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The segregation of bright pupils in a medium sized high school Matheson, Laughlin Alexander 1936

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THE SEGREGATION OF BRIGHT PUPILS IH A MEDIUM SIZED HIGH SCHOOL •by LAUGHLIN ALEXANDER MATHS30N A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF MSTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT of PHILOSOPHY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1956 Statement of Scope of the Thesis CHAPTER 1 THE EDUCATIONAL BASIS FOR THE PRESENT STUDY 1. Education as the acquiring of Knowledge 1. 2 . Education as the development of personality 1. 3. Conditions under which these aspects may be combined 3 . 4. Statement of the problem to be studied 5. CHAPTER 11 THE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY 1. The High Sohool regarded as a Preparatory School 6, 2. The introduction of the 'Pour Year Course* 8. So The dif f i c u l t y regarding tiae Graduation Certificate 9. 4. The cause of the dif f i c u l t y 5. Two factors which have attracted attention to individual differences 12. Summary 13. CHAPTER-;.Ill GENERAL ADJUSTMENTS FOR THE RECOGNITION OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 1. In Europe England 15. France 16. Germany 17. 2 . In United States 18. 3. In Canada 20. CONTENTS CHAPTER IV THE SELECTION OP THE CLASS . . Page 1. General Organization of the North Vancouver High School 22. 2. Data available 25. 3. Statement of the basis for selection 27. 4. Reasons for adopting these standards 26. 5. Success of the method of selection 31. CHAPTER 7 THE ENRICHMENT OP THE COURSE 1. Enrichment or Acceleration? Administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s 34. Consideration of physical, physiological and social development 35. The need of a broader course 39. 2. Enrichment provided 40. 3. Examinations for the segregated group 44. CHAPTER 71 SEGREGATION OP PUPILS - SOME CRITICISMS 1. Plan not democratic 45. 2. Parents object to segregation 45. 3. Undesirable attitudes develop 47. 4. Necessitates shifting of pupils 50. 5. Other classes are robbed of good pupils 53. 6. Some pupils may be required to work too hard 54. Sunraary 55. CONTENTS Page CHAPTER 711. SEGREGATION OP PUPILS - SOME ADVANTAGES 1. Advantages are not inherent in segregation 57. 2. More just demands regarding accuracy may be made 58. 5. A wider field of study may be covered 58. 4» Socialized methods may be adopted 6 0 . 5. Most satisfactory conditions are provided for the development of desirable attitudes and habits 63. Summary 67. CHAPTER ,7111. DIFFICULTIES IN ADOPTING A SCHEME OP SEGREGATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY 1. Library facilities are not adequate 68. 2. Individual differences exist within the selected group 69. 3. The enrichment of the course was difficult 71. 4. Pupils reoeived no recognition for tiieir additional work 72. 'Summary 74. CHAPTER IX. SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS FOR THE DIFFICULTIES 1. Adequate library facilities 75. 2. An authorized enriched course 75. 3. Proper recognition of work 77. 4. Unit assignments 78. Summary S3. Conclusion 84. A STATEMENT OF THE SCOPE OF THE THESIS The present thesis i s an attempt to discuss some of the problems involved i n the segregation of bright children in the medium sized High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia« The discussion i s based chiefly on the ex-perience of the writer as he has been attempting for the past four years to segregate such pupils in the North Vancouver High Schools and on a study of seme of the l i t e r a t u r e dealing with the general question of segregation It must be pointed out that the present study is not to be considered a formal account of any one class which has been selected. It i s true that the method by which the f i r s t class was selected, the type of "en-richment" that was given, the general methods by which the class was handled — a l l these are described with considerable de ta i l . The purpose of such description is not, however, to mate that one class the centre of attention in the thesis, but rather to give the reader a clear picture of the type of experiment on which the conclusions of this study are based. Further, i t must be pointed out that the success of the methods used in these ejeperiments has been judged largely by the subjective opinions of teachers concerning the results . There was no control group with which the selected group could be compared. Consequently, the conclusions which are reached cannot be regarded as proved f ina l i t i e s ; but must be valued as t h e i r own reasonableness and the degree of thoroughness of the experiment warrant* "What, then," you nay ask, "is the value of the present thesis? It is not a complete record of any one class, and the conclusions are not based on objective comparisons with a control group." To this question my answer is that the present discussion nay be of very definite p r a c t i c a l values There are, at the present time, many bright pupils in the medium sized high schools of Bri t i sh Columbia. At presents ths P r o v i n c i a l system of education mates no s p e c i a l provision for such pupils. Those two facts give r i s e to the question, 'what can the teachers of these schools do for these pupils?* During the past four years the writer, along with the other teachers of the North Vancouver High School, has been trying to provide suitable i n s t r u c t i o n for these pupils. During the course of this attempt„ many problems have arisen. Should the bright p u p i l s be segregated? If so, on what basis should they be segregated? Is i t necessary to have an extensive battery of standard-ized tests to select the proper group? What can actually be done under present conditions in the way of enriching the course? What features of the present system make such enrichment di f f icul t? These are a few of the problems that have arisen. Ths present thesis is an attempt to dis-cuss some of these problems in the light of our experience in the North Vancouver High School. It seems reasonable to suppose that such discussion may be helpful to others who are faced with similar problems* and it might conceivably be of some use in pointing out certain defects in our present system. It is with such a hope in mind that the writer presents this study. C H A P T E R 1 . THE EDUCATIONAL BASIS FOR THE PRESENT STUDY In this introductory chapter i t i s ray purpose to point out two main aspects of education which serve as a background for the discussion that is to follow. These aspects are mentioned, not f o r the purpose of adding anything to the present conception of education, hut for the purpose of showing the need/for a consideration of the problem which is presented for discussion at the end of this Chapter. To the average man,: education means very largely the acquiring of a ce r t a i n body of knowledge and certain s k i l l s . He sees the child begin school and proceed through the successive stages of 'education 1. During that progress the child learns to do certain things. He learns to read and to write, to add and subtract numbers, perhaps to read French or Lat i n . He also learns certain facts concerning the world in which he lives. At the end of each term the child is required to pass a test. This test i s a means of finding whether he knows the fact s and can do the things that are required for that particular grade. If his knowledge is great enough and his s k i l l measures up to the required standard, he goes on to the next grade as a successful pupil. If he f a i l s to reach the required standards he must repeat the term. Since such examinations as these are the objective standards by which the child's educational pro-gress is measured, the tendency is to concentrate attention on the things which these examinations test, and to think of education in those terms. This conception of education — education as the acquiring of know-ledge and s k i l l — is not entirely faulty. For education does involve these things. If the child Is to be a valuable member of society, he must know certain things, and be able to do oertain things. He must be able to read and write. He must be able to perform practical calculations in arithmetic. He should know something of the way in which his country is governed. He should know something of the principles that control his own health. He should know something of the world in which he lives. These are only a few samples of the many things which the child must learn and achieve in order to take his place in society* and i t is ths business of the schools to see that the child does acquire this knowledge, and these s k i l l s . Education, however, is something mora than the acquir-ing of the knowledge and tho s k i l l s required for an examination. The process of learning involves the whole personality of the child; and in that process he is building up not only a group of separate or logically connected facts, but also attitudes and ideals. These are formed, whether we wish it or not» out of the activity it self. The child who studies merely to avoid punishment has developed the wrong attitude to-wards study, and is likely to C6ase studying as soon as the punishing force is removed. The child who constantly tries to do work that is too di f f i c u l t must, through constant failure, ultimately become discouraged and leave school with a sense of failure and a lack of self confidence. The child who is continually being given tasks that are too easy is very likely to develop slip-shod habits of thought and work, and to leave school — perhaps i n the honours group — without ever having experienced the satisfaction that comes from succeeding in a hard task. These examples illustrate the way in which attitudes are developed in the regular routine of school l i f e . Teachers- and text books may theorize about ideal adjustments to l i f e , but such adjustments become of value for the child only when he has, through practice, made them part of himself. Further, the development of such attitudes and ideals w i l l be the determiners of the child's success in l i f e situations. When he has left ' school, he may never again be called upon to give the formal proof of Theorem (711) Book (11) of Godfrey and 3iddons Geometry, bat who w i l l deny that he may often be called upon to meet situations which, will require clearness of thought and tenacity of purpose? When he has left school he may never again be called upon to write an account of the V/ars of Napoleon, or Shelley's "To Night"; but who would deny that he is fortunate indeed i f he goes out with a love of history or of l i terature, and the determin-ation and ab i l i ty to explore their poss ibi l i t ies further for himself. Thus it is that we have come to emphasize the development, along proper lines, of the whole personality of the chi ld . We are coming to see that the differences between a philanthropist and a gangster are not so much differences in the quantity of knowledge which each posesses, as they are differences in attitudes such as those we have mentioned. When any school sends out i ts students with a dulled sense of social justice, or with careless habits of thought, we say, quite rightly, that that school is not succeeding in the task of education. Teachers, school boards, departments of education and the intricate machinery of our educational system — a l l these justify their existence only in so far as they con-tribute to the proper development and growth of each individual ch i ld . Fortunately, there is no real contradiction between these two aspect s of education. Educators may argue that the child must be allowed to dev-elop his own personality, and adult society may demand that the child shall master certain knowledges and s k i l l s . Theoretically, one process is the •» A. — complement of the other, or rather they may he regarded as different aspects of the same process. We can well imagine a schema of things in which there are a number of differentiated courses, each leading to some definite goal* Each child, with the aid of his advisors, would choose the goal he wished to attain. If interests and a b i l i t i e s were properly weighed in the choosing, the child might then work toward the chosen goal. Difficulties would be encountered, but these would be approached as ob-stacles in the path to the chosen goal and not as hard tasks assigned by an outside authority, Thus he could work happily toward his chosen goal. He would be f i t t i n g himself to take his place in adult society, and at the same time he might be working in such a way and under such conditions as v/otild tend to help him develop the attitudes and habits which we consider most desirable, Thus, to use the words of 7. T. Thayer, "The goal is a , • 1, worths^ adult l i f e ; the method is the method of child development." This situation, however, involves one very important condition, the child is wo rising towards a goal which is suited to hiia. The granting of this condition presents a very di f f i c u l t problem to the schools, for we are coming to see more clearly that no two children are exactly alike. Children differ in their emotional reactions to identical situations; they differ i n their interests; they differ in their special a b i l i t i e s ; and they differ in their general intelligence. We can not, then, choose any-one goal which will be suited to a l l children. If children differ in interests and in special a b i l i t i e s we must have a variety of subjects so •:. that i t w i l l be possible for each of those children to take subjects -which are suited to his own particular special a b i l i t i e s . If children differ 1 Thayer: Passing of the Recitation - P. 270. i i i their general intelligence? we must have a variety of courses of a. different type — we must have a variety which w i l l make it possible for the 'bright' child to work at a course which w i l l require a l l his i n t e l l -igence, and f o r the 'average' child to work at a different course in the same subject which w i l l be suited to his intelligence. Only when such varieties are offered is i t possible to choose goals which are suited to the individual pupils; and only when the i n d i v i d u a l pupils are working toward such suitable goals can the larger purposes of education be f u l -f i l l od. The problem of suiting the curriculum to the individual differences of children is a very broad and d i f f i cu l t one. The present thesis is concerned with only one phase of that problem — the way in which the present school curriculum may be adapted to the brighter section of the school population i n a medium sized high school in Br i t i sh Columbia. We are not concerned here with the problem of offering a great variety of different subjects. That is a very important problem, and is one way in which the curriculum must be suited to the individual differences of the children. It i s not, however, the subject of this thesis. We are concer-ned here ra the r with the problem of selecting the supe r ior children from a grade i n a medium sized high school, and of supplementing the regular course with other material which wi l l make the course more suited to their intellectual a b i l i t y . o H A p i E i 11 . THE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY. In order to understand the situation i n British Columbia todays, we should look briefly at the way in which the high schools of the province have been developed. In the early years of their development* these were regarded as schools schoolsxin which pupils prepared themselves for University. The matricul-ation examination was the test v&ich determined whether or not a student could enter University. Consequently, it seemed to be the business of the High Schools of the province to prepare students to pass that ejsamin-ation. .As long as most of the students of the High School were preparing for the University, this situation was f a i r l y satisfactory. When, however, there came into our schools large numbers of pupils who had no intention of going to the University i and when we, in the schools, tried to prepare a l l of these pupils for the Matriculation examination, there arose some very serious d i f f i c u l t i e s . Many pupiIs were required to take subjects which were not suited to their natural talents. Others were expected to do more work than they could successfully accomplish. Yet there was no alternative. Matriculation standing vsas the standard by which a pupil's high school education was judged, and the pupil was required to gain that standing whether ha wished to use i t as an entrance to University or not. . The results/of this situation have been made so painfully clear to many pupils and parents; and to a l l teachers that i t is unnecessary to re-peat them in detail here. Suffice i t tc say, that only too often the ons main object of teaching became the cramming of facts into pupils' heads in order that those pupils might pass an examination in which they had l i t t l e or no real interest. Under these circumstances, many of the pupils who did not f i t the system* developed a hearty disl ike for study and learned to avoid i t whenever they could do so safely. They resented being forced .. to do what they did not really want to do s or what they could not do. Only too often they left school before they had completed their course, with a very discouraging sense of failures and a feeling that society had l i t t l e or no sympathy for them. Results of this nature were inevitable, as long as pupils were being forced to strive to attain goals which were not suited to their needs or capacities. Gould a system which was necessarily producing such results be regarded as succeeding in the task of education? That the Department of Education in Br i t i sh Columbia recognized th© shortcomings of such a system is shown by the great change that took place through the introduction of the four year high school course in 1929. In 1925 the 'School Survey' had been published. In it Dr. Putman and Dr. v/eir- cr i t ic ized on two separate grounds the curriculum, that was then being followed. In the f i r s t place, the curriculum was too r ig id . "When we come to examine the secondary schools of Bri t i sh Columbia we think we discover why they are not wholly popular. The truth is they have a narrow, rigid curriculum — not necessarily r ig id in intent or in theory but in i ts practical outcome. Outside a few large centres these schools are meet-ing the genuine or fancied needs of at most only two classes of students — those who expect to enter University, and those who wish to teach. In the natural order of things these two classes put together form an insig-nificant proportion of the total number of pupils in high school." (Page 112). In the second places, the curriculum was cr i t i c i s ed because it re-quired too much of the students. Everywhere throughout the province we are told that the present high school course is too heavy; that tho work •is not thoroughly done; that the burden of homework upon the student is oppressive and that young people are entering th© Normal Schools and the University immature and ill-prepared." (Page 115). In 1929 the new four year high school course was brought into effect. This change was an attempt* not only to lengthen the high school course, but to broaden i t as wel l . New courses were introduced, so that pupils who were not suited to the old r ig id curriculum might choose courses which would be more in keeping with their ovai interests and capacities. Three main courses were offered for their choice. Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance, Commercial Course and High School Graduation. The subjects to be studied by those taking Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance are determined by the University and the Normal School respect-ively. For those pupils s the high school course is regarded as a prepar-ation for further study. They are taking the course, not because i t is the only course open to them, but because they have chosen it from among other courses. In the same way, the subjects taken by those who choose the Commercial Course are determined very largely by the nature of the requirements cf those who w i l l be employing the so pupils v&ien they grad-uate. Here again tho pupil takes the course because he chooses it • In the case of those taking ths High School Graduation Course, the pressure of the demands of outside institutions is not so great. Consequently, i t is possible to offer a much wider choice of subjects which may be studied. Those who take this course choose the course i t se l f at the beginning, and later choose subjects within the course wMch they wish to study. In addition to this, provision was mads for the promotion of pupils by subject rather than by grade. Shis vas an attempt to avoid the very obvious evils •of the old lock-step, grade-promotion system. The above account i s not put forward as a complete account o f the four year High School Course, either as it was planned or as i t i s prac-ticed. These facts are mentioned msrely to show that the Department o f Education in British Columbia does recognize the fact that there are differences in children, and that these differences must be taken into consideration i f education i s to be a success. Apparently it i s granted that some should take the Matriculation, course,' others Commercial and A' others High School Graduation, and that,with in this latter course espec-ia l l y , pupil8 should be free to choose the subjects they shall study from a large number of subjects. Another point which is of interest to our discussion is the effect that this change has had on the pupil load. When the curriculum was drawn up it was definitely planned to lighten the load for each year. Soma new subjects were introduced,but the extra year more than made up for the extra work that was required. Thus it was planned to improve the condition of pupils who were finding that more work was required of them than they could do. In this respect, a very interesting development has taken place in connection with the High School Graduation Certificate. According to the original plan, this Certificate was to represent the same standard of work as tho Junior Matriculation Certificate. The difference between the two was to be a difference in the subjects taken, and not a difference in the standard of work required in those subject8. in this way, students who elected the graduation course... were to have the benefits of the broader choice of subjects, and have a certificate which would be accepted by a l l the institutions of organized society, except the University and the Normal Schools, as of value equal to the Junior Matriculation Certificates Unfortunately, however, many students were not able to pass the Junior Matriculation examination, The tendency, then, has been to lower the standard required for High School Graduation, so that those who might not be able to pass Matriculation might; be able to get the High School Grad-uation Certificate. High School Principals are thus placed in a very di f f i c u l t dilemma. They wish to give students v&io have spent four years in high school, something to show for their work. The only o f f i c i a l recognition they have to give is the High School. Certificate. On the a the hand, they do not wish this Certificate to be regarded as inferior to the Junior Matriculation Certificate. Many of them hope that i t may, sometime bsooma the basic- of a system for accrediting in High Schools. A l l of them hope that i t will be accepted by business firms, hospitals, etc.,as the equivalent of the Junior Matriculation Certificate. If these hopes are to be f u l f i l l e d , the standard of work required must be kept up to tha„t required for Junior U/atriculation. If the standard for the Graduation Certificate i s lowered the poor student, who would otherwise f a i l , bene-f i t s ; but the good student, who does not want to go to University is penalized. He must choose either Matriculation or Graduation. If he chooses the f i r s t , he is deprived of the choice of subjects. If he choos-es the second, he w i l l receive an inferior Certificate at the end of his course. This is the rather unsatisfactory situation at the present time. - 11 *" If we seek the cause of this d i f f i c u l t y , we shall find i t , I think, in the nature of the system i t s e l f . It has been shown above that In our High'-School Course, the principle of individual differences has been granted* The provisions for chefce of subjects and promotion by subject 1, •, are clear proof of th i s . The differences, however,, that are recognized are those of interest alone. A number of courses are open to students. Bach student may choose his course as he wishes. Once he has chosen his course, however, he is grouped with a i l other students taking that same course and within that group there is no real provision mado for individ-ual differences of a b i l i t y . This, I feel, is a fundamental fault in the system." Any one who has ever tried to teach a group of children must surely have been impressed by the differences that exist among the members of the group. Leaving out of account differences of interest^ for the moment, and assuming that a l l the members of the group are trying to do their best, we find that some children learn better, more quickly, more easily than others A task may be set for the class, and after a 'reasonable' time the work done be examined. Invariably we find that some have finished and have had time to spare, while others have not completed the task; some have a clear idea of the problems involved, while others grasp them only vaguely. This is not a new discovery. The group recitation system had been in fores for only a short time when, in , • 1874, W. T. Harris, after pointing out some of the benefits of the system, went on to say. "The tendency of a l l class-ification is to unite pupils of widely different attainments. Especially 1- (the fact that these provisions can not be fully applied in high schools because of financial regulations which l imit the number of teachers per school is very important, but i s not relevant to the present discussion). is this found in the small schools. The consequence is that the lesson is too short for some and too long for others. The best pupils in the class are not tr ied to the f u l l extent of their a b i l i t y ; they consequently lose in some degree the discipline they should gain. The poorest pupils of the class are strained to the utmost. They are dragged, as i t were, over the ground without having time to digest i t as they should. This develops the result that the overworked pupils are frequently discouraged and drop out of the class, and likely enough out of school altogether." Mr. Harris may have been unfortunate in his choice of metaphors, but he did offer a critioism that applies with remarkable fitness to the system of education found in Brit i sh Columbia sixty years after his statement was made. At least two factors have combined to emphasise this problem. F irs t , the number of students who attend high school has greatly increased. A generation or two ago, a high school education was- considered a luxury. A boy who had completed elementary school was able to 'go out into the world' and compete with his fellows with a reasonable degree of success. Since that time, however, society has become much more complex. The boy who, after going only to the end of elementary school, tries to compete in the outside world : finds that he is very greatly handicapped. People are coming to recognise the fact that i t is just as necessary to have a high school education to compete in the society of today as i t was to have an elemen-tary education to compete in the society of f i f ty years ago. Now, so long as a high school education was a luxury, the high school population was, to a certain extent at least, selected. The factors that governed the selec-tion were such things as the economic condition of the parents,interest of 1- Addresses and Proceedings of National Education Association, 1874 Page 266. - 13 ~ parents in education, etc. It has "been shown that there is a correlation between these factors and intelligence. It is only natural then to assume that the tremendous increase in the high school attendance has increased 1 very materially the. difference between the 'best' and the 'poorest' pupils. She second factor which has emphasized this problem is the development of scientific tests of intelligence. These tests have demonstrated in -dubitably that individuals do d i f f er greatly from each other in their ability to learn.. This difference can not be explained on the basis of effort, or the desire to learn., but rather upon the inherent capacity of the individual. From a consideration of the facts presented we are forced to the conclusion that one child finds it almost impossible to learn what another child can learn thoroughly with very l i t t l e effort; and that be-tween the "dull" child and the "bright" child there are others who represent every intermediate degree of intelligence. In short, we believe that the distribution of 'brightness' follows quite closely the normal curve * that i s : that in a large group of unselected children or adults a few are very dul l , a larger number are d u l l , a s t i l l larger number a r 6 average, a small-er number are bright, and a few are very bright. Within each one of these classes there is a gradual increase in the number of cases as one approaoh-and es the average intelligence,,,between the classes there i s no greater break than at any other point in the curve. Surely a conclusion such as this should have far reaching consequences when i t is applied to our educational system. This, then, is the situation in Bri t i sh Columbia. We have a. great number of pupils attending our high schools. These students differ from 1 - F o r a discussion of this problem in the United States see Bulletin 1932 : 17: Page 2 - 3. (Monograph No. 4). each other in their interests and i n their a b i l i t i e s . We have tried to make some provision for the differences in interest. We have made no real provision for their differences in a b i l i t i e s . True, our Graduation Cert-ificate does show whether a pupil passed with an "A" or a "D" ; and,true, a bright student might take some extra subjects; but these are not satis-factory answers to the question. The important fact is that there is only one certificate and one course. We are asking a l l pupils to reach the same standard, of achievement. This may or may not be justifiable in the case of the Junior Matriculation examination. If it is justifiable at a l l , i t is so on the grounds th©t the Junior Matriculation examination is an entrance examination - that i t sets the minimum standard for entrance to University. In the case of the Graduation Certificate examination there is not even this questionable justification. The present system demands that the poor pupil do more than his a b i l i t i e s admit of his doing, and is content with having- the bright pupil do much less than he is capable of doing. I have quoted in Chapter .1 , Thayer's statement: "The goal of educ-ation is a worthy adult l i f e , and the method is the method of child devel-opment." Neither discouraging a child to the point where he drops out of school, nor allowing (almost forcing) him to waste a good deal of time can, by any stretch of the imagination, be regarded as t&e%Qthod of child development.' If 'worthy adult l i f e * does come in such cases, it comes in spite of 5 and not because of, the treatment, i t is obvious that, if we are to do justice to the pupils of our schools, we must make provision not only for their differences of interest and special ability* but also for their differences of general intelligence. O H A P I E H 111 . GENERAL ADJUSTMENTS FOR THE RECOGNITION OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. Since the work of S i r Francis Gait on, there has been l i t t l e p o s s i b i l -i t y of doubting the fact that great differences do exist between different individuals. It is only in the present century, however, that men have r e a l l y come to r e a l i z e the significance of that fact in education. This r e a l i s a t i o n has been the cause of many changes i n educational systems. Educators have r e a l i z e d that the old systems did not/accommodate the indiv-idual differences of children, and in many cases they have attempted to reorganize the system so as to make provision for these differences. In the European countries, the general plan has been to give a l l pupils a common grounding in elementary school, and to offer several different types of secondary education from which each pupil may choose the type which i s suited to his own talents. Thus, in England, the pupil may at the age of eleven enter the Senior school, the Central school, or the Secondary school. A system of competitive examinations is used for ^ sel e c t i n g the pupils for these various schools. Those who are at the top of the l i s t i n these examinations are granted free places in the secondary schools. Those in the second bracket are placed i n the central schools. The remainder of the elementary group are placed in the senior school. Obviously, this system tends to arrange the pupils in groups which are more or less homogeneous. There is some diffi c u l t y i n this respect in the 'Secondary Schools' where pupils who have won free places by ranking high i n the examinations s i t side by side with those whose parents are able to pay fees. In the Central and Senior Schools, however, no such consider-at ions exist. But even in these schools, which are to a large degree selected, the pupils are often divided into A, B:. and 0 sections on the basis of ability. In France, a plan which operates on the same general principle is in effect. Previous to 1925 the secondary education, which began at the age of four and which led to the University s was quite distinct from the elementary education. This meant that i t was practically impossible to change from one system to another. In 1925, however, a l l differences between the "Glasses Pre'paratoires' {secondary education) up to the age of eleven years and the elementary classes were abolished. Under the present plan, a pupil may remain in the elementary school until he is fourteen years old and then go to work, or he may go from the Elementary school to the 'Classes Complementaires' and from these to Vocational schools; or he may go from the Elementary school to the Higher Primary school, which in turn leads either to the Normal schools or through the Secondary Schools to the University. Needy pupils who show that they hjave a b i l i t y are ass-isted by State grants. These grants are not as yet sufficient for meeting a l l cases, but they do represent an attempt on the part of the State to recognise the claims of bright pupils. As is the case in England, the -mere providing of these different typos of school tends to give s, more homogeneous grouping in each one of them. This tendency is further streng-thened by the work of the board for the guidance of pupils in making their choice of schools. The principle of the system was well stated by Anatole France i n V i e en Fleur*-* "The same education for a l l , rich and poor. A l l w i l l attend the primary school. Those among them who show the highest aptitudes w i l l be allowed to have a secondary education, which, without fees, w i l l bring together on the same benches the elite of the bourgeois and the elite of the proletarian youth. From this elite w i l l proceed dn elite to the higher schools of science and art." In Germany, the same principle has been put into effect. A l l attend the 'Grundschule1 f o r the f i r s t four years of their training. (Arrange-ments may be made to advance the brighter pupils through In three years). At the end of the four year course, these pupils nay be placed in any one of a number of different schools. They may continue their elementary education in the•VbIksschule'and complete their schooling at the age of fourteen, they may enter the fMiidle School, which offers four different courses, each extending over six years; or they may enter one of the five or more types of secondary schools wMch offer a nine year course leading . l ' • to the Pedagogical Academy or to the University. In the working out of this plan, the matter of fees offers considerable di f f i c u l t y . At present these are only partially supplied by state grants. In each of the foregoing cases, the division which takes place after the elementary period is certain to result i n groupings which are much mora homogeneous in general intelligence than an unselected group would be. The tendency throughout each system i s to select the brighter pupils for the courses which lead to the Universities and other higher institut-ions of learning. The point of greatest importance for our problem is that this selection does not provide a satisfactory solution to the pro-blem of dealing with, individual differences in intelligence. Even in these selected groups, pupils differ from each other in general i n t e l l i -gence so markedly that special arrangements must be made for them. These special arrangements usually take the form of more homogeneous groupings 1. Now called the'Hoohschule Fuer Lehrerbildung.' within each of the different courses* or of differences in individual assignments. In the United States and in Canada, an attempt is made to meet the individual needs of the pupils in a slightly different way. Instead of having several different types of secondary school, these countries have, in practice, only one. Practically-all of those who continue their educ-ation beyond the elementary school go to a High School. This High School i supposed to offer a sufficiently wide range of subjects to satisfy the needs of the different pupils. Whether or not it does that is not a matter for discussion here. The main point is that in our High Schools one would expect to find a greater range of a b i l i t y than in the more highly selected schools of Europe. It is not surprising, then, to find that there have been many attempts in the United States to adjust the school programme to the different a b i l i t y levels of the pupils, and so avoid the e v i l results of the lock step system to which I have referred in the previous chapter. The f i r s t attempts in this direction were made by allowing ths bright pupils to ' skip' a grade. This, however, proved to be a very unsatisfact-ory