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The segregation of bright pupils in a medium sized high school Matheson, Laughlin Alexander 1936

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THE SEGREGATION OF BRIGHT PUPILS IH A MEDIUM SIZED HIGH SCHOOL  •by  LAUGHLIN ALEXANDER MATHS30N  A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF  M S T E R OF ARTS  IN THE DEPARTMENT  of  PHILOSOPHY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1956  Statement of Scope of the Thesis CHAPTER  1  THE EDUCATIONAL BASIS FOR THE PRESENT STUDY  1.  Education as the acquiring of Knowledge  1.  2.  Education as the development of personality  1.  3.  Conditions under which these aspects may be combined  3.  4.  Statement of the problem to be studied  5.  CHAPTER  11  THE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY  1.  The High Sohool regarded as a Preparatory School  6,  2.  The introduction of the 'Pour Year Course*  8.  So  The d i f f i c u l t y regarding tiae Graduation C e r t i f i c a t e  9.  4.  The cause of the d i f f i c u l t y  5.  Two factors which have attracted attention to individual differences  12.  Summary  13.  CHAPTER-;.Ill 1.  GENERAL ADJUSTMENTS FOR THE RECOGNITION OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES  In Europe England  15.  France  16.  Germany  17.  2.  In United States  18.  3.  In Canada  20.  CONTENTS CHAPTER  IV  THE SELECTION OP THE CLASS .  .  Page  1.  General Organization of the North Vancouver High School  22.  2.  Data available  25.  3.  Statement of the basis f o r selection  27.  4.  Reasons for adopting these standards  26.  5.  Success of the method of selection  31.  CHAPTER 1.  7  THE ENRICHMENT OP THE COURSE  Enrichment or Acceleration? Administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s  34.  Consideration of physical, physiological and s o c i a l development The need of a broader course  35. 39.  2.  Enrichment provided  40.  3.  Examinations for the segregated group  44.  CHAPTER  71  SEGREGATION OP PUPILS - SOME CRITICISMS  1.  Plan not democratic  45.  2.  Parents object to segregation  45.  3.  Undesirable attitudes develop  47.  4.  Necessitates s h i f t i n g of pupils  50.  5.  Other classes are robbed of good pupils  53.  6.  Some pupils may be required to work too hard  54.  Sunraary  55.  CONTENTS Page CHAPTER 711.  SEGREGATION OP PUPILS - SOME ADVANTAGES  1.  Advantages are not inherent in segregation  57.  2.  More just demands regarding accuracy may be made  58.  5. A wider field of study may be covered 4»  Socialized methods may be adopted  5.  Most satisfactory conditions are provided for the  58. 60.  development of desirable attitudes and habits  63.  Summary  67.  CHAPTER ,7111. DIFFICULTIES IN ADOPTING A SCHEME OP SEGREGATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY 1.  Library facilities are not adequate  68.  2.  Individual differences exist within the selected group  69.  3.  The enrichment of the course was difficult  71.  4.  Pupils reoeived no recognition for tiieir additional work 72. 'Summary  74.  CHAPTER IX. SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS FOR THE DIFFICULTIES 1. Adequate library facilities  75.  2.  An authorized enriched course  75.  3.  Proper recognition of work  77.  4.  Unit assignments  78.  Summary  S3.  Conclusion  84.  A STATEMENT OF THE SCOPE OF THE THESIS The present  t h e s i s i s an attempt t o d i s c u s s  some of the problems  i n v o l v e d i n the s e g r e g a t i o n of b r i g h t c h i l d r e n i n the Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia« p e r i e n c e of the w r i t e r  medium s i z e d High  The d i s c u s s i o n i s b a s e d c h i e f l y on the ex-  as he has been attempting f o r the past four years  to segregate such p u p i l s i n the North Vancouver High Schools and on a study o f seme o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f segregation It must be p o i n t e d out that the present study  i s n o t t o be considered  a f o r m a l account o f any one c l a s s which h a s been s e l e c t e d . that the method by which the f i r s t  It i s true  c l a s s was selected, the type of "en-  richment" that was given, the g e n e r a l methods by which the class was handled — a l l these are described with considerable d e t a i l . of  The purpose  such description is not, however, to mate that one class the centre of  attention in the thesis, but r a t h e r to give the reader a c l e a r picture of the type of experiment on which the conclusions of t h i s study are based. Further, i t must be pointed out that the success of the methods used i n these ejeperiments has been judged largely by the subjective opinions of teachers concerning the r e s u l t s .  There was no c o n t r o l group w i t h which  the s e l e c t e d group could be compared.  Consequently, the conclusions which  are reached cannot be regarded as proved f i n a l i t i e s ; but must be valued as t h e i r own reasonableness and the degree of thoroughness o f the  experiment  warrant* "What, then," you nay ask, "is the value of the present thesis? is not a complete record of any one c l a s s , and the conclusions are not based on objective comparisons with a control group."  It  To this q u e s t i o n my answer is that the present d i s c u s s i o n nay be  of very definite p r a c t i c a l values  There are, at the present time, many  bright pupils i n the medium sized high schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. At presents t h s P r o v i n c i a l system of e d u c a t i o n mates no s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n  f o r such p u p i l s .  Those two facts give r i s e to the question, 'what can  the teachers of these schools do for these pupils?*  During the past four  years the w r i t e r , a l o n g w i t h the other t e a c h e r s of the N o r t h Vancouver High School, has been t r y i n g to p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e  pupils.  i n s t r u c t i o n f o r these  During the course of this attempt„ many problems have a r i s e n .  Should the b r i g h t p u p i l s be segregated?  be segregated?  If so, on what b a s i s should  they  Is i t necessary to have an extensive b a t t e r y of standard-  i z e d tests to select the proper group? What can actually be done under present conditions i n the way of enriching the course? the present system make such enrichment d i f f i c u l t ? the problems that have a r i s e n .  What features of  These are a few of  Ths present thesis is an attempt to d i s -  cuss some of these problems in the light of our experience in the North Vancouver High School. It seems reasonable t o suppose that such discussion may be helpful to others who are faced with similar problems* and it might conceivably be of some use i n pointing out certain defects i n our present system. is w i t h such a hope in mind that the writer presents this study.  It  C H A P T E R  1.  THE EDUCATIONAL BASIS FOR THE PRESENT STUDY In t h i s introductory chapter i t i sraypurpose to p o i n t out two main aspects of education which serve a s a background f o r the d i s c u s s i o n that i s to follow.  These aspects are mentioned, not f o r the purpose of adding  a n y t h i n g to the present conception of education, hut for the purpose of  showing the need/for a consideration of the problem which i s presented for discussion at the end of t h i s Chapter. To the average man,: education means very largely the acquiring of a c e r t a i n body of knowledge and c e r t a i n s k i l l s .  He sees the c h i l d begin  school and proceed through the successive stages of 'education . 1  that progress the c h i l d learns to do certain things.  During  He learns to read  and to write, to add and subtract numbers, perhaps to read French or Latin.  He also learns certain facts concerning the world i n which he  lives.  At the end of each term the c h i l d i s required to pass a test.  This test i s a means of finding whether he knows the f a c t s and can do the things that are required for that p a r t i c u l a r grade.  I f h i s knowledge i s  great enough and h i s s k i l l measures up to the required standard, he goes on to the next grade as a successful p u p i l .  I f he f a i l s to reach the  r e q u i r e d standards he must repeat the term.  Since such examinations as  these are the o b j e c t i v e standards by which the c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o -  gress is measured, the tendency i s to concentrate attention on the things which these examinations test, and to think o f education i n those terms. This conception of education — ledge and s k i l l — these things.  education a s the acquiring of know-  i s not e n t i r e l y faulty.  For education does involve  I f the c h i l d Is to be a valuable member of society, he must  know certain things, and be able to do oertain things. He must be able to read and write. He must be able to perform p r a c t i c a l calculations in arithmetic. governed.  He should know something of the way  i n which his country i s  He should know something of the principles that control his  own health. He should know something of the world in which he l i v e s . These are only a few samples of the many things which the child must learn and achieve i n order to take his place in society* and i t is ths business of the schools to see that the child does acquire t h i s knowledge, and these s k i l l s . ing  Education, however, i s something mora than the acquir-  of the knowledge and tho s k i l l s required for an examination.  The  process of learning involves the whole personality of the c h i l d ; and i n that process he i s building up not only a group of separate or l o g i c a l l y connected facts, but also attitudes and ideals.  These are formed,  whether we wish it or not» out of the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f .  The c h i l d who  studies merely to avoid punishment has developed the wrong attitude towards study, and i s l i k e l y to C6ase studying as soon as the punishing force i s removed.  The child who  constantly t r i e s to do work that i s too  d i f f i c u l t must, through constant f a i l u r e , ultimately become discouraged and leave school with a sense of f a i l u r e and a lack of s e l f confidence. The child who  i s continually being given tasks that are too easy i s very  l i k e l y to develop slip-shod habits of thought and work, and to leave school —  perhaps i n the honours group —  without ever having experienced  the satisfaction that comes from succeeding i n a hard task. examples i l l u s t r a t e the way  in which attitudes are developed in the  regular routine of school l i f e . about ideal adjustments  These  Teachers- and text books may theorize  to l i f e , but such adjustments become of value f o r  the c h i l d only when he has, through practice, made them part of himself. Further, the development of such attitudes and ideals w i l l be the determiners '  of the child's success i n l i f e s i t u a t i o n s .  