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Towards a positive local government policy for residential rehabilitation Fitzpatrick, Gerald William 1963

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TOWARDS A POSITIVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR RESIDENTIAL REHABILITATION by GERALD WILLIAM B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  FITZPATRICK of  Toronto,  196I  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the  Department  of  COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY  conforming  OF B R I T I S H  April,  1963  COLUMBIA  to  In  presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment  the r e q u i r e m e n t s  of  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  mission for extensive copying p u r p o s e s may his  be g r a n t e d  representatives,.  by  I f u r t h e r agree that  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y  the Head o f my  I t i s understood  Department or  that copying, or  c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be without  my  written permission.  Department of  Community  and  Regional  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,. V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date  April,  1963  per-  Planning  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT The  objective of this  study i s t o examine:the  h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t o a c h i e v e t h e maximum p o t e n t i a l o f residential  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e  urban renewal process, i t i s necessary t o develop positive  local  utilizing al.  government p o l i c y f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  a l l t h e means a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s d i s p o s -  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s understood  involve  i n this  study to  the r e p a i r and/or improvement o f d w e l l i n g s  w i t h i n a designated renewal public  a  a r e a , t o g e t h e r w i t h what  a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o remove  deficiencies  environmental  and p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e c o m m u n i t y  facili-  ties. As  an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the study, the evolu-  t i o n o f the urban renewal United  process  i s t r a c e d i n the  S t a t e s , B r i t a i n and C a n a d a w i t h s p e c i a l  refer-  ence b e i n g made t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s . subsequent  background  to North America. process of  The n a t u r e o f t h e u r b a n  i s r e v i e w e d , and t h e g e n e r a l l y  'redevelopment , 1  are d e f i n e d . related  s t u d y , however, r e l a t e s  'rehabilitation'  soiely  renewal  accepted  terms  and' c o n s e r v a t i o n '  The u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o c e s s  to the o v e r a l l planning f u n c t i o n .  ii  The  i s also  A n a n a l y s i s i s made o f t h e proposals renewal  contained  i n m o s t o f the C a n a d i a n u r b a n  s t u d i e s completed  are e v a l u a t e d by r e f e r r i n g  to the r e p l i e s  Little  These  proposals  i s presented  to questionnaires mailed  i n c i t i e s w i t h completed s t u d i e s .  progress  rehabilitation  h a s b e e n made i n C a n a d a w i t h  as p a r t o f t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l  'rehabilitation'  in different  to date.  and t h e . c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n  to p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s  and  rehabilitation  cities:  process,  appears t o have d i f f e r e n t some p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s  rehabilitation  solely  area r e q u i r i n g  u l t i m a t e redevelopment, while  as a s h o r t - t e r m  consider  rehabilitation  itself.  The  guide  solution  t o be a j u s t i f i a b l e  b u t no c o n c e r t e d  others end i n  e f f o r t h a s b e e n made  improvement.  related  t o h o u s i n g when a s h o r t a g e  housing  f o r dispossessed  equate f i n a n c i a l  families  of  with  Municipalities  h a v e a l s o b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o use t h e i r p o l i c e  powers  alternative  exists,  and i n a d -  a s s i s t a n c e f o r home-owners  limits  amount o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p o s s i b l e . It  full  i n an  and c o - o r d i n a t e t h i s p r i v a t e a c t i v i t y  plans f o r environmental  the  consider  i m p r o v e m e n t of d w e l l i n g s i s e v i d e n t i n  several c i t i e s , to  meanings  i s concluded  potential  t h a t the r e a l i z a t i o n of the  for private rehabilitation  c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d  i n Canada under e x i s t i n g  iii  efforts financial  arrangements,  and  i n i t i a t e d .  In  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  unless  several appears  home-owners  and  i n  that  has  been  l i t t l e  imperative late  and  that  rehabilitation, provide  public  co-ordinate livable  more  drastic,  clearance  and  these  rest cases  i t  f a c i l i t i e s and  community  its and  is  not  private and  and  to  It  must  policy own its  iv  for  with  the  surprising is  considered  indeed  formu-  for  residential  responsibility determination  efforts reduce  disruptive  redevelopment.  are  i n i t i a t i v e  completely  government  a positive  costly  the  changes  accomplished.  indicating  public  more  cities to  local  publicize  legislative  to the  achieve need  measures  for of  to to a the  AC KNOWLE DGEME NT S  During gave  generously  make  valuable  tended  to:  Vancouver  Community  Mr.  A  Planning  A.H. R o b e r t s ,  Toronto  The replied much  .T . A l s b u r - y ,  Work;  would  Rose,  Board  University of  i s acknowledged  have  been  officials  with  impossible  the Department  who  gratitude:  without  o f Community  Oberlander,  i nclarifying  Head  the  the goals  appreciation f o r h i svaluable  Visiting  thanks  Professor,  v  Columbia,  my  Regional thanks  and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s  sincere  a n d my  J . Cross,  and  o f the Department, f o r  to Dr. Kevin  Associate  Planning  a n d M r . P.R.U. S t r a t t o n ,  at the University of B r i t i s h  guidance;  Director,  (B.C. D i v i s i o n ) ;  Region  study;  and  Executive  of  provided.  Within  assistance  and H e a l t h  assistance of a l l the planning  they  D r . H. P e t e r  areex-  of the City  A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada  Dr. Albert  and  Authority.  of the study  Planning  questions  Assessment  Mayor  people  of the City of  Mr. T. McDonald,  to questionnaires  information  to  on the s t a f f  of Social  many  G r a t e f u l thanks  Director, Capital  Housing  study  t o answer  Engineering,  Columbia;  School  Vancouver  time  persons  1959-62;  British  of this  suggestions.  Planning,  Vancouver,  of  of their  many  Departments;  Mr.  the course  Sessional Lecturer, detailed  my  criticism  t o Dr. J.N. Jackson, f o r h i s comments.  My t h a n k s  also  to D r . Leonard Marsh of  the  S o c i a l Work and t o M i s s M . D w y e r , F i n e A r t s my g r a t i t u d e  for  securing material  School  of  Librarian,  and g i v i n g  other  a s s i s t anc e . My t h a n k s of  typing,  also  t o my w i f e  for  and f i n a l l y , my g r a t i t u d e  gage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n f o r  the  her long  hours  to C e n t r a l  Mort-  award o f  F e l l o w s h i p w h i c h made t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f my possible.  vi  a  studies  CONTENTS  Page . . iv  . .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION Chapter I.  i  THE EVOLUTION OF THE URBAN RENEWAL PROCESS  6  Introduction The U n i t e d S t a t e s Britain Canada Summary II.  THE NATURE OF URBAN RENEWAL.  .  .  .  . 30  The R e a s o n f o r R e n e w a l U r b a n R e n e w a l and t h e P l a n n i n g Function The R e n e w a l P r o c e s s Redevelopment Rehabilitation Conservation Summary III.  R E S I D E N T I A L R E H A B I L I T A T I O N I N CANADA: AN EXAMINATION OF CANADIAN URBAN RENEWAL STUDIES 50 The r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e R e n e w a l Process The O b j e c t i v e s o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n The Means o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Legislative Control M u n i c i p a l Improvements C i t i z e n Education Financial Assistance The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Summary  vii  Page IV.  RESIDENTIAL R E H A B I L I T A T I O N I N CANADA: AN EVALUATION.  126  Acceptance o f the U r b a n Renewal S t u d i e s Minimum S t a n d a r d s C o d e s Citizen Participation Some O b s t a c l e s t o R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Summary V.  TOWARDS A P O S I T I V E LOCAL GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR RESIDENTIAL R E H A B I L I T A T I O N 11+8 F i n a n c i n g R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Measures Code E n f o r c e m e n t Some A s p e c t s o f M u n i c i p a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Inter-Governmental Relations The N a t u r e o f a L o c a l Government P o l i c y for Residential Rehabilitation  APPENDIX I  178  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Used i n t h e S t u d y APPENDIX I I .  191  V i s u a l Impression of Area Designated F o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Measures BIBLIOGRAPHY  . <  195  viii  INTRODUCTION The r e a s o n f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g p a r t s o f the c i t y  i s obvious:  nated i f our c i t i e s  urban b l i g h t must be e l i m i -  are to r e m a i n v i t a l organisms.  coat of c l e a r i n g and r e b u i l d i n g a l l the b l i g h t e d our c i t i e s , however, i s p r o h i b i t i v e and  The  areas of  impracticable.  Furthermore, the c o s t o f such d r a s t i c measures i s a l s o r a pidly r i s i n g :  the c o s t o f a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g the area  of Regent Park South i n Toronto was  three times t h a t o f  the e a r l i e r Regent Park North p r o j e c t although the a r e a was  only o n e - t h i r d  as l a r g e .  Urban renewal must become  i n f a c t what i t i s i n t h e o r y :  a long-range c o n t i n u i n g pro-  cess i n c l u d i n g t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f declining  areas, i n a d d i t i o n to c l e a r a n c e and  redevelopment  of the worst b l i g h t . Renewal i s r e q u i r e d i n many p a r t s of the urban area, i n c l u d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial  and  industrial  The concern of t h i s paper, however, i s l i m i t e d d e n t i a l areas of the c i t y .  The v a s t  uses.  to the r e s i -  'grey' areas where  not slums but inadequate and n e g l e c t e d housing i s found. The areas where because  ' i n t o l e r a b l e ' c o n d i t i o n s do not  e x i s t are d e s t i n e d to remain f o r s e v e r a l  decades.  Many Canadian c i t i e s have i s o l a t e d pockets o f poor housing c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than e x t e n s i v e areas o f s e v e r e  1  b l i g h t , thus they may problem.  I n comparison w i t h l a r g e r c i t i e s  perhaps not severe, has  assume that they do not have a renewal  but  the problem i s  a problem does e x i s t as every  housing that has, d e t e r i o r a t e d to some e x t e n t .  f o r e c a s t s suggest that the average age will  increase  years,  and  age  Economic  of housing i n Canada  i n the coming decades as i t has  although the  city  i n the l a s t  of a house does not  necessarily  i n d i c a t e i t s s t a t e of r e p a i r , i t i s g e n e r a l l y the o l d e r ings which are most i n need of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  In  that every e f f o r t be  ment, although i t i s o b v i o u s l y  dwell-  considering  the vastness of the investment i n our housing stock, imperative  i t is  taken to p r o t e c t t h i s  invest-  i m p r a c t i c a l to spend v a s t sums  on the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of unsound b u i l d i n g s which should be  clearly  demolished. T e c h n i c a l l y , any  s t r u c t u r e can be r e h a b i l i t a t e d -  i f enough money i s spent on i t , thus the c r i t i c a l  considera-  t i o n i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l dwellings i s the of r e p a i r s necessary to meet the r e q u i r e d the cost of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plus  standards.  dwelling,  ion  operation.  normally ceases to be  McFarland has  cost  When  the c u r r e n t market p r i c e  approaches t h a t of b u i l d i n g a new a valid  then r e h a b i l i t a t Mr.  M.  i n d i c a t e d that i f c i t i e s can motivate  Carter property  owners to improve t h e i r homes through code enforcement 'other means' (presumably f i n a n c i a l and and  ten  the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s ) ,  and  technical assistance then from a p u r e l y  economic p o i n t of view: r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l occur i f non-resident property owners can be shown that money spent on property r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l add s u f f i c i e n t value and  income to t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s to pay f o r the improvements, s e r v i c e the debt and provide at l e a s t as h i g h a p r o f i t r a t e as the p r o p e r t y d i d b e f o r e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i  0  T h i s would appear t o be an i d e a l situations, however, as many owners may  not i n i t i a t e  improvements even i f the c o n d i t i o n s  are f a v o u r a b l e . The market f o r r e h a b i l i t a t e d p r o p e r t i e s w i l l depend on the w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y of tenants to pay r e n t s necessary  to cover t h e c o s t s of r e p a i r .  the i n c r e a s e d Mr.  McFarland  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the r e s i d e n t owner would be more l i k e l y to be concerned  w i t h the i n c r e a s e d amenities c r e a t e d by  a t i o n , assessed  i n r e l a t i o n to h i s income and  f i n a n c i n g a v a i l a b l e to him„  rehabilit-  the terms of  Another p o t e n t i a l market e x i s t s  i n the buyer w i s h i n g to a c q u i r e an o l d e r house w i t h a view to r e h a b i l i t a t i n g i t , as opposed to buying house i n a poorer l o c a t i o n .  a more  expensive  The d e c i s i o n to r e h a b i l i t a t e ,  however, depends to a l a r g e degree on the d e c i s i o n of o t h e r owners to r e h a b i l i t a t e adjacent p r o p e r t i e s , and of  the  decision  the m u n i c i p a l i t y to p r o v i d e adequate p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s  to c o r r e c t environmental ive,  deficiencies.,  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must be i n i t i a t e d  Thus, to be  and  effect-  on an area b a s i s :  the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of i s o l a t e d p r o p e r t i e s i s not a p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to the problems of b l i g h t . ilitate  The d e c i s i o n t o  rehab-  a l s o depends on the degree of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n intended,  and t h i s r e l a t e s to the present r e p a i r of the b u i l d i n g f u t u r e plans f o r the a r e a .  From another viewpoint  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must be assessed to  the advantages of redevelopment:  and  the  i n relation  r e g a r d l e s s of whether  s t r u c t u r e s can be economically renovated,  i t may  o f t e n be  more d e s i r a b l e to change the b a s i c land use p a t t e r n of an area and  achieve h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s and  a more f u n c t i o n a l t r a f f i c  pat-  tern. The means at t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s d i s p o s a l whereby the environment may  be improved and  private rehabilitation  encouraged - and p r i v a t e e f f o r t should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - i n v a r i a b l y form p a r t s of many separate programmes of m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t y , r e l a t e d specific may  to the f u n c t i o n s of  departments, and c o - o r d i n a t i o n between departments  or may  not e x i s t .  To m a i n t a i n the e x i s t i n g housing  of our c i t i e s  i t i s imperative that l o c a l governments co-  o r d i n a t e , and  supplement where necessary,  stock  a l l the means a v a i l -  able to form a p o s i t i v e p o l i c y to ensure t h a t t h i s housing i s kept i n good r e p a i r .  The  a policy i s to designate that s t a b i l i t y i s taken and  i n i t i a l step i n f o r m u l a t i n g such  areas f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , i n order  i n an area may  be induced.  Once such a c t i o n  a c l e a r p u b l i c p o l i c y i s i n d i c a t e d , the  ment o f i n d i v i d u a l d w e l l i n g s i s f a r more l i k e l y  improve-  to o c c u r .  Without such a p o l i c y , the i n e v i t a b l e d e t e r i o r a t i o n that r e s u l t s cannot h e l p but s p i r a l downwards u n t i l nothing s h o r t of c l e a r a n c e w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y s o l v e the problem. Before r e v i e w i n g and  e v a l u a t i n g proposals f o r  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Canadian urban renewal s t u d i e s , i t i s of v a l u e to t r a c e the e v o l u t i o n of urban renewal i n the United S t a t e s and Canada and Britain.  i n d i c a t e comparable development i n  As urban renewal has  c o u n t r i e s i t has  evolved  i n the  three  g e n e r a l l y become more comprehensive,  i t w i l l only be p o s s i b l e i n t h i s study to analyze the  although process  i n North America. the  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n to  t o t a l renewal process w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , and urban  renewal w i l l be r e l a t e d  to the l a r g e r p l a n n i n g  function.  To conclude t h e study, some o f the problems and l i m i t a t i o n s h i n d e r i n g the more e f f e c t i v e use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n are discussed  i n an attempt to suggest ways i n which l o c a l  government could u t i l i z e  i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e powers to stimu-  l a t e and encourage the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of  deteriorating  r e s i d e n t i a l areas. References 1  M. C a r t e r McFarland, The C h a l l e n g e of Urban Renewal, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 3k (Washington, D . C : Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 5 o ) , p. 21±. .  CHAPTER I THE EVOLUTION OF THE  URBAN RENEWAL PROCESS  Introduction Urban renewal i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n t i n u i n g to  improve d e t e r i o r a t i n g areas of the c i t y  s t a b i l i z e and of b l i g h t .  to  conserve areas f r e e from the f i r s t I t has been simply  t o t a l of p u b l i c and prevent  and  blight." I n one  defined  as "the  p r i v a t e e f f o r t s to cure  process  signs sum  and f u r t h e r  1  of the f i r s t American a p p r e c i a t i o n s of  the problems and p o t e n t i a l of urban renewal, M i l e s i n 1953* observed what he termed the of c i t i e s .  He  ' c y c l e of development  s t a t e d that change i s c o n t i n u a l l y t a k i n g  p l a c e i n the dynamic c i t y : others  Colean,  some p a r t s of t h e  city  are  new  are wearing out while others have o u t l i v e d t h e i r  use  fulness. A c i t y i n which there were not at a l l times some worn out or o b s o l e t e p a r t s would not be a dynamic c i t y . The f e a t u r e t h a t g i v e s r e s t o r e d W i l l i a m s b u r g i t s u n r e a l q u a l i t y i s the good c o n d i t i o n of a l l of i t . . . . I t i s f r o z e n i n time, w i t h no prospect of change. A c i t y i n which the normal a c t i v i t i e s of human beings are c a r r i e d on could never achieve t h i s s t a t e of g h o s t l y p e r f e c t i o n . For a c i t y to remain dynamic, r e newal, l i k e i n h e r i t a n c e , must be a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s . ^ Colean considered dynamic c i t y  t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y of m a i n t a i n i n g  r e s u l t e d from new  o b s o l e t e p a r t s of the c i t y areas.  The  development bypassing  the the  i n f a v o u r of more p r o f i t a b l e  c o n t i n u i t y of renewal can only be  achieved  by  7 d e v e l o p i n g ways t o prevent the accumulation o f o b s o l e t e p a r t s and s t a g n a t i o n i n an otherwise dynamic The  structure.  d i f f i c u l t y of a s s u r i n g c o n t i n u i t y of renewal i s p r e s -  ent to some degree i n a l l c i t i e s , both l a r g e and s m a l l , and  i n every case, a c c o r d i n g to C o l e a n 'the c y c l e of  development' has been i n t e r r u p t e d when renewal was imminent.  The s o l u t i o n to the problem c a n only be found when  t h i s i n t e r r u p t i o n i s e i t h e r prevented o r overcome. C o l e a n s t r e s s e d that the problems o f urban  renewal  and the problems o f slums are not i d e n t i c a l , and here i t should be i n d i c a t e d  t h a t urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n has  i n v a r i a b l y evolved from slum c l e a r a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n .  The  renewal problem f o r an i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y , may e x i s t when the use f o r which the b u i l d i n g was o r i g i n a l l y  designed has  ceased to e x i s t and the b u i l d i n g cannot be e c o n o m i c a l l y converted;  when d e t e r i o r a t i o n has reached such a s t a t e  t h a t r e s t o r a t i o n i s uneconomic compared w i t h f u t u r e returns;  and when, even though the b u i l d i n g i s i n good  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , the obsolescence o f f a c i l i t i e s i s such t h a t the c o s t o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n c o u l d not be j u s t i f i e d . Where these c o n d i t i o n s apply t o one b u i l d i n g the s o l u t i o n c a n be found i n a more p r o d u c t i v e land use, but i f most o f the b u i l d i n g s i n an area are a f f e c t e d , a problem  exists  not only f o r t h e owners o f t h e p r o p e r t y , but f o r t h e community at l a r g e which s u f f e r s from the h i g h c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s and the low revenue area.  d e r i v e d from the  8  The  slum  different.  A  so  neglected  and  of  i t s occupants  adjacent  potential  are  statement  on  the  slum  are  in  Mr.  that  nature  Colean,  the  a  health  Where  Mansur,  Housing of  a  is  rather  structure and  is  safety  considerable  a similar condition David  Toronto  to  e x i s t s where  endangered.  exists.  Metropolitan  according  over-crowded  properties  undoubtedly the  problem,  past  Authority,  a  slum  Chairman has  made  of this  slum:  I t h i n k o f a s l u m as a n a r e a w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f the n a t u r e o f i t s c o n t e n t and e n v i r o n m e n t , c a n be p r o v e d to c r e a t e problems e i t h e r f o r i t s r e s i d e n t s or f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y a t l a r g e , and a n a r e a w h e r e s o c i a l and economic l i a b i l i t i e s so g r e a t l y o u t w e i g h i t s a s s e t s as a n u n d i s t u r b e d and c o n t i n u i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s not s u i t a b l e . - ^ The the  parts  economic is  renewal  of  the  condition.  and  neglect  of  and  the  "The  ions,  the  housing  the  most  surplus blighted  an  Howe  i n the  the  the  obstacle House  to  to of  of the  the  process  houses.  the A  renewal Commons  of  i t may  be  problem, on  elimination  allow  that  one  attitudes  indifference  urban renewal  thus  of  so  slum  v i c t i m i z a t i o n of  Besides  is primarily  urban pattern  b a s i c a l l y a problem  people  a  problem  on  and  in a  other  of  community  to  market  was  to  the be  housing  indicated  February  7>  hand, of  the ."^-  over-crowded  requires  sound  behaviour  underpriviledged  serious as  the  conserving  'condit-  existence cleared  of"  shortage by  Mr.  of  is C.D.  19^7•  I n s p e a k i n g t o t h i s h o u s e i n J u l y , I s t a t e d t h a t Dominion grants. . . for- s l u m c l e a r a n c e were considered i n o p p o r t u n e when t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s h e l t e r was s o great. I s u g g e s t e d t h a t s l u m c l e a r a n c e w o u l d come l a t e r when the p r e s s i n g need f o r the o c c u p a t i o n of e v e r y h o u s i n g u n i t i s somewhat l e s s . Generally, we f e e l t h a t the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y i s proper.5  I n an address to the 19th Annual Conference of the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n o f Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n August, 19S>6, however, Mr. J . S. Hodgson, D i r e c t o r of the Development of C e n t r a l Mortgage of  f o r housing was  one  recognized t h a t w h i l e the f u t u r e demand  s t a g g e r i n g i t was q u i t e w i t h i n the c a p a c i t y  the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y and that t h e r e f o r e Canadian c i t i e s  could now out  and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , s t a t e d t h a t  the s a l i e n t p o i n t s of the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s s u b m i s s i o n to the  Gordon Commission  of  Division  c o n s i d e r d e m o l i t i o n of badly b l i g h t e d  areas w i t h -  a sense of g u i l t . R e c o g n i z i n g • t h a t urban renewal c a n take p l a c e , Pro-  f e s s o r Robert B. M i t c h e l l , of the U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a , s t a t e d i n a s u b m i s s i o n to the U n i t e d S t a t e s Sub-committee Urban Redevelopment  on  i n 1953* that urban renewal o b j e c t i v e s  must be p o s i t i v e , s i n c e i t i s necessary to c r e a t e a s u i t a b l e environment f o r urban l i v i n g beyond merely e l i m i n a t i n g The o b j e c t i v e s must a l s o be dynamic  slums.  i n that the programme of  renewal i s c o n t i n u o u s , - an area c a n never be_ renewed, i t should always be i n the process of b e i n g renewed. the  Finally,  renewal o b j e c t i v e s must be comprehensive, t r e a t i n g  and t h e i r component neighbourhoods  as complete e n t i t i e s , w i t h  a t t e n t i o n to a l l aspects of t h e i r s t r u c t u r e . for  each c i t y  for  the p h y s i c a l development  cities  The g e n e r a l p l a n  should be conceived w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a p l a n o f the r e g i o n o f which the c i t y  is a part. The U n i t e d  States  I n i t s broadest meaning, urban renewal i s a form o f r e c u p e r a t i v e change i n the p h y s i c a l c i t y by which the outworn or outmoded s t r u c t u r e s and f a c i l i t i e s and, i n  time, whole areas are a l t e r e d or r e p l a c e d i n reponse to p r e s s u r e s of economic and s o c i a l change. In this sense, urban renewal i s a process that has been going on as l o n g as c i t i e s have e x i s t e d and f l o u r i s h e d . 7 During the l a s t decades, urban renewal i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , has become a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d process r e c o g n i z i n g the use of both p u b l i c an e f f o r t to achieve a s o c i a l l y  and p r i v a t e means i n  and e c o n o m i c a l l y balanced  environment through r e p a i r and replacement of the urban structure.  T h i s concept of renewal as a c o - o r d i n a t e d  programme of a c t i o n developed from an i n c r e a s i n g awareness that the problems of urban b l i g h t were too complex f o r slum c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t s to be the complete  answer.  The c o n c e r n w i t h slum c o n d i t i o n s and the need f o r housing improvements  was  reflected  i n 1867,  but the e n f o r c e -  often lax.  T h i s l e d to the  to r e g u l a t e New York tenements ment of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was  a c t i o n s of p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s who model h o u s i n g i n badly b l i g h t e d and other c i t i e s .  i n l e g i s l a t i o n passed  endeavoured  to p r o v i d e  areas of New York, Chicago  Of these examples, however, M i l e s  Colean s t a t e s : There was l i t t l e or no c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the new d e v e l opments as a nucleus f o r f u r t h e r p l a n n i n g and d e v e l opment; and p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l and s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s remained inadequate. The model p r o j e c t s remained i s l a n d s amid unabated d e t e r i o r a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n of b l i g h t - t h e backwash o f change-to the t o t a l urban problem was s t i l l not r e c o g n i z e d . " As the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y progressed b u i l d i n g s became h i g h e r and i n c r e a s i n g t r a f f i c i o n of work and l i v i n g . c i t y was  added  to the already growing congest  R e c o g n i t i o n of the p l i g h t of the  not r e a l l y grasped u n t i l  'the W a l l S t r e e t  crash  1  11 provifed a break i n a seemingly endless urban expansion. C o l e a n pointed out t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n i n d i c a t e d urban d e t e r i o r a t i o n was  that  not merely a problem t h a t could  be cured by growth and p h i l a n t h r o p i c e n t e r p r i s e ,  deter-  i o r a t i o n was  tending,  an innate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  indeed, to expand the  of the c i t y  r a t h e r than d i s a p p e a r .  R e a l i z a t i o n of  p l i g h t of slum d w e l l e r s l e d to the f i r s t programme of  F e d e r a l loans and s u b s i d i e s f o r p u b l i c housing under the U.S. Housing Act of 1937* although i t was  soon evidenced  t h a t t h i s could s o l v e only p a r t of the problem.  A  wider understanding o f the nature o f b l i g h t was d e v e l o p i n g . A c c o r d i n g to Colean, i t was terms  at this p o i n t that the  'urban redevelopment' and 'urban r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' were  conceived to d e s c r i b e a more comprehensive is  process.  i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t C o l e a n has borrowed  It  the term  'renewal' from P a t r i c k Geddes to r e p r e s e n t the comprehens i v e process of m a i n t a i n i n g urban v i t a l i t y . that t h i s i s because the terms  He  states  'redevelopment' and  ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' u s u a l l y apply to s p e c i f i c  projects  i n v o l v i n g the c l e a r a n c e of land or r e s t o r a t i o n o f s t r u c tures. The f i r s t the  l e g i s l a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y encouraging  use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the United S t a t e s was  i n 191+1.  The I l l i n o i s Neighbourhood  C o r p o r a t i o n law and the New York Urban  passed  Redevelopment Redevelopment  C o r p o r a t i o n law were both designed to enable the owners of  b l i g h t e d p r o p e r t y to p o o l t h e i r r e s o u r c e s f o r the  purposes of re-development, empowering them t o form  12  corporations  w i t h the r i g h t of eminent domain over r e c -  a l c i t r a n t property  owners.  The  power of eminent domain  formed an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p r o v i s i o n s of enacted i n twenty-seven of the ten years,  but  a c t i o n was  legislation  states during the  slow.  However, the Housing Act of 19if-9 provided loans  and  d i r e c t grants  This  the problem as to the  two  achieved.  I t was  senseless  slums were being  created  Economically  to wait u n t i l an area had  p l e t e l y d e t e r i o r a t e d before Slum c l e a r a n c e  resolve  soon r e a l i z e d that even these  f a s t e r than they c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . i t was  apparently  a c t u a l methods by which renewal  programmes were not enough:  morally  legislation,  encouragement to the e f f o r t to stem  the t i d e of i n c r e a s i n g b l i g h t , d i d not  would be  the  to c l e a r b l i g h t e d areas  to prepare them f o r r e b u i l d i n g .  although g i v i n g new  Federal  to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r  s p e c i f i c purpose of h e l p i n g c i t i e s and  following  and  com-  improvements were suggested.  alone, moreover, tended merely to s h i f t  problem to another l o c a t i o n , o f t e n c r e a t i n g new,  the  and  indeed, worse slums. ' O f f i c i a l ' r e c o g n i t i o n of the process of urban renewal as i t i s now the P r e s i d e n t ' s P o l i c i e s and  understood stems from the r e p o r t  Advisory  Committee on Government Housing  Programmes^ In 1 9 5 3 *  The  Urban Redevelopment, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and s t a t e d i t s major p o i n t of emphasis and agreement"to be the  of  absolute  Sub-committee  on  Conservation the main p o i n t  of  n e c e s s i t y f o r broadening the  a t t a c k on i s o l a t e d slum areas to an i n t e g r a t e d  campaign  13  t h a t Included  a l l stages of urban b l i g h t from i t s e a r l i e s t  symptoms to the l a s t stages of decay. The Sub-committee has p r e v i o u s l y emphasized t h a t through d e m o l i t i o n and new c o n s t r u c t i o n alone, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to e l i m i n a t e slums because n e i t h e r process goes at the cause of the t r o u b l e . An examination of the c o s t of the problem r e i n f o r c e s the n e c e s s i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g a much broader approach to slum e l i m i n a t i o n . I f the nature of the prddLem i t s e l f d i d not r e q u i r e i t , budget c o n s i d e r a t i o n s alone would be s u f f i c i e n t to impel anyone who was s i n c e r e l y t r y i n g t o e l i m i n a t e slums to f i n d ways of p r e v e n t i n g the spread of b l i g h t i n i t s e a r l i e s t stages; of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g d w e l l i n g s worth s a v i n g and of c r e a t i n g sound h e a l t h y neighbourhoods out of the e x i s t i n g housing i n v e n t o r y . I t i s obvious t h a t we must check the c y c l e of decay b e f o r e the slums are born. 1  The  0  recommendations of the P r e s i d e n t ' s A d v i s o r y Committee,  w i t h minor e x c e p t i o n s , were accepted  and  incorporated i n  the 195^ Housing A c t . Besides p l a c i n g g r e a t e r emphasis on the 19$l\. A c t s e t f o r t h the  rehabilitation  'Workable Program' i n an  e f f o r t to h e l p c i t i e s h e l p themsleves.  "There i s no  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e except t o c i t i e s which w i l l face up to the whole process  of urban decay  undertake l o n g range programs to pre/ent the spread blight,  ...  r e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e Workable Program was  accepted;  Once a community had  . . .  and  the b a s i c  framework upon which any urban renewal program was based.  of  to rejuvenate areas worth s a v i n g (and)  to c l e a r out o b s o l e t e land uses through c l e a r a n c e  and  to be  i t s Workable Program  i t c o u l d apply to the Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a -  t i o n f o r funds  to a s s i s t i n c l e a r a n c e and  o f designated b l i g h t e d areas.  ,  redevelopment  v. The  purpose of the Workable Program was  to  help  the community face up to i t s problems of slums and  blight,  to assess what had  done,  been done and what needed to be  and  to make plans which when i n i t i a t e d would r e s u l t i n  the  necessary program of a c t i o n .  required  The  the community to meet the  Workable Program  seven f o l l o w i n g  require-  ments: 1.  Codes and  ordinances:  the community was  required  to adopt minimum standards of h e a l t h , s a n i t a t i o n s a f e t y through the enforcement of codes and 2.  A comprehensive community p l a n :  range p l a n was  required  community f a c i l i t i e s  to i n c l u d e land  and  a zoning ordinance and  and  ordinances.  a general use,  long  tranportation,  p u b l i c improvements.  In  addition,  s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s were to  be  drafted. 3.  Neighbourhood a n a l y s i s :  areas of c l e a r a n c e  other renewal measures were to be d e f i n e d of the e x t e n t , i n t e n s i t y and I4.. to be  Administrative established  by  the  and analysis  l o c a t i o n of b l i g h t .  organization:  l e g a l authority  to enforce standards and  to  was  administer  the renewal program. 5.  Financing:  means were to be developed to me*  the  f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n of implementing the renewal program. 6.  Housing f o r d i s p l a c e d  families:  p r o v i s i o n had  be made f o r the r e h o u s i n g i n decent, s a f e , and accommodation, of f a m i l i e s d i s p l a c e d  sanitary  by the renewal prog-  ram. 7.  Citizen participation:  to  a c t i v e development of  15 citizen  s u p p o r t was r e q u i r e d  to ensure  t h e s u p p o r t and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e community. The  comprehensive  became c l e a r l y United 1962,  approach to urban  f o r m u l a t e d and c o m m u n i t i e s  S t a t e s began to respond 1[|_5 c o m m u n i t i e s  u r b a n r e n e w a l schemes  had r e c e i v e d involving  f a i l e d because  Federal  wrong a r e a was c h o s e n . Act  provided  l o n g term,  limited  lation.  a p p r o v a l far  merely  plans.  economic f e a s i b i l i t y  some f a i l e d b e c a u s e t h e  S e c t i o n 220 o f t h e 19$L\. H o u s i n g low down-payment l o a n s t o f i n a n c e  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n work i n a p p r o v e d only  by  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , but  their  was n o t s o u n d l y e s t a b l i s h e d :  across the  t o t h e new p r o g r a m :  u n f o r t u n a t e l y many o f t h e s e p l a n s r e m a i n e d Some p r o j e c t s  renewal  urban renewal  areas, but  success has been a c h i e v e d w i t h t h i s  Financing f o r rehabilitation  are  considered  by many U n i t e d  the  main stumbling b l o c k t o a greater  legis-  and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s  States' a u t h o r i t i e s  t o be  development  of  rehabilitation. In President of  the l i g h t o f t h i s Kennedy p l a c e d  an e f f e c t i v e  program  frustration  special  of e f f o r t s ,  emphasis  of residential  on the urgency  rehabilitation i n  h i s H o u s i n g Message i n 1961: As we b r o a d e n t h e s c o p e o f r e n e w a l programs l o o k i n g t o newer and b r i g h t e r u r b a n a r e a s , we must move w i t h new v i g o r t o c o n s e r v e and r e h a b i l i t a t e existing residential districts. Our i n v e s t m e n t i n nonfarm r e s i d e n t i a l r e a l e s t a t e i s e s t i m a t e d a t a b o u t $500 b i l l i o n - t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e component o f o u r n a t i o n a l wsalth. T h e s e a s s e t s must be used r e s p o n s i b l y , c o n - s e r v e d , a n d s u p p l e m e n t e d , and n o t n e g l e c t e d o r wasted i n o u r emphasLs o n t h e new. The  Kennedy A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u b s e q u e n t l y  increased  16 the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1961 by r a i s i n g the F e d e r a l share c o s t s from two-thirds  o f urban renewal  t o t h r e e - q u a r t e r s , thus making  renewal f o r s m a l l e r urban communities more f e a s i b l e . The  p r o p o r t i o n o f F e d e r a l grant funds f o r n o n - r e s i d -  e n t i a l renewal was a l s o i n c r e a s e d from twenty per to t h i r t y p e r cent and d i s p l a c e d businesses  cent  benefited  from i n c r e a s e d F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e . I t should  be s t r e s s e d t h a t the Urban Renewal  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s not the only F e d e r a l Agency engaged i n the broad renewal program. Finance  The Housing and Home  Agency, formed I n 19l"-6, b e s i d e s  i n c l u d i n g the  Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l s o i n c l u d e s the F e d e r a l Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the F e d e r a l N a t i o n a l Mortgage A s s o c i a t i o n and the Community F a c i l i t i e s Administration.  The FHA, FNMA and PHA  are a l l a c t i v e i n renewal work.  Under the  220  programme  the FHA a s s i s t s i n the f i n a n c i n g o f new  1  or r e h a b i l i t a t e d The  rehousing  'Section  dwellings  i n redevelopment  areas.  o f persons d i s p l a c e d by redevelopment  p r o j e c t s i s a s s i s t e d by FHA and FNMA p r o v i s i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e the f i n a n c i n g o f new o r r e h a b i l i t a t e d d w e l l i n g s f o r such f a m i l i e s . s t r i n g e n t insurance  The FHA r e q u i r e s  less  f o r t h i s type o f f i n a n c i n g and the  r e s u l t has been the encouragement o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n and  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f homes i n the v i c i n i t y  o f urban  renewal areas, thus adding t o the o v e r a l l improvement o f the  community.  17  The year 1 9 6 1 saw the coming of age of the concept that the use o f l o c a l a c t i o n and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s s t i m u l a t e d and a i d e d by the F e d e r a l programs o f f e r s a means whereby slums and b l i g h t can be e l i m i n a t e d and prevented, community development c h a r t e d , and the o p p o r t u n i t y r e a l i z e d f o r every f a m i l y to secure a decent home i n a s u i t a b l e l i v i n g environments Britain I n t h i s s e c t i o n ' B r i t a i n ' does not i n c l u d e S c o t l a n d which has lation.  The  B r i t a i n was  separate p l a n n i n g and housing  e a r l i e s t p r o v i s i o n f o r redevelopment i n  the  'Clearance Area' of the A r t i s a n s ' and  Labourers' Dwellings and  legis-  Improvements Acts of 1 8 7 5 *  1879  1 8 8 2 (the Cross A c t s ) , a p p l i e d to a d e f i n e d slum  area i n w h i c h a l l b u i l d i n g s were to be removed. 1 9 2 5 new  l e g i s l a t i o n created  In  'Improvement Areas',  which  were p o t e n t i a l Clearance Areas i n which r e c o n d i t i o n i n g could prevent d e t e r i o r a t i o n to the extent  that c l e a r a n c e  was  i n this  necessary.  'Reconditioning' referred  to s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s  to i n d i v i d u a l h ouses and  d e m o l i t i o n of badly d e t e r i o r a t e d s t r u c t u r e s . Housing A c t In t u r n r e p l a c e d 'Re-development A r e a s ' . area c o n t a i n e d f i f t y  case  The  'Improvement Areas'  the 1935  with  These could be d e f i n e d where an  or more 'working-class' houses of  which at l e a s t o n e - t h i r d were overcrowded or u n f i t f o r human h a b i t a t i o n , and which were not capable profitably reconditioned. i n d u s t r i a l and  I t was  of being  further'stated that  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s should be such t h a t the  area should be used f o r working c l a s s homes.  Once such  an area had been defined a 'Re-development Plan' was  to  18  be prepared w i t h i n s i x months, i n d i c a t i n g the a l l o c a t i o n o f land uses and the g e n e r a l s i t e l a y o u t . 1936  served to c o n s o l i d a t e the e a r l i e r Comparisons  The Housing A c t o f legislation.  have been m a d e ^ between the r e d e v e l o p -  ment p r o v i s i o n s of the 1936 Housing A c t and  the p r o v i s i o n s  of t h e Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t , 19kh» ( t h e ' b l i t z blight' act). redevelopment  The e a r l i e r l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l t s o l e l y  and  with  as a slum c l e a r a n c e and housing o p e r a t i o n ,  whereas the I9I4J4. A c t r e f e r r e d  to areas of o b s o l e t e develop-  ment and bad l a y o u t and areas s u f f e r i n g from e x t e n s i v e war damage.  The 191+4  A  c  powers of compulsory  a l s o gave l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s wide  t  purchase to ensure p r o p e r redevelopment  of l a r g e a r e a s . The Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t of I9I4.7 superceded c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the I9I+I4- Act and made p r o v i s i o n f o r the compulsory purchase of areas of comprehensive development. Act  which had  ment program.  re-  However, i t a l s o removed S e c t i o n 9 of the 19l|ij. enabled Birmingham to l a u n c h i t s v a s t r e d e v e l o p The new  opment more d i f f i c u l t ,  l e g i s l a t i o n made l a r g e - s c a l e  redevel-  as l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d now  only  a c q u i r e such land as c o u l d be developed i n a r e a s o n a b l e period; advance  no l o n g e r c o u l d  an a u t h o r i t y purchase land i n  of i t s requirements.  y e a r s , l e s s a t t e n t i o n was  I n the immediate  p o s t war  p a i d to the maintenance  e x i s t i n g houses due to the g r e a t e r p u b l i c  of  need to r e g a i n  l o s s e s s u f f e r e d from war damage and to meet new h o u s i n g demands: the  the most important requirement was  n a t i o n ' s t o t a l s t o c k of houses.  to i n c r e a s e  By 19$3 the total  1  9  housing s i t u a t i o n had improved, and p r i o r i t i e s f o r l o c a l a u t h o r i t y housing were t r a n s f e r r e d to the d e m o l i t i o n and replacement o f slum d w e l l i n g s .  These b u i l d i n g s were con-  structed  during  century,  and had long been condemned as being  for  unsatisfactory  human h a b i t a t i o n because o f t h e i r poor s t r u c t u r a l con-  dition. couraged ing  the i n d u s t r i a l expansion o f the n i n e t e e n t h  E a r l i e r , Mr. A t t l e e ' s Labour government had enthe r e p a i r and improvement of o l d houses by pay-  $0% o f the r e p a i r c o s t s , but the c o n d i t i o n s  l a t i o n s were so s t r i n g e n t t h a t l i t t l e measure.  and regu-  use was made of t h i s  I n 19Sh» however, Mr. M a c m i l l a n as the Conserv-  a t i v e M i n i s t e r o f Housing reduced the r e q u i r e d  life  expect-  ancy of the improved s t r u c t u r e from 30 to 1$ years and allowed l a n d l o r d s to r a i s e r e n t s from 6% o f t h e i r expenses for  improvement to 8%.  ' The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , with  ance from the Government, could make grants  assist-  of up to h a l f  the c o s t o f improvements over £100 w i t h a maximum grant of £ L|.00 f o r each d w e l l i n g  Regulations  stipulated  t h a t the p u b l i c money be spent only on property  t h a t would  provide period.  improved.  s a t i s f a c t o r y accommodation f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y As a r e s u l t of t h i s ,  a. [much g r e a t e r  long  i n t e r e s t was  taken i n house improvements by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  The 195k-  l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o empowered l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to acquire  bad-  ly  d e t e r i o r a t e d houses and to r e p a i r them so t h a t they could  be  used f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d pending d e m o l i t i o n .  