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Housing for the aged: an exploratory study of needs and preferences; surveys of a housing registry waiting… Hanowski, Arvey Joseph 1962

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HOUSING FOR THE AGED: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF NEEDS AND PREFERENCES Surveys of a Housing Registry Waiting L i s t , and of a Characteristic Central Area, Vancouver, 1961-62 by ARVEY HANOWSKI ELLEN EUGENIE HAYWARD CARLA REED EDWARD CHARLES TEATHER Thesis Submitted i n Part i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1962 The University of Br i t i s h Columbia In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of SeA^Jt. y M+*Jk The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date &?J£UM< a 9,  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date &d£jr6&n^ / 0, In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of '^ ~-^ g.wcLoJL, V „ )crO^<; The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study, I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of <T&fJ ftL UUfosP The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.t Date ABSTRACT While a number of housing projects for elderly people have been built, there is a serious lack of definitive information, not only of total .future need, but of the variety of needs and preferences among the aged, which is essential for the formation of an enlightened and constructive housing policy. The present study is a f i r s t step in seeking to ascertain a balanced picture of needs from old people themselves. Originally, a number of area samples within the City of Vancouver were projected, but this had to be abandoned because of enumeration d i f f i c u l t i e s . The compromise was a comparative assessment of two samples (a) one drawn from the Housing Registry set up by the Community Chest and Council, (b) one area in the False Creek section of the City which has many units peopled by elderly residents, and which is categorized for city planning purposes as needing "redevelop-ment" . By themselves, these are not sufficiently definitive: i t i s hoped that more can be added in the future. But this f i r s t survey opens up both method and insights. Studies completed elsewhere have been employed as background, and relevant findings compared with the present enquiry. Several questionnaires were devised. Members of each sample group were interviewed individually, for approximately one hour each: and the interviewers added their own observations on a number of relevant factors. The evidence is that the elderly people on the Community Chest "waiting l i s t " are in poorer health, express more dissatisfaction with their present housing, have somewhat better accommodation, but pay more for i t , and have moved around more that the elderly residents in the False Creek area. Women are particularly numerous on the Registry. It is also alarmingly clear that many persons in the False Creek area cling to housing which is not serving their accommodation needs. Their neighbourhood symbolizes security; to move is to face the unknown, and also threatens their concept of independence. Both groups are spending too large a proportion of their income on rent. Both groups denied or blocked out the possibility of their health deteriorating to the point where nursing or boarding home care might be required. There is evidence that housing is not understood as a welfare matter, or a proper aim of social policy: low-rental housing is viewed negatively, and public housing for general purposes confused with housing projects for old people only. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. The Aged The aged i n general. The aged and housing, who needs housing? Some current requirements i n research 1 Chapter 2. Two Sample Surveys The sample groups studied. Sampling method for the housing registry group. Sampling of the Palse Creek area residents. Design and testing of the interview schedule. The interviews. Char-acteristics of the areas 38 Chapter 3« Housing Needs Background of applicants on the "waiting l i s t " . Present accommodation of these people and their opinion of i t . Health. Income. Shelter costs and their impact. Shelter costs and quality of accommodation. The False Creek area: compara-tive information. Differentials: classes of aged persons; type of accommodation; income and shelter costs 55 Chapter 4. Housing: Attitudes and Preferences Dimensions and differences of respondents: type of "household"; familiarity with projects, length of residence. Attitudes and what l i e s behind them. Preferences: areas; type of accommodation. Profiles: old people at home 92 Chapter 5« Planned Housing Provision: What  Remains to be Done? Attachment to the house or neighborhood. Income and rents. Quality of accommodation. "Integration, not segregation." Health i n relation to housing needs. Summary of attitudes and pre-ferences. Implications for planning 124 Appendices: A. B. C. D. TABLES IN THE TEXT Table 1. The Number of Persons Over Sixty-Five by Sex and Marital Status i n Vancouver 1961 14 Table 2. Living Arrangements of Population 65 Years-*-by Sex, B r i t i s h Columbia 29 Table 3. Interviews Held 44 Table 4. Housing and Population Characteristics False Creek Area. 46 Table 5» Guide to Interview Responses 49 Table 6. Ratio of Houses to Dwelling Units i n False Creek Area 51 Table 7« Proportion of Houses and Dwelling Units with Aged to Total 51 Table 8. Distribution of Old Persons Compared with Total Population, by Enumeration Di s t r i c t s 52 Table 9. Distribution of "Singles" and "Couples" i n Aged Population by Enumeration D i s t r i c t s . . . 52 Table 10. Proportion of Elderly Persons Living on Their Own and Boarding, by Enumeration D i s t r i c t s . 55 CHAPTER I THE AGED A. The Aged i n General The urbanization and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of North American s o c i e t y has not reached i t s present stage without paying some p r i c e i n terms of human s u f f e r i n g . The r u r a l -urban population s h i f t , the demands f o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , payment i n wages f o r i n d i v i d u a l labor, and values sur-rounding independence f o r o l d and young a l l d i c t a t e that the extended family enter a process of segmentation and thus be no longer able to provide a source of mutual support. Urbanization and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n require mobile and productive i n d i v i d u a l s , persons with i n i t i a t i v e and s k i l l , men and women who would adhere to the e t h i c that to succeed m a t e r i a l l y r e f l e c t s i n d i v i d u a l worth while to f a i l m a t e r i a l l y r e f l e c t s a lack of worth; lack of worth to the s t r i v i n g human group. "Dependency" upon s o c i e t y i s a human state which s t i l l has a negative connotation i n North America, a s o c i e t y which values i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e and i t s end r e s u l t , the independent person. However, North America i s slowly reaching a stage of affluence where i t s people can take stock of where they are as the great 2 majority are being f r e e d from the need to s t r i v e m a t e r i a l l y . The process of taking stock has bared the waste products of urbanization and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; persons who are depen-dent upon so c i e t y , persons who have material and emotional needs, persons who needs are not being met. The r e s i -dual notion that dependency i s the r e s u l t of an i n d i v i d u a l flaw i s slowly becoming obsolete as i t becomes c l e a r that t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s most often created by the nature of s o c i e t y , not the nature of the man. This notion i s being slowly replaced by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l concept that s o c i e t y has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to meet the needs created by i t s urbanization and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The slow emergence of various s o c i a l assistance programs, p r i v a t e and p u b l i c pension schemes and l e g i s l a t i v e measures to increase the a v a i l a b i l i t y of low r e n t a l p u b l i c housing r e f l e c t a growing acceptance of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l concept. Increasing concern i s being evidenced nowadays about the adequacy and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of our welfare s e r v i c e s . This i s a welcome develop-ment but too often the concern i s no more than a t r a n s i e n t emotion,-suddenly aroused and quickly extinguished. The aged i n Canadian so c i e t y are subject to the p o s s i b i l i t y of many conditions of dependency with r e s u l t a n t and accompanying s t r e s s . A l l aged are subject to the 1 wheeler, Michael, A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare  i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, March 1961, Preface. 3 p o s s i b i l i t y of p h y s i c a l dependency. The values placed on success and p r o d u c t i v i t y incur l e s s psychological s t r e s s f o r the o l d person who i s economically s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g than f o r the one who i s not. The extended family i s becoming segmented and often i s not a source of support. The value placed on standing alone on one's own two feet often causes the older person to i n f l i c t p h y s i c a l , economic, and psychological s t r e s s upon himself. These conditions of dependency and st r e s s are often both symbolized and ac t u a l i z e d by older person's housing. I l l h ealth, undernourishment, l o n e l i n e s s and a sense of i n s e c u r i t y produced by the fe a r of e v i c t i o n , or by the lack of f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s to help i n times of need, complete the drab p i c t u r e of l i f e f o r many old people i n our c i t y today. 1 I t i s the considered opinion of the many people who are concerned with the problems of some of our older c i t i z e n s that steps must be taken both to better the actual l i v i n g conditions of the aged and through p u b l i c education to constantly attack the r e s i d u a l notion that dependency denotes uselessness to the human group. I t i s t h i s notion which blocks the p r o v i s i o n of improved l i v i n g conditions by the state and creates a psychological b a r r i e r between the one who needs improved l i v i n g conditions and the 1 Housing For Our Older C i t i z e n s . Vancouver Housing Ass o c i a t i o n , March 194-9. 4 improved conditions themselves. This t h e s i s i s an attempt to show the importance of improved l i v i n g conditions to a selected p o r t i o n of the aged population. I t w i l l show the present l i v i n g condi-t i o n s of two selected groups of older persons and t h e i r needs and preferences i n terms of new accommodations. Needs are d i c t a t e d by the p h y s i c a l and economic being of the aged, preferences by the values they adhere t o . I t i s i n the thoughtful and knowledgeable combination of these two that the understanding necessary to the formulation of good housing p o l i c y may come int o being. Let us look at some of the problems created both by society's at t i t u d e s towards aging and the aging process i t s e l f while asking the question "How can housing help?" Medicine has extended the p h y s i c a l process of aging as many of the chronic ailments associated with o l d age have proven amenable to treatment. However, the p h y s i c a l process of aging s t i l l takes place. "Unless there i s a sudden onset of one of the chronic ailments associated with age, such as cerebral hemorrhage, the person s l i d e s p h y s i c a l l y and mentally, by imperceptible degrees, i n t o o l d age." 1 There i s s t i l l the danger of degenerative diseases; heart f a i l u r e , strokes, cataracts, deafness, 1 Cavan, Burgess, Havinghurst, and Goldhamer, Personal  Adjustment i n Old Age. S o c i a l Science Research Associates Inc., Chicago, 19*9, P* 2. 5 rheumatism, a r t h r i t i s , cancer, and many other physical ailments. Strength and endurance decline, one's senses lose their acuity, one's appearance changes, and one's motor and manual s k i l l s are impaired. However, medicine has extended the period of time where the older person i s physically and mentally capable of enjoying l i f e . Science and society have created a paradox, the number of people physically and mentally capable of enjoying old age i s increasing while their culture creates the conditions which communicate to them that they are no longer needed. In a study entitled Family Relationships of Older  People by Ethel Shanas^" the aged were shown as having more value to their children than i s commonly assumed but the bond between the generations became strained i n the advent of sickness. The aged person feared sickness as a condi-tion leading to physical, psychological and economic dependency. Apparently many older people feel that to ask their sons or daughters for financial help would threaten the affectional relationship between the generations.2 This style of l i f e i s the result of many factors, among them increased urbanization, greater national mobility, and most important, cultural values that emphasize independent 1 Shanas, Ethel, Family Relationships of Older People. Health Information Department Research Series, no. 2 0 (October 1 9 6 1 ) . 2 Ibid., p. III. 6 l i v i n g f o r the older person as well as f o r younger people when they mature and marry. 1 1 Some guides to housing become obvious. The p h y s i c a l pro-cess of aging creates s p e c i a l needs i n terms of housing. Rheumatism and a r t h r i t i s demand dryness and constant heat. Weak hearts demand the absence of both s t a i r s and the n e c e s s i t y of strenuous walking. Family r e l a t i o n s h i p s are valued and therefore housing f o r the aged should be i n t e -grated with the community where the maintaining of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s p o s s i b l e . Housing f o r the aged should have immediate access to medical s e r v i c e s . However, most important of a l l , housing must be provided i n a way which does not threaten the older person's desire to be inde-p e n d e n t — u n t i l values surrounding independence are modified. F a c i l i t i e s must be presented i n a way which does not threaten independence, they must make allowance f o r the p h y s i c a l process of aging, and they must be so located that meaningful family ties, are not broken. Economic dependency may come int o being through other f a c t o r s besides doctors' b i l l s . Retirement, f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons, may force l i v i n g on an inadequate income; work may be denied the aged because of a p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y ; the kinship structure may not be able to stand 1 Shanas, oo. c i t . . p. _58« 7 important f a m i l i a l and social t i e s . A workshop would pro-vide the opportunity to maintain satisfying s k i l l s while learning new ones. Television and proximity to a library may encourage the maintenance of a body of knowledge com-mensurate with the present. David Reisman's essay "Some C l i n i c a l and Cultural Aspects of the Aging Process" gives an interesting typology of the aged. His three categories include those who have "psychological sources of self-renewal ..." "... indepen-dent of cultural structures and penalties ..."; "the beneficiaries of cultural preservative ...", who suffer i n a period of change; and f i n a l l y , those protected neither from within or without, those who just d e c a y . O f his general typology the second and third categories would be of the greatest concern due to the assault of self or social change on one who lacks the personal resources to cope with these. Among these problems (assaults) are counted the termination of gainful employment; reduced income; the onset or exacerbation of degenerative i l l n e s s ; i solation through death or removal of family, friends, and peers; increased periods of indolence; loss of physical and mental a b i l i t i e s ; widowhood; a decreasing standard of l i v i n g ; and 1 Reisman, David, "Some C l i n i c a l and Cultural Aspects of the Aging Process," Individualism Reconsidered. The Free Press, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1955, PP» 484-492. 7 the d r a i n of f i n a n c i a l support; costs may r i s e at a rate disproportionate to income; or a house may he too expensive to maintain. Those l e a s t l i k e l y to have the money to r e t i r e on are those most l i k e l y to want to or have to r e t i r e . 1 In the Shanas study c h i l d r e n and parents p r e f e r r e d the older person to r e l y e i t h e r on t h e i r own resources or on the p government f o r economic support. Housing f o r the aged must he w i t h i n t h e i r capacity to pay. Obviously the p r i c e p a i d f o r housing must not threaten one's d i e t or one * s s e l f - s a t i s f y i n g use of increased l e i s u r e time. The r a p i d s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change featured by Canadian so c i e t y demands a constant s h i f t i n values, knowledge and s k i l l s which must be c o n t i n u a l l y appropriate to the present state of being. The older person's s k i l l s are often obsolete; he lacks p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y ; mentally he i s not as a l e r t while both the aging process and a s t r i v i n g s o c i e t y d i c t a t e that he has the greatest problem i n constant adjustment. How can housing soften the demands of society? Companionship with other older persons would a l l e v i a t e the f e e l i n g of being s o c i a l l y out of step while proximity to the community would maintain 1 Friedmann, E. A., and R. J . Havinghurst, The Meaning of  Work and Retirement. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 19554, p. 183. 2 Shanas, op. c i t . . p. 29» 8 those feelings, emotions, thoughts and attitudes that attend the foregoing evidences of the decline of l i f e i n our society.1 Aging i s shown to be a physical, psychological, economic and cultural problem with both a human and cultural base. The problem i s intensified when i t repre-sents a state with a negative connotation, a state which denies worth to the individual with insufficient resources. How can the resources be supplied i n a way which allows the individual to make self-satisfying use of them? How can the basic need of sound housing be met i n a manner i n which i t w i l l be both provided and received within the context of mutual respect? Housing which reflects the physical a g i l i t y and earning power of younger persons does not take the physical and economic needs of the aged into account. Housing which isolates the older person from his community ignores his need to be i n contact with familiar surroundings and familiar people. Housing which reflects the residual notion states "You are a person of l i t t l e worth." Imaginative housing policy could do much to say "You belong and you are good." The possible types of aged are numerous and a l l 1 MacKinnon, Dolina P., and Jerome H. Angel, Housing  Heeds and Preferences Among Senior Citizens (West Vancouver), Master of Social Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952, p. 2. 9 would indicate various housing needs. There are parents with children, married couples, single men and single women. Health may range from excellent to the invalid or senile dement. Income may range from seventy-nine to thousands of dollars per month. These factors may indicate some delineations i n the types of housing needed. Old people may prefer "hatching," a garden, a l i b r a r y close at hand, to l i v e with other old people, to l i v e with young people or to l i v e alone. These factors may indicate some delineations i n the type of housing preferred. The aged demonstrate that they can adapt needs and preferences to their present l i v i n g conditions; but, i s their present adaptation best conducive to a self-satisfying life?" 1" 2 The thesis by Angel and MacKinnon demonstrated how older people quite often cling to and maintain a home because of preferences when i t i s both physically taxing and economically depriving. Shanas also i l l u s t r a t e s that preferences are often antithetical to what the objective observer may see as needs. In terms of needs low income may counterindicate home maintenance, or a heart condition may counterindicate l i v i n g alone i n a second storey room. However, older people often prefer l i v i n g i n a state 1 Chapters III, IV, and Y w i l l give some answers to this question. 2 MacKinnon and Angel, oo. c i t . 10 antithetical to needs because of values. To ignore either needs or preferences would be detrimental to both the physical and mental health of the aged. However, l e t us not see old people as inflexible persons who have to be carefully analyzed, carefully trained, and carefully herded into carefully prepared shelters. As a matter of fact, older people wil l y -n i l l y had to acquire a habit of adaptation to many changes and rapid ones at that. This i s a fact that most of us are quite apt to forget or overlook.1 To accurately ascertain how dependent old people are or to measure the existence of need poses a most d i f -f i c u l t task as many of our own assumptions i n this area are colored by values. The elder statesman, tycoon, or a r t i s t are i n the public eye and are not seen as approxi-mating dependency while those who are institutionalized at least have their physical needs met i n a somewhat known way. It i s the vast group i n between these two extremes that represent the unknown and also represent the group this thesis i s primarily concerned with. B. The Aged and Housing A general perspective on the aged and the relation 1 Mathiasen, Geneva, "Better Buildings For the Aging," The Architectural Record (May 1956), p. 208. 11 of t h i s t h e s i s to t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y has been given i n the preceding section. The focus of the chapter must now become Vancouver and i t s aged population. Although the population trend i s now to leave the l a r g e r c i t i e s f o r " f r i n g e 1 , 1 areas, the persons c r e a t i n g t h i s trend are l a r g e l y younger f a m i l i e s . As both the stan-dard and cost of housing declines i n Vancouver C i t y the 2 proportion of sing l e and widowed aged increases. This would i n d i c a t e that some of the present types of housing problems faced by the aged i n our c i t i e s w i l l be with us f o r some time. The 1956 Census of Canada i n d i c a t e s that 50,153 people over 65 years of age l i v e i n Vancouver C i t y . The s o c i a l problem created by the needs of our aged i s c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e n s i f i e d as t h e i r needs are not met and the number of aged persons increases. With the number of people who are over s i x t y - f i v e i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y each year, our so c i e t y today i s f i n d i n g i t s e l f faced with the problem of keeping a large share of i t s population from j o i n i n g the 1 The term " f r i n g e " denotes such areas as Burnaby, Richmond, Surrey, Langley and Maple Ridge. The older persons migrating to these areas w i l l also face problems i n adjustment, e s p e c i a l l y those who move from c i t y centers. 2 Wheeler, oo. c i t . . p. 46. The reasons f o r t h i s increase w i l l be examined at a l a t e r point i n t h i s chapter. Examples would be economic conditions, f a m i l i a r i t y with an area, lack of knowledge about substitute housing, e t c . 12 l i v i n g dead—those whose minds are , allowed to die before t h e i r bodies do. Four f a c t o r s determine the proportion of any one age group r e s i d i n g i n any one area; climate, economic advance, excess of b i r t h s over deaths and immigration. From 1941 to 1956 the number of aged i n Canada has increased 5 9 % o while the number of aged i n B. C. has increased 121%. This s t a r t l i n g increase i n B. C. would r e s u l t i n the pro-jected f i g u r e of 1 5 8 , 0 0 0 aged populating t h i s province i n I 9 6 0 , and r e f l e c t s the r e s u l t s of extended l i f e , a climate su i t e d to retirement with r e s u l t a n t inimigration from other parts of Canada, and the immigration of large numbers of working people years ago who are now i n retirement. The proportion of the aged to the o v e r a l l popu-l a t i o n i s now i n the decrease across Canada and t h i s i s evident i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The pioneer era i s over and a more constant population pattern i s emerging. With regard to the aged, i t i s noteworthy that the proportion of persons s i x t y - f i v e years of age and over i s expected to decline from i t s high point of 1 0.9% reached i n 1 9 5 5 , to 7 . 0 % of the t o t a l population i n 1 9 7 5 . This decline i n the proportion of the aged makes, however, an absolute increase i n 1 Kaplan, Jerome, A S o c i a l Program f o r Older People. 2 wheeler, oo. c i t . . p. 2 9 . 3 I b i d . , p. 3 7 . 13 t h e i r numbers from 158,000 i n I960 to 186,000 i n 1975. A sizeable proportion of t h i s increase can be expected to find-, i t s way into the two major urban centers of the province and the implications of t h i s f o r the development of d o m i c i l l i a r y and other services to the aged deserves serious consideration.2 In 1956 there were 150,279 persons over s i x t y - f i v e years of age i n B r i t i s h Columbia; 50,153^ i h Vancouver. This represents 33 per cent of the t o t a l population of the province. Thirty-three per cent of the 28,000 increase between I960 and 1975 can also be expected to reside i n Vancouver. The r a t i o between men and women i n Vancouver C i t y and i n B r i t i s h Columbia compares i n v e r s e l y to the Canadian pi c t u r e as there are more o l d men than women i n Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia. This i s because B r i t i s h Columbia i s jus t emerging from a pioneer state, a state demanding male workers. In 1956 there were 25$592 men over s i x t y - f i v e i n Vancouver as compared to 24,561 women. The r a t i o i s 1 These "two major urban centers" are Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . 2 Wheeler, op. c i t . . p. 37* Geneva Mathiasin i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Better Buildings For the Aged", an American study, shows that t h i s " l e v e l l i n g " i s also true i n the United States. She also claims that the aged are slowly gaining f i n a n c i a l independence and t h e i r health i s improving. 3 Adapted from Table 33» P« 175, Wheeler, OP. c i t . 4 I b i d . . adapted from Table 10, p. 46. 14 slowly moving to favor the women because of t h e i r greater l i f e expectancy. Table I. The Number of Persons over S i x t y - f i v e by Sex  and M a r i t a l Status i n Vancouver 1956-Men Single 4,069 Women Single 1,842 Married 17,120 Married 10,659 Widowed 4,172 Widowed 11 , 9 1 2 Divorced 2?1 Divorced 147 Total 2 5 , 5 9 2 24,561 This table shows the l a r g e r numbers of men i n a l l categories, excepting widowed. This s t a t i s t i c a l evidence has demonstrated the demography of the aged i n Vancouver, given t h i s a n a t i o n a l perspective, and has served us with some in d i c e s of numerical need. The housing conditions of many ol d people i n Vancouver have been made more graphic by studies preceding urban redevelopment and urban redevelopment i t s e l f . These pr o j e c t s have substantiated p r i o r _nowledge that a large 1 Wheeler, OP. c i t . Adapted from Table 49, p. 247. D.B.S., Census of Canada. 1956. 15 number of older persons l i v e i n conditions a n t i t h e t i c a l to needs and p o s s i b l y a n t i t h e t i c a l to preferences. In 1956 four hundred older houses were demolished i n Vancouver; most of these i n the West End, where hundreds of o l d people were housed. 1 The demolished housing was within the economic grasp of these people. There i s growing r e c o g n i t i o n of the needs of low income groups. Mr. Wheeler i n A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia notes that adequate housing p i s one of the most important needs of low-income groups. Need i n t h i s area i s d i f f i c u l t to assess but some conclusions can d e f i n i t e l y be drawn from the f a c t s bared i n urban redevelopment p r o j e c t s . The Vancouver Redevelopment Study states: A major problem revealed by the survey i s the existence of a large number of singl e persons, a great many of them pensioners, who are l i v i n g i n small and i l l - e q u i p p e d rooms, not designed f o r permanent occupancy.^ The aged must be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from other low-income 1 Annual Report. Committee on the Welfare of the Aged, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Report of the Sub-Committee on Housing, January 1957, P» 3« 2 wheeler, op. cit.« p. 182. 3 Vancouver Redevelopment Study. December 1957* Prepared by the C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department f o r the Housing Research Committee, p. 7. This i s a survey i n the East End of Vancouver. The r e s i d e n t i a l sample to be taken i n t h i s t h e s i s i s from a comparable area. 16 groups i n terms of housing needs. They have s p e c i a l pro-blems created by l i v i n g apart from t h e i r f a m i l i e s , p h y s i c a l degeneration, t h e i r preferences and the frequency with which a c e r t a i n type of aged, s i n g l e persons, are found i n undesirable housing. The housing conditions revealed i n the foregoing studies are slowly awakening the p u b l i c conscience.""