When he has left  school, he may never again be called upon to give the formal proof of Theorem (711) Book (11) of Godfrey and 3iddons Geometry, bat who w i l l deny that he may often be called upon to meet situations which, w i l l require clearness of thought and tenacity of purpose? When he has l e f t school he may never again be c a l l e d upon to write an account of the V/ars of Napoleon, or Shelley's "To Night"; but who would deny that he is fortunate indeed i f he goes out with a love of history or of l i t e r a t u r e , and the determination and a b i l i t y to explore t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s further for himself. Thus i t i s that we have come to emphasize the development, along proper l i n e s , of the whole personality of the c h i l d .  We are coming to see  that the differences between a philanthropist and a gangster are not so much differences in the quantity of knowledge which each posesses, as they are  differences i n attitudes such as those we have mentioned.  When any  school sends out i t s students with a dulled sense of s o c i a l j u s t i c e , or with careless habits of thought, we say, quite r i g h t l y , that that school i s not succeeding in the task of education.  Teachers, school boards,  departments of education and the i n t r i c a t e machinery of our educational system —  a l l these j u s t i f y t h e i r existence only i n so far as they con-  tribute to the proper development and growth of each individual c h i l d . Fortunately, there i s no r e a l contradiction between these two aspect s of education.  Educators may argue that the c h i l d must be allowed to dev-  elop h i s own personality, and adult society may demand that the child s h a l l master certain knowledges and s k i l l s .  Theoretically, one process is the  •» A. —  complement of the other, or rather they may aspects of the same process.  he regarded as different  We can well imagine a schema of things i n  which there are a number of differentiated courses, each leading to some definite goal*  Each c h i l d , with the a i d of his advisors, would choose the  goal he wished to a t t a i n .  If interests and a b i l i t i e s were properly  weighed i n the choosing, the c h i l d might then work toward the chosen goal. D i f f i c u l t i e s would be encountered, but these would be approached as obstacles i n the path to the chosen goal and not as hard tasks assigned by an outside authority,  Thus he could work happily toward h i s chosen goal.  He would be f i t t i n g himself to take his place i n adult society, and at the same time he might be working in such a way and under such conditions as v/otild tend to help him develop the attitudes and habits which we consider most desirable,  Thus, to use the words of 7. T. Thayer, "The goal i s a  ,  • 1,  worths^ adult l i f e ; the method i s the method of c h i l d development."  This  situation, however, involves one very important  condition, the child i s  wo rising towards a goal which i s suited to hiia.  The granting of this  condition presents a very d i f f i c u l t problem to the schools, f o r we are coming to see more c l e a r l y that no two children are exactly a l i k e . Children d i f f e r i n t h e i r emotional reactions to identical situations; they d i f f e r i n their interests; they d i f f e r i n t h e i r special a b i l i t i e s ; and they d i f f e r i n their general intelligence.  We can not, then, choose any-  one goal which w i l l be suited to a l l children.  If children d i f f e r i n  interests and i n special a b i l i t i e s we must have a variety of subjects so •:. that i t w i l l be possible f o r each of those children to take subjects -which are suited to h i s own particular special a b i l i t i e s . 1  Thayer: Passing of the Recitation - P.  If children d i f f e r  270.  i i i their g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ? we must have a v a r i e t y of courses of a.  different type — we must have a v a r i e t y which w i l l make i t possible for the 'bright' child to work at a course which w i l l r e q u i r e a l l his i n t e l l igence, and f o r the 'average' c h i l d to work at a different course in the same subject which w i l l be suited to h i s intelligence.  Only when such  varieties are offered i s i t possible to choose g o a l s which are suited to the individual p u p i l s ; and only when the i n d i v i d u a l pupils are working toward such suitable goals can the larger purposes of education be f u l f i l l od. The of  problem of suiting the curriculum to the individual differences  children is a very broad and d i f f i c u l t one.  The present thesis  is  concerned w i t h only one phase of that problem — the way in which the present school curriculum may be adapted to the brighter section of the school population i n a medium s i z e d high school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. We are not concerned here w i t h the problem of offering a great variety of different subjects.  That i s a very important problem, and is one way in  which the curriculum must be suited to the individual differences of the children.  It i s not, however, the subject of t h i s t h e s i s .  ned here ra the r with the problem of selecting  We are concer-  the supe r i o r children from a  grade i n a medium sized high school, and of supplementing the regular course with other material which w i l l make the course more suited to their intellectual a b i l i t y .  o  H  A  p i  E  i  11 .  THE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY. In order to understand the situation i n B r i t i s h Columbia todays, we should look b r i e f l y at the way have been developed.  in which the high schools of the province  In the early years of t h e i r development* these  were regarded as schools schoolsxin which pupils prepared themselves f o r University.  The matricul-  ation examination was the test v&ich determined whether or not a student could enter University.  Consequently, i t seemed to be the business of  the High Schools of the province to prepare students to pass that ejsamination. .As long as most of the students of the High School were preparing for the University, this situation was f a i r l y satisfactory. there came into our schools  When, however,  large numbers of pupils who had no intention  of going to the Universityi and when we,  i n the schools, tried to prepare  a l l of these pupils for the Matriculation examination, there arose some very serious d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Many pupiIs were required to take subjects  which were not suited to their natural talents.  Others were expected to  do more work than they could successfully accomplish. alternative.  Yet there was no  Matriculation standing vsas the standard by which a pupil's  high school education was judged, and the pupil was required to gain that standing whether ha wished to use i t as an entrance to University or not. . The results/of this situation have been made so painfully clear to many pupils and parents; and to a l l teachers that i t i s unnecessary to repeat them i n d e t a i l here.  Suffice i t tc say, that only too often the ons  main object of teaching became the cramming of facts into pupils' heads in order that those pupils might pass an examination i n which they had l i t t l e or no real interest.  Under these circumstances, many of the pupils who  did not f i t the system* developed a hearty d i s l i k e for study and learned to avoid i t whenever they could do so safely. to do what they did not really want to do Only too often they left  school  s  They resented being forced ..  or what they could not do.  before they had completed their course,  with a very discouraging sense of failures and a feeling that society had l i t t l e or no sympathy for them.  Results of t h i s nature were inevitable,  as long as pupils were being forced to strive to a t t a i n goals which were not suited to their needs or capacities.  Gould a system which was  necessarily producing such results be regarded as succeeding in the task of education? That the Department of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia recognized th© shortcomings of such a system i s shown by the great change that took place through the introduction of the four year high school course i n 1929. 1925 the 'School Survey' had been published.  In  In i t Dr. Putman and Dr.  v/eir- c r i t i c i z e d on two separate grounds the curriculum, that was then being followed.  In the f i r s t place, the curriculum was too r i g i d .  "When we  come to examine the secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia we think we discover why they are not wholly popular.  The t r u t h is they have a narrow,  r i g i d curriculum — not necessarily r i g i d in intent o r in theory but i n i t s p r a c t i c a l outcome.  Outside a few large centres these schools are meet-  ing the genuine or fancied needs of at most only two classes of students — those who expect to enter University, and those who wish to teach.  In  the natural order of things these two classes put together form an i n s i g nificant proportion of the t o t a l number of pupils in high school." (Page 112).  In the second places, the curriculum was c r i t i c i s e d because it r e quired too much of the students.  Everywhere  throughout the province we  are told that the present high school course is too heavy; that tho work • i s not thoroughly done; that the burden of homework upon the student  is  oppressive and that young people are entering th© Normal Schools and the University immature and ill-prepared."  (Page 115).  In 1929 the new four year high school course was brought into effect. This change was an attempt* not only to lengthen the high school course, but to broaden i t as w e l l .  New courses were introduced, so that pupils  who were not suited to the old r i g i d curriculum might choose courses which would be more i n keeping with t h e i r ovai interests and capacities. Three main courses were offered for their choice. Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance, Commercial Course and High School Graduation.  The  subjects to be studied by those taking Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance are determined by the University and the Normal School respectively.  For those p u p i l s  ation for further study.  s  the high school course is regarded as a preparThey are taking the course, not because i t  is  the only course open to them, but because they have chosen i t from among other courses.  In the same way, the subjects taken by those who choose  the Commercial Course are determined very largely by the nature of the requirements cf those who w i l l be employing the so pupils v&ien they graduate.  Here again tho pupil takes the course because he chooses it •  In  the case of those taking ths High School Graduation Course, the pressure of the demands of outside institutions is not so great.  Consequently,  it  is possible to offer a much wider choice of subjects which may be studied. Those who take t h i s course choose the course i t s e l f  at the beginning, and  l a t e r choose subjects within the course wMch they wish to study.  In  addition to t h i s , provision was mads for the promotion of pupils by subject rather than by grade.  Shis vas an attempt to avoid the very obvious e v i l s  •of the old lock-step, grade-promotion  system.  The above account i s not put forward as a complete account o f the four year High School Course, either as i t was planned or a s i t i s practiced.  These facts are mentioned msrely to show that the Department o f  Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia does recognize the fact that there are differences i n children, and that these differences must be taken into consideration i f education i s to be a success. Apparently i t i s granted that some should take the Matriculation, course,' others Commercial  and  A'  others High School Graduation, and that,with i n t h i s latter course especi a l l y , pupil8 should be free to choose the subjects they s h a l l study from a large number of subjects. Another point which i s of interest to our discussion i s the effect that this change has had on the pupil load.  When the curriculum was drawn  up i t was d e f i n i t e l y planned to lighten the load f o r each year.  Soma new  subjects were introduced,but the extra y e a r more than made up f o r the extra work that was required.  Thus i t was planned to improve the condition of  pupils who were finding that more work was required of them than they could do. In this respect, a very interesting development has taken place i n connection with the High School Graduation C e r t i f i c a t e .  According to the  o r i g i n a l plan, this C e r t i f i c a t e was to represent the same standard of work as tho Junior Matriculation C e r t i f i c a t e .  The difference between the two  was to be a difference i n the subjects taken, and not a difference i n the  standard of work required in those subject8.  i n t h i s way, students who  elected the graduation course... were to have the benefits of the broader choice of subjects, and have a c e r t i f i c a t e which would be accepted by a l l the institutions of organized society, except the University and the Normal Schools, as of value equal to the Junior Matriculation Certificates Unfortunately, however, many students were not able to pass the Junior Matriculation examination,  The tendency, then, has been to lower the  standard required for High School Graduation, so that those who might not be able to pass Matriculation might; be able to get the High School Graduation C e r t i f i c a t e . d i f f i c u l t dilemma.  High School Principals are thus placed i n a very They wish to give students  v&io have spent four years  i n high school, something to show f o r t h e i r work.  The only o f f i c i a l  recognition they have to give i s the High School. C e r t i f i c a t e .  On the a the  hand, they do not wish this Certificate to be regarded as i n f e r i o r to the Junior Matriculation C e r t i f i c a t e .  Many of them hope that i t may,  bsooma the basic- of a system f o r accrediting in High Schools. hope that i t w i l l be accepted by  sometime  A l l of them  business firms, hospitals, etc.,as the  equivalent of the Junior Matriculation C e r t i f i c a t e .  If these hopes are  to be f u l f i l l e d , the standard of work required must be kept up to tha„t required for Junior U/atriculation.  If the standard f o r the Graduation  C e r t i f i c a t e i s lowered the poor student, who would otherwise f a i l , benef i t s ; but the good student, who does not want to go to University penalized.  He must choose either Matriculation or Graduation.  chooses the f i r s t , he i s deprived of the choice of subjects.  is  If he If he choos-  es the second, he w i l l receive an i n f e r i o r C e r t i f i c a t e at the end of h i s course.  This i s the rather unsatisfactory situation at the present time.  - 11 *" If we seek the cause of this d i f f i c u l t y , we shall f i n d i t , I think, in the nature of the system i t s e l f .  It has been shown above that In our  High'-School Course, the principle of individual differences has been granted*  The provisions f o r chefce o f subjects and promotion by subject 1, •,  are c l e a r proof of t h i s .  The differences, however,, that are recognized  are those of interest alone.  A number of courses are open to students.  Bach student may choose his course as he wishes.  Once he has chosen his  course, however, he i s grouped with a i l other students taking that same course and within that group there i s no real provision mado f o r individu a l differences of a b i l i t y .  This, I f e e l , i s a fundamental fault i n the  system." Any one who has ever tried to teach a group of children must surely have been impressed by the differences that exist among the members of the group.  Leaving out of account differences of interest^ for the moment, and  assuming that a l l the members of the group are trying to do their best, we find that some children learn better, more quickly, more e a s i l y than others A task may be set for the c l a s s , and a f t e r a 'reasonable' time the work done be examined.  Invariably we find that some have finished and have had  time to spare, while others have not completed the task; some have a clear idea of the problems involved, while others grasp them only vaguely. i s not a new discovery.  This  The group r e c i t a t i o n system had been i n fores for  only a short time when, i n ,  • 1874, W. T. Harris, after pointing out some  of the benefits of the system, went on to say.  "The tendency of a l l class-  i f i c a t i o n is to unite pupils of widely different attainments.  Especially  1- (the fact that these provisions can not be f u l l y applied i n high schools because of f i n a n c i a l regulations which l i m i t the number of teachers per school is very important, but i s not relevant to the present discussion).  is this found i n the small schools.  The consequence i s that the lesson  is too short f o r some and too long f o r others.  The best pupils i n the class  are not t r i e d to the f u l l extent of t h e i r a b i l i t y ; they consequently lose in  some degree the d i s c i p l i n e they should gain.  class are strained to the utmost.  The poorest pupils of the  They are dragged, as i t were, over the  ground without having time to digest i t as they should.  This develops the  result that the overworked pupils are frequently discouraged and drop out of the class, and l i k e l y enough out of school altogether."  Mr. Harris  may have been unfortunate i n h i s choice of metaphors, but he did o f f e r a c r i t i o i s m that applies with remarkable fitness to the system of education found in B r i t i s h Columbia sixty years after his statement was made. At least two factors have combined to emphasise this problem.  First,  the number of students who attend high school has greatly increased.  A  generation or two ago, a high school education was- considered a luxury. A boy who had completed elementary school was able to 'go out into the world' and  compete with his fellows with a reasonable degree of success.  that time, however, society has become much more complex.  Since  The boy who,  after going only to the end of elementary school, t r i e s to compete in the outside world  :  finds that he i s very greatly handicapped.  People are coming  to recognise the fact that i t i s just as necessary to have a high school education to compete i n the society of today as i t was to have an elementary education to compete in the society of f i f t y years ago.  Now, so long  as a high school education was a luxury, the high school population was, to a certain extent at least, selected.  The factors that governed the selec-  tion were such things as the economic condition of the parents,interest of 1-  Addresses and Proceedings of National Education Association, 1874 Page 266.  - 13 ~  parents i n education, etc.  It has "been shown that there is a correlation  between these factors and intelligence.  It i s only natural then  to assume  that the tremendous increase in the high school attendance has increased very materially the. difference between the 'best' and the 'poorest' pupils.  1  She second factor which has emphasized this problem is the development of  s c i e n t i f i c tests of intelligence.  These tests have demonstrated i n -  dubitably that individuals do d i f f e r greatly from each other in t h e i r a b i l i t y to learn..  This difference can not be explained on the basis of  e f f o r t , or the desire to learn., but rather upon the inherent capacity of the individual.  From a consideration of the facts presented we are forced to  the conclusion that one c h i l d finds it almost impossible to learn what another child can learn thoroughly with very l i t t l e e f f o r t ; and that between the "dull" c h i l d and the "bright" child there are others who represent every intermediate degree of intelligence.  In short, we believe that the  distribution of 'brightness' follows quite closely the normal curve * is  :  that  that in a large group of unselected children or adults a few are very  d u l l , a larger number are d u l l , a s t i l l larger number a r 6 average, a smaller number are bright, and a few are very b r i g h t .  Within each one of these  classes there is a gradual increase i n the number of cases as one approaohand es the average intelligence,,,between than at any other point in the curve.  