that i t i s t o t a l l y the f a u l t of someone else, often the c h i l d himself. To the parent, placement means h i s own f a i l u r e i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and then as an i n d i v i d u a l . This f e e l i n g , a l -though deeply hurled behind the Irresponsible arid seemingly un-interested responses of the parent, ex i s t s i n varying degrees and accounts f o r some of the disturbance the parent may create even a f t e r the placement. Current and Immediate problems a f f e c t the parent 1s attitude to h i s c h i l d . The existing relationship between the parent and h i s c h i l d i s modified and upset by the lack of s a t i s -f a c t i o n and c o n f l i c t i n marriage, divorce, separation or death of one parent. Problems i n day-to-day l i v i n g leave t h e i r mark on t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , too. I t i s harder to be patient, under-standing and giving to children^ to express what the Fact-Findlng Report of the MidCentury White House Conference c a l l s "the parental sense" 1 when parents must struggle with economic pro-blems, Inadequate income, periodic unemployment, poor housing, 1. Wilmer, Helen Leland and Kotinsky, Ruth, editors, Personality i n the Making, the Fact-Finding Report of the Mid-Century White House Conference on Children and Youth, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1952, p. 23. - 15 -poor health, and l i m i t e d opportunities f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of th e i r needs as people. These can jeopardize the parents" relationship to t h e i r c h i l d even when the parents are r e l a t i v e -l y mature. And often i t Is only one parent doing the jofc of two who must cope with these problems. The professional s o c i a l work s k i l l s involved The Importance of good diagnostic understanding and casework treatment s k i l l s on the part of the s o c i a l caseworker i n using the resource of non-ward care cannot be underestimated. I t i s only by knowing what i s compelling the parents to act as they do and by understanding what the c h i l d i s trying to express through h i s behavior that the s o c i a l worker can assess c o r r e c t l y the values within the parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p . A c a r e f u l evaluation of the parents' maturity should be used as a gauge of t h e i r a b i l i t y to change t h e i r a t t i tudes. The s k i l l s of the s o c i a l worker are directed towards building on the strengths a l -ready within the parents, helping them to modify t h e i r a ttitude toward the c h i l d and guiding and supporting them i n the making of any plans. The kind of casework needed The caseworker knows that each i n d i v i d u a l has h i s own strengths to contribute to the family balance and each h i s own needs which must be met to some degree within the family i f he i s to function comfortably In h i s home and i n outside r e l a t i o n -ships. The c h i l d i s dependent primarily on h i s parents f o r - 16 -basic s a t i s f a c t i o n s , but the parent can give the a f f e c t i o n a l security according to the degree to which h i s own needs have been and are being met. To determine the family i n t e r a c t i o n , the caseworker wants to know what the c h i l d 1 s problems are, how the parents f e e l about these problems and what they think can be done about them. The problem at intake i s one of helping the parent come to some recognition of the part he w i l l play i n the continuing process. This w i l l be achieved by helping him to an awareness of the discomfort he may be experiencing and h i s need f o r re-l i e f , and i n assuring him that h i s part i s an important one i n any solution the agency w i l l help to achieve. This requires spe c i a l casework s k i l l with the parent who f e e l s that he i s p a i n f u l l y confessing f a i l u r e and that he may be i n some way responsible f o r the present s i t u a t i o n and f o r h i s c h i l d ' s be-havior. A l l of the worker 1s s k i l l s are needed to help the parent f e e l understood and comfortable. In every case, the parent should be viewed as a whole person with needs of h i s own. The s o c i a l worker cannot ignore even those parents who have very l i t t l e to o f f e r . The aims i n working with such parents may be li m i t e d . "When he functions badly i n many areas, the caseworker can be reasonably sure that the parents 1 ego strength and maturity w i l l be l i m i t e d and w i l l not permit any basic change of att i t u d e . """* Whatever the aim i n 1. Inez Baker, O P . c i t . . p. 44. - 17 -helping the parents, the worker's attitude must be sympathetic and understanding. The worker's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the parent should mirror a posit i v e parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s true that many can use only minimal help. However, t h i s f a c t should not be prejudged without c a r e f u l diagnostic basis. Some parents cannot change. Many can and do. Sometimes the change i s just a small one. I t can be reaffirmed however from experience and from dynamic psychology, that small changes i n parental attitudes and behavior can ma t e r i a l l y improve the ch i l d ' s adjustment. The worker with the parent must have continuity and d i r e c t i o n from the point of ap p l i c a t i o n and even a f t e r the d i s -charge of the c h i l d from care. A continuous cooperative, harmonious re l a t i o n s h i p between the agency and the parent i s to be desired but i t i s not always attained. There w i l l always be some parents who w i l l continue to be beset by l i f e ' s inner and outer demands, and who w i l l have such c o n f l i c t i n g feelings about t h e i r chidren that they w i l l be unable to follow any suggestions and w i l l show l i t t l e change i n t h e i r attitudes. Many of the ups and downs can be weathered, however, through the a i d of the q u a l i t y of the casework services offered and so long as the service to the parents i s focused from the beginning on helping them i n behalf of t h e i r children. C h i l d welfare workers, strange as i t may seem, some-times f i n d i t a p p a l l i n g l y easy to break up f a m i l i e s , but very very d i f f i c u l t to put them back again. The possible reasons f o r f a i l u r e are legion, but three stand o u t ^ l a c k of knowledge, lack - 18 -lack of resources; and f a i l u r e to make the best use of the knowledge that i s already a v a i l a b l e . Further knowledge i s needed about helping natural parents to be better parents while the children are s t i l l i n t h e i r home; about assessing the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of parents, whether i t i s better f o r them to keep t h e i r children or to give them up permanently; and also about helping parents and chi l d r e n to use placement to the best advantage. A l l of t h i s means that research i s grea t l y needed i n the f i e l d . There i s a wealth of material i n the case records of the various agenciesi Much of i t i s negative, i t i s true, but s t i l l material that could be used to set up better guideposts than the ones now being used* Purpose of the present study This study was undertaken i n an e f f o r t to examine by actual case studies the casework services involved i n the pro-v i s i o n of the resource of non-ward care to f a m i l i e s . The pa r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n l a y i n the area of the help given to preserve the natural family unit and to return the children to t h e i r parents' homes a f t e r they had been taken int o care. Although the major emphasis was on viewing the si t u a t i o n a f t e r the c h i l d returned home, i t was f e l t that the events preceding the return, such as the i n i t i a l r e f e r r a l , the services a t intake, and the fo s t e r home placement, were of d i r e c t importance, and therefore these were also Included i n the thesis. I t was also apparent that the successful use of the resource as a means of preserving family unity l a y i n the - 19 -q u a l i t y of the casework services provided, and the methods and techniques used by the s o c i a l worker. The determination of how long or how successful the placement w i l l be rests ultimate-l y upon the qu a l i t y of the continuous work done with the family. An attempt was therefore made at assessing the work done by the worker i n the l i g h t of what i s currently considered to be good casework pra c t i c e , taking i n t o consideration the worker's educational background. Family casework i n a public agency setting and i t s r e s u l t s are being considered i n t h i s study. The s p e c i f i c focus i s on analyzing the values to be found i n the use of the re-source of non-ward care. Some of the questions to be raised are: What were some of the p r e c i p i t a t i n g factors that l e d to the placement of the children i n the f i r s t place? How does the s o c i a l worker help the parents plan and prepare f o r the c h i l d ' s return? To what extent i s the temporary placement used as a resource i n a program of services to children? Setting of the study and selection of the cases The study deals with twenty-three children who had been taken into non-ward care during the f i s c a l years March 1953, to March 1956 and l a t e r returned to t h e i r parents* homes by the S o c i a l Welfare Branch i n the r u r a l area of the Frazer V a l l e y . This area i s located i n Region VI of the six regions into which the Province i s divided f o r servicing by the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare f o r the Govern-ment of B r i t i s h Columbia. Region VI serves an area which i n -- 20 -eludes the Fraser Valley, east of the Pattulo Bridge, the Pitt River and extends to Lytton and the summit of Hope-Princeton Highway. The Region includes such fast growing areas as Whalley, Chilliwack and Surrey. There is a steady economic and popula-tion growth throughout the Region. The largest regional office in Chilliwack is also the headquarters of the Regional Adminis-trator. The Annual Statistics of Region VI of the Social Wel-fare Branch for the years 1953-1955 reveal that the majority of children committed as non-wards were children born to un-married mothers, although a high percentage of such children are now placed from the hospital with their adopting parents. Sometimes the mother needs an opportunity to explore her own or family resources further or to recover her physical and emotional strength more completely before reaching the very final and diff icult decision of relinquishing her child for adoption. This service to unmarried mothers constitutes the area in which the biggest bulk of service is performed. Most of these children are never returned to their original parent. It was felt that these children presented a different type of problem from that which we are interested in and therefore a l l but one of these cases were omitted from the study. In the one case of the unmarried mother that was included, the child was later actually returned to this parent and the resource of non-ward care was therefore, utilized in a more specialized way. - 2 1 -The research methods used In the study An analysis of the information a v a i l a b l e i n the case records was made regarding the ex-foster children and t h e i r parents. An e f f o r t was made to gain an o v e r a l l picture of the handling of each case as a whole, which i s important In any casework process. Verbal discussions were held with the Supervisor who had been i n t h i s o f f i c e f o r several years, to supplement any information that was lacking. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the families according to problems presented, reasons f o r placement, and behavior problems of the children were also made. One of the major themes of t h i s thesis i s that the use of sound casework methods and techniques together with the qu a l i t y of the worker 1s rela t i o n s h i p to the c l i e n t does have a d e f i n i t e bearing on the outcome of a case and the progress made by a c l i e n t . The observation and analysis of the case records indicated a c o r r e l a t i o n between the use of good casework methods and the outcome of the cases. To substantiate t h i s impcession the following methods were used to rate the work done by the s o c i a l worker i n the l i g h t of what i s currently considered to be good casework p r a c t i c e . Five c r i t e r i a f o r good casework practice were developed and were applied to the material i n the case records. An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a factors was made i n a chart of a l l the methods and techniques used i n the t o t a l casework process with the family. The cases were l a t e r rated under three headings of "Good"", (evidence of four or a l l of the c r i t e r i a ) , " F a i r " , (evidence of three of the c r i t e r i a ) , and "Poor", (evidence of one or two of the c r i t e r i a ) . Later t h i s rating of the case handling was correlated against a rating of the progress made by the f a m i l i e s who had received the re-source of non-ward care. Possible values to be gained from the study Modern knowledge i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare indicates that non-ward care i s a necessary and valuable resource i n meet-ing the needs of c e r t a i n children. I t i s f e l t that the scrutiny and analysis of the program as i t e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l a i d i n understanding some of the problems involved i n providing t h i s type of care and the benefits to be gained thereby. The q u a l i t a t i v e evaluation of the case material examined f o r t h i s t h e s i s , expecially when such a small group Is involved, cannot be considered d e f i n i t i v e or conclusive i n i t s r e s u l t s . I t i s hoped however, that the contribution of the study l i e s more i n the area of i n d i c a t i n g some of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s that ex i s t f o r more extensive research into the rel a t i o n s h i p between good case-work and the ultimate r e s u l t s of c l i e n t s i t u a t i o n s . CHAPTER I I CASEWORK PLANNING IN THE PROVISION OF NON-WARD CARE This second chapter i s concerned with a descriptive analysis of those cases i n which children were taken i n t o non-ward care by the S o c i a l Welfare Branch i n Region VI during the f i s c a l periods March, 1953 to March, 1956, and were l a t e r r e-turned to t h e i r parents 1 homes. These comprise twenty-three children of f i f t e e n f a m i l i e s from many d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and economic backgrounds and with various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which w i l l be described i n the following passages and tables. In the f i r s t chapter c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l concepts were discussed about the children and t h e i r parents who come to the agency requesting help with t h e i r problems. I t was noted that determination as to the use of the resource of non-ward care should be predicated on a sound use of casework method beginning at the point of intake and continuing throughout the service. Study, diagnosis and planning occur i n the natural progress of a case, each problem as I t arises demanding i t s s p e c i f i c point of view. The worker i n her casework planning f o r the provision of non-ward care needs to have an extensive under-standing of the fam i l i e s concerned; t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and in t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t follows that the f i r s t ste$> i n case-work planning obviously i s to get a pieture of the i n d i v i d u a l s involved i n the case and t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . This f a c t - f i n d i n g by - 24 -the worker i s important to the formulation of a s o c i a l diagnosis, that process which includes not only an evaluation of the nature and cause of the trouble with which the person comes to the agency, but also points to possible ways i n which he can be helped by the worker. The families studied and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The following pages w i l l deal with the worker's i n -vestigation of the backgrounds of the parents and children i n the families studied as revealed i n the agency records and attempt to examine t h e i r various s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and other factors which l e d to the planning and the provision f o r non-ward care. I t i s generally accepted by s o c i a l workers that e s p e c i a l l y at f i r s t , i t i s important to get enough f a c t u a l material to f a c i l i t a t e understanding the present s i t u a t i o n . The s o c i a l worker looks at the c l i e n t ' s age, h i s employment h i s t o r y , marital status, h i s i n i t i a l problem at r e f e r r a l and the other related problems which may have some d e f i n i t e bearing on the major d i f f i c u l t y presented by the c l i e n t . A l l of the foregoing are important to the formation of an adequate casework plan designed to f i t the needs of the c l i e n t . The f i r s t step i n the casework process then, i s gain-ing a picture of the family i n t o t a l . The worker i s concerned about the current s i t u a t i o n elaborated by s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s such as the ages of the parents and the children i n the f a m i l i e s where the resource of non-ward care i s being considered. The age range of the parents i n the cases studied was from 22 to 60 years, but - 25 -the majority of the parents were i n the age range of 30 to 40 years. The ages of the children ranged from two weeks to s i x -teen years; fourteen of them were hoys, nine were g i r l s . The majority were under nine years of age and seven of them were between the ages of twelve and sixteen. Age i n some Instances can be a very important f a c t o r i n the giving of casework services. The worker's approach to a c h i l d i s conditioned by the c h i l d * s age and l e v e l of development. I t i s also a f a m i l i a r casework observation that the younger the parent i s the easier i t i s to work with him, and the better i s h i s capacity f o r modification or change. Another f a c t o r to be noted i n the study of the f a m i l i e s i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e l i g i o n . The majority (10) of the f a m i l i e s were l i s t e d as belonging to some Protestant r e l i g i o n such as the United Church and the Church of England. One family did not have any r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . Three f a m i l i e s were of the Roman Catholic f a i t h and there was one Mennonlte Brethren family. I t i s a well-known f a c t that workers frequently make e f f o r t s to t r y and place a c h i l d i n a home of the same r e l i g i o u s background, although the shortage of homes e s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l areas w i l l l i m i t the amount of selection that i s possible. Another important f a c t o r that enters into the worker's evaluation of the home s i t u a t i o n i s the marital status of the  parent. Table I below reveals the m a r i t a l status at the time of r e f e r r a l of the parents of the c h i l d r e n taken i n t o non-ward care, the number of f a m i l i e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r status, and the number of children involved i n each family. Table I M a r i t a l Status of Parents of Children i n Non-ward Care Status of Parent Number of Families Number of Children Married Couple 2 3 Widows 3 5 Separated 1 1 Deserted 2 6 Mother and Stepfather 3 3 Father and Stepmother 2 2 Common-law l e l a t i o n s h i p 1 1 Unmarried Parent 1 1 T o t a l 15 23 As the table i n d i c a t e s , i t was the home broken by death, desertion or separation i n which most of the applications arose f o r non-ward eare among the families studied. Of the t o t a l number ( f i f t e e n f a m i l i e s ) , thirteen of the couples had been l e g a l l y married at one time or another and there was one common-law relationship and one unmarried mother. Family break-down and disu n i t y played an important part i n some of the cases, as can be seen i n the following i l l u s t r a t i o n : Mr. B. applied f o r fos t e r home placement f o r h i s children i n June, 1955 when h i s wife ran o f f with another man and l e f t her husband and t h e i r three children. These parents who both seemed to be extremely immature, had had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r marriage f o r some time, and the mother had deserted the family on about four previous occasions. The mother was described as an extravagant, i r -responsible person, while the father was f e l t to be very dependent and unable to hold steady employment. 1. Tables I to X are derived from an analysis of ease records from the f i s c a l years March 1953 - March 1956 of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Region VI, B r i t i s h Columbia. - - 27 -The family had been known to the agency before when the father had applied f o r s o c i a l assistance f o r h i s family, Mr. B. became extremely anxious and disturbed during h i s wife's disappearances. The agency t r i e d to help him focus on other plans such as a housekeeper service f o r h i s family but he was unable to accept t h i s and the children were f i n a l l y placed i n fost e r homes. The very next day a f t e r the placements were made, the mother returned and angrily demanded her childr e n back. Some time l a t e r she deserted again. At present she has the youngest c h i l d with her and she i s l i v i n g common-law with another man. In a discussion with the super-v i s o r a t the Chilliwack o f f i c e , the writer learned that Mr. B. has other brothers i n the community and these families are well known to the s o c i a l agencies f o r t h e i r dependency and family problems. Workers i n c h i l d r e n 1 s and family service agencies are f a m i l i a r with the s i t u a t i o n described above, a father and mother who can neither make nor break a marriage and who keep coming back to-gether and separating while t h e i r children's future hangs pre-cariously i n the balance. Often there i s just one parent with whom the worker can e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p . The number of parents i n the home as well as the reasons f o r the absence of one or both of them i s also a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . Table I I * shows a l i s t of t h i s inform-ation gained about the f a m i l i e s i n the group. Seven of the 15 cases were fam i l i e s i n which there were two parents i n the home, with the others having one parent only, or as i n the following i l l u s t r a t i o n with both parents absent, a grandmother had taken over the care of the children. Mrs. C. came to the agency seeking placement services f o r her two small granddaughters whom she had been taking care of ever since t h e i r mother, her daughter, had entered Crease C l i n i c several months ago. Mrs. C. was a i l o e a l schoolteacher and found i t d i f f i c u l t to work and look a f t e r the children at the same time. She explained that her daughter, a very disturbed girl, had Lived 1. See p. 28. - 28 -Table II Number of Parents i n the Home at the Time of Referral and Reasons f o r the Absence from the Home of One or Both Parents Case Number Parents i n the Home at Time of Ref e r r a l Reasons f o r Absence of One or Both Parents 1 One Mother deserted 2 Both Adopted parents 3 None Both parents i n Crease C l i n i c k Both Father deceased, mother remarried 5 One Mother committed to P r o v i n c i a l Medical Hospital 6 Both Mother divorced, remarried 7 One Unmarried mother 8 Both Father deceased, mother remarried 9 Both Mother deceased, father remarried 10 One Widow 11 One Widow 12 One Mother deserted 13 One Widow Both Mother deceased, father remarried 15 ._ One Separated - 29^ ^ i n common-law with various men companions. The father of the children was an a l c o h o l i c and was also i n Crease C l i n i c himself. The one-parent fa m i l i e s were eight i n number. The reasons here f o r the absence of one parent was because of l e g a l separation, death, the mother* s desertion or committal to a mental i n s t i t u t i o n , and unmarried parenthood. An example of the one-parent families i s the T. case described below. Mrs. T. had cared f o r h e r s e l f and her son, now a gawky, shy teenager, ever since they f l e d from Russia several years ago. The boy could not re-member h i s father who was sent to a Siberian slave camp and reportedly died there. Mrs. T. i s a hard-working, independent woman who had a job as a ward nurse at a T.B. h o s p i t a l and she recently contracted the disease h e r s e l f . The doctor who ordered her to go to the h o s p i t a l , made a r e f e r r a l to the agency f o r placement services. None of the cases studied presented a family s i t u a t i o n i n which there were both of the parents of the o r i g i n a l family set-up. In the foro^parent f a m i l i e s , one was an adoptive family, with Step-parents present i n f i v e of the ease situ a t i o n s . This f a c t r e f l e c t s the high percentage of family upheaval and break-down to be found i n applications f o r non-ward eare. I t i s obviously important for the worker to note the step-parents" attitudes towards the childre n and, vice-versa, whether t h i s constitutes a fa c t o r i n the problems presented at r e f e r r a l , as i n the following: Verna, a sixteen-year-old teenager was referred by her step-mother who complained that the g i r l was uncontrollable, had frequent temper tantrums and was w i l f u l l y destructive. A C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c examination team l a t e r reported that they f e l t the g i r l was reacting d i r e c t l y to the step-mother* s r e j e c t i o n of her and the father's apparent lack of i n t e r e s t i n her as a worthwhile person. - 30 -I t i s sometimes very d i f f i c u l t f o r the worker to deal with a problem of stepparent r e j e c t i o n while the c h i l d i s s t i l l i n the home and the provision of a temporary