* Action taken to provide housing f o r low income f a m i l i e s and f o r o l d people w i l l depend upon the climate of p u b l i c opinion. P u b l i c funds cannot be used to b u i l d low r e n t a l housing and to subsidize rents unless the p u b l i c believes t h e r e 2 i s a condition that needs c o r r e c t i n g . C l e a r l y , government a c t i o n i s dependent upon p u b l i c aware-ness. The concern of s o c i a l work r e f l e c t s f a m i l i a r i t y with bad housing, an awareness of the impact of crowding and f i n a n c i a l hardship, and a b e l i e f i n the r i g h t of the i n d i v i -dual to adequate l i v i n g conditions. In f a c i l i t a t i n g p u b l i c awareness and helping to form sound s o c i a l p o l i c y s o c i a l work must progress from f a m i l i a r i t y with conditions to a knowledge of the needs and preferences of those e x i s t i n g within the conditions. 1 The extent of subsidized housing which w i l l be d i s -cussed at a l a t e r point i s an example of a "slowly awakening" pu b l i c conscience. 2 Housing and Urban Growth i n Canada. A B r i e f from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation to the Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, Ottawa, 1956, p. 24. 17 It has been stated that the aged have special needs; does this imply that they are a special category. In a l l probability they require special services suited to their physical, economic, and psychological needs but many of these are comparable to those of a l l people i n this society. A l l people with declining physical powers; be they young, old, sick, or poor, require housing which does not foster degeneration. The old are more li a b l e to degeneration and special f a c i l i t i e s may be needed. Shelves and tables should possibly be lower, baths may need hand-r a i l s and rubber bottoms, perhaps stairs are a hazard and the household should be physically manageable i n terms of upkeep. Financially a l l low-income groups have needs but the aged are a special group here i n that they are a rel a -t i v e l y homogeneous body subsisting on an income level below that which i s needed to maintain adequate quarters. In the cit y of Vancouver, for example, there are now roughly 5 0 , 0 0 0 people over 6 5 years of age. Of those i n receipt of the Old Age Pension, i.e., over 7 0 , 1 Chapter III w i l l be exploring the housing conditions the physical needs of the aged would indicate as required while Chapter IV w i l l explore the housing preferences. 18 income tax returns show that roughly 4 out of 5 have incomes under Si,000 per year.l Economic need for older people i s d i f f i c u l t to assess. One measure i s the number of people over sixty-five receiving public assistance. Between 1952 and 1958 the number of persons over sixty-five has increased 2% while the tot a l number receiving O.A.A. has increased o 13.8%. This rapid increase may be due to an increased awareness of the program, changes i n attitudes towards the program, improved welfare services accompanying the program or a decrease i n the economic status and s e l f -sufficiency of the aged. In 1958 31% of those over seventy years of age received O.A.S.S.A.^ Prom 1952 -1958 one-half of the new recipients of O.A.A. or 0.A.S.S.A. had no real or personal property which one-third had assets ranging up to $500. It i s well known that old people save for their funerals and i t can therefore be safely said that 75% of the new recipients had no reserves. There i s a pressing need for research which would assemble and systematically 1 Vancouver Housing Association, Building Por Senior  Citizens. Vancouver, June, 1956, p. 1. Chapter III w i l l be exploring the adequacy of this income for the sample groups. 2 wheeler, oo. c i t . . p. 180. 3 Ibid., p. 181. 4 Ibid.. p. 183, table 38. 19 analyze the relevant data regarding the employment s i t u a t i o n of older persons and the economic resources of those whose incomes place them-above the p u b l i c assistance l e v e l . How many o l d people have property or incomes which would not f i n a n c i a l l y compensate f o r t h e i r being excluded from p u b l i c assistance? The proportion of aged shown through r e c e i p t of p u b l i c assistance to be l i v i n g on a marginal income i s higher than the proportion of the population under s i x t y - f i v e also i n r e c e i p t of p u b l i c assistance. This would strongly i n d i c a t e that i n terms of economic need t h i s age group warrants immediate consideration. The aged would seem to be vulnerable to s p e c i a l psychological s t r e s s . Members of a low-income family i n another age group may experience s i m i l a r s t r e s s when exposed to dependency but the aged are a c l e a r l y delineated group. They are di s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y large i n terms of f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s while f a c i n g other problems associated with the aging process. Welfare needs are human needs but the aged do have s p e c i a l requirements. Like other persons they need f r i e n d s h i p , family r e l a t i o n s , l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s , work which helps them f e e l productive and good housing. 1 wheeler, oo. c i t . . p. 174. 20 As a special category they need particular services suited to their physical, economic, and psychological needs. Current a r t i c l e s and books are providing fresh perspectives on the problems of aging and how these should be met. The principle of providing suitable housing for old people as a service i s based on the idea of helping them to help themselves.... The older person needs to f e e l that he i s c i t i z e n f i r s t , i n an in s t i t u t i o n he feels that he i s an old person f i r s t . Let us keep the in s t i t u t i o n for the sick old person, and t r y to see that the general housing stock i n our communities provides for the needs of an increasing number of older citizens.-It i s no doubt undesirable on social grounds to have large communities of people drawn from one age group segregated i n a single project. If, however, public housing pro-, jects for senior citizens are kept on a small basis and scattered over a number of different neighborhoods, where the tenants can maintain contact with their former community associations, or l i v e close to relatives, this objection ceases to hold good.2 Dr. L. C. Marsh i n an a r t i c l e entitled "Good Housing and the Good L i f e " ^ points out that other aspects besides 1 Goulding, William S., "Housing for Older People." Canadian Welfare. Vol. XXVIII, no. 6 (Dec. 15, 1952), p. 41. 2 Stratton, R. V., "Housing for Senior Citizens - The Next Step," Community Planning Review (September 1956), P* 100. 3 Marsh, L. C , "Good Housing and the Good L i f e , " The F i r s t B. C. Conference on the Needs and Problems of the Aging (Mar 14-17. 1957). P P . 15-18. 21 housing should he considered such as r e c r e a t i o n , medical s e r v i c e s , shopping centres, and the need to he part of a community. Lewis Mumford i n the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record 1 claims that housing i s not the whole answer to helping the o l d person to f e e l an i n t e g r a l part of s o c i e t y . The i n i t i a l separation of generations often necessitates a move leading to l o n e l i n e s s . Economic retirement cuts one's income and thus the s a t i s f a c t i o n s money can buy. The l o s s of s e l f -help and self-confidence leads to psychological d e t e r i o -r a t i o n . The aged need to l i v e i n a neighborhood which has the means to enable transcendence of the above conditions. They need to l i v e with people of a l l ages and i n f a c i l i t i e s which o f f e r such things as gardening, h a n d i c r a f t s , and l i t t l e work shops. What the aged need i s a c t i v i t i e s : not j u s t hobbies, but the normal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s of a mixed community. 2 Mr. Mumford concluded by p o i n t i n g out that a r c h i t e c t s and planners must take the needs of the aged i n t o consideration when cr e a t i n g housing conditions f o r them. 1 Mumford, Lewis, "Not Segregation But Integration," A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record (May 1956;, pp. 141-144. 2 I b i d . . p. 194. 22 C. who Needs Housing? The b u i l d i n g of low-rental, n o n - p r o f i t 1 housing i n Canada i s guided and sponsored by the Central Mortgage and Housing As s o c i a t i o n . I t was incorporated by an Act of Parliament i n 194-5 and i s a Federal Crown Corporation given c e r t a i n powers under the National Housing Act. These powers e n t a i l c o n t r i b u t i n g or lending money to f a c i l i t a t e housing f o r low-income groups. Broadly speaking there are two means by which housing f o r senior c i t i z e n s i n low-income groups can be provided. P u b l i c housing may be financed at the request of a mu n i c i p a l i t y under section 36 of the N.H.A. The Federal government w i l l contribute 75% of the cost while the pro-v i n c i a l and municipal governments share the remaining 25%. Pub l i c housing also may be provided when a munic i p a l i t y provides the required c a p i t a l to a non-profit s o c i e t y or corporation so that they may q u a l i f y f o r a p r o v i n c i a l grant and CM.H.C. fi n a n c i n g under s e c t i o n 16 of the N.H.A. Pu b l i c housing may be financed when a non-profit s o c i e t y or l i m i t e d dividend corporation has r a i s e d 10% of the cost of t h e i r desired p r o j e c t . This i s governed by 1 Boarding and nursing homes are l a r g e l y p r i v a t e l y owned and run f o r p r o f i t . They are l i a b l e to p r o v i n c i a l super-v i s i o n i n B. C. Some i n s t i t u t i o n a l accommodation i s also provided by the p r o v i n c i a l government. 23 section 16 of the N.H.A. The provincial government w i l l give a grant t o t a l l i n g 33 1/3% of the project under the Elderly Citizens Housing Act. The conditions governing the aged moving into such projects revolve around health and income. Income cannot exceed 140% of O.A.S. plus the cost of l i v i n g bonus or $110.60 per month.1 The person must be ambu-p latory and able to receive care from a v i s i t i n g physician.^ Both conditions must be seen as r e s t r i c t i v e . Without adequate housing a person's health may deteriorate to where he needs institutionalization or the owner of an economically and physically taxing residence may be unable to s e l l because his financial status would exclude him from public or private low-rental housing. However, progress with the leg i s l a t i o n i s being made as i n the not too distant past single persons were excluded from such dwellings and when a project was b u i l t 80% of the housing 1 These are conditions under the provincial Senior  Citizens Housing Act. 2 Loc. c i t . 3 The material on legi s l a t i o n i s derived from: Legislative Measures Affecting Living Accommodation for  Elderly Persons i n Canada. General series, Memorandum no. 16, Research and Sta t i s t i c s Division. N.H.W. Ottawa (March 1961) and Building For Senior Citizens. Part I, The I n i t i a l Steps. Vancouver Housing Association, 616 Province Bldg., Vancouver (October 1959). 24 had to he for families with children, 1 Further changes require the weight of an informed public opinion. Ways and means of ensuring adequate l i v i n g accommodation for elderly persons, under different sets of circumstances and at prices they can afford, are among matters of f i r s t importance to groups involved i n coiiuuunity planning for the aged.2 In an attempt to assess the need for boarding and nursing home^ care, the heads of three social services departments concerned with this problem were interviewed; St. Paul's Hospital, the General Hospital, and the c i t y . Boarding and nursing homes are for persons no longer wishing or no longer able to care for themselves. Those needing constant medical attention must go into the l a t t e r . A grim picture can be painted of the l o t of those needing nursing homes. There are always forty to f i f t y on the General Hospital waiting l i s t and private operators are loath to take public cases as more money i s to be made caring for private ones. To send patients to the Marpole Infirmary or to other provincial institutions means their being uprooted, signing assets over to the provincial 1 These were restrictions under the National Housing Act. 2 Legislative Measures Affecting Living Accommodations  for Elderly Persons i n Canada. Foreword. 3 These are under provincial control and governed by the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act and the Hospital Act. 25 government and being s e t t l e d i n an environment with other people quickly approaching death. For these reasons the above h o s p i t a l d i s l i k e d making such r e f e r r a l s . Both the Heather Annex and the Fairview P a v i l i o n as well as much needed beds i n the h o s p i t a l i t s e l f housed e l d e r l y persons needing i n s t i t u t i o n a l or nursing home care. There i s a r e a l need f o r a non-profit chronic h o s p i t a l and r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n wings on the general h o s p i t a l s . St. Paul's H o s p i t a l i s coping with the same pro-blems as the General Ho s p i t a l i n r e l a t i o n to those i n need of nursing home care. There are again s p e c i a l problems i n p l a c i n g indigent p a t i e n t s , very few with p r i v a t e p a t i e n t s . St. Paul's c o n t i n u a l l y operates with a waiting l i s t . Changes are needed i n the l e g i s l a t i o n to make more money ava i l a b l e f o r nursing homes and to encourage the intake of indigents. Decentralized chronic h o s p i t a l s with a c t i -v a t i o n u n i t s are also needed. St. Paul's had fewer pro-blems i n p l a c i n g people i n boarding homes but many persons thus placed a c t u a l l y needed added care, a l i t t l e more than provided by a boarding home and a l i t t l e l e s s than pro-vided by a nursing home.1 In the medical sec t i o n of the c i t y s o c i a l 1 Changes i n the near future i n the Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s  L i c e n s i n g Act w i l l allow and c a l l f o r increased medical care i n boarding homes. There are also r e a l problems i n enforcing l i v i n g standards i n boarding homes. 26 service department on March 9> 1962, there were 6 people needing placement s i t t i n g i n the waiting room of the General Hospital, 4 Chinese looking for hoarding home care, 20 men waiting boarding home care and 30 waiting nursing home care; 10 women awaiting boarding home care and 30 women awaiting nursing home care, as well as 3 or 4 special placements from the Provincial Mental Hospital. It was much easier to place persons i n boarding homes than i n nursing homes. The preceding information from the General Hospital, St. Paul's Hospital and the City Social Service Department would indicate a real need for homes for the aged which provide medical care on a twenty-four hour basis and demonstrate the l i a b i l i t y and vulnerability of the aged to physical and economic dependency. These pro-blems can only be tackled at the provincial or federal l e v e l . The Vancouver Housing Association i s a private agency sponsored by the Community Chest which i s concerned with assessing existing housing needs and helping to formulate policy i n relation to these needs. The Central Housing Registry i s contained i n the offices of the Vancouver Housing Association and represents an attempt to coordinate the waiting l i s t s of five of the larger housing societies and to inform the public of existing 2? housing. At the present time there are eight projects i n Vancouver offering accommodations for 184 single persons and 124 couples. In surrounding areas; largely i n Burnaby, there are six projects offering accommodation for 153 singles and 178 couples. 1 Rents of existing private projects i n Vancouver and Victoria areas range from $20.00 to $35.00 for units for couples and from $17.00 to $24.00 for units for single persons, without heating. Where heat and hot water are provided, rents are usually some $5*00 or $6.00 higher. 2 This gives some idea of what exists and at what price. The number of projects and l i v i n g units reflects rapid growth i n the last decade, but does not come to meeting the demand for such housing. At the Central Housing Registry as of the 31st of December, 1961, there were 574 single women, 40 single men, and 81 couples waiting for housing. Although this indicates more need than housing i t i s definitely not indicative of the real need. Mr. wheeler's report on welfare research needs i n B r i t i s h Columbia demonstrates that there are far more couples than singles and more single men than single women in Vancouver. S t a t i s t i c s counterindicate the waiting l i s t 1 S t a t i s t i c s taken from l i s t s of available projects published by the Vancouver Housing Association and the Central Housing Registry, 616 Province Bldg., Vancouver, B. C. 2 Building For Senior Citizens. Part II, "Construction and Management of the Project," Vancouver Housing Association, p. 2. 28 as being representative of need when we know that a l l aged are l i a b l e to various types of dependency. Other material from the Vancouver Redevelopment Study and the 1956 slum clearance program clearly counterindicate the repre-sentativeness of these figures. One of the most fascinating tables i n Mr. Wheeler's A Report on Heeded Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s contained i n table number 55 on page 178. This table presents the l i v i n g arrangements on the population, sixty-five and over, for B r i t i s h Columbia (See table II on p. 29) and gives some insight into why there are so many single women on the housing registry waiting l i s t . Several interesting facts emerge from this table. The f i r s t i s that 76.4% of the men and 71.5% of the women li v e i n their own homes. Clearly this i s a large number to be excluded from the categorical programs because of property holdings. A good percentage of these must be experiencing economic and physical stress i n keeping up their homes. This may be especially true of a proportion of the 13% of men and 16.7% of women who l i v e alone. The 59.0% of men and 48.2% of women who l i v e with members of the immediate family may be l i v i n g with spouses and/or children. In a l l probability some of those l i v i n g only with spouses incur some hardship i n relation to their housing, be i t maintaining their domicile fi n a n c i a l l y or Table II. Living Arrangements of Population 65 Years + by Sex. British. Columbia Total Persons Living i n Own Home Living i n Home of Living i n Home of Living i n an Over 65 Years Relatives Non-Relatives Institution With Without With Without With Without Members Members Members Members Members Members of Inline-- of Imme- of Imme- of Imme- of Imme- of Imme-diate diate diate diate diate diate Family Family Family Family Family Family Alone With Other Per-sons Both Sexes 100.0 54.0 14.8 5.3 1.6 9.4 0.8 10.2 3.8 Males 100.0 59.0 13.0 4.4 1.6 5.2 0.8 12.2 3.7 Females 100.0 48.2 16.7 6.4 0.2 14.4 0.7 7.9 4.0 Source: Census of Canada, 1956, D.B.S., Bulletin 3-6. Adapted from table XVII. 30 p h y s i c a l l y . This table may also give some i n s i g h t i n t o why such a large number of single women apply f o r p u b l i c housing. 3*7% more women than men l i v e alone i n t h e i r own homes. 2% more women than men l i v e i n t h e i r homes with persons other than members of t h e i r immediate family. 9.2% more women than men l i v e i n the homes of r e l a t i v e s without members of the immediate family. These singl e women could experience l o n e l i n e s s , economic hardship, pro-blems of p h y s i c a l l y caring f o r a home and unwanted depen-dency f e e l i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to r e l a t i v e s . The 10.8% more men than women l i v i n g i n t h e i r own homes with members of t h e i r immediate family r e f l e c t s greater sustenance by neighborhood and family t i e s although some must experience problems i n home maintenance. The 1.4% more men than women who l i v e i n the homes of r e l a t i v e s also l i v e with members of t h e i r immediate family. 4.6% more single men than sing l e women l i v e i n the homes of non-relatives g i v i n g some i n d i -c a t i o n of the l a r g e r number of single men than women. The percentages i n d i c a t i n g greater stress f o r the women may i n part be due to the longer l i f e span of women. However, the table would in d i c a t e that the group of older people most subjected to the conditions which would lead one to apply f o r p u b l i c housing i s comprised of the older s i n g l e woman. 31 Homeowners, whether couples or s i n g l e s , may experience economic and p h y s i c a l s t r e s s hut they are sus-tained by neighborhood and family t i e s except that 23.1% of the single women do not have members of t h e i r immediate family i n the home. 14.4-% of the single women l i v e i n the homes of r e l a t i v e s without members of t h e i r immediate family. 7*9% of single women l i v e without members of t h e i r immediate fam i l y i n homes of non-relatives, -his provin-c i a l p r o f i l e i s surely maintained or magnified i n a large c i t y such as Vancouver and perhaps l i v i n g arrangements give us some i n s i g h t i n t o why so many single women have applied f o r housing as compared to couples and single men. The waiting l i s t f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that s i n g l e men and couples do not apply and the question must again be asked as to why.1 The r e l a t i v e l y few applying i n a l l categories would seem to be i n d i c a t i v e of e i t h e r negative f e e l i n g s towards p u b l i c housing because i t denotes depen-dency or a lack of knowledge of what i s a v a i l a b l e . The low number of married people applying may in d i c a t e e i t h e r a re l i a n c e on each other to meet needs, or a lack of w i l l i n g -ness to move from a neighborhood where they have been s e t t l e d f o r some time. The high number of si n g l e women applying could p o s s i b l y be co r r e l a t e d to the large number 1 See Table I on page 14 f o r s t a t i s t i c s to substantiate the inferences i n t h i s paragraph. 32 of ladies who have lost husbands. This may create the desire to move, or for the company of other older persons. It may indicate a low income, a desire for clean and comfortable l i v i n g quarters, a dislike of moving i n with relatives or children or that they are less concerned with the negative connotation of dependency than men. The low number of men may indicate either satisfaction with sub-standard housing, especially for those who have always been single, or a great concern about being independent. A l l of these impli-cations would need to be v e r i f i e d through research, only then could an educational program be launched to bring some knowledge into values or conditioning which obviously affect housing preferences. Some of these implications are given added weight by the known l i v i n g arrangements. It has been shown that current accommodation does not meet the expressed needs and there i s a strong sus-picion that expressed needs do not even begin to r e f l e c t real needs. This i s especially true for those whose physical degeneration requires constant medical care and for that huge group who continue to maintain themselves i n the community. What types of accommodation would seem to be needed i n Vancouver? The greatest need seems to be for such shelters as individual houses i n the community, retirement villages, housing units i n the larger community 33 and apartment houses, a l l of which should he created to meet the physical, economic and psychological needs of those elderly people who do not require constant medical care, (This means community integration, internal condition which takes into consideration the physical positives and nega-tives of the aged, f a c i l i t i e s which foster sanitation and nutrition and rents which do not deprive them economically* Those needing hoarding home care seem to he f a i r l y well cared for hut there i s a necessity to see that their needs, other than physical and economic, are met. A great need also exists for inst i t u t i o n a l or nursing home care where again the emphasis must he on remotivation or re a c t i -vation. A l l f a c i l i t i e s should again be as integrated with community l i f e as possible. In this study the primary concern i s with housing for the large number of old people who are able to care for themselves i n the community. Their l i a b i l i t y to dependency, their number and their need to be a part of the community have been discussed at length. The inadequacy of their present l i v i n g conditions and the inadequacy of existing public and private housing projects has also been indicated. Transcending a l l of these problems seems to be a negative connation attached to the word "dependency". However, very l i t t l e i s r e a l l y known of the actual situation of the aged. 34 This i s especially true of Canada where there has been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c attention given to such questions as how older people of different ages participate i n our society and i t s various subcultures, what their economic status i s , what their major problems are, and what solutions they require.1 It i s possible to s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyze the number and l i v i n g arrangements but what these individual numbers need or prefer i s largely based on assumptions. Recommendations for adequate housing and care of older people depend on information about the relative effectiveness of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, private homes for the aged, construction and operation of com-munities for retired individuals, and the role of public housing for older people. 2 It would seem that there i s much yet to know before sound social policy may be formed. Some insight into housing needs and preferences i s given by the Angel and MacKinnon Thesis. Homeowners were shown to face physical and finan-c i a l hardship and yet did not want to move into housing projects because to do so was to tear up their roots. They thought the projects were wonderful for others. Those couples renting were shown to suffer economic and physical hardship and were quite interested i n moving into housing projects. Single women l i v i n g i n their own homes or renting 1 wheeler, oo. c i t . . p. 172. 2 Shock, Nathan W., Trends i n Gerontology. Stanford University Press, California, 1957, p. 2. 