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Orchard Park: a tenant survey of the second installment of public housing in Vancouver (December 1958-May… Reid, Ella Mary 1962

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ORCHARD PARK: A Tenant Survey of the Second Instalment o f P u b l i c Housing i n Vancouver. ( D e c e m b e r 1958 - May I960.)  by  Ella  Mary  Reid  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF S O C I A L WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work  School  The  University  of Social  of British  Work  Columbia.  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may  be  granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  /e>  '  iv  Abstract  The O r c h a r d P a r k H o u s i n g P r o j e c t , f i r s t t e n a n t e d i n December 193>8> i s t h e s e c o n d i n s t a l m e n t o f s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g i n Vancouver. A l s o managed by t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y u n d e r t h e s a n c t i o n o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n ments, i t i s the s i s t e r p r o j e c t - t o " L i t t l e Mountain", the p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i t u a t e d a t M a i n S t r e e t and 33rd Avenue, Vancouver. T h i s p r o j e c t has b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f a p r e v i o u s s u r v e y ( E l a i n e F r o m s o n , Joy Hansen, and R o g e r S m i t h : The L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental Housing P r o j e c t : A Survey of i t s W e l f a r e Aspects"*!! An i m p o r t a n t s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n p r o j e c t i s t h a t O r c h a r d P a r k , t o o , was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h o u t d i r e c t involvement w i t h slum-clearance; i n o t h e r words, t h e p e o p l e h e r e re-rhoused were drawn f r o m many d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s t o a new site. T h i s study attempts to a n a l y s e , from the tenants p o i n t of view, t h e e f f i c a c y w i t h w h i c h t h e i r v a r i o u s " w e l f a r e " needs a r e b e i n g met by t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c l y - o w n e d h o u s i n g ; the ramif i c a t i o n s of project-community r e l a t i o n s ; and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the e n t i r e u n d e r t a k i n g . This information was o b t a i n e d by means o f i n t e r v i e w s ( a o n e - i n - t h r e e s a m p l i n g o f t h e t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n ) , a v e r a g i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h o u r i n length. P r o p o r t i o n a l samples o f t h e t e n a n t " c a t e g o r i e s " were o b t a i n e d , w i t h r e g a r d t o (a) t y p e s o f f a m i l y ( " c o m p l e t e " f a m i l i e s , " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s , " s i n g l e " o c c u p a n t s ) and (b) income g r o u p s . An o v e r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l p i c t u r e , f o r c o m p a r i s o n , was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n f i l e s of the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . 1  Tenant r e a c t i o n s v a r i e d g r e a t l y depending p a r t i a l l y upon p r e v i o u s h o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; b u t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f new, bright, and c l e a n s u r r o u n d i n g s , w i t h a d e q u a t e h e a t and h o t w a t e r , was h a i l e d with v i r t u a l unanimity. However, s e v e r a l a r e a s o f c o n c e r n a r e o u t s t a n d i n g ( l ) No a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a n n e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n e x i s t ; ( 2 ) i n i t i a l l a u n d r y a r r a n g e m e n t s were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; (3) the l a y o u t of Orchard Park i n c l u d e s t h r e e "through" s t r e e t s , a h a z a r d t o b o t h young and o l d ; and, (Ij.) so f a r as s p a c e and f a c i l i t i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , a b s o l u t e l y no p r o v i s i o n h a s b e e n made f o r t e n a n t g a t h e r i n g s . The g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f l o w e r - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s , and a l s o of multi-problem f a m i l i e s i n l o c a l public housing i s v i t a l i n the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study, which are d i s c u s s e d f u l l y i n Chapter IV. I t i s c l e a r t h a t not o n l y f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , but more a t t e n t i o n t o " w e l f a r e p r a c t i c a l i t i e s " i s e s s e n t i a l , i f p r e s e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e t o be a v o i d e d i n t h e f u t u r e .  V  Acknowledgment s  J u s t a s no man i s a n i s l a n d u n t o h i m s e l f , n o s t u d y i s conceived and brought t o f r u i t i o n without t h e care and c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f many p e o p l e . F o r t h e g e n e r o s i t y o f t h e two s o c i a l w o r k e r s , M i s s J a n e t K e r r a n d M i s s L u k i a M i c h a s , who v o l u n t a r i l y comp l e t e d b e t w e e n them a number o f t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e r v i e w s , I am s i n c e r e l y g r a t e f u l . F o r t h e p a t i e n t and u n t i r i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n o f Mr. C o l i n S u t h e r l a n d , Manager o f t h e Vancouver Housing Author i t y , and t h a t o f h i s s t a f f , I would l i k e t o r e c o r d r e s p e c t and g r a t i t u d e . For t h e keen i n t e r e s t and i n f i n i t e a s s i s t a n c e o f D r . L e o n a r d M a r s h o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l W o r k , who h a s b e e n as a beacon, g u i d i n g t h i s s u r v e y from i n c e p t i o n t o c o m p l e t i o n , I am d e e p l y o b l i g a t e d .  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I : The P r o s and Cons o f Low-Rent Housing W e l f a r e and H o u s i n g — s o m e d e f i n i t i o n . P e r t i n e n t r e c e n t s t u d i e s on e f f e c t s o f h o u s i n g . S u g g e s t i o n s on m i n i m a l neighbourhood s t a n d a r d s . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n h o u s i n g the low-income groups. C u r r e n t need f o r e f f e c t i v e l o w r e n t a l h o u s i n g — d e m a n d and s u p p l y . Some c o n t r i b u t i o n s of p u b l i c a c t i o n and h o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e s elsewhere. Delayed l o c a l acceptance of p u b l i c h o u s i n g . Scope and purpose of p r e s e n t s t u d y  1  Chapter I I : O r c h a r d P a r k and i t s Tenants The p r o j e c t : geographical location; "layout"; struct u r a l f e a t u r e s o f Orchard P a r k . The f a m i l i e s : s o c i o economic f a c t o r s ; method o f s e l e c t i o n ; income l e v e l s ; f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n s ; former l o c a t i o n s . The new l o c a t i o n : g e n e r a l d i s t r i c t and f a c i l i t i e s ; public transportation. Concepts o f "community" and"neighbourhood " among t e n a n t s Chapter I I I :  Families  18  Rehoused  Physical effects of r e l o c a t i o n . F a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n . Homemakers' views o f f a c i l i t i e s . Economic e f f e c t s o f r e h o u s i n g . S o c i a l e f f e c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n : home l i f e and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s ; l e i s u r e time and r e c r e a t i o n . Social f a c i l i t i e s : p r o j e c t and neighbourhood. N e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f Orchard P a r k Chapter IV: P u b l i c Housing  Administration  Rents and e l i g i b i l i t y : p u b l i c h o u s i n g as a s o c i a l s e r v i c e ; p u b l i c housing p o l i c y . Admissions p o l i c y and procedure. The r e n t s c a l e . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f riculties. L a n d l o r d and t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s . Implicat i o n s of survey f i n d i n g s  77  APPENDICES A. B. C. D. E.  The Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y The I n t e r v i e w O u t l i n e The I n s p e c t i o n Report The Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y Bibliography  P r o g r e s s i v e Rent S c a l e . . 1 0 2 lOlj. 110 F a m i l y Income Form I l l 112  iii TABLES AND  CHARTS IN THE TEXT  a) T a b l e s Table  1  Distribution Units,  Table 2  1959  Orchard Park,  26  Income and F a m i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n , Park,  Table  and C o m p o s i t i o n o f H o u s i n g  3  Orchard  1959  Percentage  2  Analysis  Distribution,  o f Income and F a m i l y  Orchard Park,  1959  28  T a b l e 1+ Income S o u r c e s o f T e n a n t F a m i l i e s (Exc l u d i n g S i n g l e T e n a n t s ) O r c h a r d P a r k , 1959 Table 5 Table Table  Table  Distribution  Park, 1959  6  Families  7  8  6  of Child  Population, Orchard  Dependent on Income o t h e r  29  32  than  Employment, December, 1959  8l  Comparison o f Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Serv i c e S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e R a t e s i n 195^- and i n I960..  8i|  C o m p a r i s o n o f Income and R e n t a l A l l o c a t i o n . as s e t o u t b y V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and Vancouver- C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t ment, I 9 6 0  85  b) C h a r t s Figure  1  Figure 2  Figure  3  S k e t c h Map showing b o t h O r c h a r d P a r k and L i t t l e M o u n t a i n H o u s i n g P r o j e c t s , and Environs  19  S c h e m a t i c D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T y p e s o f Accommodation, L i t t l e Mountain and O r c h a r d Park H o u s i n g P r o j e c t s , 1959  21  S k e t c h Map,  F i g u r e 1+ Former  locations  relocation Figure 5  Types  of L i v i n g U n i t s  21+  of tenants p r i o r to 35  i n Orchard Park  S k e t c h Map o f O r c h a r d P a r k ing d i s t r i c t  and s u r r o u n d -  39  vi  ORCHARD PARK: A Tenant Survey of the Second Instalment of Public Housing i n Vancouver  Chapter 1 THE  PROS AND CONS OP LOW-RENT HOUSING  H o u s i n g and W e l f a r e "Housing" i s not simple living  demands t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n  economics; tics, Of  e s s e n t i a l importance,  of design,  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  medicine  and w e l f a r e  and y e t o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d ,  and f a m i l i e s f o r whom t h e e n d r e s u l t  particularly  repeatedly  services. are the i n -  of housing p o l i c y  i s one o f t h e b a s i c needs o f h u m a n i t y - -  of urbanized  Westerners.  i n North American c i t i e s  p r o p e r l y met, t h e community  human r e s o u r c e s ,  of f i r e ,  and d e l i n q u e n c y .  disease  I t has been proved  t h a t when t h i s  suffers socially  both i n depleted  and  need i s imeconomically,  and t h r o u g h t h e m o n e t a r y Aside  from the p h y s i c a l  nerability,  the emotional d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the poorly  individuals  through squalor  ant  poli-  administration i s intended. Adequate h o u s i n g  but  Good h o u s i n g f o r f a m i l y  neighbourhood, u r b a n and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ;  sanitation, preventative  dividuals and  shelter.  effects of discontent,  result  i n family  and o v e r c r o w d i n g , w i t h frustration,  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n or contribute  illness.  Prom a p u r e l y  declining  city  real  estate  revenues have f o r c e d  undertake demolition Some r e c e n t  anxiety  and  point  vul-  housed  their  concomit-  and a p a t h y , may  to frank  mental  o f v i e w , b l i g h t and  one c i t y  a f t e r another to  rehousing.  s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t  portion of welfare  costs  and h e a l t h  a s u b s t a n t i a l pro-  s e r v i c e s and funds a r e t y p i c a l l y  2  expended on b e h a l f of a s m a l l percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i s much more than a housing matter.  But every e x p e r i -  enced s o c i a l worker i s aware o f the h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f "multi-problem f a m i l i e s " i n areas of b l i g h t and inadequate housing. A r e c e n t Canadian study has observed, to g r a v i t a t e toward  "These f a m i l i e s tend  the slum or b l i g h t e d areas of the c i t y  since  slum housing may be a l l they can a f f o r d or a l l t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t o them.  1,2  Another r e l e v a n t and up-to-date  study, undertaken i n New  Haven over a ten-year p e r i o d , has i n d i c a t e d how f a r s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l experiences i n the development of p s y c h i a t r i c  disorders  are c o r r e l a t i v e t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o s i t i o n i n the c l a s s income) s t r u c t u r e .  The data i n t h i s study was c o n s i s t e n t l y  r e l a t e d t o the d i v i s i o n of the community i n t o strata,  (i.e.:  socio-economic  (Class I being used t o d e s i g n a t e the top socio-economic  group, and C l a s s V the lowest) w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  findings:  "Almost without e x c e p t i o n , C l a s s V p a t i e n t s complained of overcrowded  conditions during childhood.  They f e l t  this  crowding added t o the g e n e r a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n at home and t h e i r l a c k of p r i v a c y . . . . " "The congested c o n d i t i o n s under which the p a t i e n t s grew up were r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' poor f i n a n c i a l cumstances.  cir-  Not o n l y were they unable t o a f f o r d b e t t e r  housing, but they were u s u a l l y overcharged f o r what they d i d have.  The crowding, i n t u r n , e a s i l y l e d t o f r i c t i o n , g e n e r a l  1. B r a d l e y B u e l l and a s s o c i a t e s , Community P l a n n i n g f o r Human Services. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York. 1952. p . 2 . ~~ 2. A l b e r t Rose, Regent Park. A Study i n Slum C l e a r a n c e . Toronto U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Toronto, 1958. p.105.  disorder,  and  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of  interpersonal  conflict  w i t h i n t h e home." " C l a s s V p a t i e n t s a l s o moved f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g  their  child-  hood;  Class  III  on t h e  patients. five  average n e a r l y twice  T y p i c a l l y , the  Class  o r more t i m e s b e f o r e  times h i s f a m i l y  c o u l d not  t o move e v e n t h o u g h o t h e r immediately.  The  moving i n w i t h  he  o f t e n as  V p a t i e n t ' s f a m i l y moved  was  pay  as  s i x t e e n years  their  rent  and  f a c i l i t i e s were n o t  f a m i l y would t h e n s p l i t  f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s u n t i l  up new  old.  At  were f o r c e d available temporarily, quarters  were  found." "Since  t h e i r f a m i l i e s moved so f r e q u e n t l y , many  p a t i e n t s had  difficulty  tacts  neighbourhood....  i n the  There has are  true  rating ning,  been g a t h e r i n g  i n other  cities.  a t t e n t i o n to  forming  s u s t a i n e d p e e r group  evidence that  these  I n Vancouver, there  slum c l e a r a n c e  as  lower-class  has  a c i t y wide  con-  differentials been  accele-  (urban  plan-  or u r b a n redevelopment) matter.  1. Jerome K. Myers and B e r t r a m H. R o b e r t s , Family C l a s s Dynamics i n M e n t a l I l l n e s s . J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , New Y o r k , 1959. p.17«.  and Inc.,  2. The f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e s a r e p e r t i n e n t h e r e : (a) L e o n a r d C. M a r s h , R e b u i l d i n g a N e i g h b o u r h o o d ; u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. (b) T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r R e - D e v e l opment, P r o j e c t #1; November 1959 (Report p r e s e n t e d t o Vancouver C i t y Council.) (c) W a r r e n A. W i l s o n , H o u s i n g C o n d i t i o n s among S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e F a m i l i e s ; M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955(d) M i c h a e l Wheeler; E v a l u a t i n g t h e N e e d f o r Lox^r-Rental Housing; M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . IQtt. ..... ._ .... -(e) E l a i n e F r o m s o n , J o y H a n s e n and R o g e r S m i t h , The L i t t l e M o u n t a i n L o w - R e n t a l H o u s i n g ^ P r o j e c t ; M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1959. r  k That that The  " s l u m - d w e l l e r s make t h e s l u m s "  i t was  (though i t s t i l l  o l d "coal I n the bathtub"  point  i s no l o n g e r t h e dogma  s u r v i v e s I n some u n t u t o r e d a r e a s ) . stories,  a t l e a s t , have l o s t  t h r o u g h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f modern, c e n t r a l l y h e a t e d  " I t has been p r o v e d  time  c o n d i t i o n s have improved,  and t i m e  again that  as s o o n  their  units.  as h o u s i n g  t h e f a m i l y ' s s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g has  improved."1 B e t t e r h o u s i n g i s not a complete it  i s an u n a v o i d a b l e p a r t  locating  suitable housing  o f t h e answer.  when c o m p e t i n g  T h i s problem of  i s i n t e n s i f i e d f o r t h e lower-  income g r o u p s , w h e t h e r s i n g l e p e r s o n s proportion of family  answer f o r e v e r y b o d y , b u t  income t h i s  group  or f a m i l i e s ,  must a l l o c a t e f o r r e n t  f o r accommodation o n t h e c o m m e r c i a l  o f t e n h i g h e r t h a n i n t h e c a s e o f medium- o r families.  families ly  a relatively  low r e n t  quality housing.  2  i s almost  o n a m a r g i n a l income."3  a v a i l a b l e money f o r t h e p u r c h a s e whether f o o d , f u r n i t u r e ,  that  low-income  and, most  certain-  c e r t a i n t o a c q u i r e o n l y lowevidence  i s coupled w i t h the problems A n d one o b v i o u s  paying a disproportionately high rent  ing  follow  "The slum p r o v i d e s t h e most d r a m a t i c  o f what h a p p e n s when p o o r h o u s i n g of l i v i n g  insures these  o f a good q u a l i t y o f accommodation;  market i s  higher-Income  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  t h e payment o f r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r e n t  and t h e  r e s u l t of  i s a shortage of r e a d i l y  of other v i t a l  necessities,  c l o t h i n g , medications, education or  1. C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e , V o l . X X V I I I , and L i f e , p.10.  No.6, D e c . 1 5 , 1 9 5 • ^ b u s " 2  2. S u c h e v i d e n c e a p p e a r s i n t h e s t u d y b y W a r r e n A . W i l s o n o f H o u s i n g C o n d i t i o n s Among S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e F a m i l i e s . Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955. 3. M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r L o w - R e n t a l Housing. M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columb i a . 1955.  $ recreation.  When c h i l d r e n a r e  through environment other  this affects  even i f they s h o u l d escape p h y s i c a l  does t h e  situation right itself  b u i l d i n g boom x^hich has Canadian c i t i e s  since  characterized  the  end  low-income g r o u p s c a n  of  the  i n time?  not  only  war?  The  afford only  i n g down" o f o l d e r family  i n "converted" suites  lems t h a n s o l u t i o n s , ventilated units,  not  adequate f a c i l i t i e s , take t h e i r t o l l ,  overcrowding,  p h y s i c a l l y and  dreary,  and  s u f f e r s f r o m want o f w i t h o u t any housing income  and  lighted  The  f o r o l d people.  But  of  disruptive  limitless. the  and  maintenance  relationships  psychologically,  single-  vermin, lack  difficult  are  and  w i t h i t more p r o b -  and  of  uncomfor-  The  outcome  low-income g r o u p  adequate h o u s i n g p r i c e d w i t h i n  reservation  this is  "filter-  i t s range,  old people's  i s c a l l e d f o r p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e most p e n s i o n e r s  special  are  low-  groups.  The  pathological  stop at the located,  influences  boundary of  the  o f p o o r h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e s do  family unit.  unplanned neighbourhood exerts  community I n  ational  and  The  Poorly  emotionally.  demoralizing housing  that, materially  dirt  upon f a m i l y  answer t o  all  lower-income f a m i l i e s  o r rooms, b r i n g s  cold,  the  Vancouver but  d e s i g n e d as  always temporary.  disintegrating influences table,  m a j o r i t y of  dampness and  What o f  or worse.  accommodation o r i g i n a l l y  d w e l l i n g s , i n x^hich t h e  reside,  the  or  cheap accommodation  most o f t h i s i s s e c o n d - h a n d , t h i r d - h a n d ,  is  them  malnutrition. But  that  involved,  The  blighted,  its evil  approach i n landlord-tenant  adults;  relations;  the  a  poorly  i n f l u e n c e ' upon  a v a r i e t y of ways--through inadequate  a r e a s f o r b o t h c h i l d r e n and  not  recre-  "dog-eat-dog"  demoralizing  effect  6 upon f a m i l y l i f e industrial general.  of l o c a t i o n i n predominantly  zones;  and  It is interesting  Vancouver Housing in  a 19^9  enities  a l a c k o f community t o compare t h e  o f many s e c t i o n s o f V a n c o u v e r Have we  "2.  Is the  resources  suggestions  of the  of  in  the  a p p e a r a n c e and  at the p r e s e n t  an a d e q u a t e s y s t e m o f p a r k s  and  i n preventing the  Is there s u f f i c i e n t  spread  off-street  am-  time:  play  a p p l i c a t i o n of the H e a l t h , B u i l d i n g  laws e f f e c t i v e "3.  social  or  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d improvement, made  b u l l e t i n , w i t h the r e a l i t i e s  "1.  commercial  lots?"  and  of b l i g h t  Zoning  i n the  p a r k i n g t o serve the  By-  area?" busi-  ness s e c t o r ? " "ij..  Are the  playground "5» of  Can curbs  "6.  Can  we  "8.  street  owners be  available Are  live  partner  appearance through c o n s t r u c t i o n  encouraged to r e p a i r  s y s t e m keep t h r o u g h  and r e d u c e  traffic  f o r a l l age  steps being  I.  hazards or o t h e r  groups  t a k e n t o see  traffic  of the  off resid-  t o a minimum?" social  facili-  population?"  that o l d people  i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d when t h e y r e t i r e  can  continue  o r when t h e i r  dies?"l  wonders f o r b o t h  C.  or r e p a i n t t h e i r  tidy?"  A comprehensive program based  B.  including  boulevard p l a n t i n g ? "  t o keep y a r d s  streets  children,  for?"  I s t h e r e a Community C e n t e r ,  ties,  to  improve  Does t h e s t r e e t  ential  "9.  space, b e i n g p r o v i d e d  or through  h o u s e s and "7.  f u t u r e s c h o o l needs of our  individual  Vancouver Housing October 1959.  and  on  these  suggestions would  community w e l l - b e i n g .  A s s o c i a t i o n , B u l l e t i n #1|0,  Can  do  there  Vancouver,  7 be much doubt would  prove The  that,  from t h e long range  point  o f view,  this  e c o n o m i c a l l y sound?  forces  i n t e n s i f y i n g most g r e a t l y  the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  h o u s i n g t h e loxtf-income g r o u p h a v e f r e q u e n t l y b e e n summed up under  "urbanization"  and " i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " .  the d e - p o l a r i z a t i o n o f c l a s s middle  o f h o u s i n g "zones".  a r e a s have e n c o u r a g e d tion  Increasing  and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t land values i n central  t h e "move t o t h e s u b u r b s " .  o f m e t r o p o l i t a n r i n g s h a s grown a l m o s t  as c e n t r a l c i t i e s ban  s t r u c t u r e , w i t h an e n l a r g i n g  c l a s s , h a v e come s o c i a l m o b i l i t y  mobility  from  1 9 3 0  to  1 9 5 0 .  1  ,  physical  "good" l i v i n g living  churches, zation  conditions  streets,  The p r o b l e m s  1  i n terms  (crime, delinquency, mental  study, but whether o f s e r v i c e s and  first  o f low i n d i c e s  illness),  settled  as w e l l  libraries,  of d i s o r g a n i -  t h e o l d e r , more  i n Vancouver,  b e i n g abandoned t o u s e by t h e l o w e r economic A powerful s o c i a l ,  o f "subur-  (adequate h o u s i n g , s c h o o l s ,  e t c . ) o r i n terms  deteriorated d i s t r i c t s , ally  conditions  "The p o p u l a -  t h r e e t i m e s as f a s t  sprawl" a r e n o t w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s  we d e f i n e  A t t e n d a n t upon  as e c o n o m i c ,  are gradu-  groups.  factor  i n urbani-  z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s the h i g h e r p o t e n t i a l s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g ,  c o n s t a n t l y promulgated  munication, which,  together with ther i s i n g  m o t i v a t e s more women t o w a r d s out o f t h e home, group  b y a l l t h e m e d i a o f mass comcost  of living,  b e c o m i n g wage e a r n e r s .  especially f o r theu n s k i l l e d  o f f e m a l e w o r k e r s , who a r e l e s s  2  Employment  or s e m i - s k i l l e d  able t o pay f o r worthwhile  1 . H a r o l d L . W i l e n s k y , and C h a r l e s N. L e b e a u x , I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y a n d S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1 9 5 8 -  P-136"  2. The p r o s a n d cons o f t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t a r e w e l l s e t o u t i n a r e c e n t t h e s i s : M a r g a r e t B a r d a l , M a r g a r e t D i c k , and Eva Rogerson. The M a r r i e d Woman in.Employment» M a s t e r o f Soci a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f b r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 5 6 . r  8 household  " h e l p " , may  increase family stress.  c a t i o n i s the h e t e r o g e n e i t y  of t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n ,  intensified  anonymity of f a m i l y l i f e ,  further  isolation  the  the  o l d value  factors, further  complicate  inescapably, The than  the  the  are  us,  and  circumstances  " p o o r " , who  still  from  are,  i s probably  certainly  neighbourhood  s e r v i c e s w h i c h ought t o be  i t seems change.  much g r e a t e r  i f "housing"  i s taken  i t s weight  e n v i r o n m e n t and part  social  population,  e v e n t h o u g h t h e i r names may  p h y s i c a l accommodation, b u t the  t o exaggerate  Thus i t i s t h a t complex  "poor i n h o u s i n g "  f a m i l y b u d g e t , and  compli-  with  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l  is generally realized; o n l y the  tending  in difficult  l o t of the  always w i t h  number who  mean n o t  ties  of those  of n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s .  promoted by  A further  in  city  of c i v i l i z e d ,  to the  ameni-  healthy  living.  Current When t h e standards  Need f o r E f f e c t i v e  demand f o r r e n t a l h o u s i n g  existing  accommodation a r e  t o l e r a t e d only i n sheer  Wheeler had  a p p l i c a t i o n s had ject."! largely for  The  That  "by  been r e c e i v e d f o r the tenant  from the w a i t i n g  assuaged.  W r i t i n g o f the  to report that,  original  the L i t t l e  exceeds the  i n much o f V a n c o u v e r ' s p r i v a t e l y  b e e n t r u e f o r many y e a r s . Michael  Low-Rental Housing  list  p o p u l a t i o n of  owned  desperation.  rental  This  end  o f 1951+,  the w a i t i n g l i s t  this  has  s u i t e s at the Orchard  l»7l+2 pro-  P a r k was  of d i s a p p o i n t e d p r o s p e c t i v e  M o u n t a i n p r o j e c t , and  the  L i t t l e Mountain p r o j e c t ,  the 221).  supply,  need i s f a r from  f o r Orchard  Park t o t a l l e d  drawn tenants being 8I4.9  1. M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r L o w - R e n t a l Housing. M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955-  9 applications for  low-income  include in  i n 1959  i s b u t one i n d e x o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g demand,  housing i n Vancouver.  the thousands o f s e a s o n a l  s e a r c h o f employment  ployment  or during  families,  seasons.  students  crowd t h e c i t y  N o r does i t i n c l u d e t h e  and s t a f f members, many w i t h  who t a k e up r e s i d e n c e  •duration of u n i v e r s i t y  " m i g r a n t s " who  ( o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t ) d u r i n g p e a k s o f unem-  tourist  numbers o f u n i v e r s i t y  T h i s f i g u r e would n o t  1  i n greater  sessions.  Vancouver f o r the  2  That the supply of e x i s t i n g r e n t a l housing i s inadequate, both q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  and q u a l i t a t i v e l y ,  and m o d e r a t e  p e o p l e , seems t o be u n q u e s t i o n a b l e .  factors  income  currently  affect  this  supply.  f o r t h e demand o f low  One i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n i s t h e r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth i n g r e a t e r F i g u r e s f o r 1958 i n d i c a t e  that  Vancouver.  6!|6,700 p e o p l e i n 186,500 h o u s e -  h o l d s r e s i d e d i n t h e a r e a composed o f V a n c o u v e r c i t y , Vancouver  city,  N o r t h Vancouver  Burnaby M u n i c i p a l i t y , Vancouver  city  clerk's  Richmond  district,  North  West V a n c o u v e r  and New W e s t m i n s t e r c i t y .  d a t a f o r 1958  V a n c o u v e r c i t y p r o p e r , compared  Several  district, The  show lj.07,000 p e o p l e i n  w i t h t h e 1951  census count o f  314}.,833, and. t h e I 9 i | l c e n s u s , one o f 275,353 Aside from numerical f a c t o r s tant the  of population,  another impor-  i n d e x o f t h e n e e d for.: l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g i s s u p p l i e d b y income  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Vancouver a r e a .  t a x a t i o n y e a r , out o f a Vancouver t o t a l  1. A n n u a l R e p o r t 1959,  I n t h e 1958  o f 201)., 887 income t a x  V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , P.I4..  