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Vocational guidance in British Columbia Dodd, Arthur James Andrew 1938

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VOCATIONAL. GUIDANCE I N B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  by  A r t h u r James A. Dodd  A Thesis Submitted  f o r t h e Degree o f  MASTER OP ARTS, i n t h e Department of PHILOSOPHY;  THE -UNIVERSITY OP B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1938  I  PBE1AC1  PREFACE  ; E o r many  years  Columbia  had  revising  and m o d e r n i s i n g .  school  thorough  the  a  felt  some  that  the  and  senior  recognized  the  pressing  and  committee for  the  phases civic  the  in  such  club  and l e a d e r s h i p ,  and  Guidance  was  The  'time-j. h o w e v e r - , as  Revision minor for  to  changes,  Then,,  to  chose  Some  guidance,, student  was in  was  its  schools  with  the  out  Such  on  Committee  appointed  a,  a  Guidance  was  to  along  with  moral,  guidance  participation,  in  commenced  task  its  programme  to  April  Committee's in  sub-  social, for  school in  a l l  leisure  government  January  by March  to  the  after  Programme  193?  1937.  S O t h ^ 1937" w h e n  report,  the  to  programme  include  B u l l e t i n . 1 was: s u b m i t t e d The  later  reorganlzation-  educational,  extended  elementary  programme  field  final  needed  extending a  British  definite  present  Incorporated  employed  for be  the  by  course  responsible  in. committee.,  writer  a  our  of  the  Central  undergoing  of  Studies  H i g h '•.Schools..  material  committee  to  programmes>  Committee.  The method ling  19:36,  submit  outlined  Senior  for  Revision  committee  and  course  schools.  educators  of  carried  high, s c h o o l - . • The  as  asked  curricula  need  Central  and v o c a t i o n a l  The  foremost  Commencing  high  December  senior  the  r e v i s i o n - was  junior  Guidance  of  the was  Guidance for  material  was  vocational,  guidance  as  previous  each, member  f o r .-a. p a r t i c u l a r  the  years  Committee  t.o. t h i s  his  time  the of  the  revised.  special,  the  of  'phase  carefully  in. assemb-  author  work; The  contribution. had  become  interested  in  the  •upon-vocational I n 1.933-34  it  Christchurch successful Y.M.G.A.., of  the  were  the  and  and  the  about  the  author  read  and  setting  up  By  time  this  high  in at  formation  the  in  the  of  school, however,  outlining  which  bureau  proposed  committee  the  of  their  course  in  the  of  Guidance  much  guidance  of  the  in by  business of  apparent the to  men  boys  with  establish in  do  would be  -  the  something  On r e t u r n  the  helpful  in  Westminster.  present for  a  that  idea  i n New  the  government  should  a  thesis  the  British  on  requirement  Columbia.  committee material  was u s e d b y  the  of that  the had  writer  been  In  course. h a d many f o r m s  because  to  of  depression  the  fulfillment  the U n i v e r s i t y  on v o c a t i o n a l  the  that  Zealand  supported  of  boys  guidance.  plan arose  partial  assembled  As  the  Columbia  guidance  bureau  and  strengthened  vocational  definite  degree  the  helping  Hew  Hundreds  was  industry  assembled m a t e r i a l  guidance  t h e HE.A.  senior  the  school,,  emphasis  city  leading  year  It  to  the  was  Labour. this  in British  a vocational  vocational  With  of  visit  the  placed.  experience  problem  to  guidance  of  during  towards  t h a t , we  particular  on. e x c h a n g e  Department,,  even  the  done  with  organization  Department  of  This  mind  This  was b e i n g  co-operation  writer's  Whilst  a vocational  and  percentage  themselves.  of  see  Education  being  guidance  good f o r t u n e  operation.  city  m u c h was  his  was  the  of  guidance.  interviewed  large  field  length  and  and number  Programme  i i i  of  outlines could  Studies,  It  not was  on be  hand, included  decided  to  assemble  these  Department printed for  of  and  further This  down b y  in  a handbook  Education.  there  has  state  high  1938-39  school  regularly  and t h e  to  the  was  the  chairman  writer  teachers programme  and  so  under that  later  it  take  up  for  the  however,  the of the  of  v a l u e may b e role  Iv  accredited be  taught  committee  w i t h more with  the  The  not  for  detailed  perhaps  form. will  The  permit  each to  such submit  cover.  expansion  studies.  laid:  1938.  Guidance  thesis  book  an  shall  has.- b e e n n e c e s s a r y  separate in  i n March  in  been  teachers  Board  of  joint  not  regulations  might be written,,  this  a measure  who w i l l of  a  the University*  hoped pages  course  issuing  of  that  has  the  on Guidance  by  contribution  following  course  the  Course.  requirement  thought  thesis  is  the  a  x.  present  requirements  as  by  demand f r o m  Guidance of  later  booklet  Insistent  and  of  It  this  ix  possibility  his  issued  Grades  on t h e  joint,  date  grow b e c a u s e  that  information  a  of  be  the High School A c c r e d i t i n g  regulations  It  To  been an  explanation  demand may  to  of  the  outline  obtained  counsellor  by  under  in  the  those the  new  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Preface  . .  Chapter  I  Chapter I I  Chapter I I I  Page 2  The  Introauction  A.  The G r o w t h o f t i i e G u i d a n c e  B.  The S c o p e o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e .  Idea.  Occupations  8  A.  TShat t h e S t u d e n t N e e d s t o Know About Occupations.  B.  -Where a n d How to: C o l l e c t I n f o r m a t i o n OIL O c c u p a t i o n s .  C.  T a l k s a b o u t O c c u p a t i o n s b y Men i n . Them...  Dv  Visits  E.  V i s u a l Education i n the Occupational Field.  F..  Occupational Information.  G.  How O c c u p a t i o n s  H.  V o c a t i o n a l Conference.  I.  Individual Studies.  J.  Biographical Studies. -  K.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Occupations i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  to Industries.  a r e Studied.-^  P r e p a r i n g f o r a Vocation.. A.  Studying, of t h e S e l f .  B-.  S e e k i n g A d v i c e and Counsel,'  C.  Selecting a Vocation.  D.  Securing a Position.  44  Chapter  IV  Advancement  Chapter  V;  Puture. o f V o c a t i o n a l Guidance B r i t i s h Columbia. . . . »  Chapter  VI  Ajpp QHCLIX!  Page 58  In a V o c a t i o n In .  .  63  .. S u m m a r y  68  « * • • • • • » * • • • * • • * • • * * • •  71  Blbliqgrapliy  •  115  Chapter  1  IKTROBWTIOH  A.  Growth: o f  , ..•  In  years of  ago  the  the  courses  very  little  were his  was  taught three  then  years  consult  the  particular  to at  a  In  limited  field.  general  more  less  familiar: with  During place  in, our  course of  was  in  high  order  of  influx  suitable of  two  from three  qualify  preparation, employment.  population  into  the  led  limited Most  to  might  the  the  These  have  the  many  told  programme high  subjects of  course  occasion in was  student,  to  a able  to  and  was  situation. changes the  The  students  seemed to  have  to  difficulty remain  Furthermore, be  at even  an:..Increasing  factors,.' together  province, have  taken  matriculation  years.  employment.  there  was  period  principal  knew  four  principal  matriculation.  employment  example, to  he  twenty  and commercial  of  and more  for  the  employment  For  c a u s e d more  to  he  decades  schools.  jobs  with additional lack  last  extended  obtaining  school  the  chances  the  school  During  student  way b e c a u s e  the  the m a t r i c u l a t i o n  information  In a  some  by  choice.  infancy  degree.  the  on the  This  of  which  because  furnish or  its  years,  principal  the  individual  school,  three  handled  entered  courses  was  was  and because  his  academic  only  required  student  to  school  Of B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a  guidance  offered  left  offered  technical  of  When a  were  Idea  schools  problem  school.  schools  Guidance  th_e h i g h  what  The  the  brought  with  about  the a  marked  increase  Our  city  the p r i n c i p a l In  in  come  to  the  High  lists  School  during  the  choice  calls  student  four  his a  he w o u l d much  as  Is  more  to  simpler.  Each  guidance*  It  complexity handicapped for  him to  is  of in  have  and group. social  Senior taken  a wide  of  part  range of  the  and p r i n c i p a l .  When  is  if  very  helpful  a s . p o s s i b l e ,about  him,  to  choice  enters;' stand  that  counsellors  in  divided  his  wide range  guidance  schools  need  of  such  that  the  students.  made  an  such as  and  It  is  him In  our  the  principal  is  Imperative  this  work»  Individual  educational,,  demanding  that  individual  two p h a s e s , as  Is  as If  work  is  enrollment  can assist,  into  of  subjects  time-tables,  world,,  who  field  of  the  with, an  counselling a l l  the  a  the  know  industrial  and v o c a t i o n a l  for  w h i c h may b e  on t h e  Individual  With. such, a  its  enough  o n e who  is  of  a n d home c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  and,will  Counselling  Columbia  Studies  planning  it  that  students.  interests  evident  the  of  Such  then his  now h a v e ,  his  differences,  counsellor  size  British  subjects  school  in  a l l  school.  knowledge  enter  problem  schools  high  high  fortunate  like  counsel  system of  thirty  careful  record,  individual  high  a  increased  Individual  teacher,  full  know a n d  than of  very  s  so  p r e s e n t , Programme  enteres  scholastic  student  the  for  first  the  population.  have  educational  years  parent  s c h o o l has  longer  recognize that  school  schools  c a n no  students,so  student,  high  high  the meantime  . has  our  moral,  both, i n d i v i d u a l  and  group  treatment  oneself  to  vocational  is  phase  of  separated that  other  phases  B.  The S c o p e  As can  find  a  the  of  Guidance  process  of  assisting  prepare  for  it,,  aims  1.  as  of  present be  enter  Vocational  limit  is  that  of  largely  from  the  study  fields  offguidance  it  is  has  and  Is  a profound  Itself  it  well  effect  modified  by  to  upon them..  Quidance.  than  it  Vocational  that  off t h e  "Vocational  individual  upon  to  of  Association, the  thesis  treated  guidance  better  stage  guidance.  definition, of  no  this  convenience  guidance  general  Vocational  same b o d y  other  at  for  off V o c a t i o n a l  probably  specific  the  Although  vocational  the  in  of  which w i l l  view.  from  necessary  phase  chosen  guidance  point  remember  becomes  a particular  The  .group  It  to  Guidance Hatlonal Guidance  choose  and progress, i n  Guidance have  one  been  an  Is  the  occupation,  it",.  The  g i v e n by  the  follows: To  tt  assist  'the  student  to  acquire  such  knowledge  of t h e - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f u n c t i o n s , the d u t i e s a n d r e w a r d s o f t h e g r o u p off o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h i n , w h i c h h i s c h o i c e w i l l p r o b a b l y l i e a s h e may . need f o r i n t e l l i g e n t choice. 2.  To e n a b l e specific g r o u p off what a r e sex, for  t h e s t u d e n t t o f i n d what g e n e r a l a n d a b i l i t i e s s k i l l s are required f o r the occupations under considerations, and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n of age, p r e p a r a t i o n , e n t e r i n g them.  3.  To g i v e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c e s i n s c h o o l and out of s c h o o l , t h a t w i l l g i v e c e r t a i n f a c t s about c o n d i t i o n s . o f work and t h a t w i l l a s s i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o d i s c o v e r h i s own a b i l i t i e s and h e l p t h e development of w i d e r interests.  5  4. ;. ;  To d e v e l o p i n t h e s t u d e n t t h e p o i n t o f v i e w , t h a t a l l h o n e s t l a b o u r i s w o r t h y , and t h a t c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n s h o u l d be b a s e d u p o n t h e p e c u l i a r s e r v i c e t h a t the I n d i v i d u a l can render to s o c i e t y upon p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n In the o c c u p a t i o n , and u p o n a b i l i t y , remuneration, p o s s i b i l i t y of advancement, and t h e l i k e .  5.  To a s s i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a c q u i r e t h e t e c h n i q u e o f a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n , and t o develop the h a b i t of a n a l y z i n g such I n f o r m a t i o n before making a f i n a l choice.  6.  To a s s i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o s e c u r e s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n about h i m s e l f , h i s a b i l i t i e s , g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c , h i s I n t e r e s t s , a n d h i s povi/ers, any he may n e e d , f o r w i s e c h o i c e and a s he h i m s e l f c a n n o t o b t a i n .  7.  To a s s i s t e c o n o m i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n , who a r e a b o v e t h e c o m p u l s o r y a t t e n d a n c e age,, a s w e l l as c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , , t o secure,, t h r o u g h p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e -funds'.* s c h o l a r s h i p s o r o t h e r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , so t h a t t h e y may h a v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r education i n accordance with t h e i r vocational, plans.  8..  To a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t t o s e c u r e a. k n o w l e d g e o f the f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r e d by the v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ; f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d and the cost of attendance.  9.  10.  To h e l p t h e w o r k e r t o a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n , i n w h i c h he I s engaged,, t o a s s i s t him. to understand h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to workers i n h i s own a n d r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d t o s o c i e t y a s . a whole. To e n a b l e t h e s t u d e n t t o s e c u r e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the danger of a l l u r i n g s h o r t c u t s t o f o r t u n e t h r o u g h s h o r t t r a i n i n g courses,, s e l l i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s , , as r e p r e s e n t e d by c u r r e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and of such u n s c i e n t i f i c methods a s p h r e n o l o g y , physiognomy,, a s t r o l o g y g r a p h o l o g y and. t h e l i k e , and t o compare t h e s e m e t h o d s w i t h that of s e c u r i n g r e a l l y trustworthy i n f o r m a t i o n and f r a n k d i s c u s s i on. with,experts."'. 1  N a t i o n a l Y o e a t i o n a l . Guidane'e M a g a z i n e * F e b .  1929.  t  6  The in- t h e  whole  following  purpose  of  guidance  could  be  summed u p  words:  "'The p u r p o s e s o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l p r o g r a m m e o f guidance i s to supply p u p i l s with information- about t h e w o r l d off w o r k a n d o f e d u c a t i o n , , a n d a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s , , and t o h e l p them i n t h e l i g h t o f this i n f o r m a t i o n to p l a n w i s e l y f o r the future.. Guidance d o e s n o t m e a n t e l l i n g a p e r s o n w h a t t o do - i t m e a n s h e l p i n g h i m make a n i n t e l l i g e n t c h o i c e i n t h e l i g h t off a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . " 1  K . O . . B r o a d y and. E . D . Clason.,. G u i d a n c e i n S m a l l H i g h Schools (Eree with "Occupations" the Vocational. Guidance Magazine.) . • x  Chapter  2.  OCCUPATIONS  8  Chapter  2  OCCUPATIGHS  ;  As a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a c o u r s e on. o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e c o u n s e l l o r might w e l l begin; w i t h an elementary p r o j e c t i n which t h e s t u d e n t c a n o b t a i n f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n . E o r example t o p i c 2. i n t h e c o u r s e on V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e which. s u g g e s t s a. s u r v e y o f t h e f i e l d s  of occupations i n the city,.  town, d i s t r i c t and p r o v i n c e m i g h t s e r v e q u i t e w e l l f o r a beginning.  To commence w i t h , t h e v o c a t i o n s o f t h e i m m e d i a t e  neighbourhood sufficient fields  m i g h t b e d i s c u s s e d o r i f t h e s e do n o t o f f e r .  m a t e r i a l t h e p l a n may be e x t e n d e d  of occupations i n the c i t y ,  to include the  o r some l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a l  u n i t . -, A s a n a d d e d i n t e r e s t the. s t u d e n t s m i g h t draw, a map o f the neighbourhood  a n d c i t y a n d p u t o n I t t h e a r e a s i n which.  the •various o c c u p a t i o n s a r e grouped.  Other problems such as  t h e a d v a n t a g e s , a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f w o r k i n g i n . on.e s own: t:  neighbourhood  c o u l d h e taken, u p .  A more s e a r c h i n g a n d  d e t a i l e d treatment of the t o p i c f o r c i t y , p r o v i n c e c o u l d be l e f t u n t i l a l a t e r  d i s t r i c t and  t i m e when t h e s t u d e n t  h a s more e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e t e c h n i q u e o f s t u d y a n d a m o r e thorough  grasp o f . t h e course. ''../'••''. Iff the. s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s i s t o h a v e a. measure, o f  s u c c e s s , i t seems i m p e r a t i v e t o c o n s u l t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e students. second  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n , o f i n t e r e s t m i g h t w e l l , f o r m t h e  s t e p i n t h e d r a w i n g up o f a, p r o g r a m m e ,  A vocational  9  b l a n k such.'as t h e one g i v e n I n t h e A p p e n d i x , page"71 may b e used*  J., f orm  i s passed  c l a s s and. h e I s a s k e d choices. student  o u t t o e a c h I n d i v i d u a l member o f t h e  to record h i s f i r s t ,  Space i s l e f t  second  and t h i r d  a t t h e end o f t h e . b l a n k f o r t h e  t o w r i t e down a n y o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h he i s i n t e r e s t e d  b u t w h i c h may n o t a p p e a r o n t h e l i s t . then c o l l e c t  The c o u n s e l l o r w i l l  t h e forms and t a b u l a t e these c h o i c e s .  He-will  p r o b a b l y f i n d t h a t t h e o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e group  will  be somewhat s i m i l a r f o r t h e t h r e e c h o i c e s s o t h a t c h o i c e one may b e u s e d a s t h e g u i d e f o r d r a w i n g up a programme. A.»  What t h e S t u d e n t H e e d s t o Show A b o u t  Occupations:  In, o r d e r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t may b e a b l e t o s t u d y  each  o c c u p a t i o n I n a. c o m p r e h e n s i v e manner i t I s b e t t e r t o f o l l o w some g e n e r a l p l a n o r o u t l i n e .  Thisadherence.to  t e n d towards e f f e c t i n g c l a r i t y  on the. o n e h a n d a n d - p e r m i t t i n g ,  comparison  a plan  will  on t h e o t h e r . , The c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be w a r n e d ,  h o w e v e r , n o t t o make t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t r e a t m e n t , o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n s so s t e r e o t y p e d o r monotonous t h a t I n t e r e s t to  flag.  He s h o u l d b e a l w a y s  on t h e a l e r t f o r any t r e a t m e n t  t h a t w i l l l e n d v a r i a t i o n and g i v e heightened discussion..  The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e , a d a p t e d  w r i t e r , has proven  begins  t o be m o s t u s e f u l .  interest to the  and used by t h e  Other  outlines  which  may b e s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s t u d y i n g o f o c c u p a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d in  t h e A p p e n d i x , page 73.  10  An 1.  Outline  Eor  Describing  an  Occupation.  (a) (b)  Importance of the Occupation. Value to the community. Connection with other trades.  (a) (b)  D i v i s i o n s of the work. Names o f jobs. F u n c t i o n s and d u t i e s w i t h i n  2.  each  job.  3. (a) (b)  l h a t k i n d o f b o y o r g i r l i s Wanted:. Age. Abilities. 1. Physical. 2. Mental 3. M o r a l or Character Qualities. •(c) Appearance. ('&} Education. (e) Special Traits.  Qualifications.  4. The S t a r t . (a) First Duties. (b) T r a i n i n g and D u t i e s . (c ) A t t i t u d e towards work. 5. •, ( a ) (b) {oY (;d)  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Advancement. Branches of the Industry. Next h i g h e r j o b . . Other higher jobs. W h e r e a n d how p r e p a r a t i o n i s  6.  Advantages  7. (a) (b) (c) (d)  S u p p l y a n d Demand f o r W o r k e r s . •;. N u m b e r e m p l o y e d i n c i t y , I n t h e p r o v i n c e . Is i t s t e a d y or seasonal? Is i t overcrowded? • What a r e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment?  8. (a) (b)  Working C o n d i t i o n s . Hours. Physical conditions - health, including Compensation. Factors producing nervous s t r a i n . Social conditions (unions).;' Vacations.  Cc) (d) (e) 9. Ca) Cb)  and  J  obtainable.;;  Disadvantages.  Reward., S a l a r y ( M i n i m u m Wage A c t ) - c o m m e n c i n g , f i v e years, ten years, possible. Bonus, P e n s i o n .  Worker's .. ..  average,  11  9. (a) (d)  Reward. ( c o n t ' d ) R e g u l a r i t y . o f income - s e a s o n a l , commissions, m a t a r e t h e c h i e f rewards o f a HQK-EIKANCIAL nature. .  10.. (a)  Reference L i s t of  When t h e will  modify  and  to: firms  adapt  the  situation.  form,  student  will  to  the  instructed the  of  the  student  for  a  to  repeat,  In  he  in  loose-leaf  that  course  of  tabulation  order  preference,  of  for  a  systematic  experience  may b e  commencing  this  A group and  the  of  type  of  first  use of  to  the  a  suit  an  copy  hook  the  one  For  Yiiork  the  he seen  enough  counsellor  own  and  should  when  vocations  does  not  occupation*  Occupations^  of  counsellor  his  note-hook.  than  choice  he  adequate  satisfactory  on any  the  occupations is  class  study..  those  counsellors  The  in  a  is  position  following who  are  work.  Grade.IK choice  boys of  the  David Cohen, P r i n c i p l e s G u i d a n c e a t Work:. C e n t u r y 1 9 2 9 . :  and  to  Information on of  own p l a n  out  guidance  a r e more  that  Collect  with  note  the. i n f o r m a t i o n  a n d How t o  his  s u c h , a b o o k may b e  there  and  worked  his  progressive  importance  town*  outlines  presented  same  or  d r a w i n g up  suggested  ?flien t h e  prepare  blank  of  told  year  Where  made  is  four  intend  B.  The  Is  city  When h e h a s  a guidance  emphasized.  to  keep  accomplishment  keeping  the  counsellor  particular each  1 in  were  each g i v e n a  group  vocation  was a v i a t i o n .  and -Practices '' — '  of  The  Vocational  12  field he  is  so b r o a d  should  begin.  his  class.  the  boys  the  group  a  He  I t . was  were  off  this  will  be  found  material  that  in  so  today  compile  "Books  the  has  by P r i c e  kinds  to  :  As  are  subject, there  in  reached  the  Jobs" by  I.E.  have  when  it  general  the  the  of . B r i t i s h  use  such books  of  Canadian  be  accomplished  Schools. in  It  seems  compiling  that  a book  In  turn  In  popular  this  field,  on the  market.  become  necessary  material to  their  such  as  Vocations" by  Brewer,  treatment  Columbia  order  to  a worthwhile that  great  with  in  "Occupations"  with modification  more  was a  has  "Index  by L y o n are  to  it  The  h e may  books  "Making a L i v i n g "  schools  in'a  appeared  Such books  in  a rule  assembling  hovjever,  '&. T i c e n . .  counsellor  as  and  was  developed,  As  case  occupational  Parker  pictures  there  topic  in  there  excellent  stage  of  books,  of  vocations.  Gradually,  many  of  Interested.  which  recently  writers  are  that  Information  and monographs' on  comparatively  enthusiasm  the  they  form,  with  be u s e f u l .  may n e e d h i s  point  problem,  In a .few-days  material.  which  c o n v e r s a t i o n many  In which  t  the  the  topics  bibliographies  about  of  a l l  that  on. v o c a t i o n s .  interest  to  was  systematized  books  this  course  bring  of  find  help  however  Until,  Indeed  to  over  will  pamphlets  s  talk,  students  to  that,  to  wondered a t  the  or  of  the  result  technical books  to  information proved  on t h e  counsellor,,  lack  In  good, c o l l e c t i o n  much  counsellor  decided  anxious  The  the  encouraging  displayed.  "and m o d e l s . quite  that  will  fit  or and  have  the  needs  task''could  w o u l d meet  with  13  Canadian  c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e b e i n g a t p r e s e n t no  such book  a v a i l a b l e i n Canada. If  t h e c o u n s e l l o r w a n t s more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  t h a n i s g i v e n i n such g e n e r a l books he can get t h i s p a m p h l e t s and monographs t h a t a r e c o m p l i e d  on'occupations.  A g a i n m o s t o f t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e American., Canadian  has  conditions. of  to modify  on p a g e  1925  the own  74 t h e r e i s a s a m p l e  an a b s t r a c t t a k e n f r o m " C c c u p a t i o n s ' * - t h e  guidance m a g a z i n e * I n  and  the Information to s u i t h i s  I n the Appendix  from  vocational  the Department of Labour,  p r i n t e d f o u r p a m p h l e t s on. O c c u p a t i o n s .  Canada,  Under t h e t i t l e s  of  " C h o o s i n g a L i f e C a r e e r * these, w e r e - G e n e r a l O f f i c e Work, Stenography,  Bricklaying, Carpentry.  On. i n q u i r i e s a s t o  what h a d b e e n done f u r t h e r i n t h i s f i e l d e l i c i t e d t h a t n o t h i n g , more was p a m p h l e t s w e r e now ^his  b e i n g done a n d t h a t t h e s e  , s i t u a t i o n shows v e r y c l e a r l y  to begin h i s course.  r  the  inadequate  the C o u n s e l l o r i n B r i t i s h  vocational  Columbia  I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r h i m  p r o c u r e m a t e r i a l w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , r e l y i n g on h i s a b i l i t y and  was  out o f p r i n t .  source m a t e r i a l w i t h which has  t h e answer  own  t h a t o f h i s s t u d e n t s t o c o l l e c t a n d , s e t up library.  to  a  14  C  Talks  About  Occupations  literature valuable Talks  but  relative  there  are  to  vocations  the  sources  the  Them:  which  profession  schools  a part  by  service  of  the .plan  individuals to  Guidance was  to  was  first  tried  present  to  to  tender  by  talking  occupations  in  which  they  limitations  to  such a m e t h o d f . the language  technical; the  the  t o make  a  students  have  occasion  girls  reaction  freedom  from  of  the  little  attention  a  It  been observed  forced  in  to  students  to  the  a  and  topic.  from such a method  Nevertheless,  worthwhile  interest  also  that  go  essential.  with  little  sexes,  group..  On  talk  lumbering.  a s many  vocation  too  people.  is  such a method  subject,  to  to  the  various  that  regard, to  large  listen  particular paid  one  small  about  create  young  on is  one  one  of  off t h e m  do  discussed, It  our  students  are  things  organization  t  accruing  disappointing.  has  In  u s e d may b e  to  to  warning .without  the Is  speaker  out  some  There  t h e many  student  some r e g u l a r  follow,  lack  assembled  were  to  results  or  been  intend  that  in  engaged.  m a n n e r may f a i l  successful  occasions  preparation  community  were  h e may  Forethought On. d i f f e r e n t ,  our  speaker's  vocation, or  together  The  aid. serve  the  who w e r e w i l l i n g of  no  furnish trade  youth  or  extremely  or  the  in  is  purpose.  • • When- V o c a t i o n a l  talks  in  other  b y m e n a n d women i n  useful  by lien  Is  readily  seen  are-often results  can  be  not  15  o b t a i n e d from t a l k s i f they a r e r e g a r d e d as a of  supplement  the study i n V o c a t i o n s . As i t i s t h e a i m o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r t o b r i n g  p e r s o n a l i t y a n d human i n t e r e s t i n t o h i s c o u r s e a n d malce i t p r a c t i c a l he n e e d s a s p e a k e r who his  w i l l be a b l e t o  i d e a s t o s t u d e n t s o f h i g h s c h o o l age.  He  express  f i r s t must  s e c u r e a g o o d s p e a k e r , p r e f e r a b l y one a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , and f u r t h e r , i f p o s s i b l e , a p e r s o n importance  In h i s v o c a t i o n .  a t t e n t i o n of a group  The w r i t e r r e c a l l s  of f i v e hundred  b o y s who  of  the r a p t  listened for  one h o u r w h i l e a n e n g i n e e r t o l d o f t h e a t t e m p t s t o b u i l d dam  across a large r i v e r ,  of the r e v e r s e s t h a t had  s u f f e r e d and o f t h e c r o w n i n g s u c c e s s t h a t had. met efforts'of  a u d i t o r i u m w i t h something talk  been the  t h e company when t h e y were a b l e t o s u p p l y a  a r e a w i t h more a n d c h e a p e r  electricity. to t h i n k about  a  large  These b o y s l e f t and s o m e t h i n g  the  to .  about. Another necessary requirement i s the p r e p a r a t i o n  c a r r i e d o u t b e f o r e . t h e s p e a k e r i s i n v i t e d t o come.. s h o u l d r e a l l y be s u p p l e m e n t a r y  to the t o p i c under  The  discussion  w h i c h has been s t u d i e d b e f o r e h a n d by t h e c o u n s e l l o r students. In and  The  s t u d e n t s have then a background  talk  and  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  s p e a k i n g : o f p r e p a r a t i o n I t w i l l be h e l p f u l t o t h e s t u d e n t t o 'the s p e a k e r I f b o t h a r e s u p p l i e d w i t h a n o u t l i n e  t h e p h a s e s o f t h e v o c a t i o n w h i c h a r e t o be d i s c u s s e d .  of  v  16 Students  a p p r e c i a t e some s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e  b e t t e r a b l e t o f o l l o w t h e t a l k ana t h e s p e a k e r  appreciates  an o u t l i n e because i t a i d s h i m i n c o n f i n i n g h i s m a t e r i a l t o the v a r i o u s phases and thus m a i n t a i n i n g a balanced The  talk.  O u t l i n e p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o has been u s e d  and h a s p r o v e n t o b e q u i t e e f f e c t i v e , - b u t e a c h c o u n s e l l o r should check and modify i t t o f i t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  situation.  M o s t o f t h e g e n e r a l b o o k s o n g u i d a n c e , g i v e somewhat  similar  outlines. T a l k s , f o r which t h e students have been p r e v i o u s l y prepared,  u n d o u b t e d l y h o l d a worthwhile, p o s i t i o n i n any  v o c a t i o n a l guidance course.  Two t y p i c a l , t a l k s d e l i v e r e d t o  s t u d e n t s . o f L o r d Byng H i g h S c h o o l  a r e found i n the.Appendix  on p a g e s 78-80 andu81.-86. One was g i v e n b y Dr. ¥f.E. S e y e r 1  o f t h e C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g Department,. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e o t h e r b y : M r s M . l * Beaddie,, S e c r e t a r y , Vancouver School D.  Visits As  Recording  Board.  to Industries: the. c o u n s e l l o r i s a n x i o u s  f o rh i s , students t o  e x p l o r e a l l . avenues o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , < he w i l l i t h e l p f u l , f o r them, t o v i s i t In  various  find  industries.  a n e a r l i e r s e c t i o n i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t  of today had l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y o f v i e w i n g t h e workers i n t h e i r , respective occupations'than  i n e a r l i e r years.  While t h i s i s  17  true i n the main, the present  day s t u d e n t  i n d u s t r i a l plants i n operation. a f f o r d s a good example.  During  can see c e r t a i n  The c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e t h e e r e c t i o n o f a, b u i l d i n g  t h e s t u d e n t may s e e t h e e x c a v a t o r , , c a r p e n t e r , , b r i c k l a y e r , e l e c t r i c i a n , ' p l a s t e r e r , p a i n t e r , and a r c h i t e c t a l l a t work, and may p o s s i b l y e n t e r i n t o c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h them.  He  s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o r e p o r t a n y i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he ascertains.  I n t h i s way h e w i l l , b e t r a i n e d t o o b s e r v e how  o t h e r p e o p l e e a r n t h e i r l i v i n g , a n d a t t h e same t i m e he w i l l be a s s i s t e d I n m a k i n g up h i s m i n d w h e t h e r o r n o t he w i s h e s to f o l l o w any o f these  vocations..  U s e f u l as these v i s i t s may.be.in a s s i s t i n g him I n the development o f . o b s e r v a t i o n i t i s apparent t h a t t h e f i e l d I s l i m i t e d t o t h e narrow environment of t h e student a c t i v i t i e s of the d i s t r i c t , i n the correct technique  furthermore  and t o the  t h e r e may b e a l a c k -  o f observation-..  H a p h a z a r d m e t h o d s o f o b s e r v a t i o n , w h i l e o f some v a l u e , , n e e d t o b e augmented b y some d e f i n i t e p l a n o f v i s i t i n g t h e industries*  I t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o t h i n k , t h a t t h e t a k i n g off  a group o f s t u d e n t s intelligent  to a plant* f u l f i l l s  the requirements of  observation.  A. p l a n somewhat a s f o l l o w s s h o u l d b r i n g , e n c o u r a g i n g results. and  A t r a d e o r i n d u s t r y t o be s t u d i e d I s decided  t h e students  c o l l e c t a l l a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e and  upon,  18  information. discuss  all  Then  the  angles  of  counsellor the  topic.  intelligent  information  on  position  observe  worker  should  to  be  the  regarded  as  a  and. c l a s s  the  thoroughly  A. s t u d e n t  subject in  is  the  supplement  who h a s  in  job.  to  a  some  better  Direct  what, h a s  observation  already  been,  done.  If best the  to  of  his  only  through  of  the  must  rules  counsellor be for is  at  for  information, Observation  is.carefully following  out  the  which  deportment It  at  a  may b e  students  is if  the  group  to  explained  and  are  and  This  and  not  take  present  period  report  permitted  the  to  the  conference  can.  and  The  both  the  plans  counsellor,  some  who  definite  a. c o p y  of  the  proposed  t h e management.  the  strict  observation  helpful  selected  away  understand  therefore  a preliminary  discussed  observation  to  being  to  usually  approval, of  study  need  discussed.  this'time, for  ideas  be  with  visitation..  employer,and  a g u i d e may b e  visit  his  of  students  the  plant..  processes  essential  of  to  It might  material.'  t h e management  in  the  courtesy  Report,  plan  grasp  a later  industry  may,  the meantime,  to  at  to  the  proposed  anxious  tour  operations definite  visits  be p a i d  of  and  arranged the  the  certain  t o o much  setting  these  to  the  student  mind with  that  attention  attention  the  Before clearly  e m b r a c e s many  completing  permit  cloud  industry  confine  idea  will  the  Observation  with  the  students.  will,  serve  as  In  Report The  an. e x a m p l e :  19  STUDY OE INDUSTRIES' -  i  PLAN: OF OBSERVATION: REPORT  1.  Be o n h a n d a t t i m e s e t f o r p l a n t  2.  l e a r n t o observe closely,, r a p i d l y and a c c u r a t e l y .  3.  Take t h e a t t i t u d e off s y m p a t h e t i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e w o r k b e i n g done. A l l u s e f u l w o r k I s h o n o u r a b l e *  4.  Be c a r e f u l , t o o b s e r v e a l l " V i s i t o r s ' r u l e s " ; a v o i d c a r e l e s s n e s s ; do n o t t o u c h m a c h i n e r y ; folio?,/ t h e g u i d e , a n d a s k q u e s t i o n s whenever p o s s i b l e .  1.  NAME AND LOCATION OF INDUSTRY OR. PLANT  2,  WHY DID YOU V I S I T THE INDUSTRY?  trip..  .  . ... . . ..  5 . - ARE EMPLOYEES. C H I E F L Y MEN OR. WOMEN?: 4.  ...  WHAT PROPORTION OF THE. LABOUR I S SKILLED?.  •..  ARE THERE MANY YOUNG PEOPLE? . . * . ... HOW YOUNG? ' PROPORTION SEMI-SEZLLED 5.,  C B o u t l n e o r r e p e t i t i v e ) ......  FROM WHAT L O C A L I T I E S OR COUNTRIES DOES'" THE HAW IsOxT^ES I^LLI G 0I\32t? • • • -  •.«•*-••••••»•  6.  WHERE I S THE MARKET FOR THE, PRODUCT?  7.  WHAT AMOUNT DOES THE PLANT PRODUCE: YEARLY?  .8.  WHAT I S ANNUAL VALUE OF PRODUCT?  9.  ••••••••• *  .....  .  ............ .  .......  THE PHYSICAL PLAN.T -  (a)  Character of building:  materials  old or  (b)  I s m a c h i n e r y g u a r d e d ? Y e s . No, o r g a n i z a t i o n ? .......  (c)  Sanitary conditions: c l e a n l i n e s s - Good. Poor. l i g h t i n g -* Good. Poor., " v e n t i l a t i o n . - Good. Poor.  (d)  N o t i c e s p e c i a l l a b o u r - s a v i n g d e v i c e s . Give two examples .................  I s there a safety  20  10.  WORKING C O N D I T I O N S AND- WELFARE: WORE -  (a) .  Wages p a i d ?  (b)  Hours  Cc)  Length  of  work  of  (d)  Is  there  (e.)  Is  special  if.}  Do e m p l o y e e s  (g)  Is  (h)  provided? Is medical Yes. No.  (I)  Give  (j)  Is  Note:  GIVE  there  a  get i t  take  or  for  per  week  . . . . . .  employees  training  take?  plan?  Yes.  required?  No.  Yes.  No.  part  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  i n management? Yes.  -Yes. No.• and t r a i n e d nurse  a pension  days  . . . . . .  it?  l u n c h room?  arrangements  there  of  profit-sharing  education  would  Unskilled  pay-.  or  could you  Number  periods  without  a bonus  How l o n g  11.  . . . . . .  vacation  with pay,  Where  Skilled  made  for  system?  OUTSTANDING ATTRACTIONS  No.  Are  service  Yes.  No.  rest  rooms  provided?  recreation Yes.  .No.  OF T H I S . O C C U P A T I O N  S u p p l y d e t a i l s whenever p o s s i b l e . Draw c i r c l e u n d e r l i n e words o r word to i n d i c a t e answer to questions given above.  Koos & K e f a u v e r , Guidance i n Secondary T h e M a c f f i i l l a n Company * p a g e s 142-14-3. ".- •  Schools, .  . . . . .  or  1937, ,  21 The place  city  adjacent  schools  are  not  and convenient  generally  to  industrial  is  the  question, of  transportation  is  the  case  rural  of  disorganized school  the  time-table  time-table  administrative factory the in  contend the  city  time  size  or  divided  required by  of  principal  the  the  late  c a n be that  for  -  the  entailed  -  last  of  termination  of  on  the  to  the  as  a  a  of  a  to  downtown This  means  time-table,  and  difficulties.  the  Large  groups  the  without to  to  counsellor  groups, to  has  which are  conduct  to  usual  successfully.  and by s o  see  the  The the  serve  doing  industry  this,  weekly  sixth  the  a  Is  partial  group  period  only  this  v i s i t , r e t u r n home  plan  these  the  e l i m i n a t i n g much o f Under  as  co-operation, of  conduct  necessitates  visits.  period  according  which  class  there  groups.  With  periods.  period,  by m o r n i n g  many  so  problem, of  Each  of  a  Then,  two h o u r s .  periods  smaller  for  fall  the  a visit  least  unweildy  make a r r a n g e m e n t s  to  is  suggestion might  arrangement  or  at  whole  problem'.  afternoon  this  too  number  staff,  arranged  seventh  the  the  and  unworkable  three  Into  -The f o l l o w i n g solution  To p a y  groups.  are  arranged.  there  introduces  of  he  in  centres,  from 40-60 minutes  require  this  school be  multiplied  two  to  considered.  second problem with the  These must the  of  school  is  be  requirements.  disruption  The  in  ranges  would p r o b a b l y  a large  school, to  situated  the Is  visits  during  guidance  period  of  the  day,  disruption the  plan  the  in  their  so of  the  disorganization students, own  time..  at  22  Other problems co-operation  of  eliminated*  Thus  worker to  choose  more his  E..  in his  principal the  and  but  staff,  with  most  own o c c u p a t i o n  sympathetic  or  understanding  to of  the  of  s t u d e n t may b e a i d e d  i n d u s t r i a l ; environment,  his  helpful  them c a n  be  seeing  the'  in  thereby  assisting  obtain a broader how h i s  him.  and  fellowman  earns  living.  Yisual  Education  Owing time-table, scarcity cannot  silent  or  size in  for  working  of  one  school  is  reduced  the  of  . machinery  are  as the  desired. form  of  Yisual  on the  group  neighbourhood,  entailed  educational  period*  the  by  school  work, a n d  student  Under  the  visits  these  moving p i c t u r e s  and\ m o d e l s the  will  inability  education  thus  time-table,,  the  problems  removed.'  films  c a n be  problem of  has  eliminating  shown  finding  Furthermore^  smaller units.  school  time  for  photographs  loss  considerably.  organizing  classes  the  in  of  Eleld.  -  help to  also  view  some  visiting.  accommodated,  a number  aids  the  of  conditions.  over  Occupational  often  sound - ' s l i d e s ,  As most  the  large  visual  the  small, allotment  be undertaken-, as  advantages  c a n be  the  in  off I n d u s t r i e s  to. c o m p e n s a t e actual  to  the  circumstances  to  may a p p e a r ,  of  the  bringing noise,  Another  the  necessity the  the  dirt  advantage  visits visual  and is  space  sufficient  the. l a r g e s t  and r e p e a t i n g By  in  groups of  dis-  as  with,  material  dangerous that,  time  when  23 d e s i r a b l e , t h e r e c a n b e a s l o w lag. down a n d e v e n a s t o p p i n g o f the fllxm i n order t o get a c l e a r e r . u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c e r t a i n processes. While these a i d s a r e o f advantage to the c i t y t h e y a r e e s p e c i a l l y so t o t h e r u r a l s t u d e n t  student,  who i s h a n d i c a p p e d  i n not being able to v i s i t the c h i e f i n d u s t r i e s ofh i s province. There i s v e r y urgent  need f o r u n i f i e d a c t i o n on the  p a r t o f s c h o o l boards and t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , i n making and s u p p l y i n g v o c a t i o n a l f i l m s *  One o f t h e , c h i e f  causes f o r t h i s l a c k i s the c o s t of such a p r o j e c t ,  i s a  s u g g e s t i o n , t h e c o s t m i g h t be borne j o i n t l y by t h e Department of Education,  s c h o o l b o a r d s a n d i n d u s t r y . "A. c e n t r a l b u r e a u  i n V i c t o r i a m i g h t s e r v e as a l i b r a r y and a i s t r i b u t i n g f o r v o c a t i o n a l and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s .  point  As t h e p r e s e n t  tendency i s t o c o n s o l i d a t e our schools w i t h i n c e r t a i n geographical areas*  the c o s t o f s u p p l y i n g machines might w e l l  be met b y e a c h a r e a p u r c h a s i n g a s i n g l e m a c h i n e , i n s t e a d o f d i f f e r e n t schools  each t r y i n g t o o b t a i n one.  c o s t c o u l d be s p r e a d  o v e r a number o f s c h o o l s .  Already a beginning i n the c i t y of Vancouver. bsen appointed  I n t h i s way t h e  i n c e n t r a l i z a t i o n h a s b e e n made A D i r e c t o r o f V i s u a l Eduoation has  a n d h e I s s t e a d i l y b u i l d i n g up a l i b r a r y o f  f i l m s a n d o t h e r ' v i s u a l a i d s . ...This scheme a p p e a r s t o be l e s s c o s t l y a n d more s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a n one i n v j h i c h e a c h s c h o o l  24  a t t e m p t s t o f i n a n c e a macn.In.-e a n d r e n t t h e f i l m s .  I f this  p l a n i s s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e c i t y i t seems l o g i c a l t o e x t e n d the i d e a t o Include Recently organized films,  the whole  province.  i t ?;as l e a r n e d t h a t a g r o u p o f s c h o o l s h a d  themselves Into:a u n i t f o r the purpose of r e n t i n g  A film  I s r e n t e d f r o m t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g h o u s e and In.  quick succession  i s shown a r o u n d t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s .  t h i s way t h e c o s t o f r e n t a l i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d .  In  Ovjing t o  t h e d i s t a n c e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e , , however,, i t I s n o t p o s s i b l e t o p r e v i e w t h e f i l m s and t h e group has sometimes been o b l i g e d t o accept  inferior material.  d e l e t e r i o u s . e f f e c t , b o t h on. t h e s t u d e n t Such experience and  supply  E.  Occupational  This has a  and t h e u n d e r t a k i n g .  shows t h e n e e d f o r a c e n t r a l body t o o r g a n i z e  t h e v i s u a l a i d s f o r t h e schools.. Information.  One o f t h e many t a s k s t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r w i l l  be  c a l l e d upon t o f a c e w i l l be t h e c o l l e c t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g of a l i b r a r y of occupational information/' this  Furthermore^  i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l need r e v i s i n g from time t o t i m e .  the c o u n s e l l o r t h i s  i s a. s t u p e n d o u s . t a s k ' a n d . w i l l  remain so under t h e p r e s e n t  d e c e n t r a l i z e d system.  To  always Ultimately,  if  t h i s whole question of v o c a t i o n a l guidance i s t o progress  to  .the d e g r e e t h a t , i t w a r r a n t s ,  organize  i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y  some c e n t r a l b u r e a u , w h i c h w i l l  to  co-operate with the  D e p a r t m e n t off E d u c a t i o n . - a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r ,  One  25  of the f u n c t i o n s  o f s u c h a b u r e a u w i l l be t o c o l l e c t a n a  disseminate vocational  information.  In the leading countries  this  i s ' b e i n g done, a n d  the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t taken from a B r i t i s h , p u b l i c a t i o n ~ will  convey t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n  beti^een secondary e d u c a t i o n  and c o - o r d i n a t i o n  that e x i s t s  and t h e M i n i s t r y o f Labour.  " T h e - ' f o l l o w i n g n o t e s on c a r e e r s h a v e b e e n prepared by arrangement,between t h e Incorporated A s s o c i a t i o n . o f Headmasters o f P u b l i c Secondary S c h o o l s ' a n d t h e H i n l s t r y of.'"Labour..' The n o t e s a r e b a s e d u p o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d r e c o r d s of. t h e L o n d o n H e a d m a s t e r s .-Saployment C o m m i t t e e , a n d o f theMinistry's Divisional. Offices i n advising secondary school p u p i l s i n other parts of the country; they a r e designed t o give t o boys l e a v i n g s c h o o l (and . t h e i r a d v i s e r s ) a g e n e r a l , a n d p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f t h e a v a i l a b l e f i e l d o f employment."1 T  G-.  How. O c c u p a t i o n s a r e S t u d i e d : So.-far  the study of occupations has been l a r g e l y o f  a n i n t r o d u c t o r y n a t u r e , . such, a s a p r e l i m i n a r y survey o f t h e neighbourhood, an e x p l a n a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g a n occupation.,, and  visiting  occupational,  of outlines f o r  industries,, visual, aids  the sources t o which the student can t u r n f o r v o c a t i o n a l  information,. .  When t h e s t u d e n t h a s become f a m i l i a r w i t h  t h e above  t e c h n i q u e s in. s t u d y i n g o c c u p a t i o n s he has reached t h e stage ( M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , Montague House, . W h i t e h a l l , L o n d o n , Si¥. I v S e p t . 1953:) ^ I n c o r p o r a t e d 'Association o f Headmasters o f P u b l i c S e c o n d a r y - S c h o o l s ^ a n d M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , Some C a r e e r s f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l Boys:, page 1.  26 at. w h i c h , b y a p p l y i n g t h e s e methods,, he, c a n commence a systematic  study  o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t  i n d u s t r i e s of B r i t i s h  G olumb i a . P r e v i o u s l y i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e u s e o f a v o c a t i o n b l a n k , may b e h e l p f u l t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r a s a g u i d e i n drawing; up  a list  of p r e f e r r e d occupations  f o r study.  Such a  list  c o u l d be used as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , and t h e c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d know t h a t h e was. b e g i n n i n g m a j o r i t y of students For  w i t h something i n which the  were i n t e r e s t e d .  example, w i t h t h e a i d o f a v o c a t i o n b l a n k , i t  was f o u n d t h a t a g r o u p o f G r a d e I X b o y s I n one o f o u r c i t y schools  wanted t o hear t h e f o l l o w i n g . v o c a t i o n s •discussed i n  the order  given::;  Aviator Engineer chemical d i e s el. electrical. mining. civil mechanical  Radio Ihgineer Doctor Gaptain l i r e l e s s op e r a t o r lawyer . Draftsman Druggist •Librarian !  