35 were shown to be generally d i s s a t i s f i e d while those l i v i n g with other persons were somewhat more s a t i s f i e d . The women were shown to be p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n warmth and low rent while the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a s o c i a l centre and a spare bedroom was also important. This t h e s i s represents a beginning i n an area which needs much study. Plans f o r urban redevelopment and the large number of o l d people who w i l l be deposed by a c t i o n i n t h i s area i n t e n s i f i e s the need f o r knowledge of t h e i r needs and preferences. Needs can be measured o b j e c t i v e l y and conditions created to meet them, but the impact of preferences on the demand f o r housing proj e c t s gives some i n s i g h t i n t o the importance of the values held by older people i n our s o c i e t y . D. Some Current Requirements i n Research The way i n which o l d people l i v e i s something of which l i t t l e i s known. They are always l i a b l e to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of p h y s i c a l , economic or psychological depen-dency but the s p e c i f i c s of t h i s are not known. I t i s known that c e r t a i n numbers of the aged l i v e i n c e r t a i n areas but the s p e c i f i c s of these aged and t h e i r l i v i n g conditions are not known. I t i s known that i n a great number of cases l i v i n g conditions are a n t i t h e t i c a l to needs but why do older people not want to move? We know that older people have needs common to a l l people and also know they have s p e c i f i c needs but what are they? Certain l e g i s l a t i o n 3 6 exists to govern public and private housing projects but how this should be modified i s not known. It i s known that the waiting l i s t of the Central Housing Registry does not ref l e c t real need but why do people not apply? We make many assumptions; some based on fact, about what type of accommodations older people need and want but there i s much research needed i n this area. However, one plain fact i s most evident, old people have needs which are not being met. What they are and how preferences affect attempts to meet them remain questions for research. This thesis proposes to study the question of needs and preferences i n two sample areas, the names on the Central Housing Registry and a selected residential tract i n an area slated for redevelopment. This basic division w i l l hopefully give some insight into why some people apply for entrance into housing projects and why some do not. In each of these two areas an attempt w i l l be made to differentiate between the needs and preferences of single men, single women, and couples. A further attempt w i l l then be made to again differentiate between those owning their own homes, renting or boarding i n terms of needs and preferences. Need w i l l be studied i n the areas of present l i v i n g arrangements and income and budget. Needs and preferences w i l l be studied i n the areas of why people 37 applied for entrance into housing projects and health. Preferences w i l l he studied i n the areas of whom they would lik e to l i v e with or close to and actual housing preferences. In the study of these areas i t i s hoped that some of the assumptions clouding the needs and preferences of the aged w i l l be replaced with knowledge so that sound social policy may be formulated. Meeting needs w i l l require both public education to further dispel the negative feelings surrounding the term dependency and a creative approach to building accommodations for our senior citizens. CHAPTER II TWO SAMPLE SURVEYS Two groups of people were decided on for compar-ative study, the f i r s t group being drawn from applicants l i s t e d with the Vancouver Housing Registry, and the second group composed of residents of a small geographical area from one of the blighted d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y . The Housing Registry applicants are drawn from many areas scattered throughout the c i t y . The Registry was established i n 1958 under the auspices of the Vancouver Housing Association, a private organization concerned with housing needs, and supported by Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver. It i s intended to provide a centrally located place where elderly people can obtain information about low-rental housing and make application for accom-modation i n one or other of the nine projects managed by the five non-profit housing societies represented i n the Registry. The Registry has undertaken very l i t t l e publicity of i t s service but even so the number of applications on f i l e at the beginning of 1962 was over 700. One common characteristic of these applicants i s that they are a l l aware of the existence of low-rental housing projects for 39 senior citizens and they a l l wish, for one reason or another, to obtain different accommodation from what they have. Housing Registry applicants obviously constitute a known and measurable segment of housing need, so that the Registry i s an important resource for the analysis of housing conditions, needs and preferences of the aged l i v i n g i n Vancouver. There are reasons for thinking, however, that the persons who apply for accommodation i n senior citizens' housing projects are not representative of elderly people as a whole or of the f u l l range of housing need existing among old persons i n the c i t y . For example, there i s a heavy preponderance of single applicants on the Central Housing Registry l i s t which far exceeds the ratio of single and married persons over 65 i n the general population, as has already been pointed out i n the preceding chapter. 1 Secondly, on the waiting l i s t single women outnumber single men i n a far higher ratio than they do i n the general popu-latio n . Thirdly, the Housing Registry reports surprisingly few applications from persons l i v i n g i n the seriously blighted areas of the c i t y which have been designated for redevelopment over the next five to twenty years. For these reasons i t seemed desirable to supplement 1 In this study, persons of "single status" include people who have never been married as ..well as widows and widowers, and divorced and separated persons. 40 the analysis of applicants on the waiting l i s t with a survey of at least one sample of elderly persons selected at random from the general population."'" From comparison of such groups, i t should he possible to specify with greater precision the circumstances and personal character-i s t i c s which distinguish persons actively seeking accom-modation i n low-rental projects from those who are either unaware of the existence of such projects or not interested i n applying. The findings of such a study could conceivably have important implications for improved methods of public information regarding senior citizens' housing as well as for the planning, location and management of future projects. Ideally, a survey of this kind should include a number of residential d i s t r i c t s of different socio-economic status and the sample be so designed as to permit extra-polations from the findings to the aged population as a whole. It i s hoped that an extension of this present study may s t i l l be possible. In this i n i t i a l survey, only one small d i s t r i c t of the c i t y lying between Broadway and False Creek was selected. This i s part of a general blighted area extending from Clark Drive on the east to Burrard Street on the west. The particular area surveyed i s 1 Several such groups were ori g i n a l l y planned but i t proved impossible to get the special information from the Census authorities which would have made i t feasible. 41 indicated by the diagrammatic below. 4 44 7* 4 3 4 'th > 4 1-H 4 5 u O o u <D o 2< r l 0) 8 ;* o H a) ! •rl _ w •rl « H PH CQ n o s h3 •rl CD w CQ s o North Broadway South * Numbers refer to enumeration d i s t r i c t s of the relevant D.B.S. census tract. In the Vancouver Redevelopment Study of December 1957 the area i s described i n the following terms: Unregulated growth i n a c i t y usually results i n an unhappy mixture of land uses on the fringe of i t s central core. In Vancouver, this situation i s found most markedly i n the False Creek area, which i s both the heart of current decay and the key to effective renewal. The areas adjacent to False Creek ... are conspicuous for the amount of industrialization they contain and for the , uniformly blighted condition of the housing. The main features of blighted areas as portrayed i n this study—conglomeration of land uses, very old houses, and overcrowding of both houses on lots and people i n houses— are a l l found i n the sector surveyed for this study of the housing of the aged. It i s slated for comprehensive redevelopment, and of course this i n i t s e l f w i l l constitute 1 Vancouver Redevelopment Study. December 1957* P» 3» 42 a "housing problem" for the people l i v i n g there since, sooner or later, they w i l l be forced to vacate their premises. The area i s characterized by large, sprawling industrial plants, mostly on the northern side and including several lumber yards; these are flanked largely by two- and three-storey wooden frame houses on steep, small lots (the land rises sharply from False Creek to Broadway). Many years ago parts of the d i s t r i c t were considered to be high-class residential locations, and a few residents from that era s t i l l linger on (one or two were interviewed i n this study). Now, however, many of the houses are extremely run-down, especially those near industrial sites; a number are comfortable but shabby, only a few are s t i l l well-kept up. Children play on the streets, which are narrow and h i l l y ; most houses have a steep climb to the front door. There are a number of old stone or brick apart-ments, especially i n enumeration d i s t r i c t 47, farthest west; these tend to have many units and low rents. In d i s t r i c t 46, next to i t there has been a good deal of demolition, several old houses having been replaced by stores, workplaces and car l o t s . Four i n i t i a l phases of the study can be identified: 1. Selection of sample of the Housing Registry l i s t — r e f e r r e d to hereafter as Group A. 43 2. Selection of sample from residents of the False Greek area—hereafter referred to as Group B. 3. Design and testing of the interview schedule. 4. Execution of the survey. At the time of sampling, the Housing Registry l i s t comprised 574 single women, 40 single men and 81 couples. Since the proportion of couples was small, and that of single men even smaller, and since i t was important to get information about these groups, i t was decided to weight the sample by selecting one i n fi f t e e n single women, but one i n five single men and one i s five couples. A sample of thirty-seven single women, ten single men and twenty-one couples was randomly selected. Nevertheless, d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining permission to interview these persons resulted i n a f i n a l t otal of eleven single women, five single men and seven couples being actually interviewed. These twenty-three names were not selected on a propor-tionate basis from the original sample l i s t , but merely constitute those persons whom i t was possible to interview-In the circumstances the data which follow cannot be pre-sumed to present a comprehensive amount of housing condi-tions among the aged, but only to illuminate some of the significant factors at present affecting old peoples* 44 housing needs and preferences. Table III gives the f i n a l number of interviews that were held with members of both groups. It w i l l be noted that double the number of interviews were held with members of group B, the discrepancy being largely due to the fact that, as already explained, i t was not possible to obtain the desired number of interviews i n group A. Table III. Interviews Held Group A Group B Total Persons i n Samples Total Interviews Obtained Single Men 5 20 25 25 Single Women 11 10 21 21 Couples 7 17 (14 (30 persons) persons) 44* 24 Total 23 47 90 70 * In four cases of the 24 couples interviewed, only one spouse was seen, with the result that 44, not 48, persons were interviewed. A preliminary survey of the False Creek area (see map) was done on a house-to-house basis to determine the number of elderly persons actually l i v i n g i n the area. 45 Using a simple check form (see Appendix A) the survey tea-ascertained the numbers of old persons at each address; the age of 65 was a r b i t r a r i l y chosen as the minimum age, this being the generally accepted definition of old age for purposes of welfare, pensions, employment and so on. On the form a distinction was made between single persons l i v i n g alone and those boarding, and between couples l i v i n g alone or boarding. Provision was also made for cases i n which the ages of occupants were not known, either because they refused to divulge information, or because no one was i n and neighbors did not have the information. In table IV the findings of this special census are combined with population and housing data from the D.B.S. 1961 census to give a brief picture of the housing and population situation i n the area under study. The figures are broken down into the five enumeration d i s t r i c t s which comprise the area. As the survey team did not return for second c a l l s i t was not possible to determine i n every instance whether there were persons 65 or over i n a house or dwelling unit, and thus these became the "not knowns". The figures presented i n this table are further discussed and broken down later i n this chapter. The area was sampled at the rate of one i n five of the single persons (no differentiation being made between 46 Table IV. Housing and Population C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . False Creek Area Units of Measurement " D i s t r i c t s i " T o t a l Area 45 44 45 46 47 Houses 1 t o t a l number 56 (41) 87 128 41 353 with persons 65 and over 27 26 25 42 10 130 not known 3 10 9 11 1 34 p Dwelling u n i t s t o t a l number* 144 155 151 136 131 717 with persons 65 and over 46 41 33 69 34 228 not known 3 10 9 11 3 36 Single persons 65 and over alone 31 32 19 43 26 151 boarding 7 5 8 5 1 26 Couples 65 and over alone 14 8 12 42 14 90 boarding 2 — — — — 2 To t a l persons* 532 573 558 503 484 2650 persons 65 and over 54 45 39 90 41 269 * From Census 1961. Figure i n brackets estimated. 1 Houses include any b u i l d i n g used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes, e.g. apartment blocks, businesses with residences overhead. 2 Dwelling u n i t was defined f o r t h i s survey as any quarters occupied by o l d persons, whether self-contained or sharing f a c i l i t i e s . 47 the men and the women as this information was not obtained i n the survey) and one i n three of the couples. It proved impossible to maintain a s t r i c t l y random sample because of the numbers of persons who had moved, died, or refused to be interviewed, but the survey team was able to obtain the desired number of interviews. The design and testing of the interview schedule took up a good deal of time. The f i n a l form i s reproduced i n Appendix A. Seven areas of interest, identified for proper analysis and referred to i n Chapter I, are included i n the questionnaire under the following headings; 1. present household arrangements 2. actual accommodation and f a c i l i t i e s 3. family relationships 4. income considerations 5. health considerations 6. factors prompting application for housing 7. housing preferences The sixth item was completed by respondents of group A only; otherwise a l l questions were asked of a l l respondents. In the case of couples, a separate schedule was completed for each spouse. The schedule was to be completed by the inter-viewer, rather than by the old person, and therefore a good 48 deal of r e l i a n c e was placed on the interviewer's a b i l i t y to explain various points to the respondent, as well as to the record of h i s own subjective impressions. The schedule was tested on two applicants of the Housing Registry group, by two d i f f e r e n t interviewers. I t appeared to be s a t i s f a c t o r y at that time, but i n l a t e r stages of the study several d e f i c i e n c i e s were uncovered. Several recommendations r e l a t i n g to t h i s are dealt with i n Chapter V. The f i n a l stage i n the survey was the execution of the interviews. These took place i n the homes of the respondents, and tended to be very informal i n nature; although t h i s method s a c r i f i c e d a c e r t a i n amount of pre-c i s i o n and conciseness, i t permitted freedom of expression on the part of the respondents. P r o v i s i o n f o r checking the v a l i d i t y of the questionnaire responses was made i n a separate schedule, attached to the main one, i n which the interviewer gave h i s own evaluation of the response to the interview, the contents of the interview, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered during or a f t e r the interview. The degree to which the f i n d i n g s were a f f e c t e d by these f a c t o r s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following t a b l e : 49 Table V. Guide to Interview Responses Ratings Group A Group B T o t a l I. Response to Interview Cooperative 2? 50 77 R e s i s t i v e - 2 2 Other (defensive, con-t r o l l i n g , i l l , r e t i c e n t , etc.) 3 8 11 I I . Contents of Interview Objective 18 28 46 R e a l i s t i c 8 15 23 Some information with-held, or doubtful 3 8 11 Unable to remember - 1 1 Vague 1 8 9 T o t a l s * ( f o r both I and II) 30 60 90 * Totals r e l a t e to persons, not interviews. Source: Housing Survey Schedules. " D i f f i c u l t i e s during or a f t e r the interview" were not encountered to any appreciable extent, and therefore were not tabulated. I t remains only to examine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two groups studied; those of the Housing Registry group 50 have already been mentioned, and the marked disparity between singles and couples, and between single men and single women, has already been pointed out. what accounts for the fact that men constitute less than one tenth the number of women i n the waiting l i s t ? It i s commonly known that women tend to outlive men, but i t i s unlikely that this entirely explains the wide gap. The speculation that men w i l l make do with worse accommodation than women are prepared to accept i s dealt with i n a later chapter. Why are there fewer couples on the l i s t ? Does a higher joint income permit them to find better housing on their own? Do they have children on whom they can depend? Are they less i n need of companionship? Again, these questions w i l l be taken up i n chapters III and IV. In the i n i t i a l canvas of the False Creek area no distinction was made between single men and single women, and the aged population figures therefore are: singles 177; couples 46—a total of 269 persons i n a l l . Referring further to Table IV, one notices immediately that there are 353 houses and 717 dwelling units. This means that there are roughly two dwelling units per address. In actual fact, of course, there were some single unit houses, while there were many multi-unit ones (rooming houses and apartment blocks). The following table shows the breakdown by enumeration districts:: 51 Table VI. Ratio of Houses to Dwelling Units  i n False Creek Area Enumeration D i s t r i c t No. of D.U. No. of Houses Ratio of D.U. per House 43 144 56 2.6 44 155 41 3.7 45 151 87 1.7 46 136 128 1.0 47 131 41 3.2 T o t a l 717 357 2. The proportion of houses with old persons to t o t a l houses can be seen i n the next t a b l e , which also includes the proportion of dwelling u n i t s with o l d persons to the t o t a l : Table VII. Proportion of Houses and Dwelling Units  with Aged to T o t a l Enumeration D i s t r i c t No. of Houses With Persons 65 and Over P.C. No. of D.U. With Persons 65 and Over P.C. 43 56 27 48 144 46 31 44 41 26 62 155 41 26 45 87 25 28 151 33 21 46 128 42 32 136 69 50 47 41 10 24 131 34 26 T o t a l 353 130 39 717 223 31 52 The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the number of o l d persons to the t o t a l population i s as follows: Table VIII . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Old Persons Compared with  T o t a l Population, by Enumeration D i s t r i c t s Enumeration D i s t r i c t T o t a l Population Persons 65 Years and Over P.C. 43 532 54 15 44 573 45 7 45 558 39 7 46 503 90 18 47 484 41 8 T o t a l 2650 269 10 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between numbers of singl e persons and couples i s also important: Table IX. D i s t r i b u t i o n of "Singles" and "Couples" i n  Aged Population by Enumeration D i s t r i c t s Enumeration Tot a l Single Persons P.C. ITumber P.C. D i s t r i c t Population 65 Years and of 65 Years Over Couples and Over 65 Years and Over 43 54 38 70 8 30 44 45 37 82 4 18 45 39 27 70 6 30 46 90 48 53 21 45 47 41 27 65 7 35 T o t a l 269 177 65 46 35 53 The f i n a l table shows the proportion of old persons who li v e alone compared with those who board: Table X. Proportion of Elderly Persons Living on Their Own  and Boarding, by Enumeration D i s t r i c t s * Enumeration D i s t r i c t Persons 65 Years and Over Persons Living Alone P.O. Boarding P.O. 54 45 83 9 17 44 45 40 90 5 10 45 39 31 80 8 20 46 90 85 94 5 6 47 41 40 97 1 3 Total 269 241 87 28 13 * "Persons Living on Their Own" includes single persons as well as couples maintaining separate l i v i n g quarters, "Boarding" includes single persons and couples l i v i n g i n household of relatives or non-relatives. In summary, then, this i s an area i n which ten per cent of the population i s over 65; of this group the ratio of single persons to couples i s about two to one, 87 per cent of the old people l i v e i n separate households, while 13 per cent are boarders. Within the area, there i s an average ratio of two dwelling units per house; 39 per cent of the houses contain aged persons, and 31 per cent of the dwelling units do. 54 Chapters III and IV analyze the information obtained i n interviews with members of the two groups. CHAPTER III HOUSING NEEDS The housing conditions revealed by the survey w i l l now be examined separately for the people on the waiting l i s t of the Central Housing Registry (Group A) and for the residents of the False Creek area (Group B). The survey data are analyzed i n relation to three d i f f e r e n t i a l s : (1) income and shelter costs; (2) the quality of the accommodation and (3) the health and personal circumstances of the people concerned. As already indicated i t should be of value to study these two different samples of elderly people i n Vancouver, as guides to future policy. A. Housing Registry Applicants The median age of the persons interviewed (30) from the Central Housing Registry i s 72 years, a majority f a l l i n g within the age range of 70 to 75 years (Table 1, Appendix A). A l l but four were born i n Canada or Great Britain (Table 2, Appendix A) and one-half of the group has lived i n B r i t i s h Columbia for t h i r t y years or more; only an exceptional few have lived i n B. C. less than five years (Table 3 , Appendix A). Against this background of long established residence i n this province, and indeed 56 i n Vancouver, the pi c t u r e of accommodation i s one of f r e -quent moves. S i x out of seven couples have occupied t h e i r present accommodation f o r l e s s than three years; twelve of the sixteen single persons f o r l e s s than two years (Tables 4 and 5, Appendix A). Types of Housing What kind of accommodation do these people pre-s e n t l y occupy and, i n view of t h e i r expressed desire to move somewhere e l s e , what are the sources of t h e i r d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n ? The present accommodation of these people shows considerable v a r i a t i o n i n q u a l i t y , s i z e , and s u i t -a b i l i t y , ranging a l l the way from a t t r a c t i v e self-contained suites i n superior apartment bu i l d i n g s to small housekeeping rooms and a d i l a p i d a t e d r a t - i n f e s t e d cabin tenement where washing f a c i l i t i e s c o nsist only of a basin and tap on the porch. But the majority rent rooms i n o l d converted houses; of those occupying apartments, a l l are e i t h e r couples or single women (Table 6, Appendix A). On the whole, si n g l e men occupy i n f e r i o r housing, t y p i c a l l y single housekeeping rooms i n v o l v i n g sharing of f a c i l i t i e s (Table 7, Appendix A). A minority share accommodation and t h i s i s most character-i s t i c of women; i n t h i s sample one woman acts as a com-panion, one shares expenses with another e l d e r l y woman. Most of the people own t h e i r own f u r n i t u r e , 57 although, roughly one-third (7 out of 15 i n the sample) rent furnished accommodation (Table 7, Appendix A). More often than not, the f u r n i t u r e i s well worn and meagre. Eleven of the sixteen sing l e persons, and one out of the seven couples, share the use of f a c i l i t i e s such as bathroom, kitchen and r e f r i g e r a t o r (Table 8, Appendix A). Twelve of the households share bathing and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , many of which are located on a d i f f e r e n t f l o o r from the l i v i n g quarters. This poses personal and p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r many older persons faced with d e c l i n i n g a g i l i t y and v i t a l i t y and subject to frequent s p e l l s of enforced bed r e s t . One e l d e r l y woman spoke with much d i s t r e s s of the need f o r her husband to carry her commode u p s t a i r s when she was unable to leave her bed. The p l i g h t of the single person i n s i m i l a r circumstances can be p a r t i c u l a r l y h u m i l i a t i n g . Income and Shelter Costs Incomes of single persons seeking help from the Registry t y p i c a l l y range from $65. to $110. per month and fo r couples, from $135. to $178. per month (Table 9, Appendix A). The median income f o r single persons i s $79-and f o r couples $170. The p r i n c i p a l sources of income and the number of persons i n r e c e i p t of them can be i l l u -s t r a t e d i n more d e t a i l as follows: 58 Source Single Persons Couples Old Age Security or Old Age ) Assistance plus Supplementary ) Allowance ) War Veterans' Allowance Old Age Security only 4 Not Reported 8 3 1 1 6 Total 16 7 It may be noted that midway through the survey, the basic monthly rates for the Federal Old Age Security program and the Federal provincial public assistance pro-grams (O.A.A., D.P.A., B.P.A.) were increased from $55* to $65* per recipient. do not receive public assistance or Department of Veterans' Affairs benefits have no resource for the payment of medical expenses. These persons pay the highest pro-portion of income for shelter (58% and 84%) and have the smallest incomes of the group. There are of course some unknown factors: whether they receive help from relatives or whether they have savings not revealed to the interviewer; another "unknown" i s whether they were prevented by their independence, or by lack of knowledge of community resources, from applying for social assistance. In this particular sample there were three people who had not applied though they seemed i n every way e l i g i b l e and i f this ratio i s i n any way representative of the elderly population as a whole It i s relevant to remember also that persons who 59 the implications are disturbing. Rents paid range from $15. to $85., the median for single persons being $55« per month and for couples $65. per month (Table 10, Appendix A). Unfurnished accom-modation, i t should be noted, tends to be somewhat more expensive than the furnished. It may also be a l i t t l e superior i n other ways, however. Of course, the costs of obtaining shelter are not limited to the amount of rent paid but depend also upon b i l l s for f u e l , l i g h t , telephone, etc., where these are not included i n the rent. In one-third of the households i n the present group, u t i l i t i e s such as these must be paid for i n addition to the rent, and average about $15. per month. In two cases i t was noted that single persons l i v i n g on their own pay less than $20. per month rent, but have to pay $20. to $25. per month for u t i l i t i e s , particularly coal and wood for heating. Shelter Costs i n Relation to Income Par more important than actual rents i s the pro-portion of income which i s absorbed by shelter costs. The picture which emerges for the Housing Registry group i s a disturbing one when i t i s remembered that at their low income levels no more than twenty to twenty-five per cent can safely be afforded for rent. The proportions for them 60 are close to forty to forty-five per cent and they range to as high as eighty-four per cent of income i n one case. The implication of this situation for the single persons are given s t i l l sharper focus when the amounts remaining after payment of rent are examined i n relation to the minimum costs of other necessities of l i f e . In this regard a study completed three years ago by a special committee Called together by the Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver 1 which went into the costs of minimum standard budgets i n great d e t a i l , furnishes an authoritative yard-stick. The average amount of money remaining to these men and women characteristic of the Housing Registry group after their shelter costs have been met, i s $45. In two instances i t i s as l i t t l e as $10. per month. One of the persons receiving only ten dollars after shelter costs are paid has applied for social allowance which may be greated him when he has used part of his savings (at the time of this survey, amounting to $1,000). Nine out of sixteen of the single persons are attempting to liv e on less than $50. per month for food, clothing and personal necessities. According to the Community Chest report 1 A Report to the Community Chest and Councils on the Adequacy of Social Assistance Allowances i n the City of Vancouver, Vancouver, B. C , September 1958, p. 8 9 . 