i n t e n t i o n was not to i n i t i a t e t i v e to slum c l e a r a n c e ,  The  these r e p a i r s as an a l t e r n a -  as i t was proposed to demolish  I  20  these houses as soon as p o s s i b l e . was  provided f o r t h e  buildings.  Government  a c q u i s i t i o n and  assistance  r e p a i r of such  L e g i s l a t i o n enacted i n 1 9 5 9 o b l i g e d  local  a u t h o r i t i e s to make 50$> grants to p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners towards the p r o v i s i o n of a bath i n a bathroom, hot  water  supply, a water c l o s e t , a wash hand-basin and  stor-  age  facilities.  A maximum grant of £ 1 5 5 was  all five facilities  were i n s t a l l e d .  the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y  7 5 per cent of the  the c o s t  food  of these grants,  but  The  allowed i f  Government p a i d  l o a n charges  on  set l i m i t a t i o n s on the  sale  of improved homes * I n s p i t e of these measures, B r i t a i n has  concen-  t r a t e d to a l a r g e degree on the redevelopment aspect  of  the urban renewal p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c e n t r a l areas damaged by bombing, where l a r g e areas become t r a n s f e r r e d to p u b l i c ownership. C i v i c T r u s t and  About f o u r years ago,  however,  the  the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e suggested  t h a t ways should be found to encourage g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n renewal.  Professor  P.H.  private  Whitel5 considered  t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e seemed to stem p a r t l y from the change i n method of making government funds a v a i l a b l e f o r r e development, and  a l s o that p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e may  more e f f e c t i v e i n some aspects t h a n p u b l i c . p r a c t i c e s , however, made i t d i f f i c u l t :  desirable partnership the  l o c a l authority,  be  Existing  to a t t a i n the  between the p r i v a t e developer the  only concessions being  that  p r o p e r t y owners were allowed to possess property on leasehold  basis  and  i n redevelopment areas, w h i l e the  a  local  21 a u t h o r i t y r e t a i n e d the f r e e h o l d . and  I n comparing the  British  the U n i t e d S t a t e s renewal programs P r o f e s s o r White  commented t h a t whereas the United S t a t e s placed' g r e a t e r emphasis i n p l a n n i n g by inducement, the B r i t i s h have shown more w i l l i n g n e s s to employ p l a n n i n g by d i r e c t i o n and p u b l i c ownership. Britain's renewal p o l i c y i s a l s o t i e d to  i t s p o p u l a t i o n o v e r s p i l l and  by b u i l d i n g new  towns on vacant  new  towns program;  The  only  land do the B r i t i s h  they have s u f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i n g f l e x i b i l i t y badly d e t e r i o r a t e d a r e a s .  inextricably  feel  i n redeveloping  supposed l i m i t a t i o n s of  B r i t a i n ' s urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n have been f r e q u e n t l y compared to l e g i s l a t i o n i n the United S t a t e s . anrfal L i c h f i e l d has of  i n d i c a t e d t h a t much of t h e  B r i t i s h l e g i s l a t i o n was  due  Dr. Nathinadequacy i n 19U-2-  to i t being devised  J4.7 when other needs were more p r e s s i n g , i n c l u d i n g development plans f o r the whole country, the l o c a t i o n of post-war housing  and  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of bombed a r e a s . to development which was  Legis-  l a t i o n was  geared  defined i n  S e c t i o n 12  of the 19Lj-7 A c t as i n c l u d i n g redevelopment:  "the c a r r y i n g out o f b u i l d i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g , mining or other o p e r a t i o n s  i n , on, over or under the l a n d , or  making of any: m a t e r i a l change i n the uses of any b u i l d i n g s of other l a n d . " for  As  a r e s u l t of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n ,  b u i l t - u p areas concentrated  plans  l a r g e l y on changes through  comprehensive redevelopment, i n c l u d i n g slum c l e a r a n c e p u b l i c works.  Development c o n t r o l was  mainly  and  concerned  w i t h p r e v e n t i n g poor and f o s t e r i n g good redevelopment.  22 Our p l a n n i n g system thus encourages d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n to areas to be redeveloped by p r i v a t e or p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e , but not enough to those p a r t s of the b u i l t - u p areas, much the l a r g e r i n e x t e n t , where renewal takes a form o t h e r than comprehensive r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 7 T h i s type of redevelopment, a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. L i c h f i e l d , c o u l d be a combination  of s p o t - c l e a r a n c e , b u i l d i n g and  environment  improvement, and  rearrangement of s t r e e t p a t t e r n s and  traffic  flow» The most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between urban renewal i n B r i t a i n and  the United S t a t e s i s t h a t i n B r i t a i n renewal  has become p a r t of the p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n whereas i n t h e United S t a t e s I t has  evolved  through  housing programs.  The  process has been t r a c e d i n the United S t a t e s from the slum c l e a r a n c e measures of the t h i r t i e s to i t s c u l m i n a t i o n i n the 1 9 5 4 Housing Act which permitted ial  the renewal on  areas f o r n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l purposes.  Lichfield  suggested  non-resident-  At t h i s p o i n t  the U n i t e d S t a t e s edged ahead of B r i t a i n  i n t h e i r approach to renewal, i n s p i t e of p o s s e s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n which, he c o n s i d e r e d , was Britain.  Planning  Dr.  more antiquated than i n  and renewal developed  U n i t e d S t a t e s , the two;functions government r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and  planning  normally  s e p a r a t e l y i n the being  Dr. L i c h f i e l d  separate  felt  that  due  to the weakness of the p l a n n i n g framework t h i s s e p a r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s had  proved  c l e a r l y b e n e f i c i a l to the development  of U n i t e d S t a t e s renewal p o l i c y , although many p l a n n i n g officials  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s  c r e a t e s severe problems; people  i n several c i t i e s  i n renewal p r o j e c t s has  of housing  authorities.  separation  the rehousing  not been the f i r s t  priority  of  23 However, renewal through ad hoc bodies i s not gene r a l l y f e l t to be s u i t a b l e i n B r i t a i n .  Indeed, the e v o l -  u t i o n o f B r i t i s h l o c a l government has e n t a i l e d the almost complete e l i m i n a t i o n of such b o d i e s . be not one o f new  The need  i s f e l t to  l e g a l machinery but of d i r e c t government  grants f o r renewal. i  The d i f f e r e n c e i n p o l i t i c a l ,  economic  and  social  values between Europe and North America has thus been r e f lected  i n the way  two c o n t i n e n t s .  urban renewal p o l i c y has developed on the Dr. I r . F. Bakkur Schut, P r e s i d e n t of the  Netherlands Housing and Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , suggested i n an address to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seminar on Urban Renewal In  1958: That America has more c o n f i d e n c e i n p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and l e s s i n government c a r e and t h a t Europe, on the c o n t r a r y , t h i n k s more of government c a r e and holds p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n t h i s s p e c i a l s e c t o r of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y less dear. " 1  C anad a Mr. David Mansur has commented that " p u b l i c acceptance of urban renewal as a concept i s more advanced United S t a t e s than i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s i s t a n c e from the F e d e r a l Government."19 e a r l y 1961  i n the  as i t r e l a t e s to He noted that i n  P r e s i d e n t Kennedy suggested that the e x i s t i n g  United S t a t e s urban renewal program was  still  too narrow to  cope w i t h the b a s i c problems f a c i n g o l d e r c i t i e s , change o f emphasis  and that a  should be made:from slum c l e a r a n c e and  slum p r e v e n t i o n to a p o s i t i v e program f o r the o v e r a l l ment of  improve-  cities. I n Canada the process of urban renewal depends on  f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l  legislation,  although the  main burden and the i n i t i a t i o n o f renewal i s the r e s p o n s i b i lity  of the municipal  government.  The main a s s i s t a n c e t o  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s however, i s contained  i n the N a t i o n a l Housing  S e c t i o n 1 2 of the I9I1I4. A c t made grants  Act.  icipalities (i.e.  to a s s i s t  a v a i l a b l e to mun-  i n c l e a r i n g b l i g h t e d areas f o r p u b l i c use  park o r playground)or f o r a p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t , o r  f o r housing b u i l t under the Limited N a t i o n a l Housing A c t .  Dividend  p r o v i s i o n s of the  Under t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n Toronto  embarked on i t s Regent Park p r o j e c t s . The enlarged  p r o v i s i o n s f o r urban renewal were  considerably  i n 1956:  I n order to a s s i s t i n the c l e a r a n c e r e p l a n n i n g , rehabi l i t a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n of b l i g h t e d or substandard areas i n any m u n i c i p a l i t y , the M i n i s t e r w i t h the approval of the G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l , may e n t e r i n t o an agreement w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y p r o v i d i n g f o r the payment to the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n r e s p e c t of the c o s t to the m u n i c i p a l i t y of a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g , whether by condemnation proceedings or otherwise, an area of land i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . ^ 0  These c o n t r i b u t i o n s would not exceed one-half  of the t o t a l  c o s t to the m u n i c i p a l i t y  and the province  clearance  The 19kk L e g i s l a t i o n s t i p u l a t e d that  of the s i t e .  s i t e s acquired  o f a c q u i s i t i o n and  i n t h i s way must be developed f o r low or mod-  erate c o s t r e n t a l housing, but the 1 9 5 6 amendment such s i t e s  permitted  to be used f o r any purpose, i n c l u d i n g commerce o r  i n d u s t r y , i f the o r i g i n a l use of the area was predominantly r e s idential.  However, i f the o r i g i n a l use was not r e s i d e n t i a l the  proposed redevelopment was r e q u i r e d  to be mainly  residential.  25  T h i s approach i s understandable when i t i s borne i n mind t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n i s p a r t of a 'housing* a c t , not 'planning'  a c t , but  i t does prevent the development of  comprehensive m u n i c i p a l  programs f o r urban renewal.  Many areas of commercial and a f f e c t i n g adjacent  a  industrial blight  uses would probably  presently  be best s u i t e d to  commercial or i n d u s t r i a l redevelopment, but f e d e r a l a s s i s t ance cannot be provided If the  f o r t h i s under e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n .  such redevelopment i s d e s i r e d I t remains the burden of already  s o r e l y pressed  m u n i c i p a l i t y , or i s i n i t i a t e d  p r i v a t e development companies.  The  by  problem of land  assembly, however, makes p r i v a t e redevelopment a most difficult  operation.  I n 1961  the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t was  allow the " a c q u i s i t i o n , improvement and  amended to  conversion  for  housing purposes of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s s i t u a t e d i n an specified ality  i n an agreement between the p r o v i n c e ,  i n that province  Corporation  and  the  redevelopment are contained I n Part I I , S e c t i o n 1 6 ,  i n separate  loans  a.municip-  ( C e n t r a l Mortgage and »21  as an urban renewal area.  area  Housing)  Provisions f o r s e c t i o n s of t h e  Act.  are made a v a i l a b l e to a  l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d c o r p o r a t i o n f o r the purpose of b u i l d i n g low  r e n t a l housing p r o j e c t s ;  the C o r p o r a t i o n and  and  to c o n t r i b u t e $0%  c l e a r i n g b l i g h t e d areas;  established  Part I I I , Section 2 3  and  of the c o s t of a c q u i r i n g Part VI, of S e c t i o n 3 6  the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l p a r t n e r s h i p t o  develop land f o r housing purposes.  a s s i s t i n g i n the c l e a r a n c e  allows  As  acquire  a c o n d i t i o n of  of b l i g h t e d areas the  Act  26 s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e housing be o f f e r e d to those f a m i l i e s dispossessed,  and t h a t such housing be w i t h i n  t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means. The  R a t i o n a l Housing A c t a l s o makes f i n a n c i a l  a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r the study o f e x i s t i n g housing c o n d i t i o n s and f u t u r e needs.  Subject  to approval by the p r o v i n c i a l government, the F e d e r a l government, through C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corpora t i o n , may a s s i s t a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n undertaking  3uch a  study o f the whole c i t y o r a s p e c i f i c p a r t o f the c i t y . The  F e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n may be as much as 7$% o f a study and up to $0% o f an examination o f a  city-wide limited  area.  The c i t y shares the balance of the c o s t  w i t h the Province  i n some p a r t s o f Canada, while  i n others  the c i t y bears the remaining 2$% i t s e l f . The  Provinces  v a r y i n g degree: while  engage i n renewal a c t i v i t y to a  some o f f e r l i t t l e  others, e s p e c i a l l y Ontario,  aid t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  positive assistance, are i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r  I n 1962 the Province  o f Ontario  announced i t s 'Twelve P o i n t Housing Programme' which besides  continuing land assembly programmes w i t h the  F e d e r a l government, i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n s to i n c r e a s e a l - p r o v i n c i a l co-operation,  feder-  and p r o v i s i o n s to encourage  the c o n s e r v a t i o n of e x i s t i n g housing through 'planned preventive  maintenance'.  Summary, Urban renewal i s conceived process,  o f as a continuous  using both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e means, to e l i m i n a t e  27  and prevent the spread o f b l i g h t , by r e l i e v i n g the c o n d i t i o n s caused by overcrowding,; the. i n t r u s t i o n o f i E i c o m p a t i b l e land uses and o b s o l e s c e n t p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . urban growth and i t s r e s u l t a n t problems  The c o n d i t i o n s o f i n Canada are more  a k i n t o U n i t e d S t a t e s experience than European,  thus the  e v o l u t i o n o f urban renewal i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada has been t r a c e d t o show the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two countries.  The i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a 'wider view  1  of  urban renewal should be taken has been e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n the at  U n i t e d Stares, w h i l e i n Canada the concept o f renewal, o r l e a s t i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , i s l e s s advanced.  ience has been c i t e d subsequent  British  exper-  to i n t r o d u c e a d i f f e r e n t viewpoint but  d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s paper w i l l d e a l s o l e l y w i t h  renewal I n North America.  Proposals f o r urban renewal i n  Canadian s t u d i e s have o f t e n been based o n experience i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n o f these p r o p o s a l s forms an important p a r t o f t h i s paper. II  I n Chapter  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f urban renewal t o the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g  f u n c t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p having evolved w i t h in  the h i s t o r i c a l development  Chapter I .  o f urban renewal d i s c u s s e d i n  Examination i s then made o f the nature o f the  three aspects o f renewal;  r e d e v e l o p m e n t , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  conservation.  References 1  Mary Mc Le an (ed.), L o c a l P l a n n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (3rd.ed.; Chicago: The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959), p. 1^9.  2  M i l e s Colean, Renewing Our C i t i e s (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1953)* P « 6 .  The  28 3  David B. Mansur, "Urban Renewal: Prospects and Problems," An Address at the Annual Meeting of the Dominion Mortgage and Investments A s s o c i a t i o n , S t r a t f o r d , O n t a r i o , May 3, 196I.  Ii  Colean, op. c i t . , p. ij.0  5  Dominion o f Canada, House of Commons Debates, February 7,  6  19U7.  The P r e s i d e n t ' s A d v i s o r y Committee on Government Housing P o l i c i e s and Programs, Recommendations on Government Housing P o l i c i e s and Programs (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g Office, 1 9 5 3 ) ,  7  P. 1 2 9 .  F . S t u a r t Chapin J r . , Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g (New York:  Harper and B r o t h e r s ) , p . 2 3 1 *  8  Colean, op. c i t . , p. 2 5  9  The P r e s i d e n t s A d v i s o r y Committee on Government Housing P o l i c i e s and Programs,  op. c i t .  10  I b i d , p. 1 1 1 .  11  I b i d , p. 1 1 2 .  12  U.S., C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, 8 7 t h Cong., 1 s t Sess., 1961, CVII, Part 3 . Housing and Home Finance Agency, 1 5 t h Annual Report; 1 9 6 1 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P T I n t i n g O f f i c e , I 9 6 I ) , p.26. W.G. F i s k e , "Slum C l e a r a n c e , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Redevelopment" Report o f Proceedings, Town and Country P l a n n i n g Summer S c h o o l , Nottingham U n i v e r s i t y (London: The Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t -  13 II4.  ute,  1956),  p.22.  15  P h i l i p H. White, "Urban Redevelopment P o l i c i e s , " The Chartered Surveyor (August, 1 9 6 l ) , p . 9 .  16  Great B r i t i a n , Statutes at Large, 1 0 and 1 1 Geo. V I , c.5l ( 1 9 l j . 7 } , "Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t , 191+7*" S e c t i o n 1 2 .  17  N a t h a n i e l L i c h f i e l d , "Planning f o r Urban Renewal: The American Approach," J o u r n a l o f the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e (March, 1961), p . 5 6 .  18  P.T. Van der H o f f and George S. Duggar ( e d . ) , Urban Renewal, Report o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seminar on Urban Renewal, The Hague, 1 9 5 8 (Amsterdam: Van Munster's D r u k k e r i j e n N.V. 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 1 3 .  29  19  Mansur, op. c i t .  20  Dominion of Canada S t a t u t e s , 2 - 3 E l i z a b e t h Sec. 2 3 ( 1 ) .  21  Ibid, c . 2 3 , sec. 3 6 . ( 1 ) , ( c ) .  II, c . 2 3 ,  CHAPTER I I THE  NATURE OF URBAN RENEWAL  The Reason f o r Renewal R e c o g n i t i o n that the continuous renewal o f our c i t i e s must c o n s t i t u t e something more that merely  slum  c l e a r a n c e has been accompanied by an i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e p t i v e understanding o f the nature of b l i g h t - the decay  and obsolescence which renewal seeks to abate.  I t i s by the survey of s t r u c t u r e s and environment  that  the degree o f b l i g h t i s assessed, thus p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s by which the nature o f renewal treatment may be determined.  The assessment  o f b l i g h t i m p l i e s a range  of c o n d i t i o n s which c a n be measured a g a i n s t l o c a l l y determined  standards of h e a l t h and s a f e t y .  Many o f  these standards a l r e a d y e x i s t i n housing and s a n i t a t i o n by-laws w h i l e the nature o f environmental c o n d i t i o n s i s at l e a s t p a r t l y c o n t r o l l e d by zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n regulations. A recent D e t r o i t studyl c l a s s i f i e d  the elements  of b l i g h t into s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , p a t t e r n d e f i c i e n c i e s and socio-economic  problems and a l s o r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t these elements m a y b e found i n new as w e l l o l d areas  30  31  S t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s included e q u a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n c a u s e d by m a i n t e n a n c e and  d e t e r i o r a t i o n and  poor design,  inad-  inadequate  m a k e s h i f t c o n s t r u c t i o n methods.  The  f u n c t i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e o f s t r u c t u r e s , h o w e v e r , was  con-  sidered  Here,  a d i f f e r e n t type of s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c y .  c h a n g e s i n consumer demand c a n , storied  houses to d e c l i n e  level.  This  ial  f o r example, cause m u l t i -  i n favour  of  the  aspect of b l i g h t i s most e v i d e n t  a r e a s where t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances c a n  obsolescence to o l d e r  of b u i l d i n g s , land  u s e s and  and  safety hazards.  pedestrian  traffic  functions, causing  and  local  this  aspect of b l i g h t ,  ible  land  The  goods and  The  of the  other  w i t h p o o r u p k e e p and  t o be  usually higher  these i n t u r n affected should  be  emphasized  services of  the  and  vehicular  w i t h m i x t u r e s of  inadequate school  outwards s i g n s  result-  road far  a l s o shown t o c o n t r i b u t e  together  p r o b l e m s o f i l l h e a l t h and  indicated  which  s t r e e t s to c a r r y t r a f f i c  o f vaciant u n i t s t h a n i n any  The  rapid  arrangement  conflict  and  park  a higher  areas o f the  maintenance of  incompat-  elements proportion  city  also  i n b l i g h t e d areas  p h y s i c a l environment. one  to  structures.  t r a n s i e n c y were  that overcrowding i s  in  facilities.  socio-economic  o f b l i g h t w e r e i n d i c a t e d i n D e t r o i t by  together  bring  the poor d i s t i n c t i o n of  e x c e s s o f t h e i r c a p a c i t y , was  u s e s and  i n industr-  public f a c i l i t i e s  i n uneconomic d i s t r i b u t i o n of  o f t e n caused  split-  structures.  P a t t e r n d e f i c i e n c i e s involved poor  ed  suburban  and It  32  o f the prime f a c t o r s i n the c r e a t i o n of b l i g h t . D e t e r i o r a t i n g areas are i n e v i t a b l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d creases i n population of schools, ilities. and  d e n s i t y which s t r a i n the  s t r e e t s , parks, sewers and  by i n capacity  other public  Furthermore, the danger of f i r e  fac-  is  increased  a d d i t i o n a l p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n is. r e q u i r e d .  Regard-  l e s s of the e f f e c t on i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s  the  neighbour-  hood as a u n i t i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r s . A l l a n A. T w i c h e l l has a generic  term and  indicated that  'blight' is  t h a t i t i s almost never a p p l i e d  s i n g l e b u i l d i n g , but  to a  to an area of some s i z e .  I t r e f e r s to no one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or condition, nor even to any one set of c o n d i t i o n s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t are always found i n the same combination. Instead, i t covers a f a i r l y wide range of c o n d i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t from example to example are found i n d i f f e r i n g combinations, and w i t h or without c e r t a i n secondary f e a t u r e s . Without t r y i n g to make t h i s d e f i n i t i o n too f i n e , i t would probably be agreed t h a t the two b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b l i g h t e d areas are substandardness and e i t h e r s t a g n a t i o n or d e t e r ioration,2 This statement i n d i c a t e s the b l i g h t has  increasing recognition  that  connotations beyond, the badly s t r i c k e n 'slum'  areas. More r e c e n t l y , Richard  L. N e l s o n and  Aschman,3 have c l a s s i f i e d b l i g h t by d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the urban area.  Frederick  T.  i t s occurrence i n The  most obvious  b l i g h t i s i n slum areas where i t causes h a r d s h i p , i l l h e a l t h and  economic l o s s e s  tween tax revenue and most marked.  and  where the d i f f e r e n c e  be-  p u b l i c expenditure f o r s e r v i c e s i s  B l i g h t a l s o occurs:;  i n o l d e r neighbourhoods  33  where l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and values d e c l i n e f a s t e r the areas become p h y s i c a l l y o b s o l e t e . ognized  The  type of b l i g h t , a c c o r d i n g to Nelson  than  least recand Aschman,  i s the " b u i l t - i n " b l i g h t of f r i n g e areas of haphazard growth where the development of new low standards  neighbourhoods w i t h  and poor s e r v i c e s c r e a t e s the f i r s t  of d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  Thus, the o r i g i n a l concept  r e c o g n i z i n g merely i t s extreme c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s broadened to i n c l u d e the l e s s obvious becoming recognized  signs  of b l i g h t has  aspects which are  as p a r t s of an o v e r a l l problem; a  problem that demands an i n t e g r a t e d program of a c t i o n . As Mr. Georges P o t v i n has v a r i o u s processes  indicated:  of d e t e r i o r a t i o n , commonly c a l l e d  b l i g h t , do not a f f e c t houses o n l y , but urban land use.  . . . J u s t as there are  a l l forms of residential  slums, so'are there b l i g h t e d commercial and  industrial  b u i l d i n g s , sometimes In the very heart of the business  "The  district."4  central  Many of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to  a l l these forms of b l i g h t , and i s caused by the mixtures  some of the worst b l i g h t  of incompatible  land  uses.  T h i s paper, however, i s c o n f i n e d to the problem of residential  blight.  The Vancouver Redevelopment Study t h a t no renewal p l a n was considered  l i k e l y to succeed  recognized unless i t  the areas which were v u l n e r a b l e to b l i g h t ,  as w e l l as those which were already b l i g h t e d . B l i g h t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , i s not a s e l f - l i q u i d a t i n g p r o c e s s , nor does i t remain c o n f i n e d to one  3i+  p a r t i c u l a r area. I t s e f f e c t i s c o n t a g i o u s , and one d e r e l i c t p r o p e r t y , or the i n t r u s i o n of an u n s u i t a b l e i n d u s t r i a l or commercial use, can be s u f f i c i e n t to s e t i n motion the f o r c e s l e a d i n g to the d e c l i n e of an area, and the i n e v i t a b l e d e p r e c i a t i o n of property values.5 Urban Renewal and the P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n E f f e c t i v e urban renewal demands t h a t a c o - o r d i n a t e d program be developed activities.  to i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s  renewal  Only by c o - o r d i n a t i o n c a n a l l aspects of  renewal have a s i n g l e set of o b j e c t i v e s ;  a l l the many p r i v -  ate and p u b l i c bodies may then d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s to achieve a balanced community by r e b u i l d i n g and r e h a b i l i t ating blighted  areas and c o n s e r v i n g sound areas so t h a t  land i s used f o r i t s best economic and s o c i a l Urban renewal  purpose.  i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the l a r g e r  p l a n n i n g process and to be t r u l y e f f e c t i v e must take p l a c e w i t h i n the context of an o v e r a l l p l a n .  In discussing  P h i l a d e l p h i a ' s experience W i l l i a m L.C. Wheaton, of the U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania, i n d i c a t e d t h a t urban  renewal  i s the most important process through which the Master may be executed.  Plan  " I t i s the a p p l i c a t i o n to the v a r i o u s  areas of the c i t y of a l l the p u b l i c powers a v a i l a b l e f o r improving the c i t y . " ^ From the i n i t i a l stages of the p r o c e s s , w i t h a n a l y z i n g the a c t u a l need f o r renewal  concerned  and i t s p o t e n t -  i a l b e n e f i t s , l e a d i n g to t h e d e f i n i t i o n of areas r e q u i r i n g treatment,  the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p l a n n i n g  process i s most important.  Renewal l a r g e l y depends on the  type of c o - o r d i n a t i o n which can b e s t be achieved  through  35 the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ;  indeed,  i t has been p r e v i o u s l y  i n d i c a t e d t h a t F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r renewal i n the United States i s only a v a i l a b l e i f a l l renewal activity  i s based on a programme of comprehensive  city  planning. I n Canada the N a t i o n a l Housing Act s t a t e s : t h a t the areas w i l l be developed i n accordance or i n harmony w i t h an o f f i c i a l community p l a n s a t i s f a c t o r y to the M i n i s t e r . 7 P r i o r to t h i s  a c t , both the F e d e r a l government and  Province of O n t a r i o , i n approving p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t i n Toronto,  the  the Regent Park South s t a t e d that they would  p r e f e r not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n f u r t h e r p r o j e c t s unless s t u d i e s were made to ensure t h a t the proposed p l a n o f a c t i o n was  the c o r r e c t one.  The  s e p a r a t i o n of the renewal and p l a n n i n g  func-  t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t e d . Of t h i s s e p a r a t i o n Dr:, L i c h f i e l d has  said:  I t has s t i m u l a t e d great a c t i v i t y i n urban and metropolitan planning; i n many p l a c e s urban renewal i s a t a i l wagging a timorous p l a n n i n g dog by dangl i n g d o l l a r s i n f r o n t of i t s nose. Furthermore the s i d e - s t e p p i n g has prevented urban renewal from being bogged down by a cumbersome p l a n n i n g system whose m o d e r n i z a t i o n w i l l y e t take some time.9 The  specific  nature  of the U.S.  renewal agency may  vary  from s t a t e to s t a t e , depending on the framework of s t a t e enabling l e g i s l a t i o n .  New  Haven, f o r example has  a city,  renewal department r e s p o n s i b l e to c i t y c o u n c i l ;  Balti-  more has  respons-  a c i t i z e n ' s commission appointed  i b l e to c i t y c o u n c i l ;  while N o r f o l k has  by  and  a similar  36 commission which i s independent of c o u n c i l . receive direct Federal  These  agencies  a i d f r o m t h e U r b a n Renewal A d m i n i -  s t r a t i o n w h i c h f o r m s p a r t o f t h e H o u s i n g and Home  Finance  Agency. Renex^al as a c o m b i n e d o p e r a t i o n i s c a r r i e d the  r e n e w a l agency c o - o r d i n a t i n g i t s powers w i t h those o f  other  departments i n accordance w i t h a c i t y - w i d e p l a n .  c o m b i n e d powers o f t h e s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s fied and  o u t by  by L i c h f i e l d clearance  of p r o p e r t y  (United States building).  i n t o f o u r groups.  have b e e n  First,  classi-  the a c q u i s i t i o n  f o r p r i v a t e and p u b l i c  renewal agencies  development.  r a r e l y engage t h e m s e l v e s i n  S e c o n d , s i n g l e b u i l d i n g s may be removed t o  improve an a r e a o r t o e l i m i n a t e unsafe o r u n s a n i t a r y tions.  S t r e e t s may a l s o be c l o s e d  T h i r d , the  c o d e s r e q u i r i n g t h a t e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s be b r o u g h t  to specified  standards  and i n c a s e o f d e f a u l t t h a t  ment may be c o m p e l l e d o r t h e p r o p e r t y is  circul-  i m p r o v e m e n t o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s , by e n f o r c e m e n t  of housing up  condi-  t o improve t r a f f i c  a t i o n and t o add t o t h e amount o f o p e n s p a c e . physical  acquired.  improve-  Improvement  a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by a s s i s t a n c e i n a c q u i r i n g l o a n s and  F e d e r a l mortgage i n s u r a n c e . the U n i t e d grants  States  There i s , however, n o t h i n g i n  t o compare t o t h e o u t r i g h t home  made b y t h e B r i t i s h  ment o f s t a n d a r d s  Government.  over the e n t i r e c i t y  Fourth,  improvement the enforce-  t o ensure the standard  o f new c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i o r a t i o n by e n f o r c e m e n t o f b u i l d i n g c o d e s and z o n i n g to  The  deter-  by-laws  r e g u l a t e u s e and d e n s i t y . The  g e n e r a l p l a n o f t h e u r b a n area s h o u l d  be com-  37  prehensive  and  should determine f u t u r e land use  arrange-  ments, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of population.  The  general p l a n or i t s component  sub-  area p l a n s , should a l s o i d e n t i f y renewal areas by the nature of the treatment  proposed f o r improvement.  In  d i s c u s s i n g the r e l a t i o n of renewal to c i t y p l a n n i n g the Seminar on Urban Renewal at t h e Hague^^ i n 1 9 5 8 i n d i c ated t h a t renewal i s l a r g e l y  a problem of r e l a t i n g land  use p a t t e r n s to c i r c u l a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  and  p a t t e r n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t  to change than  l a n d use p a t t e r n . a traffic  To t h i s end  t h a t the  i t i s important t o  street the  develop  p a t t e r n f o r the renewal a r e a t h a t i s r e l a t e d  to  an o v e r a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n . The  nature of the comprehensive p l a n must be  t h a t change and  a d a p t a t i o n may  occur;  such  f o r example the  c o m p l e t i o n of an urban renewal p r o j e c t may  well  suggest  adaptations to the o v e r a l l p l a n which w i l l i n time  affect  the p l a n n i n g of subsequent renewal p r o j e c t s . Mr.  S t a n l e y P i c k e t t , who  was  then Urban Redevelop-  ment O f f i c e r of the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, s t r e s s e d at the conference  i n The Hague the  importance of r e l a t i n g renewal to t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g of an area and c i t e d P h i l a d e l p h i a ' s experience w i t h  an  e i g h t y e a r c l e a r a n c e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. e l i m i n a t i n g the worst slums f i r s t  the c i t y hoped to s e t  an example to encourage the improvement o f blighted  areas.  People  By  surrounding  d i s p l a c e d from c l e a r a n c e  areas,  38 however, merely moved to adjacent housing c r e a t i n g even worse c o n d i t i o n s of overcrowding tation.  These areas subsequently  to redevelop Had  and bad  proved  sani-  more c o s t l y  as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n i t i a l p r o j e c t .  the p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d a change i n land use i t w as  thought  the problem would have been even g r e a t e r .  Whatever the consequences they must be a n t i c i p a t e d , so t h a t the c i t y or urban r e g i o n a l p l a n can allow f o r the e f f e c t s of renewal a c t i o n and i n t e g r a t e them i n t o the whole p l a n n i n g program. The p r o j e c t approach, where p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n stop at the boundaries of the s i t e i s doomed to failure. Unless understood and guided, the mutual e f f e c t of the p r o j e c t and the surroundings on each o t h e r w i l l be d e t r i m e n t a l to both and may prejudice continuing action. 1  I n a p o l i c y statement 1951i  (then c a l l e d  1  d e f i n i n g urban renewal i n  urban redevelopment) the American  I n s t i t u t e of Planners  i n d i c a t e d that the process  ed the r e v i s i o n of e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of land use  involvand  p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , "under e s t a b l i s h e d democratic p l a n n i n g procedures,  and  i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h l o n g range  comprehensive p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . "  l c ;  This  statement  recognized  that the p r e p a r a t i o n of an urban renewal pro-  gramme was  as much a p a r t of the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n as  the s c h e d u l i n g o f p u b l i c works or the p r e p a r a t i o n of a zoning by-law. areas  The process  through which renewal  are d e f i n e d , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of land use  s e r v i c e p a t t e r n s and  and  the s c h e d u l i n g of p r i o r i t i e s were  a l l d e c l a r e d a s being proper p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s because they i n v o l v e d developing  a community-wide p a t -  t e r n by f i t t i n g the v a r i o u s aspects t o g e t h e r .  The  39  d a n g e r o f p l a n n i n g o n an i s o l a t e d b u i l d i n g at congested  project basis  d e n s i t i e s was  g e s t i n g t h a t s u c h methods c a n o n l y of  i n d i c a t e d , sugincrease the  spread  blight. I n 1959  another  the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s  policy  statement^  statement s t r e s s e d the  on u r b a n r e n e w a l .  for the  concentrated  on h o u s i n g :  o f t h e c o m m u n i t y and t h i s was  indicated  an a r e a  basis  blight  attacks a l l aspects  The  1959  effectively  fought  statement a l s o  t h a t many c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e s p e n d i n g  with local  vast  government p l a n s .  Finally,  a-need  was  only i n t h i s  c o u l d u r b a n r e n e w a l become i n f a c t what i t was - a l o n g range c o n t i n u i n g  Renewal It  in  process.  Process  i s now  generally recognized  t h a t the  process  o f u r b a n r e n e w a l embraces a range of t r e a t m e n t s , vary  sums  p r o j e c t s w h i c h were not i n t e g r a t e d  stressed f o r c o n t i n u i t y of F e d e r a l s u p p o r t :  theory  by  o f a F e d e r a l programme w h i c h  c o u l d o n l y be  recognized.  o f money o n i s o l a t e d  The  This  e x e c u t i o n of the m a s t e r p l a n , b u t c o n t i n u e d  n o t i n g the d e f i c i e n c i e s  way  issued  importance of c o - o r d i n a t i n g the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f a l l m u n i c i p a l powers on  if  or  a c c o r d i n g to t h e  nature  the study  area.  clearance  redevelopment,  of b l i g h t  These t r e a t m e n t s and  revealed  which in  range from  rehabilitation,  to  conservation.  I t may be s e e n t h a t t h e m e t h o d s o f e a c h o f  these treatments over-lap  t o some e x t e n t ,  example, o f t e n e n t a i l i n g c l e a r a n c e ated  structures.  rehabilitation for  of p a r t i c u l a r l y  The d e g r e e o f p u b l i c  deterior-  initiative  required  i n e a c h o f t h e s e methods a l s o v a r i e s f r o m t h e most d r a s t i c measures o f complete c l e a r a n c e measures o f  t o the r e l a t i v e l y  mild  conservation.  Redeyelopment Redevelopment, i n v o l v i n g the complete c l e a r a n c e structures  i n severely  of  b l i g h t e d a r e a s and t h e p l a n n e d r e -  b u i l d i n g by p u b l i c and p r i v a t e means, i s t h e most d r a s t i c and c o s t l y o f a l l forms o f r e n e w a l . blight  I t i s usually applied  i s so a d v a n c e d t h a t i t i s n o t e c o n o m i c a l l y ,  or s o c i a l l y  p r a c t i c a b l e t o renovate the area.  physically,  However, the  urban renewal study f o r Toronto also i n d i c a t e d t h a t could the  be j u s t i f i a b l y  i f i t o t h e r w i s e would  c a r r y i n g o u t o f some m a j o r w o r k o f g r e a t  city  as a w h o l e .  an a r e a hinder  importance to the  F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e p o t e n t i a l r e - u s e o f an  a r e a so o u t w e i g h e d not  cleared  where  the present use, even i fc o n d i t i o n s  p a r t i c u l a r l y bad, then again  redevelopment could  be  were justi-  fied. I n the C i t y of Windsor urban renewal s t u d y ^ Dr.E. G. F a l u d i c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e d e v e l o p m e n t was a l s o i n areas c o n t a i n i n g  a proportion  advisable  of residential buildings i n  f a i r - c o n d i t i o n , b u t w h i c h w e r e s u r r o u n d e d by s t r u c t u r e s i n poor o r very  poor c o n d i t i o n .  I n this case, i n d i v i d u a l r e -  h a b i l i t a t i o n w o u l d n o t be a d e q u a t e t o e l i m i n a t e problem of b l i g h t .  the t o t a l  An a r e a o f Windsor scheduled  f o r redev-  1+1 elopment  reflected  the l a c k of p u b l i c  facilities  and t h e  uneconomical l a y o u t of the g r i d p a t t e r n of s t r e e t s . suggested p r i n c i p l e s case included  of redevelopment  recommended  the r e d u c t i o n o f t h r o u g h t r a f f i c ,  i s i o n o f adequate  The  i n this the prov-  par-king s p a c e , t h e c r e a t i o n o f a c e n t r a l  open s p a c e , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a compact s h o p p i n g a r e a , t h e removal of i n c o m p a t i b l e i n d u s t r i a l the  a r e a and t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a n d f o r f u t u r e r o a d  ning. the  and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s i n  The p r o p o s a l f o r t h e a r e a a l s o e l i m i n a t e d many of.  unnecessary through This  method  wide-  —  streets.  i s t h e method  t o be a p p l i e d  t u r e s and e n v i r o n m e n t b o t h become p u b l i c  of renewal —  a b l e , and where  inevitable  where b l i g h t h a s c a u s e d b o t h , s t r u c -  t o d e t e r i o r a t e t o such an e x t e n t t h a t  liabilities.  b e e n n e g l e c t e d by p r i v a t e and r e d e v e l o p m e n t  the  These a r e a r e a s w h i c h have  e n t e r p r i s e because  land  assembly  o n a l a r g e e n o u g h s c a l e has n o t b e e n p r o f i t -  the d e c l i n i n g environment  as a p o o r r i s k f o r c a p i t a l  has b e e n r e g a r d e d  investment.  Rehabilitation The s e c o n d method  of treatment I n the urban  process i s that which Is applied  to areas a l r e a d y  renewal suffering  f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f b l i g h t , b u t where d e t e r i o r a t i o n has n o t r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e where c o m p l e t e c l e a r a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y . Implicit  i n this  t e c h n i q u e are aspects o f b o t h the r e d e v e l -  opment and c o n s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s ; ated s t r u c t u r e s , f o r example,  I n d i v i d u a l badly  a r e o f t e n removed  deterior-  i n a rehabili-  t a t i o n programme t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l o p e n s p a c e o r t o alleviate  the p a r k i n g problem on overloaded  streets.  k.2. B a s i c a l l y , .the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n method  involves the:  r e m o d e l i n g , a l t e r i n g , r e p a i r i n g and o t h e r w i s e i m p r o v i n g substandard, deteriorated, or obsolete areas, or i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n these a r e a s , so t h a t a decent, s a f e , and s a n i t a r y e n v i r o n m e n t may be a c h i e v e d . > x  This statement  o f t h e Sub-committee on U r b a n Redevelopment,  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t i n g t o t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s A d v i s o r y Committee on Housing  i n 1953  c o n t i n u e d by d e c l a r i n g  t h a t the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of i s o l a t e d  structures  rated  improvement.  area cannot  result  i nlasting  i n a deterioFurthermore,  t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f streets  and s e r v i c e s m u s t accompany t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f  structures sful,  t o produce  an acceptable environment.  Ifec be s u c c e s -  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must be, i n the Sub-committee's t e r m s ,  'planned  area concept'.  A recent Ontario study indicated  s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c  and p r i v a t e  a a  efforts:  B u i l d i n g s a r e r e h a b i l i t a t e d by a d d i n g s p a c e , p a i n t i n g , r e p a i r i n g , and o t h e r p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s . Neighbourhoods, t o o , a r e r e h a b i l i t a t e d — o f t e n by r e m o v i n g t h e w o r s t h o u s e s , c h a n g i n g s t r e e t p a t t e r n s , a d d i n g p a r k s and o t h e r open spaces. I n g e n e r a l , these are the t h i n g s a munic i p a l i t y does t o add c o n f i d e n c e t o t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o m a i n t a i n h i s own property. ° x  The two  i n i t i a t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a n take place i n  b a s i c ways;  either properties  remain  i n private  owner-  s h i p o r t h e y a r e a c q u i r e d by g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s o r p r i v a t e developers.  U n d e r t he l a t t e r m e t h o d r e h a b i l i t a t e d  housing  c a n be a c q u i r e d , by a p u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c y o r a l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g company t o p r o v i d e l o w r e n t h o u s i n g . The  use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s p r e s e n t l y  being  k3 s t u d i e d by the O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r appl i c a t i o n i n areas where r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d more f e a s i b l e t h a n t o t a l c l e a r a n c e and r e b u i l d i n g . advantage  i n u s i n g such a technique f o r p u b l i c  i s t h a t f a m i l i e s become more i n t e g r a t e d  i n 'a P r o j e c t ' i s e l i m i n a t e d .  housing  i n t o the s u r -  rounding community and the seemingly dreaded living  One  stigma o f  However, i t i s the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f d w e l l i n g s remaining i n p r i v a t e owners h i p which forms the main c o n c e r n o f t h i s paper.  In  t h i s case improvements should be c a r r i e d out without i n v o l v i n g too g r e a t a d i s t u r b a n c e o f the r e s i d e n t s .  The  p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to enhance the surroundings o f such houses i n areas where heavy t r a f f i c  and inadequate  amenities might otherwise r e q u i r e complete R e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a n a l s o vary from  redevelopment. 'prestige'  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , evidenced i n Georgetown i n Washington 'and Rittenhouse Square i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , to 'middle  income'  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and 'low r e n t ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Prestige  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l take p l a c e n a t u r a l l y , i f the market demands i t , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a r g e r c i t i e s where traffic  increasing  c o n g e s t i o n and d i m i n i s h i n g suburban t a x advantages  make d a i l y commuting l e s s  and l e s s a t t r a c t i v e .  