the classes there i s no greater break Surely a conclusion such as t h i s  should have f a r reaching consequences when i t is applied to our educational system. This, then, i s the situation i n B r i t i s h Columbia. number of pupils attending our high schools. 1  -  F  o  r  a  We have a. great  These students d i f f e r from  discussion of this problem i n the United States see B u l l e t i n 1932 : 17: Page 2 - 3. (Monograph No. 4 ) .  each other i n their interests and i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . make some provision f o r the differences i n interest. provision for their differences i n a b i l i t i e s .  We have t r i e d to We have made no real  True, our Graduation Cert-  i f i c a t e does show whether a p u p i l passed with an "A" or a "D" ; and,true, a bright student might  take some extra subjects; but these are not s a t i s -  factory answers to the question. The important fact i s that there i s only one c e r t i f i c a t e and one course. standard, of achievement.  We are asking a l l pupils to reach the same  This may or may not be j u s t i f i a b l e in the case of  the Junior Matriculation examination.  If i t is j u s t i f i a b l e at a l l , i t i s  so on the grounds th©t the Junior Matriculation examination i s an entrance examination - that i t sets the minimum standard f o r entrance to University. In the case of the Graduation C e r t i f i c a t e examination there i s not even this questionable j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  The present system demands that the poor  pupil do more than h i s a b i l i t i e s admit o f h i s doing, and i s content with having- the bright pupil do much less than he i s capable of doing. I have quoted in Chapter  .1 , Thayer's statement: "The goal of educ-  ation i s a worthy adult l i f e , and the method i s the method of c h i l d development."  Neither discouraging a child to the point where he drops out of  school, nor allowing (almost forcing) him to waste a good deal of time can, by any stretch of the imagination, be regarded as t&e%Qthod of c h i l d development.' I f 'worthy adult l i f e * does come in such cases, i t comes i n spite o f  5  and not because of, the treatment,  i t i s obvious that, i f we are  to do justice to the pupils of our schools, we must make provision not only for  t h e i r differences of interest and special a b i l i t y * but also for their  differences of general intelligence.  O H A P I E H  111 .  GENERAL ADJUSTMENTS FOR THE RECOGNITION OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. Since the work o f S i r F r a n c i s Gait on, there has been l i t t l e  possibil-  i t y of doubting the fact that great differences do e x i s t between different individuals.  I t i s only i n the present century, however, that men have  r e a l l y come to r e a l i z e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f that fact i n education.  This  r e a l i s a t i o n has been the cause of many changes i n educational systems. Educators have r e a l i z e d t h a t the o l d systems d i d not/accommodate the i n d i v -  i d u a l differences of children, and i n many cases they have attempted to reorganize the system so as to make provision f o r these differences. In the European countries, the general plan has been to give a l l pupils a common grounding  i n elementary school, and to o f f e r several  different types of secondary education from which each pupil may choose the type which i s suited to h i s own talents.  Thus, i n England, the pupil  may a t the age of eleven enter the S e n i o r school, the Central school, or the Secondary school.  A system of competitive examinations i s used f o r ^  s e l e c t i n g the pupils f o r these various schools.  Those who are at the top  of the l i s t i n these examinations are granted free places i n the secondary schools.  Those i n the second bracket are placed i n the central schools.  The remainder of the elementary group are placed i n the senior school. Obviously, this system tends to arrange the pupils i n groups which are more or less homogeneous.  There i s some d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s respect i n the  'Secondary Schools' where pupils who have won free places by ranking high i n the examinations s i t side by side with those whose parents are able to pay f e e s .  In the C e n t r a l and Senior Schools, however, no such consider-  at ions exist.  But even i n these schools, which are to a large degree  selected, the pupils are often divided into A, B. and 0 sections on the :  basis of a b i l i t y . In France, a plan which operates on the same general p r i n c i p l e i s i n effect.  Previous to 1925 the secondary education, which began at the age  of four and which led to the University was quite d i s t i n c t from the s  elementary education.  This meant that i t was p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to  change from one system to another.  In 1925, however, a l l differences  between the "Glasses Pre'paratoires' {secondary education) up to the age of eleven years and the elementary classes were abolished.  Under the present  plan, a pupil may remain i n the elementary school u n t i l he is fourteen years old and then go to work, or he may go from the Elementary school to the 'Classes Complementaires' and from these to Vocational schools; or he may go from the Elementary school to the Higher Primary school, which in turn leads either to the Normal schools or through the Secondary Schools to the University. Needy pupils who isted by State grants.  show that they hjave a b i l i t y are ass-  These grants are not as yet sufficient f o r meeting  a l l cases, but they do represent an attempt on the part of the State to recognise the claims of bright p u p i l s . As i s the case i n England, the mere providing of these different typos of school tends to give s, more homogeneous grouping i n each one of them.  This tendency i s further streng-  thened by the work of the board f o r the guidance of pupils i n making their choice of schools. France i n V i e  The principle of the system was well stated by Anatole  en Fleur*-*  "The  same education for a l l , r i c h and poor.  A l l w i l l attend the primary school.  Those among them who  show the highest  aptitudes w i l l be allowed to have a secondary education, which, without  fees, w i l l bring together on the same benches the e l i t e of the bourgeois and the e l i t e of the proletarian youth.  From this e l i t e w i l l proceed dn  e l i t e to the higher schools of science and a r t . " In Germany, the same principle has been put into e f f e c t . the 'Grundschule  1  f o r the f i r s t four years of their t r a i n i n g .  A l l attend (Arrange-  ments may be made to advance the brighter pupils through In three years). At the end of the four year course, these pupils nay be placed i n any one of a number of different schools. They may continue t h e i r elementary education i n the•VbIksschule'and complete  their schooling at the age of  fourteen, they may enter the Miidle School, which offers four different f  courses, each extending over s i x years; or they may enter one of the five or more types of secondary schools wMch o f f e r a nine year course leading . l ' • to the Pedagogical Academy or to the University.  In the working out of  t h i s plan, the matter of fees offers considerable d i f f i c u l t y .  At present  these are only p a r t i a l l y supplied by state grants. In each of the foregoing cases, the d i v i s i o n which takes place a f t e r the elementary period i s c e r t a i n to result i n groupings which are much mora homogeneous i n general intelligence than an unselected group would be.  The tendency throughout each system i s to select the brighter pupils  for the courses which lead to the Universities and other higher institutions of learning.  The point of greatest importance f o r our problem i s  that t h i s selection does not provide a satisfactory solution to the problem of dealing with, individual differences i n intelligence.  Even i n  these selected groups, pupils d i f f e r from each other in general i n t e l l i gence so markedly that special arrangements must be made f o r them. These special arrangements usually take the form of more homogeneous groupings 1. Now called the'Hoohschule Fuer Lehrerbildung.'  within each of the different courses* or of differences i n individual assignments. In the United States and i n Canada, an attempt i s made to meet the individual needs of the pupils i n a s l i g h t l y different way.  Instead of  having several different types of secondary school, these countries have, in practice, only one.  P r a c t i c a l l y - a l l of those who  continue t h e i r educ-  ation beyond the elementary school go to a High School.  This High School i  supposed to o f f e r a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide range of subjects to s a t i s f y the needs of the different pupils. for discussion here.  Whether or not i t does that i s not a matter  The main point i s that in our High Schools one would  expect to f i n d a greater range of a b i l i t y than i n the more highly selected schools of Europe.  It i s not surprising, then, to find that there have  been many attempts i n the United States to adjust the school programme to the different a b i l i t y levels of the pupils, and so avoid the e v i l results of the lock step system to which I have referred i n the previous  chapter.  The f i r s t attempts i n this direction were made by allowing ths bright pupils to ' skip' a grade.  This, however, proved to be a very unsatisfact-  ory method f o r solving the problem.  It meant that the pupil missed a com-  plete year's instruction. In many cases this proved too much to be caught up,successfully.  This d i f f i c u l t y  led, in turn, to attempts to introduce  systems of semi-annual or quarterly promotion,, such as that t r i e d i n St. Louis i n 1870 or that t r i e d i n Elisabeth, New Jersey i n 1387.  Each of  these plans made the "skip a much smaller loss, and so reduced the d i f f i c 5  ulty involved.  Even, with these,however, many of the old d i f f i c u l t i e s  remained. Another type of plan i s what i s known as the multiple track plan.  - 19 r» There are many different examples of this general type i n the c i t i e s of the United States*  This system involves the d i v i s i o n of the pupils into  two or more separate groups, and the provision of a separate curriculum for each group. course p l a n .  