61 referred to above, the minimum income required for food, clothing and a l l personal needs after shelter costs have been met was $45.43 for single men; comparable minimum income for couples was estimated at $78.76. These are 1958 estimates. Measured by this criterion, one-half of the single persons i n Group A have insufficient income remaining after the payment of rent for a minimum standard of subsistence. The couples fared considerably better, a l l but one couple receiving substantially more than the bare minimum of $78.76. Quality of Accommodation The question arises as to whether the payment of a higher rent ensures correspondingly better accommodation. The limited data available prevent any conclusive answer being given to this question as far as Group A i s concerned, but they do not reveal any direct and consistent relation-ship between rent levels and quality of accommodation. In this matter a good deal usually depends on distinguishing different levels of housing; nevertheless i t i s significant that a l l of the accommodation among these registrants rated unsatisfactory by both the single occupants and the team of interviewers rents for less than $40. per month (Table 12, Appendix A). This of course t e l l s us nothing about the level of rent necessary i n order to obtain good accommodation. Questions relating to the quality of 62 accommodation and also s u i t a b i l i t y are explored further i n ensuing sections. A rating (good, f a i r , or poor) was made of each dwelling unit by the team of interviewers. This rating admittedly contains a large element of subjectivity since i t attempts to summarize judgments relative to the quality of construction, amount of room available, adequacy of f a c i l i t i e s , warmth, convenience, etc. It serves, however, as a provisional guidepost to the relative quality of the housing. According to the interviewers' judgments, single women i n Group A generally occupy better quality accom-modation compared with single men or with couples. Nine of the eleven single women occupy housing rated as good, whereas only one out of the five single men occupies accom-modation of this standard. Less than half of the couples have good housing (Table 13, Appendix A). Four of the dwelling units inspected were rated as poor. The concept of adequacy i n housing i s related not only to empirically verifiable conditions of l i v e -a b i l i t y such as space, structural soundness, f a c i l i t i e s such as heating, etc., but also to the manner i n which the accommodation answers to the particular needs and wishes of the occupants. Accordingly i n the survey an attempt was made to discover the reactions of the old people to 63 their present housing. One single man and four single women found their accommodation satisfactory (Table 14, Appendix A), but had applied for housing i n a housing project because present accommodation was to be sold or because they wished the companionship of other old people. Two single men, four single women and four couples had mixed feelings about their accommodation, believing i t to be satisfactory but too expensive, too lonely, or too close to undesirable neighbors. People's attitudes and expectations regarding housing are inevitably coloured by the standard of accom-modation they have enjoyed i n the past and what they con-ceive to be r e a l i s t i c alternatives i n the present. Information was therefore sought on the relation which the present accommodation bore to the group's previous l i v i n g quarters. A l l but two of the sixteen single persons regarded their present accommodation signi f i c a n t l y the same or better, four of the seven couples found i t worse (Table 15, Appendix A). The fact that a l l want different accommodation suggests that former housing was either very inadequate or that this group may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjusting to any kind of accommodation. 64 B. Area A Health On the basis of the applicant's own interpret-ation of his degree of health, (Table 11, Appendix A), the major health problems are a r t h r i t i s and rheumatism, heart conditions, p a r t i a l paralysis and crippled limbs. Of the 14 members of couples only one had no specific a i l -ment, and of the 16 single persons only three had no specific ailment. In a l l , there were 3 5 specific com-plaints covering 11 ailments, i n a total group of 3 0 persons (Table 16, Appendix A). In order to obtain an impression of the. .health of the couples which could be compared to the health of single persons, the categories of good, f a i r and poor were made somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y applicable to couples on the basis that "good health"applies to couples both of whom are i n good health, " f a i r health" applies when one partner i s i n f a i r health and the other i n good or f a i r health, and "poor health" applies when one partner i s i n poor and the other i n good, f a i r , or poor health. On this basis, the majority of the couples rated "poor" and more than half of the single persons rated "good" (Table 18, Appendix A). The features of accommodation most frequently complained about were as follows: 65 Complaint Number Excessive cold 6 Excessive dampness 5 D i f f i c u l t stairs 6 Excessive noise 3 Poor ventilation 3 Poor sanitation 2 Fumes from trucks 1 Too h i l l y around project 1 It i s noteworthy that a far greater number of complaints were made by couples i n poor health, the tot a l number approximating f i f t e e n (Table 17, Appendix A). Bearing i n mind that both partners frequently believed that their health was affected by the same feature of the accom-modation there i s considerable disproportion with the total of five items complained about by two single persons i n poor health. A complaint made by one couple i n poor health who occupy an attractive subsidized duplex i n a housing pro-ject i s that they are unable to shop or v i s i t relatives without taxi service because the project i s situated i n a depression of land surrounded by h i l l s . This was the only response of the 30 persons questioned which indicated that present housing interferes with contacts with family or friends, other than one respondent's feeling that present 66 housing interferes with contacts with her son who lives i n a town about twenty miles away. The high rate of dissatisfaction with housing among people i n poor health suggests that the often physically exhausting and nervewracking process of finding adequate housing i n a large urban area such as Vancouver, i s beyond the a b i l i t i e s of old folk i n poor health. Again, people i n poor health may require more warmth and quiet than those i n good health, thus limiting the selection of housing which would be satisfactory for them. Again landlords may discourage tenants whose health requires extra attention or help, a l l of which further lim i t their available selection of satisfactory housing. It was noted that the majority of the respondents tended to accept their d i s a b i l i t i e s with equanimity; possibly, as suggested by responses to questions requiring conceptualization about future health plans, with a d e l i -berate avoidance of thought about their health, inasmuch as problems of food and shelter alone require so much of their physical and emotional energies. It would be inter-esting to assess attitudes to health of a similarly a f f l i c t e d group of older persons, who are not coping with financial worries. 67 Nursing and Boarding Home Care Attempts to assess the degree of preplanning i n the event of disabling i l l n e s s were made by e l i c i t i n g responses to questions concerning attitudes to nursing and boarding homes i n Vancouver. Fewer than one-third would go to boarding or nursing homes, only one of those who would go i s i n poor health. Comments accompanying the decision to go to a nursing home were "don't have much choice", "I'd hate to land i n one". Of the nine couples and single persons i n poor health, only one would accept such care (Table 19, Appendix A), which, when compared to the decision of 6 i n good and f a i r health who would make use of the care, suggests that resistance to such care stiffens as health deteriorates. This i s supported to some extent by the definite stipulation made by 3 of the 4- persons i n f a i r health that, .nursing home care only would be accepted, not boarding home care. The statement of a 76 year old women who rated her health as "very poor" and who had no person to care for her i n her own home—"I don't think I am ready for i t " reflects much of the attitudes of those in poor health. A spry single man of 88 who moved i n (to Vancouver) from the country "so I wouldn't die out there a l l by myself" epitomized the expressed attitudes of those i n good and f a i r health by his statement—"What the h e l l are you going to do? Some are pretty griml" Considering that only 8 of the 30 persons believed that they could 68 l i v e with a friend or relative i f necessary and 22 stated (Table 20, Appendix A) they would not or didn't know whether they would enter nursing or boarding homes, there i s a f a i r l y large proportion of the total t h i r t y , almost half, who have no plan should disabling i l l n e s s strike. Of those sixteen who could be cared for temporarily i n their own home, half are depending upon the help of their spouse almost a l l of whom are i n f a i r or poor health. Noticeable, during this aspect of the interviews, was an i n a b i l i t y to conceptualize future p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the area of health, and fear of loss of dependence associated with acceptance of nursing home care or with acceptance of care by children or relatives. Four persons had no doctor; two couples and a single woman had been advised by their doctor to seek better housing. Housing of the la t t e r plus that of one single man who has no doctor i s the only accommodation rated poor by the interviewers. Among this group one doctor had sug-gested that application for new housing be made to the Housing Registry. Certainly this group has sp e c i f i c a l l y related inadequate housing to aggravation of health and has i n significant instances communicated i t s concerns to medical personnel. 69 B. The False Creek Area; Group B "Forty-five years ago this area was the Shaughnessy of Vancouver." This statement was made by one respondent who had b u i l t his home, i n which he s t i l l lived, on the shores of False Creek almost 50 years ago. T a l l evergreens sloped to the sandy shores of the clear water. At f i r s t , large gracious homes surrounded by ample grounds dotted the area. As the years passed encroaching industrialization and population growth brought a lumber m i l l followed by rows of identical two-storey houses squeezed together on t h i r t y foot l o t s . A few brick two-storey apartments were b u i l t . Gradually the shoreline became clogged with small industrial units and the area became isolated and dissected with a r t e r i a l streets. Businesses, car l o t s , and repair services replaced homes or huddled against them. The few homes s t i l l occupied by the aging owners have tidy gardens and polished door knockers, the rest are a hodge-podge of family homes reconverted to rooms and suites. The general apathy of the tenants and disinter-estedness of the absent landlords i s reflected i n the dreariness of the area. The steep slope from Broadway to False Creek requires many f l i g h t s of stairs and has been aggravated by the cutting away of the natural slope so that an a r t i f i c i a l l y steep bank descends to an a r t e r i a l road (Sixth Avenue) which provides access to the industries 70 bordering False Creek. The average number of stairs required to reach the gardens of the homes along this road i s twenty. There are no lanes which could circumvent the need to use the st a i r s . This feature of the topography has particular relevance for elderly people, as has the smog and noise arising from the factories, car lots and t r a f f i c i n the area. Of the 54 elderly persons interviewed i n the area the average age i s between 70 and 74 years (Table 1, Appendix B). Slightly more than one-third were born i n Canada, more than one-third were born i n Great Britain and the United States of America combined, the remaining 15 being born i n Europe and Asia (Table 2 , Appendix B). No person was born i n B. C. but exactly half of the group had lived i n B. C. for 30 years or more, a l l but 10 having lived i n B. C. for 10 years or more (Table 3 , Appendix B). There are exactly twice as many single men as single women in this group. The large number of rooming houses i n the d i s t r i c t and the depressed nature of the area suggests that i t affords temporary residence for many persons on their way up or down the economic ladder. This i s by no means true of the old people i n the group studied. The average time spend by single men and couples i n their present accommodation i s 4 to 5 years and for single women, 5 to 9 years 71 (Tables 4- and 5» Appendix B). At the same time the average period of residence i n Vancouver for single men and couples i s 15 to 19 years and of single women 20 to 29 years. A correlation appears between age and length of residence i n present accommodation and i n Vancouver inasmuch as'the median age for the tot a l number of women i s higher than that of the total number of men although the age of the married women i s for the most part less than that of the husband. Advancing years and declining energy may lessen the motivation as well as the physical a g i l i t y needed for finding housing i n a large and sprawling c i t y . Again, advancing age i s frequently accompanied by a gradual depletion of financial resources. Both factors may contri-bute to the longer years of residence of the more elderly group, the single women, i n this blighted area. Types of Housing Housing units ranged from self owned homes to rented houses, apartments or rooms. More than two-thirds of the group rented rooms, approximately one-quarter rented suites or apartments and six of the seven persons l i v i n g i n houses owned their own homes (Table 6, Appendix B). Twelve of the t h i r t y single persons and twelve of the seventeen couples owned their own furniture (Table 7, Appendix B). 72 An important factor i n assessing the types of housing of old people i s the degree of independence i t affords. Twenty-seven of the forty-seven households share the use of f a c i l i t i e s such as kitchen, refrigerator and bathroom (Table 8, Appendix B). Three-quarters of the single men and almost half of the couples and single women comprise this group. Twenty-four out of forty-seven house-holds share bathing and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , most of which are located on a different floor from the l i v i n g quarters. Physical d i s a b i l i t y and a frequently lessened degree of emotional f l e x i b i l i t y i s a feature of aging. Self-contained accommodation thus seems to be essential for comfort, and indeed, as w i l l later be seen, i s one of the main criticisms made by the couples and single women who are diss a t i s f i e d with their housing. However, at the same time, the high proportion of single men who rent furnished rooms and share f a c i l i t i e s i s noteworthy, i n view of the satisfaction with present accommodation expressed by this group. Income and Shelter Costs Income for single persons ranged from $65* per month to $185. per month and for couples from $80. to $300. per month. The median income of single persons i s $79. and for couples $175. per month (Table 9, Appendix B). Pive of the seventeen couples and seven of the t h i r t y single persons did not reveal income. Of the thirty-seven 73 persons i n Receipt of Old Age Security payments, twenty-two are single persons. Two of the l a t t e r and one couple have no income other than Old Age Security allowance. The principal sources of income and the number of persons i n receipt of them are as follows: It w i l l be noted immedi-ately that they are more varied than the r e l a t i v e l y few sources characteristic of the Housing Registry group. Source Old Age Security only* Old Age Security or Old Age Assistance plus Supplementary Allowance Blind Person's Allowance Department of Veteran's Affairs Social Allowance Unemployment Insurance Workmen's Compensation Superannuation Church Pension Alimony Present Employment Savings Total Single Couples Total Persons 2 1 3 11 2 13 - 1 1 8 3 11 2 - 2 1 1 1 - -3 3 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 5 6 1 1 2 27 17 44 * Midway through the survey the basic monthly rates for the Pederal Old Age Security program and the Federal-provincial public assistance programs (O.A.A., D.P.A., B.P.A.) were increased from $55* to $ 6 5 . per recipient. Shelter Costs Rents paid by the twenty-three single persons who gave financial information range from $20. to $60. per month; the median being $ 3 5 . per month. Rents paid by the f i f t e e n couples who revealed income and shelter costs range from 74 no rent (paid by a caretaking couple) to $ 6 9 . per month, the median being $ 5 0 . per month (Table 1 0 , Appendix B). Furnished accommodation was rented by seventeen of the twenty-three single persons. The median rental for furnished accommodation for this group i s also $35* Three of the f i f t e e n couples rented furnished accommodation, a l l of which are i n the low range of rents paid. The costs of obtaining shelter are not limited to the amount of rent paid but depend also upon the cost of fuel, light and telephone where these are not included i n the rent. Four of the twenty-three single persons and ten of the f i f t e e n couples paid an average of $ 1 5 . per month shelter costs i n addition to rent. The median shelter cost for single persons when rent and u t i l i t i e s are taken together thus remains at $ 3 5 . per month but for couples i s increased to more than $60. per month (Table 1 0 , Appendix B). Shelter Costs and Proportion of Income The average proportion of income paid out i n shelter costs i s 41 per cent for single persons. Eleven of this group of twenty-three average 40 per cent of income for shelter costs; and the twelve couples average 35 per cent of income for shelter costs (Table 11, Appendix B. When i t i s realized that at these income levels twenty to 75 twenty-five per cent i s the maximum percentage which can safely he afforded for rent the implications are serious. Examination of the amounts remaining for the minimum costs of other necessities of l i f e after payment of rent reveals that ten of the twenty-three single persons have less than the $46.4-3 minimum required for food, clothing and a l l personal needs established hy the Community Chest Study i n 1 9 5 8 . 1 The couples fared much better a l l but one receiving substantially more than the bare minimum of $78.76 e s t i -mated as minimum by the Community Chest Study. The one couple who are attempting to l i v e on $25. per month receive $79• Old Assistance and pay $50. per month rent for a squalid basement suite i n a decrepit house. They have applied for a pension from the Canadian Merchant Marine which they expect i n three months time. Quality of Housing As this area for the most part offers substandard housing we may assume that rents in the area would be suf-f i c i e n t l y low to offer the greatest f l e x i b i l i t y i n amounts l e f t over for other l i v i n g expenses. We fi n d instead that almost half of the single persons have minimum subsistence income or less for food, clothing and personal needs. 1 A Report to the Community Chest and Councils on the Adequacy of Social Assistance Allowances i n the City of Vancouver, September 1958, p. 89* 76 Several respondents have stated that their rent has been raised following the recent $10. increase i n Old Age Security benefits. Others expect that theirs w i l l be. Supporting this assumption are statements made by the Vancouver Housing Association i n i t s (March 194-9) report Housing for Our Older Citizens . 1 deploring the high pro-portion of income spent for rent for inadequate housing. The average rent was $10. per month "but they were f r e -quently forced to pay $15* as the landlords were making every e f f o r t — b y changes i n the premises, e t c . — t o pass p the wartime requirements for an increase i n rate." The Old Age Security rate at that time was $4-0. per month thus the percentage of income spent on rent was 25 - 37 per cent. It i s not known whether this includes the cost of the u t i l i t i e s . In any event the average per cent of income spent on shelter by households surveyed i n the False Creek area ranges from 31 per cent to 35 per cent of income (Table 11, Appendix B), which, i n view of the increased Old Age Security benefits during the past thirteen years since the Vancouver Housing Association March 194-9 report, suggests that the pattern persists. Should the findings of this survey be duplicated throughout the c i t y i t i s pos-sible to assume that increases i n allowances provided for 1 Vancouver Housing Association, Housing for Onr. Older  Citizens. March 194-9, pp. 4 - 7 . 2 Ibid., p. 6. 77 the elderly w i l l not necessarily result i n lessened d i f -f i c u l t i e s i n finding better accommodation. Shelter costs seem largely determined by the demands and as the ensuing findings indicate, bear l i t t l e consistent relationship to the quality of accommodation provided. Although available data suggests that there i s a relationship between occupant satisfaction and higher rents paid, there i s l i t t l e relationship between the quality of accommodation as rated by the interviewers and the amounts of rents paid. The six single persons who pay more than $39« per month rent expressed definite satisfaction with their l i v i n g quarters (Table 12, Appendix B). The inter-viewers' rating, however, was good for only one shelter of the six and this cost less than $44. per month. The only other good ratings were for two shelter units which cost between $30. and $39. The rating of good, f a i r or poor given by the team of interviewers to each dwelling unit admittedly con-tains a large element of subjectivity and thus, as dis-cussed i n the section dealing with the quality of housing of Group A, can serve as only a guidepost to the relative quality of housing. On the whole the housing i s of substandard quality. Ten of the forty-two housing units examined can 78 be described as good. These were occupied by five of the eighteen single men, two of the eight single women and three of the sixteen couples (Table 13, Appendix B). Fourteen of the housing units were rated poor and were occupied by one-half of the couples as compared to approxi-mately one-quarter of the single persons. Occupants' Opinions of Present Accommodation Half of the couples and at least three-quarters of the single men and single women stated that their housing was definitely satisfactory. Only 5 persons found housing def i n i t e l y unsatisfactory. This rather low proportion of dissatisfaction with housing (Table 11, Appendix B), which was rated by the interviewers as good for only one-quarter of the 42 housing units seen, i s clearly related to the comparisons between present and previously occupied accom-modation made by the respondents. Eight of the 4-5 respon-dents stated that present housing i s i n f e r i o r to last housing (Table 10, Appendix B), 30 finding i t the same, and seven finding i t better. Twenty-one of the 4-7 house-holds have lived i n the present accommodation for five years of more (Tables 4- and 5, Appendix B). The rel a t i v e l y stable residence of the group and the high degree of satisfaction with accommodation rated for the most part as f a i r or poor by the interviewers i s significant and may bear some relationship to the health of the group which 79 w i l l be next examined. Health The major health problems found were heart condi-tions, rheumatism and a r t h r i t i s , p a r t i a l paralysis and crippled limbs, blindness and deafness (Table 16, Appendix B). In a l l 11 ailments were mentioned by the group of 64-people i n only 29 instances which indicates, on the face of i t , a limited preoccupation with health problems. Several persons who stated they were i n poor health mentioned no specific d i s a b i l i t y . Almost half of the single men stated they enjoyed good health, while a high proportion of single women and couples were i n f a i r or poor health (Table 17, Appendix B). A l l persons i n good health stated that housing was definitely satisfactory. Less than one-third of the total group had any c r i t i c i s m to make of the housing although approximately two-thirds of the t o t a l group were i n poor or f a i r health (Table 18, Appendix B). The features of accommodation most often com-plained about by the 19 persons i n poor health are as follows: (A negligible (5) number of complaints were made by those i n f a i r health regarding stairs and noise, none by those i n good health). Complaint Number D i f f i c u l t stairs 7 80 Excessive cold 5 Excessive dampness 3 Inadequate light 2 T r a f f i c noise 2 Poor sanitation 2 The notable feature of this aspect of the study, the small numbers of complaints, i s highlighted by the fact that of the 21 complaints, 6 were made by one person and the rest were made by a total of 10 of the 19 people i n poor health (Table 17, Appendix B). Thus a total of 11 housing units out of the 47, were complained of i n relation to the health of the tot a l group. Certainly these findings confirm that in the opinion of the people i n poor health, inadequate housing has l i t t l e bearing upon i t . Is this because these people have not been used to examining their own situation i n this light? Have their various situations produced a degree of apathy which does not permit hope for anything better? Or has the questionnaire f a i l e d to illuminate a relationship between poor housing and poor health which may i n fact exist? should i l l health strike, questions were asked concerning attitudes to entering nursing and boarding homes i n Vancouver. The responses were characteristically "We'll cross that bridge when we come to i t , " or "I never think In an effort to assess the degree of preplanning, 81 of i t . " More than four-fifths of the to t a l group stated that they would not go to such a resource or did not know whether they would go; almost one-half of the total group s p e c i f i c a l l y stating that they would not go. (Table 18, Appendix B). However, there was considerable vagueness among this group about what they would do as an alternative. There was l i t t l e significant difference among those i n good, f a i r , and poor health i n the general attitudes to nursing home or boarding home care. The very small number i n a l l degrees of health who would go, 8 i n a l l , may be a result of preconceived ideas about what happens to people when they get there. Several persons referred to expense as a deterring factor, others stated that they would go to a general hospital, not a nursing home, indicating that by so doing they would maintain their independence and their hope of recovery. The men for whom Department of Veteran 1s Affairs health care i s available were noticeably glad to have this resource and indicated a sense of status and confidence i n the quality of care they would receive under D.V.A. auspices. The f a i r l y definite and clear response on the part of the numbers of the group for whom responsibility for providing medical care i s assumed i n payment of ser-vice rendered, such as D.V.A., i s i n distinct contrast to the confusion, and lack of conceptualization noticed among 82 those with no such protection. As has been earlier i n d i -cated, a significant number of persons receive supplementary social assistance which covers medical care. However this group did not share the peace of mind noticed among the veterans, about their course of action should i l l n e s s strike. Their vagueness may reflect distaste for their financial dependence, confusion about their rights, or qualms about the service available. A further group who have small independent means which makes them in e l i g i b l e for assistance covering health care, expressed serious concerns about their a b i l i t y to meet medical b i l l s or nursing home costs i n the event of i l l n e s s . It was noted that persons from Alberta had more positive and favourable reaction to the quality of nursing home care i n that Province than i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Of the total interviewed, 13 have no one to care for them when they are i l l at home, this includes 3 wives whose husbands are i n poor health (Table 20, Appendix B). Of the 19 persons i n poor health only one couple has been medically advised to obtain better housing. This may indi cate that: 1. The attending doctor i s not aware of the l i v i n g conditions. 2. The attending doctor may be aware of the l i v i n g conditions but believes 83 there i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of change i n l i v i n g conditions. 3. The attending doctor believes that a change in l i v i n g conditions would have l i t t l e bearing on health. No attempt was made i n the interview to discern the nature of medical attention received, but i t i s signi-ficant that seven persons i n this age group have no doctor. This group's limited preoccupation with health problems coupled with i t s overall satisfaction with accommodation and attending disinterest i n changing to better accommodation w i l l be touched upon i n the following section i n which comparisons between Group A and Group B w i l l be attempted. C. Differences Between the Sample Groups Striking d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s appear within these two different sections or cross-sections of aged people, even though they are within very similar age range and income levels. Group A has applied for a change i n housing. Group B has not. This may suggest lack of knowledge of resources on the part of the l a t t e r group; differences within the two groups i n standards of l i v i n g , state of health, attitudes of aggressiveness or possivity, expectations or the capacity to adjust. 