Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Success and failure in adult probation : an exploratory survey of adult male probationers and a comparative… Welsh, Gordon William 1959

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1959_A5 W3 S8.pdf [ 7.67MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302590.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302590-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302590-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302590-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302590-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302590-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302590-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302590-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302590.ris

Full Text

SUCCESS AMD FAILURE IN ADULT PROBATION An Exploratory Survey of Adult Male Probationers and a Comparative Study Relating Outcome of Probation Period to Selected S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955-1956 by GORDON WIT T.T AM WELSH Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree o f Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1959 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia V ABSTRACT Probation i s only one of the a l t e r n a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to the court i n sentencing an offender. The present study has two major part s , (a) I t examined i n d e t a i l the personal, s o c i a l , and environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l adult males placed under the supervision of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Probation Branch i n the f i s c a l year 1955-56. (b) The r e l a t i o n of a group of selected c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the outcome of the cases i s explored, ( i . e . whether or not they s u c c e s s f u l l y completed the time period of probation prescribed by the c o u r t ) . D e f i n i t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of probation introduces the study. The Canadian, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y the B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y and current p i c t u r e of adult probation services i s given. The present l i m i t e d supply of probation f a c i l i t i e s and the need t o use t h i s l i m i t e d resource t o best advantage i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t . M a t e r i a l drawn upon f o r the survey of the 1955-56 probationers, (223 i n a l l ) , included probation branch f i l e s , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s contained t h e r e i n ) , correspondence with probation o f f i c e r s throughout the province and correspondence with the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . The v a r i a b l e s selected f o r further a n a l y s i s were: age at s t a r t of probation; m a r i t a l status and number of dependents; nature of the i n s t a n t offence; number o f previous convictions and extent of i n c a r c e r a t i o n ; type of i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a r r i e d out by t h e o f f i c e r and the assessment of the offender's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r probation; and steadiness of employment while on probation. A short follow-up check on the offenders' post-probation success was c a r r i e d out. The f i r s t product of the study i s a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e of the probation c l i e n t e l e , g i v i n g a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of those who the s e r v i c e i s set up to serve. Second, the r e l a t i n g of s e lected c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to outcome of case i s a f i r s t step toward providing some l i m i t e d p r e d i c t i v e guides to a s s i s t the o f f i c e r who i s attempting t o foresee how t h e offender w i l l do on probation. The follow-up check served to balance what otherwise might be an u n r e a l i s t i e a l l y high success r a t e . The " p r o f i l e " of probation c l i e n t e l e reveals that the group investigated appears not -markedly d i f f e r e n t from the general population of B r i t i s h Columbia judged by place of b i r t h , l e v e l of education, p h y s i c a l health, work habits and number of s i b l i n g s . Some possible v a r i a t i o n s from the general B r i t i s h Columbia populace are noted i n t h a t the group may have contained a higher proportion of young people, persons with no dependents, sing l e persons, u n s k i l l e d workers, persona with a background of broken parental r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i n that a l l the group were males. The v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o outcome of case that seem t o be of greatest s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c l u d e : steadiness of employment while on probation, extent oi" previous c r i m i n a l record, m a r i t a l status, and nature of the i n s t a n t offence. Of the 221 cases ending t h e i r probation period e i t h e r s u c c e s s f u l l y or unsuccessfully 185, (83»7 per cent), were succe s s f u l . Of these 185 cases 77.3 per cent s t i l l had no new record of convictions when the follow-up check was completed i n February, 1959• v i Several implications of the study are discussed. The need f o r adequate presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s stressed. The expansion o f adult probation services i n Canada i s urged, -with a cautionary note that geographical and numerical expansion must not be substituted f o r q u a l i t y i n the s e r v i c e s . The F e d e r a l Government can perhaps f a c i l i t a t e expansion of the service by intervening i n t o the area of adult probation as a standard s e t t i n g body. There i s a need f o r a c l o s e r working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the courts and welfare agencies, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Social Work . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8\ Canada. Date April 22, 1959 i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. Probation Defined: I t s Use i n Canada and  B r i t i s h Columbia Probation defined. An area of s o c i a l welfare. The value of probation. Adult probation i n Canada: i t s h i s t o r y and the current p i c t u r e . The l e g i s l a t i v e framework. Adult probation i n B r i t i s h Columbia; i t s development and present-day organization. S t a f f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Probation as a d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s p o s i t i o n to be used d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . Purpose of the present study. S i m i l a r studies. Time, s e t t i n g , and scope of study. Method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 Chapter 2. A P r o f i l e of Adult Male Probationers Court of r e f e r r a l . Conditions of r e l e a s e . Personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Family background. Outcome o f the probation period. Selection.of f a c t o r s f o r more d e t a i l e d a nalysis 26 Chapter 3* The Outcome of Probation: The Importance o f Selected  S o c i a l and Environmental Factors Age at s t a r t of probation. M a r i t a l status and number of dependents. Nature of the i n s t a n t offence. Extent of previous adult c r i m i n a l record and i n c a r c e r a t i o n . Presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n and assessment by probation o f f i c e r s . Steadiness of employment while on probation. Review of f i n d i n g s . Examination of f i n d i n g s i n l i g h t of si m i l a r studies 59 Chapter 4. Implications f o r P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e i n Probation The o r i g i n a l purpose of the study. Limitations of the study. The need f o r adequate presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The need f o r expansion of present adult probation s e r v i c e s . The aim of proba-t i o n i s "treatment". Implications of f i n d i n g s f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia.Provincial Probation Branch. The rx>le of the F e d e r a l Government. The p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker and corrections 92 Appendices: A. Post-Probation Inquiry Regarding Subsequent Criminal Record B. Probation L e g i s l a t i o n C. Sample Information Sheet Applied to F i l e s D. Bibliography i i i TABLES, AMD CHARTS IH THE TEXT (a) Tables Page Table 1. Courts referring offenders to the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Probation service 27 Table 2. Length of probation order imposed by the court .. 28 Table 3. Frequency of reporting prescribed by the court .. 30 Table 4. Size of Bond posted by probationer 31 Table 5. Month of year probation awarded to adult males 33 Table 6. Age of offender at time probation started 35 Table 7. Birth place of probationers 36 Table 8. Number of years of schooling successfully completed 38 Table 9. Health of probationers 39 Table 10. Chief occupation of probationer 40 Table 11. Work habits of probationers 41 Table 12. Steadiness of employment while under supervision 42 Table 13. Marital situation of the probationer 43 Table 14. Number of dependents supported by probationer 45 Table 15. Offence for which offender was placed on probation 46 Table 16. Known juvenile record of offenders - number of adjudged delinquencies 48 Table 17. Number of previous adult convictions 49 Table 19. Number of siblings of probationer 51 Table 20. Marital status of probationer's parents 53 Table 21. Nature of reports prepared concerning probationers 54 Table 22. Outcome of probation cases 56 Table 23. Time elapsed before case prematurely terminated 57 Table 24a.Age of probationer related to outcome of case 60 iv Page Table 24b. Age oi probationer related to outcome of case 61 Table 25. Marital status of probationer related to outcome of case .. 63 Table 26. Number of dependents related to outcome of case 66 Table 27. Nature of instant offence related to outcome of case 68 Table 28. Instant offences against property related to outcome of case 71 Table 29. Extent of previous record related £0 outcome of case '(%k Table 30. Type of report prepared related to outcome of case ........ 76 Table 31. Assessment made by probation officer related to outcome of case 78 Table 32. Steadiness of employment related to outcome of case ....... 81 Table 33* Review of findings relating success rates to selected variables 84 Table 34. Post-probation recidivism related to outcome of case ...... 103 (b) Charts Fig. 1. Administrative chart of the Provincial Probation Service, British Columbia, January 1959 . 16 Fig. 2. Success rates by age of probationer '  62 Fig. 3« Success rates by marital status of probationer 064 Fig. 4 . Success rates of probationers by number of dependents ....... 67 Fig. 5. Success rates by nature of instant offence committed by probationer 70 Fig. 6. Success rates as by nature of offence against property committed by probationer 72 Fig. 7« Success rates of probationers by number of previous convictions ...» 75 Fig. 8. Success rates of probationers by type of social history report prepared 77 Fig. 9. Success rates of probationers by assessment made by probation officers 79 Fig. 10. Success rates of probationers by steadiness of employment while on probation 82 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o thank Mr. A.J. Marriage, Research Consultant, f o r h i s continuous assistance through encouragement, c r i t i c i s m , and suggested r e v i s i o n of ma t e r i a l during the assembly of t h i s study. Dr. L. Marsh's suggestions and experience i n the research f i e l d proved a valuable resource. Mr. E.G.B. Stevens, D i r e c t o r o f Corrections f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, f a c i l i t a t e d the completion of the study g r e a t l y through the co-operative manner i n which correspondence was channeled through h i s branch o f f i c e s . The humorous goading of the S t a f f Supervisor of the probation service, Mr. Richard Clark, p e r i o d i c a l l y l e n t encouragement to the researcher, and the co-operation of the stenographic s t a f f of the probation service i s a l s o appreciated. The s t a f f of the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Branch, Ottawa, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Royal.Canadian Mounted P o l i c e Records Service located i n V i c t o r i a invested considerable time and e f f o r t i n making c e r t a i n aspects of the study p o s s i b l e . I n d i v i d u a l probation o f f i c e r s throughout the province, who are too numerous t o name, also deserve acknowledgement f o r t h e i r part i n f i l l i n g i n much of the otherwise missing d e t a i l about the h i s t o r i e s of various probationers. My most sincere appreciation i s , of course, expressed f o r the continuing e f f o r t and encouragement maintained throughout the e n t i r e study by my wife, who also served as c r i t i c , sub-editor, and t y p i s t . SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN ADULT PROBATION CHAPTER ONE PROBATION DEFINED: ITS USE IN CANADA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA 1. Probation Defined Probation, as a method of treatment of the criminal offender, i s often confused with other types of disposition. In order to remove this common confusion the definition used here will be the summary description of probation prepared by the United Nations. It reads: "By nay of summary, i t may be said that probation i s a method of dealing with specially selected offenders, and that i t consists of the conditional suspension of punishment while the offender i s placed under personal supervision and i s given individual guidance or 'treatment' This definition contains four separate aspects which we will consider in turn. Probation i s a method of dealing with specially selected offenders. This implies that only a certain segment of the offender group can benefit from the opportunity to "prove themselves i n open society", and secondly, reminds us that probation represents only one method of treatment of the offender and therefore i s to be used differentially along with other treatment resources. It has been suggested that probation i s only part of a broader stream of thought and practice in the correctional field, the stream stemming from the increased utilization of knowledge derived from the behaviour sciences.2 Turning to a Canadian source, we get the perspective in which our current tendency to use probation as only one method 1 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs. Probation and Related  Measures. New York, 1951* p.4 2 Pansegrouw, N.J. de W. "Probation and i t s Place i n a Rational and Humane Programme for the Treatment of Offenders". European Seminar on  Probation. London, 20-30 October 1952, United Nations, 1954. p.14 i n the cor rec t iona l f i e l d i s s e t , as described i n the Fauteux Report: "A w e l l ordered system of correct ions i s the product of the work of the l e g i s l a t u r e , the p o l i c e and prosecuting a u t h o r i t i e s , the cour ts , penal i n s t i t u t i o n s , parole author i ty and the S t a t e , by which the prerogative of mercy i s exerc ised. Each of these par ts of the co r rec t iona l system has an important, and sometimes v i t a l , r o l e to p l a y . Each should p lay i t s par t I n the l i g h t of the fundamental purpose of co r rec t ions , namely, cor rect ion of the i n d i v i d u a l . Each w i l l f u l f i l i t s funct ion bet te r i f i t acts i n co-operation wi th and with an understanding of the others" .^ One f inds considerable evolut ion of thought and p rac t i ce when turn ing t o the question of whether or not only ce r ta in offenders should be permitted to receive the a l t e r n a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n of probat ion . The trend i s toward a lessening of the l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s which automatical ly make I t impossible fo r the court t o award probation t o an offender because he committed a ce r ta in type of of fence, o r a ce r ta in number of offences prev ious ly , thereby ca tegor i ca l l y being considered a poor r i s k . The r e s t r i c t i o n should not be ca tegor i ca l but rather a consideration of e f f e c t i v e protect ion f o r the pub l i c on l y , 2 The 1925 law pe r ta in ing t o federa l offenders i n the United States permitted the d isc ret ionary granting of probation to a l l offenders except those convicted of an offence punishable by death or L i f e imprisonment.3 The Canadian law i s much more l i m i t i n g i n i t s prov is ion f o r the use of probat ion, automatical ly excluding those offenders with more than one previous conv ic t ion .^ The United Nat ion's d iscuss ion on "Probation and Related Measures0 suggests that the dec is ion as t o an offender 's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r probation be l e f t at the 1 Canada, Department of J u s t i c e , Committee Appointed t o Inquire Into the P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures Followed i n the Remission Service of the Department of Jus t i ce of Canada, R e p o r t , , . Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1956. P . 5 2 F r y , M. "The Scope fo r the Use of Probation" • European Seminar on  Probat ion . London 20-30 October 1952. United Nat ions, 1954. p.75 3 Cavan, R .S , Criminology. 2nd e d i t i o n , Thomas I, Crowell C o , , New York, 1955. pp .529 -530 4 Cr iminal Code of Canada. Cartwright & Sons, L t d , Toronto, 1955. Sect ion 638 ss(5) discretion of the court, and not categorically predetermined. It adds that this decision can be positively accomplished only i f adequate pre-sentence investigations are carried out and put at the disposal of the court.^ Inadequate selection procedures undermines effective probation and results in weakened public acceptance of the correctional system as a whole.2 Probation entails the conditional suspension of punishment. This can mean either the suspension of the imposition of sentence, or, suspension of the carrying out of the imposed sentence. The former i s the more frequently used method in the North American nations. Under this system the offender i s placed on probation and i f returned as an unsuccessful probationer, the court then decides the sentence to be imposed for the original offence. In the case i n which the carrying out of prescribed sentence i s suspended, any unsatisfactory probationer returned to court would receive the previously determined suspended sentence. The advantage of suspension of proceding to conviction, a third possibility, i s that the successful probationer does not have a conviction recorded against him. There i s a trend toward "the elimination of unnecessary or unduly restrictive conditions and the substitution of those conditions essential to good citizenship 1^, when considering the imposition of conditions by which the probationer must govern his l i f e while under supervision. Probation places the offender under personal supervision. This is one of the ways in which probation differs from straight suspended 1 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs. Probation and Related  Measures. New Tork, 1951. p p . 2 2 3 f f 2 Pansegrouw, N.J. de W. "Probation and i t s Place in a Rational and Humane Programme for the Treatment of Offenders". European Seminar on  Probation. London, 20-30 October 1952. United Nations, 1954. p.12 3 American Correctional Association. A Manual of Correctional  Standards. New York, 1954. p.40 - 4 -sentence* whereby tne offender i s released by the court unsupervised* Probation differs from parole in the respect that parole consists of supervised conditional release of the offender after a period of incarceration. In British Columbia and increasingly so in other provinces of Canada, the offender i s placed under the supervision of a skilled probation officer who i s a paid employee of the court, at the expense of either the local or provincial government. Highly qualified supervising officers are essential to effective probation* The National Probation and Parole Association expresses the belief that one selected for the position of probation officer should "have a knowledge of the principles and s k i l l in the practice of social casework".^ Probation implies that the offender Is given individual guidance or 'treatment*. Assuming we have an adequately qualified probation officer, then i f he does not have extra jobs such as numerous presentence reports to prepare and frequent visits that have to be made to court, he should be able to handle up to f i f t y probationers and provide adequate supervision falling within the category of treatment.2 Inasmuch as the aim of probation i s treatment of the offender tnen It i s essential that the supervising officer have sufficient time available to do his job adequately. One can often think of probation as a form of leniency toward the offender, but true probation involves a rehabilitative focus.3 The integration of tne pro-fessional social caseworker into the field of corrections i s slowly advancing.* 1 1 National Probation and Parole Association. Standards for Selection  of Probation and Parole Personnel. New York, n.d. p*4 2 Glueck, S* Crime and Correction. Addison-Wesley Press, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., iy^2. p.188 3 Cavan, E.S. Criminology. 2nd ed. T.I. Crowell Co., New York,l?$5. p.$22 * See bibliography lor references on the relationship between Social Work and tne Field of Corrections. mm ^ mm The first instance of probation as outlined above was in 1341 in the state of Massachusetts wnen John Augustus, a Boston shoemaker, supervised an offender released to his care by the court. The origins of various aspects of probation other than supervision go back much further.* The essential elements required to have probation function adequately are listed by tne American Correctional Association*! An Area of Social Welfare Rehabilitation of the offender i s a serious area of social welfare. One only needs to think of the suffering caused the family of an Incarcerated offender, and the endless repercussions on the community the family resides in, to recognize that the welfare of the offender Is the concern of society. If the offender i s not helped to utilize his capacity for growth and development then the society of which he i s a part will feel tne detrimental effects directly. Rehabilitative service to the offender represents only one of the facsts of the social welfare field. The willingness of the public to place this service high on the priority l i s t will depend partly on the success with which the current programs meet, and on the ability of those involved in administering these programs to explain their purpose and function clearly. The concepts of social work referring to the interdependence of man; to man's uniqueness; to man's capacity for growth and change; to the * The evolution of probation in countries in which i t evolved out of common law, and in those countries in which i t was introduced by statute i s discussed in the United Nations publication, Probation and Related Measures. New York, 19.51* pp.28-29. A short review of the evolution of treatment methods as related to the offenders throughout the centuries, and a review of the philosophy behind this treatment i s given in Crime. Courts and  Probation by C.L. Chute and M. Bell. Macmillan Co., New York, 1956. Chapter 1. 1 American Correctional Association. A Manual of Correctional Standards. New York, 1954. p.41 meaning of man's behaviour; ana to the need of man to have his basic needs met, refer equally to the offender as to the law-abiding member of society, and only upon a basis re-inforced by such concepts can our correctional treatment advance rather than prove inadequate. The Value of Probation Probation should be valued both by the individual offender, and by the community. For the offenders i t represents a chance to prove themselves, or, to "effect their own reformation under the guidance, assistance and authority of an officer of the court".1 The community can value probation from at least two viewpoints. First, i t too has been given another chance, a chance to provide the offender with what he may have lacked the fir s t time around. This represents the community's ethical opportunity to gain. Second, financially, probation i s a much less expensive way to deal with offenders. In Canada, in 1953, i t cost approximately $1,500 a year to keep a person in penitentiary with a prognosis of successful rehabilitation at most 40 per cent. It cost $50 to keep a man on probation for the same period of one year and the success rate i s quoted as at least 70 per cent.2 Furthermore, this saving in maintenance costs i s not the whole story for: "On the credit side must be considered the continuation of the offender's productive occupation, bis ability to honour his financial l i a b i l i t i e s , facilitated, i f not encouraged by the very fact of probation, and finally, any effects in the prevention of further criminal depredations on other peoples' property. From a financial point of view, probation distinguishes itself 1 Canada, Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada. Report ... King's Printer, Ottawa, 1938. p.225 2 Coughlan, Daniel. "The.Case for Probation". Canadian Welfare;  Treatment of the Criminal in Canada. Vol. XXIX,.,no. 3-4> September 15, 1953- Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1953. p.45 - 7 -favourably from detention in prison and. other forms of institutional treatment."^ The above has served as an introduction to the field of probation, and some of the current issues surrounding use of this method of handling the offender. Let us now look more specifically at the Canadian scene. 2 . Adult Probation in Canada  In 1889 a statute (Act number 4 4 of 1889) was enacted in Canada that marked the beginning of probation legislation for adult3.3 This statute was later incorporated into the Criminal Code of Canada (section 1081) in 1892. In 1901 for the first time in Canada over 10 per cent of the adult offenders were "held responsible to the court11.3 This was the same year that the provision for this so termed probation was extended to include "conditional release of the of fender"* under 63-64 Victoria, cn . 4 0 , s . 3 . In 1921 the federal government made statutory provision for probation "supervision", and the following year saw the introduction of enabling legislation for the provision of probation facilities for adults in the province of Ontario.4 By the year 1924 up to 20 per cent of adult offenders appearing were "held responsible to the court".5 The law passed in 192? in Canada marked a milestone in probation history in this country for i t consolidated the previous provisions respecting suspended sentence and probation services into a whole in the Criminal Code of Canada, 1 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs, Division of Social Welfare. Practical Results and Financial Aspects of Adult Probation in  Selected Countries. New York, 1954. p.107 2 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs. Probation and Related  Measures. New York, 1951* p.57 3 Topping, C.W. Canadian Penal Institutions. Revised edition. Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1943. p.71 4 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs. Probation and Related  Measures. New York, 1951. pp. 57r59 5 Topping, C.W. Canadian Penal Institutions. Revised edition. Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1943* P»71 sections 1081 to 1083.