In general, there are two d i s t i n c t types of multiple  The  f i r s t type requires each p u p i l  i n the  system to do  the  sams amount of work, but allows the different groups different lengths of time to do i t .  Thus the 'Cambridge Plan', introduced i n 1891,  arranged  the work of grades four to nine inclusive i n two separate outlines.  In  one outline, i t was arranged in a curriculum covering four years? and i n the other, i t was  arranged  i n a c u r r i c u l u m covering s i x y e a r s . , This p l a n ,  and many other similar plans,provide f o r a certain amount of acceleration without the necessity of skipping grades. The  second type of multiple t r a c k p l a n requires each p u p i l to spend  the same length of time i n school, but requires different amounts and d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y of work from the different groups.  The'North Denver  Plan, inaugurated i n 1895, and the 'Trinidad P l a n , began i n 1922, are 8  esamples of a great number of p l a n s of t h i s t y p e .  In each of these plans  the pupils are divided into three groups on the basis of a b i l i t y .  The  medium group i s given the regular course; the poorest group i s given © simplified 'bare essential' cours.e; and the brightest group i s given an enriched course.  The theory is that there i s enough difference in the  content of the course to account f o r the differences i n a b i l i t y of the pupils. hard.  Hence a l l pupils remain the same length of time, and work equally There are many other examples of t h i s multiple track plan.  some cases there are mo re tracks provided.  In  In other cases the two pur-  poses of acceleration and enrichment are combined.  It i s important to note  that the success of any of these multiple track systems i s conditioned by the p o s s i b i l i t y  of securing homogeneous groups.  If the groups them-  selves are not homogeneous, the d i f f i c u l t y which this system attempts to remove s t i l l remains. Another attempt to solve this problem of individual differences i s represented i n the various different types of unit assignment that are used throughout many schools i n the United States.  Behind these plans  there i s usually some principle such as that involved i n the 'Morrison Plan', the 'Dalton Plan* or the 'Winnetka Technique** of the course i s divided into 'units'.  The subject matter  In some schools these units are  ths same f o r a l l pupils, and each p u p i l progresses at his own rate. In other schools the units are adjusted i n d i f f i c u l t y to the individual > pupils.  In s t i l l others, the unit requires certain essentials and then  offers further work which may he done i f the pupil has tin® to do i t . Of oourse, schools which are organized on the individual unit basis have i n mind other purposes as well as the recognition of differences i n a b i l i t y . They do, however, suggest, one answer to the problem which arises through these differences. In Canada very few experiments of the above type have been reported. Nearly a l l the work that has been done i n feis connection has been done i n separate schools.  There has been no attempt to make a city-wide experi-  ment i n the matter.  It i s interesting to note that i n many c i t i e s , such  as Sasltatoon and Toronto, there are experiments i n connection with homogeneous grouping. ' 1 these. 1.  As yet, however, there are no .published reports from •  In Ontario, i t has been the custom for some years to prepare certain classes for Matriculation i n three years, and others i n four.  - 21 In Vancouver, two of the high schools - John Oliver and Zing George s e l e c t the brighter p u p i l s from those Who enter and put them throufgx  the regular high school course i n three years instead of In four. A simi l a r plan i s followed i n the V i o t o r i a High S c h o o l . T h i s plan, w h i l e i t i s not regarded a s a satisfactory solution to the  problem by those who use I t , might be even more widely used i f i t were not for the system of promotion by subject, and the provision of optional courses that are being attempted i n a number of the high schools. In Vancouver, f o r instance, four high schools - Zing Edward, Magae, Lord Byng and  Z i t s l l a n o - have a system of promotion by s u b j e c t , witii a g r e a t many  options open to each s t u d e n t .  From the s t a n d - p o i n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t  seems almost impossible t o combine homogeneous g r o u p i n g w i t h such a system. The  d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l time t a b l e s which r e s u l t from the choice of  options alone r e q u i r e the p u p i l s who would o r d i n a r i l y be i n the  selected  c l a s s to be i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s a t any one t i m e . Thus i t appears that t h e r e have been many attempts to a d j u s t the s c h o o l system to  the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s of the pupils.  In European  C o u n t r i e s the changes have been, to a l a r g e extent, n a t i o n w i d e ; and the  general plan has been to provide a variety of courses a f t e r the elementary school p e r i o d . experiment.  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s there has been a g r e a t v a r i e t y of  Each o f these experiments has been l i m i t e d to a s c h o o l , or to  a city.  In Canada, there have been very few experiments d e a l i n g w i t h the  problem.  Such experiments as have been c a r r i e d out have been limited to  single schools; and r e p o r t s of such experiments a r e , as y e t , n o t p u b l i s h e d .  - 22 -  SHAPiis  ir.  THE SELECTION OF THE CLASS. The experiment which forms the basis of the present discussion was attempted to see what could be done for the brighter pupils by segregating them into one class and treating them as a unit throughout the high school course* Teachers were agreed in their acceptance of the ideas outlined in the first chapter of this thesis - that there should be some difference in the demands made on the bright pupils and those made on the dull ones. They were also aware of the fact that in various parts of the world attempts had been made to recognize those differences*  Consequently, they  made an attempt to apply some of the principles which had proved valuable elsewhere to our own situation in North Vancouver. In the North Vancouver High School there are about 450 pupils. Two courses are offered to the students.  There is the regular Arts Course,  leading to Junior Matriculation or High School Graduation I and there is a Commercial Course, extending over two years, and leading to a Commercial Graduation Certificate. All pupils who enter the school from the elementary schools take the first year of the Arts Courses At the end of the first year, each pupil decides whether he will continue in the Arts Course or take the Commercial Course. If he decides to take the Commercial Course he spends his second and third years in i t , graduating at the end of his third year. The result of this system is that there are usually four first year classes, each taking the High School Course; four second year classes, one of them taking the Commercial bourse, and the other three taking the Arts course, three third year classes, one Commercial, and two Arts Course I and two fourth year classes, each completing the Arts Course. This plan is illustrated in the accompanying diagram.  - 23  -  2 4  ~  There are two points regarding this particular experiment which should he borne i n mind from the beginning.. only with the bright pupils<>  F i r s t , the experiment deals  Ho effort has been msfie to do any thing f o r  • those who are below the averages  This i s not because the author believes  that the present system is satisfactory f o r the weaker pupils*  As a  matter of fact, he i s of the opinion that i t i s most unsatisfactory f o r them.  One great d i f f i c u l t y i n experimenting with these weaker pupils  l i e s i n the fact that our course of study demands that of work be covered for each class.  a certain amount  Any experiment dealing with the  weaker pupils would reduce that amount of work.  It would be unfair  under the present system to grant pupils regular standing whan they had completed only a reduced or simplified course.  Consequently, teachers  must continue to be unfair to these pupils by asking them to do more than they can accomplish, and then f a i l i n g them i n examinations because they have not succeeded i n doing the impossible. The second point of importance in judging t h i s particular experiment i s the fact that i t was tried in a medium sized high school. Most other reported experiments of this nature have been carried out on a much larger scale.  Often the schools of an sntire large c i t y were reorgan-  ized and the bright pupils from a great number of high schools were sent to one central selected class.  This naturally resulted i n a selected  class composed of pupils- a l l of whom were vary d e f i n i t e l y superior. In the Worth Vancouver experiments, however, the selected class included B5f  0  of the grade nine population of the school, and 50% of the grade twelve population.  Under these circumstances much of the halo which so often  surrounds the term •superior class* was gone.  It was very doubtful i f  such a term as 'homogeneous grouping' could he applied.  It remained to  see i f any of the benefits which are claimed f o r such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s would follow. She task of selecting the proper group of students to compose the class was not an easy one.  Students came to North Vancouver High School  from at least eight different public schools,  Some of these schools sent  from sixty to seventy pupils, while others sent only s i x or seven.  Certain  schools represented sections of the community of higher social standing than others*  The upper section of each grade eight class was brought into  the High School on the recommendation of the Public School P r i n c i p a l . Hence there were no uniform examination results which could be used f o r the selection.  Neither was there any uniform information i n the nature A number of Achievement Tests had been  of standings i n standardized tests.  given; but these were of an amazing variety, and could not be used as a basis for comparison.  The intelligence quotients of most of the pupils  were shown in their report cards.  These intelligence quotients were,  however, obtained from a great variety of group tests.  