8 4 Age. Sex and Residence The great predominance of single men i n Group B, as compared with the very few i n Group A and the pro-portionately younger age of Group B men to the total age group certainly helps to explain some differences. Per-haps a further factor i s the differences i n r a c i a l origin within the two groups. Bearing i n mind that more than twice as many persons were interviewed i n Area B as i n Area A, i t i s noted the proportion of persons horn i n Europe and Asia i s exactly five times higher for Area B than Area A and a higher proportion of persons also, came to Vancouver from other Canadian provinces i n Group B than i n Group A. Conversely a higher proportion of persons had come to Vancouver from other parts of B. C. i n Area A. However the median for residence i n B. C. i s 29 years for both areas. Contrasts are to be noted i n the length of residence i n Vancouver, the median for couples for Area A being 10 - 14 years and for couples for Area B, 15 - 19 years; single persons i n Area A, 29 years, and single persons i n Area B, 15 - 19 years. Significant differences are noted i n the length of residence i n present accom-modation which for couples, Area A, i s between 2 and 3 years, the maximum being 5 years, and couples, Area B, i s between 5 and 6 years with the maximum of more than 20 years for 3 couples. Similarly length of residence i n present accommodation for single persons i n Group A i s 85 1 - 2 years and for Group B 4 - 5 years for men and 6 - 9 years for women. As w i l l be noted these contrasts are significantly related to differences i n attitudes to housing i n the two areas. Types of Accommodation There i s l i t t l e difference i n the types of accommodation rented, although a higher proportion own their homes i n Area B--one-eighth as compared to 1 of the 30 persons i n Area A. Pour couples and one man act as caretakers i n Group B, none i n Group A. A considerably higher proportion of couples and single men share f a c i l i t i e s i n Area B—one-half and three-quarters respectively, whereas in Area A, 1 couple out of 7, and 3 single men out of 5» share f a c i l i t i e s . The situation i s reversed with single women. Equal proportions of couples and single women rent furniture but three-quarters of single men do so i n Group B as compared with 2 out of 5 i n Group A. A picture thus emerges of less desirable accom-modation i n Area B, more shared f a c i l i t i e s , more furnished rooms. However only 3 persons from Area B have applied for housing. Is then this group more "settled" with their housing? Almost two-thirds of the group say they are definitely s a t i s f i e d as opposed to almost one-third of Group A who are satisf i e d . l i v e of each group are definitely d i s s a t i s f i e d . The relationship of present 8 6 housing to former housing i n each group i s similar, the majority finding i t "about the same" as former housing. However the interviewers found the quality of the housing among Group B definitely poorer than that of Group A — less than one-quarter of those seen i n Group B were con-sidered "good" compared with more than one-half seen i n Group A which were considered "good". Thus the picture i s f i l l i n g i n . Residents i n the False Creek area (Group B) have lived there longer and are more sa t i s f i e d with their housing than those of Group A but the housing i s of poorer quality. Both groups find present housing substantially similar to former housing so that those i n Group A generally have higher housing stan-dards than those i n Group B. Unfortunately the question-naire does not e l i c i t work history so that i t i s not pos-sible to explain differences i n housing expectation. A further study concentrated on this would be most valuable. Meanwhile, state of health and level of income may provide a few clues. Health The physical d i s a b i l i t i e s mentioned i n both areas f a l l into similar groups: heart disease, hypertension, a r t h r i t i s and rheumatism, p a r t i a l paralysis and crippled limbs, blindness, and deafness. However the 30 persons i n 87 Area A referred to a tot a l of 35 d i s a b i l i t i e s whereas the 64 persons i n Area B mentioned a total of only 29 dis-a b i l i t i e s . It may prove significant that the smaller group had twice as many a r t h r i t i c and rheumatic ailments, 8 i n a l l , as the larger group, who had 4, and 3 persons with hypertension as compared to 1 i n the larger group, whether the higher proportion of illnesses usually linked with more controlling and aggressive personalities i s related to the comparative restlessness and dissatisfaction of Group A i s not known but i s an interesting speculation. There i s some difference i n the degree of health and satisfaction with accommodation, between the two samples. Whereas i n Area A dissatisfaction i s general among persons i n a l l degrees of health, i n Area B dis-satisfaction i s d i s t i n c t l y related to poor health, half of those i n poor health expressing dissatisfaction, no person i n good health expressing dissatisfaction. Again, however, this does not compare with Area A i n which a l l of those i n poor health expressed dissatisfaction with housing, as well as those i n good and f a i r health. Complaints re specific features of housing cover similar areas, lack of heat, d i f f i c u l t s t a i r s , dampness, however a striking difference i n number of complaints appears. Area B totals 21 com-plaints of 11 housing units; whereas Area A totals 25 complaints of 15 housing units. Proportionately twice as 88 many would go to nursing or "boarding homes i n Area A than i n Area B although in both areas this number was a small proportion of the total group. Group B has more resources among relatives and friends for care i n their own home in the event o f ' i l l n e s s , 50 of the 64- persons looking to care from spouse (21) relatives and friends (29) and 19 would be able to move i n with a friend or relat i v e . In Area A just half could be cared for i n their own home, 9 by relatives and friends, and almost one-quarter could be cared for i n another's home. These proportions suggest that Group A i s more isolated from friendships and perhaps proportionately have fewer relatives with whom they are on good terms. Again the frequent moves may be a cause or result of their paucity of helpful relationships as com-pared with Area B, where roots are more deeply set. The degree of contentment with accommodation i s perhaps confirmed by the fact that i n Area B one couple only of the t o t a l 4-7 households has been medically advised to seek improved housing; compared to 2 couples and a single person of the twenty-three households who have been so advised. The trend toward comparative satisfaction with accommodation, fewer health problems and/or complaints about health, and greater number of persons to turn to i n time of need, i s clearly i l l u s t r a t e d among Group B i n a 89 general review of the health of the area. Income and Shelter Costs The sources of income for both groups were from public assistance resources, Department of Veteran's A f f a i r s . However, almost half of Group A had old age security supplemented by some form of social allowance whereas one-quarter of Group B received this assistance. Similar proportions of each group, one-third and one-quarter, received D.V.A. income i n Areas A and B respectively. The significant number i n Group B who received income related to previous employment, more than one-quarter, contrasts with Group A i n which no person received income related to previous earnings. Income levels for both single persons and couples covered considerably higher ranges for those i n Group B, however the average income i n both areas i s $79« for single persons and for couples $175. - $184-. i n Group B and $155. - $164 i n Group A. There i s a slight difference i n rent l e v e l s — for single persons i n Area A the median i s $39» and i n Area B, $35. For couples i n Area A average rent level i s $60. - $64. and for couples i n Area B, $50. - $54. The amount of money available after total 90 shelter costs axe met covers a wide range i n Area B, $21. - $135* for single persons with the median $50 . - $59., half of the group receiving $21 . - $4-9. For couples the amount of money available ranges between $29. and $275., the average $112. - $122. Group A average for single persons i s $4-5. and for couples i s $85. Thus on the whole persons i n Area B pay less rent and shelter costs, have i n the case of couples more income and for a l l persons have more l e f t over after shelter costs are met. Proportion of shelter costs to income exceed the usually accepted rate of 20 - 25 per cent by considerable amounts i n both areas—Area A ranges from 33-84 per cent for single persons with a median of 50 per cent and Area B from 26 per cent - 90 per cent with the median 47 per cent. Por both groups the interviewers found that the quality of accommodation did not improve as shelter costs rose. Indeed there seemed no significant relationship between quality and cost of accommodation. Because of the small sampling of couples i n Area A no comparisons were made of inter-viewers' impression of relationship between quality and cost of housing for couples. However a scanning of the two areas results i n the strong impression that housing i s priced as the market w i l l bear regardless of quality. It seems apparent that the residents of the blighted Palse Creek area have a more obvious quality of 91 contentment, serenity and independence, and a lesser degree of mobility, introspection, and poor health than those of Area A. That this i s not wholly ascribed to a quality of apathy arising from long term residence i n substandard housing i s evidenced by the quality of relationships; a proportionately higher number of friends and relations wi l l i n g to help those i n Group B. The slight increase i n the income available after shelter costs are met may account i n some measure for the greater contentment, however many in both areas receive considerably less than the basic subsistence minimum allowance judged by the Community Chest Study. Attitudes and preferences of aged persons i n relation to housing needs are further examined i n the next chapter to see how far the two kinds of cross section yie l d some clues for policy. CHAPTER IV HOUSING: ATTITUDES AND PREFERENCES This chapter examines the feelings of the people interviewed about their present housing arrangements and, where expressed, the nature of their preferences for some-thing different. It seeks to answer such questions as:, what effect does the actual l i v i n g situation—type of accommodation, length of residence, degree of attachment to the home, health, income and so on—have on the way old people feel about their housing? How does i t color their perception of what they might have i n the future?. To understand the real significance behind some of the answers given by respondents, i t i s essential to consider the factors that may have influenced the response. Sometimes i t i s only possible to speculate i n this regard, but these ideas are helpful for further research. There are numerous preconceptions and prejudices about old persons; i n fact there are probably few groups of people about whom more misconceptions are common. Because they are a l l old we tend to think they are a l l alike, yet nothing could be further from the truth. The present study offers convincing proof of t h i s . F i r s t , the expressed attitudes to their present 93 accommodation can be summarized, for single persons and couples i n each, of the groups studied (Table 1, Appendix C). The category 'mixed feelings' includes those persons who are not 'definitely satisfied' or 'definitely dissatisfied' but whose attitude contains a mixture of both reactions. Some typical responses i n this category were: "The place would be a l l right except for the cooking f a c i l i t i e s " ; "It's O.K. but I'm so lonely here"; "We'd be sati s f i e d i f only we had a bathtub"; "I have to be sa t i s f i e d " . It i s apparent that i n Group A only seven out of t h i r t y were sat i s f i e d with their present arrangements, while thirty-eight out of sixty i n Group B were sat i s f i e d . In both groups there were a number of 'mixed feelings', but in most cases this reaction can better be c l a s s i f i e d with the 'dissatisfied*s', since certain sources of dissa t i s -faction were always mentioned even i f the person was not entirely d i s s a t i s f i e d . Some important questions suggested by these findings are: are persons i n the Group B sample aware of the existence of low-cost housing projects? Are they already paying lower rents than anything the projects could offer? Did they understand the question properly? The latt e r seems to be ruled out as a factor since on the whole respondents were clear and r e a l i s t i c i n their answering of questions (see Chapter I I ) . It i s surprising to find 94 that seven of Group A expressed satisfaction with their accommodation—although they had applied for new housing. A possible explanation i s that many i n this group saw their dissatisfaction i n terms not entirely related to the actual accommodation—e.g. loneliness, restlessness, and so on. Other questions could be raised about the d i f -ferences between the two groups; however, since the samples studied were not equally representative, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw meaningful comparisons between them. Suffice i t to say that, according to the information obtained, there i s by no means a direct correlation between the conditions of the housing and the occupants' desire to move elsewhere. It was the general impression of the interviewers that those who lived i n 'poor housing' were not always the ones to apply for better housing or even to express diss a t i s -faction with what they had. Furthermore, what are commonly thought of as important needs of old people—decent accom-modation, adequate f a c i l i t i e s for the infirm etc.—are often of less significance i n the old persons' eyes than having congenial fellow-tenants, good relations with the landlord, or the feeling of 'being used to i t here'. That the p o s s i b i l i t i e s available to old people a l l too frequently involve a choice between one or the other i s unhappily true, but a number of housing projects have by 95 now demonstrated the p o s s i b i l i t y of having good housing and happy tenants 1 Marital status has an important bearing on the s u i t a b i l i t y of accommodation. As Table 2, Appendix C, demonstrates, i n both groups interviewed single persons out-number couples i n the ratio of two to one. The ratio of single persons to couples on the Central Housing Registry waiting l i s t i s almost four to one. 1 To date there has been too l i t t l e concern with the d i f f e r e n t i a l needs pre-sented by single and married people. It i s not hard to visualize an example of this: an elderly man l i v i n g alone i n a rooming house with an 'absentee' landlord f a l l s i l l ; l i k e most roomers he has no phone, and i s not i n the habit of c a l l i n g the doctor anyway. He has no family i n Vancouver. It may be several days before another roomer gets around to doing something for him, and by this time his condition has deteriorated. An elderly couple, however, i s hardly l i k e l y to get into this predicament since the chances that both would be t o t a l l y incapacitated by i l l n e s s at the same time are remote. Health, then, i s one area i n which the differences between needs of singles and couples are apparent, and this 1 Here single includes those who are separated, widowed and divorced, and couples include pairs of sisters, brothers, friends, etc. 96 w i l l have implications for housing projects. Income i s another area; i n most cases the couple has double the income of the single person without having double the expense. Two old age pensioners may receive a joint income of $158. 1 of which perhaps $40. - $50. goes for rent; the single person with a pension of $79» seldom pays less than $35*> or almost half his income, for rent. His other expenses are proportionately higher too. This may partly explain why fewer couples apply for housing, for they are better able to pay for something adequate themselves. Recreational needs are bound to d i f f e r according to marital status. The single persons interviewed i n the survey were very often lonely, and frankly admitted a yearning for companionship and a c t i v i t y . One or two actually had applied for housing on these grounds alone. Couples, on the other hand, tend to be more se l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and less i n need of outside interests. Finally, one of the most obvious ways i n which marital status affects the needs of elderly persons i s i n the size and type of accommodation required. It goes without saying that two people require more space than one, but what kinds of accommodation tend to be favored respectively 1 Recent pension increases bring this figure to $178., and the single persons' to $89. 97 "by single persons and couples? This question w i l l he examined later. Health, income, recreational needs and type of accommodation a l l assume different significance for the individual elderly person, depending on whether he lives alone or with someone else. The following section of this chapter i s devoted to examining some of these aspects i n terms of the replies received to the question: 'What do you think of your present l i v i n g arrangements?.' It might he supposed that the response to this question would he affected hy any knowledge the old person might have of senior citizens' housing projects, and the length of time he had occupied his present accommodation. Naturally applicants on the Central Housing Registry waiting l i s t were aware of the existence of projects; however, both groups were asked i f they had seen or v i s i t e d any of them. Table 3, Appendix C, shows the relationship between know-ledge of the projects and attitudes to present accom-modation, while the l i s t following shows fa m i l i a r i t y with individual projects. The projects most frequently seen or v i s i t e d were as follows: Projects Number of Persons who had seen Project Beulah Gardens 8 98 New Chelsea 6 Horley Street L i t t l e Mountain 3 34th and Fraser 3 Fairhaven 2 Soroptimist 2 Orchard Park 2 Vista 1 Altogether twenty-two out of th i r t y persons i n Group A were familiar with projects, while i n Group B only nine out of sixty were i n that category. No persons i n Group B who had expressed themselves entirely d i s s a t i s f i e d with accommodation had seen or v i s i t e d any project; i n Group A the distribution i s rather even. Thus a l l that can be definitely said i s that one group was more familiar with projects than the other one, but this fact i n i t s e l f does not seem to have affected the attitudes of either group. One may even question whether on the whole knowledge of the projects prompted members of Group A to apply for housing, or whether, having once applied, they decided to have a look at them. Only a few respondents s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned having applied for housing after they had seen a project and liked i t . A l l this suggests that knowledge of, and f a m i l i -a r i t y with, housing projects, does not necessarily 99 influence the old person's attitude toward his own housing situation. It must he borne i n mind that the two to three year waiting period which applicants expect to have to undergo before they are housed may cool their interest somewhat! Length of residence and relative permanence of residence are l i k e l y to affect, and be affected by, a person's feelings about his accommodation. It i s generally taken for granted that very mobile persons tend to be less attached to their homes than those who have lived there long, and the survey findings tend to confirm t h i s . Those elderly persons who had been settled for a number of years, especially i n the False Creek area, were generally content to remain there; on the other hand members of Group A appeared to have moved around more and were correspondingly more inclined to seek better housing. Many of those i n Group B who had moved, had done so within the same area; often they had moved only because their former dwelling was condemned, or the rent had been raised, or ownership had changed hands and tenants had been evicted. Those who had stayed i n the same place for sometime, and were satisfied, frankly expressed their preference for a home they 'were used to'; a typical example i s Mr. G., described later i n the chapter. In contrast Mr. and Mrs. Q., also described later, 100 had for one reason or another moved over ten times i n the past fourteen years, and considered themselves very much in need of subsidized housing. Other members of Group A indicated that to them the housing projects meant security and "being able to settle down". This yearning for security and 'settledness' was to crop up again and again i n the interviews, and perhaps signifies more i n happiness and comfort to old persons than anything else. It i s this which makes housing for the aged not just a matter of providing additional 'units' but of relating the supply of housing to the particular requirements of the persons occupying i t ; feelings of companionship and "being wanted" are highly important to old people, and housing schemes which f a i l to take this into account w i l l f a i l to make their optimum contribution. The relationship of attitudes to actual quality of housing has already been referred to i n Chapter III. This i s the most obvious aspect of the l i v i n g situation; more subtle ones are health and income. In the interview schedule c r i t e r i a for the different grades of health were not established, nor did the interviewer give his own interpretation of the respondent's health. It was the latter's own opinion that was recorded, and what was sacrificed i n consistency and accuracy was more than compansated for by the inclusion of the respondent's own 101 feelings regarding Ms health. The degree of satisfaction with l i v i n g arrange-ments seemed to vary inversely according to the old person's state of health. Those who were i n good health were gener-a l l y satisfied, while those who were i n poor health were more often d i s s a t i s f i e d . This was true of both groups. Figures i n Table 4, Appendix C, show to what degree good, f a i r , or poor health were related to attitude to housing. The findings of the present survey confirm the intense concern which many old people f e e l about their health. Even those who considered their health good often had one or more specific complaints (heart, rheumatism, a r t h r i t i s , etc.), although they might not think their a i l -ment serious enough to warrant a change i n l i v i n g arrange-ment. When they were di s s a t i s f i e d and i n poor health they could not always pin down the characteristics of their present housing which affected their health; however 'stairs' were mentioned rather frequently as a source of d i f f i c u l t y . It i s notoriously d i f f i c u l t for old persons to find ground floor accommodation, especially i n rooming houses where often the landlord preempts the ground floor suite• The question of 'what they would do i n the event of i l l n e s s ' was answered with hesitation and uncertainty 102 by most old persons; those who were maxried said that their spouse would care for them, while some persons l i v i n g on their own had a relative, neighbor or landlord who might do the same. Others supposed they would just have to go to hospital, and were usually not aware of the fact that general hospitals admit only acute cases.""" Very few persons contemplated entering a nursing or boarding home; these institutions were considered the last resort, the f i n a l stage before dying. (In hospitals old people almost always strenuously object to placement i n nursing homes, even when there are no alternatives for their care. The prohibitive cost, and d i f f i c u l t y of ob-taining welfare assistance, doubtless contribute to the disfavor i n which these institutions are held.) Often respondents had no clearcut idea of what they would do i n the event of il l n e s s to obtain adequate care and accommodation. This was partly due to the d i f -f i c u l t y many old people have i n conceptualizing, and partly to the natural wish to avoid facing an unpleasant pos-s i b i l i t y . " I ' l l face that when I come to i t " , whether spoken or unspoken, was implicit i n almost every reaction to this question. 1 The War veterans are i n a much better position since they are admitted to Shaughnessy Hospital even for chronic or convalescent i l l n e s s . 103 Another important aspect of housing i s the a b i l i t y of a person to pay the rent he considers necessary for ade-quate l i v i n g quarters. The suggestion i s occasionally made that a higher income would enable old persons to find better housing on their own, and would reduce the need for public low-rent housing. Alternatively, controlled rents, such as have existed i n Britain at certain times, would ensure that increases i n pension were not immediately followed by increases i n rent, as i s often the case. On the other hand there may be reasons why a higher income i s not the answer to old age housing pro-blems; e.g. insecurity of tenancy i n rented rooms no matter what the rent; need to spend the money on more pressing items, and so on. Two aspects of this whole issue were explored i n the questions: "If you had a higher income would you spend more on rent?" and "Do you have debts which prevent you from paying more rent for housing?" Many said they were "not sure" and f e l t i t would depend on the kind of accommodation, or on other expenses. Exactly one-half the respondents "would spend more", while of the remaining forty-five, t h i r t y - f i v e would not and ten were "not sure". Out of those who would not spend more, twenty-eight were s a t i s f i e d with their present l i v i n g arrangements. It i s particularly interesting to note that i n the False Creek area over half the single men 104 and single women would not spend more, and almost a l l of these were sat i s f i e d with their present accommodation; of the couples i n the same area, however, the few who were dis s a t i s f i e d with accommodation would a l l spend more for rent, -his substantiates the interviewers' impressions that the area i s largely one of rooming houses and small apartments more suitable for singles than for couples. Many single men are settled there, are happy with what they have got, and say they would not move even i f they could. (See Table 5» Appendix C.) In answer to the second question, few respondents had debts that prevented them from paying more rent. This i s not surprising since on the whole old persons i n both groups had few material possessions, and would therefore have fewer sources' of debt. A few had some pieces of furniture, and maybe a television set, and almost none had a car. Thus i t can be surmised that any extra income an old person might receive would be spent on food, clothing, entertainment, and i n some cases, rent. Having examined the old persons' attitudes to their present l i v i n g arrangements, what can be said about their preferences? The tables i n Appendix C show the preferences for area, and for type of accommodation. Respondents were asked to state these, whether or not they were content with their present housing, and whether 105 or not they had applied to the Central Housing Registry. Responses were sometimes hard to e l i c i t , perhaps "because here again the old people found d i f f i c u l t y i n visualizing possible alternatives. Many of them had apparently given l i t t l e thought to the sort of accommodation they would choose ideally and seemed surprised that their opinion would even be s o l i c i t e d . While most of them did actually state a preference (and a few, like the Q's, were extremely specific i n what they wanted) the general feeling was one of "any l i t t l e place would do". (See Table 6, Appendix C.) The d i s t r i c t s i n order of preference were as follows: D i s t r i c t Times mentioned City: Fairview (includes the False Creek area) 15 South-east Vancouver 5 East End 2 Kerrisdale 2 Point Grey 1 Dunbar 1 South Granville 1 Burnaby 1 Country: North Surrey 2 Port Coquitlam j 1 106 The most interesting conclusion to he drawn from table 6 i s that eighty out of ninety respondents pre-ferred accommodation somewhere i n the c i t y and over half this number wanted i t to be central. A very frequent com-ment made by persons i n both groups was: "Housing projects are too far out". This was seen as a problem both i n terms of the distance from necessary f a c i l i t i e s such as stores and hospitals, and i n terms of the expense of transportation. The feeling underlying these responses, though, was one of resentment at being put "out there", away from contacts and friends, away from the l i f e of the c i t y . One elderly woman was b i t t e r i n her denunciation of the way housing projects were bu i l t anywhere, without consideration for the old people's needs (she i s described later as Mrs. F.). It i s noteworthy that of a l l the respondents who mentioned a preference for a particular d i s t r i c t — a n d only about one-third did this—almost half wished to remain i n the False Creek (or Fairview, as the d i s t r i c t i s commonly known) area. These were a l l members of Group B. A number of persons voiced the opinion that housing projects should be here, or elsewhere near the heart of town, but some of them added that they knew the expense would be prohibitive. In Table 7, Appendix C, the preferences for actual types of accommodation are shown. 