I n many  i n s t a n c e s the c o s t s of r e c o n d i t i o n i n g are extremely h i g h . 'Middle income' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y  concerned  w i t h c o r r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s such as i n a d equate  plumbing,  h e a t i n g , w i r i n g , mechanical equipment  and minor s t r u c t u r a l r e p a i r s .  C o r r e c t i n g obsolescence  i s u s u a l l y a secondary  consideration.  'Low  r e n t ' rehab-  i l i t a t i o n i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d w i t h code enforcement and  e n t a i l s r e p a i r s to c o r r e c t v i o l a t i o n s  standards. income  This study w i l l  and  1  and minimum  only c o n s i d e r the  'middle  'low r e n t ' type of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , p r e s t i g e  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n being considered beyond the normal urban renewal p r o c e s s . Conservation At the o p p o s i t e end  of the renewal s c a l e from  t o t a l c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment, i s the c o n s e r v a t i o n technique which i s a p p l i e d to areas t h a t are s t i l l ically yet  sound, and where r e h a b i l i t a t i o n methods are not  necessary.  stability  The  emphasis i s on m a i n t a i n i n g  of an area to prevent  from d e v e l o p i n g . the planned  the f i r s t s i g n s of b l i g h t  p r o v i s i o n of neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s , and p a r k i n g and  c o n f l i c t i n g land uses, b l i g h t may a chance to The  the  By ensuring the upkeep of p r o p e r t y ,  c o n t r o l of t r a f f i c  has  bas-  the  the p r e v e n t i o n of be prevented  before i t  develop.  above mentioned Sub-Committee on Urban  Re-  development, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and ^Conservation d e f i n e d  con-  0  s e r v a t i o n as the p r e v e n t i o n of b l i g h t i n mainly r e s i d e n t i a l areas  t h a t showed s i g n s of d e t e r i o r a t i o n but where  the m a j o r i t y of b u i l d i n g s d i d not need major r e p a i r s . To achieve t h i s aim taken,  i n accordance  i t was  indicated  t h a t a c t i o n must be  with a community p l a n , to p r o v i d e  adequate community f a c i l i t i e s ,  efficient  traffic  controls,  suitable  land  use and  density patterns.  'Undesirable'  s t r u c t u r e s were t o be removed o r i m p r o v e d , z o n i n g l a w s vie r e  t o be s t r i c t l y  t i o n concept emphasizes individual buildings, the of  Sub-committee  enforced.  the neighbourhood  and  and h o u s i n g and The  conserva-  rather  as s u c h t h e p r o b l e m  than  i s s e e n by  t o be as much a p r o b l e m o f p l a n n i n g as  housing. In  t h e W i n d s o r U r b a n R e n e w a l Study^-^ a t y p i c a l  d e f i n e d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n was that could  and  several  a d v e r s e l y e f f e c t the e n v i r o n m e n t were  These i n c l u d e d uses  examined  the e x t e n s i o n of c o m m e r c i a l and  into residential  a r e a s and  area  factors indicated.  industrial  the l a c k of'maintenance could  properties.  Increased t r a f f i c  t i o n as c o u l d  t h e i l l e g a l c o n v e r s i o n o f s i n g l e f a m i l y homes  r a i s i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y . proposed  H o u s i n g Standards Codes, i n the advantages  a r e a and  to d e t e r i o r a -  conservation'methods  i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e were t h e s t r i c t e n f o r c e -  ment o f t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w  ness  The  also lead  of  and  t h e B u i l d i n g and Minimum  the p r o m o t i o n of c i t i z e n  of c o n s e r v i n g the q u a l i t y  the c o n t r o l of through  awareof  traffic.  Many s t u d i e s o f u r b a n r e n e w a l d e f i n e o n l y methods o r t y p e s o f r e n e w a l ;  t a t i o n / c o n s e r v a t i o n approach. i n the V a n c o u v e r  a p p a r e n t l y b e i n g based study  two  t h e c l e a r a n c e and r e d e v e l o p -  ment a s p e c t b e i n g q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m a c o m b i n e d  recognized  their  rehabili-  This general d i v i s i o n i s  renewal s t u d y , f o r example,  directly  on S i e g a l  and  Brooks'  of the renewal p r o c e s s f o r the P r e s i d e n t i a l i n -  v e s t i g a t i o n i n 1953*  Siegel  and B r o o k s  indicated  that  1+6  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e l a t e d to the degree of d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r area, but the end product of both processes an acceptable and to  was  indeed, d e s i r a b l e neighbourhood i n which  live. The c o n n o t a t i o n of c o n s e r v a t i o n i s p r e v e n t i o n ; the p r e v e n t i o n of f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n which w i l l lead to slums. The c o n n o t a t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s " b r i n g i n g back" an area which has s l i p p e d to a more s i g n i f i c a n t degree and r e q u i r e s more e x t e n s i v e treatment. Though both concepts are dynamic, a f t e r a neighbourhood has b e e n " r e h a b i l i t a t e d " , i t must then be "conserved" 19  The  O n t a r i o Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s  ated a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n :  study  2 0  indic-  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n implied the  r a i s i n g of standards through p h y s i c a l improvement, w h i l e c o n s e r v a t i o n was long-range  the maintenance of these standards on a  basis.  Summary The ^degree or q u a l i t y of b l i g h t i n a community i n e v i t a b l y v a r i e s from one of renewal  area to another,  thus the methods  should be r e l a t e d to t h i s v a r i a n c e .  urban renewal  concept  i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  The  total  to i n c l u d e redev-  elopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n , a l l forming p a r t of an i n t e r - r e l a t e d  and c o - o r d i n a t e d program.  Rehabilitat-  i o n f o r example i n c l u d e s some of the methods of redevelopment, i n the c l e a r a n c e of badly b l i g h t e d s t r u c t u r e s ,  and  some of the mihods of c o n s e r v a t i o n . The  t o t a l urban renewal  the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g process and must be conceived  program must form p a r t of specific  renewal  i n the c o n t e x t of long term  plans f o r the whole community:  proposals  development  F l e x i b i l i t y of the over-  k7  all  p l a n , however, i s e s s e n t i a l :  may  s u g g e s t amendments t o the o v e r a l l p l a n w h i c h w i l l  subsequent renewal p r o p o s a l s .  a specific  r e n e w a l scheme effect  M o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , when  c o n c e i v e d w i t h i n a n o v e r a l l p l a n , u r b a n r e n e w a l c a n be plemented  a t the r i g h t  t i m e and  i n the r i g h t  sals w i l l  not c o n t r a d i c t subsequent p l a n s .  p l a c e and The  impropo-  'project  a p p r o a c h ' t o r e n e w a l c a n no l o n g e r be t o l e r a t e d , i n d e e d , i t is  ideally  d e s i r a b l e t o p l a n r e n e w a l on t h e b a s i s o f the  entire region. and f i n a n c i a l  The m a i n l i m i t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g  legislation  a s s i s t a n c e f o r u r b a n r e n e w a l i n Canada i s t h a t  public  responsibility  little  a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o the s t i m u l a t i o n o f non-  residential  i s primarily  concerned w i t h housing,  renewal.  U r b a n r e n e w a l i n C a n a d a has p r i m a r i l y w i t h c l e a r a n c e and tive  redevelopment,  i t being considered impera-  to deal w i t h the worst conditions f i r s t .  urban renewal s t u d i e s produced  been concerned  However, t h e  i n Canada d u r i n g the  last  s e v e n y e a r s have t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s c o n s i d e r e d t h e w i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n of the renewal p r o c e s s . studies for  are d i s c u s s e d  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  these  i n sorce d e t a i l  I n Chapter I I I these to determine proposals  t h e means s u g g e s t e d f o r i n i t i a t i n g  proposals.  References 1  2.  D e t r o i t C i t y P l a n C o m m i s s i o n , R e n e w a l and Revenue (Detroit: D e t r o i t C i t y P l a n C o m m i s s i o n , 1962). p p . 1-2. A l l a n A. T w i c h e l l , M e a s u r i n g t h e Q u a l i t y o f H o u s i n g i n }~:"'o^r;P^-arming f o r U r b a n R e d e v e l o p m e n t , urban Redevelopment: P r o b l e m s and P r a c t i c e s C h i e ago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1953), p.11.  48  3  Richard L. N e l s o n and F r e d e r i c k T. Aschman, R e a l E s t a t e and C i t y P l a n n i n g (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall,  Inc., 1 9 5 7 ) .  p.  450  4  Georges P o t v i n , "Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l B l i g h t , " Community "Planning Review IX, No. 1 (March 1 9 5 9 ) , .p_2~_  5  C i t y of Vancouver, Vancouver Redevelopment Study, Prepared by the C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department f o r the Housing Research Committee, 1 9 5 7 , P. 28.  6  W i l l i a m L.C. Wheaton, "The F e a s i b i l i t y of Comprehensive Re ne w a l , " Ends and Means of Urban Renewal (Phi1ade1phia: P h i l a d e l p h i a Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , (1961),  p.59.  7  Dominion of Canada, ( S t a t u t e s , 2 - 3 E l i z a b e t h I I , c . 2 3 , s e c . 2 3 ( 4 h (c)  8  C i t y of Toronto, Urban Renewal: A Study of the C i t y of Toronto, 1 9 5 6 . Prepared by the A d v i s o r y Comm i t t e e on the Urban Renewal Study, 1 9 5 5 , p . i .  9  N a t h a n i e l L i c h f i e l d , " P l a n n i n g f o r Urban Renewal: The American Approach," J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n ning; I n s t i t u t e , XLVII, No 3(March, 1961),p. 5 7 .  10  P.T. Van Der H o f f and George S. Duggar ( e d i t o r s ) , Urban Renewal, Report o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seminar on Urban Renewal, The Hague, 1 9 5 8 . (Amsterdam: V a n M u n s t e r ' s D r u k k e r i i e n , N.V., 1958).  11  Ibid, p . 2 4 .  12  "Statement of P o l i c y on Urban Redevlopment," Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , X!X, (Winter, 193477~p.53.  13  "Urban Renewal: A P o l i c y Statement of the Americans I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , " J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXV, No. 4 (November, 1 9 5 9 ) ,  p.  217.  14  C i t y of Windsor, A F i f t e e n Year Programme f o r the Urban Renewal of the Vlty of Windsor and i t s Metrop o l l t a n Area, Prepared f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by E.G. F a l u d l and A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 5 9 «  .15  Jack M. S i e g e l and C. W i l l i a m Brooks, Slum P r e v e n t i o n through C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Report of the Subcommittee on Urban Redevelopment, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n to t he President's  k9  A d v i s o r y Committee on Government Housing P o l i c i e s and Programs (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1953), p.12. 16  Ontario Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Community P l a n ning Branch, A B e t t e r Place to l i v e , P i n a l Report (Toronto"! Ontario Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1962), p.9.  17  P a l u d i and Associates, op. c i t , p.  18  S i e g e l a nd Brooks, op. c i t . ,  19  I b i d , p. Ii}..  20  Ontario Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Community P l a n n i n g Branch, op. c i t . , p . 9 .  r  127.  p.lij..  CHAPTER I I I RESIDENTIAL REHABILITATION IN CANADA; AN EXAMINATION OP CANADIAN URBAN RENEWAL STUDIES P a r t V o f the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t  bestows on  1  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n the r e s p o n s i b ility  to sponsor i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the c o n d i t i o n and  adequacy may  o f Canadian housing, and of the measures t h a t  be t a k e n to improve  the n a t i o n ' s housing s t o c k .  As a r e s u l t of t h i s measure, through which the p r e viously  discussed Federal f i n a n c i a l assistance i s a v a i l -  able, c i t i e s  i n almost every p r o v i n c e have  urban renewal s t u d i e s . completed specific  initiated  The m a j o r i t y o f the s t u d i e s  to date are examined i n t h i s c h a p t e r , w i t h r e f e r e n c e being made to t h e i r  rehabilitation  proposals. The R e l a t i o n s h i p to the Renewal Process The f i r s t  urban renewal study i n Canada completed  under P a r t V of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act was  f o r the  p  C i t y of Toronto, O n t a r i o ,  and was  conducted under the  d i r e c t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Committee on the Urban Renewal Study i n 1 9 5 6 .  T h i s study was  p r i m a r i l y undertaken to  develop g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e methods of urban renewal a n a l y s i s and r e s e a r c h , although i t broached  tentative  proposals f o r s p e c i f i c  However,  p a r t s of the C i t y , 50  51  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was recognized  as a p a r t o f the r e -  newal p r o c e s s , which was b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as being an i n t e g r a t e d programme of s t r e e t improvement,  construction  of p u b l i c works, redevelopment, b u i l d i n g improvement and 'other a c t i o n ' . In  1 9 5 7 urban renewal s t u d i e s were p u b l i s h e d  f o r H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a j  S a i n t John, New Brunswick;  Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia;  and Winnipeg, Manitoba.  P r o f e s s o r Gordon Stephenson, i n h i s study o f H a l i f a x , ^ noted t h a t " p r e v e n t i v e medicine i s now g e n e r a l l y accepted as more e f f e c t i v e and l e s s c o s t l y  than reme-  d i a l , " ^ " and although i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment would remove the worst slums, i t was indicated the  slums.  that t h i s would  not e l i m i n a t e the causes o f  The most p r e s s i n g problem was c o n s i d e r e d  to be the overcrowding o f d w e l l i n g s due to the s h o r t age o f housing accommodation afford.  at r e n t s people c o u l d  Large numbers of people would have to be  rehoused, q u i t e apart from a c l e a r a n c e and r e b u i l d i n g programme, and t h i s would people.  i n v o l v e moving many more  Overcrowding could be reduced i f b u i l d i n g  and h e a l t h codes were e f f e c t i v e l y e n f o r c e d , but I t would be impossible to demand r i g i d  standards unless  adequate a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation  were to be provided  w i t h i n t h e f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y o f the d i s p o s s e s s e d families.  I t was i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the H a l i f a x C i t y  C o u n c i l would have to make the d e c i s i o n of p r o v i d i n g  52  new housing on c l e a r e d o r vacant l a n d , and would have to develop a housing code to e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n p h y s i c a l and s a n i t a r y s t a n d a r d s .  Prof-  e s s o r Stephenson c a l l e d the p r o v i s i o n of new housing a ' f r o n t a l attack' defensive  action'.  and the maintenance o f standards a I t was considered  that:  "from  the p u r e l y s h o r t term f i n a n c i a l v i e w p o i n t , the C i t y would, without doubt, g a i n by a f r o n t a l a t t a c k and defensive  a c t i o n combined i n one housing p o l i c y . " - '  T h i s was, however, recognized  as not n e c e s s a r i l y  being  the c o r r e c t l o n g term p o l i c y f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n The  conditions  of housing r e v e a l e d  area.  i n the C i t y  of S a i n t John study,^ conducted under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f Mr.  Georges P o t v i n ,  i n d i c a t e d the alarming f a c t  that  almost one t h i r d o f the c i t y ' s dwellings r e q u i r e d olition,  and over 60% r e q u i r e d  Urban renewal was conceived  rehabilitation.  o f as a continuous  ess, w i t h the r e p o r t s e r v i n g only first  stages o f that process,  proc-  as a guide to the  p l a c i n g the problems of  housing i n t h e i r proper p e r s p e c t i v e of the c i t y .  dem-  with other  problems  The process o f renewal was i n d i c a t e d to  i n c l u d e redevelopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n . Redevelopment was to i n c l u d e "the c l e a r a n c e  of i n d i v i d -  u a l b l i g h t e d d w e l l i n g u n i t s or s i z e a b l e d w e l l i n g and  t h e i r replacement,"7 and was regarded  areas  as the most  c o s t l y of renewal measures, u s u a l l y to be a p p l i e d on a relatively  l a r g e s c a l e when l e s s d r a s t i c measures  53 were uneconomical. was  C o n s e r v a t i o n , on the other hand,  the l e a s t expensive  worth p r e s e r v a t i o n . property owners and i l i t a t i o n was  treatment  to p r o t e c t areas  I t i m p l i e d the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the c i t y ' s  recognized  administration.  as being a degree of  ment between these two measures, and was being the form of a c t i o n necessary  Rehabtreat-  indicated  as  "when b u i l d i n g s  r e q u i r e minor or major r e p a i r s , i n c l u d i n g , i n some cases, s t r u c t u r a l reconditioning."® From the study of b l i g h t i n Vancouver^, carried found  out by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, i t was  d e s i r a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h two  types of p l a n n i n g  areas, a c c o r d i n g to the extent and  i n t e n s i t y of det-  e r i o r a t i o n and prehensive  the proposed s o l u t i o n s .  Redevelopment Areas'  s t r u c t i o n programme was  I n the 'Com-  a twenty y e a r  recon-  proposed i n which a l l e x i s t i n g  b u i l d i n g s e v e n t u a l l y were to be c l e a r e d .  The  'Limi-  ted Redevelopment Areas' were considered l i a b l e to d e t e r i o r a t i o n w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g twenty y e a r s ,  and  here  and  i t was  proposed to c a r r y out spot c l e a r a n c e  rehabilitation.  The  remainder of the study  area  would be s u b j e c t to c o n s e r v a t i o n measures, so  again  the three aspects of renewal were r e c o g n i z e d .  Of  t o t a l renewal process  i t was  the  stated:  The purpose of redevelopment w i l l be l a r g e l y defeated unless i t i s accompanied by measures to conserve the e x i s t i n g sound housing and to prevent the f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of areas already i n d e c l i n e . Redevelopment, rehab-  i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n are thus seen as complementary phases of one programme of b l i g h t e l i m i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l . 1 0 P r o f e s s o r Gerson's study of Winnipeg!! was of a s m a l l but p a r t i c u l a r l y  b l i g h t e d s e c t i o n of the c i t y and  i n h i s p r o p o s a l s f o r the area he designated  areas of  'immediate redevelopment', 'redevelopment' and  'rehabil-  itation' .  different  The f i r s t  two were areas r e q u i r i n g  degrees of c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment, while the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n area had housing which was  'by no means  good', but where t o t a l redevelopment was not c o n s i d e r e d feasible. The conducted  urban renewal study of Hamilton,  Ontario,  under t he d i r e c t i o n o f the C i t y P l a n n i n g Dep-  artment, considered renewal to be a c o n t i n u i n g process designed  to e l i m i n a t e substandard  housing  and to provide  good a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation, to r e h a b i l i t a t e o l d e r housing  and to prevent the spread of b l i g h t .  The c i t y  was d i v i d e d i n t o Planning D i s t r i c t s , each of which were determined  as b e i n g C l a s s 'A', Sound;  Declining;  or C l a s s ' C , B l i g h t e d .  Class  'B',  Areas o f d e t a i l e d  study w i t h i n each d i s t r i c t were then determined  i n which  each d w e l l i n g was placed i n one of three categorfes: 'Conservation', ance'.  ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' o r 'Presumptive C l e a r -  Prom t h i s a n a l y s i s , p r i o r i t y  areas f o r renewal  were e s t a b l i s h e d by a s s e s s i n g the percentage  of  b u i l d i n g s i n each block r e q u i r i n g c l e a r a n c e , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , or conservation.  55 The urban renewal study f o r the C i t y Ontario,by  of London,  P r o f e s s o r Stephenson, a l s o c o n s i d e r e d r e -  newal as a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s , but the u s u a l d e f i n i t i o n of  'renewal areas' was not emphasized.  ions of the study  i t was recommended  urban renewal programme  I n the c o n c l u s -  t h a t "as p a r t o f i t s  the m u n i c i p a l i t y should  include a  p o l i c y i n i t s O f f i c i a l P l a n f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and cons e r v a t i o n o f the present housing  s t o c k . T h e  specific  renewal proposals of the study, however, were l a r g e l y related  to the ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' of the Thames R i v e r  v a l l e y , although t h i s was a c t u a l l y  a c l e a r a n c e and  redev-  elopment programme. The  urban renewal study f o r the C i t y of Windsor,  Ontario,!5 by E.G. P a l u d i and As s o c i a t e s , a l s o conceived renewal as i n c l u d i n g  'redevelopment' i n b l i g h t e d areas  designated f o r a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r a n c e ;  'rehabilitation'  i n areas where the e a r l y stages of d e c l i n e n e c e s s i t a t e d improvements;  and ' c o n s e r v a t i o n ' l a t h e remainder o f the  urban area where sound neighbourhoods were to be p r o t e c t e d against  blight. I n 1961 the C i t y of Montreal, Quebec, n i n e t e e n  y e a r programme of urban r e n e w a l ^ 1  by the Economic  Research C o r p o r a t i o n , L t d . , was p u b l i s h e d . i v e s of the study were:  The o b j e c t -  to determine the number o f new  d w e l l i n g u n i t s r e q u i r e d i n order t o e l i m i n a t e overcrowding;  to assess the degree and methods o f improve-  ment r e q u i r e d f o r e x i s t i n g d w e l l i n g s ;  and to e s t a b l i s h  methods t o prevent f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  One o f the  56  o b j e c t i v e s of the study was  a l s o to designate renewal  areas by the type of renewal r e q u i r e d . was  Urban renewal  a g a i n regarded as a continuous process  the three degrees  of renewal.  The  employing  study areas were  examined by a s s e s s i n g the degree of e x i s t i n g  deficien-  c i e s and these were measured on a percentage of occurrence b a s i s .  The  t o t a l percentages of d i f f e r e n t  d e f i c i e n c i e s were averaged  and three c a t e g o r i e s estab-  lished.  found to be  When an area was  t o t a l c l e a r a n c e was if  proposed  This  1  f o l l o w e d by  an area was'mediocre' i t was  a t i o n which was  'bad , then redevelopment;  designated f o r r e h a b i l i t -  d e f i n e d a s ' p a r t i a l c u r i n g and r e n o v a t i o n ' .  'mediocre' category c o n t a i n e d a 25$ -  measurement.  I f an a r e a was  deficiency  declared ' s a t i s f a c t o r y '  t h e n c o n s e r v a t i o n and maintenance measures were c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t safeguards a g a i n s t b l i g h t .  C o n s e r v a t i o n and  maintenance i n sound r e s i d e n t i a l areas were c o n s i d e r e d to be most important i n m i n i m i z i n g the need f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e l y , f o r c l e a r a n c e . Newfoundland's f i r s t completed John's 7 x  in  urban renewal study  was  I 9 6 I when the r e p o r t f o r the C i t y of S t .  by P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s , L t d . , was  published.  The c o n s u l t a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the process  of e l i m i n a t i n g urban d e f i c i e n c i e s should form p a r t of an o v e r a l l renewal and development programme, and urban renewal must be approached i b l e sense.  that  i n the broadest poss-  A twenty year programme was  proposed  as a  57  framework f o r p r o g r e s s i v e  action requiring periodic  r e v i s i o n s , r a t h e r than as a r i g i d s t r i c t adherence. extent  set of r u l e s r e q u i r i n g  By d e s c r i b i n g and  analyzing  of d e f i c i e n c i e s i n each p l a n n i n g  the  district,  designated f o r renewal were graded according  areas  to the  type  of renewal r e q u i r e d . The  r e p o r t of housing c o n d i t i o n s i n the C i t y of  Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, ® prepared by the C i t y ' s p l a n 1  ning and  B u i l d i n g Department, a l s o p u b l i s h e d  revealed  that the c i t y had  one  in  of the h i g h e s t  of housing c o n d i t i o n s i n Canada.  The  1961,  standards  l a c k of  intense  b l i g h t r e s u l t e d i n a renewal programme emphasizing rehabi l i t a t i o n and  conservation.  proposed f o r c l e a r a n c e  and  Indeed, the s m a l l  areas  redevelopment were i n c l u d e d  as p a r t of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. The  urban renewal r e p o r t f o r the C i t y of S a u l t 19  S t e . Marie, O n t a r i o ,  7  by E.G.  P a l u d i and A s s o c i a t e s ,  p a r t of a g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g  study prepared f o r the  city  and  s i m i l a r i n approach to  the  suburban area, and  was  Windsor study prepared by the same c o n s u l t a n t s .  was  The  c o n t i n u i t y of renewal was again emphasized: As l o n g a s the area continues to develop, there w i l l be a need f o r measures to guide such development, T h i s i n v o l v e s a c t i o n to improve or r e b u i l d o b s o l e s c e n t areas to prevent f u r t h e r deterioration.^° The  a n a l y s i s of housing c o n d i t i o n s i n the c i t y r e s u l t e d i n  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n areas of  of f i v e  areas of  'Redevelopment , f i v e 1  'Redevelopment w i t h P a r t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' and  58  one a r e a of ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' , thus b e s i d e s the more u s u a l o v e r l a p between c o n s e r v a t i o n and  rehabilitation,  the i n t e g r a t e d nature of the renewal process was cated i n the combination of redevelopment and  indi-  rehabili-  t a t i o n measures proposed. The C i t y o f V i c t o r i a urban renewal s t u d y ,  2 x  prepared by the C a p i t a l Region P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia, s t a t e d that urban renewal: i n c l u d e s redevelopment i n v o l v i n g d e m o l i t i o n , c l e a r i n g and b u i l d i n g anew, and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , which means improving e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s by means s h o r t of redevelopment. A t h i r d category, conservation; i s a l i m i t e d programme of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n based on good c i v i c and p r i v a t e housekeeping. ^ F i v e types of renewal were d e f i n e d f o r V i c t o r i a : ' P r i o r i t y Redevelopment,' 'Spot Redevelopment' Redevelopment' urgent need and  was  and  'Tentative  Redevelopment,'  'Conservation*.  to be a p p l i e d  i n the areas of most  'Tentative Redevelopment'  f o r areas where i t was development would  'Priority  was  proposed  s t i l l possible that private r e -  take p l a c e .  'Spot Redevelopment'  was  intended to remove s m a l l i s l a n d s o f three or f o u r b l i g h t e d houses surrounded by sound housing, and type o f renewal was  this  I n d i c a t e d as b e i n g e a s i e r to  administer as i t could normally be c a r r i e d out w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g s u b d i v i s i o n p a t t e r n . was  'Rehabilitation'  proposed f o r areas where b l i g h t was  m e r i t redevelopment, and  i n s u f f i c i e n t to  'Conservation' was  recommended  f o r the areas needing- l e a s t a t t e n t i o n , but where a c t i o n  59 was  necessary  to prevent f u r t h e r d e c l i n e .  type of renewal,  The  third  spot redevelopment, i s u s u a l l y  c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s . P r o f e s s o r Stephenson's study of the C i t y  of  Kingston, O n t a r i o * ^ recognized t h a t c l e a r a n c e and  re-  development c o u l d be most d i s r u p t i v e to an o l d , w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d community and t h a t c l e a r a n c e of s m a l l d i s p e r s e d pockets difficulty.  of the worst b l i g h t would avoid  T h i s type of approach i s p o s s i b l e i n  K i n g s t o n where no s u b s t a n t i a l areas e x i s t the houses are i n poor c o n d i t i o n . cated t h a t one of slums was  A g a i n i t was  Indi-  an adequate supply of housing w i t h i n the  o t h e r p r e r e q u i s i t e was  i n g housing stock through standards  i n which a l l  of the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y of the people The  this  requiring  accommodation.  the maintenance of the  exist-  the enforcement of a minimum  code and the development of a neighbourhood  improvement programme. One Canada:  aspect of the K i n g s t o n study  i s unique i n  an area known as Old Sydenham Ward c o n t a i n s  some o f the f i n e s t 19th century r e s i d e n c e s i n the n a t i o n and the study considered  that the c h a r a c t e r of the  should d e f i n i t e l y be conserved. i l i t a t i o n concerned  area  T h i s f a c e t of rehab-  w i t h p r e s e r v i n g areas of  architect-  u r a l m e r i t i s emphasized'In the renewal programmes of P h i l a d e l p h i a , Boston,  and  other c i t i e s where the  h i s t o r i c value of many r e s i d e n t i a l areas makes t h e i r  60  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n most d e s i r a b l e .  The K i n g s t o n  however, appears to c o n t a i n the f i r s t  study,  suggestion f o r  t h i s type of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Canada. The  urban study f o r Corner  Brook,  Newfoundland ^ by P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s L t d . ,  was  2  one  of the most r e c e n t to be p u b l i s h e d , and  l i k e most  other studies. defined  'planning d i s t r i c t s '  and  specified  the type of treatment  f o r each d i s t r i c t .  The  programme  of renewal was involved  and  d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to the type o f work  its priority,  and  this resulted  'Redevelopment-Rehabilitation-Relocation  1  in a  programme being  formulated. The  O b j e c t i v e s of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n As an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the renewal process  the  o b j e c t i v e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have o f t e n been s u b o r d i n ated to the o b j e c t i v e s of renewal i t s e l f , v a l u e to comment on statements  thus  i t i s of  of o b j e c t i v e s contained  in  Canadian urban renewal s t u d i e s . The C i t y of Corner Brook study o b j e c t i v e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  indicated  to c o V o r d i n a t e  t h a t the  the  activ-  i t i e s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners i n an e f f o r t  to remove u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s from a  neighbourhood.  I n a d d i t i o n to an improved p h y s i c a l  environment, w i t h b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and i t was  noted  resulted.  appearances,  that an i n c r e a s e i n property values o f t e n Besides  the p h y s i c a l improvement o f an area,  61  the C i t y of S t . social  John's  improvements  study  indicated  and s u g g e s t e d  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a new a t m o s p h e r e b e i n g was  usually  evidenced  the  t h a t as  of  importance a result  satisfaction  i n the  life  of  the  of  of  and w e l l commun-  ity . The b a s i c subject  to divergent  of whether mately study  objective  it  indicated  future  ment.  that  expensive  However,  In  one o f  the  necessity  s h o r t term p r o b l e m , " ^ the  specific  of  there  of  an area  and  and t h a t  in Victoria,  that  "rehabilito  In  than r e s i d e n t i a l . of views  on the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h i s o p i n i o n suggests  ways t o meet d i f f e r e n t  Planning o f f i c i a l s  a  t h e u l t i m a t e l a n d use  a r e d e g r e s s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , w h i c h may be  in different  from  redevelop-  short-term solution suited  a r e a s h o u l d be o t h e r  of  results  clearance  P e r h a p s more t h a n i n d i c a t i n g d i v e r g e n c e objectives  Brook;:  a r e a s c o u l d be s a v e d  i n a proposal for  a relatively  ulti-  the Corner  the C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board s t a t e d tation is  leading  potential  blighted  often  consideration  an i n t e r i m s t a g e ,  and r e d e v e l o p m e n t ,  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was t h a t the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n is  interpretations.  i s merely  to clearance  of  that  used  circumstances. have  their  own o p i n i o n s o n what r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a n a c c o m p l i s h .  Mp,  D o n a l d Buck,2o  Redevelopment  Brunswick, considered in itself,  if  followed  that  i n several  Officer  cities  i n Saint  John,  New  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u l d be a n end  by a p r o p e r l y  organized  conserva-  62  t i o n programme, i n areas where the s t r e e t p a t t e r n , of land  and  the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and  i e s was  adequate.  b l i g h t e d , then Mr.  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  a 'stop-gap' measure and  facilit-  area was  Buck considered should  not capable of being  be  redevelop-  I n areas where the c l e a r e d  being  re-used w i t h i n an economic p e r i o d of time, Mr.  gap  land was  that  only  ed.  considered  use  However, I f an area did not have these  advantages and was  undertaken i f the  the  incapable  of Buck  that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n could be used as a s t o p -  measure. 27 Mr.  Graham  C i t y Planner and  f o r Saskatoon, a l s o considered  Building Director  t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n could  be used as a p o s i t i v e t o o l f o r d i r e c t improvement or as a s h o r t term stop-gap measure. housing c o n d i t i o n s was that the c i t y had youth o f the c i t y ,  The  apparently  study of Saskatoon's taken on the  assertion  no renewal problem because of  the  a w e l l developed c i v i c p r i d e , a s e l f -  help programme of Improvement and  a r e c o g n i t i o n of  need f o r ' r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n n i n g ' .  I n c i t i e s where these  c o n d i t i o n s were long s i n c e past, Mr.  Graham  the  considered  t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n merely became a p l a c e b o . Mr. and  J . Thomas C. W a r a m , ® Planning 2  Commissioner  D i r e c t o r of Urban Renewal f o r the C i t y of Hamilton,  Ontario,  commented that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  long the l i f e  used to pro-  expectancy of an area because o f  advantages to the spread of b l i g h t .  area i t s e l f and Mr.  War am  the  a l s o to prevent  considered  that  the  large  63  expenditure of p u b l i c funds i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas was not g e n e r a l l y j u s t i f i e d l i f e expectancy  unless the area had a  o f twenty y e a r s :  was c o n s i d e r e d a most c r i t i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n possessed  the time element  aspect.  great m e r i t i n the approp-  r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , Mr. Waram i n d i c a t e d tually  Although  that even-  a l l land would have to be redeveloped.  However, "Paint-up, Clean-up" campaigns should always be  encouraged,  -The o b j e c t i v e s and a p p l i c a t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b v i o u s l y depend on l o c a l circumstances but the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a s h o r t - t e r m problem  i s perhaps  some i n s t a n c e s .  a r a t h e r l i m i t e d viewpoint i n Admittedly r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a  p r e v e n t i v e measure to stem the t i d e o f b l i g h t , but i n doing so, as the Saskatoon  study p o i n t s out:  I t seeks to p r o l o n g the u s e f u l l i f e o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , i n an attempt to avoid the n e c e s s i t y of c o s t l y slum c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment p r o j e c t s i n the. f u t u r e . I t may, through maint a i n i n g and improving' the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a neighbourhood, f a c i l i t a t e i t s u l t i m a t e t r a n s i t i o n to a h i g h e r land use by, f o r example, making i t more a t t r a c t i v e f o r new development, such as apartments or new homes. 29 Thus r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , besides p r o v i d i n g s h o r t term s o l u t i o n s to areas d e s t i n e d f o r u l t i m a t e r e d e v e l opment can a l s o be considered a d e s i r a b l e end i n itself:  an end t h a t preserves the c o n t i n u i t y o f the  urban form,  and ensures the d i v e r s i t y o f o l d and new  i n our r a p i d l y changing  cities.  6k  The  Means of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n From an examination of most of the Canadian  urban renewal s t u d i e s completed to date, the  proposed  means f o r implementing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s have been placed  i n f o u r main c a t e g o r i e s : (i) Legislative Control ( i i ) Municipal  Improvements  ( i i i ) C i t i z e n Education (iv) F i n a n c i a l  Assistance  Many of the s p e c i f i c methods o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n proposed are s i m i l a r i n each study, t h e r e f o r e e r a l l y discussed references  under the  they w i l l be  gen-  above headings w i t h s p e c i f i c  to i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s being made where r e l e v -  ant. Legislative  Control  A m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s major c o n t r o l of the  resid-  e n t i a l environment i s through the enforcement o f  by-  laws r e g u l a t i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of b u i l d i n g s , standards of occupancy, zoning, s a n i t a t i o n , f i r e prevention  and  safety.  health,  Most Canad-  i a n urban renewal s t u d i e s emphasized the p o l i c e power as the major f o r c e i n i n i t i a t i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f substandard d w e l l i n g s . subdivision regulations a  PPly  only to new  However, e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g are not r e t r o - a c t i v e :  they  development or a l t e r a t i o n s to  e x i s t i n g development.  Regulations  demanding that  home-owners i n i t i a t e r e p a i r s to a s p e c i f i e d  standard  and  65 are r a r e , and  i n most instances  u n t i l the property  a c t i o n cannot be  forced  i s i n such an extreme s t a t e of  d e t e r i o r a t i o n that i t cannot be r e p a i r e d .  There  are,  however, an i n c r e a s i n g number of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h 'nuisance by-laws' and p r o p e r t i e s be cleaned  other up.  l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g that I n some cases of non-com-  p l i a n c e t h i s work i s done by the municipality and to the property  charged  owner.  I n examining the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x i s t i n g codes and  by-^sws r e l a t e d to housing, the Saskatoon study  s t r e s s e d t h a t these p r e v e n t a t i v e have proven d i f f i c u l t  to  and p r o t e c t i v e measures  enforce:  I n the r e s u l t a n t l e g a l a c t i o n s , sympathies f r e q u e n t l y l i e w i t h the defendant, who might experience r e a l h a r d s h i p i n complying w i t h p a r t i c u l a r by-laws. In many i n s t a n c e s , when p e r s u a s i o n and t h r e a t s o f prose c u t i o n have f a i l e d to achieve the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , the matter has been dropped, o f t e n because of doubts whether a p r o s e c u t i o n would be s u c c e s s f u l . 3 ° The  Saskatoon study a l s o i n d i c a t e d the l i m i t a t i o n s o f  e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t o r y devices P r o v i n c i a l enabling  and c i t e d  the g e n e r a l  l e g i s l a t i o n permitting  l a c k of  a municipality  to pass by-laws s e t t i n g minimum standards o f occupancy and maintenance.  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of housing  legis-  l a t i o n i s o f t e n i n h i b i t e d because amendments occur l e s s frequently  than changes i n the consumer demand f o r h o u s i n g .  I n May  1961  A f f a i r s published  the Ontario  Department of  Municipal  the second i n t e r i m r e p o r t of A  Better  31 Place  to L i v e  occupancy.  i n i t s study of minimum standards T h i s r e p o r t summarized a nation-wide  and field  66  study of e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t e d to the r e g u l a t i o n of  e x i s t i n g housing.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the study  i n every c i t y v i s i t e d , t h a t progress  found,  in,regulating  e x i s t i n g housing c o n d i t i o n s depended l e s s on the d e t a i l s of  the a c t u a l c o n t r o l s and l e g i s l a t i o n and more on  the c o n t r o l s were administered by the l o c a l S e c t i o n 8?8  of the B r i t i s h Columbia  how  officials.  Municipal Act, f o r  example, enables the m u n i c i p a l i t y to pass by-laws r e q u i r i n g the r e n o v a t i o n or d e m o l i t i o n of b u i l d i n g s . T h i s power, however, has r a r e l y been used Vancouver or V i c t o r i a .  Conversely, although  toon does not have comparative l o c a l medical o f f i c e r s  i n either Saska-  enabling l e g i s l a t i o n ,  i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h other muni-  c i p a l departments have been a b l e , through m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , to d e c l a r e c e r t a i n substandard houses to be •nuisances' and thus order t h e i r d e m o l i t i o n .  The  most e n l i g h t e n e d l e g i s l a t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y u s e l e s s unless there i s a p o s i t i v e p o l i c y of enforcement p e n a l i z a t i o n of i n f r a c t i o n s .  and  However, enforcement  of  r e g u l a t i o n s i s i n t u r n i m p r a c t i c a l unless adequate a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation i s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the f i n a n c i a l means of d i s p o s s e s s e d f a m i l i e s . I t was  concluded  governing s p e c i f i c plumbing,  that Canadian  legislation  areas of c o n c e r n such as h e a l t h ,  e l e c t r i c a l and f i r e hazards, g e n e r a l l y  i n c l u d e d c l e a r l y d e f i n e d standards e n a b l i n g r e l a t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s to bei made.  However, i n provinces  67  other  than O n t a r i o ,  concerning general,  i t was  considered  that  the maintenance of d w e l l i n g s  legislation  was  employing such s u b j e c t i v e terms as  very 'offensive  to the  p u b l i c ' , ' c l e a n l i n e s s ' , ' t i d i n e s s ' , and 'appear±  ance'.  Where a method of e n f o r c i n g standards e x i s t e d  a l l i t was  found to be u s u a l l y i n the form of  g a t i n g s p e c i f i c ' c o m p l a i n t s ' , and  investi-  the shortage of  s t a f f made even t h i s a r a t h e r inadequate method. main o b s t a c l e s  to the more e f f e c t i v e use  The  of these meas-  ures were found to be d u p l i c a t e d f u n c t i o n s ^ and  over-  l a p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s which u n f o r t u n a t e l y  often resulted  i n c o n f l i c t i n g enforcement p o l i c i e s and  the presence of  'loopholes'  at  i n vague l e g i s l a t i o n too o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n  the discouragement of i n t e r e s t e d  officials.  T h i s examination of the Canadian scene l a r g e l y supported the evidence of the Brooks who  study by S i e g e l  and  conducted a s i m i l a r study of United  States'  l e g i s l a t i o n as p a r t of t h e i r r e s e a r c h f o r the 1 9 5 3 P r e s i d e n t i a l Advisory P o l i c i e s and  Committee on Government Housing  Programs.  T h i s study a l s o i n d i c a t e d  that  minimum standards codes were r e l a t i v e l y uncommon and that p r o v i s i o n s f o r d w e l l i n g maintenance were u s u a l l y s c a t t e r e d through s e v e r a l codes. difficulties i t was  of enforcement of r e g u l a t i o n s , and  contradicted  one  f u r t h e r suggested that p r e s c r i b e d  too low  the again  found that b u i l d i n g , housing, and h e a l t h codes  o f t e n overlapped and was  T h i s added to  to provide  another.  It  standards were  s a t i s f a c t o r y dwellings.  Siegel  and  68  Brooks a l s o found that no e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of occupancy e x i s t e d  to remedy overcrowding, the primary  cause o f slums. Every Canadian Province has l e g i s l a t i o n ing  relat-  to minimum standards f o r e x i s t i n g d w e l l i n g s , but  t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to h e a l t h and other p a r t i c u l a r performance s t a n d a r d s , and does not permit a comprehensive  approach to the development  occupancy s t a n d a r d s .  However, the P r o v i n c e s o f Nova  S c o t i a and New  Brunswick have passed e n a b l i n g  of  legis-  l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c a l l y permit m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to adopt housing by-laws. The Nova S c o t i a Town's I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act enabled the m u n i c i p a l i t y to p r e s c r i b e a range of m i n i mum  standards of s a n i t a t i o n , plumbing,, water supply,  l i g h t i n g w i r i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n , h e a t i n g , a c c e s s , appearance and c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d  also  r e g u l a t e the number of persons l i v i n g i n a b u i l d i n g s but  the o n l y enforcement p r o v i s i o n i n the A c t was  i m p o s i t i o n o f 'a p e n a l t y . ' the  the  The Town o f Yarmouth and  C i t y of H a l i f a x both passed by-laws under  this  l e g i s l a t i o n , but both by-laws were inadequate to i n i t i a t e any t a n g i b l e improvement i n the housing s t o c k . The H a l i f a x Ordinance 5 0 , a c c o r d i n g to P r o f e s s o r Stephenson, s e t standards which were i n i t i a l l y and f a i l e d  too low,  t o f u l l y u t i l i z e the power of the e n a b l i n g  legislation.  