2. The non-permanent p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r i s e s t i m a t e d a t between 25,000 and 30,000 b y t h e 'Vancouver S u n ' R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n i n i t s F a c t u a l Inventory o f . B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. F i g u r e s q u o t e d i n F a c t u a l I n v e n t o r y o f B r i t i s h 'Vancouver S u n ' R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n .  Columbia,  10 returns,  8J4.O p e o p l e d e c l a r e d  27,1+1+0 d e c l a r e d  i n c o m e s o f b e t w e e n $1000 and  a t t e s t e d t o i n c o m e s o f b e t w e e n $2000 and declared tax  o f t h i s k i n d do  income d i s t r i b u t i o n . who  do n o t  reach  the  Por  one  taxable  not  give  level.  accommodation.  Other evidence  C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and  lower l i m i t s  the  the  also diminishing.  in war  from  assistance  i s i n c r e a s i n g , on  difficult  medium c o s t  supply  Initially,  the  depression  the h i g h  factors  to o b t a i n .  An cost  The  accommodation  O l d houses, the  demolished.  on  the  i s not  examination,  only inadequate,  quantity of  of the  » 3 0 ' s and  "best"  high-cost  restrictions the  source  now  caught still  o f cheap u n i t s , a r e  being  '5>0's and  of c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e l a t e d to v a r i o u s locally  skilled  apartments)  a d d i t i o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n o f the  currently operating  ensuing  and  h o u s i n g has  (particularly  but  currently avail-  y e a r s , when m a t e r i a l s were g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e  lags.  the  rolls,  Housing A s s o c i a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s  present  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  up;  low-cost  lists for old  l o w - r e n t a l housing i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the  labour  is  social  of  o f home p u r c h a s e .  appears t h a t  able,  a lower-income stratum  the housing r e g i s t r y ,  W h i l e t h e demand e x i s t s and it  import-  income r e c i p i e n t .  comes f r o m w a i t i n g  Vancouver p u b l i c p r o j e c t s , - f r o m  total  earners  i s need f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e  p e o p l e ' s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and  and  f a c t s of  There i s a l s o the  even t h i s p a r t i a l p i c t u r e r e f l e c t s  l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n where t h e r e  Income  a r e many  a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f numbers o f d e p e n d e n t s p e r But  Ij.7,020  and  $I|.000.^  a l l the  thing, there  l+k»720  $1999,  $2999,  a n n u a l i n c o m e s o f b e t w e e n $3000 and  statistics  $1000,  a n n u a l incomes of under  and  '60's  economic  n a t i o n a l l y , and  yielding  1. Department o f N a t i o n a l Revenue, T a x a t i o n D i v i s i o n ; i 9 6 0 T a x a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s ; The Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, Canada, p.61  11 raised  costs  building  "luxury" the  only  problem has  that  rooms  and How  much  assisting  in  the  one  and  sometimes  Many of  a  form  here.  a l l housing  Chairman several public  four  one  For  s t i l l is  of of  are  units  no  or  surcease  recent  years,  modest  rents;  clerical  staff  low-income  another.  But  often  families  for  of  of  under  commitment,  has  has  housing  them  local  be  housing  altogether.  state-aided  or  r e n t a l housing  Central  Toronto  conditions  Sweden,  and  by  the  to  Housing  most  take  any  there  co-sponsorship  should  Mortgage  to  managed:  built  According  and  projects  In  f o r many y e a r s  housing.  subsidized  unwillingness  governments must  of a l l  interminably.  the  taken p r o v i n c i a l  get  from  lagged  been  to  than h a l f  rental housing,  housing,  Metropolitan  head  housing,  to  Canadian  benefit  of municipal  Britain,  ownership  years  sale  undoubtedly  either  units  increasing  for  I t has  lack  contribute?  T y p i c a l l y , f a r more  public  aid  In  the  with  low-rental  federal  cities  every  or  landlord.  as  that  seeking  with  action  built  incapacity  organizations. was  units  many r e a s o n s  initiative  well  public  responded,  other  of  as  compete  In  Many  people  industrial  renter.  numbers  of  providing  r e q u i r i n g more  girls  should  have  One  be  the  expansion  a l l subsidized  must  to  home p u r c h a s e s .  and  building  added  again  rent.  suites.  governments  houses  low-income  of  hundreds  buildings,  apartments,  the  business  eventually,  displace  commercial  of  commercial  means  of  by  and,  which  high-rental  immigration and  production  demolitions  succeeded  to  of  started. a  majority  co-operative  accepted  be  ratio  supplied  Mr.David Authority,  Housing  for  Mansur, and  for  Corporation,  existing i n February  I960,  12  should t o t a l units  at l e a s t  ten per  i n t h e community.  c e n t o f t h e number o f d w e l l i n g  There  are  the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a of Toronto, housing u n i t s t h a n .one'per to  cent of t h i s  local  old  Mountain  dwelling units  figure. scene,  only 3 9 2 units  j e c t s of L i t t l e of  and  dwelling units  t h e number o f  in  public  at p r e s e n t i n e x i s t e n c e t h e r e r e p r e s e n t s l e s s  the g r e a t e r Vancouver  h o l d s , but  i|.00,000  Transposing this  1  where t h e r e a r e  premise  186,^00  house-  i n t h e combined p u b l i c h o u s i n g and  Orchard Park,  pro-  this  yields 0 . 2 1 $  i n p u b l i c housing form.  Even i f a l l  p e o p l e 's u n i t s were added, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h e t o t a l  rise local  above 1 p e r  cent.  The  obvious  inadequacy  of the c u r r e n t  s u p p l y o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g marks C a n a d a as t h e l a s t  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n i n the Western world to u t i l i z e public housing This butable  resistance  to the  equally  some o f t h e p u b l i c  confused a t t i t u d e ,  dissipated  legacy of  needs o f t h e m i d d l e stratum, g e n e r a l l y  "one's own  i n North American  and u p p e r  strata  inarticulate,  colours  Although  resources",  w i t h us  the  pristill  Although  c u l t u r e b e t t e r meets  of s o c i e t y ,  remains  not;  still  c o n s i d e r a b l y , t o achieve something  i n a status-conscious society.  independence  or  stigma i s  to subsidized housing.  i n c l u d i n g good h o u s i n g , by  c a r r i e s much s t a t u s  that  i n any f o r m , w h i c h u n d o u b t e d l y  approach  attri-  society-  " w e l f a r e s t a t e " , whether u n d e r s t o o d  attached to " c h a r i t y "  vately,  subsidized  of p u b l i c housing i s probably  i n n a t e f e a t u r e s of North American  and t h e o l d e r b u t  s t i g m a has  major  as a n a t i o n a l m e a s u r e .  delayed acceptance  t o two  would  the  "poorer"  and  remains  this the  1 . Prom C i t i z e n ' s Forum - R e s o l v e d t h a t ; We Need More Subs i d i z e d P u b l i c Housing; Pamphlet 1 2 , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 . Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education..  13 frequently  "under-privileged"  Additionally, a major  i n the  N o r t h A m e r i c a was  industrialized  delayed urbanization,  factors  later  t h a n was  influence  unawareness of  the  the  the  i n the  many c a s e s .  N o n e t h e l e s s , we  do  The  antitheses and  have seen t h a t ,  compound t h e of h e a l t h  of p r o g r e s s i v e  p r o v i s i o n of  are,  a l l these public  quantitatively,  of The  the  hous-  i n private, establishing factors  i n themselves  housing standards.  the  weight.  p r i v a t e r e n t a l market b e i n g contain  hous-  e x i s t s at a l l , i n  alone complicate  welfare.  chrono  condes-  the  "Filtering-down"  s u b s t i t u t e measures i n  the  accommodation.  this point  ing  s i t u a t i o n i s the  i t i s important reverse  of  to  emphasize t h a t  static.  i m p r o v e d i t d e t e r i o r a t e s . . . The  control...merely ability  gross  considerable  complexities  of n e c e s s i t y ,  "At  being  has  and  low-income tenant  "conversion"  relatively  Possibly  q u a l i t a t i v e standards  accommodation on t h e  t i n e d f o r the  and  as  Europe;  need f o r s u b s i d i z e d  such a resource  resource  matter of  e v e n a minimum d e g r e e to  case i n Europe.  that  "welfare"  low-income h o u s i n g ,  ducive  population  quantitative d i f f i c u l t i e s  ing problem.  established  t h a n most o f  f i n a l p o i n t , w h i c h i s the  fact  things.  n e e d f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g emerged  ing—indeed,  Nor  smaller  and d i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e  demand f o r t h i s  scheme o f  s e t t l e d and  s o c i e t y much l a t e r  hence, w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  logically  general  t o pay,  dation. available  means t h a t rather  C l e a r l y , the  rents  t h a n on t h e  now  If i t i s  removal of  of  hous-  not  rent  d e p e n d on  tenants'  q u a l i t y of the  substandard nature of the  i s as much a p a r t  the  accom-  housing  the h o u s i n g p r o b l e m as  the  Ik a c t u a l shortage o f d w e l l i n g s . A survey completed 19Lj-9  by Dr. Leonard Marsh i n Vancouver i n  i l l u s t r a t e d g r a p h i c a l l y a whole s e r i e s o f examples of  housing c o n d i t i o n s i n the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l o w - r e n t a l and d e t e r i o r a t e d Vancouver a r e a . ^  Warren A. Wilson, f i v e years  l a t e r , i n a sample survey of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s , h i g h l i g h t e d the budget aspect of poor housing as w e l l as the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s the f i n a n c i a l l y u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d tenant must endure i n accommodation.^  That low-income housing on the  p r i v a t e r e n t a l market i s almost always s e c o n d - h a n d ,  overcrowded  by multiple-occupancy, l o c a t e d i n b l i g h t e d areas, i n poor and l a c k i n g i n adequate,  repair  minimal f a c i l i t i e s f o r f a m i l y l i v i n g ,  i s w e l l known to every p e r c e p t i v e observer of the l o c a l housing scene.  But a r e c i t a l o f the worst c o n d i t i o n s o f slums  still  seems t o be necessary t o keep up the necessary l e v e l o f housing and p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y . min,  dry r o t , f i l t h  I t i s not h a r d t o f i n d .  Dampness, v e r -  and g e n e r a l decrepitude f a l l to the l o t of  the low-income t e n a n t .  Indeed,  some of the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  p r i v a t e accommodation e x i s t i n g i n the f i l e s o f most l o c a l  social  agencies, read l i k e scenes from a h o r r o r s t o r y .  Scope and Purpose o f Present  Study  Housing r e s e a r c h and w e l f a r e r e s e a r c h a l i k e r e a c h a new and welcome stage once some u n i t s o f p u b l i c housing have been b u i l t .  1 . Michael Wheeler, E v a l u a t i n g the Need f o r Low-Rental Housing; Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 5 • P » 5 » of  2 . Leonard C. Marsh, R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood; U n i v e r s i t y B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 5 0 . pages 1 5 - 2 1 .  3 . Warren A. Wilson, Housing C o n d i t i o n s Among S o c i a l A s s i s t ance F a m i l i e s ; Master of S o c i a l work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o r b r i t i s n uoiumDia, 1 9 5 5 . pages 3 0 and 5 3 .  15 The  s p o t l i g h t s c a n be t u r n e d  conditions,  f r o m inhuman, u n s a n i t a r y  or  deprived  t o s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h human b e i n g s a r e t r y i n g t o  make r e a d j u s t m e n t s , w i t h  some o f t h e minimum a d v a n t a g e s o f  decent  living.  They c a n be t u r n e d  arouse  i n t e r e s t , t o p o s i t i v e s u r v e y t o a s s e s s p o l i c y and e x p e r i -  e n c e , and f i l t e r research its  own  out constructive  i s now b e i n g  from negative  criticism.  initiated.  attempt's t o  This  kind of  I t i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t xvrlthout  difficulties.  Research i s o f primary importance  i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s , b u t i t i s w i t h i n  only  comparatively  applied  recent  times that  t o t h e s p h e r e o f human w e l f a r e .  research  methods h a v e b e e n  I n the present  methods employed c a n be l a r g e l y o n l y  q u a l i t a t i v e , but they  t h e way t o a n "aim o f p o l i c y " f o r f u t u r e possibly f o r construction  of other  t o be c o m p l e t e d  follows  public housing  tial  Authority,  a card  ner. and  i n d e x was p r e p a r e d family  income and s o u r c e ( s ) , This  also  serve  Mountain s t u d y  1  information  size,  i n 1959.  Housing  status  of the breadwin-  t h e s o u r c e f o r maps and t a b l e s  t h e s e c a r d s were l a t e r  of the i n t e r v i e w i n g  ini-  age a n d s e x o f c h i l d r e n , n e t  g u i d e d the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r the sample.  anonymity,  After  on each tenant f a m i l y , i n -  and m a r i t a l  provided  survey  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n  w i t h t h e manager o f t h e V a n c o u v e r  c l u d i n g name, a d d r e s s , family  the present  c l o s e l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y t h e p a t t e r n  discussions  projects.  i s the second o f i t s  i n V a n c o u v e r , so t h a t  established f o r the L i t t l e  point  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and  Orchard Park p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t kind  instance, the  and c o m p i l a t i o n  destroyed  But t o p r e upon c o m p l e t i o n  of the s t a t i s t i c a l  tables.  1 . E . Promson, J . Hansen, and R. S m i t h ; The L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental Housing P r o j e c t ; M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 9 .  16 Of t h e  one  h u n d r e d and  s i x t y - e i g h t tenant u n i t s  p r o j e c t , f i f t y - s i x were v i s i t e d , the  project's families.  The  a sampling of  one-third  one  this  i n three  s a m p l i n g was  also  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e  to  families  "broken" f a m i l i e s ( t o t a l  and  i n project  " s i n g l e " occupants  were 28, c o v e r not types,  22  and  only  illustrated Wniie the  means o f  (total  18).  The  This  categories:  sample  but  house, apartment b l o c k , aged and  i n Figure  1  the  interviews  large.  the  tive  and  d e s c r i p t i v e c o m p a r i s o n s by  the  previous  housing  sections  v i e w s on  the  Interview  conditions.  accommodation per  Other se  content  the  budget;  tenant's  were c o - o p e r a t i v e  and  and  experience.  evinced  the  average, subjecand  deal with  tenant  facilities,  etc.);  the  i n t e r e s t i n the  social  neighbourhood  r e m a r k s and On  by  interview  of present  entertaining,  general  the  obtained  included  tenant  (design,  (recreation, hobbies,  the  "couple"  components  on t h e  c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n to r e - h o u s i n g ) ;  district;  a f f o r d e d by  was  lasting,  t o two  and  each.  and  one  activities,  to  accommodation  coverage of  A l l information  from  living  66),  (Chapter I I ) .  o u t l i n e r e p r o d u c e d I n A p p e n d i x B,  family  "complete"  designed  These  w i t h each f a m i l y , f o l l o w i n g  hours  applied  " s i n g l e " and  handicapped.  sample i s somewhat s m a l l , i s quite  also  and  of  t o t a l s thus  d i v i s i o n was  d i f f e r e n t family types,  both the  questionnaire  b%),  6 respectively.  i . e . , row  units for are  (total  three  in  suggestions  whole, t e n a n t s research  under-  taken."'"  L . The a s s i s t a n c e o f two v o l u n t e e r s , b o t h p r a c t i s i n g s o c i a l workers, i s r e f e r r e d t o i n the Acknowledgements. The c h i e f i n t e r v i e w e r , and t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s r e p o r t , was t h e r e c i p i e n t o f one o f t h e C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n b u r s a r i e s awarded a n n u a l l y f o r a p p r o v e d h o u s i n g s t u d i e s d i r e c t e d by u n i v e r s i t y p e r s o n n e l . Dr. L e o n a r d M a r s h , o f t h e f a c u l t y o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, s u p e r v i s e d the d i r e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y .  17 There Orchard  i s an u n w r i t t e n c h a p t e r t o t h e t o t a l  Park,  namely, t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l  action histories It  story of  o f how t h e p r o j e c t was a d v o c a t e d  i s worthy of r e s e a r c h documentation,  and r e a l i z e d .  b u t i t i s n o t one w h i c h  c o u l d be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e p r e s e n t was n o t i n t e n d e d , e i t h e r , cing,  architecture  apply to this  that  this  study should appraise  and c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s  particular  project.  i.e.,  life  planning  i n Vancouver;  together w i t h  of future p u b l i c housing  tains  instalment of p u b l i c some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e  projects.  Literature  on has  as b a c k g r o u n d , b u t o n l y a s i t p e r -  to the welfare aspects of p u b l i c housing  administrative  factors  occupants,  p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , w h i c h i s now q u i t e v o l u m i n o u s , been s t u d i e d and u t i l i z e d  finan-  o f what t h e p r o j e c t  o f the p r e s e n t  the t e n a n t s ' view o f the second  housing  as t h e s e  constituents.  It  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p r e s e n t  study i s towards f i r s t - h a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g means t o d a y i n t h e d a y - t o - d a y  study.  and i t s  Chapter I I ORCHARD PARK AND  The  site  o f O r c h a r d P a r k was d e c i d e d u p o n b y t h e  m u n i c i p a l government, s u b j e c t and  ITS TENANTS  f e d e r a l governments.  t o a p p r o v a l by the p r o v i n c i a l  The s u g g e s t e d l o c a t i o n was  examined b y a r c h i t e c t s w i t h v a r i o u s p e r t i n e n t mind.  A minimal  required,  i n a s m u c h as t h e r e e x i s t e d  a t t h e time o f s e l e c t i o n  d w e l l i n g s , two o f w h i c h were n e a r  Avenue, w h i l e t h e t h i r d ,  an a n c i e n t farmhouse  o u t - b u i l d i n g s , was n e a r I}.lst A v e n u e .  Jane  t o note  that  this  f a m i l y , who r a n h o r s e - d r a w n  early  days  o f Vancouver.'  l o c a t i o n which b e l a t e d l y  1+5th  and s c a t t e r e d  I t i s of i n c i d e n t a l  f a r m was owned o r i g i n a l l y b y t h e  K i n g s w a y t o New W e s t m i n s t e r , the  criteria i n  amount o f c l e a r a n c e o f t h e p r o p e r t y was  only three private  interest  then  coaches  at a fare  along l|lst  Avenue t o  o f $1.00 p e r h e a d , i n  I t was t h e Jane  gave t h e p r o j e c t  orchard i n t h i s  I t s name o f O r c h a r d  Park. The  e l e v e n a c r e s now c o m p r i s i n g O r c h a r d P a r k  b e t w e e n ij.lst a n d 1|5th A v e n u e s , t h e a p p r o x i m a t e w e s t e r n b o u n d a r i e s b e i n g B e r k l e y and S t i r l i n g Nanaimo and G l a d s t o n e ing  the project  and t h i s munity  Streets, farther  s u f f e r s markedly  area, p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  facilities.  e a s t e r n and S t r e e t s , and The a r e a  surround-  a lack of urban p l a n n i n g ,  h a s o n l y s p a r s e and s c a t t e r e d  Figure I indicates  i n r e l a t i o n to both Orchard Park projects.  from  north.  are s i t u a t e d  com-  some o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s  and L i t t l e M o u n t a i n  housing  ~"  FIGUEE l . Sketch Map Showing Both Orchard Park and L i t t l e Mountain Housing P r o j e c t s , and E n v i r o n s .  20 (a) The g e n e r a l w i t h good be  layout  appearance,  "Layout"  o f O r c h a r d P a r k o b v i o u s l y was  and  the r e s u l t  an improvement on t h a t  Without  laying  claim  i s generally  of the L i t t l e  The  are  Mountain housing p r o j e c t .  "humanist" p o i n t  extent to which  s u b j e c t i v e l y from  the u n i t s  eyes, but  judgment  on t h i s m a t t e r  The u n i t s  a d j a c e n t t o t h e row  were v o i c e d r e g a r d i n g  this  ting  leave  f r o m any c i t i z e n ' s p o i n t  houses  No  a good  o f view.  and  apart-  and many c o m p l a i n t s  d e a l t o be  Many row  desired,  houses, are  ori-  l+5th A v e n u e s , where t h e f l o w of t r a f f i c -  fences surround the p r o j e c t .  Nanaimo S t r e e t ,  cut-  t h r o u g h t h e m i d d l e o f t h e p r o j e c t , h a s become a t h r o u g h  street.  Whether t h i s  Council,  or the t r a f f i c  Some o f t h e s o c i a l later,  i s t o be b l a m e d  on t h e d e s i g n e r , t h e  engineer, the t o t a l r e s u l t  implications  i n the d i s c u s s i o n of  of the layout  containing  10 a p a r t m e n t s  bedroom a p a r t m e n t s , a r e 53 row  f o u r bedrooms.  each, of which  eight  i s inexcusable. f o r comment  apartment  a total  of which  blocks,  o f 16 a r e  and 6l± two-bedroom a p a r t m e n t s .  houses, The  call  City  "neighbourhood".  The p l a n o f O r c h a r d P a r k i n c l u d e s  there  and  a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n , and  varies  arrangement.  G e n e r a l access arrangements  e n t e d t o w a r d b o t h ij.lst  satis-  f o r t h e aged  ment b l o c k s h o u s i n g l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n ,  i s heavy.  of view,  are s e p a r a t e d appears  tenant t o tenant.  handicapped are s i t u a t e d  containing  or a  salient.  factory to objective  as w e l l ,  conceded t o  t o t h e same v i e w p o i n t as an a r c h i t e c t  l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t , however, f r o m t h e certain facts  concerned  In  one-  addition,  50 h a v e t h r e e bedrooms and  b a l a n c e o f t h e 169 u n i t s  i s composed o f  3, 18  21  —r~  —i— AO  —I— 3o  —I—  So  —i—  —I—  I  —i—  9o  To  \/ A  ]  /bar-  Asdsvo/n  $&u> &&**S&s  kl so  -**>  '  3o  1  «£»  1  So • S  o  22 units f o r couples,  single units.  Comparative  two-bedroom a p a r t m e n t s ,  t h r e e - b e d r o o m row  houses,  (Figure  2).  concept  of p u b l i c h o u s i n g  Thus O r c h a r d  example, i n l o c a l bedroom row  and  2l+ u n i t s f o r p e n s i o n  i n two  directions:  c o l o u r e d doors  w h i c h are a r r a n g e d  attractively  ject.  t h a t the f i r s t  At  the  time  i n December 1958, time,  no  f o r Vancouver, of f o u r -  planted,  project  now  The  bordered  In addition,  stairs  a p l e a s i n g scene to the  They a r e two and  since  appearance  a utility  a p p e a r a n c e c o u l d be l a r g e l y unpainted  this  the  some t e n a n t s or p l o t s  pro-  of of  have  their the in its  b y t h e huge shade t r e e s a l o n g k l s t  the row  a backdrop, the p r o j e c t  h o u s e s seem most  similar  t h e y have no basements  s t o r e y s i n h e i g h t , w i t h the bathroom room on t h e  ground l e v e l .  improved by h a v i n g  w a l l s , and by  f l o o r s , are l i n o l e u m t i l e ;  Ave-  viewer*  average p r i v a t e house, although  attics.  of  the p r o j e c t  s a p l i n g s p l a n t e d by  general exterior  Of t h e v a r i o u s u n i t s ,  The  t e n a n t s moved i n t o  w i t h t h e n o r t h s h o r e m o u n t a i n s as  presents  groups  compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e p r i v a t e h o u s i n g  e n v i r o n s , and, nue,  stucco, painted  on t h e u n i t s ,  adjacent to t h e i r u n i t s , borders  favourite flowers.  people.  l a n d s c a p i n g h a d b e e n done, b u t  Authority.  first  on t h e e l e v e n a c r e s o f t h e  lawns have b e e n s e e d e d and  Vancouver Housing  couples,  i t i s the  a l s o of u n i t s f o r s i n g l e  white, w i t h b r i g h t l y  1+8  P a r k r e p r e s e n t s an e x t e n s i o n i n t h e  subsidized housing  houses;  apartments,  1+1+ t h r e e - b e d r o o m a p a r t m e n t s ,  E x t e r n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s o f f r a m e and  the  figures  L i t t l e M o u n t a i n a r e i n t e r e s t i n g - - l 6 one-bedroom  for 92  18  and  The  to or up-  internal  a w a s h a b l e f i n i s h on  the  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n d e s i g n .  but  i t is laid  directly  over  cement,  23 so t h a t t h e f l o o r s drying  There Is a s m a l l ,  room;  a l l the apartments,  one e n t e r s d i r e c t l y  and i n t h e two-bedroom a p a r t m e n t s ,  s e p a r a t e d from  the k i t c h e n at a l l .  tenants  the l i v i n g  the l i v i n g  room i s n o t  The b l o c k s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d  No o u t s i d e d r y i n g b y a p a r t m e n t  smaller "pension  couple" u n i t s  a r e d e s i g n e d x ^ i t h some  a t t e n t i o n t o p r i v a c y , w i t h b o t h b a c k and f r o n t houses.  kitchenette,  i n these u n i t s .  heard  from  the front  The  as i n t h e  room and a  these types  the u n i t s ,  doors,  T h e r e i s one bedroom, b a t h r o o m , l i v i n g  both  there  indoor  i s permitted.  The  In  into  a l a u n d r y room i n t h e basement, x ^ i t h a n a d d i t i o n a l  area containing c l o t h e s l i n e s .  row  enclosed  a r e a o u t s i d e e a c h row h o u s e , • - c o n t a i n i n g c l o t h e s l i n e s .  In  with  are o f t e n c o l d .  of u n i t s  (A f r e q u e n t  "single" units  i s no s e p a r a t e  are constructed i n f r o n t o f  on t h e g r a s s i s n o t p e r m i t t e d . ) are s i m i l a r l y  constructed, except  bedroom, b u t r a t h e r a b e d - s i t t i n g  the c e n t r e of each group o f " p e n s i o n " u n i t s  room, w i t h two t u b s  from  i s t h a t one does n o t o b t a i n much use.  d o o r as no s i d e w a l k s  and w a l k i n g  complaint  and a w r i n g e r  that  room.  i s a laundry  s u p p l i e d by Vancouver  Housing  Authority.  (b) The F a m i l i e s 1.  Socio-economic The  tenants  factors chosen f o r r e s i d e n c e i n Orchard  drawn l a r g e l y f r o m the f i r s t  project,  the w a i t i n g l i s t  compiled  select  originally  a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , x<ras b u i l t .  with the L i t t l e Mountain p r o j e c t , p r i o r i t i e s to  P a r k were  t h e most u r g e n t  cases  from  when  Then, a s  were worked o u t  the remaining,  quite  2k  B E R K L E Y  N  A  N  A  I  M  S T  O  5  T R. E  E T  R E  • -NANAIMO  -if  • •  • m S70  6  STIRLINq  571b 5 7 Z t 57J6. 57j»fc S756 57*6 5776 J 7 a 6  ST  I R. L I N  q  STIRLING  FIGURE 3.  Sketch Map of Orchard Park, Showing Types of L i v i n g Units, Row Houses Pensioner Units Units for the Handicapped Apartment Blocks  25 substantial waiting l i s t . v a c a n c i e s had appeared likely (i.e.  occurred,  t o be  due  2  i n effect  to both  By  1  but  the  is first  twenty-one  a much h i g h e r r a t e o f v a c a t i n g  i n the  latter half  a lowering of r e n t a l  on t h e p r i v a t e m a r k e t ) and  project  of 1959,  end  of i 9 6 0 .  r a t e s o f f the  a l s o to the f a c t  opened, a number o f t e n a n t s  whom t h e management i s u n s u r e ,  and  This i s project  t h a t when a  are accepted  some o f t h e p r o c e s s  t i o n must, o f n e c e s s i t y , come a f t e r  the  original  about  of  selec-  acceptance  as  have not  kept  tenants.3 The  p a c e w i t h r i s i n g wages. report  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1951+  f a m i l y income l i m i t s  of 1959  than $ 1 2 , 0 0 0  indicates  The  Vancouver Housing  a net o p e r a t i n g s u r p l u s lower  than t h a t of 1 9 5 5 ,  &  nd  85$  to note  of the  t h a t at the  time  annual  by more  a marked i n c r e a s e i n t h e  p o r t i o n o f b r o k e n homes w i t h a t t e n d a n t interest  Authority's  social  Orchard  a p p l i c a t i o n s r e j e c t e d met  " o v e r - i n c o m e " , most o f t h e r e j e c t e d  problems.  P a r k was  with this  being  I t i s of tenanted,  f a t e because  applicants being  pro*  of  steadily  employed male w o r k e r s . For the Vancouver Housing a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e r u l e s ing  from housing  outgoing  families,  income) f a m i l i e s .  1. ing 60O 2.  families  Authority, a straightforward  leads to a decrease o f v e r y low  or s u b s t i t u t i o n s Conversely,  i n income,  result-  Income as r e p l a c e m e n t s  f o r excluded  t h e r e has  (I.e.,  for  higher-  b e e n an i n c r e a s e i n  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1 9 5 9 A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r HousA u t h o r i t y , " t h e r e were 8I4.9 a p p l i c a t i o n s on f i l e , b u t o v e r o f t h e s e were p e n s i o n e r s " . ibid.  3 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d v e r b a l l y f r o m Mr. manager, V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y .  r  Colin  Sutherland,  26 Table 1 Type of Occupants  D i s t r i b u t i o n and Composition o f Housing; U n i t s , Orchard Park. 19 59 I / Apartments / Row Houses  Complete F a m i l i e s 0 children 1-2 children 3 or more c h i l d r e n  3 25 l  34  Sub T o t a l s  29  39  Broken F a m i l i e s 0 children 1-2 children 3 o r more c h i l d r e n  36 14  1 13  Sub T o t a l s  50  14  Single  Special Units  16  5  Table 2  19 30 35  16  84  2  2  53  79  37 27  Persons  Totals  Total  2  66  18  18  36  168  Income and Family D i s t r i b u t i o n , Orchard Park 19 59. f  Families with Monthly Income  1  adults  §300 or more  3 39 22 20  Total  84  Less than $100  $100 - |199 §200 - $299  adults 4 18 1  66  Families with 3 or more children children  0-2 6 55 19 6 86  All Families  7  1 27 21  82  4o  21  2±  64  150*  S i n g l e persons (18) not i n c l u d e d here, a l l had incomes of l e s s than $100 per month. A few f a m i l i e s have a d u l t dependents other than spouses; these are i n c l u d e d i n second p a r t of Table 2, a l o n g w i t h children.  