period of non-ward care w i l l appear to be the only way out of such a s i t u a t i o n . Frequently a parent coming i n to see the worker, i s very concerned about f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , h i s .job status and  economic background. The parents i n the group studied were l i s t e d as being u n s k i l l e d laborers, welders, truch d r i v e r s , fishermen, famers, and army personnel. There was one white-c o l l a r worker, an accountant. Table III below indicates the economic backgrounds as related to the m a r i t a l status of the parents. Table III Job Status of the Parents of the Children and the Economic Circumstances at the Time of Referral Status of Parents Married Couple Widows Separated Deserted Mother and Stepfather Father and Stepmother Common-law Relationship Unmarried Parent  Total Steadily : employed 1 1 1 1 1 Occasional Employment 1 1 1 1 1 1 Self-' • employed Soc i a l Assistance 2 1 fTotal 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 1 15 - 31 -The l a r g e s t number of cases were from families i n which there was occasional employment and the father was out of work every now and again. The next largest group were those who were s t e a d i l y employed and had an income, which though low i n a few cases, did allow of continued maintenance of the family. The parents here were more l i k e l y to contribute to the support of the children a f t e r the placementaway from home. One of the f a m i l i e s involved a farmer who was self-supporting. The other three were s o c i a l assistance f a m i l i e s — t w o widows who had been i n receipt of assistance f o r some time and one father, an u n s k i l l e d , unemployed laborer who applied f o r financ-i a l r e l i e f f o r himself and h i s family. F i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s frequently constitute a major problem to the f a m i l i e s and the worker must t r y to be aware of whether finances i s upsetting the home s i t u a t i o n . The problems and other factors that l e d to the planning f o r  non-ward care The worker at the time of r e f e r r a l learns about the major problems of the f a m i l i e s . The .sources of r e f e r r a l s and the reasons f o r r e f e r r a l s are facts of significance i n the process of getting to know the family and assessing the f i n d of help which might suitably be offered. In Table IV following these two facts are r e l a t e d . - 32 -Table IV Sources of Referrals and the Major Problems of the Parent at the Time of the Referral Source of Behavior Desert- Entrance Physical Helping . — , T o t a l R e f e r r a l Problems io n of of Mother I l l n e s s Parent Mother into Mental of Mother to Plan Hospital i f o r Child C l i e n t Himself A 2 1 1 1 9 Relatives 1 1 Neighbors 1 1 Public Health Nurse 1 2 3 Doctor 1 1 _ T o t a l 5 2 2 A 2 15 t Many of the r e f e r r a l s came from the c l i e n t s 1 them-selves, thus in d i c a t i n g as i n the case of Mr. R. discussed be-low i n t h i s paragraph, that they were good prospects f o r making the best use of casework help as they had apparently develpped the ego strengths necessary to want to do something about t h e i r children and to make the decision to contact the agency. Nine of the r e f e r r a l s were made by the parents themselves, which represents more than h a l f of the number of cases studies. Mr. R., a tr a c t o r operator, requested placement services f o r h i s three childr e n when t h e i r mother deserted the home. The father i n h i s interviews with the worker, appeared to be a responsbilej matured i n d i v i d u a l , genuinely interested i n the welfare of h i s family. A l l during h i s contacts with the agency he was cooperative and he con-tributed r e g u l a r l y to the children's maintenance. When h i s wife l a t e r returned to the home, the worker was able to reach her through her husband and thus help t h i s couple r e e s t a b l i s h the home. - 33 -The other r e f e r r a l s , four i n number, were made by the health services i n the community, the Public Health Nurse and the doctor. These r e f e r r a l s i n the majority of instances were made because of a parent* s i l l health or entrance into a h o s p i t a l and were often of an emergency nature, as i n the following instance. Dr. P. telephoned the agency to report that Mrs. N. a widow was dangerously i l l with a septic abortion and had to be taken to the h o s p i t a l without any de-l a y . Her three children would be l e f t alone at the home, and the doctor wanted the agency to look a f t e r t h e i r care. The worker agreed to look a f t e r t h i s matter r i g h t away and also made immediate arrange-ments f o r Mrs. N. to be taken to the h o s p i t a l i n a t a x i . The Public Health Nurse on one occasion referred a c h i l d because of behavior d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the home. Dawn, a sixteen-year old teenager was referred be-cause of behavior d i f f i c u l t i e s by the Public Health Nurse, a f t e r a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c team recommended that a period of f o s t e r home placement might help the disturbed relationships between t h i s g i r l , her inadequate father and her r e j e c t i n g step-mother. The Public Health Nurse had been working with t h i s family f o r several years and i n r e f e r r i n g the case to the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, she Indicated that the family s i t u a t i o n had reached a point of deterioration. This case i s interesting because i t serves to i l l u s t r a t e that i n some areas there i s s t i l l a lack of understanding of the functions and services offered by the S o c i a l Welfare Branch and therefore r e f e r r a l s are frequently made when the s i t u a t i o n has unfortunately regressed beyond a point of r e a l helping. This would seem to point up a need f o r greater coordination of community agencies and more i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the services i t o f f e r s . - 34 -In only one Instance was a r e f e r r a l made by a r e l a -t i v e , the maternal grandmother whose daughter was undergoing treatment at Crease C l i n i c ; One r e f e r r a l concerning a two-year-old youngster, the c h i l d of separated parents was made by neighbors who i n t h i s case were themselves fo s t e r parents a l -ready known to the agency. Mr. and Mrs. D., fo s t e r parents of the agency, r e -ported to t h e i r worker that they were taking care of a two-year-old boy who had been l e f t with them by h i s mother on a temporary placement basis. The mother was separated from her husband In Vancouver and was presently working near Chilliwack as a waitress. The D.»s indicated that they f e l t both mother and c h i l d could use the services of the agency and they had encouraged her to contact the worker as soon as possible. Reasons f o r r e f e r r a l s I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the largest number of r e f e r r a l s i n any one category were made because of behavior d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the home. I t appears therefore that the r e -source of non-ward care as device to help disturbed parent-c h i l d relationships i s frequently being u t i l i z e d by the workers. Wanda, age eight, was described by her mother as being over-aggressive, jealous of younger childre n and given to frequent temper tantrums. The mother was divorced and had remarried. The worker learned that both of the parents i n the home came from deprived backgrounds and had been wards while they were children. In her contacts with the family, the worker noticed that the parents seemed to have a very low threshold of understanding and i n s i g h t i n t o the problems of Wanda and her smaller brother. In addition to t h i s the mother f e l t very g u i l t y about the large amount of previous placements the children had had with r e l a t i v e s ( i n three years they were moved about ten times), and she was completely r e j e c t i n g of Wanda. The worker f e l t that i t would be too d i f f i c u l t to work with t h i s family while the c h i l d was s t i l l i n the home and plans f o r non-ward care for Wanda were made. The second largest number of applications were made because of a parent 1s entrance i n t o a h o s p i t a l or the physical or mental i l l n e s s of a parent, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following case s i t u a t i o n . Sergeant P. of the Canadian Army Corps stationed near Ghilliwack applied f o r help with the care of h i s ch i l d r e n when h i s wife was committed to the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l . The father explained that h i s wife, a nervous extremely withdrawn person, had been acting queerly f o r some time p r i o r to her committal and the children were quite upset over her disturbed behavior. Housekeeper services were t r i e d out f o r a while with t h i s family, but t h i s d i d not turn out very s a t i s f a c t o r y . Two of the children were sent to r e l a t i v e s i n another province and non-ward care was arranged f o r the two youngest children. Desertion of the mother accounted f o r the reason f o r r e f e r r a l s i n two of the cases. Two applications were also made to help parents work out plans f o r t h e i r children as i n the following case s i t u a t i o n of an unmarried mother. Miss D* an unmarried mother came to the agency requesting help i n making plans f o r her unborn c h i l d . In her interviews with the worker, she appeared to be a rather i n t e l l i g e n t responsible young woman and she cooperated to the f u l l e s t extent with the agency p o l i c i e s and requirements. She f e l t that there was a p o s s i b i l i t y of her and the natural father of the c h i l d getting married and taking the c h i l d to l i v e with them. When the baby was born, i t was taken into non-ward care i n order to give the mother the necessary time to t r y and work out plans f o r h e r s e l f and the c h i l d . The foregoing discussion l i s t s some of the major problems of the f a m i l i e s . There were, however, many other r e -l a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s to these major problems which were probably - 36 -just as involved and needed the s k i l l of the worker to recognize and deal with them. The following case i l l u s t r a t i o n shows that the i n i t i a l r e f e r r a l problem was not always the only d i f f i c u l t y that the family was experiencing. The K. family was referred by the Public Health Nurse who explained that Mrs. K. was about to enter a T.E. sanatorium and her sixteen-year-old daughter, Barbara, was i n need of temporary placement. The father of t h i s g i r l was deceased and the mother had remarried. The step-father drank excessively, was considered very undependable i n the community, and had v i r t u a l l y deserted the family. Mrs. K. expressed much h o s t i l i t y towards her husband and towards the community because of i t s condemnation of her husband. She seemed so taken up with her own problems that she was unable to exhibit much i n t e r e s t i n her teen-aged daughter who consequently f e l t rejected and unwanted. The g i r l was doing poorly i n her school subjects and she was also very withdrawn and had very few fr i e n d s . The problems of the children studied i n the group i The foregoing case i l l u s t r a t i o n would i n d i c a t e , among other things, that the worker i n investigating the a p p l i c a t i o n of a family f o r agency help, needs to have some idea of the  problems of the children Involved, t h e i r feelings and attitudes about the present family c r i s i s . Just as i t has been shown i n the e a r l i e r part of th i s discussion that the parents 1 personal problems play an important part i n the family s i t u a t i o n , so also do the personal problems of the children. In most situations, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l which are the caase and which are the e f f e c t , but i n the cases studied d i s t i n c t problems In the parents and i n the children were noted. Some of these problems noted i n the case records about the childre n are shown i n Table V. on the following page. Table V Personal Problems Known About the Children at the Time of Placement Age Group Physical or mental handicap Enuresis H o s t i l e Against Parent Withdrawn aggressive Running Away Nervous Sex Acts To t a l 2 weeks 5 years to 2 1 1 3 2 3 13 5 N 1 1 6 » 7 " 1 1 2 8 " 1 2 3 9 « 1 1 2 10 " 11 » 12 « 1 1 2 13 N 1 1 2 14 N 1 5 N 1 6 " i 1 1 2 2 1 1 8 Total 2 2 i 6 3 7 2 8 2 - 33 -Not a l l of these problems were observable p r i o r to placement. Some of them seemingly were not apparent u n t i l a f t e r the c h i l d was a c t u a l l y i n the f o s t e r home and probably may have been part of t h e i r i n i t i a l reaction to the trauma of separation from t h e i r parents; f o r example: The F. children, who were taken into care when t h e i r mother was committed to a mental i n s t i t u t i o n , were described by t h e i r father as being quite easy to manage. After a few days i n placement, i t became