For some children  there were results of three such tests, f o r others, the results of only one. In some cases the most recent test had been given while the pupil was i n grade eight; in others, while he was  in grade four.  With such a chaotic mass of data to serve as a basis, we were not at a l l confident that our selection would be satisfactory.  However, we  remembered that the basis of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which had been used in the past was the alphabetical basis.  Those whose surnames were from A - K went  in one class and those from L - N, i n another.  We felt that our c l a s s i f -  ication would at least be an improvement on this old method.  - 27 In considering the plan of selection which i s to he outlined below, the reader i s asked to bear in mind two f a c t s . put forward as a perfect plan, "would deny.  F i r s t , the plan is not  That there are weaknesses i n i t , no one  We f e l t that i t K S the most suitable plan f o r the particular  circumstances under which we were working.  Our reasons for thinking so  w i l l be outlined, a f t e r the plan i t s e l f has been stated.  The degree to  which our selection was satisfactory w i l l be shown i n the l a t t e r part of this chapter.  Secondly, I f e e l that i t is impossible to draw up any hard  and fast r u l e which may be applied, without a l t e r a t i o n , to every case. Consequently, when numbers are used i n the following outline for indicating limits i n intelligence quotient, age., or rank» these numbers must be regarded only as arbitrary lines of demarcation.  Such Unas must be set  in order to give a definite plan on which to work, but they should not become r i g i d l y observed boundaries.  This is of particular importance in  ths selection of the last ten or twelve f«5r the class.  In t h i s selection,  every possible factor must be taken into consideration, and a difference of a few points i n the intelligence quotient, or a few months i n age,must ;be permitted to outweigh other factors-such as physical condition, social development and attitude to study. There were as we have said, four f i r s t year classes i n the school. This meant that at least twenty f i v e psr cent of the f i r s t year pupils would be selected f o r the special class.  It was decided  to make the  achievement rank of the f i n a l year of public school the fundamental basis for classification.  Each public school p r i n c i p a l ranked his pupils,  taking into account the work of the entire year.  By taking the top  quarter of each public school l i s t , we obtained a temporary selection.  - 28 From the l i s t thus obtained we eliminated those pupils who came  under any one of the f o l l o w i n g three conditions: 1.  Intelligence quotient less than 105.  2.  Age 12 years or less.  3.  A student who had repeated his grade-eight year unless the cause were known to be i l l n e s s * : • : •  Pupils from very small schools (10 grade eight pupils) were not considered in t h i s temporary s e l e c t i o n .  She vacancies i n the class, caused by  above eliminations and by certain pupils dropping out of school entirely, were f i l l e d up from two sources. 1.  Pupils having an intelligence quotient of 120, or more, were included unless they were ranked very low i n t h e i r class.  2.  More than one quarter of the t o t a l l i s t was taken i n the case of the schools i n the d i s t r i c t s of higher social standing.  In several cases the written or oral reports of the public school principals,  proved very helpful i n c l a s s i f y i n g the pupils.  Shese reports had to  do with additional information such as general a t t i t u d e to work, home conditions, health, etc., rather than a definite statement of opinion as to whether a particular pupil should or should not be included i n the class. Shese, then, are the factors which were taken into account in the selection of the c l a s s *  Let us now consider the reasons f o r choosing  these p a r t i c u l a r standards. She most probable c r i t i c i s m i s that not s u f f i c i e n t use i s made of the intelligence quotients.  In t h i s particular experiment,those with an  intelligence quotient less than 105 were eliminated from the c l a s s , those  with an intelligence quotient o f more than 1Z0 were taken i n , and who  were between these two  p o i n t s were i n c l u d e d only i f t h e i r achievement  rank j u s t i f i e d t h e i r being i n c l u d e d . - systems as e x i s t  those  i n the T r i n i d a d  When t h i s i s compared w i t h such  schools, where p u p i l s  the b a s i s of. i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s , i t may  are c l a s s i f i e d  appear that  fee  on  intellig-  ence rating has not been given s u f f i c i e n t importance i n t h i s experiment. There are three main reasons f o r t r e a t i n g the situation as we  did.  In the f i r s t place, an i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient derived from any group test i s only an approximate one. from an  An intelligence quotient determined  individual Binet t e s t i s l i k e l y to be w i t h i n f i v e points of  the  true intelligence quotient; but an intelligence quotient from a group test i s only a derived measure (derived,  o r i g i n a l l y , by equating the scores on  a group test for pupils whose intelligence quotients have already been obtained from the Binet test) and may  vary by as many as twenty p o i n t s  from the true intelligence quotient.  The results of a number of group  tests w i l l form a much more reliable b a s i s f o r work of this kind, but even when results from a number of such tests a r e available, these should be sixpplemented by the  r e s u l t s of individual tests f o r those pupils with very  high and with very low who  scores.  Such data were not a v a i l a b l e for the  were e n t e r i n g the North Vancouver High School.  pupils  Only a few of them had  been given an individual test, and many had been tested by only one group test.  Consequently, we  f e l t that we could not use i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores  as our basis for selecting pupils. Secondly, intelligence i s not  the only factor to be considered.  attitude of the pupil i s also a very potent factor.  The  This attitude involves  both the interest of p u p i l and his emotional condition.  It has grown out  of  30  -  h i s past experience both at home and a t s c h o o l .  But whatever may he  the o r i g i n o f the a t t i t u d e , i t does p l a y a v e r y great part the success of the p u p i l i n school.  in determining  Often a p u p i l w i t h only average i n -  telligence w i l l he very s u c c e s s f u l i n High School simply because that  p u p i l has developed a f i n e , wholesome attitude toward school work, and study i n g e n e r a l .  On the other hand, a p u p i l with a d e f i n i t e l y high  i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient may make a dismal failure of. his High School career because he has developed the wrong a t t i t u d e to the work.  If the attitude  of the pupil be so potent a factor i n determining success i n school i t should certainly be considered i n selecting the special group. at present no satisfactory t e s t s f o r determining attitude.  There are  We did, how-  ever, f e e l that the success of these p u p i l s i n grade eight had been determined i n part by the various a t t i t u d e s which they had developed.  Con-  sequent l y , by making the achievement rank the fundamental basis of selection, we were indirectly g i v i n g at least some attention to the very important factor, p u p i l attitude. Thirdly, the selection of the class on the basis of achievement appeared mors democratic than a selection on the basis of intelligence would have been.  Pupils f e l t that they had earned a place i n the class  by ranking high.  Those who were i n the c l a s s felt that they were there,  not because they were born to any special caste, but because they had , worked hard — a belief that was quite sound i n most cases.  Those who  were not i n the class f e l t that the door was not forever closed to them, but that they might be taken i n i f they were w i l l i n g to work hard enough. Those who were eliminated because t h e i r intelligence quotient was l e s s than 105 were low i n the achievement  rank and probably did not expect to  be included i n any case.  (In most cases the pupils from the public  schools d i d not know each other's rank f o r the y e a r ) . ions were arranged f o r those who . gence q u o t i e n t ,  i'hey admitted,  Private c o n s u l t a t -  were i n c l u d e d because of h i g h i n t e l l i i n each case, that they had not been work-  ing as w e l l as they c o u l d , and were allowed i n t o the c l a s s a s a favour on the understanding t h a t they would j u s t i f y the favour t h a t had been granted them.  Throughout the experiment an attempt was made to make the c l a s s f e e l  that, w h i l e there were some d i f f e r e n c e s i n n a t i v e a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t paople, i n d u s t r i o u s habits of work and p e r s o n a l e f f o r t p l a y e d a very large part  i n t h e i r success.  Perhaps a word cf explanation should be given regarding the elimination of those p u p i l s who  were under twelve years of age.  We  shall not  d i s c u s s the g e n e r a l problem of a c c e l e r a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t , as t h a t problem is d e a l t w i t h i n the next chapter,  as  i n the f i r s t p l a c e , i t was  felt  that,  these pupils had 'skipped• grades i n the public school, they would find  the regular high school course quite heavy enough f o r a time.  In the  second p l a c e , only some of these young pupils would have q u a l i f i e d f o r the c l a s s i n any case, and i t was f e l t that i t would be wise to place them i n a single group in one c l a s s so that methods of teaching might be  adjusted  to their immature s o c i a l needs. In order to supply a basis f o r j u d g i n g the success of t h i s p l a n of  selection, I shall refer b r i e f l y to the number of pupils who were 'demoted' to the  r e g u l a r classes d u r i n g the year, and the opinions of the  regarding the s u i t a b i l i t y of the selection. p u p i l s who  teachers  In regard to the f i r s t , four  were o r i g i n a l l y in the s e l e c t e d class v/ere placed i n the regular  classes and replaced by other pupils from the regular classes during the  f i r s t year.  