27 maintenance expense  1955  between  materials,  etc.  t e n a n t ' s p o i n t of view,  illustrating  expressed  came f r o m  as much r e n t as  same t y p e public  of housing  assistance.  On  the  resentment t h a t people  who,  w o u l d be aspect  during this  about p a y i n g  t h e i r neighbours, unit,  clarificasurvey.  comparatively high-income  some o f whom were d i s t i n c t l y h o s t i l e times  c o n s i d e r a b l e resentment,  a marked need f o r f u r t h e r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , was  t h e one h a n d , t h i s  $9,000  of approximately  o w i n g t o i n c r e a s e d c o s t s o f wages,  contract repairs,  undoubtedly and  1959)>  and  Prom t h e  tion  (a d i f f e r e n c e  and  who  particular  socio-economic  three the of  often voiced  "could afford  allowed to remain i n s u b s i d i z e d housing.  of t h i s  or  o f some f o r m  the l a t t e r  f o r example,  families,  were o c c u p y i n g  were i n r e c e i p t  o t h e r hand,  two  On  A  a car",  third  problem, i s the  fact  t h a t many r e s i d e n t s o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a a r e e a r n i n g , t o o h i g h an income t o be still  experience  accepted  as t e n a n t s  great d i f f i c u l t y  the p r i v a t e market w h i c h  i s both  i n public housing,  i n finding  accommodation  suitable f o r children  but on  and  w i t h i n t h e b r e a d w i n n e r ' s means. A social \0  per  per  a n a l y s i s of Orchard  c e n t o f t h e u n i t s were o c c u p i e d by m a r r i e d  c e n t by  their  separated,  children,  10.7  d i v o r c e d , d e s e r t e d o r widowed m o t h e r s  per  c e n t by s i n g l e p e n s i o n e r s , For the purposes  t e n a n t s were d i v i d e d  three categories--"whole"  i  n  into  which both parents  w i t h o n l y t h e m o t h e r and tenants. who  In these  are p a r t i a l l y  38.6  couples,  cent by p e n s i o n c o u p l e s .  (8k)>  1959,  Park r e v e a l s that i n  are  of t h i s  c a t e g o r i e s , 57  18  10.7  survey,  per the  families  i n t h e home, " b r o k e n "  c h i l d r e n present., and  or f u l l y  and  and  (66),  "single"  " w h o l e " f a m i l i e s have members  employed, o n l y 25  "broken"  families  28 have p a r t i a l no  or f u l l  employment  " s i n g l e " p e o p l e work out  f a m i l i e s had,  partially  A l l 18  ance. sions  or  of the  social  Less #100 $200 $300  income  2  Families  with  adults  1 adult  1.77% 23.07 13.01 11.8k  (18),  and  not  IO.65 .59  .59^ 15.97 1 2 . k2 8.93  k.lk$ k9.11 • 23.66 1 2 . k2  39.0k$  50.89$  37.87$  89.31|>  included  Income and  family  "broken" f a m i l i e s , c o u l d  which gives  administration.  lead to  a total  time.  the  staff  present  social  among t h e  added t o t h e i r  percentage "complete" of  i s t o be  the  w i l l have t o b e  p o l i c y made by  met  the the  survey.  and  tenants,  a family  the  assistance  However, t h i s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m i s b e y o n d  scope o f  prevalent  costs  complete  occupation social  If this  changes i n s c r e e n i n g  R e c o g n i z i n g the be  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n both  some f u t u r e  appropriate  immediate  i n these f i g u r e s ,  "broken" f a m i l i e s , r e c i p i e n t s of  pensioners at  the  pen-  All families  Families with 0-2 3 o r more 1children children  f u t u r e p o l i c y of p u b l i c h o u s i n g , the and  assist-  3-5k$ 32.5k 11.24 3.5k  i n Table 3 ,  trend, i l l u s t r a t e d  p r o j e c t by  "whole"  some f o r m o f p u b l i c  •2.36$  '  Single persons the t o t a l .  and  Only 3k  t h e home.  and  " s i n g l e " p e r s o n s were i n r e c e i p t of  k9.70$  of  income,  P e r c e n t a g e a n a l y s i s o f Income and F a m i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n , Orchard Park, 1959. I  than $100 - $199 - #299 o r more  analysis  a source of  or f u l l y ,  Totals  The  of  as  assistance.  Table 3  Monthly  -  personal the  problems which would  Vancouver Housing  counsellor  at the  Authority  beginning  of  29  T a b l e 1+  Source  Income S o u r c e s o f T e n a n t F a m i l i e s (excluding single tenants)  o f Income  1. Employment o f a f a m i l y member. 2.  3.  Families C o m p lete| Broken f  1  60 (a)  27  9 (c)  7  16 21  D i s a b i l i t y pensions (including Veterans Allowances.) O l d Age and Retirement Pensions.  17  k  k. S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e .  5  31  5.  Total  Alimony or separat i o n allowances.  —  Total  91  (b)  (d)  87  36  6  6  75  166  A t t i m e i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d (December 1 9 5 9 ) , (a) 3 t e n a n t s were i n r e c e i p t o f unemployment i n s u r a n c e , (b) 2 were i n r e c e i p t o f unemployment a s s i s t a n c e , ( c ) 1 o f B l i n d P e n s i o n , and (d) 2 o f M o t h e r ' s A l l owance. T o t a l ( e ) i n c l u d e s more t h a n one s o u r c e o f income p e r f a m i l y where a p p l i c a b l e , b u t e x c l u d e s income s o u r c e s f o r s i n g l e t enant s.  (e)  30 O c t o b e r , 1959. for  the  This  s o c i a l worker i s a d d i t i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e  i n s p e c t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s ' accommodation p r i o r  acceptance Method o f  and. f o r t h e selection.  c r i b e d , which are  placement of Apart  set by  the  s e l e c t i o n of tenants  The  points  are  and  s o c i a l worker.  eligible  on  from the  the  of  former i s not  rating,  as w e l l as  by  overcrowding,  standardized emotional  facilities, are  given  them.  "suitability"  and  Assessment  way,  stability;  the  prospective  tenant's  degree o f u r g e n c y of the  vacancies  occur,  the  cases  of  and  i s a l s o made  includes  "present  credit  conditions"  amount o f  furni-  n e c e s s i t a t e s home  accommodation,  need i s determined.  scored  points,  conditions".  course,  A l l this,  test,  ventilation,  a range of  "present  i n any  point  the  dangerous d i s r e p a i r ,  ture  t o the  Vancouver  o f income, i s s u b m i t t e d t o t h i s  family health,  visits  the  score.  Each application,.,  include housekeeping standards, owned, e t c . )  vacancies,  Appendix c).  an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e b a s e d on  (The  available  des-  u s u a l l y c o m p l e t e d by  space f o r c h i l d r e n , e t c . ,  s u c h f a c t o r s as  already  f o r m i s now  f a u l t y k i t c h e n , b a t h r o o m and h e a t i n g  and  and  vacancies.  i s a f f e c t e d b y means o f a p o i n t  (See  the b a s i s  fill  limitations,  income l e v e l s  i n w h i c h s u c h f a c t o r s as  safe play  to  e n u m e r a t e d i n a f o r m drawn up  Housing A u t h o r i t y , staff  tenants  to  a f t e r which Then>  when  as most u r g e n t  are  given  " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s were h e a d e d by  the  mother.  priority. All Of too  this  the  66  g r o u p , 15 were widowed, 6 d i v o r c e d ,  inadequate data  permit  was  classification.  b o t h m o t h e r and  father  a v a i l a b l e on C o m p l e t e or  two  of  1+3 s e p a r a t e d ,  these f a m i l i e s ^ t o  "whole" f a m i l i e s , w i t h  i n t h e home, o c c u p i e d  and  81+ u n i t s  in  31 O r c h a r d P a r k i n December 1959, 18  Of  the  by  a widower, a  15  "single" units,  when t h e s e f i g u r e s were o c c u p i e d by  "separated"  spouse,  Income l e v e l  i s one  and  were c o l l e c t e d .  widows, and  an u n m a r r i e d  three  person  respectively. Income l e v e l s .  i n understanding t h i s project present  December 1959, of  ( T a b l e 2)  summary  and  shows a l s o  caretaker-occupied unit the  month.  the the  i s not  18  "single" unit  key 168  It is  i s , of  designed;  the  course, f o r but  the  both the  "whole" and  highest  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  groups,  and  that  of  the  somewhat h i g h e r , b e i n g One  of  is  350  (The  #100  By  - $200  a  2-6  The  "broken"  even  member  that  k6$  of  the  the  project  t h e s e , the  family  provides  facts  the  of  more -  accordingly. members  in  aspect  of  another  operating within  i n the  termed the  of  adapted  "broken" f a m i l i e s  children.  number  group.  "whole" f a m i l i e s  summarized i n T a b l e 5.  what m i g h t be  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  houses n e a r l y  $200,  proportion  "broken" f a m i l i e s  socio-economic f a c t o r s  of  low-income f a m i l i e s  f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s must be The  o v e r 65$  t h i s income  h i g h e r the  Family Constellations.  the  in  o c c u p a n t s h a v e m o n t h l y incomes  m o n t h l y incomes o f u n d e r into  obtained  i n f o r m a t i o n of  income o f  families  fall  The  Included i n these f i g u r e s . )  It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that  "whole" f a m i l i e s  facts  tenant-occupied u n i t s .  u n d e r $100. has  most i m p o r t a n t  from f i g u r e s  most t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s an The  the  i t s beneficiaries.  i s derived  f a m i l y members i n e a c h o f  far  and  of  the  p r o j e c t . - The  i s i n the  2-k  member  i s understandably groups.  i s that  this  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  These s t a t i s t i c s  do  "independent" c h i l d r e n  project these  not of  children  include the  tenants  32i.e.,  some who l i v e  full-time basis. children, The  I t i s noted that  and t h e r e  employed  on a  19 "whole" f a m i l i e s h a v e no  a r e two " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s who a r e c h i l d l e s s .  t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n b e l o n g i n g t o "whole" f a m i l i e s i s  l8l,  and t o " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s ,  c h i l d population of to  a t home b u t who a r e g a i n f u l l y  3l+3»  162, m a k i n g  The s i e z  a total  dependent  of f a m i l y v a r i e s from  zero  8 c h i l d r e n , w i t h a median o f 2 c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y . Table 5  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Child Population, O r c h a r d P a r k , 1959. >  Age  i n Complete Boys Years V  F a m i l i e s Broken F a m i l i e s 1 A l l Children Girls Boys Girls  ? 38  Under 6  6-15 15 - 19  2  19 o r o l d e  89  Total  22 ki  98  0  0  r  k  28 36 11  55 39  k  Table 5 i l l u s t r a t e s  1+  13 1  151+ 15)+ 30 5  77 7i+ 13  1+  77 80 17 1  79  77  31+3  168  175  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the project's  c h i l d population, with regard the complete f a m i l i e s , young—under  f i v e years  t o b o t h age a n d f a m i l y t y p e .  interesting that t h e sample  (i.e.,  1+9 b o y s a n d 5 5 g i r l s ) ,  (i.e.,  36 b o y s  physical  and i+1 g i r l s ) .  It i s  o n l y 6 c h i l d r e n o f "whole" f a m i l i e s u s e d i n  are s t i l l  d e p e n d e n t a f t e r t h e age o f 1 5 , whereas i n t h e "broken"  Some o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e d e p e n d e n t b e c a u s e o f and i n t e l l e c t u a l  s a r y p r o l o n g e d dependence education  whereas,  are i n the f i v e t o  29 i n t h e same age r a n g e c o n t i n u e d e p e n d e n c e families.  In  a majority of the c h i l d r e n are very  i n t h e " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s , most c h i l d r e n f i f t e e n y e a r o l d group  T o t a l s "' 'Boys G i r l s  (at college,  disabilities,  some b e c a u s e o f n e c e s -  i f they are involved  technical  school,  etc.),  i n extended and o t h e r s  33 because of g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n most o f t h e i r  i n achieving educationally  peers.  Types of accommodation o c c u p i e d distributed  according to f a m i l y s i z e .  "broken" f a m i l i e s , ren residing  one  i n row  finds  36  The  counterparts,  Former l o c a t i o n s . immediately ing  prior  s p o t map  of tenant  By  18  (25  plotting  supply,  couples,  the  asked  Two  the  through  the of  a house,  the Since  the  the  m i g h t b o t h be  the  tenant.  type  by  their  Park, a as m a i n  revealsources  considerable scat-  poor  live  apartment b l o c k  In  i n a p a r t m e n t , rooms, specify and  the d i f f e r e n c e  a suite  d e p e n d i n g on t h e  Similarly,  o f rooms to  interpretation  rooms o r a s u i t e the tenant  i n mind, the  t h a t 23  other  housing.  "rooms" m i g h t c o n c e i v a b l y r e f e r  qualifications  analysis indicated  and  o f accommodation p r e v i o u s l y  g r a n d i o s e l y c l a s s i f i e d by  Bearing these  one  apartments.  t h e r e was  enquiry d i d not  i n an  "broken"  o f K i t s i l a n o - F a i r v i e w and  "Did you  o f accommodation,  individual  response  query,  "apartment" or  same t y p e  and b y  p o i n t s s t a n d out  although  about  child-  l o c a t i o n of a l l t e n a n t s  the b l i g h t e d areas  b e t w e e n an a p a r t m e n t in  13  a l l s e c t i o n s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area.  survey  house, o t h e r ? "  and  and  " s p e c i a l " u n i t s are occupied  w o r d s , t h e r e i s a g o o d d e a l o f cheap b u t  occupied  t h r e e or more  to t h e i r r e l o c a t i o n i n Orchard  Mount P l e a s a n t - G r a n d v i e w ,  The  "complete"  "complete" f a m i l i e s  as a r e t h r e e o f  i s produced.  t e r throughout  In both  are  of the p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n w i t h  " c h i l d l e s s " , handicapped or p e n s i o n "single"  tenants  "whole" f a m i l i e s  c h i l d r e n occupy apartments  "broken" f a m i l i e s ) .  the  families with  {3k  houses  f a m i l i e s ) , whereas, t h e b u l k o r two  by  as  i n a house "house".  questionnaire  f a m i l i e s had  lived  i n apart-  34 merits or  or suites,  warehouses.  houses  Some  had shared  tenanted listed ture  them w i t h  as t h e former  families  another  them,  that  of 3 families.  most  of these  occupying  Duplexes  b y 1, w h e r e a s  had been  "rooms"  Despite  units  stores  were  t h e nomencla-  i n direct  were  con-  limited i n  way. The Recognized  which  Hew  experience  a housing  project  Location indicates  that  i s a part,  should be p r o v i d e d by e i t h e r  other  the housing  than  of the housing  authority.  authority  i n every  certain  facilities  aim  or behind)  previously  family.  a row house  home  o f (above  b y t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s , one c o n c l u d e s ,  versation with  of  extensions  o f t h e 20  by k f a m i l i e s ,  chosen  some  a n d $ in  essential  public  In general,  to u t i l i z e  neighbourhood community  or private  agencies  i t should be t h e  existing  facilities  wherever / o b t a i n a b l e . South planning,  but this  Vancouver, Heights,  Vancouver  with  both  i s true  community  g e n e r a l l y from  o f most  the s p e c i a l  of which  when veterans.? The  suffers  areas  areas  o f working  benefitted  from  were  Orchard  Park  number,  and judging by the t e n a n t s ' response  naire, in  are neither well  Orchard The  along vity  large  known n o r w e l l  after  and Renfrew layouts t h e war.  surrounding  d i s t a n c e s , a r e few i n  used  to the questionby those  relocated  Park.  shopping  Victoria were  over  urban  class  modern  built  i n the neighbourhood  are scattered  of  exception of Fraserview  a n d N. H. A . h o u s i n g resources  a lack  areas  Drive  stressed  typically  and Kingsway.  follow  "string"  Difficulties  by the handicapped  developments i n this  and t h e aged,  who  actimust  FIGURE 4 . In Orchard  36 : rely  for their  s u p p l i e s on  medium o f n e i g h b o u r s . interviewed  However, 4.6  s a i d t h e y were  shopping f a c i l i t i e s ; do b u s i n e s s of  s h o p p i n g by  chase g r o c e r i e s i n the  downtown o r  on i + l s t and  schools  t o be  in  Park, there  are  assessed  from f o u r to  are t h r e e  Jericho H i l l  The  eight blocks  t i o n i n the p r o j e c t . t o be  of f i r s t  i n this  Catholic schools.  distance  i n large  i n a big.new s h o p p i n g c e n t r e  facilities  are  appeared to  Most  travelled,  School,  However, t h o s e  King  traffic  tenants  regarding  crossing,  importance  area.  For  among  the  the  this  was  and  this  fatal.  The  except  a few  who  had  tenants  are  lighting,  and  street. one  closest high  light  and  not  aware o f  so  schools  of which school  considerable school of  at l e a s t (involving  i s over  the  two  serious  an  elderly  a mile  away,  children,  convenient  area.  from  the  E v i d e n t l y many  existance  the  students).  at the  f o r handicapped  the  loca-  forth  the h e a v i n e s s  Already,  K i l l a r n e y High School  either  two  children attending  lj.5th Avenue v o i c e d  i n a s m u c h as p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s n o t to the  and  were s a t i s f i e d w i t h  Edward H i g h S c h o o l ,  c r e a t e s some d i f f i c u l t y  project  children  away, d e p e n d i n g u p o n t e n a n t  l a c k of a t r a f f i c  "through"  343  the  neighbourhood elementary  interviewees  a c c i d e n t s have o c c u r r e d h e r e , man)  department  l o c a l p u b l i c schools  bordering  the poor n i g h t  on  shop  recently built  ( l o n g e r d i s t a n c e s a r e common f o r a l l h i g h s c h o o l  concern  pur-  Oak.  Naturally,  private  selection  p r e f e r r e d to  staples, chiefly  local  p r e f e r r e d to  "better  Most f a m i l i e s  neighbourhood, but  e l s e w h e r e f o r d r y g o o d s and  Orchard  that they  the  spokesmen  s a t i s f i e d w i t h the  indicating  "better prices".  or through  f>6 f a m i l y  e x c l u s i v e l y elsewhere because of  g o o d s " or  stores  o f the  reasonably  o n l y 10  telephone  of a p r i v a t e  37 k i n d e r g a r t e n i n the neighbourhood, unable  to u t i l i z e  viewed  agreed  t e n a n t was  encountered religious  i n the course  indicated  r e s o u r c e , as  that  they  who  had  a child  a l l tenants  13  no  one.  not  specifically  dis-  tenants i n the  sample  nearby  i n t e r v i e w e e s p r e f e r r e d t o main-  i n their  T h i s p r o p o r t i o n (about  1 i n 3)  the  of emotional  impact  inter-  but  1  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y managed t o a t t e n d a  contact w i t h churches  significant  in  I n t e r v i e x ^ s , 21  c h u r c h , whereas a p p r o x i m a t e l y tain  financially  badly needed,  a f f i l i a t i o n was  of the  are  almost  t h a t a k i n d e r g a r t e n was  Although cussed  this  or they  previous  neighbourhood.  i s worthy of note, "ties"  to  and  illustrates  "the o l d n e i g h - ,  bourhood". One  important  great neglect. L i b r a r y at  2985  s o c i a l resource, the l i b r a r y ,  The  Gollingwood  used,  or l a c k o f  Branch  of the  located  s e r v e s as appeared  headtoo  whether because of d i s t a n c e , l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n  interest.  a t 61(45  H e a l t h Committee in  also  library,  South U n i t o f Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l is  in  of the Vancouver P u B l i c  Kingsway, which address  quarters f o r the Mobile little  Branch  seemed t o be  Knight i s a t 61|05  one m i l e o f t h e  Orchard  "Leisure time" whatever e l s e . desired--something  and  S e r v i c e Department  Road, and U n i t #k  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n  K n i g h t Road, b o t h Park  of w h i c h a r e w i t h -  project.  " r e c r e a t i o n " must mean p l a y  This evidently appears  space,  l e a v e s a good d e a l t o  t o have  be  s l i p p e d b e t w e e n t h e cup  of  1. T h i s n e e d may be met i f p r e s e n t h o p e s m a t e r i a l i z e . In t h e i r A n n u a l R e p o r t i960, t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y s t a t e s , "Because o f t h e p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d above, t h e n e e d of a common room o r m e e t i n g h a l l s u c h as has b e e n r e q u e s t e d b e f o r e becomes more p r e s s i n g and i t i s s i n c e r e l y h o p e d t h a t t h e A u t h o r i t y c a n be g i v e n t h i s v e r y n e c e s s a r y f a c i l i t y t o meet t h e g r o w i n g p r o b l e m . " p.3-  3'8 i n t e n t i o n and t i o n of  the  l i p of r e a l i z a t i o n .  the p r o j e c t was  f o r tenants  to provide  there  of planning  f o r the  there  i s no  soundproofing.  wired  o f f and  areas,  per  adequate, low-cost  f i n a n c i a l l y r e s t r i c t e d by  o f d e p e n d e n t s or b o t h ,  E x t e r n a l l y , the  s m a l l c h i l d r e n e i t h e r wander a t l i b e r t y bourhood, u t i l i z e considerable who  find  of-doors  the  "parking  consternation  these  grassy  f o r children's play, The  areas"  numbers  a regrettable lack  p r o j e c t 's c h i l d r e n .  se, have been p r o v i d e d .  inten-  housing  e i t h e r income o r  a p p e a r s t o be  needs o f t h e  "verboten"  Assuming t h a t the  Internally.,  areas  although  are  no  resultant effect throughout the  as p l a y  c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e e i t h e r constant  i s that  neigh-  space, or  i n the more c o n s c i e n t i o u s  play  create  mothers,  supervision  o r temporary i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n the u n i t s u n t i l  out-  the  m o t h e r s ' h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s have been completed m o m e n t a r i l y . only play f a c i l i t i e s t u b e s and  sandboxes;  which have been p r o v i d e d but  the  S a n i t a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t i n the area,  o f the  large  l a t t e r were condemned by Spring  of  I960.  housing s e v e r a l hundred c h i l d r e n , t h i s  g o o d a t a l l , and  are  For  a  cement the  compact  i s obviously  56 f a m i l i e s interviewed,  not  I4I1 v o i c e d  need f o r p l a y g r o u n d s , p r e f e r a b l y s u p e r v i s e d ,  with  ties.  c h i l d r e n , but  These are n e e d e d n o t  teenagers, Two  as  even b a l l  f a c t o r s may  plan—conflict  p l a y i n g i s out  operate  i n the  between standards  n e n t t o u p p e r and West End  only f o r smaller  of  of the  at  stratum  or K e r r i s d a l e a p a r t m e n t u n i t s d e s i g n e d  opposed to p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r f a m i l i e s ) ;  facilifor present.  non-functional  a r c h i t e c t u r a l design  to lower socio-economic  the  adequate  question  existing,  The  units  perti(i.e.,  f o r couples, and  confusion  as  39  between r e a l i s t i c land,  the l a t t e r  p r o v i s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n and " e c o n o m i c " u s e o f being,  i nthis  instance,  as example o f penny-  wisdom a n d p o u n d - f o o l i s h n e s s . A w e l l equipped and s u p e r v i s e d r e s o l v e d much o f t h i s various  need.  F i g u r e 1+, s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f  community r e s o u r c e s ,  distances tenants  graphically illustrates  one must t r a v e l t o r e a c h  report  p a r k n e a r b y , w o u l d have  t h e "nearby" p a r k s .  t h a t no p a r k s i n t h e a r e a  include  s i v e p l a y g r o u n d equipment o r s u p e r v i s i o n . obvious or  that  smaller  spare  only  older  children,  capable  The  either  exten-  T h u s , i t becomes of t r a v e l l i n g  c h i l d r e n whose m o t h e r s h a v e s u f f i c i e n t  time, could u t i l i z e  t h e long  alone,  m o t i v a t i o n and  the neighbourhood park areas.  Further-  more, t h e i n c e n t i v e t o u s e them a p p e a r e d t o b e l a c k i n g i n a g r e a t many o f t h e 56 t e n a n t s unaware o f t h e i r The  l e i s u r e - t i m e c e n t r e was a l m o s t  acknowledged, e s p e c i a l l y  Only a h a n d f u l  set Memorial Centre distant,  many o f whom were  existence.  n e e d f o r a community  universally ages.  interviewed,  of the tenants  a t kOk E a s t  or Victoria  Drive  5lst  f o r u s e by c h i l d r e n of a l l interviewed mentioned Avenue,  Community H a l l  Avenue as p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s ,  b u t almost  at  some two m i l e s  ^026 E a s t k3rd  a l l agreed  " s o m e t h i n g I n t h e p r o j e c t " was u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d . the  first  instance,  and l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n ,  appear as t h e c h i e f d e t e r r a n t s That  the c i t y  minimum d i s t a n c e  of from f o u r t o s i x m i l e s  e l e v a t e s them t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f a r a r e tenants,  that  Distance, i n  i n t h e second,  to use o f the e x i s t i n g  beaches, a r t g a l l e r i e s  Sun-  resources.  and museums a r e a from t h e p r o j e c t ,  t r e a t f o r most o f t h e  f o r many o f whom e a c h bus f a r e i s a n a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n -  cial  burden. Similarly,  occasionally,  a n o t h e r t r e a t w h i c h m i g h t be  i f distance permitted,  quent c o m p l a i n t in  this  Public along  of a movie  Transportation. Victoria  Spring was  area  among b o t h p a r e n t s  of I 9 6 0  and  Bus  c h i l d r e n Is the  lack  routes  exist  much t a l k  along  k5th Avenue  i n the p r o j e c t i n t h e along k l s t  a l s o f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t e d by  those  participating  a route  present  of those  elderly  and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n resources  interviewed  volunteered their  own  that  they  had  area,  concentration  the  greatest  hours, great  e a c h way.  commuting  adjustment  end  being  i n order  city  as  location  the  fact  i n the  employdowntown  public  r i d e s l a s t i n g from  the  i n the item  that  transan  sample men-  r e q u i r i n g the  Park.  Neighbourhood i n Tenants  made t o e x p l o r e  "neighbourhood" had  used i n the  exist-  resolve  comraerical and  find  majority  to  geographical  Pour t e n a n t s distance  problem  specifically  combined w i t h  of the  late  the  with the  o f 5>6  to r e l o c a t i o n i n Orchard  Some a t t e m p t was  questions  The  d a i l y bus  C o n c e p t s o f Community and  "community" and  out  The  p r o b l e m o f commuting by  as many r e p o r t e d  h o u r t o two tioned  the  11  o f i n d u s t r i a l and  northern  does c o m p l i c a t e  portation,  inadequate.  purchased a car  of Orchard Park i n South Vancouver,  ment e x i s t s i n t h e  in  and  It  t h e h a n d i c a p p e d , who  appeared p a s s i v e l y content  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems.  greatest  Avenue.  a l o n g Hanaimo S t r e e t w o u l d e a s e t h e  ing p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , although  of  fre-  route  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the  the  a  a p r o p o s e d bus  sample t h a t  the  i s a m o v i e , and  theatre.  Drive, with of  included  what m e a n i n g t h e f o r tenants,  questionnaire:  ideas  three  "would y o u  say  that  42 you  f e e l p a r t o f a new n e i g h b o u r h o o d h e r e ? " ,  mostly  t o t h e p r o j e c t ? " , "would y o u c a l l  i n t e r v i e w e e s were vague i n t h e i r  "or that you belong  i t a community?".  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the difference  b e t w e e n "community" and " n e i g h b o u r h o o d " , some a n s w e r i n g tively  (or n e g a t i v e l y ) t o a l l three  regard their  questions.  "neighbourhood" as t h e p r o j e c t  others considered the project  as a s e p a r a t e  b o u r h o o d " t o be t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g  sometimes as t h e l a r g e r hood of the p r o j e c t . in  some s p e c i f i c  whereas  entity,  and " n e i g h -  issue  as r e f e r r i n g t o i t s e l f , and,  a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e immediate  Semantics a s i d e , a f e e l i n g  i n q u e s t i o n , and i n d i v i d u a l  further,  Similarly,  of the project  g e o g r a p h i c a l area appeared  unless the tenant  to  alone;,  the p r o j e c t .  among t h e t e n a n t s  affirma-  Some a p p e a r e d  "community" was sometimes a p p a r e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d a communal f e e l i n g  Many  neighbour-  of togetherness  i n many m i n d s a s t h e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i^ere n o t p r e s s e d  specifically  v o l u n t e e r e d more  infor-  mation. Some t e n a n t s m e n t i o n e d a f e e l i n g a part of the project, housing sense  reflects  and, e v i d e n t l y , l i v i n g  some i n f e r i o r i t y  i n status.  o f r e j e c t i o n by t h e o f f - p r o j e c t  g i v e n was t h e a l l e g e d  surrounding  on t h e r e a l  e s t a t e market  similar  a r e a , where  study g i v i n g r e a l  on t h e m a r k e t p r i o r  i n subsidized Many m e n t i o n e d a  neighbours.  One  depreciation i n property values  immediately  control  o f shame r e l a t e d t o b e i n g  reason i n the  "many" h o u s e s h a d b e e n p l a c e d  since the p r o j e c t estate values  opened.  Without a  and t h e number o f h o u s e s  t o t h e p r o j e c t ' s l o c a t i o n i n t h e a r e a , and  i n f o r m a t i o n for. other areas  " d e p r e c i a t i o n " remains  i n Vancouver  an u n t e s t e d t h e o r y .  at t h i s  time,  I t i s altogether  43 likely  that  any h o u s e p u t up  a l l e g e d t o be  s o l d because  it  that  i s obvious  been improved.  for sale  o f the p r o j e c t  i n some d e f i n i t e  credit rating  i s poor,  payment by c a s h a t the t i m e is  i n s i s t e d upon.  "there  way  Another  a r e a may  nearby;  be  even  though  t h e a r e a as a w h o l e  S e v e r a l tenants suggested  "discriminate" against project their  i n this  that  local  merchants  d w e l l e r s , on t h e g r o u n d s  i n some i n s t a n c e s , and, of purchase,  rather  a r e t o o many c l a s s e s " o f p e o p l e  that  therefore,  than by  more f r e q u e n t c o m p l a i n t  cheque,  i s that  i n the p r o j e c t  to  effect  a s a t i s f a c t o r y m i n g l i n g of these c l a s s e s , whether s o c i a l l y in  some f o r m  cant but  of a s s o c i a t i o n .  i t cannot  be  Summarizing the cepts i n simple  Again, the  aggregate  o f community and terms,  32  that  w h e r e a s , o n l y 11  agreed that they d i d .  