107 Besides the housing types l i s t e d i n this table, three other p o s s i b i l i t i e s were included i n the inter-viewing schedule: special residences for the elderly (licensed boarding homes etc.) and nursing homes. Since these were not chosen by any respondent, they are omitted from the table. Their very omission i s of interest, however. The distaste for nursing homes has already been referred to: the feelings about "boarding" were equally negative and there was not a person among the ninety who would choose this l i v i n g arrangement. (This comment must be qualified by the fact that there were, among the sample groups, r e l a -t i v e l y few persons already boarding.) Invariably the old persons preferred to have their independence, to do their own cooking and housekeeping, and generally to be i n charge of their own a f f a i r s . This wish for independence and privacy was also reflected i n the preference of half the respondents for a "single dwelling". The ones who did not choose this often said they could not manage the upkeep of a house, or that they preferred the companionship available i n an apartment building. The remaining four categories did not appeal to many, except for "rooming house", which was favored by a number of single men already l i v i n g i n this kind of accom-modation. It was these single men, mostly i n Group B, who throughout the study demonstrated the greatest satisfaction 108 with the status quo. This helps to explain their rather conspicuous absence from the waiting l i s t s of the Central Housing Registry which contained, as of Dec. 31st , 1961, forty single men as against five hundred and seventy-four single women! Respondents were asked to l i s t the number of rooms they considered adequate i n their preferred housing; answers ranged from one to f i v e , with a preponderance of 'three's' for couples and 'two's' for singles. Bathroom and kitchen were counted as additional i n most cases. Finally, respondents were asked to state which of the following services they considered most important; each respondent could l i s t one or more services. Service Number of times mentioned Store - grocery - other 76 4 Bus 73 Health services 25 Church 22 Park 14 Community centre 11 Library 6 Movies 2 Several persons mentioned other recreational services: 109 D.V.A. clubs, Senior Citizens' Club, C.N.I.B., and sports f i e l d s . Most persons f e l t that stores and a bus line must be within a few blocks, but that they could travel to other services providing they were reasonably accessible. Information on the recreational situation of the persons interviewed i s inconclusive but there i s some evi-dence for thinking that their participation i n such organi-zations as churches and community centres i s r e l a t i v e l y meagre. Reasons for this deserve more intensive study. The relationship between housing and other social services i s one which would provide ample material for a further thesis. The fact that the old persons who, by general community standards, most need better housing and social services are often the ones who appear least to desire them, i s of real significance i n any social planning for senior citizens. The few persons who did attend community centres and make use of l i b r a r i e s were enthusiastic about the services pro-vided. Old People at Home: A Series of Profiles This information may be amplified by a number of case i l l u s t r a t i o n s , i n an attempt to convey some of the flavor of individual situations encountered i n the survey. The cases presented are not intended to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y representative i n any particular way of 'singles' or 110 'couples' or of members of Group A as contrasted with Group B. Rather, they have been selected to show the wide variety of persons, situations and attitudes that must be taken into consideration i n any planning for old people's housing. Variety i s characteristic of the findings of the survey generally. (a) Couples The f i r s t two profiles are of persons from the False Creek area. Mr. and Mrs. L., like several couples interviewed, act as caretakers for the apartment block i n which they l i v e . Mr. L., who i s seventy-eight, grew up i n Germany, came to Canada as a clergyman, and retired from the ministry nine years ago. His wife, twenty years younger, i s a native Canadian. Both are i n good health, and Mr. L. s t i l l does 'man's work' around the place, while she i s kept busy at a l l hours of the day and night looking after tenants. She becomes very t i r e d from this, but likes her 'regulars', some of whom have been i n the block for t h i r t y years or more. Observation of her contact with tenants made i t apparent that her relationship with them was a most friendly one. The L. children, two of whom are in Vancouver, a third i n the Northwest Territories, are frequently i n touch with their parents; one son, who also manages an apartment I l l block, sometimes helps the L.'s, and they sometimes help him. Income i s very limited and, including his old age pension and wages, does not amount to more than $14-0. a month.1 This i s less than they would receive as two pen-sioners; i t did not seem to have occurred to them that they might stop working and apply for supplementary assistance, and they are emphatic about wanting to support themselves. The apartment building i s large and contains thirty-three housekeeping rooms and a few suites. The few vi s i b l e ones were small and 'poky' but absolutely clean. The L.'s own quarters are very cramped but cheerful; they own most of their furniture and a radio and T.V. Their only complaint was the complete lack of privacy. Asked what they would choose i f they were to move, they thought a four room house and garden would be ideal, and would be content to remain i n their present d i s t r i c t . Stores, church and park were to them important f a c i l i t i e s . Mr. D. and Mrs. J. present an entirely different picture. To begin with they are not married, but joined forces a few years ago, when she became widowed, to reduce expenses. Living with them is her thirty-four year old 1 Pension amounts are a l l quoted i n the old rates i.e. maximum $79., since new rates had not actually been put into effect at the time of interviewing. 112 epileptic son who i s unemployed and suffers frequently from seizures. Mr. D. and Mrs. J. had never applied for new housing, hut were interested in the idea, and said that they would request placement of the whole 'family' of three. Both are Russian immigrants who, although i n this country for well over f i f t y years, speak very poor English; Mrs. J.'s i s almost non-existent. In their late sixties, each suffers from a rather disabling i l l n e s s : Mr. D. from a heart condition, Mrs. J. from high blood pressure and insomnia. Health i s the prime matter of concern to both of them. There i s l i t t l e for these old people to do except watch television, do handiwork (he makes braided rugs from scraps discarded from a nearby mattress factory, she sews patchwork a r t i c l e s from similar scraps) and v i s i t his grand-children i n the next suite. Mr. D.'s daughter i s the care-taker of the building. Both have several other children whom they see infrequently. This couple has moved twice i n the last three years but i n spite of a re l a t i v e l y high income—$24-2. a month with their two old age pensions and the son's dis-abled person's allowance—have been unable to settle i n a place they l i k e . They complain of the poor heating, the 113 t r a f f i c noise, and the steep h i l l s surrounding their present home, and they find the l o c a l i t y generally depressing. The interviewer's impression of the dwelling was that i t was indeed depressing, although they owned a few decent pieces of furniture and had their own phone, radio and television set. Both Mr. D. and Mrs. J. expressed a preference for a five room suite i n an apartment block somewhere near the centre of town, close to the shops, and to the General Hospital, which they both attend as outpatients. The area they are in now of course meets a l l these qualifications, but they do not like i t because of i t s depressing atmosphere. Although dis s a t i s f i e d , they have taken few steps to alter the situation, being rather discouraged by the fact that they have twice moved to find something better and have each time gone 'from the frying pan into the f i r e 1 . Mr. and Mrs. Q. are among the couples on the Central Housing Registry waiting l i s t . In some ways they resemble the couple just described, but d i f f e r i n one important respect: they have taken specific steps (applying for housing) to improve their situation. They too were born i n Russia, fl e d after the Revolution of 1917, and made their home i n Shanghai u n t i l 1947, when they came to Vancouver. Mr. Q., formerly a 114 commercial shipping of f i c e r , worked u n t i l his seventy-fifth birthday six months ago; his wife, eight years younger, i s not employed. Both complain with great feeling about their health, which appears to be their main interest; Mr. Q. has rheumatism and high blood pressure, Mrs. Q. has a r t h r i t i s and high blood pressure. They have no children, and appar-ently few friends. Their income, since he stopped working, consists of $175. a month i n pensions, of which they pay almost $90. a month i n rent. Naturally this situation cannot go on indefinitely, and this has prompted them to apply for housing. However high rent has not been the only problem; since they came to Vancouver Mr. and Mrs. Q. have moved more than ten times. Sometimes the d i s t r i c t has not been right, sometimes the accommodation has not suited their health needs, and frequently, according to them, landlords have interfered with them and stolen from them. Their present suite, on the top floor of a fine old house i n a respectable neighborhood, i s spacious, comfortable and cheerful; they have no complaints about i t except that they cannot afford the rent. The place looks as i f they are about to vacate the premises any minute: packing cases stand around, books are piled high on the floor, and there i s an over-all a i r of impermanency. However they have no plans to move i n the immediate future, but are 1 just looking 1. The Q.1s own a l l their furniture and a radio, 115 but have no television set. In describing their housing preferences Mrs. Q. (the spokesman of the family i n spite of her almost unintelligible English) i s most specific: o i l heating i s essential, as "old people cannot manage furnaces"; an ele c t r i c stove i s a must as gas i s a f i r e hazard; privacy i s essential, and there must be no landlord "poking around". Since she sleeps with her window open, because she i s short of breath, she wants to be on the second floor to avoid the danger of thieves (this i n spite of the d i f f i c u l t y she has i n climbing s t a i r s ) . The Q.'s attachment to their possessions was very strong indeed. This couple w i l l probably find d i f f i c u l t y i n settling anywhere, for used as they are to a l i f e of plenty, with servants and entertainment, adjustment to reduced circumstances becomes something they want to res i s t at every turn. (b) Single Persons Mr. G. i s an East Indian l i v i n g i n the False Creek area. Seventy-three years old and i n Canada for f i f t y - f i v e of them, he speaks few words of English but was nevertheless a friendly and courteous old man. He has no family at a l l , but lives with three or four other Indian old age pensioners i n the basement of an old house; his 116 health i s good and he receives the f u l l pension of $79. of which $15. goes for rent. Each old man occupies a very small sleeping room, and a l l share a cooking and l i v i n g area around the central furnace. The place i s dark, dingy and f i r t y beyond belief and affords the impression of being i n a primitive cabin somewhere i n the woods, instead of being i n a house near the heart of a large c i t y ! In spite of this Mr. G., and i t can be assumed his friends too, would not move for any-thing. He himself has lived there for seven years and i s perfectly satisfied, as far as could be determined. (The language barrier did not permit extensive conversation or expression of feeling, but Mr. G. looked contentedi) Mr. I.. an applicant for housing, liv e s i n an area adjacent and similar to the one which was surveyed. Along with perhaps a dozen other old men and one or two families he occupies what are known colloquially as "cabins", but are actually rooms in a two-storey wood frame tenement. An outdoor wooden 'cat-walk1 leads to the door of each dwelling and on i t are found the outdoor com-munal taps and basins that are used for washing. The rooms are individually heated with wood stoves; the arrangement of the door and window makes for an almost continuous draught through the room. The furniture i s rented, and there i s a small radio, but no phone or television set. 117 Mr. I. i s seventy-two, has never been married, and emigrated here from Ireland f i f t y - s i x years ago. His only relatives are some nieces and nephews i n Toronto with whom he has no contact. Out of his old age and war veteran's pensions of $110. a month he pays $17« for rent, another $20. for f u e l . He states that his health i s good; tuberculosis which he suffered twelve years ago i s no longer active. A gentle, apologetic old man, Mr. I. said that he had no complaints other than that the heating i n his room was very inadequate. It was from another tenant (not interviewed for the survey) that I learned that the place i s over-run by rats from a nearby saw-mill. Asked what sort of housing he would prefer Mr. I. said that a two-room suite anywhere except i n McLean's Park housing develop-ment would suit him; he considers McLean's Park a "tough area". 1 He did not need to be near any services as he could always walk or take a bus. Mr. M.« i n a different situation altogether, typifies a number of single men interviewed i n the Palse Creek area. Born i n Pennsylvania seventy-eight years ago, and having lived i n Canada for fifty-three of them, he has spent most of his l i f e working on farms, ranches and 1 McLean Park i s the site of a new housing development i n the downtown Vancouver area. 118 outdoor construction projects. He has never married and his last remaining brother lives i n Ohio. With no family, i t i s not surprising that Mr. M. clings to his present home because the landlord and landlady are "so good" to him. He i s i n good health, and manages adequately on his old age pension of $79 . The housekeeping room for which he pays $30. rent i s old-fashioned but cozy looking, and i s situated i n a neat, well-kept house. The furniture i s not his, but he has a radio and a phone; bathroom, kitchen and laundry f a c i l i t i e s are shared with other tenants. (This i s the case with many housekeeping rooms i n the area.) Mr. M. i s entirely s a t i s f i e d with his l i v i n g arrangement; i f he were to move he would choose something similar, only perhaps i n a s l i g h t l y better part of town. Of the women interviewed i n the False Creek area, Mrs. J?. perhaps comes closest to being the female counter-part of Mr. M. Born i n the U. S. seventy-three years ago, she came to Canada as a young women, i s now widowed with one daughter who lives elsewhere in Vancouver. She lives on her pension, and i s i n good health except for a r t h r i t i s . For a number of years now she has boarded with her present landlady, whom she considers a friend, and she i s entirely s a t i s f i e d with the arrangement. The house and garden are well-kept, and the interior i s handsomely furnished. 119 It i s Mrs. E.'s attitudes, rather than her actual l i v i n g arrangements, which are noteworthy. She feels very strongly about housing for senior citizens, stating that, f i r s t l y , the government does not do enough i n this l i n e , and secondly, what i t does i s not satisfactory. The housing projects she has v i s i t e d are too far from town and do not provide easy access to the services old people find essential. It i s especially important for old people to be able to v i s i t their friends i n hospital. Mrs. E. made i t clear that she considered herself to be an active person whose l i f e i n the community had not ended the day she became sixty-five, and she f e l t that a l l old persons should be treated the same way. Her comments on nursing homes and boarding homes were more than acid; these institutions were scandalous, she s a i d — o l d people were overcharged and underfed. Mrs. E. was a l l i n favor of government-run homes for old persons. Mrs. E., a widow l i v i n g i n the Ealse Creek area, had less definite opinions but made an equally marked impression i n her own way. Looking as i f she had just put away her six-shooter—long brown hair f l y i n g , ragged clothes thrown on any which-way, she appeared rather like a delight-f u l h i l l b i l l y . She was naive and gentle, and extremely courteous,—but could, as her friend told the interviewer, s t i l l " s p l i t a bunch of logs faster than any man aroundi" She was seventy-four years old, but looked years younger; 120 "born i n Minnesota, she has lived in Canada for f i f t y - f i v e years, and i n this particular house for two. Formerly she lived for many years i n a house next door, u n t i l that house was condemned and torn down. Except for some rheu-matism her health i s good; i f she i s not well her daughter, who lives i n Burnaby, comes to look after her. Mrs. E., whose house i s one of the most run-down and seedy looking i n the area, considers herself lucky to have a place of her own with no interference from anyone; nothing would make her move. She pays $30. a month rent for the entire two-storey wood-frame house, and sub-lets to two or three boarders. The income she thus receives supplements her old age pension, and she finds she gets along very comfortably. If for any reason she had to move she would again choose a place in the same area. Mrs. E. was not i n favour of housing projects where the old are segregated from other age groups, preferring to be around young people and their families. Mrs. E.'s cheerfulness and youthful disposition would make her a most refreshing asset to any housing project. Mrs. B.« one of the housing applicants, presents a very different picture of old age. Her home i s i n a 'respectable' part of town, and her small suite would be 121 the envy of anyone with an average income and average tastes. It i s comfortably furnished and pleasantly decorated, many of the art i c l e s being treasures which Mrs. B. has had with her for many years. One wonders why she wants to move. The two reasons given are: 1) she would like better cooking f a c i l i t i e s , for like most persons i n rooming houses, she has only two hotplates to do her cooking on, and 2) she would lik e the independence of her own place. Other reasons are suggested by her history. Born i n Scotland seventy-four years ago, she went to Australia as a domestic when she was a young women; there she married an Englishman who later brought her to the U. S., then back to England and Scotland, then back to the U. S. again. When he died ten years ago Mrs. B. decided to come to Vancouver, where her son and his family l i v e , and since then she has lived here and i n other parts of B. C. Until two years ago she supported herself with house-keeping jobs, now lives on her old age pension. She has some heart trouble, and finds the stairs to her second floor accommodation d i f f i c u l t , but this does not stop her from going regularly to church and church groups, which are her main interests. She never sees her family as her relationship with the daughter-in-law i s poor; her son recently suffered a nervous breakdown; Mr. B. senior was an alcoholic. 122 It i s not d i f f i c u l t to see why this woman's unstable and restless background have made i t d i f f i c u l t for her to settle down; she has moved numerous times i n recent years, and has often given up attractive, reasonably priced accommodation because of one or two minor flaws. No doubt loneliness has played a part i n her dis s a t i s -faction too, for she said she was desperate for "someone to talk to". The foregoing sketches i l l u s t r a t e the widely d i f -fering characteristics of the old people who are candidates, or potential candidates, for public housing. Before the survey only two facts were certain: 1) that the applicants on the V.H.A. waiting l i s t considered themselves to be i n need of housing, and 2) that the False Creek area, by reason of i t s industrial nature and the eventual redevelop-ment that i t i s slated for, almost certainly constituted a present or future housing problem. Interviews with i n d i v i -duals brought out the differentiation of need and prefer-ences within these two categories. Mrs. E., l i v i n g i n the most run-down surroundings, i s content to stay where she i s because she has independence and dignity; Mrs. B., i n com-fortable, attractive quarters, i s anxious to move because she i s restless and lonely. Mr. and Mrs. L. work extremely hard to support themselves but prefer i t that way; Mr. and Mrs. Q., obsessed with health and landlord troubles, are 123 eager to have cheap housing, tailored to their needs, pro-vided for them. Mr. I., and Mr. G. l i v e i n equally f i l t h y and degrading quarters, yet one wants to move, the other does not. These contrasts point up extremes, of course, and there were many less striking cases which f a l l some-where i n between, but they show that "preferences" include independence as well as physical housing standards alone. Some of the implications for the planning, design and management of old people's housing are discussed in the f i n a l chapter. CHAPTER V PLANKED PROVISION OP OLD PEOPLE'S HOUSING NEEDS WHAT REMAINS TO BE DONE? The number of elderly persons i n Canada and p a r t i -cularly i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been increasing steadily for many years. It i s only recently, however, that the results of this increase have been f e l t with sufficient force to gain wide public attention. Now, with comparative suddenness, the extent of the changes that have occurred i n the population and their implications for the future are being recognized. The pressure of the large number of elderly people in need of care and assistance of one type or another i s being f e l t by public health and welfare organizations everywhere with subsequent demands for action to improve the situation and with varying proposals for solving the problems. This widespread concern and the concomitant demands for action are encouraging but they pose their own dangers unless supported by a growing body of validated knowledge. Entire housing developments for older people, "retirement villages", apartment houses for the aged, old people's homes, rest homes, boarding homes, foster homes, 125 nursing homes, and "geriatric hospitals" are being advocated, and some are being constructed. The need to provide housing for large numbers of older people i s s t i l l a new and urgent problem and since there has been only a minimum of tested experience to serve as a guide (and what there has been has, oftentimes, not been consulted) many of the proposals are founded, wholly or i n large part, on conjecture. The present study has been undertaken as a minor contribution to a slowly accumulating fund of knowledge about old people's housing needs and preferences based on first-hand observation of existing conditions and the expressed preferences of old people themselves. In the course of this chapter, comparisons are made between the findings of this study and similar studies on housing for senior citizens completed within the past few years i n the Vancouver area. It i s a f a i r l y familiar theme nowadays that older people should remain independent, active, integral parts of normal community l i f e as long as possible. People who are in good health and who are able to manage their own lives with complete independence generally desire to do so, whether or not they happen to have passed the age of sixty-f i v e . Like those of any other age, they want to choose their own l i v i n g arrangements and usually greatly prefer to remain i n the homes and neighborhoods where they have 126 l i v i n g and where they have friends, relatives, and familiar surroundings. A. Length of Residence Comparatively few elderly people desire to leave their own neighborhoods and move to special "colonies" or "projects" inhabited exclusively by people their own age. Most of them are not wil l i n g to make such a move unless there i s a pressing necessity for i t , such as insufficient income, inadequate accommodation, f a i l i n g health or fear of the future. A number of studies, including the present one, reveal the tenacity with which elderly people c l i n g to their independence and to their own homes even after these d i f f i c u l t i e s have progressed far beyond the point where i t seems to others reasonable or safe for them to do so. In summarizing the findings of this survey regarding the length of residence, the relative strength of attachment to the area and to the accommodation displayed by the two groups i t i s found that the average length of residence i n Vancouver for couples on the Central Housing Registry i s 12 years while for couples resident i n the False Creek area the average length of residence i n Vancouver i s 19 years, an average of 7 years longer. For single persons on the Central Housing Registry the average length of residence i n Vancouver i s 29 years while for 127 single persons i n the False Creek area the average length of residence i n Vancouver i s 17 years. The average length of residence i n their present accommodation for couples on the Central Housing Registry i s between 2 and 3 years with the maximum length of r e s i -dence being 5 years while for couples who li v e i n the False Creek area the length of residence i n their present accom-modation i s between 5 and 6 years with a maximum length of residence i n three instances, being more than 20 years. For single persons who are applicants on the Central Housing Registry the length of residence i n their present accom-modation i s from one to two years whereas i n the False Creek area this i s from 4 to 5 years for men and from 6 to 9 years for women. This study tends to indicate that the length of time a person has resided i n a place and the relative per-manence of this residence influences a person's attitude regarding his accommodation. As has been pointed out pre-viously, i t i s generally assumed that the more mobile a person i s the less attached he becomes to his home, p a r t i -cularly i n relation to those who have resided i n a home for a considerable length of time. Thus i t i s not surprising that those elderly people who have lived i n a particular accommodation for many years, as have many of the people i n the False Creek area, are quite content to continue residing 128 there while the applicants of the Central Housing Registry who appear to have been more mobile, tend accordingly to seek better accommodation. B. Income and Rents A major factor influencing where and how a person li v e s i s the amount of rent he can afford and the amount of rent he can afford i s determined by the size of his income. Should the person's income be meagre or the amount remaining after rent has been paid be small, there may be a need to cut down on the amount of money required for such necessities as food, clothing, transportation and recreation. It may even be necessary for the elderly person to r e l y on r e l a -tives or friends for fulfillment of these necessities of l i v i n g , thereby surrendering his coveted independence. In this study i t i s observed that the income levels for both single persons and couples i n the False Creek area cover considerably higher ranges than for the applicants on the Central Housing Registry. The range for couples i n the False Creek area i s $175* to $184. per month while couples on the Housing Registry receive $155* to $154 per month. Single persons i n both areas average $ 7 9 . per month. The median income i s seen to be the same for single persons i n both groups, however, the couples i n the False Creek area receive an average of .twenty dollars 129 per month, more income than do the couples on the Housing Registry. The rent levels d i f f e r somewhat i n the two groups i n that the single persons on the Housing Registry are paying, on an average, four dollars per month more for rent than those l i v i n g i n the False Creek area. The couples on the Housing Registry are paying an average of ten dollars per month more for rent than are those i n the False Creek area. After shelter costs have been paid the single persons i n the False Creek area have, on the average, from five to nine dollars more available than those single persons on the Housing Registry. It i s also found that the couples i n the False Creek area have more money available after shelter costs have been paid than the couples on the Housing Registry. In general, then, i t can be said that people i n Group B pay less rent, have as much, and i n the case of couples more income with a greater amount of money remaining after shelter costs are paid. It should be noted, too, that the proportion of shelter costs to income, i n both groups, i s i n excess of the rate of twenty to twenty-five per cent considered to be desirable. Also, i n the judg-ment of the interviewers, the quality of the accommodation did not improve as the cost of shelter increased. In fact there appears to be no significant correlation between the quality of accommodation and the amount paid. For single persons i n the False Creek area accommodation improved i n 130 the range of $30. to $40. per month, -his only existed i n three cases. For single persons on the Housing Registry l i t t l e relationship existed between cost and quality of accommodation* C. Quality of Accommodation Another factor which warrants careful consider-ation and which would appear to have considerable impact upon the mode of l i f e and degree of contentment of the elderly person i s the quality of the accommodation i n which he or she resides. The major portion of the accommodations i n the False Creek area were old homes converted into numerous housekeeping rooms. More than half of those on the Housing Registry l i v e i n housekeeping rooms but a l l types of accommodation are generally better than those i n the False Creek area. The findings of this study indicate that the variation i n types of accommodation lived i n by the two groups i s inappreciable although a larger proportion i n the False Creek area reside i n their own homes. One-eighth of the persons i n the False Creek area own their own homes as compared to one-thirtieth of those on the Housing Registry. Proportionately more couples and single men i n the False Creek area share f a c i l i t i e s than those on the Housing Registry. There are, however, more single women on' the Housing Registry who share f a c i l i t i e s than there are i n the False Creek area. This i s true from a numerical 131 point of view simply because there are more single women. The larger number of homeowners i n the False Creek area than on the l i s t of the Housing Registry attests to the greater s t a b i l i t y of the former. However, i t must not be forgotten that owning one's own home can accrue physical and financial d i f f i c u l t y . The greater number of couples and single men sharing f a c i l i t i e s i n the False Creek area indicates support from friends or relatives. These factors would lead to increased contentment. Judging by the findings of this study, the quality of accommodation occupied by old people i n the False Creek area i s less satisfactory than that occupied by the sample of applicants on the Central Housing Registry. On the other hand, only 3 persons i n the False Creek group had applied for rehousing i n any of the city's low-rental pro-jects and the amount of dissatisfaction expressed with existing housing i s generally much lower among this group compared with the complaints of applicants i n the Housing Registry waiting l i s t . This tends to confirm what has already been suggested i n a number of other studies, namely, that housing satisfactions are the product of other factors as well as the actual quality of the accom-modation. 