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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social change in the social philosophy of John Dewey Desjardins, Pit Urban 1961

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SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY OP JOHN DEWEY by PIT URBAN DESJARDINS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columhia, 19J4.I  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of Philosophy  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r e q u i r e d standard  t o the  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1961  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  I further  copying of t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Pit  Department o f  Urban  Philosophy  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  April 5, 1961  permission.  Desjardins  ABSTRACT  This essay i s , i n the main, a presentation of Dewey's s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l philosophy, with p a r t i c u l a r  attention  being given to h i s theory of the o r i g i n and nature of the state and to h i s recommendations f o r a programme of s o c i a l reconstruction.  As Dewey r e l i e s on the use of intelligence f o r  conscious intervention within the s o c i a l process and f o r the purposive control of s o c i a l change, the f i r s t chapter of t h i s essay i s given to an exposition of Dewey's version of the pragmatic method, Instrumentalism. The major influences which operated to shape Dewey's methodological approach to philosophic problems are the following:  (1) the r i s e of American industry:  the divorce of  production from hand-tool methods and the introduction of technology and mass manufacturing techniques; (2) the emergence of Pragmatism as a d i s t i n c t i v e American philosophy; (3) the r i s i n g influence of the b i o l o g i c a l sciences; (ll) the contemp l a t i v e character of c l a s s i c philosophy.  These influences form  the matrix out of which Dewey's general philosophic outlook emerged; an outlook i n which thinking i s shifted from the contemplative to the p r a c t i c a l , and which i s ordered by the p r i n c i p l e that thinking i s instrumental to a control of the environment• Consistent with h i s methodology, Dewey places h i s theory of the emergence, existence and functioning of the state  on an e m p i r i c a l base.  Causal agency t h e o r i e s o f the s t a t e are  r e j e c t e d ; a theory o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n must s t a r t w i t h what i s observable, and  human behaviour.  The hypos t a t i z e d "'Individual"  " S o c i e t y " are d i s s o l v e d by a psychology o f s o c i a l  behaviourism which holds t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s an emergent from a group m a t r i x and h i s behaviour as an i n d i v i d u a l Is explainable  o n l y by r e f e r e n c e  t o the group.  Dewey's s o c i a l  theory b e g i n s , t h e r e f o r e , with the f a c t s t h a t human beings e x i s t and  a c t w i t h i n some k i n d o f s o c i a l grouping and that the  consequences o f a c t i n g w i t h i n an a s s o c i a t i o n a r e p e r c e i v e d by the I n d i v i d u a l s comprising  i t . The p e r c e p t i o n  i s t h e keystone o f Dewey's t h e o r y . that consequences a r e p e r c e i v e d  o f consequences  I n Dewey's view the f a c t  g i v e s r i s e t o the problem o f  c o n t r o l l i n g c e r t a i n consequences, and t o the c o r r e l a t i v e problem o f p r o v i d i n g the apparatus f o r r e g u l a t i n g a c t i o n s t o a t t a i n s p e c i f i e d and predetermined consequences. d i s t i n g u i s h e s two k i n d s terminology):  of actions  Dewey  (or t r a n s a c t i o n s , i n Dewey's  those whose consequences a r e d i r e c t and c o n f i n e d  to the group w i t h i n which the a c t i o n s take p l a c e a r e d e f i n e d as p r i v a t e ; but a c t i o n s which have e f f e c t s o u t s i d e  o f t h e group and  generate i n d i r e c t consequences a r e c l a s s i f i e d as p u b l i c . need t o c o n t r o l a c t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the w e l f a r e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the t r a n s a c t i o n s b r i n g s  The  o f those not into existence a  s p e c i a l s o c i a l group which Dewey c a l l s A P u b l i c .  This  social  e n t i t y takes on p o l i t i c a l form, I t becomes a p o l i t i c a l s t a t e , when o f f i c i a l s or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s the organize  are appointed or e l e c t e d and  the P u b l i c t o care f o r the common i n t e r e s t generated iii  by the i n d i r e c t consequences o f t r a n s a c t i o n s . The f o r m a t i o n o f s t a t e s i n a c o n t i n u i n g , experimental p r o c e s s ; as the c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l l i f e change ao does the need f o r new forms o f p o l i t i c a l organization.  F i n a l l y , democracy, i n Dewey's theory,  i s a form o f government a r i s i n g out o f a s p e c i f i e d p r a c t i c e I n s e l e c t i n g o f f i c i a l s and r e g u l a t i n g t h e i r conduct  as o f f i c i a l s *  Dewey's s o c i a l t h e o r y i m p l i e s the d i r e c t i o n of s o c i e t y by ideas and by knowledge.  I t i s Dewey's g e n e r a l t h e s i s , t h e r e -  f o r e , t h a t the method o f experimental s o c i a l i n q u i r y i s the most e f f e c t i v e means f o r a community o r g a n i z e d as a p o l i t i c a l  state  to make s a t i s f a c t o r y a d a p t a t i o n s to a changing m a t e r i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral c u l t u r e and, a t the same time, a l l o w i n g maximum freedom t o the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the development o f h i s c a p a c i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s .  Recognizing that men are r u l e d  by h a b i t and t h a t they c l i n g t o long e s t a b l i s h e d b e l i e f s , Dewey saw the p e r s i s t e n c e o f the l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n as the means f o r c a r r y i n g the experimental methodology i n t o the arena o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s .  But b e f o r e i t c o u l d serve t h i s  l i b e r a l i s m had to be r e c o n s t r u c t e d . Dewey saw no need t o modify  purpose,  In t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  the ends o f l i b e r a l i s m , but he p o i n t s  out t h a t i f they a r e t o p l a y a g u i d i n g r o l e i n contemporary l i f e l i b e r a l i s m must abandon i t s a t o m i s t i c psychology and the c o r r e l a t i v e d o c t r i n e s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and l a i s s e z - f a i r e and adopt the i d e a s and methods o f an experimental s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y . The  immediate p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n which prompted Dewey t o  advocate  an experimental method o f s o c i a l i n q u i r y o p e r a t i n g  through a renascent l i b e r a l i s m was the l a c k o f I n t e g r a t i o n I n iv  contemporary s o c i a l l i f e manifested  by  (1) the  fragmentation  of s o c i e t y i n t o a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f changing p u b l i c s w i t h d i f f e r i n g needs and  demands, and  (2) the apparent absence o f a  p u b l i c c o n t r o l l i n g and d i r e c t i n g the apparatus o f government* Dewey argues t h a t the impact of science on s o c i e t y has been so t r a u m a t i c t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l methods are incapable d e a l i n g w i t h the problems which have been c r e a t e d .  of  However, he  does not s p e c i f y what the a l t e r n a t i v e methods a r e , but  only  commits h i m s e l f to i d e n t i f y i n g the c o n d i t i o n s which must p r e v a i l i f the Great to  emerge.  Community and a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y organized P u b l i c are These c o n d i t i o n s are absolute freedom of  i n q u i r y and the widest  social  p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of i t s c o n c l u s i o n s .  Given the f o r e g o i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the s t a t e w i l l become e f f e c t i v e l y the instrument  o f the P u b l i c .  v  CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II. III.  Page 1  THE THEORY OP KNOWLEDGE THE SOCIAL THEORY  36  SOCIAL CHANGE.  78 1 1 9  BIBLIOGRAPHY  vi  CHAPTER I THE THEORY OP KNOWLEDGE  Dewey's theory o f knowledge i s so fundamentally important  t o h i s whole p h i l o s o p h i c accomplishment t h a t we might  s a f e l y say t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e s both the f o u n d a t i o n and the quintessence o f h i s t h i n k i n g .  I t i s u s u a l l y dangerous t o  c h a r a c t e r i z e a segment o f a p h i l o s o p h e r ' s views by such a broad, d e s c r i p t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n but, i n t h i s case, the ground f o r doing so appears t o be s o l i d .  One can s u r e l y say, then, t h a t  there would not be too many d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n s i f i t were s a i d t h a t an understanding his  Instrumentalism,  o f Dewey's theory o f knowledge, t h a t i s , i s the road t o a c l e a r e r i n s i g h t i n t o h i s  other p h i l o s o p h i c d o c t r i n e s - - s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , etc.  moral, a e s t h e t i c ,  A d m i t t i n g the f o r e g o i n g then, t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t a  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s i g n i f i c a n t elements o f Instrumentalism vital  and necessary p r e l u d e t o an examination  isa  o f Dewey's s o c i a l  theory. As a matter o f f a c t , upon f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a d i s c u s s i o n o f Dewey's s o c i a l views a p a r t from h i s t h e o r y o f knowledge would be almost a meaningless endeavour; i t would be, i n Dewey's language, a d e t a c h i n g o f knowledge from the knowing p r o c e s s ; a s e p a r a t i o n o f ends and means.  F o r j u s t as the  emotional and the r a t i o n a l i n man are bound t o g e t h e r , such t h a t a s e p a r a t i o n means the e x t i n c t i o n o f the whole man, so f o r Dewey the knowing p r o c e s s and s o c i a l f a c t s and hypotheses are p a r t o f  1  2 a continuum In which only an a r b i t r a r y and v i t i a t i n g separation and abstraction i s possible. Before undertaking to develop Dewey's theory of knowledge, i t i s necessary f o r purposes of perspective to digress to a consideration of the distinctiveness of Dewey's point of view i n the schema of t r a d i t i o n a l philosophy*  The dominant theme which  pervades and gives d i r e c t i o n to Dewey's entire philosophic a c t i v i t y Is h i s wholehearted b e l i e f i n the process of experience as ends and as means.  Moreover, to understand h i s attitude  toward c l a s s i c philosophy ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Greek philosophy) and i t s connection with the emergence of Pragmatism and Instrumental Ism, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that one appreciate i n Dewey's outlook the depth and breadth of the influence of the foregoing theme. Dewey gave a new orientation to the r o l e of philosophy; determined p o s i t i v e l y , on one side, by a moral and missionary concern over the future of mankind and negatively, on another side, by a reaction against t r a d i t i o n a l philosophy f o r i t s alleged f a i l u r e to provide instrumentalities f o r the solution of the concrete problems of l i v i n g , and i t s d i r e c t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l energies towards the transcendental rather than the human*  This  bivalent influence operated to s h i f t Dewey's interest i n philosophy from the contemplative to the p r a c t i c a l .  Dewey v i s u a l i z e d  philosophy as a t o o l , an instrumentality f o r human ends, and the task to  c l a r i f y men's ideas as to the s o c i a l and moral s t r i f e s 1 of t h e i r own day,' n  1  1 Dewey, John, Reconstruction i n Philosophy, New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1937 (Copyright 1920), p. 26.  In g i v i n g a p l a c e o f paramount importance to human ends i n the f u n c t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y , is,  we should n o t conclude t h a t Dewey  i p s o f a c t o , making an e v a l u a t i o n o f the importance o f  humanity on a cosmic s c a l e t h a t i s , making man the c e n t r a l f a c t o f the u n i v e r s e .  Gn t h e c o n t r a r y , Dewey e x p r e s s l y denies any  such i m p l i c a t i o n : Humanity i s not, as was thought, t h e end f o r which a l l t h i n g s were formed; i t I s but a s l i g h t and f e e b l e t h i n g , perhaps an e p i s o d i c one, i n the v a s t s t r e t c h o f the universe. But f o r man, man i s the center o f i n t e r e s t and the measure o f importance.2 The  crux o f Dewey's a t t i t u d e towards the accomplishments o f  t r a d i t i o n a l philosophy l i e s i n the foregoing quotation.  Dewey  charges t h a t too much emphasis was p l a c e d upon and too much energy d i r e c t e d a t understanding  the world  i n a contemplative  way,  i n d i s c o v e r i n g i n the f l u x o f the u n i v e r s e an immutable r e a l i t y . Furthermore, the u n i v e r s e was c o n t r a s t e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r by i m p l i c a t i o n , t o t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f man.  The r e s u l t , he  a s s e r t s , was t h a t the problems o f mankind i t s e l f were s i d e -  3  tracked. To g i v e p h i l o s o p h y  an a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c o r i e n t a t i o n w i l l  be t o many a r e p u d i a t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l (and thereby r e a l ) scope o f p h i l o s o p h y . wrenches p h i l o s o p h y  I n essence, t h i s i s what Dewey does; he from i t s l o n g a p p l i c a t i o n t o the c l a s s i c  problems which emerged from Greek thought.  I n terms o f  2 Dewey, John, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, Chicago, Gateway Books, I 9 4 6 , ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1927 by Henry H o l t and Company, New Y o r k ) , p. 1 7 6 . 3 The thought developed i n t h i s paragraph i s expressed i n man o f Dewey's works. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Philosophy, p a r t i c u l a r l y Chapter 1, t r e a t s a t l e n g t h t h i s i d e a .  p h i l o s o p h y s quest f o r the "good*, h i s motive f o r doing so stems 1  from a m o r a l i t y which c o n s i d e r s the "good" t o be t h e w e l f a r e o f humanity.  When one c o n s i d e r s h i s p h i l o s o p h y w i t h mankind as  the end and t h e motive,  the obviousness  o f the outgrowth o f a  t h e o r y o f knowledge i n which t h e whole s t r e s s i s l a i d upon technique, p r a c t i c e and doing, i s immediately  apparent.  Since,  on t h i s view, the f u t u r e o f mankind i s the P o l a r i s o f the p h i l o s o p h e r and the transformed aim o f p h i l o s o p h y i s the development o f i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s which w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y serve man i n the f u l f i l m e n t o f h i s s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l aims, f o r Dewey t h i s i s a s u f f i c i e n t and compelling motive f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n q u i r y , as he says: P h i l o s o p h y which surrenders i t s somewhat b a r r e n monopoly o f d e a l i n g s w i t h U l t i m a t e and A b s o l u t e R e a l i t y w i l l f i n d a compens a t i o n i n e n l i g h t e n i n g the moral f o r c e s which move mankind and i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the a s p i r a t i o n s o f men to a t t a i n t o a more ordered and i n t e l l i g e n t happiness.4 At t h i s p o i n t the q u e s t i o n might have been r a i s e d by Dewey as t o why p h i l o s o p h y has taken so long t o a c q u i r e consciousness o f t h e r o l e o f a s s i s t i n g man w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l problems o f l i f e *  The answer l i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o Dewey, a t t h e  source o f the t r a d i t i o n o f western p h i l o s o p h y - - t h e Greek world of a n t i q u i t y .  Now whether Dewey h o l d s the e a r l y Greek t h i n k e r s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f thought  away from the  p r a c t i c a l , o r whether he b e l i e v e s t h a t the t u r n g i v e n to i n q u i r y was merely clear.  I4.  an i n e s c a p a b l e phase o f i n t e l l e c t u a l growth, Is not  The f a c t remains,  n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t he does p l a c e the  Dewey, R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n P h i l o s o p h y , pp..  26-27.  5 onus f o r the present p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n on the Greeks; and,  as a r e s u l t , there has grown up i n Dewey, probably  u n c o n s c i o u s l y , a l a s t i n g and b i a s i n g a n t i p a t h y towards Greek thought.  Notwithstanding  t h i s antagonism, Dewey does g i v e a  very p l a u s i b l e and n a t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f the o r i g i n o f the p h i l o s o p h i c t r a d i t i o n which has been the source o f i n s p i r a t i o n to p h i l o s o p h e r s t o the present day.''  There Is to some degree  e x t e n u a t i o n (which I do n o t t h i n k Dewey would admit) f o r the s u c c e s s o r s o f the Greeks i n t h e i r p e r s i s t i n g a l l e g i a n c e t o Greek Ideas; the b l i n d i n g luminescence  o f Greek thought  exerted  i n e l u c t a b l e i n f l u e n c e over a l l who cared t o b e h o l d and t o understand.  L e a v i n g a s i d e f o r the moment Dewey's t h e s i s about  the i n f l u e n c e o f Greek thought  upon t h e course and goals o f  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n q u i r y and c o n s i d e r i n g how Immensely Greek ideas f i l l e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c v o i d , one might r e a s o n a b l y ask t h e q u e s t i o n " c o u l d the h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y have been otherwise?" In e a r l y h i s t o r y the mainspring  o f i n q u i r y , as Dewey  says, was t h e quest f o r c e r t a i n t y , which quest, upon a n a l y s i s , was n o t u l t i m a t e l y a s e a r c h f o r knowledge at a l l ; the r e a l end was t o a t t a i n some l o c u s o f emotional  security.  I t was, t h e r e -  f o r e , an emotional need not i n t e l l e c t u a l i n q u i s i t l v e n e s s which p r o v i d e d the impetus t o i n q u i r y .  But w i t h the growth o f  knowledge t h e f o r c e o f the o r i g i n a l motives waned; and the formal p a t t e r n s o f thought,  e s t a b l i s h e d as a v e h i c l e f o r these a f f e c t i v e  elements, p e r s i s t e d i n t o the p r e s e n t day as the hall-mark o f worth f o r the thought  o f western  civilization.  5 Dewey, John, The Quest f o r C e r t a i n t y , New York, MInlton, B a l c h & Company, 1929, Chapters 1 and 2.  6 Because o f the ephemeral c h a r a c t e r o f the phenomenal w o r l d c e r t a i n t y was  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h something Immutable,  i n t r a n s l e n t realm o f b e i n g .  some  The r e a l world was a substratum  o f u n v a r y i n g e x i s t e n c e which c o u l d not be apprehended by senses adapted t o the grossness of the m a t e r i a l world.  I t was a  b r i l l i a n t and i n g e n i o u s n o t i o n to p r o j e c t one's d e s i r e f o r c e r t a i n t y i n t o an enduring archetype f o r a l l phenomenal e x i s t e n c e . How  easy i t must have been, knowing t h a t antecedent t o the world  o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s t h a t l a y b e f o r e us, was a p e r f e c t realm o f Being; and t o o v e r l o o k as v e n i a l the problems o f men s e a r c h i n g the sensuous world*  Yet, this  was,  a c c o r d i n g to Dewey, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tenor o f Greek philosophy. The d i v i s i o n o f the world i n t o the noumenal and the phenomenal,  to use a K a n t i a n d i s t i n c t i o n , i s the key p o i n t i n  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the Greek theory o f knowledge.  On the one  hand, the noumenal world i s the realm o f Being which Is u n i v e r s a l , f i x e d and immutable; on the o t h e r hand, the phenomenal i n v o l v e s change and i n s t a b i l i t y * the second, p r o b a b i l i t y . was  Now  world  The f i r s t g i v e s c e r t a i n t y ;  the g o a l of Greek s p e c u l a t i o n  c e r t a i n t y , so i t was n a t u r a l t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t and genuine  knowledge became r a t i o n a l c o g n i t i o n o f the w o r l d o f Real Being* Because o f the f i x e d , permanent and u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r o f the w o r l d - i n - i t s e l f a s e l f c o n s i s t e n t r a t i o n a l i t y was imputed t o i t s nature; hence, r e a s o n became the c h i e f instrument o f the knowing process.  Since the realm of Being was immutable, change was  meaningless  concept i n r e f e r e n c e t o i t ; and p r a c t i c a l  a  activity,  o f which change i s an i n h e r e n t q u a l i t y , became completely  7  d i s s o c i a t e d from the p r o c e s s and aims o f knowing.  The  G r a i l o f the Greek p h i l o s o p h e r s  the  was  c e r t a i n t y ; and  Holy search  f o r i t would o n l y end when there e x i s t e d a complete isomorphism between mind and human s p i r i t  the w o r l d o f B e i n g .  With t h i s attainment  the  c o u l d r e s t i n i t s bed o f unchanging r e a l i t y .  w i t h the dictum that the "Quest f o r c e r t a i n t y ean be  It i s  fulfilled  .,6 I n pure knowing alone"  t h a t the Greek theory  began i t s l o n g c a r e e r ; and p r a c t i c e and  of knowledge  doing as a method of  knowing were r e l e g a t e d t o the w o r l d o f everyday a f f a i r s . The  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Greek p o l i t i c a l l i f e  o f s l a v e r y i s , i n d i r e c t l y , evidence, a c c o r d i n g disparaging  on the  basis  t o Dewey, of  the  a t t i t u d e which the Greek r u l i n g c l a s s e s h e l d  towards p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y . S e p a r a t i o n of mind and matter, the e l e v a t i o n o f what was c a l l e d i d e a l and s p i r i t u a l to the v e r y summit o f B e i n g and the d e g r a d a t i o n of everyt h i n g c a l l e d m a t e r i a l and w o r l d l y to the lowest p o s i t i o n , developed i n p h i l o s o p h y as a r e f l e c t i o n o f economic and p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n of c l a s s e s . 7 There was  more than j u s t p a s s i v e  acceptance o f s l a v e r y as  an  i n e v i t a b l e phenomenon o f s o c i a l growth on the p a r t of Greek aristocracy.  Consciousness of the nature and  character  of  t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s betrayed by the many p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s which give t a c i t , I f not downright, s a n c t i o n to s l a v e r y as a n e c e s s a r y b a s i s f o r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y Into c l a s s e s c o r r e l a t i v e w i t h the 6 Dewey, The Quest f o r C e r t a i n t y , p 7 Dewey, John, Problems o f Men, L i b r a r y , 191+6, p. 11+..  New  9  The distinction  8. York, P h i l o s o p h i c a l  8 between p u r e l y c o g n i t i v e and p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s o n l y one o f the o v e r t , s i g n i f i c a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  o f the " s p l i t between the  i d e a l and the material'' which developed i n Greek l i f e and flowed through the whole o f western c u l t u r e * The  i d e a l o f pure r a t i o n a l i t y as t h e c h i e f and d e f i n i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e a l i t y has so permeated t h e f a b r i c o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t no modern man can escape c o n t a c t  with  the n o t i o n t h a t r e a s o n alone I s the omnipotent instrument f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e world's problems. philosophy,  R e l i g i o n , law, p o l i t i c s ,  i n f a c t , a l l departments o f human a c t i v i t y have  submitted, i n v a r y i n g degrees, t o the i n f l u e n c e s o f H e l l e n i s m i n the r e c o g n i t i o n and the promotion o f the d i s j u n c t i o n between theory and p r a c t i c e .  That t h i s dichotomy e x i s t s as a l i v i n g  f o r c e i n contemporary l i f e greater  i s i n d i c a t e d by the evidence o f the  s o c i a l esteem i n which t h i n k e r s and t h e o r e t i c i a n s , i n  u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n pure r e s e a r c h , a r e h e l d as a g a i n s t whose functions are l a r g e l y p r a c t i c a l . w r i t i n g s , has gone t o c o n s i d e r a b l e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e theory  those  Dewey, i n many o f h i s  lengths  t o r e v e a l the  o f knowledge s e t f o r t h by the Greeks  as the source o f the m a n i f o l d  of d i f f i c u l t i e s  confronting  philosophy  to-day; but h i s c r i t i c i s m s a r e not c o n f i n e d  philosophy  alone.  t o Greek  He d i r e c t s a s i m i l a r a t t a c k , p o s s i b l y w i t h  l e s s i n s i s t e n c e , at a l l t h e o r i e s which h o l d as the end o f the knowing p r o c e s s something "antecedent t o the mental a c t o f observation  and i n q u i r y . "  He s t a t e s :  Some t h e o r i e s a s c r i b e the u l t i m a t e t e s t of knowledge t o impressions p a s s i v e l y r e c e i v e d , f o r c e d upon us whether we w i l l or no. Others a s c r i b e the guarantee o f knowledge t o s y n t h e t i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e  i n t e l l e c t . I d e a l i s t i c theories hold that mind and the object known are ultimately one; r e a l i s t i c doctrines reduce knowledge to awareness of what exists independently, and so on* But they a l l make one common assumption. They a l l hold that the operation of inquiry excludes any element of p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y that enters into the construction of the object known.  ft  With these remarks Dewey excludes from serious consideration p r a c t i c a l l y a l l theories of knowledge which have oecupied the attention, and s t i l l are the chief concern, of professional philosophy*  The grounds of exclusion are the same as those  which denied the v a l i d i t y of Greek theories; the search f o r that which i s f i x e d and immutable*  I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the core  of. s i m i l a r i t y that exists between these various theories i s due to the f a c t that none of them indicate, i n e f f e c t , an absolute schism with Greek t r a d i t i o n ; but represent attempts on the part of schools of philosophy to circumvent the d i f f i c u l t i e s and weaknesses of more primitive views. Reconstructing the scene from which Dewey emerged one has no d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding the antagonism which he expresses, over and over again, towards the p o s i t i o n and influence of t r a d i t i o n a l philosophy i n the enlightened c i r c l e s of h i s time*  The objection may be raised, however, that t h i s  antagonism has resulted i n some d i s t o r t i o n and exaggeration of the views and doctrines of t r a d i t i o n a l philosophy.  There i s no  doubt that h i s t o r i a n s of philosophy could probably f i n d ample evidence to support t h i s contention. What j u s t i f i c a t i o n , i f  8 Dewey, The Q,uest f o r Certainty, p. 22.  any,  i s there f o r Dewey's t w i s t i n g and  s t r e t c h i n g of the f a c t s  of philosophic history? Tt i s not f a c t t h a t he has philosophy mind.  questionable  t h a t Dewey i s cognizant  d e l i b e r a t e l y presented  of the  the m a t e r i a l of  w i t h a c e r t a i n b i a s and w i t h a s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i n  T h i s i s made e v i d e n t  i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n which  a l s o answers the q u e s t i o n i n the preceding  paragraph:  Common frankness r e q u i r e s t h a t i t be s t a t e d t h a t t h i s account o f the o r i g i n of p h i l o s o p h i e s c l a i m i n g t o d e a l w i t h a b s o l u t e Being i n a systematic way has been g i v e n w i t h malice prepense. I t seems to me t h a t t h i s g e n e t i c method o f approach i s a more e f f e c t i v e way of undermining t h i s type o f p h i l o s o p h i c t h e o r i z i n g than any attempt a t l o g i c a l r e f u t a t i o n c o u l d be.9 T h i s r e p l y , perhaps, l e a v e s him  open t o a more s e r i o u s charge o f  a c c e p t i n g the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the end  justifies  the means.  If  Dewey were a dogmatist and not a f e r v e n t proponent o f f r e e i n t e l l i g e n c e and d i s c u s s i o n as the b e s t o f a l l p o s s i b l e methods f o r d e a l i n g w i t h problems, h i s s l a n t i n g o f the f a c t s t o p o l e m i c a l ends would probably  have been regarded with  serve  greater  concern. I n seeking  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Dewey's apparent d e f e c t i o n  as a h i s t o r i a n o f p h i l o s o p h y ,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n i n  r a t i o n a l i z i n g h i s a t t i t u d e t o the i n f l u e n c e of h i s  strong  i n c l i n a t i o n f o r p r o s e l y t i z i n g . Dewey wanted t o do more than merely p r e s e n t  the experimental  method of I n q u i r y as the most  e f f e c t i v e use o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ; he wanted people t o use method.  the  T h i s meant d i s c a r d i n g something o l d and f a m i l i a r f o r  9 Dewey, R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  i n Philosophy,  1920,  p. 2ii..  11 something new.  L o g i c a l p e r s u a s i o n and the simple a s s e r t i o n o f  the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the method are o f t e n not enough to e f f e c t the transition. I n the p r e c e d i n g s e v e r a l pages an endeavour has been made to r e s t a t e i n summary form the o r i g i n s and some of the major concepts o f t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y as t h i s matter  appears  a f t e r b e i n g o r g a n i z e d and f i l t e r e d by the mind o f Dewey. r e c a p i t u l a t i n g Dewey's views a d e f i n i t e e f f o r t was  In  made to  p r e s e r v e the o r i g i n a l tenor and s p i r i t of h i s own p r e s e n t a t i o n because i n h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and n a r r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l of h i s t o r i c a l thought Perhaps we  the temper o f the man's mind i s r e v e a l e d .  should not be too concerned  about the temper of a  p h i l o s o p h e r ' s mind, but s t i c k t o f a c t s and l o g i c i n an e x p o s i t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s i d e a s .  Should that be done i n the case  o f Dewey, an element e s s e n t i a l and important t o the of h i s p h i l o s o p h y and o u t l o o k would be  understanding  absent.  I t w i l l be l e f t t o some p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y minded p s y c h o a n a l y s t t o examine the evidence and e x p l a i n the i n n e r workings o f Dewey's temper o f mind; f o r purposes we w i l l accept I t as a datum without ©nitology.  of this  essay  The more r e a d i l y  answerable q u e s t i o n t h a t can be asked Is what i n f l u e n c e s i n Dewey's environment, i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l , operated t o develop t h i s unique  temper o f mind which produced  a  new  philosophy. I t i s obvious t h a t no e x t e n s i v e treatment i n f l u e n c e s which surrounded i n a s h o r t essay.  o f the many  Dewey i n h i s l i f e t i m e can be g i v e n  The most t h a t can be done i s t o g i v e a b r i e f  i n d i c a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r and importance  o f the f o r m a t i v e  12 f o r c e s to which Dewey responded; to p l a c e him i n a context  of  s i g n i f i c a n t influences; to create a perspective.  