they d i d not f e e l p a r t  project  i n this,  stating  neighbours.  exclusively  Only  that t h i s 6 felt  to the p r o j e c t ,  the  "neighbourhood"  that  of a  and  as a g a i n s t l k d i s a g r e e i n g .  part  community,  e n f o r c e d by  (37)  felt  the o f f belong  they f e l t  P e e l i n g s on the  were more e v e n l y s c a t t e r e d ,  sample a g r e e i n g t h a t t h e y f e l t  con-  some were most  t h e y d i d not  at a l l .  study.  i n t e r v i e w e d i n the  some s t a t i n g t h a t  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p r o j e c t of  was  or  signifi-  A m a j o r number  t h e y belonged, m a i n l y t o the p r o j e c t ,  emphatic  is  neighbourhood  residents  sample i n d i c a t e d  that  sentiment  t a k e n as p r o v e d w i t h o u t f u r t h e r issue  has  no matter  16 t e n a n t s i n  o f a new  neighbourhood,  Chapter  III  FAMILIES REHOUSED  It  i s easily  forgotten that  l a r g e number o f p e o p l e . or perhaps people  "Orchard rity  Park"—and  "families".  some 600  most  likely  of these are c h i l d r e n .  t h e i r new  point  of the housewife,  child  care i s indeed variations  "close  the type  and  f o r g o t t e n , a majoreacted to  a good b e g i n n i n g i s the  types, f a c i l i t i e s , Naturally,  A v e r y few  and  i n this  services  area of  com-  does n o t  were i n O r c h a r d  r e v e r s e s , due  Park  to h e a l t h , f i r e ,  compare u n f a v o u r a b l y w i t h  i n a low-income h o u s i n g  propinquity without  project.  common i n t e r e s t s ,  But  enforced  on  accommophysical  creates attendant  o f g o s s i p , m i s t r u s t , o r l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n and These d i f f i c u l t i e s  to  tenants had p r e v i o u s l y  N a t u r a l l y , p l e a s a n t or adequate h o u s i n g  the p r i v a t e market  and  accommodation p r e v i o u s l y  a d e q u a t e and  p r i m a r i l y because of f i n a n c i a l  between t e n a n t s .  view-  d i d much t o c o n d i t i o n t h e i r r e s p o n s e  o c c u p i e d h o u s i n g w h i c h was  or d i s a b i l i t y .  Facilities  c o n d i t i o n of the  the present f a c i l i t i e s .  dation  of  t o home".  i n unit  o c c u p i e d by the t e n a n t s  age  are the r e a l i t y  f o r whom t h e k i t c h e n , t h e l a u n d r y ,  have a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d . parison,  of  have these p e o p l e  Views o f  1  s t a r t w i t h the a d u l t s ,  The  a  "units",  the aggregate  o f a l l t o be  How  affects  as a number o f  But  persons  project  life?  Homemakers To  a'housing  I t Is e n v i s a g e d  as a number o f  i s much l a r g e r ;  . "  problems  understanding  were r e f l e c t e d  by  responses  to the question,  "What t o o k t h e most g e t t i n g u s e d t o ? " ,  "Are  some t h i n g s y o u f i n d  there  tionnaire present  still  section dealing with  accommodation.  mentioned  adjustment  and n i n e  To t h e s e  replied,  difficulty.  questions,  In this  a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each other,  of d i s c i p l i n e )  as t h e i r  "What t h i n g s present  in  order  were  "design",  by  chief  were f r e q u e n t  best  about  i t ? " ,referring  (16),  "more s p a c e "  kitchen  (13),  (3),  bathroom  (3),  sioners  considered  on t h e ground f l o o r  and " h o t w a t e r " areas o r  sink  (1).  Pour pen-  their favourite  of the p r o j e c t .  a list  o f b e s t - l i k e d f a c t o r s , a v a r i e t y o f comments was  woman x<ras an o u t s t a n d i n g  a place  to live."  everything  Another with  i nthe interior  Available  exception  living  decided  were a b l e  liking  to give  quite obtained.  "nothing—it's  opinions  said  o f h e r u n i t , "but nothing  space was s i m i l a r l y  plan",  and " p r i v a c y "  aspect  One  A s most t e n a n t s  Next  ( k ) , cupboards and  (k), r e f r i g e r a t o r  and k i t c h e n  heating"  "floor  commented u p o n s p e c i f i c  closets  living  (10),  out by o n l y nine,  Other responses (e.g.,  t othe  (13 t e n a n t s ) .  and " c l e a n l i n e s s " o r "newness" "brightness"  men-  damage done o r a l l e g e d l a c k  e l i c i t e d most r e s p o n s e s f o r "good  "Loxtf r e n t " was p i c k e d  installations,  primary  a n d " t h e c h i l d r e n " (meaning  "convenience" or "compactness"  only four.  so c l o s e  concern.  do y o u l i k e  accommodation,  tenants),  (10).  "living  tenants  s e c t i o n , a l s o , and u n d o u b t e d l y  l a r g e number o f them, n o i s e s ,  (29  thirteen  " t h e n e i g h b o u r s " as t h e i r  t i o n s of t h e l a c k of soundproofing, the  i n t h e ques-  a c o m p a r i s o n o f p r e v i o u s and  "a l a c k o f p r i v a c y " , s i x d i s l i k e d  to others",  bearing  strange?",  and,•  just  she l i k e d outside".  a t o p i c which  opened  k6 up p l e n t y o f comment, a d d i t i o n a l matter  of adequacy o f the  ordinary  activities.  more space  o n l y one  t h e y had  tenant had  quacy of t h e  space  enough s p a c e ,  and  is  The  i n Orchard  stating that  important  space  Park, less  as  a g a i n s t 13  felt  that  space  how  Inasmuch as aspect  tenants) space;  storage  separately. stated that and 1+0 p e r  To  ted  t o some t e n a n t s , 20  space space,  space.  this  "enough" o r  dining  exists  I n the c o r n e r , but  areas,  ( I n t h e row  and  has  houses,  house  and v e r y  It  the lived  in  Yet  units  60  special  sometimes  per  areas  storage  limi-  comparatively  complaining  that  Inadequate  a small counter the  requir-  appeared  they had  either  (32  cent,  " p l e n t y " of  i s placed beside  stating that but  16  was  the i n w a r d - o p e n i n g  S p e c i a l p o i n t s about  "alright";  space.  a c c o m m o d a t i o n as  commenting t h a t  designed.  or  having  public  q u e s t i o n was  Some s p e c i a l i z e d  poorly  tenants  styles,  is a different  " c o u n t e r " or meal p r e p a r a t i o n space  w i t h 18  ade-  e v e n t h o u g h small', i s u s a b l e .  t h e y had  more s t o r a g e  i n the p a t h of  inadequate  Somewhat s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  ing  and  Regarding  anyone who  cent regarded t h e i r  s m a l l or i n a d e q u a t e  accommodation;  limit.  of f a m i l y l i v i n g  pursued  previous  had  quarter)  much w o u l d depend on  compared w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y r a n c h h o u s e are economized t o the  a  admitted t o  they had  i s judged.  a l l space,  (about  same amount".  p r o v i d e d , 1+2 t e n a n t s  t o remember h e r e  a slummy s h a c k ,  (LL2*tenants) s a i d t h e y  than i n t h e i r the  the  p r o v i d e d f o r the f a m i l y ' s  majority  "about  13  s t a n d a r d by w h i c h  e n q u i r y b e i n g made i n t o  the or  area  refrigerator,  k i t c h e n door.)  c l e a n i n g was  also  elicited,  this  c h o r e was  r e g a r d e d - as  a s u r p r i s e was  that half  (27)  "easy"  commented  on  47 the  comparative  mentioned the the  difficulty.  light-beige floors,  severe  soiling  and  remembered t h a t ren being  Obviously,  there  t h a t the  One  these  place?",  no  "Do less  you  feel  t h a n kk  8 considering that thought.  In t h i s  they  the  impossibility  of t h e i r  and  the h a l l s  apartment  Others f e l t  off-project discussed  their  elsewhere.  house  felt  fault; and  a pride  in  to the  could.  give food  The  for  difficulty  affording paint,  sometimes u n p l e a s a n t as  a result  the  of  non-  aspects  of  of c h i l d r e n p l a y -  because of the  p r o j e c t and  this  cleaning.  accommodation because  "pride" impossible  a t t i t u d e toward the  child-  tiles,  some m e n t i o n e d t h e  washable w a l l s u r f a c e s , outside  be  tenant at  that they  could not,  appearance of t h e i r  the  take  agreeing  definitely  the  financial  f l o o r s was  a  e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e s was  can r e a l l y  group,  to  f o u r hundred  been p l a c e d under the  you  and  of a rough,  I n some u n i t s , t h e  tenants  latter  and  i t has  further complicating  of k e e p i n g up  there.  and  a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  o f t h e most g r a t i f y i n g ,  question  Once a g a i n ,  project.  joints,  tenants  f e a t u r e s would c r e a t e  are between t h r e e  housed i n the  oozed through the  ing  g r o u p , most  "which show e v e r y mark",  damage h a z a r d .  t o o much t a r had. a p p a r e n t l y  the  latter  gyproc p l a s t e r board w a l l s , which are white  unwashable f i n i s h .  sure  I n the  i t s tenants,  These are m a t t e r s w h i c h are  of  alleged already  considerable  c o n s e q u e n c e i n p r o j e c t management. Specific porated  questions  i n the  considerable  on  laundry  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , but  emphasis.  unteered,  almost  w h i c h was  designed  were n o t  t h i s matter  A good d e a l o f t e n a n t  a l l of a negative as  facilities  a catch-all  nature.  incor-  appears t o  merit  r e a c t i o n was  The  question,  for miscellaneous  tenant  vol"other?"  il-8 comments, i n s p i r e d facilities  1?  at Orchard  tenants Park,  to complain 23  and  of the  to express  ness w i t h the p r o v i d e d d r y i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  At  washing  their  unhappi-  another  point,  t h e q u e s t i o n s , "What t h i n g s w o u l d y o u most l i k e t o see  improved  in  you  the p r o j e c t ? " , and,  would l i k e in  "Have y o u  t o make f o r any  the f u t u r e ? " , e l i c i t e d  every  second  one  of the  new  any  project  s i m i l a r t o Orchard  "improved l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s "  laundry f a c i l i t i e s  i n order to understand  c o m p l a i n t s more t h o r o u g h l y .  The  row  tenant  not  i n use.  room.  When l a u n d r y i s t o be  Located  taps,  o u t s i d e e a c h row  clotheslines.  c i e n c y o f the  The  tubs nor  as  the  fence  around the and  designed  a  with-  and  of the  project.  The  row  a u t h o r i t y , t e n a n t s may them out o f d o o r s .  be w e l l u n d e r s t o o d  This l a t t e r  among t h e t e n a n t s ,  among the women i n o t h e r  outlets  t h a n row  area  relative  ineffi-  By t h e  average  d r y i n g area i s seen  houses  supply t h e i r  be  "utility"  a d e t e r r e n t from  which outside d r y i n g i s f a c i l i t a t e d ,  place  these  house i s a s m a l l , e n c l o s e d  f a m i l y wash, r a t h e r t h a n as a p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e  the  of  electrical  restrictions  a p r e v e n t i o n of a i r c i r c u l a t i o n  in  Orchard  done, t h e m a c h i n e must  l a u n d r y arrangements are o b v i o u s .  harassed housewife,  properties  in  a " s t o r a g e " room i n w h i c h  i n what m i g h t b e t t e r have b e e n d e s i g n e d  containing  from  i s meant t o s t o r e t h e f a m i l y w a s h i n g m a c h i n e , when  moved t o t h e k i t c h e n , as no exist  the nature  house u n i t s ,  o u t b a s e m e n t s , h a v e on t h e g r o u n d f l o o r the  Park  tenants.  Some d e s c r i p t i o n o f e x i s t i n g Park i s necessary  suggestions which  although,  fact and  d r y i n g the  aesthetic  are the  own  as  only  units  according t o  f o l d i n g racks does not  appear  and to  a common g r i e v a n c e  house u n i t s  i s the  "harshness"  49 of  laundry  laundry lities  dried  i n d o o r s , and  dried outdoors. a r e o f no  and many s u r v e y kitchens  use  use  the  "more p l e a s a n t  N a t u r a l l y , the  t o the  tenants  folding  t h i s perhaps a " s l i p " families  the  during  racks f u l l  of the m i d d l e  "send the  laundry  smell" of  outside drying  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  displaying  off  ..  inclement  faci-  weather,  i n l i v i n g rooms or  o f damp l a u n d r y .  class  (Is  d e s i g n e r s , as b e t t e r -  out",have diaper s e r v i c e ,  launderomat?)  I n the  a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s , basement  v i d e d f o r each t e n a n t ,  but  space r e q u i r e d f o r tubs a d d i t i o n to such p o r t a n t by bicycles,  they  and  are  storage  l o c k e r s are  pro-  t h e y must  share  s m a l l , and  clotheslines.  In each l o c k e r , i n  s u p p l i e s as a r e c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e l y  some f a m i l i e s who tricycles,  a r e now  wagons, and  so  unim-  i n smaller quarters, forth,  the  tenant  once a week a t h e r  s c r i b e d laundering time.  the p e r s o n  certain  time h a s  or f i n i s h e s  l a u n d r y room).  first  c h o i c e t o wash, b u t  early, A host  (In theory,  o t h e r s may,  with her  of c o m p l a i n t s  i n the  centered  around the  difficulty  clothing  on l i m i t e d  incomes t o l a s t  week.  It is especially  laundry  difficult  is limited  the  schedule,  laundry  kets,  and  pletely  so f o r t h ,  dry,  f o r the  especially  apartment  a  want the  blocks  d u r a t i o n of  other next  c l o t h e s as l i n e d  important  does n o t  p e r m i s s i o n , use  c h a n g e s , who  i n order t h a t the such  to  one  f o r the m o t h e r s ' o f b a b i e s  arrangements w i t h the  d r y i n g time  pre-  assigned  i f she  her  i n providing sufficient children's  young c h i l d r e n , r e q u i r i n g f r e q u e n t auxiliary  and,  keeps  washing machine, which i s wheeled out  to,  or  for children,  i n view o f t h e  fact  must make  tenants. t e n a n t may  jeans, heavy  When keep jac-  o f t e n do  not  com-  t h a t the  laundry  or  room i s n o t h e a t e d laundry problems  i n t h e summer m o n t h s .  and o t h e r s p e r t a i n i n g  A c t u a l l y , the  to c h i l d  care i n  a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s , h a s l e d many t o q u e s t i o n a l t o g e t h e r w h e t h e r this  t y p e o f accommodation i s b a s i c a l l y  of tenants with  at a l l .  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  w i l l be  e a s e d when t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g  Authority carries  through  with  their  operated  children  s u i t e d t o t h e needs  current p l a n t o permit  automatic  a firm  laundry unit The  small matter  f o r some  The " p e n s i o n e r " g r o u p s o f u n i t s h a v e a c e n t r a l i n each,  a s m a l l room w i t h t u b s  A u t h o r i t y has i n s t a l l e d  dryers  e n t e r p r i s i n g group h a d purchased Although  coin-  d r y e r s i n t h e a p a r t m e n t blocks,.  Laundry i s by c o n t r a s t a r e l a t i v e l y older people.  to i n s t a l l  the pensioners  would t h e f a m i l i e s , many p e n s i o n e r s  i n these u n i t s ,  their  would have l e s s  advanced y e a r s  and a w r i n g e r . and one  own a u t o m a t i c  washer.  l a u n d r y t o do t h a n  and f a i l i n g  health  caused  who c o u l d a f f o r d t h e l u x u r y t o "send t h e  laundry out". There would appear t o e x i s t  a valid  case  f o r the i n s t a l l a -  t i o n o f automatic  w a s h e r s and d r y e r s  many t e n a n t s  t h a t even c o i n - o p e r a t e d l a u n d r y  felt  w o u l d be a f e a s i b l e w o u l d be l e s s use  i n a l l g r o u p s o f u n i t s , as facilities  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r them, i n a s m u c h as t h e r e  o f t h e i r money t i e d up i n machine s f o r w h i c h t h e  was r e s t r i c t e d  anyway.  When basement  storage  space  i s at  a minimum, t h e n e e d t o s t o r e a w a s h i n g m a c h i n e i n e a c h o f t e n apartment b l o c k l o c k e r s p r e s e n t s dealing with  a r a t h e r i n e f f e c t i v e means o f  s t o r a g e , as w e l l as w i t h l a u n d r y .  a r e a t a k e n up w i t h  clotheslines  could h e l p f u l l y  Some o f t h e be c o n v e r t e d t o  an i n d o o r p l a y a r e a f o r c h i l d r e n — a n o t h e r f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d  51 need of  apartment b l o c k  facilities  and  improved  most f r e q u e n t l y to  see  improved".  with  laundry  Indeed, improved facilities  m e n t i o n e d among t h e The  towards a l l e v i a t i n g Adults  tenants.  units  a l l types of  tinct  the  At  impression could interviewed,  any  or  r a t e , the  positive  and  the  be  and  way  Orchard  or  aged p e o p l e  disabilltes, are  scattered  project.  A  corps  disabled  concentrated q u a l i f i e d by  to  more s u s p i c i o u s • o r  c r i t i c i s m s r e g i s t e r e d can reactions,  some  t h e more  refused  severely  a n t i - s o c i a l tenants. be  segregated  some o f w h i c h may  to further projects  of  However,  f a c t that be  rest  minority  arrangement. the  apt  form a  dis-  existed  group than throughout the  t h e s e were  even the  negative  tance i f a p p l i e d  be  into  of  f o r r e h o u s i n g the  assis-  aged  and  infirm. An  the up  disabled  seriously disabled  handicapped,  adults.  g a i n e d t h a t more e s p r i t de  group i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  t o be  a'long  like  i n l o c a l p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Van-  p r o j e c t , p o s s i b l y because the  this  disabled  accommodation t h r o u g h o u t t h e  i m p r e s s i o n was  among t h e  things  w o u l d most  s o l e l y f o r tenants with p h y s i c a l  a l t h o u g h some more m o b i l e in  we  two  Disabilities.  first  couver designated  "things  c h a n g e s s u g g e s t e d w o u l d go  A s p e c i a l word i s n e e d e d about the  were t h e  both.  Physical  Park p r o v i d e s  play  outstanding  disabled w h i c h was  part  of t h e  h o n o u r e d by siderable  example o f p o s i t i v e a c t i o n  t e n a n t s was  from  the  to  a i d access  nearby road.  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y  s a t i s f a c t i o n to  part  t h e i r p e t i t i o n f o r a ramp t o b e  suitable for wheelchairs, project  on t h e  these tenants,  This  and  had  yielded it  set  to t h e i r  petition  although  of  was  was con-  suggested by some o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d survey t h a t s t i l l  i n the present  another o u t l e t t o t h e r o a d w o u l d be h e l p f u l .  A second example o f t h e " t o g e t h e r n e s s "  o f t h e p e n s i o n e r groups,  was t h e f r e q u e n t l y expressed d e s i r e f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t , r e c r e a t i o n , o r v i s i t i n g s e r v i c e s , w h i c h came f r o m b o t h t h e aged and the d i s a b l e d , many o f whom d e s c r i b e d much".  themselves as "alone so  There was a l s o an unexpected u n a n i m i t y o f agreement  regarding the d e s i r a b i l i t y of segregating  themselves from "the  r e s t o f t h e p r o j e c t " , ( i . e . , f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n ) , and seme went so f a r as t o say t h a t t h i s w o u l d be p r e f e r a b l e from t h e f a m i l i e s ' p o i n t o f v i e w , as w e l l .  A l t h o u g h t h e degree of i n -  t o l e r a n c e o f t h e s t a t u s quo v a r i e d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l , t h i s view was shared b y a l l the " f a m i l y " t e n a n t s . this a miscalculation; ferences  Was  o r c o u l d i t have been a v o i d e d by d i f -  i n d e s i g n and l a y - o u t ?  I t would bear d e t a i l e d s t u d y ,  un but q u e s t i o n a b l y  i t demands c o n s i d e r a t i o n by those  planning  future projects. One d i s a b l e d t e n a n t suggested t h a t h e r "group" s h o u l d have i t s own s t o r e f o r h a n d i c r a f t s , t o w h i c h they c o u l d a l l c o n t r i b u t e , and w h i c h would g i v e them something t o do, b e s i d e s e n c o u r a g i n g l e s s dependence upon p u b l i c f u n d s .  One group o f  t h r e e e l d e r l y p e n s i o n e r s i n a f o u r - u n i t row, h a d c o l l a b o r a t e d i n b u y i n g t h e i r own a u t o m a t i c washer, and e v i n c e d  great  pride  i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n . The "handicapped" u n i t s d i f f e r from t h e " p e n s i o n e r " u n i t s i n t h a t the former a r e c o n s t r u c t e d  on ground  l e v e l , w i t h no s t a i r s , o b v i o u s l y a g r e a t a s s e t t o t e n a n t s w i t h s e r i o u s p h y s i c a l problems.  However, many of t h e  "pensioners"  e x p r e s s e d g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n , t o o , i n h a v i n g " o n l y " one o r two  53 steps,  especially  after  their  experiences w i t h previous  accommodation. Some a d v e r s e g e n e r a l was o n l y one  criticism  encountered.  wheelchair  t r a t i n g by  those  t i o n of people on t h e  The  annoyed t h a t  and  depending  specifically  on c r u t c h e s and  same n a r r o w s i d e w a l k the f r o n t  it  sidewalks,  i s s u r e l y one  and b a c k d o o r  this  example  i s considered frus-  on t h i s means o f  children  locomotion. combina-  on b i c y c l e s ,  bells  One  travelling  tenant  complained  and  immobilized  enough t o f i n d  but  seemed r e c o n c i l e d  ing  the  or  i n shopping A  by  t o be  A  service  "closer  i n large  department  large percentage  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r  outside t h e i r  and  disabled  stores,  i s their to  l o c a t i o n because of t h e i r  outside".  ately  Many a r e  or f a m i l y , u t i l i z -  t o t h i n g s " , and many a p p e a r e d  privacy low  diffi-  i t i m p o s s i b l e t o shop p e r s o n a l l y ,  among the e l d e r l y  i s o l a t e d by t h e p r o j e c t ' s mobility.  and  telephone.  common t r a i t  desire  abilities.  t o r e l y i n g upon f r i e n d s  " p e r s o n a l shopper"  so much.)  deep,  c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h k i t c h e n windows, a l l o f w h i c h c r e a t e f o r those w i t h r e s t r i c t e d p h y s i c a l  but  o f t h e low k i t c h e n  t h e k i t c h e n s t o r a g e s h e l v e s , w h i c h a r e low  culties  are  seem i r r e l e v a n t ;  s m a l l t h i n g w h i c h means  people  was  sound t h e same, o f t e n  (As o n l y t h e b a c k d o o r s  c r i t i c i s m may  of the  in  a r e w i d e enough f o r  a t t h e same t i m e .  S e v e r a l aged and h a n d i c a p p e d sink,  this  facilities  of the uncomfortable  n e c e s s i t a t i n g n e e d l e s s movements. s e r v i c e d by  or u n i t  sidewalks  at a time,  tenants  S e v e r a l complained  of p r o j e c t  expressed  Some c o m p l a i n e d  back doors  own  decreased  a d e s i r e f o r "more  specifically  units,  feel  w i t h the  and windows,  that  because  sidewalk  "people  of  immedi-  can l o o k i n " .  54 Lastly,  b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was  to.  Many o f t h e s e  and  t h e y must r e l y  taxis  on  by t h e  feel  friends  i n emergencies,  at home.  for  people  a need c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d  i n c a p a b l e of  j o u r n e y i n g by  or r e l a t i v e s w i t h  c a r s , or  on  or r e m a i n a somewhat u n w i l l i n g " c a p t i v e "  T h i s l a t t e r unmet n e e d c o u l d be m o d i f i e d  establishment'of  these people.  bus  a social  centre or  or r e s o l v e d  a series  I n t e r e s t e d v o l u n t e e r s w o u l d be  of  clubs  n e e d e d t o make  this plan successful.  Facilities For least  children,  by  considered.  project of the  itself  children  contrast, special  As  and  for  needs seem t o h a v e b e e n  already indicated  the  surrounding  (Chapter  area l a c k " s o c i a l "  g r e a t e s t f a m i l y consequence.  Judging  by  responses,  an o r g a n i z e d ,  supervised playground  preferably  away f r o m t h e  living  the l i v i n g  area, but  unit  I I ) , both  area,  the  resources  questionnaire  f o r the  or, conversely,  children, close to  i n c o r p o r a t i n g adequate s o u n d p r o o f i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s seen,  almost  universally,  as t h e  into  most  b l a t a n t l y unmet n e e d .  F o r t y - s i x of the  mentioned t h i s m i s s i n g  r e s o u r c e , g e n e r a l l y i n emphatic terras.1  A volunteer co-operative playgroup was  welcomed as a g o o d s u g g e s t i o n b y  fically  mentioned t h e i r  tenants  c o u l d be  was  undecided,  this particular  aroused  doubt  sample o f  the  fifty-six  or day-care  35 t e n a n t s .  kindergarten Seven  speci-  t h a t much c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n  f o r such  a p r o j e c t , and  the  remainder  or u n i n t e r e s t e d b e c a u s e t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o v i d i n g experience  for children  d i d not  apply  in  their  cases.  1. The r e m a i n i n g 10 t e n a n t s a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e f a c t t h a t u n l e s s " s i n g l e " p e o p l e or " c h i l d l e s s " p e n s i o n e r s v o l u n t e e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n , t h e i r r e s p o n s e was n o t e l i c i t e d .  55 The  provision  of adequate p l a y space  was  deemed c o m p l e t e l y  ter  of t h e respondents  acceptable. parking  l a c k i n g by felt  f o r young  children  35 t e n a n t s , a l t h o u g h  that existing f a c i l i t i e s  a  were  (As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , c h i l d r e n u t i l i z e  areas,  sidewalks,  and  roads  as  outdoor  g r a s s y areas b e i n g f o r b i d d e n f o r p l a y i n g . what h a p p e n s i n " o r d i n a r y " u n p l a n n e d soundproofing  was  the  play areas,  T h i s i s , of  areas.)  quar-  The  the  course,  l a c k of  a f r e q u e n t l y mentioned item i n t h i s  instance,  as d u r i n g i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r , when t h e c h i l d r e n must r e m a i n i n doors,  are  halls  the  at p l a y .  contain  or  As  suites  apartments  the  and  houses  Orchard  t h e row  the  indoor area a v a i l a b l e  the  children  Park apartment b l o c k ' s  i t s effects  differences  a t home, as  responses  u p o n the  compared w i t h  The  stating  t h e c h i l d r e n were a t home more, 13  previously/-; clear-cut. more, as stated  but For  the  Actually,  the  important; age,  and  age  loca-  either  of the  12  new  tenants  s u r e t h a t i t was the  less,  same as  findings  i s not  c h i l d r e n were a t home  f o r them i n t h e p r o j e c t " .  c h i l d r e n were a b s e n t  because they v i s i t e d  that i n previous  a t home was  example, many s t a t e d t h e  t e s t e d by spent  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these  "there i s nothing  t h a t the  spent  basements,  amount o f t i m e  showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e ,  18 f e e l i n g t h a t t h e t i m e  lockers,  restricted.  c h i l d r e n was  i n the  children  basements  storage  for play i s seriously  tions.  and  noisy w h i l e  are c o n s t r u c t e d completely without  a q u e s t i o n e x p l o r i n g any by  quite  l a u n d r y rooms, a l o n g w i t h  and  R e l o c a t i o n and  become  Others  f r o m home more f r e q u e n t l y  or o l d f r i e n d s  " o f f the  project'.'.  c h i l d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s very  I n c r e a s i n g independence s h o u l d a t t e n d  older c h i l d r e n normally  s p e n d more t i m e  t h a n w o u l d p r e - s c h o o l e r s , f o r example.  increasing away f r o m home  56 "Do  t h e y g e t more a t t e n t i o n f r o m m o t h e r ;  were q u e s t i o n s i n t e n d e d t o p r o b e any presumably brought  a b o u t by  families  of  t h e s e homes were i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t  of  n e c e s s i t y , the  section  apply i n these cases. more a t t e n t i o n 6  s a i d they d i d not, the  10  and  were f e l t  by  children,  3 t o spend l e s s  amount o f t i m e  some t e n a n t s  less  Differences  time, of  For  accounted  c h i l d r e n who  pupils.  e n c e s e x i s t i n g betx^een  no  of  their  that  the  on t h e  age  same, o r ,  "had  the  children  the  inter-  to"  fights"  inside  to  avoid  of the c h i l d ,  i n t h e home,  and  visiting  f o r many c h i l d r e n who  accord-  parents. and  interest  started  since  the p r e v i o u s  s c h o o l f o r the  c o m p a r i s o n c o u l d be made on  children  s c h o o l p r e f e r e n c e , but  as  "because of  Park,  their  Again,  that they  T h e r e were, o f c o u r s e ,  to  area,  apply.  P a r k were compared w i t h  since relocation,  g r a d e one  felt  i n school attendance  the  gave  2 fathers  Only  the remainder  atmosphere  time w i t h t h e i r  moving t o Orchard perience.  children  emotional  the p r o j e c t  spent  change.  the c h i l d r e n r e m a i n e d t h e  A l s o , depending  p r o b a b l y upon the  ingly  and  s t a t e d t h a t they kept  conflicts.'  away f r o m  no  q u e s t i o n d i d not  s p e n d more t i m e w i t h t h e  these  s t a t e d that they  not  s i n c e moving t o Orchard  noted  time,  spent w i t h  p r e t a t i o n Is v i t a l ;  or  so t h a t  i n t e r v i e w e e s t o s p e n d more t i m e w i t h  as e x p l a i n e d a b o v e , the  outside,  sample,  d e a l i n g w i t h the f a t h e r would  children  22  f a t h e r i n t h e home, and  Twelve mothers  to t h e i r  sphere,  As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y ,  66  no  from f a t h e r ? " ,  changes i n t h i s  relocation.  i n the p r o j e c t h a d  and  i n the  same f a m i l y w i t h  eight tenants  children preferred their  individual  noted  their  first behalf differregard  that at l e a s t  s c h o o l i n g i n the  against only four preferring  ex-  Orchard  one Park  school experience  in  57 the previous l o c a t i o n ; t o know o f no responses,  change  the  i t was  school  p r o p o r t i o n (20 p e r  i n attitude  toward  school.  c h i l d r e n d i d b e n e f i t by h a v i n g  i n w h i c h t o do but  a fair  t h e i r homework, a p a r t f r o m  problems, while  parents  replies  either one  no  a l l their  'teenager  services with their  either  children  go  usually Ten  sitter.  making b a b y s i t t i n g appeared  and  due  to the  to c a r e  and  two  was  the  fact  sitting"  said that  their  for  signiowing  experienced  a few  over"  outings  a t home.  cent--stated that  they  t h r e e more d e s c r i b e d t h e whole m a t t e r  arrangements  as  "difficult".  