^ Tne 1938 Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada, hereinafter called the Archambault Report2 recommended federal intervention into the field of adult probation. It suggested that a probation system, modelled on the contemporary probation system in force in England be initiated for adults and young offenders. The Commission elaborated however, that i t felt Canada should not make provision for the suspension of procedure to conviction in the case of adult offenders as was the British practice. The use of trained social service workers, the necessity of the presentence Investigation, the supervision of federally granted ticket-of-leave releasees (early release from incarceration), by probation officers, and a basis for standardization of salary scales of probation officers a l l appeared desirable to the 1938 Commission.2 After several years of relative quiet on the scene of probation legislative activity, British Columbia enacted enabling legislation in 1946.4, One year later Canada was provided with no more than one dozen probation officers and these were concentrated in only two provinces, Ontario and British Columbia.5 This brings us quickly into perspective when we realize that this number of officers, 10, represented our total adult probation service for the entire country l i t t l e more than ten years 1 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs. Probation and Related  Measures. New York, 1951. P»57 2 Canada, Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada. Report... King's Printer, Ottawa, 1938. 3 Ibid.,, pp. 227 and 360 4 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs. Probation and Related  Measures. New York, 1951. p.59 5 MacLeod, A.J. "Corrections in Canada - 1947 and Today". Proceedings  of the Canadian Congress of Corrections, 1957* Montreal, May 26-29. Canadian Corrections Association of the Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa. p.27 - 9 -ago. In the next few years discussions and queries appeared i n the professional journals about the broader issues involved i n this method ox handling the of lender. Canada's i n a b i l i t y to advance i n the f i e l d of adult probation was partiy explained as the result of d i f f i c u l t i e s presented by the geographical vastness or the country and tne legislative division of powers between the federal and provincial levels of government. Three factors further retard the advancement of probation services to adults: the lack of dominion-provincial agreement regarding financing programs j the lack of uniformity as to administrative and organizational practices between provinces j and the lacK or trained staf f . ^ In 1953 the problem of inadequate numbers of probation officers was again echoed for i n that year Canada, with a population of over IL4>000,000 people, had fewer than 50 f u l l time adult probation orlieera. It was estimated that with that population an adequate number of f u l l time probation officers for adults would be between 650 and 700.2 While addressing the Canadian Penal Association i n October or 1953, the Director of tne Ontario Probation Services (D. Coughlan) expressed the belief that t h i s inadequacy of sufficient adult probation f a c i l i t i e s marked the biggest gap i n tne Canadian penal program.3 A quick look at the crime stati s t i c s l o r Canada In 1955) a year partly covering the time period under study, reveals that only 8.7 per cent of a l l offenders over the age of 16 years convicted or indictable offences, 1 Mitchell, E. "Probation Work i n Canada". Fortnightly Law Journal. Vol. 17, part 16, March 15, 1948. Fortnightly Law Journal Ltd., Toronto. p.250 2 Coughlan, D. "The Case for Probation". Canadian Welfare; Treatment of the Criminal i n Canada. Vol. XXIX, no.,3^4, September 15, 1953. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, pp. 41-45 3 Coughlan, D.w.F. "At the Court Level". Proceedings of the Canadian  Penal Association Held i n Conjunction with-the American Prison Association, Toronto, October 15 and 16, 1953. Canadian Penal Association, Toronto, p.2 - 10 -received suspended sentence with probation. An additional U.6 per cent were granted suspended sentence without probation, that i s without supervision. Another 32.9 per cent received fines, 0.1 per cent the death penalty, and 46.7 per cent were committed to institutions of one form or anotner. Roughly then, nine times as many offenders were institutionalized as were given probation. Further review shows that of a l l such offenders between the ages of 16 and 24 years, 14.1 per cent of the males received probation, while 27*0 per cent or the females received probation, thus indicating f i r s t l y that a majority of the probation orders awarded went to the younger offender, and secondly that a proportionally higher percentage of young females received probation than young males. Of the males between 16 and 24 years cited above, 48.3 per cent were incarcerated in either a reformatory, gaol or penitentiary, indicating tnat the increased proportion of probation orders awarded the younger offender does not represent a decrease in the percentage tnus incarcerated, but rather a decrease in the number formerly fined for similar offenses.^ Continuing to 1956, we see in the Report of the Committee Appointed to Inquire into the Principles and Procedures Followed in the Remission Service of the Department of Justice of Canada, (hereinafter called the Fauteux Report),of that year, that tne number of probation officers slowly increased. Ontario had 80 officers; British Columbia 18j Alberta ?, (probation departments of tnese three provinces were under the control of the Department of the Attorney General); Nova Scotia reported 5; Sas&atchewan nad their probation program under the Department of Social Welfare and Renabilitation and therefore their officers who supervised adult 1 Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Health and Welfare Division, Judicial Section. Eighteenth annual Report of Statistics of Criminal and  Other Offences, for the Period January 1, 1955 to December 31, 1955. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1957. pp. 17 and 20 mm I T «* offenders also had a variety of other welfare clientele. Quebec handled such offenders tnrough their voluntary after-care agencies. Manitoba was soon to incorporate a program; no services existed in Newfoundland and Prince-Edward Island; New Brunswick was not mentioned.^ The Fauteux Report suggested that consideration be given to the "enactment of legislation to authorize probation without conviction". Also recommended wa3 that consideration be given to "abolition of a number of the restrictions on the courts to suspend the passing of sentence". Recommendation 3 of the same report reads that "each of the provinces should establish full-scale systems of adult probation".2 The Report further suggests that the Criminal Code be amended to allow for the inclusion of a l i s t of. conditions that may or may not be imposed upon the probationer, at the discretion of the court.3 The Current Picture A review of the adult probation services in Canada in 1958 reveals the following picture* The three leading provinces are Ontario. British Columbia, and Alberta. Size of staff for Ontario i s 3 administrative and 103 probation officers; for British Columbia, 3 administrative and 24 probation officers; for Alberta, 3 senior probation officers and 15 probation officers; for Nova Scotia, 4 probation officers; for Manitoba, 1 administrative and 2 probation officers; for New Brunswick, 1 probation officer. A l l these six provinces nave their service under the direction of tne Attorney General's Department, and a total count reveals 149 probation officers and 10 administrative staff.* Saskatchewan continues their 1 Canada, Department of Justice, Committee Appointed to Inquire Into the Principles and Procedures Followed in the Remission Service, of the Department of Justice oi Canada. Report... Queen's Printer, 1956. pp. 13 and 14 2 Ibid, p.87 3 Ibid, p.12 * Alberta Senior Probation Officers are considered administrative i n function. *. 12 •* program under the Department ox Social Welfare and Rehabilitation and therefore a count i s not possible* In Quebec voluntary after care agencies s t i l l carry on the role of providing adult probation services. Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island are s t i l l without probation officers.^ The Legislative Framework The Criminal Code of Canada is the basic document of Canadian corrections. The f i r s t Criminal Code of Canada came into force i n 1893 and after numerous amendments was fully revised and the "New Code" came into force on April 1, 1955.2 This f i r s t day of April, 1955 also marked the beginning of the time period under review in this present study and therefore probationers placed under supervision of the British Columbia Provincial Probation Officers were so placed through the authority granted the court under sections 638 to 640 of the "New Code".-} Section 638 stipulates that i f the offender has no previous convictions, and i t appears to the court that "having regard to bis age, character and antecedents, to the nature of the offence and to any extenuating circumstance surrounding the commission of the offence" that the accused may be released and awarded probation. Several conditions are broadly outlined for the offender to adhere to, and a requirement i s included for the accused to report to an officer designated by the court. This designated officer shall report back to the court i f the probationer fails to carry out the terms of his probation. The last part of section 1 Canadian Welfare Council, Canadian Corrections Association Division. Directory of Correctional Services in Canada. Ottawa, 1958. 2 MacLeod, A.J. "Corrections in Canada - 1947 and Today". Proceedings  of the Canadian Congress of Corrections. 1957, Montreal, May 26-29. Canadian Corrections Association of the Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, pp. 25-26 3 Criminal C0de of Canada, sections 638 to 640 are reproduced in appendix. - 13 -638 provides that probation may be awarded an offender with one previous conviction i f the previous offence i s different in nature from the current one, or proceeded the present offence by at least 5 years. Section 639 sets down the procedure for returning an unsatisfactory probationer to the court and Section 640 l i s t s the courts authorized to award probation.^ Enabling legislation enacted by the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia currently provides for: "... the appointment and remuneration of probation officers by the provincial governments, while local authorities are required to provide office accomodation. Probation officers appointed under the Acts are officers of a l l courts within the areas for which they are appointed. The duties of probation officers include the carrying out of preliminary investigations into the social and personal circumstances of convicted offenders.M2 Ontario and British Columbia have led in the field of adult probation in Canada. However, because our study is set in British Columbia only, let us consider that province's service in more detail. 3. Adult Probation i n British Columbia Adult probation began in British Columbia in 1942. Mr. E.G.B. Stevens, Chief Probation Officer for the province, records: "The present Provincial Probation Branch has developed from the appointment of a Follow-up Officer on May 1st, 1942. This appointment followed a modification in Government policy occasioned by the stresses and -Changes brought about by the war. New Haven, the training-school for young offenders, was closed at the end of April, 1942, as a sufficiently large number of young offenders suitable for training in this institution was not being received at Oakalla Prison Farm. With the closing of New Haven, the Star Class at Oakalla was strengthened, and one of the main functions of the Follow-up Officer was to assist time-expired releasees to become readjusted to society. It had long been realized that the provisions of sections, 1081, 1082, and 1083 of the Criminal Code could not be completely .: 1 Criminal Code of Canada 1955, ss 638-640 2 United Nations, Department of Social Affairs. Measures. New York, 1951• p.59 Probation and Related implemented u n t i l the Courts had a v a i l a b l e an o f f i c e r t o whom they could turn f o r pre-sentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and under whose supervision they might place offenders t o whom a suspended sentence was granted* The Follow-up O f f i c e r assumed these two r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the Courts of the Greater Vancouver area, but concentrated p r i m a r i l y on the Vancouver P o l i c e Court, as probation f a c i l i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e to the Judge of the Vancouver Juvenile Court. The Follow-up O f f i c e r has always been responsible t o the i n d i v i d u a l Magistrates and Judges, but he was i n i t i a l l y responsible t o the Inspector of Gaols f o r administrative purposes, and reports concerning h i s a c t i v i t i e s were sent to that Department. As time passed, the Follow-up O f f i c e r came t o be known as the Probation O f f i c e r , and with the passing of the P r o v i n c i a l "Probation Act" i n 1946 the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Probation O f f i c e r and h i s a s s i s t a n t s were c l e a r l y defined."^ In 1945 the f i r s t a s s i s t a n t to the Probation O f f i c e r was appointed. 2 Then i n 1946 the "Probation Act" was enacted and gave the l e g a l framework t o the r o l e of the probation o f f i c e r , and implemented the p r o v i s i o n s of section 1081 of the Old Code, and what was then Section 72 of the Summary Convictions Act.^* Under summary convictions the court i s r e s t r i c t e d to a s i x month maximum period of probation, otherwise the same p r o v i s i o n s are provided under i t as under the new Criminal Code sections 638-640.^  The year 1947 saw the addition of two more a s s i s t a n t probation o f f i c e r s bringing the t o t a l t o one probation o f f i c e r and 3 a s s i s t a n t s ^ and the service spread to cover the Greater Vancouver area, the lower Mainland, 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney General. Annual Report of the Inspector 01 Gaols, ending March 31, 1952. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C.. pp.-25^26 .2 I b i d . pl26 3 B r i t i s h Columbia, P r o v i n c i a l Probation Branch, S t a f f . " P r o v i n c i a l Probation S e r v i c e s " . B r i t i s h Columbia'a Welfare* December 1947. B ' . C . Department o f Health and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, V i c t o r i a , p.9 * T h i s section of the Summary Convictions Act given e f f e c t by the 1946 Probation Act has since been revised and contained i n s e c t i o n 62 of the 1955 Act, Chapter 57. 4 An Act Respecting Summary Proceedings, Chapter 71. 1955. Section 62 ss. (3) (b). Statutes o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Reproduced i n Appendix. 5 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f the Attorney General. Annual Report of  the Inspector of Gaols, ending March 31, 1952. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C.. pp. 26-27 - 15 -and up the Fraser Valley as far as Hope.^ Then another officer was added in 1948 and service was extended to Vancouver Island; two more added in 1949 and another in 1950. On March 31, 1951, the Provincial Probation Officer was appointed Inspector of Gaols. Mr. CD. Davidson was appointed Chief Assistant Probation Officer and addition of two more officers brought the total staff to 2 administrative personnel and 8 probation officers.2 B i l l number 34, 1951, amended the 1946 "Probation Act" by adding Courts of Appeal, Justice of the Peace, and Juvenile Courts to those to be served by the provincial probation s t a f f I n 1952 another officer was added. The year 1954 saw a total staff of 13 and in 1955 a total of 15, including the first woman probation officer. Mr. Stevens remarked in the Annual Report of that fiscal year: "Recommendations (4) The use of probation as a means of treatment i n this Province has long since passed the experimental stage. The provision of additional staff and the opening of other branch offices w i l l enable increasingly more people to be rehabilitated through this method, and the additional cost i s far less than that entailed in the construction of new institutions or the extension of present facilities. I strongly urge that as requests for this service come in from other areas of the Province, they be given favourable consideration." The following year saw the total staff rise to 18.^ Recapitulating for a moment we see that in the fiscal year April, 1 British Columbia, Provincial Probation Branch, Staff. "Provincial Probation Services". British Columbia's Welfare. December 1947. B.C. Department of Health and Welfare, Social Welfare Branch, Victoria, p.10 2 British Columbia, Department of the Attorney General. Annual Report  of the Inspector of Gaols, ending March 31, 1952. Queen's Printer, Victoria, B.C. pp. 26-27 3 British Columbia "Probation Act" Amendment Act. B i l l number 34, 1951. Certified April, 1951. Currently Revised Statutes of British Columbia 268, 1948 plus amendment 1951. 4 British Columbia, Department of the Attorney General. Annual Report of  the Inspector of Gaols, ending March 31» 1952-1956. Queen's Printer, Victoria. 16 -A D a o j c a m T i Y B CHART OF THE PBOVIIICIAL PROBATION SER vies, JAHUAKT 1959 ATTORNEY GENERAL OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Robert Bonner, Q.C.  DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Dr. Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C.  DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION E.G.B. Stevens CHIEF PROBATION OFFICER E.G.B. Stevens ASSISTANT CHIEF PROBATION OFFICER CD. Davidson STAFF SUPERVISOR FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA R.J. Clark ABBOTSFORD BURNABY COURTENAY CRANBROOK KAMLOOPS ( 2 ) * ( 1 ) ( 1 ) ( ) ( I ) NANAIMO NELSON NEW WESTMINSTER NORTH VANCOUVER P E N T I C T O N ( 2 ) ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 1 ) ( 1 ) P R I N C E GEORGE P R I N C E RUPERT VANCOUVER VERNON V I C T O R I A _ _ U ) O ) ( 8 ) ( 1 ) ( 2 ) * The numbers bracketed below the name of the regional offices indicate the number of probation officers located at that center. Those empty brackets indicate the office i s currently unmanned pending appointment of off i c e r . The Vancouver offi c e , located at 1075 Melville Street, serves both as the central administrative, unit for the province and also houses the eight probation officers who serve the Vancouver area. In addition this office houses the headquarters staff of the Corrections Branch, Figure 1 . Administrative Chart of the Provincial Probation Service, B r i t i s h Columbia, January 1 9 5 9 ' - 17 -1955 to March 31, 1956, the staff of the service included two administrative personnel, one female officer, and 15 probation officers. This i s the time period i n which the group studied in this paper were fi r s t placed on probation. Mr. Stevens again urged expansion of services i n his 1957 report, and on October 1, 1956 Mr. R.J. Clark was appointed staff supervisor, as the staff quickly grew to 3 administrative and 22 court officers.^ The Present Service The year 1958 sees the service with a total of 3 administrative and 24 court officers serving a l l except the northernmost reaches of the province.2 The present staff arrangements, and the distribution of service throughout the province i s illustrated in Figure 1, on page 16. Administra-tion and communication i s centralized i n the Vancouver office. From one member of staff i n 1944 to 28 staff members in 1958 represents the dynamic spreading of the use of adult probation as a method of handling the offender in British Columbia. Turning again to the annual reports we find that between the years 1942 and March 31, 1957 the Provincial Probation Service received 6,631 new probation cases for supervision. It i s also interesting to note that a total of 6,482 pre-sentence investigations were prepared for the court in which the offender subsequently received some sentence other than probation.3 This shows, approximately, that for every report an officer prepares and in connection with which subsequently receives a man under his 1 British Columbia, Department of the Attorney General. Annual Report  of the Inspector of Gaols, ending March 31, 1957i Queen's Printer, Victoria, B.C. pp. 8, 64-65. 2 Canadian Welfare Council, Canadian Corrections Association Division* Directory of Correctional Services in Canada. Ottawa, 1958. 3 British Columbia, Department of the Attorney General. Annual Report  of the Inspector of Gaols, ending March 31, 1957. Queen's Printer, Victoria, B.C. Derived from Table, p.66 «. 18 -supervision, he prepares one on an offender who does not receive probation. The Probation Officer; Duties and Qualifications Sections 4 and 5 of the "Probation Act" outline the officer's duties as: responsibility for preparation of presentence reports for the various courts; to supervise probationers; to see restitution is paid by the offender i f so ordered by the court; to report back to the court i f the probationer is unsatisfactory; to see that the offender provides for his wife and family; and other duties prescribed by the court.i A typical case handled by a Vancouver Court probation officer could evolve as follows. He would likely be in court when the defendant appears. The probation officer would receive the referral from the magistrate, then check police records and details of the offence, also checking with the police to see i f the man has any previous convictions. Then he would see the man in the city lock-up or at Oakalla Prison Farm, carry out the presentence investigation and in the process likely contact family, and collateral sources of information. He would likely give his opinion as to whether or not he felt the man could profit from probation service. The court would then decide the disposition, guided by the probation officer's report and within the limits set in the Criminal Code. If continued service i s awarded then the officer would meet regularly with the offender until the expiration of his period of probation. The case would either be successfully or unsuccessfully closed until such time as the man again appears, perhaps as a parolee, or i f he i s no longer involved with the law the case i s permanently closed. In addition the officer would have his share of juvenile cases to handle, and 1 An Act Respecting Probation Officers. Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1948, Chapter 268. Amended 1951* Short t i t l e - Probation Act. 19 i n the outlying areas, female cases, as well as parolees* Qualifications of the present staff to perform these duties are relatively high. In a brief presented by the officers i n 1958, i t appears that 23 out of the 24 officers have some University training. Of the 24 officers, 7 have their Master of Social Work degree; 4 have an incomplete Master of Social Work degree (thesis incomplete); 4 have the degree of Bachelor of Social Work; 4 have Diplomas i n Social Work or other social science; one has a Master of Arts (thesis incomplete); one has a Bachelor of Arts; 2 have undergraduate credits, and one records no formal university training. Eighteen have at least 3 years experience,.10 have more than 5 years experience i n probation work, while the average number of years experience i n both probation and other fields of social welfare comes to 10 years.-^ 4. Probation: A Differential Disposition  to be Used Discriminately The aim of adequate probation service i s the effective rehabilitation of the selected offender through individualized, intensive supervision, involving the use of social casework methods. Probation services for adults i n Canada and i n B r i t i s h Columbia are a limited resource, and therefore, one must ask how t h i s limited resource can be best used at present. In the time period reviewed (April 1, 1955 to March 31, 1956), the 16 officers of the British Columbia Provincial Probation Branch handled 962 1 British Columbia, Committee on Behalf of Provincial Probation Officers. Brief of July 1958 to tne British Columbia Government Employees' Association  on the Re*classification of the Provincial Probation Officer, Provincial Probation Branch, Department of Attorney General, B r i t i s h Columbia. 0. Walling, Chairman. Mimeographed, 1958* - 20 new juvenile and adult cases.-^ This means that during this one year period they handled an approximate average of 59 new cases each, plus cases carried over from previous years, and carried over parole cases, in addition to preparing numerous presentence investigations that did not result in the offender receiving probation. A study of the early 1958 picture reveals an average case load of 81 cases per officer«2 The relatively high qualifications of the staff cited earlier would suggest that attempts to improve the effectiveness of the service by obtaining adequate personnel are being carried out. Secondly, although the service i s expanding numerically, the officers are B t i l l overloaded, as the demand for service exceeds the present capacity of the Branch. Therefore, i t appears that another avenue presently open that wil l permit maintenance of as high a level of service as possible i s the adequate screening of offenders at the time of presentence investigation so only the most promising rehabilitation prospects are awarded probation. One should be fully aware that adequate selection wi l l always be necessary to probation, but in times when facilities are limited, one will often have to recommend that an offender be refused probation because sufficient time could not be spent with him even though under ideal service circumstances he could be classed as a fair prospect. Purpose of the Study Bennett Mead, statistician for the United States Department of o . 1 British Columbia, Department of the Attorney General. Annual Report  of the Inspector of Gaols, ending March 31, 1956. Queen's Printer, Victoria, B.C. pp. 55-57 2 British Columbia, Committee on Behalf of Provincial Probation Officers. Brief of July 1958 to the British Columbia Government Employees' Association  on the Re-classification of the Provincial Probation Officer. Provincial Probation Branch, Department of Attorney General, British Columbia. 0. Walling, Chairman. Mimeographed, 1958. p.4 - 21 -Justice, points out that evaluation of probation is needed: w ( l ) To speed the growth of the movement by providing further evidence of the value of probation] (2) To furnish probation departments with scientific tests of ..their actual efficiency, and thus show the way toward improvement of probation methods; and (3) To bring about a better public understanding of the preventable causes of crime and delinquency, with the hope of eliminating such causes."^ The present study has a threefold purpose. First, i t i s hoped that a descriptive survey of the entire adult male probation clientele of a one year period wil l present a clearer picture of the actual individuals this service is set up to serve i n i t i a l l y , thus enabling a surer footing to advance upon when planning future expansion within the department. Secondly, although i t i s doubted i f a study of such a small sample will provide the public with much information that would assist them to prevent crime, i t i s felt that the information forthcoming w i l l provide the public relations men of the branch (usually the individual officers) with some factual material to buttress their discussions. Finally, some small indications of predictive value may emerge from the statistical analysis of chosen factors as related to success or failure on probation. Similar Studies Monachesi's Minnesota study g of 1,515 adult and juvenile probation cases terminating probation i n the time period 1923-1925, found that 34.7 per cent of the adult cases had recorded violations. Many factors were cross-related and prediction tables constructed. The United States 1 Mead, B. "Evaluating the Results of Probation". National Probation  Association Yearbook. 