The Yarmouth by-law f a i l e d t o r e g u l a t e  69  occupancy and d i d not permit b u i l d i n g s to be entered for  i n s p e c t i o n purposes. The New  1935  was  Brunswick Housing Commission A c t of  a most ambitious  attempt  to develop a c o - o r d -  inated programme of urban renewal under a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but i r o n i c a l l y was u n s u c c e s s f u l because i t was  too ambitious  menting procedure  and r e q u i r e d s t r o n g imple  t o g e t h e r w i t h e x t e n s i v e expenditure  of m u n i c i p a l f u n d s .  Significantly,  i t a l s o demanded  that the community be s u b j e c t to a continuous gramme o f long-range p l a n n i n g .  Under t h e  pro-  Housing  Commission Act the P r o v i n c e , at m u n i c i p a l r e q u e s t , could s e t up a housing code and e n f o r c e i t s standards. The Commission c o u l d r e q u i r e d w e l l i n g s to be  repaired  to p r e s c r i b e d standards, or c o u l d o r d e r t h e i r demolition i f they were beyond r e p a i r or i f the owner r e f used to c a r r y out t h e s p e c i f l e d r e p a i r s . S a i n t John e s t a b l i s h e d  a Housing Commission I n  but a code of standards was  not adopted  The Minimum Housing Standards year i s now  The C i t y of 1936,  u n t i l I96I.  by-law enacted  i n that  b e i n g implemented under the Housing Com-  mission Act. The most e x t e n s i v e c o n t r o l of minimum standards y e t achieved i n Canada has been i n Winnipeg under the P u b l i c H e a l t h Act of the Province o f Manitoba which s e t province-wide  standards of s a n i -  t a r y and h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s f o r a l l r ented d w e l l i n g s .  70 These r e g u l a t i o n s  s p e c i f i e d that defective w a l l s , f l o o r s  and c e i l i n g s be r e p a i r e d , and s e t f u r t h e r standards of l i g h t i n g , heating,  c o n s t r u c t i o n and s l e e p i n g  I n a d d i t i o n , the C i t y of Winnipeg C h a r t e r  and the Metro-  p o l i t a n Winnipeg A c t s e t f u r t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s maintenance  and occupancy.  Regulations,  conditions.  governing  however, are  only as e f f e c t i v e as t h e i r enforcement, and Winnipeg has been a c t i v e i n i n i t i a t i n g a systematic i n s p e c t i o n programme, being  housing  the only c i t y  i n Canada  with f u l l - t i m e health inspectors devoting  a l l their  energies  e x c l u s i v e l y to h o u s i n g .  I n June 1962 c o n s o l i -  d a t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s began, to improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e ness and  clarity. Winnipeg o f f i c i a l s considered  i t undesirable  have one p r o f e s s i o n s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e Inspection,  the programme being  f o r housing  c a r r i e d out p r i m a r i l y  by the h e a l t h i n s p e c t o r s , w i t h s p e c i f i c made to e l e c t r i c a l , b u i l d i n g and f i r e c e r t a i n instances.  to  referrals  being  inspectors i n  The h e a l t h i n s p e c t o r s have  been  s a i d to devote as much of t h e i r time t o f i n d i n g hazards to s a f e t y as to f i n d i n g hazards to h e a l t h . e r a t i o n between departments was recognized  The co-opas  being  important i n m i n i m i z i n g d u p l i c a t i o n or o v e r l a p p i n g  of  codes and t h e i r enforcement. I n Ontario  the c i t i e s o f Toronto, Ottawa and  Windsor have adopted minimum standards by-laws by a u t h o r i t y of s p e c i a l enactments of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s -  1 71  l a t ure•  The C i t y o f Toronto Housing Standards By—law  was enacted i n 1936 to prevent the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f the worst housing c o n d i t i o n s , and gave the b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r power to enter dwellings degree o f conformity  to determine the  to p r e s c r i b e d standards o f occup-  ancy and maintenance.  Repairs  c o u l d be ordered o r  dwellings c o u l d be demolished i f beyond r e p a i r .  The  Housing Standards by-law was more e f f e c t i v e than h e a l t h , b u i l d i n g or f i r e  r e g u l a t i o n s alone f o r i t s t r u c k at the  root of b l i g h t :  overcrowding and poor maintenance.  However, the only enforcement of t h i s by-law f o l l o w e d the r e c e i p t o f w r i t t e n 'complaints'  and the p r e s c r i b e d  standards were only a p p l i e d when d e t e r i o r a t i o n was w e l l advanced.  One c o m p l i c a t i o n , p r i o r t o a i960 amend-  ment, was that the by-law r e l a t e d only to occupied dwelling units:  many condemned b u i l d i n g s were l e f t  d e r e l i c t , u n t i l the amendment d e f i n e d  'dwelling u n i t '  as a b u i l d i n g which at any time had been used as a d w e l l i n g , was being used or w as capable of being as a d w e l l i n g .  used  Since 1955 a more p o s i t i v e programme  of enforcement has been i n i t i a t e d .  A survey o f  housing c o n d i t i o n s i n the worst area o f b l i g h t i n Toronto was f o l l o w e d ing  i n 1958 by a p l a n to i n s p e c t hous-  c o n d i t i o n s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y throughout the e n t i r e  c i t y , beginning  with s p e c i f i c p r i o r i t y  areas.  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the new i n s p e c t i o n programme may be judged by r e s u l t s :  out of 2,575 inspected  dwellings  72 i n the  ' f i r s t p r i o r i t y ' area, 1,321+. r e q u i r e d r e h a b i l i -  t a t i o n work and 55%  of these were r e p a i r e d w i t h i n seven  months of the i n i t i a l The laws passed  order.  Ottawa and Windsor minimum standards  i n 1952  and  1958  r e s p e c t i v e l y , were  w i t h the same general aspects as Toronto's range of standards  affecting f a c i l i t i e s  and  by-  concerned  by-law.  The  equipment i n  these by-laws i n c l u d e d l i g h t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n , garbage d i s p o s a l , water supply, s t o r a g e , heating,sewage d i s p o s a l , s i n k s , water c l o s e t s , egress  and storage of f o o d .  Maintenance c o n t r o l s r e l a t e d  to g e n e r a l s a n i t a r y con-  d i t i o n s , s a n i t a t i o n equipment, chimneys and f l u e s , e n t i o n of f i r e  hazards,  prev-  rodent c o n t r o l , i n t e r n a l and  external, w a l l s t r u c t u r e and r e p a i r , together w i t h r e p a i r of  f l o o r s , c e i l i n g s and f o u n d a t i o n s .  Occupancy  stand-  ards r e l a t e d to the area of space f o r s l e e p i n g , cooking of  food i n s l e e p i n g rooms ahd basement h a b i t a t i o n . The M u n i c i p a l Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia  enables  a m u n i c i p a l i t y to d e c l a r e any b u i l d i n g a nuisance,  and  thus f o r c e i t s r e p a i r or d e m o l i t i o n , but there i s no d e f i n i t i o n of what a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s a and  the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s not d i r e c t l y  a b l i s h a maintenance code.  'nuisance'  a u t h o r i z e d to e s t -  Indeed, the m u n i c i p a l  c o u n c i l must b r i n g a c t i o n a g a i n s t each case s e p a r a t e l y . Under S e c t . 712  of the M u n i c i p a l Act when a b u i l d i n g  been condemned under t he H e a l t h , F i r e  Prevention,  B u i l d i n g or other r e l e v e n t by-law, a separate by-law  has  73  must be passed  to a u t h o r i z e d e m o l i t i o n .  I n s p e c t i o n of  d w e l l i n g s under these by-laws a g a i n follox^s the r e c e p t i o n of c o m p l a i n t s .  Under t he powers of i t s c h a r t e r  the C i t y of Vancouver has  the a u t h o r i t y to e s t a b l i s h  minimum standards of f i t n e s s f o r h a b i t a t i o n . no comprehensive standard has been adopted, of minimum standards  regulation  through  the  p r o v i s i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l A c t , the H e a l t h A c t ,  and  specific  i s presentyachieved  Although  by-la.ws r e l a t i n g to h e a l t h , e l e c t r i c a l plumb-  i n g , b u i l d i n g and  other r e g u l a t i o n s .  The code 'enforcement* concept,  i n the mind  o f Mr. Barnet Lieberman,-^ Commissioner of L i c e n c e s  and  I n s p e c t i o n s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , should r e a l l y be termed a code ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' concept. be one o f apprehending  The  accent should  not  law b r e a k e r s , but one of p r o v i d -  i n g a s e r v i c e to owners and t h e i r h e a l t h and s a f e t y —  tenants t h a t p r o t e c t s both and  t h e i r investment.  code agency must, however, be e f f e c t i v e l y  The  'armed* to  implement r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures should the owner r e f u s e t o comply w i t h the p r e s c r i b e d standards: having c i t y funds  at i t s d i s p o s a l , the agency  w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g the programme may q u i r e d work and recoup  conducted  charged  i n i t i a t e the r e -  i t s expenditure  i n g the r e n t f o r the property or f i l i n g Lieberman suggested  through  'voluntary  would r a p i d l y become more ' v o l u n t a r y ' .  collect-  a lien.  that i f t h i s type of a c t i o n  f o r about a y e a r ,  by  Mr. was  compliance'  7k  The  general o p i n i o n on the treatment  of code  o f f e n c e s i s t h a t the c o u r t s are u s u a l l y not s t r i c t enough w i t h repeated v i o l a t o r s .  F i n e s are q u i t e use>  l e s s , o f t e n being so s m a l l t h a t i t i s cheaper f o r the o f f e n d e r t o pay the f i n e than to c a r r y out the necesA D e t r o i t s t u d y 3 3 commented that when  sary r e p a i r s . delaying t a c t i c s  and appeals were employed, a f i n e  became nothing more than a l i c e n c e to operate an illegal fully  use.  used  B e s i d e s , the f i n e could be more use-  towards paying the c o s t of the r e q u i r e d  improvements.  V i o l a t i o n s must, o f course, be t r e a t -  ed a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . absentee  An  l a n d l o r d u n w i l l i n g to improve the l o t o f h i s  tenants should be t r e a t e d s t e r n l y , but an owner-occupant s t r u g g l i n g to make both ends meet and t r y i n g to keep h i s home, i n good r e p a i r , should be g i v e n a s s i s t ance r a t h e r t han a p e n a l t y . Only two Canadian urban renewal gested e s t a b l i s h i n g a 'Housing code v i o l a t i o n s .  s t u d i e s sug-  Court' t o deal w i t h  T h i s i s a p r a c t i c e t h a t has proved  s u c c e s s f u l i n s e v e r a l United S t a t e s ' c i t i e s ,  and  Toronto has e s t a b l i s h e d a c o u r t of t h i s t y p e . S a i n t John study proposed established  that a s p e c i a l c o u r t be  to process a l l l e g a l cases  the v i o l a t i o n of zoning, b u i l d i n g , f i r e codes, and  The  arising  from  and h e a l t h  and cases o f non-compliance w i t h the orders  standards of the renewal  programme.  I t was  75 suggested t h a t these  problems were inadequately  treated  i n o r d i n a r y c o u r t s where they were o f t e n considered important.  I f a s p e c i a l c o u r t was  permanent judge could be appointed  un-  established, a who  c o u l d become fam-  i l i a r w i t h the i n t e n t and purposes o f code enforcement. The  S t . John's study  suggested that the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of codes could be r e s o l v e d by such a c o u r t , and a l s o a s s i s t persons unable to a f f o r d  i t could  the r e q u i r e d  improve-  ments . Baltimore y e a r s , formerly  has had  a housing  as a s p e c i a l c o u r t o p e r a t i n g at the  of the Governor, but s i n c e 1961 the m u n i c i p a l  court f o r s e v e r a l  c o u r t system.  as a permanent court i n  Mr. Edgar M. Ewing,-^" the  A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r f o r Renewal Operations more Urban Renewal and a housing  w i t h the  Housing Agency, has  c o u r t i s e s s e n t i a l to the f u l l  is  enforcement and  Balti-  indicated that  r e a l i z a t i o n of  a neighbourhood r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. f a c i l i t a t e s uniform  will  Such a c o u r t  the permanent judge  able to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the maze o f  complexities  involved. One  of Baltimore's  Robert F. Sweeney, f e l t  r e c e n t Judges, the Honorable  that too many people were b e i n g  brought to the Housing Gourt, f i n e d  and d i s c h a r g e d  with  no more a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e i t h e r as l a n d l o r d s o r tenants,  than they had  i n g l y a 'Housing C l i n i c ' was  organized  before.  Accord-  by the Urban  Renewal Agency i n the form of a two months- one-night-a-  76  week t r a i n i n g c o u r s e .  Persons found g u i l t y by the  Housing  Court were g i v e n the a l t e r n a t i v e o f paying a f i n e or o f h a v i n g t h e i r cases d e c l a r e d ' p r o b a t i o n b e f o r e v e r d i c t ' i f they would attend the Housing C l i n i c . have proved  These  clinics  an undoubted success i n h e l p i n g persons  r e c o g n i z e and accept the n e c e s s i t y of good  to  housekeeping  h a b i t s , and i n some i n s t a n c e s the r e s u l t a n t  improvements  have been 'phenomenal'. A p u r e l y l e g a l approach dards has not proved rehabilitation: more e f f e c t i v e .  to e n f o r c i n g minimum s t a n -  an e f f e c t i v e means of accomplishing  p e r s u a s i o n and e d u c a t i o n are  usually  Some owners f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons, must  s t r e t c h the r e q u i r e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n work over an  extended  35  p e r i o d and Mr. P.E. Wellwood, ^ Commissioner of B u i l d i n g s and Development i n Toronto, b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s b e t t e r to achieve eventual compliance  than to b r i n g c o u r t a c t i o n  which only adds to the owner's problems.  However, i n cases  where owners are u n w i l l i n g t o make t h e r e q u i r e d r e p a i r s , the e n f o r c i n g a u t h o r i t y should do e v e r y t h i n g i n i t s power to  achieve compliance  compliance  through c o u r t a c t i o n .  I n many c a s e s ,  with the p r e s c r i b e d standards would p l a c e the  owner i n severe f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  and i n t h i s  situa-  t i o n the m u n i c i p a l i t y has s e v e r a l courses of a c t i o n which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . I n making s p e c i f i c housing occupancy  and  toon study c l a s s e d these  p r o p o s a l s . f o r the use of maintenance standards, and  the zoning  the  by-law as  Saska'Con-  77 s e r v a t i o n Measures.  1  ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Measures' i n t h i s  r e p o r t took the form of more p o s i t i v e a c t i o n s  including  improvements o f s t r e e t s and s e r v i c e s and c l e a r a n c e worst pockets o f b l i g h t e d h o u s i n g . related  o f the  T h i s presumably-  to the s p e c i a l nature of the urban renewal p r o -  gramme f o r Saskatoon, housing c o n d i t i o n s clearance  being such that  and redevelopment were as y e t unnecessary.  However, code enforcement i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as being p a r t of the rehab i l i t at io n process and i s so regarded i n t h i s examination. The codes;  Saskatoon study proposed the c r e a t i o n of two  a Housing Code t o r e g u l a t e maintenance and con-  s t r u c t i o n throughout the c i t y ,  and an Occupancy Code to  r e g u l a t e c o n d i t i o n s o f occupancy i n rented The  dwellings.  p r o v i s i o n s of e x i s t i n g codes r e l a t i n g t o housing  standards and maintenance were not considered thus i t was proposed to c o n s o l i d a t e  sufficient,  the r e l e v a n t  sections  of b u i l d i n g , f i r e , h e a l t h and other by-laws i n t o one Housing Code to enable u n i f i e d coverage f o r a l l p a r t s of the c i t y .  These r e g u l a t i o n s would also, be expanded to  r e l a t e to the maintenance of the s i t e as w e l l a s the b u i l d i n g , and the complete code would have the f u n c t i o n of p r e v e n t i n g blight.  the development and f u r t h e r spread o f  I n a d d i t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n s already  ence, i t was suggested that the c o n s o l i d a t e d r e q u i r e that a l l e x t e r i o r wood s u r f a c e s , fences,  i n exist-  code  including  be p r o t e c t i v e l y t r e a t e d w i t h p a i n t o r other ap-  proved p r e s e r v a t i v e , and that a l l the s t r u c t u r a l  78 elements of d w e l l i n g s equately weeds was  and  maintained.  a n c i l l a r y b u i l d i n g s be  The  accumulation of junk  to be prevented, and  the s t r e e t , s t a i r s the p r e s c r i b e d  and  and  walks from d w e l l i n g  to  porches were a l l to be kept i n  s t a t e of r e p a i r .  of every s t r u c t u r e was  ad-  F i n a l l y , the e x t e r i o r  to be maintained to prevent a  s u b s t a n t i a l d e p r e c i a t i o n i n property  values  i n the  im-  proposed Occupancy Code f o r Saskatoon  was  mediate neighbourhood. The to be  applied  to e x i s t i n g as w e l l as new  and would thus cover c o n d i t i o n s existing  construction  not c o n t r o l l e d under the  regulations.  The Code would be designed to p r o h i b i t occupancy of rented accommodation of a l l types which would endanger the h e a l t h and w e l f a r e of the occupants and would cover such t h i n g s as minimum space c o n d i t i o n s per occupant, s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s and l i g h t i n g and would complement e x i s t i n g h e a l t h and f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s . 36 The  Occupancy Code would draw the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s  e x i s t i n g ordinances together ordinated  and  realistic  such a code was  i n an attempt to achieve  action.  recognized  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of one  The  formulation  as n e c e s s a r i l y being civic  department.  and  other o f f i c i a l s  ious model codes and d i t i o n s i n Saskatoon. the  be c r e a t e d  I t was  bility  of one  department which should  be the  was  var-  to con-  f u r t h e r recognized  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the code should  of  fire,  to study  to asses t h e i r relevance  co-  beyond  It  suggested that a committee of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , planning  of  that  responsi-  co-ordinate  its  79 a c t i o n w i t h that of o t h e r departments. The Housing Code suggested f o r the C i t y o f S t . John's i n c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n s of both o f the proposed Saskatoon codes, and there seems l i t t l e  r e a s o n why  occ-  upancy and maintenance of d w e l l i n g s should not be controlled  through a s i n g l e code.  The s t u d i e s of the Com-  munity P l a n n i n g Branch of the Ontario Department M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , ^ which were r e f e r r e d  of  to i n the Saska-  t o o n study as being a v a l u a b l e a i d i n f o r m u l a t i n g code, have r e s u l t e d  a  i n the f i n a l r e p o r t of A B e t t e r  37 Place to L i v e  i n which a model maintenance and occup-  ancy code has been p r e p a r e d .  The model by-law drew i t s  standards of e x t e r i o r maintenance, g e n e r a l f i t n e s s  and  occupancy l a r g e l y from the housing codes of Toronto, Ottawa, Windsor and New York S t a t e , and was w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t i o n .  conceived However, the  range of c o n t r o l suggested f o r r e s i d e n t i a l property has general a p p l i c a b i l i t y  across  Canada.  The model by-law i s introduced by s t a t i n g the g e n e r a l duty of the owner o r o c c u p i e r of a d w e l l i n g to r e p a i r and m a i n t a i n the p r o p e r t y i n accordance w i t h the prescribed standards.  P a r t I of the by-law concerns  'Maintenance of Yards and Accessory S t r u c t u r e s ' : must be kept c l e a n and f r e e from r u b b i s h ; be discharged  i n t o the sewage system;  be drained from y a r d s ;  yards  sewage must  storm water must  s t e p s , walks, and driveways must  be maintained to a f f o r d safe passage;  noxious weeds must  80 be  eliminated;  accessory  b u i l d i n g s and  fences must  be  kept i n good r e p a i r , or demolished i f beyond r e p a i r ; garbage, r u b b i s h arti ashes must be promptly s t o r e d removed.  Part I I of the by-law r e l a t e d to  of Dwellings and  Dwelling  f o r pest c o n t r o l ;  Units':  and  'Maintenance  regulations  the s t r u c t u r a l standard  and  of  are made dwellings;  the maintenance of f o u n d a t i o n w a l l s , e x t e r i o r w a l l s , r o o f s , windows, and s t a i r s , walls and  and  e x t e r i o r doors, i n s i d e and  c e i l i n g s , f l o o r s chimneys, f i r e p l a c e s  general c l e a n l i n e s s .  Part I I I governs  of F i t n e s s f o r Occupancy' and  r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the h e a t i n g e l e c t r i c a l services.  described  and  of d w e l l i n g s  facilities, and  required storage  d a y l i g h t i n g standards  occupancy s t a n d a r d s .  i n d i c a t e s that the  are  Part IV of the  stipulated regulations  a l l the r e s i d e n t i a l property  apply  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y  then t h e  higher  standard's w i l l p r e v a i l .  the model Occupancy and  byto  and  where standards c o n f l i c t w i t h p r o v i s i o n s o f another law  of  the s e c t i o n concludes w i t h v e n t i l a t i o n r e -  quirements and law  toilet  Requirements f o r the  are s t a t e d , egress and  'Standards  i n d i c a t e s plumbing r e -  quirements, necessary bathroom and  food  outside  by-  Finally,  Maintenance Standards By-law  i n d i c a t e s penalties f o r i n f r a c t i o n of the s t a t e d p r o v i sions . The by  c h i e f reason f o r the tour of Canadian c i t i e s  the Ontario  Department o f M u n i c i p a l  team on minimum standards was  Affairs  to gauge the  research  possible  81  i m p l i c a t i o n s of p r o p o s i n g a n a t i o n a l code to r e g u l a t e the maintenance and occupancy of e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g .  However,  i n view of the wide range of housing c o n d i t i o n s and  types  across Canada i t was  a  found  i m p r a c t i c a b l e to suggest  s i n g l e d e t a i l e d by-law that c o u l d be u n i v e r s a l l y The  applied.  d i f f e r e n c e i n n a t u r a l , s o c i a l and economic e n v i r o n -  ments throughout t h e n a t i o n c o u l d r e s u l t i n housing i n one a r e a being c l a s s e d another a r e a .  1  as 'inadequate' i n  Thus, to be e f f e c t i v e  h a b i l i t a t i o n , standards must conform The  'adequate  i n initiating reto l o c a l  conditions.  above f i n d i n g s a g a i n r e f l e c t the c o n c l u s i o n s  of S i e g e l and Brooks who  c o n s i d e r e d that housing codes  must be t a i l o r e d to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and  that a commun-  i t y must not simply copy a model by-law that has been s u c c e s s f u l elsewhere.  The code must a l s o be economic-  a l l y and s o c i a l l y r e a l i s t i c :  the p r e s c r i b e d standards  must c e r t a i n l y be s u f f i c i e n t to ensure decent  housing  c o n d i t i o n s , but should not be so h i g h t h a t they be reasonably e n f o r c e d .  cannot  This l a t t e r f a i l i n g was  indi-  cated by the O n t a r i o study on minimum standards i n Canada, and  P r o f e s s o r Stephenson's 1956  as stated e a r l i e r , i n d i c a t e d t h a t c i t y were too low. who  was  study of H a l i f a x ,  t h a t e x i s t i n g standards i n  However, Mr. S t a n l e y H . P i c k e t t ,  at t h a t time Urban Redevelopment O f f i c e r of the  Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, s t a t e d  in  I n H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , a new maintenance of b u i l d i n g s ordinance has had to be worded to a very  1958:  82  l o w s t a n d a r d by c o n t e m p o r a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e may be a r e a s o n a b l e c h a n c e o f b r i n g i n g b u i l d i n g s up t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t areas of that c i t y . 3 ° However, i n b a s i c a l l y  sound'areas  the f i r s t  b l i g h t s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d by i m p o s i n g more  signs of stringent  standards t o prevent the spread of d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  In  e v o l v i n g minimum s t a n d a r d s i t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d  that  requirements  based  on d e s i r a b i l i t y  rather than  may be i m p o s s i b l e t o e n f o r c e i n t h e v e r y a r e a s  necessity that  m o s t need s u c h s t a n d a r d s . S i e g e l and B r o o k s  concluded  their  study o f  minimum s t a n d a r d s r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h a comment t h a t i s equally  applicable  to the Canadian  scene:  S t r i c t enforcement i n i t s e l f cannot fundamentally c h a n g e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and o f c o u r s e enforcement based on the c o m p l a i n t I n s p e c t ion o f i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s i s of l i t t l e importance i n a d e t e r i o r a t e d c o m m u n i t y , a l t h o u g h i t may temporarily r e l i e v e the p l i g h t of i t s occupants. To be e f f e c t i v e h o u s i n g c o d e e n f o r c e m e n t s h o u l d be o n a n a r e a w i d e b a s i s , and above a l l s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as o n l y one e l e m e n t i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a t t a c k on b l i g h t . 3 9 Besides the enforcement of  occupancy  and m a i n t e n a n c e ,  c o n t r o l b l i g h t by e f f e c t i v e by-law.  o f minimum  standards  t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y may  also  implementation o f the z o n i n g  Zoning i s the public c o n t r o l of p r i v a t e  develop-  ment t h r o u g h r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e use o f l a n d , t h e h e i g h t and b u l k o f s t r u c t u r e s e r e c t e d , and t h e a r e a o f t h e s i t e built ered  upon.  A w e l l c o n c e i v e d and e f f e c t i v e l y  z o n i n g by-law  should p r o t e c t r e s i d e n t i a l  administ-  areas  from  83  the i n t r u s i o n of u n d e s i r a b l e n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l uses and should prevent the development  of c o n f l i c t i n g mixed  uses  that i n many cases i n i t i a t e the downward trend of r e s i d e n t i a l areas. difficult  Neighbourhoods  of mixed  uses prove  to m a i n t a i n and where i n d u s t r i a l and commerc-  i a l uses c o n f l i c t w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l development  the  attendant i n c r e a s e s i n t r a f f i c , n o i s e , and other f a c t o r s , o f t e n leads to a decrease i n r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y  values.  Zoning should be the main means of c a r r y i n g out a comprehensive c i t y p l a n as "the r a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of land  use  which i t i s intended to p r o t e c t does not grow up unaided• Zoning i s p r i m a r i l y  a means o f p r e s e r v i n g the  d e s i r a b l e elements i n the urban environment and of c r e a t i n g these elements where they do not e x i s t .  How-  ever the areas wheire r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures are most u r g e n t l y needed u s u a l l y developed b e f o r e any form of zoning was  imposed,  and thus the zoning by-lav; has done  l i t t l e more t h a n ' f r e e z e ' the e x i s t i n g land use p a t t e r n i n these a r e a s .  The e x i s t e n c e of non-conforming uses  i s thus i n e v i t a b l e ,  and the past f a i l u r e of zoning to  d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h i s problem has been one of the weaknesses c o n t r i b u t i n g to neighbourhood d e c l i n e . e x i s t e n c e of non-conforming uses may l e g a l or l o g i c a l  a l s o become a  j u s t i f i c a t i o n to, grant f u r t h e r except-  ions to the by-law of b l i g h t .  The  and thus i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  81+  The problem of non-conforming uses i s sometimes a l t e r e d but not removed by r e - z o n i n g an a r e a designated f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Re-zoning may  conforming uses to c o n t i n u e , and I t may ones.  create  permit nonadditional  Some of these, however, have no p l a c e i n the  r e s i d e n t i a l environment and pose a problem to the c i t y . Should the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n p r o v i d e f o r the purchase and c o n v e r s i o n or d e m o l i t i o n of such uses, should i t e s t a b l i s h s t r i c t c o n t r o l s and allow them to remain, or should i t allow them to e x i s t f o r a s p e c i f i e d a f t e r which the use must be t e r m i n a t e d .  Baltimore's  approach to t h i s problem i s "to r e q u i r e each ing  period  non-conform-  use to execute a covenant running w i t h the land  r e s t r i c t i n g the s p e c i f i e d use, governing i t s maintenance, and c o n t r o l l i n g i t s s i z e . " 4 1  I f the owner f a i l s  to enter  i n t o such a covenant w i t h i n a y e a r o f the r e q u e s t , the c i t y may  condemn and a c q u i r e the p r o p e r t y . The concept of zoning d i c t a t e s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y  non-conforming uses be e l i m i n a t e d , thus while such uses may  be r e p a i r e d  they cannot be extended or r e b u i l t  case of e x t e n s i v e d e s t r u c t i o n .  i n the  I n g i v i n g C o u n c i l the  power to e s t a b l i s h zoning r e g u l a t i o n s the Vancouver Charter  stipulates:  A l a w f u l use of premises e x i s t i n g at the time of coming i n t o f o r c e of a zoning by-law, although such use i s not i n accordance w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s of the by-la.w, may be c o n t i n u e d ; but, i f such nonconforming use i s d i s c o n t i n u e d f o r a p e r i o d of ninety days, any f u t u r e use* of those premises s h a l l , be i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s of the by-law  85 Furthermore, i f a non-conforming b u i l d i n g Is damaged to s i x t y per cent or more o f i t s value the C h a r t e r states t h a t i t may  not be r e p a i r e d .  are s u b j e c t to appeal  These r e g u l a t i o n s , however,  to the T e c h n i c a l Planning Board  or  the Zoning Board of Appeal, depending on whether the nonconformity  i s i n r e s p e c t of use  concept of d i s c o n t i n u a n c e be construed a s  or r e g u l a t i o n s .  The  of a non-conforming use  cannot  being c o n t r a r y to the p r i n c i p l e of pro-  h i b i t i n g the r e t r o a c t i v e e f f e c t of zoning, whereas the concept of  • a m o r t i z a t i o n ' or t e r m i n a t i o n of the  conforming use principle.  non-  a f t e r a c e r t a i n date i s c o n t r a r y to  Advocates of the a m o r t i z a t i o n  b e l i e v e that i f s p e c i f i c  this  technique  uses of land can be p r o h i b i t e d  i n the f u t u r e under zoning r e g u l a t i o n s , t h e n the same r e g u l a t i o n s may  be used to e l i m i n a t e the same uses  currently existing.  T h i s n o t i o n has  g e n e r a l l y been  i n v a l i d a t e d i n courts of law on the grounds t h a t the advantages to the p u b l i c a c c r u i n g from zoning c o n t r o l do not outweigh the damage t o t h e individual. r e v e r s e has was  been proven and  the  i n the United  States  i n their zoning by-laws, where-  by non-conforming uses may considered  the a m o r t i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e  Several c i t i e s  have a m o r t i z a t i o n c l a u s e s  t u r e has  r i g h t s of  However, there have been cases where the  declared v a l i d .  reasonably  vested  be d i s c o n t i n u e d when i t i s  t h a t the u s e f u l l i f e  reached i t s l i m i t .  of a s t r u c -  However, even when  86 s t r u c t u r e s have reached apparently been l i t t l e  t h i s p r e s c r i b e d l i m i t there has enforcement  of the p r o v i s i o n s .  The f e e l i n g i n Vancouver towards t h i s concept probably r e f l e c t s the a t t i t u d e i n most Canadian c i t i e s : f a i r way to terminate a non-conforming  the only  use, and s t i l l  r e s p e c t the vested r i g h t o f the i n d i v i d u a l , i s to acquire the p r o p e r t y o u t r i g h t . Most c i t i e s zoned  i n the United S t a t e s have been over-  f o r commercial  never developed.  use i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f booms which  T h i s same type o f o v e r - z o n i n g has a l s o  taken p l a c e i n Canada and has been i n d i c a t e d  i n many o f  the urban renewal s t u d i e s as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the development of b l i g h t .  The urban renewal study f o r the  C i t y o f T r a i l , B r i t i s h Columbia^  3  by Dr. H. Peter  Oberlander and Mr. R.J. Cave i n d i c a t e d of land zoned f o r industry times the p e r centage  that the amount  i n T r a i l was over three  a c t u a l l y used, and although over  81+ acres were zoned f o r commercial  use o n l y 30 acres  were a c t u a l l y used f o r t h i s purpose.  Indeed  i n some  c a t e g o r i e s o f land use the study questioned whether the amount o f land zoned purpose.  could ever a c t u a l l y be used f o r the  The authors  state:  Over-zoning tends to c r e a t e an u n r e a l i s t i c land use p a t t e r n by s t e r l i z i n g c u r r e n t use i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a land use change which may never oome.^WP r o f e s s o r Stephenson,  i n h i s study of K i n g s t o n ,  c i t e d over-zoning as one o f the reasons f o r central area b l i g h t and i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t " a l l o w s m a r g i n a l businesses  87  to be e s t a b l i s h e d i n low p r i c e d r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s j u s t outside  the main business  district."^  Over-zoning f o r commercial use i n f l i c t s a double penalty i t r e s u l t s i n the n e g l e c t o f good r e s i d e n t i a l areas c l o s e t o downtown because the owners hope to r e a l i z e the s a l e o f t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s f o r commercial uses — hopes which can be r e a l i z e d only f o r a few s i n c e the amount o f land a c t u a l l y needed f o r commercial purposes i s seldom more than about three per cent o f the t o t a l . " I t a l s o r e s u l t s i n the neglect o f the o l d e r p a r t s of the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t which r u n down without new developments a c t i n g as a r e j u v e n a t o r Zoning i s a l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n of government, and  although a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s o r i g i n a l by-law and the  p r o v i s i o n s contained sions o r 'experts', elected c o u n c i l .  i n i t are d r a f t e d by s p e c i a l commisthe u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n s r e s t with the  An example of the procedure f o r  amending zoning by-laws i n Canada i s contained Vancouver C h a r t e r .  i n the  Amendments to the Vancouver Zoning  By-Law are not permitted  u n t i l a p u b l i c h e a r i n g has been  h e l d , at which time any a f f e c t e d persons may v o i c e opinions  on the amendment.  C o u n c i l makes i t s d e c i s i o n ,  a f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n of such a meeting. amendments are a l s o processed  A l l proposed  by the C i t y Planning  artment, and under S e c t i o n 573 of the Vancouver appeals against zoning  their  Dep-  Charter,  d e c i s i o n s s h a l l not be allowed i f  such a n appeal d i s r u p t s the o f f i c i a l development p l a n . The by  Zoning Board of Appeal hears and determines appeals anyone u n s a t i s f i e d w i t h a zoning  d e c i s i o n made by an  o f f i c i a l charged w i t h enforcement o f the by-law, by anyone c l a i m i n g the enforcement of the by-law w i l l cause  88 him undue o r unnecessary  h a r d s h i p and by any person  w i s h i n g t o r e p a i r a non-conforming  use, or w i s h i n g t o  appeal the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e c l a u s e r e g u l a t i n g non-conforming  uses.  M u n i c i p a l Improvements The enforcement regarded  o f housing standards i s g e n e r a l l y  as the most important means o f i n i t i a t i n g the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s .  Admini-  s t r a t i v e measures by themselves, however, are i n s u f f i c i e n t to i n i t i a t e  an e f f e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme.  The r e s i d e n t i a l environment and t h i s  must a l s o r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n ,  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  areas where r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s proposed, caused  b l i g h t has been  by overcrowded and p o o r l y maintained d w e l l i n g s ,  but i s a c c e l e r a t e d when e s s e n t i a l community such as p a r k s , playgrounds  facilities  and s c h o o l s , are e i t h e r i n  poor c o n d i t i o n or are completely absent. i f the m u n i c i p a l i t y pays l i t t l e of  In  Furthermore,  regard to the c o n d i t i o n  roads, s i d e w a l k s , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g and o t h e r s e r v i c e s  i n such areas, there i s l i t t l e  i n c e n t i v e f o r the home  owner to r e p a i r h i s own p r o p e r t y . Every Canadian stressed  the importance  urban, renewal  study examined  of a p o s i t i v e m u n i c i p a l r o l e i n  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , although the degree p a l i t y should p a r t i c i p a t e v a r i e d  to which the m u n i c i -  i n some i n s t a n c e s .  Probably the most c o n s e r v a t i v e view p o i n t was r e f l e c t e d  89  i n the C i t y of S a i n t John study, which suggested t h a t a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c i t i zens and that the p u b l i c little  r o l e was mainly one o f guidance:  a t t e n t i o n was paid  services  to the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c  i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas.  reflected  Most s t u d i e s , however,  the o p i n i o n expressed i n the C i t y of V i c t o r i a  study that the p u b l i c renewal programme should complement the p r i v a t e renewal p r o c e s s . r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y on p r i v a t e as pointed  Rehabilitation certainly investment by property owners,  out i n the C i t y o f Saskatoon study, but p u b l i c  improvement o f the environment w i l l p r o t e c t and encourage t h i s private a c t i v i t y  i f i t takes place  i n the c o n t e x t o f  a r a t i o n a l and co-ordinated programme o f such v o r k . I n some instances and  many o f the necessary  f a c i l i t i e s have never been p r o v i d e d .  services  This was the  s i t u a t i o n i n an area o f S a u l t S t e . Marie and i t was suggested that the p r o v i s i o n of these s e r v i c e s would constitute  a normal c a p i t a l expenditure and could  attributed  to the c o s t s  and  of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  London, however, the p r o v i s i o n  t i e s was urged even a t p u b l i c c o s t . sone, i n p r o p o s i n g p u b l i c London s t a t e d :  not be  I n Moncton  o f community Professor  faciliStephen-  improvements f o r an a r e a o f  0  These measures w i l l undoubtedly c o s t the m u n i c i p a l i t y money which the i n h a b i t a n t s w i l l not be able to pay back, but i t w i l l be a necessary expenditure i f the areas are t o be prevented from d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n t o slums and becoming a s e r i o u s l i a b i l i t y . 4 7 The  C i t y o f Vancouver study examined the p r o v i -  90  s i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas and  and  community f a c i l i t i e s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t sewers, water-  mains, garbage c o l l e c t i o n , p o l i c e and were provided on an equal b a s i s city  and  However, the  i s i o n of sidewalks and classed  i n the  i t i o n a l tax.  The  out  of  entire  general prov-  ornamental s t r e e t l i g h t i n g were were paid f o r by  the  s p e c i f i c a r e a i n the form of an add-  These l o c a l improvements are  i n Vancouver by Terms'.  protection  paving of s t r e e t s , the  as l o c a l improvements and  residents  fire  throughout the  were j u s t i f i a b l y f i n a n c e d  revenue.  in  'Petition', ' I n i t i a t i v e ' or  f i r s t method r e q u i r e s  area w i s h i n g to have e.g. to c i r c u l a t e a p e t i t i o n . i n f a v o u r of the  initiated 'Special  the c i t i z e n s i n an  ornamental s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , I f a two-thirds m a j o r i t y  is  improvement, a p p l i c a t i o n i s made to  the C i t y to c a r r y out  the  d e s i r e d work.  ' I n i t i a t i v e ' method, the C i t y s t a t e s  By  the  i t s i n t e n t i o n to  proceed w i t h c e r t a i n l o c a l improvements, chargeable to the r e s i d e n t s  i n the  locality,  improvements unless $0% p e t i t i o n against  and  will  initiate  of the r e s i d e n t s  such a c t i o n .  By  the  successfully  ' S p e c i a l Terms'  method the C i t y w i l l i n some cases proceed w i t h improvements i n s p i t e of l o c a l o p p o s i t i o n . l a t t e r two  methods are  d e n t i a l areas and recent  attempts to  seldom a p p l i e d  the  the  These  to p u r e l y  resi-  indeed, t h i r t e e n out of  fifteen  ' i n i t i a t e ' sidewalks on  'school  c o l l e c t o r ' s t r e e t s , i . e . s t r e e t s used by c h i l d r e n  on  91  t h e i r way  to and from s c h o o l , have been d e f e a t e d .  The  Vancouver study r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p r o p e r t y owners i n areas threatened w i t h b l i g h t would probably be u n w i l l i n g and unable  to bear an a d d i t i o n a l tax demand, but t h a t the  p r o v i s i o n of such s e r v i c e s may c o n s i d e r a b l e expense.  I t was  h e l p to delay or suggested  ed number of c a s e s ' the s e r v i c e s now  prevent  that'in a limit-  f i n a n c e d as  local  improvements c o u l d be provided out of g e n e r a l revenue. I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s , the C i t y of Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Department has  r e c e n t l y announced a cheaper  method of s t r e e t s u r f a c i n g under the l o c a l system.  The  improvement  c o s t to r e s i d e n t i a l owners under t h e  new  arrangement woald be 1+8 cents a f r o n t f o o t f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , compared to the present c o s t o f ' $ 1 . 1 0 foot.  Furthermore,  owners would pay  a front  only f o r the curb  and g u t t e r , the C i t y paying the complete c o s t of s t r e e t surfacing.  T h i s would s p l i t  between the p r o p e r t y owner and devolve  the t o t a l c o s t e q u a l l y the C i t y .  I t would  on the property owner to i n i t i a t e such  still  improve-  ments. Quite apart from pay  for local  the a b i l i t y  of the r e s i d e n t s to  improvements i n areas designated f o r  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r  imposing  a d d i t i o n a l demands on home-owners has been debated. Mr.  Richard S t e i n e r , Commissioner of the U n i t e d  States  Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g that a l t e r n a t i v e methods of f i n a n c i n g such improvements  run  92  counter t o c u r r e n t p o l i c y , has d e c l a r e d  t h a t the l o c a l  improvement technique i s one o f the stumbling preventing  blocks  the more e f f e c t i v e use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  1  I q u e s t i o n very s e r i o u s l y whether property owners of l i m i t e d means, compelled to make c o n s i d e r a b l e expenditure on t h e i r own p r o p e r t i e s as p a r t o f the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n effort;, should be f u r t h e r saddled w i t h s p e c i a l assessments f o r p u b l i c improvements necessary to overcome the past negligence o f the community and l o c a l government.4^ The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of the l o c a l improvement i n areas populated questioned  procedure  by people o f low income has a l s o been  i n Canada,^  but changes i n the method o f  f i n a n c i n g these improvements pose problems:  residents  of sound r e s i d e n t i a l areas who have already paid f o r t h e i r own sidewalks and s t r e e t l i g h t i n g would n a t u r a l l y be l o t h to h e l p pay f o r the same amenities  i n other  p a r t s o f the c i t y . The c o s t of p r o v i d i n g or improving p u b l i c ies ated  facilit-  t o a degree that p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e may be s t i m u l to stem the t i d e o f i n c r e a s i n g b l i g h t i s i n many  cases beyond the f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . However, as no use has y e t been made of the I 9 6 I  amend-  ment to the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t a l l o w i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of e x i s t i n g housing by a F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l partnership,  i t i s u n c e r t a i n whether t h i s  permits the s e n i o r government to i n c l u d e to p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s  legislation improvements  aa r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e .  The  Mack - Concord p i l o t c o n s e r v a t i o n / r e h a b i l i t a t i o n proj e c t i n D e t r o i t , the f i r s t  of i t s type i n the United  93  S t a t e s , i s concerned of  three thousand  w i t h the u l t i m a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  homes, and  is significant  I n that the  U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Government i s paying two-thirds of  the c o s t of new  parks  and playgrounds,  new  school  s i t e s and s t r e e t improvements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the project. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i o n on the p a r t of the municipality,  apart from t h e enforcement  d i s c u s s e d codes, may public  of the p r e v i o u s l y  take the form of p r o v i d i n g major  improvements, removing the worst  structures  that  are beyond r e p a i r , and the improvement of 'municipal housekeeping. renewal  Again, most of the Canadian  1  urban  s t u d i e s have made proposals i n these three  areas of a c t i o n .  The p r o v i s i o n of major p u b l i c  im-  provements i n c l u d e s s c h o o l s , parks, playgrounds, modifications traffic,  i n the s t r e e t p a t t e r n s to discourage  through  b u f f e r green s t r i p s between e.g. housing  and  i n d u s t r i a l uses, o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g and the improvement of  p a v i n g and The  street  lighting.  s t u d i e s of S a u l t S t e . Marie and Mono t o n  r e v e a l e d that some areas r e q u i r i n g measures had  rehabilitation  not y e t been provided w i t h pavement, curbs,  sidewalks and other f a c i l i t i e s , and t h a t t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n was area.  considered necessary f o r the improvement of the Most of the s t u d i e s , however, revealed that  basic f a c i l i t i e s  already e x i s t e d but t h a t they were i n  poor c o n d i t i o n or were inadequate  f o r present needs.  