method for solving the problem. It meant that the pupil missed a com-plete year's instruction. In many cases this proved too much to be caught up,successfully. This d i f f i c u l t y led, in turn, to attempts to introduce systems of semi-annual or quarterly promotion,, such as that tried in St. Louis in 1870 or that tried in Elisabeth, New Jersey in 1387. Each of these plans made the "skip 5 a much smaller loss, and so reduced the d i f f i c -ulty involved. Even, with these,however, many of the old d i f f i c u l t i e s remained. Another type of plan i s what i s known as the multiple track plan. - 19 r» There are many different examples of this general type in the c i t i e s of the United States* This system involves the division of the pupils into two or more separate groups, and the provision of a separate curriculum for each group. In general, there are two distinct types of multiple course plan. The f i r s t type requires each pupil in the system to do the sams amount of work, but allows the different groups different lengths of time to do i t . Thus the 'Cambridge Plan', introduced in 1891, arranged the work of grades four to nine inclusive in two separate outlines. In one outline, i t was arranged in a curriculum covering four years? and i n the other, i t was arranged i n a curriculum covering six years. , This plan, and many other similar plans,provide f o r a certain amount of acceleration without the necessity of skipping grades. The second type of multiple track plan requires each p u p i l to spend the same length of time i n school, but requires different amounts and different quality of work from the different groups. The'North Denver Plan, inaugurated i n 1895, and the 'Trinidad P l a n 8 , began in 1922, are esamples of a great number of plans of t h i s type. In each of these plans the pupils are divided into three groups on the basis of a b i l i t y . The medium group i s given the regular course; the poorest group is given © simplified 'bare essential' cours.e; and the brightest group is given an enriched course. The theory is that there is enough difference in the content of the course to account for the differences in ability of the pupils. Hence a l l pupils remain the same length of time, and work equally hard. There are many other examples of t h i s multiple track plan. In some cases there are mo re tracks provided. In other cases the two pur-poses of acceleration and enrichment are combined. It is important to note that the success of any of these multiple track systems is conditioned by the possibility of securing homogeneous groups. If the groups them-selves are not homogeneous, the difficulty which this system attempts to remove s t i l l remains. Another attempt to solve this problem of individual differences is represented in the various different types of unit assignment that are used throughout many schools in the United States. Behind these plans there is usually some principle such as that involved in the 'Morrison Plan', the 'Dalton Plan* or the 'Winnetka Technique** The subject matter of the course is divided into 'units'. In some schools these units are ths same for a l l pupils, and each pupil progresses at his own rate. In other schools the units are adjusted in d i f f i c u l t y to the individual > pupils. In s t i l l others, the unit requires certain essentials and then offers further work which may he done i f the pupil has tin® to do i t . Of oourse, schools which are organized on the individual unit basis have in mind other purposes as well as the recognition of differences in a b i l i t y . They do, however, suggest, one answer to the problem which arises through these differences. In Canada very few experiments of the above type have been reported. Nearly a l l the work that has been done in feis connection has been done in separate schools. There has been no attempt to make a city-wide experi-ment in the matter. It is interesting to note that in many cities, such as Sasltatoon and Toronto, there are experiments in connection with homog-eneous grouping. As yet, however, there are no .published reports from ' 1 • these. 1. In Ontario, i t has been the custom for some years to prepare certain classes for Matriculation in three years, and others in four. - 21 -In Vancouver, two of the high schools - John Oliver and Zing George -select the brighter pup i l s from those Who enter and put them throufgx the regular high school course in three years instead of In four. A sim-i l a r plan is followed in the V i o t o r i a High School . This plan, while i t is not regarded as a satisfactory solution to the problem by those who use I t , might be even more widely used i f it were not for the system of promotion by subject, and the provision of optional courses that are being attempted in a number of the high schools. In Vancouver, for instance, four high schools - Zing Edward, Magae, Lord Byng and Z i t s l l a n o - have a system of promotion by subject , witii a great many options open to each student. From the stand-point of admini s tra t ion , i t seems almost impossible to combine homogeneous grouping wi th such a system. The d i f f erent i n d i v i d u a l time tables which re su l t from the choice of options alone require the pup i l s who would o r d i n a r i l y be i n the selected c lass to be i n d i f f erent classes at any one time. Thus i t appears that there have been many attempts to adjust the school system to the i n d i v i d u a l di f ferences of the pupils. In European Countries the changes have been, to a large extent, nationwide; and the general plan has been to provide a variety of courses a f t e r the elementary school p e r i o d . In the United States there has been a great v a r i e t y of experiment. Each o f these experiments has been l imi ted to a school , or to a c i t y . In Canada, there have been very few experiments deal ing with the problem. Such experiments as have been c a r r i e d out have been limited to single schools; and reports of such experiments are , as yet , not publ ished. - 22 -S H A P i i s ir. THE SELECTION OF THE CLASS. The experiment which forms the basis of the present discussion was attempted to see what could be done for the brighter pupils by segregating them into one class and treating them as a unit throughout the high school course* Teachers were agreed in their acceptance of the ideas outlined in the first chapter of this thesis - that there should be some difference in the demands made on the bright pupils and those made on the dull ones. They were also aware of the fact that in various parts of the world attempts had been made to recognize those differences* Consequently, they made an attempt to apply some of the principles which had proved valuable elsewhere to our own situation in North Vancouver. In the North Vancouver High School there are about 450 pupils. Two courses are offered to the students. There is the regular Arts Course, leading to Junior Matriculation or High School Graduation I and there is a Commercial Course, extending over two years, and leading to a Commercial Graduation Certificate. All pupils who enter the school from the elemen-tary schools take the first year of the Arts Courses At the end of the first year, each pupil decides whether he will continue in the Arts Course or take the Commercial Course. If he decides to take the Commercial Course he spends his second and third years in it , graduating at the end of his third year. The result of this system is that there are usually four first year classes, each taking the High School Course; four second year classes, one of them taking the Commercial bourse, and the other three taking the Arts course, three third year classes, one Commercial, and two Arts Course I and two fourth year classes, each completing the Arts Course. This plan is illustrated in the accompanying diagram. - 23 - 2 4 ~ There are two points regarding this particular experiment which should he borne i n mind from the beginning.. First, the experiment deals only with the bright pupils<> Ho effort has been msfie to do any thing for • those who are below the averages This is not because the author believes that the present system is satisfactory for the weaker pupils* As a matter of fact, he is of the opinion that it is most unsatisfactory for them. One great dif f i c u l t y in experimenting with these weaker pupils lies in the fact that our course of study demands that a certain amount of work be covered for each class. Any experiment dealing with the weaker pupils would reduce that amount of work. It would be unfair under the present system to grant pupils regular standing whan they had completed only a reduced or simplified course. Consequently, teachers must continue to be unfair to these pupils by asking them to do more than they can accomplish, and then f a i l i n g them in examinations because they have not succeeded in doing the impossible. The second point of importance in judging this particular experiment is the fact that i t was tried in a medium sized high school. Most other reported experiments of this nature have been carried out on a much larger scale. Often the schools of an sntire large city were reorgan-ized and the bright pupils from a great number of high schools were sent to one central selected class. This naturally resulted i n a selected class composed of pupils- a l l of whom were vary definitely superior. In the Worth Vancouver experiments, however, the selected class included B5f0 of the grade nine population of the school, and 50% of the grade twelve population. Under these circumstances much of the halo which so often surrounds the term •superior class* was gone. It was very doubtful i f such a term as 'homogeneous grouping' could he applied. It remained to see i f any of the benefits which are claimed for such classifications would follow. She task of selecting the proper group of students to compose the class was not an easy one. Students came to North Vancouver High School from at least eight different public schools, Some of these schools sent from sixty to seventy pupils, while others sent only six or seven. Certain schools represented sections of the community of higher social standing than others* The upper section of each grade eight class was brought into the High School on the recommendation of the Public School Principal. Hence there were no uniform examination results which could be used for the selection. Neither was there any uniform information in the nature of standings in standardized tests. A number of Achievement Tests had been given; but these were of an amazing variety, and could not be used as a basis for comparison. The intelligence quotients of most of the pupils were shown in their report cards. These intelligence quotients were, however, obtained from a great variety of group tests. For some children there were results of three such tests, for others, the results of only one. In some cases the most recent test had been given while the pupil was in grade eight; in others, while he was in grade four. With such a chaotic mass of data to serve as a basis, we were not at a l l confident that our selection would be satisfactory. However, we remembered that the basis of classification which had been used in the past was the alphabetical basis. Those whose surnames were from A - K went in one class and those from L - N, in another. We felt that our classif-ication would at least be an improvement on this old method. - 27 -In considering the plan of selection which is to he outlined below, the reader is asked to bear in mind two facts. First, the plan is not put forward as a perfect plan, That there are weaknesses in i t , no one "would deny. We fel t that it K S the most suitable plan for the particular circumstances under which we were working. Our reasons for thinking so wi l l be outlined, after the plan i t s e l f has been stated. The degree to which our selection was satisfactory will be shown in the latter part of this chapter. Secondly, I feel that it is impossible to draw up any hard and fast rule which may be applied, without alteration, to every case. Consequently, when numbers are used in the following outline for indicat-ing limits in intelligence quotient, age., or rank» these numbers must be regarded only as arbitrary lines of demarcation. Such Unas must be set in order to give a definite plan on which to work, but they should not become rigidly observed boundaries. This is of particular importance in ths selection of the last ten or twelve f«5r the class. In this selection, every possible factor must be taken into consideration, and a difference of a few points in the intelligence quotient, or a few months in age,must ;be permitted to outweigh other factors-such as physical condition, social development and attitude to study. There were as we have said, four f i r s t year classes in the school. This meant that at least twenty five psr cent of the f i r s t year pupils would be selected for the special class. It was decided to make the achievement rank of the f i n a l year of public school the fundamental basis for classification. Each public school principal ranked his pupils, taking into account the work of the entire year. By taking the top quarter of each public school l i s t , we obtained a temporary selection. - 28 -From the l i s t thus obtained we eliminated those pupils who came under any one of the following three conditions: 1. Intelligence quotient less than 105. 2. Age 12 years or less. 3. A student who had repeated his grade-eight year unless the cause were known to be illness*:•: • Pupils from very small schools (10 grade eight pupils) were not consider-ed in this temporary selection. She vacancies in the class, caused by above eliminations and by certain pupils dropping out of school entirely, were f i l l e d up from two sources. 1. Pupils having an intelligence quotient of 120, or more, were included unless they were ranked very low in their class. 2. More than one quarter of the total l i s t was taken in the case of the schools i n the districts of higher social standing. In several cases the written or oral reports of the public school princip-als, proved very helpful in classifying the pupils. Shese reports had to do with additional information such as general attitude to work, home conditions, health, etc., rather than a definite statement of opinion as to whether a particular pupil should or should not be included i n the class. Shese, then, are the factors which were taken into account in the selection of the class* Let us now consider the reasons for choosing these particular standards. She most probable criticism is that not sufficient use is made of the intelligence quotients. In this particular experiment,those with an intelligence quotient less than 105 were eliminated from the class, those with an intelligence quotient of more than 1Z0 were taken i n , and those who were between these two points were included only i f t h e i r achievement rank j u s t i f i e d t h e i r being included. When th i s i s compared with such - systems as exist in the Trinidad schools, where pupils are c l a s s i f i e d on the basis of. i n t e l l i g e n c e test r e s u l t s , i t may appear that fee i n t e l l i g -ence rating has not been given sufficient importance in this experiment. There are three main reasons for treating the situation as we did. In the f i r s t place, an intelligence quotient derived from any group test is only an approximate one. An intelligence quotient determined from an individual Binet test is l i k e l y to be within f i v e points of the true intelligence quotient; but an intelligence quotient from a group test is only a derived measure (derived, o r i g i n a l l y , by equating the scores on a group test for pupils whose intelligence quotients have already been obtained from the Binet test) and may vary by as many as twenty points from the true intelligence quotient. The results of a number of group tests w i l l form a much more reliable basis for work of this kind, but even when results from a number of such tests are available, these should be sixpplemented by the results of individual tests f o r those pupils with very high and with very low scores. Such data were not available for the pupils who were entering the North Vancouver High School. Only a few of them had been given an individual test, and many had been tested by only one group test. Consequently, we felt that we could not use i n t e l l i g e n c e test scores as our basis for selecting pupils. Secondly, intelligence i s not the only factor to be considered. The attitude of the pupil is also a very potent factor. This attitude involves both the interest of p u p i l and his emotional condition. It has grown out - 30 -of his past experience both at home and at school. But whatever may he the o r i g i n of the attitude, i t does play a very great part in determining the success of the p u p i l i n school. Often a p u p i l with only average i n -telligence w i l l he very successful i n High School simply because that p u p i l has developed a fine, wholesome attitude toward school work, and study i n general. On the other hand, a pup i l with a definitely high int e l l i g e n c e quotient may make a dismal failure of. his High School career because he has developed the wrong attitude to the work. If the attitude of the pupil be so potent a factor in determining success in school i t should certainly be considered in selecting the special group. There are at present no satisfactory tests for determining attitude. We did, how-ever, feel that the success of these pupils i n grade eight had been det-ermined in part by the various attitudes which they had developed. Con-sequent l y , by making the achievement rank the fundamental basis of selec-tion, we were indirectly giving at least some attention to the very im-portant factor, pupil attitude. Thirdly, the selection of the class on the basis of achievement appeared mors democratic than a selection on the basis of intelligence would have been. Pupils f e l t that they had earned a place in the class by ranking high. Those who were i n the class felt that they were there, not because they were born to any special caste, but because they had , worked hard — a belief that was quite sound i n most cases. Those who were not in the class f e l t that the door was not forever closed to them, but that they might be taken in i f they were w i l l i n g to work hard enough. Those who were eliminated because t h e i r intelligence quotient was less than 105 were low i n the achievement rank and probably did not expect to be included in any case. (In most cases the pupils from the public schools d i d not know each other's rank f o r the year). Private consultat-ions were arranged for those who were included because of high i n t e l l i -. gence quotient, i'hey admitted, in each case, that they had not been work-ing as w e l l as they could, and were allowed into the class as a favour on the understanding that they would j u s t i f y the favour that had been granted them. Throughout the experiment an attempt was made to make the class f e e l that, while there were some differences i n native a b i l i t y of different paople, industrious habits of work and personal e f f o r t played a very large part in t h e i r success. Perhaps a word cf explanation