1932-33. New York. p.273 2 Monachesi, E.D. Prediction Factors in Probation; A Study of 1,515 Probation Cases of Ramsey County, Minnesota,. 1923-1925.. Sociological Press, Hanover, N.H., 1932. - 22 -Attorney General's study-jfollowed i n 1939 and included a review of 19,256 cases; f e d e r a l offenders whose probation was terminated i n years 1933-1935 i n c l u s i v e . This i s the study that w i l l be used f o r purposes of comparison. I t was found tnat 31 per cent v i o l a t e d and 19 per cent were revoked among the group. Factors extensively analysed were race and n a t i v i t y , age, m a r i t a l status, r e c i d i v i s m , nature of instant offence, and steadiness of employment. In 1940, G i l l i n and HIII2 published t h e i r findings of a study of 2,819 cases under the supervision of 36 f u l l time probation o f f i c e r s i n Wisconsin. I n 1943 Holton^ described 25 f a c t o r s that were s u b j e c t i v e l y weighted by q u a l i f i e d personnel as pertinent to outcome of probation. Glaser and Hangren^ followed with t h e i r study i n 1955 which e n t a i l e d review of 190 cases containing every second male coming under the supervision of an I l l i n o i s probation s e r v i c e i n the time period 1947-1948. They found success rates of 76 per cent among these offenders and that objective f a c t o r s which appeared to have a bearing on the outcome of the cases included previous convictions, t o t a l previous detention, p r i o r work record, r e s i d e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y , age at f i r s t a r r e s t , and economic dependency. Subjective f a c t o r s r e l a t e d as important were predominant values, s o c i a l development patterns, and "purposeness". Turning now t o post-probation r e c i d i v i s m studies we f i n d a report 1 United States of America, Department of J u s t i c e . The Attorney  General's Survey of Release Procedures. Volume I I ; Probation. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C, 1939. 2 G i l l i n , J.L. and H i l l , R.L. "Success and F a i l u r e of Adult Probationers i n Wisconsin". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, V o l . 3 0 , no.6, 1940. North Western U n i v e r s i t y , School of Law, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . 3 Holton, K. "A Yardstick f o r Measuring Probation". F e d e r a l Probation. January - March 1943. Administrative Office, of the United States Courts, Washington, D.C. 4 Glaser, D. and Hangren, B.F. " P r e d i c t i n g the Adjustment of Federal Offenders". MPPA Journal. Vol.-4, n o l 3 , J u l y 1958. National Probation and Parole A s s o c i a t i o n , New York. - 23 by Caldwell appearing in 1951*! In his Alabama^  study of a sample of 403 cases chosen from a universe of 1,826 federal cases terminated successfully between July 1, 1937 and December 31, 1942, he reports 83.6 per cent recorded no more convictions. The median follow-up time period was 7i years after the expiry of probation. Englandg selected 500 federal offenders from the universe of successfully terminated cases between January 1, 1939 and December 31, 1944. Of the 4y0 cases finally used 17.7 per cent evidenced recidivism. In tnis Pennsylvania study England felt the important factors suggesting poor prognosis were previous record, youthfuiness, personal instability and lower level urban socio-economic background.* Time. Setting and Scope of the Present Study Between the dates April 1, 1^ 55 and March 31, 1956**, a total of 223 adult male offenders*** were referred by various courts throughout the province to the British Columbia Provincial Probation Branch for supervision for the first time as adults. The first case was placed under supervision in April, 1955. The last case to terminate probation was closed March 6, 1958. This total of 223 individuals does not include those cases that were placed 1 Caldwell, M.G. "Review of a New Type of Probation Study Made in AlabamaM. Federal Probation. June 1951. Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, D.C. 2 England, R.W. "A Study of Postprobation Recidivism Among Five Hundred Federal Offenders'*. Federal Probation. September 1V55. * A review of American and European prediction and success studies i n the field of probation and parole (juvenile and adult')' i s found in: Prediction  Methods in Relation to Borstal Training, by H. Mannheim and L.T. Wilkins; Chapter 1. Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1955. ** The time period April 1 of one year to March 31 of the following year represents the fiscal period of the department under study. *** Adult offender i s here taken to refer to an offender, over age 14 years who appears and whose case i s disposed of in adult court. Also included are those adults sentencedin juvenile court on a charge of contributing to juvenile delinquency. — 21+ — under supervision of t h i s department pending d i s p o s i t i o n of t h e i r case only - the so c a l l e d remand supervision cases - unless they were subsequently placed on d e f i n i t e probation to the department within the above prescribed time period. Cases r e f e r r e d i n from out-of~province courts f o r supervision were also excluded, but those r e f e r r e d by B r i t i s h Columbia courts, who l a t e r l e f t the province, were included, since the o f f i c e r s of the Branch have a l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n to maintain contact with these offenders through the l o c a l probation service i n the region to which they have migrated. Method of Inve s t i g a t i o n The method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n includes a d e s c r i p t i v e survey of numerous s o c i a l h i s t o r y f a c t o r s drawn from the probation f i l e s , and a more d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of s i x selected f a c t o r s as rel a t e d to outcome of the case. These f a c t o r s are: p r e d i c t i o n of the probation o f f i c e r at time of presentence In v e s t i g a t i o n and the nature of the report prepared; age at time of being placed on probation; nature of insta n t offence; m a r i t a l status and number of dependents of the offender at time of i n i t i a t i o n of probation; previous adult c r i m i n a l record and i n c a r c e r a t i o n s ; and steadiness of employment while on probation. Most of the necessary information was gathered from the d u p l i c a t e f i l e s kept i n the c e n t r a l Vancouver o f f i c e , but numerous contacts were made with o u t l y i n g o f f i c e s t o f i l l i n missing d e t a i l s . Correspondence wit h the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Branch of The Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , Ottawa, made i t p o s s i b l e t o v e r i f y somewhat the previous major convictions r e g i s t e r e d against the probationers, provided a l i mi ted follow-up check as to new offences recorded against members of the group under study*, and served as a double-check on the success some probationers had i n completing t h e i r period of probation i n other provinces and reported only by m a i l . * This follow-up information i s b r i e f l y described i n the Appendix to t h i s study, but because of the short follow-up p e r i o d i t was not expanded f u r t h e r . CHAPTER TWO A PROFILE OF ADULT MALE PROBATIONERS Information was gathered concerning various s o c i a l h i s t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the 223 cases under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The court from which the r e f e r r a l was made, the various conditions of release imposed upon the offender, personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , family background, and f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the outcome of the offenders* periods of probation were studied and are now described. The 223 cases f i n a l l y i s o l a t e d f o r study were r e f e r r e d by various courts throughout the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The number of cases r e f e r r e d by the Vancouver Magistrates' Courts, 110, make up almost h a l f of the t o t a l number o f r e f e r r a l s . A t o t a l of eight cases were t r i e d i n the higher courts, (county and appeal c o u r t s ) , and four cases were disposed of at the j u v e n i l e court l e v e l . The number of cases recorded as being sent up to adult court a f t e r f i r s t appearing i n j u v e n i l e court t o t a l e d t h i r t e e n . Thirty-two courts r e f e r r e d one or more cases. (See Table 1, below). The large number of cases r e f e r r e d by the Vancouver Magistrates* Courts r e f l e c t the large volume of cases handled i n these courts as compared t o other courts throughout the province. This large number of r e f e r r a l s i s also p a r t l y explained as a r e s u l t of probation f i r s t being introduced to the Vancouver courts as a method of d i s p o s i t i o n before spreading to other areas throughout the province. In some of the i n t e r i o r areas probation services have only r e c e n t l y been a v a i l a b l e . - 27 -Table 1. Courts Referring Offenders to the British Columbia Provincial Probation Service (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Name of Court Number P.C. of Total Referred Referred Appeal Court 4 1.8 County Court - Vancouver 3 1.3 County Court - Victoria 1 0.4 Magistrates1 Courts Burnaby 7 3.1 Chilliwack 9 (3)* 4.0 Cloverdale 8 (1) 3.6 Colwood 8 3.6 Cranbrook 2 0.9 Duncan 1 0.4 Fernie 1 0.4 Hope 1 (1) 0.4 Kamloops 3 - 1.3 Kelowna 4 1.8 Kimberly 2 0i9 Matsqui 1 0.4 Millairdville 1 0.4 Nanaimo 9 4.0 New Westminster 5 2.2 North Vancouver 7 3.1 Oak Bay 1 0.4 Oliver 1 0.4 Osoyoos 1 0.4 Penticton 1 0.4 Prince Rupert 1 0.4 Saanich 4 1.8 Vancouver 110 (3) 49.3 Vernon 9 (5) 4.0 Victoria 13 5.8 West Vancouver 1 0.4 Cloverdale Juvenile 1 0.4 Saanich Juvenile 3 1.3 Total 223 (13) 100. ** * Numbers in brackets indicate the number of cases referred up from juvenile court to adult court. Source: From material collected from files of the Provincial Probation Branch.**** *# The total of 100 has been inserted at the botton of the percentage columns even though a small margin of error may be present because the calculations of the figures above are only taken to one decimal place. This procedure will be followed throughout the study. *** Information in subsequent tables comes from the same original material unless otherwise Indicated. - 28 -1. Conditions of Release The length of the period of probation imposed by the court, the frequency of reporting prescribed, the size of the bond required, and extra conditions imposed by the court will now be reviewed. Also in this section will be considered the frequency with which offenders received probation orders during the various months of the year. The conditions imposed by the court would be expected to have some relation to the outcome of the individual case as this is the rationale for imposing them, but such analysis will not be attempted with regard to these factors. Length of Probation Period The length of time the probationer was required to remain under the supervision of the British Columbia Provincial Probation Branch varied from as short a time as three months to the maximum time permitted under provisions of the Criminal Code, namely two years. Table 2. Length of Probation Order Imposed by the Court (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Length of Probation (in months) Number of Probationers P.C. of Total deferred 3 1 0.4 4 1 0.4 6 49 22.0 9 4 1.8 12 130 58.3 15 2 0.9 18 14 6.3 24 19 8.5 Unspecified 3 1.3 Total 223 100. A t o t a l of.130, (58.3 per cent), of the offenders were placed on probation f o r a period of twelve months. Another 49, (22.0 per cent), of the group were awarded probation orders of s i x months i n length. Many of those r e c e i v i n g s i x month probation orders were probably sentenced under the Summary Convictions Act which does not permit sentences over s i x months i n length to be imposed. Eighteen month and 24 month probation periods were awarded t o a t o t a l of 33 more offenders, accounting f o r another 14.8 per cent of the t o t a l group. (See Table 2, above). The one year time length on probation supervision was the p r e f e r r e d d i s p o s i t i o n handed down by the courts i n the time period under study, while l e s s than 10 per cent received the maximum allowable length of probation, two years. In a d d i t i o n to the lengths o f supervision mentioned above, 6 of these cases were on remand supervision previous to t h e i r r e c e i v i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n of probation. Of these remand supervision cases, one was supervised f o r 1 month p r i o r to probation, two f o r 1^ months, one f o r 2 months, one f o r 2g months, and one f o r 7 months. Four offenders received probation a f t e r appealing former sentences. Two of them had former 18 months p r i s o n sentences reduced t o 12 months on probation; one had an 18 month pr i s o n sentence reduced t o 2 years probation; and one had a 2g year p e n i t e n t i a r y sentence p l u s 6 strokes reduced to 2 years probation. Erequency of Reporting Prescribed by Court When probation i s awarded to an offender the magistrate or judge g i v i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n u s u a l l y sets down the frequency with which the probationer s h a l l report to h i s probation o f f i c e r . This prescribed frequency i s taken as the minimum l e g a l frequency of r e p o r t i n g , although the probationer may report more often, e i t h e r o f h i s own v o l i t i o n or at the - 30 -request of the supervising officer, who, because he i s in more continuous contact with the offender may feel that the situation warrants closer observation, or more intensive treatment. In some cases the magistrate makes no reference to the expected frequency of reporting, or may refer to i t only in saying that i t will be as directed by the supervising officer. Table 3. Frequency of Reporting Prescribed by the Court (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Number of P.C, of Total Frequency Prescribed Probationers Group Once per. month 70 31.4 Twice per. month 43 19.3 As directed 8 3.6 Not recorded 102 45.7 Total 223 100-A total of 70, (31.4 per cent), of the group were ordered to report at least once per. month. An additional 43, (19.3 per cent), of the group were ordered to report at least twice per. montn, while 8, (3.6 per cent), were ordered to report as directed by tne supervising officer. No record of frequency of reporting prescribed was made in 102, (45.7 per cent), of the cases. Once per month appears to be tne favoured frequency of reporting contained in the disposition handed down by the magistrate or judge. (See Table 3, above) Size of Bond Posted The offender i s required to enter into a bond as one of the conditions of his release on suspended sentence. Frequently other individuals are required to co-sign the bond thus acting as sureties that the offender will keep the peace and be of good behaviour. In some cases tne length or time the bond is in force may exceed the length of the probation order. Table 4. Size of Bond Posted by Probationer , / (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Size of Bond (In dollars) Number of Probationers P.C. of Total Group 50 3 1.3 100 25 11.2 150 2 0.9 200 10 4.5 250 20 9.0 500 100 44.8 1000 9 4.0 Unknown 54 24.2 Total 223 100,. Five-hundred dollar bonds were most frequently posted by the group under study. One-hundred dollar bonds were second in frequency. In almost 25 per cent of the cases the size of bond was not recorded. Few instances were recorded in which the size of bond was as small as 50 dollars or as large as 1000 dollars. (See Table 4, above). Extra Conditions Imposed In addition to the conditions usually accompanying the release of an offender on probation, such as the posting of a bond, the stated frequency of reporting, and the length of the probation period, the magistrate may impose extra conditions he feels will be necessary to facilitate treatment of, or curtail the activities of, the offender. In 129 of the cases studied no such extra conditions were recorded, while in - 32 -the remaining 94 cases one or more such extra conditions were imposed* The extra conditions imposed included that the offender pay r e s t i t u t i o n to the aggrieved party of the offence; that he abide by a c e r t a i n curfew imposed; that he provide maintenance f o r dependents; that he r e t u r n to a c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n , which i n some cases was the home of h i s parents; that he keep out of beer p a r l o r s or other establishments where l i q u o r i s sold; that he abstain from use of i n t o x i c a n t s (sometimes the i n d i v i d u a l was placed on the i n t e r d i c t l i s t ) ; that he keep away from a c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n which might be a c e r t a i n neighbourhood of the c i t y , or i n some instances the e n t i r e c i t y i t s e l f ; t h a t he leave f o r a c e r t a i n d e s t i n a t i o n within a prescribed time period; that he volunteer to contact some a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l agency such as the Alcoholism Foundation or a mental health c l i n i c ; that he stop a s s o c i a t i n g with c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s ; that he remain on h i s present job; that he dispose of h i s car i n the case of a y o u t h f u l offender; or, i n the case of m i l i t a r y personnel, that he report t o h i s commanding o f f i c e r at regular i n t e r v a l s . Various combinations of the above l i s t e d conditions were imposed on the 94 cases i n the group. The most frequently imposed con d i t i o n , (imposed alone or i n combination with other c o n d i t i o n s ) , was that of ordering r e s t i t u t i o n , which appeared i n 35 of the cases. The v a r i e t y of conditions l i s t e d d i s p l a y s the wide scope of power the court has i n r e g u l a t i n g the d a i l y l i f e of the offender released on probation. Month Probation Started The number of new r e f e r r a l s to the probation service v a r i e s throughout the year. Study of the month by month a d d i t i o n of new cases gives some i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between the number of r e f e r r a l s and the seasons of the year. «• 33 -Table 5. Month of Year Probation Awarded to Adult Males (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Year and Month Number of Probationers P.C. of Total Group 1955, April 16 7.2 May 14 6.3 June 22 9.9 July 20 9.0 August 20 9.0 September 14 6.3 October 15 6.7 November 18 8.1 December 8 3.6 1956, January February 36 16.1 23 10.3 March 17 7.6 Total 223 100 The month of December saw only 3.6 per cent of the total group referred for service. During January 16.1 per cent of the total group were referred, while in February another 10.3 per cent were referred. Thus, in the three central months of winter the greatest fluctuation in number of referrals occured. A l l other months saw the number of referrals averaging between 6.3 per cent and 9.9 per cent of the total number referred. (See Table 5, above). 2* Personal Characteristics The personal characteristics oi the group investigated for purposes of this study included age, place of birth, educational level, health, occupation, work habits, steadiness of employment while on probation, marital status, number of dependents, nature of the instant offence, extent of juvenile record, extent of previous adult criminal record, and finally, the - 34 -amount oi' previous institutionalization experienced by the offender. Recording on some of these factors was incomplete but as complete a survey as possible was made with the available information. Age at Start of Probation Period The age of the offender at time of commencement of probation ranged from 14 years to 69 years in the group surveyed. Twenty-one, (9.4 per cent), of the total group were aged 14 years to 17 years inclusive. In British Columbia this would mean that they are s t i l l within the age range of the juvenile delinquent, and therefore would have appeared in Juvenile Court on the instant offence and would have been subsequently transferred up to adult court. In the age grouping 18 years to 20 years there were 98, (43*9 per cent), of the total group. Another 41 offenders f e l l within the age grouping of from 21 years to 24 years, representing 18.4 per cent of the total group. In the 25 year to 29 year age grouping 23, (10.3 per cent), were found, while 17, (7.6 per cent), f e l l within the group ranging from age 30 years to 34 years. The age grouping 35 years to 39 years contained 9, (4.0 per cent), of the total group, and 5, (2.2 per cent), of the total group f e l l within the age range 40 years to 44 years inclusive. Those offenders older than 44 years comprised 9, (4.0 per cent) of the group. Further grouping by age reveals that 160, (71.7 per cent), of the total group were less than 25 years of age; 40, (17.9 per cent), were ages 25 years to 34 years inclusive; while 23> (10,3 per cent), were age 35 years or older. The high proportion of the younger offender, 71.7 per cent, becomes very evident. (See Table 6, on page 35). This would suggest that the court uses probation as an expression of judicial clemency awarded with regard to the extenuating circumstance of the offender's youth. Such exercising of judicial clemency may or may not coincide with the selection of - 3 5 -Table 6 . Age ox Offender at Time Probation Started (Study Group, British Columbia; 1 9 5 5 - 5 6 ) Age* No. Age-lst No. P.C. of Age-2nd No. P.C. of Grouping Total Grouping Total 14 1 15 4 14-17 21 9.4 16 6 17 10 18 44 19 33 18-20 98 43.9 Below 160 71.7 20 21 25 21 9 22 22 21-24 41 18.4 23 4 24 6 25 7 26 4 27 3 25-29 23 10.3 28 4 29 5 25-34 40 17.9 30 2 31 6 32 2 30-34 17 7.6 33 5 34 2 35 4 36 1 37 1 35-39 9 4.0 39 3 40 2 43 2 40-44 5 2.2 35 and 23 10.3 44 1 Above 45 1 46 1 50 1 52 1 45 and 53 1 Above 9 4.0 58 1 63 1 66 1 69 1 Total 223 223 100 223 100 * Age at time of last birthday offenders to receive probation according to the degree t o which they represent good treatment prospects. Place of B j r t h I n d i v i d u a l s composing the t o t a l group showed considerable v a r i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the place of t h e i r b i r t h . The offenders were born i n nine of Table 7. B i r t h Place of Probationers (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Place of B i r t h Number of P.C. of T o t a l Probationers Group Canada B r i t i s h Columbia 87 39.0 Saskatchewan 36 16.1 A l b e r t a 21 9.4 Ontario 18 8.1 Manitoba 7 3.1 Quebec 7 3.1 Nova S c o t i a 4 1.8 New Brunswick 3 1.3 Prince Edward Island 1 0.4 Newfoundland _ — Canada - unspecified 5 2.2 Canada - T o t a l 189 84.7 England 5 2.2 United States 5 2.2 China 3 1.3 Roumania 3 1.3 Scotland 3 1.3 Germany 2 0*9 I t a l y 2 0i9 Denmark 1 0.4 Hungary 1 0.4 Russia 1 0.4 Unspecified 8 3.6 T o t a l 223 100 37 -Canada's ten provinces, and in ten countries outside Canada. Only 87, (39.0 per cent), of the group were born in British Columbia. In comparison the 1951 Census of Canada reported that 39*5 per cent of a l l males within the province of British Columbia were born in that province. Fifty-two point three per cent of males between the ages 15 to 24 years living in British Columbia in 1951 were born within that province.j_ The next heaviest representation came from Saskatchewan with S§, (16.1 per cent), of the group being born in that province. Then comes Alberta with 21, (9.4 per cent), offenders born within i t s borders, and Ontario follows with 18, (8.1 per cent), born i n that province. The total born in Canada, 189, represents 84.7 per cent of the total group, while the remaining 15.3 per cent were born in other countries. (See Table 7f above). The three western-most provinces, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, combined to represent the birthplace of 144, (64.6 per cent) of the group. Level of Education In this section the level of education recorded is taken to mean the number of years formal schooling the offender has successfully completed. The extent of such education ranged from no formal schooling in seme cases to completed undergraduate university degree in others. Extra vocational training i s recorded in some cases but does not appear in the following table. This training for various individuals included one instance of an offender completing a diesel course; one held a first-aid certificate; one an artist's degree; one offender had one year banking and one year accounting training; while one reported one year vocational training, and another reported 6 months technical training. 