The m a j o r i t y of the c i t i e s  s t u d i e d were  on a g r i d p a t t e r n , and i n many cases  designed  a distinct  'sur-  35% o f a proposed area of  plus' of streets existed:  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a was taken up by s t r e e t s . As recognized  i n the Saskatoon study,  the g r i d  pattern  tends to make every s t r e e t a p o t e n t i a l through t r a f f i c r o u t e , w i t h no d i s t i n c t i o n being d i s c e r n i b l e between major and minor r o u t e s .  Many o f the areas  f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were indeed volumes o f n o n - l o c a l t r a f f i c  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by heavy  p a s s i n g through the area  I n V i c t o r i a , s e v e r a l s m a l l blocks contained of only e i g h t houses.  proposed  Besides  an average  b e i n g an uneconomic use  of l a n d , s t r e e t maintenance c o s t s were unduly h i g h and the unnecessary number o f i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n c r e a s e d hazards to t r a f f i c  safety.  The d i s r e g a r d o f n a t u r a l  f e a t u r e s i n g r i d - i r o n l a y o u t s i s a f u r t h e r disadvantage of the system, but r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures have l i m i t e d scope to s o l v e t h i s problem.  The Corner Brook  study,  however, proposed as p a r t o f i t s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme that an e n t i r e l y new street p a t t e r n be c r e a t e d w i t h proper layout.  g r a d i e n t s to r e p l a c e the i n e f f i c i e n t  T h i s scheme e n t a i l e d moving s t r u c t u r e s and  r e l o c a t i n g property i s questioned  l i n e s to f i t the new p a t t e r n , but i t  whether such d r a s t i c measures are t r u l y  p a r t o f the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s . measures, as recognized normally  grid  Rehabilitation  i n the Montreal  study,  do not  i n v o l v e major m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the land use  95  p a t t e r n , but methods have been proposed i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s by which the  t r a d i t i o n a l g r i d p a t t e r n may  improved without r e s o r t i n g to a completely new The  layout.  urban renewal s t u d i e s f o r Toronto, London,  Winnipeg and V i c t o r i a i n c l u d e d proposals  to c l o s e  c e r t a i n unnecessary s t r e e t s , many of them only i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s , or proposals through t r a f f i c by the and  be  flank-  to discourage  i n t r o d u c t i o n of p a r k i n g  the r e v i s e d d e s i g n of s t r e e t openings.  bays  A l l four  s t u d i e s proposed the s u b s t i t u t i o n of park areas f o r the c l o s e d  streets, several incorporating childrens'  playgrounds In t he cated  design.  The  V i c t o r i a study  t h a t the c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g  would be o f f s e t by the s a v i n g  indi-  t h i s type of park  i n s t r e e t maintenance.  The Winnipeg study suggested t h a t some s t r e e t s c o u l d be c l o s e d by  temporary b a r r i e r s which could be removed  to allow access f o r emergency v e h i c l e s .  This  could  p o s s i b l y a l s o be used as an i n t e r i m measure l e a d i n g the u l t i m a t e use  development of a park a r e a .  of s t r e e t c l o s u r e w i t h i n a g r i d l a y o u t  i b l e to c r e a t e  a more f u n c t i o n a l t r a f f i c  by the c r e a t i o n of cul-de-sac  and  a l s o h e l p to d e f i n e s p e c i f i c  the development of a l o c a l  judicial  i t i s poss-  pattern,  These measures  areas and  assist  ' i d e n t i t y , so v a l u a b l e 1  l o c a l support of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. The  m u n i c i p a l i t y has  and  loop s t r e e t s  'through' t r a f f i c can be e l i m i n a t e d . may  By  to  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  in for  96  demolish b u i l d i n g s whose extreme d e t e r i o r a t i o n makes repair impracticable.  I n many cases  these  b l i g h t e d s t r u c t u r e s exert an unfavourable  badly  i n f l u e n c e on  adjacent property and o f t e n cause f u r t h e r d e c l i n e i n the a r e a .  The  Vancouver Urban Renewal study  recog-  nized t h a t some o f these s t r u c t u r e s would e v e n t u a l l y be r e p l a c e d by the normal process of p r i v a t e development, but t h a t i n the meantime they hindered development. of  I t was  suggested  good  t h a t use c o u l d be made  S e c t i o n 23 of the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , by which  the C i t y ,  i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h the s e n i o r l e v e l s  government, would acquire and c l e a r the s i t e s s e l l i n g them f o r p r i v a t e development.  necessary  junk  I n Montreal, the c l e a r a n c e of the worst  recommended i n o r d e r to provide space f o r community f a c i l i t i e s .  V i c t o r i a ' s 'spot  redevelopment' proposals were formulated to  badly  also  remove o b j e c t i o n a b l e non-conforming uses and  b l i g h t was  before  Besides  d e t e r i o r a t e d d w e l l i n g s the m u n i c i p a l i t y may  yards, e t c .  of  In a d d i t i o n  a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme, but were b a s i c a l l y to  remove s m a l l pockets wise sound areas.  of three or f o u r houses i n o t h e r T h i s type of redevelopment  was  proposed i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n areas i n V i c t o r i a and was administer:  considered r e l a t i v e l y  simple  to  l e s s d i s r u p t i o n would occur than i n an  area of f u l l - s c a l e development, and would need l e s s a t t e n t i o n .  The  s e r v i c e s and  Sault Ste.  Marie  roads  97  study i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l areas f o r  'Rehabilitation  P a r t i a l Redevelopment' i n which c l e a r a n c e of p a r t i c u l a r l y blighted  with  small  areas would be f o l l o w e d by  development under S e c t i o n 23  of  the  re-  N a t i o n a l Housing  Act. Besides the ments and cipality  the  provision  removal of  should also  of major p u b l i c  the  worst b l i g h t ,  improve the  keeping' s e r v i c e s i n d e c l i n i n g  l e v e l of  areas.  improvethe  muni-  'house-  This  includes  street  c l e a n i n g , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , t r e e p l a n t i n g  police  and  f i r e protection.  B a l t i m o r e has  special  training  and  Department of S a n i t a t i o n  the  t h i s was  little  partly  real blight  attributed  m u n i c i p a l maintenance: attitude was  of the  reflected  to the  i n the  and  attitude  appropriate  Both London  of  i n London that  towards c e r t a i n  of the  and  i n both c i t i e s  h i g h standard  i t w as f e l t  c i t y authorities  Police  i n neighbourhoods  i s g i v e n to these s e r v i c e s .  Saskatoon had  instituted  s e s s i o n s f o r p e r s o n n e l of the  undergoing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , to i n s u r e that attention  and  inhabitants  the  areas of  those a r e a s . C i t i z e n Education Neighbourhood r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e q u i r e s the complete involvement and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c i t i z e n s at a l l l e v e l s i n the community. To r e a c h i t s f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l , i t must be understood and wanted. I t can only be understood and wanted i f d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s are made to achieve t h i s end ,50 The  r o l e of code enforcement i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  \  98  areas has  already been d i s c u s s e d , but i t was  that a s t r i c t l y l e g a l approach has in initiating rehabilitation.  indicated  not been e f f e c t i v e  Par more depends on the  e d u c a t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n of the home-owners i n an a r e a . The Toronto  r e p o r t recognized  and c o n s e r v a t i o n were most l i k e l y  that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  to be s u c c e s s f u l i f the  C i t y engaged i n an area campaign to inform r e s i d e n t s of i t s own  p r o p o s a l s , and by s t a t i n g the C i t y ' s  i n the area,  to encourage owners to renovate  properties. ,  I t was  suggested  confidence their  t h a t the C i t y c o u l d a l s o  r e h a b i l i t a t e s e v e r a l b u i l d i n g s i t s e l f as an example of what could be done, but i t was  recommended that an  e x c e s s i v e amount of p u b l i c c a p i t a l should not be up i n t h i s way. ablishment  The Windsor study suggested  Of a demonstration  business concerns  improved i n appearance, l i v a b i l i t y neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n was  the e s t -  house by the C i t y  to i l l u s t r a t e how  tied  and  p r o p e r t y could and value .  a l s o suggested  be  A f o r Windsor,  composed of r e s i d e n t s and C i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s }  i t s aim  would be the v o l u n t a r y improvement of the area, and i t would p r o v i d e advice and  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g home  improvement. I n Baltimore's Harlem Park r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t ^ a b l o c k was  designated as a p r o v i n g ground f o r r e h a b i l i -  t a t i o n methods.  Most of the p r o p e r t i e s i n the  block  have been brought up to the minimum code  requirements,  which w i t h f i v e  requirements,  a d d i t i o n a l urban renewal  99  serve  as the b a s i s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  In  addition  to t h i s , however, t h i r t e e n houses are being  remodeled  f a r beyond the minimum l e g a l requirements as a demons t r a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l of  rehabilitation.  Demonstration houses have now i n many United  States' c i t i e s ,  of c i t i z e n s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a c t i o n by r e a l t o r s and ces  such houses serve  organizations  been e s t a b l i s h e d  some on the  others  initiative  as a r e s u l t of  businessmen.  I n many i n s t a n -  as the headquarters of  citizens'  as i n S e a t t l e where a c i t i z e n s '  group  became the g u i d i n g f o r c e i n the establishment demonstration house which was businessman.  Although t h i s house was  a very h i g h standard, i t was could  not  financed  by  of a  an i n t e r e s t e d  reconditioned  to  r e a l i z e d t h a t many people  a f f o r d more than the minimum improvements  required.  Thus, each room i n c l u d e d  c o s t s o f each improvement item, and monthly payments to f i n a n c e The  a breakdown of the  possible  such improvements.  S a i n t John study recognized  t a t i o n can only be  the  that  rehabili-  s u c c e s s f u l i f c i t i z e n s are made  aware of what r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t u a l l y i s , i t s purposes, requirements and means.  Any  proposal  to  initiate  l a r g e s c a l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must n e c e s s a r i l y be ded  by  a most i n t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l  campaign.  and  promotional  Montreal s i m i l a r l y recognized  ive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n required  prece-  an e d u c a t i o n a l  that  effect-  campaign  through the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s  at  the  100  o u t s e t of the programme. The Vancouver study recognized the n e c e s s i t y o f c i t i z e n approval and support i n a programme o f b l i g h t c o n t r o l and suggested t h a t a C i t i z e n s Urban Renewal Committee undertake a programme o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n to c o - o r d i n a t e the work o f l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The  K i n g s t o n study advised t h a t neighbourhood groups be formed to encourage h i g h standards o f maintenance, and f u r t h e r suggested t h a t the C i t y P l a n n i n g  Department  should a s s i s t such groups by p r e p a r i n g neighbourhood improvement p l a n s . '  The c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n of both  the C i t y and the neighbourhood group was recognized as being fundamental to t h e success of any programme o f improvement.  The Saskatoon study emphasized  that c o -  o r d i n a t i o n and p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n become major p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s i n a s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme but t h i s study placed l e s s s t r e s s on the C i t y  initiating  the f o r m a t i o n o f c i t i z e n groups. The Winnipeg urban renewal study proposed that one of the f u n c t i o n s of a suggested Urban Renewal Board would be to encourage the c o - o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f c i t i z e n s i n the development and e x e c u t i o n of renewal p l a n s .  An Urban C o n s e r v a t i o n  and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Board would organize homeowners and tenants' a s s o c i a t i o n s i n areas needing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and the Board would  a l s o e x p l a i n and guide  the proposed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n programme.  101 One  aspect of the Winnipeg study was unique i n the  s t u d i e s examined:  before f o r m u l a t i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t -  i o n programme, a house-to-house q u e s t i o n n a i r e was to be conducted t o determine neighbourhood  a t t i t u d e s and  criticisms o f the a r e a . The  S t . John's study  enforcement programme should out i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h ,  considered  t h a t any code  be preceded by, and c a r r i e d  a f u l l explanatory  information  programme, as many people seemed o b l i v i o u s to the e f f e c t of b l i g h t  on t h e i r investments.  programme, unco-operative  By e x p l a n a t i o n o f the  a t t i t u d e s and the f e e l i n g  that  unreasonable and u n f a i r demands were being made could be avoided.  T h i s study commented t h a t the v o l u n t a r y c o -  operation of a l l residents involved i n a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme was e s s e n t i a l be l a r g e l y  guided  to ensure success:  the scheme must  by a f e e l i n g o f 'we are doing  o u r s e l v e s f o r ourselves.'  t h i s by  However, i t was recommended  that a neighbourhood r e h a b i l i t a t i o n committee o f i n t e r ested c i t i z e n s be formed to a c t as l i a i s o n between the r e s i d e n t s and the C i t y . The  V i c t o r i a study  l i t a t i o n proposals,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n to  residents regarding c i t y and  improvements.  i n c l u d e d as one of i t s r e h a b i -  assessment p o l i c y  on maintenance  T h i s device has l a r g e l y been over-  looked  as a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measure, although  course  relate  without  i t must of  to what a c t i o n a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y  i n c r e a s i n g assessment.  In trying  permits  to improve  102 its ic  policy  of public information associated w i t h  i n s p e c t i o n s , the Toronto  i960  t h a t a p a m p h l e t be p r e p a r e d  and  improvements  out  i n c r e a s i n g assessments.  buted ated  to dwellings  to a l l property  listing  windows, i n t e r i o r  which could  i n J a n u a r y 1962  to enlarge  several years  distributed  annual t a x b i l l s  distri-  and i n d i c -  o f doors  r e w i r i n g and  rooms c o u l d  assessment.  be u n d e r -  V a n c o u v e r has f o r  an i n f o r m a t i o n l e a f l e t  to property  with-  o r removal o f  d e c o r a t i n g , complete  increased  with  owners, a l s o i n f o r m i n g  c e r t a i n r e p a i r s c a n be made w i t h o u t  creased  be made  T h i s p a m p h l e t was  owners  taken without  that  a l l repairs  t r i m , roof replacement, replacement  removal o f p a r t i t i o n s  them  causing i n -  assessment. Relating  to  C o u n c i l recommended i n  that e x t e r i o r p a i n t i n g , replacement  obsolete and  City  period-  the importance  o f g u i d a n c e and e d u c a t i o n  the problem of the f i n a n c i a l  owners i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  areas  i n c a p a c i t y o f homeMr. R i c h a r d  Steiner  indi-  te? cated-^ and of  that effective  that simpler  e d u c a t i o n was n o t b e i n g  and e a s i e r - t o - u n d e r s t a n d  t h e mechanisms o f p r o p e r t y  Mr.  Steiner cited  cent  o f those  improve ing.  who had s a i d  explanations  improvement were  A l l they  pay l o a n s  they  could  r e q u i r e d was g u i d a n c e  not afford to understand-  and i n f o r m a t i o n  f i n a n c i n g and t h e a s s u r a n c e  back over  needed.  where s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r  t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s were wrong i n t h i s  about c o n v e n t i o n a l could  a locality  achieved,  a long  term.  This  that  they  i s prob-  103  ably  j u s t as a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e C a n a d i a n s c e n e , and as i n  the U n i t e d  States:  We need t o know more a b o u t how t o r e - e s t a b l i s h n e i g h b o u r h o o d s p i r i t and m o r a l e . We need t o know more a b o u t how t o i n f u s e h o p e , o p t i m i s m and e n t h u s i a s m i n t o t h e l i v e s o f p e o p l e who h a v e a c c e p t e d u r b a n l i v i n g , g r u d g i n g l y and w i t h a d e s p a i r and d e p r e s s i o n stemming from t h e i r s o r d i d s u r r o u n d i n g s . Call i t s o c i a l psychology, c a l l i t neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n o r what y o u w i l l . . . W h a t e v e r y o u c a l l i t , I t i s a very r e a l p a r t o f g e t t i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n j o b done and t h e f i n a l measure o f s u c c e s s i s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f p r o p e r t y owners t o assume a d d i t i o n a l d e b t . ^ 3 Studies States  s u g g e s t t h a t where the C i t y , w i t h l i t t l e  notice,  assumes a ( t h i s - i s - i t '  limited. one  Cleveland's  of only undertaking  'representative To  p o l i c y , f o r e x a m p l e , has become r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s when  Once a r e q u e s t t i o n of block technical  o f home i m p r o v e m e n t , and o n a  scale tries  groups t o assess  to stimulate existing  whether t h e i r  area  i s received the City  advice.  The C i t y  probably  be more The  assists  also wields  i n s u c h an a t m o s p h e r e t h i s  citizen  needs r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  g r o u p s and o f f e r s f i n a n c i a l  owners r e l u c t a n t t o j o i n t h e i r  ment:  eal  success i s  n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' a s k f o r them..  the values  neighbourhood  to  attitude,  advance  encourage such requests,' however, t h e C i t y p u b l i c i z e s  generally  t  of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n the United  inthe  forma-  a s s i s t a n c e and the ' b i g s t i c k '  neighbours  i n improve-  enforcement would  effective.  approach, o f o n l y  when some o r g a n i z e d  a c t i n g when r e q u e s t e d  group e x i s t s  is id-  t o do t h e r e q u e s t i n g .  101+ U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n many areas r e q u i r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a d i s t i n c t l a c k of such groups i s e v i d e n t and,  indeed,  apathy i s the b i g g e s t enemy of any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. the  Without c i t i z e n support and  process i s doomed to f a i l u r e , but  participation  the C i t y must  make a concerted  attempt to encourage t h i s support  participation.  Cleveland c o n s i d e r s that  improvements should only be  and  public  i n i t i a t e d when c i t i z e n s  show p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s : public  improvements are regarded as rewards  than i n c e n t i v e s . public the  facilities  decline  However, the and  deteriorated  deterioration  amenities i n v a r i a b l y  of p r i v a t e  d w e l l i n g s and  to a g r e a t e r degree.  of  accompanies  i n some cases The  C i t y has  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to improve these f a c i l i t i e s ordinating  rather  such a c t i o n to provide the  and  are  a  by  co-  spark to i g n i t e  citizen interest. F i n a n c i a l Assistance Although minimum standards of occupancy r e p a i r can  be enforced by  a municipality,  only be e f f e c t i v e i f property owners are ance the  required  repairs.  The  they  fin-  f i n a n c i a l implicanot  r e a l i z e d i n many of the Canadian urban  renewal s t u d i e s , The  can  able to  t i o n s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r the home-owner have been f u l l y  and  and  i n some are  not even mentioned.  only comment i n s e v e r a l  studies,  refers  Home Improvement Loans a v a i l a b l e under S e c t i o n 2i+ of  to  .105  the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t .  Under t h i s  legislation  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n guarantees ed loans made by banks and agencies.  limit-  approved i n s t a l l m e n t c r e d i t  These l o a n s , however, are f o r a maximum of  $4000 and must be r e p a i d i n t e n y e a r s . f i n a n c i a l assistance necessary  The  degree of  depends on the nature  the areas d e f i n e d f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  i n each c i t y :  of in  some cases such as Saskatoon, where extreme c o n d i t i o n s are not i n evidence probably  the e x i s t i n g  f i n a n c i a l resources  are  s u f f i c i e n t , but i n other c i t i e s , where r e h a b i l i -  t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to accomplish more, the need f o r further financial The Toronto  assistance i s evident. study considered  home-owners c o u l d best be  i n i t i a t e d by making loans  a v a i l a b l e at f a v o u r a b l e r a t e s . N a t i o n a l Housing Act were thought ful  that improvements by  The  p r o v i s i o n s of the  to be q u i t e s u c c e s s -  i n t h i s r e g a r d , but s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s were e n v i s -  aged i f t h i s source of money were d i s c o n t i n u e d : I t may be d e s i r a b l e to have a separate fund backed by the government to meet the demands of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes. I f t h i s source of funds should f a i l i t may devolve on the C i t y to meet a l l demands for loans. T h i s c o u l d prove very onerous i n that i t would t i e up a great d e a l o f c a p i t a l . 5 4 The  S a i n t John study recognized the need f o r  adequate f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to implement r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and commented on the r e v o l v i n g fund e s t a b l i s h e d i n that c i t y which operated w i t h the funded $75,000 but which by 195° was  fully  capital  used up and  had  of  106 38 o u t s t a n d i n g l o a n s .  I n view of the large scale  t a t i o n p r o p o s e d f o r S a i n t J o h n i t was s u g g e s t e d r e v o l v i n g fund  be e n l a r g e d  so t h a t a t any t i m e  c a r r y o u t 500 l o a n s o f a n a v e r a g e amount o f  rehabili-  that  this  i t could  $2,500.  Interest  r a t e s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e d u c e d  t o encourage t h e use of t h e  fund.  an unreasonable  T h i s was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  the l i g h t  ofthe City's  One  proposal i n  generous a s s i s t a n c e t o I n d u s t r y .  o f t h e d u t i e s of. t h e U r b a n C o n s e r v a t i o n and  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n B o a r d recommended i n t h e W i n n i p e g  study  was  which  t o s e t up and a d m i n i s t e r a n e i g h b o u r h o o d f u n d  could  grants loans or g i f t s  to those  T h i s f u n d was t o be c o l l e c t e d  owners  from' ' p r i v a t e w e l f a r e  I t was f u r t h e r p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e C i t y l o a n g r a n t up t o a maximum o f who  c o u l d show e v i d e n c e  Rehabilitation  $20,000  o f need.  t h i s fund would match those  'showing need.' sources.'  allow f o r a matching a n n u a l l y , t o owners  Grants  and l o a n s  from  o f t h e U r b a n C o n s e r v a t i o n and  Board.  V a n c o u v e r a l s o recommended e s t a b l i s h i n g a means o f financial and  a s s i s t a n c e i n a d d i t i o n t o Home I m p r o v e m e n t L o a n s ,  a f u n d was s u g g e s t e d  t o a s s i s t home-owners i n o b t a i n i n g  l o a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e r e s m a l l sums w e r e needed t o b r i n g p r o p e r t y up t o t h e be made by a d d i n g  required standards. t o the t a x r o l l  Repayment w o u l d  as w i t h l o c a l  improvement  charges. I n a d d i t i o n t o Home I m p r o v e m e n t s L o a n s i n  Saska-  toon the C i t y p r o v i e s plumbing loans which are Intended  107 to a s s i s t i n the a l l e v i a t i o n of some of the worst inadequacies  i n accommodation.  Up  to $1+00 may  be  to owners of 'unmodern' houses, p r o v i d i n g t h e i r ment i s $.$00 or more. r a t e and  These loans c a r r y a £%  assessinterest  are repayable over a t e n y e a r p e r i o d as  a d d i t i o n to p r o p e r t y t a x e s .  The  loaned  an  urban renewal study i n -  d i c a t e d t h a t the maximum l o a n could be i n c r e a s e d to $1+00 but t h a t t h i s had  not y e t been done.  Approximately  10%  of requests f o r these loans were r e j e c t e d on the grounds of low property assessment, while a f u r t h e r $% were r e j e c t e d on the advice of the B u i l d i n g Department. ever between 195>1  and  I960 almost  e l e v e n hundred plumbing  loans were made t o t a l l i n g over $317,000. indicated  t h a t as few  The  'unmodern' houses s t i l l  C i t y c o u l d become more a c t i v e i n i n i t i a t i n g I t was  How-  study e x i s t e d the  improvements.  proposed to i n c r e a s e the amount of the plumbing  loans from $300 to $1+00 w i t h a p o s s i b l e maximum of $500. The S t . John's study suggested  t h a t the proposed  neighbourhood r e h a b i l i t a t i o n committee c o u l d advise dents  resi-  on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i n a n c i n g f o r r e n o v a t i o n  purposes,  and c o u l d inform them of the scope and  t i o n s of e x i s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e .  The  study  limita-  also i n d i c a t e d  t h a t i t would be d e s i r a b l e f o r the l o c a l business-men and c l u b s to e s t a b l i s h a p r i v a t e l o a n fund f o r those to borrow through r e g u l a r channels:  i t was  unable  suggested  t h a t a p r i v a t e fund would be p r e f e r a b l e to u s i n g c i t y funds  as the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would be f r e e from  'political  .  108  implications•  1  The Corner Brook and V i c t o r i a s t u d i e s  recommended t h a t c i t i z e n s be informed o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , merely  w h i l e Montreal's  i n d i c a t e d t h a t owners should be encouraged  h a b i l i t a t e t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s through and  study  to r e -  'tax inducements'  'advantageous loans'» A survey o f U n i t e d S t a t e s ' housing code programmes 55  by the O n t a r i o Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ^ r e v e a l e d that s e v e r a l o f the f o r t y - f i v e c i t i e s s t u d i e d provided some form o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r 'hardship c a s e s ' , but i n most cases the owner p a i d f o r a l l r e p a i r s , w i t h perhaps  some h e l p i n s e c u r i n g f i n a n c i n g .  Some o f the  c i t i e s had, or were contemplating, a p r i v a t e l y  arranged  ' r e v o l v i n g fund' to be used when a l l other sources o f financial aid failed. S t u d i e s o f the reasons f o r non-compliance w i t h standards  i n B a l t i m o r e r e v e a l e d t h a t many people had  committed themselves  to e x o r b i t a n t payments extending  even beyond t h e i r l i f e expectancy  and t h a t many people  needed h e l p i n f a m i l y budgeting and simple problems. i n debt  financial  Some o f these people were so overwhelmingly  that they could not a f f o r d  for repairs.  to spend anything  The v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f circumstance i s  one o f the problems b e s e t t i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f blighted  areas.  Low income f a m i l i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e much  of these areas because here  i s the only accommodation they  109  can a f f o r d , and b u i l d i n g s remain d e t e r i o r a t e d because of the e x i s t e n c e of these groups. gested  I t has been sug-  that:  low income home owners u s u a l l y spend the g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r income on b a s i c needs, while home maintenance o r improvement i s postponed, o r neglected. Furthermore, these f a m i l i e s are u s u a l l y a f r a i d of encumbering themselves w i t h long term debts. F i n a l l y , i f these f a m i l i e s do cons i d e r undertaking home improvements they f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n l o a n s , s i n c e they are o f t e n poor risks.>6 The  i n a b i l i t y of these owners t o secure  ancing f o r r e p a i r s was solved i n Baltimore 'Fight B l i g h t Fund, I n c . ,  1  fin-  by the  a non-profit, semi-charit-  able l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n advancing funds to home owners unable t o secure  loans from commercial  institutions.  Funds are s u p p l i e d by c o n t r i b u t i o n s from i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s , trade groups, b u i l d i n g and l o a n a s s o c i a t i o n s and  insurance  dual cases fund  companies.  Financing varies i n i n d i v i -  and i n t e r e s t ranges from 0% to 6%,  a l s o provides  a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e to home owners  e n a b l i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n to be analyzed cially,  s o c i a l l y and i n r e l a t i o n to t h e o v e r a l l  gramme.  finanpro-  T h i s allows f a m i l i e s to p l a c e t h e i r problems  i n p e r s p e c t i v e and to see how they can help Apparently  This  themselves.  many persons d i d not know how t o approach a  l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , and d i d not know t h a t an e x i s t i n g mortgage could be extended and enlarged i n c r e a s i n g monthly payments.  without  110  One  of the most d i f f i c u l t  problems i n r e h a b i l i -  t a t i o n areas concerns the aged owner of a d w e l l i n g needing r e p a i r , i n many cases l i v i n g on a l i m i t e d i n come with l i t t l e or no s a v i n g s .  Because of t h e i r  such persons are unable to o b t a i n mortgages f o r provement.  A g a i n Baltimore  age,  im-  i s c i t e d ^ ? as p r e s e n t l y  working on s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o l v i n g t h i s problem.  The  most r a d i c a l p r o p o s a l ,  i s most h e s i t a n t to use,  and  the one  i s to purchase the  rehouse the f a m i l y i n p u b l i c housing, and  the C i t y  structure,  then s e l l  the house to someone able and w i l l i n g to r e h a b i l i t a t e it.  A second method i n v o l v e s the c r e a t i o n of a non-  p r o f i t housing c o r p o r a t i o n which would lend the money necessary to complete the r e q u i r e d aged f a m i l y paying the form of r e n t .  improvements, the  only the i n t e r e s t on the l o a n i n At death the n o n - p r o f i t  t i o n would assume t i t l e to the house, any a f t e r paying  o f f the l o a n being  of the deceased.  The  third  assigned  life  tenancy.  r e t a i n e d by felt  balance to the  i d e a i n Baltimore  the same n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n to buy r e h a b i l i t a t e i t and  corpora-  the  estate is for  property,  then r e n t i t to the owners f o r a  . At death the property  could be s o l d or  the c o r p o r a t i o n as an investment.  It  was  t h a t the funds f o r such a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n  should  be p r i m a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the  community, being  a c t i v e l y supported by business  financial Institutions.  total and  Ill  S e v e r a l o f the Canadian indicated  urban renewal  t h e use o f NHA Home Improvement Loans  means o f f i n a n c i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . indicates  the purposes  Loans were used  ments a r e m a i n l y areas  t o determine  i n the s t r i c t 27.7% ions  whether such  i n 'suburbia' or other  as opposed  b e e n used  T a b l e I (page  t o areas s o r e l y appear  f o r purposes  sense  relatively  that  rehabili-  t h e s e l o a n s have  other than  o f the word.  improve-  needing  rehabilitation  F o r example  o f a l l l o a n s were f o r a d d i t i o n a l and g a r a g e s  112)  f o r w h i c h t h e Home Improvement  t a t i o n m e a s u r e s , i t would mainly  as a  i n 1 9 6 1 and 1 9 6 2 , and a l t h o u g h i t h a s  not been p o s s i b l e  sound  studies  rooms,  i n I96I extens-  and o u t b u i l d i n g s w h i c h r e a l l y a r e  home e x t e n s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n home i m p r o v e m e n t s . Dr. A l b e r t Rose, V i e e - C h a i r m a n  As  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  58 Housing Loans As  A u t h o r i t y has i n d i e a t e d ^  are,i n effect,  only f o r people  a means o f i n i t i a t i n g  gested  that  Home Improvement o f h i g h e r income.  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n D r . Rose  t h e l o a n s were n o t l a r g e  sug-  enough and t h a t  the c o n d i t i o n s o f b o r r o w i n g were t o o i n f l e x i b l e . Furthermore,  t h e l o a n s s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d  f o r longer  periods. Provisions  f o r home improvement f i n a n c i n g i n  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have d e v e l o p e d Canada.  further  S i n c e t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e U.S. F e d e r a l H o u s -  i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1934»  an i m p o r t a n t  i n s u r a n c e programme has b e e n c o n c e r n e d writing  than i n  aspect o f i t s  with  under-  l o a n s f o r home improvement, and a s s i s t a n c e was  TABLE I HOME IMPROVEMENT LOANS APPROVED January Type o f Improvement  S t r u c t u r a l A l t e r a t i o n s & Repairs Basements Roofing Siding Insulation Porches and Verandas Doors and Windows Exterior Painting F l o o r i n g and F l o o r Covering Other A l t e r a t i o n s & Repairs A d d i t i o n a l Rooms Garage or O u t b u i l d i n g D e m o l i t i o n o r Moving Heating and Heat C o n t r o l Electricity Plumbing I n t e r i o r Decorating Fences, Driveways, Landscaping Sewage Well and Water Supply Extensions Fallout Shelters Other TOTAL Source:  Number of  - December, 1961  January  Cost o f Improvement per cent  Improvements  ($000)  3,267 2,168 4,536 921 1,483 5,298 1,966 3*709  2,410 758  5.1  5,H7  179  IO08 0.4  591 1,685  3.5  15,830  1,270 10,950  5,466 2,887 98 5,327 4,087  7,306 2,390 52 3,427 934  6,714 3,427 5,505  1,192  1,150 1,118  81 , 8k 76,3llf  2,911 834 1,635 307 482 3,465 2  ?  2  47,440  Number Cost o f Improvement of Improvements ( $ 0 0 0 ) per cent  1.6  2,634 1,950  1.2  925 1,405  0.9 2.7  3,833  4,667 1,969  3,482  23.1  15,792  15-4  4,817  0.1  2,567 121  5.0  7o3 2.0 6.1  1.8  3.4  0.6  1.0  7*3 0o2  0.5 100.0  - December, 1962  4,818  3,758 6,417 3,553 4,705 1,175  991  1,028  36 92  "70773F  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook, S e c t i o n »B», "Mortgage Lending", Table B-22 (February, 1 9 6 3 ) ,  1,936 657 4,212 212 572  4c5 1.5  1,1442  3.4  372 1,264 10,439  24.5  5,928  13.9  2,295 58 3,264 869 2,688 800 1,296 301 419 3,303 30 283 "42,61+0  9.9 0.5  1.3 0„9 3.0  5.4  0.1 7.7  2.0  6.3 1.9 3.0 0.7 1.0 7.7 0.1 9_^7  100.0  113  l a t e r g i v e n through S e c t i o n 220 Act.  I n 1961  of the N a t i o n a l Housing  the maximum l o a n l i m i t of #3,500 f o r a  maximum p e r i o d o f f i v e years was  recognized  as b e i n g i n -  s u f f i c i e n t to enable a major r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme The Housing A c t of I 9 6 I gave the  to be launched. new  responsibility  FHA  i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n  and under S e c t i o n s 203  (k) and  220  (h) i t c o u l d now i n -  sure loans of up to $10,000 per u n i t f o r a twenty year period. was  The maximum i n t e r e s t r a t e t h a t c o u l d be  charged  s i x per c e n t . The  1961  A c t i n the United S t a t e s a l s o  reduced  the minimum down payments f o r homes i n urban renewal areas f i n a n c e d under S e c t i o n 220 Act.  The  new  o f the N a t i o n a l Housing  formula assessed the down payment as three  per cent of the f i r s t $15,000 of the estimated r e p l a c e ment c o s t , plus t e n per cent of the next $5,000, p l u s t w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t of the c o s t over $20,000, habilitated to the sum  For r e -  p r o p e r t i e s the same per centage was  t o apply  of the estimated r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t and  the  estimated value o f the p r o p e r t y before r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . One  of the problems of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f i n a n c i n g i s the  d i f f i c u l t y of determining the value of i n s u r a b l e mortgages. The  1961  A c t reduced  the problem c o n s i d e r a b l y by chang-  i n the b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g under S e c t i o n 220  from  the maximum  the appraised  mortgage  value  of  llij.  the p r o p e r t y a f t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , to the estimated r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t plus the estimated value b e f o r e rehabilitation. there s t i l l  Even w i t h t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , however,  remain many people who  cannot meet the  s t i p u l a t e d requirements f o r such l o a n s . F o l l o w i n g the enactment of the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned minimum standards by-law i n Toronto i n 1936, a c i t y l o a n fund was from |200  e s t a b l i s h e d from which sums o f  to $2,000 could be drawn.  These were to be  secured by a p r i o r l i e n on the p r o p e r t y w i t h repayment collected ments.  i n the form of taxes i n t e n annual  instal-  Although these loans were r e l a t i v e l y  inex-  pensive, there i s l i t t l e  i n c e n t i v e i n many cases, f o r  low income f a m i l i e s to expend money on r e p a i r and very little  use has been made of t h i s f u n d .  suggested t h a t to o b t a i n one of these low  Dr. Rose interest  loans the requirements v i r t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d test:  f a m i l i e s who  a means  c o u l d not o b t a i n loans through  normal channels were i n v a r i a b l y i n such d i r e s t r a i t s t h a t they found i t d i f f i c u l t  financial  to m a i n t a i n the  poor standard they already had, without going f u r t h e r into  debt. Dr. Rose i n t i m a t e d t h a t much of the  of  i n i t i a t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  due  amount of p r o p e r t y owned by absentee suggested  to the  problem large  landlords.  He  that a s p e c i a l loan fund, as e s t a b l i s h e d i n  Toronto, was  s u r e l y not a p p l i c a b l e to such persons:  115  h e r e i t was n o t u s u a l l y a m a t t e r o f b e i n g finance  r e p a i r s , but that d e t e r i o r a t i n g dwellings  were c o n s i d e r e d they stood  wasting  was r e g a r d e d  assets  and t h e l a n d  upon w h i c h  as a s o u r c e o f c a p i t a l  A l t h o u g h the c i r c u m s t a n c e s are  unable to  gain.  o f non-compliance  d i f f e r e n t , t h e home o w n e r e i t h e r l a c k i n g t h e  incentive or the f i n a n c i a l  capacity  tor e h a b i l i t a t e  h i s home p o s e s a p r o b l e m s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e r e c a l citrant landlord; fully  a p r o b l e m w h i c h m u s t be f a c e d t o  effect a plan for rehabilitation.  c a s e s t h e methods s u g g e s t e d  i nBaltimore  homes o f o l d p e o p l e have c o n s i d e r a b l e The  to handle the  merit.  Administration ofRehabilitation The  implementation of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  gramme r e q u i r e s municipal by  I n these  pro-  the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l areas o f  activity,  e i t h e r presently being  performed  departments o f the C i t y ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r not  being  exercised  both e x i s t i n g  at a l l .  and p r o p o s e d  S i e g e l and Brooks  legislation relating to  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the United the experience  of various  I t was suggested  examined  States,  cities  and a l s o  across  studied  the nation.  t h a t mere c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e  s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s of law enforcement, planning, a c q u i s i t i o n and i m p r o v e m e n t and c o m m u n i t y was  insufficient  t o be r e a l l y  effective:  land  education, these  act-  i v i t i e s must f o r m p a r t o f a n i n t e g r a t e d programme o f  116  a single operating S i e g e l and  agency. Brooks considered  'slum p r e v e n t i o n '  should  i t imperative  not become a d i v i s i o n  that  in a  multi-purpose department as i t would i n e v i t a b l y become subordinate to t h e I t was  main a c t i v i t y of that department.  suggested t h a t the concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  broader i n scope and the  i m p l i c a t i o n than the programmes of  t r a d i t i o n a l departments of h e a l t h or b u i l d i n g  that the most f e a s i b l e and  p r a c t i c a l method of  u a t i n g a- r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme was arate department of. m u n i c i p a l i o n of an  government.  ed by the study, i t being considered  inextricably tied  The  same type of governmental  effect-  The  that the  creatreject-  process  to the  keeping f u n c t i o n s of c i t y government, and be under t h e  and  through a sep-  ' a u t h o r i t y ' type of o r g a n i z a t i o n was  of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  was  'house-  that i t must  supervision.  c r e a t i o n of a separate a u t h o r i t y p a r t l y r e v e a l s  c i t y ' s a b d i c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  gives  degree of independence which i s completely i n administering The  the  it a undesirable  rehabilitation.  study considered  the  suggestion  powers of a redevelopment agency could be  that  the  extended  to  d e a l w i t h the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s . I f such an agency were independent of the. normal c i t y administration, be  the o b j e c t i o n s  a p p l i c a b l e , but  of the  to the  ' a u t h o r i t y ' would  i f i t were a c i t y department some  above mentioned disadvantages from sub-ordina--  117  t i o n might r e s u l t . The mes  proposed  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programi n the Canadian Urban Renewal s t u d i e s ,  v a r i e s w i t h the s i z e of the c i t y problems.  The Toronto  and the extent of the  study suggested  t i o n of the complicated urban renewal be achieved by making one a l l co-ordination.  that co-ordina-  process can best  agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r over-  Included among t h i s  agency's  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would be the p r e p a r a t i o n of the urban renewal  programme, the d e s i g n a t i o n of both  redevelop-  ment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas, the c a r r y i n g out o f p u b l i c works and  improvements, the enforcement of the  housing code and other r e l a t e d residents  by-laws and  i n v o l v e d i n the programme.  study proposed  advice to  The  Toronto  t h a t the P l a n n i n g Board s hould be made  the agency f o r o v e r a l l c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the programme:  i t already was  necessary f u n c t i o n s and was fulfill  the o t h e r s .  renewal  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some of the i n the l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n to  O p e r a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , how-  ever, would remain w i t h the o t h e r departments agencies.  For example, p u b l i c works would be  out by t h e v a r i o u s departments concerned, c o - o r d i n a t e d by the Planning Board.  and carried  but would be  S i m i l a r l y , hous-  i n g and o t h e r codes would be enforced by the d e p a r t ments p r e s e n t l y charged lity  withthem, but the  responsibi-  f o r enforcement would r e s t w i t h the c o - o r d i n a t -  i n g agency.  A l t e r n a t e l y , i t was  suggested  that a  118  team of i n s p e c t o r s from the v a r i o u s departments be used to c o - o r d i n a t e i n s p e c t i o n .  could  The s t u d i e s o f Windsor  and S a i n t John a l s o recommended t h a t the c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency f o r urban renewal should be w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g Planning  Department,  The Corner Brook and S t , John's s t u d i e s , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t a separate m u n i c i p a l renewal agency be c r e a t e d to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l aspects o f the p r o gramme.  I n Corner Brook i t was suggested t h a t  this  agency be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the C i t y Manager r a t h e r than form p a r t o f an e x i s t i n g department. S t . John's study recommended t h a t a f u l l  The  time ire new a l  agency should c o n t i n u a l l y s c r u t i n i z e the proposed r e newal programme,  and that the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and con-  s e r v a t i o n programme should e s p e c i a l l y be s u b j e c t to d a i l y guidance.  In addition a Municipal  Rehabilitation  Agency was proposed to p l a n and d i r e c t the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme which "should c o - o r d i n a t e code e n f o r c e ment,  p u b l i c i t y and e d u c a t i o n and ensure t h a t the c i t y ' s  p o r t i o n o f the programme i s c a r r i e d o u t , " - ^ son,  i  n  compari-  the urban renewal study o f T r a i l recommended a  more l o g i c a l p o l i c y f o r s m a l l e r c i t i e s :  i t was proposed  t h a t an Urban Renewal Committee o f C o u n c i l be e s t a b l i s h e d to. c o - o r d i n a t e a l l government renewal a c t i o n i n the city. I n Winnipeg  as i n S t .  John's,  two renewal  119  a g e n c i e s were p r o p o s e d . be f o r m e d  An Urban Renewal  o f t h e heads o f t h e c i t y  Board would  engineering,  p l a n n i n g , s u r v e y i n g and w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s , t o g e t h e r with five  appointed c i t i z e n s .  responsible  to C o u n c i l d i r e c t l y  committee on f i n a n c e .  