In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t may be interesting t o note t h a t i n  the two other grade  IX  c l a s s e s , s e l e c t e d by a s i m i l a r method i n the two  succeeding years, the number of changes has been approximately the same. To mention only the f i r s t year, however, would be l i k e l y t o g i v e an inadequate p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n a s i t a c t u a l l y developed.  By the time  the c l a s s had completed the third year of High School, only seventeen of the o r i g i n a l f o r t y one were l e f t .  Ten of the original class had decided  to take up the Commercial Course, nine had been demoted, and f i v e had l e f t school.  The vacancies l e f t by these had been f i l l e d by those pupils under  twelve years of age who had been kept out of the class on account of their age, and other pupils from the r e g u l a r classes who had done w e l l i n their ezaminat ions. It i s important to note that the 'demotions' and 'promotions' were based on the r e s u l t s of the examinations.  A l l pupils in grade nine were  given the same examinations, and i t was understood that any of the selected c l a s s who did not rank well would be replaced by pupils from the regular classes who had ranked high.  As i n the o r i g i n a l selection of the  class, no hard and fast l i m i t s of rank were set I but the changes that were made, were made on the basis of rank i n school examinations. Obviously  5  the nine 'demotions' form the most important part of the  evidence.' In this connection i t should be remembered that only four of them were made during the f i r s t year.  I am not a t a l l sure that we are  safe i n assuming that the other f i v e should have been made then.  It seems  to me quite possible that of two adolescents,A and B, who are of nearly equal a b i l i t y , A may p r o f i t more than B from being i n the selected class in grade nine, while B may p r o f i t more than A from being i n the selected  class i n grade j£.  I do not mention t h i s fact i n order to j u s t i f y every  change that was made i n this particular class.  I merely wish to point out  that i t would he a mistake to assume that there were nine people included in the o r i g i n a l class who -should not have been there.  As for the ten who  chose the Commercial Course,, their inclusion can not be considered a. matter of faulty selection.  Reference w i l l be made to them in Chapter fig,.  in connection with some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n connection with the scheme. 2  With regard to the teachers, the consensus of opinion was that the method of selection was as reliable as could be secured under the circumstances. • This i s not to say that they considered i t perfect.  It was,  however, f e l t that the errors i n selection were due to the d i f f i c u l t y of comparing the data from the different schools, rather than to a fundament a l error i n the basis of selection.  It was f e l t that giving a uniform  examination, or a number of uniform examinations throughout a l l the grad8 eight elasses of the public schools,might be of value i n avoiding t h i s difficulty.  This has not been actually t r i e d , but i t i s quite i n accord,  with the findings of T. L. Kelley who says, "We have reached the conclusion that achievement tests, i f of satisfactory r e l i a b i l i t y , do not commonly need supplementing by intelligence tests i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of pupils f o r school purposes and f o r prognoses as to school sucoess." 1.  Kelley:  Interpretation of Educational Measurements —  page 28.  2.  Matters p e r t a i n i n g to the c l a s s were d i s c u s s e d a t r e g u l a r s t a f f meetings. Throughout t h i s study 'the o p i n i o n of t h e t e a c h e r s '  refers to the general conclusions which were reaohed i n these discussions.  - 34 C H A P T E R  If.  THE ENRICHMENT OF 'THE COURSE. When the c l a s s had been s e l e c t e d , a s t i l l  solved: what e x t r a work was to be attempted?  greater problem had to be  In any such situation, the  problem resolves i t s e l f f i r s t of a l l i n t o a choice between a c c e l e r a t i o n and  enrichment of the course.  ed to decide whether we  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r experiment, we were f o r c -  would take the work as i t i s o u t l i n e d i n the course  of study, and complete that work i n three years, or do work that i s not r e q u i r e d by the course of study and  so u t i l i z e the f u l l f o u r y e a r s .  The  method of acceleration d i d seem, at f i r s t , the easier of the two f o r the teachers.  The programme of studies f o r the three-year h i g h school course  was at hand. for  This would solve the very definite curriculum d i f f i c u l t i e s  our purposes at least.  We did, however, decide that i t would be pre-  ferable to attempt a programme of enrichment rather than such a plan. There were many reasons f o r this decision.  Let us consider some of the  most important of these. The f i r s t two reasons f o r choosing the course cf enrichment rathfir than acceleration have to do with problems of administration.  In the  f i r s t place, the High School Graduation C e r t i f i c a t e can not be granted to pupils who have not attended for the regular time (four years) i n h i g h school.  I f , then, this selected group were accelerated, everyone i n the  c l a s s would be forced to tfcake the Junior Matriculation examination at the end of the time, and so would be robbed of the choice of subjects found i n the High School Graduation Course. a hardship on many of these students.  It was felt that this would work  I n the second p l a c e , successful  i t seems obvious that i n order to establish  any  scheme of a c c e l e r a t i o n under the group system o f teaching, one  must s e l e c t one c l a s s that w i l l remain a s a s i n g l e group throughout _ e n t i r e course.,  the  The class w i l l be ahead of the other c l a s s e s o f that p a r t -  i c u l a r year, and i f many drop out, one must e i t h e r continue on w i t h a s m a l l c l a s s o r f o r c e p u p i l s o f average a b i l i t y i n t o a r a p i d l y p r o g r e s s i n g c l a s s which has a l r e a d y have done.  completed more o f the course than these p u p i l s  We could form no such group i n North Vancouver.  In fact we  were q u i t e sure that a good number of those s e l e c t e d would choose the Commercial Course i n the second year, and that, even ha fore the y e a r , we would be f o r c e d t o make s e v e r a l changes. i t best  second  Consequently, we thought  to keep a l l c l a s s e s t r a v e l l i n g forward a t approximately the same  r a t e , so that any necessary s h i f t i n g to o r from the c l a s s might be done w i t h a s l i t t l e harm as p o s s i b l e to the pupils concerned. The above o b j e c t i o n s , while they were o f great  importance i n t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r experiment, are matters o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and amental o b j e c t i o n s  to the p l a n o f a c c e l e r a t i o n .  even i f i t had been possible to organize c l a s s might be put more d e s i r a b l e . of  do not form fund-  It was f e l t , however, that  the school i n such a way that this  through i n three y e a r s ,  the p l a n o f enrichment would be  One reason f o r t h i s b e l i e f l i e s i n the f a c t that any  a c c e l e r a t i o n - whether i t be the a c c e l e r a t i o n of a whole c l a s s , a p a r t  of a c l a s s ,  o r a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l - sooner or l a t e r brings the  p u p i l i n contact with pupils who are much older than h i m s e l f ally. who  plan  accelerated  chronologic-  This o f t e n r e s u l t s i n forcing these p u p i l s to a s s o c i a t e w i t h others  are much b i g g e r and  oped s o c i a l l y .  stronger  Unfortunately,  than themselves, and who are more devel-  these o l d e r students do not.recognize i n  t h e i r young playmate an object v/orthy of admiration, age  a t a l l i t i s probably to r e f e r to him as "baby" or " s i s s y . "  teams are r  i f they remember h i s  f a c t he may raise  chosen f o r a t h l e t i c contests, he o f t e n be  f  g i v e n ©way' by a  the average a b i l i t y of h i s team.  develop, but what teacher has  i s the  When  last to be taken.  In  'generous' c a p t a i n who  wishes to  Such a s i t u a t i o n may  not always  not seen i t occur often?  The most u n f o r t -  unate p a r t of i t i s that the young c h i l d , just because he is bright, realizes that he is not wanted.  He realizes, too, that the older boys  are quite right i n regarding him as a decidedly i n f e r i o r player. are a number of different .vays i n which he may !  he may  accept i t . or sulk., or f i g h t back.  t h a t , whatever the not  in the best  r e a c t i o n may  be,  the  i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d .  There  react to the situation -  We are j u s t i f i e d i n assuming  r e s u l t s of such an experience are True, the c h i l d may  develop a c e r t a i n type of independence; but  there are  be  forced to  other methods f o r  developing independence - methods which are a good deal more valuable because they combine the idea of independence with that of cooperation,  and do not rob the c h i l d of the happiness of play that i s r i g h t f u l l y h i s . The  same type of d i f f i c u l t y often arises with the accelerated c h i l d ,  i n connection w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e between himself and his classmates i n s o c i o l o g i c a l and physiological development.  Often he does not enjoy  same kind of amusement as his. o l d e r companions.  the  At a class party, he  may  wish to p l a y " P i n the t a i l on the donkey," while the rest wish to dance. His  o p i n i o n on natters which i n v o l v e personal  pected by the c l a s s .  experience nay not be.;res-  The result of this often i s that, instead of being  a leader i n his group, the bright child i s forced to talce a back seat , c  perhaps a g a i n with the f e e l i n g that he i s not wanted.  3  These d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a r i s e from the l a c k o f p h y s i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l or social development a r e of very great the  child.  