so  perhaps we  By doing  can a t t a i n i n some measure the aim which  R u s s e l l s e t s out i n the P r e f a c e Philosophy:  to h i s H i s t o r y o f Western  "to e x h i b i t philosophy  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . "  Bertrand  as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  That Dewey a l s o would be  sympathetic  t o t h i s aim does not seem q u e s t i o n a b l e , f o r he s t a t e s i n one place that "Philosophers  are p a r t s o f h i s t o r y , caught i n i t s  movement; c r e a t o r s perhaps i n some measure o f i t s f u t u r e , but  ..10 a l s o assuredly creatures of i t s past." own  C e r t a i n l y , Dewey's  l i f e and work are a f u l f i l m e n t of t h i s r o l e ; he  the growth of American c i v i l i z a t i o n , and  Is p a r t of  i t i s p a r t l y i n terras of  t h i s growth that he must be understood,, S i n c e we  are here p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the  develop-  ment o f Dewey's t h e o r y of knowledge, the ensuing paragraphs w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y emphasize those  i n f l u e n c e s which had  r e l e v a n c e t o the f i n a l outcome. pervasive  i n f l u e n c e was  As the broadest  greatest and most  the American scene i t s e l f ,  i t seems  a p p r o p r i a t e to c o n s i d e r I t f i r s t . Dewey'3 r i s e to a p o s i t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n America p a r a l l e l s the growth o f I n d u s t r i a l power which took p l a c e around him  at a enormous r a t e .  p a r t i c u l a r l y a philosopher, and extent  No  s e n s i t i v e person,  c o u l d be unimpressed by the  nature  o f the c i v i l i z a t i o n s p r i n g i n g up i n the wake o f  the  g r e a t p h y s i c a l developments o c c u r r i n g everywhere.  But more  10 Dewey, John, P h i l o s o p h y Balcfa and Company, 1931* P«  York, Minton,  and C i v i l i z a t i o n , New  Important,  no s e n s i t i v e man c o u l d remain i n e r t i n the f a c e o f  the innumerable  problems o f adjustment,  Individual,  social,  p o l i t i c a l , which the new e r a o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m brought w i t h i t . True t o h i s t o r i c a l form, however, the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f American c u l t u r a l growth was decades ahead o f a c o r r e l a t i v e development i n e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s . Moreover, the p h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t i t u d e concomitant w i t h the s p i r i t o f the new t e c h n o l o g i c a l , i n d u s t r i a l age had not y e t emerged i n a form and w i t h the s t r e n g t h n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o these ascendant  forces,  American p h i l o s o p h y was  s t i l l l a r g e l y concerned w i t h " p u z z l e s o f epistemology and the d i s p u t e s between r e a l i s t and i d e a l i s t , between and a b s o l u t i s t . "  phenomenalist  Even Dewey, on h i s own admission, was  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y concerned w i t h the problems o f German I d e a l i s m . B r o a d l y speaking, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s was the h i a t u s i n the American c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n t h a t e x i s t e d a t the emergence o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f experimentalism. In the i n t e l l e c t u a l component o f the r i s i n g c u l t u r e we f i n d emerging under the l e a d e r s h i p o f C.S. P e i r c e a p h i l o s o p h i c movement c a l l e d Pragmatism, a movement which some h i s t o r i a n s o f p h i l o s o p h y have s t a t e d c h a r a c t e r i z e d and forms the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o u n t e r p a r t o f an i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n .  11  T h i s assessment,  11 B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l i n h i s Essay, "Dewey's New L o g i c " w r i t t e n f o r the volume The P h i l o s o p h y o f John Dewey, New York, Tudor P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1951> e d i t e d by P a u l A. S c h i l p p , h o l d s t h i s view with r e s p e c t to Dewey's p a r t i c u l a r form o f Pragmatism: "Dr. Dewey has an o u t l o o k which, where i t i s d i s t i n c t i v e , i s i n harmony w i t h the age o f i n d u s t r i a l i z m and c o l l e c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e , " p.,137. Dewey took s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s statement (p. 527) i n h i s r e b u t t a l essay "Experience, Knowledge and Value: A R e j o i n d e r , " appearing i n the same volume as R u s s e l l ' s essay.  however, i s by no means a f i n a l  judgement t h a t has m a j o r i t y  concurrence;  i t i s s t i l l a contentious issue i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l  literature.  Aside from i t s p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n t o American  m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , Pragmatism had a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e i n the f i e l d o f p h i l o s o p h y .  I t assigned a new  o b j e c t to p h i l o s o p h y :  to g i v e meaning to the u n i v e r s e i n terms o f human l i f e ; not i n the s t a t i c r e l a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and i t s ""spectator t h e o r y o f knowledge" but i n r e l a t i o n of a c t i v e c o n t r o l f o r d i s t i n c t l y human purposes.  Pragmatism, as i t was  originally  e n u n c i a t e d by P e i r c e , underwent development and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the hands of P.C.S. S c h i l l e r , W i l l i a m James, and, John Dewey, whose v e r s i o n w i t h which we concerned,  o f course,  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  r e p r e s e n t e d , b r o a d l y speaking, an a l l i a n c e between  P e i r c e s views and the methodology o f experimental 1  science.  In  i t s p r i s t i n e form, however, Pragmatism meant simply "the r u l e o f r e f e r r i n g a l l thinking, a l l r e f l e c t i v e consideration, to consequences, f o r f i n a l  t e s t and meaning."  word t o note i s "consequences".  Dewey has  The  signfleant  drawn a t t e n t i o n t o  i t s importance i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the meaning o f Pragmatism by italicizing  the p r i n t e d form o f the word i n the work from which  the q u o t a t i o n was  abstracted.  F i n a l l y , the i n f l u e n c e o f b i o l o g y , though not apparent  as the o t h e r s , must be p o i n t e d out as an  f a c t o r i n the f o r m a t i o n o f Dewey's p h i l o s o p h y .  as  important  I t should be  noted t h a t the c h i e f c o n c e p t i o n o f b i o l o g y , t h a t the world i s  12 Dewey, John, Essays i n Experimental L o g i c , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 2nd ed., 191'B, p 330. #  I  15 o r g a n i c a l l y u n i f i e d , was probably  coupled w i t h the r e s i d u a l  i n f l u e n c e o f Hegel's o r g a n i c i d e a l i s m .  T h i s union was most  l i k e l y n o t a d e l i b e r a t e one, but the r e s u l t a n t n o t i o n o f o r g a n i c u n i t y was f o r t u i t o u s i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e d the i n t e g r a t i v e element necessary  to a f u n c t i o n a l theory of knowledge.  As a  r e s u l t o f t h i s I n f l u e n c e Dewey saw man as an organism i n an i n t r i c a t e and complex environment, c o n t i n u a l l y f a c e d w i t h a problem o f m o d i f i c a t i o n and adjustment.  I t i s not too g r e a t an  i n f e r e n t i a l l e a p , t h e r e f o r e , t o conceive o f ideas as instruments of response and a d a p t a t i o n and t h a t t h e i r "truth** i s t o be judged i n terms o f t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . What has been s a i d i n the p r e c e d i n g  sentence i s e s s e n t i a l l y the meaning o f Instrumen-  t a l i s m ; an organized, systematized means f o r man t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h h i s environment©  /  No g r e a t i n s i g h t i s r e q u i r e d t o see i n Dewey's view, . t h a t the concept  o f e v o l u t i o n and b i o l o g i c a d a p t a t i o n and the  n o t i o n o f a "complete and t r u e R e a l i t y " cannot e x i s t s i d e by s i d e w i t h i n the same e p i s t e m o l o g l c a l framework.  E v o l u t i o n means  growth and growth means t h a t there are no f i x e d ends. of l i f e  i s continuous  surroundings.  The end  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f o n e s e l f and one's  The End has now taken on a f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e :  The end i s no l o n g e r a terminus o r l i m i t t o be reached. I t i s the a c t i v e process o f transforming the the e x i s t e n t s i t u a t i o n . Not p e r f e c t i o n as a f i n a l good, but the e v e r - e n c l o s i n g process o f p e r f e c t i n g , maturing, r e f i n i n g i s the aim o f living.13  13 Dewey, R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Philosophy,  1920, p. 177.  16 Many I m p l i c a t i o n s can be drawn from the l i n e s the s i g n i f i c a n t one  j u s t quoted but  i s the c o n c e p t i o n o f the continuum o f ends  and means. In summary, then, the major i n f l u e n c e s determining  the  f o r m a t i o n o f Dewey's p h i l o s o p h y but p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s t h e o r y of Instrumentalism  are (1) the r i s e of American i n d u s t r y :  the  d i v o r c e o f American p r o d u c t i o n from hand-tool methods and i n t r o d u c t i o n of technology  and mass manufacturing  the  techniques;  (2) the emergence of Pragmatism as a d i s t i n c t i v e American philosophy; (Ij.)  (3) the r i s i n g I n f l u e n c e of b i o l o g i c a l  sciences;  the i n f l u e n c e which has not as yet been s p e c i f i c a l l y  r e f e r r e d to In the f o r e g o i n g pages but which must be mentioned: the s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l , academic p h i l o s o p h y which i s coupled w i t h Dewey's r e a c t i o n to the body of  traditional  academic p h i l o s o p h y .  these i n f l u e n c e s  Crystallized  and u n i f i e d ,  form the m a t r i x out o f which Dewey's p h i l o s o p h y emerged. At one time i n h i s c a r e e r , Dewey must have been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a p e r s o n a l , moral problem, which might have been stated thus:  "Comparing the l i v i n g problems o f a v i t a l age  with  the academic h i s t o r i c a l problems of p r o f e s s i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , have I the choice o f moving Into the s e c l u s i o n of p a s t h i s t o r y , or must I move out i n t o the arena of p r e s e n t c o n f l i c t s ?  What  t o o l s , what methods can I c o n t r i b u t e to the r e s o l u t i o n o f the c o n f l i c t i n g issues? the answer?"  Is the r e v i v a l  o f some dictum o f p a s t ages  Probably i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h a t i s s u e ever  i n Dewey's mind i n such a p r e c i s e and d e f i n i t e way.  In  arose  any  case, i t i s o n l y i n r e t r o s p e c t that the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s moral i s s u e can be so c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ,  ^he  answer, of course,  to  17 these questions i s epitomized I n the l i f e and work o f Dewey. With t h i s b r i e f survey o f the background a g a i n s t which Dewey's p h i l o s o p h y must be examined we  are now  in a  p o s i t i o n t o t u r n to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h i s theory of knowledge. Instrumentalism--the response  d o c t r i n e t h a t ideas are instruments  and a d a p t a t i o n , w i t h t h e i r " t r u t h " determined  of  by  their  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n promoting a s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t , — i s  the  name p f Dewey's d i s t i n c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to epistemology.  In  the succeeding paragraphs the main endeavour w i l l be  directed  at d e v e l o p i n g t h i s theory from the p o i n t of view o f i t b e i n g apparatus, examination  a tool of inquiry.  an  T h e r e f o r e , the omission from  o f some o f the t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s of e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  theory which Dewey's Instrumentalism construed as an admision  r a i s e s i s not t o be  t h a t the theory has s u c c e s s f u l l y d e a l t  w i t h those i s s u e s , or t h a t I t has rendered  them meaningless,  but  o n l y t h a t the scope o f t h i s essay, t h i s chapter i n p a r t i c u l a r , does not permit a more thorough-going  treatment.  The most t h a t  can be a c h i e v e d i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the main elements o f the theory so that i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o and s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s o c i a l theory w i l l be  apparent.  I n f o r m u l a t i n g h i s theory of knowledge, Dewey was  very  much Impressed by and, as i t turns out, borrowed h e a v i l y from the methodology of p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e .  What were the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  a s i d e from the methodology i t s e l f ,  t h a t p r e d i s p o s e d Dewey t o  g i v e such whole-hearted  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s  acceptance  theory to the s c i e n t i f i c method of i n q u i r y ? question i s twofold:  own  The answer to t h i s  (1) the f a c t s o f the achievement o f p h y s i c a l  s c i e n c e ; t h i s to Dewey was  i n d i s p u t a b l e evidence o f the e f f i c a c y  of i t s methods, and (2) Dewey h e l d that the raw m a t e r i a l o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y i s change; the problems o f s c i e n c e are determined by change.  R e f l e c t i o n upon these two ideas  will  r e v e a l how pregnant they a r e w i t h the main t e n e t s o f the instrumental  theory.  F i r s t l y , the achievements o f science: are  r e s u l t s o f t h i n k i n g i n a c e r t a i n s p e c i a l i z e d way, they a r e "consequences"; i f we r e c o n s i d e r f o r a moment, t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n by Dewey as t o the meaning o f Pragmatism, t h a t i s , " t h e r u l e o f r e f e r r i n g a l l t h i n k i n g . . . t o consequences f o r f i n a l t e s t and meaning", i t i s q u i t e apparent how the l o g i c i n h e r i n g i n the pragmatic p r i n c i p l e s c i e n t i f i c method o f t h i n k i n g . contained  c o u l d v a l i d a t e the  (Xn the a n a l y t i c o b s e r v a t i o n  i n the f o r e g o i n g sentence, the c i r c u l a r and s e l f -  r e g u l a t i n g c h a r a c t e r o f Instrumentalism methodology o f Instrumentalism  i s hinted at.  The  through i t s own r u l e o f r e f e r lk  ence t o consequences v a l i d a t e s i t s own methodology). Secondly, change, the s u b j e c t matter o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y a c c o r d i n g t o Dewey, i s the source o f human experience and human problems; t h i s stands i n c o n t r a s t t o the antecedent, immutable r e a l i t y o u t s i d e the p a l e o f experience t r a d i t i o n a l philosophy  about which  was concerned.  I t i s i n the concept o f change, g e n e r a l l y speaking, t h a t we d i s c o v e r the germ o f the theory o f Instrumentalism. There i s , perhaps, a H e g e l i a n metaphysical  element i n t h i s  lij. I n h i s L o g i c : The Theory o f I n q u i r y , New York, Henry H o l t and Company,"193^» Dewey r a i s e s t h i s q u e s t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e r o l e o f l o g i c i n i n q u i r y , p. 5. The q u e s t i o n , he s t a t e s , "can be adequately answered o n l y i n the course o f the e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n that f o l l o w s . "  concept; a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t change i s some k i n d o f enduring substratum p o s s e s s i n g the p r o p e r t i e s o f i n f i n i t e  variability  and c e a s e l e s s movement*  has  C e r t a i n l y , t h i s concept  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the c r e a t i o n p f an ordered metaphysic, the h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y p r o v i d e s precedent fifth  century, B C , 0  for i t .  and  In the  H e r a c l i t u s h e l d the view t h a t o n l y change  i s r e a l ; a l l t h i n g s and the u n i v e r s e as a whole are i n a constant, ceaseless f l u x . it  However, as f a r as Dewey i s  concerned,  i s ~ t o be assumed t h a t he does not h o l d any b e l i e f i n a  metaphysic  o f change, but regards change s o l e l y as a term  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the phenomenal world w i t h which s c i e n c e d e a l s ; n o t h i n g more* How  does t h i s changing world m a n i f e s t i t s e l f so as to  be amenable t o s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y , the q u e s t i o n might be Events are the tokens by which we  experience the c e a s e l e s s  v a r i a t i o n o f our environment, and these events are the " s t u f f " of inquiry*  asked?  elemental  I t i s i n the need t o g i v e meaning t o these  events t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e d i v e r g e so widely* was  I n the e a r l i e r p a r t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , i t  shown that p h i l o s o p h y concerned  i t s e l f w i t h the problem o f  d i s c o v e r i n g and "knowing" a realm beyond experience; i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n to t h i s aim we here a s s e r t t h a t s c i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h the changing  events o f our experience does not t r y  to get o u t s i d e the monism o f our  experience*  The meaning o f an event w i t h i n the schema o f a traditional logical  system I s determined  by a s s o c i a t i n g the  event w i t h some f i x e d term or terms o f r e f e r e n c e .  I n essence,  20 this the  is  how s e c u r i t y  o f knowledge  o t h e r h a n d , meaning i s  it  is  "the  Imputation  of  is  a method o f a c t i o n ;  is  attained.  F o r Dewey,  r e l a t e d to possible  certain  consequences  a rule for using  and  on  consequences; to an event;  it  interpreting  15 things." to  But,  any g i v e n  establish  event  of a f i x e d  events are  on the  consequences  s e v e r a l meanings  the v a l i d i t y  the b e n e f i t several  depending  c a n be  or i n v a l i d i t y frame  closely  of  concern us,  ascribed;  how do we  t h e s e meanings  of reference?  related,  that  without  Furthermore,  how do we e v a l u a t e  where  their  significance? The q u e s t i o n s  of  the  answered  by c o n s i d e r i n g the  events.  Psychologically  k i n d or degree  i n the  of  our p e r c e p t i o n o f  regarded,  is  there  states  and events?  psychology; mind.  It  validity  to  is  cognitive is  the  d i s c o v e r meanings  i n reaction against  itself  knowing p r o c e s s . of  This  o f awareness  that  and knowledge  against  concluding an a n a l y s i s  difference  develops  another,  his the  "is  two p e r c e p t i o n s ,  not  the of  our  one o f  the  introspective i n states  theory  of  an a f f a i r  of  or  of  the  cognitive  Dewey s t a t e s ,  of  cognitive  sense-data  i n w h i c h he u s e d a n example  and a c e n t a u r ,  i n the  to  the p r i n c i p l e t h a t  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f  one p e r c e p t i o n as  t i o n of a horse  Dewey  aroused by  validity  of  be  a difference  approach of  c a n be d e t e r m i n e d b y a n a l y s i s  perception  p a r a g r a p h might  nature  p e r c e p t i o n which would g i v e meanings  foregoing  validity in  the  percep-  Intrinsic  which i n s p e c t i o n of  the  two  15 R a t n e r , J o s e p h , e d . , I n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h e M o d e r n W o r l d , J o h n D e w e y ' s P h i l o s o p h y , New Y o r k J The M o d e r n L i b r a r y , 1939, PP« Oi>7-6b7 f o r d i s c u s s i o n .  2 1  a t a t e s o f awareness as such ean ever b r i n g t o l i g h t ; i t i s a c a u s a l matter, brought t o l i g h t as we i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c a u s a l antecedents and consequents o f the events having the meanings."  We can draw the c o n c l u s i o n , then, t h a t  i s n o t knowledge; t h e meaning o f an event which we  perception  perceive  o n l y becomes knowledge w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f something  17 e x t r i n s i c to what l i e s w i t h i n the p e r c e i v i n g organism. A l l o f what has been s a i d i n the p r e v i o u s  four  paragraphs can be reduced to t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n which i s a c o n c l u s i o n from which we take the next step towards the development o f the Instrumental theory: merely immediate."  I n supporting  H  Ho knowledge i s ever  t h i s statement, Dewey r e c u r s  a g a i n t o h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g the p e r c e p t i o n and  a centaur.  I n view o f the importance o f h i s  between p e r c e i v i n g and knowing, and the conditions  o f a horse  distinction  causal-consequential  connected w i t h the attainment o f knowledge, the  l e n g t h o f t h i s q u o t a t i o n may be excused: The p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n o f a horse i s v a l i d and that a centaur i s f a n c i f u l o r h a l l u c i n a t o r y , does n o t denote t h a t there are two modes o f awareness, d i f f e r i n g i n t r i n s i c a l l y from each other. I t denotes something w i t h r e s p e c t to c a u s a t i o n , namely t h a t w h i l e both have t h e i r adequate antecedent c o n d i t i o n s , the s p e c i f i c c a u s a l c o n d i t i o n s are a s c e r t a i n e d t o be d i f f e r e n t I n the two cases. Hence, i t denotes something with r e s p e c t t o consequences, namely, that a c t i o n upon t h e r e s p e c t i v e meanings w i l l b r i n g t o l i g h t (to apparency o r awareness) such d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f consequences that we should use  16  Ratner, I n t e l l i g e n c e i n the Modern World, p.  17  I b i d . , pp.  926-927.  926  22 the two meanings i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t ways. Both a c t s and consequences l i e s o u t s i d e the primary p e r c e p t i o n s ; both have t o be d i l i g e n t l y sought f o r and t e s t e d . Since c o n d i t i o n s i n the two cases are d i f f e r e n t , they operate d i f f e r e n t l y . That i s , they b e l o n g t o d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i e s , and the matter o f the h i s t o r y to which a g i v e n t h i n g belongs i s j u s t the matter with which knowledge i s concerned.18 The a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n and  cognition i n  t h e i r b e a r i n g upon the problem of a t t a i n i n g knowledge r e v e a l s the workings of Dewey's argument f o r the d e n i a l of the e m p i r i c i s t s ' c l a i m that the f o u n d a t i o n  of knowledge i s i n the  data o f e m p i r i c a l p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e l a t i o n o f 19 p e r c e p t i o n to knowledge, alists'  we  are s t i l l l e f t w i t h the r a t i o n -  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n knowledge has  an  immutable  basis i n l o g i c .  20 It  i s i n Logic:  The  Theory o f I n q u i r y  t h a t Dewey  examines the r a t i o n a l i s t p o i n t of view w i t h r e s p e c t to l o g i c . In the same work he  a l s o d i s c u s s e s the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f l o g i c  o f f e r e d by other p h i l o s o p h i c a l schools  as these l o g i c s form  p a r t s of t h e i r t h e o r i e s o f knowledge.  No attempt w i l l be made  here to review the arguments and ideas presented In t h i s "work. 18 Ratner, I n t e l l i g e n c e i n the Modern World, p. 927. My i t a l i c s . 19 B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l s t a t e s t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s r e l a t e d to e m p i r i c a l knowledge. I t i s i n developing t h i s r e l a t i o n that he and Dewey d i v e r g e . P. lliO i n The Philosophy of John Dewey, Ed., P a u l A. S c h i l p p , New York, Tudor P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  1951.  20 L o g i c : The Theory of I n q u i r y , T h i s volume cpntalns Dewey's f u l l y e l a b o r a t e d views on the r o l e of l o g i c i n the knowing process. I n The P h i l o s o p h y o f John Dewey, e d i t e d by Paul A. S c h i l p p , Bertrand R u s s e l l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s volume i s a c r i t i c a l essay devoted e n t i r e l y to an examination o f the' views set f o r t h i n L o g i c : The Theory of I n q u i r y .  23 The s u b s t a n c e , logic of  Is  that  inquiry;  however, logic  it  is  realm of being,  is  of Dewey s  considered apart  consonant  with the  already  b e e n made e a r l i e r  objects  of  targets  of h i s  stated the  criticisms  1  of  f r o m t h e human  w i t h the p o s t u l a t i o n  quest  for  in this  rationalist  certainty. essay that  activity  o f an  immutable  The p o i n t the  latter  are  t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h Dewey h a s made  in his  criticisms. essay  point that  indubitable,  the  Is  Indeed,  o n Dewey, quest  for  incompatible  the  the  as F e l i x Kaufmann h a s  "He n e v e r certainty with  has  the  tires for  the  o f d r i v i n g home immutable  acknowledgement  of  and the 21  autonomy o f t h e But i t  is  the  self-corrective  positive  our a t t e n t i o n ;  logic  element  playing  process of his  a part  of  scientific  inquiry,"  c r i t i c i s m s which  i n the  activity  merits  of  inquiry.  I t Is the c a r d i n a l p o i n t o f Dewey's d o c t r i n e t h a t l o g i c be s e p a r a t e d from s c i e n t i f i c methodology and the " f o r m s causes  of  logic  principles theory excerpt  need not  fixed  a n d c a n n o t be  antecedently  c a n n o t be more c l e a r l y  to  justified 22  inquiry."  stated  by a  Dewey's  than i n the  cannot and  priori  logical  following  t a k e n from h i s L o g i c : The t h e o r y , i n summary f o r m , i s t h a t a l l l o g i c a l forms ( w i t h t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s ) a r i s e w i t h i n the o p e r a t i o n o f i n q u i r y a n d are c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n t r o l o f I n q u i r y so t h a t i t may y i e l d w a r r a n t e d assertions. T h i s c o n c e p t i o n i m p l i e s much more t h a n t h a t l o g i c a l f o r m s a r e d i s c l o s e d o r come t o l i g h t when we r e f l e c t u p o n processes of Inquiry that are i n use. Of c o u r s e i t means t h a t ; b u t i t a l s o means  21 H o o k , S i d n e y , e d . , J o h n Dewey: Philosopher of Science F r e e d o m , New Y o r k , The D i a l P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 , p . 2 1 9 . 22 I b i d . ,  p,  222.  and  21+ t h a t the forma o r i g i n a t e i n operations o f i n q u i r y . To employ a convenient e x p r e s s i o n , i t means that w h i l e i n q u i r y i n t o i n q u i r y i s the causa cognoscendi o f l o g i c a l forms, primary i n q u i r y i s i t s e l f causa e s s e n d i o f the forms which inquiry into inquiry discloses.23 The  important c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn from Dewey's statement  of h i s p o s i t i o n regarding  l o g i c a l s u b j e c t matter i s that the  methods o f i n q u i r y a r e autonomous; they a r e s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g and s e l f - c r i t i c i z i n g ; ^ they are not s u b j e c t to e x t e r n a l 2  logical  criteria. What has been s a i d about the r e l a t i o n s o f p e r c e p t i o n and  c o g n i t i o n and the t h e o r y  o f l o g i c a l forms l e a d s us t o a  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i n q u i r y as an e m p i r i c a l procedure. what i s t o f o l l o w i s contained, i n the p r e c e d i n g  Much o f  e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y ,  paragraphs; but r e p e t i t i o n .and restatement may  f i n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n making c l e a r e r Dewey's c o n c e p t i o n o f i n q u i r y as an o p e r a t i o n a l device f o r the " i n s t i t u t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s which remove the need f o r doubt." A t t e n t i o n has a l r e a d y been drawn i n t h i s essay t o the p o i n t o f view, h e l d by Dewey, that t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y not  was  concerned w i t h a f f a i r s o f the mundane world; I t p r e f e r r e d to r  detach I t s e l f as much as p o s s i b l e from the p r a c t i c a l concerns o f men.  ^he n a t u r a l outcome o f t h i s detachment were  which emphasized the p u r e l y mental c h a r a c t e r grew up, i n f a c t , a d i v i s i o n between theory 23 Dewey, L o g i c ;  epistemologies  of inquiry.  There  and p r a c t i c e . I t  The Theory o f I n q u i r y , pp. 3 " i + .  2li See ray comment, p . 1$, Footnote l l i , on t h i s element o f Dewey's theory. '  25 Is i n t h i s d i v i s i o n t h a t Dewey f i n d s the f a i l u r e o f epistemology; the f a i l u r e to p e r c e i v e overt  action, involves  objects  that i n q u i r y  involves  experimentation e i t h e r with e x i s t e n t i a l  o r w i t h symbols.  The p r o c e s s o f i n q u i r y f o r Dewey i s  not merely a matter o f I n t u i t i o n , o f i n t r o s p e c t i v e of p s y c h i c objects the  s t a t e s , but r e q u i r e s  o f knowledge.  a c t u a l manipulation of the  I t i s t h i s emphasis on m a n i p u l a t i o n , on  a c t o f doing, that d i s t i n g u i s h e s  Dewey's epistemology, and  t h a t p r o v i d e s him w i t h h i s most p o t e n t weapon f o r c l a s s i c philosophy.  examination  But l e t Dewey speak f o r  attacking  himself:  I f , a c c o r d i n g l y , i t can be shown t h a t the a c t u a l procedures by which the most a u t h e n t i c and dependable knowledge i s a t t a i n e d have completely surrendered the s e p a r a t i o n o f knowing and doing; i f i t can be shown t h a t o v e r t l y executed o p e r a t i o n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n are r e q u i s i t e to o b t a i n t h e knowledge c a l l e d s c i e n t i f i c , the c h i e f f o r t r e s s o f the c l a s s i c p h i l o s o p h i c t r a d i t i o n crumbles i n t o d u s t . With t h i s d e s t r u c t i o n disappears a l s o the r e a s o n f o r which some o b j e c t s , as f i x e d i n themselves, out o f and above the course o f human experi e n c e s and i t consequences, have been s e t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e temporal and concrete world i n which we l i v e . 2 5 The  somewhat o r a c u l a r  tone o f these l i n e s r e v e a l the c o n v i c t i o n  i n which Dewey h o l d s b e l i e f i n a c t i o n as the cornerstone o f a t h e o r y o f i n q u i r y ; one c o u l d go f u r t h e r and say h o l d s b e l i e f i n i n q u i r y as a method o f a c t i o n . I f i n q u i r y i s a method o f a c t i o n , then "an i n q u i r y " must be some k i n d o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a s i t u a t i o n .  The  p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f i n q u i r y g i v e n by Dewey i s as f o l l o w s :  25 Dewey, The truest f o r C e r t a i n t y , p . 79.  26 I n q u i r y i s the c o n t r o l l e d or d i r e c t e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f an i n d e t e r m i n a t e s i t u a t i o n i n t o one t h a t i s so d e t e r m i n a t e i n i t s c o n s t i t u e n t d i s t i n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s as t o c o n v e r t t h e elements o f the o r i g i n a l s i t u a t i o n i n t o a u n i f i e d whole.26 Most o f Chapter VI o f h i s L o g i c i s devoted  t o an e x p l a n a t i o n o f  the meaning o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n terms o f the o p e r a t i o n s b y means o f w h i c h a n i n d e t e r m i n a t e s i t u a t i o n i s t r a n s f o r m e d a determinate  into  one. R a t h e r t h a n attempt t o summarize Dewey's  t h o u g h t s , t h e g o a l o f e x e g e s i s w i l l perhaps be more l i k e l y a t t a i n e d i f Dewey r e c a p i t u l a t e s h i s own argument and i d e a s and an a n a l y t i c a l commentary i s r e s e r v e d t o t h e w r i t e r .  