quite evident that the older of the two was angry at her father and blamed him f o r sending her mother away. Both of the children reacted by wetting t h e i r beds, l y i n g and being destructive i n the fo s t e r home. Table V shows the d i f f e r e n t kinds of problems known about the children, such as physical or mental handicap, enuresis, expressed h o s t i l i t y against the parent, withdrawal tendencies, agressiveness, running away and sex a c t i v i t i e s . These problems were described and the case records and the l i s t was compiled from the recordings. The Table which rel a t e s problems with the ages of the childr e n at the time they became known to the agency, indicates that most of the problems occurred i n the 2 weeks to 5 years age group and the 15 to 16 years age group. This would suggest that these children, the pre-schooler and the teenager were perhaps the more affected by the separation from t h e i r natural parents and the c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n i n t h e i r home s e t t i n g . Six of the children i n the group studied expressed open h o s t i l i t y against t h e i r parents f o r abandoning them to the strange new world of the placement. Seven of the children exhibited aggressive tendencies while four readted with destructive tendencies. Eight - 39 -of the children were extremely nervous and had to be given help i n t h i s area by the s o c i a l worker and the fo s t e r parents l a t e r on. The preceding pages dealt with the worker* s i n v e s t i g -ation of the parents* a p p l i c a t i o n f o r help from the agency, the family s i t u a t i o n and the problems of both the parents and the children. Based on the fac t s he has gathered, and noting the needs of both the parents and the children, the worker makes a diagnosis and evaluation upon which he then proceeds with a plan Including the implementation of the various resources i n the agency and the community to help the family. The q u a l i t y of the worker's rela t i o n s h i p with the family i s also of prime Importance and runs through the whole process of the work done with both the parents and the children. Sometimes the s i t u a t i o n i s of such urgency that the worker w i l l immediately decide on non-ward care to meet the family's emergency. In any event, casework services to the family w i l l be made ava i l a b l e . The casework services provided to the fa m i l i e s Although casework p r i n c i p l e s are applicable i n the treatment of both children and adults, c e r t a i n differences i n techniques must be recognized and provisions are rapidl y being made f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of new knowledge and s k i l l s i n these areas. The s o c i a l worker experienced i n dealing with childr e n knows that the techniques of interviewing children are t r u l y d i f f e r e n t from those used i n t h e i r contacts with adults. Patience, - 40 -f l e x i b i l i t y , c r e a t i v i t y , lack of anxiety are just some of the tools used by the worker i n casework with a c h i l d . The language of a c h i l d i s d i f f e r e n t from that of an adult. The worker recognizes however that childr e n have ideas about what i s happening to them and they can express t h e i r feelings about the attempts that are being made to help them. "Whereas the e a r l i e r casework approach to helping children r e l i e d on work with the parents and on environmental manipulation, i t has been gradually recognized that childr e n can p r o f i t from d i r e c t casework help with t h e i r problems." 1 A combination of the two approaches has been found most success-f u l i n rendering services to children and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Table VI below shows the kinds of casework services provided to the parents such as f i n a n c i a l , supportive help, i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , marital counselling, r e f e r r a l s and contacts with other agencies. Table VI Kinds of Services Provided to the Parents Number of Services Parents i n the Home Financ-i a l Support-ive Help Inter-pretive M a r i t a l Counsell-ing Referrals to other Agencies Contacts with othe]' Agencies Both 2 5 6 2 5 1 One 5 6 3 2 2 Total 7 11 11 5 7 3 1. R a i l , Mary E., "The Casework Process i n Work with the C h i l d and the Family i n the Child's Own Home", National  Conference of S o c i a l Work Casework Papers. Family Service Assoc-i a t i o n , New York, 1955, p. 31. - 41 -From Table VI i t can be seen that the bulk of services was i n the area of supportive and in t e r p r e t a t i v e help. Seven of the families received f i n a n c i a l help at some time during t h e i r contact with the agency and ten r e f e r r a l s and other contacts were made with various community agencies i n the inte r e s t s of these f a m i l i e s . Only f i v e of the families received help i n the area of marital counselling. The following case i l l u s t r a t e s the worker i n action and the casework services that were given to some of the parents. The K. family, whose problems included the mother 1s sudden h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r tuberculosis, a tense marital s i t u a t i o n and the father's i n a b i l i t y to hold steady employment, received the following services i n the course of t h e i r contact with the agency. Temporary f i n a n c i a l r e l i e f was granted when the mother was discharged from the h o s p i t a l and a r e f e r r a l was made to the l o c a l community chest f o r help when the family was unable to f i n d a home. Supportive help and marital counselling was given to both of the parents. Some in t e r p r e t a t i o n was given to the mother about the behavior of her sixteen-year-old daughter who was quite withdrawn and seemed to be l i v i n g i n a dream world. The casework services to the children formed the other phase of the worker's e f f o r t s to help the f a m i l i e s . "Cable VII shows the services given to the children, those with be-havior problems and those with no behavior problems. The great majority of service was given i n the areas of supportive and counselling help, with r e f e r r a l s to other agencies following close behind i n number* - 42 -Table VII Provision of Casework Services to the Children Children Supportive Counselling, Vocational Guidance Referrals to other Agencies Behavior Problems 13 9 1 8 No Behavior Problems 9 1 2 Case i l l u s t r a t i o n Barbara K., the sixteen-year-old daughter of the K. family described i n the example on the preceding page, came into non-ward care j u s t p r i o r to her mother's h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r tuberculosis. The g i r l was extremely shy, withdrawn and seemed to be l i v i n g i n a dream world i n which she achieved much fame and fortune f o r h e r s e l f . She f e l t rejected and unwanted by her mother and she seemed to be constantly trying to gain her mother's attention and approval. The fo s t e r parents of t h i s g i r l were a very capable and understanding couple. They were well known i n the community f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and work with young people. They were able to o f f e r Barbara considerable support and encouragement. The worker v i s i t e d the school and discussed with the p r i n c i p a l the g i r l ' s dreams of going to the univ e r s i t y and taking up a rather d i f f i c u l t course. I t was apparent that the g i r l ' s performance i n her school subjects was very poor, and her plans f o r the future seemed quite u n r e a l i s t i c . In discussing the plans over with the g i r l , the worker helped her to focus on taking a s e c r e t a r i a l course and prepar-ing f o r employment along t h i s l i n e . When l a s t heard from, she was working f o r an insurance company i n Vancouver and was very pleased with her decision about her plans f o r employment. In dealing with the family s i t u a t i o n , the worker at some point i n the contact, made the decision to u t i l i z e the resource of non-ward care and a period of temporary placement of the c h i l d was planned f o r between the aarent and the worker. Placement i s sometimes regarded as ju s t a solution to the parents 1 problems and the fee l i n g s of the c h i l d who i s about to be placed can be e a s i l y overlooked by the adults i n the plann-ing. Every experienced children's worker knows that a c h i l d going into placement i s apt to be apprehensive about the strange new world he i s facing, and the reasons f o r the place-ment. His fear i s made even more complicated when he has recently witnessed a family c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n such as a mother going to a h o s p i t a l or an i n s t i t u t i o n , as described below. J i l l P., age nine was nervous and apprehensive about her placement away from home. She had witnessed her mother's aberrational behavior over the past few months and had recently seen t h i s parent taken away f o r c i b l y to an i n s t i t u t i o n . Both the worker and the father t r i e d to prepare and explaining to J i l l about her removal to a fost e r home. The fo s t e r mother, a sympathetic and under-standing person, was, also made aware of the family s i t u a t i o n and she t r i e d to help the c h i l d f e e l as Comfortable and secure i n her new home. For some time a f t e r her a r r i v a l i n the fo s t e r home, J i l l continued to sulk and to present problem be-havior. Through the combined e f f o r t s of the father, the fo s t e r mother and the worker, J i l l was able to become more se t t l e d a f t e r a few weeks of her placement. S k i l l f u l handling and a sympathetic, understanding manner on the part of both the worker and the f o s t e r parents are d e f i n i t e -l y necessary to help children l i k e J i l l i f they are ever to he able to make a good adjustment i n the fost e r home. Table VIII shown below indicates the attitude of the children of the f a m i l i e s studied towards the placement at the time of r e f e r r a l , whether they seemed apprehensive or non-apprehensive by the worker and t h i s i s related to an assessment of t h e i r adjustment i n the f o s t e r home. - AA -Table VXII Attitudes of the Children Toward Placement Related to an Assessment of Their Adjustment i n the Foster Homes Attitude Towards Placement at Adjustment i n the Foster Home the Time of Referral Good F a i r Poor Tot a l Apprehensive i 6 6 3 15 Non-aDurehensive 3 1> 1 8 Total 9 10 4 23 The above material was taken r i g h t from the i n d i v i d u a l worker's assessment of the ch i l d ' s adjustment i n the case records. I t was f e l t that f i f t e e n of the children seemed d e f i n i t e l y apprehensive while eight were non-apprehensive. Of the apprehensive group, s i x made a good adjustment, s i x made a f a i r adjustment, and three made a poor adjustment. Three of the non-apprehensive group made a good adjustment while four made a f a i r adjustment, and one made a poor adjustment. The major-i t y of the children (19) were rated by the workers as having made a good or f a i r adjustment i n the fost e r home while four were f e l t to have made a poor adjustment. I t i s intere s t i n g to note that the workers i n the majority of instances, t r i e d to keep close contact with a fo s t e r home when they had placed a c h i l d who had seemed apprehensive or upset about the placement. Thus s p e c i a l e f f o r t s were made to give the c h i l d and the f o s t e r parents, the special help and support necessary to enable the c h i l d to overcome h i s fears and - 45 -doubts. The choice of good foster homes and understanding foster parents also were given primary importance i n these situations by the workers. From the foregoing Table VIII, i t can be noticed that one of the children who seemed non-apprehensive at f i r s t made a poor adjustment i n the f o s t e r home, and t h i s would suggest that there might have been an i n -accurate assessment of the needs of t h i s c h i l d . The progress made with the families during the placement A l l during the contacts with the parents and the children, the quality of the worker's relationship i s a s i g n i f i -cant f a c t o r . I t i s generally f e l t by au t h o r i t i e s i n the f i e l d that the q u a l i t y o f a worker's relationship with c l i e n t s i s of paramount importance i n helping the person to work through h i s or her problems, and al s o that the s k i l l f u l use of re l a t i o n s h i p has a d e f i n i t e bearing on the outcome of a case s i t u a t i o n . In evaluating the progress made with the fam i l i e s during the child' s placement, the qual i t y of the worker's relationship was consider-ed as a very s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . For the purposes of t h i s study the following d e f i n i t i o n s about rela t i o n s h i p were made. A "good" relationship was defined as a relationship where the c l i e n t s f e l t free to discuss t h e i r problems with the case work-er and to a r r i v e a t a workable agreement or solution of t h e i r problems. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n Mr. R., who came to the agency seeking placement services f o r h i s children when h i s wife deserted him and the family showed an outstanding a b i l i t y to move i n the establishment of a good r e l a t i o n -- 46 -ship with the worker. The c l i e n t here f e l t free to discuss a l l of h i s problems with the worker and cooperated i n every respect with agency p o l i c y , etc. Through contacts with the worker, he and h i s wife were able to re e s t a b l i s h t h e i r home. When l a s t heard from i n 1954, the family s i t u a t i o n had improved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . A " f a i r " r e lationship was described as one where the working relat i o n s h i p on an o v e r - a l l basis was one of cooperation but upon many occasions, the c l i e n t was res e n t f u l of agency contact and l a t e r refused casework assistance. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n Mrs. N. whose children were taken into care when she was h o s p i t a l i z e d quite suddenly, did not seem to welcome the agency's entry into the matter. While she did make an attempt to be cooperative, she l a t e r refused further contact with the agency or use of casework assistance. The worker her stated i n the record that she f e l t very l i t t l e progress had been made with t h i s family. A "poor" rel a t i o n s h i p was f e l t to be one i n which the parents were both antagonistic or not w i l l i n g to make any e f f e c t i v e changes within themselves or the environment which could make i t possible f o r the home to be reestablished s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Case i l l u s t r a t i o n The B. family referred by the father upon the desertion of the mother, showed very l i t t l e pro-gress during t h e i r contacts with the agency. Both parents were uncooperative, at times, s e l f i s h i n t h e i r attitudes and re s i s t e d any attempts to help them make e f f e c t i v e changes within t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Mrs. Bi was openly h o s t i l e to the worker and presently refuses to even open her door to him. She i s now l i v i n g common-law with another man, and has the youngest c h i l d with her. Two of the older children are s t i l l i n fos t e r care and the agency i s finding i t d i f f i c u l t to proceed with permanent apprehension due to the parents' r e f u s a l to enter-t a i n any discussion on the matter. - 47 -Using the above d e f i n i t i o n s of re l a t i o n s h i p , the following table was set up, showing the progress made with the parents during the placement and the related f a c t o r of the qu a l i t y of the worker 1s relationship with the c l i e n t s . Table IX The Progress Made With the Parents During the Placement Quality of Worker* s Amount of Progress Made Tota l Relationship Much Progress F a i r Progress L i t t l e 1 Progress Good 4 1 1 6 F a i r 5 2 7 _ Poor 2 2 Tota l 4 6 5 15 The progress made by the f a m i l i e s was rated i n the following manner: much progress, the complete elimination of the r e -fe r r i n g symptoms; f a i r progress, some improvement, but the family was s t i l l struggling with some of t h e i r r e f e r r i n g symptoms; l i t t l e progress, no improvement, and the r e f e r r i n g symptoms had persisted. According to t h i s rating ten of the families made much or f a i r progress while f i v e made l i t t l e pro-gress. Table IX above i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s analysis. Of the f i v e families who made l i t t l e progress, two were f e l t to have had a f a i r r elationship with the worker, and two had a poor r e l a t i o n -ship with the worker. I t i s intere s t i n g to note that i n these l a s t two cases, l o s s of agency contact because of frequent change of workers played an important part and t h i s f a c t o r of - AB -the loss of agency contact holds some s i g n i f i c a n t indications f o r the supervision and the assignment of cases by administra-t i o n . The decision to return the c h i l d to the parental home Recent l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d has been examining the number of cases i n long-time care, assuming long time care to mean, the growing up of a c h i l d i n placement with l i t t l e or no l i k e l i h o o d of returning to h i s parents during childhood. I t i s f e l t that many such placements eventuated because of some one-sided emphasis i n the approach used to help the f a m i l i e s . I t follows that where the s o c i a l worker becomes inattentive i n maintaining equal and continuous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the needs and interests of the c h i l d , f o s t e r parent and parent, cases tend to s e t t l e i n the d i r e c t i o n of the strongest combination of forces within them. Without the constant a c t i v i t y of the s o c i a l worker towards balancing the in t e r p l a y of factors i n placement, the c l i e n t who exerts most compellingly h i s own psychological and circumstantial demands, w i l l tend to control the trend of the case, and as often as not children may stay on i n placement without the worker ever being sure whether i t was necessary or advisable. The following case s i t u a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s a family s i t u a t i o n i n the g r i p of these circumstances. The B. family was referred by the father when the mother ran o f f with another man and deserted her husband and t h e i r three children* Arrangements f o r a homemaker service could not be worked out fo r t h i s family and the children were f i n a l l y placed i n non-ward care. The day following t h e i r - 49 -placement the mother returned and a n g r i l y demanded her children ba£k. Some time l a t e r she again deserted and at the present time she has one of the younger children with her and i s l i v i n g i n common-law with another man. She i s very h o s t i l e towards the agency and refuses to even open her door to speak to the worker. A l l attempts to d i s -cuss the plans f o r the future of the two children with her have f a i l e d . The father of these children i s a rather immature, over-dependent type of person who seemed quite s a t i s f i e d with h i s wife's i r -responsbiel behavior and her unfaithfulness towards him. He recently suffered a nervous breakdown and spent some time i n Grease G l i n i c . When he l e f t the C l i n i c , he s t i l l f e l t inadequate i n looking a f t e r h i s needs and requested admittance to a men's r e s t home, where he i s now presently. Throughout the course of Mils case, the worker was forced into concentrating more of the work with the father due to t h i s man's psychological need f o r dependency and the r e a l i t y of h i s circumstances. Also, i t was not easy to e s t a b l i s h a beginning r e l a t i o n s h i p with Mrs. B. who was h o s t i l e towards the agency and somewhat jealous of the attention her husband always seemed to get out of other people. Thus Mr. B. has tended to dominate the ease a l l the way through. The worker even now i s very much concerned with the state of the f a t h e r 1 s health and emotional balance. Although there are some questions being asked as to whether the childr e n who are s t i l l i n f o s t e r care should be apprehended or not, the worker s t i l l f e e l s that any such discussion of relinquishing parental rig h t s should be delayed f o r some time. In the meantime the decision as to the children's future hangs i n the balance. I t probably cannot be said too often that workers must be constantly on t h e i r toes to use every opportunity and every s k i l l to help parent and c h i l d reunite, or to help resolve the c h i l d " s placement problem i n some other manner, such as permanent ward-ship, or d e f i n i t e planning toward placement f o r adoption. The worker plays an important part i n the development of the p o s s i b i l i t y that the c h i l d and parent unite again, and from t h i s angle the worker may be regarded as being something of a family caseworker. He also has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the - 50 -transfer of the c h i l d from the fost e r home to the o r i g i n a l home. In th i s work the processes o f placement are somewhat reversed, that i s the c h i l d i s again to be placed, t h i s time In h i s own home* The discharge of the c h i l d from the fo s t e r home rests upon the knowledge and study of the chi l d ' s own home i n order to e s t a b l i s h the s u i t a b i l i t y of such action. The s o c i a l worker i s also concerned with the emotional and s o c i a l problems which may accompany the tr a n s f e r . Many of the problems en-countered by the c h i l d i n adjusting to h i s f o s t e r home may reappear when he i s returned to h i s own home. Indeed, the new placement may revive c e r t a i n problems which the c h i l d had before he was placed i n the foster home and may i n addition, create new problems which were not present either i n the foster home or i n h i s own home previously. On top of t h i s the s o c i a l worker must be aware of the problems of adjustment to the community the c h i l d has to make i n returning to h i s own home. Just as i n arranging f o s t e r home placement the questions of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the schools, churches, rec r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and so f o r t h , may a l l be revived but i n a changed context. In tra n s f e r r i n g the c h i l d from one home to another, timing as to the school t r a n s f e r needs to be considered as well as other things such as, perhaps, a transfer to another scout group. In returning the c h i l d to h i s parents' home, the timing of the return i s of prime importance. Generally speaking i n most non-ward cases, both parent and agency hopefully a r r i v e at a mutual agreement and decision about when the c h i l d should be - 51 -returned to the parental home and whether the o r i g i n a l planned time f o r return i s s t i l l the most appropriate time. There are some other parents, however, who seem locked i n deeper psycho-l o g i c a l ambivalences or contradictory circumstances which seem beyond the worker's a b i l i t y to a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y — t h e parent who demands the c h i l d back unexpectedly and unreasonably, the mother and father caught i n a marriage they can neither make nor break, so that they are continuously separating and coming together again; or the mother or father who l i k e s and needs to f e e l himself a parent, yet i s addicted to an easy, s h i f t i n g l i f e , free of parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; or a mother who had her-s e l f been placed unhappily as a c h i l d who seems emotionally un-equipped f o r family l i f e and perpetuates a pattern of l i f e by keeping her children i n placement. Here sometimes the worker may develop a fe e l i n g of I n s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l which can be most f r u s t r a t i n g . However these situations can serve to remind us occasionally that even when the best s k i l l as we know i t , i s exercised, there s t i l l remain problems which cannot be resolved d e f i n i t i v e l y . As can he seen i n the case i l l u s t r a t i o n of the B. family on the former two pages, there sometimes e x i s t i n family situations many involved problems of long-standing, which c a l l f o r the worker to make an accurate assessment of the family's needs, l e s t a premature planning f o r non-ward care leads to a disservice f o r the family. This also points up the need f o r e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l of some of these situations before the problems become impervious to any amount of casework help. - 52 -In summary, i n t h i s chapter mas covered the worker 1s need to consider the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems of both the parents and the children i n order to assess the t o t a l family s i t u a t i o n . Based on t h i s assessment a casework plan which In-cluded the provision of the resource of non-ward care was made to help the family. The q u a l i t y of the worker's r e l a t i o n s h i p with both the parents and children runs through the whole process and i s of primary importance to the progress made by the f a m i l i e s . CHAPTER II I AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CASEWORK SERVICES PROVIDED TO THE FAMILIES The development of the f i v e c r i t e r i a factors used In the study When a c h i l d i s placed i n non-ward care, and e s p e c i a l -l y l a t e r on a f t e r he i s returned to the parents, i t i s important fo r the s o c i a l worker to develop a continuing and sustaining relationship with both the parent and the c h i l d . Sometimes agency contact may lapse a f t e r the c h i l d i s placed or when he i s returned home, and parent and c h i l d are l e f t to fend f o r themselves with a s i t u a t i o n j u s t as tense as i t was before the o r i g i n a l placement. This t h i r d chapter deals with an assessment o f the actual services given to both parents and the children and also examines the co r r e l a t i o n between the use of good casework method and the progress that was noticeable i n the families studied. An attempt herein i s made to examine how well the information secured i n Chapter Two about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems of the families was used i n planning the treatment. The worker's action i n the cases was considered as an ap p l i c a t i o n of the o f t -repeated basic casework methods of in v e s t i g a t i o n , s o c i a l diagnosis, planning, implementation of plan P evaluation and r e v a l u a t i o n of  plan. For the purposes of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study of the use of casework methods i n the provision of non-ward eare, the casework - 54 -methods were described i n the following steps: 1. Investigation of the presenting problem. 