1 Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Census of Canada, 1951« Volume 2. Queen's Printer, Ottawa. Derived from Table 11-45 - 38 -Table 8. Number of Years of Schooling S u c c e s s f u l l y Completed, (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) " Number of Years Completed Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l Group None 4 1.8 4 1 0 .4 5 6 2 .7 6 12 5.4 7 28 12.6 8 48 21.5 9 51 22.9 1G 25 11.2 11 17 7.6 12 18 8.1 Un i v e r s i t y 1 (grade 13) 3 1.3 2 1 0 .4 3 1 0 .4 Degree 1 0.4 Unspecified 7 3.1 T o t a l 223 100 Twenty-three, (10.3 per cent), of the group completed 6 grades of schooling or l e s s . Another 127, (56.9 per cent), completed from 7 t o 9 years of schooling, while another 63, (28.2 per cent), completed from 10 to 13 years of schooling s u c c e s s f u l l y . By f a r the l a r g e s t percentage of offenders completed from 7 to 10 years schooling i n c l u s i v e , (152 or 68.2 per cent). Only 48, (21.5 per cent), of the group were known to have achieved more than 10 years of schooling at the time of t h e i r being placed on probation. (See Table 8, above). Health of Probationers When information was o r i g i n a l l y drawn from the f i l e s of the group - 39 -i n v e s t i g a t e d , the assessment oi' the offender's health was f i t t e d to a f i v e point r a t i n g s t a r t i n g with very poor, and continuing with the r a t i n g s poor, f a i r , good and e x c e l l e n t . This r a t i n g was discarded and the three p o i n t scale, poor, f a i r , and good, replaced i t . Determination of the s u i t a b l e r a t i n g s was based on the general impressions recorded by the probation o f f i c e r , as w e l l as the offender's own assessment. Good health included those cases with only casual complaints of p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . F a i r h e a l t h applied to those offenders who p e r i o d i c a l l y l o s t time from work because of i l l n e s s . Poor health described the condition of those offenders who were c h r o n i c a l l y i l l , or whose functioning i n the v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d was frequently upset by preoccupation with b o d i l y complaints. A c t u a l p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s were considered separately, as were reported cases of emotional disturbances. Table 9. Health of Probationers (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Rating Of Health Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l Group Poor 8 3.6 F a i r 36 * 16.1 Good 179 ** 80.3 T o t a l 223 100 * F i v e of these 36 cases had some p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y . ** S i x of these 179 cases reported strong emotional disturbances. Eighty per cent of the group were recorded as i n good health, but s i x of those composing t h i s 80 per cent recorded emotional disturbances. Another 16.1 per cent were recorded as i n only f a i r h ealth and f i v e of these cases had some p h y s i c a l handicap. Poor health was only recorded i n 3.6 per cent of the cases, (one of these cases suffered from a terminal i l l n e s s ) . (See Table 9, above). Caution must be exercised i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the above - 40 -data because a d e s c r i p t i o n of the emotional h e a l t h of the probationer was often not included i n the reports prepared by the probation o f f i c e r , or i f included was often incomplete. Chief Occupation of Probationers Considerable v a r i a t i o n was noticed between the c h i e f occupation of d i f f e r e n t members of the group. The l a r g e s t occupational representation Table 10. Chief Occupation of Probationer (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Occupation Number of P.C. of T o t a l Probationers Group A g r i c u l t u r e 4 1.8 Armed Services 9 4.0 C l e r i c a l 6 2.7 F i s h i n g , Lumbering, and Mining 23 10.3 Labour 92 41.3 Management 2 0.9 Manufacturing and Construction (Factory and plant work) 13 5.8 P i a n i s t 1 0.4 Salesman 7 3.1 Semi-skilled (Roofer, etc.) 10 4.5 Service (to p u b l i c ) 7 3.1 Students and Apprentices 22 9.9 Tradesman ( E l e c t r i c i a n , etc.) 8 3.6 Transportation (Chauffeurs); 17 7.6 Retired or Unemployed 2 0.9 T o t a l 223 100 was from the labour grouping which included 92, (41.3 per cent), of the t o t a l group. The f i s h i n g , logging, mining group, and the student and apprentice group showed approximately another 10 per cent of the members each. Transportation workers, i n c l u d i n g p r i v a t e chauffeurs as w e l l as truckers,, made up 7.6 per cent of the group. The remaining 31.1 per cent - 41 -of the t o t a l group were engaged i n a wide v a r i e t y of other s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d occupations. The high proportion of u n s k i l l e d workers means that many of these probationers are the f i r s t a f f e c t e d d i r e c t l y by periods of r e g i o n a l or seasonal unemployment. (See Table 10, above). Work Habits of Probationers As part of the presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n the probation o f f i c e r u s u a l l y checks on the offender's more current work h i s t o r y i n order to assess the r e l a t i v e steadiness with which the man has been employed. The probation o f f i c e r records t h i s information i n h i s report to the court. Table 11. Work Habits of Probationers (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Work Habits Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l Group Steady 138 61.9 Seasonal 29 13.0 Sporadic 51 22.9 Part time 2 0.9 Inexperienced 3 1.3 T o t a l 223 100 One-hundred and t h i r t y - e i g h t , (61.9 per c e n t ) , of the group were recorded as s t e a d i l y employed during t h e i r recent work h i s t o r y . Students attending school f u l l time were considered as part of t h i s f u l l y employed group. Seasonal employment, t h a t i s working the f u l l season of the industry one i s engaged i n , was reported i n 29, (13-0 per cent), o f the group. Adding together those offenders with work habits recorded as steady, and those recorded as seasonal gives a t o t a l of 167 offenders or 74.9 per cent of the t o t a l group. Three offenders were inexperienced i n the work f i e l d ; two had a record of only part time employment; while 51, (22.9 per cent), of the group had very sporadic work records which were interspersed with frequent changes of employment and periods of unemployment. (See Table 11, above). Steadiness of Employment While on Probation Steadiness of employment of the offender while on probation i s one of the factors to be more f u l l y analysed i n the next chapter. The question of whether or not the probationer was motivated to seek employment while on probation i s also an important one but one that could not be investigated because of the lack of information i n t h i s regard. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , (Table 12) , discloses only the objective proportion of time the probationer was employed, not h i s a t t i t u d e toward h i s a b i l i t y or i n a b i l i t y to obtain employment. Table 12. Steadiness of Employment While Under Supervision (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Steadiness of Employment Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l Group F u l l y employed* (B0% of time or more) 118 52.9 Seasonal** 4 1.8 Part-time (20.-79$ of the time) 77 34.5 L i t t l e or none . ( l e s s than 20%) 22 9-9 Unrecorded 2 0.9 T o t a l 223 100 * Includes f u l l - t i m e students. ** Refers t o those engaged f o r f u l l length of season. • 43 -The steadiness of employment r e f e r s to the proportion of time the probationer was employed while under the supervision of the probation o f f i c e r . Thus, f o r example, i f an offender's probation was terminated prematurely, say only two months a f t e r s t a r t i n g , and he was f u l l y employed during these two months, then he i s considered as f u l l y employed, during the duration of h i s period o f supervision. One-hundred and twenty-two, (54,7 per cent), o f the group were e i t h e r f u l l y employed, (over 80 per cent of the time), or seasonally employed. Another 77> (34*5 per cent), were employed part time, (between 2Q and 79 per cent of the time); while 22, (9,9 per cent), were employed f o r 19- per cent of the time or l e s s . (See Table 12, above). M a r i t a l Status of Probationer The m a r i t a l status of the probationer at the time he was placed on probation was recorded under the headings s i n g l e , married, divorced, l e g a l l y separated, widowed, l i v i n g apart or deserted, and l i v i n g i n common-law. No attempt was made t o record p r e v i o u s l y dissolved marriages i f the Table 13. M a r i t a l S i t u a t i o n of the Probationer (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) M a r i t a l Status Number of Probationers P.C. of Tot a l Group Single 158 70.8 Married 41 18.4 Divorced 5 2.2 L e g a l l y Separated 1 0.4 Widowed - -L i v i n g Apart or deserted 12 5.4 Common-law Union 6 2.7 T o t a l 223 100 - 44 -i n d i v i d u a l had subsequently remarried. One-hundred and f i f t y - e i g h t , (70.8 per cen t ) , of the group were recorded as s i n g l e . F o r t y one, (18.4 per cent), were married, while the remaining 24, (10.8 per cent), o f the group reported a broken marriage or that they were l i v i n g i n a common-law union at time probation began. (See Table 13, above). In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s information i t was recorded that 6 members of the group married during t h e i r p e r i o d of probation, one remarried while on probation, and one divorced h i s spouse during h i s probationary period. At f i r s t the percentage of the group that were recorded as s i n g l e , 7.0.8 per cent, may seem quite high, but i t does not seem too out o f proportion when placed beside the s t a t i s t i c formerly calculated which showed that 71.9 per cent o f the group investigated were under the age of twenty-f i v e years. Number of Dependents A numerical recording of the number of dependents each probationer had at the time h i s period of probation began was c a r r i e d out. The spouse counted as a dependent i n the case of those who were supporting t h e i r wife or common-law partner. One-hundred and s i x t y - e i g h t , (75 «3 per cen t ) , of the group reported no dependents. Forty-one, (18.4 per cen t ) , of the group reported having one, two, or three dependents. Only 12, (5.4 per cen t ) , reported over three dependents. I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s l i s t i n g of number of dependents i t was recorded that two probationers increased t h e i r number of dependents by one as a r e s u l t of the b i r t h of a c h i l d during the period the probationer was supervised, while 6 added a dependent by get t i n g married during t h e i r period on probation, and one added a dependent by getting remarried. One l o s t one dependent through divorce. (See Table 14, below). Table 14. Number of Dependents Supported by Probationer (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Number of Number of P.C. of Total Dependents* Probationers , .c.Group None ' 168 75.3 1 10 4.5 2 18 8.1 3 13 5.8 4 6 2.7 5 3 1.3 6 1 0.4 7 2 0.9 Unknown 1 0.4 Total 223 100 * Dependents refer to those persons the probationer is responsible for the support of. Nature of Instant Offence* Crimes against the person accounted for 11.2 per cent of the instant offences. Crimes against property accounted for 74.9 per cent**, and in the case of 50, (22.4 per cent of the total group), of these offenders * Instant offence refers to that offence for which the offender has been currently placed on probation. In the event that the offender was convicted of two or more identical charges, (e.g. 2 charges of fraud), then his instant offence was considered as that charge, (fraud). If he was convicted of two charges of a different nature, (e.g. auto theft and fraud), the charge which carried the heavier maximum penalty under the Criminal Code of Canada was considered the instant offence. If the two dissimilar charges carried the same maximum penalty, then the offence which was primarily the reason for the resulting crimes was selected as the instant offence. (For example, i f an offender stole a car in order to commit a breaking and entering, the breaking and entering would be considered the instant offence.) ** In British Columbia, January 1 to December 31, 1956, 74.7 per cent of a l l adult convictions for indictable offences took the nature of crimes against the person. Canada, Domilnion Bureau of Statistics, Health and Welfare Division, Judicial Section. Annual Report of Statistics of Criminal and  Other Offences. for the period January 1, 1956_to December 31, 1956. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1958. - 46 -Table 15. Offence f o r Which Offender Was Placed on Probation (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Offence No. of Prob's. P.C. of T o t a l Gp. (a) Crimes against the person Assault, common (includes ass. on wife & unspec.) Assault, causing b o d i l y harm Assault, grievious Assault, other (on female, on peace o f f i c e r ) 10 10 1 2 Rape Threatening 1 1 (b) Crimes against property . Breaking and Entering B & E and i n d i c t a b l e offence, and attempts 1 49 25 11.2 F a l s e pretences Forgery and Conversion Conspiracy Fraud and attempted Fraud 16 10 3 3 L o i t e r i n g , prowling, trespassing 3 Theft, unspecified and attempted Theft, over $50. Theft, over #50., auto and attempted auto Taking auto without owner's consent Theft, under $50. ( i n c l . 1 auto value under $50) 6 17 19 4 25 Possession, r e t a i n i n g , and r e c e i v i n g s t o l e n goods Robbery W i l f u l damage 7 3 1 (c) Crimes against p u b l i c morals and decency Bigamy Contributing to j u v e n i l e delinquency Gross indecency Indecent act and indecent exposure Non-support 1 12 1 3 2 167 74.9 (d) Crimes against p u b l i c order and peace and misc. , Bootlegging Creating a disturbance A l t e r i n g b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e Impersonating peace o f f i c e r 1 1 1 1 19 8.5 Possession of offensive weapon & concealed weapon Possession of unregistered firearms Vagrancy 5 1 2 12 5.4 T o t a l 223 100 - 47 -tne crime against property was more s p e c i f i c a l l y , that o f breaking and entering, or breaking and entering and an i n d i c t a b l e offence. Forgery, f a l s e pretences, conversion, conspiracy, and fraud accounted f o r another 32, (14.3 per cent of the t o t a l group), of the offenders' ins t a n t offences f a l l i n g i n the category of crimes against property. Thefts account f o r 71, (31.8 per cent o f the t o t a l group), more of the i n s t a n t offences against property. (See Table 15, on page 4b). Crimes against p u b l i c morals and decency accounted f o r another 8.5 per cent of the t o t a l group of i n s t a n t offences. Crimes against p u b l i c order and peace and miscellaneous crimes accounted f o r another 5.4 per cent of the t o t a l group of instant offences. (See Table, on page 46). A more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the nature o f i n s t a n t offence as r e l a t e d t o outcome o f probation period w i l l be c a r r i e d out i n the next chapter. Twenty of the probationers were convicted of two or more offences of the same nature a t time of being awarded probation, while 14 of them had two or more offences of a d i f f e r e n t nature recorded a t t h i s time. Known Juvenile Record An attempt was made to i n v e s t i g a t e the extent o f previous l e g a l d i f f i c u l t i e s the study group members experienced as j u v e n i l e s . However, the amount of information gathered was l i m i t e d because of the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of such j u v e n i l e reports. I f the offender had a j u v e n i l e record i n the greater Vancouver area then i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s would be mentioned i n the pre-sentence report'prepared by the probation o f f i c e r , as the probation o f f i c e r s u s u a l l y make a check with the nearby j u v e n i l e court o f f i c i a l s . However, unless t h i s l i m i t e d check reveals a j u v e n i l e court record the only other source of t h i s information i s the offender himself, and many of them are r e l u c t a n t t o admit t o such a record. For these reasons the i n v e s t i g a t i o n - 48 -was limited to the extent of juvenile record known to the Provincial Probation Branch. Table 16. Known Juvenile Record of Offenders -Number of Adjudged Delinquencies (Study Group:; British Columbia; 1955-56) Number of Adjudged Number of P.O. of Total Delinquencies Probationers Group None recorded 179 80.3 1 26 11.7 2 8 3.6 3 2 0.9 Unknown 1 0.4 Extensive but not specified 7 3.1 Total 223 100 Over 80 per cent of the total group, (80.3 per cent), had no previous juvenile record that was known to the Provincial Probation Branch. Only 17, (7.6 per cent), were known to have been adjudged juvenile delinquents because of involvement in more than one crime. (See Table 16, above). An attempt was made to collect information about the results of the above known delinquencies but the amount recorded in the files was very limited. Of the 43 offenders with juvenile records known to the probation branch, 10 were fined, 13 experienced probation, 7 were incarcerated, and one was placed on a peace bond, as the most serious disposition they received as a result of their delinquencies. The results in the remaining 33 cases was unknown. In considering the results of juvenile records, as when considering the extent of known juvenile records, the above findings are unreliable because of the difficulty involved in obtaining information regarding juvenile court records. - 49 -Previous Adult Criminal Record When reviewing the extent of previous adult criminal record existing in the case of each probationer i t was arbitrarily decided to restrict the investigation to those charges laid under a federal, as opposed to a provincial or municipal, statute. This was done because of the lack of central registration of the provincial and municipal charges, particularly in the case of the offender who has changed his place of residence frequently. The record contained in the probation branch f i l e was verified through inquiries made to the central registry of criminal offences in Ottawa, Identification Branch, Royal Canadian Mounted Police** Table 17. Number of Previous Adult Convictions (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Number of Convictions Number of Probationers P.C. of Total Group None 192 86.1 1 22 9.9 2 8 3.6 3 1 0.4 Total 223 100 In 192 cases, (86.1 per cent), no previous convictions were registered against the probationer at time of disposition. Twenty-two, (9-9 per cent), of the group had one previous conviction registered against them, while 8, (3.6 per cent), had 2 previous convictions registered against them. Only one probationer had 3 previous convictions recorded against him. The * It is possible that there could be a discrepency between the extent of previous adult criminal record known to the probation branch and the extent of record revealed in the reportifrom Ottawa, as often the offender i s awarded probation before the routine police check with Ottawa i s completed, and i f the offender gave false information about previous record this would not necessarily become known to the probation service. - 50 -tendency of the court to award probation primarily to the f i r s t time offender i s reflected by the high number of such cases, (192), receiving such a disposition. In only 9.9 per cent of the cases probation was awarded under the special provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada that permits awarding such an order to a man with one previous conviction. In 9> (4.0 per cent), of the cases the offender receiving the probation order was actually legally ineligible to receive such a disposition. This probably meant that the court was not aware of the extent of the man's previous record before handing down a disposition. (See Table 17, above). Previous Incarceration i n Adult Correctional Institutions As with the previous section, this section was composed on the basis of information received i n checking with the Identification Branch, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, as well as material taken from probation branch records. This w i l l not include short stays i n gaols or prisons pending the pronouncement of sentence, or short term sentences as a result of conviction on municipal or provincial offences. Two of the group were incarcerated for a period of one month or less. Two were incarcerated for a period of longer than one month but not more than 2 months. One was incarcerated for a period of over 5 months, but not more than 6 months. Two were incarcerated for a period of more than 8 months, but not more than 9 months. One was incarcerated for a period of over 11 months, but not more than 12 months. Two-hundred and fifteen of the group, (96.4 per cent), had no record of incarceration known to either the probation service, or the Identification Branch, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa. In 96.4 per cent of the cases the probationer was given an opportunity to prove himself to the community without having to experience the - 51 -emotionally strenuous experience of institutionalization in a correctional setting. Success rates of the probation group as related to extent of previous incarceration will be given in the next chapter. In the section immediately before this one, i t was noted how the courts seem reluctant to award probation to an offender with a known previous criminal record. It appears they are even more reluctant to award such an order i f the man has at any time been incarcerated in a correctional institution. 3. Family Background The two factors investigated under the heading of family background of the probationers were the number of siblings the probationer had, and the marital status of the offenders' parents, at the time the court awarded the probation order. Number of Siblings Step-siblings, half-siblings, and foster-siblings, were added to Table 19. Number of Siblings of Probationer (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Number of Number of P.C. of Total Siblings Probationers Group None 21 9.4 1 44 19-7 2 40 17.9 3 24 10.8 4 21 9.4 5 24 10.8 6 9 4.0 7 7 3.1 8 8 3.6 9 3 1.3 10 2 0.9 11 2 0.9 12 1 0.4 Not recorded 17 7.6 Total 223 100 - 52 -the total of natural siblings of the probatiohers. Twenty-one of the total group, ( 9 . 4 per cent), were recorded as the only child of a family. Eighty-four, (37.7 per cent), of the group were known to have either one or two siblings. Sixty-nine, (30.9 per cent), of the group reported having 3, 4, or 5 siblings. Thirty-two, (14.3 per cent), reported having more than five siblings, while in the remaining 17 cases the number of siblings was not recorded. (See Table 19, above). Over half of the group, (150 or 67.3 per cent), came from families in which they were one of five or less children. Marital Status of Parents When considering the marital status of the offender's parents at the time when the offender was awarded probation i t should be remembered that the older the offender i s at the time of such an offence the less the influence of the parents and their living arrangements. To elaborate, i f the offender i s , say, 40 years old and has been out of his parents home for the last twenty years, studying the marital status of the parents will be less meaningful, than would such study in the case of a fifteen year old s t i l l living at home. Insufficient material was available to determine the age of the offender at the time of various marital upsets in the parental history. Over 50 per cent of the group, (114 or 51.1 per cent), reported that they came from homes i n which both parents s t i l l lived together. This, of course, tells us l i t t l e about the emotional relationships between these 114 sets of parents. Eight, (3.6 per cent), of the group did not record the marital arrangements of their parents. The remaining 101 cases showed some history of disruption in the area of parental marital status. In 48 of these cases, (21.5 per cent), one or both parents were deceased/ The remaining 53 cases had a variety of living arrangements which resulted in the probationer - 53 -having e i t h e r a step-parent i n the home, a person who was l i v i n g i n a common-law arrangement with h i s one parent, or the absence of one of the na t u r a l parents through l e g a l separation, divorce, or desertion. The high incidence of m a r i t a l d i s r u p t i o n i n the l i v e s o f the probationers' parents i s quite noticeable. (See Table 20, below). Table 20. M a r i t a l Status of Probationer's Parents (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955-56) M a r i t a l Arrangement Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l Group L i v i n g together (includes n a t u r a l , f o s t e r , and adoptive parents) 114 51.1 L i v i n g apart ( l e g a l or by desertion) Mother deceased (no remarriage) Father deceased (no remarriage) 27 10 27 12.1 4-5 12.1 Step-father i n home Step-mother i n home 17 4 7.6 1.8 Both parents deceased, or deserted home 11 4.9 Father or mother l i v i n g common-law 3 1 . 3 One parent or step-parent i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Unknown 2 8 0.9 3.6 T o t a l 223 100 A d d i t i o n a l note was made that three of the probationers were fo s t e r c h i l d r e n , two were adopted c h i l d r e n , and four were i l l e g i t i m a t e . 4. Outcome of Probation Period In t h i s section on the outcome of the probation period w i l l be included a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the frequency with which presentence reports were prepared, a review of the probation o f f i c e r ' s impressions as t o the s u i t a b i l i t y of the offender f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of probation, and a review of the outcome of the various cases. These three f a c t o r s w i l l be analysed more extensively i n the following chapter. The time period elapsing between start and termination of probation w i l l be considered i n the cases which were prematurely terminated. Presentence Reports Presentence reports were prepared i n 173> (77.6 per cent), of the cases. Post-sentence reports were completed i n 26 cases, (11.7 per cent), after the offender was awarded probation. In 24 of the cases, (10.8 per cent), no report was prepared before or after sentence. This means that i n the case of these 24 probationers supervision was being carried out without the supervising officer acquainting himself with the social history of the offender. (See Table 21, below) Table 21. Nature of Reports Prepared Concerning Probationers (Study Group, British Columbia, 1955-56) Nature of Report Prepared Number of Probationers B.C. of Total _ Group Presentence report 173 77.6 Post-sentence report 26 11.7 No report prepared 24 10.8 Total 223 100 Assessment by the Probation Officer The probation officer usually included i n his presentence report his assessment of the offender's s u i t a b i l i t y as a prospective probationer. In a few instances i n which no report was prepared previous to sentence, the officer gave this assessment orally after meeting with the offender. In 166, (74.4 per cent), of the cases the of f i c e r expressed the belief that the offender warranted an opportunity to make use of the probation service. This included instances when the offi c e r had some r - 55 -reservations, as well as when he was relatively sure the offender would make good use of the service. In one case the officer felt that supervision was not necessary. In 12 cases, (5-4 per cent), the officer assessed that the offender was "poor probation material". In 44 cases, (19.7 per cent), the offender was placed on probation without investigation f i r s t being carried out by the probation officer. Outcome of Probation Period - Successful and Unsuccessful Cases A case was considered as successful i f the individual completed his f u l l term of probation as required by the court. If he was taken back before the court on a breach of probation, (resulting from either a technical or new offence violation), he was s t i l l considered a successful case i f he was permitted to continue on probation and completed his prescribed time limit. A case was considered as unsuccessfully terminated i f the term of probation was prematurely ended: either because the probationer was brought back before the court as an unsatisfactory probationer, (technical breach); or because he committed a new offence that resulted in has incarceration, or otherwise caused his removal from probation supervision, (new offence breach). Finally, i f the offender absconded he was considered an unsuccessful case. One-hundred and eighty-five, (83.0 per cent), of the total group of 223 probationers completed the f u l l time on probation that was prescribed by the court. Of these 185 successful cases, 6 were taken back before the court on a breach of probation but allowed to continue on probation, while 13 violated the conditions of their probation in some way but were not taken back before the court. It i s of course possible that more violations took place and were either undetected by the supervising officer, or he may have failed to record them. - 56 -Thirty-six (16.1 per cent), of the total group of 223 probationers failed to complete their f u l l prescribed period of probation. Twenty-six of these unsuccessful cases were prematurely termnated because the probationer committed a new offence, while 6 of the cases were prematurely terminated because of technical violation of the conditions of probation. Another 4 of the group classed as unsuccessful absconded. Table 22. Outcome of Probation Cases (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Outcome of Case No. of Prob's. P.C. of Total Gp. Successful Cases Completed f u l l period, no recorded violations, no breach Completed f u l l period, breach laid at some point Completed f u l l period, violated conditions, no breach 166 6 13 Unsuccessful Cases Probation prematurely terminated, new offence Probation prematurely terminated, technical violation Probation prematurely terminated, probationer absconded 185 26 6 4 83.0 Other Suicide Deported 36 1 1 16.1 2 0.9 Total 223 100 Two members of the total group of 223 probationers were classed as neither successful or unsuccessful cases. The one committed suicide, the other was deported. These two cases will be dropped from the sample group for the balance of this discussion which will be concerned with only the unsuccessful and successful cases. Therefore the sample group i s now reduced to 221. (See Table 22, above). An attempt was made to discover i f the courts followed any set procedure when a probationer was brought before them and his probation was - 57 -prematurely terminated. However, the information contained i n the f i l e s reviewed was not complete enough. Generally there appeared a tendency to sentence the probationer on the o r i g i n a l ( i n s t a n t ) offence,as w e l l as the new one, i f he had committed a new offence. This sentence ran e i t h e r concurrently, or consecutively with the sentence imposed f o r the new offence. Time Elapsed Before Case Prematurely Terminated A study was made of the amount of time elapsing between the s t a r t and the e a r l y termination of the unsuccessful cases i n order that the period i n which the probationer i s most l i k e l y t o run i n t o d i f f i c u l t y could be assessed. This " c r i t i c a l period" appears t o be concentrated i n the f i r s t s i x months of the probation period. Twenty-three,($3.9 per cent), of the 36 unsuccessful probationers had t h e i r probation terminated w i t h i n t h i s time period of s i x months. Another 11 cases,(30^6 per cent), had t h e i r probation terminated w i t h i n the f i r s t year. The remaining 2 cases f a i l e d one year to 2 years a f t e r s t a r t i n g probation. The f a c t that many of the probationers, (51 or 22.9 per cent), of the t o t a l group of 223 received probation orders of s i x months i n length or l e s s must be remembered when considering the above f i g u r e s . (See Table 23, below). Table 23. Time Elapsed Before Case Prematurely Terminated (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Time Elapsed ( i n months) Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l Group (36) 3 months or l e s s 13 36.1 3.1 to 6 months 10 27.8 6.1 t o 9 months 5 13.9 9.1 t o 12 months 6 16.7 More than 12 months 2 5.6 T o t a l 36 100 The f a c t that a higher percentage of cases end up unsuccessfully i n the f i r s t s i x months, than i n l a t e r months, would point up the need f o r more i n t e n s i v e supervision i n the e a r l y periods of probation. Offences Committed Subsequent to Probation Period A quick review of any subsequent c r i m i n a l convictions r e g i s t e r e d against those offenders who completed t h e i r period of probation s u c c e s s f u l l y was c a r r i e d out and i s included i n the appendix o f t h i s r e p o r t . The termination date of the successful probationer supervised most r e c e n t l y was March 6, 1958. This means that the follow-up period of t h i s check on new c r i m i n a l records i s as short as 11 months i n some cases and therefore the value of the check i s l i m i t e d , and f o r that reason i t i s not considered i n d e t a i l . S e l e c t i o n of Factors f o r More Detailed A n a l y s i s The age of the offender upon s t a r t i n g probation, the m a r i t a l status and number of dependents of the offender, the nature of the instant offence, and the extent of previous adult c r i m i n a l convictions and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , were selected as four f a c t o r s which can u s u a l l y be determined at time of presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n that may bear some r e l a t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l o f f e n d e r 1 s r e l a t i v e s u i t a b i l i t y as a probationer. 