or w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g  a l s o r e f e r e n c e s to r e c r e a t i o n  of  Generally,  a b l e t o make c o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s  Immediate f a m i l i e s  as  youngsters  children,  "took  Ten  for his  scheduled  F i v e mothers had  than 5 per  was  or t h a t a t  or t o d i f f i c u l t i e s  However, i t does a p p e a r t o be b o r n e o u t l See  There  interviewees replied,  out w i t h o u t  difficulties  s h o p p e d or  "swapping  took  a husband or other r e l a t i v e  a sitter,  able  i n the p r o j e c t ,  shopped.  tenants — l e s s  within their  f a m i l y and  A m a j o r i t y (22)  a reliable  either  "hired"  i n the  a t t e n d s c h o o l , shopping  to f i n a n c i a l  three  was  that they never  in locating  1.  their  interviewed.  ' t e e n age  E l e v e n tenants mentioned  w i t h them when t h e y ficantly,  c h i l d r e n were o f  a neighbour  school hours.  people  of t h e f a m i l y ;  so t h a t t h e number o f  problem r e g a r d i n g t h i s matter,  younger s i b l i n g s .  Only  bedroom  discussed,  i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number o f t e n a n t s  tenants noted  while  own  improved  either  a c t i v i t i e s , were r e a d i l y  some o v e r l a p p i n g i n r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d ,  all  their  by many  performance.  engaged i n s o c i a l  least  seemed  Judging  the r e s t  n o t p o s s i b l e t o know w h e t h e r t h i s  "Baby s i t t i n g "  that  cent)  tenants.  that a f a i r l y i n Chapter  either  large  III.  58 percentage interests  o f the  tenants  or a c t i v i t i e s ;  to the c h i l d r e n ,  do  suffer  this  fact  i n a s m u c h as t h i s  from  a p a u c i t y of  c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be  social important  s i t u a t i o n could affect  general  f a m i l y morale.  Economic E f f e c t s Although later  this  (Chapter  housing  of  subject w i l l  I V ) , two  Rehousing  be  aspects  of the  Over 66  are o u t s t a n d i n g .  dealt with  per  i n greater  economic e f f e c t s c e n t of the  detail of r e -  tenants  Inter-  v i e w e d s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were p a y i n g r e n t s w h i c h x-jere l o w e r those  p a i d p r e v i o u s l y , and  cent)  agreed  now  easier  reduced pay  by  an a l m o s t  t h a t , as a r e s u l t  to balance subsidy,  of this  the b u d g e t .  i s Intended  Authority,  income p e r m i t s vate market.  from  benefit  fair?",  the r e n t s c a l e here and,  "Do  income goes up?"  you The  response  very  of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s :  t o the former  query  latter  being  also  affirmative,  i n agreement.  panied these p o s i t i v e  two  on e a c h  whose pri-  tenants  questions:  "Do  r e n t s h o u l d be h i g h e r  understanding  being  Housing  surprise.  assessment  was  Carver-  families  (so f a r as y o u u n d e r s t a n d  t h i n k your  cannot  the  accommodation on t h e  income were i n v e s t i g a t e d p r i m a r i l y by consider  and  t h a t of the Vancouver  T h i s s h o u l d come as no  A t t i t u d e s toward the r e n t a l  f a m i l i e s which  of subsidy those  was  with rents  accommodation:  them t o a f f o r d r e n t a l  per  other gains, i t  to b e n e f i t  on x<rhich i s b a s e d  excludes  and  P u b l i c housing,  the commercial r e n t s of decent  Hopwood s c a l e ,  e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n (61  than  it) i f your  clear,  indicating  82  cent  and  per 75  P r e  Many q u a l i f y i n g  r e p l i e s , however, and  some  you  of the  cent t o comments responses  good replies the accom-  59 totally  i r i the n e g a t i v e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w o r t h y o f  because  t h e y were n o t  These  qualifying  g e n e r a l groups: but  isolated  statements  incomes d e r i v e d f r o m i n the upper  income g r o u p s .  "sliding  d e r i v e d from  txtfo m a i n r e a s o n s stigma  years,  sense  this  m i n d s o f many.  assistance  Justly  despite social of " l e s s  There  or n o t ,  earning  alleged  a similar  minimal  are  and  probably of  of r e l y i n g upon p u b l i c  r e f o r m i n many a r e a s still  i n s t a n c e s , do w i t h o u t .  i n recent  persists  i n receipt  dental services,  and  i n the of  a few  public other  e i t h e r have t o  Obviously, a  pay  social  does g e t , as I t were, more v a l u e f o r h i s  income t h a n a p e r s o n I n d e p e n d e n t  "bonus" s e r v i c e s . despite  i s to  a c e r t a i n amount  bonus a s s e t s , w h i c h t h e x-jorking p e r s o n w o u l d  assistance recipient  of  or p r i v a t e p e n s i o n s ,  I n a d d i t i o n , many o f t h o s e  or, i n m o s t  (b)  scale".  eligibility"  s e c u r e f r e e m e d i c a l and  monetary  factor  v o i c e d a g a i n s t the  i s attached to the n e c e s s i t y and  for,  and  t h e number  this  low-income employment. for this.  assistance,  funds  on m a r g i n a l  assistance),  but  two  employed  i n h e r e n t i n the d i s t i n c t i o n between h a v i n g a  income d e r i v e d f r o m p u b l i c that  x-jere s t e a d i l y  Naturally,  consideration,  c o r r e c t e d by t h e  t o have r e f e r e n c e t o  of p u b l i c  C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e n t m e n t was inequity  appear  (as o p p o s e d t o t h o s e  some f o r m  dependents i s of v i t a l some d e g r e e  extreme.  (a) t h o s e t e n a n t s who  e a r n i n g a m a r g i n a l income  those  nor  note,  amount o f money, b u t The  of p u b l i c  lacking  funds,  the p r o v i s i o n  of  same h o l d s t r u e f o r many p e n s i o n e r s , x^ho,  a s m a l l m o n e t a r y income, r e c e i v e bonus v a l u e  i n the  form  60  of  various health s e r v i c e s .  1  T h i s i s not t o argue, i n a p p l y i n g  t h i s d a t a t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e n t a l s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h a t those persons dependent upon p u b l i c funds s h o u l d pay a higher rent.  R a t h e r , some method might be e v o l v e d whereby t h o s e  people employed but e a r n i n g m a r g i n a l incomes c o u l d have p r o v i s ion  made i n t h e i r r e n t a l assessment f o r f a m i l y e x i g e n c i e s , such  as i l l n e s s .  One  o f the c r i t e r i a i n d e c i d i n g e l i g i b i l i t y f o r  S o c i a l Allox-mnce I s the member of the f a m i l y t o whom i n c a p a c i t a t i o n occurs. i l y , depending  I f i t i s t h e breadwinner who on i t s a s s e t s , may  i s s t r i c k e n , the fam-  r e c e i v e S o c i a l Allowance.  However, assuming the e x i s t e n c e of s i m i l a r a s s e t s , a s i m i l a r  1. Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department a d m i n i s t e r S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e , Old Age A s s i s t a n c e and Supplementary A l l o w a n c e , Old Age S e c u r i t y , Supplementary A l l o w a n c e s , D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e , and B l i n d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e , on a means' t e s t b a s i s , t o those e l i g i b l e . In a d d i t i o n to f i n a n c i a l assistance, medical, d e n t a l , housekeeper and n u t r i t i o n i s t s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are from a p a m p h l e t . i s s u e d by the C i t y o f Vancouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, dated A p r i l 1, I 9 6 0 . " A l l r e c i p i e n t s of a l l o w a n c e s g r a n t e d on a means t e s t b a s i s .in the c a t e g o r i e s o u t l i n e d , are p r o v i d e d w i t h a m e d i c a l c a r d , e n t i t l i n g them t o the s e r v i c e s of t h e i r own d o c t o r . i n the case of S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e , t h e r e i s a w a i t i n g p e r i o d of 3 months. "Drugs, h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n and s p e c i a l i s t s e r v i c e s , as p r e s c r i b e d by the a t t e n d i n g p h y s i c i a n , may a l s o be p r o v i d e d . Where the r e c i p i e n t or h i s f a m i l y i s unable t o p r o v i d e recommended a p p l i a n c e s such as g l a s s e s , d e n t u r e s , e t c . , t h e s e may be s u p p l i e d t h r o u g h t h e department." " D e n t a l s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e t o the r e c i p i e n t s of a s s i s tance i n these c a t e g o r i e s upon a p p l i c a t i o n t o the department." "Boarding o r n u r s i n g home care may be a r r a n g e d , a c c o r d i n g . to need and a v a i l a b l e accommodation." "In cases where i t i s a d v i s a b l e f o r an i l l p e r s o n t o remain i n h i s own home, o r where c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e temporary care duri n g i l l n e s s of a p a r e n t , housekeeper or homemaker s e r v i c e s may be p r o v i d e d . " "A M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee N u t r i t i o n i s t s e r v e s as a c o n s u l t a n t t o the department, t o a s s i s t i n q u e s t i o n s of budgeti n g , n u t r i t i o n and s p e c i a l d i e t s . "  61 illness,  afflicting  any o t h e r member o f t h e f a m i l y t h a n t h e  b r e a d w i n n e r , w o u l d c r e a t e as much e x p e n s e , w h i c h w o u l d , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , have t o be assumed i n d e p e n d e n t l y T h i s whole m a t t e r  was w e l l summarized b y two i n t e r v i e w e e s ,  •.one o f whom s a i d t h a t r e n t a l on S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e " ; working people"  a s s e s s m e n t was f a i r ,  "only t o those  as t h e o t h e r p u t i t , i t was " h a r d e r  than on the s o c i a l  Conversely,  by t h e f a m i l y .  on t h e  assistance recipients.  i n t h e u p p e r income g r o u p s ,  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i^as  also expressed,  but the reason f o r these comparatively h i g h  tal  (some s e t a t b e t w e e n $ 8 0 and $ 1 0 0 p e r month) i s  assessments  obvious  i n the very nature  financially tically  able to rent housing  expect  cult  of s p e c i a l l y  low r e n t .  i s a p p l i e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g  r e g a r d i n g e v i c t i o n o f u p p e r income t e n a n t s ,  comparatively  Ro f a m i l y  i n t h e p r i v a t e market c a n r e a l i s -  s u b s i d i z a t i o n i n the form  However, no p r e s s u r e rity  of s u b s i d i z e d housing.  Autho-  as o f t e n t h e i r  numerous d e p e n d e n t s make a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g  t o l o c a t e elsewhere.  Around mid-1960,  diffi-  the Authority r a i s e d  t h e maximum a s s e s s a b l e f a m i l y Income i n a l l income g r o u p s , it  i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s move w i l l  lies,  o r h i g h e r income t e n a n t s ,  helping  t o balance  i n subsidized housing,  ment.  Aside  those paying  from lower  fami-  t o move i n t o  thus  they  the resentment, noted r e n t s and o c c u p y i n g  above, d i r e c t e d  One t e n a n t  income argu-  against  i d e n t i c a l u n i t s t o those o f t e n expressed  "can't g e t ahead" f i n a n c i a l l y ,  t o g r e a t e r income t a x d e d u c t i o n s , rent.  scale".  t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y room f o r  o f t h e h i g h e r wage e a r n e r , t h e l a t t e r that  the p r o j e c t ,  t h e p o i n t o f view o f the h i g h e r  tenant  and  e n c o u r a g e more " c o m p l e t e "  the " s u b s i d i z a t i o n  Nevertheless, from  ren-  since higher  the f e e l i n g income  leads  to say nothing of increased  s t a t e d t h a t he h a d r e f u s e d a b e t t e r j o b , w h i c h  6 2  had  b e e n o f f e r e d t o h i m , as h i s r e n t  $120  p e r month.  Others  would have been r a i s e d t o  also mentioned  difficulty  a house" or " f o r unexpected  expenses",  that  or part-time  they had g i v e n  up f u l l  c h i l d r e n and t h e i n c r e a s e  made.  Some o f t h i s ,  o f course,  rent  adjustment.  i<fnether  also  a matter w i t h which t h i s  t h o u g h i t must be s t a t e d and - c o n s i d e r a b l e the of all  work.  jobs, which  o f day care  study I s not p r i m a r i l y  that  there  a r e two s i d e s  or Immobilizing  considerations  should  their  intended  that  concerned, issue  a n d amount o f the provision  a l l f i n a n c i a l problems  for  i t r e s u l t i n discouraging  standards o f family  i^hich are c e r t a i n l y r e l e v a n t  to the r e n t a l scale  work, i s  to this  d i f f e r e n c e s d e p e n d i n g on t h e k i n d  f a m i l i e s , but n e i t h e r  for  o r no p r o f i t was  o r n o t m a r r i e d women s h o u l d  I t was, o f c o u r s e , n e v e r  adjustments  little  supplemented  i s not a matter p r i m a r i l y f o r  s u b s i d i z e d housing would r e s o l v e  bition are  i nrent,  "for  a n d s e v e r a l women s a i d  t h e i r husband's incomes, because w i t h t h e c o s t the  i n saving  living.  amThese  t o any f u r t h e r  i n the f u t u r e .  Social Effects of Relocation Home l i f e  and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s  Information regarding family  life  already  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s was s o u g h t a t many p o i n t s , as  indicated  about t h e i r  t h e e f f e c t o f r e l o c a t i o n upon  (Chapter I I and a b o v e ) .  i n t e r e s t i n hobbles or sports  with which they  these  e a s i l y , whereas a l a r g e r number O n l y two f a m i l i e s f e l t  about  as w e l l  were  to satisfy  that  these  activities ( 2 2 ) felt  there  Seventeen  c o u l d be i n d u l g e d i n that  they could  not.  was no change i n t h e i r  interests.  the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  asked  as t h e ease  c o u l d be c a r r i e d o n a t O r c h a r d P a r k .  respondents r e p l i e d that  ability  Families  W i t h o u t more  concerned, t h i s  information  could  n o t be  63 further  evaluated.  "Do y o u r explored  friends  extended  you at your  f a m i l y a n d some s o c i a l  sizeable majority easy  or family v i s i t  (I4.3)  agreed  that  new p l a c e ? " ,  relationships.  visiting  their  enough, b u t many m e n t i o n e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y  A  new home was  i n entertaining  g r o u p s o f more t h a n two o r t h r e e p e o p l e , b e c a u s e o f comparatively This  small l i v i n g  latter  taining  a s p e c t was c o n s i d e r e d e s p e c i a l l y  child  visitors,  many as 12 t e n a n t s visitors  rooms and o f t h e l a c k o f s o u n d p r o o f i n g .  as, "the neighbours  stated  that  might  complain".  i t s h o u l d be a l m o s t  public housing  could not o r d i d n o t r e c e i v e  to breed  s o many s u b s i d i a r y  a x i o m a t i c i n apartment  to consider this  seriously.  should expect  nuisance p o t e n t i a l  to live  i n total  of neighbours'  design f o r  and  silence;  counter-checked. y e t the  n o i s e s does v a r y w i t h  t h e t o l e r a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l h e a r i n g them a n d a l s o cacy  o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e accommodation.  cent  o f t h e sample  (I4.7  tenants)  cases, that  the soundproofing  sufficient,  or downright  stated,  the e f f i -  Almost  t h e w a l l s ) t o any e x t e n t , b u t t h a t  deal,  Many i n a p a r t m e n t  vertically  completely  o f t h e row h o u s e s  i n these u n i t s  blocks  (through  induced noises  audible.  Walking or  (of which there i s a  e s p e c i a l l y by c h i l d r e n ) appeared  o f a n n o y a n c e , many t e n a n t s  86 p e r  e m p h a t i c a l l y i n most  e x p l a i n e d t h a t n o i s e d i d not appear t o c a r r y l a t e r a l l y  r u n n i n g upon the s t a i r s  both  o f t h e u n i t s was i n a d e q u a t e , i n -  non-existent.  (betx^een s t o r e y s ) were a l m o s t  problems,  The a d e q u a c y o f t h e  u n i t s ' s o u n d p r o o f i n g was, t h e r e f o r e , c h e c k e d  great  As  isolation.  Mass p r o p i n q u i t y t e n d s  No t e n a n t  i n enter-  s i n c e m o v i n g t o t h e p r o j e c t - - w h i c h may b e a s i g n i f i c a n t  index of s o c i a l  that  they  important  as a n o t h e r  complained  source  that  even  6k  neighbours ' v o i c e s or t h e i r quite that  clearly. the  nuisance query, not  potential  adequate.  of neighbouring  aggravating.  was  1  n o i s e was  not.  expectation that  b o t h e r s o m e , and  on the  you?", assuming  that  considered  interviewer that  29  tenants  stating  the that  the need f o r f u r t h e r  i n this  t h e r e w i l l be  felt  a more e v e n s c a t t e r i n  a s s u r i n g the  there i s i m p l i c i t  (7)  p r o v i d e d by  t e n a n t s w o u l d be  T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e  t i o n because the  the  heard  counter-check  sounds was  This question yielded  r e s p o n s e s , w i t h 27 t e n a n t s  it  The  the n e i g h b o u r s ' n o i s e s b o t h e r  a l l sounds p e r c e i v e d by  neighbours  s e t s c o u l d be  A very small p r o p o r t i o n of tenants  s o u n d p r o o f i n g was  "Do  television  explora-  q u e s t i o n f o r some  n o i s e s but  that  they  people are  k i n d one  "gets used  to".  The  subject of  " p r i v a c y " , w h i c h i s , a g a i n , v e r y much a  matter  o f i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e , was  investigated,  i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n probably accounts, soundproofing, one  tenants  previous and  f o r the  stated  that  accommodation,  2k t e n a n t s  v a r i a b l e s here  said  Leisure  of Twenty-  their  (many a d d i n g  outside")  that they had  " i n s i d e , but  less privacy.  not  Some of  the  to which they enjoyed p r i v a c y i n  and what i s t o be  regarded  as p r i v a c y .  forgiven: f o r feeling  A  she has  very  anywhere. time  and  recreation  Assuming that to  i n the matter  t h e y h a d more p r i v a c y t h a n i n  m o t h e r w i t h k c h i l d r e n m i g h t be little  this  even d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s p o n s e s .  are the e x t e n t  previous housing;  as  and  the  a s a t i s f y i n g use  a h a p p i e r p e r s o n a l and  adjustment  to r e l o c a t i o n ,  facilities  and p u r s u i t s  of l e i s u r e  family l i f e ,  and  time c o n t r i b u t e s  therefore, a better  t e n a n t s • o p i n i o n s on l e i s u r e  c a n be  very i n d i c a t i v e .  time  Interviewees  65 were  a s k e d what  f a m i l y r e c r e a t i o n s they  i-jeek-days, week-ends were  with in  and i n summer t i m e ,  t o be a c t i v i t i e s  No s i g n i f i c a n t  such  i n types  o f p u r s u i t s were  or p i c n i c s ,  f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d i n a l l t h r e e time  that, at  that a t o t a l  as f a m i l i e s ,  Enquiries clubs, ing  these  noted,  participating  and v i s i t i n g divisions.  b e i n g most  I t was  o f 35 f a m i l y spokesmen s a i d  t h e y h a d no r e c r e a t i o n a l  any o f the t i m e s  that  and c h i l d r e n .  as g o i n g f o r d r i v e s o r w a l k s ,  sports, attending church  maying t o note  stressing  j o i n e d i n by b o t h p a r e n t s  differences  activities  i n d u l g e d i n most, on  interests  dis-  flatly  i n common  specified.  a b o u t membership  i n extra-familial  groups o r  seemed t o r e v e a l t h a t t h e m o t h e r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n organized  social  contacts.  v i e w e d , o n l y 19 x«rere f a m i l i e s  Of t h e 56  spokesmen 34 V  (approximately  m o t h e r s h a d g r o u p membership, w h e r e a s , o v e r  ev  lack-  inter-  c e n t ) whose  59 p e r c e n t  of the  f a t h e r s were i n some k i n d o f c l u b o r a s s o c i a t i o n .  Twenty  lies  t o some o r g a n i -  (under  zation—if The to  36 p e r c e n t ) h a d c h i l d r e n who b e l o n g e d anything,  sources  be l a r g e l y  and  a rather small proportion.  o f most  social  life  were n o t e d b y t h e t e n a n t s  c l u b m e m b e r s h i p s , c h u r c h membership,  o l d f r i e n d s , w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t  Some spokesmen n o t e d others noted  fami-  a l l three  variation  sources  employment  i n distribution.  of s o c i a l  activity,  whereas  o n l y one o r two o f them.  Was t h e r e a n e e d f o r a w o r k s h o p o r h o b b y c e n t r e o n t h e project? place that or  A b o u t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e t e n a n t s were i n c l i n e d t o  some p o s i t i v e such  v a l u e upon t h i s  suggestion;  a r e s o u r c e w o u l d n o t be o f i n t e r e s t  that l i t t l e  the r e s t  t o them p e r s o n a l l y  g e n e r a l u s e w o u l d be made o f i t . T h i s  a g a i n , may be an i n d e x  of social  isolation.  felt  latter,  The v a l u e p l a c e d on  66  a community c e n t r e ,  c l u b room o r h a l l ,  project  was  boundaries,  cent, responding tive the  views.  obviously higher—-kk,  f a v o u r a b l y to t h i s ,  and  A general r e a c t i o n to both  children,  these  specifically within  especially,  resources,  only 10 voicing  nega-  q u e s t i o n s was  that  c o u l d b e n e f i t from c o n s t r u c t i o n of  although  likely beneficiaries,  8 0 per  more t h a n  these  the  other  g r o u p s were a l s o s u g g e s t e d  p a r t i c u l a r l y mothers, p e n s i o n e r s ,  as  and. t h e  handicapped. "Would y o u  like  evidently  s t r u c k no  t i v e l y by  over  to,  "Are  evenly  7k  per  distributed  cent  tenants  or i n d i f f e r e n t isolated  group tenant  together  i n favour  o f and  greeted  living:  nega-  although r e a c t i o n about?", those  t h a t t h e r e were t h i n g s  was  requiring negative  w h e t h e r p e r m a n e n t , or a h e r i t a g e a b o u t kO  per  d i s c u s s i o n , or f e l t  cent  saw  no  more  against.  T h e r e i s e v i d e n t l y a good d e a l o f  feeling,  reason  from  for  t h a t group d i s c u s s i o n would  not  helpful.  impoverishment  i s an i n e s c a p a b l e  of s o c i a l  the p r o j e c t .  kinds  of f a c t o r s ,  activities  This i s probably one  g e n e r a l community, and  b e i n g the the  mentioned those  angle,  ponse t o the m a t t e r gauge, t h e r e a r e  on t h e p a r t  attributable  sparse  of  o f most t o two  families  different  s o c i a l resources  project i t s e l f .  South Vancouver o f f e r s  interested  impression  o t h e r , the h i g h percentage  or d e p r i v e d f a m i l i e s w i t h i n the  to  I t was  responding,  ought t o g e t  agreed  I n summary, t h e r e  in  chord.  of those  among t h o s e  common d i s c u s s i o n .  be  sympathetic  t h e r e t h i n g s you  Twenty-eight  past  t o know y o u r f e l l o w - t e n a n t s b e t t e r ? " ,  of  of  Prom t h e  considerable  "troubled" first  challenge  i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I f tenant  o f t h e n e e d f o r a community  centre  enough p e o p l e  the  is  resany  t o make p o s s i b l e a move t o w a r d s  6  activities families  w h i c h c o u l d have b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s  i n the p r o j e c t ,  What o f t h e interests  but  i n the d i s t r i c t  t e n a n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t who  outside t h e i r  p e o p l e who culty  ?  s t r e s s , have,  and m i s t r u s t . with their  The  and  well.  appear  to  lack  Many o f t h e s e  over  i n addition, built  s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r  abilities,  o n l y f o r the  are  experienced considerable d i f f i -  i n interpersonal relationships,  time under  as  immediate f a m i l i e s ?  h a v e f o r many y e a r s  not  a long period  up  defenses  needs i s n o t  of  apathy  compatible  and w i t h o u t  dynamic, p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p  i n b o t h t h e a r e a s o f c a s e w o r k and  o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  p r o v i s i o n of adequate  s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g , v a l u a b l e as  alleviates  only the  superficialities  A relevant  approach  to t h i s  the r e s e a r c h c o f the one in  last  sub-standard h o u s i n g , but and  "Fully  housing  some were  suggests  that multi-problem f a m i l i e s living  C i t y ' s most  the  and  two  some \\$% h a d  as a g r o u p  i n St. P a u l . "  housing projects  sense,  1  As  family  at l e a s t ,  This as  filth  "independent"  area" , 2  only a p a r t i a l  o f the o v e r - a l l h o u s i n g problem  by  the  lived  fairly  are not,  intensifies  in  In which  I n Vancouver are  h o u s i n g i s , Indeed,  c o n v e r s e l y , i n one  complexities  found  e x c e l l e n t housekeepers.  concentrated multi-problem  obvious t h a t p u b l i c  situation.  of the f a m i l i e s  under c o n d i t i o n s o f abominable  p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t , at l e a s t show t h a t  ±5%  i n contrast,  adequate  veys  personal  o b s e r v a t i o n i s t o be  the  itis,  St. Paul's Family Centered Project,  o f t h e r e s e a r c h team n o t e s ,  assumed, p e o p l e  of t h e i r  of  the  often and. sur-  this  i t becomes solution, social  attraction  1. B e v e r l y A y r e s ; "The F a m i l y C e n t e r e d P r o j e c t o f S t . P a u l . A S e r i e s o f T h r e e S e m i n a r s on a D e m o n s t r a t i o n P r o j e c t w i t h M u l t i Problem F a m i l i e s " . R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l , o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a ; A p r i l , I960. ( U n p u b l i s h e d seminars.)  page  2. The 2.  Vancouver Housing  Authority;  Annual  Report  I960;  68 i t p r o v i d e s f o r some of those who need i t most. T h i s i s not t o say t h a t a l l t h e t e n a n t s o f Orchard have a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l problems. to  Park Rather,  e l a b o r a t e f u r t h e r , t h e "housing s o l u t i o n " has two f a c e t s -  p r o v i s i o n o f adequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , b u t a l s o p r o v i s i o n for  the s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l x ^ e l f a r e o f t h e t e n a n t s , many o f  whom have h a d g r e a t e r adjustments relocation.  t o make t h a n t h o s e of s i m p l e  The Vancouver H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y has made a b e g i n n i n g  i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i n c l u s i o n of a s o c i a l worker on the s t a f f of the A u t h o r i t y . facilities  But t h e A u t h o r i t y has not p r o v i d e d any  t o promote group work,, and, as a consequence, "much  o f t h e F a m i l y C o u n s e l l o r ' s time I s t a k e n up i n r e p e t i t i o u s couns e l l i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r t h a n t o groups".^ ted  -  As i t i s e s t i m a -  t h a t 35 p e r cent o f a l l f a m i l i e s r e q u i r e d the C o u n s e l l o r ' s  a t t e n t i o n i n I960,  2  a "family-centered project" i s strongly  i n d i c a t e d t o b e n e f i t the tenants of t h e A u t h o r i t y . • S o c i a l F a c i l i t i e s : P r o j e c t and Neighbourhood As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f b o t h the g e n e r a l neighbourhood and a l s o t h e p r o j e c t a r e i n an e x t r e m e l y undeveloped s t a t e .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because o f f i n a n -  c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Orchard Park u n i t s was a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t e i t h e r a c e n t r a l h a l l o r m e e t i n g p l a c e , o r w i t h o u t basements. for  These l a t t e r might have c o n c e i v a b l y s e r v e d as a l o c a t i o n  t e n a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s ( e . g . , Sunday S c h o o l ,  k i n d e r g a r t e n , hobby shops, and so f o r t h . ) ing  The s i z e of t h e l i v -  rooms p r e c l u d e s use o f them f o r o t h e r than f a m i l y p u r p o s e s .  1. The Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , A n n u a l R e p o r t , pages 2 and 3» 2. i b i d , page 2 .  I960.  69 Much of t h e m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s u b j e c t has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n t h a t s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e handicapped  and f o r the c h i l d r e n .  However, a few words r e m a i n  t o be s a i d about t e n a n t r e a c t i o n t o r e l o c a t i o n i n t h i s  specific  district. Over 85 p e r cent o f t h o s e r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n s about shopping c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e needs c o u l d be met at t h e l o c a l s t o r e s .  Many purchased g r o c e r i e s l o c a l l y , b u t p r e -  f e r r e d t o shop elsewhere f o r c l o t h i n g , s t a p l e s , a p p l i a n c e s , e t c . Only t h e handicapped,  aged, o r mothers o f many p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d -  r e n encountered much d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g t h e i r shopping done. Church attendance f o r the t e n a n t s who were i n t e r e s t e d appeared  t o be c a r r i e d out s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n t h e new l o c a t i o n ,  a l t h o u g h 30 p e r cent o f t h e t e n a n t s f o r whom c h u r c h  attendance  was i m p o r t a n t p r e f e r r e d t o c o n t i n u e a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h t h e c h u r c h p r e v i o u s l y attended.  Some r e l i g i o u s groups send p r i v a t e buses  t o c o l l e c t c h i l d r e n from the p r o j e c t f o r Sunday S c h o o l , and t h i s was regarded as a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n by many o f t h e t e n a n t s interviewed. "Are t h e r e t h i n g s t h a t you miss i n t h i s d i s t r i c t ? " , was designed t o e l i c i t  s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s by t h e t e n a n t s o f com-  munity r e s o u r c e s around Orchard P a r k .  