I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t a l l , t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s province.,.  The o r d e r  off p r e f e r e n c e  a r e found i n the  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note.  A v i a t i o n e a s i l y came a t t h e t o p o f t h e l i s t , engineering.  Reporter Mechanic Architect Carpenter Banker Dentist-  f o l l o w e d by  B o y s o f Grade, I X , a n d f o r t h a t m a t t e r t h e h i g h e r  grades, b u t t o a l e s s e r degree, choose t h e t o p i c l a r g e l y because o f t h e r o m a n t i c appeal, t h a t i t i m p l i e s .  By u s i n g  this  a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m t h e c o u n s e l l o r w i l l be s u r p r i s e d a n d pleased  t o see the enthusiasm that i s aroused.  In. A p p e n d i x ,  p a g e 87, i s a n e x a m p l e o f a l e s s o n , ;  g i v e n "by t h e w r i t e r t o Grade. I X . . F o l l o w i n g some s u c h system, o f s t u d y t h e c h o s e n v o c a t i o n s a r e d e a l t w i t h one b y one s o t h a t b y t h e end o f the f o u r t h year the student i s conversant w i t h a l lthe major Occupations  o f B r i t i s h Columbia".  I t w i l l be h e l p f u l f o r t h e  c o u n s e l l o r t o have a c l a s s i f i e d l i s t province,  ( F o r such a l i s t  of occupations of the  s e e A p p e n d i x page 91]  e a c h v o c a t i o n i s c o v e r e d , i t c a n be c h e c k e d  Then a s  o f f , and a n  a c c u r a t e r e c o r d k e p t o f t h e p r o g r e s s made* As a c r i t i c i s m , o f s u c h g r o u p t e a c h i n g i t i s s o m e t i m e s s a i d that the c o u n s e l l o r possesses information.  Inadequate  vocational  I f a. s t u d e n t w e r e s e r i o u s l y t h i n k i n g o f e n t e r i n g  a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n , however, he w o u l d be encouraged  to  i n v e s t i g a t e i t as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , , and would be u r g e d n o t • t o r e l y s o l e l y upon t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e c o u n s e l l o r Upon t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a. c o u r s e i n t h e s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s i t i s h o p e d t h a t a s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g may have been gained o f workers  i n many f i e l d s a n d  t h a t i n some  s m a l l m e a s u r e t h e s t u d e n t may h a v e b e e n a i d e d i n c h o o s i n g h i s own v o c a t i o n . H.  The V o c a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e : . As a n a d d e d f o r m o f g r o u p s t u d y some s c h o o l s make u s e  of  the v o c a t i o n a l conference.  D u r i n g a n a f t e r n o o n SO o r 4.0  28  representatives of various occupations  may  give their  time  so t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s may know s o m e t h i n g o f t h e i r work. i n t e n s i v e study allows the students occupations  to hear about  w h i c h i n t e r e s t them t h e m o s t .  This  those  Moreover, the  o p p o r t u n i t y o f h e a r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n d i s c u s s e d comes much s o o n e r t h a n when t h e c o u n s e l l o r t a k e s  each  occupation,  in i t s turn. The d e t a i l s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n may who w i s h e s t o make u s e o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e  be u s e f u l t o a n y o n e method.  As a g u i d e  i n f i n d i n g out the d e s i r e s of the s t u d e n t s , a v o c a t i o n  blank,  s i m i l a r t o t h e one i n t h e A p p e n d i x , i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o each., s t u d e n t r e q u e s t i n g him. t o make a f i r s t , , s e c o n d a n d choice.  Space i s l e f t  a t t h e end o f t h e b l a n k f o r a n y  v o c a t i o n . t h a t has been o m i t t e d . three choices  third  The r e a s o n f o r a s k i n g f o r  i s t h a t w i t h t h r e e 40 m i n u t e p e r i o d s  afternoon,  a boy o r g i r l  speakers.  When t h e c h o i c e s h a v e b e e n t a b u l a t e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r  w i l l , know t h e v o c a t i o n s students  i s a b l e to hear three  i n the  d e s i r e d and t h e a p p r o x i m a t e ' number o f  i n t e r e s t e d i n e a c h one.  g u i d e t h e c o u n s e l l o r i s now t e n t a t i v e time-table.-  With t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n as a  i n a p o s i t i o n t o draw up a  I n t h e m e a n t i m e t h e more  t a s k o f p r o c u r i n g s p e a k e r s may should  different  be u n d e r t a k e n . .  difficult The c o u n s e l l o r  g i v e h i m s e l f a t l e a s t a. m o n t h i n w h i c h t o make c o m p l e t e  arrangements.  F o r a s c h o o l b e t w e e n 800 a n d . 1 , 0 0 0 , a b o u t 45  s p e a k e r s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d - 15 f o r e a c h p e r i o d ^ e a c h s p e a k e r being assigned  to a separate  room where t h e s t u d e n t s  interested  29  i n h i s t o p i c have assembled.  Most speakers w i l l a p p r e c i a t e  a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e b e i n g s e n t t o them..  T h i s e n a b l e s them t o  know t h e m a i n p o i n t s t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r w i s h e s  discussed.  The s t u d e n t s l i k e t o b e f a m i l i a r w i t h some g e n e r a l p l a n , a s w e l l f o r then they can l i s t e n and a s k ' q u e s t i o n s With  intelligently.  t h e p o s t i n g off t h e t i m e - t a b l e i n each  a week o r s o b e f o r e h a n d ,  e a c h s t u d e n t now makes h i s t h r e e  choices f o rthe afternoon. to hear a l l t h e speakers  classroom  Sometimes a s t u d e n t i s n o t a b l e  t h a t he wishes  because chosen  l e c t u r e s may b e g i v e n a t t h e same t i m e .  An I n d i v i d u a l  student  t i m e - t a b l e i s u s e f u l t o t h e student and t o t h e t e a c h e r .  The  p u p i l c a n move f r o m room t o room w i t h o u t l o s s o f t i m e a n d t h e t e a c h e r has a check upon t h e p u p i l .  I f such a t i m e - t a b l e i s  made i n two p a r t s ( d u p l i c a t e ) t h e n one h a l f c a n b e r e t a i n e d by t h e student,, a n d t h e o t h e r b y t h e home-room, t e a c h e r . .  The  s t u d e n t ' s h a l f c a n b e made t o s e r v e a s a n a d m i s s i o n s l i p t o the  class-room. The s u c c e s s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e m e t h o d i s d e p e n d e n t n o t  a l o n e upon t h e o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y  of the c o u n s e l l o r but a l s o  upon t h e a t t i t u d e and s u p p o r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s . a t t i t u d e ' c a n be developed p a r t i n t h e programme; chairmen  off m e e t i n g s ,  A co-operative  by g i v i n g student l e a d e r s a d e f i n i t e  some c a n s e r v e a s u s h e r s , some a s some a s r e p o r t e r s , a n d o t h e r s c a n l o o k ,  a f t e r the. s o c i a l w e l f a r e o f t h e s p e a k e r s .  F o r example i n o u r  r e c e n t v o c a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e h e l d a t L o r d Byng H i g h S c h o o l on  30 March 16th, 1938, our student chairmen i n v i t e d t h e i r t o p a r t a k e o f t e a -which w a s ' b e i n g t h e Home E c o n o m i c s D e p a r t m e n t . to had  s e r v e d by t h e s t u d e n t s o f  The s p e a k e r s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d ,  t h e s t u d e n t h o s t e s s who t o o k c h a r g e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y of meeting  speakers  o f them.  Here  they  v a r i o u s members o f t h e s t a f f .  Such c o u r t e s i e s as t h e s e tend towards making t h e c o n f e r e n c e a success.  H a p p y i s t h e c o u n s e l l o r who c a n make t h e s t u d e n t s  f e e l t h a t i t i s . t h e i r conference. understand and  A l l s h o u l d b e made t o  t h a t the speakers a r e the guests o f the s c h o o l  t h a t e v e r y c o u r t e s y s h o u l d be extended  kindness i n rendering t h e i r  t o them f o r t h e i r  services.  Examples, o f s u i t a b l e f o r m s w h i c h may b e u s e d a r e as  follows:  51  VOCATION BLANK' Below; i s a l i s t o f o c c u p a t i o n s _ some o f w h i c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d a t a v o c a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e t o be h e l d i n t h e s c h o o l , d u r i n g s c h o o l t i m e , a t a n e a r l y d a t e . Mark, on t h e l i s t y o u r f i r s t , second and t h i r d c h o i c e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t you would l i k e t o s e e o n t h e programme t h a t a f t e r n o o n . T h e r e i s s p a c e a t t h e end o f t h e l i s t f o r y o u t o a d d o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s n o t l i s t e d , , i f y o u w i s h t o do s o . M a r k c h o i c e s b y t h e f i g u r e s 1 , 2 and 5 a f t e r t h e o c c u p a t i o n s chosen. This i s not a f i n a l c h o i c e , a s some off t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s may n o t b e o n t h e f i n a l list. s  OCCUPATIONS Agriculturist; Aviation A u t o & Aerp; M e c h a n i c 4*. » A c c o u n t a n t Advertising; 5. 6. Architect 7. Bacteriologist Banker 8. 9. Builder 10. Commercial A r t Catering. 11. 12. C i v i l Service M e d i c a l Doctor 15. 14. Druggist. 15. Designer 16. Dentist Dietitian 17. Department S t o r e . 18. 19. Dramatics D i e s e l Engineer 20. Engine'er-Chemical 21. Engineer-Civil 22. Eng I n e e r - M i n i n g ; 23. Engineer-Electrical 24. 25. Home E c o n o m i c s Hairdresser 26. H o t e l Management 27. 3L*  a.  - .  ,  ' • ;  :  _  •  .  •  I n t e r i o r Dec-oration Insurance Journalism Lumbering; Librarian Lawyer , Mariner Music Nurse O f f i c e Work Physical Education Printer Photographer Police Radio Railroad Salesmanship S c i e n t i f i c Research, Shipping Stockbroker Social Service Surveyor Teacher Telephone Operator  28. 29. 30. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 36. 57. 58. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. , 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. ' 52. 53. 54.  .  .•  - -  i  •  • —  _  • —  -  •  ' :  :  • _  • —  Devised by w r i t e r and used a t L o r d Byng H i g h S c h o o l , May,. 1 9 5 7 . : ' " -.  •  •  •  8  I  1  jj  |  32  STTOEKT'S VOCATION REGISTRATION .EQHtt ' *  '  x  Date  Name  . . .,,.. C l a s s _______ Name '  I w i l l attend, t h e f o l l o w i n g .lectures: Period 3 .  6 7  . -  Subject  Room  Subject ——•— 6 Name Subject  -  __  • • • ' .-.. .  -  :.  :  •  —  —  •  Room Glass  -•. . —  Room —  7 Name  • • •• .  ______  Class  —  -  Subject  ./  Class' Room  VOCATIONAL GQNPERENGII • • '•'.!''"  D  &  y  ' ©ate  __________  J _ _ _ _ M P e r i o d 5.  Room.  Agriculturist Aviation Accountant : Architect C i v i l Engineer M e d i c a l Doctor Designer Dietitian D i e s e l Eng'r Hairdresser. Journalism Lumbering Nurse Photographer ;  P e r i o d 6-.  ' Room  P e r i o d 7.  Room.  '. x A b l a t i o n • A u t o &. A e r o . Advertising •. . Mechanic _____ B a c t e r i o l o g i s t - -_ Bept*. S t o r e ' _____ Banker M i n i n g Eng*r . ... Commercial A r t Home E c o n o m i c s Dramatics _____ x N u r s e ; -. Chemical-Eng^r x O f f i c e Work: _____ x O f f i c e Work . Interior _____ Librarian. : Decorating . -••. x P o l i c e , _____ lawyer _____ Radio _ Mariner . __ '• Shipping Railroad . ;.. Social Service Salesmanship _____ ;• Music -Teacher . x Music __ x Police _ ;  :  !  :  x Rep e a t e d . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d d e c i d e o n one l e c t u r e f o r e a c h p e r i o d . D e v i s e d b y w r i t e r a n d u s e d a t L o r d B y n g High. School,. May, 1937.  33  I.  Individual Studies: * Although  the group method of s t u d y i n g v o c a t i o n s  i t s p l a c e i n v o c a t i o n a l guidance, meet t h e n e e d s o f a l l s t u d e n t s . many h o y s and graduate.  s u c h a p l a n may  fail  to  I t i s a w e l l known f a c t t h a t  g i r l s leave school before they are able to  I n t h e s e .cases I t may  p r o f e s s i o n i n which these people b e e n s t u d i e d by t h e g r o u p m e t h o d .  happen t h a t the t r a d e a r e I n t e r e s t e d may  the year.  To c o m p e n s a t e f o r  Some o f t h e p r e s e n t l e a d e r s o f t h e  or  not have  an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y of a v o c a t i o n c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n "in  has  this, early  guidance  movement p l a c e a g r e a t d e a l o f e m p h a s i s on t h i s ' a p p r o a c h , b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t i t I s o n l y by p e r s o n a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t one l e a r n s t o know t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s off an lor  a student  to undertake  him  t o h a v e a d e f i n i t e p l a n o f a t t a c k w h i c h may  f o r m off an, o u t l i n e .  occupation,  s u c h a s t u d y I t i s necessary'- f o r  T h i s may  take  be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s ,  t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f w o r k , r e q u i r e m e n t s -and r e w a r d s . !  e a c h one  o f t h e s e s e c t i o n s c a n be  suggested  o f s t u d e n t s who  In turn,  s u b d i v i d e d , as seen i n the i  outline.  Some, t i m e ago  the  -Ian o u t l i n e was  were a s k e d  g i v e n t o a • l a r g e number  to'make a w o r t h w h i l e , s t u d y  ' • o c c u p a t i o n . I n which, e a c h was. i n t e r e s t e d , . - B e f o r e  the  of  an  study  was  b e g u n a p e r i o d was  The  s t u d e n t s were a d v i s e d t o t u r n t o a l l . s o u r c e s f o r t h e i r  information.  u s e d f o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f each q u e s t i o n .  As a f i n a l  c h e c k - u p on t h e i r a n s w e r s , t h e y were  r e q u i r e d t o h a v e t h e b l a n k s i g h e d by a w o r k e r i n t h e  field..  34  A. t i m e l i m i t o f t h r e e weeks-was s e t f o r t h e p r o j e c t , a n d t o e n s u r e ' t h a t i t w o u l d be completed,.. t h e w o r k was a w a r d e d m a r k s . The t y p e o f 'work h a n d e d i n was h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , a n d l a t e r i t was l e a r n e d f r o m b u s i n e s s men a n d s k i l l e d  t r a d e s m e n , who  a s s i s t e d t h e s t u d e n t s , , t h a t some h a d b e e n V e r y t h o r o u g h i n t h e i r search f o r Information, Rot  o n l y does t h i s m e t h o d g i v e t h e s t u d e n t a n i n s i g h t  i n t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e c i t y , b u t i t c a u s e s him. t o come Into contact with people,  L a t e r o n , some o f t h e s e  people  may b e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h e l p i n g h i m t o o b t a i n employment. THE. STUDY OF AN OCCUPATION Occupation Name •. •,. ,...«.»•»•••«,,,.., G l a s s  .,.»,,...,',, ».......«,. Gr ade ,. •», D a t e »,», ,~ w  Condi11on.. o f Work: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. "-.6> 7. 8. 9.  What, a r e t h e d u t i e s one p e r f o r m s I n t h e o c c u p a t i o n ? What.are t h e d i v i s i o n s o r s e p a r a t e f i e l d s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n ? What i s t h e j o b . i n which, one u s u a l l y b e g i n s ? What a r e t h e s t e p s t h r o u g h w h i c h one a d v a n c e s t o h i g h e r positions^? 'What a r e t h e h o u r s off w o r k ? I s t h e work seasonal? I f . s o j.. what a r e t h e b u s y m o n t h s ? The s l a c k m o n t h s ? A r e there any p a r t i c u l a r l y unhealthy f e a t u r e s about t h e 'work? . ' How many p e r s o n s a r e engaged in. t h e work.: I n t h e t o w n ? . . . . I n t h e p r o v i n c e ? , , . . . . . . i n . Canada?' ..... .. '*,, , I s t h e o c c u p a t i o n crowded? I s I t l i k e l y t o grow? • I s i t unionized? What i s t h e b e s t way t o g e t a. j o b i n t h i s , f i e l d ? ;  10. 11. 12. 13.  v  35 THE STUDY OP AN OCCUPATION  (cont'd)  RequlremerLts: I* 2. 3. '4.  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  How o l d m u s t one be i n . o r d e r t o e n t e r t h e o c c u p a t i o n ? A r e t h e r e a n y s p e c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a s t o h e i g h t ....... •weight .......... s t r e n g t h ......... A r e any o f t h e s p e c i a l senses ( e . g . t a s t i n g ) p a r t i c u l a r l y used? What p e r s o n a l t r a i t s a r e m o s t o f t e n m e n t i o n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n •with t h e o c c u p a t i o n ? A p p e a r a n c e ? H o n e s t y ? Industriousness? Self-reliance? Thoroughness? Co-operativeness? Health? I s t h e a c t i v i t y c h i e f l y a m e n t a l o r a p h y s i c a l one? . Does i t r e q u i r e more t h a n a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e ? Does i t r e q u i r e one t o d e a l , l a r g e l y w i t h p e o p l e ? How much g e n e r a l , e d u c a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y ? What s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i s needed? . 'Where c a n t h e t r a i n i n g b e o b t a i n e d ? How much, i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ? How much o n t h e j o b ? What w i l l i t c o s t ?  Rewards: 1. On what b a s i s i s a w o r k e r p a i d i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n ? b y t h e h o u r ? ......... p i e c e ? day?........ • 2. How much c a n o n e e a r n b y o v e r t i m e w o r k ? 3. I s a bonus p a i d ? 4. Ho.w. much, i s t h e - a v e r a g e p a y on. a b e g i n n e r ' s j o b ? a t l a t e r s t a g e s o f advancement?.......... . 5. How much m i g h t one e x p e c t t o e a r n a f t e r 1.0 y e a r s o f service i n the occupation? 6. A r e t h e r e p r o v i s i o n s f o r s i c k b e n e f i t s ? ...... ».._.* p r o f i t - s h a r i n g ? ......... p e n s i o n ? ........ workmen's c o m p e n s a t i o n ? .......... 7. How m u c h ' v a c a t i o n . I s g i v e n w i t h , p a y ? 8. What a r e t h e c h i e f r e w a r d s o f a n o n - f i n a n c i a l c h a r a c t e r ? 9. Where I o b t a i n e d my i n f o r m a t i o n ? 2 J L ^ X I O . C L "b y ••>••• »•« •«««»• ••*»•«'  Adapted, f r o m , - K i t s . o n , . H.Dv,. I E l n d My •Vocation. r e v i s e d 1 9 3 7 , M c G r a w - H i i l B o o k C o . , p a g e s 57-59.  36  J.  R i o graph, i o a l  Stud i ea *  Another source  o f m a t e r i a l which w i l l help i n  o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , about o c c u p a t i o n s b i o g r a p h i e s off famous' p e o p l e .  i s found  i n the  Perhaps t h e g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t  t h a t comes f r o m r e a d i n g b i o g r a p h i e s  i s n o t s o much t h e  f a c t u a l I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t h a s been o b t a i n e d , because c o n d i t i o n s are always c h a n g i n g b u t the p r o f e s s i o n .  the enthusiasm  This enthusiasm  that, i s c r e a t e d f o r  may t h e n l e a d t h e r e a d e r t o  f i n d o u t m o r e a b o u t t h e vocation.,, a n d make him. more s u r e o f g o i n g , a h e a d w i t h what h e w a n t s t o do*. Some l e a d e r s i n t h e field  o f guidance, h a v e gone t o t h e e x t e n t o f d r a w i n g up a  s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t w i l l r e a d w i t h a. 1 d e f i n i t e purpose-. . K ' i t s o n g i v e s a n o u t l i n e o f s u c h a . s t u d y as w e l l as a l o n g l i s t very worthwhile  of biographies.  T h i s seems to. be a  l i s t : , and. a l t h o u g h x^merican i n c o n t e n t , i t  c o u l d b e made t o s e r v e q u i t e w e l l a s a g u i d e c o u n s e l l o r who w i s h e s t o c o m p i l e  to the  a similar l i s t  for- Canadian  students. 2 Q u i t e r e c e n t l y t h e b i o g r a p h y , o f Madame C u r i e  has  been p u b l i s h e d , and t h e f o l l o w i n g example h a s been worked out f r o m t h i s book by t h e p r e s e n t  writer.  H..D. K i t s o n , I. P i n d My V o c a t i o n , M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Co. , H.Y. , 1 9 3 7 , p a g e s . 69-71.,: 7 2 - 9 0 J . 2Eve C u r i e , Madame C u r i e , B o u h l e d a y , D o r a n & C o . , Hew York,, 1937. . . . X  37  ' O U T L I N E EQR T H E S T H D Y Off A "Madame: A Biography  At  what age d i d she A b o u t 24. y e a r s  BIOGRAPHY  Curie"  by  Eve  decide to of age.  Curie.  enter  this  vocation?  What was t h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r l e a d i n g t o t h i s decision? S h e v i s i t e d h e r c o u s i n , J o s e p h B o g u s k l , who w a s t h e d i r e c t o r of^'HEhe. M u s e u m o f I n d u s t r y a n d A g r i c u l t u r e " , Warsaw. T h e r e , u n d e r t h e g u i s e o f a museum f r o n t , t h e y o u n g P o l e s l e a r n e d s c i e n c e w h i c h was c o n t r a r y to the laws of the R u s s i a n s . M a r i e C u r i e went t h e r e whenever p o s s i b l e , and t r i e d to reproduce, experiments. I n Madame C u r i e f s o w n / w o r d s s h e s a y s , " P r o m : t i m e t o t i m e , a l i t t l e u n h o p e d - f o r s u c c e s s w o u l d come t o e n c o u r a g e me, a n d a t o t h e r t i m e s I sank. I n t o d e s p a i r b e c a u s e o f t h e a c c i d e n t s o r f a i l u r e s d u e t o my Inexperience. But on t h e w h o l e , e v e n t h o u g h I l e a r n e d t o my c o s t t h a t p r o g r e s s i n s u c h m a t t e r s is n e i t h e r r a p i d n o r e a s y , I d e v e l o p e d my t a s t e f o r experimental research during these f i r s t trials." I n t h e w o r d s o f t h e a u t h o r , " C o m i n g home l a t e at night, regretfully leaving electrometers, test t u b e s a n d a c c u r a t e b a l a n c e s , Manya u n d r e s s e d and l a y down o n h e r n a r r o w b e d . But she c o u l d not s l e e p . An e x a l t a t i o n d i f f e r e n t f r o m a l l t h o s e s h e h a d known kept her from s l e e p . H e r v o c a t i o n , f o r so l o n g u n c e r t a i n , h a d f l a s h e d i n t o l i f e . . S h e was summoned to obey a s e c r e t order." What  other  occupation  did  she  seriously  None. I n what o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s her f i n a l occupation? Governess. What  At  consider?  ••'>••.•'•-. did  she  engage  before  entering  c o n d i t i o n i n t h i s occupation f a i l e d to s a t i s f y her? She h a d a b u r n i n g d e s i r e t o f u r t h e r h e r k n o w l e d g e and wanted to l e a r n i n s t e a d o f t e a c h . She wanted t o s t u d y i n P r a n c e more than i n any o t h e r c o u n t r y . In P r a n c e , l i b e r t y was c h e r i s h e d .  what age d i d s h e e n t e r p e r permanent o c c u p a t i o n ? D e c i d e d t o be a s c i e n t i s t when a t t h e S o r b o n n e . C o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h when, s h e m a r r i e d i n J u l y 1 8 9 5 . A b o u t 28 y e a r s o f a g e . '-..  38  7.  What was h e r f i r s t j o b i n t h i s f i e l d ? F i r s t b i g j o b was when s h e s e t o u t t o w r i t e h e r . d o c t o r ' s t h e s i s i n 1 8 9 7 . To make a f u n d a m e n t a l ' study of uranium rays. J u l y 1 8 9 8 new m e t a l d i s c o v e r e d c a l l e d polonium.. Dec. 1 8 9 8 b e l i e v e d a n o t h e r new. m e t a l c a l l e d radium. 1902 one d e c i g r a m , o f r a d i u m p r e p a r e d . x  8.  Blow d i d s h e g e t t h i s Jcrb? Research f o r s e l f .  9.  How much money d i d s h e make p e r m o n t h i n t h i s No s a l a r y .  job?  10.  How l o n g d i d s h e r e m a i n a t i t ? i l l her l i f e .  11.  Tfliat was h e r s e c o n d s t e p i n t h e l a t t e r ? 1900 r e c e i v e d a n a p p o i n t m e n t a s l e c t u r e r i n p h y s i c s a t t h e Normal S c h o o l a t Sevres.  12.  How much, money, d i d s h e make h e r e ? Not s t a t e d .  13.  .  M a k e a. v o c a t i o n a l l a t t e r showing,: (.a) Number o f r u n g s o n t h e l a t t e r . , (b) E a r n i n g s a t e a c h s t e p . (c } L e n g t h o f t i m e . spent, a t 'each s t e p , (d) Age o n a t t a i n m e n t o f each. step.. length Earnings . o f time  Age  N o b e l P r i z e i n P h y s i c s 1903 70,000 f r a n c s 36 O s i r i s Prize, 50,000 37 C h i e f o f L a b . a t t h e Sorbonne 2,400 " per yr. 37 P r o f e s s o r a t t h e S o r b o n n e 1906 10,000 " " " 39 (due t o t r a g i c death, of" Pierre Curie) C o n t i n u e d a t t h i s u n t i l , h e r death, i n 1 9 3 4 , (67 y e a r s o f a g e ) 1911 N o b e l P r i z e w i n n e r . n:  14. What e l e m e n t i n h e r p e r m a n e n t o c c u p a t i o n g i v e h e r t h e greatest satisfaction? R e s e a r c h work meant e v e r y t h i n g t o h e r . 