should be given regarding the elimin-ation of those pupils who were under twelve years of age. We shall not discuss the general problem of acceleration at t h i s point, as that problem is dealt with i n the next chapter, in the f i r s t place, i t was felt that, as these pupils had 'skipped• grades i n the public school, they would find the regular high school course quite heavy enough for a time. In the second place, only some of these young pupils would have qualified for the class i n any case, and i t was f e l t that i t would be wise to place them in a single group in one class so that methods of teaching might be adjusted to their immature social needs. In order to supply a basis for judging the success of this plan of selection, I shall refer briefly to the number of pupils who were 'demoted' to the regular classes during the year, and the opinions of the teachers regarding the suitability of the selection. In regard to the f i r s t , four pupils who were originally in the selected class v/ere placed in the regular classes and replaced by other pupils from the regular classes during the f i r s t year. In this connection i t may be interesting to note that i n the two other grade IX classes, selected by a similar method in the two succeeding years, the number of changes has been approximately the same. To mention only the f i r s t year, however, would be l i k e l y to give an inadequate picture of the s i t u a t i o n as i t a c t u a l l y developed. By the time the class had completed the third year of High School, only seventeen of the original f o r t y one were l e f t . Ten of the original class had decided to take up the Commercial Course, nine had been demoted, and five had left school. The vacancies left by these had been f i l l e d by those pupils under twelve years of age who had been kept out of the class on account of their age, and other pupils from the regular classes who had done well in their ezaminat ions. It is important to note that the 'demotions' and 'promotions' were based on the results of the examinations. A l l pupils in grade nine were given the same examinations, and it was understood that any of the selec-ted class who did not rank well would be replaced by pupils from the regular classes who had ranked high. As in the original selection of the class, no hard and fast limits of rank were set I but the changes that were made, were made on the basis of rank in school examinations. Obviously 5 the nine 'demotions' form the most important part of the evidence.' In this connection i t should be remembered that only four of them were made during the f i r s t year. I am not at a l l sure that we are safe in assuming that the other five should have been made then. It seems to me quite possible that of two adolescents,A and B, who are of nearly equal ability, A may p r o f i t more than B from being in the selected class in grade nine, while B may profit more than A from being in the selected class in grade j£. I do not mention this fact in order to justify every change that was made in this particular class. I merely wish to point out that i t would he a mistake to assume that there were nine people included in the original class who -should not have been there. As for the ten who chose the Commercial Course,, their inclusion can not be considered a. matt-er of faulty selection. Reference w i l l be made to them in Chapter fig,. in connection with some of the diffi c u l t i e s in connection with the scheme. 2 With regard to the teachers, the consensus of opinion was that the method of selection was as reliable as could be secured under the circum-stances. • This is not to say that they considered i t perfect. It was, however, fel t that the errors in selection were due to the diffi c u l t y of comparing the data from the different schools, rather than to a fundamen-t a l error in the basis of selection. It was felt that giving a uniform examination, or a number of uniform examinations throughout a l l the grad8 eight elasses of the public schools,might be of value in avoiding this d i f f i c u l t y . This has not been actually tried, but i t is quite in accord, with the findings of T. L. Kelley who says, "We have reached the con-clusion that achievement tests, i f of satisfactory r e l i a b i l i t y , do not commonly need supplementing by intelligence tests in the classification of pupils for school purposes and for prognoses as to school sucoess." 1. Kelley: Interpretation of Educational Measurements — page 28. 2. Matters per ta in ing to the c l a s s were discussed at regular s ta f f meetings. Throughout th is study 'the opinion of the teachers' refers to the general conclusions which were reaohed in these discussions. - 34 -C H A P T E R If. THE ENRICHMENT OF 'THE COURSE. When the class had been selected, a s t i l l greater problem had to be solved: what extra work was to be attempted? In any such situation, the problem resolves i t s e l f f i r s t of a l l into a choice between acceleration and enrichment of the course. In this p a r t i c u l a r experiment, we were forc-ed to decide whether we would take the work as i t i s outlined in the course of study, and complete that work in three years, or do work that is not required by the course of study and so u t i l i z e the f u l l four years. The method of acceleration did seem, at f i r s t , the easier of the two for the teachers. The programme of studies for the three-year high school course was at hand. This would solve the very definite curriculum dif f i c u l t i e s for our purposes at least. We did, however, decide that it would be pre-ferable to attempt a programme of enrichment rather than such a plan. There were many reasons f o r this decision. Let us consider some of the most important of these. The f i r s t two reasons for choosing the course cf enrichment rathfir than acceleration have to do with problems of administration. In the f i r s t place, the High School Graduation Certificate can not be granted to pupils who have not attended for the regular time (four years) in high school. If, then, this selected group were accelerated, everyone in the clas s would be forced to tfcake the Junior Matriculation examination at the end of the time, and so would be robbed of the choice of subjects found in the High School Graduation Course. It was felt that this would work a hardship on many of these students. In the second place, i t seems obvious that i n order to establish any successful scheme of acceleration under the group system of teaching, one must select one c l a s s that w i l l remain as a single group throughout the _ entire course., The class wi l l be ahead of the other classes of that part-i c u l a r year, and i f many drop out, one must either continue on with a small c l a s s or force pupils of average a b i l i t y into a rapidly progressing class which has already completed more of the course than these pupils have done. We could form no such group i n North Vancouver. In fact we were quite sure that a good number of those selected would choose the Commercial Course i n the second year, and that, even ha fore the second year, we would be forced to make several changes. Consequently, we thought i t best to keep a l l classes t r a v e l l i n g forward at approximately the same rate, so that any necessary s h i f t i n g to or from the class might be done with as l i t t l e harm as possible to the pupils concerned. The above objections, while they were of great importance i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r experiment, are matters of administration and do not form fund-amental objections to the plan of acceleration. It was f e l t , however, that even i f i t had been possible to organize the school i n such a way that this class might be put through i n three years, the plan of enrichment would be more desirable. One reason f o r this b e l i e f l i e s i n the fact that any plan of acceleration - whether i t be the acceleration of a whole class, a part of a class, or a single individual - sooner or l a t e r brings the accelerated p u p i l in contact with pupils who are much older than himself chronologic-a l l y . This often results i n forcing these pupils to associate with others who are much bigger and stronger than themselves, and who are more devel-oped s o c i a l l y . Unfortunately, these older students do not.recognize i n t h e i r young playmate an object v/orthy of admiration, i f they remember his age at a l l i t i s probably to r e f e r to him as "baby" or " s i s s y . " When teams are chosen f o r a t h l e t i c contests, he i s the last to be taken. In r f a c t he may often be fgiven ©way' by a 'generous' captain who wishes to raise the average a b i l i t y of h i s team. Such a s i t u a t i o n may not always develop, but what teacher has not seen i t occur often? The most unfort-unate part of i t is that the young child, just because he is bright, realizes that he is not wanted. He realizes, too, that the older boys are quite right in regarding him as a decidedly inferior player. There are a number of different !.vays in which he may react to the situation -he may accept i t . or sulk., or fight back. We are justified in assuming that, whatever the reaction may be, the results of such an experience are not in the best interests of the child. True, the c h i l d may be forced to develop a certain type of independence; but there are other methods for developing independence - methods which are a good deal more valuable because they combine the idea of independence with that of cooperation, and do not rob the c h i l d of the happiness of play that is rightfully his. The same type of d i f f i c u l t y often arises with the accelerated child, i n connection with the difference between himself and his classmates in s o c i o l o g i c a l and physiological development. Often he does not enjoy the same kind of amusement as his. older companions. At a class party, he may wish to play "Pin the t a i l on the donkey," while the rest wish to dance. His opinion on natters which involve personal experience nay not be.;res-pected by the class. The result of this often i s that, instead of being a leader in his group, the bright child is forced to ctalce a back seat3, perhaps again with the f e e l i n g that he i s not wanted. These d i f f i c u l t i e s that a r i s e from the lack of physical, physiological or social development are of very great importance i n the development of the c h i l d . Teachers, in t h e i r laudable e f f o r t to succeed in teaching, are .prone to forget that much of the development of the c h i l d takes place out-side the classroom. On the playground, i n conversation with h i s fellows and i n h i s amusements, the c h i l d i s learning new fact s and developing h i s attitudes to society. This i s as necessary f o r the formation of the per-sonality of the c h i l d as any thing that takes place within the school, . If we TO? are to accept the statement of the introduction, 'The goal of educ-a t i o n is worthy adult l i f e ; the method is the method of child development' we must rule out a l l systems of organization viiich do not contribute to the proper development of the whole personality of the child. Further, these d i f f i c u l t i e s arise as a result of acceleration in school, and not as a necessary correlative of brightness in children. The common opinion that the bright student is on the average a weak, sickly, anti-social sort of person has been shown quite false. Numerous studies have been ns de in this matter. The results of these studies can be found in p r a c t i c a l l y any book dealing with superior children. In general the results have been to show that superior children are superior to the average, not only in intelligence but also in health and in physical, physiological and social development. The most reliable study that has been made of this problem is that conducted by L. M. Terman. The follow-ing quotations, taken from Volume (1) of his book 'Genetic Studies of Genius' w i l l indicate his findings. "In physical growth and i n general health the gifted group unquestion-ably rates on the whole somewhat above par. There is no shred of evidence - 38 to support the widespread opinion that t y p i c a l l y the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y pre-cocious c h i l d is weak, undersized, or nervously unstable. Insofar as the g i f t e d child departs at a l l from the average on these traits it is pretty certainly in the other direction —• .n " T h e common opinion that intellectually superior children are charac-terized by a deficiency of play interests has been shown to be wholly un- . founded.. "Another finding of considerable importance i n this connection is that the play interests of the gifted boy are above rather than below the norm mm in degree of "masculinity." "The experiment carried out for the purpose of measuring the strength of interests along intellectual, social, and a c t i v i t y lines is perhaps one of the most significant reported i n the entire study, whether considered from the point of view of methodology or results. — i t has shown that in strength of intellectual interest ninety per cent of our gifted children surpass the average of a control group, that the superiority of the gifted in strength of social interests i s well nigh as great, and that- in activity interests the two groups are 3, practically indistinguishable." Results such as these would suggest that i f bright children have appeared weak i t i s because these children have been accelerated and com-pared with older, bigger children; i f they have appeared recluse i n their habits, i t is because i n being accelerated they have been foreed into an unsympathetic group. • , _____ 3 ; Terman: Genetic Studies of Genius. Volume (1) Page 634. 2 '« " " «' Page 637. Another fundamental objection to the plan of acceleration l i e s in the fact that such a plan makes provision for differences in the rate at which different children learn but makes no provision for differences in . the extent or the thoroughness of their learning. The results of standard tests have shown that bright pupils not only learn faster, but actually learn more,than dull ones. Their capacity for learning i s greater. They can cover a broader scope and relate tho details within that scope more logically than dull pupils can. The course for these bright pupils should take these, findings into consideration. Teachers feel the need of such a course. What teacher has not been forced to leave a section of l i t e r -ature, a problem in history or a subject in science with the feeling that only the surface was scratched, that i f only time had permitted how much more could have been done? The need for a deeper study is there. These pupils are able to profit from that deeper study. Surely i t is more sen-sible to enrich the course for them than to rush them through the ordinary course in a shorter time. This idea of enrichment rather than acceleration seems to be gaining general favour, as the method which best meets the psychological needs of the pupil. Let us notice two examples: Mr. H. M. Corning, who has re-ported on the work in Trinidad, says in condemnation of various plans of acceleration which he has mentioned, "They a l l provided that individuals could advance at different rates of speed, but they pre supposed that a l l individuals could ultimately learn the same things. How mistaken the argument seems when viewed in the light of intelligence - test results." Mr. V. T. Thayer expresses a similar view when he says, "We may conclude 1. Corning: After Testing What? Page 55. that, a genuine provision f o r individual differences i n learning w i l l take into consideration no re than variations i n the rate of learning. In addition to i n s i s t i n g that each c h i l d come up to a standard norm, i t w i l l afford opportunities f o r further development in the light of pertinent facts of maturity and growth, interests, special a b i l i t l e s , d i s a b i l i t i e s , 1 etc." In the experiment in North Vancouver, when, the decision that the course should be enriched was reached, another very serious problem pre-sented i t s e l f : what form was the enrichment to take? In this particular case each teacher of the class was made responsible for the 'enrichment' of h i s own subject. I shall outline the enrichment that was used in each subject. This enrichment is not put forward as a model. No teacher f e l t satisfied with his attempt. It w i l l , however, enable the reader to picture clearly what was done and so to form a truer estimate of the value of the whole experiment. General Science is a subject that lends it s e l f very well to this type of treatment. The purpose of the course is to familiarize the student with the general f i e M of science and the s c i e n t i f i c method. There i s no attempt to teach any great quantity of detailed matter in connection with any particular science. Consequently, i t was possible to follow the course of study quite closely, and to survey the f i e l d a l i t t l e more thoroughly at each point along the way. Various students prepared talks on s c i e n t i f i c subjects, and gave them before the class. As a matter of fact, the que s-tions that were asked by the c l a s s s during the ordinary routine of teach-ing, opened up new lines of thought to such an extent that the problem of 1* Thayer: Passing of Recitation- Page 214. enrichment resolved i t s e l f largely into a matter of selecting the partic-ular line of discussion which the class should follow. In French and in Latin, the class did work that was not required in the curriculum. In the former subject, they travelled more quickly than the other f i r s t year classes during the f i r s t part of the year, and used the time thus gained to re ad some French stories which were supplied for the purpose. In the Latin, the course was enriched by a large number of stories concerning Rome and the l i f e of the Romans. Some of these were translated; others were simply told. At the end of the year the class prepared a play, "Pyramus and Thisbe" in Latin. It was presented in the school on two occasions, and proved very popular in each case. In social studies the enrichment took the form of a more thorough discussion of problems throughout the course. Additional outside reading was done by the pupils themselves. It was felt that by reading books covering a wide range of problems, and by discussing particular problems in greater detail, the pupils would develop a wider and more reliable view point than they could obtain from the ordinary course. In mathematics, the course was f i l l e d out to a certain extent by extra exercises of a greater degree of d i f f i c u l t y . It was found very d i f f i c u l t i n this particular subject to refrain from encroaching on the work of the second year. In fact the class was very definitely acceler-ated in mathematics. The time thus gained was used for an entirely new purposes so f a r as mathematics were concerned. There were a number of pupils in the class who had been having difficulty with English Grammar. It so happened that the teacher who was teaching them mathematics was also an English, teacher. So i t was decided in class that since the years ?