R e p l i e s v a r i e d , as w o u l d  be e x p e c t e d , b u t those most commonly r e c e i v e d might s e r v e as a gauge o f b o t h l a c k s i n t h e p r e s e n t neighbourhood,  and also,, o f  what t o emphasise i n p l a n n i n g f u t u r e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . y a r d " , "Sunday S c h o o l " , "a neighbourhood beach",  "A back  house", " p a r k s " , "the  " c l u b s f o r c h i l d r e n " , " k i n d e r g a r t e n " , "a p l a y g r o u n d " ,  and a " p l a c e t o go f o r w a l k s " , a l l r e l a t e t o t h e needs o f c h i l d r e n , w h i c h many t e n a n t s f e l t were i n a d e q u a t e l y s u p p l i e d by t h e i r  70 present Adult  location.  "Less t r a f f i c "  was a unanimous  concern.  i n t e r e s t s were e x p r e s s e d by s u c h answers a s , " p r i v a c y " ,  "common i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h e n e i g h b o u r s " ,  "short  commuting  t a n c e t o xtfork", " s h o p p i n g " o r " w i n d o w - s h o p p i n g " , "not enough s p a c e " , in-this,  and " d i s t a n c e f r o m  "the garden",  entertainment".  as i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n ,  dis-  However,  the comparison  made  depends u p o n t h e s t a n d a r d o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n a t t a i n e d b y t h e tenant p r i o r  to his.moving  t o Orchard  Park.  "What t h i n g s were y o u g l a d t o l e a v e i n t h e o l d d i s t r i c t ? " , attempted  t o open up t h e o t h e r s i d e  of t h i s  t h e r e a s o n s f o r r e l o c a t i o n became a p p a r e n t who were g l a d t o b e i n t h e i r "crowded c o n d i t i o n s " , neighbourhood", picture'of  "life  Tenant this  " f i r e hazards", prior  from  new l o c a t i o n .  "noise",  "traffic",  comparison.  S u c h t h i n g s as "dirt",  to Orchard  s u g g e s t i o n s were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e improvement o f  feeling  Tenant  esprit  obligated  Council here  I t s h o u l d be b o r n e  to the Authority;  and no a t t e m p t  i n mind  to c r i t i c i z e ,  and t h a t  there i s  at b u i l d i n g morale or  de c o r p s .  Positive In s p i t e  and n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m s  of efforts  tenant r e a c t i o n to  "the low-class  Park".  t h a t many o f t h e p e o p l e were p r o b a b l y r e l u c t a n t  no  tenants  a n d "bugs" p a i n t e d a v i v i d  and f u t u r e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s .  perhaps  those  Here,  are grouped  t o do s o , i t p r o v e d  t o Orchard Park  accordingly.  impossible to separate  s p e c i f i c a l l y from  tenant  reaction  O r c h a r d P a r k i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p r e v i o u s accommodation. A l -  though that  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - g u i d e d Interviews asked  tenants preferred  i n their  as w e l l as t h e t h i n g s t h a t i n the project,  about  the things  new a c c o m m o d a t i o n o r l o c a t i o n ,  t h e y w o u l d most  like  t o see improved  t h e r e s p o n s e s were c o n d i t i o n e d b y p r e v i o u s  71 experience with housing;  i t i s not wise,  t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t an o b j e c t i v e an e x p e r i m e n t  (still  Bearing this most f r e q u e n t l y ing  facilities  by 59  fact  i n mind, t h e  the generous  (33)  and  Compactness,  s u p p l y of hot water,  25  10  (l8  ment was  convenience and  other items  space (3),  pect  of Orchard Park.  ject  as a w h o l e ;  and  A fair  ( k ) , bathroom  I t was  "project  P r o b a b l y few, individual  apartments  decade, but  c l a s s people here  elsewhere.  Although  individual units "prestigeful"  from  on l o t s  less  v o l u n t a r y comments t h a t  o r more d e s i r a b l e  that  pro-  still as  a has  f o r working  specific  or to a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  or w i t h gardens  the  f a c e of Vancouver  i n the l a s t  i t appeared  as  to note  visualize  changed i n t h i s m a t t e r  sought,  (2),  neighbours  i f any  The  community",  of  neighbourhood  concern with housing  or half-way p r o v i s i o n .  "planned  assess-  d e s i g n " as a f a v o u r a b l e a s -  transitional  the  rental  interesting  sees  to  per  mentioned  i n d i v i d u a l p i c k e d out  a c c e p t s t h e " s i n g l e h o u s e " image, and  than  (23  a wide s c a t t e r (k),  t h e k i t c h e n (3),  approved.  tenant mentioned  13  by  and  cent.  each b e i n g  t h e r e was  of Importance t o the  t h e most welcomed or  cent)  as t h e t h i n g f o r w h i c h t h e y were  Beyond t h i s p o i n t ,  the r e f r i g e r a t o r  o n l y one  interviewees).  9 tenants  welcomed, by  responses, with c l o s e t  and  r a n k i n g next,  newness  per  o r d e s i g n were m e n t i o n e d  space  per cent of the  (l|_5 p e r  heat-  mentioned  and  o v e r 28  l i g h t i n g were a c c l a i m e d by  most g r a t e f u l .  (3),  tenants  Park  were t h e  Cleanliness  as  housing.  aspects of Orchard  o f the t e n a n t s .  cent) with p r i v a c y by  of Orchard Park  f o r Vancouver) i n p u b l i c  r e c e i v e d a f a v o u r a b l e vote from brightness  assessment  commented u p o n i n a p o s i t i v e way and  per cent  new  t h e r e f o r e , t o assume  reactions  e t c . , were n o t separate  a r e r e g a r d e d as more  than a d j o i n i n g u n i t s .  I t seems  72 fair ing  t o add  that Orchard  c o u r t - r t y p e and  families; stitute  nor  Park has  not  gone v e r y  row-house g r o u p i n g ,  i s the v e r y  particularly  s u c c e s s f u l use  s o l u t i o n f o r p l a y s p a c e and  far i n  of grass  enclosed  areas  utiliz-  for large plots  a sub-  designed  for  children. A r e c e n t , comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n o f the problems urban l i f e ,  appearing  r e l a t i o n to  "unsuccessful" neighbourhoods.  "....basic  i n H a r p e r ' s M a g a z i n e , has  t r o u b l e s are not  discriminated-against tion.  as  author  s h o u l d be  for  district,  a clear  demarcation  t o be  special preserves." example  social  vita-  things, that  b e t w e e n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e as  they  open to t h e p u b l i c b u t Orchard  2  do  typically  i n mind.'  T h e r e i s no  It i s very s u i t a b l e  and  and  provided  provision f o r sauntering,  sitting". Landscaping  T h e r e i s no i s most welcome  surely appropriate f o r a c i t y  a m i l d winter  bacir on g r a s s  may  i n effect  Park could w e l l have  get-togethers, f o r "just  Vancouver, w i t h fall  among o t h e r  each other  c l e a r p r o v i s i o n f o r p l a y grounds. and  fact  so c a n n o t f u n c t i o n s a f e l y . " 1  and  ooze i n t o  fundamental  p r o j e c t s where s t r e e t s , w a l k s and p l a y a r e a s glance  in  a  to f u n c t i o n w i t h  goes on t o s u g g e s t ,  "They c a n n o t  seem a t f i r s t  t h e bad  t o a c r i m i n a l or  t o the  lity  housing  are  due  i t i s physically unsuited  spaces. in  I t s t r o u b l e s are  a city  to say  or a p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n p o p u l a -  that  This there  due  this  of  climate.  "lawn" t r e a t m e n t  But  like  i t is a failure  of space,  Instead  to  of  1. Jane J a c o b s ; " V i o l e n c e i n t h e C i t y S t r e e t s " . H a r p e r s M a g a z i n e ; V o l . 2 2 3 ; No. 1 3 3 6 . September 1 9 6 l . page 3 8 . 1  2.  ibid,  page 3 9 .  {  .  73 profiting  from working c l a s s  experience, . •available i  now  i n Britain,  e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and. S c a n d i n a v i a .  o t h e r words, t h e r e h a s  been i n s u f f i c i e n t  sociable  n e e d s , o f a d u l t s and  and p r a c t i c a l Negative  aspects  Identifications Orchard being  project  and  at the the  ing  i n and  The  i s the  children.  Adequate  soundproofing,  considered necessary  disposal  of  by  by  by  The  garbage,- - was 1  15 t e n a n t s .  three tenants:  1 . No Park.  to  from  m e n t i o n e d by 5 t e n a n t s .  community  garbage  and f r o m  facilities  was  were  need f o r a  sight  by  with  Larger units  n e e d f o r more a d e q u a t e  young  f o r com-  Four i n h a b i t a n t s separate  solution.  E a c h of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c i s m s by  have  referred  t h e p r o j e c t w i s h e d f o r more p r i v a c y , m e n t i o n i n g a potential  requir-  a l s o r e f e r r e d t o above,  7 t e n a n t s , w i t h the  6.  facili-  as  aged and f a m i l i e s  arrangements, p r o t e c t e d both  h o u s e s as  tenants  i t e m most  laundry f a c i l i t i e s  c h i l d r e n , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of i n c i n e r a t o r bustible  present  Porty-one  A more complex m a t t e r ,  i n urgency  centre being noted  of the  s u p e r v i s e d , as t h e  i s s u e o f s e g r e g a t i n g the  listed'highest  in  suggestions  p r i o r i t i e s which a t t a c h to these  already been i n d i c a t e d . 20,  the t e n a n t s ,  f o r improvement  ..Twenty-four saw  improvement.  alike.  c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y i n g and. k i n d e r g a r t e n  preferably fenced  u r g e n t l y needed.  children  l a c k s or i n a d e q u a c i e s  were made by  same t i m e  given to  Park  design of f u t u r e p r o j e c t s .  mentioned improved ties,  of e x i s t i n g  Park f a c i l i t i e s  sought  of Orchard  thought  In  t o o many " t h r o u g h "  incinerator f a c i l i t i e s  o f t h e p r o j e c t was s t r e e t s w i t h heavy  exist  at p r e s e n t  in  made traffic,  Orchard  Ik inconvenience  c r e a t e d by  non-separation  room, e x t e r n a l i n c o n v e n i e n c e more e f f i c i e n t  utility  of the p r o j e c t ,  c o s t o f h e a t i n g t h e row  living  need f o r a  room, n e e d f o r g r e a t e r s t o r a g e  e x i s t e n c e of much w a s t e s p a c e high  o f k i t c h e n and  or poor i n t e r n a l  larger,  space,  design,  and  houses.1  E v e n t h o u g h e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g were m e n t i o n e d by a few  persons,  thoughtful  they  are reproduced  8 tenants, but  concerning these  to a l l "housekeeping" interviewees  and  and  because of t h e i r h e l p f u l  constructional f a c i l i t i e s other l i s t e d  and  two  would separate into  t h e r m o s t a t i c heat  deemed n e c e s s a r y  i n one  one  complained  f o r the h a n d i c a p p e d  such  and  one  con-  bread as  i n order  temperature were  t h e need f o r l a r g e r  mail  as m a g a z i n e s . comments.  about t h e window d e s i g n , 2 n o t i n g  i n window c l e a n i n g c o n n e c t e d  type,  of  tenant;  differences i n  and n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n n i n g r e c e i v e d 13  Three tenants  opening  thought  i n s t a n c e , as was  boxes t o c o n t a i n b i g g e r a r t i c l e s ,  quality  c o n t r o l f o r each u n i t ,  Additional facilities  directly Two  I n c l u s i o n of p u l l - o u t  consideration individual  preference.  relate  w o u l d have p r e f e r r e d t h e  b o a r d s w o u l d h a v e b e e n more e f f i c i e n t ,  difficulty  omissions  commented on t h e n e e d f o r i m p r o v e d  a d d i t i o n of w a l l i r o n i n g boards.  Design  and  were made  i t s e f f e c t upon f a m i l y l i f e .  s t r u c t i o n i n the b u i l d i n g s ;  to take  only  qualities.  Suggestions by  the  with  the p r e s e n t  x-iishing f o r a d e s i g n t h a t p e r m i t t e d  outwardscreening  1. P o o r T.V. r e c e p t i o n was a l s o m e n t i o n e d by 3 p e r s o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y h a v e p e r m i t t e d a comm e r c i a l f i r m t o i n s t a l l t e l e v i s i o n a e r i a l s at the L i t t l e Mountain H o u s i n g P r o j e c t , no s u c h arrangements' have b e e n made f o r t h e O r c h a r d P a r k P r o j e c t . The r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l a t t e r p r o j e c t i s t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e t e n a n t s w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o b u d g e t . f o r t h e d e p o s i t and m o n t h l y f e e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s e r v i c e .  75 to  prevent  "life  the entrance  with children",  ternal  of Insects.  2 tenants  u r b a n p l a n n i n g was t h o u g h t concerned  with t r a v e l l i n g  resources.  each u n i t ,  Entrances  similar  A location incorporating  i n units  suggested  t o i n c l u d e r e a r and f r o n t of the L i t t l e  attention,  through  entrances  Mountain  project.  t h e need f o r f r o n t  o t h e r t h a n a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s , and u s a b l e once.  p r o v i s i o n o f g r e a t e r numbers o f row h o u s e s w o u l d h a v e  added  The comment.  t o t h e p r o j e c t ' s r e s o u r c e s , one t e n a n t  o f more e x t e r n a l ,  management-tenant a s p e c t Two r e s p o n d e n t s  ures,  of the p r o j e c t  suggested  In  of both  defence  c h i l d r e n and a d u l t  of the e x i s t i n g project  be remembered t h a t h a d t h e s e the commercial  market  small indeed.  "screening" proced-  facilities,  at p r i c e s  of t h e i r  a l l t h e improvements  listed  i t should  currently  locating  accommo-  above w o u l d be  incumbent upon h o u s i n g  foresee c e r t a i n o f these d i f f i c u l t i e s .  sands o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s  apartment b l o c k s ,  tenants.  adequate h o u s i n g  But i t i s a l s o  r e c e i v e d some  same t e n a n t s b e e n a b l e t o o b t a i n  b e y o n d t h e i r means, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y dation including  as  the e x c l u s i o n of p a r t i c u l a r l y  and one, t h e e x c l u s i o n o f c h i l d r e n f r o m  t h e sake  thought,  paved s u r f a c e s .  t r o u b l e d f a m i l i e s b y means o f more t h o r o u g h  to  blocks  each b e i n g mentioned  would that  on  and c u l t u r a l  t h a t t h e apartment  entrances f o r pensioner u n i t s ,  significantly  for  better  n e c e s s a r y by 2 t e n a n t s , who were  t o those  claimed f u r t h e r  entrance h a l l s  The  longed f o r better-wearing i n -  distances to social  One r e s p o n d e n t  s h o u l d have b e e n d e s i g n e d  front  e y e on  s u r f a c e d e c o r a t i o n , and one f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f l i g h t  c o l o u r s o n w a l l s and f l o o r s .  for  With a p r a c t i c a l  There  I n the worId--Orchard  authorities  a r e now Park  thou-  i s no  76 hazardous, living ren  untried,  liabilities  Lacking  these  Satisfactory family  adequate f a c i l i t i e s  for child-  two a s s e t s a l o n e , many  e v o l v e w i t h r e g a r d t o group l i v i n g ,  added t o t h e p r e s s e s total  experiment.  should include, at l e a s t ,  and l a u n d r y .  tant  uncharted  and s t r e s s e s u p o n i n d i v i d u a l s ,  unrest p e r c e i v e d keenly throughout  concomi-  w h i c h , when i n c r e a s e the  much o f t h e p r o j e c t .  Chapter  IV  PUBLIC HOUSING ADMINISTRATION S t r i p p e d t o i t s b a s i c elements, a s o c i a l for  people  permanently or t e m p o r a r i l y incapable of p r o v i d i n g  f o r themselves. a as^needless  Par too f r e q u e n t l y , p u b l i c housing  embellishment  munity r e a d i l y social  accepts  services.  This  purpose o f welfare,  the at  i s regarded  t o t h e community, w h e r e a s t h e com-  t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r many o t h e r spurious  attitude  i n which every f a c e t  eacn i n d i v i d u a l i s important, is  service provides  especially  of i t s  negates t h e whole of tne w e l l - b e i n g o f i f the person  t o r e c i p r o c a t e e v e n t u a l l y w i t h maximum p o t e n t i a l community.  Tne p e o p l e  served  least potentially--citizens.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which i s s t i l l haps i t h a s t o be a d m i t t e d Obviously,  after  service to  a l l , actually, or  T h i s i s an a s p e c t  of welfare  f a r from b e i n g understood.  there  Per-  i s as y e t no c o n s e n s u s .  s o m e t h i n g as b a s i c as h o u s i n g  or f a m i l y , should, interest  are,  served  t h e r e f o r e , be regarded  I s t o any i n d i v i d u a l as w o r t h y o f p u b l i c  and s u b s i d i z a t i o n . Rents and E l i g i b i l i t y  In the r e l a t e d welfare security  subsidization  procedure for  of the economically  by w h i c h each c i t i z e n  the welfare  care,  financial  insurance, to i d e n t i f y  community n e e d s , c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n  of the t o t a l  government p a r t i c i p a t i o n for  of medical  i n o l d age, and unemployment  o n l y a few a c c e p t e d and  fields  administering other  c a n assume some  group.  i n planning, social  disadvantaged  Neither  of r i s k  is a valid  responsibility  i s the f a c t of  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  services,  so g r e a t  " .  an i s s u e .  78 It  i s b e y o n d t h e scope  of  public  attitudes  that  centres  o f comparable  tinue,  1  to assess the present status  V a n c o u v e r h a s l a g g e d b e h i n d most N o r t h  Should  size  i n t h e development  the c u r r e n t magnitude  i t must be a n t i c i p a t e d  "saved"  study  t o s u b s i d i z a t i o n of housing, but the f a c t  remains  resource.  of this  by i g n o r i n g  a c t u a l l y be i n c u r r e d  that  of this  of t h i s  the f i n a n c i a l  i n other r e l a t e d p u b l i c  dependency upon p u b l i c  a s s i s t a n c e , and so f o r t h .  completed, Council,  will  prevention or control,  s u c h as  prolonged  survey has r e c e n t l y  been  u n d e r t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e Community C h e s t a n d  of basic  On h o u s i n g ,  con-  expenditure  services,  fire  Vancouver a comprehensive  particular  problem  t h e need f o r loi^-income h o u s i n g ,  h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n ,  In  American  r e s e a r c h needs i n t h e w h o l e f i e l d  a m a j o r p o i n t made b y t h e a u t h o r  P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l Wheeler, o f the U n i v e r s i t y  of welfare.  of the report, of B r i t i s h  Columbia  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, i s t h e f o l l o w i n g : " C u r r e n t c o n c e r n w i t h problems o f u r b a n renewal and p r o p o s a l s f o r s l u m - c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t s have h e l p e d t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on t h e w e l f a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h o u s i n g i n a v e r y d i r e c t a n d u r g e n t way. Slum-clearance means u s u a l l y t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f l a r g e , l o w - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s , e l d e r l y p e o p l e a n d s i n g l e p e r s o n s who a r e g e n e r a l l y i n a n e c o n o m i c a l l y p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n , as  1. I n B u l l e t i n o f the Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , June 19.b0, i t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r may be assumed t o r e a c h 1,300,000 b y 1980, a n d t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , b y t h a t t i m e , w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13,000 u n i t s . To a c h i e v e t h i s l e v e l , a n a v e r a g e o f 630 u n i t s p e r y e a r s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d . S i n c e p u b l i c h o u s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d , o v e r t e n y e a r s ago, o n l y 333 p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r f a m i l i e s h a v e m a t e r i a l i z e d and a b s o l u t e l y no l i m i t e d - d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g has b e e n b u i l t . Some 280 f u r t h e r u n i t s ( e x c l u s i v e o f t h o s e f o r aged p e r s o n s ) w i l l s h o r t l y be e r e c t e d t o r e h o u s e f a m i l i e s d i s p l a c e d by urban redevelopment, but these w i l l not e n l a r g e the s u p p l y o f l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g , i n a s m u c h as more a c c o m m o d a t i o n w i l l b e d e m o l i s h e d t h a n w i l l be r e p l a c e d .  79 w e l l as members o f m i n o r i t y e t h n i c g r o u p s . For t h e s e p e o p l e , t h e l o s s o f accommodation which, i f p e r h a p s s u b s t a n d a r d , i s a t l e a s t cheap and w i t h i n t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means, and t h e s e p a r a t i o n from t h e i r customary s u r r o u n d i n g s , pose a v e r y r e a l economic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h r e a t . From the e x p e r i e n c e o f numerous c i t i e s on t h i s c o n t i nent and i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s b e i n g accumulated on the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e r e i s a p r e s s i n g n e e d f o r s y s t e m a t i c c o l l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . From s u c h a r e v i e w i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e g u i d a n c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o g r a m s . " Housing  policy  i s an u r g e n t  ence o f s u c h b e g i n n i n g s as we Currently local public eligibility  o f t e n a n t s and  theoretically supply and  effecting  rising in  have demands  a l s o the  limits  since  a s p e c t s of housing  Among t h e s e  the b a s i c  appears  budget  of the  are the  s c a l e was  the revenue  decrease  in Little  Mountain,  victions  approach  behind t h i s  to those w i t h  keep p u b l i c "social  recipients  administration.  generally  established  locally  incomes  maximum incomes were  and minimum i n c o m e s were  the  thus  of  i n the net o p e r a t i n g  t h a n they are today,  is,  the  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y .  Originally,  eligibility  experi-  t o have been  1951+, t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y v e r y low p e n s i o n e r s , and  to  both  amount o f s u b s i d y ,  current policy  several factors.  single  the  a h e a l t h y b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e demand-  eligibility,  income l e v e l s  and  attention.  housing p o l i c y  the income-expenditure  Regarding m o d i f i e d by  need, t h e r e f o r e ,  are outlined, below.  at l e a s t  a l l o w a n c e " budget adequate  The  con-  Limiting  a "minimum i n c o m e " i s i n t e n d e d  welfare r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  to rent  higher.  lower  compartmentalized.  s h o u l d be  sufficient  (not l u x u r y ) h o u s i n g from  to  That enable  private  1. M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , A R e p o r t on H e e d e d R e s e a r c h I n W e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l , 1961. p.187. ( I t a l i c s a d d e d ) .  60 landlords.  Public housing,  s u b s i d i z e inadequate the Vancouver C i t y which i n d i c a t e d , t h a n 926  less  i n o t h e r words,  "social  Social  allowance" f i n a n c i n g .  S e r v i c e Department  among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  social  that  initiated  a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s were i n e x c e s s  welfare areas.  Limiting  1957,  (In a  study  r e n t a l s p a i d by  amounts n o m i n a l l y a l l o w e d f o r housing.)''" c o n f u s e s two  should not have t o  To p e r m i t  eligibility  of  the  i t t o do  to those  n o t more t h a n a "maximum i n c o m e " i s i n t e n d e d t o r e s t r i c t housing  t o t h o s e who  housing  i s thus analogous  for  home b u i l d i n g  need i t .  "Maximum i n c o m e s "  t o "minimum i n c o m e s "  loans guaranteed  minimum and maximum income f a i r l y cost of p u b l i c housing pay  at l e a s t  the per u n i t less  an  w e l l up  to the t a x p a y e r .  "economic r e n t "  (rent  s h a r e o f o p e r a t i n g and  the p r o j e c t  costs.  by CM.H.C. tends  no  so,  with  public  for public  for  eligibility  Also, keeping to reduce  the  The more t e n a n t s  who  c a l c u l a t e d as c o v e r i n g  construction costs),  as a whole makes a d e f i c i t  the  on a n n u a l o p e r a t i n g  2  However, changes were n e e d e d i n t h e above, as incomes,  established  r i s i n g wages, and  I n 1954,  this fact  r e p e r c u s s i o n s upon b o t h families  n  a  d  n  o  t  had b o t h  kept pace w i t h social  and  l o c a l housing projects.  "maximum" generally  economic Socially,  i n urgent need of adequate h o u s i n g at a f a i r  considered i n e l i g i b l e . 3  Subsequent admissions  rent  o f more  many were  "broken"  1. The A d e q u a c y o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e s Committee; R e p o r t t o t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l on t h e A d e q u a c y o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. September  1958.  Low  p.37.  2. E . Promson, J . Hansen, and R. S m i t h . The L i t t l e R e n t a l H o u s i n g P r o j e c t ; M.S.W. T h e s i s , U . B . C , 1959. 3.  A c c o r d i n g t o the Vancouver Housing  Mountain p.106-107-  A u t h o r i t y Annual  Report,  1959, 85$ o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s f o r h o u s i n g i n O r c h a r d P a r k were r e j e c t e d f o r " o v e r - i n c o m e " r e a s o n s , most o f t h e s e b e i n g " c o m p l e t e " f a m i l i e s , w i t h s t e a d i l y employed m a l e w o r k e r s .  81 o r l o w e r income f a m i l i e s , i n v o l v e d a d e c r e a s e i n p r o j e c t while  t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e  i n V. H. A. e x p e n d i t u r e  enlarged  its staff  to include  increase  i n tenant  problems.1  6 gives  Table dependent  Table  6  1959.  F a m i l i e s dependent on income o t h e r t h a n employment, December 1959* Pensions or Allowances RetireSocial DisaAssistance bility ment (a) (c) (b)  Complete F a m i l i e s 1) w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n 2) w i t h c h i l d r e n  k  B.  Pension  -  C.  Broken F a m i l i e s 1) w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n 2) . w i t h c h i l d r e n  D. S i n g l e  due t o an  t h a n employment a t t h e t i m e t h e  d a t a was c o l l e c t e d i n December  Type o f F a m i l y A.  counsellor,  when i t  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e numbers o f f a m i l i e s  on income o t h e r  statistical  a family  income,  couples  persons  Total  6 13(d)  Total  6  6 10  -  13  31  2 38  •2 2  5  3  13  2,  18  17.  31  39  87  (A) I n c l u d i n g Workmen^s C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , V e t e r a n s a n d B l i n d Pensions. (B) I n c l u d i n g O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e , O l d Age S e c u r i t y and company p e n s i o n s . (c) I n c l u d i n g Mother's Allowance. (D) I n c l u d i n g one c o u p l e w i t h a dependent grand-daughter.  As  a result  extended, w i t h increased  o f t h e above f a c t o r s , t h e " s l i d i n g  t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e  i n I960.  (e.g.,  "net family  s c a l e " was  income"  being  f r o m $ 3 2 5 p e r month f o r a f a m i l y o f  1. Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , Annual Report 1959 . " 5 b $ o f t h e r e p l a c e m e n t t e n a n t s , were e i t h e r S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s or working mothers."  82 s e v e n members, t o  $362.50  being r a i s e d from  $66  a t $13  remaining  p e r month, t h e s h e l t e r r e n t  t o $7k  p e r month.)  t h i s upward e x t e n s i o n w i l l ally  and f i n a n c i a l l y  decreasing  p e r . m o n t h , and  service  I t i s h o p e d by  payable  charges  t h e V. H.  A.  that  encourage  a d m i s s i o n o f more  emotion-  families  to both p r o j e c t s ,  thus  stable  o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and  increasing  income f r o m  rental  revenue. Another  modification  i n the o r i g i n a l  downward e x t e n s i o n t o i n c l u d e not housed i n L i t t l e incomes r a n g e o f w h i c h $20  t o $27  an a d d i t i o n a l  charge  change a f f e c t s The  of  o n l y t h e 18  $1,125  as  b e i n g made f o r s e r v i c e "single" units of s o c i a l  allowance  3  admissions p o l i c y .  195U-,  A. maximum income  were more s t r i n g e n t , w o u l d be allowance  eligible rates  mum  of  than  local  1, 195k»  $69.50  fewer higher-income  at p r e s e n t .  Secondly,  i s due  rental  s c a l e was  & two-person  p e r month f r o m  1. B a s e d on f i g u r e s Housing A u t h o r i t y .  City  quoted  drop to  Primarily,  families  current  social  drawn up.  in  For  195k,  example,  family  could receive  Social  Service Department.  i n Annual  Report  in  restrictions  compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h o s e e x i s t i n g  when t h e o r i g i n a l as o f A p r i l  so t h a t  as  a rental  1959; "  This  Park.  families  more t h a n changes i n V. H. A.  with  charges.  at Orchard  P e r month i n t h e f i r s t t e n months o f  V. H.  pensioner,  shelter rent,  f o r many o u t g o i n g t e n a n t s , i n v o l v i n g  "the t h e n e x i s t i n g  its  single pensioners,  p e r month f o r a s i n g l e  p e r month i s p a y a b l e o f $2  s c a l e was  Current allowable pension  t o $125  current inclusion  replacements  i n Orchard Park  Mountain.  $50  from  rent  1959,  a maxi2  Vancouver  2. W a r r e n W i l s o n , H o u s i n g C o n d i t i o n s Among S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Families. M.S.W. T h e s i s , U . B . C , 1955. p. 1 9 .  83 I n I960, a f a m i l y  $103«80  per  of  similar size  month f r o m t h e  family has  was  "net $75  family  recipients rejected their  of  as  i960  r e v i s i o n of  necessitate  so  great  large  facts scale,  eligibility  the  S o c i a l Allowance rates assistance  of  a two-member  rental  now  scale.  in effect,  n e e d no  longer  be  'Neither n e e d  a degree of  as w o u l d h a v e b e e n n e c e s s a r y i n 1954,  comparatively If  for  amount f o r minimum  t h i s form of p u b l i c  Inclusion  these  p r e v i o u s V.H.A. r e n t a l  t e n a n t s o f V.H.A. h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s .  current  sidization  This  I n the  However, w i t h i n c r e a s e d  the  a maximum  Relating  Income" a l l o w a b l e  a month.  