Dewey's  summary g i v e n on p. 117 o f h i s L o g i c i s the f o l l o w i n g :  /  The t r a n s i t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by means o f o p e r a t i o n s o f two k i n d s which a r e i n f u n c t i o n a l correspondence w i t h each o t h e r . One k i n d o f o p e r a t i o n s d e a l s with I d e a t i o n a l or conceptual subjectm a t t e r . The s u b j e c t - m a t t e r stands f o r p o s s i b l e ways and ends o f r e s o l u t i o n . I t a n t i c i p a t e s a s o l u t i o n , and i s marked o f f f r o m f a n c y because, o r , i n s o f a r a s , i t becomes o p e r a t i v e i n i n s t i g a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n o f new o b s e r v a t i o n s y i e l d i n g new f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . The o t h e r k i n d o f o p e r a t i o n s i s made up o f a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s and o r g a n o f o b s e r v a t i o n . S i n c e these o p e r a t i o n s a r e e x i s t e n t i a l they m o d i f y t h e p r i o r e x i s t e n t i a l situation, bring into high r e l i e f c o n d i t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y o b s c u r e , and r e l a t e t o t h e background o t h e r a s p e c t s t h a t were a t t h e o u t s e t c o n s p i c u o u s . The ground and c r i t e r i o n o f t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s work o f emphasis, s e l e c t i o n and arrangement i s t o d e l i m i t t h e problem i n such a way t h a t e x i s t e n t i a l m a t e r i a l may be p r o v i d e d w i t h w h i c h t o t e s t the i d e a s t h a t r e p r e s e n t p o s s i b l e modes o f s o l u t i o n .  26 Dewey, L o g i c :  The Theory o f I n q u i r y , pp. l O i j - 1 0 5 .  27  Symbols, d e f i n i n g terms and p r o p o s i t i o n , are n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to r e t a i n and c a r r y forward both i d e a t i o n a l and e x i s t e n t i a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s i n o r d e r t h e y may s e r v e t h e i r p r o p e r f u n c t i o n s i n the c o n t r o l o f i n q u i r y . T h i s q u o t a t i o n seems t o relevant  to  the  theory of  which r e f e r e n c e what Dewey i s involves  the  contain a l l  interactive  as p o s s i b l e  serve  same t i m e a s  the  and p e n e t r a t i n g situation, bringing  essential  ideas  i n q u i r y w i t h the  exception  o f one  stating  Divested of  is  t h a t the  functioning  of the  o b s e r v i n g and t e s t i n g .  (hypotheses) at  the  w i l l be made l a t e r .  apparently  hypothesizing,  of  solutions tools  observation;  delineate  the  process  operations  We d e v e l o p  factual  hypotheses  w h i c h s t a n d o u t as m o s t l i k e l y  also,  to  a point of  culmination of  the process  hypothesis.  I n the  which w i l l  the  tools  the  emergence  of  is  plans directed  of  the  thereby  to  to  test  indicate  solutions  to modify  action  and,  existing  e n t i r e l y new  o b s e r v i n g and t e s t i n g  i n an adequate  analysis  testing  serve  equilibrium is  symbolism i n p e r f o r m i n g the they are  of this  of hypothesizing,  repeated u n t i l  of  s u c h t h a t we a r e a b l e  those  And s o t h e p r o c e s s  plans  material  The c o n s e q u e n c e  and make p o s s i b l e  of  a n d b y o b s e r v a t i o n we m o d i f y  our hypotheses.  hypotheses  of inquiring  o r i n s t r u m e n t s f o r more  the problem i n t o a focus  r e v e a l new f a c t s  elaborations,  to the problem, which  significant  Inquiry,  operations  to  reached,  that  and f u l l y  is,  ones. is a  verified  the m e d i a t i n g r o l e  s h o u l d n o t be  of  overlooked;  w h i c h make c o n t r o l l e d a n d d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y  possible. Now t h a t we h a v e a c l e a r e r inquiry,  it  is  perhaps  the  conception of  a p p r o p r i a t e moment t o  the meaning look at  the  of  28 q u e s t i o n towards which we have been d i r e c t i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s : To what does the quest  o f t r a d i t i o n a l epistemologies,  have r e f e r e n c e i n the f i e l d o f t h i s process  knowledge,  of inquiry?  That  the answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n l i e s w i t h i n the f i e l d o f i n q u i r y itself  i s i m p l i c i t i n the theory,  and when the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  the theory a r e r e i n f o r c e d by Dewey's r e j e c t i o n o f a l l t h e o r i e s t h a t h o l d t h a t knowledge can be a c q u i r e d apart from i t s method o f attainment,  then i t i s obvious t h a t knowledge "can o n l y be a  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the p r o p e r t i e s d i s c o v e r e d t o belong t o 27 c o n c l u s i o n s which a r e outcomes o f i n q u i r y . "  But Dewey g i v e s a  d e f i n i t i o n o f knowledge i n more formal and p r e c i s e language; he s t a t e s " t h a t which s a t i s f a c t o r i l y terminates  i n q u i r y i s , by  d e f i n i t i o n , knowledge; i t i s knowledge because i t i s the 28 "~ appropriate close o f inquiry." By v i r t u e o f the t a u t o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , Dewey hopes t o a v o i d any s u g g e s t i o n o f , t h e h y p o s t a t i z a t l o n o f knowledge.  No more i s t o be i m p l i e d b y  the use o f the word t h a n i s i n d i c a t e d by i t s f u n c t i o n as an a b s t r a c t term employed t o designate  the product  of Inquiry.  In order t o f r e e h i m s e l f from t h e a m b i g u i t i e s and t h e h l i s t o r i c a l connotations  connected w i t h t h e words b e l i e f and  knowledge, Dewey d i s c a r d s these  terms whenever p o s s i b l e and  r e f e r s t o the outcome o f i n q u i r y as t h a t which "warrants a s s e r t i o n " , or knowledge i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t which has warranted a s s e r t a b l l i t y .  27 Dewey, L o g i c : 28 L o c . c i t .  A s i d e from the ambiguity o f the word,  The Theory o f I n q u i r y , p. 8.  29 knowledge, Dewey has a much more s i g n i f i c a n t reason f o r the choice of t h i s special designation for the outcome of inquiry. "The  use of a term that designates a p o t e n t i a l i t y rather than  an a c t u a l i t y Involves recognition that a l l s p e c i a l i n q u i r i e s are parts of an enterprise that i s continually renewed, or i s a 29 going concern."  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to be given to that state-  ment i s that no outcome of inquiry i s ever f i n a l l y s e t t l e d . The body of knowledge i s a continuum, a system of means and consequences.  There i s no ultimate knowledge i n t h i s continuum;  a l l warranted assertions or b e l i e f s , to use the expression popular with Dewey, are subject t o and are means of further inquiry.  This instrumental  character of knowledge i s of  p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n science. In s c i e n t i f i c inquiry, the c r i t e r i o n of what i s taken to be settled, or to be knowledge, i s being s_o s e t t l e d that i t available as a resource i n further inquiry; not being s e t t l e d i n such a way as not to be subject to r e v i s i o n i n further Inquiry.30 The h i s t o r y of science could provide adequate documentation i n support of that assertion. Thus f a r , we have been considering Inquiry more or less i n the abstract, as a methodology amongst methodologies but removed from the arena of human a c t i v i t y .  The r a l s o n d'etre of  inquiry cannot be determined, i t s meaning cannot be elucidated, u n t i l we restore the function of inquiry to the f i e l d of human purposes.  In other words, only when we regard inquiry i n a  29 Dewey, Logic:  The Theory of Inquiry, p. 9.  30 I b i d . , pp. 8-9.  30 b i o l o g i c a l context  do the r e s u l t s of I n q u i r y a t t a i n meaning  significance.  q u e s t i o n now  The  to consider i s what are  p r o p e r t i e s o f human a c t i v i t y w i t h i n which the s p e c i f i c i s t i c s o f the t h e o r y are determined. has been shown t h a t the end  character-  o f i n q u i r y as a mode o f a c t i o n i s a of  an  s i t u a t i o n i n t o a determinate one which has  assertability.  a d a p t a t i o n and  warranted  But what i 3 the c o r r e l a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f i n q u i r y  w i t h i n the media o f human d e s i r e s and purposes? adjustment d i r e c t e d ? — t h e  satisfactory situationl  The  mediate the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n one  the  In a t h e o r e t i c a l sense i t  s o l u t i o n t o a problem, t h a t i s , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n indeterminate  and  To what end i s  attainment o f a more  f u n c t i o n of I n q u i r y then i s to  of a less s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n into  t h a t i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y .  In s h o r t , the fundamental  assumption which i s made i s that human a c t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d to a t t a i n i n g a s t a t e o f g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n .  The r o l e  o f i n q u i r y i s one  designed  to p r o v i d e  of Intervention:  a set of operations  the most e f f i c a c i o u s means f o r the attainment o f  human d e s i d e r a t a . With the theory  o f i n q u i r y now  p e r s p e c t i v e of the human s i t u a t i o n we o u t l i n e d above and f i l l alluded.  The  i n the m i s s i n g  r e l o c a t e d i n the  can re-examine the  theory  element to which we  consummation o f an a c t of I n q u i r y , we  have s t a t e d ,  i s a determinate s i t u a t i o n h a v i n g warranted a s s e r t i b i l i t y  or,  expressed i n terms o f human a s p i r a t i o n s , the e l i m i n a t i o n of undesirable  s t a t e of a f f a i r s .  We  have a l s o a s s e r t e d that  achievement o f t h i s determinate s i t u a t i o n may o f repeated  be the  a c t s o f I n q u i r y , each act i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d  an  the  consequence with  the  31 preceding  and succeeding  a c t s by a c h a i n o f consequences.  But,  i n t h i s sequence o f o p e r a t i o n s , i t i s not shown by what means we  determine t h a t the t e r m i n a t i o n of the sequence w i l l r e s u l t i n  a u n i f i e d , meaningful s i t u a t i o n .  The  answer, of course,  be found by an i n s p e c t i o n o f the mechanism o f the t h e o r y i n q u i r y but we must look to purposes—human purposes.  cannot of  I t Is  o n l y i n terms of the s a t i s f a c t i o n of human needs, i n the r e s o l u t i o n o f the doubt w i t h which i n q u i r y b e g i n s , the c r i t e r i a f o r determining  that we  find  whether the outcome o f i n q u i r y i s  a p p r o p r i a t e and f i t t i n g t o the need.  And,  as needs change as  a consequence of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and development of m a t e r i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e , so do new a r i s e demanding renewed I n q u i r y . a p p r e c i a t e more f u l l y the import  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s and  Perhaps, now,  we  doubts  can  of Dewey's o b s e r v a t i o n about  the p l a c e o f man  i n the u n i v e r s e , quoted a t the outset o f t h i s  chapter  "But  (p. 3 ) :  f o r man,  man  and the measure of importance." his  debt t o  i s the center o f  interest  (I wonder i f Dewey r e c o g n i z e d  Protagoras).  Up t o t h i s p o i n t we have s c r u p u l o u s l y avoided r e f e r e n c e to a concept having  l o n g and venerated  the h i s t o r y o f human s p e c u l a t i o n : p a r t l y i n deference  Truth.  any  standing i n  T h i s has been done  t o Dewey's r e j e c t i o n o f the concept i n I t s  c l a s s i c meaning and p a r t l y because i t i s beyond the compass o f t h i s essay to g i v e proper r e c o g n i t i o n to i t s p l a c e i n e p i s t e m o l o g l c a l theory.  Nevertheless,  because t r u t h i s the  concept around which many o f the arguments a g a i n s t c r i t i c i s m s of Instrumentalism  and  revolve, a b r i e f discussion of  32 the r e l a t i o n o f t r u t h t o Instrumentalism  i s essential to a  survey o f the t h e o r y . Prom one t r a d i t i o n a l viewpoint  the s e a r c h f o r t r u t h  g e n e r a l l y presupposed the e x i s t e n c e p f two independent s t a t e s o f b e i n g ; the r e l a t i o n b e i n g u s u a l l y t h a t o f an immutable r e a l i t y over and a g a i n s t a knowing mind.  T h e . f u n c t i o n o f .mind i s t h i s  dualism i s t o " m i r r o r " r e a l i t y i n a thought  p r o c e s s ; the  "image" b e i n g a s e t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s , l i n g u i s t i c o r mathematical. These p r o p o s i t i o n s are s a i d t o possess  the p r o p e r t y o f " t r u t h "  when a one-to-one r e c i p r o c a l correspondence  e x i s t s between them  and the f e a t u r e s o f r e a l i t y o f which they a r e tokens.  T h i s view  allows one t o a s c e r t a i n the t r u t h o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o p o s i t i o n s independently The  o f each o t h e r , or o f a whole s e t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s .  "whole t r u t h " , then, i s perhaps j u s t a matter o f the  s y s t e m a t i c accumulation  o f d i s c r e t e elements u n t i l the p a t t e r n  i s complete, as f o r example, a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e , which  31 R u s s e l l says i s a p e r f e c t model o f t r u t h . The  f o r e g o i n g b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the t r u t h  concept  l e a v e s much u n s a i d about the n o t i o n o f t r u t h but i t serves t o p o i n t out a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t r u t h which accounts, f o r Dewey's r e n u n c i a t i o n o f the concept. attained i s absolute i n character.  i n part,  T r u t h when f i n a l l y  A proposition within a truth  system i s e i t h e r true o r f a l s e ; i t e i t h e r m i r r o r s the r e a l i t y o r it  does n o t .  Moreover, a p r o p o s i t i o n , i f t r u e , can stand and  have v a l i d i t y independently o f the methods o f v e r i f i c a t i o n . 31 R u s s e l l , B e r t r a n d , A H i s t o r y o f Western P h i l o s o p h y , York, Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1945» p. 020.  New  On  33 On the o t h e r hand, the i n s t r u m e n t a l theory regards a p r o p o s i t i o n as a t o o l , as a means; i t s " t r u t h " r e s i d e s o r i s measured i n terms o f i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as means and I t owes i t s e x i s t e n c e t o the a c t o f i n q u i r y , t o a set of o p e r a t i o n s . F u r t h e r more, i t s continued v a l i d i t y , meaning by t h a t warranted  assert-  a b i l i t y , depends upon the consequences t h a t ensue as i t I t s e l f 32 i s used as an instrument o f i n q u i r y . The d i s t i n c t i o n between Dewey's Instrumentalism and  the  g e n e r a l l y accepted t r a d i t i o n a l view i s c l e a r l y drawn out by B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , who important of t r u t h . developed  may  be c o n s i d e r e d one o f the most  contemporary p r o t a g o n i s t s of the t r a d i t i o n a l  conception  R u s s e l l ' s a n a l y s i s o f Instrumentalism i s most f u l l y i n h i s c r i t i c a l essay "Dewey s New 1  L o g i c " , but  the  ground of h i s divergence i s c l e a r l y and adequately expressed i n more s u c c i n t form i n a passage o f h i s H i s t o r y o f Western P h i l o s o p h y from which the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n Is taken: The main d i f f e r e n c e between Dr. Dewey and me i s t h a t he judges a b e l i e f by i t s e f f e c t s , whereas I judge i t by i t s causes where a past occurrence i s concerned. I c o n s i d e r such a b e l i e f " t r u e " , o r as n e a r l y t r u e as we can make i t , i f i t has a c e r t a i n k i n d o f r e l a t i o n (sometimes v e r y complicated) t o i t s causes. Dr. Dewey h o l d s t h a t i t has "warranted a s s e r t a b i l l t y " — w h i c h he s u b s t i t u t e s f o r " t r u t h " — i f i t has c e r t a i n k i n d s o f e f f e c t s . T h i s divergence  32 I n h i s L o g i c : The Theory o f I n q u i r y , p. 2>k$* i n a f o o t n o t e Dewey accepts a d e f i n i t i o n o f t r u t h g i v e n by P e i r c e . I have r e f r a i n e d from r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n as i t would r e q u i r e more e x t e n s i v e treatment than i s p o s s i b l e i n t h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t r u t h . R u s s e l l i n h i s essay "Dewey's New L o g i c " i n the volume e d i t e d by P a u l A. S c h i l p p , The P h i l o s o p h y o f John Dewey, pp. XI4.I4. f makes a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f P e i r c e ' s d e f i n i t i o n s .  3k i s connected w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f outlook on the world. The p a s t cannot be a f f e c t e d by what we do, and t h e r e f o r e , i f t r u t h i s determined by what has happened, i t i s independent o f present or f u t u r e v o l i t i o n s ; i t r e p r e s e n t s i n l o g i c a l form, the l i m i t a t i o n s on human power. But i f t r u t h , or r a t h e r "warranted a s s e r t a b i l i t y " , depends on t h e f u t u r e , then, i n so f a r as i t i s i n our power to a l t e r the f u t u r e , i t i a i n our power t o a l t e r what should be a s s e r t e d . This enlarges the sense o f human power and freedom.33 R u s s e l l s t a t e s t h a t t h e divergence between h i m s e l f and Dewey i s connected  w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e o f o u t l o o k on the world, b u t the  q u e s t i o n might w e l l be asked as t o what i n f l u e n c e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l views have had i n forming t h e i r o u t l o o k s . I n t h i s survey o f the theory o f knowledge which Dewey has  c o n t r i b u t e d t o p h i l o s o p h y the development c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s  chapter has o f n e c e s s i t y been somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l w i t h , perhaps, some o f the ideas p r e s e n t e d n o t f u l l y together.  connected  To compensate f o r some o f the d i s c u r s i v e n e s s o f the  w r i t e r and t o p r o v i d e an a u t h o r i t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f Instrument a l i s m the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n taken from one o f Dewey s e a r l i e r 1  works seems to f i t the need: • • • i n s t r u m e n t a l i s m means a b e h a v i o r 1 s t theory o f t h i n k i n g and knowing. I t means t h a t knowing i s l i t e r a l l y something we do; that a n a l y s i s i s u l t i m a t e l y p h y s i c a l and a c t i v e ; t h a t meanings i n t h e i r l o g i c a l q u a l i t y are s t a n d p o i n t s , a t t i t u d e s , and methods o f behaving toward f a c t s , and t h a t a c t i v e experimentation i s e s s e n t i a l t o verification. Put i n another way i t h o l d s t h a t t h i n k i n g does n o t mean any t r a n s cendent s t a t e s or a c t s suddenly i n t r o d u c e d  33 R u s s e l l , A H i s t o r y o f Western P h i l o s o p h y , p, 826  35 i n t o a p r e v i o u s l y n a t u r a l scene, but that the o p e r a t i o n s o f knowing a r e (or are a r t f u l l y d e r i v e d from) n a t u r a l responses o f the organism, which c o n s t i t u t e knowing i n v i r t u e o f the s i t u a t i o n o f doubt i n which they a r i s e and i n v i r t u e o f the uses o f i n q u i r y , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and c o n t r o l t o which t h e y a r e put.3^  3I4, Dewey, Essays i n Experimental L o g i c , pp. 331-332.  CHAPTER I I THE  I t i s not theory  S O d A L THEORY  s u r p r i s i n g that Dewey i n developing  should r e j e c t a t the o u t s e t a l l s o c i a l and  his  social  political  d o c t r i n e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s which p u r p o r t 35  to be  the  cause, source and means of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Generally  speaking, most such t h e o r i e s are r e j e c t e d by Dewey because o f t h e i r p o s t u l a t i o n , e i t h e r i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y , of a s o c i e t y forming causal f o r c e l y i n g o u t s i d e o f the r e a l m o f what i s observable,  and are t h e r e f o r e o f the same order  of inadmis-  s i b i l i t y as many o f the m e t a p h y s i c a l d o c t r i n e s he has But w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e sums up  repudiated.  to t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l t h e o r i e s  he  the main ground f o r h i s s k e p t i c i s m about t h e i r v a l u e  e x p l a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l f a c t s w i t h the statement t h a t  in  "social 36  philosophy  e x h i b i t s an immense gap between f a c t s and  To i l l u s t r a t e the extent  doctrines."  of t h i s d i s j u n c t i o n t h e r e i s c i t e d  the  c o n t r a s t between the agreement which i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n i n matters o f observed phenomena as, f o r example, the behaviour of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s , and about the " b a s i s , nature, f u n c t i o n s  the complete disagreement and  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of  state. 35 Dewey, The  P u b l i c and Xts Problems, pp.  36 I b i d . , p.  3.  37 I b i d . , p. I i . 36  3-12.  the  37 T t must be acknowledged t h a t Dewey's examination o f  the t h e o r i e s and d o c t r i n e s which he catalogues c u r s o r y and s u p e r f i c i a l .  38 i s rather  But i t would be u n j u s t t o conclude  t h a t Dewey d i s m i s s e d them a f t e r o n l y c a s u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and f o r t r i v i a l reasons. 1$ fundamental:  The ground o f h i s r e j e c t i o n i n each case  the t h e o r y i s n o t founded  s o l e l y on the  v e r i f i a b l e f a c t s o f human b e h a v i o u r . A f t e r a f a s h i o n Dewey's approach i n p r e p a r i n g f o r the e x p o s i t i o n o f h i s own views i s analogous  to Descartes' p r i n c i p l e  o f doubting e v e r y t h i n g , w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e that Dewey goes much f u r t h e r than mere doubting; he undermines and r e j e c t s . Perhaps h i s sweeping r e n u n c i a t i o n s (and a t times d e n u n c i a t i o n s ) are not q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e to the scrupulous p o l i t i c a l  theorist,  but they do f o c u s a t t e n t i o n upon the need t o approach the s u b j e c t matter without an a l r e a d y s y s t e m a t i z e d b i a s which must o f n e c e s s i t y predetermine the outcome o f the i n q u i r y . Dewey does not d i s m i s s from f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l extant p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s .  He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t they have t h e i r  p l a c e and t h a t they a r e not without some importance,  even though  we do not f i n d i n them an adequate  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the o r i g i n o f  the forms o f p o l i t i c a l behaviour.  S i n c e such t h e o r i e s have  p l a y e d and continue t o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n human a f f a i r s , they must be kept i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f one•s t h i n k i n g when t h e o r i z i n g about p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s .  These a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r i e s  have not u s u a l l y emerged e n t i r e l y removed from t h e f a c t s o f 38 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems,  pp.  3-12.  38 human behaviour; they a r e o f t e n the r e s u l t o f the " a m p l i f i c a t i o n s  39 of s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s among those f a c t s . "  But simply  because  such t h e o r i e s a r e o n l y q u a s i - t r u t h f u l and the pure t h e o r y o f p o l i t i c a l philosophers, thereby.  they a r e not without  effectiveness  Much evidence can be found i n h i s t o r y and by  observation foregoing  o f the contemporary p o l i t i c a l  assertion.  scene t o v e r i f y the  Less d i f f u s e d proof r e s i d e s i n t h e  f u n c t i o n i n g o f the human organism i t s e l f .  Thinking  are a s p e c t s o f the same s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s ; conceived  and a c t i n g  an i d e a  i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some p l a n o f a c t i o n . Hence,  a political  theory  i s o r d i n a r i l y not without i t s p r o t a g o n i s t s .  I t would be extremely i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e t o explore  the m u l t i t u d e  o f s i d e i s s u e s which Dewey touches upon i n  the course o f the development o f h i s own s p e c i a l theory. c o l l a t e r a l d i g r e s s i o n s , which a r e frequent  These  i n h i s work, o f t e n  r a i s e p o i n t s which c o u l d o f themselves and apart from the main i s s u e be t h e s u b j e c t matter o f a s u b s t a n t i a l work o f r e s e a r c h and r e p o r t i n g .  However, as much as t h i s d i s c u r s i v e method o f  a t t a c k i n g a problem may serve  t o r e v e a l i t s connectedness w i t h  the whole body o f b e l i e f s and ideas o f which i t forms a p a r t , i n the i n t e r e s t s o f economy and cogency the e x p o s i t i o n o f the political  theory which f o l l o w s hereon w i l l be l i m i t e d t o an  e x p l i c a t i o n o f those o f Dewey's ideas which a r e r e l e v a n t and n e c e s s a r y t o a coherent development o f h i s c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e ,  J+O  39 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p, 6, ]±0 S e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s have a l r e a d y been made t o Dewey's book, The P u b l i c and I t 3 Problems. I would l i k e t o p o i n t out-here t h a t the e s s e n t i a l d o c t r i n e s comprising Dewey's s o c i a l theory a r e  39 The essential problem i n Dewey's inquiry i s the determination of those conditions which are necessary and s u f f i c i e n t to account f o r ordered community l i f e and f o r the p o l i t i c a l forms through which the community expresses i t s e l f .  The pre-  conditions stipulated by Dewey f o r such inquiry are twofold: i t must be conducted within the canons of the s c i e n t i f i c method and i t mu3t exclude a p r i o r i assumptions about the nature of the causes underlying the formation of states*  Furthermore, the  s t a r t i n g point of the inquiry must be r e s t r i c t e d to what i s observable, the behaviour of human beings, to the acts they perform either i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups. In making the d i s t i n c t i o n between the acts performed by individuals and by groups Dewey cautions us not to Infer that there i s something fundamentally d i f f e r e n t between the behaviour of, an individual i n h i s s i n g u l a r i t y and i n h i s group r e l a t i o n . S p e c i f i c i a l l y , Dewey i s asking us to deny the v a l i d i t y of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c psychologies which, i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l formulations, assume the existence of a private consciousness i n which the subject-matter of thought i s purely private and not s o c i a l l y derived. Any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which we do make of the distinctiveness of i n d i v i d u a l and group behaviour must be based s o l e l y on observation of behavioural differences.  Moreover, we  should note, according to Dewey, that the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the behaviour of singular human beings remains completely within the  are developed In t h i s book, although the detailed elaboration of many of the doctrines i s to be found i n other works by Dewey. In.the preparation of Chapter I I of this essay the writer has drawn heavily upon t h i s book.  physical, source  organic  structure  of behaviour.  purpose, I n what  desire, context  of  the p s y c h o l o g y  fit?  the  of  views are Since  to  the  the  of  originated  is  that  If  of his  f r o m Mead w i l l  and of  choice,  manifestation?  f a s h i o n what  Dewey  o f human b e h a v i o u r ,  specific  social  o f view  serve  of  of of  i n The  label  Public  under  strongly  to  w i t h i n w h i c h Dewey's s o c i a l  some i n his  Dewey a t  the  and e l a b o r a t e d  of his  that  Dewey  following  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  theory  book  warranted.  part  the  is  is  further  University quite and  i n f l u e n c e d by and took  assume  respects,  to d e f i n e  is  espouses  s o c i a l behaviourism,  a n d made I t  then,  essential  theory,  (expounded  colleague  some a s p e c t s  s o c i a l psychology  i n their  a  although  w h i c h he assumes  Dewey was  we a r e p e r m i t t e d ,  views  is  t h e o r y w h i c h Dewey  s o c i a l psychology  the p o i n t  Mead's  locus  inner content  as a t h e o r y  employ t h i s  psychological  extensively no d o u b t  the  arranged.  H . Mead, a one t i m e  Chicago,  the  s o c i a l behaviourism,  Human N a t u r e a n d C o n d u c t ) George  about  assertion,  development  examination o f the  constitutes  In a negative  P r o b l e m s he does n o t  which h i s  crucial  is  it  o f which behaviour  do t h e y  l e a d i n g up t o  and I t s  B u t what  etc.,  is  as  there over  own p h i l o s o p h y . accepts  Mead's  passages  taken  framework  developed:  111 I n The P u b l i c a n d I t s P r o b l e m s , C h a p t e r 1 , Dewey does n o t make c l e a r t h a t t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y i m p l i e d i n t h e observations a b o u t human b e h a v i o r i s a t h e o r y w h i c h he a c c e p t s , and t h a t some o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h a p p e a r as f a c t s o f b e h a v i o r a r e i n r e a l i t y c o n c l u s i o n s f l o w i n g from the psychology of s o c i a l behaviorism. 112 S c h i l p p , P . A . , e d . , The P h i l o s o p h y o f T u d o r P u b l i s h i n g Company, R e v i s e d E d i t i o n ,  J o h n Dewey, New Y o r k , 1951 > p p . 2 6 - 2 7 .  l£ S o c i a l psychology s t u d i e s the a c t i v i t y or behaviour o f the i n d i v i d u a l as i t l i e s w i t h i n the s o c i a l p r o c e s s ; the behaviour o f an i n d i v i d u a l can be understood o n l y i n terras o f the behaviour o f the whole s o c i a l group o f which he i s a member, s i n c e h i s i n d i v i d u a l acts are involved i n l a r g e r , s o c i a l a c t s which go beyond h i m s e l f and which i m p l i c a t e the other members o f t h a t group. We are not, i n s o c i a l psychology, b u i l d i n g up the behaviour o f the s o c i a l group i n terms o f the behaviour o f the separate i n d i v i d u a l composing i t ; r a t h e r , we a r e s t a r t i n g out w i t h a g i v e n s o c i a l whole o f complex group a c t i v i t y , i n t o which we analyse (as elements) the behaviour o f each o f the separate i n d i v i d u a l s composing i t . We attempt, that i s , t o e x p l a i n the conduct o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n terms o f the o r g a n i z e d conduct o f the s o c i a l group, r a t h e r t h a n t o account f o r the o r g a n i z e d conduct o f the s o c i a l group i n terras o f the conduct o f the separate i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g i n g t o i t . F o r s o c i a l psychology, the whole ( s o c i e t y ) i s p r i o r t o the p a r t ( i n d i v i d u a l ) , not the p a r t t o the whole, and the p a r t Is e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f the whole, not the whole i n terms of the p a r t o r p a r t s . The s o c i a l a c t Is n o t e x p l a i n e d by b u i l d i n g i t up out o f s t i m u l u s p l u s response; i t must be t a k e n as a dynamic w h o l e — a s something going o n — n o p a r t o f which can be c o n s i d e r e d or understood by I t s e l f — a complex o r g a n i c p r o c e s s i m p l i e d by each i n d i v i d u a l stimulus and response i n v o l v e d I n i t . 1^3 Mead has been quoted a t l e n g t h f o r the reason, as we s h a l l see, t h a t the r o o t s o f Dewey's views a r e i n the t h e o r y g i v e n i n t h i s  kk  excerpt. 1+.3 Mead, G.H. Mind, S e l f and S o c i e t y , Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 19q.