T h i s board would through the  H o w e v e r , i t was  n e c e s s a r y t o have a s e p a r a t e c i t y  not  standing felt  department f o r r e -  n e w a l and use w o u l d be made o f e x i s t i n g s t a f f . B o a r d w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l e c t i n g renewal, including r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ,  be  The  areas of  and w o u l d  arrange  f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f p l a n s and t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a pilot project. W i n n i p e g was  The  s e c o n d agency p r o p o s e d f o r  an U r b a n C o n s e r v a t i o n and  Rehabilitation  B o a r d , w h i c h w o u l d be f o r m e d o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f W e l f a r e , the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , t h e C i t y E n g i n e e r , the C h i e f Medical  Officer  and f i v e  Board's d u t i e s would  appointed c i t i z e n s .  This  i n c l u d e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  d i r e c t i o n o f an a c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n and  rehabili-  t a t i o n programme, t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a minimum s t a n d a r d s o f o c c u p a n c y b y - l a w and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f home-owners' and t e n a n t s ' The  a s s o c i a t i o n s where  needed.  B o a r d w o u l d s e t up and a d m i n i s t e r a n e i g h b o u r h o o d  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n fund f o r loans or grants to persons s h o w i n g need;  and w o u l d  home-owner g r o u p s , b r i n g  a l s o , on the a d v i c e o f the notice of offences  merited prosecution before  the C o u n c i l .  which  120  The S a u l t S t e . Marie  study suggested  that •  o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r renewal must b e g i n w i t h C o u n c i l and a 'Redevelopment C o - o r d i n a t o r . '  This co-ordinator  would formulate o r c o n t r o l major p o l i c i e s  and would  e x e r c i s e general e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l over the improvement programme together w i t h c o - o r d i n a t i n g the p o l i c ies  and o p e r a t i o n s o f o f f i c i a l  agencies.  A  Redevel-  opment A u t h o r i t y would be e s t a b l i s h e d which would acquire and c l e a r land as p a r t o f i t s d u t i e s .  The  P l a n n i n g Board o f SaiiEt S t e . Marie would d e l i n e a t e the neighbourhoods and sub-areas and would prepare  f o r improvement a c t i o n  neighbourhood plans i n r e l a t i o n to  the l a r g e r p l a n n i n g elements.  The study  also stated  that the C i t y Department o f L i c e n c e s and I n s p e c t i o n s would enforce housing, b u i l d i n g , plumbing and f i r e bylaws and the zoning r e g u l a t i o n s . Summary Although first  priority  the areas of worst b l i g h t were g i v e n  i n most o f the Canadian urban renewal  s t u d i e s , proposals were made f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n most o f the s t u d i e s , i t being g e n e r a l l y recognized that a c t i o n was necessary  i n the areas s u f f e r i n g from  the i n i t i a l stages o f b l i g h t to prevent f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n to the p o i n t where redevelopment was  necessary.  However, the term ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' has been g i v e n d i f f e r e n t connotations:  i n some i n s t a n c e s e x t e n s i v e  121  i m p r o v e m e n t was p r o p o s e d , t i o n was p r o p o s e d f o r The same means o f were  proposed  i n others minimal r e h a b i l i t a -  areas of  i n most s t u d i e s ,  i n d i v i d u a l home-owner w e r e success of  dependent  enforcement  although the value  The f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  essarily  i n c l u d i n g the  t h a n c o e r c i o n was s t r e s s e d  a l t h o u g h the  clearance.  implementing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n proposals  o f minimum h o u s i n g c o d e s , ion rather  subsequent  of  i n several  rehabilitation for  not c o n s i d e r e d  on t h i s .  the  in detail  Regarding the importance of  is  nec-  administra-  co-ordinating  e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l f u n c t i o n s was r e c o g n i z e d , suggested  studies*  any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme  t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n the  most s t u d i e s  persuas-  and w h i l e  e s t a b l i s h i n g a renewal  section  w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g P l a n n i n g B o a r d , some c o n s i d e r e d c r e a t i o n of  an e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e  the  m u n i c i p a l department  necessary. Chapter IV i s questionnaires cities  where  attempt w i l l  largely  forwarded  renewal  to  use  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as  the o f f i c i a l s  responsible  the progress,  i n these c i t i e s ,  the f a c t o r s  limiting  of An  if  any,  together  t h e more  a renewal measure, for  to  have b e e n c o m p l e t e d .  be made t o e v a l u a t e  a p r e s e n t a t i o n of  on the r e p l i e s  the P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r s  studies  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures  based  as  with  effective s e e n by  administering renewal.  References 1  Dominion of Canada, S t a t u t e s , Part V .  2-3 E l i z a b e t h I I ,  c.23,  122  2  City  o f T o r o n t o , U r b a n Renewal: A Study o f the C i t y o f Toronto:? 1956, P r e p a r e d by the" A d v i s o r y Committee o n t h e U r b a n Renewal S t u d y , 1955*  3  City  o f H a l i f a x , Redevelopment Study o f H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , Prepared f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by G o r d o n S t e p h e n s o n , 1957•  k  Ibid,  p . 22.  5  Ibid,  p . 23..  6  City  7  Ibid,  p . 16.  8  Ibid,  p.  9  City  o f S a i n t J o h n , U r b a n Renewal S t u d y o f S a i n t P r e p a r e d f o r t h e C i t y C o u n c i l by G e o r g e s P o t v i n , 1957*  John,  o f Vancouver, Vancouver Redevelopment Study, P r e p a r e d by t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Department f o r t h e H o u s i n g R e s e a r c h Committee,  195710  I b i d , p.61.  11  City  o f W i n n i p e g , A n U r b a n Renewal S t u d y f o r t h e C i t y of Winnipeg: The CPR - flotre Dame A r e a , P r e p a r e d by W o l f g a n g G e r s o n and S p o n s o r e d by C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and the C i t y o f W i n n i p e g , 1957•  12  City  o f H a m i l t o n , U r b a n Renewal S t u d y , 1958, P r e p a r e d by t h e C i t y o f H a m i l t o n P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ,  1959o f London, A P l a n f o r D e v e l o p m e n t and R e d e v e l o p ment, I960 - 1980, P r e p a r e d f o r t h e C i t y C o u n c i l by G o r d o n S t e p h e n s o n , i 9 6 0 .  13  City  11+  Ibid,  15  City  o f W i n d s o r , A F i f t e e n Y e a r Programme f o r t h e U r b a n Renewal o f t h e C i t y o f W i n d s o r and i t s M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, Prepared f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by E.G. F a l u d i and A s s o c i a t e s , 1959*  16  City  o f M o n t r e a l , C o m p r e h e n s i v e U r b a n Renewal S t u d y : C i t y o f M o n t r e a l , P r e p a r e d f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . , I 9 6 I .  17  City  o f S t . J o h n ' s , U r b a n Renewal S t u d y , P r e p a r e d f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1961.  p . 1.  123  18  City  o f S a s k a t o o n , H o u s i n g R e p o r t , 1961, P r e p a r e d by t h e C i t y o f S a s k a t o o n P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g  Department,  19  City  20  Ibid,  21  City  I96I.  o f SaiLt S t e . M a r i e , R e b u i l d i n g a C i t y : The U r b a n Renewal o f G r e a t e r S a l t S t e . M a r i e , P r e p a r e d f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by E.G. F a l u d i and A s s o c i a t e s 1961. p.  105.  o f V i c t o r i a , U r b a n Renewal S t u d y f o r V i c t o r i a , P r e p a r e d f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1961.  22  Ibid,  23  City  p.18. of K i n g s t o n , A P l a n n i n g Study f o r K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o , P r e p a r e d f o r t h e C i t y C o u n c i l by G o r d o n S t e p h e n s o n and G. G e o r g e M u i r h e a d ,  I960.  2i}.  City  o f C o r n e r B r o o k , A n U r b a n Renewal S t u d y f o r C o r n e r Brook^ N e w f o u n d l a n d , P r e p a r e d f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l by P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g Associates, Ltd., 1962.  25  City  of V i c t o r i a ,  26  L e t t e r f r o m Mr. D o n a l d Buck, R e d e v e l o p m e n t Officer, C i t y o f S a i n t J o h n , New B r u n s w i c k , M a r c h 21, I963.  27  Letter  28  L e t t e r f r o m Mr. J . Thomas C. Waram, P l a n n i n g Commiss i o n e r and D i r e c t o r o f U r b a n Renewal, C i t y o f H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , M a r c h 12, I963.  29  City  30  Ibid,  31  Ontario  32  B a r n e t L i e b e r m a n , "Code E n f o r c e m e n t : T o o l i n P l a n n i n g and U r b a n  op. c i t . ,  p.35-  f r o m Mr. W.E. Graham, B u i l d i n g D i r e c t o r and C i t y P l a n n e r , C i t y o f Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 196-3.  of Saskatoon, op. c i t . , p.  p.  79.  78. Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Community P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , A B e t t e r P l a c e to L i v e , Second I n t e r i m R e p o r t ( T o r o n t o : 0~ntario Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , I96I) A Neglected Renewal,"  121+  P l a n n i n g , 1961 Chicago: American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 196l),p.l5. 33  Detroit  C i t y Plan Commission, (Detroit: Detroit  1962). p.62.  R e n e w a l and R e v e n u e C i t y P l a n Commission,  31+  Edgar  35  F . E . W e l l w o o d , "Code E n f o r c e m e n t : A Neglected Tool i n P l a n n i n g a nd U r b a n R e n e w a l , Planning, I96I ( C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1961), p.27.  36  City  37  Ontario  D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Community Planning Branch, A Better Place to l i v e , F i n a l Report (Toronto: Ontario Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1962).  38  Stanley  H.  M.  E w i n g , " U r b a n Renewal i n N e i g h b o u r h o o d s : The P o t e n t i a l s and P r o b l e m s . " Paper read at the S a n F r a n c i s c o P l a n n i n g and U r b a n Renewal A s s o c i a t i o n A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , S a n F r a n c i s c o , ' C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y 29,1963.  of Saskatoon, op.  cit.,  p.  97  P i c k e t t , "Redevelopment F o r e s t a l l e d : A Case f o r A r e a R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , " Community P l a n n i n g R e v i e w . I X , N o . 1 ( M a r c h 1959),  p.12.  39  Jack  M.  S i e g e l and C . W i l l i a m B r o o k s , S l u m P r e v e n t i o n through Conservation and Rehabilitation, R e p o r t o f t h e S u b c o m m i t t e e o n U r b a n Red e v e l o p m e n t and C o n s e r v a t i o n t o t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s A d v i s o r y Committee on Government H o u s i n g P o l i c i e s and P r o g r a m s (Washi n g t o n , D.C.: U . S . G o v e r n m e n t Printing O f f i c e , 1953), p.22.  1+0  Ibid,  1+1  Ewing,  1+2  Province  p.  23.  op.c i t . of British  Columbia, Vancouver Charter,  (3). 1+3  City  •  o f T r a i l , A Study f o r U r b a n Renewal i n T r a i l , B .C~ P r e p a r e d f o r t h e City~C~ounc i l by H . P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r and R . J . C a v e , 1959. (  1+1+  Ibid,  1+5  City  lj.6  Ibid,  s  p.23. of Kingston, p.33.  op. c i t . ,  p.33.  .568  125  City  o f London, op, c i t . ,  p.60.  Richard  S t e i n e r , "A B r o a d Look a t R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Problems,,". The J o u r n a l o f H o u s i n g , X V I , N o . 5 (May, 19^9), p.151": ~ "A P o s i t i v e A p p r o a c h t o U r b a n R e n e w a l , " C i v i c A f f a i r s (Toronto: Bureau o f M u n i c i p a l Research, M a r c h , 1962), p.6.  Ewing,  op. c i t .  M. C a r t e r M c P a r l a n d , R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e H a r l e m Park A r e a , Baltimore, M a r y l a n d . (Washington, D.C.: The F e d e r a l H o u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , The B a l t i m o r e U r b a n R e n e w a l and H o u s i n g A g e n c y , 1962). S t e i n e r , op. c i t . ,  p . 152.  I b i d , p . 152. C i t y of T o r o n t o , op. c i t . , Ontario  p . V.  D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Community P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , H o u s i n g Code P r o g r a m s , A Summary o f E x p e r i e n c e o n S e l e c t e d A m e r i c a n Communities (Toronto: O n t a r i o Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1961).  D e t r o i t C i t y P l a n Commission, Ewing,  18.  op. c i t . ,  p.3»  op. c i t .  I n t e r v i e w w i t h D r . A l b e r t Rose, V i c e - C h a i r m a n , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Housing A u t h o r i t y , M a r c h IJ4, 1963. C i t y o f S t . John's, op. c i t . ,  p . ]±6.  CHAPTER I V R E S I D E N T I A L R E H A B I L I T A T I O N I N CANADA; AN EVALUATION To  evaluate  the present  renewal s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  p o s i t i o n o f Canadian urban  regarding current l o c a l  on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , questionnaires  (see A p p e n d i x ) were  to the P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r s o f c i t i e s The  replies  w i t h completed  views sent  studies.  i n d i c a t e d t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f p r o b l e m s i n some  c i t i e s , w h i l e o t h e r p r o b l e m s were r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f Canada. Acceptance of the Urban Renewal S t u d i e s Few o f t h e c i t i e s give formal  approval  have c o n s i d e r e d  to the reports.  i t desirable to  M r . R. N i n o ,  e c t o r o f t h e S a u l t S t e . M a r i e and S u b u r b a n P l a n n i n g indicated  that the c i t y could  r o v a l as i t c o u l d  not bind  x  DirBoard,  s e e no p u r p o s e i n s u c h app-  any s u b s e q u e n t C o u n c i l t o i m p l e -  ment f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t u d y .  The r e p o r t was  considered  r a t h e r as a b a s i s f o r s u b s e q u e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o C o u n c i l , and  t h i s was how t h e s t u d y  was a c t u a l l y b e i n g  126  used.  127  Similarly,  Mr.  G.G.  Muirhead, f o r m e r l y  for  the C i t y  of Kingston,  not  intended  as  a specific  proposals  or  ideas, designed  of  vate  interests  improvements. be  the  Plans to  the  that' the K i n g s t o n  p r o p o s a l , b u t was to  guide  The  logical  Planning  Board:  C o u n c i l f o r adoption..  The  and  a series pri-  community  Redevelopment  would be  principal  was  r e p o r t would  P l a n and  these  study  p u b l i c and  outcome o f t h e  an O f f i c i a l  Planning  rather  concerned with redevelopment  preparation of by  noted  D i r e c t o r of  presented  proposals  of  the  3 London study, of  the  ated  City  of  Official  out  Guard,  general  extent  already  Planning  O f f i c e r f o r the  The  policies  study of the  C o u n c i l , but  was  not  the  costs  of  substantial. the  St. with-  i n princertain  programme.  "the b a s i c  strategy  i n t e r m s o f what i s a t o l e r a b l e b u r d e n , " 5  a  s  the s c h e m e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t were q u i t e Mr.  John i n d i c a t e d that  to c r e a t e  a new  that  a total  s c h e m e was  not  fore  the  question of "The  existing  point  immediately  p o s s i b l e and  s t a f f was  engineering  the p r e l i m i n a r y  forward  the c u r r e n t v i e w  urban renewal department  a separate  were a b l e t o d e a l w i t h from that  City  not  to a  d i s c e r n i b l e i n the C i t y ' s p l a n n i n g  proposal  requirement.  adopted  report being  m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h investment  Director  progressively incorpor-  b e e n w e l l r e c e i v e d by C i t y  the  Planning  t h a t t h e U r b a n Renewal S t u d y o f  certain criticisms.  The  D.  0  Tudor John,^ C i t y  ciple,  of  Plan  S t . John's, r e p l i e d  John's had  t o Mr.  o f London, were b e i n g  i n the Mr.  according  consultants  not  and  an  planning  other  was there-  immediate  economics, or  of  staffs and  128  m e t h o d s w o u l d be u s e d ment."  according to t h e scale of develop-  6  The  Windsor renewal  s t u d y was p r e s e n t e d  C o u n c i l o n May 1+, i 9 6 0 . Board r e q u e s t e d ciple, study  On May 1 9 ,  the P l a n n i n g  t h a t C o u n c i l approve the study  and s h o r t l y to the C i t y  afterwards  i n prin-  the C o u n c i l referred  Manager f o r s t u d y  by d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s p r i o r was f e l t ,  i960,  to City  the  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  to adoption.  Some  concern  a c c o r d i n g t o M r . L.R. K e d d y , ^ A c t i n g D i r e c t o r  o f P l a n n i n g and U r b a n R e n e w a l i n W i n d s o r , t h a t t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o p o s a l s m i g h t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p l a n s o f o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s , b u t M r . Keddy gested  t h e r e was p e r h a p s some m i s c o n c e p t i o n  of t h e C i v i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e g a r d i n g these  w h i c h were o n l y i n t e n d e d  on the p a r t proposals  t o i l l u s t r a t e methods o f r e n -  e w a l t o be a p p l i e d t o a n a r e a , d e t a i l s t u d i e s b e i n g sequently  developed  departments.  sub-  i n conjunction w i t h other municipal  The f o r m e r W i n d s o r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t had  been r e o r g a n i z e d  and was.now c a l l e d  P l a n n i n g and U r b a n R e n e w a l .  the Department o f  M r . Keddy s u g g e s t e d ,  e v e r , t h a t t h i s d e p a r t m e n t was n o t e q u i p p e d all  sug-  phases o f a renewal  how-  t o handle  programme, b u t r a t h e r w o u l d w o r k  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other municipal departments. I n January,  I96I  representative citizen's  the C i t y  of Hamilton  appointed  g r o u p as a n U r b a n R e n e w a l Com-  m i t t e e whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1958 U r b a n R e n e w a l R e p o r t .  i n c l u d e d a study o f the M r . J . Thomas C. Waram,®  a  129  P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n e r and the C i t y ,  indicated  embarked o n Official  a two  t h a t the C i t y  year  P l a n and  D i r e c t o r of U r b a n Renewal f o r  study  P l a n and  the Z o n i n g By-law.  w o u l d be  aspect  incorporated  i n the  One o f t h e f i r s t  U r b a n R e n e w a l C o m m i t t e e was situation  the United  ecutive Secretary revealed  States.  that probably  w h i c h was  blighting  even charm of and  b e e n one  the  T J a e  a  r  e  a  creeping  possessed  The  the  accent  this  would  commitarea  from  i n of  such and  an atmosphere  t h r o u g h the d i v e r s i t y  of  induand  housing  of p l a n n i n g proposals  improvement r a t h e r  Thus H a m i l t o n has  S a i n t J o h n s t u d y was was  Ex-  9  a t t e n t i o n t o an  t h a n most C a n a d i a n c i t i e s  and  of  priority  as h e a v y t h r o u g h t r a f f i c  I t s own  clearance.  The  renewal  parts  which s u f f e r e d  gradual  o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and  initiative  the  Emslie,  the f i r s t  n e c e s s i t y o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  the C i t y  tasks of  redevelopment.  its full  1 0  a g e s , and  wholesale the  and  only  sound b u t  Influences  uses."  and  turned  basically  " a d v a n c i n g age  types  appropriate  the l o c a l  D.G.  Offic-  i n the U r b a n Renewal s t u d y ,  t o t a l clearance  tee subsequently  strial  of the  o f the C o m m i t t e e , commented t h a t  r e n e w a l area-, d e f i n e d require  Mr.  the  urban ren-  i n r e l a t i o n to a c t i v i t i e s i n other  C a n a d a and  study  to study  had  update  The  one  p o r t i o n s o f the p l a n .  Board  t o r e v i s e and  e w a l programme c o n s t i t u t e d b u t ial  Planning  has  has  than  come to/ r e a l i z e e x e r c i s e d more  i n this  regard.  adopted i n p r i n c i p l e  by  passed to the Urban Renewal Commission  130  f o r recommendation. E a s t End  As  a r e s u l t f i f t y - s e v e n acres  p r o j e c t were b e i n g  c l e a r e d for  A n U r b a n R e d e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e was administration, Officer,  and  Mr.  efforts"  i n the  1 1  and  largely  created  co-ordinate  I96I.  i n the C i t y  as p a r t o f t h e s t u d y 12 Haxby  Professor Gerson  Senior  indicated a r e a was  The  first  was  o f W i n n i p e g , and  a  Research Planner  presently i n progress, published.  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would o f f e r C i t y ' s older housing from the  of  the  was  t h i s was  individual  This  Mr.  W.T.  Winnipeg,  of the  metropolitan  t h a t an i n t e r i m r e p o r t  report  the b e s t  reviewed  indicated that  chance of redeeming be  the  maintained  t h e c o m m u n i t y as w e l l a s  the  owner.  Considering Mr.  and  and  Planning D i v i s i o n  stock, which should  p o i n t of view of  and  general  of the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  t h a t an u r b a n r e n e w a l s t u d y  a b o u t t o be  to  several studies i n i t s short  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of G r e a t e r  study  scene,  d e f i n i n g areas of redevelopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  conservation  was  acted  However, the U r b a n Renewal  i t conducted  b e t w e e n 193>9 and  study  not  c i t y were c o n s i d e r e d  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n B o a r d recommended by  life  a l l urban renewal  o f W i n n i p e g was  areas of the  be more i n need o f s t u d y .  and  Redevelopment  to a change i n the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l  as a r e s u l t o t h e r  established  w i t h i n the C i t y ' s  city.  P r o f e s s o r G-erson's s t u d y u p o n due  redevelopment.  Donald Buck, the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t "we  i n the  W.E.  the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of the  Graham, C i t y  Planner  and  Saskatoon  Building Director  131  f o r the C i t y ,  stated:  "We have:,- u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a v e r y  e x t e n s i v e P l a n n i n g p r o g r a m , and many o f t h e t h i n g s we had  hoped t o be d o i n g u n d e r t h e H o u s i n g  y e t u n d e r way."13 ous r e a s o n s ' statement  M r . Graham i n d i c a t e d  t h e r e p o r t was n o t a c c e p t e d  Report,  are not  that f o r 'obvias a  complete  o f a c t i o n , b u t t h a t s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s were  a c c e p t e d , and were b e i n g i n i t i a t e d .  F o r example, the  P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t was p r e s e n t l y p r e p a r ing a detailed  s t u d y o f a l l 'unmodern' and d i l a p i d a t e d  houses I n the C i t y :  t h e r e p o r t w o u l d be s u b m i t t e d t o  C i t y C o u n c i l w i t h recommendations f o r a c t i o n . zoning proposals outlined carried  o u t o r were u n d e r way.  the f i r s t had  i n the Report  The r e -  had a l r e a d y b e e n  Furthermore,  studies of  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a ha<d b e e n c o m p l e t e d .  accepted,  i nprinciple,  Council  a r e p l o t t i n g scheme t o r e -  o r g a n i z e t h e a r e a , b u t t h e r e had n o t y e t been time t o effectuate the proposal.  The C i t y h a d a l s o b e g u n c o n -  s t r u c t i o n o f o v e r one h u n d r e d s u b s i d i z e d l o w r e n t a l housing u n i t s w i t h i n areas  suggested  F i n a l l y , t h e R e p o r t had b e e n p a s s e d s i o n e r t o t he v a r i o u s c i t y  by t h e r e p o r t .  by t h e C i t y Commis-  departments,  and e a c h d e p a r t -  ment a f f e c t e d by t h e R e p o r t was t o make i t s own i n d e p endent s t u d y .  M r . Graham commented t h a t a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  programme i n S a s k a t o o n w o u l d be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f C i t y C o u n c i l , which would e i t h e r delegate a s p e c i a l committee t o a d m i n i s t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures, o r would d e l e g a t e the a u t h o r i t y  to the Housing  Committee.  132  The  P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t was i n d i c a t e d  as b e i n g  the l i k e l y f u n c t i o n a r y . Mr. H . N . L a s h , P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t , a n s w e r i n g enquiry forwarded  to the D i r e c t o r of Planning i n Montreal,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e C i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n on the renewal to the C i t y Montreal  an  study  no  and t h a t i t had b e e n r e f e r r e d  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t f o r s t u d y and r e p o r t .  s t u d y , as p o i n t e d o u t By M r . L a s h ,  The  i n c l u d e d sum-  mary r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n m e a s u r e s b u t d i d n o t bring  actual policy  cited  as a n e x a m p l e , a n i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e  had  been working  months:  any c l o s e r t o r e a l i t y .  Mr. Lash  on a 'standard of housing'  i t was e x p e c t e d  a code was p r o d u c e d .  which  code f o r s i x  t o d e l i b e r a t e much l o n g e r  before  The s t u d y was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a  ' c l e a r a n c e and r e d e v e l o p m e n t '  r e p o r t and t h e C i t y  n i n g D e p a r t m e n t was d e v e l o p i n g an. i n d e p e n d e n t  Plan-  approach  to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Minimum S t a n d a r d s The codes,  Codes  s i g n i f i c a n c e of e f f e c t i v e housing  and b u i l d i n g  as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , was r e c o g n i z e d i n most o f t h e  Canadian urban renewal proposed  studies.  The S t . J o h n ' s  study  that an examination of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g , h e a l t h ,  z o n i n g and o t h e r r e l a t e d c o d e s be made t o i m p r o v e t h e c o n t r o l over e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s . Building  C u r r e n t l y , the C i t y ' s  R e g u l a t i o n s were b e i n g r e v i s e d ,  i s i o n o f c o d e s as s u c h  i s not l i k e l y  "but the r e v -  to achieve the  c o m p l e t e answer r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n t r o l o f h o u s i n g e x c e p t i n  133  certain specified a r e a s . A s stating  fires  Mr. J o h n quality  i n S t . John's  indicated  that  was  aware o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  was  still  the C o u n c i l  and t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e s  protection.  the o c c u r r e n c e of devawithin living  was c o n c e r n e d  in;.the C i t y and was f o r occupancy,  memory,  w i t h the fully  s a f e t y and  The v a l u e o f c o n t r o l o f e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g  r e c o g n i z e d , but the problem  appeared  t o be t h e d e g r e e  o f f r e q u e n c y and e x t e n t o f h o u s i n g i n s p e c t i o n with.the s m a l l  staff  In Saint  possible  available.  John,  the p r e v i o u s l y  mentioned  (p.69 )  Minimum H o u s i n g S t a n d a r d s B y l a w was b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d it  was  year.  proposed Indeed  Provincial City.  t o s t e p us t h i s this  programme  enforcement  cost-sharing  was  i n t h e coming  a pre-requisite of  i n the r e n e w a l  The C i t y o f H a l i f a x has r e v i s e d  O r d i n a n c e £ 0 t o e n f o r c e minimum  and  projects  of t h e  the inadequate  s t a n d a r d s o f h o u s i n g and  Mr. K.M.'Munnich, D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g f o r t he C i t y , stated  that  "the enforcement  utes c o n s i d e r a b l y of  residential  ordinance  Ordinance  t o the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  properties.  resulted  of t h i s  in  n l  6  and  contrib-  maintenance  C i t y a c t i o n under  this  7>5£l properties being renovated  i n 1961-62. The  Manitoba  have no p a r a l l e l peg  regulations,  i n North America,  i n p a r t i c u l a r has shown t h a t  enforceable. deficient  as i n d i c a t e d  earlier,  and t h e C i t y o f W i n n i these r e g u l a t i o n s are  However, a s Mr. Haxby i n d i c a t e d , t h e y were  i n that  t h e y were h e a l t h , r e g u l a t i o n s  and r e l a t e d  13k  solely  to conditions  vidual.  a f f e c t i n g the h e a l t h o f an i n d i -  Structural, electrical,  and f i r e  d e f i c i e n c i e s had t o be r e f e r r e d t o o t h e r health regulations  d i d not s u f f i c i e n t l y  idated buildings. mended t o C o u n c i l and  agencies, regulate  health  regulations  o r a t i o n enforces zoning  dilaprecom-  t h a t a minimum s t a n d a r d s o f o c c u p a n c y  The C i t y o f W i n n i p e g p r e s e n t l y and f i r e  thus  Director recently  m a i n t e n a n c e b y - l a w be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e  area.  a  The P l a n n i n g  protection  Metropolitan  enforces  the  and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Corp-  t h e b u i l d i n g , p l u m b i n g , e l e c t r i c a l and  by-laws.  I t was c o n s i d e r e d  'minimum s t a n d a r d s '  ropolitan Corporation  by-law being  that i n the event o f e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e Met-  w o u l d become t h e c o - o r d i n a t i n g  agency, l e a v i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t h e a r e a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The  problem o f inadequate s t a f f  a p p e a r e d t o be a  common w e a k n e s s i n code e n f o r c e m e n t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e present lack of enabling London intended  legislation.  e s t a b l i s h i n g a minimum s t a n d a r d s  when t h e P r o v i n c e  of Ontario  enacted  l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h would e l i m i n a t e difficulties  H a m i l t o n and  anticipated  Mr. War am, i n  remaining  difficulty  w o u l d t h e n be t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l l i n g n e s s t o e n f o r c e a by-law.  Kingston  has c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s s e d  Government t o e n a c t t h e r e q u i r e d  enabling  t h e l e g a l and t e c h n i c a l  i n enforcement p r a c t i c e .  H a m i l t o n , commented t h a t t h e o n l y  by-law,  enabling  to p e r m i t i t t o adopt a H o u s i n g Code.  such  the Ontario  legislation  135  R e f e r r i n g to t h i s formerly City it  t y p e o f c o n t r o l Mr. Roy ¥ . B a l s t o n , '  Planning O f f i c e r f o r S t . John's, considered  a particularly  e n f o r c e because  onerous  i t was  t a s k and  unlikely  always d i f f i c u l t  to  to receive p o l i t i c a l  p o r t - e v e n when t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n was  sup-  passed.  Mr. K e d d y , i n V J i n d s o r , commented t h a t i n i t i a l had b e e n t a k e n t o a f f e c t  improvements  i n the twenty  dec lining.;:, a r e as o f t h e c i t y . A C o u n c i l member had t h a t a c t i o n be  steps defined  proposed  t a k e n t o s t o p the spread of b l i g h t i n  o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e need f o r u l t i m a t e r e d e v e l o p m e n t , s p e c i a l committee appointed. for  o n Minimum S t a n d a r d s o f H o u s i n g  A full  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme was  one o f t h e d e c l i n i n g a r e a s and  coupled w i t h the enforcement ards Housing By-law.  t h i s was  and  a  was proposed  t o have b e e n  o f t h e C i t y ' s Minimum S t a n d -  To d a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n o f  thirty-  e i g h t d w e l l i n g s had b e e n a s s e s s e d i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e extent of required  improvements.  The  f a t e of a l l too  many r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o p o s a l s , h o w e v e r , was Mr. K e d d y ' s comment: the  demands i m p o s e d  " T h i s i s now upon t h i s  specific  recommendations  a t a s t a n d s t i l l due  department  Sprae comments w e r e r e c e i v e d  summed up i n  by  redevelopment,"  on the p r o g r e s s of  c o n t a i n e d i n the s t u d i e s .  Reco-  mmendations i n the S a u l t S t e . M a r i e r e p o r t r e g a r d i n g purchase of lands f o r p a r k s , the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of w o r k s programmes and be c a r r i e d  that  ' u n d e s i r a b l e ' development,  the  public  the c l o s i n g of c e r t a i n s t r e e t s ,  o u t when e a c h p r o p o s a l i s i m p l e m e n t e d .  also proposed  to  will  I t was  that i s ,  136  development not w o u l d be permits be  i n accord  prevented  by p r o h i b i t i n g  w i t h i n designated  achieved  N i n o ' s o p i n i o n was  extensive land  use  area  that specific Citizen  the Z o n i n g By-laws  politically  must a c c e p t to the  s u c h t i m e as we  be  to  an  adopt  areas  recommended  redevelop-  are ready to  will  attack  area." ? x <  strikingly little  reiterated  seven points  provided  of urban renewal  emphasis i n C a n a d i a n r e p o r t s States, although  t h a t s u c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one  i n the U n i t e d f o r before  Considerable  States  Federal  assistance  board would  t h a t u r b a n r e n e w a l was Mr.  Keddy i n d i c a t e d  the  and  i s approved.  o r g a n i z a t i o n t o o b t a i n i n t e r e s t and  because an  part  planning  a citizen's  support.  b e e n made i n K i n g s t o n  the  integral  t h a t the  assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f  p r o n o u n c e m e n t has  i t  r e l u c t a n c e t o e s t a b l i s h l o c a l community  f e e l i n g was  of c i t y p l a n n i n g .  of  'Workable Program'  o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t e d i n Windsor, apparently general  covered  that c e r t a i n  i n comparison w i t h studies in:the United  m u s t be  pattern.  impossible  community p a r t i c i p a t i o n aspect  received  should  only  Partieipation  The has  building  However, t h i s c o u l d  t h a t s i n c e the p r o p o s a l s  "We  until  the g r a n t i n g of  P l a n and  to develop contrary  ment p r o p o s a l s  recommendations,  t h e p r o p o s e d l a n d use  i t w o u l d be  changes.  continue  areas.  i f the O f f i c i a l  w e r e amended t o p r o v i d e Mr.  w i t h the Report's  No  regarding  official such  137  community g r o u p s , w h i l e i n London t h e o n l y a c t i o n has b e e n C o u n c i l e n d o r s a t i o n o f t h e L o n d o n B r a n c h o f t h e Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada. c i t i z e n s groups i n areas specifically called a c t i o n should  r e q u i r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was ' n o t  f o r ' i n Toronto,  aside from various church  appears t o have been v e r y  a t i o n i n the area designated first  and i t was f e l t  little  groups,  community  organiz-  f o rrehabilitation,  three p u b l i c meetings conducted  The  i n t h e a r e a by t h e  U r b a n R e n e w a l C o m m i t t e e drew a n a t t e n d a n c e o f a b o u t and  that  come f r o m t h e home-owners.  I n Hamilton, there  The f o r m a t i o n o f  IqJOO  an o r g a n i z a t i o n was f o r m e d , b u t M r . Waram d i d n o t  t h i n k i t had b e e n a t a l l a c t i v e f o r s i x months t o a y e a r . Mr. Waram. commented t h a t h a d t h e r e b e e n a c t i v e c o m m u n i t y organizations f u n c t i o n i n g i n the d i s t r i c t ,  the community  r e l a t i o n s problem would probably  simplified.  Little  have b e e n  o f f i c i a l comment h a s b e e n made i n S t . J o h n ' s  on t h e f o r m a t i o n leadership:  o f community groups t o p r o v i d e  "Politically  a c e r t a i n amount o f h a y c a n be  made, b u t I t h i n k t h a t M u n i c i p a l and P r o v i n c i a l are v e r y w e l l • a c q u a i n t e d t a t i o n . "2° in  local  leaders  w i t h the problems o f r e h a b i l i -  M r . J o h n commented o n t h e u s e o f s u c h g r o u p s  the U n i t e d  'togetherness'  S t a t e s , but thought that while c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d  a feeling of  i n some c o m m u n i t i e s ,  t h e r e was no c o n v i c t i o n t h a t any n a t i o n a l o r common d e n o m i n a t o r c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d . An  i n t e r e s t i n g comment came f r o m S a s k a t o o n , wherev  138  as I n d i c a t e d  earlier,  rehabilitation.  the C i t y i s already  active i n  Mr. Graham g a v e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e  amount o f p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e ; six  hundred  'unmodern' h o u s e s  e x i s t i n g two y e a r s a g o ,  r e n t s t u d i e s showed t h a t o v e r two h u n d r e d already been modernized. a c t i v e c i t i z e n groups:  out o f the cur-  o f them had  Thus no need was s e e n t o f o r m t h e a c t i o n was  individual  and  spontaneous. Mr. N i n o commented t h a t no o f f i c i a l  encouragement  i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s has made i n S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , a l t h o u g h t h i s was  been  being consid-  e r e d i f a n when t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a p r o p o s a l d e p e n d ing  t o a l a r g e degree In  o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  the f i r s t r e n e w a l p r o j e c t  ' ant i - r e n e w a l ' g r o u p was l a c k o f good p u b l i c City  to encourage  tions.'  One  i n S a i n t John,  a c t i v e f o r about  relations  i n this  the f o r m a t i o n of  attempted. an  a y e a r , and  p r o j e c t l e d the  'Improvement A s s o c i a -  o f t h e s e has b e e n f o r m e d  i n the next poss-  i b l e r e n e w a l a r e a t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p , and Development O f f i c e r c o n s i d e r e d t h i s ial  the  type of group e s s e n t -  t o t h e s u c c e s s o f any r e n e w a l programme. W i n n i p e g has  not y e t ' o f f i c i a l l y '  encouraged  the  f o r m a t i o n of c i t i z e n groups, but the I n t e r i m Report of the urban renewal study w i l l Neighbourhood  suggest the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a  Improvement A g e n c y .  T h i s would  C e n t r a l A g e n c y t o d i r e c t programmes, and w o u l d  be  a  a c t as t h e  139  f o c a l point of  a community w i d e  improvement e f f o r t .  Haxby i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d be zing local  agencies  and  habilitation areas". P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l and already  Apparently  the  Technical the  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women a r e respect  i n Winnipeg.  C i t y C o u n c i l o n F e b r u a r y I4.,  P l a n n i n g B o a r d was  first  re-  t h e Community. W e l f a r e  V a n c o u v e r R e d e v e l o p m e n t s t u d y was  p r i n c i p l e by  "organi-  a s s i s t i n g them i n d e s i g n a t e d  quite active i n this The  for  2 1  responsible for  Mr.  authorized  approved  1958  and  the  to prepare  plans  r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t , i n v o l v i n g the  pro-  v i s i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r p e r s o n s d i s p l a c e d by  the  clearance  project.  by  City,  P r o v i n c i a l and  the  F o l l o w i n g subsequent approval Federal  I n September 1 9 6 1 s t u d i e s began on indicating  initiated  a c q u i s i t i o n and  'Project 2 , '  clearance  t o i m p r o v e d e t e r i o r a t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s by and  the  Skeena S t r e e t . which  measures  "a programme o f l i m i t e d r e d e v e l o p m e n t  clearance,  first  governments, c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g b e g a n a t M c L e a n P a r k and  sides  in  be-  also  designed  judicious  o t h e r measure, w i t h l e s s expenditures  spot than  22  by  full  scale clearance."  Commenting o n t h e  Report's 23  proposal  in a brief  submitted  to C i t y C o u n c i l ,  V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n and  The  the Vancouver  Branch  o f t h e Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d a  criti-  cized  the r e p o r t  made t o i n f o r m  a t t e m p t had  the r e s i d e n t s i n the  t a t i o n p l a n s , and the  i n t h a t no  apparently  area of the  to seek t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n .  R e p o r t a p p e a r e d t o be  but  an i n i t i a l  one,  been  rehabiliHowever,  several  240' f a c t o r s b e i n g s t a t e d as b e i n g u n d e r f u r t h e r s t u d y ,  and  a p p a r e n t l y i t seemed u n n e c e s s a r y  to i n f o r m people  of r e -  h a b i l i t a t i o n measures u n t i l  had  formu-  they  been c l e a r l y  lated • In Victoria, of the C i t y Council, to the  and  t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s f o r an  have b e e n approved detailed  p l a n s have been prepared  s e n i o r governments.  to other C i t y plans  i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e  The  and w i l l  area  City  and  submitted  redevelopment i s r e l a t e d  p r o b a b l y be  initiated.  How-  e v e r , the p r o p o s a l s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a West are a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . of the C a p i t a l indicated and  Mr. A.H.  Columbia,  t h a t : "Everyone i s i n f a v o u r of e v e r y t h i n g  there i t stands."  2 i l  "  Mr.  J.C.  V i c t o r i a has  kindle local  r  n  e  and  expenditure.  knock on  that local  This i s o f t e n the spark  interest  Engineer  i m p r o v e m e n t programme  that his staff actually  i n c e r t a i n a r e a s where i t i s f e l t are n e c e s s a r y .  t t , ^ City 2  a  i n terms o f  a most a c t i v e l o c a l  arnett said  G  --  t h a t perhaps the b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g  f r o m the p r o p o s a l s were too few  G  Planning Director  Region P l a n n i n g Board of B r i t i s h  of V i c t o r i a , considered  Mr.  Roberts,  doors  improvements  t h a t i s needed  t h i s programme has  and  to  apparently  b e e n most s u c c e s s f u l . Some O b s t a c l e s  to  Rehabilitation  Many o f t h e r e p l i e s  to t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  comments o n o b s t a c l e s t o t h e more e f f e c t i v e use  contained of  rehabili-  li+1  t a t i o n as a means o f i m p r o v i n g most r e p e a t e d cial  incial  provided  under e x i s t i n g  Guard, i n London, c o n s i d e r e d  and F e d e r a l g r a n t s  being  legislation. the l a c k o f Prov-  t o be t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e t o t h e  more e f f e c t i v e u s e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . expressed  The  comment was t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f a v a i l a b l e f i n a n -  resources Mr.  d e c l i n i n g areas.  Mr. N i n o  also  t h i s o p i n i o n and added t h a t S a u l t S t e . M a r i e ,  i n t h e same f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n as m o s t m u n i c i p a l i -  t i e s , could  not a f f o r d the complete costs o f an e f f e c t i v e  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme.  Mr. N i n o c o n s i d e r e d  a s s i s t a n c e f o r 'spot c l e a r a n c e ' t h a t a s s i s t a n c e was n e c e s s a r y i m p r o v e m e n t s and o t h e r Mr.  should  that  be c l a r i f i e d and  to help finance street  public works.  Keddy, i n W i n d s o r , c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t the d e f i n i -  t i o n o f ' r e d e v e l o p m e n t ' i n S e c t i o n 20 o f t h e O n t a r i o n i n g A c t was s u f f i c i e n t l y of urban renewal,  islation failed  b r o a d t o encompass a l l p h a s e s  including rehabilitation,  a n c e c o u l d be o b t a i n e d  Plan-  from the P r o v i n c e ,  to provide  thus  assist-  but Federal  leg-  assistance to M u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s , a p a r t f r o m it he a c q u i s i t i o n and clearance  of p a r t i c u l a r l y  Referring  blighted buildings.  again t o t h e inadequacy of f i n a n c i a l  i s t a n c e f o r used h o u s i n g  Mr. B a l s t o n ' s  cryptic  comment  was t h a t i t was b o t h c h e a p e r and e a s i e r t o e x t e n d ment o n t h e p e r i p h e r y . Mr.  ass-  develop-  B o t h M r . B u c k i n S a i n t J o h n and  Lawson i n Toronto i n d i c a t e d , t h a t t h e l a c k o f adequate  f i n a n c i n g was one o f t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s  t o be o v e r c o m e  llj.2  before  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u l d become more e f f e c t i v e .  Haxby i n W i n n i p e g c o n s i d e r e d were the and  the  loans  l a c k o f NHA  loans  t h a t two  o f the m a i n  Mr. obstacles  f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f o l d e r homes  l a c k o f c a p i t a l f u n d s f r o m w h i c h home i m p r o v e m e n t  could  be made t o home-owners a t v e r y  low  interest  rates. A s i g n i f i c a n t problem, but o r two  r e p l i e s , r e l a t e d to the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plans. ficulty be  Mr.  a l s o of the  recognized  i n only  people a c t u a l l y  Graham c o n s i d e r e d  o f i m p l e m e n t i n g any  'inertia'  one  involved the m a i n  on the p a r t o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , public i t s e l f .  I n Mr.  b e c o m i n g r u n down and  even the b e t t e r neighbourhoods  indicated  The  p e o p l e m u s t be  encouraged  s e n s i b l e t h i n g t o do.' cited  by Mr.  Muirhead  ating proposals  i t was  considered  l a c k of p o l i t i c a l  as b e i n g  i n Kingston.  Muirhead  that  'the  leadership  the m a i n o b s t a c l e Mr.  often  also  to t h i n k r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s  The  the  homes w e r e  a p a t h y o f o w n e r s was  i n the r e p l y from Toronto:  to  neighbourhood  d e f i c i e n c i e s although  c a r e f u l l y maintained.  dif-  and  Graham's o p i n i o n  s c a r c e l y aware o f h i s  grave environmental  in  programme o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  ' a v e r a g e c i t i z e n ' was  had  one  in  was  initi-  illustrated  his  p o i n t by c o m p a r i n g K i n g s t o n w i t h H a l i f a x w h e r e , o n r e c e i p t of the  urban renewal study,  t h e mayor p r o m p t l y f o r m e d  h i g h l e v e l c o m m i t t e e , composed o f g o v e r n m e n t ives  and  members o f t h e  business  the Report's recommendations. f a x have c o n t i n u e d  the  initial  community to  a  representatimplement  Subsequent mayors i n H a l i policy with  considerable  Ut3  success.  Any  implementation  of the K i n g s t o n  proposals,  h o w e v e r , has  l a r g e l y been through p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e  particularly  i n Sydenham W a r d .  The i n the  problems of code e n f o r c e m e n t were a l s o  questionnaire  rehabilitation,  t o be  a r e a b a s i s , and  this  replies.  