/ork in mathematics had heen completed, and since there seemed l i t t l e use i n forging ahead i n one subject alone, the time should be spent i n a thorough • review of English Grammar. This particular procedure i s not suggested as the enrichment of a mathematics course in ordinary circumstances, but in t h i s particular case i t seemed quite justifiable. Oertainly, under the circumstances i t was a much better plan than that of rushing on to do second year mathematics. The enrichment in English Literature took three different forms. In the f i r s t place, the selections were studied more thoroughly. Here, as i n the case of Science and Social Studies, i t was found that the selected class was ready to explore the f i e l d more thoroughly than the others. In ' this f i e l d particularly, i t became quite obvious that acceleration was not the answer to the problem of bright children. In fact, the tendency was for the selected class to move more slowly through the course of study than the other classes. Of course, they could have "crammed" poems and facts about them in less time than other classes; but they could also spend more time on any one poem, discussing i t and pointing out its beauties of sound and phrase, often dealing with matters that had escaped and always wouId escape the notice of the others. This second possibility, seems to offer the most satisfactory answer to the problem. Secondly, the students of this class were urged to read a great number of books. They were given only very general guidance as to what books they should read. Each pupil kept a l i s t of the bo oks which he had read, and pupils were given the opportunity of reporting to the class on any book that they had found -particularly interesting. ..MQjedLJlf— thasj. _ l . P o r a l i s t of material for enr iching the English Cours* see Woodring-Ben-son "Enriched Teaching of English i n the High School." - 43 -reports proved very interesting to the class, and also gave the reporter some very good practice in public speaking. The reading l i s t s , as might be expected, revealed a great variat ion. in the number of books read, and , an even greater variation in the subject matter concerned. Thirdly, the class undertook the publication of a school newspaper. The f irs t issue of the paper was published towards the end of the f irs t year. During the second year, the class published one issue each month. In the following year a regular school paper was formed, this class doing a large part of the editorial work. These papers were operated on a business basis. Ho financial aid was received from the School Board. Paper, ink, stencils, and staples were bought. Art ic les were written by members of the class and given to the sub-editors. These were examined in turn by the sub-editor and editor. V/hen the material was selected, it was turned over to the commercial department to be out on the stenci l . Pupils were always wil l ing to stay after school to help run off the copies on the mimeograph machine. The separate pages were then collected into papers and stapled together and the paper was ready for sale. This sale was then carried on by the members of the class under the direction of the sales -manage r . The money so gained, together with that obtained from advertisements of local merchants (solicited by the students) was sufficient for covering the entire cost of the paper. In this way then, the curriculum was enriched. As we have said be-fore the teachers concerned a l l felt that what was done f e l l very far short of what might be done in this respect. Further, it should be rem-embered that not the subject matter alone, but also the way in which it is presented, is of importance when one is considering the matter of en-- 44 richment. This scatter of method, however, we shall discuss later. Final ly , the question of the t e s t i n g of this class arose. Were these a s pupils to be given the same examination other pupils i n that year, or ' should they be given a d i f f e r e n t one.?: The matter ©as discussed, at some length, and i t was f i n a l l y decided that they should be given the same examination as the other classes. There were three main reasons f o r this decision. F irs t , the result of each examination must be placed on each pupi l 5 s Graduation Certif icate. Then he is given a rank A, B, C, etc. He w i l l use that Certificate to indicate how well he has done in school. Hothing is said on that certif icate about superior classes. Hence, in order to give these pupils the standing that they deserved on t h e i r cert-i f icate , i t was necessary to give them the same examination as the other pupils in the school. Secondly,we were anxious to compare the special group with the rest of the school to learn whether our selection and our methods had been sound. Perhaps we had not chosen the right pupils? Perhaps, in our enthusiastic endeavour to enrich the course, we had neg-lected the necessary d r i l l on the fundamentals? We felt that i f such mistakes had been made, a common examination would reveal them. Finally, we f e l t that in a small school, particularly, the common examination would tend to keep clear the idea that pupils were i n the special class as a result of their efforts. If those in the class demonstrated that they were doing poorer work than others outside, t h e i r places could be changed. Thus, a l l knew that those in the class were there only so long as they deserved the pos it ion, while those in the other classes felt that the door was not forever closed to them. - 45 ~ O H A P T E B ?1. lATIOg OF PUPILS * SOME CRITICISMS. There are c e r t a i n criticisms which are commonly made concerning any plan of segregation. Let us now consider some of the more serious of these. One crit ic ism that is sometimes brought against this plan is that the plan is not democratic. The argument seems to be that, by s i n g l i n g out certain pupils and giving them special training, we are not treating a l l pupils in the school a l ike . A very l i t t l e serious thinking w i l l make clear that this is not the case. From the standpoint of the teacher a l l are being treated a l ike . The teacher i s trying to assist in the develop-ment of each ch i ld . If c h i l d "A" shows the most satisfactory development when he is taking the regular course, and chi ld "B" shows the most satis-factory development when he is taking an enriched course, they must be given these different courses. In each case the teacher is providing the best possible situation for the development of the chi ld . Further, the plan i s not undemocratic from the standpoint of the chiId. The class is open to a l l . Those wno are kept out are kept out as a result of their own failure to make a required standard. Making the achievement rank the f i r s t basis for selection emphasises this, and appeals to the pupils' sense of j u s t i c e . We r e a l i z e that factors over which the pupil has no control play a part i n determining h i s success or fa i lure . This,however, is a matter over which we have no control, and we must adapt our ideas of democracy to i t . The plan is not undemocratic. In fact, it is a good deal more democratic than the system we now generally follow, simply because it approaches more nearly to the ideal of providing for each child conditions under which that particular child can best develop. A second crit ic ism is that parents object to having their children placed into 'bright' 'average' and ' d u l l ' classes. This criticism does c a l l attention to a real danger in the plan. If the classif ication Is carried on in such a way that there is any stigma attached to the lower groups, parents w i l l certainly object, and rightly so. If, however, the facts of the case are presented f a i r l y , and the real reasons f o r the change are explained, there should be no trouble from this source. The case of the experiment in Eorth Vancouver is an example of this . The plan was explained to the parents at a Parent Teacher Association meeting. It was pointed out that there were differences in the pupils of grade IX -some learned quickly, others learned slowly, some had a firm grasp of their public school work, others grasped it only well enough to s l i p through the entrance examination. It was also pointed out that those -who came into high school with a firm grasp of their elementary work could cover more work than those who did not. Parents saw f a i r l y clearly that the proposed segregation would benefit not only the group who were to do more work, but also the other group. In our experience there were no serious complaints from parents. The situation i n North Vancouver was comparatively simple because there was no du l l group. No chi ld was given less than the ordin-ary course. Mo parent could very well demand that his child be given more. Howevero the experience of other experimenters in the f ie ld seems f a i r l y uniform on th i s matter. That of Mr. Coming i s a good essanpieo He states that he had anticipated great opposition from the parents, and, to prevent i t , he conducted a publicity campaign before the actual inception of the plan. He reports that "the storm of opposition which vas anticipated has - 47 -n e v e r arrived," The plan had been in practice f o r four years when he wrote? "The homes are more than passively agreeable to the plan. Many, a surprisingly large percentage of them, are enthusiastic in t h e i r praise, • Even many parents of A - division children have expressed to the school authorities t h e i r enthusiasm f o r the new c lassi f icat ion. The patrons of the Trinidad schools are convinced that the a b i l i t y ~ grouping idea i s a great improvement- over the old grading plan." There i s no need f o r secrecy in the adoption of such a scheme, i f parents r e a l i s e that there are differences i n children, that there is no stigma attached to the slow learner, and that the plan i s not for the- > ... benefit of any p a r t i c u l a r group but f o r the good of a l l concerned, they w i l l not o f f e r opposition to i t , but rather.they w i l l support i t . Parents (and teachers too) must be made to r e a l i z e t h i s a l l important fact i f the scheme i s to be r e a l l y successful. A third crit icism to the plan is that it tends to produce a special class - consciousness and within that class to produce an attitude of snobbishness. With the f i r s t part of the statement the writer agrees, but denies that i t is an objection. It does produce a certain class conscious-ness. Any class in a high school should have a ce r t a i n class s p i r i t . If that class happens to be composed of individuals who are nearly a l i k e in mental ab i l i ty and who have many interests i n common, that class spir i t is • l ikely to be very strong. But this recognit ion of a special group is not in i t se l f harmful e The same sort of segregation is talcing place before our eyes in adult l i f e . One's c irc le of friends, a residential d is tr ic t , an association of business men, a fraternal organization - a l l these are I and Z'> Comings A f t e r Testing What? Page 183. examples °£ s e l e c t i v e groupings that take place naturally in ordinary l i f e . We do not argue that adults of si m i l a r intelligence, interests, and s o c i a l standing should he forced apart and compelled to work with people who diff e r from them in these respects. We have found that the best re-sults are obtained when such people are allowed to form more or less hom-ogeneous groups, of which each member i s quite conscious, and to work and learn together. If this i s so, there can be no real harm in the mere fact of class consciousness. The real danger, is suggested in the second part of the criticism -the danger of developing a snobbish attitude toward, other pupils. That there is a r e a l danger here no one would deny. Yet the danger can be avoided-. In fact, such an attitude can be discouraged more easily in a segregated class than in a class formed by chance selection. Perhaps the most powerful factor in this respect is that suggested by Miss Helen Davis in her report on this particular problem. She says, "Our respondents almost universally report that the attitude of pupils who have shown ten-dencies toward egotism, snobbishness, and an overbearing sense of import-ance changes when they are placed in competition with those whose capacity 1. • is equal or superior to their own." It seems to be the common experience of those who have actually worked with the system that pupils who might become conceited through leading an ordinary class are kept within bounds when they rank near the middle of the superior class, and that those pupils who are able to top the superior class are bright enough to be impressed with the vast amount that they have yet to learn. Such a realization is always a healthy antidote for any tendency towards conceit. 1. 1224 Yearbook: Hat. Soc. for the Study of Education, page 129. - 49 -Furthermore, this tendency toward snobbishness can be further opposed by getting these children to see that they are no 'better' than children in other classes. It i s very wholesome for them to reflect that they have generally achieved their success through hard work, and that as soon as they cease to work they w i l l cease to be successful. It is well, too, f o r them to realize that i f they find i t easier to learn than do soma of their friends, they can take no credit for that fact. The ability to learn and think comes as a g i f t from those forces which give us l i f e , and i f anyone who has been given that ab i l i t y in large measure does not make correspond-ingly large returns to society, he is fai l i n g in his trust. Finally, children i n such a group should be brought to see that the a b i l i t y to suc-ceed in school work is not the only qualification for l i f e , musical a b i l -ity, a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , the a b i l i t y to persevere i n the face of defeat, the a b i l i t y to sympathize and co-operate with other people - these and many others go to make up a well formed personality. Without them, or at least some of them, intellectual success is empty. Many of our 'bright pupils' could well afford to learn from some of our 'school failures' i n th i s res-pect. The writer does not suggest that children should be 'kept down' by being constantly reminded of such facts as these. It has been his exper-ience that even the superior group needs to be encouraged much more often than i t needs to be reminded of i t s shortcomings. Yet he feels that there i s no need for secrecy in the matter. His experience with these people leads him to believe that i f the whole situation is put before them in a sincere and sympathetic way, they grasp i t with amazing clarity and under-standing. When that is done, there is l i t t l e l i k l i h o o d of developing snobbishness. ~ 50 ~ One point in this connection - the attitude of the parents and the teachers to this whole matter i s of utmost importance in determining the attitude of the children. If only a l l parents and teachers could he . brought to see the situation as a whole, there would, be l i t t l e trouble with the children, when a class is told that it is supposed to be "brainy", or when parents make a habit of discussing the outstanding abi l i ty of th e i r child in that child's presence, the child does not have a f a i r chance to develop normally. After a l l , the problem i s one of attitude; -and these broader a t t i t u d e s , while they may have their r a t i o n a l background more or less clearly defined, are to a very considerable degree 'caught• from those with whom we live and work - especially from those who have won our respect. If this be true, the need of an enlightened, sane a t t i t -ude on the part of parents and teachers is obvious. Granted that, we may reasonably expect that the class w i l l work effectively to its goal i n academic work and at the same time develop wholesome s o c i a l attitudes. A fourth crit icism is that this plan necessitates the shifting of pupils into and out of the class. If we were equipped with reliable tests to cover every phase of personality involved in learning, we might be able to choose our class in such a way that, barring accidents, no change would be necessary* Such, however, is not the case, and we do find that some changes are necessary. The number of changes which actually were made in our experiment has already been discussed in Chapter IV - These changes were rcade on the basis of the rank of the pupils in the term examinations. No actual l imits were set, but those who ranked in the f i r s t - say twenty five - were moved into the superior class. Generally, the staff did not f e e l satisfied with this part of the experiment. Obviously, the number - 51 -of cases dealt with has teen small, and i t would be f o o l i s h to draw general conclusions from so few. However, some of the problems are of such v i t a l importance that they deserve special comments In the f i r s t place, there i s a danger that the p u p i l who is moved w i l l miss part of the work of the grade. True, the plan i s adopted with the idea of enriching the course rather than that of accelerating the pupil. There is, however, a tendency to accelerate the class during the f i r s t part of the year and use the time thus gained for enrichment later on. Further, when different teachers are teaching different classes, i t is p r a c t i c a l l y impossible for a l l to keep together so closely that -changes may be nade from one class to another without forcing the pupil to miss some part of the work. This loss is of special importance in the case of a student who is being moved into a superior group. If the principles applied in the original selection were at a l l sound, any students who will be moved into the class w i l l be students who are not outstanding. Under most favourable circumstances, they could not be e-cpected to rani; high in the superior group. If' they are placed in this group without having covered a l l the work that has been done by the group, it is very likely that they w i l l become discouraged in an apparently vain attempt to keep up with the rest of the class. The only solution for this problem seems to be that these pupils should be taught out of class the -work they have missed. This seems to offer a solution, yet when teachers are actually teaching in the classroom for ninety five per cent of their time, and correcting books, preparing lessons, and carrying on athletics and other activities outside of school hours, i t is often a physical impossibility to f i n d time to give these pupils the attention that they - 52 -need. In the second place, the attitude of the student toward the change must he taken into account. Here we must remember that the student's .scale of values may differ very markedly from that of the teachers. For him sohool is a large part of l i f e . It involves many things other than teachers and academic work. From his stand point the re nay be many reasons for his not moving to the superior class. He has learned to regard him-self as part of his own class. He has his friends there. Often, perhaps, he has pointed out in no uncertain terms the superiority of his own class to that to which i t i s suggested he should move. He has become acquainted