°» PP* fo~7« I4J4. Gordon W. A l l p o r t i n h i s essay "Dewey's I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i a l Psychology" i n the volume The-Philosophy o f John Dewey, e d i t e d by P.A. S c h i l p p , s t a t e s that "What Dewey wants i s a psychology compatible w i t h democracy-and he r e j e c t s any mental s c i e n c e h a v i n g c o n t r a r y Implications'*; furthermore, the ground o f Dewey's r e p u d i a t i o n i s not i n c o n t r a d i c t o r y evidence but " f r a n k l y upon the b a s i s o f t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . " p. 2 8 3 .  With Mead's s u c c i n c t statement o f the psychology of s o c i a l behaviourism as a context, point of s o c i a l i n q u i r y : and  groups.  The  we  can r e t u r n to our s t a r t i n g  the observable a c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g f e a t u r e o f the concept of  the a c t i s i t s necessary i m p l i c a t i o n of a r e l a t i o n .between things.  When we  observe the a c t o f an i n d i v i d u a l or o f a group,  or f o r that matter,.any o b j e c t , there appears i n h e r e n t s i t u a t i o n the r e l a t i o n o f " c o n n e c t i o n  and  i n the  combination."  We  note that S i n g u l a r things a c t , but they a c t together....the a c t i o n of everything i s along w i t h the a c t i o n o f other t h i n g s . If6 That things should  act together  to the a c t i o n , but  i s a "law"  i s not  something  of e v e r y t h i n g  known to e x i s t .  There i s , perhaps, a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n to ask how to be  associated.  answerable one;  Such a q u e s t i o n ,  Is.  t h i n g s come  Dewey r e p l i e s , i s not  i t i s o f the same order o f questions  which demand to know why it  adventitious  the u n i v e r s e  i s the k i n d o f  I n other words, we must simply  as  an  those  universe  accept i t as a f a c t  of  nature t h a t " c o n j o i n t , combined, a s s o c i a t e d a c t i o n i s a u n i v e r s a l t r a i t o f the behaviour o f  things."  10 I t should be noted that Dewey's emphasis on the b a s i c , elemental s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a c t i s another i n s t a n c e of h i s indebtedness t o G.H. Mead. I n Mind, S e l f and S o c i e t y , p. 8 , Mead s t a t e s t h a t "The a c t . . . i s fundamental datum i n s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l psychology." J4.6 Dewey, The lj.7 I b i d . , pp. principles  I 1 8 I b i d . , po  P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 2 2 . 2  2  3k-  -  2  3  ,  f o r Dewey's d i s c u s s i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n  We a r e n o t , of  the p r i n c i p l e of  Interest of  is  however,.concerned here with association  in its  t o l e a r n what s i g n i f i c a n c e  human a s s o c i a t i o n .  What i s  its  of "associated  Furthermore,  it  how d o e s  characteristics  of  fit  the  a member.  principle field  of  o f human b e h a v i o u r ,  a group I n v a r i a b l y has  of  the  Moreover,  implications of  never of  group.  emerge  as  the process  has  of his  the b e h a v i o u r  since  objects  of  the  to account  whole  that the  state  on o t h e r s .  act  of  w i t h the  other is  the  context w i t h i n which the  pp.  "the  content  iil-li.2 t h i s  subject  to  context,  he  determining  can  influence  T h a t an a d u l t human b e i n g infancy  is  sufficient  When we o b s e r v e ,  singular  therefore,  state,  must  and  be  is  the socio-  i n d i v i d u a l s are l i v i n g  of t h e i r b e l i e f s  essay.  the  individuals  t h i n k i n g and s t r i v i n g  individuals i n their  the  any i n d i v i d u a l  i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i n k i n g and s t r i v i n g i t  i n Dewey's words,  ij.9 R e f e r e n c e  stated,  a p p l i c a t i o n to  from the  of  the  conclusion is  t h i n k i n g and s t r i v i n g a r e p r o v i d e d b y t h e  psychological  for  g r o u p o f w h i c h he  t h e human b e i n g  conduct.  c l e a r l y understood that, while occurring-In  t h e human community?  an e x i s t e n c e i n a b i o l o g i c a l  interactive  that  communities?  in its  connections  dependency  of  i n explaining  psychological  implies  s u r v i v e d from a h e l p l e s s  evidence  the  an i n d i v i d u a l a p a r t of  field  has w i t h i n the  action"  in  a c t i o n which,  of  the  of  Underlying this conjoint  it  i n d i v i d u a l , as Mead h a s  c a n o n l y be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s is  our  into a theory  and d i f f e r e n c e s  The b e h a v i o u r o f  g e n e r a l i z e d form;  relevance  special manifestation  the meaning  intentions  or,  i s a s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p r o v i d e d by a s s o c i a t i o n . " By g e n e r a l i z i n g reference  5o  the terms and e n l a r g i n g  o f the f o r e g o i n g  the frame o f  a n a l y s i s , the concept o f the i n d i v i d u a l  as the emergent from a group m a t r i x c o u l d p o s s i b l y be extended t o e x p l a i n the character  and behaviour o f sub-human species  as inanimate o b j e c t s . is  as w e l l  The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , then, as t o what i t  that d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the behaviour o f human beings i n a group  s i t u a t i o n from the behaviour o f other k i n d s o f organisms or objects  i n their respective  group r e l a t i o n s .  evident  i n any group s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n  There i s c e r t a i n l y the phenomenon o f  a c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h others o r , to use Dewey's phrase, " c o n j o i n t a c t i o n " , and i t s e f f e c t upon the members of the group and upon the group i t s e l f .  I n the human a s s o c i a t i o n ,  however, t h e r e i s an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r p r e s e n t : i n d i v i d u a l members o f the group p e r c e i v e ensue from t h e i r a c t i n g t o g e t h e r .  consequences which  The unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  human a s s o c i a t i v e a c t i v i t y i s the p e r c e p t i o n groups o f the consequences o f c o n j o i n t The it  stimulates  perception  by t h e members o f  behaviour.  of consequences creates  a new  perspective;  awareness o f the a s s o c i a t i v e and r e f l e x i v e nature  o f human a c t i o n s , a n d , as Dewey p o i n t s has  p e r c e p t i o n ; the  out, t h i s awareness  consequences i n the r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f i n s i g h t . For n o t i c e o f the e f f e c t s o f connected a c t i o n f o r c e s men to r e f l e c t upon the c o n n e c t i o n i t s e l f ; i t makes i t an o b j e c t o f a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t . Each a c t s , i n so f a r as the connection i s known, i n  50 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 25  itself  45  view o f the connection. Individuals s t i l l do the t h i n k i n g , d e s i g n i n g and p u r p o s i n g , but what they think o f i s the consequences of t h e i r behaviour upon t h a t o f others and t h a t o f others upon t h e m s e l v e s . 5 1 No great  amount o f a n a l y s i s i s demanded t o r e v e a l t h a t the  p e r c e p t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f one's behaviour upon others others upon o n e s e l f has a r e f l e x i v e element present  and o f  in i t .  It  i s t h i s r e f l e x i v e f a c t o r which l e a d s to a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the action i n i t i a t i n g  the consequences, and then to awareness  that  a c t i o n and consequence are p a r t o f a c a u s a l sequence s u b j e c t t o premeditation.  The outcome o f t h i s d i s c o v e r y ,  o f course, i s t h a t  e f f o r t Is made " t o c o n t r o l a c t i o n so as t o secure some consequences -  52  and a v o i d o t h e r s . "  With the entrance o f the i d e a o f c o n t r o l  we have r e a c h e d the stage d i v i d i n g the f a c t u a l and h y p o t h e t i c a l p a r t s o f Dewey's p o l i t i c a l theory, i n t o the a r e a o f h y p o t h e s i s  but b e f o r e moving more d e e p l y  some f u r t h e r p r e f a t o r y  remarks  about 'consequences' are r e q u i r e d . Perhaps a b r i e f summary at t h i s p o i n t might serve draw together  what has been s a i d a l r e a d y ,  and make our p o i n t o f  departure Into the more s p e c u l a t i v e areas of Dewey's somewhat more secure.  to  theory  The c o n j o i n t a c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s (or o f  subgroups) w i t h i n a group has consequences o f some k i n d and degree f o r the whole group and perhaps f o r some i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group.  These consequences are p e r c e i v e d  and by v i r t u e  of t h i s p e r c e p t i o n a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to c o n t r o l l i n g the 51  Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 2I4..  5 2 I b i d . , p.  12.  1+6 consequences by r e g u l a t i n g o r m o d i f y i n g the a c t i o n to a t t a i n s p e c i f i e d and predetermined The  results.  c y c l i c c a u s a l sequence o f action-consequence-  p e r c e p t i o n - c o n t r o l i s i n I t s e s s e n t i a l aspects an e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n i n a human s o c i a l context o f the procedure experimental I n q u i r y :  o f the method o f  concomitantly w i t h the occurrence o f A  ( c o n j o i n t a c t i o n ) t h e r e i s an event C (consequence); or  p o s s i b l y a f t e r a r e p e t i t i o n o f the concomitant  immediately,  occurrence  of A and C, we p e r c e i v e a c o n n e c t i o n between A and C; t h i s p e r c e p t i o n l e a d s t o a d e l i b e r a t e v a r i a t i o n o f A i n order t o a s c e r t a i n i f and what v a r i a t i o n occurs i n C; f i n a l l y , A i s  53 v a r i e d t o o b t a i n a s p e c i f i e d and predetermined  r e s u l t C.  In  t h i s r a t h e r o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the experimental procedure  we have l i m i t e d the f i e l d o f o b s e r v a t i o n e n t i r e l y t o  the f a m i l y o f c a u s a l sequences r e s u l t i n g from the v a r i a t i o n o f A; we have not been concerned  t h a t the C i , C2» C3, ... C^,  r e s u l t i n g from A_i, A2, A3 ... A  n  may have e f f e c t s  extending  beyond the l i m i t s o f our f i e l d o f o b s e r v a t i o n . The  consequences o f human a c t i o n c o u l d be l i m i t e d to the  f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y o f the group or sub-group w i t h i n which t h e a c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d o r , and t h i s i s the c r u c i a l p o i n t f o r Dewey's theory, the consequences c o u l d be p r o j e c t e d beyond the group o r sub-group i n t o the f i e l d o f a l a r g e r ,  encompassing  group o r i n t o the f i e l d o f another u n i n v o l v e d sub-group. other words, there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n degree,  In  extent or scope o f  53 The w r i t e r acknowledges t h a t t h i s i s a much o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the experimental procedure.  conjoint  a c t i o n i n that I t may have consequences not o n l y  the group i n which the a c t i o n o r i g i n a t e d but a l s o  within  within  another group o f which the former i s a sub-group or a separate and u n r e l a t e d  group.  are o f two k i n d s ,  ( I n Dewey's statement that  "consequences  those which a f f e c t the persons d i r e c t l y  engaged i n a t r a n s a c t i o n ,  and those which a f f e c t others beyond  those immediately concerned" one might conclude that  there a r e  two kinds' o f a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n two k i n d s o f consequences. Dewey's statement i s not t o be i n t e r p r e t e d t h a t way. event t h a t the w r i t e r ' s  I n the  comments a l s o l e a d to such an lnter«  p r e t a t i o n I wish t o emphasize that there Is o n l y a s i n g l e a c t i o n but  i t s scope g i v e s  i t points  o f a p p l i c a t i o n i n two d i f f e r e n t 55  s o c i a l contexts w i t h the r e s u l t i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n consequences. I t i s important t o have a c l e a r understanding o f t h i s p o i n t since  i t i s the b a s i s  of Dewey's d i s t i n c t i o n between p r i v a t e and  p u b l i c , which w i l l be d e a l t w i t h more f u l l y l a t e r ) .  I t i s these  consequences which go beyond the group i n i t i a t i n g the a c t i o n , the " i n d i r e c t consequences" as Dewey r e f e r s t o them, t h a t are the  concern o f a p o l i t i c a l  theory.  To d i s t i n g u i s h those a c t i o n s which have confined  consequences  to those d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a c t i o n from  those a c t i o n s which have consequences extending beyond the immediate p a r t i c i p a n t s Dewey employs and " p u b l i c " .  The meaning  the d e s i g n a t i o n s " p r i v a t e "  o f these two terms should be c a r e f u l l y  51+ Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 12. 55 I b i d . , p . 15. T h i s p o i n t i s made c l e a r e r i n Dewey's d i s c u s s i o n o f the b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e .  1+8  noted f o r they have a c q u i r e d  a s p e c i a l denotation,  as the  development o f the p r e v i o u s paragraphs i n d i c a t e s .  But t o  eliminate  any d i s t o r t i o n s a r i s i n g from p a r a p h r a s i n g , Dewey's  own d e f i n i t i o n s a r e submitted: When the consequences o f an a c t i o n are confined, or are thought t o be c o n f i n e d , mainly t o the persons d i r e c t l y engaged I n i t , the t r a n s a c t i o n i s a p r i v a t e one. ...Yet I f I t i s found that the consequences . . . a f f e c t the w e l f a r e o f many o t h e r s , t h e a c t a c q u i r e s a p u b l i c capacity....56 I t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t there  Is not a d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n c e  between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c ; the b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s orbital:  "namely, t h a t the l i n e between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i s  to be drawn on the b a s i s o f t h e extent and scope o f the a c t s  57 which a r e so important as t o need c o n t r o l . . . . " discussed  So f a r we have  a c t s and consequences i n t h e i r p r i v a t e and p u b l i c  meaning; we have p o i n t e d  out the r o l e t h a t p e r c e p t i o n  l e a d i n g t o e f f o r t s to r e g u l a t e  plays i n  consequences by c o n t r o l l i n g  a c t i o n s ; f i n a l l y I n the p r e c e d i n g sentence the n o t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r e o n t r o l has been i n t r o d u c e d , reference  b u t as y e t no  has been made t o t h e means o f a t t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o r , I n  the p u b l i c sense, f o r whom the c o n t r o l i s necessary. W i t h i n the o r b i t o f the p r i v a t e group a c t i o n s a r e v o l u n t a r i l y i n i t i a t e d i n order t o achieve consequences, i . e . , ends, d e s i r e d by t h e group:  thus t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t r o l I s  determined by t h e i n t e r e s t o f the group i n a t t a i n i n g the ends 56 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, pp. 12-13. 57 I b i d . , p. 15.  49 which have been i n s t i t u t e d . function  Control,  therefore,  i n i t s private  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a kind of self-regulation:  the  d i r e c t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i n t o those channels which appear t o be most l i k e l y t o l e a d towards the sought a f t e r  consequences.  On the o t h e r hand, when these v o l u n t a r i l y i n i t i a t e d  actions  s p i l l over t h e boundaries o f the o r i g i n a t i n g group i n t o the o r b i t o f a l a r g e r more i n c l u s i v e group, consequences may a r i s e which perhaps are not i d e n t i f i e d as d e s i r a b l e group.  by the l a t t e r  I f we r e f e r back to the d e f i n i t i o n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  p r i v a t e and p u b l i c  i t w i l l be noted that s i n c e  these consequences  a f f e c t others not d i r e c t l y engaged i n the a c t i o n , o f the group i n questions takes on a p u b l i c necessity  the conduct  significance.  The  f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the i n d i r e c t or unpremeditated  consequences c r e a t e s a new i n t e r e s t ; a concern on the p a r t "public"  i n c o n t r o l l i n g the occurrence o f u n s o l i c i t e d and,  perhaps, u n d e s i r e d consequences by r e g u l a t i n g the  of a  conduct o f groups whose p r i v a t e  the a c t i o n s and  i n t e r e s t s have e f f e c t s i n i  a public  domain.  d i f f e r e n t , meaning;  C o n t r o l i n the p u b l i c  sphere takes on a  i t no l o n g e r has the p a r t i c u l a r  Identification  w i t h the attainment o f ends but has more a r e g u l a t i v e the  connotation;  concern i s now w i t h l i m i t a t i o n , p r o h i b i t i o n and, i n some  i n s t a n c e s , promotion. The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n down to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  o f c o n t r o l as i t devolved  o f the c o n t r o l o f consequences  p r o j e c t e d beyond the i n d i v i d u a l s and a s s o c i a t i o n s  directly  concerned ushered I n the key concept i n the h y p o t h e t i c a l o f Dewey's s o c i a l theory:  The P u b l i c .  phase  When our a n a l y s i s o f  5o the  c o n t r o l of consequences reached the p o i n t where the  of i n d i r e c t consequences arose as a problem i t was a n t i c i p a t e that  regulation  logical  to  some s p e c i a l , o v e r r i d i n g group would emerge as  dominant amongst the m u l t i p l i c i t y of groups of which the community i s comprised.  The  assumption should not be made,  however, t h a t the P u b l i c e x i s t s i n any m e t a p h y s i c a l l y hypos t a t i z e d sense, t h a t i t i s c r e a t e d by e x t r i n s i c to the P u b l i c outside  community.  o f the  Such an assumption would take  s o c i a l causal  e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r the nature and instrument o f the p u b l i c a c t i o n . the d e s i g n a t i o n "The  some i n t e g r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e  sequences and functions  o f the  are  The  s t a t e as  an  imputed to  a f f e c t e d by  Now,  one  the  to such an extent t h a t  i s deemed n e c e s s a r y to have those consequences  must not  the  the P u b l i c than i s contained In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n :  I n d i r e c t consequences of t r a n s a c t i o n s  we  destroy  No more should be  P u b l i c c o n s i s t s of a l l those who  cared f o r . "  the  f u r t h e r word o f c a u t i o n  i d e n t i f y the p u b l i c w i t h p o l i t i c a l  It  systematically i s warranted: organization.  p u b l i c i s simply a s p e c i a l grouping of d i v e r s e s o c i a l  elements c r e a t e d existence  by a common i n t e r e s t and  i t Is d e v o i d of any  when i t comes i n t o  political characteristics.  But when, and by what means, does a p u b l i c become a r t i c u l a t e d by adding to i t s e l f the c a p a c i t y f o r r e g u l a t i o n control?  The  amorphous s t a t e o f the p u b l i c Is g i v e n a p o l i t i c a l  form when o f f i c i a l s  or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  means, appointed, to care f o r the generated.  58  and  are e l e c t e d or, by  common I n t e r e s t which has  I t i s through the agency of i n d i v i d u a l s who  Dewey, The  other  P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p.  15.  have  been  51 s u b o r d i n a t e d t h e i r p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s f o r the p u b l i c good.that the p u b l i c becomes a p o l i t i c a l  state.  The s t a t e , then, u s i n g  Dewey's d e f i n i t i o n , i s " t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n through o f f i c i a l s  o f the p u b l i c  effected  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the i n t e r e s t s shared by  59 i t s members."  This d e f i n i t i o n i s obviously  inimical to a  c o n c e p t i o n o f the s t a t e i n any r i g i d form and t o the e l e v a t i o n o f the  s t a t e t o a p o s i t i o n o f supreme importance i n the s o c i a l  hierarchy. S i n c e the f o r m a t i o n o f the s t a t e i s the end p r o d u c t o f a p r o c e s s t h e r e i s no f i x e d c r i t e r i o n by which we can e v a l u a t e the "goodness" o f a s t a t e .  The only  s i g n i f i c a n t point of r e f e r -  ence which we have i s the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ; and the measure o f the value o f the s t a t e Is the degree i n which the o f f i c e r s o f the  s t a t e have cared f o r t h i s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t by v i r t u e o f the  degree o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  the p u b l i c has a t t a i n e d .  seeking the good s t a t e we must r e c o g n i z e the c o n c l u s i o n there are no a p r i o r i  In  that  r u l e s f o r i t s f o r m a t i o n ; the r u l e s t h a t do  come i n t o p l a y a r e determined by the s p e c i f i c ends t o be a t t a i n e d i n the p r o t e c t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n  o f the p u b l i c  interest.  59 Dewey, John, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 3 3 . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare Dewey's f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the s t a t e w i t h the d e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s u s u a l l y g i v e n i n books on p o l i t i c a l science. F o r example, "A s t a t e i s a p o r t i o n o f s o c i e t y l e g a l l y Independent o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l , which permanently occupies a d e f i n i t e t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n which I t maint a i n s adequate government." P. 23 o f An O u t l i n e o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , G.A. Jacobsen and M.H. Lipman, New York, Barnes & Noble, I n c . , 1937 • T h i s d e f i n i t i o n emphasizes not the nature o f the s t a t e b u t the p l a c e and c o n d i t i o n s under which a s t a t e w i l l most l i k e l y be found.  52 In the d e f i n i t i o n of the s t a t e g i v e n i n a f o o t n o t e i n t h i s essay, r e f e r e n c e  60  was made t o "adequate government" as  one o f the c r i t e r i a o f the s t a t e .  The d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i e s more  than simply the f a c t t h a t the presence o f government i s a f e a t u r e which serves t o i d e n t i f y the e x i s t e n c e s t a t e "maintains adequate government."  of a s t a t e ; the  I n other words, govern-  ment i s c o n s t i t u t e d by and owes i t s e x i s t e n c e This p o i n t o f view i s i h d i s t i n c t c o n t r a s t  to the s t a t e .  t o the r o l e which  Dewey a s s i g n s t o government, and Dewey's d e f i n i t i o n o f the s t a t e g i v e n on the p r e c e d i n g page c l e a r l y r e v e a l s  the d i f f e r e n c e .  We would approximate what Dewey h o l d s to be the c o r r e c t r e l a t i o n between s t a t e and government i f we changed the p o s i t i o n s o f the words " s t a t e " and "government" as they now appear i n the statement 'the s t a t e "maintains adequate government"'.  This  t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f terms suggests the d e f i n i t i o n that the s t a t e i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n  o f the p u b l i c e f f e c t e d by  representative  o f f i c i a l s endowed with s p e c i a l powers; hence, the government comprises those r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to them by the p u b l i c .  o f f i c i a l s with authority  I n the d e f i n i t i o n of the s t a t e g i v e n by  Jacobsen and Lipman (quoted i n f o o t n o t e 59» page 5 D p o s s i b l e f o r the government to be corrupt w i t h the s o v e r e i g n t y  delegated  i t is  and inadequate but  and i n t e g r i t y o f the s t a t e remaining  i n v i o l a t e ; the s a n c t i t y o f the s t a t e i s p r e s e r v e d .  But In  Dewey's c o n c e p t i o n o f the nature and r e l a t i o n o f government and the  s t a t e , the s t a t e i s no b e t t e r or no worse than the government  60 Footnote 59 o f t h i s essay.  53 which constitutes i t . Amongst the other forms of association i n which a shared i n t e r e s t i s created, the state stands apart and preeminent i n representing the common interest shared by a p u b l i c . But l i k e a l l forms of association the state acts through singular human b e i n g s — i t s o f f i c e r s — a n d i s thereby subject to the weaknesses, prejudices and l i m i t a t i o n s of individuals who though charged with a public t r u s t often turn the special powers granted them to private account or f a i l to serve the public interest because of incompetence or ignorance.  Because the  state, moreover, i s created by human agencies i t does not ...imply any b e l i e f as to the propriety or reasonableness of any p o l i t i c a l act, measure or system. Observations of consequences are at l e a s t as subject to error and i l l u s i o n as i s perception of natural objects. Judgements about what to undertake so as to regulate them, and how to do i t , are as f a l l i b l e as other plans.6l There i s no immanent i n t e l l i g e n c e to guide the state towards the f u l f i l l m e n t of i t s r o l e ; there are only varying degrees of human i n t e l l i g e n c e operating within a t r i a l and error process. 62 formation of states must be an experimental process." over, the experiment must constantly be r e t r i e d .  "The More-  We cannot  assume that once the formation of a state has been achieved we have attained the b e - a l l and end-all of p o l i t i c a l l i f e .  The  conditions which generate a public.vary both with time and place.  With the transformation  of the physical conditions under  61 Dewey, The Public and I t s Problems, pp. 29-30. 62 I b i d . , p. 3 3 .  54 which men  l i v e , the new  p u b l i c s which emerge with the  o f time and  the  changes In environment r e q u i r e new  forms to be  custodians of t h e i r i n t e r e s t .  problem, then, i f i t can be of the  s t a t e , and  unrelenting;  c a l l e d such, i s the  the need f o r r e d i s c o v e r y  the new  and  crystallizes, old  inherited p o l i t i c a l  3  moved Into the more s p e c u l a t i v e  a r e a o f Dewey s s o c i a l theory when we 1  c o n t r o l of the The  rediscovery  p u b l i c s remain " i n c h o a t e ,  unorganized'* because they cannot use  We  political  p u b l i c s t o f i n d a means o f e x p r e s s i o n i n an  mold w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t  6  political  i s constant  otherwise the o l d form hardens and  f o r c i n g the new  a g e n c i« e s .  The  elapse  Indirect  and  theoretical  became concerned over  the  consequences o f the a c t i o n s o f a group.  t h e o r y developed so f a r i s summarized by Dewey as  follows:  Those i n d i r e c t l y and s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d f o r good or f o r e v i l form a group d i s t i n c t i v e enough to r e q u i r e r e c o g n i t i o n and a name. The name s e l e c t e d i s The P u b l i c , T h i s p u b l i c i s o r g a n i z e d and made e f f e c t i v e by means o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who as guardians o f custom, as l e g i s l a t o r s , as e x e c u t i v e s , judges, e t c . , care f o r i t s e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s by methods intended to r e g u l a t e the c o n j o i n t a c t i o n s of I n d i v i d u a l s and groups. Then and i n so f a r , a s s o c i a t i o n adds t o i t s e l f p o l i t i c a l 63 L a t e r on i n t h i s chapter some p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t and agreement of Dewey's s o c i a l theory w i t h the Marxian viewpoint w i l l be indicated. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , however, that there i s d i s t i n c t disagreement between Dewey and Marx as to what accounts f o r revolutions. Marx, of course, h o l d i n g t h a t r e v o l u t i o n i s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f an I r r e c o n c i l a b l e and i n t o l e r a b l e c l a s s antagonism; whereas Dewey f i n d s the b a s i s i n the p e r s i s t e n c e o f an o b s o l e s c e n t p o l i t i c a l form kept i n e x i s t e n c e by the "power and l u s t " o f p u b l i c o f f i c e r s which a new p u b l i c must break through, sometimes by v i o l e n t means, i n order to express i t s e l f and e f f e c t changes. See p. 31 The P u b l i c and I t s Problems. 61+ Dewey, The  P u b l i c and  I t s Problems, p.  35«  5 5  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and something which may be government comes i n t o b e i n g : the p u b l i c i s a p o l i t i c a l state.6I4. Implicit  i n what has  been d i s c u s s e d  i n the  preceding  paragraphs i s the d o c t r i n e o f the p l u r a l i t y of s o c i a l forms; a d o c t r i n e which admits the  existence  with the passage o f time. Dewey's t h e o r y  o f a m u l t i p l i c i t y of p u b l i c s  However, we  have been  considering  as though there were o n l y a s i n g l e , g e n e r a l i z e d  P u b l i c , which might be  symbolized by the l e t t e r P, but  be noted t h a t Dewey's theory P3,  Publics, P i , P , 2  ... P  n  concerns a m a n i f o l d  of  i t should  specific  and the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s  under  which they a r i s e . The  meaning of Dewey's s o c i a l p l u r a l i s m becomes  apparent i f we  examine s e m a n t i c a l l y h i s use  I t i s perhaps s u p e r f l u o u s  of the word ' s o c i e t y ' .  to mention that t h i s word does not  denote any k i n d of transcendent e n t i t y under which groups o f human beings are accepts  subsumed.  The  s o c i a l psychology which Dewey  n e c e s s a r i l y excludes such n o t i o n s .  s o c i e t y can be  c l e a r l y discerned  i f we  What Dewey means by  r e f l e c t upon the  fact  of  the v a r i e t y of a s s o c i a t i o n s o f which we,  as s i n g u l a r human beings,  are i n e x t r i c a b l y and  S o c i e t y i s not  inevitably a part.  from which we  can v o l u n t a r i l y stand a p a r t ; we are  i n c a r n a t e ; we  are a s s o c i a t e d , whether we  and  our  something  society,  choose t o be  i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s the p r o d u c t of a s s o c i a t i n g .  or  not,  In i t s  broadest sense, t h e r e f o r e , s o c i e t y i s " i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r  6lj. Dewey, The  P u b l i c and  I t s Problems, p.  35»  56 connections w i t h one  another."  65  Xn Dewey's d e s c r i p t i o n  S o c i e t y . . . i s many a s s o c i a t i o n s not a single organization. S o c i e t y means a s s o c i a t i o n ; coming together i n j o i n t i n t e r c o u r s e and a c t i o n f o r the b e t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n of any form o f experience which i s augmented and confirmed by b e i n g shared. 66 I n many contexts any  Dewey b r i n g s out  the p o i n t that s o c i e t y i s not  s i n g l e form of a s s o c i a t i o n , nor i s I t a name to cover  aggregate o f a s s o c i a t i o n s h e l d together  an  by some p r i n c i p l e o f  i n t e g r a t i o n ; there i s no p a r t i c u l a r " t h i n g " to which the word has  reference.  behavioural suggests.  S o c i e t y i s the name g i v e n to a u n i v e r s a l k i n d  process as the l a t t e r p a r t of the f o r e g o i n g To d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o c e s s i s one  of the tasks  of  quotation of  s o c i a l psychology; to make e x p l i c i t what i s i n v o l v e d i n the statement t h a t " S o c i e t y i s the process o f a s s o c i a t i n g I n such ways t h a t experiences,  i d e a s , emotions, values  are  transmitted  and made common. •" How  does t h i s m a n i f o l d  of a s s o c i a t i o n s a r i s e ?  They  emerge i n response to the common i n t e r e s t s , immense i n number, which b i n d people t o g e t h e r .  The  f o s s i l s , r e l i g i o n , business,  crime, e t c . ; the endless  p u r s u i t s and 4s the  i n t e r e s t s may  be  i n music,  a c t i v i t i e s i n which human beings engage themselves.  