15. What r e g r e t s d i d s h e e x p r e s s f o r h a v i n g e n t e r e d h e r f i n a l occupation? None w h a t s o e v e r .  39  S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y 1.  Yi/hat iwas t h e n a t i o n a l i t y Poles.  of per parents?  2.  Were t h e y p o o r , r i c h , o r i n c o m f o r t a b l e Poor.  3.  Occupation of f a t h e r ? School teacher. -  .  circumstances?  .  .4.. What o c c u p a t i o n , i f a n y , d i d h e r p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s choose f o r her? None, l a t h e r s e n t h e r t o t h e c o u n t r y f o r a y e a r ' s h o l i d a y b e f o r e she s h o u l d choose h e r v o c a t i o n . 5.  A t w h a t age d i d s h e b e g i n t o s u p p o r t h e r s e l f ? 18 y e a r s o f a g e . .  5..  At, what a g e was s h e m a r r i e d ? 28 y e a r s o f a g e .  7.  D i d h e r husband g i v e any s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ? "Very much s o . P i e r r e C u r i e , was a g r e a t s c i e n t i s t , and t o g e t h e r t h e y w o r k e r a s one u n i t . This p a r t n e r s h i p was m a i n t a i n e d u n t i l h i s t r a g i c d e a t h , i n 1906,.  8.  How many c h i l d r e n ? _wo c h i l d r e n .  9.  A t what age d i d s h e d i e ?  (  67 y e a r s . Educational History 1. 2.  How many y e a r s d i d s h e s p e n d i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ? About, 1 1 b e f o r e g o i n g t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n P a r i s . How o l d was s h e when s h e c o m p l e t e d h e r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ? About 16.  3.  What was h e r f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t i n s c h o o l ? Not g i v e n d e f i n i t e l y , b u t seemed t o l i k e a l l , a n d h a d Immense power o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  4.  A t what age d i d s h e b e g i n h e r t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? Went t o t h e S o r b o n n e a t t h e a g e o f 2 4 .  5.  How f a r f r o m home d i d s h e go f o r h e r a d v a n c e d P r o m Warsaw t o P a r i s - a b o u t 850 m i l e s .  education? ••  40 6. What was h e r c u s t o m a r y a c a d e m i c s t a n d i n g i n (a) G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ? First (b) T e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? At University, F i r s t . .7.  D i d s h e e a r n h e r own way t h r o u g h c o l l e g e ? Was: a g o v e r n e s s f o r seven' y e a r s . T h i s money was used t o h e l p h e r o l d e r s i s t e r a t U n i v e r s i t y , l a t e r s a v e d some money f o r h e r s e l f .  8.  D i d s h e go i n d e b t f o r h e r e d u c a t i o n ? Ho.  K.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Occupations The  complete  i nBritish  Columbia.  s t u d y off v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e w o u l d n o t be  w i t h o u t some a t t e m p t e d  occupations.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  Ho two t e x t - b o o k s , group, t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s i n  t h e same way, b u t g e n e r a l l y t h e y c o v e r t h e same f i e l d s . For example, B r e w e r ' s  1  l a t e s t book, d i v i d e s t h e f i e l d o f  work i n t o c l e r i c a l workers, domestic  c o m p e t i t i v e workers  i n business,  and p e r s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , a g r i c u l t u r e , miners and  f a c t o r y workers^ machine t r a d e s , workers  I n the b u i l d i n g  t r a d e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communicationj  public  service,  s c i e n t i f i c p r o f e s s i o n s , l i t e r a r y p r o f e s s i o n s , and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l workers.  The U n i t e d S t a t e s C e n s u s u s e s t h e  following nine classes of occupations:  agriculture,  fishing  a n d f o r e s t r y ; e x t r a c t i o n off m i n e r a l s ; m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d mechanical  i n d u s t r i e s ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  trade; public  communication;  s e r v i c e ; p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e ; domestic and  personal service; c l e r i c a l occupations. in turn subdivided u n t i l a l i s t  These c l a s s e s a r e  o f 557 o c c u p a t i o n s a r e d r a w n  •'J.1£. B r e w e r , O c c u p a t i o n s X  t  G i n n &. Co.* H.Y.,, 1 9 3 6 .  41 up.  .Many o f t h e t e x t - b o o k s u s e a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s  classification. When t h e p r e s e n t c o u r s e  on guidance  f o r our s e n i o r  h i g h s c h o o l s was b e i n g drawn u p , t h e G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e , s e e k i n g some s t a n d a r d f o r m o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  finally  to use t h a t of t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , employs t h e f o l l o w i n g d i v i s i o n s : , a g r i c u l t u r e , logging, hunting, mining, manufacturing,  decided  which  fishing,  electric  l i g h t and  power, b u i l d i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; s t o r a g e , commerce, f i n a n c e , s e r v i c e a n d clerical.  This c l a s s i f i c a t l o n  has the advantage t h a t the  f i g u r e s f o r e a c h c l a s s a r e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e i n t h e Canada T e a r Book. British in  Furthermore,.-  the grouping  i s suitable f o r  Columbia because a l l of these f i e l d s  are represented  the province., U s e f u l a s such a • • c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  I s i n , a g e n e r a l way,  t h e c o u n s e l l o r may s o m e t i m e s f e e l t h e n e e d f o r a d i f f e r e n t type to  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  F o r i n s t a n c e when a s t u d e n t  know w h a t v o c a t i o n h e c a n f o l l o w h e n e e d s a l i s t  wishes compiled  on a f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s ; t h a t I s , d e s i g n a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e work, done. British  A s no s u c h f u n c t i o n a l l i s t  was a v a i l a b l e f o r  C o l u m b i a , t h e a u t h o r h a s c o n s t r u c t e d one f r o m t h e . 1  classified  s e c t i o n o f t h e Vancouver telephone  Some 450 d i f f e r e n t v o c a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d .  directory.  I n o r d e r t o make  the l i s t more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e , a few '•See a p p e n d i x page 9 1 .  42:  occupations omitted from miner".were i n c l u d e d .  the d i r e c t o r y , such as  There i s found  "farmer"and  i n the l i s t  of  o c c u p a t i o n s some i n s t a n c e s o f d u p l i c a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , " d o c t o r " and p h y s i c i a n " a r e b o t h g i v e n . e x h a u s t i v e , s h o u l d a t l e a s t be occupations found may  and  l i s t , w h i l e not  i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e r a n g e off  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Furthermore,  s e r v e t h e c o u n s e l l o r a s a b a s i s f o r one  S u c h a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may is  The  of h i s  f e e l s t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e has offer.  list  own.  be u s e f u l a l s o t o t h e s t u d e n t  convinced of the dearth of occupations i n B r i t i s h  o p p o r t u n i t i e s to  the  who  Columbia,  o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f  45  CHAPTER. I l l  PREPARING- PGR A VOCATION  4.4  CHAPTER I I I "PREPARING FOR A VOCATION A.  Studying the S e l f . V o c a t i o n a l guidance  was d e f i n e d e a r l i e r a s ,  "the  p r o c e s s o f a s s i s t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o choose an o c c u p a t i o n , prepare  fori t  i n the present  r  e n t e r upon i t and p r o g r e s s  treatment  I f guidance  Thus, f a r  t h e student has been p r e s e n t e d  o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , , b u t no a t t e m p t counsel him.  i ni t . "  with  h a s b e e n made t o  i s , i n general, the process of  b r i n g i n g t h e student and t h e o c c u p a t i o n t o g e t h e r , then i t seems t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t t h e t i m e h a s come t o c o n s i d e r t h e characteristics  of the student.  wise t o s t a t e t h a t guidance  A t t h e o u t s e t i t m i g h t be  does n o t mean a n a l y z i n g a s t u d e n t ,  l a b e l l i n g ; h i m w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t a g a n d t e l l i n g h i m what j o b he  i s to follow.  So sane counsel-Ling would p e r m i t  a r b i t r a r y procedure*  off s u c h a n  I t i s f r a u g h t w i t h s o much d a n g e r t h a t  i n f i n i t e harm m i g h t a t t e n d such an a c t i o n * the c o u n s e l l o r i s t o h e l p the student  The r e a l d u t y o f  t o know h i m s e l f , t o  p u t h i m i n p o s i t i o n s w h e r e h e may t r y h i m s e l f out*, a n d t o leave f i n a l  decisions to the individual*  mind, t h e student interests boy  With t h i s view in.  s h o u l d be encouraged t o d i s c o v e r h i s  and a b i l i t i e s .  I t seems r a t h e r p a t h e t i c t h a t a  s h o u l d be f i n i s h i n g h i s l a s t y e a r  i n senior high  school  45  w i t h no i d e a o f what h e w a n t s t o do*  He l e a v e s s c h o o l w i t h  no d e f i n i t e p l a n a n d j u s t d r i f t s a r o u n d w a i t i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g to t u r n up.  How much b e t t e r i t i s t o h a v e some g o a l  which t o s t r i v e , possibilities.  even i f i t a p p e a r s f a r b e y o n d t h e p r e s e n t A d i s t a n t g o a l w i l l g e n e r a l l y mean t h e  preliminary attainment progresses  toward  o f l e s s e r g o a l s which-mark  instead of drifting  steady  haphazardly*  There a r e s e v e r a l approaches t o t h e problem of s e l f a n a l y s i s , a l l . o f w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t may e x p l o r e i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t something about h i m s e l f .  When t h e v a r i o u s  occupations  a r e b e i n g s t u d i e d , t h e i n d i v i d u a l may be e n c o u r a g e d t o n o t e t h a t c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a r e required.  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s t r u c t u r a l i r o n w o r k e r , whose work  d e a l s w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o f b r i d g e s and l a r g e s t r u c t u r e s , i s r e q u i r e d t o be c o o l , q u i c k , l e v e l h e a d e d , and y e t a t t i m e s a daring individual.  Moreover,, i f h e w i s h e s t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s  work t h o r o u g h l y , he must r e c e i v e a sound t e c h n i c a l , education.. The  r e p o r t e r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , m u s t h a v e t h e a b i l i t y t o  t h i n k c l e a r l y , r a p i d l y and a c c u r a t e l y , t o a c t q u i c k l y , and t o possess  strong physique  of s l e e p and meals.  so a s . t o w i t h s t a n d t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y  From t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e s t u d e n t i s  a b l e t o make a d e g r e e o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h h i m s e l f a n d t h e worker i n v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . field  Many o f t h e l e a d e r s i n t h e  o f g u i d a n c e u s e some f o r m o f s c a l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o  r a t e h i m s e l f i n the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e What may be m o r e d e p l o r a b l e i s t h e g r e a t number o f u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s who a r e i n t h e same p o s i t i o n .  46 important to a l l occupations. simple r a t i n g  Klts-on" g i v e s the  following  scale.  Where Y o u  Stand  Trait Below Average  Average  Above A v e r a g e  Honesty Industriousness Co-operation Thoroughness; Health. The  hoy  Is asked  t o compare h i m s e l f w i t h h i s c o m p a n i o n s  and  t h e n t o m a r k a n 21 I n t h e c o l u m n w h i c h a p p l i e s t o h i m s e l f . The; H u g h e s G - r a p h i c . H a t i n g ; S e a l e  fo  i s an example o f  s c a l e t h a t i s s c o r e d by the t e a c h e r o n l y .  The  n o t know h i s s c o r e , w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r may comparison  a  student need  use as  a  w i t h t h o s e a l r e a d y s c o r e d by t h e s t u d e n t .  The  c o u n s e l l o r should p r e s e n t the work i n s e l f - a n a l y s i s i n a c a s u a l m a n n e r so- t h a t no h a r m may withdrawing The  t y p e who  may  come t o s t u d e n t s o f  be o v e r c o n c e r n e d  about low  the ratings.  o b j e c t of s e l f - a n a l y s i s i s to s e t f o r t h the d e s i r a b l e  qualities  t h a t one  s h o u l d p o s s e s s , and t h e n t o s e e how  r a n k s on s u c h a s c a l e .  one  I t i s hoped t h a t a student w i l l t r y  t o Improve h i m s e l f i n t h e s e d e s i r a b l e c - h a r a e t e r i s t i c s . "  1H.D. K i t s o n , op. c i t . ' S p o r t h e Hughes S a t i n g S c a l e a n d o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s s e e A p p e n d i x , p a g e 109 and p a g e s 95-108.  47  W h i l e t e s t s have a u s e f u l p l a c e I n t h e a n a l y s i s of a student to  i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n ,  i n the present  e n l a r g e on them b e y o n d m e r e l y p o i n t i n g o u t  present  course  that i n the  o n g u i d a n c e i n t h e Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r  senior high schools there i s a l i s t  of a v a i l a b l e t e s t s i n  i n t e l l i g e n c e * achievement, mechanical The  treatment,  a p t i t u d e and p e r s o n a l i t y .  t e s t s c o r e I s u s u a l l y t r e a t e d as a c o n f i d e n t i a l guide  t h e c o u n s e l l o r , and I f he  I s n o t p a s s e d on t o t h e s t u d e n t ,  i n q u i r e s , h e may  be  average, or below average* t h e s t u d e n t when h e  t o l d Yihether he  for  although  i s above a v e r a g e ,  Such g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l a i d  i s t r y i n g t o compare h i s endowments w i t h  those r e q u i r e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r .occupation* A student  g e t s an  from h i s school s u b j e c t s .  i d e a o f h i s i n t e r e s t s and I n the elementary  abilities  school h i s  r e c o r d s show h i m what s u b j e c t s he c a n h a n d l e s u c c e s s f u l l y . When he  reaches the  to m a k e . c e r t a i n abilities. Can  course  These enable h i m  from h i s a b i l i t y  I t i s not  to t r y out  do  and  courses  different  to handle such courses,  some i d e a o f w h a t he c a n  the  i n that .particular  i n f e r r e d that a short successful, exploratory  i n ; woodwork w o u l d mean t h a t t h e b o y  c a r p e n t e r , but tools.  opportunity  T h i s i s a l s o a p e r i o d when e x p l o r a t o r y  s u b j e c t s , and  field.  the  c h o i c e s w h i c h show h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s  be u n d e r t a k e n .  student has  j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l he has  t h a t he h a s  s h o u l d become a  demonstrated the a b i l i t y  Such an a b i l i t y m i g h t encourage him t o  to  use  continue  f u r t h e r a l o n g ; t h i s o r some r e l a t e d l i n e w h i c h , i f n o t  adopted  48  a s H i s v o c a t i o n , m i g h t become h i s -hobby.' •••' -j  The  p r e s e n t wide c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t s i n our j u n i o r  a n d s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s s h o u l d p e r m i t a. s t u d e n t  t o determine  wherein  h i s i n t e r e s t s l i e , and thus  indicate h i svocational  'field*  F o r e x a m p l e , a b o y who i s weak, i n m a t h e m a t i c s a n d  p h y s i c s w i s h e s t o become a n e n g i n e e r .  The b o y s h o u l d b e t o l d  t h a t such s u b j e c t s a r e v e r y important  i n this- occupation, and  t h a t , b e f o r e h e e n t e r s s u c h a p r o f e s s i o n he s h o u l d s e r i o u s thought w h i c h he f i n d s  give  to t h e necessary preparation i n the subjects difficult.  A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h a s t u d e n t may-.'find o u t '•.whether he h a s s p e c i a l , a b i l i t i e s  and i n t e r e s t s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  v o c a t i o n i s t o g e t work i n i t d u r i n g t h e h o l i d a y s .  For  e x a m p l e , a b o y may b e v e r y a n x i o u s , t o go t o s e a . The o p p o r t u n i t y comes a s a m e s s e n g e r b o y o n t h e G.P.R. running out of Vancouver t o t h e O r i e n t . that i snecessary * and he  boats  One t r i p may b e a l l  He e i t h e r l i k e s o r d i s l i k e s t h e , e x p e r i e n c e ,  i n s t e a d of spending  years l o n g i n g and t h i n k i n g of the sea,  i s a b l e t o make up h i s m i n d  immediately.  B e i n g a member o f a c l u b i s g e n e r a l l y o f h e l p i n discovering a b i l i t i e s sponsored, talents.  and i n t e r e s t s .  Glubs,  i fproperly  s e r v e a s u s e f u l media f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f one's A l t h o u g h one would h e s i t a t e t o s a y t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l  a c t o r i n the school dramatic a c t o r on the stage.  c l u b w o u l d become a s u c c e s s f u l  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u c h h o b b i e s  as model  49 a i r c r a f t and coach b u i l d i n g have l e d t o boys w i n n i n g s h i p s sponsored by i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s i n these B.  scholar-  fields.  S e e k i n g Advic-e a n d C o u n s e l . The n e x t s t e p t o w a r d s  the co-ordination of the  student with the occupation, i s the personal interview with the c o u n s e l l o r .  T h i s m e e t i n g may b e h e l d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f  the student o r the c o u n s e l l o r .  I n e i t h e r c a s e , as.much  a v a i l a b l e d a t a a s p o s s i b l e s h o u l d b e on h a n d . If  t h e s t u d e n t has been i n t h e s c h o o l system f o r  some t i m e he w i l l h a v e a t t e n d e d t h e g r o u p g u i d a n c e  classes.  D u r i n g t h o s e p e r i o d s h e h a s been, t a u g h t a b o u t t h e m a j o r occupations o f h i s province, t h e i r conditions, and r e w a r d s .  requirements  A s t u d e n t s h o u l d have o b t a i n e d a l s o a g e n e r a l .  Idea o f h i s academic and mechanical a b i l i t i e s , and c a p a b i l i t i e s .  h i s interests  The s e l f - a n a l y s i s s c a l e s may h a v e b e e n  u s e f u l , in,.helping-, h i m t o compare h i m s e l f w i t h o t h e r s . B e f o r e the: i n t e r v i e w was sought, b y t h e s t u d e n t he h a s b e e n encouraged will  t o s e a r c h a l l a v e n u e s f o r I n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t . h e  r e c e i v e t h e most b e n e f i t f r o m t h e c o n f e r e n c e .  Many  s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s c a n g i v e o n l y a, n e g a t i v e a n s w e r to  such questions a s , " l h a t a r e you i n t e r e s t e d i n ? "  you a h o b b y ? " and g i r l s  "Have  "What do y o u i n t e n d t o d o ? " Y e t t h e s e b o y s  w i l l be l e a v i n g , a t t h e end of t h e s c h o o l year t o  l o o k f o r work.  They h a v e no I d e a o f t h e k i n d o f w o r k t h a t  t h e y want., o r w h e t h e r t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g i t .  To a d d  50  "a' f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y  t o t h i s p r o b l e m some o f t h e s e  a r e f i n d i n g i t h a r d t o k e e p up w i t h t h e i r g r a d e s .  students I t seems  t h a t g r o u p s t u d y I s n e c e s s a r y i f t h e s e p u p i l s a r e t o come prepared.to an interview. The c o u n s e l l o r w i l l f i n d a l s o t h a t t h e more he h a s a b o u t . h i s interview..  s t u d e n t s t h e more s u c c e s s f u l w i l l  there  i s a form c a l l e d a Glass  This i s divided into'five parts. as, s t e p - f a t h e r ' s  f a t h e r d e c e a s e d , may  I n the Family  weakness.  Survey.  Record, such  o r s t e p - m o t h e r ' s name,.mother o r  t h r o w l i g h t on a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e .  P h y s i c a l Record, w i l l f u r n i s h information  subjects  be'the  F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r  Senior High Schools,  questions  Information  The  about any p h y s i c a l  The S c h o o l R e c o r d t e l l s b r i e f l y a b o u t a s t u d e n t and h i s s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s .  i s k e p t on t h e o f f i c i a l a counsellor  i s able  school record  A more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t card.  From t h i s  to obtain a very accurate  s t u d e n t ' s c l a s s - r o o m work.  card  account of the  T h i s r e c o r d may g i v e a l s o t h e  r e s u l t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , ' achievement and m e c h a n i c a l t e s t s . The S o c i a l R e c o r d o f t h e s u r v e y s u p p l i e s much u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o what t h e s t u d e n t does a f t e r s c h o o l . last  s e c t i o n of the survey, Future Plans, gives  a general  The  the counsellor  idea of the f i e l d s of ?Jork i n which the student i s  Interested.  The s u c c e s s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , i n s h o r t , may b e  s a i d t o b e d i v i d e d p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount o f p e r t i n e n t data a v a i l a b l e t o both c o u n s e l l o r and  student.  51 Q.  Selecting a Vocation. The  Important  s e l e c t i o n of a v o c a t i o n Is perhaps the most  phase i n the whole of the guidance  Often i n a p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n ,  programme..  the c o u n s e l l o r w i l l  r e q u i r e d , t o d e a l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h p u p i l and  he  job.  For  the  c o u n s e l l o r t o a c q u i r e a m e a s u r e o f s u c c e s s he w i l l want t o " h a v e a s much I n f o r m a t i o n . a s the  p o s s i b l e about the student  and  focation. A l r e a d y r e f e r e n c e h a s b e e n made t o t h e  collection,  by the c o u n s e l l o r , of p u p i l d a t a from such r e c o r d s  as  i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , s c h o l a s t i c attainments, achievements interests..  A t t h e .same t i m e , t h e s t u d e n t h a s  and  acquired a  c e r t a i n : amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c h i e f o c c u p a t i o n s the p r o v i n c e . t h e s t u d e n t now  The  common p r o b l e m o f b o t h  t h e c o u n s e l l o r , and  becomes t h a t o f s e l e c t i n g a s u i t a b l e , . v o c a t i o n .  Such a p r o b l e m has  seldom a simple s o l u t i o n .  Frequently  a r e many c h a n g e s i n . plans,., a s t h e s t u d e n t c h o o s e s f i r s t job  and  then another.  I t I s o n l y by s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  a p p e a l t o him.  reached, In  one  i d e a what v o c a t i o n he w i s h e s t o  off many i n t e r v i e w , t h a t t h e s t u d e n t may will  there  Another.complicating factor i s that  t h e . y o u n g p e r s o n h a s no follow.  of  the holding,  f i n d something that  I f f , and when, t h i s h a p p y s t a t e i s  t h e s t u d e n t w i l l want t o know, h i s c h a n c e s o f  such an occupation:.  T h e r e c a n be no  a q u e s t i o n , but a probable  one m i g h t be  t r u e answer t o  success such  o b t a i n e d by m a k i n g  5S  comparisons comparing  among t h e w o r k e r s  i n a chosen  i n d u s t r y , and t h e n  t h e s t u d e n t w i t h t h o s e 'workers*.  I i t h e hoy, a f t e r  entering a f i e l d , job,  f a l l s below t h e s t a n d a r d of a p a r t i c u l a r  i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t he w i l l n o t r i s e t o t h e t o p o f t h e  o c c u p a t i o n . , a n d may, i n d e e d , i n some c a s e s r e g a r d h i m s e l f a s an a b j e c t f a i l u r e , become a n e l e c t r i c a l was mathematics,:  l o r i n s t a n c e , a young man h a d a d e s i r e t o engineer.  H i s weakest s u b j e c t a t s c h o o l  b u t h e managed t o make a p a s s i n h i g h  school.  