2 . Diagnostic evaluation o f a l l of the strengths and weaknesses i n the home. 3. The setting of a s p e c i f i c goal and plan focused on the needs of the parents and the c h i l d . 4. The maintaining of a sustaining relationship between the parents and the worker. 5. The provision Of casework services to the c h i l d . The discussion that follows deals with the above named es s e n t i a l l y generic casework concepts f a m i l i a r to s o c i a l workers. There i s a general appreciation among workers of these concepts but the ap p l i c a t i o n and use of them i s not unerring. As i s true of any concept of basic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s o c i a l work professional practice, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f u l l y comprehend t h e i r precise meaning. The worker, can however, grow i n appreciation and s k i l l f u l use of these concepts as from time to time evaluations are made of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n concrete instances of help such as offered to a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d and h i s parents. The treatment of both the c h i l d and h i s family i n the placement s i t u a t i o n requires the use of the generic core of pro-fe s s i o n a l knowledge, adapted to the s p e c i f i c problems of the placement. The basis p r i n c i p l e here as i n other types of s o c i a l work, i s a steadfast regard f o r human ri g h t s and f o r the i n t e g r i t y of each i n d i v i d u a l , no matter i n what re l a t i o n s h i p he stands to others. Each family member must be understood and treated as a person i n h i s own ri g h t and i n the l i g h t of h i s own needs. Of fundamental importance also i s the conviction of the primary - 55 -importance of amily l i f e and i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the development of a c h i l d . "Any e f f o r t s to help the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d through influencing the family l i f e , must be based on an understanding of the needs and s t r i v i n g s of each family member, e s p e c i a l l y of the parents, as well as upon an under standing of the value of the parents to the c h i l d i n h i s development."^ I t can be seen that a worker i n attempting to carry out i n each of h i s cases a l l of the measures to be mentioned i n the following paragraphs, can become so drained and depleted that h i s t o t a l effectiveness w i l l be l i m i t e d . This points to the need then, f o r a small portion of the case load to be set aside f o r such attention, i f one i s able to decide i n good conscience which families f a l l i n t h i s group. The goal to s t r i v e for i s to create the size of case load which would permit the kind of work described on the next few pages to be done with a l l families within that case load. Before applying the c r i t e r i a f actors to the cases, i t was f e l t that an exploratory study of what goes into each of these casework methods and techniques would be made. The f i r s t of these to be considered i s the investi g a t i o n of the presenting  problem. P r a c t i c a l l y the necessary f i r s t step i n tryi n g to help any c l i e n t , i s obviously to get a picture of the i n d i v i d u a l person and h i s s i t u a t i o n . F i r s t of a l l the worker t r i e s to determine what problem the c l i e n t i s bringing to the agency, what 1. R a i l , Mary E., op. c i t . . p. 31. i s he worried about and what kind of help he wants. There are four important sources which f u r n i s h a f a i r l y accurate picture of an i n d i v i d u a l and h i s problem: d i r e c t observation of the c l i e n t , records and documents, c o l l a t e r a l s and most important of a l l , the c l i e n t ' s own story. With d i r e c t observation, the appearance, manner, gestures, and way of t a l k i n g a l l t e l l t h e i r story about a c l i e n t . On a home v i s i t the c l i e n t ' s personal surroundings add to the worker's understanding of h i s background, customs and mode of l i v i n g . Feeling tones between parents and children often stand out i n s t a r t l i n g clearness i f the worker's perception i s acute. Much of an ind i v i d u a l ' s emotional state, as well as areas around which tension l i e s , can be picked up i n t h i s way. Records and document-ary material are perhaps the most convenient sources f o r checking the client's view of himself and h i s s i t u a t i o n with the s i t u a t i o n as i t has appeared to other people i n other times and places. I t i s not a matter of simply checking on the c l i e n t but of under-standing the c l i e n t ' s s i t u a t i o n more f u l l y and noting any changes that may have occurred over the years. Interviews with c o l l a t e r - a l s takes i n conversations with r e l a t i v e s , employers^ school teachers, doctors, ministers, or other persons who might know the c l i e n t and have something to add to the worker's understanding of him. While information obtained i n t h i s way may have great value, i t i s necessary f o r the worker to be aware of a l l the hazards involved In t h i s type of contact which may cause reverb-^ erations i n the l i f e of the c l i e n t and these contacts should be always made only a f t e r consulting the c l i e n t . The c l i e n t ' s own  story gives evidence of "three processes which lead to an under-standing of the c l i e n t and h i s problem: (1) the f i r s t f u l l interview with the c l i e n t ; (2) the early contacts with h i s immediate family; (3) the careful weighing i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to one another of the separate items of information received and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In summary, the preliminary i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the worker i n considering the use of the resource of non-ward care, should note the following things: the family group as a whole, t h e i r health problems, educational opportunities, the occupations of i t s members, income and f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and housing problems. The husband and father should be seen and an under-standing of h i s plans and purposes f o r the family and f o r himself gained. The mother's attitude towards home-making and her opinions about her marital s i t u a t i o n are also important. The children's behavior, school problems, etc., and the e f f e c t on the family c i r c l e of other r e l a t i v e s should be noted a l s o . The f i r s t step i n the casework process i s the c o l l e c t i o n of material, next comes the comparison of each part with the other parts and them follows the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the material gained. This l a s t i s known as diagnosis and w i l l now be consider-ed as the next step under discussion, the diagnostic evaluation  of a l l of the strengths and weaknesses i n the home. The purpose of the diagnostic evaluation of the home i s to determine what 1. Richmond, Mary, S o c i a l Diagnosis. Russell Sage Foundation, Philadelphia, 1917, p. 103. - 58 -exists i n the chi l d ' s own home that contributes soundly and b a s i c a l l y to h i s t o t a l growth, p h y s i c a l l y , emotionally, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and s o c i a l l y and e s p e c i a l l y to discover the pos i t i v e t i e s that have deep and l a s t i n g values f o r the c h i l d . This basic diagnostic appraisal must be three-pronged i n approach: (1) getting to know the parents, (2) getting to know the problems of the c h i l d , and (3) viewing the general setting i n which they have been functioning. Although the perspective i s a f a m i l i a r one i n determining the positives and negatives of the home, i t sometimes remains academic and p r a c t i c a l l y useless because of the worker's lack of understanding about i t . A major challenge of the diagnostic study i s to f i n d the nature and source of the deep and pervasive t i e s i n the family. Determining the negatives i n a family s i t u a t i o n may also help the worker to r e f r a i n from setting out on a premature plan which might l a t e r prove disastrous to the family. I t i s almost axiomatic that treatment begins with a diagnostic appraisal of the s i t u a t i o n — t h e chief trauma, the c o n f l i c t s set up by i t , and defenses erected to deal with i t . One must consider the reasons behind the request f o r help from the agency, a l l the while focusing diagnostic thinking both on the c h i l d and on the parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p . The worker should also i n her focus on both parents, t r y to assess which parent has the strengths of work with. The placement agency a must make i t s own diagnosis even when/referring agency has given f u l l information about a ease, and f e e l s that immediate placement i s needed, f o r the diagnostic evaluation becomes most v a l i d when evolved from the processes of the placement i t s e l f . As the parent faces the p o s s i b i l i t y of placement, and the impact of a l l that t h i s could mean, he w i l l reveal the areas i n which help i s most needed, f o r which resources other than placement may v a l i d l y be used. Next to the formulation of a s o c i a l diagnosis, the setting of a s p e c i f i c goal and plan based on the parents 1 and  children* s needs i s of e s s e n t i a l importance. The nature of the parents' own problems and the wish f o r help f o r themselves, may preclude d i r e c t consideration with them of t h e i r children's problems and needs. Workers sometimes r i g h t l y recognize that when parents are so needful, i f they sense that a worker i s neglecting t h e i r i n t e r e s t s out of concern f o r t h e i r c h i l d , movement i n t h e i r treatment i s blocked and a diss e r v i c e i s thereby rendered to the c h i l d . A t o t a l evaluation of personal-i t y resources and weaknesses i s indicated to f i n d those areas that are accessible to treatment. The importance of e s t a b l i s h -ing some s p e c i f i c plan based on a diagnostic evaluation of these parents, cannot be overstressed. In i t s absence the parent i s allowed to d r i f t , the placement continues i n d e f i n i t e l y , and the type of placement, lacking a meaningful goal i s created, a l -though not i n t e n t i o n a l l y planned f o r . E f f o r t s should be focused on helping the parents pa r t i c i p a t e as much as possible i n af f e c t i n g the child' s placement including when f e a s i b l e , v i s i t s to the fo s t e r home or i n s t i t u t i o n - 60 -p r i o r to placement. Work with the parent whose c h i l d has been placed i s based on the diagnostic understanding both of the dynamics and of the emotional factors i n the case s i t u a t i o n . A t o t a l diagnostic picture arrived at early i n the contact helps determine the goal of treatment, whether f o r restoration of the family, or f o r permanent apprehension. I f the placement i s to have constructive meaning f o r the c h i l d and the parent, i t i s important that a sustained  rela t i o n s h i p be maintained between the parent and the worker who represents the agency throughout t h i s period. The very f a c t that the decision to place the c h i l d has been reached, means that the parents have f a i l e d somewhat i n t h e i r role of looking a f t e r children, and they often are somewhat resent f u l of t h i s implication. I f , however, the parents have a casework r e l a t i o n -ship, based on an understanding of t h e i r own needs and of the meaning of the c h i l d f o r them, they could be helped to handle t h e i r reactions to the trauma the experience holds i n ways l e s s p a i n f u l to them. As t h i s occurs, h o s t i l i t y toward the c h i l d and the agency w i l l be lessened and they w i l l have l e s s need to express feelings of g u i l t y resentment against the placement and the worker. The establishment of a casework rela t i o n s h i p with the parents i s es s e n t i a l i n making possible the e f f e c t i v e exploration of the ease, one that w i l l permit the worker to a r r i v e at a sound diagnosis of the nature of the