with certain teachers and with his own cla s s mates. To him it may seem almost an act of disloyalty to .leave his old class and go to another. Then too, he must picture to himself what his condition in that other class will be. He has been able to show himself to good advantage in his own class, w i l l he be able to do the same in the new one? Quite likely he w i l l not. He w i l l be not only a new student in the class, but one of the poorer students in the class. He i s being asked to change from a class where he is known and respected to a class where he w i l l be regarded as a 'new boy' who is 'only f a i r ' . Furthermore, he has done very well in his old class, so why change? No one can talk to these students without sensing the sincerity of t h e i r attitude. True, some of them simply wish to avoid the extra work involved in the change, and others have only some vague notion that they do not want to change. The fact remains, however, that many of them have good reason for the position which they take. Of course, many of those who rank high wish to go into the superior class. They regard i t as an opportunity and they w i l l do their best to ~ 53 -hold their places there. Some however, do not wish to go. It seems a l i t t l e unfair that they should he rewarded for their good work by being forced into a new class when they would much prefer to stay in their own. .In such cases, the only real solution of the problem seems to l i e in a frank discussion of the matter between the principal, the student and his parents. Each should be allowed to present his particular point of view, and together they should come to a decision. Generally speaking, pupils should be shifted into and out of the superior group only when i t is absolutely necessary. Much harm may be done to the student, and much dissatisfaction to both student and teacher may arise* The shifting of each pupil should be made an individual study. Gare should be taken to see that he does not miss any necessary vork, and he should not be forced into the superior group against his wi11. : A f i f t h criticism to this plan of segregation i s that such a plan w i l l spoil the other classes for teaching by robbing them of the best pupils. The writer feels that this is a very weak objection, and w i l l deal with i t very briefly. Let us grant at once that when the best students are segre-gated into one class, the average brightness of the other classes i s lower than i t would have been, had there been no segregation. Let us grant, too, that on the examinations the other classes do not come up to the standard of the superior class. This does not prove that those classes are spoiled for teaching. After a l l , we are teaching individuals and not classes* If we go into a room (not the superior) and find that no one in the room i s answering our questions, that seems to show us that our questions are too d i f f i c u l t for the individuals whom we are iteaching. Had there been six or seven 'bright students' in the room, they would probably have answered our questions f o r us. The fact that our questioning was above the heads of most of the class might have passed unnoticed. The removal of the bright students from any ordinary class simply forces upon our attention what is , happening a l l the time with the average and the d u l l . The r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s may not be a very pleasant experience, but i t i s very wholesome f o r the teacher. Kow segregation not only shows the teacher the need of different methods with these classes I i t also provides a s i t u a t i o n in which these methods can be applied. When the brighter pupils are removed, teaching methods can be adjusted and more time can be given to d r i l l . The teacher i s r e l i e v e d of the problem of keeping the brighter p u p i l interes-ted. This, of course, does not mean that the class average w i l l be as high as that of the superior class on the f i n a l examination, but i t seems reasonable to expect that each individual wi11 do at least as well as he would have in an ordinary c l a s s . We must r i d ourselves of the old error of judging the success of our work by examination r e s u l t s as shown i n class averages. When our interest i s i n the development of each c h i l d , and not in the c l a s s marks, segregation becomes a help, rather than a hindrance i n teaching. The f i n a l c r i t i c i s m i s that i n such a system of segregation, some pupils may be foreed to. do too much work. This objection does, mark a very r e a l danger in the system - especially i n the smaller schools. When a 'superior cl a s s ' contains the top twenty-five or t h i r t y percent of the pupils i n grade .IX i n any school, ths weaker pupils i n that 'superior group' are not r e a l l y superior students i n the ordinary sense cf the word* They are probably a l i t t l e better than average. There is a danger, i n such cases, of becoming s l i g h t l y over-enthusiastic i n the scheme and of ~ 55 -expecting too much from these people. Most of them are very conscientious workers, and they w i l l often make courageous efforts to do this extra work without complaining. They may even go to the extent of giving up the time ordinarily used for athletics and s o c i a l functions and use this time for study. In the case of the experiment in North Vancouver, I feel that the large exodus from the superior group to the Commercial Course • is in part due to this cause. Of course there were other causes, hut the students themselves named the amount of work that was required in the superior class as one of the causes for their change. Ho one, would argue that any student should he forced to work so hard that he finds the work burdensome or loses time whi ch should be given to recreation. The danger is that the teacher may place the pupil in this position without realizing that lie is doing i t . One could scarcely c a l l this criticism to the scheme. It is merely a warning that those in charge should satisfy themselves that the weaker pupils of the superior class are not being overworked. These, then, are the most serious criticisms which are brought against the plan of segregation: 1. The plan is not democratic. 2 . The parents object to the classification. 2. The plan tends to develop class consciousness and an attitude of snobbishness. 4. The plan necessitates too much moving of pupils from one class to another. 5. The plan spoils the other classes for teaching. 6. The weaker pupils of the selected group may be required to do too much work. We have seen that none of these statements needs be true of a plan ' of segregation. We have not said that they could not be true of such a •'1. - Chapter (17) page — plan* On the contrary ? each statement represents a danger whi'oh must he c a r e f u l l y avoided i f the plan i s to he a success., The task of avoiding these dangers w i l l require a l l the s k i l l and tact that one can command. It i s not an easy task; hut i t i s not an impossible one. C H A P T E R - .Til'» SEGREGATION OF PUPILS - SOME ADVANTAGES. Having noted some of the dangers to he avoided in following out this plan, l e t us no?; turn to consider some of the advantages that may he gain-ed from i t . Let i t be clear at the outset that mere segregation in it s e l f offers, so far as we know, no advantage over the ordinary method of group-ing. D. R. Cook-s report of an experiment carried on in this connection is interesting. He says: "As a result of this experiment, we are unable to say that the grouping of high school children according to ability secures better results than random grouping, for the comparison of the scores obtained by pupils of high a b i l i t y in selected and mixed classes, and, also, a comparison of the scores of pupils of inferior a b i l i t i e s in the various subjects, do not a l l show the same tendencies. " I t w i l l be noted that i n planning this experiment, no attempt was made to formulate teaching methods specially adapted to classes of high or low a b i l i t y . Each teacher v&s instructed to use such methods as she would or d i n a r i l y have used in dealing with pupils of varying a b i l i t i e s i n th e i r classes. It i s the sole purpose of this study to determine i f there was any advantage to be gained from homogeneous groupings. While the mere device of grouping according to ability does not siow strong enough or consistent enough advantages in any subject to justify the time and work which i s required to c l a s s i f y the pupils in this manner, i t i s quite possible that with a special method of instruction, adapted to each of these groups according to i t s needs, such a plan of grouping might show very positive results." . 1. 1924 Yearbook':" Nat. Soc. for the Study of Education - Pages 311-32. - 5 8 -This lengthy quotation c a l l s attention to a fac t which is of great importance in any scheme of segregation. It is a mistake to think that, when the best pupils are segregated into one cl a s s , the benefits of the scheme are going to come as the direct consequence of that segregation. Any of the dangers mentioned i n the previous chapter may be the r e s u l t . The most that can be said f o r segregation i s t h i s , that i t provides the conditions under which the teacher and pupils may work more efficiently, and i t makes possible for each child a closer approximation to the goals that we set for a l l in education. One advantage of segregation is that i t makes possible the setting of a. more just standard of accuracy than could be set i n an ordinary class. In practically every subject, there are certain facts that pupils should know. In matters involving bald facts, we strive to make the standard "Absolute Accuracy." The dif f i c u l t y comes when we attempt to say just how far this p r i n c i p l e of "Absolute Accuracy" shall be applied. It has been pointed out in a previous chapter that the bright student can learn not only more quickly, but also more thoroughly, than the ordinary child. It would seem, then, that we are quite j u s t i f i e d in demanding a higher standard of accuracy from these superior students. Obviously, it is easier to set these different standards i f the pupils are grouped accord-r-ing to a b i l i t y . It becomes a matter of different standards for different classes; and, while the teacher w i l l s t i l l need to make allowance for individual differences within any one class, those differences w i l l not be as great as they would be in ordinary classes. But this demanding of a higher standard of accuracy from the super-i o r students does not mean that these students spend more time in d r i l l - 59 -than the others. As a matter of f a c t , they spend much less. They achieve t h e i r greater accuracy through their greater a b i l i t y to learn, and they learn i n less time than the ordinary student. There must be , d r i l l i n the superior c l a s s . The children do not d i s l i k e i t as long as they r e a l i s e that they are d r i l l i n g on things that they do not already know. Bright c h i l d r e n are much more patient i n this respect than ordin-ary children* They are usually willing to stay at the d r i l l work until the work i s known thoroughly* Even granting that greater accuracy is demanded of the superior class, and that d r i l l is necessary for achieving i t , the fact remains that less time is required for this part of the work. The question then arises, what shall we do with time thus gained"? Under the o l d system the bright student either wasted the extra time, or became bored through being forced to d r i l l on work that he already knew. Under the system of segregation, the students of the superior class may be given work in which they are interested during this extra time. This work, however, must not be regarded as merely a pleasant way of passing some lei s u r e tame. It is of quite as much importance as the work that is required of a l l p u p i l s . If the student is properly guided in this work, he w i l l be broadening h i s knowledge of the subject which he is studying. He wi l l be learning facts about it that w i l l not be considered in the regular classes. In short, he w i l l be increasing his knowledge i n a systematic way, and thus w i l l be providing himself with a better background both for the formation of judgments regarding matters pertain-ing to that f i e l d and f o r future study in i t . It is much easier to make provision f o r such ad d i t i o n a l study i n a segregated group than in an un-selected one. In fact, the a d d i t i o n a l work i s carried out largely as - 60 -part of the regular class work. This is the second advantage of the plan. The third advantage of the plan is that i t provides a good opportunity for the adjusting of teaching methods to the abilities of the pupils. • With the modern emphasis on c h i l d developments new methods of group teach-ing have been brought forward. Two of the most common of these are the 'socialized, r e c i t a t i o n ' and the 'project method.' These terms are used to denote so many different things that i t is impossible to define them clearly. The outstanding features of each of them, however, are quite well known to a l l . They both involve a cooperative effort on the part of students and teacher in the completion of some task in which they are naturally interested. We shall not discuss here to what extent these meth-ods are suited to the 'fundamentals' of the curriculum. It i s generally granted that, when they are properly followed, they do provide the pupil with an experience which should result in desirable social attitudes and habits. The contacts which he makes with other students, the teacher and those outside the class room, while he is 117/ing to complete his task -a l l these help him to learn how to live successfully with other people. A segregated group of superior students .offers an excellent opportunity for the use of such a method. In the experiment in North Vancouver, much of the additional work that was done was work of this 'project' nature. The preparation and presentation of the Latin play, for instance, involved a good deal of planning and organising as well as the actual memorizing of the Latin. This planning and organising was done by the pupils themselves. Surely the experience gained from this is at least as valuable as that gained in actually learning the facts of the language. The production of the newspaper provided valuable experience i n writ-ing and drawing, pupils took special care to do t h e i r work as well as they could, f o r they knew that t h e i r reward would be. not merely a mark from a •teacher, but the praise or blame of t h e i r friends. This desire to produce good a r t i c l e s f o r the paper also stimulated many of the pupils both to read mors and to analyse what they read more c a r e f u l l y . Many situations which arose in the production of the paper provided good opportunities for class debates. Many of the points that were debated may seem at f i r s t to be unimportant. Yet they were of vi t a l importance .to the class, for the success of the paper depended on t h e i r proper solut-ion. Periiaps, too, these questions were actually of great importance in themselves, because they were cl o s e l y connected with the every day l i f e of the pupils. A few illustrations of the subjects which were debated follow. Some thought that the paper did not have a sufficient number of jokes I others thought that it had too many, or that the jokes were too foolish. Some thought that the paper should be "pepped up " by the use of modem slang; others thought that the use of SLIch would lower i t s standard. Some thought that the paper should be edited in such a way that i t would sell easily; others thought that it should be used to improve the tone of the school. These are only a few of the points which arose during the produc-tion of the paper. They were debated during class periods, according to the form of a regular business meeting. The pupils- not only settled the question in hand, but they also gained experience in taking part in a business meeting. They were urged to think independently during the dis-cussion, to express t h e i r thoughts clearly and forcefully to the chairman, and to state a l l that they had to say in one speech. Of course, they often - 62 -f e l l f a r short of perfection i n a l l of these things- ~ what group of adults does not? - Yet there is l i t t l e doubt that the experience gained i n such discussions was of very great value and that the time required was 'well spent. These two "projects" have been mentioned to suggest some of the pos-s i b i l i t i e s of addit i o n a l work i n a segregated superior c l a s s . Had the pupils who composed t h i s class been scattered through the four classes of that grade, such an undertaking would have been impossible as a class project. It i s true there are many other types of project that would be of equal or greater value. - Segregation on the basis of a b i l i t y should prove h e l p f u l i n a l l , f o r i t brings those students who have time to spend on such projects into one class where they may work as one group during school hours. But discussion's are not confined to extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , i n the teaching of the work required i n the course of study, there are many opportunities f o r class discussion. Problems of history and of current events, interpretation of poems, references to s c i e n t i f i c inventions, -these things require discussion by the c l a s s . Such discussions are much more l i k e l y to be successful i n a selected group than i n an unselected one. If there i s a very great range i n a b i l i t y i n a class, the discussion is almost certain to be either boring to the bright students or 'over the heads' of the d u l l . When classes are segregated, students have an oppor-tunity f o r discussing matters with other students who are nearer t h e i r own l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Thus the bright students are given the advantage of matching t h e i r ideas with those of people who are equally bright; and the d u l l e r students, who might otherwise remain s i l e n t , are given the opportunity f o r expressing t h e i r ideas in a group in which those ideas w i l l be appreciated. Here again i t i s necessary to bear in mind that the benefit does not necessarily come with the segregation. We can say only that when classes are segregated, the teacher has a better opportunity to have class d i s -cussion than when they are not. But the teacher must keep the situation well in hand i f the re is to be success under any sort of classification. Many pupils are very self-conscious and find it extremely hard to take part in such discussions; others wish to be in the lime-light and w i l l talk even when they have nothing to say. It has not yet been shown that there is any difference between 'bright* and 'dull * students i n t h i s respect. There is always the danger of getting away from the subject and simply wasting time (bright students are p a r t i c u l a r l y clever i n t h i s respect). If the teacher hopes to be successful i n conducting discussions, he mast see that such dangers are avoided. We might sura the matter up