'Whether or not a presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d out, and i f so, t h e assessment made by t h e probation o f f i c e r of the offender's s u i t a b i l i t y as probation m a t e r i a l were a l s o selected as f a c t o r s worthy of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the steadiness of employment the probationer exhibited during h i s probation period was selected f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . A l l the above mentioned f a c t o r s were selected because of the influence they appear to bear on the outcome of the i n d i v i d u a l case. Many of them were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o successful completion of probation i n s i m i l a r studies done previously. The selected f a c t o r s w i l l be r e l a t e d t o the success or f a i l u r e of the group under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . This group now t o t a l s 221. CHAPTER THREE THE OUTCOME OF PROBATION; THE IMPORTANCE OF  SELECTED SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS A f t e r the f a c t o r s f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n were selected, they were analysed i n more d e t a i l . In each case the f a c t o r , ( f o r example age), was d i v i d e d i n t o categories such as - to continue with the example given -under 25 years, age 25 to 3 0 , and age 35 and over. The success r a t e f o r each category was then calculated to show what percentage o f the t o t a l number of cases i n each category were succe s s f u l . Obtaining t h i s information made i t p o s s i b l e to gain some impression as to what categories of the chosen factor appeared related to a better prognosis. The success r a t e s thus obtained were compared to the o v e r - a l l success rate f o r the whole group i n r e l a t i o n to the f a c t o r being examined. I t was f e l t of value to determine also what proportion of the t o t a l successful or unsuccessful group of cases f e l l within each of the categories constructed. Such c a l c u l a t i o n s made i t p o s s i b l e , f o r example, t o determine q u i c k l y what proportion of the s u c c e s s f u l group were contained i n each of the age categories. I t i s r e a l i z e d that the wide v a r i a t i o n i n the number of cases f a l l i n g within one p a r t i c u l a r category w i l l a f f e c t the s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of those data, and because only elementary s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s have been made, caution was exercised i n i n t e r p r e t i n g them. Age of the Offender Related to Outcome of Probation Period The age categories, below 25 years, 25 to 34 years, and 35 years and above, were r e l a t e d to the outcome of the probation period. Of the 160 probationers below the age of 25 years, 134, (83.8 per - 60 -cent), were successful. Of the 39 probationers aged between 25 and 34 years, 34, (87.2 per cent), were successful. Of the 22 probationers aged 35 years and older, 17 , (77.3 per cent), were succe s s f u l . Table 24a. Age of Probationer Related t o Outcome of Case (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Age i n Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l i n Age Category P.C. of A l l Cases As By Outcome Years s* u* A l l S U A l l S (185) u -(36) A l l (221) Below 25 134 26 160 83.8 16.2 100 72.4 72.2 72.4 25 to 34 34 5 39 87.2 12.8 100 18.4 13.9 17.6 35 and Above 17 5 22 77.3 22.7 100 9.2 13.9 10.0 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83. % 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful Of the t o t a l group of 221 cases, 83.7 per cent were c l a s s i f i e d as successful. Successful cases made up 83.8 per cent of a l l the cases i n the below 25 years age category; while i n the 25 to 34 year old category, 87*2 per cent of the cases were successful; and i n the 35 years of age and above category, 77.3 per cent of the cases were succe s s f u l . (See Table 24a, above). A span of 9.9 per cent e x i s t s between the lowest and highest success r a t e s noted i n the age categories. At f i r s t glance these f i g u r e s might give the impression that the older offender i s l e s s l i k e l y t o succeed on probation. The age categories used above were further divided to determine i f greater f l u c t u a t i o n i n success rates as r e l a t e d t o age a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d , inasmuch as the small v a r i a t i o n from the o v e r - a l l success rate o f 83.7 per cent was f e l t t o be of doubtful s i g n i f i c a n c e . - 61 -When the former three age categories were further divided to give a t o t a l . o f eight sub-categories the findings were not notably d i f f e r e n t from the pattern appearing i n the o r i g i n a l categories. Table 24b. Age of Probationer Related to Outcome of Case (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Age i n Years Number of Probationers P.C. of To t a l i n Age Category P.C. of A l l Cases As by Outcome S* U* A l l S U A l l S (185) U (36) A l l (221) U-17 18-20 21-24 17 82 35 4 16 6 21 98 41 81.0 83.7 85.4 19.0 16.3 14.6 100 100 100 9.2 44.3 18.9 11.1 44.4 16.7 9.5 44.3 18.6 25-29 .'3©*34 20 14 3 2 23 16 87.0 87.5 13.0 12.5 100 100 10.8 7.6 8.3 5.6 10.4 7.2 35-39 40-44 45 & up 7 4 6 2 1 2 9 5 8 77.8 80.0 75.0 22.2 20.0 25.0 100 100 100 3.8 2.2 3.2 5.6 2.8 5.6 4.1 2.3 3.6 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Suc c e s s f u l U - Unsuccessful In the below 25 years of age category the success rates of the three sub-divisions show l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n from the o v e r - a l l success rate of 83.7 per cent noted f o r the e n t i r e group of 221 cases. In the sub-category 14 t o 17 years of age the success r a t e was 81.0 per cent. In the sub-category 18 to 20 years the success r a t e was 83.7 per cent, while a success r a t e of 85.4 per cent was noted f o r the age grouping 21 to 24 years. Success r a t e s of 87.0 per cent f o r the group aged 25 t o 29 years, and 87.5 per cent f o r the group 30 to 34 years of age were noted when the age group 25 to 34 years was sub-divided. Cases included i n the sub-categories of the 35 years of age and above category showed some v a r i a t i o n s i n success r a t e s . Success rates f o r the three sub-categories of from 35 t o 39 years, 40 to 44 years, and 45 years and - 62 -up, were noted as 77.8 per cent, 80.0 per cent, and 75.0 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t appears th a t the success rate noted f o r the category 35 years and above, (77.3 per cent), was lowered t o t h i s l e v e l p r i m a r i l y through the low success rate of these cases i n the sub-category 45 years and up. However, the small number i n t h i s sub-category, 8, l i m i t s the value of the f i n d i n g s . The highest success rate noted, 87.5 per cent, came from the sub-category 30 to 34 years of age; while the lowest success r a t e , 75*0 per cent, was noted i n the sub-category 45 years and up. (See Table 24b, above). When the success rates o f the sub-categories are shown on a p r o f i l e i t i s easy to notice a tendency f o r the success rate to r i s e , reaching a high o v e r - a l l success / / - 1 1 1 1 1 1 L . 0 // 50 60 70 80 90 100 Success Rate ( i n per cent) Figure 2. Success Rates by Age of Probationer (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) -63 -point i n the age grouping 30 to 34 years, ana to drop i n the three following sub-categories. (See Figure 2, above). The range of success rates from 87.5 per cent to 75.0 per cent, gives a 12.5 per cent span between the highest and lowest rate. The lack of marked variation between success rates noted for various sub-categories would suggest that the age of the probationer at the time he was awarded probation was of questionable significance as a factor determining the eventual outcome of his case. Marital Status and Number of Dependents Related to Outcome of Probation Single, married, common-law union, and l i v i n g apart (legally or by mutual consent or desertion), were the categories used to describe the marital status of the probationers at the start of their period of probation. The marital status of the offender was related to the outcome of the probation period. It was expected that the success rate for the group of married probationers would be considerably higher than that of the single group because of the stabilizing influence that seems to result from accepting Table 25. Marital Status of Probationer Related to Outcome of Case (Study Group, Bri t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Marital Status Number of Probationers P.C. of Total i n Status Category P.C. of An Cases Ag by Outcome S* U* A n S U A l l " S U A l l (185) (36) (221) Single Married l i v i n g Apart Common-Law 134 24 158 33 6 39 12 6 18 6 - 6 84.8 15.2 100 84.6 15.4 100 66.7 33-3 100 100.0 100 72.4" 66.7 71.5 17.8 16.7 17.6 6.5 16.7 8.1 3.2 2.7 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful - 64 -the responsibilities attached to marriage. However, axch was not found to be the case. Of the 158 single probationers 134* (84.8 per cent), were classed as successful. Thirty-three, (84.6 per cent), of the married probationers were successful. Both the married and single groups had success rates very close to the over-all success rate of 83.7 per cent. The success rate of the group of probationers who were either temporarily or permanently living apart from their wives was 66.7 per cent, which represented 12 out of the 18 cases so classified. Rather surprising is the fact that a l l 6 of the probationers recorded as living in a common-law arrangement were successful. (See Table 25, above). A profile presentation of these findings shows the tendency for separated probationers to have a proportionately lower success rate. (See 0 .//. 50 60 70 80 90 100 Success Rate (in per cent) Figure 3« Success Rates by Marital Status of Probationer (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Figure 3> above). Of the 185 successful cases 72.4 per cent were single probationers, 17.8 per cent were married probationers, 6.5 per cent were li v i n g apart from their wives, and 3.2 per cent were l i v i n g i n a common-law union. Of the 36 unsuccessful cases 66.7 per cent were single probationers, 16.7 per cent were married, 16.7 per cent were l i v i n g apart from their wives, and none of the probationers were l i v i n g i n common-law arrangement si. The total group of 221 cases was composed of 71.5 per cent single probationers, 17.6 per cent married probationers, 8.1 per cent l i v i n g apart from their wives, and 2.7 per cent l i v i n g i n a common-law arrangement. About the same percentage of successful cases and unsuccessful cases were married, while a smaller percentage of successful cases were livi n g apart as compared to the percentage of unsuccessful cases l i v i n g under such arrangements. It would appear that the marital status of the probationer does relate to the probability of his completing his period of probation successfully. Ignoring group size, and disregarding the percentage success rate for the 6 probationers l i v i n g i n a common-law arrangement, i t appears that the married or single probationer i s more l i k e l y to succeed than the probationer l i v i n g apart from his wife. These findings w i l l be further discussed i n the li g h t of other studies at a later point. Excluding the common-law arrangements category a span of 18.1 per cent exists between the highest and the lowest success rate noted i n the above categories. In Chapter two i t was pointed out that the large proportion of single probationers, (70.8 per cent), contained i n the to t a l group of 223 cases was p a r t i a l l y explained by referring to the finding that 71.7 per cent of the total group were under 25 years of age. The high success rate for the single probationers just noted, (84.8 per cent), i s perhaps as reflective of the positive prognosis attached to the below 25 years age category, (83.8 per - 66 -cent), as i t i s to the m a r i t a l status category. There appears an i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two f a c t o r s of age and m a r i t a l status as r e l a t e d to outcome of the probation period. The categories, none, 1, 2, 3, 4 or more, and unknown were used to describe the number of dependents reported by each probationer. A dependent was taken to mean a c h i l d or adult the probationer was responsible f o r the support o f. For example, a married man with one c h i l d was considered as having 2 dependents, h i s wife and the c h i l d . The number of dependents supported by the probationer was r e l a t e d to the outcome of the probation p e r i o d . Table 26. Number of Dependents Related to Outcome of Case (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Number of Dependents Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l i n Status Category P.C. of A l l Cases As by Outcome S U A l l S U A l l S U A l l (185) (36) (221) None 1 2 3 4 or more Unknown 142 26 168 8 2 10 13 4 17 13 -- 13 8 3 11 1 1 2 84.5 15.5 100 80.0 20.0 100 76.5 23.5 100 100.0 — 100 72.7 27.3 100 50.0 50.0 100 76.6 72.2 76.0 4.3 5.6 4.5 7.0 11.1 7.7 7.0 — 5.9 4.3 8.3 5.0 0.5 2.8 0.9 A H Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful Omitting the success rate of the category of unknown number of dependents we f i n d the following success rates s t a r t i n g with the highest. Of the 13 probationers who reported 3 dependents, 13, (100 per cent), were successful. Of the 168 probationers who reported no dependents, 142, (84.5 per cent), were successful. Of the 10 cases reporting 1 dependent, 8, (80.0 per cent), were su c c e s s f u l . Of the 17 cases reporting 2 dependents 13, (76.5 - 6? -per cent), were successful. Of the 11 cases reporting 4 or more dependents, 8, (72.7 per cent), were successful. Categories of number of dependents placed i n order of success rates, from highest to lowest, are 3, none, 1, 2, and 4 or more dependents. (See Table 26, above). Schematic presentation of success rates i l l u s t r a t e the relationship between number of dependents and outcome on probation. (See Figure k, below). 60 70 80 Success Rate (in percent) Figure 4. Success Rates of Probationers by Number of Dependents (Study Group, Br i t i s h Columbiaj 1955-56) 100 With the exception of the category, 3 dependents, there appears a tendency for success on probation to vary inversely with the number of - 68 -dependents reported by the probationer. However, the absence of any marked v a r i a t i o n i n success rates would suggest t h a t the number of dependents the probationer supports i s a f a c t o r of questionable importance i n determining the outcome o f the case. The high success r a t e f o r the 3 dependent category would appear f o r t u i t o u s . (See Figure U, above). Omission of the success r a t e s of the unknown number of dependents category and the 3 dependents category f i n d s the success rates ranging from as low as 72.7 per cent t o as high as 84.5 per cent, a span of only 11.8 per cent. Nature of Instant Offence Related to Outcome of Case Offences against the person, offences against property, offences against p u b l i c morals and decency, and offences against p u b l i c order and peace ( i n c l u d i n g miscellaneous offences), were the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n categories Table 27. Nature of Instant Offence Related to Outcome of Case (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbiaj 1955-56) Nature of Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l i n Offence Category P.C. of A l l Cases As by Outcome Instant Offence S* U* A l l S U A l l S (185) U (36) A l l (221) Against Person 22 2 24 91.7 8.3 100 11.9 5.6 10.9 Against Property 137 30 167 82.0 18.0 100 74.1 83.3 75.6 Against Morals 17 1 18 94.4 5.6 100 9.2 2.8 8.1 Against Peace & Order & Misc. 9 3 12 75.0 25.0 100 4.9 8.3 5.4 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful used i n Chapter 2 of t h i s study. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s retained i n t h i s - 69 -chapter and the nature of the i n s t a n t offence i s r e l a t e d to outcome of the case. Arranging the nature of i n s t a n t offence categories according to the success rate "within each category, from highest t o lowest, gives the f o l l o w i n g p i c t u r e . Of the 18 cases committing crimes against p u b l i c morals and decency 17, (94.4 per cent), were successful probationers. Of the 24 cases committing crimes against the person 22, (91.7 per c e n t ) , were succes s f u l . Of the 167 cases committing crimes against property 137 > (82.0 per cent), were successful. Of the 12 cases committing offences against p u b l i c peace and order (and miscellaneous offences), 9, (75.0 per cent), were succes s f u l . (See Table 27, above). P r o f i l e presentation of the success rates r e l a t e d to nature of inst a n t offence i l l u s t r a t e s the tendency f o r r a t e s to vary according to nature of instant offence. (See F i g u r e 5, on page 70). The tendency i l l u s t r a t e d suggests that a probationer i s more l i k e l y t o s u c c e s s f u l l y complete h i s period of probation i f the i n s t a n t offence he committed was against p u b l i c morals and decency^ next most l i k e l y to succeed i f i t was an offence against the person, next most L i k e l y i f an offence against property, and l e a s t l i k e l y t o succeed i f i t was a crime against p u b l i c peace and order. A span of 19.4 per cent e x i s t s between the highest success r a t e (94*4 per cent), reported i n the offence against p u b l i c morals and decency category, and the lowest success rate (75.0 per cent) reported i n the offence against p u b l i c peace and order (or miscellaneous) offence category. The extent of t h i s span suggests that the nature of the i n s t a n t offence i s r e l a t e d to the p r o b a b i l i t y of the offender ending h i s probationary period s u c c e s s f u l l y or unsuccessfully. Further study o f the influence of t h i s f a c t o r i s warranted. Of the 185 successful cases 74.1 per cent committed offences against property, 11.9 per cent committed offences against the person, 9»2 - 70 -per cent committed offences against p u b l i c morals and decency, and 4.9 per cent committed offences against p u b l i c peace and order (or miscellaneous offences). Of the 36 unsuccessful cases 83.3 per cent committed offences against property, 8.3 per cent offences against p u b l i c peace and order (or miscellaneous offences), 5.6 per cent offences against the person, and 2,8 per cent crimes against p u b l i c morals and decency. Of the t o t a l group of 221 cases 75.6 per cent committed crimes against property, 10.9 per cent crimes against the person, 8.1 per cent crimes against public morals and decency, and 5*4 per cent crimes against p u b l i c peace and order (or miscellaneous crimes). (See Table 27, above). over-all success Success Rate ( i n per cent) Figure 5. Success Rates by Mature of Instant Offence Committed by Probationer (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) -71 -The category, offences against property, contained over 75 per cent of the to t a l number of cases. The success rate for the category, 82.0 per cent, was quite close to the over-all success rate of 83.7 per cent. It was f e l t that such a large number of cases f a l l i n g within one category could contain some variation within them and for that reason the category was further sub-divided and the three sub-categories related to outcome of case. The three sub-categories including some 160 or the original 167 offences against property were entitled; false pretences and related offences, breaking and enterings, and thefts and related offences. The sub-category false pretences and related offences contained the offences; false pretences, forgery and conversion, conspiracy, fraud and attempted fraud. The sub-category breaking and entering and related offences contained the offences; Table 28. Instant Offences Against Property Related to Outcome of Case (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Nature of Instant Offence Number of Probationers P.C. of Total i n Offence Category P.C. of A l l Cases As.by Outcome S U A l l S U A l l S U A l l (185) (36) (221) False Pretences & Related Breaking & Entering & Related Thefts & Related 23 9 32 41 9 50 66 12 78 71.9 2828.1 100 82.0 18.0 100 84.6 15.4 100 12.4 25.0 14.5 22.7 22.2 22.6 35.7 33.3 35.3 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful breaking and entering, and breaking and entering and indictable offences and attempts. The sub-category thefts and related offences contained the offences; -12 -t h e f t s over and t h e f t s under $50. and attempts, t h e f t s unspecified, auto t h e f t s and taking auto without the owner's consent, and r e t a i n i n g , possession, and r e c e i v i n g stolen goods. Omitted from any of the above categories were the offences l o i t e r i n g , prowling, trespassing, w i l l f u l damage, and robbery. Of the 32 cases committing f a l s e pretences and r e l a t e d offences 23, (71.9 per cent), were successful. Of the 50 cases committing breaking and enterings and related offences 41, (82.0 per cent), were successful. Of the 78 cases committing t h e f t s and r e l a t e d offences, 66, (84.6 per cent), were successful. (See Table 28, above). A span of 12.7 per cent e x i s t s between the lowest and highest success rates noted i n the sub-categories. P r o f i l e presentation of the above success rates shows more r e a d i l y how the tendency from lowest to highest rates goes from f a l s e pretences and r e l a t e d offences, to breaking and enterings and r e l a t e d offences, to t h e f t s and r e l a t e d offences. 100 Success Rate ( i n per cent) Figure 6. Success Rates as by Nature of Offence Against Property  Committed by Probationer . (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) - 73 -(See Figure 6, above). However, the Limited span within this breakdown of offences against property, (12.7 per cent), would caution one against interpreting the data as anything other than of questionable significance. Of the 221 cases composing the entire study group, 14.5 per cent recorded instant offences falling in the sub-category false pretences and related offences, 22.6 per cent reported instant offences falling within the sub-category breaking and entering and related offences, while 35.3 per cent reported instant offences falling within the sub—category thefts and related offences. Of the 185 successful cases 12.4 per cent reported instant offences falling within the sub-category false pretences and related offences, 22.7 per cent reported instant offences falling within the sub-category breaking and entering and related offences, while 35.7 per cent reported instant offences falling within the sub-category thefts and related offences. Of the 36 unsuccessful cases 25.0 per cent recorded instant offences falling within the sub-category false pretences and related offences, 22.2 per cent reported instant offences falling within the sub-category breaking and entering and related offences, while 33.3 per cent reported instant offences falling within the sub-category thefts and related offences. (See Table 28, above). The nature of the instant offence appears to be an important factor for consideration when the disposition of probation i s a possibility. Further study of the influence i t has on the eventual outcome of the case would appear warranted. Extent of Previous Convictions and. Incarceration Related to Outcome of Case None, 1, and 2 or more, were the categories chosen to include the number of convictions registered against an offender previous to his being placed on probation. The extent of this previous record was related to - 74 -outcome of the case. Table 29. Extent of Previous Record Related to Outcome of Case* (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Number of Previous Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l i n Conviction Category P.C. of A l l Cases as by Outcome Convic-t i o n s s** A l l s U A l l S (185) U A l l (36) (221) None 162 28 190 85.3 14.7 100 87.6 77.8 86.0 1 17 5 22 77.3 22.7 100 9.2 13.9 10.0 2 or more 6 3 9 66.7 33.3 100 3.2 8.3 4.1 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * Includes Registered Adult Convictions Only S — Successful U -.Unsuccessful Of the 190 cases with no previous convictions 162, (85.3 per cent), were successful. Of the 22 cases with one previous conviction 17, (77.3 per cent), were successful. Of the 9 cases r e p o r t i n g two or more previous convictions 6, (66.7 per cent), were successful. (See Table 29, above). A span of 18.6 per cent e x i s t s between the lowest and the highest success r a t e s noted i n the conviction categories. I t appears that as the number of previous convictions r i s e s the success rate f a l l s . This tendency was expected and i s shown i n p r o f i l e form i n F i g u r e 7, below. The inf l u e n c e the f a c t o r , extent of previous record, has on the outcome of probation appears s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l a t e d t o warrant f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Of tne 185 successful cases 87.6 per cent had no previous convictions, 9*2 per cent had 1 previous con v i c t i o n , and 3.2 per cent had 2 or more previous convictions r e g i s t e r e d against them. Of the 36 unsuccessful cases 77.8 per cent had no previous convictions, 13.9 per cent had one previous con v i c t i o n , while 8.3 per cent had 2 or more previous convictions - 75 -Success Rate ( i n per cent) Figure 7. Success Rates of Probationers by Number of  Previous Convictions (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) r e g i s t e r e d against them. Of the t o t a l group of 221 cases 86.0 per cent had no previous convictions, 10.0 per cent had 1 previous convictions, while 4.1 per cent had 2 or more previous convictions r e g i s t e r e d against them. (See Table 29, above). In Chapter 2 i t was noted that 8 cases reported having experienced a period of i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Of these 8 cases 6, (75.0 per cent), were successful. While 75.0 per cent i s considerably below the, o v e r - a l l success r a t e of 83.7 per cent, the success r a t e noted f o r those cases experiencing i n c a r c e r a t i o n must be interpreted with caution hecause of the small number within the group, (8) . Type of Report Prepared Related t o Outcome of Case Presentence report, post-sentence report, and no report were the categories chosen t o describe the type of report prepared i n the case of - 76 -each probationer. The type of report prepared was r e l a t e d t o outcome of the case. Table 3 0 . Type of Report Prepared Related t o Outcome of Case (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Type of Report Prepared Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l i n Report Category P.C. of A l l Cases as by Outcome S* u * A l l S U A l l S U A l l (185) (36) (221) Pre-sentence Report Post-sentence Report No Report 144 27 171 22 4 26 19 5 24 84.2 • 15.8 100 84.6 15.4 100 79-2 20.8 100 77.8 75.0 77.4 11.9 11.1 11.8 10.3 13.9 10.9 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful Of the 171 cases i n which presentence reports were prepared 144, ( 8 4 . 