c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s , the factors that are creating them, and the meaning of the c h i l d - 61 -and h i s problems to h i s parents. Since a primary f a c t o r i n the diagnosis i s the a n i l i t y of the worker to sense and re l a t e soundly to the motive that brings the parent to the agency and forms the source of h i s incentive to use help t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s v i t a l to the accomplishment of treatment. Much of the holding work, that i s , the task of keeping the disturbed parent from upsetting the placement, i s based on the worker's professional r e l a t i o n s h i p to the immature parent. The manner and focus of work with these parents are determined by understanding t h e i r character structure. Some parents be-come more accessible to being involved i n constructive planning f o r and handling of the c h i l d , and can help to strengthen the placement. Supportive treatment of the parents, i n r a l l y i n g t h e i r resources f o r the restoration of the family unit or i n adjusting themselves while there i s continued placement may also be used. E a r l i e r i n the development of casework services, the caseworker r e s t r i c t e d h i s role i n children's cases to work with the parents i n an e f f o r t to improve the child* s environment. Although t h i s emphasis continues i n many agencies, caseworkers have gradually begun to recognize the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s d i v i s i o n of labor, and to broaden t h e i r casework services to the c h i l d . When a c h i l d has been exposed to a sudden c r i s i s i n h i s home he needs to be helped through i t by the worker, whether he goes to l i v e with r e l a t i v e s or int o a foster home. In the treatment of a c h i l d i n placement the f i r s t concrete act i s f o r - 62 -the worker to help the c h i l d adjust to the s i t u a t i o n i n such a way as to develop more h e a l t h f u l l y i n the emotional sense. A worker i s ahle oftentimes to reach a c h i l d emotionally by doing f o r and giving to him. Sometimes by the time the c h i l d reaches placement he has learned to d i s t r u s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Only by being given to, can such childr e n become involved i n a meaning-f u l relationship to be used f o r therapeutic benefit. In focusing casework services to a c h i l d the worker can begin with the f i r s t contact on preplacement. " I d e n t i f i c a -t i o n with the-child!s wishes and attitudes as he expresses them i s most important i n order to involve him i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . " 1 Care should be taken to leave room f o r h i s expression of h i s ambivalent f e e l i n g s , some of which are s t i l l unconscious. Acceptance of the child's f e e l i n g s , f o r his-'natural family should be c a r e f u l l y observed regardless of what the parents are l i k e . The c h i l d w i l l then f e e l that the worker i s not against him and h i s family and w i l l be more l i k e l y to accept the worker i n the general treatment s i t u a t i o n . Moreover, the c h i l d ' s s t r i v i n g s toward h i s own family are h i s chief method of managing u n t i l he finds a better one and therefore should be conserved at l e a s t temporarily. Thus, planning the contacts between the c h i l d and h i s family requires some experimentation which i s guided by whatever has been learned during the pre-placement period about the parents, the c h i l d and t h e i r r elationships to each other. 1. Bowen, Janice, " R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n Placement of Children", National Conference of S o c i a l Work. 1947, Columbia University Press, New York, 1948, p. 301. - 63 -Some workers are f a m i l i a r with the c h i l d who cannot give up the old family t i e s and at the same time cannot make new t i e s while cl i n g i n g to the o l d ones. The r o l e of the worker i s to be the bridge, not only to supply the emotional support and nourishment necessary i n making t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , but also to help remove the blocks i n the chi l d ' s attitudes toward relationships created by former damaging experiences, i n order to free him f o r new relat i o n s h i p s , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to h i s c o n f l i c t s over l o y a l t y . Research methods used f o r the assessment of the actual casework  services given to the fam i l i e s The f i r s t phase of the research methods used i n t h i s t h i r d chapter was an attempt to draw from a study of the f i e l d of professional s o c i a l work pra c t i c e , some of the basic techniques and casework method which help the s o c i a l worker i n dealing s a t i s f a c t o r i l y with the types of case situations presented i n the provision of non-ward care. A l i s t was then developed and consolidated into f i v e basic steps or c r i t e r i a , that have been set out i n d e t a i l i n the discussions i n the foregoing pages.* The second phase of the research was an ap p l i c a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a to the case records, and an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the c r i t e r i a factors i n a table of the methods and techniques used i n the t o t a l casework process with the f a m i l i e s . A tabulation was l a t e r made of the ratings of the cases under three headings 1. Refer to page % of t h i s chapter* - 64 -of "good", " * f a i r n , and. "poor". The scale of rating was as follows: "good"—showed evidence of the use of four, or a l l of the steps i n the casework method and the accompanying techniques; " f a i r " — e v i d e n c e of three of the c r i t e r i a ; and "poor* 1—evidence of one or two of the c r i t e r i a . The following table shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n which resulted. Table X Showing rating of casework p r i n c i p l e s with the f a m i l i e s i n the 15 cases studied accord-ing to the evident use of the 5 basic s o c i a l work methods used i n t h i s thesis as basic c r i t e r i a f o r good casework i n the provision of non-ward care. Case Methods and Teehniqi l e * Total Rating* A B C D E 1 X X 2 Poor 2 X X X 3 F a i r 3 X X 2 Poor X X X 3 F a i r 5 X X X 3 F a i r 6 X X X 3 F a i r 7 X X X X 4 Good 8 X X X X 4 Good 9 X X X X 4 Good 10 X X X 3 F a i r Continued on next page.... - 65 -(Table X continued) Case Methods and Technique* Total Rating* A B c D E 11 X X X X 4 Good 12 X X X X X 5 Good 13 X X X 3 F a i r 14- X X 2 Poor 15 X X X • 3 F a i r 1 •Methods and Technique: A. Investigation of the presenting problem. B. Diagnostic evaluation of a l l of the strengths and weaknesses i n the home. C. The setting of a s p e c i f i c goal and plan focused on the needs of the parents and the c h i l d . D. The maintaining of a sustaining r e l a t i o n -ship between the parents and the worker. E. The provision of casework services to the c h i l d . *Rating Scale: Good - 4,5 F a i r - 3 Poor - 2,1 - 66 -In f i v e of the cases, the worker's handling according to the use of good casework method and technique was good and showed evidence of four or f i v e of the c r i t e r i a . Seven of the cases were rated as f a i r handling with evidence of three of the c r i t e r i a . The remaining three cases showed evidence of only-two of the c r i t e r i a and were rated as poor handling. In the small group of cases studied c e r t a i n areas of casework method and technique show a decided weakness. The most noticeable areas of weakness are i n the parts of the case-work method which require diagnostic s k i l l , that i s i n "B" and "C"—the "diagnostic evaluation of a l l of the strengths and weaknesses i n the home*", and "the setting of a s p e c i f i c goal and plan focused on the needs of the parents and the c h i l d . " - This would seem to demonstrate a need f o r the development of ways to improve and strengthen the diagnostic s k i l l of workers i n -volved i n doing t h i s type of work so that planning would be based on sound diagnosis. Even i n one of the good cases there was some evidence of lack of diagnosis and planning. Several cases were rated as good although there was evidence of lack of a sustaining r e -l a t i o n s h i p with the parents or the lack of casework services to the c h i l d . From the table, the seven f a i r cases demonstrate decided weaknesses not only i n t h e i r lack of diagnosis and planning but also i n a marked concentration on the c h i l d while neglecting the r e l a t i o n s h i p with the parent. This one-sided emphasis resulted i n only f a i r r e s u l t s . - 67 -The poor cases, three i n number, often showed a decided lack of good casework method of procedure inbetween the time of the i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the work with the c h i l d . Each one of the cases showed a good evidence of the worker 1s a b i l i t y to investigate the presenting problem and to gather the information a f t e r the r e f e r r a l was made. The apparent general weakness of the f a i r and poor cases l a y i n the area of knowing what to do with the facts to r e a l l y help the e l i e n t a f t e r they had been received. The indications of the res u l t s of Table X, when checked against the res u l t s of Table IX, which showed the pro-gress made with the family during the placement*, re l a t e d to the q u a l i t y of the worker 1s rela t i o n s h i p with the family shows some s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s . In t h i s table i t was seen that four of the families made good progress whereas f i v e of these same cases had indicated evidence of good casework method and techniques. Six of the fam i l i e s made only f a i r progress while seven of the cases demonstrated only f a i r use of casework method and techniques. Five of the families showed l i t t l e progress whereas i n three of these was there evidence of poor use of ease-work methods by the workers. I t was noted that In both Instances the same cases which showed much improvement In the family s i t u a -t i o n showed also p r o f i c i e n t use of the basic s o c i a l work methods and techniques. The cases which made l i t t l e progress showed 1. See p. 47. - 68 -evidence of weakness i n some areas of s o c i a l work methods and techniques. Lack of complete c o r r e l a t i o n i n the tables can perhaps be explained by the i n d i v i d u a l factors i n a p a r t i c u l a r case which would Indicate that sometimes although a worker has displayed a good measure of s k i l l , a family may not be able to make any improvement. Some parents simply cannot measure up to t h e i r status as parents no matter how hard the worker may t r y to help them. The weaknesses i n the area of diagnosis and consistent planning noted e a r l i e r would also be factors that would l i m i t movement. One of the major themes of t h i s thesis has been that the use of sound casework methods and techniques together with the qu a l i t y of the worker 1s rela t i o n s h i p to the c l i e n t s , does  have a d e f i n i t e bearing on the outcome of a case. The degree of corr e l a t i o n described above would seem to bear t h i s out. S i m i l a r -l y , the findings of the study demonstrate that where there are weaknesses i n the areas of diagnosis, sound planning based on the f a m i l i e s 1 needs and a continued rel a t i o n s h i p with the parents, a favourable outcome of the case i s jeopardized* CHAPTER IV THE USE OF THE RESOURCE OF NON-WARD CARE Non-ward care as described i n t h i s thesis, i s seen as an important service f o r treating c e r t a i n family situations i n the hope that t h i s treatment w i l l make i t possible f o r c h i l d -ren and parents to help themselves. I t i s generally f e l t by a l l workers i n the f i e l d that t h i s type of care must, then, o f f e r casework help to parents and children toward the end that no c h i l d s h a l l be deprived of h i s home any longer than i s absolutely necessary i n h i s best i n t e r e s t s . In the f i n a l analysis the r e a l assessment of the use of the resource of non-ward care i s i t s application towards the preservation of the basic family u n i t . From the analysis of the group of cases studied a large number showed that the resource of non-ward care was being used towards the preservation of the families and that from the beginning the plan was f o r the children to be returned to t h e i r parents' homes when the problems i n the s i t u a t i o n had been a l l e v i a t e d . On the other side of the picture however, there were some cases, f i v e i n number i n which the o r i g i n a l plan f o r the family seemed to have been l o s t sight of and children had remained i n care longer than had been envisaged, while no Improvement had occurred i n the family s i t u a t i o n . The possible causes behind these situations and t h e i r indications f o r further program planning w i l l be d i s -cussed i n t h i s chapter. - 70 -Findings and implications of the thesis The findings in the thesis were generally in the following areas of development and expansion