132 D. Health, i n Relation to Housing Heeds The condition of health of elderly people i s of considerable importance, both i n relation to their s a t i s -faction with present accommodation and i n regard to the planning for future housing. E l d e r l y people, " i n good health for their age", generally move more slowly, become ti r e d more quickly and more easily, have a poorer sense of balance, and neither see nor hear as well as they once did. Because of this elderly people require less space to move about i n , they should not have to climb a large number of stai r s , their f a c i l i t i e s should be so arranged as to reduce excessive bending and reaching, floors should be such as to prevent slipping and there should be sufficient illumination, both natural and a r t i f i c i a l , to enable them to see better. In this study the health problems i n both groups are of much the same nature. 1 There i s considerable dis-parity, however, i n the proportion of persons i n each group suffering from a d i s a b i l i t y ; Group B which i s composed of more than twice as many people reports fewer d i s a b i l i t i e s than Group A. Some variation i s evident between the two groups 1 See Table 16, Appendix A, and Table 16, Appendix B 133 i n relation to the condition of health and satisfaction with accommodation. In Group A, dissatisfaction with present accommodation i s expressed hy the sick and well alike, whereas among the residents of False Creek the complaints about existing housing conditions tend to be confined to those suffering from poor health. Both groups relate their lack of satisfaction to similar features i n their accom-modation. Some of these undesirable features are; insuf-f i c i e n t heat, d i f f i c u l t stairs and dampness. The features of accommodation most frequently complained about i n the Angel and MacKinnon study were as follows: too cold; d i f f i c u l t s t a i r s ; too damp; too noisy; poor ventilation, and poor sanitation. In summary i t can be said that the elderly people i n the False Creek area are comparatively more sat i s f i e d with their accommodation, have fewer health problems and fewer complaints concerning health. Those who had applied for housing tended to have more complaints i n both the areas of present acconunodation and health. However, i t i s most important to note that the aged people are especially vague as to what they would do i n the advent of disabling sickness. This may re f l e c t fear 1 MacKinnon and Angel, op. c i t . . p. i x . 134 of this situation, fear intensified because of uncertainty as to what they would or could do. D.V.A. persons only f e l t secure. People i n poor health have great d i f f i c u l t y i n finding housing. They lack mobility, they are not wanted, and their struggle to maintain their present accom-modation depletes their energy. Coupled with this i s fear of entering an "institution". This d i f f i c u l t y probably contributes to the desire on the part of those applying for low-rental housing to move. E. Attitudes and Preferences Attitudes towards present housing varied widely, as might be expected. Comments of the old people on their accommodation ranged a l l the way from apparent complete satisfaction to distress at not having bathtubs. The difference between attitudes of persons on the Housing Registry (who tended to be dissatisfied) and those l i v i n g i n the False Creek area (who tended to be satisfied) could not be explained by the fact that one group knew of low-rental housing accommodation while the other did not. In many cases persons l i v i n g i n poor accommodation i n the False Creek area when made aware of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of better housing stated that they would not avail themselves of i t . The resulting dilemma i s clear: i t i s agreed by 135 almost a l l students of the subject that additional and improved housing i s required for senior c i t i z e n s — y e t those very citizens who appear to need this housing most frequently decline i t . The reasons given by the old persons revolved around the concept of low-rental housing equating loss of independence. Presented with this common and very under-standable fear, housing planners must take into account two aspects of planning: the guarantee of freedom and inde-pendence for the old person, and the interpretation of this to both applicants and non-applicants. It must be recognized that there are some people who w i l l never adjust to a housing project—and these people exist amongst applicants and non-applicants. These are the people whose past histories, natures and temperaments have made i t d i f f i c u l t for them to adjust to any type of regulated, settled l i f e , and who w i l l probably continue to move from one spot to another no matter where they are. Naturally i t would be desirable to meet the needs of these people also, but whether these needs can be accommodated within the present conception of a housing project i s questionable. Further studies need to focus on the highly mobile older person concentrating on his past history, expectations, and his present attitudes towards l i f e i n general. 136 This study has given some clues as to the affect on attitudes of such variables as health, income, length of residence and marital status. For example, persons of poor health tended to be more di s s a t i s f i e d with their present accommodation than persons i n good health. However, far more noteworthy than this i s the fact that these same persons were unable to see their d i f f i c u l t i e s increasing as their health further deteriorated. They could not con-ceptualize being placed i n a nursing or boarding home. Attitudes towards such "in s t i t u t i o n a l " accommodation were almost uniformly negative. The implication for planners here l i e s i n the reasoning that i f old persons find the concept of low-rental housing less threatening than the concept of a nursing or boarding home perhaps many of the features of nursing or boarding homes can be incorporated into the low-rental housing project. Most older persons are not aware of the fact that general hospitals w i l l not take "non-acute" patients. Some form of public education or individual counselling service must be provided to help older persons make the transition from private dwellings to places where they can receive care when this transition i s necessitated by their physical needs. Although attitudes towards housing varied widely, preferences as to location and types of housing were 137 somewhat more uniform. As has already been noted i n Chapter IV a very large proportion of old persons interviewed preferred c i t y to country dwelling, and of this number, most preferred central c i t y dwelling to l i v i n g in a sub-urban area. Is i t old friends and accustomed surroundings that old persons wish to remain near to? Are c i t y centre f a c i l i t i e s for recreation easily accessible? Old persons wish to be near to shopping, medical, and transportation f a c i l i t i e s ; churches, parks and other recreational f a c i l i t i e s are considered less desirable. The lack of interest i n recreational f a c i l i t i e s i s a salient feature i n almost a l l the attitudes and preferences expressed. This i s somewhat puzzling i n view of the prevailing idea that old people are lonely and have not enough to do. It has been noted that the old persons i n the False Creek area have not availed themselves to any extent to the f a c i l i t i e s of the local neighborhood house. Perhaps a community recreation program w i l l have to study new ways of reaching out to old people, who may well have recreational needs but may be unable to make the f i r s t step towards f u l f i l l i n g them. The last aspect of preferences which must be taken into account i n planning for housing i s the type of accom-modation desired. Most old persons ( a l l couples, and those of the single persons who had been used to more comfortable l i v i n g i n the past) preferred the single dwelling unit, i.e., an individual cottage. Single men who had lived a 138 somewhat rough and ready existence were sat i s f i e d at the prospect of a decent room i n a rooming house. Not one person wished to hoard again emphasizing the value placed on independence. Whether or not i t i s economically feasible to meet the above preferences i s something every housing and planning authority w i l l have to take into consideration. The housing preferences expressed by the women respondents i n the Angel and MacKinnon study 1 are as follows i n their order of importance: warm i n winter; low i n rent; clean and easy to clean; privacy; quiet, freedom from noise; few or no stairs; a place to s i t outdoors i n fine weather; near a shopping centre; windows with a good view; considerate landlord; near a bus l i n e . This l i s t contains only a few interior preferences, however, i t does provide some idea of their preferences i n relation to interior f a c i l i t i e s that should be given consideration i n planning accommodation for the elderly c i t i z e n . The features of accommodation most frequently complained about i n this study are the following: too cold; d i f f i c u l t stairs; too damp; too noisy; poor ventilation and poor sanitation. In examining the findings of this present study i t becomes obvious that the people i n the sample drawn 1 MacKinnon and Angel, oo. c i t . . p. i x. 139 from the waiting l i s t pay, on an average, somewhat higher rents, have somewhat better quality accommodation, have moved about more, are i n somewhat poorer health, and are generally more diss a t i s f i e d with their present housing. In examining the reasons for applying for housing i t i s found that 4 3 % of the single men and 45% of the couples apply for financial reasons while 42% of the single women apply for personal reasons and a lesser amount, 33%» apply for f i nancial reasons. Twenty-seven per cent of the single men and not one couple apply for personal reasons. This would indicate that finances are the main reason why couples and single men apply, their personal l i f e i s more stable. Health was mentioned by few i n any of the three categories and when this i s seen i n relation to the dis-covered importance of health i n relation to dissatisfaction with housing the degree to which old people deny the per-sonal impact of their health i s evident. Single women, especially those suffering the loss of their spouses, would be especially vulnerable to stresses which would move them to apply for housing. It would seem that the persons i n the False Creel-area are less vulnerable to the stresses of aging because of the support of family and friends. It i s also note-worthy that they are people who seem to have led more stable lives i n terms of mobility and persons who aspire 140 less than those on the Housing Registry. It i s noteworthy that only four persons i n the False Creek area had applied for low-rental housing hut equally significant that by far the larger proportion had either no knowledge of such pro-jects or equated them with nefarious nursing or boarding homes. Although the people i n this area are less vulnerable to physical, economic or psychological stress and seemingly sat i s f i e d i t i s important that they be i n possession of a l l the facts about low-rental housing i n order to make an informed decision as to where they wish to l i v e . Projects must be planned so that they do not threaten independence and this must i n turn be interpreted to those who need public housing. P. Integration. Not Segregation In discussing the matter of recommendation for elderly people i t i s not sufficient to think only i n terms of how and where a housing project can be erected with the least d i f f i c u l t y and with a minimum amount of financial resources. A number of writers, among them Lewis Mumford, maintain that the elderly person must be restored to the community and the normal age distribution i n the community as a whole should be preserved. Mumford suggests having from five to eight people over sixty-five i n every one hundred people and any planning which disrupts this pro-portion i s undesirable. It i s important, too, that housing 141 for the aged he located where there i s a regular flow of activit y ; close to the centre of town and i n the main stream of l i f e . A solution to the problem of segregation on the basis of urban-wide planning has been proposed by P. R. U, Stratton, President of the Vancouver Housing Association. He states that: It i s no doubt undesirable on social grounds to have large communities of people drawn from one age group segregated i n a single project. If, however, public housing pro-jects for senior citizens are kept on a small scale and scattered over a number of different neighborhoods, where the tenants can maintain contact with their former community associations, or li v e close to relatives, this objection ceases to hold good.1 The Vancouver Housing Association, i n i t s publication entitled Building for Senior Citizens states that; "while i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i x any specific upper li m i t of size to senior citizens' housing projects, i t i s generally accepted that the segregation of large numbers drawn from one age group i n a single project i s undesirable. Small projects housing under 100 persons are therefore to be 1 Stratton, P. R. U., "Housing for Senior Citizens -the Next Step," Community Planning Review. Vol. VI, no. 3 (September 1956), p. 100. 2 Vancouver Housing Association, Building for Senior  Citizens. Vancouver Housing Association, Vancouver, 1956, p. 2. 142 preferred. They have the additional advantage that, where a number of small projects are planned, they can be located i n different neighbourhoods and so afford tenants an oppor-tunity of retaining their former associations." P a t r i c i a Sharp, employing the c r i t e r i o n of under one hundred persons as marking a "small" project, found, for the four housing projects i n the Greater Vancouver area of which she made a study; the Pair Haven housed 172 persons and was planning expansion; Lions' View accommodated 72 persons; Dania Home had 58 residents, with room for more cottages, and the West Vancouver project had 24 tenants with plans being considered for additional units i n the same location. 1 Thus according to these suggested figures, only the Fair Haven could be considered as segregated. It i s suggested that to many persons, even one hundred people of a particular age group, housed i n one project, consti-tutes a greater degree of segregation than i s desirable. Referring back to Lewis Mumford's suggestion that provisions for housing old people should reflect the ratio of the old people i n the general population, then a somewhat larger percentage than five per cent i s required i n B r i t i s h Columbia housing projects, since i n the v i c i n i t y of ten per cent of the population are over the age of sixty-five. 1 Sharp, P a t r i c i a Louise, Housing Projects for Old People. Master of Social Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957, p. 66. 143 As the respondents i n this study have indicated, l i v i n g i n a rural area at a considerable distance from c i t y f a c i l i t i e s i s undesirable and not usually recommended. This kind of property, however, i s often acquired by planning groups either because of i t s low cost or because i t i s donated by a benefactor. As a result the elderly people are inadvertently subjected to what may be a very d u l l and desolate l i f e , where there i s no ac t i v i t y around the home, few v i s i t o r s because of i t s remoteness, and l i t t l e opportunity to get about because of inadequate transporta-tion service. It may be true that such locations are healthful and quiet, but these positive factors may actu-a l l y be onvershadowed by the boredom and lack of stimulation that accompany them. John Park Lee, i n his a r t i c l e entitled "Location and Building S i t e " 1 maintains that "accessibility i s the f i r s t important consideration i n determining the location of a home. Not a l l of those who wish to v i s i t a home, have automobiles. Good public t r a n s p o r t a t i o n — r a i l , bus, or t r o l l e y — a t modest prices and at frequent intervals i s therefore a necessity." In speaking about proximity of homes for the aged, Mr. Lee points out that "a home for 1 Lee, John Park, "Location and Building Site," Planning  Homes Por the Aged, ed. by Geneva Mathiasen and Edward H. Noakes, P. W. Hodge Corp., New York, 1959, pp. 12-13. 144 the aged should he near the following: stores, theatres, l i b r a r i e s , churches and synagogues, hospitals, physicians, dentists and other health resources, sport and recreational f a c i l i t i e s , and a centre of population from which staff can be drawn." This correlates closely with the findings of this survey which presents the order i n importance of ser-vices as follows: grocery stores, transportation, health services, church., park and community centre, l i b r a r y and movies. The f i r s t two services, however, were deemed to be of the greatest importance. G.. Factors i n Planning In planning housing for elderly people, due regard must be given to the ratio between married couples and single persons requiring accommodation. The Vancouver Housing Association 1 has indicated that i t i s necessary to decide the proportion of units to be b u i l t for couples and for single persons respectively. Prom s t a t i s t i c a l evidence and actual needs, as reflected i n the applications received by the Vancouver Housing Association, i t i s seen that the demand for single units i s at least three times as great as for married units. This study has noted, too, that of the single persons there i s a vastly larger number of women on the Central Housing Registry than there are men but that 1 Vancouver Housing Association, op. c i t . . p. 3* 145 there are twice as many single men i n the False Creek area. The few couples applying for housing and the results of interviewing couples i n the False Creek area points to couples being less l i k e l y to want to move because they have moved less i n the past, are fina n c i a l l y better off than the single person, and have each other as sources of mutual support. Single men may not apply for a variety of reasons. They may be more independent than the single women, they may be used to a solitary l i f e , they may be used to less adequate accommodation, or have greater access to relatives and friends. As one may readily recognize, these facts have an important bearing on the provision of housing for elderly people particularly when one considers that proportionately more low-rental housing accommodation has been made av a i l -able for married couples than for single persons. The need for more housing for single persons becomes even more acute when i t i s seen that i n a great many instances, f i f t y per cent or more of their income i s expended for shelter. In planning accommodation for elderly people, provision must also be made for those who wish to li v e independently as well as for those who are no longer wil l i n g or who are unable to do so. Among the physically inde-pendent are to be found a few who prefer boarding home accommodation, the majority who would rather have their own 14-6 housekeeping f a c i l i t i e s and some who, because of adequate finances, are able to compete for housing on the open mar-ket. It has been suggested that i n the United States, and i t may hold equally true of Canada, approximately seventy-five per cent of a l l persons sixty-five years of age and over are entirely able to li v e independently i n ordinary houses and apartments throughout the community. If this be so, what kind of accommodation i s to be recommended for the remaining twenty-five per cent? A study of the Housing Meeds and Preferences  Among Senior Citizens i n Vest Vancouver 1 reveals that of the aged couples seen during the study, there were two distinct groups; the majority were homeowners who wished to remain i n their own home while the other group consisted of couples occupying rental accommodation. The study indicates that the homeowner's desire to remain i n his own home was so strong that i t appeared he would go to almost any l i m i t to remain there. On the other hand, those couples renting their accommodation did not have the same feeling of security, nor was the accommodation, i n most instances, satisfactory or within their budget. The West Vancouver study reveals that the majority of single women desired to be on their own regardless of 1 MacKinnon and Angel, op. c i t . 147 how they live d . In relation to their present accommodation, most of the women not with relatives and those who had been i n their place of residence for a number of years, con-sidered their existing f a c i l i t i e s to be adequate. Those women who resided with sons or daughters would have preferred to have resided alone. This material from the Angel and MacKinnon thesis substantiates the importance of three features i n a housing project: security, independence, and privacy. It must be a home from which they w i l l not be evicted for human fa i l i n g s , a home which provided the f a c i l i t i e s and atmos-phere to encourage independence, and a home which provides every person with the privacy he or she desires. Those elderly people who may be considered to require special housing f a c i l i t i e s are found to be i n varying stages of d i s a b i l i t y . Many of them are " i n good health for their age" and need l i t t l e more than someone to maintain a home for them and to be available i n case help should be required. Others need more assistance and some are almost completely disabled requiring constant nursing care. A l l of them, however, desperately need places to li v e where they can have a real feeling of home, where they can be encouraged and helped to use a l l the capacities they s t i l l have, and where they can live as nearly normally as possible. 148 This study reveals that i n both groups dealt with there are r e l a t i v e l y few who would consider entering either a nursing or a hoarding home, although proportionately twice as many i n Group A would consider such a move. It should he remembered, however, that i n the event of i l l n e s s , the residents of the False Creek area have a greater number of resources among friends and relatives for care in their own home* It i s usually thought by planners that persons i n need of nursing or boarding home care should be segre-gated from other old people because their presence i s threatening as they would depress those who are well. This may be true but i t remains to be v e r i f i e d through research. In any event "well" persons l i v i n g i n low-rental housing projects are vulnerable to disabling i l l n e s s and i f they are given medical treatment within the context of their home environment and while i n contact with "well" older persons the incentive to once again return to health w i l l be increased. This consideration i s borne out in Miss Sharp's study 1 where she observes that i n relation to Dania Home: "When residents become i l l , they are cared for as long as possible by the matron, who w i l l send a tray to the room for meals when necessary. Indeed, many of the 1 Sharp, oo. c i t . . p. 4-0. 149 old folks regularly have breakfast sent to their rooms. The matron does not consider this to he an unreasonable demand on her time and energy. Actually, she i s very reluctant to send any of the residents to a hospital or nursing home, unless absolutely essential, as she i s con-vinced that the Home means a great deal to the old people, and that moving them to new surroundings during i l l n e s s i s harmful and inconsistent with the purposes of the home." It may be emphasized that i n many respects i t i s the people who are most severely disabled who are most i n need of the comfort and security of a1 truly homelike atmosphere. The better the individual's health, the greater are his opportunities to find satisfactions i n other ways, but i t would be a mistake to think that the only people for whom a homelike atmosphere i s important are those who are s t i l l i n comparatively good health. It should be noted here that this study indicates that the degree of sati s -faction with l i v i n g arrangements seems to vary directly according to the old person's state of health and that those who were i n good health were generally satisfied, while those i n poor health were more often d i s s a t i s f i e d . As health declines and physical independence i s los t , any change tends to be contemplated with increasing fear and resistance. One of the many painful experiences i n l i f e comes at the point when one must give up his own 150 home and the independence and status that are his and go to liv e i n a place where others make the decisions that control his way of l i f e . If the person i s fortunate enough to move into good surroundings with kind and understanding people i n management, then he may come through the ordeal with a minimum of discomfort and gradually may develop confidence and some feeling of security i n his new accommodation and i n those responsible for i t s management, -his w i l l he d i f f i c u l t or impossible, however, i f he does not have any real s t a b i l i t y i n his new home, especially the security of knowing that as his infirmities increase there w i l l be some-one whom he can trust to care for him. This i s a compelling argument for seeing the elderly person's total problem and for developing f a c i l i t i e s that w i l l be prepared to care for him not only during the temporary period while he needs very l i t t l e assistance but also as his needs and dependencies increase. Any accom-modation designed for housing and care of elderly people should be prepared to continue providing the necessary care as i t s residents grow older and more infirm. The needs of elderly people are not static, and a chain of separate f a c i l i t i e s , each of which offers care only at one p a r t i -cular stage of the continuum, represents an unsatisfactory solution from the point of view of the elderly persons concerned. It also c a l l s for a form of organization of 151 institutions and agencies that i s unnecessarily expensive and cumbersome from the point of view of good admini-stration and good organization of community services. It should be mentioned again that the character of these f a c i l i t i e s should be understood clearly as that of a home and should not attempt nor be permitted to become junior-grade hospitals. The need for them arises from the fact that the residents cannot continue to maintain their own homes. They must, therefore, look to philanthropic organizations or governmental units to establish and oper-ate f a c i l i t i e s that w i l l offer them the best possible sub-stitutes for good homes of their own. In the process of completing this study i t was found that needs i n relation to housing were easier to measure than the more intangible area of preferences. Future studies should explore preferences i n depth; they should attempt to ascertain what factors i n the aged person's background or what factors i n present day society dictate the way i n which people desire to meet their own needs. Why do couples and single men not apply for public housing? This w i l l necessitate extensive "area inter-viewing" with selected groups where a concerted attempt i s made to understand why people prefer what they do. This w i l l provide the key to answering how housing projects are to be created and how they are to be interpreted to those 152 they axe created for. In relation to community planning i t i s no longer possible for any group planning services for elderly people to proceed without relating to what other groups i n the community are doing, consequently many c i t i e s have found i t necessary to establish some central body to investigate the needs of elderly people i n the community and to provide some means of help. In this respect the Vancouver Housing Association, i n i t s "Bulletin" of A p r i l , 1961, stated: "a housing program for the Vancouver area can only be planned effectively on a metropolitan basis." Catherine Bauer, who at that time had just made a recent v i s i t to the ci t y , pointed out that one of the keys to an effective housing program i s control over adequate tracts of building land by acquisition or reservation ahead of requirements. She went on to say that only a metropolitan government can exercise the powers and find the finance required to develop a long range land program, to serve both private and public housing requirements. When a metropolitan government i s established, i t s function should, therefore, be extended to include housing, conjointly with the constituent munici-p a l i t i e s . Those planning homes for elderly people may very often find desirable sites i n areas restricted by law to single family units or with space limitations on multiple dwelling units. , It i s important, both for immediate 153 building aoid for future expansion, that these facts be known prior to purchase of the property, to ensure that i f zoning laws are r e s t r i c t i v e , exceptions w i l l be granted, and that the community w i l l permit erection of a project for senior citizens or that i t w i l l conform to the com-munity development program. A statement made in a survey of the administration of the City of Vancouver has endeavored to point out the direction i n which community organization should proceed, i n planning adequate f a c i l i t i e s for the aged. The statement reads: "Planning for the proper care of the aged i s a matter i n which the City Department of Social Service and the Social Welfare Branch of the Provincial Government should play prominent parts, but which principally i s a matter of total community concern."'' There seems to be considerable accord that what i s most required to meet the problems of housing i n an effective, comprehensive manner, and i n a way that w i l l ensure the development of housing projects to their maximum capacity, i s a concentrated effort i n community organization. 