conditions  of l i f e  produce something new  and  change so do c r e a t e new  the i n t e r e s t s evolve  a s s o c i a t i o n s and,  same time, the grounds f o r an o l d i n t e r e s t d i e out and  66 Dewey, R e c o n s t r u c t i o n 67  v a r i e t y of  I b i d . , p.  207.  i n P h i l o s o p h y , p.  205.  at the  to  the  57 a s s o c i a t i o n with i t .  S o c i e t y i s i n a constant s t a t e o f f l u x  w i t h the m u l t i p l i c i t y and c h a r a c t e r o f a s s o c i a t i o n s  fluctuating  w i t h the events which determine the c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l  life.  The f u n c t i o n , then, which i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a v a s t number o f o v e r l a p p i n g groups each of which i s a s o c i a l molecule owing i t s e x i s t e n c e to the magnetic f o r c e o f i n t e r e s t , i s s o c i e t y * Most o f what has been s a i d about the c a u s a l o r i g i n s o f the a s s o c i a t i o n , the p u b l i c , the s t a t e and other s o c i a l phenomena has been concerned w i t h the consequences from the c o n j o i n t a c t i v i t y of s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s .  that flow  Our explanations,  i n other words, have r e v o l v e d around m a t e r i a l , b e h a v i o u r i s t i c phenomena, the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f s o c i a l psychology.  But these  phenomena even though o r g a n i z e d i n t o v e r i f i a b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are not o f themselves s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n the v a r i a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the s o c i a l p r o c e s s .  changes,  Moreover, t o  attempt to c o n f i n e o u r s e l v e s to the f i e l d o f s o c i a l psychology can only l e a d to v a l u e l e s s c i r c u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n s .  We must get  o u t s i d e the frame o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n which we have been working and look f o r those c o n d i t i o n s which determine the c h a r a c t e r o f a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t y and the s p e c i f i c nature o f the which ensue from t h i s  consequences  activity.  The answer to the problem which has j u s t posed i s t o be found i n our p h y s i c a l environment.  F o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes we  have assumed a d i s c o n t i n u i t y between a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t y and environment but, i n f a c t , t h e r e i s no such d i s j u n c t i o n ; i t e x i s t s o n l y i n the symbolism used to r e p r e s e n t these two of a f f a i r s .  states  There i s i n e v i t a b l y an i n t e r a c t i o n between the  58 a c t i v i t y of a group,and the environment o f the group, which shapes the s o c i a l consequences of the group a c t i v i t y .  For  purposes o f p o l i t i c a l theory, however, we are not concerned w i t h environment i n i t s wide b i o l o g i c a l sense but w i t h the more immediate environment of d a i l y , i n t i m a t e contact and i n t e r a c t i o n s . I t i s the proximate environment i n which, when changes occur i n the forms and d i r e c t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r , some c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n between a s p e c i f i c environmental f a c t o r and the a l t e r e d behaviour can be p e r c e i v e d .  Dewey r e f e r s t o t h i s environment as a  '"material c u l t u r e " which he a s s e r t s i s o f b a s i c Importance i n determining v a r i a t i o n s i n p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r .  He s t a t e s h i s  views on t h i s p o i n t I n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : The consequences o f c o n j o i n t b e h a v i o r d i f f e r i n k i n d and i n range w i t h changes i n " m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e " , e s p e c i a l l y those i n v o l v e d I n exchange of raw m a t e r i a l s , f i n i s h e d products and above a l l i n t e c h n o l o g y , i n t o o l s , weapons and u t e n s i l s . These i n t u r n are immediately a f f e c t e d by i n v e n t i o n i n means o f t r a n s i t , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and inter-communlcation.... Roughly speaking, t o o l s and implements d e t e r mine o c c u p a t i o n s , and o c c u p a t i o n s determine the consequences o f a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t y . In determining consequences, they i n s t i t u t e p u b l i c s w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s , which exact d i f f e r e n t types o f p o l i t i c a l behaviour to care f o r them.°8 Expressed i n fewer words, what Dewey i s s t a t i n g Is that  economic  c o n d i t i o n s have a l a r g e i n f l u e n c e i n determining p o l i t i c a l behaviour.  68 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, pp. 1+4*45• Compare Dewey's statement w i t h t h a t o f the M a r x i s t George Plekhanov: "The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f any g i v e n s o c i e t y i s determined by the s t a t e o f I t s p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s , As t h i s s t a t e changes, the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s bound sooner or l a t e r t o change too." p. 3 2 , The M a t e r i a l i s t Conception o f H i s t o r y , New York, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 191+.0. There are q u i t e a number o f i d e a s expressed i n Plekhanov's essay which would f i t i n t o Dewey's s o c i a l t h e o r y .  59 In a l a t e r work Dewey broadens the concept o f c u l t u r e i n i t s b e a r i n g upon p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o i n c l u d e f a c t o r s which c o u l d be subsumed under the c a t e g o r i e s ,  69  moral.  He r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n whether any one o f t h e f a c t o r s  i s dominant i n determining the p a t t e r n s the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f grouping. accept  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  o f s o c i a l behaviour a t  The answer which he appears t o  i s t h a t p r o v i d e d by anthropology: Whatever are t h e n a t i v e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f human n a t u r e , the c u l t u r e o f a p e r i o d and group i s the determining i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i r arrangement; i t i s t h a t which determines the p a t t e r n s of behaviour t h a t mark out t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f any group, f a m i l y , c l a n , p e o p l e , sect, f a c t i o n , c l a s s . 7 0  Dewey has not e n t i r e l y r e l i n q u i s h e d h i s h o l d upon the p r i n c i p l e o f economic d e t e r m i n a t i o n  as he e a r l i e r expressed i n t h e  q u o t a t i o n g i v e n i n the p r e c e d i n g the g r e a t e s t indicates:  paragraphs but i t i s no longer  s i n g l e determinant as the f o l l o w i n g sentence " P r o o f i s d e c i s i v e t h a t economic f a c t o r s are an  i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f the c u l t u r e that determines the a c t u a l  turn  taken by p o l i t i c a l measures and r u l e s , no matter what v e r b a l „71 b e l i e f s are h e l d . " That Dewey d e r i v e d many ideas from the same source as K a r l Marx and p r o b a b l y much from Marx h i m s e l f for dispute.  i s not a matter  Moreover, both Dewey and Marx once  i n s p i r a t i o n from the same master, Hegel.  obtained  Whether t h i s a s s o c i a t i  6 9 Dewey, John, Freedom and Culture, New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1 9 3 9 . See Chapters 1 and 2 . 79 I b i d . , p. 18 7 1 I b i d . , p. 8 .  60  accounta for a s i m i l a r i t y of outlook on many points i s d i f f i c u l t to say with any conclusiveness.  Bertand Russell goes much  deeper i n pointing out the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ideas of Marx and Dewey.  Russell states that a doctrine of Marx's, l a t e r  embodied i n the theory of d i a l e c t i c a l materialism,  i s "allowing  f o r a certain difference of phraseology...essentially  72 indistinguishable from instrumentalism."  I t i s surprising  that Dewey d i d not comment on t h i s comparison i n the essay he wrote replying to the essayists.  The point which Interests us  here, however, i s not whether Dewey and Marx used an economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of society to explain p o l i t i c a l behaviour and the events of h i s t o r y but whether future events and future p o l i t i c a l action are subject to human control through the use of intelligence.  Unlike Marx whose views have underlying them amf'  i n e v i t a b i l i t y p r i n c i p l e Dewey asserts the primacy of i n t e l ligence acting through the methodology of science as the basis f o r the determination  of the future course of human events.  It would be an i n t e r e s t i n g problem i n comparative analysis to show systematically the points of agreement and disagreement i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l theories of Dewey and Marx.  But such i s not the task of this essay.  We can go no  farther here than to make one or two generalizations which,  72  II4.3.  Schilpp, P.A., ed. The Philosophy of John Dewey, p. The s i m i l a r i t y which Russell alleges exists does not seem to serve a purpose i n Russell's analysis of Dewey's instrumentalism as he does not draw any conclusions except the one about s i m i l a r i t y . There i s , of course, the implied conclusion that since the two men were at one time Hegelians t h e i r theories are similar because the same d i a l e c t i c a l element i s present i n them.  61 though they are without documented substantiation, have gained through the passage of time a status of a c c e p t a b i l i t y .  There^  are many things i n the Marxist analysis of s o c i a l and economic history with which Dewey agrees and has used In the foundation of h i s own views; the example of the bearing of economic facts i n the formation of p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s has already been cited.  Nevertheless, although there may be substantial agreement  on c e r t a i n facts there Is a wide divergence between Dewey and Marx on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of and the conclusions these f a c t s .  drawn from  The disagreement at the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l i s  undoubtedly a r e f l e c t i o n of a more fundamental disagreement i n l o g i c and metaphysics.  But since we are interested i n differences  between Dewey and the Marxists i n so far as the difference sheds l i g h t on the s o c i a l theory which Dewey asserts, a comparison of a basic concept i n t h e i r respective p o l i t i c a l theories w i l l I l l u s t r a t e the r a d i c a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y of conclusion.  As the origin  of the state claims the attention of both Dewey and the Marxists, we probably cannot go f a r wrong i n choosing t h i s point of mutual concern to reveal the contrasting d i s t i n c t i o n In views. Dewey's conception of the state has already been given i n t h i s essay but f o r the sake of this comparison we repeat i t : "The state i s the organization of the public effected through o f f i c i a l s f o r the protection of the interests shared by i t s 73 members." By contrast the d e f i n i t i o n given by Lenin, one of  73 Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, p. 33*  62  the moat i n f l u e n t i a l d i s c i p l e s of Marx, i s submitted: i s the product and the manifestation 7ii. class antagonism."  These two  "The  state  of the i r r e c o n c i l a b i l i t y of  statements speak for themselves;  no comment w i l l be added. In the l a s t few paragraphs we moved from a  consideration  of Dewey's s o c i a l pluralism to an exploration of the grounds for the difference i n s o c i a l groupings, p a r t i c u l a r l y publics, which l e d us to a b r i e f examination of the r e l a t i o n between Marxian and Deweyian views.  Now  the Marxists assert that the state has  a class function; i t serves the i n t e r e s t of the dominant economic 75 group i n society.  Dewey, on the other hand, contends that  there i s nothing i n h i s hypothesis of the state which determines a p r i o r i that i t must serve a partisan s o c i a l i n t e r e s t .  Further-  more, there i s nothing i n the doctrine of p l u r a l forms (and nothing should be implied from i t ) that there are  "inherent  l i m i t s to state action"; that the "state i s l i m i t e d to s e t t l i n g 76 c o n f l i c t s among other groups." Dewey asserts that i t should be c l e a r l y recognized that Our hypothesis i s neutral as to any general, sweeping implications as to how f a r state a c t i v i t y may extend. It does not indicate any p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t y of public action.... Just as publics and states vary"with conditions of time and place, so do"the concrete functions which should be carried on by states....Their scope i s something 7i+ Lenin, V.I., State and Revolution, Publishers, 1935* p. b. 75 Ibid., p.  New  York, International  9.  76 Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, p.  73.  63 t o be c r i t i c a l l y a n d determined.77 Having developed leave  the  logical  theory  to  consistency.  to  states  show t h a t  sequences. exhibit that  the  to  a theory  of  the  find verification  state  to  determine  test  Dewey does  and s u p p o r t  F o l l o w i n g t h e method o f  p r o c e d u r e he u n d e r t a k e s actual  experimentally  s t a t e s perform the  there  is  by  state  w h i c h c a n be  taken  is  i n some d e g r e e  operating  as  signs  evidence  caring for  The c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h Dewey r e a c h e s  traits  studying  factual  function of  own  scientific  h i s hypothesis  whether  i n Its  not  is  con-  that  states  or "marks"  do  indicating  i n conformity  with  78 the  hypothesis. The f i r s t  the  existence  ization.  of  a state  because  of  today  The g o v e r n i n g  i n the  of  is  local-  states,  conventional the  apparatus  theocratic  e a r l i e r periods  of  state  oriental  and remote  a u t h o r i t y not  places.  from a p u b l i c  but  c o u p l e d p e r h a p s w i t h an u n c o m p r i s i n g  in filial  a leader.  the  establish  organizations,  only i n isolated  doctrine  and u n r e a s o n i n g b e l i e f d i v i n i t y of  social  A p r i m e example  exists  and g e o g r a p h i c a l  w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d as  body d e r i v e d i t s  from a t h e o l o g i c a l  of  the p r e s e n c e  which f l o u r i s h e d widely h i s t o r y but  w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o  temporal  and contemporary,  state a c t i v i t y .  the  is  T h e r e a r e many f o r m s  historical largely  of  characteristic  It  77 Dewey, The P u b l i c a n d I t s  is  piety,  ancestor worship,  obvious,  Problems,  then, pp.  that  or  within  73-71+.  78 T h e s e t r a i t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e P u b l i c and I t s P r o b l e m s , Chapter I I .  detail  i n The  in  such a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n there i s no concern f o r consequences; there i s r u l e but not c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t i o n .  A t the o t h e r  extreme from a m o n o l i t h i c t h e o c r a c y we f i n d s o c i a l groupings of a s i z e which do not r e q u i r e a f o r m a l apparatus to r e g u l a t e the spread o f consequences.  A s o c i a l group e x i s t s but i t i s a  f a c e - t o - f a c e group i n which the consequences are spread and are a p p r e c i a t e d almost as q u i c k l y as w i t h i n a f a m i l y u n i t . s o c i e t y might be found on one o f the South P a c i f i c The importance o f geography,  of physical  Such a  Islands. environment,  has a l r e a d y been suggested i n e a r l i e r remarks about t h e significance o f environment i n determining the d i f f e r e n c e s i n and m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p u b l i c s and s t a t e s .  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a  geographic a r e a and the range, k i n d and u n i t y o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the s o c i a l groupings occupying the a r e a c e r t a i n l y have some correlation.  The I n t e r e s t s o f a people d e r i v i n g t h e i r  existence  from the farms o f a p l a i n s country w i l l d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from those o f a people l i v i n g i n a rugged, b a r r e n mountain country. Moreover, the presence o f oceans, g r e a t r i v e r s , and h i g h mountains tends t o h a l t s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e and thereby prevent the spread o f consequences. r a p i d communication  Although Canada I s by v i r t u e o f  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a s t a t e w i t h i n the  meaning o f Dewey's d e f i n i t i o n , i t e x h i b i t s i n i t s physiography the d i v i s i o n o f a l a n d area i n t o d i s t i n c t example,  sections.  For  B r i t i s h Columbia i s bounded n a t u r a l l y by the P a c i f i c  Ocean and the Rocky Mountains w i t h the f o r e s t s as the  79 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication b r i n g i n t o p l a y other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are o f equal Importance as t r a i t s o f a state.  65 p r e d o m i n a t i n g economic f e a t u r e  of  of  Laurentian S h i e l d there  the Rockies  great  plains  This  analysis  to  area with  illustrate  spread o f  and West  the  of  the  its  the  particular  intervening  economic  area.  East is  a  characteristics.  c o u l d be c a r r i e d f u r t h e r b u t  enough h a s b e e n  said  Dewey's p o i n t  Is  the  consequences  that of  "Whatever  associated  a b a r r i e r to  b e h a v i o u r by t h a t  very  80 fact  operates  to  set  I n summary, geographical recognizing political our  and,  up p o l i t i c a l then,  when we u s e  l o c a l i z a t i o n we must that  there  is  boundaries." the  trait  temporal and  do so w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  no h a r d a n d f a s t  and n o n - p o l i t i c a l  of  line  associations.  deciding  We must m a i n t a i n i n  s e a r c h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e and r e a l i z e t h e r e f r o m There are a s s o c i a t i o n s which are too narrow and r e s t r i c t e d i n scope to g i v e r i s e t o a p u b l i c , j u s t as t h e r e a r e a s s o c i a t i o n s t o o i s o l a t e d f r o m one a n o t h e r t o f a l l w i t h i n t h e same p u b l i c . 8 l furthermore,  that  that  Somewhere between a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t a r e n a r r o w , c l o s e and i n t i m a t e and t h o s e w h i c h a r e so r e m o t e as t o h a v e o n l y i n f r e q u e n t and c a s u a l c o n t a c t l i e s , t h e n , the p r o v i n c e o f a s t a t e . 8 2 The s e c o n d t r a i t quantitative  scope  is  of results  f o u n d i n the f a c t of  conjoint  p u b l i c w i t h a need f o r  organization.  individuals  result  and g r o u p s  SO.Dewey, T h e  Public  81  Ibid.,  p.  39.  82  Ibid.,  p.  J4.3.  and  that  behaviour  When t h e  i n consequences  I t s Problems,  p.  the generates  behaviour that  I4.3.  become  of so  a  66 widespread t h a t no p r e d i c t i o n can be made as to who o r what number w i l l l i k e l y be a f f e c t e d then a p u b l i c i n t e r v e n e s . we take the f o r e g o i n g  statement together  If  w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n ~  t h a t "No one can take i n t o account a l l the consequences o f the a c t s he performs", t h e r e w i l l o f n e c e s s i t y a r i s e a system o f "dikes  and channels" to c o n f i n e a c t i o n s w i t h i n l i m i t s presented  83 by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .  Such a system has a t w o f o l d  aim:  on the  one hand, i t enables an i n d i v i d u a l t o p l a n h i s conduct and a c t i o n s w i t h due r e g a r d of others;  f o r what t h e outcome may be i n the l i v e s  on the other hand, as the a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s are  governed by r u l e s , the p u b l i c i s i n a p o s i t i o n to f o r e s e e , w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s , consequences.  Where a l e g a l system e x i s t s  w i t h i n a s t a t e and i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t the o p e r a t i o n o f the s t a t u t e s and r e g u l a t i o n s i n terms o f the c o n t r o l o f consequences, t h e n we have f u r t h e r evidence t o confirm Dewey's theory o f t h e s t a t e . Dewey makes the p o i n t c l e a r that r e g u l a t i o n i n t h e form o f law a r i s e s i n response t o the need t o c o n t r o l p r i v a t e a c t i o n s which have p u b l i c consequences.  Laws, moreover, are not  t o be viewed as commands, because to accept t h e command l o g i c a l l y l e a d s t o a d o p t i o n o f a theory an antecedent c a u s a t i o n .  theory  o f t h e s t a t e i n terms o f  Obedience to law i s obtained not  through deference t o the a u t h o r i t y o f s u p e r i o r f o r c e but through r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r c o n t r o l l i n g consequences. Rules o f law a r e i n f a c t the i n s t i t u t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s under  83 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 5 2 .  67  which persons make t h e i r arrangements with one another. They are the structures which canalize action... The law,  i n other words, i s not an active force, I t i s a guide  to behaviour. The t h i r d t r a i t of a public organized as a state, Dewey states, i s that " i t i s concerned with modes of behaviour which  85 are old and hence well established, engrained." It i s a f a m i l i a r thought that society usually regards the production  of new  ideas and inventions as a private matter;  an a c t i v i t y to be carried on by and through individuals or special groups organized f o r such a purpose.  For various r e a s o n s —  the persistence and hold of o l d habits, fear, i n e r t i a , lack of organization—the  state has not taken unto i t s e l f the respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r the development and spreading of new work i s s t i l l considered  ideas.  This  to be the peculiar preserve of persons  and groups whose private ends generate i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . I t should not be assumed, however, that this function i s beyond the capacity of the state; i n the long term perspective  i t Is  not, but at the present l e v e l of organization, c u l t u r a l a t t a i n ment and c o l l e c t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l development the community does not welcome as a blessing new  ideas; they are unsettling to  established, accepted modes of behaviour and are demanding i n insistence upon re-adjustment and the adoption of new of response.  Perhaps the exceptions to t h i s generalization are  81i Dewey, The Public and I t 3 Problems, p. 85 Ibid., p.  patterns  58.  68  t e c h n i c a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i d e a s . the  same h e s i t a n c y  They a r e not r e g a r d e d w i t h  and s u s p i c i o n because u s u a l l y they do not  d i r e c t l y touch upon e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l forms and b e l i e f s , although i n d i r e c t l y t e c h n i c a l i d e a s , as they a l t e r the means o f p r o d u c t i o n and open up new avenues i n the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the materials  o f our environment, modify, sometimes d r a s t i c a l l y and  without p r e v i s i o n , the e s t a b l i s h e d  s o c i a l forms and modes o f  behaviour* When an i d e a , an i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , a mode o f behaviour becomes p a r t o f the f a b r i c o f custom and h a b i t such t h a t i t s presence i s e s s e n t i a l t o and a p r e r e q u i s i t e o f the c a r r y i n g on of p r i v a t e endeavour " i t tends t o come w i t h i n the scope o f the state."  That the s t a t e should assume t h i s charge, i f we  consider  f o r a moment Dewey's h y p o t h e s i s , i s a n a t u r a l course o f events; for  the absence o f an e s t a b l i s h e d mode o f behaviour would have  p u b l i c consequences.  F o r example, highways and communication  systems a r e a p u b l i c concern.  The l o s s o f freedom t o use them  at w i l l would have severe and widespread consequences; f o r "means o f t r a n s i t and communication a f f e c t not o n l y those who u t i l i z e them but a l l who a r e dependent i n any way upon what Is 86  transported,  whether as producers or consumers*"  be n e c e s s a r y to do any i n t e n s i v e s e a r c h i n g  I t would not  t o f i n d other  examples  o f i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s which have come under p u b l i c c o n t r o l and regulation.  Dewey's p r o p o s i t i o n , then, that t h e p u b l i c i s  concerned w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d modes o f behaviour i s w e l l by evidence* 86 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 6 0 .  supported  69  The  f o u r t h and f i n a l t r a i t which Dewey f i n d s  character-  i z e s the s t a t e i s the concern o f the p u b l i c over those i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y who have not the c a p a c i t y t o fend f o r themselves on an equal b a s i s w i t h other members o f the group and w i t h those c o n d i t i o n s consequences.  which i f n o t r e g u l a t e d  have i r r e p a r a b l e  P r a c t i c a l l y any p u b l i c a c t i o n which c o u l d be  c l a s s i f i e d as coming under the heading o f h e a l t h be  i l l u s t r a t i v e of this t r a i t .  But s p e c i f i c examples i n v o l v i n g  d e f i c i e n c y o f capacity or i n q u a l i t y of status helpless  and w e l f a r e would  are the insane, the  and, i n a d i f f e r e n t sense, c h i l d r e n .  Recognizing  dependency the p u b l i c enacts measures which p r o t e c t s t h e i r welfare.  and secures  I n the case o f c h i l d r e n the s t a t e has  l e g i s l a t i o n to regulate  their  introduced  the hours o f l a b o u r o f c h i l d r e n ; to ensure  t h a t steps a r e taken towards p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n because n e g l e c t great  i n childhood  difficulty,  can o n l y be made up l a t e r on w i t h  i f at a l l .  T h i s review o f the t r a i t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e  the s t a t e  cannot be concluded without p o i n t i n g out t h a t Dewey does n o t h o l d that these t r a i t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a s t a t e ought to have nor a r e they to be c o n s i d e r e d a p r e d i c t i o n o f the forms which s t a t e a c t i o n might take i n the f u t u r e . simply "the  These t r a i t s a r e  marks by which p u b l i c a c t i o n as d i s t i n c t from  private i s characterized."  87  Having c o n s i d e r e d the evidence which Dewey adduces i n support o f h i s t h e o r y o f the s t a t e we have now a t t a i n e d t h e stage  87 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 6I1.  70  i n t h i s e x p o s i t i o n where i t i s germane t o b r i n g i n f o r examination i n terms o f the s o c i a l theory developed the concepts o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government and democracy. two concepts flows n a t u r a l l y , almost the t h e o r y .  The meaning o f these  as i f by p r e o r d i n a t i o n , from  I n f a c t , one c o u l d almost p o i n t to the theory  i t s e l f and s t a t e " t h a t i s t h e meaning o f democracy" b u t , i n Dewey's p h i l o s o p h y , not q u i t e a l l the meaning.  There i s some-  t h i n g y e t t o be added,, Democracy i s more than j u s t t h e best means which men v  have y e t d e v i s e d to r e g u l a t e l i v i n g l i f e built  together.  I t i s a way o f  upon the b e l i e f t h a t no man o r l i m i t e d s e t o f men i s  88 wise enough or good enough t o r u l e others without  their  Too much s t r e s s cannot  that  be l a i d upon the statement  consent.  "democracy i s not merely a p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y " ; f o r Dewey democracy i s f a r more than j u s t an o r g a n i z e d s e t o f p o l i t i c a l ideas.  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t the eloquence  convey, a t l e a s t  i s l a c k i n g here t o  i n some measure, the overwhelming import o f the  i d e a o f democracy, i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n not o n l y o f Dewey s 1  s o c i a l views but o f h i s whole p h i l o s o p h y .  Perhaps i t i s enough  to say t h a t Dewey's m i s s i o n i n l i f e was mankind, and t h a t he found i n the i d e a o f the democratic p o l i t i c a l s t a t e the most efficacious and  instrument f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f mankind's hopes  aspirations. I t has a l r e a d y been remarked i n the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s  essay that one o f the dominant m o t i v a t i o n s i n Dewey's p h i l o s o p h y 88 Dewey, Problems o f Men, p. 58.  71 was h i s d e s i r e t o r e o r i e n t i n q u i r y , s c i e n t i f i c and p h i l o s o p h i c , i n the d i r e c t i o n o f mankind.  There was no doubt i n Dewey's  mind t h a t i f the i n s t r u m e n t a l l e s o f i n q u i r y were turned towards the problems o f men g r e a t s t r i d e s would be taken i n the r e s o l u t i o n o f the c o n f l i c t s of human l i f e .  As one would  expect,  t h i s c o n v i c t i o n about men's a b i l i t i e s t o g i v e i n t e l l i g e n t d i r e c t i o n t o t h e i r l i v e s l i e s a t the bottom o f h i s b e l i e f i n democracy. The f o u n d a t i o n o f democracy i s f a i t h i n the c a p a c i t i e s o f human nature; f a i t h i n human i n t e l l i g e n c e and i n the power o f pooled and c o o p e r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s not b e l i e f t h a t these t h i n g s a r e complete but t h a t , i f g i v e n a show, they w i l l grow and be a b l e t o generate p r o g r e s s i v e l y the knowledge and wisdom needed t o guide c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . 8 9 I t would be an enormous task to c o l l e c t and catalogue the m u l t i t u d e o f ideas about democracy which Dewey has u t t e r e d i n a the course o f h i s l i f e ; b u t i f such/jobn were undertaken and a summation made the r e s u l t would p r o b a b l y resemble the above quoted  statement. Dewey had no f e a r o f what many r e f e r t o as the "masses".  They are the " s t u f f " out o f which democracy must emerge and they are the u l t i m a t e r e f e r e n t i n determining whether the needs which p o l i t i c a l democracy undertakes  t o care f o r a r e being met.  The i n d i v i d u a l s o f the submerged mass may n o t be very wise. But t h e r e i s one t h i n g they a r e w i s e r about than anybody  89  Dewey, Problems o f Men, p. 5 9 .  72  else can be, and that i s where the shoe pinches, the troubles they suffer from.90 To return to the point which i n i t i a t e d this discussion of democracy the question must be answered, then, as to how the concepts of representative from Dewey's theory.  and democratic government emerge  In order to answer t h i s question we must  r e f e r to the d i s t i n c t i o n between private and p u b l i c .  When an  i n d i v i d u a l acts consequences follow which are usually l i m i t e d to a sphere a f f e c t i n g none accept those d i r e c t l y concerned with the action, but i n some cases the action may go beyond the group, and then i t becomes of public significance. emerges and appoints o f f i c e s to regulate  A- public then  these consequences.  The point to be made here i n respect to these o f f i c e r s i s that they represent a public; the public acts through them, and they are granted special powers to guard the public i n t e r e s t .  We  never f i n d A Public acting but only singular persons who act i n a public  capacity. Now every i n d i v i d u a l when he votes to r a t i f y l e g i s l a t i o n  or appoint an o f f i c i a l Is acting i n a capacity of representative of the public i n t e r e s t . his  Undoubtedly, the common man expresses  opinion i n the public interest much less frequently than,  say, a member of Parliament or a police o f f i c e r , but t h i s uttered opinion, nonetheless, makes him a representative  of the public.  In these singular i n d i v i d u a l s , whether voter or o f f i c i a l , we f i n d the confluence of the private and public streams of i n t e r e s t . 