As  carried  i s an e n l i g h t e n e d  community indeed  upon such a programme." ^ 2  M.  was  an  home-  embark the  munici-  suggested  o f code e n f o r c e m e n t s i n the  a l s o a p r o b l e m , as was  Several c i t i e s  that w i l l  c o d e s , and  on  commented:  Haxby a l s o c i t e d  r  p a l i t y ' s r e l u c t a n c e to enforce l a c k of understanding  He  Buck,  out  'enforcement' a g a i n s t  owners u n w i l l i n g o r u n a b l e to c o - o p e r a t e . "It  revealed  i n d i c a t e d by Mr.  e f f e c t i v e , must be implied  alone$  that  courts  i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter I I I .  a r e p r e s e n t l y u n a b l e t o e n a c t minimum s t a n -  d a r d s o f o c c u p a n c y and  m a i n t e n a n c e b y - l a w s due  of p r o v i n c i a l e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , but  to the  e v e n where  enabl-  i n g l e g i s l a t i o n does: e x i s t many c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e rrade attempt t o enact standards  lack  o f minimum o c c u p a n c y and  no  main-  tenance. It  should  be  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has  stated i n conclusion that been achieved  t e x t o f M u n i c i p a l p l a n s , and o f the has  purposes can defeat  little  i n Canada w i t h i n the  i n some i n s t a n c e s  the  success  distortion  of a p r o j e c t .  been i n d i c a t e d i n T o r o n t o where i n 1 9 5 9 spot  t a t i o n of p r o p e r t i e s c a r r i e d f o r the  out  by t h e C i t y was  R i v e r d a l e area to i n d i c a t e the value  t a t i o n and  t o encourage s i m i l a r  a c t i o n by  of  con-  This  rehabiliproposed rehabili-  home-owners i n  the  area.  One h o u s e was  work took  actually  'rehabilitated  the form of c o n v e r t i n g a s i n g l e property  a home f o r e l d e r l y p e r s o n s .  M r . M.B.M. L a w s o n  t h a t " i t became c l e a r t h a t p r o g r e s s w o u l d depend o n t h e e f f e c t i v e hensive  undoubtedly  it  t o be dropped  This  2  measures i n i t i a t e d  that spot r e -  have b e e n a p p l i e d t o an  should  'average'  o f t h e a r e a as p o s s i b l e .  The  a l s o h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e and  t o i n d i v i d u a l home-owners,  not extensive  prac-  conversions  a s pec i a l i z e d ' u s e as a n e l d e r l y p e r s o n s of this  causing  rehabilitated  t o b e e x c e s s i v e , was  d w e l l i n g as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  its validity,  area  o f a compre-  improvement." '''  a f t e r o n l y one h o u s e was  h a b i l i t a t i o n should  success  indicated  t r u e , but a major e r r o r of t h i s p l a n ,  when c o s t s were found  f o r such  into  i n the RIverdale  implementation  programme o f r e s i d e n t i a l  is  tical  but the  1  home.  The  type o f measure i n o t h e r c i t i e s i n d i c a t e s  but people  must be a b l e t o ' s e e ' t h e e x a m p l e s  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as t h e y c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e i r  own  homes. S ummary Some C a n a d i a n c i t i e s  have accepted  t h e i r urban r e -  newal s t u d i e s i n p r i n c i p l e , o t h e r s have n o t .  I n general  the completed s t u d i e s appear t o f o r m a framework w i t h i n w h i c h d e t a i l p l a n s w i l l be made l a t e r and i t i s t h e c a t i o n o f methods est value.  of approach t h a t i s considered  According  studies contained the resources  to planning o f f i c i a l s ,  indi-  of great-  some o f t h e  i m p r a c t i c a l m e a s u r e s w h i c h were b e y o n d  of the c i t y  concerned.  O t h e r s t u d i e s met  with  local  political  mentation.  d i f f i c u l t i e s which hindered  Some r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e w h e e l s o f  government t u r n s l o w l y : considerable by  Imple-  s t u d i e s had been complete f o r a  time b u t were s t i l l  d i f f e r e n t departments.  being  examined f o r  I n s e v e r a l cases the pressure  o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t demands was t a k i n g p r e c e d e n c e o v e r for  rehabilitation,  not  be p l a n n e r s ,  i t being  that  report  considered  plans  by c o u n c i l s , i f  t h i s was t h e most p r e s s i n g  need.  Minimum H o u s i n g S t a n d a r d s b y - l a w s a r e i n e f f e c t i n Windsor, Toronto, S a i n t John and H a l i f a x , but e n f o r c e ment o f t h e s e b y - l a w s h a s b e e n h e s i t a n t , i n many c a s e s due to the s h o r t a g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e low r e n t a l h o u s i n g f o r persons dispossessed ment.  as a r e s u l t o f s y s t e m a t i c , c o d e  Winnipeg i s considering  s t a n d a r d s b y - l a w , and O n t a r i o incial  enabling The  t h e e n a c t m e n t o f a minimum  cities  are awaiting  main obstacles  problem revealed  resources  available.  financial  and l e g i s l a t i v e  should  to increased  rehabilitation  being  Several  sig-  the l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l comments i n d i c a t e d  provisions  that  for rehabilitation  Another f a c t o r considered  i n t e r e s t o f s o many c i t i z e n s fear  was t h e d i s -  i n t h e i r own e n v i r o n m e n t and  t h a t any i m p r o v e m e n t a u t o m a t i c a l l y w o u l d  tax increases. the  t h e most  be b r o u g h t more i n l i n e w i t h t h o s e a v a i l a b l e f o r  redevelopment.  the  Prov-  legislation.  a c t i v i t y were o u t l i n e d i n s e v e r a l r e p l i e s , nificant  enforce-  T h e s e p r o b l e m s and o t h e r s  course of t h i s  study are considered  bring  indicated i n  i n Chapter V  1J+.6  t o g e t h e r w i t h some s u g g e s t i o n s a s may  utilize  ation  i t s available  evident  t o how  local  government  power t o combat t h e  i n so many o f o u r  deterior-  cities.  References 1  Letter  f r o m Mr. R. N i n o , D i r e c t o r , S a u l t S t e . M a r i e and S u b u r b a n P l a n n i n g B o a r d , F e b r u a r y 21, I963.  2  Letter  f r o m Mr. G.G. M u i r h e a d , f o r m e r l y D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , C i t y o f K i n g s t o n , M a r c h 8, 1963.  3  Letter  f r o m Mr.. D. G u a r d , P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , London, F e b r u a r y 25> 1963'  4  Letter  f r o m Mr. City  5  Ibid.  6 7  Ibid. Letter  8  Letter  9  D.G.Smslie,  Tudor  John, C i t y  City  of  Planning Officer,  o f S t . J o h n ' s , F e b r u a r y 27,  1963.  f r o m Mr. L.R. Keddy, A c t i n g D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g and U r b a n R e n e w a l , C i t y o f W i n d s o r , F e b r u a r y 28, 1963. f r o m Mr. J . Thomas C. Waram, P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n e r and D i r e c t o r o f U r b a n Renewal, C i t y o f H a m i l t o n , M a r c h 12, I963.  • No.  " U r b a n R e n e w a l i n Hamilton," 1+ ( J u l y  - August,  1962),  p.  Habitat,  V,  HjT  10  Ibid,  p.li|..  11  Letter  12  Letter  13  Letter  f r o m Mr. W.E. Graham, C i t y P l a n n e r and B u i l d i n g D i r e c t o r , C i t y o f S a s k a t o o n , F e b r u a r y 25, 1963.  141  Letter  f r o m Mr. H.N. L a s h , P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t , City o f M o n t r e a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , F e b r u a r y 26, I 9 6 3  15  Letter  f r o m Mr.  f r o m Mr. D o n a l d Buck, R e d e v e l o p m e n t Officer, C i t y o f S a i n t J o h n , M a r c h 21, 1963. f r o m Mr. W.T. Haxby, S e n i o r P l a n n e r ( R e s e a r c h ) , Planning D i v i s i o n , Metropolitan Corporation of G r e a t e r Winnipeg, March 20th, 1963.  John,  op. c i t .  147 16  L e t t e r f r o m M r . K.M. M u n n i c h , D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , C i t y o f H a l i f a x , M a r c h 26, 1 9 6 3 .  17  L e t t e r f r o m M r . Roy B a l s t o n , f o r m e r l y  Planning  C i t y o f S t . John's, February 22, 18  L e t t e r f r o m Mr. Keddy, o p . c i t .  19  L e t t e r from Mr. Nino, op. c i t .  20  L e t t e r from Mr. John, op. c i t .  21  L e t t e r from Mr. Haxby, op. c i t .  22  City  23  Officer,  1963.  o f Vancouver T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, P r o j e c t 2 , P a r t 1 o n l y ( J u n e , 1962), p.2. A B r i e f t o H i s W o r s h i p M a y o r A.T. A l s b u r y and Members o f V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l D e a l i n g w i t h Some Aspects o f the " C i t y o f Vancouver Redevelopment P r o j e c t 2 ( P a r t 1 o n l y ) " p r e s e n t e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e V a n c o u v e r B r a n c h of" t h e Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d a , J a n u a r y 2 2 , 1963«  24  I n t e r v i e w w i t h M r . A.H. R o b e r t s , D i r e c t o r , C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia, March 22, 1963.  25  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J.C. G a r r i e t t , C i t y E n g i n e e r , C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , March 2 2 , 1963.  26 L e t t e r f r o m M r . B u c k . 27  op.cit.  L e t t e r f r o m M r . M.B.M. L a w s o n , C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P l a n n i n g , C i t y o f T o r o n t o , A p r i l 18, 19&3*  CHAPTER V TOWARDS A P O S I T I V E LOCAL GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR RESIDENTIAL R E H A B I L I T A T I O N The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e  o f a l o c a l government p o l i c y  f o r r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s h o u l d be t o b r i n g t o gether  i n a c o - o r d i n a t e d programme  the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s  disposal  i n d e t e r i o r a t i n g areas  a l l possible  means a t  t o a r r e s t the spread  i n order  to remove or postpone the  need f o r c l e a r a n c e and r e d e v e l o p m e n t . n i t i o n o f such a p o l i c y p u b l i c  of blight  With  and p r i v a t e  the recog-  interests can  w o r k e f f e c t i v e l y i n c o n c e r t t o : r e - b u i l d and r e - v i t a l i z e these  areas.  Without such  a policy public  and p r i v a t e  e f f o r t s may be i n c o n f l i c t o r may be i n i t i a t e d wrong time  and i n t h e w r o n g p l a c e .  at the  E f f o r t s at private  i m p r o v e m e n t may t a k e p l a c e i n a r e a s w h e r e p u b l i c  invest-  ment i s u n d e s i r a b l e , w h i l e i n a r e a s w h e r e t h e i m p r o v e ment o f homes i s s u p p o r t e d ,  the attempts  o f one home-  owner t o i m p r o v e h i s home may be f r u s t r a t e d by t h e l a c k o f a c t i o n by h i s n e i g h b o u r s . As h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d , many o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s  11+8  149  n e c e s s a r y to implement a l o c a l government policy  are  already  most c i t i e s , be  reviewed  Several ies  while  rehabilitation  being  carried  other  areas of m u n i c i p a l  to r e l a t e  o n t o some d e g r e e  these are  Financing  before  difficult-  the  policy.  Measures  of the b a s i c l i m i t a t i o n s  ation activity is clearly  some o f  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e made o n  of a l o c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  Rehabilitation  One  the  a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme and  discussed  possible content  a c t i v i t y could  them t o a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme.  p r o b l e m s have b e e n r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g  i n formulating  in  stated  to increased  i n an ACTION  rehabili-  publication:  I f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s g o i n g to a l t e r the u r b a n s c e n e , i t must be made a n e c o n o m i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e b u s i n e s s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , i t must h a v e a c c e s s t o c r e d i t o n t e r m s t h a t a r e c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h new c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . . The p r o b l e m i s e s s e n t i a l l y one o f how t o a l t e r t h e i n v e s t m e n t s i t u a t i o n so t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t o r s can b i d f o r f u n d s o n a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h new home builders.1 A V a n c o u v e r m o r t g a g e company p r e s i d e n t , Mr. has  said  H.A.  t h a t the C a n a d i a n Government s h o u l d  i n p r o v i d i n g new  life  f o r o l d h o u s i n g by  p r o v i s i o n s of the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t . t i o n of the  extension  s e v e r a l times on the  of the theory  NHA  Gillespie,'  take  the  extending This  loan  b e e n made  damage  the  new  h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y as  but  on the c o n t r a r y would p r o v i d e  a 'flow' of s a l e s  because  the  o w n e r o f the  s e l l more r e a d i l y  and  t h e n buy  or b u i l d  o l d e r home c o u l d elsewhere.  popularly  the  recommenda-  p r o v i s i o n s has  t h a t i t would not  lead  believed,  However, i t c o u l d  also  be  suggested  that  i f the purchase  of o l d e r  e a s i e r , more p e o p l e would p r o b a b l y buy r e d u c i n g the demand f o r new Builders at  units.  A s s o c i a t i o n supports  a recent conference  that  i n Canada.  the upper  to | 8 , 0 0 0 w i t h NHA  limit  o f NHA  viewpoint, an  also  f o r buying  years.  p r o v e m e n t s and  an economic  re-use  Thus t h e key lies  to the  of our c i t i e s  NHA  extended  i t does n o t h a v e  that  i t does n o t h a v e t h e f u n d s  f o r without will  such  continually  sufficient  revitalize  by m a k i n g  use o f The  p r o v i s i o n s be  that  reducing  im-  proposition..  w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Government.  to r e q u e s t s t h a t  raised  This together  t h e p r e s e n t h i g h down payments r e q u i r e d , w o u l d areas  im-  recommended  o l d e r homes, thus  many o f t h e d e c l i n i n g  and  intensive  i n home  Improvement Loans be twenty  thus  N a t i o n a l House  the a c t i v i t y  Association  f o r repayment over assistance  The  i n M o n t r e a l 3 announced  The  made  s u c h homes,  the f o r m e r  p r o m o t i o n a l campaign to double provement  homes was  government's  e n l a r g e d has  funds: not  rehabilitation  i t is  so f a r b e e n suggested  to extend  i t s provisions  aid the u l t i m a t e redevelopment become more acute«  reply  problem  F i n a n c i n g becomes more  difficult  as t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e ,  income  potential  rents decline,  difficult  and  is increasingly  o b t a i n i n a r e a s where r e n t s have b e e n f a l l i n g Until  loans  institutions  are guaranteed cannot  be  I n a r e a s where c r e d i t onus  is partly  by  to s u p p o r t  lendin  rehabilitation  are u n j u s t i f i e d .  on the l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ;  to  f o r some y e a r s  t h e F e d e r a l Government,  expected risks  and  However,  the  i n the U n i t e d  15.1  States ingly  many f i n a n c i a l aware t h a t  institutions  a r e becoming  some p r o v i s i o n must be made t o g r a n t  l o a n s t o f a m i l i e s o f modest income, and  increas-  'minority  e l d e r l y p e r s o n s , i f government i n f l u e n c e  groups' i n t h e moris-  gage m a r k e t i s n o t t o i n c r e a s e . , The  financing of public f a c i l i t i e s  services  i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas has a l s o been i n d i c a t e d  as f r e q u e n t l y ment.  and c o m m u n i t y  b e i n g beyond t h e powers o f l o c a l  govern-  Some p r o v i s i o n must be made i n t h e N a t i o n a l  Housing A c t to provide possibly  assistance  i n the form o f Federal  cipalities  rehabilitation,  grants-in-aid  t o muni-  t o a s s i s t i n the f i n a n c i n g o f p u b l i c  ments i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a s . down p a y m e n t s and l o n g e r related  for  improve-  The a l l o w a n c e o f l o w e r  r e p a y m e n t t e r m s s h o u l d a l s o be  t o a system o f mortgage i n s u r a n c e f o r  buildings  which are economically f e a s i b l e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e , but w h e r e owners c a n n o t o b t a i n l o a n s t h r o u g h channels. arily  conventional  F o r much o f t h e t y p e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r i m -  envisaged  i n t h i s p a p e r , t h e r a i s i n g o f t h e amount  o f t h e l o a n seems l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n p e r m i t t i n g t e r m s o f r e p a y m e n t and l o w e r i n t e r e s t r a t e s . gestion  o f decreased  longer  The s u g -  i n t e r e s t r a t e s , however, would  probably require  that  l o a n s be r e v i s e d  otherwise persons paying f o r convent-  i o n a l l o a n s w o u l d be  i n t e r e s t o n a l l home i m p r o v e m e n t  penalized.  From t h e f o r e g o i n g  discussion i t i s evident  that  152  the main o b s t a c l e is  presently  r e m o v e , and tial  to increased  beyond t h e  rehabilitation  power o f l o c a l  government t o  i n d e e d , t h e maximum p o t e n t i a l f o r  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a n n o t be  a r e made t o F e d e r a l  realized until  legislation.-  for rehabilitation,  1  p l e s of such a c t i o n are many b e a r r e l e v a n c e legislative  and  the  a l t h o u g h m o s t exam-  drawn f r o m the U n i t e d  States,  conditions.  private lending  have e s t a b l i s h e d  a special loan  institutions.  frequently  p r o v e n t o be  fund,  supported  S u c h a f u n d i s made  to persons unable to o b t a i n loans has  are  improve  i n some c a s e s p u b l i c l y s u p p o r t e d , i n o t h e r s  and  amendments  to Canada, i n s p i t e o f d i f f e r e n t  Several c i t i e s  able  residen-  However, t h e r e  s e v e r a l ways i n w h i c h l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t c a n •atmosphere  activity  from other  by  availsources,  an e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e  when  home o w n e r s r e l u c t a n t t o make r e p a i r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  they  were u n a b l e t o o b t a i n c o n v e n t i o n a l  Mr.  A.T.  Alsbury,  who  1959  t o 1962,  about the  a f u n d he  Mayor o f the C i t y o f Vancouver f r o m feasibility  a c i t y f u n d was  s h o w n i t w o u l d be  a good  I n a d d i t i o n to the loans  of e s t a b l i s h i n g such  acceptable  probably  - i f they  be  could  investment.  p r o v i s i o n of  easier-to-obtain  f o r home i m p r o v e m e n t , t h e more c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e  of o u t r i g h t grants indicated are  In asking  commented t h a t c i t y c o u n c i l s c o u l d  persuaded t h a t be  was  loans.  should be  i n Chapter I that  available i n Britain,  mentioned. grants  and  one  I t has  been  f o r home i m p r o v e m e n t o r two  cities  in  the  153  United  States  have made l i m i t e d  assistance.  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be  Canadian c i t i e s , to Live  provision for this  but  the  initial  no  type  of  similar provision in  report of A Better  Place  stated:  T h e r e may be some m e r i t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f a s p e c i a l f u n d t o make u n c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t s i n c a s e o f t h o s e d e s t i t u t e i n d i v i d u a l s who are f i n a n c i a l l y u n a b l e t o b r i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s up t o minimum s t a n d a r d s . The c i t y w o u l d c a r r y o u t t h e n e c e s s a r y r e p a i r s , b u t c o u l d s e c u r e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r o m t h e owner o f t h e p r o p e r t y r e q u i r i n g t h e c i t y be r e i m b u r s e d a t s u c h t i m e as t h e p r o p e r t y i s s o l d . 4 The  feasibility  local not  o f s u c h a programme must r e l a t e t o  s i t u a t i o n ; and  be  discounted It  as  plan.  The  areas should  the  to the  be  be  lender's  not  the  the  be w a s t e d  quite conceivable  over-  clearly this  is  r e p a i r o f an i s o l a t e d and  stability  private  enter-  of an a r e a  can  I t i s also e s s e n t i a l that i n areas t h a t  are  beyond  favourable  that p r o p e r t i e s which should  become r e h a b i l i t a t e d .  Government must e v o l v e  granting of  an  rehabili-  indeed,  i f t e r m s o f b o r r o w i n g become t o o  cleared w i l l  of  E n t i r e and and  forms  designated  context  but when p u b l i c  more r e a d i l y g u a r a n t e e d .  Federal  i n the  vault:  are w o r k i n g i n c o n c e r t  repair:  be w i t h i n a  designated,  i s a poor r i s k ,  such assistance  is  determined  p r o v i s i o n of these  overemphasized.  defined  prise  should  should  assistance.  importance of a broad s c a l e of  t a t i o n c a n n o t be  property  a v a i l a b l e , but  a p o s s i b l e means o f  assistance  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n area  key  resources  i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the  of f i n a n c i a l  all  t o the  the  Accordingly  be the  c r i t e r i a t o g o v e r n t he  assistance, taking into consideration  the  i t  15k different  degrees  of b l i g h t  o f a wood f r a m e b u i l d i n g building United  i n Toronto.  and, f o r example, t h e  'life  1  i n V a n c o u v e r compared w i t h a b r i c k  In this  r e g a r d e x p e r i e n c e i n the  States i s again of value. At  t h e I960 A n n u a l  A s s o c i a t i o n of Housing  Conference  of the N a t i o n a l  and R e d e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c i a l s , ( N A H R O ) ,  t h e U r b a n Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n announced t h e r u l e s and procedure  w h i c h would  govern f e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  s e r v a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes.^ officials  recognized f i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  (1) new and s t a b l e a r e a s , w h i c h c o u l d be u p g r a d e d  effort,  The F e d e r a l of c i t y  areas,  bilitation'  deteriorated  were  basically  a combination o f public  (1+) r e c o n d i t i o n i n g  areas  and p r i v a t e  desirable r e -  ( f o r m e r l y 'reha-  a r e a s ) where i n t e n s i v e c o d e e n f o r c e m e n t  make b a d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d t e n y e a r s , and (5)  areas  w i t h o u t d i r e c t F e d e r a l a i d , (3) c o n -  could f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time,remain  sidential  areas:  (2) s l i g h t l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g  s e r v a t i o n areas which though s o u n d , and w h i c h t h r o u g h  i n con-  structures  suitable  could  f o r at least  c l e a r a n c e and r e d e v e l o p m e n t  areas.  The  third  and f o u r t h c a t e g o r i e s were t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e new  rules  and p r o c e d u r e s . The  new F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s  t r y i n g t o conserve  a r e a s w h i c h had d e t e r i o r a t e d  i n c o n s e r v a t i o n areas to  require  t o be w e l l  prevented communities  at least  distributed.  were  and t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s  R e p a i r had t o conform  d a r d s w h i c h were above normal  too f a r :  5l% o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s  o n l y m i n o r o r no r e p a i r  from  were  t o FHA s t a n -  minimum s t a n d a r d s .  Furthermore,  155  i t was indicated that c i t i z e n s i n such an area must be i n favour of the project and adequate mortgage financing f o r repairs must be a v a i l a b l e .  In * reconditioning' projects  the aim was to prevent the further d e t e r i o r a t i o n of housing during an interim period before i t was cleared, and to est a b l i s h a continuing programme to maintain whatever had been improved.  To be e l i g i b l e f o r assistance an area's  useful r e s i d e n t i a l ' l i f e ' had to be capable of being extended by at least ten years.  Twenty per cent or more of  the dwelling units i n such an area were to be i n need of major repair and not more than twenty per cent of a l l structures should require d emolition.  Further requirements  stipulated that improvements were to be made w i t h i n three years of the agreement, that re-use of cleared land be i n accordance with future plans and that periodic reinspect i o n be made.  The elimination of non-salvable buildings,  non-conforming uses and the provision of sites f o r community f a c i l i t i e s were also to be assessed as part of such plans. Such an approach i n determining an area's s u i t a b i l i t y for assistance should be studied by Canadian authorities, perhaps to d evelop degrees of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e l i g i b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t types of assistance. The concept of equalized assessment does not encourage wide practice of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures.  Inmost assess-  ment j u r i s d i c t i o n s r e a l property i s assessed at market value, a decrease or increase i n market value causing a decrease or increase i n assessment.  Normal maintenance  156 and r e p a i r s do n o t u s u a l l y c a u s e a r i s e  i n market  t h u s t h e a s s e s s m e n t does n o t i n c r e a s e , b u t i f a is considered is  the  property  improved t o the extent t h a t i t s market  i n c r e a s e d , then assessment Is r a i s e d .  t o be f a i r  value,  T h i s must be  t o a l l home-owners, b u t t h e s y s t e m  improvement  value so  discourages  o f homes r e q u i r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  encourages d i s r e p a i r .  The  panying the 1 9 6 2 t a x b i l l  'warning' on the l e a f l e t  even  accom-  t o V a n c o u v e r home-owners s t a t e s :  I f n o r m a l m a i n t e n a n c e h a s b e e n d e f e r r e d f o r some y e a r s , a h o u s e may d e t e r i o r a t e t o t h e p o i n t where t h e A s s e s s o r may a l l o w a d d i t i o n a l d e p r e c i a t i o n . I f the deferred maintenance i s c o r r e c t e d w i t h i n s u c h a s h o r t s p a c e o f t i m e as t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y , the a d d i t i o n a l dep r e c i a t i o n a l l o w a n c e w o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d , and w o u l d t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n assessment. 0  To s t i m u l a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a. c o m p l e t e l y is  ideally  property where  approach  needed, r a i s i n g the assessment o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g  while  not i n c r e a s i n g the assessment o f  'the d e f e r r e d maintenance  space of time.' a designated  area of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ,  are c a r r i e d  out.  property  i s corrected w i t h i n a short  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have  be r a i s e d w h e n i m p r o v e m e n t s repair  opposite  beyond  proposed t h a t w i t h i n assessments should  normal maintenance  I n suggesting  this  not  and  i d e a t o Mr.  McQueen,7 A s s e s s m e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , he r e p l i e d  t h a t i t was  'most i m p r a c t i c a b l e and m o s t i m p r o p e r '  i n the c o n t e x t o f the p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i z e d t h e r e was permit  assessment:  a l s o no p r o v i s i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o  s u c h a c t i o n t o be t a k e n .  has b e e n u s e d i n t h e U n i t e d and s t u d y s h o u l d  This  concept,  however,  States with considerable  be made o f i t s f e a s i b i l i t y  success  i n Canada.  157  Mr. be  Alsbury  considered  made p o l i t i c a l l y  that  s u c h a scheme c o u l d  possibly  practicable. o  In a recent effect  analysis  o f municipal  taxation  o n u r b a n r e n e w a l , Mr. D o u g l a s C l a r k ,  Provincial  Relations  o f the F e d e r a l -  D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f F i n a n c e  i n O t t a w a , has s u g g e s t e d a worthwhile  and i t s  that property  t a x r e f o r m c a n make  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o u r b a n renewal .  "Unfortunately,  some o f t h e t a x c h a n g e s w h i c h m i g h t be o f most h e l p i n fostering would sals  u r b a n r e n e w a l would have o t h e r  be h a r m f u l . " to increase  placed  a heavier  taxes.  Mr. C l a r k  exemptions  I t was c o n s i d e r e d  stated:  t o one p a r t  any p r o p o -  o f the populace  that  but only  significant administrative or  advantages c o u l d  be g a i n e d .  of tax incentives  " I ti s doubtful  that  I n d i s c u s s i n g the  and p e n a l t i e s Mr. G r a n t  . . • ther elationship  ween u r b a n r e n e w a l and m u n i c i p a l  taxation  (tax)  incentives  tion of tax incentive culties  of guarding  and/or p e n a l t i e s . " ^ 1  schemes i s c o m p l i c a t e d ,  against  bet-  is sufficiently  important t o o f f s e t the harmful r e s u l t s which would from  paying  the p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i z a -  sometimes be s u b o r d i n a t e d ,  when i t was, c e r t a i n t h a t  r e l a t i v e merits  indicated that  burden on the remainder o f persons  t i o n of taxation could  economic  r e s u l t s which  The  follow  administra-  and d i f f i -  discrimination can arise:  You would f e e l . . . a g g r i e v e d i f y o u owned p r o p e r t y j u s t one b l o c k away f r o m an a r e a w h i c h had b e e n designated as an u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a f o r w h i c h s p e c i a l t a x c o n c e s s i o n s had b e e n g r a n t e d o r i f y o u owned a p r o p e r t y w h i c h was n o t q u i t e e n t i t l e d , f o r any r e a s o n , t o a substandard c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h would qualify i t f o ra tax concession. i x  Inevitably,  tax incentives  also  assist  p e o p l e who c a n w e l l  158  afford to i n i t i a t e improvements without such assistance, and pressure from other groups demanding similar concessions may  often r e s u l t i n "a very narrow and elaborately defined  tax base productive of l i t t l e revenue and much confusion.' Tax penalties are more practicable to i n i t i a t e than tax incentives, but the objection to increases i n the assessment on deteriorated property would be long and loud, and part of the increase would be passed on to tenants i n the form of increased r e n t s . Mr. Clark concluded that property tax incentives or penalties ought not to be used to foster urban renewal, but that a general reduction i n the l e v e l of r e a l property taxation could be e f f e c t i v e , although this was recognized as being inextricably related to other changes i n municipal taxation and i t would be d i f f i c u l t to implement.  Mr.  Grant  also considered that e l i m i n a t i o n of "the f a i l u r e of assessors to assess land with outmoded improvements on the basis of i t s highest and best use," -^ would be a desirable and e f f e c 1  tive method of encouraging urban renewal. In consideration of these d i f f i c u l t i e s a more pract i c a l s o l u t i o n of some of the problems of assessment would e n t a i l a review of the degree of 'maintenance' allowed before assessment i s increased.  At present i n Vancouver,  f o r example, the following maintenance, w i l l not of i t s e l f cause an increase i n assessment: The repair of outside steps, basement s t a i r s , gutters or downpipes; the repainting of the exterior or i n t e r i o r of a home; the reshingling of roofs, replacing  ,  159  broken glass, r e p a i r s to furnace, r e p o i n t i n g of mortar j o i n t s , or the r e p a i r o r replacement of unsound s t r u c t u r a l p o s t s o r beams u n d e r t h e house,; the p l a n t i n g of lawns, r o c k e r i e s or s h r u b b e r i e s . " 1  The  leaflet  t e n a n c e MAY  states  that  not cause  specific  examples  ment a r e  given.  other  'minor improvements  an i n c r e a s e  o f what w i l l  Taxes',  indicated  could be  c a u s e an i n c r e a s e  'Good M a i n t e n a n c e  complete  rewiring,  removal o f p a r t i t i o n s  o f d o o r s and windows, r e p a i r fixtures  and many o t h e r  they p r e s e n t l y enlightened  t i a t e many more b a s i c The p o l i c y cited  This  not b e e n p r o v i d e d . equalized  diff-  suggests  review the o p e r a t i o n s  that  assessments. home-owners t o  improvement  t a x e s has  A more ini-  to i n i t i a t i n g  also  private  I n areas designated f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  t o improve  to finance  cir-  improvements.  of l o c a l  a l r e a d y committed  Of  electrical  i n two c i t i e s  some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a l l e v i a t i n g  liability  resulting.  so a l l o w e d .  encourage  as a s t u m b l i n g b l o c k  tation.  assessment  and r e p l a c e m e n t o f p l u m b i n g  permit without r a i s i n g  approach c o u l d  distributed  'maintenance'  additional  i t e m s were  could  i n assess-  t o e n l a r g e rooms, r e p l a c e m e n t  e r e n c e b e t w e e n what I s p e r m i t t e d t h a t many c o m m u n i t i e s  no  Does Not R a i s e  t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more  i n i t i a t e d without increased  F o r example, cuits,  called  main-  i n assessment,' but  I n T o r o n t o , by c o m p a r i s o n , a l e a f l e t with tax b i l l s  or  'local  improvements'  and  as Mr. A l s b u r y  citizens,  removing  where t h e y  T h i s , however, a g a i n poses  taxation,  rehabilithere i s  the burden of  t h e i r homes, by  been  their have  the problem  s u g g e s t e d i t may  160 prove p o l i t i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t of  general  city  assistance t h e s e and  revenue.  f r o m the other  initiate  s u c h measures  Once more t h e  senior  public  to  levels of  improvements  need  is for  government t o  out  increased finance  in rehabilitation  areas.  Code E n f o r c e m e n t Code e n f o r c e m e n t has  been i n d i c a t e d  as  one  of  the  most e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the  l a c k of  integration of regulations  several pieces  of  l e g i s l a t i o n does n o t  h e n s i o n or enforcement tiveness abling exist the  of  a s imple t a s k .  enforcement of codes  l e g i s l a t i o n be and  that  communities b r i n g  inhabitants. lation the  and  x  b y - l a w need n o t moved f r o m t h e  continue ever,  the  a model  the  and  i s recommended.  necessary  to e x e r c i s e  that  the  Municipal  that  their  health  The  of  'minimum  welfare  of  both enabling and  Affairs  not  regulations  and  legis-  maintenance,  study, A  creation of  is  indeed  these s p e c i a l i s t  Better  a single  of s t a n d a r d s  responsible,  duties.  re-  i t is  inspectors  I t i s d e s i r a b l e , how-  i n s p e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s be  s e v e r a l departments r e s p o n s i b l e  information  from separate  co-ordinated and  that  e x a m i n a t i o n s be b r o u g h t  a detailed inventory  en-  where i t does  b e t w e e n the  to form  that  into a single  enforcement  d e p a r t m e n t s now  effec-  a l l e x i s t i n g aspects  i n formulating  mean t h a t  improve  w i t h w h a t e v e r new  to p r o t e c t  Department o f  to L i v e ^  desirable  To  minimum s t a n d a r d s o f o c c u p a n c y  Ontario  Place  As  compre-  i t i s suggested  r e g u l a t i o n of e x i s t i n g buildings  deemed d e s i r a b l e  through  make t h e i r  urged i n p r o v i n c e s  standards' by-law, together are  dispersed  but  of housing  the  together  conditions.  161 The is  p r e s e n t system  inevitable  but  of  under the s t a f f  i t i s desirable that  systematic areas  l i m i t a t i o n o f most  attempts  system  be made t o i n i t i a t e  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of dwellings i s c a r r i e d  of f i v e  sible  f o r aspects of maintenance  method, used  inspectors,  one  from  inspector  carries  each  and  i n St. Louis, entails  s p e c t i o n s ; one  plumbing  regulations  specific  department  t i o n has  been s u g g e s t e d  o u t by  department  occupancy.  is notified.  h o u s i n g c o u l d be  1 0  the  responAnother  investigation or  an i n s p e c t o r f r o m  the  By-laws r e l a t i n g  to  Vancouver existing  under t h e g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l committee  under the c h a i r m a n s h i p  Medical Health Officer,  the committee c o u l d  conflicts Health  i n departmental  I n s p e c t o r s be  violations to the  departments  a c o - o r d i n a t e d and  I t was  t r a i n e d t o observe  concerned. vary  to a p a r t i c u l a r  conditions•  policy.  of other than t h e i r  investigation w i l l able  the  T h i s type of a d m i n i s t r a -  f o r V a n c o u v e r by  and  own  codes  but  of  suggested  t h e more and  the  that  obvious  report  them  O b v i o u s l y , the nature  i t i s important to  systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  an  resolve  a c c o r d i n g t o the r e s o u r c e s  city  a  a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of i n -  out  i s suspected  Association.  In  the  where a v i o l a t i o n o f , f o r example, e l e c t r i c a l  Housing  a  has much t o recommend i t :  force  and  cities,  designated f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ,  'task f o r c e '  a single  complaints'  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a l l housing conditions.  specifically  Chicago  ' i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  of  avail-  develop  housing  162 The and  problem of e s t a b l i s h i n g standards  r e p a i r has  difficult  already  aspects of  been i n d i c a t e d  as  of maintenance  one  of  the  most  rehabilitation:  I t i s d i f f i c u l t from the p o l i c y s t a n d p o i n t f o r i t i n v o l v e s a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the d e s i r a b l e and t h e p o s s i b l e , b e t w e e n e c o n o m i c s and h e a l t h and safety. I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i n v o l v e s a quest i o n o f p u b l i c p r u d e n c e i n t h e l i g h t o f what i s p r a c t i c a l l y a t t a i n a b l e i n e a c h a r e a and what d e g r e e o f p h y s i c a l improvement i s a p r o p e r and justifiable o b j e c t i v e of p u b l i c action.^? It code o f able,  s h o u l d be standards  and  the  emphasized  i s completely  to  local  ticularly dard be  conditions,  bad  - at l e a s t  most  enlightened  i f i t is  unenforce-  a c o d e w h i c h has  avoided.  to  been  S t a n d a r d s must  i f these conditions  i t i s impracticable  of repair  stated  and  the  useless  danger o f a d o p t i n g  s u c c e s s f u l e l s e w h e r e must be late  that  demand a h i g h  immediately.  In  general  re-  are  par-  stanit  may  that:  To s e e k f o r t o o l i t t l e p h y s i c a l improvement i n a neighbourhood i s to r u n the r i s k of w a s t i n g energy and money i n an a c t i v i t y w h i c h c a n h a v e no p e r m a n e n t e f f e c t on the a r e a . To s e e k t o o much p h y s i c a l imp r o v e m e n t i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s t o c o u r t the d a n g e r s o f economic i n f e a s i b i l i t y or h e a v y f a m i l y d i s p l a c e ment o r b o t h . l o In Charlotte, considerably enforced.  North Carolina, alleviated  Due  to the  have b e e n i m p o s s i b l e if the  low  a m o d e s t code w h i c h was income o f r e s i d e n t s  to a c h i e v e  the  desired  practice of  allowing  they could  successful.  afford  were humanely  i t would co-operation  a l l improvements were demanded s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  a rate was  by  appalling conditions  However,  owners t o make improvements i n an o r d e r  E a c h owner d e c i d e d  of on  determined the  rate  of  at  priority improve-  163 merit he  could  manage o n  the f i r m u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t  eventually  comply w i t h a l l t h e s t i p u l a t e d  As  the  long  court  as  owner was  a c t i o n was  repairs  of r e p a i r s r i s e s  code.  Hence  requirements.  working to achieve  to c o r r e c t the  i t is imperative  demands o f  rents,  owner i s u n w i l l i n g t o  is  otherwise  the  u n w i l l i n g to lend  greater.  The  areas that  i n areas i t may  ability  and  formulation  d a r d s must a l s o be city:  the  and  declared  t o be  aimed f o r .  f o r ultimate  the  the  relatively  range o f  w i l l be  low.  the  cost  been  reached,  i n areas im-  of a c q u i s i t i o n  and  demand  probable  I f a high  vacancy  the m a r k e t a f f e c t e d by  minimized  as  rent  increases  t h u s be  owner o f s u c h p r o p e r t y  at receprate  code  tenants unable or u n w i l l i n g  R e l o c a t i o n would  However, t h e  enforcement,  i t i s unwise to  i n d i c a t e s the  receive.  number o f  added r e n t s  the  unnecessarily.  programme w i l l  forcement,  problem.  code  r e l a t i o n between h o u s i n g s u p p l y  exists within  be  is raised  as  stan-  residential  Conversely,  redevelopment  time o f c o d e e n f o r c e m e n t  t i o n the  pay  as  for  improvement has  be  the  relocation  of  could  higher  enforcement o f code  conserved  p o s e s t r i n g e n t code r e g u l a t i o n s  the  problem of  i s , when a c e r t a i n l e v e l  The  the  repair,  'stage'  clearance  as  increased  to  designated  and  t o pay  r e l a t e d to long range plans  e v e n be  level  no <  provisions  possible  a higher  end  a  t h a t h o u s i n g code  tenant's  are  this  is increasingly d i f f i c u l t  b e a r r e l a t i o n to the  banks  must  initiated.  Pinancing cost  he  en-  to would  a manageable would  be  161|1  u n w i l l i n g t o pay  the  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the c o s t s  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w h i c h he w o u l d be r e n t s were not low  t o be  increased  vacancy r a t e e x i s t s ,  a r e more l i k e l y t h o u g h the  t o be  the  c o m p e l l e d t o do  a large  costs  passed on  If  to the  tenant,  and  reloca-  Responsibility  Problems of code enforcement i n e v i t a b l y citizen participation  a c h i e v e the out  this  goals  public  and  'the  questionnaire ings  p l a n n e d ' was  value  but  of  and  it  so s i g n i f i c a n t  and  are  i n plans  for  but  States  often p o l i t i c a l l y things':  res-  persons plans  nowhere i s  rehabilitation.  however, i s not  An a u t h o r i n t h e U n i t e d  'touchy  The  to encourage c i t i z e n groups  local leadership,  also  the  the  feel-  methods o f p r o p o s e d  important i n a l l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g ,  t h a t these groups are  'the  s e v e r a l e x p r e s s e d mixed  is  reluctance  assist-  useless.  such c i t i z e n groups.  objectives  as  With-  i n d i c a t e d ' i n some o f  the  Canada.  to  virtually  involved  provide  necessary  housing codes, f i n a n c i a l  o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o i n f o r m  The  to  programme.  ponsibility of  lead  need f o r s u c h l i a i s o n b e t w e e n  replies,  about the  co-operation  improvements are  I n d i c a t i o n o f the planners'  and  of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  participation,  ance and  al-  increased.  Some A s p e c t s o f M u n i c i p a l  the  a  rehabilitation  owner w o u l d be more s a t i s f i e d , t h e  t i o n problem i s  i f the  amount.  of  of  restricted has  to to  commented  unpredictable,  165  Any i n t e l l i g e n t mayor knows t h a t i f he e n c o u r a g e s t h e i r f o r m a t i o n , t h e f i r s t r e s u l t w i l l be b u s i e r telephones at c i t y h a l l . Complaints w i l l increase about t h e bureau o f b u i l d i n g s , the l e g a l b o t t l e necks i n p r o s e c u t i n g code v i o l a t o r s , c i t y t r a s h pick-ups, street cleaning.,,. . street r e p a i r , . . . r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and many o t h e r m a t t e r s . The mayor must r e a l l y welcome t h e s e c o m p l a i n t s as a means o f g e t t i n g a b e t t e r j o b done i f he i s u n w i l l ing to stimulate c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . - ^ To  illustrate  this  problem  of c i t i z e n  t i o n an a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r i s c i t e d although i t i s suggested c o u l d be r e p e a t e d  participa-  f o r convenience,  t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e  i n many c i t i e s  described  a c r o s s Canada.  The  Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r was i n c l u d e d i n a ' L i m i t e d Redevelopment A r e a ewal study;  1  i n the C i t y ' s  urban ren-  a n a r e a w h e r e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a -  t i o n were proposed  t o be e m p h a s i z e d .  properties  area are adequately maintained, but  i n this  Most o f the  p u b l i c maintenance i s r a t h e r poor.  Roads a r e l a r g e l y  w i t h o u t c u r b s o r g u t t e r s , and many s h o u l d e r s a r e so h i g h that  i ti s d i f f i c u l t  the s t r e e t . lighting is  to d r i v e from p r i v a t e  Some b l o c k s h a v e no s i d e w a l k s , and s t r e e t outdated, meeting  T h e r e a r e no p l a y g r o u n d open l o t s  but the barest  facilities  requirements.  w i t h i n t h e a r e a , and  a r e n e g l e c t e d and o v e r g r o w n .  I n 1 9 5 9 the Vancouver Branch  o f t h e . Community  P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada t r i e d interest  garages t o  i n t h e improvement o f t h i s  meetings w i t h l e a d e r s of l o c a l  to create  local  a r e a , and h e l d  organizations to  t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o : a programme o f i m p r o v e m e n t .  determine The  166  CPAC w a n t e d t h e c i t i z e n s ing  the improvements  asking the C i t y i n the area.19^9  to approach the C i t y  t h e y would  to improve  indicat-  be p r e p a r e d t o  initiate,  t h e l e v e l o f i t s own  A meeting held  services  i n t h e a r e a o n O c t o b e r Hj.,  resolved: T h a t a C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e be e s t a b l i s h e d , r e r e s e n t i n g t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Mount P l e a s a n t , t o s t u d y t h e b r i n g i n g a b o u t o f a scheme o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , s u c h c o m m i t t e e t o be known as t h e Mount P l e a s a n t N e i g h b o u r h o o d I m p r o v e m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n . 20.  T h i s c o m m i t t e e , h o w e v e r , was o t h e r m e e t i n g s were h e l d place.  Since that  meeting  i n the  shortly  and  until  p l a n s f o r the a r e a were  A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s w r i t i n g no f u r t h e r  has b e e n t a k e n and CPAC w e r e c o n s i d e r i n g c a l l i n g meeting themselves. phase  Meanwhile,  1  Project 2',  o f t h e C i t y ' s r e n e w a l programme was  J u n e , 1962  another  a r e a , but the C i t y r e q u e s t e d t h a t such a  f o r m u l a t e d , and t h a t t h e C i t y w o u l d c a l l  meeting.  although  a f t e r w a r d s no a c t i o n t o o k  t i m e CPAC has w a n t e d t o c a l l  m e e t i n g h o t be c a l l e d clearly  never e s t a b l i s h e d  the  such a action another second  published  in  and p r o p o s a l s w e r e made f o r t h e Mount P l e a s a n t  a r e a , i n c l u d i n g the c l e a r i n g o f s e v e r a l b l o c k s f o r r e development. resulted  An e a r l i e r  z o n i n g c h a n g e had  i n a 'facelifting'  o f some o f t h e  already residences,  b u t no p r o p o s a l s w e r e made i n t h e R e p o r t f o r t h e er  of the It  'Limited  Redevelopment  Area.'  i s suggested that l i t t l e  interest w i l l  remaind-  citizen activity  be a r o u s e d u n l e s s a c t i v e  or  'outside' help  167  i s p r o v i d e d and u n l e s s t h e p u b l i c A study conducted  i s kept w e l l - i n f o r m e d .  