1 Public Administration Service, Report on an Admini-strative Survey of the Municipal Government, City of Vancouver, Chicago, 1955, p«H5» APPENDIX A HOUSING ACCOMMODATION POP THE ELDERLY: A VANCOUVER SURVEY (1962) Name: Address Couple Single Marital Status Age: M .. Other (Single person) Age: P .. 1. Years Residence - (a) Canada (h) B.C (c) Vancouver 2. Birth Place B r i t i s h Continental European Other 3. How many years since last worked f u l l time 4. Are you on the Housing Registry? .... If so, when (state each time) 5. How long have you lived i n your present accommodation? 6. How often have you moved i n the last year? i n last 3 years? 7. What were the main reasons for moving? A. Reason for Getting on Housing Registry (Group A only) 1. Why did you apply for housing? 2. How did you hear of the Housing Registry? Doctor Newspaper Minister Social Agency Priend Other 3. If you could choose housing within your capacity to pay, what would he the most v i t a l consideration for you? a. comfort and good f a c i l i t i e s b. Accessible to health & welfare services c. Access to friends, relatives d. Being with other people, not isolated e. Other (please state) B. Family Relationships 1. Are there close relatives or friends l i v i n g with you? If so, specify number and relationship 2. Do you have close relatives or friends l i v i n g a distance away from you, i n Canada? 155 Place Relationship Comments 3. Does present housing interfere with your contact with family and friends? If so, how? C Present Living Arrangements 1. How did you come to live here i n the f i r s t place? Choice Necessity Other Health Finances Recreation Near Church Choice Necessity Other Near relatives Near friends C omp ani onship Convenience Other (specify) 2. Type of housing lived i n now: Type Owned Rented Shared Care- Com- Baby-taker panion s i t t e r Single house Apartment Boarding house Rooms Other 3. Conditions: 1 5 6 Item Conditions Comparison with what used to satis- unsatis- better same poorer factory factory Furnishings* Light Heat Ventilation Stairs Fire escape * furnishings owned rented Item Interviewers impression good f a i r poor Furnishings* Light Heat Ventilation Stairs Fire escape 4. F a c i l i t i e s : f t . or bk porch f t . or bk garden bedroom above shared kitchen f r i g , bath shower laundry above shared 5 . Is there a telephone T.V Car . Radio Other . 0 157 6. What do you think of your present l i v i n g arrangements: Definitely satisfactory Definitely unsatis-factory other Explanation i n your own words , D. Health 1. How do you consider your health? Excellent good f a i r ......... up and down poor very poor Are you: Disabled? ........ Bedridden? Chairfast? Ambulatory but unable to care for self? Other? Give details , 2. Is there anything i n your present housing which you think affects your health? Dampness Industrial noise Too cold Tra f f i c noise Poor l i g h t Neighbourhood noise D i f f i c u l t Stairs .... Other Sanitation 3« Has your doctor'ever suggested you attain better housing? yes no Have no doctor 4-. If your health deteriorated would you consider l i v i n g i n : a) nursing home? yes .... no .... don't know b) boarding home? yes .... no .... don't know If no, what would you do? 5. When you are sick i s there anyone who can care for you i n your home? spouse other relative friend other Would you move to liv e with a friend or relative i f necessary? E. Income and Budget (If married couple, enter M and P) 1. What i s your monthly income? M ....... P Prom what source(s) Pension? Employment? Other (specify) 2. Do you have any assets to l i v e on? Annuity Insurance War pension D i s a b i l i t y pension Retirement pension Property • 3. What do you pay for rent? (month) (% of income to be calculated by interviewer) U t i l i t i e s included i n rent? (specify) If not included i n rent, what i s cost for total u t i l i t i e s ? (month). 4-. If you had higher income would you devote more to rent? yes no not sure 5. Do you have debts which prevent you from paying more rent for better housing? Yes No not sure ...... 158 F. Housing preferences 1. What kind of neighbourhood would you prefer to li v e i n : Country? City? near"centre of town? Any particular d i s t r i c t (which)? 2. Have you seen or vi s i t e d any public housing projects ( L i t t l e Mountain Orchard Park other c i t i e s ); or any housing projects for senior citizens (which?) 3. If you were to move what kind would you prefer: Type of accommodation No. of Furnished Unfurnished preferred rooms Living with friends or relatives; Under 40 Over 40 Special Residence for Elderly people Nursing Home Public Housing where there are family & children Old People's Housing: old people only (e.g. Vista, Burnaby) Own room, not boarding Own room, board & lodging Apartment block, suite Single dwelling, with garden 159 4. Out of the following l i s t , what services are most important: Service, Order, or Desirable Estimated f r e -Comment distance quency of use (in blocks) (month) Bus Church Shops (grocery) Other shops Library Community Centre Park Movies Auction houses Health services Welfare services Other (specify) &. Interviewer* s impressions and analysis of Interview 1. Kind of person 2. Impressions of Accommodation 3. Why does person want to move 4. Impression of person's response to interview: Cooperative Resistive Other (what?) 5. Impression of contents of Interview: Objective Realistic Some withheld Unable to remember Vague Other (what?) 6. D i f f i c u l t i e s encountered before or during interview: Presence of others Interruptions .... Others 7. Significant comments (on housing need; housing preferences; public policy). 160 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK Housing Survey of the Aged Enumeration D i s t r i c t Street House No. Dwelling Unit No. in house None Not known Person. Single alone 3 over ( dwelli] Couple alone 35 year ag unit Single hoard-ing s i n ea< Couple hoard-ing 2h Re-marks 161 Table 1. Age and Sex: Group A Sex 60-64 65-69 Age 70-74 75-79 80+ Total Men 1 1 3 2 3 10 Women 2 4 7 2 1 16 Total* 3 5 10 4 4 26 * Total excludes two women and one man who did not report age and one wife under 60 years of age. Table 2. Place of Birth: Group A Birthplace Number of Persons Canada 14 Great Britain 12 Asia 2 Europe 1 Not known 1 Total 30 162 i Table 3» Length of Residence i n B. C ; Group A Single Persons Couples No. of Years i n B. C. Men Women Men Women Total Less than 5 years 1 1 2 5 - 1 4 years 3 2 2 7 15 - 29 years 2 2 1 1 6 30 years or more 3 6 2 4 15 Total 5 11 6 8 30 Table 4. Length of Residence i n Vancouver Compared with  Length of Residence i n Present Accommodation:  Group A Single Persons Residence i n Vancouver 0-1 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-14 15-19 20+ Total 1 - 2 yrs. 2 2 3 - 5 6 - 9 10 - 14 1 1 1 3 15 - 19 1 1 20 - 29 1 1 1 3 30 - 39 1 1 1 3 50+ 2 2 60+ 1 1 2 Total 4 8 1 1 2 16 163 Table 5» Length, of Residence i n Vancouver Compared with  Length of Residence i n Present Accommodation:  Group A Couples Residence i n Vancouver 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-9 10-14 15-19 20+ Total 1 - 2 yrs. 1 1 3 - 5 6 - 9 1 1 10 - 14 2 2 15 - 19 20 - 29 1 1 30 - 39 1 1 50+ 60+ 1 1 Total 1 5 1 7 Table 6. Types of Accommodation: Group A House Apartment Housekeeping Room(s) Total Single Men 5 5 Single Women 1 5 5 11 Couples 3 4 7 Total 1 8 14 23 ISA-Table 7» Comparative Distribution of Furnished and  Unfurnished Accommodation: Group A Unfurnished Furnished Total Couples 5 2 7 Single Men 3 2 5 Single Women 8 3 11 Total 16 7 23 Table 8. Comparative Distribution of Self-Contained Accommodation and Accommodation with Shared F a c i l i t i e s : Group A Self Contained Sharing Total Accommodation F a c i l i t i e s Couples 6 , 1 7 Single Men 2 3 5 Single Women 3 8 11 Total 11 12 23 165 Table 9« Income Levels of Single Persons  and Couples: Group A Monthly Income Single Persons Couples Less than $70 4 $70 - $79 76 $80 - $89 1 $90 - $99 1 $100 -$124 2 $125 -$149 1 2 $150 -$174 3 $175 -$200 2 Total 16 7 166 Table 10. Rent Levels and Total Shelter Costs. Single Persons and Couples: Group A Monthly Rent Single Persons Couples Rent plus U t i l i t i e s Single Persons Couples Under $20 2 under 20 $20-$29 1 $20-$29 $30-$39 5 1 $30-$39 7 $40-84-9 4 2 $40-$49 3 1 $50-$59 3 $50-$59 2 2 $60 and over 1 4 $60 and over 4 4 Total 16 7 16 7 167 Table 11. Shelter Costs as Proportion of Income  at Specified Income Levels. Single  Persons and Couples: Group A Income Level (per month) Shelter Costs as Proportion of Total Income Households Single Persons Couples Range Average Range Average less than $70 36%- 62% 84% 4 $70 - $79 38%- 50% 62% 7 $80 - $89 34% 34% 1 $90 - $99 35% 35% 1 $100 - $124 33%- 34% 38% 2 $125 ~ $147 48%- 52% 48%-56% 56% 52% 3 $150 - $174 33%-50% 41% _ 3 , $175 - $200 27%-52% 39.5% 2 Total 0%- 40% 27%-84% 56% 44 .5^ 23 168 Table 12. Relationship between Shelter Costs and Quality  of Accommodation i n the Opinion of Occupants  and Interviewers: Group A Single Persons Occupant's Opinion Interviewer's Opinion Costs of Satis- Quali- Unsatis- Total Good Fair Poor Total Shelter factory f i e d factory 815-819 820-824 $25-$29 1 1 1 1 $30-834 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 $35-839 2 1 3 1 2 3 $40-$45 $45-849 2 1 3 2 1 3 $50-854 2 2 1 1 2 $55-$59 1 1 1 1 860-864 $65-869 $70-$74 885+ 1 1 1 1 Total* 5 6 3 14 8 4 2 14 * 2 single persons paid no rent—one of whom owned home and one of whom earned shelter by services 169 Table 1 3 . Interviewer's Rating of the Housing : Group A • Good Interviewer' Fair s Rating Poor Total Single Men 1 3 1 Single Women 9 1 1 11 Couples 3 2 2 7 Total 13 6 4- 23 Table 14-. Occupant's Opinion of Accommodation: Group A Definitely Definitely Satis- Unsatis-factory factory Mixed Feelings Total Single Men 1 2 2 5 Single Women 4- 1 6 11 Couples 3 4- 7 Total 5 6 12 23 170 Table 15• Occupant's Opinion of Present Accommodation Compared with Previously Occupied Accommodation: Group A Better Present Accommodation i s About the Same Inferior Total Single Men 2 2 1 5 Single Women 2 8 1 11 Couples 1 2 4- 7 Total 5 12 6 25 Table 16. Prevalence of Physical D i s a b i l i t i e s as Reported  by the Old People: Group A Type of Disability* A r t h r i t i s and Rheumatism 8 Heart Condition 7 P a r t i a l Paralysis and Crippled Limbs 4-High Blood Pressure 3 Bronchitis 3 Blindness 2 Deafness 2 Diabetes 2 Spinal D i f f i c u l t i e s 1 Phlebitis 1 Tuberculosis 1 Total 35 * One person may complain of more than one ailment Table 17. Specific Housing Features Reported as Affecting Health State of Respondents Health Housing Features Reported as Affecting Health Too Too Poor Poor Traffic Neighbor- Venti- H i l l s Truck Total Damp Cold Stairs Sanit- Noise hood noise la t i o n fumes at ion Good Single Men Single Women Couples Fair Single Men Single Women Couples 1 2 3 2 i - 1 Poor Single Men Single Women 1 Couples 2 Total* 3 2. 3 3 6 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 15 25 * Totals add to more than total number of households since one household may complain of more than one feature 172 Table 18. Health and Satisfaction with Housing: Group A Respondent's Estimate of Health* Respondent's Opinion of Accommodation Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Qualified Total Good Single Men 2 2 4-Single Women 3 3 6 Couples Fair Single Men 1 1 Single Women 2 2 Couples 1 1 Poor Single Men Single Women 1 2 3 Couples 3 3 6 Total 5 6 12 23 * Good rating for couples indicates that both partners are i n good health; Fair rating indicates one partner i s i n good health, the other i n f a i r or good health; and Poor rating indicates one partner i s i n poor health, the other i n good, f a i r or poor health. 173 Table 19. Respondent's Opinion of Projected. Action i n the  Event of Illness: Group A Health of Respondent In Event of Illness Respondent Would is go to boarding not doesn't Total or nursing home go know Good Single Men 3 1 4 Single Women 2 1 3 6 Couples Pair Single Men 1* 1 Single Women 2* 2 Couples 1 1 Poor Single Men Single Women 1 2 3 Couples /j.* * 2* * 6 Total 17 10 6 23 * would go to nursing home only ** one member would not go or doesn't know, other member would go to nursing or boarding home 174 Table 20. Care Available for Illness of Respondent: Group A If i l l could be cared for by relative friend and/or or i n ovna home* No. Total relative or friend's home No. Total Single Men 2 3 5 2 3 Single Women 5 6 11 3 8 11 Couples Men 4 2 6 1 5 6 Women 5 3 8 2 6 8 Total 16* 14 30 8 22 30 * Of this total 7 would be cared for by spouse, 8 by relatives and 1 by a friend APPENDIX B Table 1. Age and Sex: Group B Age Sex 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Total Men 2 12 11 9 2 36 Women 2 5 7 5 3 22 Total* 4 17 18 14 5 58 * Total excludes 1 man and 7 women who did not report age. Table 2. Place of Birth: Group B Birthplace i Number of Persons Canada 23 Great Britain 16 U. S. A. 8 Europe 10 Asia 5 Not known 2 Total 64 176 Table 3* Length, of Residence i n B. C : Group B Single Persons Couples No. of Years i n B. C. Men Women Men Women Total Less than 5 years 2 2 4 5-14- years 1 2 2 5 15 - 29 years 4 3 7 5 20 30 years or more 12 7 7 6 32 Unable to state 1 1 1 3 Total 20 10 17 17 64 Table 4. Length of Residence i n Vancouver Compared with  Length of Residence i n Present Accommodation:  Group B Single Persons Residence Years of Residence i n Present Accommodation i n Men Women Vancouver 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-9 10-20 20+ 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-9 10-20 20+ Tot. Up to one year 2 2 1 - 2 1 1 3 - 5 1 1 1 3 6 - 9 1 1 1 0 - 1 4 1 1 1 1 4 15 - 19 1 1 1 1 4 20 - 29 1 1 1 1 4 30 - 39 1 1 1 1 4 4 0 - 4 9 1 1 50+ 1 1 1 2 1 6 Total 4 5 5 2 1 3 1 1 1 5 1 1 30 177 Table 5* Length of Residence i n Vancouver Compared with  Length of Residence i n Present Accommodation: Group B Couples Residence i n Vancouver Years 0-1 of Residence 2-3 4-5 6-9 i n Present Accommodation 10-20 20+ Total Up to 1 yr. 1 - 2 yr. 3 - 5 yr. 1 1 6 - 9 yr. 1 1 10 - 14 yr. 2 2 15 - 19 yr. 2 1 1 4 20 - 29 yr. 1 2 1 4 30 - 39 yr. 1 2 3 50+ 1 1 2 Total 2 5 2 1 4 3 17 * F i r s t and only residence i n Vancouver Table 6. Types of Accommodation: Group B House Apartment Housekeeping Room(s) Total Single Men 2 1 17 20 Single Women 2 , 4 4 10 Couples 3 6 8 17 Total 7 11 29 47 178 Table 7* Comparative Distribution of Furnished and  Unfurnished Accommodation: Group B Unfurnished Furnished Total Single Men 5 15 20 Single Women 7 3 10 Couples 12 5 17 Total 24 23 47 Table 8. Comparative Distribution of Self-Contained  Accommodation and Accommodation with Shared  F a c i l i t i e s : Group B Self Contained Accommodation Sharing F a c i l i t i e s Total Single Men 4 16 20 Single Women 7 3 10 Couples 9 8 17 Total 20 27 47 179 Table 9. Income Levels of Single Persons  and Couples: Group B Monthly Income Single Persons Couples Less than $75 4 $75 - $84 11 1 $85 - $94 1 $95 -$104 1 $105 -$124 2 $125 -$149 2 3 $150 -$174 1 2 $175 -$200 1 3 $200 plus 3 Total* 23 12 * Total excludes 7 single persons and 5 couples who did not reveal income. 180 Table 10.. Rent Levels and Total Shelter Costs. Single Persons and Couples: Group B Monthly Single Rent . Persons Couples Rent plus U t i l i t i e s Single Persons Couples Under $20 2 1 under $20 2 1 $20 - $29 3 2 $20 - $29 3 $30 - $39 11 1 $30 - $39 11 1 $40 _ $4.9 5 3 $40 - $49 4 3 $50 - $59 1 4 $50 - $59 1 1 $60 and over 1 4 $60 and over 2 9 Total* 23 15 23 15 * Total excludes 7 single persons and 2 couples who did not reveal shelter costs. 181 Table 11. Shelter Costs as Proportion of Income  at Specified Income Levels. Single  Persons and Couples: Group B Income Level (per month) Shelter Costs as Proportion of Total Income Households Single Persons Couples Range Average Range Average less than $75 7%- 43.9% 4 68% $75 - $84 18%- 40% 63% 63% 12 68% $85 - $94 39% 39% 1 $95 - $104 35% 35% 1 $105 - $124 13%- 22% 31.5% 12.5%-$125 - $149 18%- 19% 26% 5 20% 39% $150 - $174 20% 20% l l . 5 % - 25.5% 4 40% $175 - $200 31% 31% 18.5%- 33% 7 47% 26% $200 plus 22%- 3 30% Total* 7%- 31.1% l l . 5 % - 35% 37 -68% 63% * Total excludes 9 households who did not reveal income and/or shelter costs. 182 Table 12. Relationship between Shelter Costs and Quality of Accommodation in the Opinion of Occupants and Interviewers: Group B Single Persons Occupant's Opinion Interviewer's Opinion Costs of Satis- Quali- Unsatis- Total Good Pair Poor Total Shelter factory f i e d factory 0-$14 $15-819 2 2 1 1 2 $20-$24 1 1 1 3 1 2 3 $25-$29 1 1 1 1 $30-$34 3 1 1 5 1 2 2 5 $35-$39 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 6 $40-$44 3 3 1 1 1 3 $4-5-$4-9 1 1 1 1 $50-$54 $55-$59 1 1 1 1 $60-$64 1 1 1 1 Total* 15 4- 3 23 3 11 8 23 * Total excludes 7 single persons who did not reveal shelter costs. 183 Table 13. Interviewer's Rating of the Housing: Group B Good Interviewer' Fair s Rating Poor Total Single Men* 5 9 4 18 Single Women** 2 4 2 8 Couples 3 5 8 16 Total 10 18 14 42 * No comment by interviewer in case of 2 single men and 1 couple. ** Housing not seen by interviewer i n case of 2 single women. Table 14. Occupant's Opinion of Accommodation: Group B Definitely Definitely Satis- Unsatis-factory factory Mixed Peelings Total Single Men 15 2 3 20 Single Women 8 1 1 10 Couples 8 2 6 16 Total* 31 5 10 46 * No comment by one couple. 184 Table 15• Occupant's Opinion of Present Accommodation Compared with. Previously Occupied Accommodation: Group B Better Present Accommodation i s About the Same Inferior Total Single Men 3 13 3 19 Single Women 9 1 10 Couples 4 8 4 16 Total* 7 30 8 45 * No comments re opinion of housing by 1 single man and 1 couple. Table 16. Prevalence of Physical D i s a b i l i t i e s as Reported  by the Old People: Group B Type of Disability* Heart Conditions 8 Rheumatism and A r t h r i t i s 4 Pa r t i a l Paralysis and Crippled Limbs 3 Blindness 3 Digestive Disorders 3 Deafness 2 Tuberculosis 2 Hypertension 1 Cancer 1 S i l i c o s i s 1 Urinary Disorder 1 Total 29 * One person may complain of more than one ailment T a b l e 17. S p e c i f i c Housing F e a t u r e s Reported as A f f e c t i n g H e a l t h S t a t e o f Housing F e a t u r e s Reported as A f f e c t i n g H e a l t h Respondents H e a l t h Too Too Poor Poor T r a f f i c Neighbor- V e n t i - H i l l s T r uck T o t a l Damp C o l d S t a i r s S a n i t - Noise hood n o i s e l a t i o n fumes a t i o n Good S i n g l e Men S i n g l e Women Couples 1 1 P a i r S i n g l e Men 2 2 S i n g l e Women 1 1 Couples 2 1 3 Poor S i n g l e Men 1 1 1 1 4 S i n g l e Women 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 Couples 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T o t a l 3 6 9 3 2 2 2 1 28 186 Table 18. Health, and Satisfaction with. Housing: Group B Respondent1s Estimate of Health* Respondent's Opinion of Accommodation Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Qualified l o t a l Good Single Men 9 9 Single Women 2 2 Couples 3 3 Fair Single Men 1 1 1 3 Single Women 4 4 Couples 4 3 7 Poor Single Men 5 1 2 8 Single Women 2 1 1 4 Couples 2 3 2 7 Total 32 6 9 47 * Good rating for couples indicates that both partners are in good health; Pair rating indicates one partner i s i n good health, the other i n f a i r or good health; and Poor rating indicates one partner i s i n poor health, the other i n good, f a i r or poor health. 187 Table 19. Respondent's Opinion of Projected Action i n the  Event of Illness: Group B Health of Respondent In Event of Illness Respondent Would i s go to boarding not doesn't Total or nursing home go know Good Single Men 1 7 1 9 Single Women 2 2 Couples 3 3 Pair Single Men 1 1 2 Single Women 2 2 4 Couples 1 6 7 Poor Single Men 3 3 2 8 Single Women 1 2 1 4 Couples 4 3 7 Total 8 22 16 46 * 1 single man did not reply to question 188 Table 20. Care Available for Illness of Respondent: Group B If i l l could be cared for by relative friend and/or or i n own home No. Total relative or friend's home No. Total Single Men 12 8 20 5 12 17 Single Women 8 2 10 3 5 8 Couples Men 16 16 7 7 14 Women 14 3 17 4 11 15 Total* 50 13 63 19** 35 54 * Total excludes 3 men, 2 women and 2 couples. ** A total of 10 men and 12 women would be cared for by spouse; 29 persons by relative or friends. APPENDIX C Table 1. Attitudes Toward Present Living Arrangements Group A Group B Entirely Entirely Mixed Satis- Dissat- Feel-f l e d i s f i e d ings Entirely Entirely Mixed Satis- Dissat- Feel-f i e d i s f i e d ings Single Women 5 1 5 8 _ 2 Single Wen — 2 3 15 2 3 Couples* 2 5 7 15 6 9 Total 7 8 15 38 8 14 * The responses have been tabulated for each member of each couple. Source: Housing Survey Schedules 190 T a b l e 2. M a r i t a l S t a t u s of Persons I n t e r v i e w e d Group A Group B Both. Groups S i n g l e Women 11 10 21 S i n g l e Men 5 20 25 Couples 7 15 22 T o t a l 23 45 68 Source: Housing Survey Schedules 191 Table 3• Relationship Between Attitudes to Present Housing  and Knowledge of Senior Citizen Housing Projects Attitudes to Present Housing Knowledge of Housing Projects Group A Group B Some No Some No Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Single Persons Satisfied 4 1 5 18 Dissatisfied 2 1 - 2 Mixed feelings 4 4 1 4 Couples* Satisfied 2 - 1 14 Dissatisfied 3 2 - 6 Mixed feelings 7 - 2 7 Total 22 8 9 51 * The responses have been tabulated for each member of each couple. Source: Housing Survey Schedules 192 Table 4. Relationship Between Health Status  and Attitudes to Housing Health Status of Respondents Attitudes to Housing (Groups A and B) Definitely Definitely Mixed Satisfied Dissatisfied Feelings Total Good 22 2 11 35 Fair 19 3 11 33 Poor 4 11 7 22 Total 45 16 29 90 Source: Housing Survey Schedules 193 Table 5» Relationship Between Attitudes to Present Housing  and Attitudes to Rent Attitude to Group Present Housing Singles A Couples* Group B Singles Couples Total Satisfied but would spend more 1 2 4- 5 12 Satisfied and would not spend more 4- 16 8 28 Satisfied and not sure would spend more _ 3 2 5 Dissatisfied and would spend more 3 3 1 6 13 Dissatisfied but would not spend more 2 1 3 Dissatisfied but not sure would spend more — — — — — Mixed Peelings would spend more 6 4- 3 7 20 Mixed Peelings would not spend more 1 2 1 4-Mixed Peelings not sure would spend more 1 1 2 1 5 * The responses have been tabulated for each member of each couple. 194 Table 6. Preferred Place of Residence Preferred Place of Residence Central City Suburbs Anywhere i n City Country Group A Single Women 5 3 3 -Single Men 2 - 1 2 Couples* _4 4 _6 — Sub-total 11 7 10 2 Group B Single Women 5 3 2 -Single Men 11 2 1 6 Couples 15 6 7 2 Grand total 42 18 20 10 * The responses have been tabulated for each member of each couple. Source: Housing Survey Schedules Table 7« Type of Accommodation Preferred Accommodation Preferred House Apartment Rooming Old People's Public With Friends/ House Housing Housing Relatives P. U. P. U. P. U. P. U. P. U. Group A Single Women - 4 2 2 - - 1 1 1 — — Single Men 1 - 1 1 1 — — 1 — — — Couples* - 8 1 2 — 2 1 — — — — Sub-total 1 12 4 5 1 2 2 2 1 - -Group B Single Women 1 2 1 3 1 - - - - 1 1 Single Men 6 2 3 1 7 — — — — 1 Couples 5 15 4 3 — — — 2 — 1 Grand total 13 31 12 12 9 2 2 4 1 3 1 * The responses have been tabulated for each member of each couple. Source: Housing Survey Schedules .APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY Specific References Annual Report. Committee on the Welfare of the Aged, Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver, Report of the Sub-Committee on Housing, January 1957* Building Por Senior Citizens. Part I, "The I n i t i a l Steps." Vancouver Housing Association, 616 Province Building, Vancouver, B. C , October 1959• Building Por Senior Citizens. Part II, "Construction and Management of the Project." Vancouver Housing Association, 616 Province Building, Vancouver, B. C , October 1959. Goulding, William S. "Housing Por Older People." Canadian Welfare. Vol. XXVIII, no. 6 (December 16, 1952). Housing For Our Senior Citizens. Vancouver Housing Association, March 194-9. Housing and Urban Growth i n Canada. A Brief from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation to the Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, Ottawa, 1956. Legislative Measures Affecting Living Accommodation For Elderly Persons i n Canada. General Series, Memorandum No. 16, Research and Sta t i s t i c s Division, Dept. of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, March 1961. Lee, John Park. "Location and Building Site." Planning Homes For the Aged, ed. by Geneva Mathiasen and Edward H. Hoakes, F. W. Hodge Corp., New York, 1959. MacKinnon, Dolina F., and Angel, Jerome H. Housing Needs  and Preferences Among Senior Citizens (West Vancouver). Master of Social Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952. 197 Marsh, L. C. "Good Housing and the Good L i f e . " The F i r s t B. C. Conference on the Needs and Problems of the Aging (May 14-17. 1957). oo. 15-18. Mathiasen, Geneva. "Better Buildings Por the Aging." The Architectural Record (May 1956), pp. 194-209. Mumford, Lewis. "Not Segregation But Integration." The Architectural Record (May 1956), pp. 141-144. Public Administration Service. Report on an Administrative Survey of the Municipal Government, City of Vancouver, Chicago, 1955* Sharp, P a t r i c i a Louise. Housing Pro.iects for Old People. Master of Social Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. Stratton, P. R. U. "Housing Por Senior Citizens - The Next Step." Community Planning Review. Vol. VI, no. 3 (September 1956). Vancouver Housing Association. Building Por Senior Citizens. Vancouver, June 1956. Vancouver Redevelopment Study. December 1957* Prepared by the City of Vancouver Planning Department for the Housing Research Committee. Wheeler, Michael. A Report on Needed Research in Welfare  in B r i t i s h Columbia. A Survey Undertaken for the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area and Financed by the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation. Vancouver, 1961. General References A Report to the Community Chest and Councils on the Adequacy of Social Assistance Allowances i n the City  of Vancouver. Vancouver, B. C., September 1958. Cavan, Burgess, Havinghurst, and Goldhamer. Personal  Adjustment i n Old Age. Social Science Research Associates Inc., Chicago, 1944. Friedmann, E. A., and Havinghurst, R. J. The Meaning of  Work and Retirement. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1954. 198 Kaplan, Jerome. A S o c i a l Program f o r O l d e r P e o p l e . Reisman, D a v i d . "Some C l i n i c a l and C u l t u r a l A s p e c t s the A g i n g P r o c e s s . " I n d i v i d u a l i s m R e c o n s i d e r e d . The Free P r e s s , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1955. Shanas, E t h e l . F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f O l d e r P e o p l e . H e a l t h I n f o r m a t i o n Department Research S e r i e s , No (October 1961). Shock, Nathan V. Trends i n G e r o n t o l o g y . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1957. 

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