On e n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t y h e had. g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h mathematics,, b u t s t r u g g l e d o n w i t h r e p e a t e d u n t i l , the l a s t  two y e a r s o f t h e e n g i n e e r i n g c o u r s e w h i c h he,  f o u n d - t o be f a r b e y o n d h i s c a p a c i t y . b i t t e r n e s s h e was f o r c e d t o g i v e up.. of  supplementals  With, a s e n s e o f . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t much  t h i s t i m e w o u l d h a v e b e e n more p r o f i t a b l y s p e n t i f he h a d  b e e n engaged a t some o c c u p a t i o n t h a t was w i t h i n h i s c a p a c i t y . On-the o t h e r h a n d , a young man s h o u l d n o t .choose a n . o c c u p a t i o n which does n o t u s e h i s a b i l i t i e s  t o t h e b e s t advantage.  a p e r s o n . I s engaged i n - a , r o u t i n e  j o b when he i s c a p a b l e o f  h a n d l i n g a more a d v a n c e d  If  p o s i t i o n , he may become, p e r s o n a l l y  d i s s a t i s f i e d , a n d s o c i e t y i s l o s i n g , a t t h e same t i m e , t a l e n t s w h i c h c o u l d b e more p r o f i t a b l y e m p l o y e d . g i v e s a score c a r d which  enables a comparison  Brewer"''  t o be made o f  t h e q u a l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s i n a n o c c u p a t i o n with,"• t h o s e p o s s e s s e d b y the. i n d i v i d u a l . J.M. B r e w e r , O c c u p a t i o n s , G i n n & G o . H e w Y o r k page 449. see Appendix page 111*  x  1936,  53  Furthermore, there  i s u r g e n t need f o r  i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u p p l y several vocations. it  and  accurate,  demand o f w o r k e r s i n t h e  E v e n when t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e ,  does n o t ' f o l l o w t h a t t h e  s i t u a t i o n w i l l be  the  same  p e r h a p s t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s h e n c e , when, t h e s t u d e n t to enter  the f i e l d .  I t may  off f o r e c a s t f r o m what h a s economist maintains  b e p o s s i b l e t o make some m e a s u r e  happened .before, but  all  the  that i t i s not p o s s i b l e to  a c c u r a t e l y what t h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l be ahead.  i s ready  careful  foretell  even t w e l v e  Some u n f o r e s e e n f a c t o r , s u c h a s a w a r ,  months  may  throw  calculations. Recently  a study  t h e B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s - at. O t t a w a h a s made  of the supply  and  demand i n . t h e p r o f e s s i o n s i n Canada.  Fumbers a v a i l a b l e i n the p r o f e s s i o n s  d u r i n g the l a s t  three  d e c a d e s w e r e compared w i t h t h e g r o w t h off p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e numbers e m p l o y e d i n e a c h p r o f e s s i o n . pointed  out  t h a t the  supply  of teachers  p r o p o r t i o n to the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , there  I s an o v e r - s u p p l y - o f  study  apply  needed by may  out  be  teachers.  district..  has  and  instance, i t i s  increased  t h a t a t the  The  o n l y t o Canada i n , g e n e r a l *  e v e r y c i t y and  Eor  has  c a p a b i l i t i e s may  l e s s c a p a b l e w i l l not  stand  present  S i m i l a r analyses  should  I t i s known t h a t  f i n d employment, b u t  a chance i n strenuous  are  occupation  c r o w d e d i t does n o t mean t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r  p e r s o n who  out. o f  f i n d i n g s off t h i s  Although an  advise a person t o t r y something e l s e .  with,  a  the  competition.  54  D.  Securing a Position, When a. y o u n g p e r s o n  it  s e t s out t o secure a p o s i t i o n ,  i s p e r h a p s t h e most d i f f i c u l t  attempted.  O f t e n when a . s t u d e n t  t a s k t h a t he h a s y e t i n t e n d s t o b e g i n work, he  s i m p l y g o e s o u t t o l o o k f o r a' j o b . d i s h e a r t e n i n g method o f a p p r o a c h .  T h i s i s s o m e t i m e s "a . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e he  s h o u l d n o t l o o k f o r a j o b , b u t r a t h e r p l a n a career.' w h o l e theme o f " v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e c a r e e r , and s o by k e e p i n g  The  i s the planning of a  t h i s i n mind he s h o u l d have a  d e f i n i t e i d e a o f t h e t y p e o f work which he.Wishes t o e n t e r . I t may b e h e l p f u l t o s u g g e s t position.  sell.  o n how t o s e c u r e  a  I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e . - s t u d e n t must r e a l i z e , t h a t  he h a s s o m e t h i n g t o o f f e r , to  technique  t h a t he h a s a commodity o r s e r v i c e  I n some v o c a t i o n s t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u s t o f f e r , n o t ,  only h i s t r a i n i n g , but also h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . student w i l l  Therefore,, t h e  b e w e l l a d v i s e d t o know how t o o f f e r h i s s e r v i c e s ,  so t h a t , h i s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a p p e a r I n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t . T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s media, w h i c h h e may u s e .in. s e c u r i n g a position.  T h e s e a r e . t h e n e w s p a p e r s , employment  agencies,  l e t t e r s o f a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e a i d off f r i e n d s a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s , s c h o o l placement bureau and a p p l i c a t i o n i n person.  The  n e w s p a p e r s h a v e two employment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t h o s e  people  wanting  During:  s i t u a t i o n s and.the s i t u a t i o n s being o f f e r e d .  the l a s t few y e a r s few r e a l v a c a n c i e s have been a d v e r t i s e d , but  t h e r e h a v e b e e n many a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  type.  of the get-rich-quiek  Our s t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e t r a i n e d t o r e c o g n i z e  these  55  p sue d o - v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses, w h i c h h o l d out chances employmeht a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e .  Much o f  of  this  t y p e o f a d v e r t i s i n g has. b e e n e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e p a p e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h t h e good work of t h e A p p r e n t i c e s h i p B o a r d , w h i c h demands from, t h e s p o n s o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y sum o f money t o make t h e t r a i n i n g a b o n a f i d e  large  proposition.  Employment a g e n c i e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n some c i t i e s . I n B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a t h e D o m i n i o n Government m a i n t a i n s o f f i c e s o f t h e Employment S e r v i c e o f C a n a d a i n t h e n i n e c h i e f  cities.  S u c h an, employment b u r e a u * w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g a n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e , does n o t m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e young men women l e a v i n g o u r s c h o o l s * .  T h e r e a r e a few p r i v a t e  and  employment  a g e n c i e s , s i x i n V a n c o u v e r , but. t h e y a r e q u i t e i n a d e q u a t e a s a s o l u t i o n f o r the placement of the h i g h school graduate. The. s c h o o l s y s t e m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s no o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l p l a c e m e n t bureau, a l t h o u g h some s c h o o l s a r e e n d e a v o u r i n g t o find  j o b s f o r t h e more needy p u p i l s .  S u c h a s i t u a t i o n seems  t o demand a J u n i o r P l a c e m e n t B u r e a u t h a t c o u l d h a n d l e y o u t h employment.  A t p r e s e n t t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s who  l e a v e our  s c h o o l s h a v e t o depend l a r g e l y upon t h e m s e l v e s and f r i e n d s f o r employment.  I t i s sometimes f e l t  t h e s u p p o r t ^ o f f r i e n d s i s n o t t h e c o r r e c t way employment. ask. a i d .  their  t h a t to. seek to find  Some p e o p l e would, s o o n e r r e m a i n u n e m p l o y e d t h a n  T h i s s p i r i t of independence  y e t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t may  i s an a d m i r a b l e one,  p r e v e n t one f r o m e n t e r i n g  56  g a i n f u l employment. know h o w - t o f i n d on. b.Is s t a f f .  Sometimes a n employer I s a t a l o s s t o  a suitable person t o f i l l  a certain, p o s i t i o n  P e r h a p s h e does n o t w i s h t o a d v e r t i s e , i n t h e  n e w s p a p e r s , k n o w i n g . f u l l w e l l t h a t he w o u l d r e c e i v e f a r t o o many a p p l i c a t i o n s , a n d t h a t the. c h o i c e o f a s u i t a b l e s p p l i c a n t w o u l d a b s o r b t o o much t i m e . he  i swilling  I n such  circumstances  t o i n t e r v i e w p e r s o n s who a r e recommended t o h i m .  When a y o u n g p e r s o n i s r e a d y t o s e e k a p o s i t i o n he may c a r r y out the f o l l o w i n g procedure.  F i r s t , he w i l l check  the employers f o r which h e would l i k e t o work. f a c t o r s would I n f l u e n c e h i m i n h i s c h o i c e . may w i s h  over  Yarious.  F o r example, a boy  t o be a p p r e n t i c e d t o a . c e r t a i n f i r m b e c a u s e h e knows  t h a t t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e company t a k e s a p e r s o n a l I n t e r e s t in his apprentices.  When a c h o i c e h a s b e e n made, a g o o d p l a n  i s t o study the products interview i s obtained converse, i n t e l l i g e n t l y  o f t h a t company;  L a t e r on, i f an  t h e a p p l i c a n t w o u l d t h e n be a b l e t o w i t h t h e employer.  T h i s w o u l d show  t h a t t h e p r o s p e c t i v e employee a l r e a d y h a d a n i n t e r e s t in. t h e business. The  n e x t I m p o r t a n t s t e p I s .to o b t a i n a n I n t e r v i e w  w i t h t h e employer.  T h i s i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e t h e r e may  be no v a c a n c i e s I n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  However.*, a s ^ h e  s t u d e n t h a s b e e n t r a i n e d t o make e v e r y  e f f o r t h e may t r y a  contact through  friends., telephone,  o r by l e t t e r .  A. t e l e p h o n e  c o n t a c t I s n o t a l w a y s t h e most s u i t a b l e method because t h e  57  e m p l o y e r , i f b u s y , may conversation,  a n d may  not  have the  terminate  o t h e r h a n d , a l e t t e r may  time t o spend i n  i t rather abruptly.  see  the w r i t e r .  I f t h e l e t t e r I s an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a known, be  that creates  s t r o n g , f o r c e f u l and  i n t e r e s t , and  attention i s paid  one  dominating,  i n which p a r t i c u l a r  been s u c c e s s f u l - i n o b t a i n i n g  Intervie?;, i t Is h i g h l y important t h a t the a p p l i c a n t  c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to h i s p r e p a r a t i o n l e t t e r s o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n and 'fhe p r o b l e m o f d r e s s s h o u l d During the  f o r the meeting.  q u a l i f i c a t i o n m u s t be  interview, the a p p l i o a n t  Interviewee,  I f the  i s a good p l a n  t o be  c o u n s e l l o r , i n one  should maintain respectful.  the l i s t e n e r .  of the  Sometimes  As  a suggestion,  g r o u p g u i d a n c e p e r i o d s may  to conduct oneself  I f t h e a p p l i c a n t has  not  experience.,  and  e m p l o y e r may  secure  I f a favourable be  in. a n  the give  Interview.  b e e n s u c c e s s f u l , I t does  not. mean t h a t t h i s i s so much t i m e w a s t e d .  made, t h e  a manner  e m p l o y e r w a n t s t o do t h e t a l k i n g i t  many u s e f u l a i d s on how  brings  A l l  on hand,  t h r o u g h h i s t a l k a t i v e n e s s , does n o t  the p o s i t i o n .  pay  receive special consideration.  t h a t i s n a t u r a l , c a l m , d i g n i f i e d and the  yet not  to the mechanics of l e t t e r w r i t i n g .  If' such a l e t t e r has an  that I t would  e m p l o y e r t o become i n t e r e s t e d enough t o want to.  vacancy i t should one  the  b r i n g more s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s .  T h i s l e t t e r o u g h t t o be w r i t t e n i n s u c h a way cause the  On  Every  impression  interview has  i n a p o s i t i o n t o recommend  been the  a p p l i c a n t t o some one e l s e .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e  successful a p p l i c a n t should r e a l i z e that t h i s i s only the first I s how  step I n the g a i n i n g of a p o s i t i o n . to advance.  The n e x t  question  CHAPTER IV"  ADVANCEMENT I N A VOCATION  58  CHAPTER I T Advancement i n a V o c a t i o n  :  As s o o n a s a n i n d i v i d u a l l i a s s e c u r e d a p o s i t i o n h e should hasten  t o t h a n k a n y f r i e n d s who may h a v e b e e n h e l p f u l .  This i s just a matter i s overlooked. first  o f common c o u r t e s y , b u t s o m e t i m e s i t  The o b t a i n i n g o f a s i t u a t i o n i s j u s t t h e  step i n g e t t i n g s t a r t e d , and a l l students  •realize t h i s .  should  Some a r e l i a b l e t o a d o p t t h e a t t i t u d e  t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r n e e d t o e r e r t t h e m s e l v e s .  that  Some a r e o f  the o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e u s e i n making any determined e f f o r t t o advance o n e s e l f because success without  t h e a i d off r i c h f r i e n d s o r " p u l l . 1 1  i snot possible Undoubtedly  there  a r e p e o p l e Who h a v e h a d t h i s h e l p , b u t t h e y w o u l d n o t h a v e been s u c c e s s f u l u n l e s s t h e y had p o s s e s s e d which a r enecessary  f o r advancement.  t h e r e a r e t h o s e who u n a i d e d ability  qualities  Gu t h e o t h e r h a n d ^  a n d w i t h 'perhaps l e s s n a t i v e  than t h e i r neighbours,  ment t h r o u g h  those  have been a b l e t o w i n advance-  the q u a l i t y of determinations  ,  E v e n b e f o r e a y o u t h t a k e s a p o s i t i o n h e s h o u l d know t h a t such  q u a l i t i e s a s i n t e g r i t y , l o y a l t y , c o - o p e r a t i o n and  c o u r t e s y a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t when h e e n t e r s a n y o c c u p a t i o n .  59  B r e w e r " g i v e s a r a t i n g s c a l e w h i c h may he u s e f u l t o anyone who "wi's/hJes t o r a t e h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e Above, a l l i t i s h i g h l y important endeavour t o develop  qualities.  t h a t t h e worker  1  should  t h e r i g h t a t t i t u d e towards h i s work,  _his employer and h i s f e l l o w  workers.  If,, then, s e c u r i n g a p o s i t i o n i s j u s t a chance t o g e t s t a r t e d i n one's v o c a t i o n , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e o u g h t t o be some d e f i n i t e s y s t e m o f t r a i n i n g . , T h i s t r a i n i n g may be obtained.from  different  sources.  I n e a r l i e r years most o f  t h e i n s t r u c t i o n was a c q u i r e d on t h e j o b .  Today, some  jobs  a r e l e a r n e d i n a f e w d a y s o r a few w e e k s * t h u s d o i n g away w i t h any l o n g p e r i o d o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . years  In the e a r l i e r  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l i t t l e a t t e m p t was made t o e s t a b l i s h  a s a t i s f a c t o r y system o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . - I n recent  years,  however,, a n A p p r e n t i c e s h i p , B o a r d h a s b e e n s e t up and, r u l e s and  r e g u l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n drawn up f o r s u c h o c c u p a t i o n s a s :  Automobile Maintenance Conditioning,  (a) Mechanics,  (d) Auto F i n i s h i n g ,  (f} U p h o l s t e r i n g ; Carpentry,  ( h ) M e t a l Work ( e ) T i r e  ( e ) R a d i a t o r Work,  E l e c t r i c a l Work, J e w e l l e r y  M a n u f a c t u r e a n d Repair,, L i t h o g r a p h y , M a c h i n i s t  Trade,  P a i n t i n g and D e c o r a t i n g , P l a s t e r i n g , Plumbing and S t e a m f i t t i n g , S e r v i c i n g and R e p a i r o f C u r r e n t  Consuming  Electrical  A p p l i a n c e s , Sheet M e t a l , S h i p and Boat B u i l d i n g , S i g n and Pictorial Painting.  I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s y s t e m a t i c type o f  t r a i n i n g w i l l t e n d t o i m p r o v e t h e number o f q u a l i f i e d 1 See A p p e n d i x , page 1 1 2 .  workers  60 i n these  trades..  5  I n some o f o u r c i t i e s , a d v a n c e d t r a i n i n g c a n be.  obtained  at. N i g h t  Schools,  a booklet l i s t i n g .various schools classified  The V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d  the. e v e n i n g  courses  throughout t h e c i t y .  t h a t a r e taught These c o u r s e s  a s academic, v o c a t i o n a l and a v o c a t i o n a l .  issues in. the  c o u l d be Such a  w i d e r a n g e seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t many p e o p l e a r e a n x i o u s t o extend t h e i r education.  P r i v a t e t r a d e s c h o o l s a l s o add t h e i r  quota of i n s t r u c t i o n . Off r e c e n t has  years  been extending  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  i t s w o r k t o meet t h e g r o w i n g n e e d f o r  more e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n ,  During  s e s s i o n s , courses  which give  others  Columbia  a r e arranged  interested, the opportunity  t h e summer a n d w i n t e r teachers,and  of o b t a i n i n g advanced  degrees by e x t r a - s e s s i o n a l work. A. D e p a r t m e n t o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n h a s a l s o been, organized*  t h e p u r p o s e off w h i c h i s t o do i t s p a r t  the a d u l t education  towards  of the province. . I n order that  s e r v i c e may n o t be c o n f i n e d  this  t o Vancouver alone, i t s  l e c t u r e r s t r a v e l t o a l lp a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia b r i n g i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o those university.  From such a b e g i n n i n g  people of B r i t i s h for  who a r e u n a b l e t o a t t e n d t h e i t i s evident  Columbia a r e beginning  that, t h e  t o r e a l i z e t h e need  f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g , b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l .  61  F o r any m u s t be  some m e t h o d o f e v a l u a t i n g I t .  impossible not.  g u i d a n c e programme t o be  So  f a r one  Otherwise, i t i s  the  c o u n s e l l o r may  find  be  A f t e r the  student hasnentered'  f a c i l i t i e s whereby the  t o u c h w i t h him.'  education  or i s a f a i l u r e . consideration  system.  should  keep i n c o n s t a n t  to evaluate  received..  This For  counsellor  i s the only  instance,  t h a t t h e young w o r k e r i s n o t  the  satisfied,  to f i n d  t h e c a u s e , and  i f p o s s i b l e t o remove i t .  records  o f s u c h c a s e s he  i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to o f f e r h e l p f u l suggestions to the educational  a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d the  In Providence, B.I, s e r v i c e o f one*, t h r e e work may  not  be  g r o u p s w h i c h he  way  . S u c h a s i t u a t i o n demands c a r e f u l  c o u n s e l l o r keeps, a c c u r a t e  students,  or  o f t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l , ways o f f i n d i n g o u t  the v o c a t i o n there  I f the  there  t o know w h e t h e r t h a t programme i s a s u c c e s s  i s to have a f o l l o w - u p  can  successful,,  and  there  i s a continuous  . • / . ,  follow-up  that  too a r d u o u s , each c o u n s e l l o r checks school.  the  employers.  f i v e y e a r s . i . In. o r d e r  taught i n high  is  this the  62  CHAPTER V  THE FUTURE OF. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE. I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  63 CHAPTER: V -' "v\*  THE JUTURE OP VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE  m The  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  I n c l u s i o n of v o c a t i o n a l guidance  p r e l i m i n a r y stage i n the working Such, a b e g i n n i n g  i s but  the  o u t off a g u i d a n c e . p r o g r a m m e .  i s n e c e s s a r y , , b u t more i m p o r t a n t ,  i s t h e p e r s o n n e l t o c o n d u c t t h e work.  It. appears,  perhaps, from  p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e made t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e H i g h  School  A c c r e d i t i n g B o a r d , t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a demand f o r c o u n s e l l o r s for  t h e coming s c h o o l y e a r , 1938-39.  number t h a t may 1936  A rough estimate of  be r e q u i r e d c o u l d b e d e t e r m i n e d  the  from the  enrolment of SI,119 p u p i l s i n s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n  B r i t i s h Columbia,t h e 4=5 c i t y  These p u p i l s were d i s t r i b u t e d  throughout  h i g h s c h o o l s , t h e 21 h i g h s c h o o l s i n  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  t h e 35 r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . ^  district;  Vancouver  city,  w i t h i t s 12 h i g h s c h o o l s , and a h i g h ' s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f 9,042, w i l l r e q u i r e a t l e a s t f r o m 25 to. 30 c o u n s e l l o r s . may  he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a few  of the p r i n c i p a l s of  V a n c o u v e r h i g h s c h o o l s h a v e a l r e a d y c h o s e n some o f teachers to handle of the guidance  t h e programme.  p r i n c i p a l , so t h a t t h e r e w i l l be v e r y l i t t l e  at  l e a s t one  the their  I n t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s much  programme w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t b y  counsellors i n this f i e l d .  the  demand f o r  I f i t i s assumed, however, t h a t  c o u n s e l l o r w i l l b e . r e q u i r e d f o r boys and  Annual Report C o l u m b i a , 1935-56,  It  of the P u b l i c Schools  of  another  British  64  one  f o rg i r l s I n each of t h e schools  i n the c i t i e s and  d i s t r l a t j m - a n l o i p a l l t i e s , , a minimum, o f 128 c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l he r e q u i r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e .  As v e r y few o f t h e  t e a c h e r s have r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g I n c o u n s e l l i n g t h e r e w i l l he a d e c i d e d As  lack of trained counsellors.  the counsellor presents  the occupational  informat-  i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e he f i n d s t h a t h e i s f a c e d w i t h a v e r y d i f f i c u l t task" h y t h e l a c k : o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a .  The  Dominion Government i s s u e s t h e Canada Y e a r Book, w h i c h  gives  t h e number o f p e o p l e engaged i n t h e i n d u s t r i e s o f Canada, but  does n o t s u p p l y  labour  of B r i t i s h  detailed information.  Columbia Issues  The D e p a r t m e n t o f  I t s annual report, but  again, while I t tabulates r e t u r n s forwarded t o I t by c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s : , i t cannot- g i v e f u l l a c c o u n t o f a l l t h e i n d u s t r i e s and p r o f ess-ions o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a * f u l l e r occupational information. student  F o r i n s t a n c e , when a  I n q u i r e s about t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  occupation,  The c o u n s e l l o r n e e d s  of entering an  f t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be  a b l e t o c o n s u l t some a u t h o r i t a t i v e s o u r c e At present  such Information  on t h e q u e s t i o n .  is- n o t a v a i l a b l e .  Some t i m e a g o t h e G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e made, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , both t o the M i n i s t e r o f Labour and t h e M i n i s t e r of Education,  f o r an o c c u p a t i o n a l survey  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , b u t t h e r e p l y r e c e i v e d was t h a t i t was n o t financially  p o s s i b l e a t t h e time t o conduct such a n enquiry.  65  An  e x t e n s i o n o f such a survey  c o u l d be made t o I n c l u d e a  study o f o c c u p a t i o n a l trends.  I f s u c h a n a n a l y s i s w e r e made  o f a l o n g term p e r i o d , I t m i g h t s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e t h e change t h a t h a d t a k e n p l a c e i n employment i n t h e I n d u s t r i e s a n d professions.  