90 Loc. c i t .  "In other words, every o f f i c e r of the  73 p u b l i c , whether he represents i t as a voter or as a stated 91 official,  has a dual capacity."  I t i s i n the r e s o l u t i o n of  the c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g out of the duality of purpose that representative government finds i t s meaning.  No i n d i v i d u a l can  submerge h i s private capacity. ...The best which most men a t t a i n to i s the domination of the public weal of t h e i r other desires. What Is meant by "representative" government i s that the public i s d e f i n i t e l y organized with the intent to secure this dominance. The dual capacity of every o f f i c e r of the public leads to c o n f l i c t i n individuals between t h e i r genuinely p o l i t i c a l aims and acts and those which they possess i n t h e i r non*»political r o l e s . When the p u b l i c adopts special measures to see to i t that the c o n f l i c t i s minimized and that the representative function overrides th£ private one, p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are termed representative.92 1  Representation, however, i n modern p o l i t i c a l l i f e i s a necessary but not a s u f f i c i e n t condition f o r the existence of p o l i t i c a l democracy.  In the space of a few paragraphs the  necessary conditions w i l l be indicated but more w i l l be omitted i n pointing out the characteristics of p o l i t i c a l democracy than w i l l be t o l d .  The story l y i n g behind the democratic processes  as we see and experience them today i s a dramatic account i n epic proportions. Unquestionably, one cannot appreciate the f u l l significance of the achievements  i n the management of human  a f f a i r s without being acquainted with the genesis of these accomplishments.  Dewey has stated that "To discuss democratic  91 Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, p. 76. 92 I b i d . , pp. 7 6 - 7 7 .  government a t l a r g e apart from i t s h i s t o r i c background i s t o miss i t s p o i n t and to throw away a l l means f o r an i n t e l l i g e n t 93  c r i t i c i s m of i t . " quarrel.  With t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n there  can be no  But the t a s k that has been s e t i s not t o examine the  h i s t o r y o f p o l i t i c a l democracy nor the o p e r a t i o n o f democratic governments as they appear i n the contemporary scene; the problem I s to c o n s t r u c t an a b s t r a c t i o n - - t h e u n f l e s h e d of the s o c i a l p r o c e s s — D e w e y s conception 1  skeleton  o f the i n n e r mechanism  o f the democratic s t a t e , and w i t h t h i s a b s t r a c t i o n before us perhaps we can see what s o c i a l i n q u i r y , as Dewey v i s u a l i z e s i t , means i n e f f e c t i n g c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d s o c i a l changes. Although i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n t o g i v e any account i n t h i s essay o f the h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s o f democracy, a c i t a t i o n of two passages from Dewey's w r i t i n g s may serve  to suggest the  c h a r a c t e r o f the e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e and the d i r e c t i o n o f the shift  in political  c o n t r o l which occurred  i n this history.  There was a g r e a t number o f p o l i t i c a l , economic, moral and r e l i g i o u s Influences  o p e r a t i n g d u r i n g the p e r i o d when p o l i t i c a l  democracy was being  shaped and ' " p o l i t i c a l democracy has emerged  as a k i n d o f n e t consequence ?of a v a s t m u l t i t u d e  of responsive  adjustments t o a vast number o f s i t u a t i o n s , no two o f which ,9k  were a l i k e , but which tended to converge to a common outcome."  93 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 8 3 . Dewey g i v e s an account o f the o r i g i n s o f democracy i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s . A s u c c i n c t survey i s g i v e n i n Chapter I I I o f The P u b l i c and I t s p r o b l e m s , pp« 83^103. I n h i s book L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n , Dewey t r a c e s back the o r i g i n s o f the L i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n ; i n doing so he r e v e a l s many o f the important i n f l u e n c e s which c o n t r i b u t e d to growth and e v o l u t i o n o f democracy. 9I4. I b i d . , p. 81+.  75 I t need not be s t a t e d that the convergence to a common outcome was not the r e s u l t o f a c t s o f conscious d i r e c t i o n on the p a r t o f _ some p r e s c i e n t group; nor the product o f an i d e a immanent i n the p r o c e s s I t s e l f .  To what democracy owes i t s o r i g i n s we w i l l  not presume even t o suggest but i t seems c l e a r t h a t the development was without a u n i f i e d p l a n o r a s i n g l e i n s p i r a t i o n . Considering  the growth and emergence o f democracy i n t h e more  s p e c i f i c context  o f the c o n t r o l o f human a f f a i r s Dewey says  t h a t "the development o f p o l i t i c a l democracy came about through s u b s t i t u t i o n o f the method o f mutual c o n s u l t a t i o n and v o l u n t a r y agreement f o r the method o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n  of the many t o the  95 few  enforced The  from above.'* p u b l i c e v e n t u a l l y a t t a i n e d through a l o n g  struggle  r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s e l f and a l s o the I n s t i t u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l machinery which, i n theory interests.  at l e a s t , was s e t up to care f o r i t s  However, the p u b l i c c a p a c i t y o f those governing  ( t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the e a r l y periods  of p o l i t i c a l  democracy) was f r e q u e n t l y bent i n the d i r e c t i o n o f s e r v i n g p r i v a t e I n t e r e s t s ; was used, as Dewey says, " f o r the d e l i b e r a t e  96 advancement o f d y n a s t i c existence  interests."  the machinery o f p o l i t i c a l  I n s h o r t , there was i n democracy but i t s mechanism  was n e i t h e r sharp enough nor broad enough t o c o n s t r a i n the r u l e r s to recognize power delegated  t h e i r p u b l i c c a p a c i t y and to e x e r c i s e the  to them i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .  The q u e s t i o n t o  which t h i s s i t u a t i o n g i v e s r i s e (and i t i s a r e c u r r i n g one; 95 Dewey, The Problems, o f Men, p. 5 8 . 96 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 7 7 .  76 never f i n a l l y  answerable) i s :  " S i n c e o f f i c e r s o f the p u b l i c  have a dual raake-up and c a p a c i t y ,  what c o n d i t i o n s  and what  technique a r e necessary i n order t h a t i n s i g h t , l o y a l t y and energy may be e n l i s t e d on the s i d e o f the p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l  97 role?" ' When we add t o the t h e o r y of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  government  the method o f i n q u i r y i n t o the means o f s e l e c t i n g and d e f i n i n g the r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s i n the d i s c h a r g e o f t h e i r o f f i c e maximum r e c o g n i t i o n  such that i s g i v e n to  the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t we d e s i g n a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t meaning amongst the many meanings g i v e n to democracy.  It i s significant for i t  concerns the method o f e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f consequences by t h e p u b l i c .  We a r e concerned w i t h democracy, then, i n i t s  meaning as a p o l i t i c a l form, as . . . i t denotes a mode o f government, a specified practice i n selecting o f f i c i a l s and r e g u l a t i n g t h e i r conduct as o f f i c i a l s . T h i s i s n o t the most i n s p i r i n g o f the d i f f e r e n t meanings o f democracy; i t i s comparatively s p e c i a l i n c h a r a c t e r . But i t c o n t a i n s about a l l t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o p o l i t i c a l democracy. 98 That Dewey should choose an u n i n s p i r i n g meaning (but not unimportant one) i s i t s e l f s i g n i f i c a n t . many ways Dewey u t t e r s e x h o r t a t i o n s  I n many p l a c e s  and i n  t o have f a i t h i n the  democratic i d e a l but at the same time he p o i n t s  out that  ideals  cannot s t a n d by themselves; there must be means f o r t h e i r a t t a i n ment. 97 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p . 8 2 .  98 Loc. c i t .  77 The e x p o s i t i o n  o f the theory i s now concluded.  The  t a s k o f the succeeding chapter w i l l be t o o u t l i n e some o f the problems f a c i n g p o l i t i c a l democracy today but more p a r t i c u l a r l y to discuss  the means and methods, as they are e x e m p l i f i e d  ina  program o f s o c i a l i n q u i r y , f o r the e f f e c t i v e and s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n o f the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems f a c i n g now and i n the f u t u r e .  mankind,  CHAPTER I X I  SOCIAL  The  preceding  chapter  exposition  o f Dewey's  discussion  and d e f i n i t i o n  In  t h e development  revealing under  Dewey's  which  activities very are  present  themselves  are devices,  serve.  h i s theory  b y men  a s dogma  validation.  examination  conviction  that  emerged  provides  o f Dewey's o f t h e many  i n the course  the greatest  perfecting realization  scope  of the social  centered  albeit  to serve  also  social forms  forms  instances  purposes  and  from the Dewey  on f a i t h  does  i n a  as one open t o emerged  finally  from  was h i s o v e r r i d i n g  of p o l i t i c a l  o f human h i s t o r y ,  which  to the t r i u m v i r a t e o f values:  o r g a n i z a t i o n which  political  f o r the continuous  mechanisms  human  shown t h a t  a l l , what theory  upon  i n many  apart  t o be a c c e p t e d  But, above  democracy.  and r e g u l a t e t h e  standing  I t ; was  i n a  the p o l i t i c a l  a u t h o r i t y , b u t he a s s e r t s h i s t h e o r y  empirical  have  they  that  instruments  to an  of political  t h e emphasis  idea  invented  hot transcendental  devine  the  members  devoted  and i t c u l m i n a t e d  o f t h e meaning  organize  devices,  largely  theory  fundamental  of their  which  was  of the theory  societies  complex  societies not  social  CHANGE  democracy  development  can give  and  meaningful  liberty,  equality,  fraternity. Against turn  the background  our a t t e n t i o n t o that  probably  i n i t s broadest  area  aspect  o f Dewey's  social  i n his social was  78  the main  theory  thinking centre  of  we  now  which interest  79  and c h i e f m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n Dewey's m a n i f o l d endeavours as p h i l o s o p h e r , educator, p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r , e t c . , namely, s o c i a l change.  Someone has c h a r a c t e r i z e d Dewey as the P h i l o s o p h e r o f  Change; i f we c o n s i d e r o n l y h i s o u t l o o k i n the f i e l d o f s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y tfta$ d e s i g n a t i o n , i n the o p i n i o n o f the w r i t e r , i s particularly opposite.  Dewey saw s o c i e t y as a v a s t complex  organism c o n t i n u o u s l y a d a p t i n g i t s e l f t o new environments and circumstances,  and the s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h e r ' s task t h a t o f  p r o v i d i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l framework w i t h i n which the techniques of a d a p t a t i o n and c o n t r o l c o u l d be Although  developed.  Dewey's c h i e f concern was t o s e t out a method-  ology o f s o c i a l change ( a t l e a s t the t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f such a methodology) he f i r s t found  i t necessary t o formulate a  s o c i a l theory (and i t s c o r r e l a t i v e s o c i a l psychology)  which  r e c o g n i z e d as fundamental data the p l a s t i c i t y o f human nature and the i n f i n i t e v a r i a b i l i t y o f the forms o f human a s s o c i a t i o n . I n the context o f p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s Dewey invented a theory which i s c l e a r l y democratic  i n i t s orientation.  With r e s p e c t t o  the s o c i a l psychology u n d e r l y i n g the theory, A l l p o r t has commented t h a t Dewey has r e j e c t e d other s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i e s 99  simply because they seemed undemocratic.  As Dewey was by  i n c l i n a t i o n a reformer, he was undoubtedly a t times  impatient  w i t h t h e o r i z i n g i n the sense o f b u i l d i n g p r e c i s e t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s or models to r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f observed phenomena.  There i s too much o f the s p e c t a t o r r o l e i n t h a t k i n d  99 S c h i l p p , P.A., ed., The P h i l o s o p h y o f John Dewey, p. 2 8 3 .  80 of a c t i v i t y .  However, there i s no question that Dewey f u l l y  accepted the l o g i c a l necessity of providing an adequate theory of human s o c i a l behaviour as a foundation upon which to superimpose a theory of change out of which could grow the techniques for modifying and c o n t r o l l i n g s o c i a l relations and objectives. Whether Dewey's s o c i a l theory i s able completely to encompass the entire realm of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l phenomena i s s t i l l an open question beyond the task of this essay to judge.  Certainly,  however, h i s theory i s consistent with h i s general philosophical outlook and i t provides a base f o r launching an inquiry into s o c i a l method. I t i s the task of this chapter to t r y to show how Dewey has extrude.d from h i s s o c i a l theory a basis f o r s o c i a l change, a method f o r the attainment of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ends. However, before we undertake to outline Dewey's contribution to a philosophy of s o c i a l change, i t would serve to illuminate the road we are to t r a v e l ( i n places obscure and winding) and to examine b r i e f l y some of the influences which motivated Dewey and which also operated i n fashioning h i s views. Foremost amongst these influences i s Dewey's idealism: a profound b e l i e f i n the pre-eminent value of human dignity. Ultimate values have no role i n Dewey's philosophical world except, perhaps, one; when Dewey repudiated Hegel i t surely can be said that he substituted the ultimate worth of man f o r the Hegelian Absolute.  At the same time, however, Dewey was a  thoroughly p r a c t i c a l man; he was keenly aware that human aspirations have a precarious v i a b i l i t y short of the means of  embodying them i n the l i v e s of men. formed without  " I d e a l s and  standards  regard to the means by which they are to be  a c h i e v e d and i n c a r n a t e d i n f l e s h are bound to be t h i n 100 wavering."  But Dewey was  not an i d o l a t o r ; i f he  worshipped or contemplated h i s i d e a l s i t was  and  ever  o n l y to g a i n  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i n g h i s e f f o r t s o f p r o v i d i n g instrument a l i t i e s f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of man's hopes. Dewey h e l d a f a i t h i n man's worth, but i t was  a faith  b u t t r e s s e d by a secure b e l i e f i n the c a p a c i t y of man's i n t e l l i g e n c e to meet a l l the c h a l l e n g e s of e x i s t e n c e  provided  that i n t e l l i g e n c e i s g i v e n the proper v e h i c l e through which to operate.  The  achievements i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s l e f t no doubt  i n Dewey's mind t h a t the proper experimental  science.  a s o c i a l philosopher  v e h i c l e was  the method of  I t became, t h e r e f o r e , Dewey's m i s s i o n to i n t r o d u c e the experimental  as  methodology  i n t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of s o c i a l matters i n p l a c e o f the d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l a f f a i r s i n terms of c o n c e p t u a l i s t g e n e r a l i t i e s and h y p o s t a t i z a t i o n s . to some extent  Perhaps we  are a n t i c i p a t i n g  the c o n c l u s i o n of Dewey's programme f o r s o c i a l  a c t i o n , but i n Dewey's w r i t i n g s the u b i q u i t o u s n e s s of i n t e l l i g e n c e a c t i n g through the experimental little  o f the Idea  method leaves  doubt as to what t h a t c o n c l u s i o n w i l l be.  However, even  though the p r i n c i p l e i s apparent, i t s t i l l must be shown Dewey sees experimental  i n t e l l i g e n c e o p e r a t i n g i n the  how  social  f i e l d , and i t s r e l a t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of a t t a i n i n g  100 Dewey, The  P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. l i p . .  82  s o c i a l goals. I n the p r e c e d i n g paragraph c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n f l u e n c e streaming  we have d i s c u s s e d the most through Dewey's s o c i a l  p h i l o s o p h y , and i n the f u l l p e r s p e c t i v e of a l l Dewey's work p o s s i b l y the most important  one.  There i s , however, a second  major stream o f i n f l u e n c e — l i b e r a l i s m — f e d by a number o f tributary  streams from which Dewey drew the i d e a l s of p o l i t i c a l  freedom and the forms and language of the democratic tradition.  I n Dewey's p h i l o s o p h y the two  political  streams converge t o  p r o v i d e r e c i p r o c a l support f o r each others c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the f o r m a t i o n of t h a t p h i l o s o p h y , both streams being  committed  to the end o f p r o v i d i n g maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l and development.  On the one hand, Dewey i d e n t i f i e d  experimental method w i t h the l i b e r a l f o r t h i s r a d i c a l new  way  the  t r a d i t i o n to g a i n  of t h i n k i n g i n s o c i a l matters;  other hand, i n the p o l i t i c a l liberalism",  a liberalism  intelligence  and  arena Dewey preached  growth  acceptance on  the  a "renascent  r e v i t a l i z e d by the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f  change f o r the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b s t r a c t i o n s o f  p o l i t i c a l and economic  man.  To i n s p e c t c l o s e l y  the elements of the p h i l o s o p h y of  l i b e r a l i s m which became p a r t of or served to shape Dewey's s o c i a l theory, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t p a r t of h i s theory r e l a t i n g t o s o c i a l change, would be a d i f f i c u l t task, s i n c e i n no  s i n g l e work of  Dewey's are these elements s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d . was  a p r o l i f i c w r i t e r of a r t i c l e s i n s o c i a l and  Dewey  political  83 p h i l o s o p h y , both p o l e m i c a l  and e x p o s i t o r y .  101  Many o f h i s  p o s i t i v e ideas f o r a theory o f s o c i a l change have emerged from c r i t i c a l analyses o f s p e c i f i c , contemporary s o c i a l problems. The  more g e n e r a l  i n f l u e n c e o f the t r a d i t i o n o f l i b e r a l i s m ( i n  which Dewey was steeped) i n Dewey's t h i n k i n g w i l l be  considered  f u r t h e r i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s chapter. As  one would n a t u r a l l y expect, Dewey's ideas f o r a theory  o f s o c i a l change d i d n o t - a r i s e out o f a s o c i a l vacuum.  The  impetus f o r t h e i r emergence was a f e l t need, a demand f o r the means o f r e s o l v i n g urgent contemporary s o c i a l i s s u e s . cannot i g n o r e , t h e r e f o r e ,  the d e t e r m i n i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the  f o r m a t i o n o f the c o n c l u s i o n s r o l e which he p l a y e d occasions,  We  o f Dewey's s o c i a l t h i n k i n g o f the  as observer and c r i t i c o f and, on many  spokesman f o r American c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e .  Even though we may not want to go as f a r as to agree w i t h B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f Dewey's outlook i s due t o i t s "harmony with the age o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m and c o l l e c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e " , i t must be admitted n e v e r t h e l e s s  that  many of the problems which concerned Dewey (and the s o l u t i o n s 102 which he o f f e r e d t o them) are p e c u l i a r t o h i s e r a . matter o f f a c t , c o n s i d e r i n g philosopher  As a  t h a t Dewey was a p r o f e s s i o n a l  whose concern should a l l e g e d l y have been with matters  of u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , he d e a l t w i t h a s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e 101 See John Dewey's two volumes o f Essays Characters and Events, E d i t e d by Joseph Ratner, Henry H o l t and Company, New York, 1929. 102 S c h i l p p , The P h i l o s o p h y o f John Dewey, p. 137.  number of issues having only p a r o c h i a l and t r a n s i t o r y  importance:  s t a t e education, American p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , technology and i n d u s t r y , e t c .  Because of Dewey's a c t i v e i n t e r e s t and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n "backyard' a f f a i r s we must assume that h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were to some extent circumscribed by the character of the immediate and p r e s s i n g issues which confronted and challenged him.  Furthermore,  i t i s a t h e s i s of  t h i s essay, f o r which s p e c i f i c evidence i s not c i t e d , that Dewey's s o c i a l theory, but p a r t i c u l a r l y some aspects of the theory s h o r t l y to be discussed, have emerged from and r e f l e c t the growth of.the American democratic s o c i e t y .  This i s not  meant to imply that Dewey's s o c i a l theory, and the problems of p a r t i c u l a r concern to him, are not without importance  or  s i g n i f i c a n c e when examined i n the f u l l perspective of s o c i a l philosophy, or that they do not have any permanent r e s i d u a l value I n the h i s t o r y of s o c i a l t h i n k i n g .  The i m p l i c a t i o n that  i s intended i s that Dewey's s o c i a l philosophy i s clothed w i t h the forms and experience of i t s American o r i g i n s . One of the e s s e n t i a l tenets of Dewey's theory i s the view that the unresolved issues c h a l l e n g i n g modern s o c i a l theory have a r i s e n as a consequence of the impact of science on s o c i e t y . (The manifestations of t h i s impact are most obvious i n America, i n terms of both i n t e n s i t y and e x t e n t ) .  I n a r e l a t i v e l y short  span of time, say the p e r i o d from the beginning of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n to the present day, the machine technology created by the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c methods and d i s c o v e r i e s has transformed the p h y s i c a l conditions of l i f e and, concomitantly,  85 has a l t e r e d the h a b i t s and i n t e r e s t s o f men. observes,  But, Dewey  the e f f e c t s o f s c i e n c e and technology were l a r g e l y  e x t e r n a l i n c h a r a c t e r ; they exerted no deep-going i n f l u e n c e as a " t r a n s f o r m i n g i n f l u e n c e o f men's thoughts and purposes".  The  r e s u l t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n '"between outer and i n n e r o p e r a t i o n " i n 103  the l i v e s o f men.  T h i s l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n man's  b e h a v i o u r a l and p s y c h i c l i f e was a matter o f deep concern f o r Dewey, f o r i n i t he saw a s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e t o f i n d i n g means f o r the r e s o l u t i o n o f the s o c i a l problems generated of  by the i n v a s i o n  s c i e n c e but p a r t i c u l a r l y means which would be i n harmony with  the new age of s c i e n c e . Not  only i s there d i s u n i t y In the i n n e r and outer  aspects o f man's l i f e  there are a l s o , Dewey s t a t e s , two s e t s o f  unconnected i d e a l s a c t i n g on men today.  The f i r s t  a r e those  t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l s which have p e r s i s t e d and are r e t a i n e d from our c u l t u r a l p a s t , w i t h t h e i r glamour and p r e s t i g e  perpetuated  and kept a l i v e i n l i t e r a t u r e and r e l i g i o n and by i n s t i t u t i o n s which have s u r v i v e d from an age gone by. first  i s a second, more r e c e n t , s e t :  And r i v a l l i n g the  the i d e a l s o f a machine  a g e — t h e d e s i r e s , purposes and aims c r e a t e d by technology.  In  the s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l the newer i d e a l s have the advantage i n p o s s e s s i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s t o serve them, but the i d e a l s o f the past " s t i l l engage thought and command l o y a l t y . W h i l e  103 Dewey, John, Philosophy and C i v i l i z a t i o n , New York, Minton, B a l c h & Company, 1931* P. 318. 10!L Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. li+2.  86  the  inconsonance between man's conduct and  an o b s t a c l e inner  to the d i s c o v e r y  stood as  of means, the d i v i s i v e n e s s of  c o n f l i c t stood as an o b s t a c l e  consensus as to  his desires  the  to the attainment of  goals.  Moving from the microcosm o f i n d i v i d u a l man macrocosm of modern s o c i e t y we  observe the  of the a c t s of a p e r s o n a l i t y d i v i d e d and itself.  And  i t follows  that the  structure  to  the  s o c i a l manifestations  in conflict  within  as a c o r o l l a r y of s o c i a l behaviourism  of the  s o c i a l organism must take on  the  s c h i z o i d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the human elements comprising i t . Hence, Dewey sees r e f l e c t e d i n the of i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t  s o c i a l m a t r i x the same l a c k  to both ends and means.  But  the  s p e c i f i c s o c i a l f a c t s which r a i s e so i n s i s t e n t l y i n Dewey's thinking  the q u e s t i o n of method are  (1) the f r a g m e n t a t i o n of  s o c i e t y i n t o a m u l t i p l i c i t y of changing p u b l i c s w i t h d i f f e r i n g needs and  demands, and  c o n t r o l l i n g and  (2)  the apparent absence of a p u b l i c  d i r e c t i n g the apparatus of government.  Analogously to the l a c k o f accord between o u t e r and operation  i n the l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l men,  be f u n c t i o n i n g  the  s t a t e seems to  autonomously or at l e a s t only i n the  o f s p e c i a l groups, but not encompassing the  as the  interests  instrument o f a p u b l i c  i n t e r e s t s of a l l s e c t o r s  Before we  inner  of  society.  t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to a c l o s e r  consideration  of the problems o f a t t a i n i n g s o c i a l u n i t y , i t might be to r e c a l l to mind.the s o c i a l t h e o r y which forms the context w i t h i n which Dewey sees the problems.  The  helpful  doctrinal empirical  base upon which the theory r e s t s i s the observable f a c t o f  87  human  beings  living  aggregations it  will  seek  and a c t i n g  o f human b e i n g s  be r e c a l l e d ,  t o share  their  take  necessary  to control  A  Public,  with  At this  a distinctly  The  concept  key  to understanding  the  state.  a  single  of A Public  A very  paragraph  Individual  political  about  explication  b y G o r d o n W.  and S o c i a l  consciously  social role  Finally,  i t becomes  of individual entity  and  emerges,  i n social  affairs.  i s a u n i q u e l y Deweyian n o t i o n and t h e  h i s views  lucid  when  consequences  a new  societies,  and v a l u e s .  characteristics  stage  of  and groups  ideas  the i n d i r e c t  These  the status  when i n d i v i d u a l s  on p o l i t i c a l  interplay.  achieve  experiences,  societies  group  i n association.  the nature  and functions o f  o f the concept  Allport  i s given i n  i n h i s essay  Psychology.  A public, instead of being a mystical entity or the expression of s o c i a l i n s t i n c t , i s nothing but the byproduct of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y between individuals. So l o n g a s A a n d B h a v e d i r e c t p r i v a t e t r a n s a c t i o n s no p u b l i c i s involved. But l e t t h e consequences of t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s extend beyond t h e i r own l i v e s , a f f e c t i n g t h e l i v e s a n d w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s , a n d a p u b l i c , b a s e d o n common interest, springs into being. In itself such a p u b l i c i s unorganized and f o r m l e s s , c o m p r i s e d m e r e l y o f common s e g m e n t s o f certain individuals' interests. One p u b l i c i s c r e a t e d by the e x i s t e n c e o f motor cars, another by the existence of schools, another by the p r a c t i c e o f t a x a t i o n . As soon a s o f f i c i a l s a r e e l e c t e d , o r i n some o t h e r way r e c o g n i z e d , t h e f o r m l e s s p u b l i c becomes organized. The o f f i c i a l s t h e m s e l v e s , o f course, are single beings, but they exercise s p e c i a l powers d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e common i n t e r e s t s o f t h e m e m b e r s . A comp r e h e n s i v e p u b l i c a r t i c u l a t e d and o p e r a t i n g t h r o u g h o f f i c e r s who a r e e x p e c t e d t o  Dewey's  88 subordinate t h e i r p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s f o r the good o f a l l , i s a State.105 I n terms o f the theory  j u s t s e t out how does Dewey  e x p l a i n h i s a s s e r t i o n that today there does not e x i s t a p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i v e r s i f i e d i n t e r e s t s o f the many s o c i a l groups which comprise p r e s e n t  day s o c i e t y ?  The e x p l a n a t i o n  i n part Is  to be found by moving back i n time and a p p l y i n g the theory t o a s o c i e t y antedating  the advent o f modern technology.  I n the  e a r l y p e r i o d o f American democracy the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f community l i f e and the aims and purposes o f the community d i d not  stand apart from each other;  the i n n e r and outer aspects o f  l i f e were r e l a t i v e l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d .  Furthermore, the community  was a f a c e - t o - f a c e community, which made, the spread o f consequences d i r e c t and r a p i d .  Under these circumstances the  problem d i d not a r i s e as to the e x i s t e n c e o r the whereabouts o f the p u b l i c ; i t came forward w e l l - d e f i n e d , o r g a n i z i n g i t s e l f , as one would expect, u s i n g forms and methods o f p o l i t i c a l  action  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c h a r a c t e r o f the f a c e - t o - f a c e community. upon t h i s scene o f community l i f e  that s c i e n c e i n t r u d e s ,  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f technology f o l l o w i n g behind.  It is with Some o f  the e f f e c t s o f t h i s i n t r u s i o n have a l r e a d y been suggested, but the p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t which accounts t o some extent f o r the " e c l i p s e o f the p u b l i c " was the disappearance o f the homogeneity and  i n t i m a c y which t y p i f i e d the community a c t i v i t y .  The  d i s i n t e g r a t i n g e f f e c t o f s c i e n c e d i d not extend, however, t o the 105 S c h i l p p , The Philosophy o f John Dewey, pp. 285-6. Section V I I , S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Psychology, o f A l l p o r t ' s Essay i s a c l e a r and s u c c i n c t statement from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l viewpoint o f the p r i n c i p a l ideas i n Dewey's s o c i a l theory.  89 I n s t i t u t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l forms and methods, purposes and ideals; they survived to " f i x the channels" and set the goals f o r the new  n o n - p o l i t i c a l influences of industrialism. But out of this development a contradiction arose.  i n d u s t r i a l revolution created a new but the public disappeared.  How  The  society and a u n i f i e d state,  i s i t that society has  apparently attained integration and yet there seems to be  no  public regulating the a f f a i r s of society and determining the conduct of public o f f i c i a l s ?  