of the present program set-up of the Social Welfare Branch, British Columbia. Among these were indications as to the types of families who use this resource, the need for earlier referral of some of these families, the need for a more family-centered casework approach, and more adequate interpretation of the service of the Social Welfare Branch in the community. The casework methods used by the workers and the workers1 relationship with the clients were also considered along with implications for the formal training of workers and need for more supervisory and administrative attention in this area of service. Major findings of the thesis In the earlier part of the thesis i t was stated that in providing the resource of non-ward care, the social worker, as in a l l fields of the profession, must make adequate use of good casework methods and ski l l s , together with the use of the professional self in establishing a relationship, in order to give genuine help to the family. The analysis of the fifteen cases suggested some correlation between the evidence of improve-ment in the family situation and the quality of the social work methods and techniques exhibited during the course of the agency"s contact with the family. The cases indicated also, that the relationship between the worker and the clients was a consistent f a c t o r that needed to be exercised throughout the case s i t u a t i o n . The q u a l i t y of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the family was seen i n the study as of great importance i n r e l a t i o n to the progress made by the f a m i l i e s . A t a b l e 1 was set up showing the rating of the f a m i l i e s 1 progress as related to the q u a l i t y of the worker's 2 r e l a t i o n s h i p . Another table was set up which showed the extent to whieh the basic s o c i a l work methods and techniques necessary for the practice of good casework were used by the worker. I t was noted that i n both instances the same cases whieh showed much improvement i n the family s i t u a t i o n showed also p r o f i c i e n t use of the basic s o c i a l work methods and techniques. The cases which made l i t t l e progress showed evidence of weakness i n some areas of s o c i a l work methods and techniques. In the majority of the small group of cases studied, c e r t a i n areas of casework method and technique show a decided weakness, even i n the cases that were rated "good" and " f a i r " i n the methods of case handling. This weakness existed e s p e c i a l l y i n the areas which require diagnostic s k i l l , evaluation and the  making of a plan based on the diagnosis. This would seem to demonstrate a need f o r the development of ways to improve and strengthen the diagnostic s k i l l of workers involved i n doing t h i s type of work. This i s an area i n which formal t r a i n i n g and adequate supervision are of much si g n i f i c a n c e . 1. See p. 47. 2. See p. 64. - 72 -Unfortunately, in the majority of the district offices of the Social Welfare Braneh in British Columbia many of the workers called upon to provide help to disturbed family groups, are not fully trained and have difficulty in meeting the needs of these clients. Even fully trained workers, struggling with the demands placed on them by a large generalized casdload, and the pressing responsibilities from other areas of their case-load, are unable to give their adequate attention to situations where preventive work could best be done—including those cases where non-ward care is indicated. It is true that at the present time the Social Welfare Branch program has to cope with many real problems. It s t i l l remains, however, for administrative attention to be aware of the need for adequate supervision to give support and direction to the native aptitudes of the untrained workers, some of whom have a good degree of abil ity to form working relationships but lack sufficient knowledge to understand how to use them. This increases the teaching responsibility of the now heavily burdened supervisors and points right back to a need for more formal  training of workers. Senior administrative and supervisory attention should note especially the effects of staff-turnover in some of the non-ward cases. Consistency and continuity in family casework is actually a v i ta l factor, and change of workers can create difficulties for both parents and children. Proper statistical reportingr supervisory conferences - 73 -and other devices can be h e l p f u l to the workers i n the f i e l d by-helping them to focus on r e a l i s t i c goals i n t h e i r planning f o r some of the f a m i l i e s . I t i s important that supervisors and the s t a f f of the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n be concerned that workers i n the f i e l d do not allow placed children to f l o a t i n a sea of uncertainty and casework Indecision. I f a c h i l d cannot be moved back toward h i s own family as i n the B. case 1 then e f f o r t s must be made to help the parent and c h i l d move away from each other i n t o a permanent plan. In some ways the findings i n these cases presents a challenge to the organizational and administrative set-up of the Department with the present d i v i s i o n between C h i l d Welfare and Family Service, and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of cases Into t i g h t l i t t l e categories such as "So c i a l Allowance", "Child i n Care", "Mothers Allowance", ""Child i n a Foster Home", and the l i k e . Under the present system, i t frequently becomes quite easy f o r the worker to concentrate on only one phase of the family s i t u a t i o n , while other related problems are l e f t untouched and the philosophy of a family-centered casework treatment approach i s a l l too often forgotten. From the cases studied and from the analysis of the casework methods and techniques used by the worker, there was an apparent tendency i n a number of the cases f o r work to be concentrated e i t h e r on the c h i l d or on the parent, e s p e c i a l l y on the c h i l d , with the tendency to view non-ward care as a service 1. See p. 4-6 - 74 -to the c h i l d , not the whole family. This one sided emphasis often resulted i n very l i t t l e or only f a i r progress f o r some of the f a m i l i e s concerned. Minor findings of the thesis During the course of the study several smaller points of i n t e r e s t came up. Among these were indications of the types  of family situations requiring t h i s type of service and the  implications for future program planning. The cases studied i n -dicated a predominance of one-parent fa m i l i e s with a large amount of family breakdown, mar i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and f i n a n c i a l problems. The l a r g e s t number of r e f e r r a l s were from families with occasional employment. The fathers i n t h i s group were out of work every now and again and several of them displayed problems of person-a l i t y maladjustment and i n a b i l i t y to hold steady employment f o r any considerable amount of time. I t was evident i n the cases that although i t sometimes helped, f i n a n c i a l a i d was not always the panacea f o r the family's i l l s . I t was indicated i n the tables showing the kinds of case-work services provided to the parent, that the needs of the f a m i l i e s were more i n the area of giving supportive help, Inter-preting the needs of the c h i l d to the parent, marital counselling, vocational guidance and counselling to the children, with r e f e r r -a l s to other agencies In behalf of both the parents and the children. In analyzing the case material, i t was found that the majority of children went into placement, apprehensive, f e a r f u l , and disturbed at the family c r i s i s which had disrupted t h e i r family s i t u a t i o n . These childre n indicated the need f o r a large amount of understanding, sympathetic work on the part of both the f o s t e r parents and the worker. I t i s here that the worker needs to exercise h i s s k i l l i n helping the c h i l d to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment. The majority of c h i l d r e n i n the cases studied were able to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment i n the f o s t e r homes and c r e d i t here must be given to the work done by the foster parents and the worker i n these cases to help the children. In a large number of the Gases, placement f o r the c h i l d was a matter of urgency, often occurring soon a f t e r the i n i t i a l contact of the family with the agency. Also i n several instances placement was made because of a parent 1s desertion, or sudden entrance into a mental h o s p i t a l — t r a u m a t i c events of a family c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n which would undoubtedly be a source of d i s t r e s s to a c h i l d going i n t o the strange new world of a placement. The observations i n the above paragraphs, gleaned from the analysis of the case records, point to a need f o r e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l Of some of these f a m i l i e s whose family pattern of d i s -organization indicates that they may have been experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s even before they became known to the agency and the provision of the resource of non-ward care was made ava i l a b l e to them. The need f o r a more family-centered casework approach and more adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the services of the S o c i a l Welfare - 76 -Branch i n the community i s also seen. Also related to the above i s the need f o r expansion and development of the present program with more trained s t a f f and better o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s . There i s also a case f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the needs and problems of s t a f f to top administrative and senior o f f i c e r s , on up to the l e v e l of government department heads. The provision of the resource of non-ward care l i e s i n the area of preventitive family casework services, the r e s u l t s of which are not usually r e a d i l y apparent and are also d i f f i c u l t to be measured i n terms of actual d o l l a r s and cents. This i n -creases the problem of interpr e t a t i n g the value of the program to top l e v e l o f f i c i a l s who sometimes cannot see the underlying factors and what would r e s u l t i f a family was not given t h i s help to tide them over a c r i s i s . I t means that children might be l a t e r permanently apprehended and stay on i n care f o r the r e s t of t h e i r l i v e s while t h e i r already weak family unit became completely deteriorated, and l o s t i t s worth to the c h i l d f o r h i s future development as a responsible, self-sustaining c i t i z e n l a t e r on. There i s a further research task implied here. I t i s hoped that a research group w i l l at some time undertake a larg e -scale e f f o r t over a number of years to determine whether and how often non-ward care was employed where the unity of a family was preserved, and the r e s u l t s of t h i s e f f o r t might be considered i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r implications f o r future agency p o l i c y and planning. 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bowlby, John, Maternal Pare and Mental Health. P a l a i s des Nations, Geneva, World Health Organization Monograph Series, 1952. Hamilton, Gordon, The Theory and Practice of S o c i a l Casework. New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1951. Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents. New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1948. Josselyn, Irene, Psycho-Social Development of a Child j. New York, N.Y., Family Service Association of America, 1948. Richmond, Mary E., S o c i a l Diagnosis. Philadelphia, Russell Sage Foundation, 1917. Robinson, V i r g i n i a , The Dynamics of Supervision f Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, 1949. Witmer, Helen Leland and Kotinsky, Ruth, e d i t o r s , Personality  i n the Making. The Fact-Finding Report of the Mid-Century White House Conference on Children and Youth, Harper Brothers, New York, 1952. Peri o d i c a l s Baker, Inez, "Analysis of the Basic Aims and Objectives of Chi l d Welfare Programs—Foster Care and Adoption", Public  Welfare. A p r i l , 1952, V o l . 10, No. 2. Boven, Janice, " R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n Placement of Children", National Conference of S o c i a l Work. 19A7. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1948. Gordon, Henrietta, "Limitations of Foster Home Care", C h i l d  Welfare. J u l y , 1953, V o l . 21., No. 6. R a i l , Mary E., "The Casework Process In Work with the C h i l d and the Family i n the Child's Own Home," National Conference  of S o c i a l Work. Casework Papers. Family Service Association, New York, 1955. Schour, Esther, "I Believe i n Parents", C h i l d Welfare. May, 1954, V o l . 23, No. 5. Smyth, Wilma, "The Rural C h i l d Welfare Worker i n Action," S o c i a l Casework. November, 1955, V o l . 36, No. 9. 

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