2 per cent), were succe s s f u l . Of the 26 cases i n which post-sentence reports were prepared 22, ( 8 4 * 6 per cent), were succe s s f u l . Both the success rate f o r the cases i n which presentence reports were prepared and i n the cases i n which post-sentence reports were prepared were very close to the o v e r - a l l success rate of 8 3 . 7 per cent. Of the 24 cases i n which no report was prepared 19, (79«2 per cent), were s u c c e s s f u l . The span between the highest and lowest success rates reported i n the above categories was 5.4 per cent. (See Table 3 0 , above). There i s a small i n d i c a t i o n that preparation of a s o c i a l h i s t o r y report e i t h e r before o r a f t e r sentencing i s more l i k e l y to r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y t o successful termination of a case than i s the f a i l u r e t o prepare any report at a l l . However> the lack of v a r i a t i o n between success rates noted f o r the d i f f e r e n t categories, ( 5 . 4 per c e n t ) , - 77 -•would suggest such f l u c t u a t i o n s could be j u s t f o r t u i t o u s and therefore excessive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not j u s t i f i e d . The tendency f o r the success rate to increase as one passes from the no report category, t o the presentence report category, and then to the post-sentence report category i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n p r o f i l e . (See Figure 8, below). TJ u a. +i u o o CD « o IB 3 Post-sen-tence Pre-sen-tence None til 50 o v e r - a l l success rate 83.7£ (185/221) 60 70 80 90 Success Rates ( i n per cent) 100 Figure 8. Success Rates of Probationers by Type o i S o c i a l  H i s t o r y Report Prepared ( Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Of the t o t a l group of 221 cases 77.4 per cent had presentence reports prepared, 11.8 per cent had post-sentence reports prepared, while 10.9 per cent had no report prepared. Of the 185 successful cases 77.8 per cent had presentence reports prepared, 11.9 per cent had post-sentence reports prepared, while 10.3 per cent had no report prepared. Of the 36 unsuccessful cases 75.0 per cent had presentence reports prepared, 11.1 per cent had post-sentence reports prepared, while 13.9 per cent had no report prepared. (See Table 30, above). - 78 -Assessment Made by Probation O f f i c e r Related to Outcome of Case "Warrants opportunity", "does not warrant opportunity", and no presentence report prepared were the three categories used t o describe the assessment made by the probation o f f i c e r of the offender's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r being awarded the d i s p o s i t i o n of probation. The assessment made by the probation o f f i c e r was r e l a t e d to outcome of case. Table 31. Assessment Made by Probation O f f i c e r Related t o Outcome of Case (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Assessment by Probation Number of Probationers P.C. of T o t a l i n Assessment Category P.C. of A n Cases as by Outcome O f f i c e r S* U* A l l S U A l l S (185) U (36) A l l (221) "Warrants opportunity" 137 28 165 83.0 17.0 100 74.1 77.9 74-7 "Does not warrant opportunity" 10 1 11 9 0 . 9 ' 9 . 1 100 5.4 2.8 5.0 No pre-sentence report prepared 37 7 44 84.1 15.9 100 20.0 19.4 19.9 Others- 1 — 1 1 0 0 — 100 0.5 — 0.5 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful **• In one case o f f i c e r f e l t probation was not necessary. Of the 165 cases i n which the probation o f f i c e r f e l t the offender "warranted the opportunity" to prove himself on probation 137, (83.0 per cent), were successful. Of the 11 cases i n which the probation o f f i c e r f e l t the offender " d i d not warrant" the opportunity afforded by probation 10, (90.9 per cent), were su c c e s s f u l . Of the 44 cases i n which no presentence report was prepared and therefore the probation o f f i c e r had no opportunity t o make an assessment of the offender's s u i t a b i l i t y as probation material,37, - 79 -(84.1 per cent), were successful. Tne one case i n whicn the probation o f f i c e r f e l t probation supervision was unnecessary was successful. (See Table 31» above). Omitting the oneecase wnere i t was f e l t probation was not necessary i t i s noted that a span of 7.9 per cent e x i s t s between tne lowest and the highest success rates noted witnin the assessment categories. The highest success rate was found i n the category containing cases the probation o f f i c e r f e l t were unsuitable f o r probation, the next highest success r a t e i s found i n the category containing cases i n which no presentence report was prepared, while the lowest success r a t e i s found i n the category containing cases the probation o f f i c e r s f e l t warranted an opportunity to prove themselves on probation. The l i m i t e d span between success ra t e s , (7.9 per cent), makes further speculation regarding f i n d i n g s unwarranted. P r o f i l e presentation of the data i s given below. (See F i g u r e 9, below). u o o § •rl o * l to 0) CO CO <=»! "Warrants Opportun-i t y " No Report "Does not warrant opportun-i t y " o v e r - a l l success • I rate 83.7$ (185/221) 50 60 70 80 90 100 Success Rate ( i n per cent) Figure 9. Success Rates of Probationers by Assessment Made by Probation O f f i c e r s (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) - 60 -Of the t o t a l group of 221 cases 74.7 per cent were assessed as "warranting an opportunity" to prove themselves on probation, 5.0 per cent were assessed as "not warranting" such an opportunity, 19.9 per cen£ had no presentence report prepared, while 0.5 per cent were assessed as not requiring probation supervision. Of the 185 successful cases 74.1 per cent were assessed as "warranting the opportunity", 5.4 per cent were assessed as "not warranting" the opportunity, 20.0 per cent had no presentence report prepared, while 0.5 per cent were assessed as not requiring probation supervision. Of the 36 unsuccessful cases 77.9 per cent were assessed as "warranting the opportunity", 2.8 per cent were assessed as "not warranting the opportunity", while 20.0 per cent had no presentence report prepared. (See Table 31, above). Steadiness of Employment While on Probation Related to Outcome of Case Fully employed, (80 per cent of the time or more or employed i n seasonal employment for the f u l l length of the season), part-time, (20-to 79 per cent of the time), and l i t t l e or none (less than 20 per cent of the time), were the three categories used to describe the steadiness with which the probationer worked during his period of probation. The steadiness of employment while on probation was related to outcome of case. Of the 120 cases i n which the probationer was considered as f u l l y employed during his period of probation 111, (92.5 per cent), were successful. Of the 77 cases considered as employed part-time 61, (79.2 per cent), were successful. Of the 22 cases considered as employed only l i t t l e or none of the time they were on probation 12, (54.5 per cent), were successful. One of the 2 cases i n which steadiness of work was not recorded was successful. (See Table 32, below). With the exception of the not recorded category a span of 38.0 per cent exists between the lowest and highest success rates - 81 -Table 32. Steadiness of Employment Related t o Outcome of Case (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia; 1955-56) Steadiness of Employment Number o f Probationers P.C. of T o t a l i n Steadiness Category P.C. of A l l Cases as by Outcome S* U* A l l S U A l l S U A n (185) (36) (221) F u l l y -employed Part-time L i t t l e or none Not recorded 111 9 120 61 16 77 12 10 22 1 1 2 92.5 7 .5 100 79.2 20.8 100 54.5 45.5 100 50 .0 50 .0 100 60.0 25 .0 54.3 33.0 44.4 34.8 6.5 27.8 10.0 0.5 2.8 0 .8 A l l Cases 185 36 221 83.7 16.3 100 100 100 100 * S - Successful U - Unsuccessful a» F u l l y employed successful group includes 4 cases i n which the probationer was employed f o r the f u l l duration of a seasonal occupation. noted i n the above categories. I t appears that there i s a marked p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between steadiness of employment while on probation and the outcome of the case, and that further study of the influence of the f a c t o r of steadiness of employment while on probation i s c a l l e d f o r . Diagramatic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the above noted success r a t e c l e a r l y shows a tendency f o r the success r a t e of the group t o increase as the steadiness of employment increases. (See Figure 10 , below). Of the t o t a l group of 221 cases 54.3 per cent were f u l l y employed, 34.8 per cent were employed part time, 10.0 per cent were employed l i t t l e or none, while i n 0 .8 per cent of the cases the information about steadiness of employment was not recorded. Of the 185 successful cases 60.0 per cent were f u l l y employed, 33.0 per cent were employed part time, 6.5 per cent were employed l i t t l e or none, while i n 0 . 5 per cent of the cases the information about steadiness o f employment was not recorded. Of the 36 unsuccessful - 82 -0 // 50 60 70 80 90 100 Success Rate ( i n per cent) Figure 10. Success Rates of Probationers by Steadiness of  Employment While on Probation. cases 25.0 per cent were f u l l y employed, 44.4 per cent were employed part time, 27.8 per cent were employed l i t t l e or none, while i n 2.8 per cent of the cases the information about steadiness of employment was not recorded. (See Table 32, above). Unsuccessful probationers who worked l i t t l e or none of the time while on probation accounted f o r a considerably l a r g e r percentage, (27.8 per cent), o f the t o t a l group of unsuccessful cases than d i d successful probationers who worked l i t t l e or not at a l l , expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l number of successful cases, (6.5 per cent). Review of Findings R e l a t i n g Success Rates t o Selected Variables In an attempt t o estimate the r e l a t i v e importance of the selected v a r i a b l e s i n the s u c c e s s f u l completion of the period of probation, an elementary system of "weighting" was used. The v a r i a b l e s were arranged and weighted according to the span between the highest and lowest success r a t e noted i n the categories of each v a r i a b l e . Categories which showed extreme - 83 -v a r i a t i o n i n success r a t e and only had a few cases f a l l i n g w ithin them were not included i n c a l c u l a t i n g the span. Also not included were the categories containing the unknown or unrecorded cases. A span of 10 per cent and below received a r a t i n g o f 1, a span of 11 to 15 per cent received a "weight" of 2, and a "weight" of 3 was applied to v a r i a b l e s showing a span between the highest and lowest success r a t e that exceeded 15 per cent. A weighting of 3 was i n t e r p r e t e d as suggesting that the v a r i a b l e was an important f a c t o r i n the outcome of the case and that f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f a c t o r and the outcome of the case might be a valuable area f o r f u r t h e r study. A weighting of 2 was int e r p r e t e d as suggesting that the f a c t o r might or might not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the outcome of the case. A weighting o f 1 suggested l i t t l e apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e and the outcome o f t h e case. I t i s recognized that such elementary weighting of v a r i a b l e s according to the span between success rates i s not a f u l l y acceptable s t a t i s t i c a l technique but t h i s procedure was followed as a guide f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data discussed throughout t h i s chapter. "Steadiness of employment while on probation", "nature of the i n s t a n t offence", "extent of previous c r i m i n a l record", and " m a r i t a l status of the probationer" were weighted 3 as v a r i a b l e s which seem t o be important i n determining the outcome, of a case. A weighting of 2 was given t o the v a r i a b l e s "age when awarded probation" and "number of dependents". I t was f e l t these f a c t o r s might or might not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to tne outcome of the case. "Assessment made by the probation o f f i c e r " and "nature of report prepared" received a weighting of 1, while the extent of previous i n c a r c e r a t i o n could not be rated because cases r e p o r t i n g a record of previous i n c a r c e r a t i o n were too few i n number to allow a v a l i d comparison t o be made. (See Table 33, below). - 84 -Table 33. Review of Findings R e l a t i n g Success Rates  t o Selected Variables (Study Group, B r i t i s h Columbia j 1955-56) Selected Factor Findings No. of Cate-g o r i e s * Percentage Span Between Success Rates ** "Weight" - *** Steadiness of Employment A consistent tendency was found suggesting that as the steadiness of employment decreased the success rate declined. 3 38.0 (54.5-92.5) 3 Nature of Instant Offence Highest success r a t e noted f o r offence against morals, then against the person, then against property, and lowest f o r against peace and order, (75.0$). Of offences against property the frauds and r e l a t e d offences ranked lowest, (71.9 per cent). 4 then 3 18.6 (75.0-94.4) then 12.7 (71.9-84.6) 3 Extent of Previous Record As number o f previous convictions increased success rates declined. No previous convictions near average success r a t e . 3 18.6 (66.7-85.3) 3 M a r i t a l Status S i n g l e and married cases had about average success r a t e . Separated probationers had lower success r a t e . 4 18.1 (66.7-84.6) common-law group excluded 3 Age When Awarded Probation Middle aged sub-categories, (25-29 and 30-34) showed higher success r a t e than-either older or younger groups, but f i n d i n g s of questionable s i g n i f i c a n c e . 8 12.5 (75.0-87.5) 2 Number of Dependents Success r a t e declined as number of dependents increased, but f i n d i n g s of questionable s i g n i f i c a n c e . 5 11.8 (72.7-84.5) 3 dependent category excluded 2 Assessment by O f f i c e r V a r i a t i o n i n success r a t e s too l i m i t e d t o warrant expansion of f i n d i n g s . 3 7.9 (83.0-90.9) 1 Continued on next page... - 85 -Table 33. Review of Findings Relating Success Rates to Selected Variables Continued Selected Factor Findings No. of Cate-g o r i e s * Percentage Span Between Success Rates ** "Weight" - *** .. Nature of Report Prepared Extent of Previous Incarcer-a t i o n V a r i a t i o n i n success rates too l i m i t e d to warrant expansion of f i n d i n g s . (Cases with previous record of confinement too few l o r a v a l i d comparison. Success rate f o r a l l 8 cases 75.0 per cent.) 3 5.4 (79.2-84.6) 1 * Means number of categories or sub-categories f a c t o r i s divided i n t o , excluding category containing the unknown cases. ** Percentage span between highest and lowest success r a t e s w i t h i n the various categories of a f a c t o r . Extreme v a r i a t i o n i s excluded when only a small number of cases f a l l w ithin the category causing :the excessive v a r i a t i o n . *** Importance of f a c t o r s to success of case "weighted" according t o extent of percentage span between success.rates. 0-10 per cent span rated 1, 11-15 per cent span rated 2, 15 per cent and above span rated 3. Findings Compared With Findings of S i m i l a r Studies The success r a t e of 83.7 per cent found i n t h i s study was compared to the success r a t e found i n other studies. Monachesi reported that 65.3 per cent of the adult and j u v e n i l e cases he studied had recorded violations-^ but a l l of these would not have been revoked. The Attorney General's Survey reported that 81 per cent of the probationers studied were not revoked. 0 This success r a t e i s quite close t o the one found i n t h i s 1 Monachesi, E l i o D. P r e d i c t i o n Factors i n Probation. S o c i o l o g i c a l Press, Hanover, N.H.,1932. 2 United States of America, Department of J u s t i c e . The Attorney General's  Survey of Release Procedures. Volume I I ; Probation. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C., 1939. p. 337 - 86 -report. Giaser and Hangren reported that 76 per cent of the 190 cases they studied were successful cases.j_ I t must be remembered that there was variation between authors i n the above studies concerning their definition of a successful and an unsuccessful case. If anything, the success rate reported i n the current study i s higher than that reported i n similar studies conducted previously. In the current investigation a consistent tendency was found for the success rate to increase as the steadiness of employment while on probation increased. G i l l i n and H i l l f e l t that steadiness of employment while on probation was the most important factor relating to successful completion of probation revealed i n their study.g The Attorney General's Survey also reported that of the factors investigated steadiness of employment while on probation was the most important one tending to produce favourable results on probation.^ It appears, therefore, that the findings of t h i s current study are consistent with the findings of these other studies. I f a probationer has a sporadic work record during his time on probation the supervising officer would do well to not only consider this as a poor prognostic sign but also take i t as a warning sign to start looking for the reasons. It i s realized that sometimes regional employment conditions may l i m i t the chance of a probationer maintaining employment but even then an extra close watch should be kept and extra support for the probationer offered because of the 1 Glaser, D. & Hangren, E.F. "Predicting the Adjustment of Federal Offenders". NPPA Journal. July 1958. National Probation and Parole Association, New York. 2 G i l l i n , J.L. & H i l l , R.L. "Success and Failure of Adult Probationers i n Wisconsin". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 30, no.6, 1940. North Western University, School of Law, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . p. 811 3 United States of America, Department of Justice. The Attorney General's  Survey of Release Procedures. Volume II j Probation. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1939. pp. 340 f f 87 -two aspects of the factor of sporadic employment. First i t could indicate that the probationer is unable to hold a job because of character difficulties, but secondly the very fact of unemployment may produce, as well as reflect, emotional inadequacy and demoralization. When nature of instant offence was related to outcome of case the highest success rates were noted for probationers committing instant offences against public morals and decency, tne next highest success rates for those committing offences against the person, then for offences against property, and the lowest success rate for offences against public peace and order. Of the offences against property cases, those falling within the fraud and related offences category had the lowest success rate. The Attorney General's Survey reported that; "the crimes which seem to show the most unfavorable outcome on probation are iarcency, auto theft, and embezzlement and fraud".j_ However, no statistically significant difference was found in the survey in that regard. The tendency found in the current study is quite similar to that reported in the Attorney General's Survey, only in the current study nature of instant offence was rated as the second most important factor related to outcome of case. As the number of previous convictions registered against an offender increased the success rate declined. No previous convictions cases were near the over-all success rate of 83.7 per cent. The Attorney General's Survey reported finding a significant relationship between no previous record and success and previous record and failure. They found an 86 per cent success rate for first offenders and only a 68 per cent success rate for recidivists, 2 1 United States of America, Department of Justice. The Attorney General's Survey of Release Procedures. Volume Uj Probation. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C, 1939. pp. 396 ff Z Ibid. pp. 340 ff - 88 -The current study found a success r a t e of 85.3 per cent f o r f i r s t offenders and success rates of 77.3 per cent and 66.7 per cent f o r probationers with one previous conviction and two or more previous convictions r e s p e c t i v e l y . (See Table 29, Chapter 3). The fi n d i n g s o f t h i s study are very s i m i l a r t o those reported i n the Attorney General's Survey. Glaser and Hangren also reported that extent of previous record wais an important f a c t o r r e l a t i n g t o outcome of case.^ There i s d e f i n i t e suggestion t h a t the r e c i d i v i s t i s a poorer prospect f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of probation than the f i r s t offender. However, f o r the approximately two-thirds of the r e c i d i v i s t s who d i d succeed on probation the opportunity was w e l l worth while. The probation o f f i c e r should keep i n mind that previous record i s an important f a c t o r to consider when assessing an offender's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r probation, but i t i s not a predetermining bar to being awarded such a d i s p o s i t i o n . Even a success r a t e as low as two-thirds of a l l r e c i d i v i s t s urges one to question the v a l i d i t y of the c a t e g o r i c a l exclusiveness against offenders with more than one previous c o n v i c t i o n which i s set down i n Canadian probation l e g i s l a t i o n . S ingle and married cases had close to the o v e r - a l l success r a t e of 83.7 per cent reported i n the current study. Probationers separated from t h e i r wives had considerably lower success r a t e s . The Attorney General's Survey reports that the married probationer evidenced a higher success r a t e than the single probationers, but that divorced and separated probationers tended to show s t i l l l e s s favourable r e s u l t s . 2 G i l T i n and H i l l found i n t h e i r study that married probationers succeed " i n r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r proportions, -> 1 Glaser, D. and Hangren, R.F. " P r e d i c t i n g the Adjustment of F e d e r a l Offenders". NPPA Journal. July.1958. National Probation and Parole A s s o c i a t i o n , New York. 2 United States of America, Department o f J u s t i c e . The Attorney General's  Survey of Release Procedures. Volume IIj Probation. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C, 1939. p.383 - 89 -than single, divorced, and separated probationers"There appears basic agreement between a l l three studies that the separated probationer i s relatively less successful. The current study differs in that l i t t l e difference was found between the success rate of the single and married probationers. Upset marital status i s often symptomatic of general personality instability or immaturity on the part of one or both partners and therefore i t i s understandable that the separated probationer would be less likely to succeed on probation. Ascertaining the marital status of the offender at time of presentence investigation may serve as one guide for assessment of the over-all personality of the offender. Age sub-categories 25 to 29 years and 30 to 34 years reported higher success rates than either younger or older age groupings. Both the Attorney General's Survey2and the study by G i l l i n and H i l l ^ found that the younger offender tended to succeed less often on probation. The findings of the current study are not consistent with the findings of these other two studies, and the questionable status of the current findings relating to the variable of age would suggest the variation i n success rates noted i s fortuitous. In the current study the success rate of the groups declined as the number of dependents increased but the findings were felt to be of questionable significance. The Attorney General's Survey reported that the effect the number of dependents the probationer had had on the outcome of 1 Gillin , J.L. and H i l l , R.L. "Success and Failure of Adult Probationers in Wisconsin". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 30, no.6, 1940. North Western University, School of Law, Chicago, Illinois, p. 811 2 United States of America, Department of Justice. The Attorney General's  Survey of Release Procedures. Volume II; Probation. Government Printing ... Office, Washington, D.C, 1939. p. 375 3 Gillin, J.L. and H i l l , R.L. "Success and Failure of Adult Probationers in Wisconsin". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 30, no.6, 1940. North Western University, School of Law, ©hicago, Illinois. p. 811 - 90 -the case was immaterial. In considering the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the "assessment made by the probation o f f i c e r M and the outcome oi' the case i t was found i n the current study that i n the cases where no report was prepared or i n cases where the probation o f f i c e r f e l t the offender "warranted an opportunity" to prove himself on probation the success rates were near the o v e r - a l l average success rate of 83.7 per cent. The "did not warrant probation" cases showed a s l i g h t l y higher r a t e . No examples were found i n s i m i l a r studies where the f a c t o r of the probation o f f i c e r ' s assessment was r e l a t e d to outcome of case. The presentence and post-sentence report categories showed success rates near the o v e r - a l l average. The no report category had a lower success r a t e . Again no comparable f a c t o r was r e l a t e d to outcome of probation i n s i m i l a r studies. Cases with previous record of confinement were too few t o make comparisons worth while. Factors considered as most important i n the success or f a i l u r e of probation were steadiness of employment while on probation, nature of i n s t a n t offence, extent of previous record, and m a r i t a l status of the probationer. The findings of t h i s study were generally consistent with f i n d i n g s of the s i m i l a r studies used f o r comparison i n r e l a t i o n t o a l l the above f a c t o r s except t h a t a v a r i a t i o n was noted i n the f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o m a r i t a l status. F a c t o r s that may or may not be considered important to the success or f a i l u r e of the case i n the current study i n c l u d e age when probation awarded and number of dependents. The findings of t h i s study disagreed, s l i g h t l y with the fin d i n g s of other studies about the age groupings l e a s t l i k e l y to succeed 1 United States of America, Department. of J u s t i c e . The Attorney General's  Survey of Release Procedures. Volume I I j Probation. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C, 1939. p. 384 - 91 -on probation. Other studies d i d not consider the number oi* dependents as an important f a c t o r . The assessment made by the probation o f f i c e r of the offender's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r probation and the nature of the report prepared on the offender were two f a c t o r s that did not seem to r e l a t e very s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the success or f a i l u r e of the case. S i m i l a r studies d i d not consider these f a c t o r s and therefore comparisons were not p o s s i b l e . I t appears that f o r the group under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study the most important f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to outcome o f the case were steadiness of employment, nature of i n s t a n t offence, extent of previous adult record, and m a r i t a l status of the offender-. A l l these f a c t o r s should be investigated as thoroughly as p o s s i b l e as part of the probation o f f i c e r ' s f u n c t i o n . CHAPTER FOUR IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE IN PROBATION This study was carried out with a threefold purpose. First, i t was intended to provide a clearer picture of the clientele the British Columbia Provincial Probation Branch i s serving. A second aim was to document further evidence for or against the value of probation as a method of treatment of the adult offender. Third, the intention was to discover material of limited predictive value through the study of the relationship between selected personal, social, and environmental characteristics and the success or failure of the probationer on probation* Chapter Two of this study supplied the profile of the actual probation clientele and served as the ground from which certain variables could be selected which seemed likely to be of importance in the outcome of the case. The profile of probation clientele given i n Chapter Two revealed that the group under investigation did not appear markedly different from the general British Columbia population with regard to distribution according to the personal and family characteristics of place of birth, level of education, physical health, work habits, and number of siblings. Some possible variations from the general populace were noted in that the group may have contained; a higher proportion of young persons (71.7 per cent below age 25), a higher proportion of single persons (70.8 per cent), a higher proportion with no dependents (75*3 per cent), a large proportion came from "broken homes" (only 51.1 per cent reported that their parents were s t i l l both living together), many of the group were unskilled workers, and a l l were male. It was found that the proportion of the group committing - 93 -offences against property was comparable to the proportion of offenders committing offences against property i n a l l of Canada. (See footnote, p.45, Chapter 2). Further documentation of the value of probation as a method o f treatment of the adult offender was provided, p a r t i c u l a r l y through the success rates noted at the end of Chapter Two and i n the appendix study. Pu b l i c r e l a t i o n s includes contacts the probation o f f i c e r s have with the p o l i c e , the magistrates, and other court o f f i c i a l s , and the soundness o f the information they r e l a y can determine to some extent what e f f e c t i t w i l l have i n the f u t u r e on the p o l i c y formation i n the area of probation. Variables found t o be of l i m i t e d p r e d i c t i v e value when determining the prognosis of the case e i t h e r before d i s p o s i t i o n or during the p e r i o d of probation which at l e a s t warrant f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n included; steadiness of employment while on probation, extent o f previous adult c r i m i n a l record, m a r i t a l status, and nature of i n s t a n t offence. There was a suggestion that the more s t e a d i l y the probationer i s employed the more l i k e l y he w i l l be t o succeed on probation; that the greater the extent of previous criminal record the le s s favourable the prognosis; that married and single probationers had a better prognosis than those r e p o r t i n g broken marriages; and that i n s t a n t offences committed against morals, persons, or property had better prognostic s i g n i f i c a n c e than offences committed against p u b l i c peace and order. Within the offences against property the offences w i t h i n the sub-category frauds and r e l a t e d offences had lower prognostic prospects than other offences f a l l i n g within the category. l i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The s e l e c t i o n of f a c t o r s f o r survey and a n a l y s i s was r e s t r i c t e d t o those that could be r e a d i l y drawn from the main source of information, the - 94 -f i l e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Probation S e r v i c e . A need f o r standardized recording i n r e l a t i o n t o such f a c t o r s as mental health, nature and extent o f s o c i a l contacts, l e v e l of maturity and s i m i l a r f a c t o r s was n o t i c e d . Future research i n t h i s area could be more meaningful i f the researcher selected h i s cases f o r study at the time they f i r s t came t o the a t t e n t i o n of the branch rather than a f t e r they have been closed. This of course would mean that a period of years would be required to follow the cases through t o t h e i r termination but the researcher would be i n a p o s i t i o n t o standardize what m a t e r i a l was required i n the recording before r a t h e r than a f t e r the record was completed. T h i s would permit i n c l u s i o n of t h e study of more i n t e r - p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as the a b i l i t y of the offender t o form s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t was f e l t that the present study was perhaps a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a study of the l e s s c l e a r l y defined human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s t a t i s t i c a l approach has the unfortunate aspect of presenting a p i c t u r e of the more common case and the extremes occuring i n some i n d i v i d u a l cases are submerged i n the mass of the whole group. For t h i s reason a combination of the s t a t i s t i c a l and the case-description approach would seem a more s o l i d base f o r future research to advance upon. I n c l u s i o n of case i l l u s t r a t i o n s and a n a l y s i s of a small number of cases along with the l a r g e r s t a t i s t i c a l analysis would r e v e a l some of the more dynamic i n t e r - p e r s o n a l influences which may shape the eventual outcome of the case. There i s no single t r a i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a probationer which as yet has been c o n c l u s i v e l y l i n k e d with success or f a i l u r e o f the case. I t should be p o s s i b l e , however, t o discover c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that seem t o have c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with success or f a i l u r e and these various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can serve as.guides only, not as a c a t e g o r i c a l basis f o r r e f u s i n g to award probation to an offender. The l i b e r a l i t y o f the probation - 95 -l e g i s l a t i o n , the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the offender, the adequacy of the actual probation s e r v i c e i n c a r r y i n g out i t s fun c t i o n , and the p e r s o n a l i t y and a b i l i t y of the supervising o f f i c e r are a t l e a s t some of the v a r i a b l e s which w i l l a f f e c t the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e probationer ending s u c c e s s f u l l y . The Need f o r Adequate Presentence I n v e s t i g a t i o n I t was pointed out e a r l i e r t h a t probation services f o r adults i n Canada i s at present a l i m i t e d resource. For t h i s reason, among others, adequate presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n of adequate probation s e r v i c e . Presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out i n 77.6 per cent of the cases i n v e s t i g a t e d , which in d i c a t e s the tendency of the B r i t i s h Columbia courts t o sentence only a f t e r a knowledge of the offender's background i s gained. A d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s i n the B r i t i s h Columbia service and probably i n most other s e r v i c e s . The question must be asked as t o whether presentence ^ i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be c a r r i e d out i n such d e t a i l that i t consumes so much of the o f f i c e r ' s time that he must neglect the supervision of other cases p r e v i o u s l y placed under h i s supervision. I d e a l l y of course, he should be i n a p o s i t i o n t o give the necessary time to both f a c e t s of h i s job but unfortunately such i s not always the case. The hurr i e d nature with which presentence reports must sometimes be prepared, or i n some instances not prepared at a l l , i s r e f l e c t e d by the f a c t that i n 9 of the cases under i n v e s t i g a t i o n the probationer was awarded probation even though he was l e g a l l y i n e l i g i b l e f o r i t . Presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n must be adequate and thorough but should not detract from the o f f i c e r ' s opportunity t o give h i s current caseload the attention i t needs. Presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l condition of good probation but without adequate supervision f o l l o w i n g i t i s of l i t t l e value, except o f course, the considerable value i t contains as a guide i n a s s i s t i n g the court to award the most suitable d i s p o s i t i o n . - 96 -In the future use of probation the day may a r r i v e when the presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out i n preparation f o r the p r e d i c t i v e conference attended by various team members such as the probation o f f i c e r , the p s y c h i a t r i s t , and the psychologist. The p r e d i c t i v e conference has not been u t i l i z e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia adult probation work but as f a c i l i t i e s i n the corrections and mental health area increase such a device may prove most e f f e c t i v e . U n t i l that day the challenge i s t o make the most use of the presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n which generally i s c a r r i e d out by the probation o f f i c e r only. The Need f o r Expansion of Present Adult Probation Services I t was noted that 83.7 per cent o f the 221 cases examined s u c c e s s f u l l y completed t h e i r prescribed period o f probation. I t was f u r t h e r noted that 77«3 per cent o f these 185 s u c c e s s f u l cases s t i l l had no new record of convictions when a follow-up check was c a r r i e d out i n February, 1959. The moral s u p e r i o r i t y and the f i n a n c i a l savings r e f l e c t e d i n these f i g u r e s suggest that probation, as one method of handling the c r i m i n a l offender, i s w e l l worth while. I t would appear, therefore, that there i s a case f o r the expansion of present probation f a c i l i t i e s : ; i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Canada as a whole. Caution must be exercised, however, that the expansion i n quantity of cases handled does not occur at the expense of the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e offered. I n other words, not expansion by i n c r e a s i n g the number of cases handled by each probation o f f i c e r but rather expansion through the increase i n s i z e of s t a f f and i n s i s t a n c e on maintaining a c e r t a i n minimum q u a l i t y of personnel. While the success rates lend support to the b e l i e f that probation i s a good system f o r handling offenders, i t i s equally important t o know whether o r not the success rates could be s t i l l higher through the improvement o f the q u a l i t y of probation service o f f e r e d . One way i n which expansion of probation w i l l l i k e l y take place i s that the courts who have only r e c e n t l y s t a r t i n g using the f a c i l i t i e s of the probation branch w i l l increase the volume and proportion of cases they send t h e i r way once i t i s f e l t probation has proved i t s value i n that area. Another aspect of expansion of probation services i s the l i b e r a l i z i n g of the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s set down i n the Criminal Code of Canada. S i x out of the nine cases a c c i d e n t l y placed on probation when they had a record of more than one previous criminal c o n v i c t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y completed t h e i r period of probation. The category only included 9 cases, but even so t h i s arouses enough c u r i o s i t y at l e a s t t o make one question the v a l i d i t y of the r e s t r i c t i v e nature of the l e g i s l a t i v e framework surrounding probation i n t h i s country. For the s i x offenders who made good on probation the w a l u e r e c e i v i n g probation meant t o them would be d i f f i c u l t to measure. F o r the s o c i e t y the value can be measured i n f i n a n c i a l terms as an estimated saving of $1500. per man, or a t o t a l of $9000.. The o r i g i n a l group of 223 cases consisted of 86.1 per cent cases that recorded no previous convictions andx9»9 per cent cases that recorded one previous c o n v i c t i o n . Obviously there i s not only a need f o r the l e g i s l a t i v e framework of the Criminal Code to be expanded i n r e l a t i o n t o probation but also a need f o r the courts to make f u l l e r , use of the provision s already contained i n the Code r e l a t i n g to the offender with one previous conviction. Adequate p r o t e c t i o n of the p u b l i c should be the primary consideration when the d e c i s i o n to award or not t o award probation has to be made, counter-balanced by an assessment of the offender's a b i l i t y t o respond to t h i s type o f c o r r e c t i o n a l treatment. The f i n d i n g s reported i n the t h i r d chapter of t h i s study suggest that the greater the extent of previous adult c r i m i n a l record the lower the success r a t e . I n sp i t e o f t h i s the success rates noted f o r the cases r e p o r t i n g some previous record are s t i l l high enough to warrant th a t the d e c i s i o n t o award probation be l e f t at the d i s c r e t i o n of the court rather than c a t e g o r i c a l l y predetermined. The Aim of Probation i s "Treatment" In r e f l e c t i n g upon some of the f i n d i n g s recorded i n Chapter Two of t h i s study i t appears i n order to r e - i t e r a t e that the aim of probation should be "treatment o f the offender". I t i s f e l t that t h i s reminder i s i n order because i n review i t i s noticed that the courts award probation p r i m a r i l y t o the f i r s t offender and to the youthful offender; suggest the frequency of r e p o r t i n g be once a month i n the majority of cases ( i f casework i s to be properly c a r r i e d out the probationer would have t o be seen more frequentihy) j place over 80 per cent of the cases on probation f o r one year or l e s s . A i l t h i s leads one t o believe that the court sees probation not as an opportunity f o r treatment of the offender but rather as an opportunity t o express j u d i c i a l clemency. The focus of probation should be proper treatment of the offender and u n t i l such time as a l l of the personnel connected with the probation and court system r e a l i z e t h i s - and indeed u n t i l the general p u b l i c gains an understanding of t h i s - the f u l l and proper use of probation as a c o r r e c t i o n a l technique w i l l be somewhat retarded. Implications of Findings f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Probation Branch The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Probation s e r v i c e has been expanding ever since i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1943. Along with geographical expansion came many problems such as the need f o r adequate supervisory contact between the branch o f f i c e s throughout the province and the c e n t r a l administration. This l i n k i s necessary f o r two reasons. I n adult probation, as i n any area of casework s e r v i c e , i t i s necessary that the i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e r have a second s t a f f person t o whom he can t u r n f o r c o n s u l t a t i v e guidance on the more d i f f i c u l t aspects of carrying out s o c i a l casework. Secondly, there must e x i s t a channel through which day to day administrative decisions can be relayed. The r e c i p r o c a l aspect of t h i s i s that a channel must e x i s t through which the various o f f i c e r s can communicate t h e i r views and opinions on how s p e c i f i c matters o f p o l i c y are a f f e c t i n g t h e i r service, and t h i s would also be the channel through which s t a f f members could p a r t i c i p a t e i n forming future branch p o l i c y . I t has long been recognized that i n order to f e e l t r u l y a member of a se r v i c e one must have some avenue through which h i s ideas f o r improvement of service can be sent. I t has been suggested t h a t the proper span of c o n t r o l f o r any one s t a f f supervisor i s from f i v e to seven caseworkers or o f f i c e r s . Under the present B r i t i s h Columbia administrative arrangements; one s t a f f supervisor i s provided f o r a l l t?Jenty-four o f f i c e r s throughout the e n t i r e province. A second very serious i m p l i c a t i o n brought t o the f o r e by the r e l a t i v e l y high success rate noted i n t h i s study i s the suggestion that t h i s high success r a t e may be considerably r e l a t e d t o the r e l a t i v e l y high q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the present s t a f f , and i t w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the administration to maintain t h i s l e v e l , i f not t o improve i t . B a s i c a l l y the im p l i c a t i o n i s that i f any service i s expanding geographically and numerically then one must be sure that such expansion does not take place at the expense of the q u a l i t y of service c u r r e n t l y o f f e r e d . The Role of the Federal Government i n F a c i l i t a t i n g Expansion of Probation F a c i l i t i e s The optimism engendered when one r e f l e c t s upon the spread of probation f a c i l i t i e s across Canada, a l b e i t slow, i s rather q u i c k l y converted i n t o realism when one i s confronted with the f i n d i n g i n a recent United Nation's survey. Canada's penal system was ranked f i f t i e t h i n the world, when measured on a f a i r l y simple form of "anlightenment r a t i n g " . This puts 100 -Canada "somewhere amongst the Middle East countries and the d i c t a t o r s h i p s of South America i n our treatment of offenders".-^ The Archambault and Fauteux Reports have been two i n d i c a t i o n s of the i n t e r e s t of the Federal Government i n the area of c o r r e c t i o n s . With the s n a i l ' s pace progress of corrections i n Canada today i t would appear i n order to suggest that i f the F e d e r a l Government i s t a k i n g on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g leadership i n the area of corrections they have not f u l l y succeeded. Of the 223 cases reviewed i n Chapter Two, 84.7 per cent were born i n Canada, while only 39.0 per cent were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The m o b i l i t y suggested by t h i s l a s t f i g u r e i s equally true f o r the e n t i r e populace of B r i t i s h Columbia. (See Chapter 2, page 37).- I f the c r i m i n a l populace i s so mobile there would appear a case f o r f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o at l e a s t some aspects of the area of adult probation i n Canada. A c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y of a l l probationers so t h a t r e f e r r a l s between provinces could be a f f e c t e d with l e s s d i f f i c u l t y , and standard-setting i n the matters of si z e of caseloads backed up by c o n d i t i o n a l grant-in-aid programs are only two p o s s i b i l i t i e s worthy of thought i f not a c t i o n . The standardizing of* s a l a r y seales f o r probation o f f i c e r s would l i m i t somewhat the m o b i l i t y of s t a f f which p r e s e n t l y represents a c o n t i n u a l d i s r u p t i o n f o r probation services. The question of d i v i s i o n of powers between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments has been circumvented before and i f the mutual advantages of c e n t r a l i z i n g some aspects of the adult probation s e r v i c e s were great enough the question of d i v i s i o n of powers could again be circumvented. There would 1 Saturday Night; Canada's Magazine of Business and Contemporary A f f a i r s . E d i t e d , Toronto, Canada. Published by Consolidated Press L t d . , Montreal. V o l . 74, no. 4, February 14, 1959. p. 48 - 101 -be no need, i n f a c t no advantage, i n the basic administration of the program remaining as anything but a p r o v i n c i a l matter. The P r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i a l Worker and Corrections P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers have a c o n t r i b u t i o n to make i n many aspects of the c o r r e c t i o n a l scene. Their t r a i n i n g and basic philosophy make them p a r t i c u l a r l y adept at working with i n d i v i d u a l s who manifest various l e v e l s of s o c i a l and emotional malfunctioning. E x a c t l y what aspects of the area of corrections they w i l l eventually f i n d t h e i r way i n t o i s not yet f u l l y known. o From the point of view of the corrections personnel,who are moving toward the day of p r o f e s s i o n a l recognition, three possible avenues l i e open. F i r s t , they can claim separate i d e n t i t y from a l l other professions outside the f i e l d and attempt t o gather around them a d i s t i n c t body of knowledge, p r i n c i p l e s , and techniques embracing a l l members of the f i e l d from guard to warden. Second, they may seek p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n through i d e n t i f y i n g themselves as one area of the p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work, even as there i s p s y c h i a t r i c and medical s o c i a l work. T h i r d , there may a r i s e a p r o f e s s i o n a l group of c o r r e c t i o n a l management who would draw from the v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s around them such s t a f f and s e r v i c e s as they may need. Thus, i n the l a t t e r s e t t i n g , a s o c i a l worker would be i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n t o that of the prison doctor or d e n t i s t . That i s , he would be a p r o f e s s i o n a l person working within a second profession's j u r i s d i c t i o n . Donald R. Cressey, (Chairman, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a ) , - ^ speculates that t h i s t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e path i s the one which the c o r r e c t i o n s 1 Cressey, D.R. " P r o f e s s i o n a l C o r r e c t i o n a l Work and P r o f e s s i o n a l Work i n Correction." NPPA.Journal, January 1959. New York, National Probation and Parole Association.Y^::.r - 102 -f i e l d i s now following* One can only speculate which w i l l be the eventual path by which the f i e l d of corrections receives p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n or which i s the preferable path, but whatever path i s taken there w i l l always be many of the treatment and p o l i c y making areas within the f i e l d which can best be f i l l e d by personnel with a philosophy and o r i e n t a t i o n and code of et h i c s consistent with that of the pr o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work. There i s a need f o r a c l o s e r t i e between corrections and s o c i a l work, whether i t be on the p u b l i c or p r i v a t e b a s i s . Both f i e l d s represent part o i the o v e r - a l l welfare program i n Canada and i n c r e a s i n g i n t e g r a t i o n of the f i e l d s i s de s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l e i f leaders i n each area s t r i v e toward such a goal. This c l o s e r t i e or i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l be d e s i r a b l e regardless of the path by which corrections eventually achieves p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n . Probation perhaps represents one of the areas i n which the i n t e g r a t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work i s most advanced. I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the corrections administrator t o provide an atmosphere i n which the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker, i f employed, can function e f f i c i e n t l y . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker t o prove t o h i s administrators t h a t the profess i o n does have a contribution to make. Adult probation i n Canada i s a geographically and numerically expanding s e r v i c e . However, the goal of e s t a b l i s h i n g an e f f e c t i v e adult probation system across Canada w i l l require that the q u a l i t y of t h e s e r v i c e be maintained and increased throughout and a f t e r the number!cal and geographical expansion of the service. - 103 -APPENDIX A POST-PROBATION INQUIRY REGARDING SUBSEQUENT CRIMINAL RECORD Information received from the Identification Branch, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, giving a record of any known subsequent criminal convictions registered against the probationers in the group under investigation gave the date of follow-up check as February 17, 1959» A few convictions were recorded in the Provincial Probation Branch files that were not recorded by the Identification Branch and these were also used~:in the following explanation. It i s possible that some other convictions were not recorded by either of the two above sources of information. The minor municipal and provincial offences were not considered as subsequent convictions for the purpose of this study because they are not usually recorded by the Identification Branch and therefore a uniformity of recording between cases would not be possible. A few border violations and other offences against immigration laws were included as these are centrally registered with the Identification Branch. The extent of subsequent record was related to the former successful or unsuccessful termination of the probation case. Of the total group of 221 probationers 143, (64*7 per cent), both completed their prescribed time period of probation successfully and also had no record of subsequent conviction when the check was made February 17, 1959. This post-probation success rate of '64.7 per cent i s considerably lower than the success rate of 83.7 per cent which represented the proportion of a l l probationers who successfully completed their prescribed period of probation. (See Table 34, below). Table 34. Post-probation Recidivism Related to Outcome of Case (Study Group, British Columbia; 1955-56) Number of Successful Cases Unsuccessful Cases Subsequent A l l Number P.C. of A l l Number P.C. of A l l Convictions Cases (221) Cases (221) Cases None 143 64.7 9 4.1 152 1 28 12.2 11 5.0 39 2 7 '3.2 8 3.6 15 3 5 2.3 6 2.7 11 4 1 0.5 2 0.9 3 5 1 0.5 — — 1 Total 185 83.7 36 16.3 221 - 104 Of the 185 successful cases reported i n t h i s current study 143, (77.3 per cent), had no record of subsequent convictions. Caldwell found a success r a t e . o f 83.6 per cent i n a s i m i l a r study of 1,826 cases, (with a median follow-up period of 7i years a f t e r the end of the offender's . probation period).]_ England reports that 82.3 per cent of the 490 succes s f u l probationers he studied had no subsequent convictions.2 The post-probation success r a t e f o r the former successful probationers i n the. current study i s lower than that noted i n the two comparative studies and al s o had a shorter follow-up period of time e l a p s i n g . I n the current study the f o l l o w -up period ranged from 3 years 9 months i n one case to as short as 11 months i n another.* Even so i t i s q u i t e encouraging that 77«3 per cent of the succe s s f u l cases maintained a record clean of new convictions. As the number of subsequent convictions increased i t was noticed that those cases showing a greater r a t e of r e c i d i v i s m represented an in c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r proportion of the former unsuccessful cases and an i n c r e a s i n g l y smaller proportion of the former s u c c e s s f u l cases. This suggested that the formerly poor probation r i s k s a l s o represented poorer post-probation r i s k s . Only 9, (25 per cent), of the o r i g i n a l unsuccessful cases reported no fu r t h e r record. .(See Table 34, above) Further i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s follow-up check w i l l not be attempted because the short time period elapsing between the date of the check and the termination dates of the probation cases l i m i t s the value of the f i n d i n g s . 1 Caldwell, M.G. "Review of a New Type of Probation Study Made i n Alabama". Federal Probation, June 1951. Administrative O f f i c e of the United States Courts, Washington, D.C. 2 England, R.W. "A Study of Postprobation Recidivism Among F i v e Hundred F e d e r a l Offenders". F e d e r a l Probation, September 1955, -Washington, D.C. * In the current study the termination date of the su c c e s s f u l probationer supervised most r e c e n t l y was March 6, 1958, approximately 11 months before the date of the follow-up check. The f i r s t case terminated i n the group investigated was closed May, 1955, approximately 3 years 9 months from the date of the follow-up check. Therefore the follow-up period ranged from as long as 3 years 9 months, i n one case, to as short as 11 months i n another. 105 -. APPENDIX B PROBATION LEGISLATION  CRIMIML CODE OF CANADA 638. (1) SUSPENSION OF SENTENCE. Where an accused i s convicted of an offence and no previous c o n v i c t i o n i s proved against him, and i t appears to the court that convicts him or that hears an appeal that, having regard to h i s age, character and antecedents, to the nature of the offence and to any extenuating circumstances surrounding the coiamission of the offence, i t i s expedient that the accused be released on probation, the court may, except where a minimum punishment i s prescribed by law, instead of sentencing him to punishment, suspend the passing of sentence and d i r e c t t h a t he be released upon entering i n t o a recognizance i n Form 28, with or without s u r e t i e s , (a) t o keep the peace and be of good behaviour during any period that i s f i x e d by the court, and (b) to appear and t o receive sentence when c a l l e d upon t o do so . during the period f i x e d under paragraph ( a ) , upon breach of h i s recognizance. (2) CONDITIONS. A court that suspends the passing of sentence may . prescribe as conditions o f the recognizance t h a t (a) the accused s h a l l make r e s t i t u t i o n and reparation t o any person aggrieved or in j u r e d f o r the a c t u a l l o s s o r damage caused by the commission of the offence, and (b) the accused s h a l l provide for the support of h i s wife and any other dependents whom he i s l i a b l e to support, and the court may impose such f u r t h e r conditions as i t considers d e s i r a b l e i n the circumstances and may from time to time change the conditions and increase or decrease the period o f the recognizance, but no such recognizance s h a l l be kept i n force f o r more than two years. (3) REQUIRING PERSON TO REPORT. A court t h a t suspends the passing of sentence may require as a.condition of the recognizance that the accused s h a l l report from time to time, as i t may pre s c r i b e , to a person designated by the court, and t h e accused s h a l l be under the supervision of that person during the prescribed period. (4) REPORT BY DESIGNATED PERSON. The person designated by the court . under subsection (3) s h a l l report to the court i f the accused does not carry out the.terms on which the passing o f sentence was suspended, and the court may order t h a t the accused by brought before i t to be sentenced. - 106 -(5) SUSPENDING SENTENCE OF PERSON PREVIOUSLY CONVICTED. Where one previous c o n v i c t i o n and no more is.proved against .an accused who i s convicted, but the previous conviction took place more than f i v e years before the time of the commission of the offence of which he i s convicted, or was f o r an offence that i s not re l a t e d i n character to the offence of which he i s convicted, the court may, notwithstanding subsection (1), suspend the passing of sentence and make the d i r e c t i o n mentioned i n subsection ( l ) 639. (1) SUMMONS OR WARRANT WHEN RECOGNIZANCE NOT OBSERVED. A court that . has suspended the passing of sentence or a j u s t i c e having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n i n which a recognizance was taken under s e c t i o n 638 may, upon being s a t i s f i e d by information on oath that the accused has f a i l e d t o observe a co n d i t i o n of the recognizance, i s s u e a summons t o compel h i s appearance or a warrant f o r h i s a r r e s t . (2) RETURN. A summons under subsection ( l ) i s returnable before the . court and an accused who i s arrested.under a warrant issued under subsection ( l ) s h a l l be brought before the court or a j u s t i c e . (3) REMAND FOR JUDGEMENT. A j u s t i c e before whom a warrant under . subsection (1) i s returned may remand the accused t o appear before the court or admit him to b a i l upon recognizance, with or without s u r e t i e s , conditioned upon such appearance. (4) SENTENCE. The court may, upon the appearance of the accused pursuant t o t h i s s e ction or subsection (4) of sec t i o n 638 and upon being s a t i s f i e d that the accused has f a i l e d t o observe a condition of h i s recognizance, sentence him f o r the offence of which he was convicted. (5) MAGISTRATE, UNABLE TO ACT. Where the passing of sentence i s suspended . by a magistrate acting under Part XVI or Part XXIV or by a judge, and t h e r e a f t e r he dies or i s f o r any.reason unable t o ac t , h i s powers under t h i s s e c t i o n may be exercised by any other magistrate or judge, as the case may be, who has equivalent j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the same t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n . 640. COURT. For the purpose of sections 638 and 639, "court" means (a) a superior court of crijn i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , (b) a court o f c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , (c) a magistrate acting as a summary con v i c t i o n court under Part XXIV, or (d) a court t h a t hears an appeal. - 107 -STATUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - AN ACT RESPECTING SUMMARY PROCEEDINGS. 1955 Suspended Sentence 62. ( l ) In t h i s section, ''Justice 1* includes the Court before which an appeal i s heard i n respect o f a c o n v i c t i o n or order made under t h i s A c t . (2) Where a defendant i s convicted of an offence and no previous conviction i s proved against him, and i t appears to the J u s t i c e t h a t , having regard t o h i s age, character, and antecedents, t o the nature of the offence, and t o any extenuating circumstances surrounding the ccmimission of the offence, i t i s expedient t h a t the defendent be released on probation, the J u s t i c e may, except where a minimum punishment i s prescribed by law, instead of sentencing him to punishment, suspend the passing of sentence and d i r e c t that he be released upon entering i n t o a recognizance, i n Form 28, with or without s u r e t i e s : -(a) to keep the peace and be of good behaviour during any period t h a t i s f i x e d by the J u s t i c e ; and (b) t o appear and t o r e c e i v e sentence when c a l l e d upon to do so during the p e r i o d f i x e d under clause ( a ) , upon breach of h i s recognizance. (3) A J u s t i c e who suspends the passing of sentence may pr e s c r i b e as conditions of the recognizance that: -(a) the defendant s h a l l make r e s t i t u t i o n and reparation t o any person aggrieved or in j u r e d f o r the a c t u a l l o s s or damage caused by the commission of the offence; and (b) the defendant s h a l l provide f o r the support of h i s wife and any other dependents whom he i s l i a b l e t o support; and the J u s t i c e may impose such f u r t h e r conditions as he considers desirable i n the circumstances, and may from time t o time change the conditions and increase or decrease the period of the recognizance, but no such recognizance s h a l l be kept i n force f o r more than s i x months. (4) A J u s t i c e who suspends the passing o f sentence may require as a condition of the recognizance that the defendant s h a l l report from time t o time, as he may prescribe, t o a person designated by the J u s t i c e , and the defendant s h a l l be under the supervision of that person during the prescribed p e r i o d . (5) The person designated by the J u s t i c e under subsection (4) s h a l l report to the J u s t i c e i f the accused does not carry out the terms on which the passing of sentence was suspended, and the J u s t i c e may order tha t the accused be brought before him t o be sentenced. (6) Where one previous c o n v i c t i o n and no more i s proved against a defendant who i s convicted, but t h e previous c o n v i c t i o n took place more than f i v e years before the time of the commission of the offence of which he i s convicted, or was f o r an offence that i s not r e l a t e d i n character t o the offence of which he i s convicted, t h e J u s t i c e may, notwith-standing subsection (2), suspend the passing of sentence and make the d i r e c t i o n mentioned i n subsection (2). ((Code, s. 638)); RS 1948, c. 317, s.72. - 108 -63. (l) A Justice who has suspended the passing of sentence or a Justice having jurisdiction in the territorial division in which a recognizance was taken under section 48 may, upon being satisfied by information on oath that the defendant has failed to observe a condition of the recognizance, issue a summons to compel his appearance or a warrant for his arrest. (2) A summons under subsection (l) is returnable before the Justice, and a defendant who is arrested under a warrant issued under subsection (l) shall be brought before the Justice. (3) A Justice before who a warrant under subsection (l) is returned may remand the defendant to appear before the Justice or admit him to bail upon recognizance, with or without sureties, conditioned upon such appearance. (4) The Justice may, upon the appearance of the defendant pursuant to this section or subsection (5) of section 62, and upon being satisfied that the defendant has failed to observe a condition of his recognizance sentence him for the offence of which he was convicted. (5) Where the passing of sentence is suspended by a Justice, and thereafter he dies or is for any reason unable to act, his powers under this section may be exercised by any other Justice who has equivalent jurisdiction in the same territorial division. ((Code, s. 639)). - 109 -APPENDIX C - SAMPLE INFORMATION SHEET APPLIED TO FILES UNDER STUDY FOR M.S.W. THESIS A. F i l e No. I O P Q Probation O f f i c e r F.P.S. No. C 7 > z & 7 Court V / w r . ^ o T Pre-S.R. Prepared ^ No P.S.R. Post S.R. Offence _3_2_>^ Q^Ufc^T . D i s p o s i t i o n : Bond *5 O Q. Length of Prob. UWM. 4wK«/n>»«i*£tarting ^TU**VJ *7/gQ Successful V^* V i o l a t i o n but no Breach Breach Laid Result How long a period of probation was completed before breach? .  B . Age at s t a r t of Birthdate f>cX 1 Place of B i r t h \J_3r_^_ j C . probationary period ^ I Education C^c^rft*-^^_>-§it^r«=Adl J^l Health :• very poor poor f a i r good excellent Employment: Main occupation Uj>**r*J\. Work Habits: steady seasonal sporadic Was the c l i e n t employed during h i s period of probation? F u l l y employed u— part time seasonal l i t t l e or none M a r i t a l Status: single married common-law widowed _____ l i v i n g apart _____ divorced separated ( l e g a l ) Number of Dependents (including wife) ^  M a r i t a l Status of Parents: l i v i n g together l i v i n g apart ^ father deceased,; step-father i n home step-mother i n home mother deceased Number of s i b l i n g s CQ R e l i g i o n of C l i e n t ft.C C. Previous Record Juvenile Offence Date Court D i s p o s i t i o n J>_4*_*_ _^_*i>i5£ _ Y*^l -9 : -_ _ 3~>~?\^5± Adult _ _ _ _ Remarks (Rating Scale) Very Poor Poor F a i r Good Very Good Few strengths; P.O. expresses Borderline case; Suggest prob.; Suggests prob.; Poor a t t i t u d e ; doubt as to c l i e n t ' s No opinion given; appears to have f e a s i b l e t r e a t -poor associates; a b i l i t y to use Not sure of how considerable ment plan; u s u a l l y suggests no probation construe- c l i e n t would strengths; f i r s t offender; probation. t i v e l y . respond to period a t t i t u d e a t t i t u d e of probation. favourable. favourable. D. New Offences Since Period of_Probation Under Study Offence Date Court D i s p o s i t i o n A d d i t i o n a l Information - 110 -APPENDIX D  BIBLIOGRAPHY (a) General References AMERICAN CORRECTIONAL ASSOCIATION. A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards. New York, 1954. BARNES, Harry Elmer and TEETERS, w e g l e y K.. New Horizons i n Criminology. 2nd e d i t i o n . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , 1951. BRITISH COLUMBIA, Ccanmittee on Behalf of P r o v i n c i a l Probation O f f i c e r s . B r i e f o f J u l y 1958 t o the B r i t i s h Columbia  Government Employees? A s s o c i a t i o n on the  R e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Probation  O f f i c e r . P r o v i n c i a l Probation Branch, Dept. of Attorney General, B r i t i s h Columbia. 0. Walling, Chairman. Mimeographed, 1958. BRITISH COLUMBIA, (Province), Department of the Attorney General. Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols, ending March 31, 1942 - 1957. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. BRITISH COLUMBIA, P r o v i n c i a l Probation Branch, S t a f f . " P r o v i n c i a l Probation Services". B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare. December 1947. B.C. Department of Health and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, V i c t o r i a . CANADA, Department of J u s t i c e , Committee Appointed t o Inquire Into the P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures Followed i n the Remission S e r v i c e of the Department of J u s t i c e of Canada. Report... Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956. CANADA, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Census of Canada, 1951. Volume 2. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. CANADA, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Health and Welfare D i v i s i o n , J u d i c i a l Section.. Eighteenth Annual Report of S t a t i s t i c s  of Criminal and other Offences, f o r the Period January 1, 1955 t o December 31, 1955. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1957. AND f o r the Period January 1, 1956 t o December 31, 1956. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1958. CANADA, Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada. Report... King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1938. CANADIAN WELFARE COUNCIL, Canadian Corrections A s s o c i a t i o n D i v i s i o n . D i r e c t o r y of C o r r e c t i o n a l Services i n Canada. Ottawa, May 1958. - I l l -CAVAN, Ruth Shonle Crindhology. 2nd e d i t i o n . Thomas I . Crowell Coi., New York, 1955. CHAPPELL, Richard A. and TURNBLADH, W i l l C., "Probation: Case Work and Current Status". Contemporary Correction, edited by Paul W. Tappan. Chapter x x i v , p .3&4. McGraw-H i l l , New York, 1951. CHUTE, Charles L i o n e l and BELL, Marjorie. Crime, Courts, and Probation. Macmillan Co., New York, 1956. COUGHLAN, D.W.F. COUGHLAN, D a n i e l DAVIDSON, Raymond C. DRESSIER, David FOGARTY, P a t r i c k James FRENCH, David G. FRY, Margery GLUECK, Sheldon GLOVER, E l i z a b e t h R. HENDRICK, E . J . HOLTON, K a r l "At the Court L e v e l " . Proceedings of the Canadian  Penal A s s o c i a t i o n Held i n Conjunction with the  American P r i s o n Association!?. Toronto, October 15  and 16, 1953* Canadian Penal A s s o c i a t i o n , Toronto. "The Case f o r Probation". Canadian Welfare; Treat- ment of the Criminal in-Canada. V o l . XXIX, no. 3 - 4 , September 15 , 1953. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1953. "Probation and Parole S t a t i s t i c s " . NPPA Journal. V o l . 3 , no. 3 , J u l y 1957, p.271. N a t i o n a l Probation and Parole Assn., New York. Probation and Parole. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, c l 9 5 1 . "Report on Probation". U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Sociology 300, Third Year A r t s , A p r i l 16, 1949. Ah Approach to Measuring Results i n S o c i a l Work. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1952. "The Scope f o r the Use of Probation". European  Seminar on Probation, London 20 - 30 October 1952, p.66. United Nations, New York, 1954. Crime and Correction; Selected Papers. Addison-Wesley Press, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 1952. Probation and Re-education. 2nd rev. e d i t i o n . Routledge and Kegan Paul L t d . , London, 1956. "Conditions and V i o l a t i o n s of Probation and Parole". National Probation and Parole:Association Yearbook, 1951, edited by Marjorie B e l l . New York. "A Yardstick f o r Measuring Probation". Federal  Probation. January - March 1943, pp .41-43« Administrative O f f i c e of the United States Courts, Washington, D.C. - 112 -ISAACS, Norman B. JAFFARY, Stuart K. MacIEOD, A.J. MEAD, Bennet MEAD, Bennet MITCHELL, E i l e e n " B l i n d Spots i n Probation and Parole". Focus. V o l . 33, no. 6, November 1954, pp.173-178. National Probation and Parole A s s o c i a t i o n , New York. "Probation f o r the Adult Offender". The Canadian Bar Review. V o l . 27, no. 9, November 1949, pp. 1020-1040. Canadian Bar As s o c i a t i o n , Ottawa. "Corrections i n Canada - 1947 and Today". Proceedings of the Canadian Congress of Corrections. 1957, Montreal, May 26-29, pp.24-26. Canadian Corrections A s s o c i a t i o n of the Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa. "Evaluating the Results of Probation". National  Probation A s s o c i a t i o n Yearbook. 1932-33, pp.271-282. New York. "Is there a Measure of Probation Success?" National Probation A s s o c i a t i o n Yearbook. 1937, edited by Mar j o f i e B e l l , pp.130-138. New York. "Probation Work i n Canada". F o r t n i g h t l y Law Journal, V o l . 17, Part 16, March 15, 1948, pp.248-250. F o r t n i g h t l y Law Journal L t d . , Toronto. NATIONAL PROBATION AND PAROLE ASSOCIATION. Standards f o r S e l e c t i o n of Probation and Parole Personnel. New York, n.d. OHLIN, Lloyd E . Sociology and the F i e l d of Corrections. Prepared f o r the American S o c i o l o g i c a l Society. R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1956. PANSEGROUW, N.J. de W. "Probation and i t s Place i n a Rational and Humane Programme f o r the treatment of Offenders". European Seminar on Probation. London," 20-30 October 1952, p.9. . United Nations, New York, 1954. PIGEON, Helen DuM. RECKLESS, Walter C. EEINEMANN, J.O. SUTHERLAND, Edwin H. Probation and Parole i n Theory and P r a c t i c e ; A Study Manual. National Probation A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1942. The Crime Problem. 2nd e d i t i o n . Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , Inc., New York, 1955. "Research A c t i v i t i e s in the Probation Department". National Probation A s s o c i a t i o n Yearbook, 1946, pp.196-217. New York. P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology. 5th e d i t i o n . Revised by Donald R. Cressey. J.B. L i p p i n c o t t Co., Chicago, cl955. - 113 -TOPPING, C.W. Canadian Penal Institutions. Revised edition. Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1943* UNITED NATIONS, Department of Social Affairs. Probation and Related Measures. New York, 1951^  (United Nations Publications 1951.IV.2) UNITED NATIONS, Department of Social Affairs, Division of Social Welfare. Practical Results and Financial Aspects of Adult  Probation in Selected Countries. New York, 1954. (b) Related References CAIDWELL, Morris G. "Review of a New Type of Probation Study Made in Alabama". Federal Probation, June 1951* pp.3-11. Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, D.C. ENGLAND, Ralph W. "A Study of Postprobation Recidivism Among Five Hundred Federal Offenders". Federal Probation, September 1955, pp.10-16. GILLLN, John L. and HILL, Reuben L. "Success and Failure of Adult Probationers In Wisconsin". Journal of Criminal  Law and Criminology. Vol. 30, no.6, 1940, pp.8Q7-829. North Western University, School of Law, Chicago, Illinois. GLASER, Daniel and HANGREN, Richard F. "Predicting the Adjustment of Federal Offenders". HPPA Journal. Vol. 4, no.3, July 1958. National Probation and Parole Assn., New York. LOTTIER, Stuart "Predicting Criminal Behavior". Federal Probation, October-December 1943, pp.8-12. Washington, D.C. MANNHEIM, Hermann and WILKINS, Leslie T. Prediction Methods i n Relation to Borstal Training. Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1955. (Great Britain. Home Office. Studies in the causes of delinquency and the treatment of offenders, no.l) MONACHESI, Elio D.8 Prediction Factors in Probation; A Study of 1515 Probation Cases of Ramsey County, Minnesota, 1923-1925. Sociological Press, Hanover, N.H., 1932. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Department of Justice. The Attorney General's Survey of Release Procedures. Volume II; Probation. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C, 1939. - 114 -(c) Legislation CRIMINAL Code of Canada. With annotations and notes by J.C. Martin, Q.C. Cartwright & Sons, Ltd., Toronto, 1955. REVISED STATUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1948, Chapter 268 formerly Chapter 60, 1946. An Act Respecting Probation Officers. Short t i t l e - Probation Act. Amended 1951* STATUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, Chapter 71 formerly RSBC 1948, c.317, s.72. An Act Respecting Summary Proceedings. Short t i t l e - Summary Convictions Act, 1955. (d) Social Work and the Field of Corrections ANONYMOUS "Generic Training for Social Work. Probation. Vol. 8, no.4, pp.49-51. United Kingdom. BLAKE, Marilyn A. "Probation i s Not Casework". Federal Probation, June 1948, pp.54-57. Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, D.C. BOWERS, Swithun "The Applications of Social Work in the Correctional Field". NPPA Journal. Vol. 5, no.l, January 1959. p . l 6 . National Probation and Parole Assn., New York. COHEN, Irving E. "Probation as a Social Casework Process". National Probation and Parole Association Yearbook, 1945, pp.207-216. New York. CRESSEY, Donald R. "Professional Correctional Work and Professional Work ih Correction." NPPA Journal. Vol. 5, no.l, January 1959, p . l . New York. CRYSTAL, David "Family Casework in Probation". Federal Probation, December 1949, pp.47-53. Washington, D.C. ESSELSTYN, T.C. "Trends in Social Work Toward Corrections". Federal Probation, June 1957, p.30. Washington, D . c KELLEY, Joseph B. "A Private Family Agency Tackles a Correctional Case". NPPA Journal. Vol .5 , no.l, January 1959, p. 37. :New York. KNUDSON, Theodore B. "The Criminal Court and the Private Agency". Supplement by G. Richard Bacon. NPPA Journal, Vol .5 , no.l, January 1959, New York. KONOPKA, Gisela n Ihe Social Group Work Method; Its Use in the Correctional Field". Federal Probation, March 1956, pp.25- . Washington, D.C. - 115 -LONG, Jean S. MEEKER, Ben MEEKER, Ben S. MINN, W.G. NAGEL, William G. PRAY, Kenneth L.M. STUDT, Elliot STUDT, Elliot " STUDT, Elliot TRECKER, Harleigh B. TRECKER, Harleigh B. ZISKIND, Louis "Casework in Prisons". Focus, Vol.29, no.6, p . l 6 l , November 1950. National Probation and Parole Association, New York. "Probation is Casework**. Federal Probation. June 1948, pp.51-54. Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, D.C. "The Social Worker and the Correctional Field". Federal Probation. September 1957, pp.32-42. Washington, D.C. "Probation Work". Social Casework in Great  Britain, edited by Cherry Morris, pp.128- . Faber and Faber, London. "Some New Areas for Casework Activity in a Correctional Institution for Young Men". Journal  of Social Work Process. Vol.4, May 1953, pp.29-45* New Jersey Reformatory. "The Principles of Social Case Work as Applied to Probation and Parole". Federal Probation, April-June 1945, pp.14-18. Washington, D.C. "Casework in the Correctional Field". Federal  Probation, September 1954, pp.19-26. Washington, D.C. "The Contribution"of Correctional Practice to Social Work Theory and Education"." Social  Casework. June 1956, p.26$. Family Service Association of America, New York. "An Outline for Study of Social Authority Factors in Casework". Social Casework, June 1954, p.231. Family Service Association of America, New York. "Social Work Principles in Probation". Federal  Probation, March 1955, pp.8-10. Washington, D.C. "The Use of Community Resources in Probation Work". Federal"Probation, October-December 1947, pp.21-25. Washington, D.C. "Social Work and the Correctional Field". Federal  Probation, March 1950, pp.46-49. Washington, D.C. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302590/manifest

Comment

Related Items