Although  the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the past  may n o t b e u s e d t o p o r t r a y t h e c h a n g e s t h a t may t a k e in  the future, nevertheless  as a general guide.  t  place  i t may b e i n d i c a t i v e a n d s e r v e  I t a p p e a r s t h a t u n t i l some s u c h a n a l y s i s  i s made t h e c o u n s e l l o r c a n g i v e o n l y I n a d e q u a t e a d v i c e . The  present  course'on Guidance s t a t e s t h a t a p o l i c y  o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n will  be f o l l o w e d .  T h i s means t h a t e a c h  s c h o o l w i l l f a s h i o n I t s own programme t o s u i t needs.  i t s own l o c a l  S u c h a p o l i c y i s t o be commended up t o a d e g r e e .  Each a r e a has i t s problems which a r e p e c u l i a r t o i t s e l f , b u t t h e r e comes a l i m i t  t o t h e extent, t o w h i c h t h i s p o l i c y o f  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , may b e p u r s u e d .  E a r example, next  year t h e  c i t y o f Vancouver w i l l have I S h i g h s c h o o l s each f o l l o w i n g a slightly  d i f f e r e n t guidance programme. :  T h i s w i l l mean t h a t  t h e r e w i l l b e 30 c o u n s e l l o r s , e a c h s e a r c h i n g f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l information.  E u r t h e m o r e j each s c h o o l w i l l be f a c e d w i t h t h e  problem, o f t r y i n g t o p l a c e i t s own s t u d e n t s .  I t Is evident  t h a t i n such, a d e c e n t r a l i z e d s y s t e m t h e r e w i l l b e much u n n e c e s s a r y o v e r l a p p i n g o f w o r k on. t h e p a r t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , and  owing t o t h e l a c k o f a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y t h e r e s u l t s i n  p l a c e m e n t may n o t b e s o e n c o u r a g i n g .  At. t h i s s t a g e  i t is  a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s . a d e c i d e d need f o r a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y  66  to organize  t h e w h o l e programme, n o t o n l y f o r t h e l a r g e r  c i t i e s ; but a l s o f o r t h e whole As a s u g g e s t i o n  province.  I n p u t t i n g such a p l a n i n t o  t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s may  operation,  q u i t e w e l l t a k e n o t e o f what  has been a c c o m p l i s h e d I n s u c h c o u n t r i e s as E n g l a n d , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d Few Z e a l a n d * the Department of E d u c a t i o n  The D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r a n d  co-operate i n the  undertaking.  The f o r m e r s u p p l i e s t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r organises co-operation  and o p e r a t e s  t h e scheme.  i t seems r e a s o n a b l e  With such  t o b e l i e v e t h a t young  a n d women a r e b e i n g g i v e n a much b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves I n t h e i r chosen v o c a t i o n s .  men  67  CHAPTER V I  • SUM'IARY  68  CHAPTER Y l SUMMARY  Chapter I gives t h e c h i e f reason f o r w r i t i n g t h i s thesis.  I t was t h e d e s i r e t o e x p a n d t h e o u t l i n e o n V o c a t i o n a l  G u i d a n c e a s s e t down i n t h e Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r t h e Senior High Schools. are undertaking  I t I s h o p e d t h a t , t h e c o u n s e l l o r s who  t h e course  f o r t h e . f i r s t t i m e may come t o  r e a l i z e t h e wide scope o f v o c a t i o n a l guidance and t o r e c o g n i z e c l e a r l y i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the great f i e l d of guidance. . Chapter I I I s concerned w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n and presentation of occupational information.  A method o f  a p p r o a c h i s f i r s t suggested,, t h e n a S u i t a b l e , o u t l i n e i s g i v e n for  the assembling  of data.  The p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s o f  vocational information are;- l i t e r a t u r e *  talks,  visual  education, v i s i t s t o I n d u s t r i e s , and t h e v o c a t i o n a l These v a r i o u s s o u r c e s disadvantages  being  study o f vocations  a r e d i s c u s s e d , t h e i r advantages and  discussed.  A t e n t a t i v e plan f o r the  i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s suggested.  A t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o t h e p a r t t h a t each s t u d e n t undertake f o r himself. n o t s o much f o r enthusiasm. province  conference.  should  Biographical studies are included,  t h e f a c t u a l knowledge, but r a t h e r t o c r e a t e  A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the occupations  i n the  off B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s . a p p e n d e d . C h a p t e r I I I d e a l s w i t h the. s t e p s an. i n d i v i d u a l  takes  69  when p r e p a r i n g H i m s e l f s t u d y h i m s e l f , and  f o r art. o c c u p a t i o n .  through  He  i s advised  to  c o u n s e l t o make h i s d e c i s i o n .  D i f f e r e n t ways o f s e c u r i n g a p o s i t i o n , a r e  suggested.  C h a p t e r I Y shows t h a t s e c u r i n g a p o s i t i o n i s o n l y , t h e - f i r s t , s t e p i n . employment - t h a t r i g h t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s }  work, employer, and  f e l l o w e m p l o y e e s must, b e  R e f e r e n c e i s a l s o made t o t h e p a r t t h a t t h e Board i s doing  developed. Apprenticeship  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s y s t e m i n  t h e - m t i o u s u t r a d e s . ' i © T h e need f o r a f o l l o w - u p  system i n  o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e w h o l e programme o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e is  emphasized. C h a p t e r T p o i n t s o u t some o f t h e f u t u r e n e e d s  v o c a t i o n a l guidance In the province  of B r i t i s h  t h e n e e d f o r more t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r s ; an survey*  a p o l i c y of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ;  D e p a r t m e n t s o f L a b o u r and a central  Education  Columbia•  occupational  the p a r t that can t a k e  In  the  establishing  bureau.  The  Appendix i n c l u d e s a c o l l e c t i o n of forms t h a t  be u s e f u l t o b o t h  c o u n s e l l o r and  students  i n the  British  a monograph, a c l a s s i f i e d l i s t  by  o l occupations  Columbia,and v a r i o u s forms f o r use  In  may  collection  of o c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n , examples of t a l k s g i v e n speakers,  of  of  self-analysis.  70  APPENDIX  71  APPENDIX  70GATION  BLANK  Name  Age  Date:  Month  Parent's How What  long  and  Year  Occupation do y o u  subjects  Put  day  intend  are  a cross  you  Grade Boy  Employed to  remain  taking?  before.the  at  or  Girl?  at  school? ' •'.  occupation  in  which  you  are  most  interested. Logger Janitor Teamster Deliveryman Truck Driver Waiter or Waitress Cook  Stonemason o r B r i c k l a y e r Watch r e p a i r e r Dressmaker Milliner Housewife Chef Florist  Shoemaker Barber Butcher Baker Grocer Hairdresser  Fisherman Forest ranger Farmer or rancher Dairyman Stock breeder Landscape artist Architect Sculptor  Sailor Soldier C o n d u c t o r o r Motor-man Fireman or Brakeman Railroad Engineer Chauffeur Policeman Detective Plasterer Tailor House p a i n t e r Plumber Carpenter  Boxer or Baseball Aviator Physical  wrestler player instructor  Electrician Wireless operator D r a f t sman Auto machinist " mechanic Photographer Surveyor .Aeroplane mechanic  78  YOCATIOH BLANK  Clerk Mail Carrier Ticket or express Salesman Saleswoman  Poet Play writer Historian  agent  Veterinary Dentist Surgeon Physician  Stenographer or t y p i s t Lino typist Private secretary Bookkeeper or accountant Nurse Telephone Operator Merchant Advertiser Building contractor Factory or business manager Banker  Navy O f f i c e r Army " Lawyer o r Judge Astronomer Mathematician Physicist Druggist Mineralogist Botanist Zoologist Bacteriologist College Professor  Magazine illustrator Artist (painter of pictures) Librarian S o c i a l worker Teacher  Explorer Priest Preacher Missionary Decorator Cartoonist  Reporter Editor Story w r i t e r Novelist  not  the  given  What High,  occupation  above,  education  does  University,  Adapted  write  i n which you it  this  are  most  interested  job  require:  is  here particular  Apprenticeship,  from various  doctor  C i v i l Engineer Mining " Mechanical " Electrical " Chemical » Diesel "  Music teacher Singer Musician Orchestra conductor Dancer Actor or actress Stage manager  If  (cont'd)  vocation  Special.  blanks.  Technical,  73  OUTLINE: 1.  -What a r e t h e your type of to it?  a c t u a l t a s k s w h i c h one h a s t o p e r f o r m work o r i n the o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h l e a d  2.  What q u a l i t i e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n your occupation?  3.  What  are  4.  What  forms  (a) (b)  the ways  the the  of  of  getting  training  forms forms  in  your  success  occupation?  necessary?  education? experience?  What a r e work?  6.  W h a t a r e t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s off r e w a r d s ? I n t e r e s t i n g work, a s s o c i a t i o n s , p u b l i c  7.  What i s t h e f u t u r e o u t l o o k o f y o u r o c c u p a t i o n ? Of occupations leading to i t ? What c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n i t n e e d t o he r e c k o n e d w i t h b y t h e w o r k e r s ? 1  PQR. T H E  the  started  for  5.  OUTLINE  some o f  of of  are  necessary  in up  STUDY OP.  disadvantages  connected with  Wages? service?  OCCUPATION::  1.  Importance: How d o e s t h i s o c c u p a t i o n the welfare o f society?  2.  H i s t o r i c a l Background: and changed?  3.  P r o c e s s o r work done: 1. What a r e t h e m a i n b r a n c h e s , d e p a r t m e n t s , t y p e s of work? 2. What t h i n g s a r e a c t u a l l y d o n e b y p e r s o n s this occupation? 3. Raw m a t e r i a l s a n d m a r k e t . 4. Marketing o f . f i n i s h e d product.  4.  How h a s  this  contribute  occupation  to  grown  or in  Economic Conditions: 1. O p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n i n g ; f o r advancement; initiative. 2. Remuneration. 3. Steadiness of work: Does i t f l u c t u a t e by season, week, day: Any p l a n f o r v a c a t i o n . 4. Hours. 5. H e a l t h and s a f e t y . Stuart  & Morgan,  your  Guidance  at  Work  for  74  » -j  5.  6. Size of t h i s industry or business, ( a ) Number engaged i n i t i n t h i s community. ( b ) C o m p a r i s o n o f i m p o r t a n c e h e r e and i n o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s , a s m e a s u r e d b y number engaged i n i t , v a l u e o r p r o d u c t , and c a p i t a l invested. ( c ) E s t i m a t e o f i t s f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t and demand f o r w o r k e r s , l o c a l and g e n e r a l . (d) O r g a n i z a t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e e s .  Preparation: 1. What e d u c a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e - Academic, Commercial, T e c h n i c a l , Special, etc. 2. What e x p e r i e n c e i s r e q u i r e d : What k i n d s o f w o r k l e a d up t o t h i s o c c u p a t i o n ? 3. To w h a t o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s m i g h t t h i s one l a n d ?  6.  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : What s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d for success? 1. Physical 2. Mental 3. Moral or character q u a l i t i e s .  7.  A d v a n t a g e s and D i s a d v a n t a g e s - b a s e d on t o t a l p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n , - e s p e c i a l l y economic c o n d i t i o n s .  8.  R e l a t i o n t o t h e Community: 1. What o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r o r r e l a t e d t o t h i s one? 2. Does t h i s o c c u p a t i o n h e l p t h e w o r k e r t o have a good l i f e a s a c i t i z e n and a man?  9.  L o c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n C i t y and B.C. - l i s t f i r m s , v o c a t i o n s , number o f e m p l o y e e s .  10.  References:  Books c o n s u l t e d ,  names o f  people interviewed, etc,  THE RADIO SERVICE MAN An "Abstract  Abstract  of L i t e r a t u r e .  What i s Done I n T h i s  Occupation.  S e v e r a l w r i t e r s are s u b s t a n t i a l l y agreed t h a t the d u t i e s o f t h e r a d i o s e r v i c e man c o n s i s t o f a s s e m b l i n g , i n s t a l l i n g , t e s t i n g , a d j u s t i n g , and r e p a i r i n g r a d i o r e c e i v i n g 0 u t l i n e as u s e d b y C i n c i n n a t i P u b l i c S c h o o l s , L a b o u r U.S. C h i l d r e n ' s B u r e a u . 1  Dept. o f  75  a p p a r a t u s . One w r i t e r a d d s t h a t t h e s e r v i c e man i n t h e e m p l o y o f a w h o l e s a l e d e a l e r may he r e q u i r e d a l s o t o i n s t r u c t o t h e r s e r v i c e men who w o r k f o r r e t a i l e r s o r c o n d u c t t h e i r own businesses. A c c o r d i n g t o f a i r l y d e p e n d a b l e e s t i m a t e s 76 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e r v i c e men i n b u s i n e s s i n 1925 had t h e i r own s h o p s , 12 p e r c e n t w o r k e d i n i n d e p e n d e n t s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s , 8 p e r c e n t f o r d e a l e r s , 5 p e r c e n t f o r d i s t r i b u t o r s , and o n l y 1 per cent f o r manufacturers. A b i l i t i e s E s s e n t i a l To  Success.  T h e r e a r e no r e p o r t s o f o b j e c t i v e s t u d i e s o f t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r a d i o s e r v i c e men. Opinions e x p r e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e t h a t he s h o u l d have good i n t e l l i g e n c e , n e a t a p p e a r a n c e , good h e a l t h , and p h y s i c a l e n d u r a n c e ; t h a t he s h o u l d be t a c t f u l and c o u r t e o u s ; t h a t he s h o u l d have s e l l i n g a b i l i t y and s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n t o w a r d e l e c t r i c i t y and m e c h a n i c s * A b i l i t y t o d r i v e an a u t o m o b i l e is usually a practical requisite. T r a i n i n g and  Training  Facilities.  Competence i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n r e q u i r e s a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f e v e r y component p a r t o f r a d i o r e c e i v e r s , a b a s i c k n o w l e d g e o f e l e c t r i c a l phenomena, a r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g t h e v a r i o u s c i r c u i t s , and a w o r k i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h b o t h p r i m a r y and s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e r v i c e man must be n o t o n l y a "mear e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r ' as one a u t h o r has p h r a s e d i t , b u t a l i v i n g compendium o f d e t a i l e d f a c t s a b o u t a m u l t i t u d e o f specific receiving sets. The t r a i n i n g w h i c h i s recommended f o r a c q u i r i n g t h e r e q u i s i t e k n o w l e d g e and a b i l i t y i s u s u a l l y a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , e i t h e r augmented by o r t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n e l e c t r i c i t y and r a d i o . Technical h i g h s c h o o l s i n some o f t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s o f f e r s i i c h t r a i n i n g . F r e e e v e n i n g c o u r s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n some p l a c e s . Proprietary s c h o o l s o f f e r b o t h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u r s e s h i g h l y d o u b t f u l , as t h e y o f f e r no o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l a b o r a t o r y p r a c t i c e * I n most c o m m u n i t i e s t h e l o c a l b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n w i l l have i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l s and c o u r s e s d e s i g n e d t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r the v o c a t i o n . The c l a i m s o f p r o p r i e t a r y s c h o o l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f i n d employment f o r t h e i r g r a d u a t e s s h o u l d be carefully investigated." E n t r a n c e and  Advancement.  S i n c e r a d i o s e r v i c e men i n b u s i n e s s f o r t h e m s e l v e s f a r o u t n u m b e r t h o s e e m p l o y e d b y m a n u f a c t u r e r s and d i s t r i b u t o r s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t many o f them s e t t h e m s e l v e s up i n b u s i n e s s  76  without having had previous experience. Success i n these c a s e s i s d e t e r m i n e d b y many f a c t o r s - t h e s e r v i c e m a n ' s t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y , h i s b u s i n e s s a c u m e n , s a l e s m a n s h i p , how w i d e l y he i s a c q u a i n t e d i n t h e community and others". Usually the business includes the r e t a i l i n g of radio receiving sets, as w e l l as o t h e r e l e c t r i c a l a p p a r a t u s , i n a d d i t i o n t o servicing. I n many c a s e s , t h e s e r v i c i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e b u s i n e s s a r e o v e r s h a d o w e d by. t h e m e r c h a n d i s i n g a s p e c t s . F o r t h e s e r v i c e man who e n t e r s t h e e m p l o y o f a m a n u f a c t u r e r o r d i s t r i b u t o r , t h e c o u r s e o f advancement runs from r o u t i n e i n s p e c t i o n and r e p a i r t o e i t h e r a s e l l i n g o r an executive p o s i t i o n . I t must be r e c o g n i z e d a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t p r o m o t i o n s t o s u c h p o s i t i o n s come o n l y t o t h o s e w i t h t h e r e q u i s i t e knowledge and a b i l i t i e s . Compensation. S a l a r i e s o f r a d i o s e r v i c e men w o r k i n g f o r o t h e r s a r e v a r i o u s l y e s t i m a t e d t o r a n g e b e t w e e n ' $ 1 5 a n d $30 a w e e k f o r t h e a v e r a g e e m p l o y e e a n d u p t o $50 o r $60 a w e e k f o r t h e highly paid worker. No f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e incomes o f i n d e p e n d e n t s e r v i c e men, b u t one w r i t e r d i v i d e s the t o t a l e s t i m a t e d annual expenditure f o r r a d i o s e r v i c e and a c c e s s o r i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y b y t h e e s t i m a t e d number o f s e r v i c e men, and c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e average n e t income i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $20 a w e e k . Number  and C e o g r a p h i c  Distribution.  The I n s t i t u t e o f R a d i o S e r v i c e Men e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e . 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 s e r v i c e men i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1933. No d a t a o n s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e , b u t t h e g e n e r a l i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l l y n o women i n t h e occupation. R a d i o r e c e i v i n g s e t s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more numerous i n u r b a n c e n t r e s t h a n I n s m a l l towns and r u r a l areas. F a r m d w e l l i n g s a r e s c a t t e r e d a n d i n most r u r a l s e c t i o n s , a number o f s e t s l a r g e enough t o p r o v i d e c o n t i n u o u s e m p l o y m e n t f o r a s i n g l e s e r v i c e man w o u l d b e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a n a r e a much t o o l a r g e f o r h i m t o c o v e r . Thus r a d i o s e r v i c i n g i n r u r a l a r e a s must u s u a l l y be s u p p l e m e n t e d b y other remunerative work. Probable  Future  Trend of  Employment.  I t was e s t i m a t e d r e c e n t l y t h a t o n l y s l i g h t l y more t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f A m e r i c a n homes a r e e q u i p p e d w i t h r a d i o receiving sets. T h i s l e a v e s a tremendous f i e l d f o r p o t e n t i a l expansion. Commercial p e r f e c t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n and continued improvement o f sound p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e expected t o a i d such expansion. This suggests increased opportunities -  1  77  f o r s e r v i c e men. I t i s a l s o c o n t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s e r v i c i n g f i e l d i s a l r e a d y over-crowded t o such an e x t e n t t h a t t h o s e now I n b u s i n e s s c a n t a k e c a r e o f g r e a t l y e x p a n d e d n e e d s f o r some t i m e . Advantages and Disadvantages. The a d v a n t a g e s a s c r i b e d t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n a r e t h a t i t i s n o t l a b o u r i o u s , i s c l e a n , t e c h n i c a l work o f a s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l nature,,' c o m b i n e s i n d o o r w i t h o u t d o o r w o r k , a n d o f f e r s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e c o n o m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e . With a s m a l l i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t , , t h e s e r v i c e man c a n e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f i n h i s own b u s i n e s s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e h o u r s o f a s e r v i c e man a r e i r r e g u l a r and o f t e n l o n g . He may b e r e q u i r e d t o make i n s p e c t i o n s a n d r e p a i r s a t a n y h o u r o f t h e day o r n i g h t , and m u s t b e r e a d y t o s e r v e h i s c u s t o m e r s i n a l l w e a t h e r and s e a s o n s . Further  Information,  R a d i o S e r v i c e Men o f A m e r i c a , 500 N. D e a r b o r n S t r e e t , C h i c a g o / i s a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g a membership r e p r e s e n t i n g r a d i o s e r v i c e men I n v i r t u a l l y a l l p a r t s . o f t h e country. ,  Occupations.  Dec. 1937, V o c a t i o n a l  Guidance Magazine.  78 Talk: g i v e n , b y P r o f e s s a r S e y e r , U.B.C., May Byng H i g h S c h o o l s t u d e n t s . , The  Chemical  -A chemical engineer o p e r a t i o n s o f any  matter  how  to Lord  Engineer  i s essential for successful  industrial activity.  chemistry are today  1937,  so g r e a t t h a t no  The  ramifications  industry exists,  of  no  s p e c i a l i z e d , w h i c h does n o t a t some p o i n t o r  o t h e r come i n c o n t a c t w i t h some t y p e o f c h e m i c a l As a b r a n c h  of e n g i n e e r i n g i t Is of course  process.  a l l i e d to other  branches of that p r o f e s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y m e t a l l u r g i c a l  and  mechanical. Chemical  e n g i n e e r i n g i s I t s e l f d i v i d e d i n t o many  b r a n c h e s whose names a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i n d u s t r y i n w h i c h the engineer f i n d s himself. and p a p e r , p e t r o l e u m ,  T h u s , i t may  refrigeration,, a i r conditioning,  p a i n t s , soap, a c i d s or a l k a l i s . will,  be cement, p u l p  The  f u n c t i o n s and  duties  of c o u r s e , v a r y w i t h each job and w i l l i n c l u d e such  t h i n g s as  t e s t i n g , c o n t r o l of o p e r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , or  c o n s t r u c t i o n and The  design.  k i n d o f g i r l o r boy w a n t e d i s one who  b o t h w i t h h i s h e a d and h a n d s . d a y s t o be a g r a d u a t e technical college.  can work;  I t i s of course necessary  o f some r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t y  The  entrance  i s u s u a l l y more d i f f i c u l t  to these l a t t e r  or  institutions  than t o the u n i v e r s i t i e s .  e n t e r t h e e n g i n e e r i n g c o u r s e a t t h e B.C.  these  institution,  Thus t o one  m u s t f i r s t h a v e what i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n , a n d I b e l i e v e f r o m now  on one must h a v e a s t a n d i n g o f 60  per  79  c e n t * and o v e r i n the s u b j e c t s , c h e m i s t r y , ' m a t h e m a t i c s physics.j  and  I t i s of course necessary f o r those d e s i r o u s o f  e n t e r i n g t h i s f i e l d o f o c c u p a t i o n t o he s t r o n g a n d h e a l t h y i n o r d e r t o w i t h s t a n d t h e s e v e r e t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d and  to  be. a b l e , t o c a r r y , o u t t h e v a r i o u s d u t i e s r e q u i r e d f r o m t i m e to  time.  F o r i n s t a n c e , a p e r s o n e n t e r i n g t h e p u l p and  paper  i n d u s t r y m u s t be p r e p a r e d t o w o r k a t some t i m e i n n e a r l y a l l the jobs connected w i t h "that i n d u s t r y . way  I t i s only i n t h i s  t h a t he c a n t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n d u s t r y , a n d ; : b e ; i n :  a. p o s i t i o n t o i m p r o v e a n y p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s .  