In answer to the former part of  this question Dewey states that Our modern state-unity i s due to the consequences of technology employed so as to f a c i l i t a t e the rapid and easy . c i r c u l a t i o n of opinions and information, and so as to generate constant and i n t r i c a t e i n t e r a c t i o n f a r beyond the l i m i t s of face-to-face communities....The elimination of distance, at the base of which are physical agencies, has c a l l e d into being the new form of p o l i t i c a l association.106 In other word3, state unity i s due  to factors extraneous to the  theory that the public through appointed o f f i c i a l s organizes i t s e l f into a p o l i t i c a l state.  I f impersonal, mechanical forces  have operated to produce a u n i f i e d state, the question of where the public i s , whose function these forces have usurped, becomes even more pressing. It cannot be that there are no consequences to c a l l a public into existence.  To make such an assumption leads only  to absurdity In explaining t h e i r non-existence.  The fact stands  106 Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, pp. 111+-5.  90 i n d i s p u t a b l y t h a t there a r e consequences, But the machine age has so enormously expanded, m u l t i p l i e d , i n t e n s i f i e d and complicated the scope o f the i n d i r e c t consequences, have formed such immense and c o n s o l i d a t e d unions i n a c t i o n , on an impersonal r a t h e r than a community b a s i s , t h a t the r e s u l t a n t p u b l i c cannot i d e n t i f y and d i s t i n g u i s h i t s e l f . And t h i s d i s c o v e r y i s - o b v i o u s l y an antecedent c o n d i t i o n o f any e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n on i t s p a r t . Such i s our t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g the e c l i p s e which the p u b l i c i d e a and i n t e r e s t have undergone. There a r e t o o many p u b l i c s and too much o f p u b l i c concern f o r our e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s t o cope with.107 The  problem, then, i s not one of absence o f consequences o f  p u b l i c concern, but o f inadequacy o f methods and apparatus f o r the p e r c e p t i o n  o f the m u l t i p l i c i t y and scope o f the consequences  i n such a way that  a widespread and I n t e g r a t e d  p u b l i c i s brought  into being. But and  operates.  what about the apparatus o f government?  I t exists  Whom do the o f f i c i a l s o f government r e p r e s e n t ?  There are some economic d e t e r m i n i s t s  who charge that government  has  no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  f u n c t i o n t o a c t on b e h a l f  of a public, 108  but  Is r u l e d by and i s an instrument o f I b i g b u s i n e s s ' ;  On  the other hand, there are those i n t h e business world who b e l i e v e that  ' b i g b u s i n e s s ' has brought about t h e economic  conditions  t h a t a s s u r e our standard o f l i v i n g and our p r o s p e r i t y and they claim,  therefore,  that p u b l i c p o l i c y should be determined by  the agencies c r e a t i n g the m a t e r i a l  conditions  of s o c i a l and  107  Dewey, The P u b l i c . a n d I t s Problems, p. 126.  108  The M a r x i s t s h o l d t h i s view.  91 political life,  namely, business i n s t i t u t i o n s .  109  Dewey c i t e s  these two extreme views as examples o f the confused s t a t e of s o c i a l t h i n k i n g that stands as an o b s t a c l e to the p u b l i c ' s s e a r c h f o r the means to i d e n t i f y i t s e l f .  Whether or not the  charge t h a t b i g business c o n t r o l s , or perhaps  fills  the weaker  p o s i t i o n of b e i n g the dominant i n f l u e n c e upon, the o p e r a t i o n of government i s capable of b e i n g supported by f a c t s i s an i s s u e , but the a l l e g a t i o n s themselves  important  are s i g n i f i c a n t ; they are  symptomatic o f the c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y which Dewey contends r e s u l t s from the i n d e f i n i t e s t a t e o f the p u b l i c ' s identity. In  r a i s i n g the i s s u e about whether the government i s  f u n c t i o n i n g i n i t s c a p a c i t y as an Instrument touches upon the c e n t r a l theme o f t h i s essay: s o e i a l change.  o f the p u b l i c Dewey the b a s i s o f  H a b i t u a l l y s o c i e t y has l o o k e d upon the  apparatus o f g o v e r n m e n t — t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , the j u d i c i a r y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s — a s the c h i e f means by which changes i n the b a s i s o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l l i f e  are to be e f f e c t e d .  It  is  l o g i c a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Dewey should f i r s t c o n s i d e r the r o l e  of  government and l o o k f o r f a c t s t o support the view t h a t I t i s  the instrument o f s o c i a l change. we  can observe the l e g i s l a t i v e  He f i n d s , however, that though  and j u d i c i a l processes i n  109 See The Managerial R e v o l u t i o n by James Burnham, p u b l i s h e d by the John Day Company, New York, \9l\l. Burnham d i s c u s s e s the r o l e of business managers i n contemporary s o c i a l l i f e . Another book by David E. L i l i e n t h a l B i g B u s i n e s s : A New E r a , Harper, 1953> makes - put a case f o r B i g Business as the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n shaping c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l l i f e .  92 o p e r a t i o n , and o f f i c i a l s d i s c h a r g i n g t h e i r assigned d u t i e s , we cannot f i n d a connection which leads us t o a p u b l i c moving guiding t h i s a c t i v i t y .  I f a public exists i t is silent  and  since  the government appears to be r u l i n g autpnomously or, i f we admit the c o n t e n t i o n on the previous paragraph, i t i s d i r e c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r group f o r p r i v a t e purposes. Dewey extends h i s examination  of p o l i t i c a l machinery to  i n c l u d e the o p e r a t i o n of the American two p a r t y system at which he p o i n t s a condemnatory f i n g e r . more than e x t e n s i v e and entrenched  P a r t i e s have become n o t h i n g  c o n s o l i d a t e d " f a c t i o n s " so s t r o n g l y  that they i n h i b i t the emergence of any other p a r t i e s  but, more important,  they make t h i n k i n g about other means o f  c a r r y i n g on government a f f a i r s seem t r e a s o n a b l e .  Even v o t i n g ,  a c c o r d i n g to Dewey, does not r e p r e s e n t r e a l freedom o f c h o i c e for: Instead o f I n d i v i d u a l s who i n the p r i v a c y of t h e i r consciousness make choices which are c a r r i e d i n t o e f f e c t by p e r s o n a l v o l i t i o n , there are c i t i z e n s who have the b l e s s e d o p p o r t u n i t y to vote f o r a t i c k e t o f men mostly unknown t o them, and which i s made up f o r them by an under-cover machine i n a caucus whose o p e r a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e a k i n d o f p o l i t i c a l predestination.110 I t Is d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e t h a t . t h i s r a t h e r c y n i c a l p e s s i m i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n o r i g i n a t e d from Dewey who t a i n s an o p t i m i s t i c outlook even when u t t e r i n g the strictures.  and  u s u a l l y mainseverest  I n t h i s i n s t a n c e h i s c y n i c i s m goes deep.  He  charges t h a t because o f the u n c e r t a i n t y and o b s c u r i t y o f the  110  Dewey, The  P u b l i c and  I t s Problems, pp.  119-120.  93 p u b l i c there i a a v o i d c r e a t e d between the p u b l i c and the  govern-  ment which i a f i l l e d by "bosses w i t h t h e i r p o l i t i c a l machines.'* Who p u l l s the s t r i n g s which move the bosses and generates power to r u n the machines i s a matter of surmise r a t h e r than o f r e c o r d , save f o r the o c c a s i o n a l overt s c a n d a l . I l l r  I t h a r d l y need be s a i d that b i g business i s a l l e g e d t o be  the  power behind the machine. The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s of Dewey's a t t i t u d e American p a r t y p o l i t i c s  was  toward  made not so much f o r i t s b e a r i n g  upon a theory and method o f s o c i a l I n q u i r y , although i t has i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e r e too, but more t o r e v e a l the s k e p t i c i s m w i t h which Dewey regards t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l methods.  Perhaps  s k e p t i c i s m i s too weak a word, f o r Dewey not o n l y expressed doubt about  the e f f i c a c y of the accepted methods of p o l i t i c a l  management of s o c i a l matters, he h e l d these methods to be completely inadequate t o the t a s k .  Not even the few g e n e r a l  p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s c o u l d any l o n g e r be used i n the determination of p u b l i c a c t i o n .  "The  s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n has been so changed by  the f a c t o r s of an i n d u s t r i a l age t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l g e n e r a l  112 p r i n c i p l e s have l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l meaning."  Further inquiry  Into Dewey's views about methods c u r r e n t l y used i n p o l i t i c a l life about  today would o n l y add more evidence to support h i s c o n v i c t i o n the obsoleteness of these methods. Summarizing, then, what we have l e a r n e d so f a r about  Dewey's views: (1) the machine technology a r i s i n g out of the 111 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 120. 112  I b i d . , p.  133.  scientific  method of t h i n k i n g had  the s t r u c t u r e and political  (3)  not  adapted to the new  the major consequence o f (2)  means f o r the p u b l i c t o organize for  (2)  o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y .  apparatus was  social l i f e ,  a r e v o l u t i o n a r y e f f e c t upon  the e x p r e s s i o n  i t s e l f and  of i t s I n t e r e s t s .  the  traditional  conditions  of  i s the absence o f  provide  instruments  I t i s not n e c e s s a r y to  undertake a f a r - r e a c h i n g search to f i n d evidence to support first  of these o b s e r v a t i o n s .  A d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n of contemporary  s o c i a l l i f e w i l l f u r n i s h ample data. observation,  the f a c t t h a t we  the  As t o Dewey's second  have achieved  no  general  agreement  about the n a t u r e , f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of government at least testifies  to the u n c e r t a i n t y  adequacy o f our  i n h e r i t e d p o l i t i c a l equipment.  the t h i r d o b s e r v a t i o n  we  have the  about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s Finally,  and  with  crux of Dewey's p l e a f o r the  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of our methods of s o c i a l i n q u i r y and  political  expression. I t has  a l r e a d y been noted that the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  the p u b l i c i s a modern phenomenon r e l a t e d both to inelasticity  of o l d p o l i t i c a l methods and  of s o c i e t y i n t o a d i v e r s i t y of groups.. difficulties but  standing  i n the way  the  to the f r a g m e n t a t i o n  C e r t a i n l y these  of the p u b l i c a s s e r t i n g i t s e l f ,  s u r e l y not a l l that can be s a i d about the p u b l i c ' s  to emerge as the dominant s o c i a l f o r c e . present  in social l i f e — a n  failure  I f consequences  are  assumption d i f f i c u l t to doubt; f o r  even i f the consequences are not i n v e s t i g a t i o n , they are a s s u r e d l y whom they a f f e c t — w h y has  are  s u s c e p t i b l e to e m p i r i c a l f e l t and  a p u b l i c not  s u f f e r e d by  those  emerged to care f o r these  95 consequences?  The answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n i s c r u c i a l t o Dewey's  whole argument and he "answers i t as f o l l o w s : The r a m i f i c a t i o n o f the Issues b e f o r e the p u b l i c i s so wide and i n t r i c a t e , the t e c h n i c a l matters i n v o l v e d a r e so s p e c i a l i z e d , the d e t a i l s are. so many and so s h i f t i n g , t h a t the p u b l i c cannot f o r any l e n g t h o f time i d e n t i f y and h o l d itself. I t i s n o t t h a t there i s no p u b l i c , no l a r g e body o f persons h a v i n g a common I n t e r e s t i n t h e consequences o f s o c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . There i s too much p u b l i c , a p u b l i c too d i f f u s e d and s c a t t e r e d and too i n t r i c a t e i n composition. And there a r e too many p u b l i c s , f o r c o n j o i n t a c t i o n s which have i n d i r e c t , s e r i o u s and enduring consequences are m u l t i t u d i n o u s beyond comparison, and each o f them c r o s s e s t h e others and generates i t s own group o f persons e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t e d w i t h l i t t l e to h o l d these d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c s t o g e t h e r i n an i n t e g r a t e d w h o l e . 1 1 3 I f Dewey's statement  c o n t a i n s the m a t e r i a l o f the problem t o  be d e a l t w i t h by p o l i t i c a l methods o r i g i n a t i n g i n a p r e - t e c h n o l o g i c a l e r a , the f a i l u r e o f the methods i s understandable though perhaps today, not excusable.  I f the impact  of science  can produce such m u l t i f a r i o u s and complex Issues i n s o c i e t y , i t i s reasonable  and l o g i c a l to ask the q u e s t i o n whether the  methods o f s c i e n c e and i t s s p e c i a l i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s can be e n l i s t e d t o manage and a d m i n i s t e r the a f f a i r s o f s o c i e t y . I n r e c e n t years the q u e s t i o n o f the r o l e o f the expert i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s has been f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s . Dewey contends t h a t there are a great many matters with which the government i s concerned by t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s . g r e a t need t o extend  which can "only be adequately  handled  Moreover, there i s i n h i s o p i n i o n  and broaden the use o f s c i e n t i f i c methods  1 1 3 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 1 3 7 .  96 and  the employment of experts i n the o p e r a t i o n  f o r many of the  i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g government d e c i s i o n  a c t i o n can only be  d e c i s i o n by m a j o r i t y  and  "What has  1 1  advocates the use  and p o i n t s  But  though Dewey  out the  of experts i n p o l i t i c a l management and goes.  counting heads,  the whole apparatus of t r a d i t i o n a l  government t o do w i t h such t h i n g s ? " ^  as f a r as he  and  s e t t l e d by i n q u i r y Into f a c t s by persons  competent to make such i n q u i r y .  strongly  of government;  indispensability  administration,  Dewey holds no b r i e f f o r the  that i s  c r e a t i o n of  an  i n t e l l e c t u a l a r i s t o c r a c y , a c l a s s of experts, which would eventually  become removed from the  common i n t e r e s t and  "become  ,115 a class with p r i v a t e Interests R e g a r d l e s s of how  the  p r i v a t e knowledge."  s p e c i a l i z e d government becomes and  t h e . p r i n c i p l e that and  and  the u l t i m a t e  how  r e f e r e n t of p o l i t i c a l  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of needs i s the populace.  much  decision  Dewey i s  emphatic In h i s d e n u n c i a t i o n of government by experts which becomes d i v o r c e d from p u b l i c c o n t r o l . . No government by experts i n which the masses do not have the chance to inform the experts as to t h e i r needs can be a n y t h i n g but an o l i g a r c h y managed i n the i n t e r e s t s of the few The w o r l d has s u f f e r e d more from l e a d e r s and a u t h o r i t i e s than from the masses.116 We  must conclude, then, that Dewey regards the  e s s e n t i a l to the e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n l l l j . Dewey, The  P u b l i c and  115  207.  I b i d . , p.  of the  I t s Problems, p.  experts  as  s o c i a l system,  but  125.  - 116 I b i d . , p. 208. The r o l e of the expert i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s i s d i s c u s s e d by Dewey at some l e n g t h i n The P u b l i c and I t s Problems,  pp..123-125 and pp.  203-208.  97  i n s o f a r as they p l a y a p a r t i n the formation of p o l i c y t h e i r r o l e must be l i m i t e d t o mediating expressing  the p u b l i c ' s f i n d i n g and  itself.  So f a r our review of Dewey's i n q u i r y i n t o the apparatus of government, the f u n c t i o n i n g of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and the status o f experts has shown that Dewey does not see i n the instruments of the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n the answer to the problem of the e c l i p s e d p u b l i c .  C e r t a i n l y , there has been a  r e v e l a t i o n of some of the obstacles standing i n the way of the " p u b l i c a r t i c u l a t i n g and expressing i t s e l f " but the question of the means by which the p u b l i c ' s "inchoate and amorphous estate be organized i n t o e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n r e l e v a n t t o present 117 s o c i a l needs and opportunities", remains open.  To f i n d an  answer Dewey abandons, as we s h a l l see, the conventional avenues of i n q u i r y and r e s t r u c t u r e s the question he seeks to answer. To t h i s point Dewey has been d i r e c t i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n to the question of whether e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l methods are capable, p o s s i b l y a f t e r some m o d i f i c a t i o n and adaptation, of organizing the p u b l i c f o r s o c i a l a c t i o n .  This l i n e of i n q u i r y , as i t has  already been s t a t e d , produced negative r e s u l t s .  At t h i s stage  Dewey r a d i c a l l y reframes h i s question as f o l l o w s :  "What are  the conditions under which i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the Great Society to approach more c l o s e l y and v i t a l l y the status of a Great Community, and thus take form i n genuinely s o c i e t i e s and state?  democratic  What are the conditions under which we may  117 Dewey, The P u b l i c and-Its Problems, p. 125.  r e a s o n a b l y p i c t u r e the P u b l i c emerging from i t s e c l i p s e ? " The  focus o f i n q u i r y i s s h i f t e d from t h e present t o the f u t u r e ,  from e m p i r i c a l ground t o i n t e l l e c t u a l ground.  Dewey makes i t  c l e a r , however, t h a t he w i l l do no more t h a n i d e n t i f y the conditions  that must p r e v a i l i f the g o a l o f an a r t i c u l a t e  democracy i s t o be r e a l i z e d . There w i l l be no attempt t o s t a t e how the r e q u i r e d c o n d i t i o n s might come i n t o e x i s t e n c e , nor t o prophesy t h a t they w i l l o c c u r . The o b j e c t o f the a n a l y s i s w i l l be t o show t h a t u n l e s s a s c e r t a i n e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are r e a l i z e d , the Community cannot be o r g a n i z e d as a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e Public.119 Dewey d i d not e n t i r e l y abandon t r a d i t i o n a l methods as a v e h i c l e o f 3 o c i a l  action.  But he was extremely  p e s s i m i s t i c , as we have seen, about the p o l i t i c a l if  political  f u t u r e o f man  the e x i s t i n g apparatus d i d n o t undergo r a d i c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n ;  and whenever and wherever p o s s i b l e he endeavoured t o improve the performance c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the a v a i l a b l e p o l i t i c a l machinery.  This  i s Dewey, t h e p o l i t i c a l reformer, at work i n  the w o r l d o f p o l i t i c a l  realities.  Before t u r n i n g  our a t t e n t i o n  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the answer Dewey o f f e r s t o the questions quoted i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraph i t i s e s s e n t i a l , i f the answer i s t o appear i n the f u l l p e r s p e c t i v e  o f h i s s o c i a l thought,  t h a t we f i r s t l o o k a t Dewey's recommendations and p r o p o s a l s f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w i t h which he i d e n t i f i e d  118  himself.  Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. l f ? 7 .  1 1 9 Loc. c i t .  99 I n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t Dewey was a severe c r i t i c o f the continued  use o f a n a c h r o n i s t i c p o l i t i c a l methods, he d i d  not d i s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f from the p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n from which they sprung.  On the c o n t r a r y , he r e c o g n i z e d  the p e r s i s t e n c e  o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n as a f o r c e which c o u l d be used to r e d i r e c t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l thought i n t o more f r u i t f u l channels o f activity.  Dewey espoused and i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h the  t r a d i t i o n o f L i b e r a l i s m ; n o t because o f the programmes and t h e o r i e s which make up the p a s t o f the l i b e r a l d e a l o f which Dewey regards as o b s o l e t e supporting  t r a d i t i o n , a great  or without adequate  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l data, but because o f  the. end t o which the l i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y  was d i r e c t e d .  L i b e r a l i s m i s committed t o an end that i s at once enduring and f l e x i b l e : the l i b e r a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s so t h a t r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s may be the law o f t h e i r life. I t i s committed t o the use o f f r e e d i n t e l l i g e n c e as the method o f d i r e c t i n g change.120 Although e a r l y l i b e r a l i s m a s s e r t e d the primacy o f i n t e l l i g e n c e as the means f o r the attainment o f the ends o f l i b e r a l i s m , i t d i d so w i t h i n the framework o f the psychology o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m , o f a theory o f mind which h e l d that the laws o f human nature are the source o f s o c i a l laws, and t h a t men i n a s s o c i a t i o n have no p r o p e r t i e s other than those which u l t i m a t e l y have t h e i r o r i g i n i n i n d i v i d u a l beings.  Existing correlatively  w i t h and d e r i v i n g support from t h i s a t o m i s t i c psychology was an economic d o c t r i n e which saw i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t as the  120 Dewey, John, L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n , New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1935* p. 5b.  100 m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e I n economic l i f e . to  S e l f - i n t e r e s t , i f permitted  operate untrammelled i n the normal competitive  assures and  environment,  s o c i e t y o f the e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n o f i t s needed goods  services.  That t h i s d o c t r i n e has s u r v i v e d t o the present  day need not be mentioned; the p r o t a g o n i s t s o f " f r e e e n t e r p r i s e " and "rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m " continue t o draw s t r e n g t h from the doctrine. It  i s the p e r s i s t e n c e o f the view t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e i s  an i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i o n i n t o the e r a o f a machine  technology  that has c r e a t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Dewey, one o f the main o b s t a c l e s to  organized s o c i a l planning.  Today, "the i s o l a t e d  individual  121 is well-nigh helpless".  We now l i v e i n an age when o n l y  c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e o p e r a t i n g through corporate organi z a t i o n s can c r e a t e the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e have become accustomed.  t o which we  The problem that Dewey sees f a c i n g  l i b e r a l i s m i n the present age i s how to overcome t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , generated  by the p h i l o s o p h y o f  i n d i v i d u a l i s m , which stand i n the way o f b r i n g i n g i n t o  being  a new s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n and an o r g a n i z a t i o n d i r e c t i n g the resources  o f modern technology  towards designated  s o c i a l ends.  Dewey charges t h a t a r e v i t a l i z e d l i b e r a l i s m , a renascent l i b e r a l i s m as he r e f e r s t o i t , has the task o f producing an a t t i t u d e of mind r e f l e c t i n g the s c i e n t i f i c age i n which we l i v e . "The  c r i s i s i n democracy demands s u b s t i t u t i o n o f the i n t e l l i g e n c e  that i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n s c i e n t i f i c procedure f o r the k i n d o f  121  Dewey, L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n , p. 61.  101 i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t i s now accepted." To achieve  122  the g o a l o f making i n t e l l i g e n c e a s o c i a l  a s s e t t o be used i n the d i r e c t i o n o f s o c i a l changes, l i b e r a l i s m must become r a d i c a l ; and by * r a d i c a l " Dewey means l  "perception  of the n e c e s s i t y o f thorough-going changes i n the set-up o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and corresponding a c t i v i t y t o b r i n g the changes t o 123 pass." Dewey i s f u l l y aware that t o many, r a d i c a l i s m i m p l i e s the use o f f o r c e t o e f f e c t changes; the l i b e r a l , however, i s "committed t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n t  a c t i o n as the  12k c h i e f method".  I n . h i s comments on the means used t o maintain  the e x i s t e n c e o f the p r e s e n t considerable  economic system Dewey shares i n a  degree the M a r x i s t viewpoint  (but not i t s ideology)  that f o r c e u n d e r l i e s the o p e r a t i o n o f the system.  He makes the  o b s e r v a t i o n that e x i s t i n g economic i n s t i t u t i o n s p l a c e f o r c e i n the hands o f those who wish t o perpetuate the i n s t i t u t i o n s . those who r e g a r d f o r c e as the dynamic and cohesive  element i n our  s o c i a l system have no need t o advocate i t s u s e . Force, r a t h e r t h a n i n t e l l i g e n c e , i s b u i l t i n t o the procedures o f the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system, r e g u l a r l y as c o e r c i o n , i n times o f c r i s i s as overt v i o l e n c e . The l e g a l system, c o n s p i c u o u s l y i n I t s penal aspect, more s u b t l y i n c i v i l p r a c t i c e , r e s t s upon ; coercion.125 To ensure t h a t we a r e not i n d i f f e r e n t t o what he Is saying Dewey c o n s t a n t l y repeats  and emphasizes the p o i n t that the  122 Dewey, L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n , pp. 72-3. 123 I b i d . , p. 62. 12k I b i d . , p. 63.  125 Loc. c i t .  And  102 p r e s e n t method o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l has f o r c e a t i t s base. h i s purpose  However,  i s not to arouse us t o meet :force with f o r c e , as  the M a r x i s t s would exhort us t o do, but to make us f u l l y aware t h a t u n l e s s " t h e f a c t i s acknowledged . . . the meaning o f dependence.upon i n t e l l i g e n c e as the a l t e r n a t i v e method of 126 s o c i a l d i r e c t i o n w i l l not be grasped." Unquestionably Dewey was not a M a r x i s t , nor d i d he s u b s c r i b e t o any o t h e r v a r i e t y of s o c i a l or economic  determinism;  but h i s a n a l y s i s o f the o p e r a t i o n o f the c a p i t a l i s t system, i f taken out o f context, would make i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the M a r x i s t position difficult  t o deny.  I n t h e passage quoted below, i n  which he continues h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r o l e of f o r c e i n our s o c i a l system,  the s p i r i t s of Marx and Engels must have l e n t a  hand when he wrote i t .  T h i s i s not a c r i t i c i s m o f Dewey,  however; the v a l i d i t y or i n v a l i d i t y o f h i s views must be d e t e r mined on grounds other than i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y unacceptable dogma. But what we need t o r e a l i z e i s that p h y s i c a l f o r c e i s used, a t l e a s t I n t h e form o f c o e r c i o n , i n the very set-up o f our s o c i e t y . That the c o m p e t i t i v e system which was thought o f by e a r l y l i b e r a l s as the means by which the l a t e n t a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s were t o be evoked and d i r e c t e d i n t o s o c i a l l y u s e f u l channels, i s now i n fact a state of scarcely disguised b a t t l e h a r d l y needs t o be dwelt upon. That the c o n t r o l o f the means o f p r o d u c t i o n by the few i n l e g a l p o s s e s s i o n operates as a s t a n d i n g agency o f c o e r c i o n o f the many, may need emphasis i n statement, but i s s u r e l y evident to one who i s w i l l i n g t o observe and h o n e s t l y r e p o r t the e x i s t i n g  126 Dewey, L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n , p. 6ii.  103 scene. I t Is f o o l i s h to regard the p o l i t i c a l s t a t e as the o n l y agency now endowed with c o e r c i v e power. I t s e x e r c i s e o f t h i s power i s p a l e i n cont r a s t w i t h t h a t e x e r c i s e d by concentrated and organized p r o p e r t y i n t e r e s t s . 1 2 7 The  statements i n the f o r e g o i n g q u o t a t i o n b r i s t l e  implications.  with  However, most of them can be subsumed under  p r i n c i p a l ideas:  (1)  two  Force i s omnipresent i n the s o c i a l system,  w i t h the power o f economic i n t e r e s t s r i v a l l i n g i n magnitude i n f l u e n c e t h a t of the s t a t e .  (2)  Organized  intelligence  o n l y a s u b s e r v i e n t p l a c e , i f i t has a p l a c e at a l l ,  and  has  as a method  of s o c i a l a c t i o n , and i t faces the formidable o b s t a c l e of a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e b u i l t on the power p r i n c i p l e . Although  Dewey's d e s c r i p t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n of the  economic system has many o f the overtones  of the Marxian  d o c t r i n e of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , the s i m i l a r i t y i n f a c t i s a s u p e r f i c i a l one; widely.  at the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l Dewey and Marx diverge  Dewey does not deny that groups are c o n t i n u a l l y  s t r u g g l i n g f o r a more favoured p o s i t i o n and t h a t , at  times,  r a d i c a l s h i f t s i n c o n t r o l are accompanied by v i o l e n c e .  He  company w i t h Marx, however, when Marx i n s i s t s that r a d i c a l change and v i o l e n c e are necessary i s s u e t h a t we and Dewey.  correlates.  parts social  It i s i n this  can see the fundamental disagreement between Marx  The meaningful q u e s t i o n f o r Dewey i s not how  force  w i l l be employed to achieve a r e s o l u t i o n of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , choice of method i s foregone i n framing whether i n t e l l i g e n c e W i l l supplant  t h i s question,  f o r c e as the means of  change. 127  but  Dewey, L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n , pp.63-61+.  social  lOli The q u e s t i o n i s whether f o r c e or i n t e l l i g e n c e i s t o be the method upon which we c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l y and to whose promotion we devote our e n e r g i e s . I n s i s t e n c e that the u s e o f v i o l e n t f o r c e i s i n e v i t a b l e l i m i t s the use o f a v a i l a b l e i n t e l l i g e n c e , f o r wherever the i n e v i t a b l e r e i g n s i n t e l l i g e n c e cannot be used. Commitment t o i n e v i t a b i l i t y i s always the f r u i t o f dogma; i n t e l l i g e n c e does not p r e t e n d t o know save as the r e s u l t o f experimentation. the o p p o s i t e o f p r e c o n c e i v e d dogma.128 Not  o n l y does Dewey r e p u d i a t e the c l a s s  view t h a t the use o f v i o l e n t that there e x i s t s  s t r u g g l e t h e o r y and the  force i n inevitable,  an e n t i t y c a l l e d a " c l a s s " .  