i n t h e Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a by  Mrs.  21 Helga Hicks organized  revealed  t h a t people d i d not t h i n k  groups c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g .  o f those i n t e r v i e w e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y  that  "To  most  the i m m i g r a n t s , the  c o n c e p t o f c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n community a f f a i r s as n e i g h b o u r h o o d I t was  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  thought t h a t such groups would  against the  'might o f t h e C i t y '  r e a l estate groups. perhaps  inevitable  ment d e c l i n e s .  down and s h a b b y .  foreiga"  have l i t t l e  and t h e i n f l u e n c e  that c i t i z e n interest  as w e l l ,  i n the  and f a c i l i t i e s  t o t h e more  cities*  'elite'  residential  h a b i l i t a t i o n i s most n e e d e d , and  areas;  Canadian  this  i s surely  worse  i n a 'limited  redevelopment  activity  know area', quite  implies.  i n t h i s realm o f renewal i s l i m i t -  ed a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s o u r c e s a t i t s d i s p o s a l b u t ly, at l e a s t  the  A c c o r d i n g to Mrs. H i c k s ' s survey,  a p a r t f r o m knowing what the t e r m City  usually  i n a r e a s where r e -  p e o p l e i n t h e Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a s c a r c e l y they are l i v i n g  are  and W e s t m o u n t s o f  too o f t e n p r e v a i l s  t h a n antagonism..  i n such  p r o b a b l y be b r o u g h t t o b e a r o n t h e  Forest H i l l s  • Apathy  environ-  become r u n  a u t h o r i t i e s , but a c t i v e c i t i z e n groups  Shaughnessys,  of  interest  I f v o c a l groups were a c t i v e  areas, pressure could  restricted  effect  I n areas of d e t e r i o r a t i o n i t i s  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the c i t y ' s  frequently declines  City  totally  such 22  ideal-  i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a s , the r e c o g n i t i o n o f  168  t h e need f o r c i t i z e n g r o u p s c a n have a p r o f o u n d on the success ed  of proposed p l a n s , e s p e c i a l l y  at t h e outset of a renewal  the e a r l y  involvement  programme.  effect  i f Iniat-  The v a l u e o f  o f c i t i z e n s has b e e n r e c o g n i z e d  by  t h e U.S. U r b a n R e n e w a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : I f t h e y have had a hand i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p l a n f o r u p g r a d i n g t h e a r e a and i f t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e p l a n r e a l i s t i c and a t t a i n a b l e , t h e y c a n i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e p l a n and become e n t h u s i a s t i c supporters of i t . 3 2  The g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n m u s t directly  concern  t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a i n v o l v e d and  the. p l a n n e r s h o u l d  n o t be so p r e s u m p t u o u s as t o f o r m u -  late plans without  attempting  people  want o f t h e i r  lacking.  a plan's  full  will  success  be  In developing  what t h e  own a r e a and w h a t t h e y f e e l i s  I f the c i t i z e n s  implementing  to determine  become m e r e l y  proposals  a vehicle for  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether  achieved. an i m p r o v e d programme o f s e n i o r  government a s s i s t a n c e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i t i s hoped  t h a t t h e need f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n I n i t i a t i n g  citizen interest w i l l been i n the U n i t e d  be r e c o g n i z e d  i n C a n a d a as i t has  States:  I n some i n s t a n c e s i t i s a t o n c e a p p a r e n t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e a r e needed by the c i t i z e n s t o g e t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r way. When t h i s o c c u r s , t h e L o c a l P u b l i c Agency s h o u l d make a q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n a v a i l a b l e . I f i t does n o t h a v e s u c h a p e r s o n o n i t s s t a f f , t h e LPA may e m p l o y one.-or i t may a r r a n g e w i t h a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e agency t o p r o v i d e the s e r v i c e s under c o n t r a c t . . . . The c o s t o f t h i s s t a f f a s s i s t a n c e , w h e t h e r p r o v i d e d by a r e g u l a r e m p l o y e e o f t h e LPA  169  by a c o n s u l t a n t , or- by a n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . under c o n t r a c t , i s an a l l o w a b l e p r o j e c t expense, ^ It  seems d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r s u c h  provided  a s s i s t a n c e w o u l d be  i n many C a n a d i a n c i t i e s  u n l e s s p r o v i s i o n was  made f o r i t as p a r t o f an o v e r a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n gramme.  Assistance provided  z e n s s h o u l d be r e a l i s t i c to ing  by t h e c i t y  and s h o u l d  pro-  to i t s c i t i -  enable  residents  o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e c a r r y i n g o u t and f i n a n c of repairs. In  a d d i t i o n to improving  establishment the c i t y should  of demonstration  by  houses sponsored  o r by b u i l d i n g and c o n t r a c t i n g c o m p a n i e s  be c o n s i d e r e d .  cessful  p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , the  i n many c i t i e s  T h i s m e a s u r e has p r o v e d  suc-  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i a n  and  i s o n e way o f e n c o u r a g i n g i m p r o v e m e n t s b e y o n d m i n i -  mum  standards:  i m p r o v e m e n t s made t o s u c h h o u s e s  t r y a n d show t h e ' b e f o r e and a f t e r '  effect,  show i m p r o v e m e n t s made t o meet r e q u i r e d b r o k e n down i n t o s e p a r a t e how a s l i g h t l y  larger  c o n s i d e r a b l y more i m p r o v e m e n t .  and s h o u l d  standards  c o s t s , but should  investment  should  a l s o show  may o f t e n r e s u l t i n These houses  should  a l s o s t r e s s t h e amount o f r e p a i r w h i c h may lb e completed without r e s u l t i n g I t i s suggested  confidence  assessment.  t h a t i n i t i a t i o n f o r improvement  m u s t come f r o m t h e c i t y its  i n increased  itself.  Once t h e c i t y  i n an a r e a by c o m m i t t i n g  itself  shows  to a  170  programme o f s y s t e m a t i c and  improvements t o p u b l i c s e r v i c e s  a m e n i t i e s , t h e n home owners may be e n c o u r a g e d t o  improve t h e i r p r o p e r t y .  Until  incentive exists f o r individual Inter-governmental Although  t h i s happens  rehabilitation.  relations the r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e v e r a l l e v e l s  o f g o v e r n m e n t c a n n o t be d i s c u s s e d no e x a m i n a t i o n  little  at length i n this  study,  of urban renewal i s complete without at  l e a s t some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d .  Quite  s i m p l y , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y has t h e p r o b l e m , the F e d e r a l Government has the r e s o u r c e s  to solve the problem, but  the F e d e r a l Government c a n n o t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y directly  i nlocal  affairs.  North America A c t declares be and  is  S e c t i o n §2 o f t h e B r i t i s h 'property  a provincial responsibility,  and c i v i l  r i g h t s ' to  and t h u s F e d e r a l  u r b a n r e n e w a l a s s i s t a n c e must be c h a n n e l l e d  the p r o v i n c e .  intercede  housing through  H o u s i n g and c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g , h o w e v e r ,  a l o c a l concern  and some f r i c t i o n h a s r e s u l t e d .  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p r o b l e m D r . H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r  In a stated:  E a c h l e v e l o f government has f a i l e d t o understand f u l l y the repercussions o f f e d e r a l l y aided housing u p o n m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The F e d e r a l power o v e r m a t t e r s o f h o u s i n g and c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g i s t h e power o f s u p e r i o r f i n a n c e s ; t h e p r o v i n c i a l power i s b a s e d o n t h e a c t u a l and i n t e r preted c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n . 2 5 I n the U n i t e d States agreements f o r c l e a r a n c e  i n redevelop-  ment p r o j e c t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y F e d e r a l - m u n i c i p a l  171  contracts.  H o w e v e r , Mr. D a v i d  Mansuc comments:  "In  Canada the c o n t r a c t i s e s s e n t i a l l y between the F e d e r a l Government  and t h e P r o v i n c e , w i t h t h e P r o v i n c e  a side deal of t h e i r l i k i n g  to the M u n i c i p a l i t y . " 6 2  Mr. M a n s u r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s constitutional: of approval, and  making  d i f f e r e n c e was more  than  i t means a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l i k e l i h o o d  and a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t e o f  activity  i n the c o m p l i c a t i o n of arrangements. The need i s e v i d e n t  to s i m p l i f y  i v e p r o c e d u r e s by w h i c h t h e . t h r e e co-operate.  the administrat-  l e v e l s o f government  T h i s has been r e c o g n i z e d  by t h e C a n a d i a n  F e d e r a t i o n o f M a y o r s and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s as "one o f t h e most e s s e n t i a l means t o e x p e d i t e c a r r y i n g out l o c a l housing r o l e should  essentially  effort  i n preparing  programmes." 7 2  The  and  province's  be one o f f a c i l i t a t i n g c l o s e r  c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t by p r o v i d i n g e n a b l i n g i n order  t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y may  However, t h e P r o v i n c e municipal  grants  variation exists called  should  and o t h e r  upon t o p r o v i d e  of  considerable  The m u n i c i p a l i t y i s  some o f t h e c o s t l i e s t  g o v e r n m e n t c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d assistance.  i t spolicy  f i n a n c i a l a i d , as  across Canada.  needed  implement i t s p l a n s .  also review  f r o m ..the n a r r o w e s t r e v e n u e s o u r c e  cial  l e g i s l a t i o n where  services  and t h e F e d e r a l  to provide  a l l the f i n a n *  172  The N a t u r e o f a L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t for Residential Rehabilitation  Policy  F o l l o w i n g f r o m t h e above d i s c u s s i o n , some g e s t i o n s c a n be made t o i n d i c a t e local and  the nature  government p o l i c y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l  sug-  of a  rehabilitation  some o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be made i n d e v e l o p -  i n g a programme o f a c t i o n may be o u t l i n e d . 1. To be e f f e c t i v e ,  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n m u s t be p r o g r a m -  med and i m p l e m e n t e d o n a n a r e a - w i d e b a s i s . requires  the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o develop  n i n g programme i n c l u d i n g p r o p o s a l s  This  a long-term  f o r urban  plan-  renewal.  2. A n a l y s i s s h o u l d be made o f a l l h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s within municipal jurisdiction, developing defined i.e.  i n c l u d i n g areas  and s e m i - r u r a l u s e s .  a c c o r d i n g t o the nature  o f newly-  S u b - a r e a s s h o u l d be of treatment  redevelopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ,  proposed,  conservation.  3.  S t u d i e s s h o u l d be i n i t i a t e d  t o determine  ails  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n standards  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r comm-  u n i t y , u s i n g a c c e p t a b l e model s t a n d a r d s but  ensuring that a l l standards  ditions  and a r e p r a c t i c a b l y  relate  the det-  as a f r a m e w o r k , to local  con-  enforceable.  ij.. A t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o r e v i s e and c o n s o l i d a t e into a single  code a l l b y - l a w s r e l a t e d  to t h e mainten-  ance and o c c u p a n c y o f e x i s t i n g d w e l l i n g s . this  Tb e f f e c t u a t e  l e g i s l a t i o n i t i s imperative that a positive  e n f o r c e m e n t p o l i c y be f o r m u l a t e d atically.  and c a r r i e d  out system-  173  5»  P r o v i s i o n s should  be made t o e n f o r c e  the demoli-  t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s w h i c h a r e d e c l a r e d beyond 6.  I n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s where a c o n s i d e r a b l e  number o f v i o l a t i o n s  o f housing  occur, c o n s i d e r a t i o n should a Housing Court 7. for  standards  o r by-laws  be g i v e n t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f  to deal with offences.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n plans should  include provisions  i n t e g r a t i n g t h e programmes o f m u n i c i p a l  concerned and  repair.  with traffic  control, recreational  other p u b l i c improvements, t o designated  rehabilitation.  To t h i s  departments facilities areas o f  end t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p e r m a -  n e n t i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e i s recommended, ibly  poss-  t o i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f b o t h c o n s e r v a t i o n and  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures. 8.  Studies should  paying f o r f a c i l i t i e s  be made o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e n t l y c l a s s e d as  'local  improvements' out o f g e n e r a l revenue i n designated of  areas  rehabilitation. 9.  R e v i e w s h o u l d be made o f c u r r e n t p r o p e r t y  ment p r o c e d u r e  w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y  of increasing the  ' m a i n t e n a n c e ' o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h may be p e r m i t t e d causing 10.  increased  without  assessments.  A n a c t i v e programme o f c i t i z e n e d u c a t i o n  be i n i t i a t e d  assess-  should  a t the o u t s e t o f s t u d i e s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  The m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d  encourage the f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l  g r o u p s t o a c t as a l i a i s o n b e t w e e n ' t h e p l a n n e r s ' and  Ilk  'the planned'  and should use such groups i n the prepara-  t i o n o f area p l a n s * 11.  L o c a l b u i l d i n g and c o n t r a c t i n g companies and other  i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s should be approached w i t h the p r o p o s i t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g designated ' demonstration  houses .'  s t r u c t u r e s as  F a i l i n g t h i s the m u n i c i p a l i t y -  should c o n s i d e r i n i t i a t i n g such a p r o j e c t i t s e l f . 12.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n should be made o f the f e a s i b i l i t y  of e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e v o l v i n g fund  to p r o v i d e l o w - i n t e r e s t  loans f o r home-owners unable t o o b t a i n loans through ventional channels.  con-  T h i s scheme c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d by  the m u n i c i p a l i t y or by p r i v a t e l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .  If  plans f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n are c l e a r l y formulated much o f the r i s k of i n d i v i d u a l loans i s removed. 13.  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n should be  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the urban renewal department of m u n i c i p a l government, whether t h i s f u n c t i o n i s independent or p a r t o f the p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . t i e s without  In municipali-  p l a n n i n g departments the c r e a t i o n o f a committee  of c o u n c i l i s suggested  to c o - o r d i n a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ac-  tivity. The above recommendations do not form an exhaustive list  and are l i m i t e d by the amount of  i n t h i s study, points  but they  are suggestive  to be c o n s i d e r e d  i n developing  ment p o l i c y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l  research possible o f some o f a  rehabilitation.  local  the govern-  175  I t has take place  been i n d i c a t e d that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  by  deteriorated  l o c a l government a g e n c i e s dwellings  t h e m s e l v e s , but  the  'grey' areas of our s h i p , and be  and  cities will  i m p r o v e m e n t of  initiated  by  the  main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  not  solve  the  w i l l , of ten-increase is  usually  ment.  rehabilitation  of d w e l l i n g s  will  of t h i s paper bears  repeating.  isolated  problem of  blighted  the c o s t s  does not  be the  i m p l e m e n t e d and residents  carry  out  and  of  i f the m u n i c i p a l i t y  these areas of the  s p a r k of p u b l i c  Without such a p l a n the  drastic,  r u p t i v e measures of c l e a r a n c e inevitable.  and  i f his  neigh-  a c t i o n , and  if  facilities. formulates  e f f o r t to  objectives  a  community may  be  inform  and  a l s o commits  and  interest  the  areas i n which i t w i l l  engages i n a s i n c e r e  adequate s e r v i c e s  improve-  its responsibility  public  o f s u c h a programme, and  to p r o v i d i n g t h e n the  indeed  incentive for  of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , d e f i n e s  benefits  the  of redevelopment, which  i s no  adequate s e r v i c e s  to  dwellings  u r b a n d e c a y , and  i n c l i n a t i o n to take s i m i l a r  Conversely, policy  of  One  p r i v a t e home-oviner to improve h i s p r o p e r t y  -the m u n i c i p a l i t y  owner-  have  i n e v i t a b l e i n areas of such s p o r a d i c  b o u r s show no  the  owners t h e m s e l v e s .  Furthermore, there  to provide  in  remain i n p r i v a t e  these dwellings  I n d i v i d u a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of will  acquiring  i n i t i a t i n g the  vast majority  can  itself  facilities,  kindled.  c o s t l y , and  more  redevelopment  disare  176  References 1  W i l l i a m W.  Nash, R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n : Private P r o f i t s " a n d P u b l i c P u r p o s e , ACTION s e r i e s i n H o u s i n g and Community D e v e l o p m e n t (New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l B o o k Co., Ltd.,1959) p.156.  2  " F e d e r a l Funds f o r Old Houses," J a n u a r y 24, 1963.  3  " B u i l d e r s Eye Home I m p r o v e m e n t F i e l d , " P o s t L V I I , No. 10, M a r c h 9,  4  O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Community Planning Branch, A Better Place to L i v e , I n t e r i m Report (Toronto: O n t a r i o Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , i 9 6 0 ) , p.?i+ .  5  "Conservation, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t Rules The J o u r n a l o f H o u s i n g , X V I I , No.  (December,  I960), P.  Vancouver  462.  Sun,  Financial  Unveiled," 11  6  C i t y of Vancouver: Information f o r Taxpayers, L e a f l e t e n c l o s e d w i t h 1962 T a x B i l l s .  7  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. McQueen, A s s e s s m e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , M a r c h 5, 1963.  8  D o u g l a s C l a r k , " U r b a n R e n e w a l and M u n i c i p a l T a x a t i o n , " C a n a d i a n Tax J o u r n a l , X I , No. 1 ( J a n u a r y -  F e b r u a r y , 1963).  9  I b i d , p.  82.  10  I b i d , p.  78.  11  I b i d , p.  79.  12  I b i d , p.  79.  13  I b i d , p.  14  City  82.  of Vancouver:  I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Taxpayers L e a f l e t  1962. 15  Ontario  D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Community P l a n n i n g Branch, A B e t t e r Place to l i v e , F i n a l Report, (Toronto: O n t a r i o Department  of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ,  1962).  177  16  " S u b m i s s i o n by t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l o n the. B y l a w s r e l a t i n g t o E x i s t i n g H o u s i n g and t h e i r Administration," J u n e , 1962.  17  M. C a r t e r  18  I b i d , p.7.  19  Webb S. F i s e r , M a s t e r y o f t h e M e t r o p o l i s (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : Prentice-Hall, Inc,  McFarland, R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e Harlem Park A r e a , B a l t i m o r e , " " M a r y l a n d " (Washington, D.C.: The F e d e r a l H o u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U r b a n Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , B a l t i m o r e U r b a n Renewal and H o u s i n g Agency, 1962), p.23.  1962), p.97. 20  M i n u t e s o f M e e t i n g o f L e a d e r s o f Community Groups i n t h e Mount P l e a s a n t D i s t r i c t , h e l d i n the G u i l d Room, S t . M i c h a e l ' s C h u r c h , 1+00 B l o c k , E . Broadway, V a n c o u v e r , O c t o b e r  Ik> 1959. 21  H e l g a M. H i c k s , " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n N e i g h b o u r hood R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , " U n p u b l i s h e d MSW t h e s i s , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962.  22  I b i d , p.75.  23  United  2k  Ibid,  25  H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , "Community P l a n n i n g and H o u s i n g : Step-Children of Canadian Federalism," Q ueen's Q u a r t e r l y , L X V I I , No. k» ( W i n t e r , 1961),  26  D a v i d B. Mansur, "Urban Renewal: P r o s p e c t s and Problems," An Address a t the Annual Meeting o f t h e D o m i n i o n Mortgage and I n v e s t m e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n , S t r a t f o r d , O n t a r i o , May 3, 1 9 6 1 .  27  C a n a d i a n F e d e r a t i o n o f Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , S u b m i s s i o n t o t h e Government o f C a n a d a o n B e h a l f o f t h e M u n i c i p a l Governments o f C a n a d a , Ottawa: November 10, 1 9 6 1 ) , p . B - l l .  S t a t e s U r b a n Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , N e i g h b o u r hood O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C o n s e r v a t i o n A r e a s , T e c h n i c a l G u i d e No. 8 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1961) p . 3 . p. lj-5.  APPENDIX I  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Used i n t h e S t u d y The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e m a i l e d p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s i n c i t i e s w i t h completed renewal  studies together with a l e t t e r  purpose of the study.  The n a t u r e  proposals contained  Due t o t h e n a t u r e  lating every  i n a letter  a questionnaire. c i t y contacted  except  study.  general  r a t h e r than  Corner  formu-  Brook. personal  to o b t a i n s i m i l a r  178  rehabili-  R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m  I n V a n c o u v e r arid V i c t o r i a v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  e x p l a i n g the  i n each urban renewal  of the H a l i f a x study  q u e s t i o n s were p o s e d  urban  of the question-  n a i r e s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c tation  to  inter-  information.  179  The C i t y  o f C o r n e r Brook U r b a n Renewal Study  Has t h e C i t y o f C o r n e r B r o o k made any f i n a l t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the U r b a n Renewal Study ?  resolu-  What i s t h e C i t y ' s c u r r e n t v i e w o f t h e R e p o r t ' s recommendation t o c r e a t e a M u n i c i p a l Renewal Agency t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l p a r t s o f t h e r e n e w a l programme ? R e g a r d i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n No. 8 o n page 77 o f t h e Report: a) has i t y e t b e e n , p o s s i b l e t o d e s i g n a t e the proposed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas ? b) h a s i t y e t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p any p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme ? R e g a r d i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n No. 15> has i t y e t b e e n d e s i r a b l e t o r e q u e s t t h e s u g g e s t e d P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f minimum o c c u p a n c y and m a i n t e n a n c e s t a n d a r d s . Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community groups t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s aspects of the renewal programme ? What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s i n implementing the proposed p l a n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e C i t y of Corner Brook ?  180  City Has If  the C i t y  of H a m i l t o n Urban  accepted the renewal  n o t , what were  Renewal  Study  study i n p r i n c i p l e  the m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s  ?  ?  Has any a c t i o n b e e n p o s s i b l e on t h e p r o p o s a l t o r e v i s e the O f f i c i a l P l a n and the Z o n i n g By-law t o make t h e r e n e w a l programme e f f e c t i v e ? I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e S t u d y be r e f e r r e d t o t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g B o a r d f o r a c t i o n , and t h a t i t s h o u l d p r e p a r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n s f o r e a c h r e d e v e l o p m e n t ar-eain o r d e r of p r i o r i t y . C a n y o u t e l l me what has happened i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , and w h e t h e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o r r e d e v e l o p ment a r e a s have a c t u a l l y b e e n d e f i n e d ? Has i t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o i n i t i a t e t h e s u g g e s t e d p e r i o d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f o l d e r h o u s i n g a r e a s by e n f o r c e m e n t o f the B u i l d i n g By-law ? Has any C i t y a c t i o n b e e n i n i t i a t e d p a r k s and o t h e r community s e r v i c e s rehabilitation?  i n improving schools i n areas r e q u i r i n g  Mr. J . F . Brown has i n f o r m e d me t h a t t h e C i t y i s contemp l a t i n g a model r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t . I wonder i f you c o u l d g i v e me any d e t a i l s on t h i s p r o p o s a l ? Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n the f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community groups t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e r e n e w a l programme? What, i n y o u r implementing Hamilton ? political •?  o p i n i o n , are the c u r r e n t o b s t a c l e s i n the p r o p o s e d p l a n o f r e h a b i l i a t i o n i n (e.g. l e g i s l a t i v e ? administrative ? )  Do y o u c o n s i d e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n an end i n i t s e l f , o r m e r e l y as a s t o p - g a p measure i n an a r e a r e q u i r i n g u l t i mate c l e a r a n c e and r e d e v e l o p m e n t ?  181  The  City  of  Kingston Planning  Have the p r o p o s a l s f o r u r b a n i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e C i t y ? If  not, what  were  the  main  renewal  Study  yet  reservations  been  accepted  ?  To p r o t e c t a r e a s f r o m f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n has any a c t i o n been p o s s i b l e i n f o r m u l a t i n g the proposed Housinj Code? T h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r o f S y d e n h a m W a r d was s t r e s s e d i n the study. To p r e s e r v e t h i s a r e a , has t h e p r o p o s e d change i n z o n i n g from commercial to r e s i d e n t i a l use yet b e e n made ? Has any C i t y a c t i o n b e e n i n i t i a t e d designated r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas ? certain streets) Has Act  i n any o f t h e (eg c l o s i n g of  i t p r o v e d p o s s i b l e t o use S e c t i o n 2 0 o f the as a means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g rehabilitation.  Plannini  Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l encouragement i n the f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community groups to p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the r e n e w a l programme? What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e implementing the proposed p l a n Kingston? (eg. legislative? cal?) * •  current obstacles i n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n administrative? politi-  Do y o u c o n s i d e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n e n d i n i t s e l f , or m e r e l y as a s t o p - g a p m e a s u r e i n a n a r e a r e q u i r i n g u l t i m a t e c l e a r a n c e and r e d e v e l o p m e n t ?  182  The C i t y  o f London, U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y  Has t h e U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y f o r t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n y e t b e e n a d o p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e C i t y ? If  n o t , what were t h e m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s  ?  Has i t b e e n c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e o r n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a minimum' H o u s i n g S t a n d a r d s B y - l a w , as recommended by the c o n s u l t a n t s ? Has t h e need f o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n areas r e q u i r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n been r e c o g n i z e d ? Has t h e r e b e e n any a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s i n o r g a n i z i n g and r e l a t i n g p r o j e c t s to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o gramme ? Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of o r g a n i z e d c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the renewal programme ? What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s i n implementing t h e proposed p l a n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the C i t y o f London ? Do y o u c o n s i d e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n end i n i t s e l f , o r m e r e l y as a s t o p - g a p m e a s u r e i n a n a r e a r e q u i r i n g ultimate clearance ?  183  The C i t y  of M o n t r e a l Urban Renewal Study  1.  Has t h e U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y f o r t h e C i t y o f M o n t r e a l y e t b e e n a d o p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e C i t y ?  2.  I f n o t , what were t h e m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s  3.  What i s t h e c u r r e n t v i e w o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n p p . 111.-15- o f t h e R e p o r t r e l a t i n g t o t h e p r o p o s e d programme o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ?  i+.  H a s . t h e r e b e e n any a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s i n o r g a n i z i n g and r e l a t i n g p r o j e c t s to the requirements of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme ?  5.  Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community groups t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s parts of the renewal programme ?  6.  What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s i n implementing the proposed p l a n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the C i t y o f M o n t r e a l ?  7.  Do y o u c o n s i d e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n end i n i t s e l f , o r m e r e l y as a s t o p - g a p m e a s u r e i n a n a r e a r e q u i r i n g ultimate clearance ?  ?  181+  The C i t y  o f S a i n t John, U r b a n Renewal Study  Has t h e U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y f o r t h e C i t y o f S t . J o h n b e e n a d o p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e C i t y ? If  n o t , what were t h e m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s  R e l a t i n g to the c o n s u l t a n t ' s proposals the R e p o r t :  ? o n p . 15 o f  a) h a s any r e v i s i o n I n t h e v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l c o d e s b e e n made t o f a c i l i t a t e i n s p e c t i o n o f d w e l l i n g s b) has t h e r e v o l v i n g l o a n f u n d a c t u a l l y as s u g g e s t e d ? c)  been extended  has i t b e e n f o u n d d e s i r a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h Housing Court ?  d) has any f o r m o f C o - o r d i n a t i n g A g e n c y proposed ?  ?  a  been  Has t h e r e b e e n any a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s i n o r g a n i z i n g and r e l a t i n g p r o j e c t s t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme ? Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community g r o u p s t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e r e n e w a l programme ? What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s i n implementing the proposed p l a n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the C i t y of S a i n t Jdhn ? Do y o u c o n s i d e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n end i n I t s e l f , o r m e r e l y a s t o p - g a p measure i n an a r e a r e q u i r i n g u l t i m a t e clearance?  185  City  of S t , John's U r b a n Renewal Study  Has t h e U r b a n Renewal. S'tudy f o r t h e C i t y o f S t . J o h n ' s y e t b e e n a d o p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e C i t y If  n o t , w h a t were t h e m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s  ?  ?  What i s t h e c u r r e n t v i e w o f t h e R e p o r t ' s recommenda t i o n t o c r e a t e a new u r b a n r e n e w a l d e p a r t m e n t o f m u n i c i p a l government ? R e g a r d i n g R e c o m m e n d a t i o n No. 1 3 o n page 6 8 o f t h e Study; has the suggested study o f b u i l d i n g , h e a l t h , z o n i n g and other- r e l a t e d" c o d e s b e e n i n s t i g a t e d , i n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e t h e c o n t r o l o v e r the, u s e , '-maintenance and r e m o v a l o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s ' ? R e g a r d i n g R e c o m m e n d a t i o n No. 1 8 : has any d e c i s i o n y e t b e e n made t o employ S e c t i o n 1 6 , P a r t I I and S e c t i o n 2k P a r t IV. o f t h e N a t i o n a l . H o u s i n g A c t t o r e h a b i l i t a t e structures i n order to prevent f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n '.-•? . R e g a r d i n g R e c o m m e n d a t i o n No. 1 9 : a) b) c)  Has i t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o d e s i g n a t e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A r e a 1 by M u n i c i p a l B y l a w as s u g g e s t e d ? Has i t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s u g g e s t e d programme o f h o u s i n g i n s p e c t i o n ? Has i t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t any p u b l i c works a c t i v i t y i n the area designated f o r rehabilitation ?  Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community groups t o p r o v i d e l o c a l . l e a d e r s h i p i n various parts of the renewal p r o • gramme ? What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e c u r r e n t o b s t a c l e s i n implemenenting the proposed p l a n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r St. John's ?  186  City  /  of Saskatoon:  Housing Report,  1961  1.  Has t h e R e p o r t y e t b e e n a c c e p t e d t h e C i t y as a p l a n o f a c t i o n ?  i n p r i n c i p l e by  2.  The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a l r e a d y g o i n g on i n S a s k a t o o n . Is i t g o i n g on I n the areas designated i n the Report f o r r e h a b i l i tation.  3.  Has t h e r e y e t b e e n any a t t e m p t a t f o r m i n g a c t i v e c i t i z e n groups to p r o v i d e the l i a i s o n between the c i t y and p r i v a t e owners ?  ij..  The R e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t many o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a l r e a d y i n use i n S a s k a t o o n , b u t t h a t t h e r e i s no c o - o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m . Have t h e r e s i n c e b e e n any i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h i s situation ?  5.  Would the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o gramme be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , o r w o u l d a s e p a r a t e a g e n c y be c r e a t e d  ?  6.  The use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a p o s i t i v e t o o l i s i n d i c a t e d o n page 79 o f t h e R e p o r t w h e r e i t i s s t a t e d t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may u l t i m a t e l y i n s p i r e a change t o a h i g h e r l a n d u s e . What i s y o u r r e a c t i o n t o it he more n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n is "a short-term s o l u t i o n for a s h o r t - t e r m p r o b l e m , " presumably b e i n g an i n t e r i m s t a g e l e a d i n g t o u l t i m a t e c l e a r a n c e and r e d e v e l o p ment ? ( T h i s use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was p u t f o r w a r d i n the V i c t o r i a renewal s t u d y ) .  7.  What i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e m a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o p o s e d programme ?  in  187  City  o f S a u l t S t e . M a r i e Urban Renewal Study  Has t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l s t u d y f o r t h e C i t y o f S a u l t S t e . M a r i e y e t b e e n a d o p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e City ? If  n o t , w h a t were t h e m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s  ?  R e l a t i n g t o s p e c i f i c recommendations r e g a r d i n g d e s i g n a t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas ; has i t y e t b e e n possible : a) t o d e c i d e o n t h e recommended p u r c h a s e o f land f o r parks ? b) t o a u t h o r i z e t h e recommended p u b l i c w o r k s programme ? c) t o decide on c l o s i n g p a r t s o f p u b l i c s t r e e t s d) t o d i s a l l o w b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s i n a r e a s d e s i g nated a c c o r d i n g to the p r o p o s a l s ? e) a g r e e t o p r o p o s e d amendments t o t h e O f f i c i a l P l a n and t h e Z o n i n g B y - l a w ? Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community groups t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the r e n e w a l programme ? What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s i n implementing the proposed p l a n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the C i t y of S a u l t S t e . M a r i e ?  188  City  of Toronto  U r b a n Renewal Study  The 1 9 5 6 U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y o f T o r o n t o was, I b e l i e v e , t h e f i r s t o f i t s t y p e i n C a n a d a . Have s u b s e q u e n t r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l s r e f l e c t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h i s report ? Has i t p r o v e d d e s i r a b l e t o c r e a t e a s e p a r a t e to a d m i n i s t e r urban renewal ?  agency  Mr. S t a n l e y P i c k e t t i n f o r m e d me i n a r e c e n t l e t t e r t h a t t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o has c o n s i d e r e d t h e applicat i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures i n the A l e x a n d r a Park area: a) C a n y o u g i v e me any d e t a i l s o n t h e C i t y ' s a c t i o n i n these proposals ? b) 'Would s u c h a programme be i n i t i a t e d u n d e r S e c t i o n 3 6 ( l ) ( c ) o f the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g Act ? I understand t h a t a p r o p o s a l to i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n t i a l o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e R i v e r d a l e a r e a met with only limited success. C a n y o u t e l l me t h e m a i n reasons f o r t h i s ? "Natural" the Annex to a s s i s t of p u b l i c  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n seems t o be q u i t e a c t i v e i n area. Does t h e c i t y c o n s i d e r i t n e c e s s a r y t h i s p r o c e s s i n any way by t h e i m p r o v e m e n t f a c i l i t i e s , etc.?  Due t o the l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e t o home-owners f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p u r p o s e s , has t h e C i t y considered i t necessary to o f f e r such a s s i s t a n c e itself ? I s t h e r e any " o f f i c i a l " e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l home-owners' g r o u p s i n a r e a s requiring rehabilitation ? Is i t f e a s i b l e i n Toronto to provide c e r t a i n ' l o c a l improvements' out of g e n e r a l revenue i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n areas ? Do y o u c o n s i d e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n i n an a r e a r e q u i r i n g u l t i m a t e c l e a r a n c e , or c a n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d an end i n i t s e l f ? What do y o u c o n s i d e r t o be t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s t o t h e more e f f e c t i v e use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n C a n a d a ?  189  The C i t y  o f Windsor U r b a n Renewal Study  Has t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l s t u d y f o r t h e C i t y o f W i n d s o r y e t b e e n a d o p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e by t h e C i t y ? If  n o t , what w e r e t h e m a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s ?  Has i t y e t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o make any p r o g r e s s o n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e 20 d e f i n e d d e c l i n i n g a r e a s , by i m p r o v e m e n t s i n c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s ? The g r a d i n g o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a s by t h e n a t u r e o f the d e g r e e e o f i m p r o v e m e n t n e c e s s a r y seems u n i q u e t o the W i n d s o r s t u d y . Has t h i s c o n c e p t b e e n a c c e p t e d ? Has t h e recommended u r b a n r e n e w a l s e c t i o n b e e n c r e a t e d w i t h i n the municipal o r g a n i z a t i o n ? Has t h e r e b e e n any o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d community g r o u p s t o p r o v i d e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the renewal programme ? Has i t p r o v e d p o s s i b l e t o u s e S e c t i o n 2 0 o f t h e P l a n n i n g A c t as a means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n What, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , a r e t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s i n implementing the proposed p l a n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the C i t y o f W i n d s o r ?  190  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Winnipeg Have any s t u d i e s o f t h e needs f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n been conducted s i n c e P r o f essor-.Gerson's s t u d y ? I s any a g e n c y i n any way r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e n f o r c i n g minimum s t a n d a r d s b y d i f f e r e n t departments ? Has W i n n i p e g c o n s i d e r e d i t d e s i r a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a f u n d t o s u p p l y l o a n s t o homeowners u n a b l e t o s e c u r e f i n a n c i n g f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e i r homes ? Do y o u c o n s i d e r i t f e a s i b l e t o p r o v i d e c e r t a i n l o c a l improvements o u t o f g e n e r a l revenue i n areas r e q u i r ing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ? I s t h e r e any ' o f f i c i a l ' e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l home o w n e r s g r o u p s t o . s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n home i m p r o v e m e n t ? What do y o u c o n s i d e r t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e s t o t h e more e f f e c t i v e us o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n C a n a d a ?  APPENDIX I I V i s u a l Impression of Area Designated f o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Measures The of  following  illustrations  indicate  some  the problems e x i s t i n g i n an area o f the C i t y o f  V a n c o u v e r d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n measures . this The  I t i s not suggested, however,  that  is. a ' t y p i c a l ' area r e q u i r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . nature o f b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n  varies  C a n a d a and d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s e x i s t :  i n parts  an area  of  desig-  nated f o r ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' i n V i c t o r i a , f o r example, may be c o n s i d e r e d servation  measures.  illustrations facing  to require  only  con-  Rather than showing d e t a i l s , the  indicate  some o f t h e g e n e r a l  problems  t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f many  cities; cipal  i n Nova S c o t i a  problems which i n m o s t  action  instances require  and c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h  191  private  muni-  home-owners.  193  191+  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Alderson,  Stanley. 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"Urban Renewal: A P o l i c y Statement o f the 'Ameri c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , " XXV, No. 4 (November, 1959) -  ;  Juster,  Robert.' " R e h a b i l i t a t i o n - i n New O r l e a n s , " Journal of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , XLII, No. 1 (December, 1955)•  Lammer, P . J . " R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f Housing, X I I , No. 2 (February, 19557^ Levy, J.H. "Urban Renewal Re-examined," P l a n n i n g , 1957* Chicago: American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1957. L i c h f i e l d , N a t h a n i e l . " P l a n n i n g f o r Urban Renewal: The American Approach," J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , XLVII, No. 3 (March, 1961)^ Lj&>erman, Barnet* "Code Enforcement: A Neglected T o o l i n P l a n n i n g and Urban Renewal," P l a n n i n g , I96I. Chicago: American Society of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1961. The  J o u r n a l of Housing. 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' Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , Graduate S c h o o l of R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1955*  203  A b r i e f t o H i s W o r s h i p M a y o r A.T. A l s b u r y and members o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l d e a l i n g w i t h some a s p e c t s o f the " C i t y o f Vancouver Redevelopment P r o j e c t 2 ( p a r t 1 o n l y ) " p r e s e n t e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e V a n c o u v e r B r a n c h o f t h e Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, January 2 2 , 1963• M i n u t e s o f m e e t i n g o f l e a d e r s o f community g r o u p s - i n t h e Mount P l e a s a n t ^ d i s t r i c t , h e l d i n t h e G u i l d Room, S t . M i c h a e l ' s C h u r c h , i+OO B l o c k , E . B r o a d w a y , V a n c o u v e r , O c t o b e r 111, 1 9 5 9 . S u b m i s s i o n by t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l on the by-laws r e l a t i n g t o e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , J u n e , 1 9 6 2 .  

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