remained constant  receive  same s o u r c e . ^  t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c y , on t h e minimum  could  sub-  because or  Increase i n s o c i a l allowance  the  rates.  a c o m p a r i s o n i s made b e t w e e n t h e  amount C i t y  Service  Department  i n s o c i a l allowance  grants,  and  figures  b e i n g computed on  do mum  come t o  the  allocates  month.  light.  $190.20  Por  an  example, t h e  grant  per  family  month s h e l t e r r e n t ,  (i.e.,  Income" o f  month, m a k i n g a t o t a l  indicates  the  miscellaneous  1.  for  o f $kk  $190  per  for per  month.  Information received  for  maxi-  6 persons)  of  shelter  is  $55  per  6 with  of  a  month, a l l o c a t e s #35 service  charge of  Lower r e n t a l  per  $9  per  assessment  throughout. in  1951+  C.S.S.D. f o r  shelter  both  differences  a "Group 6"  a family  s o c i a l allowance r a t e s  e x p e n s e s , and  of  i s consistent  d i v i s i o n s u g g e s t e d by  some  a family  additional  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y A comparison of  portion  month, a l l o c a t e d f o r  w i t h an  shelter rental,  "income" b a s i s ,  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y ,  maximum "net  by  shelter  amount V.H.A. a l l o c a t e s f o r  s o c i a l allowance  totalling  for  Social  and  support  in  i960  and  expense.  f r o m C.S.S.D. i n September  i960.  8k The i n c r e a s e d amounts f o r I960 approximate t h e recommend a t i o n s of the W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l o f t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , who s t a t e d i n December 1958, "The b a s i c s c a l e of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w ances s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d by a t l e a s t 30%.1 Table 7  Comparison o f Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e Rates i n 195k and i n i960.  A p r i l 1, 195k Persons Included i n Grant 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8  i960  Support & Support & M i s c e l l a - S h e l t e r T o t a l Persons M i s c e l l a - S h e l t e r Expense neous Expense neous 1 ¥25.00 $ 15.00 1 i+5.00 $ 30.00 $ ki-oo 2 k9.50 35-00 20.00 69.50 68.80 1+0.00 25.00 58.50 , 3 83.50 45-00 30.00 67.50 85. ko k 97.50 50.00 35.00 76.50 5 111.50 102.00 55-00 1+0.00 85.50 118.60 6 60.00 k5.oo 125.50 9k-5o 139.50 135.20 50.00 103.50 65.00 7 151.80 153.50 168.k0 8  Total $66.00 103.80 125.k0 li+7.00 168.60 190.20 211.80 233.k0  I n c l u d e d i s a comparison o f V. H. A. s h e l t e r r e n t a l a s s e s s ment based on "net f a m i l y income", of examples chosen t o a p p r o x i mate s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g r a n t s and C. S. S. D. " s h e l t e r a l l o w a n c e " f o r s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e r e c i p i e n t s , b o t h on the b a s i s o f t h e number of persons i n c l u d e d i n the f a m i l y group.  1. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver Area; "Recommendations C o n c e r n i n g S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Rates P a i d i n G r e a t e r Vancouver", Study Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s . Summary o f t h e Committee's F i n d i n g s . December 10, 1958.  Table 8  85 Comparison of Income and R e n t a l A l l o c a t i o n as s e t out by Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y and Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, I960.  Vaneouver Housing A u t h o r i t y Family size  2 3 k 5 6 7  Shelter U t i l i Rental ties  #23.00 $ 2.00 26.00 2.00 30.00 5.00 32.00 8.00 35.00 9.00 . 38.00 10.00  Total Rent  Net Family Income  $105.00 125.00 35.00 150.00 40.00 170.00 Uk. 00 190.00 48.00 210.00  125.00 28.00  C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Dept. Family size  2 3 k 5 6 7  Rental Allowance  $35.00 40.00 1+5.00 50.00 55.00 60.00  Maximum Social Allowance  $103.80  125.40 147.00 168.60 190.20 211.80  The l a r g e r r e n t a l allowance a l l o c a t e d by C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e i s r e a s o n a b l e i n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a t t e r must assume t h a t most of t h e i r f a m i l i e s o b t a i n h o u s i n g where they c a n f i n d i t , and w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y pay more than f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Community Chest s u r v e y of 1957,  Indeed,  "Rents  currently  b e i n g paid...do not a l l o w f o r t h e f a c t t h a t much of t h e e x i s t i n g accommodation i s i n a d e q u a t e .  Such a n a l l o c a t i o n , i n money terms,  i s t h e r e f o r e , l e s s than t h a t necessary t o a t t a i n a reasonable s t a n d a r d of s h e l t e r . . . . . S u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g c o u l d go a l o n g way towards b r i d g i n g t h i s g a p . " l ( F u r t h e r r a m i f i c a t i o n s of t h e s e comparisons w i l l be d i s cussed l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , under t h e s e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e n t s c a l e i s more f u l l y  considered.)  A p a r t from t h e s o c i a l and economic a s p e c t s o f t e n a n t c o m p o s i t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e new r e v i s i o n of t h e Vancouver  1. The Adequacy of S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e s Committee: Report t o the Community.Chest and C o u n c i l on t h e Adequacy o f S o c i a l A s s i s tance A l l o w a n c e s i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver. Vancouver, B. C.  September 1958. p.i+3.  86 Housing A u t h o r i t y r e n t a l s c a l e , other ably  account f o r the  external f a c t o r s prob-  change I n p o l i c y r e f e r r e d t o .  Mainten-  ance e x p e n s e s a l o n e h a v e r i s e n f r o m $28,239 i n 1955  $37,316 i n 1959, contract year  due  to  r e p a i r s and  the  "the  steady increase  cost  of  to  i n wages, m a t e r i a l s ,  e x t e r i o r p a i n t i n g on  basis".1  cyclical  I n t h i s way,  public housing  administration  is affected  economic p r o b l e m s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e  e n t i r e community.  sely,  d e c r e a s e d by  1955 the  the  net  operating  1959,  and  surplus  whereas the  same amount f o r t h e This  a four-  f a c t o r of  has  amount o f  same p e r i o d  subsidy  subsidy of  introduces  p u b l i c housing p o l i c y , that  of  r e l a t i n g rent  n e e d , and  t o income and  time. the  by  Conver-  $12,318 b e t w e e n  has  increased  by  2  second aspect  of  l i m i t i n g . s u b s i d i z a t i o n by by  accepting  upper  income  tenants.  The r e l a t i o n o f r e n t t o income and need i s p r i m a r i l y  j u d g e d on  the  basis  o i the  "inspection report"  which assesses e l i g i b i l i t y income l e v e l s , f a m i l y  composition,  and  As  one  student  criteria first  a tenant. of the  of s o c i a l  place,  equitable raise  as  and  desirability  require  skilled  an e a s y m a t t e r , h o w e v e r .  s a i d , "These and  are  difficult  A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1959.  objectives  similar  to define  investigation for  a p p l i c a t i o n i n each p a r t i c u l a r case; of the  qualification,  such as , the a p p l i c a n t ' s  i s not  s u b j e c t has  the whole q u e s t i o n  1.  This  residence  C),  such, as  from o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a ,  and. a l s o f r o m s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a , suitability  (see a p p e n d i x  in  their  moreover,  of tenant  they  selection  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y ,  2. B a s e d on f i g u r e s q u o t e d i n A n n u a l R e p o r t , Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y .  the  1959,  p.3.  87 practice.""^" In the o r i g i n a l Housing A u t h o r i t y  tenanting  selected  of L i t t l e  Mountain level  $2k0  the f a m i l i e s  "One  forty unsuccessful This  for the  applicants."  l a r g e l y from t h e w a i t i n g applicants, interest  are  $72.22  sample  and  $217.22  of  to Orchard Park  list  Further  "net f a m i l y  analysis  income".  plus  o f 25 y e a r s who  $75*00  averages  f o r "broken"  families,  This  figure and  regarding the i s ' o b t a i n e d by of h i s w i f e ,  computation adding the  i f she i s  o f t h e income o f e a c h c h i l d u n d e r t h e  Is s t i l l  p.99.  1959,  tenants i s  i n t h e home and  Is employed.  1. M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r H o u s i n g , M. S. W. t h e s i s , U. B. C. 1955. p.100. ibid.  Mountain  I t i s of  shows t h a t t h e  $165.69"  drawn  families.  g r o s s income o f t h e b r e a d w i n n e r  2.  tenanting,  f o r December,  o f O r c h a r d Park  tenants,  f o r "complete"  and  Vancouver  of disappointed L i t t l e  A word o f e x p l a n a t i o n i s n e e d e d  employed,  o f two h u n d r e d  t e n a n t s o f O r c h a r d P a r k were  income"  for "single"  prevailing  (see T a b l e I I , Appen-  to note t h a t , based upon f i g u r e s  p e r month.  this  typically  i . e . , from those w i t h lower incomes.  t h e m e d i a n "net f a m i l y  $l8l.63  than the  approach impinged upon a p p l i c a t i o n  as t h e o r i g i n a l  of  and  2  Housing A u t h o r i t y housing p o l i c y inasmuch  result  applicants;  a month i n t h e c a s e o f t h e t e n a n t s  $229  Vancouver  accepted f o r tenancy i n L i t t l e  of u n s u c c e s s f u l  d i x D) compared w i t h  of  indirect  show a h i g h e r a v e r a g e wage l e v e l  f o r t h e sample  the  o n l y t h e a p p a r e n t l y most s t a b l e  credit-worthy of the a p p l i c a n t s . has been t h a t  Mountain,  The  Low-Rental  age  88 assessable  Incomes o f h u s b a n d and  pension deductions,  as w e l l  family  Thus, e x c e p t  allowances.. 25,  r e n u n d e r age pay,  is  total  I n the rather  Hence, i t becomes o b v i o u s  that  by  the  behalf  limitation  of the  of t h i s  factors involved,  percentage of  "net  family  p a i d f o r r e n t a l of  included family  s i x members.  of  1959,  income" of  six, with  $k09  a row  by  p a i d $26  i n rent.  family's  r e n t a l assessment  economic  cost  modation,  so  The  In the  income, s u b s i d i z e s  the to  family  per  month.  house,  implications o f $26  per  former f a m i l y , some e x t e n t  this  An go?  important  social  on  scale.  project  this  the  on For  reported  $93  amount,  month does not  family another  this  meet  the  per  accom-  capita  unmet c o s t .  Although  are  around  required  as w e l l as  which the  latter  of p r o v i d i n g  with a greater  i n c l u s i o n of g r e a t e r  method by  com-  "surcharge"  seem o b v i o u s — t h e  dissatisfactions, i s one  public,  i n c o m e " of $93.per month,  family  lead to  should  Of  in  compara-  s i m i l a r accommodation,  p o l i c y , w h i c h can  limited.  i n the  i n a s m u c h as  much more i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and. e d u c a t i o n  tenants  i . e . , the  sliding  to Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y that  the  without  r e a s o n of t h e  one  Occupying  a "net  subsidization  income a l l o c a t e d f o r r e n t a l s  income e a r n e d b e y o n d a c e r t a i n p o i n t o f December  child-  received  p o l i c y by  i s heard frequently,  of upper-income t e n a n t s ,  example, as  of  as  i n c l u s i o n of upper-income t e n a n t s Criticism  low-income t e n a n t s ,  t i v e l y greater  be  than t o t a l  and  such  c a s e o f employed  r e n t a l assessment.  plete understanding  was  income t a x  as income f r o m a l l s o u r c e s ,  earnings,  public housing p r o j e c t s .  a  Include  are used i n computing the  a s s i s t e d g r e a t l y by  and  wife  economically  numbers o f  degree o f  p o l i c y question,  this  based  higher-income  subsidization  h o w e v e r , i s : how  may far  89 Admissions As  already  Policy  and P r o c e d u r e  i n d i c a t e d , the Housing A u t h o r i t y  p o l i c y has been undergoing c o n s i d e r a b l e r e g a r d t o an e x t e n s i o n o f upper eligible  does  change,  the Authority's  a l l the inspections,  procedure remains  from which  Mountain  the f o l l o w i n g . i s  now  projects.  However, e x c e p t t h a t  handbook, The L i t t l e  mainly with  and l o w e r income l e v e l s  f o r h o u s i n g i n b o t h Vancouver  p r e v i o u s y e a r s , and i s o u t l i n e d  admissions  concisely  Low-Rental  s o c i a l worker  now  t h e same a s i n  i n the o f f i c i a l Housing  Project,  quoted.  " A f t e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n h a s b e e n made, a n i n s p e c t i o n v i s i t I s made t o t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s home. The home a n d s u r r o u n d i n g s a r e e v a l u a t e d i n r e g a r d t o s u c h f a c t o r s as o v e r c r o w d i n g , i n a d e q u a c y o f h e a t i n g equipment, absence of s a f e and s u i t a b l e p l a y space f o r c h i l d r e n , o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e i'rom p l a c e o f employment, p r e s e n c e o f smoke o r noise nuisances i n the neighbourhood. The i n s p e c t o r assigns points to the dwelling i n accordance w i t h t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , and i t i s t h i s p o i n t r a t i n g -which p r o v i d e s the most s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i o n f o r e n t r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y . " The  procedure o f a p p l i c a t i o n ,  and why v a c a n c i e s a r e f i l l e d ,  a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f how  i s fully  set out:  "These a p p l i c a t i o n s , w i t h i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e seven-member B o a r d o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and may be p a s s e d o n t o a w a i t i n g l i s t ! . . . . C r e d i t r a t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n o f h o u s e k e e p i n g a r e a l s o Important considerations. When a v a c a n c y o c c u r s , t h e Housi n g Manager c a n c o n s i d e r f o u r o r f i v e h i g h - p o i n t f a m i l i e s and i f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e n o t a y e a r o l d may g e t a nex*x c r e d i t r a t i n g b u t omit a r e - i n s p e c t i o n . P r i o r i t y assignment b y t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y i s a l w a y s done o n an i m p e r s o n a l b a s i s , a p p l i c a t i o n s and. i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t s b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d b y number o n l y . This r u l e s out the personal, emotional f a c t o r and the n e c e s s i t y f o r Board a c t i o n r e moves t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f anyone b r i n g i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r on t h e manager o r i n d i v i d u a l b o a r d member f o r a d m i s s i o n o f a 'pet f a m i l y ' . " 2  1. As o f O c t o b e r , I 9 6 0 , 900 i n number.  the w a i t i n g  list  was c l o s e t o  2. E . Promson, J . H a n s e n a n d R. S m i t h . The L i t t l e Mountain L o w - R e n t a l H o u s i n g P r o j e c t , M.S.W. t h e s i s , U.B.C. 1959.  90 The The  aim  of the  Rent  Scale  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y  maximum p o s s i b l e income w h i c h is ard of l i v i n g f o r i t s tenants. Housing A u t h o r i t y  i s to  commensurate w i t h T h e s e two  income and. t e n a n t  scale".  In a preceding present  study;  standards  are  progressive  a t t h e moment. income" and  s c a l e has  family  u p p e r and  cussed.  The  a b o u t 20  so  i n Appendix A  cent  of  t h a n do  according  to  families with  extensions  pay  income. so t h a t  be  of  of  the  the  For  "net  In  been  dis-  the  pro-  reducing  and h e a l t h f u l " l e v e l ,  comparatively to pay  and  Income  scale  f o r rent, without  family  income  premise that  changes  higher  a higher  rent  accommodation c o s t  of  slightly  income, f e w e r  percentage  example, a seven-member  i n c o m e " o f $362.50 p a y s $74  Income".  Vancouver  lower  this  This proportion  required  c h a r g e , w h i c h makes a t o t a l  1. standard  the  families with higher  c f l i v i n g below a "decent  family  family  rent  scale g e n e r a l l y accepts  per  by  l o w e r income l e v e l s have a l r e a d y  extreme l i m i t s ,  "net  that  local  income f o r accommodation.  "net  discussed  a t Regent P a r k i n Toronto,1  scale adjusts  size,  member f a m i l i e s , may  with  been f u l l y  been r e v i s e d f o r use  amount a f a m i l y c a n  standard  i n the  s e t out  "progres-  i t i s a second r e v i s i o n which i s i n f o r c e  Recent  b o t h the  is  i s also  more r e n t  similar size.  portional  and  This  f e w e r members pay  its  but  c o m p i l e d f o r use  Housing A u t h o r i t y ;  and  i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r has  con-  one.  Originally the  This  stand-  Vancouver  t r o l l e d b y means o f the' V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y ' s sive rent  the  a decent  f a c t o r s of  living  obtain  and  of  family $13  2k p e r  However, a two-member f a m i l y w i t h  service cent "net  The Carver-Hopwood s c a l e i s r e l a t e d t o a C a n a d i a n o f l i v i n g s t u d y , p r i m a r i l y computed i n T o r o n t o .  of  91  family  income" o f  charge, o r expense. rental  $327.50 p a y s $76 r e n t , p l u s $13 s e r v i c e  27*7 p e r c e n t o f "net f a m i l y i n c o m e " i n accommodation  The c o n v e r s e  i s true  s c a l e , where s i n g l e - m e m b e r ,  greater  percentage  o f "net  t h a n do l a r g e r s i z e ,  plus  family  "net  "net  total  cost  o f accommodation.  tenant w i t h average  "net  family  pays $25 r e n t  o f "net  family  Orchard  rents  cent  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y $1|1, $ 3 9 , $ 3 7 , $ 3 5 , $33 o r $31 ( r a n g e  t o 21.9 p e r cent "Service  o f "net  charges"  family  and " u t i l i t y  or from 28.5 p e r  income". charges" are f i n a n c i a l a r -  r a n g e m e n t s made b e t w e e n V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y tenants, tional heat  r e q u i r i n g some e x p l a n a t i o n .  to basic  shelter rent,  as The  "Service  and I t s  charges",  not b i l l e d  any tenant  d i r e c t l y : b y t h e B. C. E l e c t r i c  f o r cooking,  opposed t o d i r e c t only  utility.)  "Utilities"  separate  billing  gas m e t e r s  or e l e c t r i c i t y  Authority,  Company,  (the  a r e charged  f o r whom V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y  or e l e c t r i c i t y  addi-  a r e made t o e a c h t e n a n t f o r whom  and h o t w a t e r a r e s u p p l i e d b y V a n c o u v e r ' H o u s i n g  V a n c o u v e r power and l i g h t  gas  Park  ( f o r December, 1959)  b e t w e e n two-member a n d seven-member f a m i l i e s ) ,  to  income"  $181.63 w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , p a y s e r v i c e c h a r g e s o f $9 p e r month,  and  and  family  hand, a seven-  The h y p o t h e t i c a l income"  p a y s $27  o f "net  i n c o m e " o f $155,  family  $5 s e r v i c e c h a r g e , o r 1 9 . 3 5 p e r c e n t  and  of  On the o t h e r  costs,  example, a  i n c o m e " o f $125,  $2 s e r v i c e c h a r g e , o r 2 3 . 2 p e r c e n t  member f a m i l y w i t h  in  income" i n accommodation  family  income" i n a c c o m m o d a t i o n c o s t s .  of the  low-income t e n a n t s p a y a  low-income f a m i l i e s . . F o r  "single" pensioner, with rent,  i n t h e lower r e g i s t e r s  for  b y t h e B. C. E l e c t r i c  supplies lighting, Company.  i n Orchard Park a r e connected  with  92 row  houses, but  separate a flat  electric  rate for  cooking for  with  I n the meters,  and  obtains $l.k0  costs  into  f o r both cooking  has  his  own  electricity,  directly  house tenant  to the  gas  gas  cover the per  the A u t h o r i t y  are  like  to  and  the  B.  direct  f r o m the  unit the  of  s h a r e cX-  C i t y of is  incorporated  i n apartment  supplies  heat f o r apartment b l o c k s ,  vices  and  utilities  at  overall  a flat cost  computed t h e  gas,  r a t e , computed on  family  a  o f the  rent  ser-  per-unit Authority.  income", w h i c h i s t h e n e a c h income g r o u p ,  c a s e o f f a m i l i e s whose income has  above t h e maximum l i m i t s  Com-  hot  f o r these  to Vancouver Housing  "net  Electric  electricity,  and' b i l l s  " s e r v i c e charges" f o r i n the  B.C.  scale  c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the  since  1  of the  the risen  admission  " s u r charge'. .  c h a r g e i s g r a f t e d o n t o t h e maximum l i m i t s  C.  Authority  i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e homes, i ^ i t h  and  project, give  by  a nominal monthly fee  water  A u t h o r i t y must,  electric  units.  houses  set  and  furnaces  tenant  u n i t charge f o r water r a t e s  p a n y , whereas the A u t h o r i t y  aligned with  and  each tenant  individual billing  Having  $2.50  for lighting;  " s e r v i c e charge" p e r t a i n i n g to tenants  b a s i s from the  those  same a r r a n g e m e n t s . )  d i r e c t l y by  This per  T h u s , row  the  month f o r  the  Increased) to  or p e n s i o n e r  private,  ($2 p e r  In a d d i t i o n , Vancouver Housing  ( a b o u t t o be  blocks  pension u n i t s ,  using  are b i l l e d  f r o m e a c h row  the  of the  electricity  connected with  Company.  Vancouver.  using  houses,  water r a t e s p a i d  case  i s charged.  f o r couples  water h e a t e r s  Electric  apartment u n i t s have  including electricity  $k  row  and  In the  "utilities"  gas,  and  houses  meters.  " s i n g l e pensioners  lighting;  gas  b o t h row  This  to sur-  progressive  93  rent  scale,  and  30 p e r  constitutes  c e n t of the  w h i c h amount i s a p p l i e d t o t h e f a m i l y ' s r e n t a l The  maximum e n t r a n c e  income v a r i e s  The  surcharge  incomes a r e v i r t u a l l y all  cases,  does not fixed.  assessment.  $325 a month f o r a  $3&2.50 a month f o r a  two-person f a m i l y , to family.  from  "over-income",  seven-person  a p p l y t o p e n s i o n e r s , whose  Admission  i s r e f u s e d , as i n  i f income e x c e e d s t h e maximum l i m i t s .  income, f o r " s i n g l e " p e n s i o n e r s  i s $125,  $175«)  on t h e  The  surcharge  i s based  and  (Maximum  f o r pension  assumption  that  f a m i l y w i t h over-maximum income i s a b l e t o a f f o r d accommodation o r , p e r h a p s ,  home p u r c h a s e ;  t o persuade  t o move out  premise  these  families  i s , perhaps,  charge  has  circumstances  set sur-  of combining  Difficulties  Authority i s confronted with business  and  " w e l f a r e " , two  divergent yet r e a l i s t i c a l l y united facets  administration.  t i e s may  be  grouped  For purposes  of d i s c u s s i o n ,  e x t e r n a l problems,  relating  tenant  The  i n "getting  hous-  difficul to  to  the the  housing. dissatisfactions  c r e a t e d by  f o r e q u a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n have b e e n c i t e d ,  difficulty  these  and  image" o f low-Income  direction.  of p u b l i c  pertinent  "public  the  philosophi-  i n t e r n a l problems,  exclusively,  Internally,  the  into  project  either  This  device.  challenge  rents  intended  b e e n r e s o l v e d l o c a l l y by means o f t h e  Vancouver Housing  ing  i s also  However, some " c e i l i n g " must be  Administrative  cally  commercial  f o r a f a m i l y to continue to r e n t , even  when i t s income I n c r e a s e s . problem  the  of p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  s p u r i o u s i n a s m u c h as many  m i g h t make i t d e s i r a b l e  and t h i s  and  couples  high-income tenant ahead" f i n a n c i a l l y ,  and  complains  unequal  flow i n of  owing t o t h e  the surchar  9k  or of h i s a l l e g e d l y tenants  (rent  and  the  i n c l u s i o n of  "who  can a f f o r d  problem;  but  p o i n t up  double  s u b s i d i z a t i o n of the  taxes).-'"people  a car".  i f the  The  who  low-income t e n a n t  don't  Neither  complaints  low-income  really  complains  of  n e e d t o be h e r e " ,  or  complainant continue,  f a c e s the  they,  in  service  Actually,  the  from  comparatively h i g h earners  i n the  project  students,  i n o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h o n l y s e a s o n a l employment.  required i n order'to hold c e r t a i n kinds  t o commute l o n g d i s t a n c e s t o employment.  of On  Cars  effect  i n p r i v a t e housing,  m o d a t i o n and children provide  difficulty  i n locating  are the r u l e .  the  other hand,  Moreover,  housing,  question exists  practical  means d e s i g n e d  a lox^-income  tated.  T h e r e f o r e , the  housing  f o r both  as t h e u p p e r  the  comparative limits  of  will  tenant  of c o s t s ;  those accomtolerate  does  not  and,  r e g a r d i n g the n e e d f o r low-Income g i v e n , however, t o  amount o f s u b s i d i z a t i o n n e c e s s i -  "Canadian formula"  currently  provides  e x t r e m e s , as n e e d e x i s t s  provide  m a t i n g economic r e n t s or the providing  share  c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be  to l i m i t  costliness  l a n d l o r d s who  a r e n t a l which pays h i s u n i t ' s  a l t h o u g h no  and  where b o t h  may  j o b s , or i n order  e v e n t h e h i g h e r r e n t s g e n e r a l l y compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h in  and  the A u t h o r i t y .  f r e q u e n t l y h a v e l a r g e numbers o f d e p e n d e n t s , 2 a r e  be  themselves,  t h e need f o r b e t t e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n  counselling  or are  total  income more c l o s e l y  actual  i n both,  approxi-  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t of  accommodation.  1. T h i s i s - . a c t u a l l y a s p u r i o u s argument, as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r taxes a p p l i e s to everybody. (e.g., every c i t i z e n pays s c h o o l t a x e s r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r o r not, he has c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l . ) 2. I f s o , t h i s p u t s them i n the p o s i t i o n where o t h e r c i t i z e n s w i t h s m a l l f a m i l i e s or none a r e h e l p i n g t o p a y t h e i r f a m i l y allowances.  95  Another aspect o f t h e t e n a n t income c o n f l i c t i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n e q u a l i t i e s appear t o e x i s t between t h e "income v a l u e " of t h o s e r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e and t h e e a r n i n g s of lowincome t e n a n t s g a i n f u l l y employed.  C e r t a i n l y , the p r o v i s i o n o f  p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s of i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e t o e i t h e r group, as b o t h s u f f e r most g r e a t l y i n t h e s e a r c h f o r decent h o u s i n g on the p r i v a t e market.  However, m e d i c a l , d e n t a l and o t h e r "bonus"  s e r v i c e s are added t o t h e cash incomes o f t h o s e dependent upon p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e ( r e f e r r e d t o I n Chapter I I I ) , whereas, t h e m a r g i n a l wage earner n e i t h e r r e c e i v e s t h e s e s e r v i c e s nor any aid  i n b u d g e t i n g f o r them by means of a r e d u c e d V.H.A. r e n t a l  assessment.  This i s a matter to which m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s  s h o u l d g i v e some c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as t h i s s u r v e y encountered e v i dence s u g g e s t i n g t h a t many independent, low-income  f a m i l i e s are  e x p e r i e n c i n g r e a l h a r d s h i p i n m e e t i n g t h e c o s t of f a m i l y m e d i c a l and d e n t a l  needs.^  A t h i r d c o n t r i b u t o r t o " i n t e r n a l " d i f f i c u l t i e s i s the a p p a r e n t l y poor system of communication a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e t e n a n t s .  e x i s t i n g between the  T h i s survey encountered con-  s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n or m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i n g t o a d m i s s i o n and r e n t a l assessment p r a c t i c e s , and perhaps an i n t e n s i f i e d e f f o r t might be made by the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y t o p r o v i d e f o r i t s t e n a n t s a comprehensive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e .  and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e P o r example,  several  charges were made o f a l l e g e d f a v o u r i t i s m i n r e l a t i o n t o t e n a n t " s c r e e n i n g " , and many t e n a n t s were r e l u c t a n t t o have f a m i l y  1. There i s now an A d v i s o r y Committee on W e l f a r e r e p o r t i n g t o t h e Mayor,(Vancouver C i t y ) , who might w e l l p l a c e t h i s m a t t e r on t h e i r agenda.  96 allowances tribution  t r e a t e d as  a s s e s s i b l e income.  More e f f e c t i v e  dis-  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d d i s s i p a t e t h i s  problem, although  complete  or t o t a l  r e c e p t i o n i n communication  depends, i n p a r t , upon t h e  c a p a c i t y or m o t i v a t i o n of the  recei-  ver,  clarity  But i t  and  should  not  be  o n l y upon the  p o i n t e d out  that e f f i c i e n t  t a n t upon more e f f e c t i v e itself.  Without  (registration), to  offer  but  activities  a  few  an  dissemination  i n s t a f f , more c a r e  suggestions,  impediments  are bound t o c o n t i n u e .  A  "intake"  to  bulletins,  educational  efficacy  of the  communi-  difficulty alone,  i s that but  administra-  o f e d u c a t i o n a l work d i r e c t e d n o t  t o the  n e c e s s i t y can not  external  general p u b l i c .  rest  to  delayed  Canada. It  adoption  s o l e l y upon the  of p u b l i c h o u s i n g  T h i s i s a m a t t e r f o r the  i s related  bilities  of  organized  to the  as  city:  need f o r r e l o c a t i o n  shoulders  of  a social  the  the  co-operation  of the  of  the  province.  s e r v i c e , and  the p o s s i -  Planning  Park  Interesting  ( d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter  avenue o f e n q u i r y .  of p u b l i c  housing;  II) would p r o v i d e  Although  be  Department.  