I t goes w i t h o u t  s a y i n g t h a t t h o s e whose a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i r work, i s i n l i n e w i t h e f f i c i e n c y W i l l b e r e g a r d e d b y t h e company a s m o s t valuable. Advancement i n t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s i s dependent upon t h i n g s , a t t i t u d e towards w o r k , and l u c k . S u c h t h i n g s a s new; d e v e l o p m e n t s ,  two  By t h e l a t t e r I mean  death of your  immediate  s u p e r i o r , o r a n u n c l e a s a d i r e c t o r o f t h e company.  I n many  c a s e s some, o f o u r g r a d u a t e s h a t e , i n a s p a c e o f t e n y e a r s , r i s e n f r o m h u m b l e p o s i t i o n s t o become s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o r m a n a g e r s o f t h e i n d u s t r y , w i t h off c o u r s e t h e . a p p r o p r i a t e rewards. I t has b e e n shown by a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s off openings i n e n g i n e e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n s that the p r o b a b i l i t y  of  g e t t i n g an opening i n c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g i s g r e a t e s t of a l l . C h e m i s t r y has a s i t were a n open f r o n t i e r . expanding.  I t Is  always  The number o f c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r s e m p l o y e d i n B.C..  i s almost equal to t h a t of a l l other engineering p r o f e s s i o n s  80  combined.  At the present  t i m e a b o u t 15 c h e m i c a l  engineers  a r e employed, by t h e l o c a l o i l c o m p a n i e s ; an even g r e a t e r number a r e t o be f o u n d Trail.  i n the various.paper  Some h a v e f o u n d  fertilizer,  c o m p a n i e s and  employment i n t h e p a i n t , f o o d ,  f i s h , m e t a l l u r g i c a l , cement, l i m e , and  industries.  The  p r o f e s s i o n i s not  h o u r s may  working  brewing  s e a s o n a l n o r c a n i t be  s a i d t o be o v e r c r o w d e d . The  -  c o n d i t i o n s are not always i d e a l .  be l o n g and  Indefinite.  The  As a r u l e i n t h o s e  i n d u s t r i e s where t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n the hours n e v e r more t h a n e i g h t .  are  H o w e v e r , i n some I n d u s t r i e s when t h e  work c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y i n s u p e r v i s i n g o p e r a t i o n s the hours be t w e n t y - f o u r I n d u r a t i o n . usually lives  In. s u c h c a s e s  q u i t e c l o s e so a s t o be  a n y t h i n g goes wrong.  at  the  may  operator  on h a n d whenever  Whenever t h e r e i s any  danger i n  c o n n e c t i o n ' w i t h ' h e a l t h , f r e q u e n t and p r o l o n g e d h o l i d a y s a r e the  rule. The  today  wages p a i d a r e n o t h i g h on s t a r t i n g .  f r o m #120  to.#150 p e r m o n t h .  t h e a v e r a g e wage has. p r o b a b l y graduates  to." r e c e i v e |_00  |200  doubled.  t h e end o f f i v e  The  years;  amount a t the. end o f  I t w o u l d r a n g e a l l t h e way  s a y t o 'fl,,000 p e r m o n t h .  years  I h a v e known s e v e r a l  p e r month i n l e s s t h a n t h r e e  b u t t h e s e were e x c e p t i o n a l men. years v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y .  At  They r a n g e  ten  from  81 T a l k g i v e n , by M r s M. I . Bead-die, R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y , V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , on G f f i c e w o r f c . 'OUTLINE Off OCCUPATION Off S1EI1QGRAPHER - GENERAL 1.  Importance  of the  Occupation.  What t h e n e w s p a p e r i s t o t h e w o r l d i n g e n e r a l , t h e s t e n o g r a p h e r and  secretary i s to business.  the. c h a n n e l . t h r o u g h which g i v e n , and  ( o r he) i s  ideas are transmitted, i n s t r u c t i o n s  r e p o r t s submitted..  stenographer might  She  In p t h e r words, the  be d e s c r i b e d a l m o s t as  the.central  c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e E x e c u t i v e Department: a n d t h e f a c t o r y , , and a l s o . w i t h t h e o u t s i d e b u s i n e s s w o r l d . f u t u r e t r e n d s may  be,  No m a t t e r  what  t h e r e m u s t a l w a y s be someone I n t h e  p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t e n o g r a p h e r - s e c r e t a r y t o make t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n management a n d o p e r a t i o n a n d , t h e p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y . . To a g i r l  i t o f f e r s p r o m o t i o n I n t h e m a i n t o t h e most  i m p o r t a n t s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s , o c c a s i o n a l l y , but n o t as a general r u l e , to the executive p o s i t i o n s themselves. boy  i t o f f e r s u n l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s , because the  To  a  person  o c c u p y i n g s u c h a p o s i t i o n i s d i r e c t l y u n d e r t h e e y e s of. t h e Executives and,  i f w i l l i n g t o a v a i l h i m s e l f o f a l l he  and h e a r s , i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o l e a r n e v e r y d e t a i l o f  sees any  b u s i n e s S i o r o f any p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h o f t h e b u s i n e s s I n w h i c h he g.  Is  interested.,  D i v i s i o n s o f t h e Work. The g e n e r a l d i v i s i o n s o f t h i s w o r k a r e -  t y p i s t and  typist;  junior  j u n i o r stenographer and stenographer  -  82  and  the highest  5.  What k i n d o f B o y o r G i r l , i s Wanted -  t  secretary.  The k i n d o f p e r s o n  Qualifications;  •wanted i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n i s no  d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e w a n t e d f o r numerous o t h e r A girl  occupations.  o r hoy r e q u i r e s good common-sense,, t h e a b i l i t y t o  f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d c a r r y them out„ t o a n a l y s e  situations,  i m p r o v e m e t h o d s , a g o o d memory f o r d e t a i l , a n d , o f c o u r s e , the primary a b i l i t y  to take shorthand  notes  s p e e d i l y and  t r a n s c r i b e them on t h e t y p e w r i t e r a c c u r a t e l y .  An a b i l i t y t o  c o n v e r t d i c t a t i o n Of a l l k i n d s i n t o good b u s i n e s s E n g l i s h , c o r r e c t l y s p e l l e d and p u n c t u a t e d , Another e s s e n t i a l requirement congenially with other  i s an i n v a l u a b l e a s s e t .  i s the a b i l i t y  t o work  people.  The m e n t a l c a p a c i t y i s r e a l l y c o v e r e d by t h e f o r e going. !  P h y s i c a l l y ^ t h e o c c u p a t i o n does n o t r e q u i r e ; t h e b o d y  o f a n a t h l e t e , , b u t a v e r a g e good h e a l t h i s e s s e n t i a l , and a n e r v o u s s y s t e m •which i s a b l e t o work: u n d e r p r e s s u r e , y e t a t t h e same t i m e v e r y o f t e n a d a p t I t s e l f long periods of time.  to dull routine f o r  I n t h i s , as I n e v e r y o t h e r  occupation,  t h e e m p l o y e e who i s o f f ' w o r k t o o o f t e n w i t h minor, a i l m e n t s , , c a u s e s d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e work: I n t h e o f f i c e and,, a t t h e f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y , , w i l l be r e p l a c e d w i t h a n employee who regular i n attendance  i s more  t o duty.  A p p e a r a n c e - n a t u r a l l y , i n any o f f i c e c l e a n l i n e s s and n e a t n e s s  are e s s e n t i a l  q u i e t , m o d e s t d r e s s i s demanded.  r  position,  a n d i n most  offices  83  Education - A good.foundation a n d grammar,, s p e l l i n g , , and  i n English.composition,  arithmetic i s essential.  A. g o o d  g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and a b i l i t y t o o b s e r v e what i s g o i n g on. in  the world i s a s u f f i c i e n t  ship*  s t a r t on t h e r o a d t o s e c r e t a r y -  A g a i n , o f c o u r s e , t h e n e c e s s a r y s h o r t h a n d and  w r i t i n g * , p e r h a p s bookkeeping,,  i s required*  type-  Promotion  only  comes b y b e i n g a b l e t o c o n t i n u e e d u c a t i o n i n "the l i n e  of  business selected. 4.  The . S t a r t . The  or,  •  first  d u t i e s may  be p l a i n r o u t i n e o f f i c e  i n a s m a l l o f f i c e w h e r e o n l y one  a r e e m p l o y e d , and stenographer  has  o r two  work  stenographers  t h e y a r e i n t h e m a j o r i t y I n Vancouver,, t h e t o be a b l e t o do p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y t h i n g i n  the l i n e of o f f i c e work - f i l i n g ,  writing letters  without  d i c t a t i o n , and g e n e r a l l y a d a p t h e r s e l f t o t h e b u s i n e s s concerned'..  ,  T r a i n i n g ; - a c t u a l l y , b u s i n e s s does v e r y  little  t r a i n i n g of a rout ine nature.  General instructions  i s s u e d f o r any  the average stenographer  to  g i v e n work, but  a p p l y h e r own  i n t e l l i g e n c e and, l e a r n by e x p e r i e n c e  unnumerable minor d u t i e s , connected office*  the any  filing  e t c * , p r e f e r e n c e s o f f i r m s f o r some g e n e r a l  f o r m o f l e t t e r - w r i t i n g , , and c o n v e y e d t o t h e new office,  has  to p o s i t i o n i n almost  I n s t r u c t i o n i n the f i r m ' s method of  correspondence,  are  other minor d e t a i l s , are g e n e r a l l y  stenographer  o r by t h e g i r l who  by a. s e n i o r g i r l i n t h e  i s l e a v i n g the p o s i t i o n .  It is a  84  v e r y g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e i n Vancouver  t o h a v e t h e new s t e n o g r a p h e r  s t a r t work, a week o r s o b e f o r e h e r p r e d e c e s s o r l e a v e s , s o t h a t shes may be i n s t r u c t e d  i n the g e n e r a l d u t i e s of t h e p o s i t i o n .  A t t i t u d e t o w a r d s work. -  There  i s o n l y one r e a l  a t t i t u d e t o a n y w o r k , t h a t I s , t o g i v e t h e b e s t t h a t y o u have, t o i t a n d be y o u r own s e v e r e s t c r i t i c .  I t i s a t r i t e but true  s a y i n g t h a t t h e man who n e v e r does more t h a n h e i s p a i d f o r , n e v e r g e t s p a i d f o r more than, h e d o e s ,  Sometimes t h e r e w a r d  i s l o n g i n coming, b u t i t i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y t r u e , n e v e r t h e l e s s . 5.  O p p o r t u n i t1 es f o r Advancement* In a l l  :  s t e n o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s t h e fundamentals  remain  t h e same, b u t t h e p a r t i c u l a r b u s i n e s s i n w h i c h y o u a r e engaged m u s t o f f e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e c i a l i z e i n t h a t  line..  F o r i n s t a n c e , a .stenographer s t a r t i n g i n l e g a l work, I f she c a r e s f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l i n e of. b u s i n e s s , must: s p e c i a l i z e t o .some e x t e n t i n l e a r n i n g l e g a l t e r m s * f o r m s used.,, a n d s o f o r t h .  the d i f f e r e n t  G o u r t r e p o r t i n g i s a. v e r y  legal special-  i z e d f o r m of' s h o r t h a n d w r i t i n g * and. v e r y few e v e r a t t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y speed r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s work.  In every l i n e o f  business,, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l a r g e r o f f i c e s  t  the" s t e n o g r a p h e r  who I s a c c u r a t e a n d speedy» g i v i n g a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l s ; , i n t e l l i g e n t i n h e r work, g e n e r a l l y f i n d s h e r s e l f promoted b o t h I n p o s i t i o n , and s a l a r y as s e n i o r stenographers l e a v e t h e o f f i c e f o r any r e a s o n .  The p r o m o t i o n s  generally  depend  e n t i r e l y on t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h e r c a p a c i t y f o r h e r work.  85 6;  Supply  a n d Demand f o r W o r k e r s .  .As f a r a s b o y s a r e c o n c e r n e d ,  f  s u f f i c i e n t good male stenographers  there are not often  t o s u p p l y t h e demand.  T h i s was t r u e e v e n d u r i n g t h e r e c e n t f i n a n c i a l The  depression.  b o y s g e n e r a l l y do n o t s t a y i n t h e s t e n o g r a p h i c , p o s i t i o n s ,  b u t go f o r w a r d  t o some o t h e r w o r k i n t h e b u s i n e s s , a n d t h e r e  i s , t h e r e f o r e , a p r a c t i c a l l y c o n s t a n t movement a n d v a c a n c i e s offeated The  thereby. girl  stenographer  i s a different proposition,.  t h e r e i s . i n Vancouver.: e x c e p t  While  d u r i n g boom p e r i o d s , a g r e a t e r  s u p p l y t h a n demand, i t i s o f t e n f o u n d b y e m p l o y e r s when s e e k i n g i n t e l l i g e n t * e f f i c i e n t stenographers,, are not always very e a s i l y f i l l e d . is  always a.place  difficulty to 7.  I would say t h a t t h e r e  f o r the.good stenographer,  which the g i r l s  the positions  encounter  the main  being the opportunity  show what, t h e y c a n d o . Working C o n d i t i o n s . Generally speaking*  stenographers  a r e good.  working  conditionsf o r  The w o r k i n g 1  e i g h t p e r day and,: a s f a r a s g i r l s  hours seldom exceed  are concerned,  t h e Hours  o f Work; A c t ' a n d t h e H l n i m u m Wage A c t p r o v i d e g o o d p r o t e c t i o n in this  regard. Nervous breakdowns a r e n o t f r e q u e n t i n t h i s  occupation  compared, f o r i n s t a n c e * w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o c c u p a t i o n .  Social-  c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t a f f e c t e d i n a n y ?;ay b y t h e p o s i t i o n , except  t h a t t h i s occupation g e n e r a l l y b r i n g s t h e g i r l o r boy  86 into contact with leaders of the business i n many cases,, l e a d s The  to very nice s o c i a l  c o m m u n i t y and s o , contacts.  u s u a l v a c a t i o n i n o f f i c e s i s two weeks p e r y e a r ,  with a l l statutory holidays. 8.  Reward. S a l a r i e s f o ro f f i c e workers, female, are l a i d  i n t h e Minimum. 'Wage A c t .  down  I n V a n c o u v e r , on t h e a v e r a g e , t h e  s t e n o g r a p h e r s s a l a r y d o e s n o t go b e y o n d :|85- t o #100 p e r r  month.  I t i s when t h e s t e n o g r a p h e r goes f o r w a r d  s e c r e t a r i a l group t h a t t h e rewards a r e h i g h e r .  into the The good  s e c r e t a r y commands a s a l a r y o f f r o m p e r h a p s $125 t o |175 p e r m o n t h i n Vancouver and v i c i n i t y .  Bonuses, a n d p e n s i o n s  depend, o n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e g i r l o r b o y i s ' w o r k i n g f o r . They a r e n o t g e n e r a l e x c e p t i n t h e l a r g e r b u s i n e s s e s , a n d i n Government a n d C i v i c p o s i t i o n s . , The  income, i s r e g u l a r and.,  an o r g a n i z a t i o n of reasonable contacts with worthwhile  i f employment i s s e c u r e d i n .  size,; /there a r e u s u a l l y  i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  b r o a d e n o n e s s e l f by s u c h c o n t a c t s . f  To occupation  the g i r l  of a m b i t i o n , and i a t e l l i g e n c e , t h e  o f f e r s i n t e r e s t i n g a n d v a r i e d work, a n d c o n t a c t s ,  and t h e m o n e t a r y r e w a r d s g e n e r a l l y c o v e r living,  and good w o r k i n g conditions...  a t l e a s t a decent  87  Engineering - Professional ( T h i s o u t l i n e was u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r l e s s o n s given.'to .Grade I X s t u d e n t s , L o r d B y n g H i g h S c h o o l , A p r i l 1 9 3 7 ) 1.  H i s t o r l c a l Background* The p r a c t i c e o f e n g i n e e r i n g g o e s b a c k t o t h e t i m e o f  the  Egyptians.  Egyptians: The p e r i o d i c a l o v e r f l o w i n g off t h e M i l e made i t n e c e s s a r y t o e v o l v e some p l a n f o r t e l l i n g w h e r e the. o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d b e g a n a n d e n d e d . The s c i e n c e o f G e o m e t r y was developed. T h i s meant t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s u r v e y o r . Pyramid  b u i l d i n g : Bow t h e p y r a m i d s w e r e b u i l t . 5000 B.C.  K i n g Euffu h a d t h e G r e a t P y r a m i d b u i l t . I t covers I S a c r e s .j., c o n t a i n s 2 ^,500,.000 b l o c k s a v e r a g i n g 2-§. t o n s e a c h , some w e i g h i n g o v e r 50 t o n s . I t reached a h e i g h t o f 481 f t . One h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d men w o r k e d on. t h i s f o r 3Q y e a r s . . The m a t e r i a l was b r o u g h t f r o m t h e d e s e r t b y man power a n d p u t i n p l a c e t h r o u g h t h e use. o f t h e i n c l i n e d p l a n e . T h i s showed t h a t engineering had reached the stage of h a n d l i n g b i g jobs a n d . t h e G r e a t P y r a m i d s t a n d s a s a monument t o t h e E g y p t i a n .engineers. Romans: A b o u t 500 B.C. Rome b e g a n t o c o n q u e r the. s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y , and i n o r d e r t o h o l d h e r conquests she began t o b u i l d roads. The . ' f i r s t i m p o r t a n t r o a d was Y i a A p p i a . The. c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Roman r o a d was somewhat a s f o l l o w s : . The workmen removed a l l l o o s e s o i l down t o some f i r m s t r a t a o r n a t i v e r o c k , A l a y e r o f l a r g e s t o n e was p u t down t h e n one o f s m a l l e r r o c k . The t o p was f i n i s h e d w i t h l a r g e s l a b s s e t c l o s e l y . t o g e t h e r . ETothing was p e r m i t t e d t o o b s t r u c t t h e s e r o a d s , r i v e r s were b r i d g e d , marshes were spanned w i t h v i a d u c t s o f m a s o n r y . B e s t e x a m p l e off Roman r o a d s a r e f o u n d i n E n g l a n d w h i c h w e r e b u i l t i n 55 B..G. a n d a r e s t i l l u s e d , today. The Romans a l s o d e v e l o p e d t h e u s e o f m a s o n r y c o n d u i t s c a r r i e d across t h e country on t a l l , arched p i e r s . These a r e c a l l e d aqueducts. So t h e Roman e n g i n e e r s t a n d s o u t a s a. v e r y n e c e s s a r y p e r s o n i n t h e Roman E m p i r e .  88  Feudal  Times:  - ^During t h e p e r i o d o f f e u d a l i s m , t h e p r o f e s s i o n was m o s t l y t a k e n up w i t h , m i l i t a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n . S t r o n g f o r t i f i c a t i o n s were n e c e s s a r y and e n g i n e s o f war h a d t o he built. T u n n e l s h a d t o be c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t t h e e n g i n e e r was a l w a y s i n demand. One o f t h e b e s t e x a m p l e s o f c a s t l e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e Tower o f L o n d o n b u i l t i n t h e t i m e o f W i l l i a m . I . M i l i t a r y e n g i n e e r s o f t h i s t y p e became l e s s • i m p o r t a n t w i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f gunpowder. Age  of  Discovery:  T h i s age b r o u g h t i n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e C i v i l E n g i n e e r . As t h e g r e a t e x p a n s i o n t o o k p l a c e a l l f i e l d s o f e n g i n e e r i n g developed. More, t r a d e meant more b r i d g e s , , b e t t e r r o a d s , h a r b o u r s , , c a n a l s , s h i p s , dams* The s u r v e y o r was n e e d e d t o m e a s u r e t h e new t r a c t s o f land.. / Indus t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n : When t h e I n d u s t r i a l . R e v o l u t i o n b e g a n i n E n g l a n d i t meant t h a t t h e r e was a n I n c r e a s e d demand, f o r more p o w e r . F i r s t , watery, t h e n James Watt i n 1785 c o n s t r u c t e d an e n g i n e that would d r i v e machinery. T h i s meant t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f M e c h a n i c a l Engineering;! This I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n brought a b o u t t h e i n c r e a s e d u s e and m a n u f a c t u r e o f more m a c h i n e s . More m e t a l s were needed. T h i s l e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n m i n i n g which developed M i n i n g E n g i n e e r i n g . As r a i l w a y s were b u i l t more e n g i n e e r s were n e e d e d a n d E n g l a n d ' s c a n a l b u i l d i n g e m p l o y e d many c i v i l e n g i n e e r s . L a t e r t h e d e s i r e f o r , m o r e power b r o u g h t i n t h e s c i e n c e o f E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g . S e e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c schemes * Then as , s c i e n c e came f o r w a r d t o h e l p i n d u s t r y t h e c h e m i s t was i n demand and t h e n a n e n g i n e e r was n e e d e d who was t r a i n e d b o t h i n c h e m i s t r y and ' e n g i n e e r i n g , a n d so the-'Ghemlcal E n g i n e e r h a s become e s s e n t i a l . Today t h e p l a c e o f t h e . e n g i n e e r i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f m a n k i n d i s a v e r y I m p o r t a n t one b e c a u s e t h e e n g i n e e r d i r e c t s the n a t u r a l f o r c e s of n a t u r e to the uses of mankind* :  E. Some o f t h e O u t s t a n d i n g E n g i n e e r i n g A c c o m p l i s h m e n t s : (a) The h a r n e s s i n g o f t h e N i a g a r a , 1890. B.C. own h y d r o e l e c t r i c schemes, L a k e B u n t z e n , R u s k i n , B r i d g e R i v e r * . (h)  The darning o f t h e K i l e - A s s o u a n . Dam.  B o u l d e r Dam.  Coulee  (c)  The  (d)  F o r t h B r i d g e , San F r a n c i s c o B r i d g e , Sydney B r i d g e , Golden. Gate B r i d g e , P a t u l l o B r i d g e , F i r s t Narrows B r i d g e .  water supply of t h e C i t y . .  89  5.  (e)  Tunnels:, S e v e r n , New Gotthard.  (?)  'Panama C a n a l , Suez. C a n a l .  CgJ  Empire S t a t e B l d g . , Chrysler, B l d g v j Woolworth Radio C i t y .  P r o o e s s o f Work.Bone:  York,: H u d s o n , S l m p l e n , S t .  Bldg.,  The m a i n b r a n c h e s are,:  (a)  G i T i l Engineer: Duties: Makes, s u r v e y s and maps off l a n d and w a t e r ; p l a n s , c o n s t r u c t s , m a i n t a i n s r o a d s , r a i l r o a d s , canals,, t u n n e l s , bridges,, l i g h t h o u s e s , aqueducts,, h y d r a u l i c w o r k s , i r r i g a t i o n , s y s t e m s ; i m p r o v e s r i v e r s and h a r b o u r s * These are. h i s specialities. • •,  (is)  Mechanical Engineer: D u t i e s : Deals w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n , -and t r a n s m i s s i o n , o f power f r o m f u e l . , water, wind. I n v e n t s and d e s i g n s t o o l s , machines,, e n g i n e s , a n d t h e means o f t h e i r m a n u f a c t u r e ; has c h a r g e o f d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , e q u i p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f m a c h i n e shops.. .  (c)  M u n i c i p a l and S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r : Duties: Designs c o n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n off c i t y h i g h w a y s , p a r k s , w a t e r - w o r k s , s e w e r a g e s y s t e m , v e n t i l a t i o n o f subways • . and t u n n e l s .  (d)  E l e c t r i c a l Engineer: D e a l s w i t h d e s i g n , manufacture,. i n s t a l l a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e r y and. a p p l i a n c e s ; / g e n e r a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f power.  '(e)  Mining Engineer: l o c a t e s v a l u a b l e m i n e r a l l a n d s ; .. e x p l o r e s and t e s t s t h e - d e p o s i t s ; a d a p t s i n e a c h e a s e t h e p r o p e r m e t h o d s o f mining5, i n s t a l l s a l l m a c h i n e r y , a p p l i a n c e s a n d power p l a n s , and d i r e c t s t h e d r i l l i n g , b l a s t i n g , b r e a k i n g , h a u l i n g and h o i s t i n g ^ , d r a i n a g e , support of r o c k s i e t c * ' , •  (f)  M e t a l l u r g i c a l Engineer: T e s t s and s a m p l e s o r e s ; s e l e c t s t h e b e s t m e t h o d o f . e x t r a c t i n g t h e m e t a l , from, the ore; improves smelting'machinery, etc  (g)  I n - d u s t r i - a l C h e m l s t z Works o u t and i m p r o v e s t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s w h i c h depend w h o l l y o r p a r t l y upon, c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n s .  (h) ..  A r c h i t e c t u r a l Engineer: Understands the t r a d e s I n v o l v e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , e q u i p p i n g and d e c o r a t i n g buildings.  90  1.  