he denies  also  The idea o f a  c l a s s , a c c o r d i n g t o Dewey, i s a product o f an a b s o l u t i s t i c  129 l o g i c and has no b a s i s i n f a c t . I t i s n o t one o f the o b j e c t s o f t h i s essay t o make a complete comparison o f the p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f Dewey and Marx.  The b r i e f a n a l y s i s  views was made p r i m a r i l y to the p r i n c i p l e and  o f a s a l i e n t area o f s i m i l a r i t y i n t o show Dewey's u n q u a l i f i e d  o f experimental i n t e l l i g e n c e  i n s o c i a l matters,  s e c o n d a r i l y t o r e v e a l the completely a n t i t h e t i c a l  of the two men's o u t l o o k s .  In spite  commitment  substrata  o f the many apparent  s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s of s o c i a l matters i t would 128 Dewey, L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n , p. 7 8 . 129 I n a s h o r t essay e n t i t l e d John Dewey and K a r l Marx by J . Cork i n the volume o f essays John Dewey: P h i l o s o p h e r o f Science and Freedom, New York, D i a l P r e s s , 1950, ed. by Sidney Hook, there i s a summary o f the major p o i n t s o f s i m i l a r i t y between the views o f Marx and Dewey; nine a r e l i s t e d ; see pp. 338-3I1I. The p o i n t s o f disagreement are a l s o d i s c u s s e d I n t h i s essay. I n Dewey's book Freedom and C u l t u r e , New York, G-.P. Putnam's Sons, 1935* many o f h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f Marxism are recorded; see chapter f o u r , T o t a l i t a r i a n Economics and Democracy, pp. 7 l i to 102.  105 be  difficult  genuine in  t o s a y c o n c l u s i v e l y where  agreement.  the conviction held  order  and t h e ends Before  the  views  stream  not  been  Action,  a comparatively  towards  the latter  programme  liberalism  b u t he  reactionary  institutions  also  technology  against  disturbed continued  cherishes  this  o f mind  early  assertion  undirected  of the  of a of  expressing  t h e needs  the goals  of  traditional  philosophy  built  upon  the  meaningless  a philosophy  revolution  the forces  to pass.  The  l i b e r a l i s m i s b y no means  consequences  o f the p r i n c i p l e that about  activity  born i n  and forming t h e  through which constrained  growing  and values  and i d e o l o g i c a l , r i g i d i t y .  be brought  and S o c i a l  an outline  of ideas  abstractions;  by the far-reaching  can only  socially  t h e body  a r e now  upon  exploration has  an a n a l y s i s  of the s p i r i t  the industrial  of retrogressiveness  change  individualism;  of a doctrine  and h a b i t s  the  influence  analysis  i n the underlying  and economic  age a n t e d a t i n g  new m a c h i n e  sees  i t s  Liberalism  o f t h e work i n t o  Dewey  authority  psychological  the  age.  between  out to explore  This  work,  a searching  liberalism into  the present  are evil.  to i t .  f o r the r e i n c a r n a t i o n  traditional  however,  part  social  the connection  theory.  short  of laissez-faire  are i n  o f t h e minds  the present  t o assess  return  Dewey h a s p r o v i d e d  philosophy  one  philosophy  s o we  that  had started  o f Dewey's s o c i a l  completed In  men  to consider  a n d M a r x we  and Marx  i s a meeting  i t i s directed  digressed  o f the l i b e r a l  formation  an  we  there  by both  t o which  o f Dewey  the  of  Possibly  Dewey  o f the charge,  merely  'Dewey i s  resulting  beneficial'  from social  by t h e u n r e s t r i c t e d and  of private  economic  enterprise.  106 This  doctrine,  apparent when  Dewey  validity  scarcity  was  claims,  during  The i n d u s t r i a l  potential  plenty,  and  arrangements  scarcity  the  however developed  i s kept  i n the former  maintained  beliefs  alive  vinced  of early  liberalism  that  up hope  a renascent  doctrines  is  made  t h e methods  philosophy.  This  Dewey w a n t s means  social  planning.  such  then  long  I t has already cannot  standing  liberalism  will  towards  economic  organization  an ordered  i n human l i f e  expression  life  i s con-  effort social  included,  of socialized  B u t Dewey  intelligence  f o r comprehensive  that  such  without  a programme deeply  i s confident  doctrine  become a n i m p o r t a n t  to  i f t h e remnants  thinking  be i n t r o d u c e d  the recognition that  He  and a p o s i t i v e  been noted  beliefs.  of  i n contemporary  o f the need  a sweeping r e v i s i o n o f l i b e r a l  thinking  for  acceptance  by  of the  of experimental  i n social  the recogniiton  bred  system.  i s possible  and i d e a s  approach  of liberalism  disturbing i f  with  the doctrine  the persistence  are discarded  us t o understand,  along  reform  new  the fears  i d e o l o g i c a l support  wrought  liberalism  institutions  The s t a t e o f  f o r i t s regeneration.  laissez-faire t o adopt  which  have  of  of  with  that  to provide  spite of the evils  Dewey h a s n o t g i v e n  as  along  men t o  of the  period.  b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f the e x i s t i n g economic In  of capitalism,  i n an age o f  not a modification  I t i s Dewey's c o n t e n t i o n  individualism  I t had an  and i n s e c u r i t y m o t i v a t e d  r e v o l u t i o n ushered  i s artificially  insecurity.  obsolete.  t h e e r a o f t h e emergence  the r u l e  produce.  i s noW  means  can be  that  effected  to redirect  "the ultimate  i s t o assure  of individual capacity  place  of  the secure  basis  and f o r t h e  107  ,13< s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the needs o f man i n non-economic d i r e c t i o n s . " Xn view o f the importance which Dewey a t t a c h e s t o the p o t e n t i a l influence it  of a reconstructed  l i b e r a l i s m we must conclude t h a t  i s one o f the key f a c t o r s i n h i s p r o p o s a l s f o r a programme  of s o c i a l a c t i o n . An  essential precondition  f o r the emergence o f Dewey's  Great Community i s the e l i m i n a t i o n o f s c a r c i t y i n the m a t e r i a l needs o f human b e i n g s .  Adequate food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r  a v a i l a b l e as a s o c i a l r i g h t i s p r e r e q u i s i t e  to emancipation  from the f e a r s bred by p r i v a t i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y . s o c i a l idealism  supports the f o r e g o i n g  More than  p r e s c r i p t i o n ; the p r i n -  c i p l e i s now accepted i n modern psychology that a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r emotional s e c u r i t y i s p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y . follows, therefore,  t h a t a secure p h y s i c a l and mental  ment must s u b s i s t i f f r e e I n q u i r y  i s to play  It environ-  a significant role  i n human a f f a i r s , and i f human beings are f r e e l y and c r e a t i v e l y to employ t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r purposes beyond and o u t s i d e o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t . To a t t a i n these necessary f o r the " r e l e a s e  conditions  of human energy f o r the p u r s u i t o f  h i g h e r v a l u e s " Dewey makes i t one o f the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s :  o f a renascent l i b e r a l i s m the s o c i a l i z i n g o f t h e f o r c e s o f production.  1 3 1  L i b e r a l i s m was a major source o f i n f l u e n c e , as i t was i n d i c a t e d i n one o f the opening paragraphs o f t h i s chapter, i n 130 Dewey, L i b e r a l i s m  and S o c i a l A c t i o n , p. 88.  131 I b i d . , pp. 88 t o 9 0 .  108 the development o f Dewey'3 programme f o r s o c i a l a c t i o n ; i t p r o v i d e d the g o a l s of and the c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the tradition.  But i t performs  another c r u c i a l l y important  i t l i n k s s c i e n c e and p o l i t i c s . u l t i m a t e g o a l was  democratic  As we  function:  s h a l l see l a t e r , Dewey's  the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the c u r r e n t o f s o c i a l  t h i n k i n g o f the b a s i c concepts o f s c i e n t i f i c methodology t o create the I n t e l l e c t u a l environment  w i t h i n which the  specific  t o o l s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n c o u l d be developed to r e p l a c e those now  i n use.  As an i n t e r i m measure Dewey d i d a s s i s t i n the r e p a i r  and reinforcement o f the e x i s t i n g equipment, but i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the f a c t  that i t s e v e n t f u l replacement  become i n the course of time i m p e r a t i v e l y n e c e s s a r y .  full  would When the  circumstances are p r o p i t i o u s l i b e r a l i s m w i l l be the v e h i c l e , Dewey hopes, which w i l l  c a r r y the concepts o f experimental  s c i e n c e i n t o the w o r l d of p r a c t i c a l  politics.  To see the r e l a t i o n between Dewey's s o c i a l t h e o r y and h i s p r o p o s a l s f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f a method o f s o c i a l i n q u i r y , we must examine some of the meanings which a t t a c h to h i s concept o f the community, i n c l u d i n g h i s expanded the Great Community.  concept,  I t s widest and deepest meaning can be  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the i d e a o f democracy f o r which Dewey g i v e s the following  definition: From the standpoint o f the i n d i v i d u a l , i t c o n s i s t s i n h a v i n g a r e s p o n s i b l e share a c c o r d i n g to c a p a c i t y i n forming and d i r e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f the groups to which one belongs and i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o need i n the v a l u e s which the groups s u s t a i n . From the standpoint, of the groups, i t demands l i b e r a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f members o f  I  109  a group i n harmony w i t h the goods which are common.132  interests  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t from the  p o i n t of view of Dewey's  p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory which holds t h a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n t i t y has  no  from which i t emerged, and both the of the  individual  c o n d i t i o n s of  statement of the are  and  that they are each new  c h a r a c t e r and  group are  always on  philosophy:  the  horizon.  individual  v i s i o n of the  the  of  totality  to  a  r e a l i z a t i o n of the  as  ends a t t a i n e d  newly emerged ends.  theme of which i s the  democratic  core of h i s  r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of  i n community l i f e .  say  idealist,  continuum of ends-means, and  human being i n harmony w i t h the  participation  quality  That i s not  l e v e l i n s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n the  central the  s o c i a l matrix  determined by  chosen, t h e r e f o r e , a d e f i n i t i o n of the  community the  a  I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t as  recede l i k e the  p a r t of the  become means f o r the Dewey has  t h a t the  as  goals of Dewey's s o c i a l t h i n k i n g ; g o a l s which  never f i x e d but  such at  individual  meaning a p a r t from the  interaction.  t h a t they c o n t i n u a l l y but  the  and  social the  deepening of  his  I t i s a d e f i n i t i o n , moreover,  which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s  and  his  general metaphysical outlook. However, Dewey o f f e r s his in  concept of the form and  a somewhat narrower d e f i n i t i o n  community; one  content to the  which i s more c l o s e l y  s t r u c t u r e and  elements o f h i s  theory. The i d e a or i d e a l of a community p r e s e n t s , however, a c t u a l phases of a s s o c i a t e d l i f e  132  Dewey, The  P u b l i c and  I t s Problems, p.  lii7.  of  related social  110  as they are f r e e d from r e s t r i c t i v e and d i s t u r b i n g elements, and are contemplated as h a v i n g a t t a i n e d t h e i r l i m i t of development. Wherever there i s c o n j o i n t a c t i v i t y whose consequences are a p p r e c i a t e d as good by a l l s i n g u l a r persons who take p a r t i n i t , and where the r e a l i z a t i o n of the good i s such as to e f f e c t an e n e r g e t i c d e s i r e and e f f o r t to s u s t a i n i t i n b e i n g j u s t because i t i s a good shared by a l l , there i s i n so f a r a community. The c l e a r consciousness of a coraraunal l i f e , i n a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , c o n s t i t u t e s the i d e a of democracy.133 I f we  consider'only  i s no  doubt about t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y t o Dewey's t h e o r y  o f the  the  l o g i c of the f o r e g o i n g  o r i g i n s of the p u b l i c and  the  the  content i t s e l f ,  and  consequences are p r e s e n t , but  The  With r e s p e c t  the f a m i l i a r elements o f c o n j o i n t  a community appears. i n outcome?  state.  statements, there  What i s the  answer l i e s , we  d i f f e r e n c e i n the nature o f the  we  consequences. studied  explanation  for this  c o n j o i n t a c t i v i t y which,  a p u b l i c and  consequences are a p p r e c i a t e d  a p u b l i c , and  or v a l u e d , and  a community i n t o b e i n g .  d e s i r e to promote and  the Whether  therefore,  P u b l i c and  I t s Problems, pp.  them  s u s t a i n them, a  community.  1 3 3 Dewey, The  'ethical'  consequences; the need to r e g u l a t e the  of  consequences  a community emerges appears t o depend,  upon the nature of the creates  character  to c o n t r o l l e d ; i n the p r e s e n t  d e s i r e to s u s t a i n them b r i n g s  of  v e r s i o n of the t h e o r y which  e a r l i e r , a p u b l i c emerged because the  v e r s i o n the  difference  believe, i n a qualitative  In the p o l i t i c a l  were o f a k i n d which had  activity  i n s t e a d of a p u b l i c emerging  course, produces a corresponding d i f f e r e n c e i n the the  to  li+8-9.  Ill I t should be noted that the p e r c e p t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f some consequences as goods t o be shared and the wish t o pursue and s u s t a i n them i n t r o d u c e s moral c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o the t h e o r y . life  I n Dewey's view the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f community  i s that i t i s moral, " t h a t i s e m o t i o n a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y ,  consciously s u s t a i n e d . ^ ~ ^ n  The  d i s c l o s u r e o f the moral f a c t o r as the touchstone  f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f a community n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t we take another l o o k at the q u e s t i o n o f whether the experimental method has  the u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y as an instrument f o r s o c i a l  I n q u i r y which Dewey claims f o r i t .  There appears  t o be no  t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y s t a n d i n g i n the way o f a p p l y i n g I t t o the p o l i t i c a l phase o f Dewey's t h e o r y :  the a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t y  of human beings, t h e consequences o f t h i s a c t i v i t y and, f i n a l l y , the e f f e c t s o f the consequences both w i t h i n the group from which they o r i g i n a t e d and beyond the group ( i f they go beyond) t o persons n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d are a l l observable phenomena f a l l i n g w i t h i n the scope o f e m p i r i c a l methods o f i n q u i r y . However, i f the consequences take the form o f v a l u e s , the case i s arguable whether the experimental method a p p l i e s .  Admittedly,  r  human p u r p o s i n g to promote some consequences and i n h i b i t others i s a k i n d o f behaviour, but a s u b t l e k i n d , concerned w i t h aims, d e s i r e s , p o l i c i e s , e t c . — w i t h ends or goods t o be a c h i e v e d . G e n e r a l l y speaking, the a c t i v i t y of v a l u i n g , o f determining which ends we ought t o pursue, has been h e l d t o be a s u b j e c t  13)i Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. l£l  112 matter not s u s c e p t i b l e to o b s e r v a t i o n .  I t i s claimed, moreover,  that the e x i s t e n c e o f ends or v a l u e s cannot be d i r e c t l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and i f at a l l , s t a n t i a l evidence.  then o n l y on the b a s i s of circum-  By now i t should be q u i t e apparent  that  Dewey would r e j e c t any h y p o t h e s i s t h a t puts the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f v a l u e s o u t s i d e o f human experience; t h i s i n c l u d e d almost a l l m e t a p h y s i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e s , p s y c h o l o g i e s o f the i n t r o s p e c t i v e type, and any other view which a p r i o r i p l a c e s the c o n t r o l o f the f o r m a t i o n o f human ends o u t s i d e of human agencies.  The reasons which Dewey g i v e s f o r h i s d e n i a l o f the  v a l i d i t y o f such hypotheses epistemology;  are d e a r l y consistent with h i s  ends or purposes  are p a r t o f t h e continuum o f ends-  means, and ends, i n the sense o f something d e s i r e d , serve to determine ends.  the k i n d o f behaviour and means r e q u i r e d t o a t t a i n the  In Dewey's words, "Ends-in-view  a r e a p p r a i s e d or v a l u e d  as good o r bad on the ground o f t h e i r s e r v i c e a b i l i t y i n the d i r e c t i o n o f behaviour d e a l i n g w i t h s t a t e s o f a f f a i r s found to  135 be o b j e c t i o n a b l e because o f some l a c k o f c o n f l i c t i n them." I n view o f the r o l e which Dewey a s s i g n s t o ends, i t i s obvious that t h e y can be n e i t h e r f i n a l n o r a b s o l u t e . A d i s c u s s i o n o f Dewey's v a l u a t i o n t h e o r y i s n o t a l o g i c a l l y e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h i s essay. N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s views on t h i s s u b j e c t are not. without some r e l a t i o n t o h i s s o c i a l  136  theory.  The p r o p o s i t i o n i n Dewey's v a l u a t i o n t h e o r y which  135 Dewey, John, Theory o f V a l u a t i o n , Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 191+6, Volume I I , Number l+, I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a o f U n i f i e d S c i e n c e , p. 5 8 . 136 I b i d . , pp. 5 7 - 6 6 .  113 bears d i r e c t l y upon a method o f s o c i a l i n q u i r y i s the f o l l o w i n g : V a l u a t i o n s e x i s t i s f a c t and a r e capable o f e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n so that p r o p o s i t i o n s about them a r e e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e . 1 3 7 T h i s statement i s Dewey's answer t o our doubts about whether the experimental method i s s u b j e c t t o some l i m i t a t i o n s i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the whole f i e l d o f s o c i a l phenomena.  Clearly,  Dewey h o l d s  t h a t nothing  and  c o n d i t i o n s o f human a s s o c i a t i o n come w i t h i n the  organic  Is excluded; n o t o n l y do the p h y s i c a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c procedure but so do the moral or value f a c t o r s .  Hence, there  i s no t h e o r e t i c a l b a r r i e r to the  development o f a method o f s o c i a l i n q u i r y t o encompass the whole spectrum o f c o n d i t i o n s which account f o r community  life.  Although Dewey claims t h a t v a l u a t i o n s a r e capable o f being  i n v e s t i g a t e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , by e m p i r i c a l methods, he does  p o i n t out t h a t we a r e only a t the f r o n t i e r s i n t h i s f i e l d o f i n q u i r y , both w i t h r e s p e c t t o the extent  o f knowledge about  v a l u a t i o n s and t o the methods f o r o b t a i n i n g i t . The p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the way o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y i n t o v a l u a t i o n s are g r e a t , so great t h a t they a r e r e a d i l y mistaken f o r inherent t h e o r e t i c a l o b s t a c l e s . Moreover, such knowledge as does e x i s t about v a l u a t i o n s i s f a r from organized, to say n o t h i n g about i t s b e i n g adequate.138 Leaving  a s i d e the v a l i d i t y o f Dewey's c l a i m that v a l u a t i o n s are  capable o f e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the undeveloped s t a t e o f v a l u a t i o n theory may be a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f the e x p l a n a t i o n  137 Dewey, Theory o f V a l u a t i o n , p. 5 8 .  138 Loc. c i t .  11 If. f o r the f a i l u r e o f the Great  Community t o emerge.  Individuals  are f a c e d today w i t h the i n c r e d i b l y d i f f i c u l t task of s e l e c t i n g the important  'goods' from amongst the p l e t h o r a o f  'goods! which the age o f technology own devices pressure  has spawned.  Left to h i s  the i n d i v i d u a l makes h i s d e c i s i o n s i n response t o  or p e r s u a s i o n and o c c a s i o n a l l y from need, but r a r e l y as  the r e s u l t o f c a r e f u l , c o n s c i e n t i o u s d e l i b e r a t i o n . reasonable  t o conclude,  It i s  t h e r e f o r e , that the i n a b i l i t y t o reach  agreement on the choice o f the 'goods' which ought a c t i v e l y t o be pursued and c u l t i v a t e d by the group may be due t o l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e methods o f v a l u a t i o n . Prom the d i s c u s s i o n o f the concept o f the community i t i s c l e a r t h a t there i s no u n c e r t a i n t y i n Dewey's t h i n k i n g about the nature  o f the g o a l t o a t t a i n .  f o r the emergence o f the Great and e x p r e s s i n g generated.  I f there i s t o be any hope  Community and the P u b l i c f i n d i n g  i t s e l f , new c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l l i f e must be  There i s a l s o no u n c e r t a i n t y about the choice o f  methodology; we have j u s t noted Dewey's view t h a t the methods o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y a r e powerful  enough t o reach even i n t o the  t r a d i t i o n a l l y e s o t e r i c r e g i o n o f value f o r m a t i o n . between the g o a l and the methodology?  But what l i e s  What i s the nature of  the s p e c i f i c means which w i l l b r i n g the methodology o f experi m e n t a l s c i e n c e i n t o an a p p r o p r i a t e working r e l a t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y and  i t s problems?  provides  I n answer t o the f o r e g o i n g questions  only general proposals,  discussed.  139  Dewey  some o f them we have a l r e a d y  139 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 157. We have a l r e a d y noted (see page 9b" t h i s essay) that Dewey r e s t r i c t s h i s study t o t h e o r e t i c a l considerations only.  115 Dewey's remaining p r o p o s a l s f o r the r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f our approach t o s o c i a l problems are c l o s e l y connected with the view t h a t communication i s the v i t a l p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f community l i f e .  I t i s o n l y through the s h a r i n g  o f meanings and values by means o f symbols and language t h a t a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o a l e s c e s i n t o a community. To l e a r n t o be human I s to develop through the give-and-take o f communication an e f f e c t i v e sense o f b e i n g an i n d i v i d u a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e member o f a community; one who understands and a p p r e c i a t e s i t s b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s and methods, and who c o n t r i b u t e s t o a f u r t h e r c o n v e r s i o n o f o r g a n i c powers i n t o human r e s o u r c e s and values.ll+O In  the l o c a l f a c e - t o - f a c e community communication Is r a p i d and  effective.  Knowledge about matters  a f f e c t i n g i n one way or  another the w e l f a r e o f t h e members of the community o r the community i t s e l f i s a v a i l a b l e d i r e c t l y and q u i c k l y , without the m e d i a t i o n o f experts t o c o l l e c t , arrange  and i n t e r p r e t the  f a c t s , and o f propagandists t o disseminate the r e s u l t s to serve predetermined  political  ends.  Today, however, t h e f a c e - t o - f a c e  community has almost disappeared; s c i e n c e has r e v o l u t i o n i z e d the c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e which were once f e r t i l e s u r v i v a l o f the l o c a l communities.  f o r the growth and  The hope, t h e r e f o r e , that  Dewey sees f o r the e x i s t e n c e of t h e Great Community l i e s c r e a t i o n on a broad  i n the  scale o f a b a s i s o f communication which  approaches i n i n t i m a c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s that o f the f a c e - t o f a c e community.  lliO Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 151+.  152-157.  See a l s o pp.  116 Now, we come t o the c o n d i t i o n s that must be f u l f i l l e d i f a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y organized p u b l i c i s to emerge and f o r which communication i s the i n d i s p e n s a b l e p r e r e q u i s i t e :  freedom o f  s o c i a l i n q u i r y and freedom o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r e s u l t s . r e s p e c t t o the f i r s t specifications:  c o n d i t i o n Dewey adds the f o l l o w i n g  (1) Methods o f i n q u i r y must be developed t o  t r a c e i n t e r a c t i o n s through t o consequences. s y s t e m a t i c and continuous. contemporary.  With  (2) I n q u i r y must be  (3) I n q u i r y must be s p e c i f i c and  On the other hand, methods o f i n q u i r y cannot be  developed without complete freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n .  I f there i s t o  be a p u b l i c , there must be f u l l p u b l i c i t y o f a l l consequences o f i n q u i r y which concern i t .  T h i s means not o n l y widespread  d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f i n q u i r y , but a l s o t h a t the r e s u l t s be put i n t o terms and language comprehensible to the layman. F i n a l l y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , Dewey o u t l i n e s the c o n d i t i o n s which must be met before they can serve as  e f f e c t i v e instruments o f s o c i a l  inquiry.  F i r s t , that those concepts, g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s and d i a l e c t i c a l developments which are i n d i s p e n s a b l e to any systematic knowledge be shaped and t e s t e d as t o o l s o f i n q u i r y . Secondly, that p o l i c i e s and p r o p o s a l s f o r s o c i a l a c t i o n be treated as working hypotheses, not as programs t o be r i g i d l y adhered t o and executed. They w i l l be experimental i n the sense t h a t they w i l l be e n t e r t a i n e d s u b j e c t t o constant and w e l l - e q u i p p e d o b s e r v a t i o n o f the consequences they e n t a i l when a c t e d upon, and s u b j e c t t o ready and f l e x i b l e r e v i s i o n i n the l i g h t of observed consequences . l i p . :  l l j l Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, pp. 202-3  1 1 7  The  o r i g i n o f t h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n should be  obvious; i t i s the l e g i t i m a t e i s s u e from the marriage o f instrumentalism  and s o c i a l  theory.  We cannot c l o s e our examination o f Dewey's views on s o c i a l change without making some comment on whether they bear the i m p r i n t  o f the d o c t r i n e o f instrumentalism.  Dewey  i n s i s t s t h a t they do, and he has gone to great pains his  w r i t i n g s on s o c i a l philosophy  to c o n t r a s t  himself  i n many o f  the e m p i r i c a l ,  i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t approach t o s o c i a l problems w i t h the approaches born o f " a b s o l u t i s t i c " p h i l o s o p h i e s ,  approaches which, i n Dewey's  o p i n i o n , presume t o r e s o l v e s o c i a l Issues by m a n i p u l a t i n g  logical  a b s t r a c t i o n s from s o c i a l phenomena such as "the i n d i v i d u a l " , "society", etc.  He has a s s e r t e d , moreover, that the l o g i c and  conceptions employed i n these l a t t e r approaches have not o n l y been i n e f f e c t i v e , but they have a l s o stood as o b s t a c l e s  t o the  ll\2 development o f more f r u i t f u l methods o f s o c i a l i n q u i r y .  In  r e b u t t i n g Dewey i t might w e l l be asked whether he l i k e w i s e has f a l l e n i n t o the t r a p o f a b s o l u t i s m political for  conception,  the s t a t e .  i n respect to h i s c h i e f The answer i s c l e a r l y  negative;  amongst the many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which Dewey's s t a t e might  possess, i t s dominant one, the c a p a c i t y f o r change and adaptation, e x i s t s there by design.  " J u s t as p u b l i c s and s t a t e s v a r y w i t h  c o n d i t i o n s o f time and p l a c e , so do the concrete  f u n c t i o n s which  should be c a r r i e d on by s t a t e s . . . . T h e i r scope i s something t o be l i | 2 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, See pp. 191 to 2 0 3 f o r Dewey's d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t o p i c .  118. c r i t i c a l l y and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y determined."  11+.3  I f there  are any  doubts about the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r o l e which Dewey a s s i g n s t o the s t a t e , t h e f o r e g o i n g statements i s the instrument  should d i s p e l them.  o f the p u b l i c .  II4.3 Dewey, The P u b l i c and I t s Problems, p. 7l\.  The s t a t e  119  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  Works b y J o h n  (a)  Dewey  In Social  and P o l i t i c a l  Freedom and C u l t u r e . Sond, 1939.  Philosophy  New  York,  I n d i v i d u a l i s m O l d a n d New. B a l c h & Company, 1930.  New  L i b e r a l i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n . Putnam's Sons, 1935. The  (b)  Public Books;  I n Other  Putnam's  York,  New  Minton,  York,  G.P.  and I t s Problems. C h i c a g o , Gateway 19I+6 ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1927).  Fields  of Philosophy  Essays i n Experimental Logic. P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1953. Logic: The T h e o r y o f I n q u i r y . H o l t a n d C o m p a n y , 193b". P h i l o s o p h y and C i v i l i z a t i o n . B a l c h & Company, 1931. Problems  G.P.  o f Men.  New  York,  ~~  19$6".  The  Quest f o r C e r t a i n t y . & Company, 1929.  New  York,  New  New  Dover  York,  York,  Minton,  Philosophical  New  Reconstruction i n Philosophy. H o l t a n d Company, 1920.  York,  New  Henry  Library,  Minton,  York,  Balch  Henry  Theory of Valuation. C h i c a g o , The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 19ljJD, V o l u m e I I , N u m b e r I4., International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.  120 (c) Under the d i r e c t i o n of an E d i t o r I n t e l l i g e n c e i n the Modern World; John Dewey's Philosophy* E d i t e d and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Joseph Ratner, New York, The Modern L i b r a r y ,  1939.  2.  Works about John Dewey Geiger, George R. John Dewey i n P e r s p e c t i v e . New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958. Hook, Sidney, ed. John Dewey; P h i l o s o p h e r o f Science Freedom. New York, The D i a l P r e s s , l930l S c h i l p p , P.A., ed. The Philosophy of John Dewey. New York, Tudor P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1951. The P h i l o s o p h e r o f the Common Man. Essays i n Honor o f John Dewey t o Celebrate H i s E i g h t i e t h B i r t h d a y , New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons, I9I4.O.  3.  Other Works Consulted Jacob sen, G.A. and Lipman, M.H. An O u t l i n e o f P o l i t i c a l Science. New York, Barnes & Noble, I n c . ,  1937. L e n i n , V . I . S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n . New I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1935.  York,  - Mead, George H. Mind, S e l f and S o c i e t y . Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1914-0. E d i t e d and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Charles W. M o r r i s . Plekhanov, George. The M a t e r i a l i s t Conception o f H i s t o r y . New York, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 19li0. R u s s e l l , Bertrand. A H i s t o r y of Western New York, Simon and Schuster, 19^5*  Philosophy.  

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