a l l e g e d neighbourhood d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the  Orchard  in  even f o r the  R e s e a r c h i s needed r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c concepts and  by  resource  "community r e d e v e l o p m e n t " , e t c . , w h i c h s h o u l d  with  the  Responsibility for  V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , w h i c h i s u n d o u b t e d l y hampered the  a  process.  tenants this  Authority  T e n a n t A s s o c i a t i o n and  P e r h a p s t h e most g l a r i n g l y u n r e s o l v e d tive  at  i s concomi-  a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r mimeographed  group worker c o u l d a l s o a i d g r e a t l y the cation  transmission.  f u n c t i o n i n g power f o r t h e  an i n c r e a s e and  of the  i t i s widely  tenants one  recognized  t o d a y t h a t a g r e a t many f o r c e s , some o f them b e y o n d t h e a f f e c t e d individual's  i n f l u e n c e , determine the  ability  of the f a m i l y head  97 to provide f o r h i s family, to  a l l areas  of  this  "welfare" except  study preceding the present of p u b l i c h o u s i n g understood housing as  that  a r e as  the housing important  high-income tenant  interpretation.  the  that put  The  and  understanding i t i s widely  individual example  social  e x t e r n a l to the p r o j e c t , them t h a t  of  of  housing  comparatively  a more e f f e c t i v e the  the  the h i g h c o s t  need f o r the  i s an i m p o r t a n t  convince  As  subsidized building  as h i s own  Undoubtedly,  Perhaps i t might  of housing.  i t , "Public  shortage  c o u l d do much t o ease  "haves",  i s frequently applied  f u r t h e r e d so t h a t  In the  as w e l l  to p u b l i c housing,  relations  one  n e e d s t o be  i s l o w n e s s o f income."-'-  tion  fact  needs i n r e l a of the r e q u i r e d  system  of  public  pressures exerted  upon the  t h e y have  by  "have n o t s " w i t h i n . some i n t e r e s t s  in  common. Landlord Public housing, tenant sides.  like  and. a l a n d l o r d , The  and  and  i s the  landlord  With the Vancouver Housing and  problems  has  been w i t h the p r o j e c t  t o the  t e n a n t s of Orchard  Authority office  of p r i v a t e  commercial  on  Mountain Housing  a  both and  since i t s Park.  situated nearly  two  project,  to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t a n c e of  i n a s m u c h as p u b l i c h o u s i n g  assumes a more p a t e r n a l i n t e r e s t that  requires both  A u t h o r i t y , under i t s able  arose, r e l a t e d  a g e o g r a p h i c a l , and,  housing,  t h e r e are r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  a h a l f m i l e s away i n t h e L i t t l e  minimal both  Relations  commercial  Vancouver Housing  c o n s c i e n t i o u s manager who inception,  Tenant  management  i n tenant welfare than  housing,  does  a p s y c h o l o g i c a l nature.  As  1. E . F r o m s o n , J . H a n s e n and. R. S m i t h , The L i t t l e M o u n t a i n Low-Rental Housing P r o j e c t ; M . S . W . t h e s i s , U . B . C , 1959. p.108.  98 the Family time  Counsellor  found i t necessary  a t Orchard Park, an o f f i c e  t h e A u t h o r i t y , who r e c o g n i z e tenant tial.  contact  with  t o s p e n d most o f h e r  on t h e p r o j e c t was p r o v i d e d b y  that the f a c i l i t a t i o n  of direct  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s e s s e n -  1  Presupposing mutual acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y giving tive  accurate  a p p l i c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n and i m p a r t i a l , e f f e c -  "screening",  the tenant-landlord  association i s legally  r e i n f o r c e d b y means o f t h e l e a s e , w h i c h d e f i n e s responsibilities both the tenant Included the  o f each p a r t y ,  types  tenant  Among t h e l a t t e r  vision To  o f d e p r e c i a t i o n , and r e s t r i c t i o n o f are d e n i a l of permission  t o s u b l e t any p o r t i o n o f h i s d w e l l i n g  accommodate l o d g e r s ments;  to termination of  a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o each  party f o r specific privilege.  of the A u t h o r i t y .  are clauses r e l a t i n g  l e a s e by e i t h e r p a r t y ,  i n d e t a i l the  and r e q u i r e s t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f  and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i n the lease  to the tenant  f o r both  o r roomers;  t o keep dogs o r c a t s ,  2  or to  t o make a l t e r a t i o n s o r i m p r o v e and t o i n s t a l l  external  tele-  antennae.3 give  sanction to administrative rulings,  the Vancouver  1 . The d u t i e s o f t h e V.H.A. s o c i a l w o r k e r i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( a ) f o r " s c r e e n i n g " a p p l i c a n t s , p r i m a r i l y b y means o f a home v i s i t ; (b) f o r f i l l i n g v a c a n c i e s as t h e y a r i s e , ( c ) f o r m e d i a t i o n i n any t e n a n t s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ; and .(d) f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a baby c l o t h i n g c e n t r e f o r t h o s e i n n e e d o f t h i s s e r vice. The manager p a r t i c i p a t e s I n p l a n n i n g , and no a u t h o r i t a t i v e a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g s u c h m a t t e r s as e v i c t i o n , f o r example, i s undertaken without h i s approval. The V.H.A. 's aim i n a l l I t s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g h a s b e e n t o e n c o u r a g e t h e t e n a n t s ' own i n v o l v e ment i n a c h i e v i n g r e s p e c t a b l e and p l e a s a n t h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 2. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t some h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , f o r example, t h e S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , a c c e p t p e t s , p r o v i d e d that c i t y ordinances are observed. 3. P l e a s e Chapter I I I .  refer  t o s e c t i o n on l e i s u r e  time  and r e c r e a t i o n ,  99 Housing A u t h o r i t y c o l l e c t s notice unit  f o l l o w s , and  Varying with d e p o s i t may  t e a r , the  the be  i f I t has  s e e n as  two  housing  v a r i e d over present  experience  to  immediate u n i t  When  than  to the  appearance, however,  of  total  the p u b l i c hallways, swept, s c r u b b e d Repairs  landlord-tenant and  the  Maintenance  through  tenant.  i n which the  responsibility  and waxed a t to h e a t i n g  of the  the  United States  Pub-  has  grounds i s at  and  h o u s e and  staff,  related  same h o l d s  with  mainly  true for i n -  pensioner  unit  f o r "housekeeping", whereas stairs  of the  scheduled  and  be  association.  of the  The  row  basements and  should  crew, on permanent  surroundings.  l i g h t i n g , windows, l o c k s , and h o t of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the  Authority.  v a r y i n g between i n d i v i d u a l s  t e r n a l maintenance,  ance crew.  i s returned  the maintenance  involvement  occupants take  been abused o t h e r  in Britain  a wide r a n g e . by  the  and  mutual aspects  handled  not  deposit  r e t a i n e d by  tenant  are  tenants.  d e g r e e o f a b n o r m a l a b u s e , some p o r t i o n o f  P r o j e c t maintenance  the  f r o m new  o f t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e n a n c y i s r e c e i v e d , i n s p e c t i o n of  n o r m a l wear and  lic  a deposit  times  apartment by  the  refrigeration units, water tanks  blocks  maintenplumbing,  are w i t h i n the  area  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y r e s i d e n t  caretaker. Vacating  a r r a n g e m e n t s and  o f l a n d l o r d and t i n g has of t h i s that  tenant  e v i c t i o n s round out  relations.  The  rate of voluntary  somewhat i n c r e a s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . t r e n d , have not  f o r some t e n a n t s ,  so t h a t t h e y  no  been f u l l y personal  explored,  The but  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with  the  existing  the  the  project.  resources The  vaca-  implications i t i s hoped  c o n d i t i o n s improved  longer r e q u i r e d p u b l i c housing.  impetus to l e a v e  the p i c t u r e  For  sufficiently some  others,  seem t o h a v e b e e n  r a t e of e v i c t i o n s of  100 t r o u b l e d and  troublesome f a m i l i e s  Park than f o r L i t t l e  Mountain.  population;  but  of e v i c t i o n s  (and p e r h a p s t h e  in  appears h i g h e r  for  Orchard  I t i s not h i g h f o r the  i t i s never a matter  total  t o be m i n i m i z e d .  outcomes) w o u l d be  A  study  very desirable  the f u t u r e . Some o f t h e  and  they  outstanding  Little  possibilities  of  group w o r k e r as  Mountain study, a tenant  a s s o c i a t i o n and  facilitate  a l s o u t i l i z e more e f f e c t i v e l y  sures  levels.  and  neither  c o u l d be  authors  of  the  and  (b) t h e  value  of  staff.  These  are  stimulate  utilized  at p r e s e n t .  without  one  re-  presPerhaps  a basic physical  of a "community c e n t r e " o r m e e t i n g p l a c e  f a r more t h a n  a  existing  T h e y w o u l d meet some o f t h e most o b v i o u s  realistically  the  communication,  t h e human r e s o u r c e s  r e s e n t m e n t s w h i c h show t h e m s e l v e s  provision—that must be  the  survey,  i s (a) t h e n e e d t o e x p l o r e  a member o f t h e p e r m a n e n t  sources which c o u l d both  on b o t h  from the present  echo t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made b y  preceding  and  indications  room o r a basement m a k e - s h i f t )  (which for  the  project. Implications This  survey  the w e l f a r e people,  of a very  repercussions  of a b e g i n n i n g  n o t m e r e l y on  Findings  small area  illustrates  of a h o u s i n g  m e a s u r e , of  i n b e t t e r urban planning.  a par with  V a n c o u v e r does r e c o g n i z e ; is  of Survey  schools  o r community  i t i s more t h a n  people—children, families,—citizens.  less  geographic  financial overlooked  area,  limitations, some o f t h e  and  curtailed  Orchard  relocating Housing i s  centres--which  them, b e c a u s e i t Erected i n a resource-  i n s c o p e by  P a r k has  in detail  both  superimposed  provided for  b a s i c needs o f i t s t e n a n t s .  and  Without  101 minimizing it  the v i t a l  comparison of "before"  i s essential to question  and " a f t e r " r e h o u s i n g ,  t h e e f f i c a c y o f a new r e s o u r c e  o n l y p a r t i a l l y meets t h e needs o f t h e new r e s i d e n t s ; e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l v a l i d i t y "whole".  Has t h i s  more p r o b l e m s ? yield  o f t h e a p p r o a c h must  t h e most d u r a b l e  and t h e r e f o r e  types o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ? weakened t h e d e s i g n ?  budget  restrictions  thought  Does t h e o m i s s i o n o f a community  centre,  s a v e money i n t h e l o n g  o r does i t m e r e l y g e n e r a t e new s o c i a l p r o b l e m s ? as p l a y g r o u n d s  " e c o n o m i e s " i n one s p h e r e ,  unwelcome f o r m o f J u v e n i l e assistance, sidered. this  etc.?  I t i s not only  reaching  w i l l mean much i n t h e i r This course.  maturity,  mental h e a l t h  The a s s e t s  to action.  are f u l l  critical  But e x p l o r a t i o n Valuable  and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  human r e s o u r c e s  the p r a c t i c e of continuous  levels.  This  should  experiment i n constructively  appraisal i s followed  of experience  along  e x i s t , on b o t h the  c a n expand i t s s c o p e and i n f l u e n c e  elsewhere.  Por  a p p r a i s a l , of  o f O r c h a r d P a r k have b e e n r e s t a t e d ,  and i f t h e l e s s o n s  social  chance t o "do b e t t e r " .  public housing  projects  services,  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s and n e i g h b o u r s  and t h e t e n a n t  will,  i n t h e more  of children.  administrative  if  which  t h e p a r e n t s who must be c o n -  i s n o t meant t o be a p u r e l y  with the defects. lead  Courts,  Does t h e  and k i n d e r g a r t e n s ,  get "paid f o r " l a t e r  Public housing projects  generation  or created  Has compromise o r i n s u f f i c i e n t  omission of such t h i n g s are  a l s o be v i e w e d  most f i n a n c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e  clubrooms, or c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y f a c i l i t i e s run,  and t h e  example o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g r e s o l v e d  Do t h e t r i - g o v e r n m e n t a l  i f i t  are learned  x^ith g o o d from s i m i l a r  \  102 Appendix A THE VANCOUVER HOUSING AUTHORITY  I  Monthly PROGRESSIVE RENT SCALE Net Shelter Rent According to Number of Persons In Family. Family 6 7 4 5 1 2 3 Income Maximum for Entry 357.50 362.50 332.50 342.50 352.50 327.50 74 $ 360 73 75 355 72 76 74 350 72 70 74 345 71 69 73 75 340 68 70 72 74 335 67 69 71 73 330 75 70 68 66 72 76 74 325 68 66 64 70 72 74 320 67 65 63 71 69 73 315 ' 62 66 68 64 70 310 72 61 63 67 65 69 71 305 62 60 66 68 70 64 300 60 58 62 66 68 64 295 61 57 59 63 290 67 65 58 56 60 62 66 64 285 61 57 55 59 280 63 65 56 58 60 54 62 64 275 52 56 54 60 58 62 270 51 61 53 57 55 59 265 50 52 56 60 58 54 260 49 51 55 53 57 59 255 50 48 52 56 58 54' 250 46 48 50 52 56 54 245 47 45 240 49 51 53 55 46 48 44 50 52 54 235 45 43 47 230 49 51 53 42 46 48 44 50 52 225 40 42 46 48 50 44 220 41 39 43 47 45 49 215 38 40 42 46 48 210 44 37 41 39 47 45 43 205 36 40 38 42 46 200 44 36 40 38 42 34 44 195 33 35 190 41 37 39 43 32 36 40 38 42 34 185 (P ension 180 (Couple 31 41 37 33 39 35 30 32 40 38 36 175-(Limit 34 30 28 36 32 170 38 34 27 29 37 31 165 35 33 26 28 30 36 32 160 34  Service Charges  $13  12  11  10  9  8 6 6  103 THE VANCOUVER HOUSING AUTHORITY Monthly Net Family Income  PROGRESSIVE RENT SCALE  (continued)  S h e l t e r Rent According to Number of Persons i n Family. 1  2  3  33 $ 155 35 32 150 34 30 32 145 140 29 31 30 28 135 130 27 29 125-(Single pensioner l i m i t ) 26 28 27 26 120 24 27 26 23 25 115 22 110 24 25 21 24 23 105 20 100 22 23 20 22 21 95 20 20 90 21 20 20 85 20 20 80 20 20 75 20 65 50 20  4  5  .6  7  31 30 28 27 26 25  29 28 26 25 24 23  27 26 24 23  25  24 22 21 20 20  22 20  (Scale i n use as of mid-1961)  Q ervic e Charges 5 5 4 4 3 3  2  10k Appendix B  ORCHARD PARK HOUSING SURVEY  Please be assured that a l l information i s c o n f i d e n t i a l and nobody w i l l be quoted by name. This study i s being conducted by S o c i a l Work students from the U n i v e r s i t y , and i s not an o f f i c i a l study of the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , or of the C e n t r a l Mortgage. (a) LIVING ACCOMMODATION (YOUR SUITE) F i r s t of a l l , we want to know what you think about your new p l a c e , and how i t compares with what you were l i v i n g i n before you came here. 1 . More space than before?  Enough f o r everybody?  2. What things do you l i k e best about i t ? (e.g., c l e a n l i n e s s , c o l o u r , l i g h t , heated, space, etc.)  well-  3. What took the most " g e t t i n g used to"? 4.  Are there s t i l l  some things you f i n d  strange?  5 . How d i d things work out about f u r n i t u r e ? Also c u r t a i n s , k i t c h e n equipment etc.? . 6. S p e c i a l p o i n t s about:  . . (Compared with other  place)  (1) Cooking (stove etc.) (2) Food storage  (and r e f r i g . )  (3) Meal p r e p a r a t i o n (4)  E a t i n g space  (5)  Hot water (washing, bathing)  .  (6) Bathroom, t o i l e t e t c (7) Bedrooms (8) House c l e a n i n g (9) Storage.  .  (10) Other Do you f e e l you can r e a l l y place?  take p r i d e i n the  10  5  -2-  M  (b) FAMILY LIVING (a) Recreation, Hobbies, Entertaining, etc. (in your Apartment, or Within the Project) 1. Any special hobbies or sports in your family? (a) Adults 2.  (b) Youngsters .•  Can they be carried on here easily or not? . . . .(a) Adults  3.  Better than before?. . .  (b) Youngsters  Do your friends or family visit you at your new place? (a) Adults peoples  (b) Youngsters (yours?  other  )  4.  Much radio?  record player  5.  Do neighbour's noises bother you?  T.V  How soundproof are the units? . . 6.  Do you have more privacy here than in the previous place(s)? . . Do you like i t , or do you feel a bit "cut off"?  (b) Social Activities Outside the House 1.  What recreations do you most do together (parents and children) Weekdays . . . . . . .  weekends . . . . . .  summer . . . . . .  .  (N.B.: other than T.V.)  2. Do you belong to any clubs, groups etc.: (a) Mother  (b) Father  (c) youngsters . . » • • « 3.  » .  • .............  Do you get much of your social contacts through these clubs or Church . . . . . . or other (old friends; work, etc.) . ,  4.  Could you do with a workshop or hobby centre, etc.,, . . . . basement, or a separate unit?)  5.  Y/here? (in the •<  Is theri' a need for a coiamunity centre or club room or a hall, here? . . . . Any particular groups? Need for a P.T.A.? . . . . . . . Would you like to join?  6.  • ,  Would you like to know your fellow-tenants better (e.g., other mothers, working w i v e s  )  (Are there things you ought to get together about?)  1 0 6  -3(c) The Children 1. Do they spend more time at home than at the former place(s)  .........  or less 2. Do they get more attention from mother Comments?  father  ......................  3. Any differences in school? .  Like i t better? . . . . less. . . •  Different school mates? . . . . . . . . . . .  Other comments  4. Any differences in homework?  ......... ••••  5. Xoung children: how do you manage when shopping, etc Any "baby sitting" problems? .  6. Is there enough play space for young children? Where do they play?  ...... ••«•  Problems? 7. Do the school-age children get enough sports etc., through school, Scouts, etc.?  8. Would an organized playground (e.g. with sandbox, "jungle gym", etc.) be well used here? 9.  »  What about a volunteers' cooperative play-group, or day-care group? . . . . .  M  _F C (c) NEIGHBOURHOOD AND DISTRICT Present Facilities 1. Are the schools convenient? Elementary  High  Nursery, kindergarten? 2. Whereabouts do you do most of your grocery shopping? Is i t far?  Convenient?  3. Other kinds of shopping? 4. How do you get on for church?  5. Any transportation problems? Father: work Mother?  other  Children?  Comparisons a. Which districts did you live in (Vancouver) before coming.Jiere? . . . . .  b. Did you live in apt., rooms, house, other lo  Are there things you miss in this (L.M.) district?  2. What things were you glad to leave in the old district (if any)?  3. Do you go back to the old district much? 4. Did you have many friends there? ,  , i f so, do they visit you here? . often?  5. Do the children like this district? complaints? 6. Would you say you feel part of a new neighbourhood here? Or that you belong mostly to the project?. (Would you call i t a "community"?) ,  or have any  1 v a  M  THE BUDGET Family and Earnings: (a) Size of your family .  . . . . . . . .  (b) Any earners besides (yourself) (husband) (c) Occupation of breadwinner(s)  . .  ...'*<  ( f u l l time, part-time, or irregular)  ..  (d) Like better employment, i f feasible?  . . . . . . . . . .  (e) Unemployment or non-wage—earner (SA) etc. Budget Situation: 1.  Is your rent higher or lower than you paid before?  2.  Does i t make i t harder or easier to balance the budget (make both ends meet)  3.  What would you say i s your biggest or most d i f f i c u l t budget item (apart from rent)?  4»  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  -..  Did you have special problems with furniture, credit purchase etc. (or have now) which makes your budget situation a bad one? . . . . . . . .  ..• »  Rent and Income 1,  Do you consider the rent scale here (so far as you understand i t ) f a i r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  or not? (how)  .  2*  Do you think your rent should be higher i f your income goes up?  3«  Do you understand why the income check-up for tenants i s necessary? . . . . . . .  4.  .Do you f e e l i t i s conducted reasonably?  .......<  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Have you ever been able to consider buying a house? . . . Could you have managed a down payment (say at least $500)? ,, . /. u u u * . . . . . Monthly payments (how much would be a maximum for you?) . . . . . . *.«. ...,«. « «,..«..*.-•. • «'«••«• . . . . .  109  ^5. Any r e a s o n s venient?  6.  against  home p u r c h a s e i n y o u r c a s e ? ( E . g . , Not a b l e t o cope w i t h m a i n t e n a n c e  Work n o t alv/ays  i n one p l a c e ?  Do you t h i n k i t  is  What i s  true  that  Previous tenants  your experience  a p a r t m e n t more c o n -  adverse  experience?  a r e h a r d e r on p r o p e r t i e s  with maintenance,  repairs,  than  .  .  .  owners?  etc.  here?  GENERAL 1. What t h i n g s  would you most l i k e  2. Have y o u any s u g g e s t i o n s s i m i l a r to O r c h a r d P a r k , 3.  Would you l i k e  to  to  see  w h i c h y o u would l i k e i n the f u t u r e ?  see more g r a s s ,  trees,  gardens o r do you t h i n k 4. A r e you s a t i s f i e d  with  the  Could i t More s h e l t e r e d Do you t h i n k  sit  everything  is  fine  appearance  .  6.  not  everybody  would c o o p e r a t e  just  the  7. Do you t h i n k t h e r e (Do you t h i n k t h e y  slums?)  as  it  o r hedges open ( i n  etc.?  summer)?  is?  the p r o j e c t ?  and t a k e a p r i d e i n t h e  tidier?  .  .  place?.  .  .  C l u b " would be a good i d e a ?  c l u b room c o f f e e  bar,  "do-it-yourself"  i d e a o f a Community C e n t r e " s e r v i n g  the  newspaper?  entire  Orchard Park tenants?  Do you t h i n k t h e p u b l i c knows  suburbs?)  i n the  project  or p r o t e c t e d ?  . Or do you l i k e  district,  of  walks,  be more p l e a s a n t ?  Perhaps with a b u l l e t i n board, .  sheltered to  general  project?  t o make f o r any new  places  5. Do you t h i n k an " O r c h a r d P a r k S o c i a l  .  improved i n t h i s  enough a b o u t  housing projects  s h o u l d be more s u c h p r o j e c t s  oldest  this  kind?  as O r c h a r d P a r k ?  s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d a r o u n d t h e (Or i n t h e  of  city,  districts  perhaps  to r e p l a c e  even i n some o f  the the  110 THE  VANCOUVER HOUSING AUTHORITY  I N S P E C T I O N  R E P O R T Complete one copy and a t t a c h to a p p l i c a t i o n .  PRESENT HOUSING Name o f Applicant...„ ...„„..,., = ...... Address.  ....  ..  When a re-check i s made complete a new form and mark p r i o r r e p o r t cancelled.  . Phone  Number o f persons i n household,.....  SUITABILITY AS A TENANT; (See paragraph 4-1 of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n manual) Comments a r e t o be r e c o r d e d on the r e v e r s e s i d e o f t h i s page. DEFECTS OF PRESENT HOUSING  (bad c o n d i t i o n s get h i g h marks, see over)  1;  MAX.  D E S C R I P T I O N -  F A C T O R S Overcrowding  6  2.  D i s r e p a i r r e s u l t i n g i n hazards  5  ^  Kitchen f a c i l i t i e s or l a c k o f p r i v a t e  5  .  Bathroom f a c i l i t i e s inadequate o r not private.; l a u n d r y o v e r t a x e d  5=  inadequate . kitchen  Heating f a c i l i t i e s or u n s a f e  5  inadequate 3  ^  Inadequate n a t u r a l l i g h t o r ventilation  3  r,  Lack o f s a f e p l a y space  2  children's  8.  L o c a t i o n f a r from employment  2  9<  Other u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  2  :  conditions TOTAL  for l  t  c  h  e  n  Bathroom  33  Check  Rooms i n D w e l l i n g ;  K  SCORE  POINTS  t h i s family only?,..  shared with o t h e r s ? for  t h i s f a m i l y o n l y ? ,,  shared w i t h o t h e r s ? : ......  L i v i n g Room? <  i.......  D i n i n g Room (Separate) ?.„•„.. .....  Bedrooms? 0  1 2  3  4  5  6  ( c i r c l e for correct number o f bedrooms)  REMARKS (a) Suitability;  (evidence of unsuitability such as unrealiability i n payment of debts,  or instability as reflected in intemperence and family trouble, w i l l disqualify the applicant) .....  ••o •  •  0 0 0 0 9 1  (b) Present Conditions; (including impressions of housekeeping, health of family, ownership of furniture, or any other special f e a t u r e s ) . . . 0 . „ „ . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . « . . . . .  O « •  O O O •  1  Inspection Date......  ,.,...,.,..,.,..,..19......  PRESENT HOUSING: SCORING PROCEDURE It i s suggested that the Inspector make notes in the description column during each i n spection but not try to mark the score in a l l respects until he has completed several or a l l inspections, and can sort the applicants into groups on each factor according to the relative severity of the defects observed. The most severe shall be given the maximum points in the table. The following w i l l serve as a guide to scoring certain of the factors; (the numbers shown herein refer to the listed factors i n the table) 1.  Overcrowding occurs unless there i s a bedroom for each two persons in the household, plus enough bedrooms so that no dependents of opposite sexes over 10 years old must share a room.  5.  Score i f heating equipment i s unable to maintain comfortable temperatures or liable to fire hazard i f over-taxed.  6.  Do not give f u l l marks i f conditions are easy to rectify; include inspection of basement or attic i f any.  7.  Score i f there i s neither a back yard nor play lot that i s easy and safe to go to.  8.  Score i f journey to place of employment by public transit takes more than 30 minutes, or costs a zone fare plus the standard fare for the system.  9.  Score for unsatisfactory conditions, such as harmful surroundings, special atmospheric'^ and noise hazards, etc.  Ill  Appendix D  THE  VANCOUVER  HOUSING  AUTHORITY  FAMILY INCOME FORM  Present Address.  (Last Name)  (First Name)  .Since  (Street and Number)  Marital Status of Family Head: Married (  HEAD  Telephone No. (Date)  )  Widow (  Relation to Head  FAMILY COMPOSITION Names of Persons to Reside in the Accommodation  (Other Names)  )  Widower (  )  Separated (  )  Divorced (  )  Single (  INFORMATION OF EMPLOYMENT Date of Birth  Name and Address of Employer (If school child, give school)  Date.  )  ... 19.  SUMMARY OF FAMILY INCOME Gross Wages or Salary  Occupation  week(i)  month  Source of Other Income  Other Income (ii)  TOTAL MONTHLY INCOME  HEAD  2 3 4  5 6 7  8  Notes: (i) For method of computing monthly income from weekly earnings, see Part III of Administration Manual.  (ii) Other income includes Family Al- (iii) Total Assets $ lowances, Welfare Assistance, Pensions, Include Savings, Real Estate, Stocks Funds from Relatives or others, Tips, and Bonds, and all other assets, Alimony, Bonus Monies, Life Insurance, etc. (see Part III of Administration Manual).  Monthly Net Family Income  ?.  Number in Family Monthly Rent: Shelter $. Other Charges $..  Is baby expected?.  When?  Total Monthly Payment Effective Date:  MONTHLY NET INCOME  Verified  (Mr.) Name of Family Head (Mrs.). (Miss)  112  Appendix E BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: B r a d l e y B u e l l and a s s o c i a t e s , Community P l a n n i n g f o r Human S e r v i c e s . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1952. Jerome K. Myers, and Bertram H. R o b e r t s , F a m i l y and C l a s s Dynamics i n Mental I l l n e s s . John Wiley and Sons, I n c . , New York, 1959. A l b e r t Rose, Regent P a r k , A Study i n Slum C l e a r a n c e . Toronto U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Toronto, 1958. H a r o l d L. Wilensky and Charles N. Lebeaux, I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and S o c i a l Welfare. R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New York, 1958. Articles; " C i t i z e n s ' Forum—Resolved That: We Need More S u b s i d i z e d P u b l i c Housing". Pamphlet 12, February I960. Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . "Housing and L i f e " , Canadian W e l f a r e , Volume X X V I I I , No.6, December 15,1952. Jane Jacobs, " V i o l e n c e i n the C i t y S t r e e t s " , Harper's Magazine, Vol.223, No.1336. September 1961. Theses: E. Fromson, J . Hansen and R. Smith, The L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental Housi n g P r o j e c t . Master of S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959. M i c h a e l Wheeler, E v a l u a t i n g the Need f o r Low-Rental Housing, Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. Warren A. W i l s o n , Housing C o n d i t i o n s among S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e F a m i l i e s . Master of S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. Reports and S t u d i e s : The Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowances Committee, Report t o the Community Chest and C o u n c i l on the Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Allowances i n the C i t y of Vancouver. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, September 1958. B e v e r l y A y r e s , The F a m i l y Centered P r o j e c t of S t . P a u l . A S e r i e s o f Three Seminars on a Demonstration P r o j e c t w i t h M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l i e s . Research Department, Community Chest and C o u n c i l of the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , A p r i l I960. (Unpublished seminars) Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver A r e a , "Recommendat i o n s Concerning S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Rates P a i d i n G r e a t e r Vancouver", Study Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s . Summary of the Committee's F i n d i n g s . December 10, 1958.  113 Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue, T a x a t i o n D i v i s i o n , I960 T a x a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s . The Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Leonard C. Marsh, R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood. B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1950.  The U n i v e r s i t y of  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , Annual Report 1959« Vancouver. Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , Annual Report I960. Vancouver. Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , B u l l e t i n #34. Vancouver, February, 19 Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , B u l l e t i n #40. Vancouver, October, 1959 Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , B u l l e t i n #43. Vancouver, June, I960. "Vancouver Sun" Research D i v i s i o n , F a c t u a l Inventory of B r i t i s h Columbia. M i c h a e l Wheeler, A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Community Chest and C o u n c i l , 1961.  

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