C l a s s i f 1e a t i o n : (According, to the A s s o c i a t i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers o f B r i t i s h Columbia) C h i e f engineer,., a s s i s t a n t e n g i n e e r , e n g i n e e r , s e n i o r a s s i s t a n t engineer,, a s s i s t a n t engineer,, j u n i o r a s s i s t a n t engineer, j u n i o r , senior a i d , j u n i o r a i d . The d u t i e s o f t h e a b o v e a r e f o u n d i n t h e T e a r B o o k " p u t o u t by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . • »  5. *  Economic  Conditions:  (a)  R e m u n e r a t i o n : P a y s g o o d money w o r k i n g . (.See t h e Y e a r .Book o f the: A s s o c i a t i o n , o f P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s ) .  (b)  Steadiness  Co).  The: h o u r s v a r y . . I n . some c a s e s r e g u l a r , . I n a c c o r d i n g t o the t a s k i n hand.  (d)  H e a l t h and s a f e t y : i n most c a s e s .  (e)  S i z e of P r o f e s s i o n :  6.  of work:  Preparation:  'She work, i s l i a b l e t o f l u c t u a t e .  In. g e n e r a l , a h e a l t h y  Necessary  P r o f e s s i o n a l i n B.C.  others  j o b and about  safe 800.  Education:  (a)  J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a n e n g i n e e r i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  (b)  J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a n a p p r e n t l c e s h l p p e r i o d ; p r a c t i c a l work i n shop, o f f i c e or f i e l d . W r i t e p r e l i m i n a r y e x a m i n a t i o n a n d become an e n g i n e e r i n g pupil. W r i t e i n t e r m e d i a t e e x a m i n a t i o n and become a n engineer-in-training, l a t e r w r i t e a t h e s i s and f i n a l examination which w i l l give a l i c e n s e to p r a c t i s e engineering,  7...  degree  Qualifications:  (a)  Physical:  (b)  Mental: M u s t h a v e s u p e r i o r I n t e l l i g e n c e . Good i n mathematics,, p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y ,  (c)  M o r a l or c h a r a c t e r q u a l i t i e s : Must h a v e the a b i l i t y to o v e r c o m e o d d s , s t r o n g a n d be a man o f a c t i o n , a c c u r a c y , h o n e s t y , c u r i o u s , c o n t r i v i n g , e x c e l l e n t judgment.  8.  Good h e a l t h and  endurance.',  B  A d v a n t a g e s and The  disadvantages  t o be worked, o u t by t h e  Y e a r Book o f t h e E n g i n e e r i n g  Profession i n  class. B.G.  91  L i s t of Occupations B Accountant Babbitter Actuary Badgemaker Auditor Baggage a g e n t Public Bag maker Accountant Bailiff Cost Baker Tax Banker Advert i s i n g Barber Copywriter 'Barrister , Counsellor B a s k e t maker Manager, e t c . ..Bath-house Air/Conditioning . keeper Air .Transportation Batteryman ' Aircraft: Beauty p a r l o r Production assistant Ambulance S e r v i c e Bed & Bedding Appraisers Manufacturer Architect Bee-keeper A r m i t u r e Winder B e l t i n g maker A r t i f i c l a l L i m b M a k eerr B i c y c l e •&. r e p a i r Artist worker .,, B i l l i a r d i s t Assayer B i s c u i t maker Attendant Blacksmith Auctioneer B l u e p r i n t maker Automobile Boarding-house Manager Mechanic keeper Salesman. Boat b u i l d e r Blacksmith B o i l e r maker Bond salesman Bodybuilder Bookbinder Gleaner B ookkeeper Electrician " B ook salesman Financier B o ot salesman G a r a g e owner B o ttler Painter Boxmaker Parts Brewer Renter Bricklajrer Repairer Brlckmaker . S e r v i c e man Bridge builder • S p r i n g maker Broadcasting Tire repairer announcer T i r e salesman engineer Top w o r k e r Broker Upholsterer stocks 'Wrecker bonds Aviator Bronze worker Awning Maker Broom maker B r u s h maker  B u i l d i n g Manager Builder Bulb-grower Bus d r i v e r Butcher Buttbnmaker G C a b i n e t maker Gableman Gable s p l i c e r Calculating-machine operator mechanic Gandy m a k e r Ganner Can maker Gap m a n u f a c t u r e r Carpenter C a r p et G l e a n e r Carpet l a y e r Carpet salesman Cartage worker C a s k e t maker Caterer Cement w o r k e r Cemetery worker C h a i n maker C h a i r maker Chemical worker Chemical manufacturer Chemist analytical research. Chewing-gum. manufacturer Chimney sweep Ghinaware merchant Chiropodist Chiropractor C h r i s t i a n Science Practitioner C i g a r maker Gleaner Glerk Glockmaker Clothier C o a l merchant  92 List  o f Ooau.patloH.-s ( c o n t ' d )  Coal miiier C o l l e c t i o n agent Commission, merchant, Concrete mixer Confectioner Conductor Constable Construction Engineer Consul ' Contractor Brick Building Cement Excavation Electrical General Bleating House Y/recking PavingRailway Cooper Coppersmith Cordage worker Cork:; m a k e r Cosmetician Cot t o n m a n u i a c t u r e r ' C r e d i t man Gus toms B r o k e r  Doctor Draftsman Dredge w o r k e r Dressmaker Driller Druggist - Drugless healer Dyer  Elsherman E l s h Gurer Floor layer Elorlst Elour (Miller) -Foot s p e c i a l i s t Eor e s t e r Foundry worker French p o l i s h e r F r u i t merchant Fuel dealer Eumigator Funeral Director Furnace worker F u r n i t u r e maker Furrier  E Educator Teacher a l l kinds Electrician E l e c t r i c a l ... Contractor Engineer G Serviceman. Treatment Gardener attendant Gasoline engineer Elevator operator Gasoline station . Elocutionist attendant Embroiderer Glazier Employment a g e n t G l o v e maker Engineer Gold buyer Chemical Golf professional Civil Grain elevator employee Consulting Grinder Electrical Grocer Inspecting Marine . H Mechanical Haberdasher Mining-; P l a c e r M i n i n g H a i r d r e s s e r Ham e u r e r Engraver Envelope manufact r , E x p l o s i v e maker .•Hardware m e r c h a n t E x p r e s s agent Hat c l e a n e r Exterminator H e a t i n g employee Hemstiteher E Herbalist E'armer Hides buyer Peed merchant H o s p i t a l employee Financier H o t e l manager Eireman H o t e l employee Department House w r e c k e r Locomotive House mover Stationary Steamship ;  ' Dairyman Dancer Decorator, I n t e r i o r D e l i c a t e s s e n 'worker Deliyeryman Dental l a b o r a t o r y a'sst t Dentist. D e n t a l mechanic Department s t o r e worker Detective Die-maker D i e s e l engineer Dietitian,. Directory Publisher Dis i n f e c t o r Distiller Distributor Diver Dock w o r k e r D  T  1  93  ' Iceman I c e cream manuffacturer Immigration -officer Importer ; Income t a x specialist Ink Manufacturer " Insecticide " Instrument maker Insurance agent Investment d e a l e r I r o n worker 1  J Jam m a k e r Janitor J/eweler: Junk dealer /Journal t s t Judge,  Meat worker 'Meat, p a c k e r M e r e a n t i l e agent Messenger Meteorologist Milkman. Milliner Mimeographing specialist. Miner Minister Missionary . Motion picture worker Motorcycle dealer Mb-torman ; Mover Mult,I g r a p h e r Musician K News a g e n t Notary Public Nurse  K ' Knitter  .Nurseryman  1 lapeler labourer'; Lamp S i l a m p s h a d e .maker Laundry worker Lawyer Leather worker Librarian Lithographer Lineman; Llnotyplst. Locksmith Locomotive engineer fireman Lumberman. logging : mill  0 O f f i c e equipment salesman O i l worker Operator; Optician Optometrist Organist ..Organizer Osteopathic P h y s i c i a n .. G x y - a c e t y l e n e w e l d e r ' P Packer ' Painter P a p e r &. p a p e r m i l l worker Paperhanger Patent attorney P a t t e r n maker Pawnbroker • Photographer Physical director Physician Physio-therapist Piano tuner  M  Machinist Magazine agent Manuf ac t o r e r s a g e n t Mason . . . Masseur f  ;  Pickler Pile driver Pilot Pip e manufacturer Plasterer, Plumber Policeman Porter Poultry raiser Priest Printer P u b l i c i t y agent Publisher Purser Quarryman R Radio announcer Radio operator R a d i o r e p a i r man Radio engineer Realtor Refrigeration worker R e l i g i o u s worker Research worker Restaurant proprietor Restaurant worker Riding instructor Roofer Rooming-house keeper Ropeman Rugmaker "S Safe expert S a i l maker Sales person . S a n d •&. G r a v e l worker Saw f i l e r Sawyer Sawdust d e a l e r Scientist, Sculptor Second-hand dealer Seed grower  94  Secretary Service- s t a t i o n attendant Seising machine Go. employee Sheet- m e t a l worker Shingler S h i n g l e mamxfacturer S h i n g l e worker -Ship c h a n d l e r Shipp i n g merchant Shipwright Shirtmaker Shoemaker Show c a r d w r i t e r Sign painter S i l k manufacturer S k i manufacturer Smelter Soap m a n u f a c t u r e r S o c i a l worker S o f t d r i n k manufact'r S o c i a l worker Solicitor Soldier Stage d r i v e r Stationer Steamboat i n s p e c t o r S t e e l worker Steeplejack Stenographer Stevedore Stock broker Stoker Stone c u t t e r S t o r a g e employee Surveyor 1  Tailor Tanner Taxi driver Taxidermist. Tea. b l e n d e r Tea t a s t e r Telegraphist Telephone employee Tent maker Theatre worker  T i l e worker Timber c r u i s e r Tinsmith Tobacco m a n u f a c t u r e r TofJlng employee T o u r i s t agent T r a n s f e r worker T r a n s p o r t a t i o n employee Air Motor Railway Shipping T r a v e l bureau agent Truck d r i v e r Type s e t t e r TypistTypewriter Repairer Salesman. U  Umbrella manufacturer Undertaker Upholsterer Usher V  Valuator V e n e t i a n B l i n d maker Veterinary • Yulcanizer W Waiter Warden Watchmaker Wat erp r o o f er Weighers Welders Window c l e a n e r Window d r e s s e r H i r e worker Wood "dealer Wood t u r n e r Wood worker .X-ray s p e c i a l i s t  Prepared from Vancouver Telephone Book - C l a s s i f i e d Advertisements.  95  Personality Rating Scale The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s c a l e i s t o h a v e t h e s t u d e n t r a t e h i m s e l f on e a c h o f t h e t e n i t e m s , • ' - s c o r i n g e a c h one o u t o f a t o t a l o f 10 p o i n t s . . Once t h e s c o r e h a s b e e n made i t s h o u l d not be a l t e r e d , 1.  Trustworthiness.;  Do y o u keep y o u r p r o m i s e s ? Can y o u b e ' t r u s t e d ? ' .  2.  Self-control:  Do y o u c o n t r o l y o u r temper'?  5. _.'  Loyalty:. Obedience:  5.  Sportsmanship:  6.  Self-reliance:  7.  Courtesy:  8.  9.  10.  Health:  tongue and .  .1.0 10  A r e y o u l o y a l t o y o u r home, s c h o o l a n d community? '  10  Do y o u obey y o u r p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and e l d e r s ?  10  Can you w i n w i t h o u t b r a g g i n g a n d l o s e without o f f e r i n g excuses?  10  Do you. t h i n k f o r y o u r s e l f ? A r e you a f r a i d o f being, l a u g h e d a t ? Do y o u do what y o u t h i n k i s • r i g h t ? 10 A r e y o u c o n s i d e r a t e o f ' others'? . Axe y o u . p o l i t e ? Do y o u h e l p people I n t r o u b l e ?  10  Do. y o u g e t t h e r e q u i r e d h o u r s o f s l e e p ? Do y o u e a t t h e r i g h t foods? po y o u e x e r c i s e i n t h e open a i r ? .  1.0  Team-work::  Do y o u g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ? Can. y o u f o l l o w a s w e l l a s l e a d ? Do y o u c o - o p e r a t e f o r t h e good O f the group? 10  D ep endab i l . l t y;  Can. p e o p l e c o u n t on. you? , A r e y o u ; prompt i n m e e t i n g your o b l i g a t i o n s ? . . Are you r e l i a b l e ? 10 Total  Note:  100  The s c o r e o f a s t u d e n t a t i n t e r v a l s o f s i x o r t w e l v e months may p r o v e - h i g h l y I n t e r e s t i n g ; P r o p o s e d Handbook, f o r C o u n s e l l o r s .  96 S E L F - ANALYSIS H e a l t h Test. No I . 1. 2. 3> 4* 5. 6, *  Am. I i n good h e a l t h ? What i s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f my t e e t h ? What i s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f my e y e s ? • Do I g e t s u f f i c i e n t e x e r c i s e ? . . Recreation..... Sleep.... How much o f e a c h o f t h e above do I need? What knowledge.'of h y g i e n e ' w o u l d b e u s e f u l t o me? H e a l t h Test: No - 2 .  E x c e l l e n t h e a l t h and vitality 1;  2•  Average h e a l t h and vitality  '  1.  Poor h e a l t h and vitality 1-  2•  2*  .  U n d e r ..each h e a d i n g I n a b l a n k , l i k e t h e above,, l i s t t h e names o f two p e r s o n s who h a v e t h e q u a l i t i e s i n d i c a t e d . I n t h e column, where you. w o u l d . p l a c e y o u r s e l f w r i t e y o u r name. I n t e r e s t Test Great i n t e r e s t in. h i s occupation. , 3~ #  Moderate enjoyment of h i s occupation.  F i n d s h i s work unpleasant.  3_ *-  2•  Lo  2*  2•  I n a b l a n k , l i k e t h e above* f i l l I n t h e name o f some p e r s o n y o u know who w o u l d f i t u n d e r ; e a c h h e a d i n g . W r i t e i n y o u r own name where you t h i n k , i t b e l o n g s . Energy and I n d u s t r y T e s t Very energetic and industrious -L •  2»  F a i r l y energetic and industrious 1 •  2*  Listless in. . work 1..«.  2  9-  I n a b l a n k l i k e t h e above f i l l i n the-name o f two p e r s o n s u n d e r e a c h h e a d i n g . Where w o u l d y o u l i s t y o u r s e l f ? W r i t e i n y o u r name. .  97  Test of Social-Relations Fine Social-relations ability I-. 2 «  Ability  Average s o c i a l relations ability  1...  ' -  1.  2 ,  2 .  C l a s s i f y two p e r s o n s above h e a d i n g s . W r i t e i n using separate blanks f o r s u c h a s home l i f e , , s c h o o l ,  whom, you know u n d e r each o f t h e y o u r own name where i t b e l o n g s , the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , l i f e , , work.  A General Intelligence High-grade I n t e l l i g e n c e  T e s t Blank:  Average i n t e l l i g e n c e .  1.  1*  3  2 •  ..  low-grade intelligence  1* 2  Test, o f S p e c i a l Extremely marked special ability  Poor s o c i a l relations ability  •  Ability  Marked s p e c i a l ability  A b i l i t y below the a v e r a g e i n some l i n e .  1- •  JL »  3—».  2«  2 •  2  *.  S e e i f y o u c a n t h i n k , o f two. p e r s o n s you. know who w o u l d f i t .under h e a d i n g s . " l i k e t h e a b o v e . Where w o u l d you p l a c e < yourself? W r i t e I n y o u r name. (  Physical Health  E n e r g y and. industry  Social-relations. Mental and a b i l i t y Ability  SelfControl  Special Ability  Excellen Good Pair Poor. How  we c a n d i a g r a m o u r a b i l i t i e s .  L y o n * L.S., M a k i n g a l i v i n g ,  The M a c r n i l l a n  Co., 1.956.  98  CD to i> cd  oU  43 CD  a  cd  erf  CD 50  r-l  Cd  (4  >H tQ  A  CD  'r-i  5  Ctf  - P CD CO O Pt tQ .oct P*H o erf  43  P!  ©  O cd H M CD CD  pq  S CD  C D t>D O  CQ  H  H cd  o >s to  CD  to cd  At  a  ccS  Pi  Pi CD CD  p| 14 CD 4-3 to ca  5 CD  to erf. U  CD CD  pq l>to  'H PJ •H  I  *P cd  m  CO to •r-f'  -P a5  S4 >5  Pi CD  44 o cd CD  > > -p  to <H <P cd  !4  W *-  nd Pi  CD <H  ti CD Pi  tn  43  <M Cd O  co  to  4-S - H  Pi  S P I S4 -H •H. 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IS 44CQ r-i rH bD-P d o r 4 t l d 44 CD CD p q ip •H bD-P <i4 r-i d 'd o © O 43 © 44 <5H -P cd  '3 o o 43  M i bo d •H •p CO ©  s4  44  •H -p cd (4  cd ©  a  p  >>  bD Pi •H +3 cd Pi Pi © •H Pi <M  J»  Pi Pi  bD d 'H -p  cd—* Pi M Pi rd 'H © Pi -d •H © 43 Pi  o o  o  ©  Pi  u &  § 83  >H Pi pi Jp •H cd •rH cd  a°  !4  a o -p © s> ra 'H Pi CQ 44 © 'r-l 44 44 6-1 -P 1  Pi o •p o o PI PH  109 HEfGHlS GRAPHIC R A I I H G SCALE For H a b i t s , A t t i t u d e s Name .  Minimum R a t i n g  Works s p o r a d i c a l l y . Seldom: c o m p l e t e s . Usee t i m e i n j u d i c iously.  Expresses Ideas Inaccurately. Does i n e x a c t work. Thinks indiscriminately.  Succumbs t o d i f f i c u l t i e s . Shows l i t t l e c u r i o s i t y > . ' Seldom s t a r t s a n y t h i n g new.  and T r a i t s .Date  Average Industry  Accuracy  Initiative  ...  «  «  *  *  »  Maximum Ra t i n g -  Works- r e g u l a r l y a n d on time. H a b i t u a l l y c omp1 e t es work. Makes j u d i c i o u s u s e of time.  Expresses ideas accurately A c c o m p l i s h e s e x a c t work. E v a l u a t e s hew i d e a s .  Overcomes d i f f i c u l t i es Shows I n t e l l e c t u a l curiosity. I n i t i a t e s undertakings,  L  N e g l e c t s promises and ; obligations. Does n o t a d m i t e r r o r When w r o n g . I s ^ i n d e p e n d a b l e i n work. and deed.  Reliability  F u l f i l l s p r o m i s e s j, obligations. A d m i t s e r r o r when shown wrong, .. , I s honest i n work and deed.  110  Minimum. R a t i n g  Average  Maximum R a t i n g  Co-operation  A v o i d s worthy group activities. -Seems u n h a p p y i n t e a m work. Does n o t s u b o r d i n a t e ^ self.  P a r t i c i p a t e s i n worthy group a c t i v i t i e s . . Seems h a p p y i n team work. Subordinates s e l f t o t h e group.. J  P a i l s to secure support P r e f e r s p l a n s made b y others. Lessens enthusiasm of the group.  Leadership Wins s u p p o r t f o r h i s c a n s e. P l a n s f o r and d i r e c t s others. Arouses enthusiasm i n the group. J  Avo i d s V i g o r o u s activities. Exhibits l i t t l e e n d u r a n c e. Possesses p h y s i c a l l y weak p e r s o n a l i t y .  Physical  Vitality Active i n vigorous activities. E x h i b i t s endurance i n continued e f f o r t . Possesses f o r c e f u l personality.  I n s t r u c t i o n s : Keeping: t h e d e f i n i t i o n , o f t h e t r a i t ' i n mind, r a t e t h e s t u d e n t b e t w e e n 'Tflnlmum." a n d M a x i m u m " b y p l a c i n g a check: ( ) a p p r o p r i a t e l y on t h e l i n e . Try to locate the student a c c o r d i n g t o h i s s t a n d i n g , r e l a t i v e t o t h e average f o r h i s a g e . The c h e c k may be p l a c e d a n y w h e r e on t h e l i n e ; Person Rating  • c • »  School  H u g h e s T r a i t R a t i n g S c a l e used, i n C i t y S c h o o l S y s t e m o f P a s a d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a ^ a s g i v e n , i n E o o s &. K e f a u v e r , G u i d a n c e i n Secondary S c h o o l s .  Ill  CAUSES QE SUCCESS IN. WORKING L I E E P l a c e a n x i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e column, a f t e r e v e r y i t e m w h i c h a n o H e s t o t h e w o r k e r a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r vocation...' Make ra d o u b l e " x x a f t e r a n y i t e m i m p o r t a n t enough t o be a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e success o r f a i l u r e ' of t h e worker. Gross out any i t e m s w h i c h do n o t a p p l y t o t h e v o c a t i o n u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . v o c a t i o n of  Rating Low  1.  C a u s e s r e l a t e d t o a c t u a l s k i l l a t work. Has t h e r i g h t s p e e d o f work: ....... I s s k i l f u l , w i t h t o o l s and machines (c H a n d l e s goods a n d m a t e r i a l s w e l l . . . (d I s c a r e f u l n o t t o make m i s t a k e s o r ,  Med- H i g h ium'  Ca Co  SjpQX__  W03^I^1 o *• «  * * • * • * * .* • * • • » • • *  *• • •'«  (e} C a r r i e s p u t p l a n s w e l l ............ [. C a u s e s r e l a t e d t o t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e ses o L a - U—n d e r s t•a n d s p r o c e s ' —f t h e v o c a t i o n Knows how t o r e a d b l u e p r i n t s .......... Cb U n d e r s t a n d s t e c h n i c a l terms, a n d n e c e s s r y Co documents, such as b u s i n e s s p a p e r s . (d Knows t h e n e e d e d s c i e n c e a n d mathematics s Knows m a t e r i a l s ., s t o c k a n d goods w e l l (e Knows w o r k i n g r u l e s ................. (f 3.- C a u s e s r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ! (a I s w e l l a d a p t e d p h y s i c a l l y t o t h e work, Is w e l l adapted m e n t a l l y f o r t h i s type (b s  Cc  id (e  I s prompt and r e g u l a r a t h i s . w o r k i . . I s i n d u s t r i o u s a n d p e r s e v e r i n g ...... •+ Is f r e e of h a b i t s t h a t might i n t e r f e r e w w oleic. o • • * • * • « • « . « - - * . . * < * « i t Has i n i t i a t i v e a n d . r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , ; i s a b l e t o a d a p t himself........".'. I s i n t e r e s t e d i n m a k i n g a''success o f f  +• it-  t£ (g  h l S  .WOrk . . . i : . . >  i i .. i . . : w  ...........  I s l o y a l , t o t h e f i r m a n d t h e j o b . , i... (h I s t r u s t w o r t h y a n d h o n e s t ..... *-.. .* .• (I Has o r d e r a n d s y s t e m I n h i s w o r k . . . . . . C.J C a u s e s r e l a t e d t o human r e l a t i o n s (a I s w e l l p o i s e d a n d good n a t u r e d . . . . . . . Has good r e l a t i o n s w i t h , c u s t o m e r s , etc,| (b Ha s g o o d / r e l a t I o n s with, f e l l o w workers (c I s s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h o s e whom he d i r e c t ! Cd I s . c o - o p e r a t i v e t o w a r d those-?/ho d i r e c t ] (e h i m ............ J.M. B r e w e r ,  Occupations,,. G i n n & Co., New Y o r k , 1.930.  112  A.Score  Card f o r t h e Occupation and Y o u r s e l f  (•A) C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Needs o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n w i t h your a b i l i t y ) Name ......  .....  .  ....  Date-  Q u a l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n off ... ...............; ......... a n d t h e q u a l i t i e s  I c a n develop I n  the o c c u p a t i o n . Direction: T h i s e x e r c i s e i s p l a n n e d t o a i d you int h i n k i n g a b o u t y o u r f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n . The f i r s t column, r e l a t e s t o t h e q u a l i t i e s demanded b y t h e v o c a t i o n ; t h e ' s e c o n d , t o t h e q u a l i t i e s y o u c a n d e v e l o p iff y o u c h o o s e t o e n t e r t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . A t t h e bottom, a r e s p a c e s f o r a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . Mark, a n x I n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o l u m n ; 6.-0,, v e r y l i t t l e ; 70,, n o t v e r y much; 80,,. a v e r a g e amount; SO, a b o v e a v e r a g e ; 10-0,.' v e r y g r e a t amount.  No  c a t Ion.Needs  60 70 80 90 100 1. - A b i l i t y 2. A b i l i t y 5. A b i l i t y 1, A b i l i t y 5. A b i l i t y 6? *  iiG-C'li— Q,0 y l  to attend to details! t o co-operate; tact to follow directions t o l e a d other people t o u s e good E n g l i s h *  *-*.*-»•••••  •  7. Adap t ah H i t y t o c h a n g e 8. C h e e r f u l n e s s . . »;.......... 9. Common s e n s e ; good, judgment 10 •  G-OX13? 21 ^ ©  11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 15. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  E a r n e s t n e s s ................ C o u r t e s y ............ ..... I d e a l s o f good c i t i z e n s h i p I d e a l s o f h o n e s t y ....... i..... Ideals of service I m a g i n a t i o n ^ f o r e s i g h t . .... i n i t i a t i v e , resourcefulness L i k i n g f o r work i n o r out . L i k i n g f o r sameness ........ Liking f o r variety Mental a b i l i t y and c a p a c i t y O r d e r l i n e s s , system, neatness; P e r s e v e r a n c e ; i n d u s t r y ....  • * • • ••-«-•-•  »  •  «. *.  I .Can D e v e l o p 6..0 70 BO 90 l o q  115 A S c o r e Card f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n and Y o u r s e l f  V o c a t :ton Heeds  (cont'd)  I Can l e v e lLop  60 70 80 90 100 6>0 70 80 90. 1.0C 24. P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h 2 5 . P r o m p t n e s s ; p u n c t u a l i t y .... 26. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t r u s t 27. 28. S e n s e off humour ............ 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 56.  J . M . B r e w e r O c c u p a t i o n s , G-inn. & C o . j New Y o r k , 1 9 3 0 . page 449. .  Hi  BIBLIOGRAPHY  115  SIALOGRAPHY" Allen,  ;  P.J P r i n c i p l e s & Problems o f Y o o a t i o n a l Guidance M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Go., 1 9 2 7 . ~ [ " ~ — ' 4  A l l e n , R.D. The I n o r Group S e r i e s : Y o l . L I C a s e - C o n f e r e n c e P r o b l e m s i n Group G u i d a n c e . Y o l . T Y . O r g a n i z a t i o n , S u p e r v i s i o n o f Guidance i n P u b l i c Education. Inor P u b l i s h i n g Company, New Y o r k . 1954. , B r e w e r , J.M.  The Y o o a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Movement. 1919  B r e w e r , J.M.  O c c u p a t i o n s . , G i m i & Co. 1936  B r o a d y , K h u t e 0. &, G l a s o n , E l g i n D,Schools.  Guidance i n S m a l l H i g h  Cohen, D a v i d P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i c e s o f Y o o a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , C e n t u r y Go. 1 9 2 9 . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r J u n i o r •High S c h o o l s a n d Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , Y i t o t o r i a : -B. G. 4  D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , Canada.  Y o o a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . Dec.1925  D e p a r t m e n t o f - . S t a t i s t i c s , . , Canada. Edmonson. & D o n d l n e a u . Y o c a t i o n s Through Problems M a c r n i l l a n C o . 1936 . . • P i t c h , J.A. Y o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i n A c t i o n , Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1935. G i l e s , . I.K.. . O c c u p a t i o n a l C i v i c s .  The M a c r n i l l a n Go. 1 9 3 6 .  H a p p o c k , R.  S t a r t i n g a Guidance. P r o g r a m .  Jones, A . j *  P r i n c i p l e s o f Guidance;  K i t s o n , H.D.  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