b r i e f l y by saying that, although there are many things which may s p o i l class discus-sions and render them valueless,the chances for success are greater in a selected, than in an unselected, group. In the f i r s t chapter of this study, an attempt was made to indicate modem emphasis on the wholesome development of the personality of the child, i t was pointed out that the attitudes which a child develops to-ward, himself, and toward society,are of v i t a l importance in any system of training. The last claim of this chapter is that the plan of segregation offers a better situation for the development of proper attitudes, than the old method of random grouping. - 64 -In dealing with the general attitudes of a child, we must r e a l i z e that the child comes into high school with his attitudes already partially formed. Each pupil a r r i v e s with certain ideas of proper conduct. Certain 'things he has learned are wrong, and other things he has learned are r i g h t . He has developed attitudes of one kind or another toward teachers. He may regard them as friends who help, or as authoritative "beings who demand. He has formed l i k e s or dislikes toward the various subjects which he has studied. He has come to havejsome more or less d e f i n i t e feelings toward other members of society. These attitudes have been formed - and very de-f i n i t e l y formed in mos't cases - out of the experience of the past. In some cases the attit u d e i s desirable; i n others, i t i s not. The high school teacher i s , then, faced with the task of changing certain undesirable attitudes, and strengthening the desirable ones. • In dealing with any attitude - l e t us say the attitude of a c h i l d to the teacher, to take a very delicate case - a frank discussion of the pro-blem i s of very great value. Years ago, children were told what they should and should not do. Teachers endeavoured to develop proper attitudes by preaching a series of moral sermons on the proper attitude of children tov?ard teachers, elders and other children. We a l l know how this method failed. Perhaps i n our eagerness to avoid the evils of 'preaching* at children, we have gone to the other extreme and failed to give them enough guidance in their forming of attitudes and habits. Children enjoy discuss-ing questions of right and wrong, and questions of attitude, both in class and individually with the teacher. They like to find the logical basis for attitudes that are commonly accepted as right; and in a surprisingly large number of cases they are quite willing to make an attempt to state why their - 65 -own attitude i s d i f f e r e n t from that which is generally accepted as r i g h t . These discussions, i f they are spontaneous and frank, are helpful to the students and teacher alike. They tend to strengthen the desirable a t t i t -. udes by showing the reason for them; and they provide an opportunity for these Who have developed attitudes that are considered harmful, to examine the those attitudes more closely and perhaps to discover^fault of their pos-ition. The important point is that these discussions must be really dis-cussions, and not lectures, led by the teacher. The teacher may express his opinion, but he should not try to force i t on the students. But mere discussion of an attitude or habit is not, in i t s e l f , sufficient. Before the ideas which are discussed can be of real value to the student they must pass from the realm of theory and find expres-sion i n actual practice. Attitudes and habits develop, whether we wish i t or not, out of every day experiences. Such development may be influenced and guided by theoretical discussion, but the fact s t i l l remains that i t takes place during the course of ordinary work. A segregated group provid-es a better unit both for the discussion and for the development of these attitudes and habits than an unselected group. It forms a better unit for the discussion of these problems because the members of such a group are more likely to have similar points of vie?? than members of an unselected group. A l l have passed through public school with more "than average success. A l l have experienced something of the satisfaction of knowing that they have done a task w e l l . Practically a l l are looking forward to completing their course in High School, and to gaining as high a standard as possible. With such experiences as these in common, the pupils are in a position to discuss logically their common objectives. It is true that some children i n the selected group f a i l to develop the most desirable habits. It is also true that fine attitudes and habits are often develop-ed i n unselected groups. Nevertheless,,' i t seems reasonable to suppose • that the most successful discussions of such matters would be found in selected groups. Experience has shown that such discussions can, in a selected group p a r t i c u l a r l y , be most interesting,and h e l p f u l . From another point of view, the selected- group provides a better opportunity than the unselected group f o r the development of these attitudes and habits. It seems a most unreasonable thing- that we should discuss with a c h i l d the virtues of industry and then allow that child t h i r t y minutes to do a task that requires only twenty minutes of h i s time. It seems equally unreasonable that we should discuss with him the virtues of honest e f f o r t , and then give him., a task which he cannot accomplish even with his best efforts. yet we are actually doing one or the other of these -when we set common tasks for unselected classes. She bright pupils not only f i n d the ordinary task too easy but fi n i s h i t in.a very short time, while the dull pupils find the same task impossible. Habits of time wasting on the one hand, and a discouraging sense of defeat on the other, are the l o g i c a l r e s u l t s , i f , however, the class is a segregated class, there i s less unfairness to the pupils. Even wifein the segregated group there are differences of a b i l i t y which must be recognized i n any s a t i s -factory scheme of teaching! but these differences are not so si g n i f i c a n t as the differences found i n an ordinary, unselected c l a s s . Consequently, i t i s much easier to set tasks that are of the proper d i f f i c u l t y f o r a l l the members of the class. Under such circumstances the pupils f i n d them-selves doing tasks that are neither too easy nor too hard, and competing against; other pupils of approximately equal a b i l i t y . It i s i n such circumstances that wholesome attitudes to the rest of the group and ec omical habits of work w i l l be developed. These9 then, are the main advantages of the plan of segregation: 1. More just demands regarding accuracy i n the fundamentals may be made. E. A wider f i e l d of study may be covered, S. Socialized methods are more easily adopted. 4. Most satisfactory conditions are provided for the development of desirable attitudes and habits. - 68 « 0 H i P I E 1 - . . T i l l ' ' . DIFFICULTIES IN ADOPTING. A SGK.ME OF SEGREGATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY. In the last two chapters we have considered some of the arguments for and against the principle of segregation. Let us now turn our atten-tion to the problem of applying such a plan in the schools of our own province. The present course of study for the schools of British Columbia is compiled on the assumption that classes are not grouped according to a b i l i t y . Our system of granting certificates and awards is built on the same assumption. Consequently, when we attempt to carry out a plan of segregation in a school in this province we meet with certain very definite d i f f i c u l t i e s . These d i f f i c u l t i e s arise, not from the segregation it s e l f , but from the fact that we are attempting to adopt a system of segregation under an educational system which has made no provision for i t . Let us now consider soma of these d i f f i c u l t i e s . In the present chapter we shall confine ourselves to a statement of the d i f f i c u l t i e s themselves. In the following- chapter we shall consider certain suggestions for their solution. One very obvious d i f f i c u l t y is the problem of securing a suitable selection of books. Every scheme of enrichment depends on bringing before the pupils work that is not contained in the regularly authorized text book. Pupils in a selected class should be training themselves to study independently, and to find out for themselves the answers to questions arising out of their reading. For this, the pupils must have access to reference books. If such books are not available, the pupils must rely on the teacher or some other older person for their information. Such information is often not so accurate or so complete as information gained from a reliable reference book would be. Furthermore, when references are available the t r a i n i n g that the p u p i l gains in the proper use of these books i s , in it s e l f , of great value. The pupils of the selected class are . the ones who are most likely to develop into scholars who w i l l do original work i n later l i f e . It seems reasonable to suppose that it i s to their ~ advantage to Is am as soon as possible to depend on themselves for discov-ering facts, and not to depend on a teacher. This, however, can be accom-plished only when suitable l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s are provided for the schools. A second diff i c u l t y likely to arise is that with regard to individual differences in the selected class i t s e l f . The selected class is less heterogeneous than an unselected class, but i t i s not homogeneous. Within the class i t s e l f , there are great differences of interest and ability, and these require very careful consideration. For example, the chart of the classes (page 23 J wi l l show that in the arts course there are four grade nine classes, three grade ten classes, two grade eleven classes, and two grade twelve classes. This means that in grade nine approximately 25$ of the students are in the selected group; in grade ten, 33 l/3$; in grades eleven and twelve, 50%» Granting that ordinarily a small percentage of those who drop cut are from the selected group, it is quite obvious that the weaker section of the selected group is very definitely weaker than the stronger section. It has already been pointed out as one of the dang-ers of this system that the weaker section of the class may be over worked. Any satisfactory method for dealing with such a group must take into con-sideration the differences of intellectual ability within the group. In addition to differences of general ability, there were great d i f f -erences of ability in individual subjects among the members in the class. • - 70 <-> A i l teachers are aware of the fact that some students do very good work in certain subjects and only average work in others. Shis is just as one would expect. We know that the correlation between the intelligence , quotient and a b i l i t y i n individual subjects is not perfect. We know, too, that by the time pupils reach high school, they have formed definite likes for some subjects and dislikes for others. Shose d i s l i k e s , in turn, may be the result of poor t r a i n i n g i n the lower school. If so, that training-would decrease the pupils' chances for doing good work in that particular subject. We should not, then, be surprised when we. find that some of the pupils of tiiis selected group do poorly in c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c subjects. No account was taken of this fact when the group was segregated. We worked on the p r i n c i p l e that i f any p u p i l ranked high, he must be a 'bright pupil', and, that, he should be given an enriched course. She result was that some of these pupils, who would have found i t difficult enough to do the regular work in certain particular subjects, were obliged to try an enriched course in those subjects because the rest of the class were doing i t . On the other hand, there were several p u p i l s who were not i n the class because they did not attain a sufficiently high general standing, but who did possess high ab i l i t y in one or two particular subjects. Un-doubtedly, these pupils would have profited from an enriched course in those particular subjects, but this could be given only in so far as in-dividual teachers were able to make special arrangements for each case. Another point of importance is the fact that the pupils have only a limited amount of time at their disposal. In order to take an enriched course 'in any subject, any pupil must spend more time on that subject than he would for an ordinary course. A bright pupil might complete the - 71 -* enriched course' in the same time that an average pupil would complete the average course. But the pupil of slightly - more - than - average a b i l -ity would require longer for the enriched course than the average pupil requires for the average course. Such a p u p i l might take an enriched course in Latin, i n French, in Literature or in Algebra I but he would not have enough time at his disposal to take an enriched course in a l l of these. Unfortunately, our plan made no accommodation for such pupils. The third, and perhaps the greatest, dif f i c u l t y which was encountered • in this experiment -was that of finding- suitable enrichment for the var-ious classes. It has been stated that each teacher was made responsible for his own particular subject. Most teachers did, however, feel very uncertain about, and dissatisfied with the enrichment which they were able to provide. This, was not due to lack of effort on the part of the teachers. The task of arranging such a. course of enrichment is a task for an expert in curriculum construction. It i s easy enough to find ways and means for passing the time after the regularly required work has been completed, but i t i s not easy to arrange a cvirriculum that s h a l l be to the greatest advantage of the bright children. When teachers are required to teach classes of from t h i r t y to forty five pupils without having a single free period throughout the term, and when those teachers are giving from five to ten hours per week to the supervision of extra curricular activities, i t is humanly impossible for them to make any serious attempt to deal with the problem of an expert, in a f i e l d that is relatively unexplored. Further, even i f i t were possible that this enrichment could be outlined by individual teachers, i t is not desirable that i t should be done by them. As classes pass through the school, they are taught by dif f e r e n t teachers i n di f f e r e n t years. If each teacher i s responsible f o r the enriching of the course for the class he i s teaching, i t i s l i k e l y • that there will be l i t t l e continuity in the course of enrichment from year to year. Even i f i t i s possible to keep the same teachers with each class throughout i t s entire course {a plan that w i l l have i t s own disadvantages), each teacher i s s t i l l working alone and there i s no means f o r comparing the r e l a t i v e standing of pupils from different classes i n the same or i n diff e r e n t schools. A fourth d i f f i c u l t y was that the pupils of the selected group did not receive any recognition of the i r extra work at the end of the year*, 2heir report cards, and t h e i r graduation certificates were not in any way d i f f -erent from those of pupils who had done good work i n .the regular classes. Consequently, there was a f e e l i n g on the part of many of the pupils, and to a less extent on the part of seme of the teachers, that there was no compulsion about this a d d i t i o n a l work. (They regarded i t as an interesting experiment which might be dropped at any time, l a t e r a l l y , where such a f e e l i n g existed, neither pupils nor teachers entered into the project with as much enthusiasm as they would have done had they felt that they were comp-leting a necessary part of the course. It w i l l be objected that this d i f f i c u l t y reflects a poor attitude to-ward study on the part of both teachers and pupils - that i f the teachers are really interested in their work, and i f the pupils have been .properly trained, no such di f f i c u l t i e s w i l l arise. Perhaps this i s true. If so i t is only part of the truth. But,both teachers and pupils are human; and. they tend to follow the old "beaten paths, especially when new paths are more d i f f i c u l t than the old ones* So matter what interest there is i n an enriched course, there are times when the interest f l a g s . At such times, • the knowledge that there are c e r t a i n very d e f i n i t e objectives to be gained or l o s t i s a very e f f e c t i v e incentive. Let us look at the situation as i t i s i n B r i t i s h Columbia today. Each p u p i l receives, when he completes the course successfully, a c e r t i f -. icate which i s supposed to be a complete record of his work in high school. But on t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e he gets no c r e d i t f o r having taken an enriched course. His narks w i l l be high, f o r he has been ranking near the top of the grade; but they would have been equally high i f he had not done the "enriched" part of the course. In fact h i s chances for getting high marks may have been actually lessened by h i 3 spending tires on work that was not required of a l l the c l a s s e s . t© It i s not our purpose i n t h i s study to at t empt A j us t i f y or to condemn a system of 'credits' as a means of recognizing the work which pupils . have done. Our contention i s that i f the 'system be applied at a l l , i t should be applied f a i r l y to a l l students r that i s to say, those who have completed an enriched course should receive a greater number of credits than those who have completed only the ordinary course. It may be that the system of granting credits i s not a good one, and that some other system w i l l take i t s place. She point of importance f o r our discussion i s that, whatever the system may be, the student who has completed an en-riched course i n any subject should receive recognition for the additional work that he has done. These then are the greatest d i f f i c u l t i e s which arose i n the ex-periment i n Horth Vancouver. 1. Library f a c i l i t i e s were not adequate. 2 . Within the selected group there were great differences i n general a b i l i t y , and even greater differences i n a b i l i t y i n each p a r t i c u l a r subjects 3. The enrichment of the course was d i f f i c u l t , 4. The pupils received no recognition of t h e i r additional work. - 75 -C H A P T E R IX . SUGGESTED SOLUTION FOR THE DIFFICULTIES. It is encouraging to note that the difficulties referred to in the , last chapter are. due not to the segregation i t s e l f , hut to the circum-stances tinder which i t was carried, out. It is the purpose of the present chapter to suggest certain solutions for these difficulties, and to point out some of the advantages which might reasonably be expected to result from the adoption of these suggestions. F i r s t , schools should be provided with adequate l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . It is true that a certain type of enrichment can be carried on with only a very small library in the school. On the other hand, it seems quite evident that any satisfactory type of enrichment would involve -the use of a large number of books. The problem of securing these is purely one of finance. Gertain .organizations are at present trying to improve, school libraries, and we hope that they w i l l continue to be more and more succes-s f u l in their efforts. The library has too long been regarded as an added feature in the school - a place where students may pass the time when they are not otherwise engaged. When i t is realized that a good library is an essential part of the equipment of any school, and that it is just as necessary for proper t r a i n i n g of children as are desks and blackboards, the finances for such libraries w i l l be found. Secondly, there should be a definite "enriched course" drawn up for each subject and authorized by the department in the same way that the regular course is authorized. The exact nature of the course would be determined by the group of qualified men who were responsible for arranging i t . ' Certain general features of the enrichment, however, may be mentioned here. The enrichment should take the form of directed study. Many reports of experiments in segregation indicate that the enrichment 'of the cur-riculum was accomplished hy the formation of clubs of various kinds in the school. Undoubtedly, pupils may derive great benefits from them. Yet such clubs do not offer a satisfactory solution of the problem of enrich-ment in high school. One would need a larger number of clubs than can be provided for a single selected- class. Furthermore, the scheme would involve the same di f f i c u l t i e s which were encountered in North "Vancouver. She work of such clubs seems vague and lacking in definite objective. What the selected group really need is definite guidance in their study. There is no need to make the enrichment take the form of play. Superior students enjoy and profit from properly directed study. It is the writer's opinion that the enriched course should run parallel to the regular course, and that i t should be so arranged that the enrichment would consist of directions for the study of topics which arise out of the regular course. Thus the enrichment would not be some^thisg superimposed upon the regular course, but simply an extension of i t . Furthermore, the enrichment in each subject should cover a very broad f i e l d . It should offer a wide range of topics so that the pupil would be free to select those which were best suited to his interests and a b i l i t i e s . Having selected his topic, however, he should find clear guidance for studying i t . It is on this point that we have often failed in the past. We have allowed our students free access to the library and have given them a l l the freedom they could wish in their reading. There i s a common con-ception that the bright pupil is the one who reads 'every thing he can get his hands on', and perhaps that conception has led us to believe that as long as a c h i l d i s interested in reading we need not i n t e r f e r e . Now i t i s undoubtedly true that bright pupils have a great many more interests than dull pupils and that many of those interests are shown in their reading , habits. This, however, is not the point which we are considering. The question i s , i f the bright child derives benefit from random reading, would he not derive much more benefit from organized and directed reading? There can bs l i t t l e doubt that he would. In order to give him this a s s i s -tance without limiting him to a narrow f i e l d , we suggest that the enrich-ment offer both a wide range of topics from which he may choose, and de-finite guidance for studying any of those topics. Thirdly, the pupil's certificate should indicate that he has com-pleted the enriched course satisfactorily. There are many ways in which this might be done. He might be given a different type of certificate. He might be given an extra credit. For example, f i r s t year literature counts three credits toward the required one hundred and twenty for the Graduation Certificate. A pupil who had taken the enriched course might be given four credits. These might be written as three in the regular column of cre d i t s and one i n a column of "extra credits". The total of the credits in this l a t t e r column at the end of four years high school would represent, in a rough way, the amount of extra work that the pupil had done. These, however, are only matters of detail. Whatever the method may be, there should be some permanent recognition of the fact that a pupil has completed the "enriched course." The benefits of such recognition scarcely require mention. In the f i r s t place, i t would mean that the certificate would be giving a truer picture of the pupils' work than i s now the case. Under the present circumstances, a pupil may do very good work throughout the high school course, but when that pupil graduates, he is presented with a certificate which i s very similar to that received by every other p u p i l who graduates , from the school. It i s true that his l e t t e r grades are marked f or each subject, but even these give only a vague idea of the student's work and indicate nothing whatever concerning.any extra work that he may have done. If, however, there i s a grading given on the extra work, i t w i l l be poss-i b l e to give a much truer picture of what the pupil has done. The effect that this recognition will have on the pupil is important. We have men-tioned i n Chapter V l l l that one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s from the stand point of the student and the teacher was that the work was too indefinite. There seemed to be no d e f i n i t e task to be accomplished! and when interest . in any p a r t i c u l a r part of the work began to f l a g , or when other interests developed, there seemed no real reason for completing the task in hand. The recognition of the extra work as a part of the course would avoid this indefiniteness. A student would decide at the beginning of the year that he was going to take the enriched course. A specified amount of work would be required to gain credit in that course. This would render the work just as definite as that required for the regular course. The student would be working toward a definite goal, and at the end of the year he would • have the satisfaction of knowing that his additional work had been recog-nised. It has been suggested that a definite course of additional work be drawn up for the brighter pupils in our high schools, and that credit be given for the successful completion of t h i s course. The final suggestion is , that a large part of this extra work be prepared in the form of - 79 -individual unit assignments such as are in. use i n the Daiton Plan or the Wirmetka system. Bach of these assignments would be b u i l t around some definite topic, i t might be an expansion of material covered i n the regular course of study, or i t might be an introduction to an e n t i r e l y new f i e l d . In any case i t would be b u i l t around some d e f i n i t e problem, and. i t would contain guides to help the pupil study that topic. It would suggest certain readings, certain contacts with men in the town, certain ways of reporting the finding to the teacher or the class. Any number of such units, let us say sixty, might be prepared in each subject. In order to gain the extra credit for any subject, a student might be required to do, l e t us say,fifteen of these assignments. Such a scheme would provide the student with both freedom of ciaoice and definite assistance i n h i s study. Some of the reasons for suggesting this individual unit assign- . ment for the work are given in the following paragraphs. In the f i r s t place, such a scheme provides the possibility f o r great e l a s t i c i t y in the f i e l d of enrichment not only for the class, but also for each individual in the class. If the assignments are to be worked out by the individual pupils, it i s not necessary that a l l members of the class should take the enriched course. This allows the weaker section of the class - a section which i s likely to be overworked - to have more time for review and thorough study of the fundamentals. This point is of im-portance, not only in small high schools where the weaker section of the class i s likely to be only slightly above average ability, but also in that gradually increasing number of larger high schools where pupils are promoted by subject. 1 This latter scheme tends to break up the regular class groups within the school. Hence, not a l l those in any one teaching 80 «*• group w i l l be f i t t e d to take the enriched course. Further, this scheme of unit -assignments makes i t possible f o r a p u p i l to bake the enriched course i n certain subjects and not i n others -' a p o s s i b i l i t y that would be welcomed by many students of s l i g h t l y better than average a b i l i t y . Under t h i s scheme i t i s possible for any p u p i l i n a selected class to take the regular course in any particular subject, just as i t i s possible f o r a student, not in a s p e c i a l l y selected class, to take the enriched course i n any p a r t i c u l a r subject or subjects. In addition to the above freedom, t h i s system of enrichment allows a great deal of freedom of choice of subject matter on the part of each p u p i l . In each subject, the p u p i l chooses those unite which appeal most to h i s interests. Thus* several d i f f e r e n t members of the same class might be doing extra work i n the same subject, but might be following e n t i r e l y d i f ferent l i n e s of study. It i s to be no ted, too, that t h i s freedom of choice i s not obtained at the cost of definiteness in the requirements for any p a r t i c u l a r u n i t . ThexB are definite requirements for each u n i t ; and, having chosen that unit, the student i s provided with d e f i n i t e instruction for the carrying out of his task, as well as a d e f i n i t e standard to be achieved before getting c r e d i t f o r i t . l o t only does t h i s scheme of enrichment provide the pupils with a wide range of choice, i t also provides them with enrichment i n a form that i s e s p e c i a l l y suitable to their p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t i e s . Helen Davis, i n dealing with the mental t r a i t s of g i f t e d children, l i s t s as the most commonly mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , ease of assimilation, i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y and i n i t i a t i v e , a b i l i t y to generalise, broad-mindedness, s e l f - 81 -c r i t i c i s m , etc. Such q u a l i t i e s as these would seem to f i t the bright c h i l d p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the task of attacking a problem such as he might f i n d i n the individual unit assignment. The same idea in contained i n the , following quotations B chosen from many sim i l a r expressions of opinion on the subject. The f i r s t quotation i s from an a r t i c l e "English For The Gifted" by Helen L. Oohen: " I t has been found important to give them an opportunity for much free work i n the l i b r a r y and i n the class room - free i n the sense they are allowed to occupy themselves with projects requiring individual and o r i g i n a l research." The second quotation represents the opinion of Leta S. Hollingworth: " G i f t e d minds are especially amenable to in s t r u c t i o n by the project method, because they excel i n 'thinking things together 8, in perceiving r e l a t i o n s between and among a l l the relevant elements i n a given f i e l d of endeavour." Mrs. Hollingwprth then goes on to point out that these pupils also accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a unit assignment better than ordinary pupils do. i n providing bright pupils with individual assignments we are supply-ing them with the means where-by they may develop resourcefulness and personal confidence. These are the pupils whom we expect to be the lead-ers of the future. Their mental a b i l i t y f i ts them for the task. A good leader must, however, be more than a clever man. He must be able to. reach d e f i n i t e decisions, and to maintain h i s position even in the face of opposition. The p u p i l who has learned to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a 1» • >..\ National Society for study of Education, Yearbook 23, 1924 ,pt-& page 130. 2. The English Journal (High School Ed.) March, 1935. '3. " G i f t e d Children" Page 308, - 82 ~ unit assignment and to work that assignment through to the end has c e r t a i n l y developed the q u a l i t i e s that w i l l be valuable f o r leadership. By presenting enrichment in the form of individual assignments we are, then, presenting i n a way that w i l l tend to develop those q u a l i t i e s which should be of greatest value both to the pupils themselves and to society. This scheme of individual unit assignments does not, however, pre-clude the p o s s i b i l i t y of a d d i t i o n a l work being done by the whole c l a s s . She p u p i l who i s working at one p a r t i c u l a r unit might be required to report the results of his work to the class. ' Another might meet with a number of problems which could be discussed with the teacher and the rest of the class. Such discussions should prove interesting and helpful to a l l . She mere introduction of such a problem to the class by the p a r t i c u l a r student concerned would be an experience of great value to him. But, in addition to any class reports or discussions that might develop out of individual work, the entire class might undertake a unit as part of i t s regular work. Certain units of the enriched course might be made with this in mind. She number of cases that could make use of t h i s class work in the enriched course would depend on the p a r t i c u l a r circumstances in the' various schools, in any case the introduction of individual unit assign-ments as the basis for the enriched course does not in any way interfere with the benefits that may be derived from the proper teaching of a spec-i a l l y selected superior c l a s s . Shus, without s a c r i f i c i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a superior class, we have a p r a c t i c a l means for giving individual pupils the opportunity for doing valuable and well directed work. - 83 ~ I'o sum up what we have said], the suggestions which would provide solution f or the d i f f i c u l t i e s which were encountered are as follows! 1. Adequate l i b r a r i e s should be provided f o r a l l schools. £. An enriched course i n each subject should be authorised by the department« So The pupil's c e r t i f i c a t e should indicate that he has completed the enriched course s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . 4. A large part of the enrichment should be prepared i n the form of i n d i v i d u a l assignments. - 84 -C O I G L S S I O I Bright pupils require special instruction. The experiment which has fomied the has is for t h i s study was an attempt to.provide that special instruction by segregating the bright pupils and providing them with an enriched course. Certain difficulties were encountered in the carrying out of this plan. The data available were not entirely suitable for the selection of the class. Library f a c i l i t i e s were not adequate. Individ-ual differences existed between members of the selected group. Enrichment of the course was d i f f i c u l t . Pupils received no formal recognition for the additional work which they had done. In spite of the d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, i t i s felt that sany advantages have been gained by the plan. Pupils have done more accurate work in the fundamentals, and have covered a much broader f i e l d of study than they would have done i f they had been in an unselected group. Methods of teaching and guidance suited to the group have aided i n developing wholesome attitudes. Because i t i s f e l t that the plan of segregation has proven superior to the old method, i t is to be continued in future; but the plan would be much mora effective i f adequate l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s were provided and i f a suitable course of enrichment were authorized by the department. It i s with the hope that these conditions may soon be realised that th is study i s brought to a close. B I B L I O G R A P H Y Burt, C. : *• Educationa 1 Abilities" P. So King and Son Ltd, London. 1917 Cohen, H. L. & Coryell, if. G."Educating Superior Students" American Boole Oo. Mew York* • 1255 Corning, H. Id.: "After Testing What?* Scott Foresman and Oo. New York.. 1926 Dearborn, W. P . " I n t e l l i g e n c e Tests and Their Significance For School and Society" Houghton M i f f l i n Go. New York. 1928 Goddard, H. H. : "School Training of Gifted Children" World Book Co. New York. 1928 Eines, C« H.: "Educational Psychology" Do Van Nostrand Co, 250 Fourth Ave, New York. 1954 Hollingworth, L. S.: "Gifted Children, Their Nature and Nurture" Macmillan Co. New York. 1926 Hollingworth, L. S.: "Special Talents and Defects, Their Significance For Education" Macmillan Co. New York. 1923 Horn, J. L.: "The Education of Exceptional Children" Century Co. New York. 1924 Eandel, i . L.: "Comparative Education" Houghton M i f f l i n Co. New York. 1935 Kelley, T. L.: "Interpretation of Educational Measurements" World Book Go. New York. 1927 Lynch, : "Rise and Progress of the Dalton Plan" G. Philip and Son, London. 1926 Lynch, : " Individual Work and the Daiton Plan" G. P h i l i p and Son, London. 1925 Monroe, W. S., DeVoss, J . 0., & Kelly, F. J<>: "Educational Measurements" Houghton M i f f l i n Co. Hew York. 1917 "National Society f o r the Study of Education" Yearbooks -1924,1925, and 1926 Public School Publishing Co. Bloomington, 111. Osburo, W. J . and Rohan, B. J«: "Enriching the Curriculum For Gifted Children" Che Maomillan Co. New York. 1931 Parkhurst, H.: "Education on the Balton Plan" G. Bell and Sons, London. 1926 Putman, J . H. and Weir, G. M. "Survey of the School System of B r i t i s h Columbia" King's Printer, "victoria, B« 0. 1925 Ryan, H* H. and Crecelius P.: " A b i l i t y Grouping in the Junior High School" Harcourt5 Brace and Co. New York. 1927 Stedm&n, L. M.: "Education of Gifted Children" World Book Go. New Yorko 1924 Teraian, L. M»: "The Intelligence of School Children" Houghton M i f f l i n Co. New York 1919 Terman, L. M., Dickson, V. E., ) „ I n t e l l i g e n c e T e a t s and School Sutnerland, A. H., Franzen, R. H., . fe Reorganisation" Tapper, C. R., and Fernald, G.: ,., _ f " s * " , Q e >„ I V<orld Book Co. New York. 1922 Teraan, L. M.: "Genetic Studies of Genius" Stanford University Press 1925 "United States Bureau of Education B u l l e t i n " Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, 1952 Whipple, G. Mo: "Glasses For Gifted Children" Public School Publishing Co. Bloomington, 111. 1919 Wooiring, M. N* and Benson, 8. T. "Enriched Teaching of Engl i sh i n the High School" Bureau.of Publications 1927 Teachers Co l lege , Columbia Univers i ty , New York. 

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