importance i n the development o f  Teachers, i n t h e i r laudable e f f o r t to succeed i n teaching, are  .prone to f o r g e t that much of the development of the c h i l d takes p l a c e outside the classroom. and  On the playground, i n conversation w i t h h i s fellows  i n h i s amusements, the c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g new f a c t s and developing  a t t i t u d e s to society.  T h i s i s a s necessary f o r the formation  his  of the per-  s o n a l i t y of the c h i l d a s any t h i n g that takes p l a c e w i t h i n the s c h o o l , . I f we TO? are to accept  the statement of the i n t r o d u c t i o n , 'The g o a l of educ-  a t i o n i s worthy adult l i f e ; the method is the method of c h i l d development' we must rule out a l l systems of organization viiich do not contribute to the proper development of the whole personality of the c h i l d . Further, these d i f f i c u l t i e s arise as a result of acceleration i n school, and not as a necessary correlative of brightness i n children. The common opinion that the bright student i s on the average a weak, sickly, a n t i - s o c i a l sort of person has been shown quite f a l s e . have been ns de i n t h i s matter.  Numerous studies  The r e s u l t s of these studies can be found  in p r a c t i c a l l y any book dealing with superior children.  In general the  results have been to show that superior children are superior to the average, not only i n intelligence but also in health and i n physical, physiological and social development.  The most reliable study that has  been made of this problem i s that conducted by L. M. Terman. ing q u o t a t i o n s ,  taken from Volume (1) of h i s book 'Genetic  The follow-  S t u d i e s of  Genius' w i l l i n d i c a t e his findings. " I n physical growth and i n general health the g i f t e d group unquestionably rates on the whole somewhat above par.  There i s no shred of evidence  - 38 to  support  the widespread o p i n i o n that t y p i c a l l y the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  cocious c h i l d i s weak, undersized, or nervously unstable.  pre-  Insofar as the  g i f t e d child departs at a l l from the average on these t r a i t s i t i s pretty certainly i n the other d i r e c t i o n —• "The  .n  common opinion that i n t e l l e c t u a l l y superior children are charac-  terized by a deficiency of play interests has been shown to be wholly un- . founded..  "Another finding of considerable importance i n t h i s connection is that the play interests of the g i f t e d boy are above rather than below the norm mm  i n degree of "masculinity."  "The experiment carried out for the  purpose of measuring the strength of interests a l o n g i n t e l l e c t u a l , social, and a c t i v i t y lines is perhaps one of the most significant reported i n the entire study, whether considered from the p o i n t of view of methodology or results.  —  i t has shown that in strength of intellectual interest  ninety per cent of our gifted children surpass the average of a control group, that the superiority of the g i f t e d i n strength of social interests i s well nigh as great, and that- i n a c t i v i t y interests the two groups are 3, practically indistinguishable." Results such as these would suggest that i f bright c h i l d r e n have appeared weak i t i s because these children have been accelerated and compared w i t h o l d e r , b i g g e r c h i l d r e n ; i f they have appeared recluse i n t h e i r h a b i t s , i t i s because i n being a c c e l e r a t e d they have been foreed into an unsympathetic group. 3 2  ;  Terman: '«  •  Genetic Studies of Genius. "  "  «'  , Volume (1) Page 634. Page 637.  _____  Another fundamental objection to the plan of acceleration l i e s i n the fact that such a plan makes provision for differences i n the rate at which d i f f e r e n t children learn but makes no provision f o r differences in . the extent or the thoroughness of their learning.  The results of  standard  tests have shown that bright pupils not only learn faster, but actually learn more,than d u l l ones.  Their c a p a c i t y for learning i s greater.  They  can cover a broader scope and relate tho d e t a i l s within that scope more l o g i c a l l y than dull pupils can.  The course for these bright pupils should  take these, findings into consideration. a course.  Teachers f e e l the need of such  What teacher has not been forced to leave a section of l i t e r -  ature, a problem in history only the surface was  or a subject i n science with the feeling that  scratched, that i f only time had permitted how much  more could have been done?  The need for a deeper study i s there.  pupils are able to profit from that deeper study.  These  Surely i t is more sen-  sible to enrich the course for them than to rush them through the ordinary course i n a shorter time. This idea of enrichment rather than acceleration seems to be gaining general favour, as the method which best meets the psychological needs of the p u p i l .  Let us notice two examples:  Mr. H. M. Corning, who has re-  ported on the work in Trinidad, says i n condemnation of various plans of acceleration which he has mentioned, "They a l l provided that individuals could advance at different rates of speed, but they pre supposed that a l l individuals could ultimately learn the same things.  How mistaken the  argument seems when viewed in the light of intelligence - test results." Mr. V. T. Thayer expresses a similar view when he says, "We 1.  Corning:  A f t e r Testing What?  Page 55.  may conclude  that, a genuine p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g w i l l take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n no re than v a r i a t i o n s i n the r a t e o f l e a r n i n g . addition to i n s i s t i n g  In  that each c h i l d come up to a standard norm, i t w i l l  a f f o r d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r development i n the l i g h t  of p e r t i n e n t  f a c t s of m a t u r i t y and growth, i n t e r e s t s , s p e c i a l a b i l i t l e s , d i s a b i l i t i e s , etc."  1  In the experiment i n North Vancouver, when, the decision that the course should be enriched was reached, another very s e r i o u s problem presented i t s e l f :  what form was the enrichment to take?  In t h i s particular  case each teacher of the class was made responsible for the 'enrichment' of h i s own subject. subject.  I shall outline the enrichment that was used in each  T h i s enrichment i s not put forward as a model.  s a t i s f i e d with h i s attempt.  No teacher f e l t  It w i l l , however, enable the reader to picture  c l e a r l y what was done and so to form a truer estimate of the value of the whole experiment. General Science i s a subject that lends i t s e l f very well to this type of treatment. the  The purpose of the course i s to familiarize the student with  general f i e M of s c i e n c e and the s c i e n t i f i c method.  There i s no attempt  to teach any great quantity of detailed matter i n connection with any p a r t i c u l a r science.  Consequently, i t was possible to follow the course of  study q u i t e closely, and to survey the f i e l d a l i t t l e more thoroughly at each p o i n t along the way.  Various students prepared t a l k s on  subjects, and gave them before the class. tions that were asked by the c l a s s ing,  s  scientific  As a matter of fact, the que s-  during the ordinary routine of teach-  opened up new lines of thought to such an extent that the problem of 1*  Thayer:  Passing of Recitation-  Page 214.  enrichment r e s o l v e d i t s e l f l a r g e l y i n t o a matter o f s e l e c t i n g the p a r t i c -  ular line of discussion which the class should follow. In French and  the curriculum.  i n Latin, the c l a s s d i d work that was not r e q u i r e d i n  In the former subject, they travelled more quickly than  the other f i r s t year classes during the f i r s t part of the year, and used the time thus gained to re ad some French s t o r i e s which were supplied f o r the purpose.  In the Latin, the course was enriched by a large number of  s t o r i e s concerning Rome and the l i f e of the Romans. translated; others were simply t o l d .  Some o f these were  At the end of the year the c l a s s  prepared a play, "Pyramus and Thisbe" i n Latin.  It was presented i n the  school on two occasions, and proved very popular i n each case. In social studies the enrichment took the form of a more thorough d i s c u s s i o n of problems throughout the course. was done by the pupils themselves.  It was  Additional outside reading  f e l t that by reading books  covering a wide range of problems, and by discussing p a r t i c u l a r problems in greater d e t a i l , the pupils would develop a wider and  more reliable view  point than they could obtain from the ordinary course. In mathematics, the course was  extra exercises of  f i l l e d out to a certain extent by  a greater degree of d i f f i c u l t y .  d i f f i c u l t i n this particular subject to work of the second year. ated i n mathematics.  refrain  It was found very  from encroaching on the  In fact the c l a s s was very d e f i n i t e l y acceler-  The time thus gained was used for an entirely  purposes so f a r as mathematics were concerned.  new  There were a number of  p u p i l s i n the class who had been having d i f f i c u l t y with English Grammar. It so happened that the teacher who was teaching them mathematics  was also  an English, teacher.  So i t was decided i n c l a s s that since the years ?/ork  in mathematics had heen completed, and s i n c e there seemed l i t t l e use i n forging ahead i n one subject a l o n e , the time should be spent i n a thorough  • review of E n g l i s h Grammar.  This particular procedure  i  s  not suggested as  the enrichment of a mathematics course i n ordinary circumstances, but in t h i s particular case i t seemed q u i t e j u s t i f i a b l e .  Oertainly, under the  circumstances i t was a much better plan than that of rushing on to do second year mathematics. The enrichment i n English Literature took three d i f f e r e n t forms. the f i r s t place, the selections were s t u d i e d more thoroughly.  In  Here, as  i n the case of Science and Social Studies, i t was found that the selected class was  ready to explore the f i e l d more thoroughly than the others.  In  ' this f i e l d p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t became quite obvious that acceleration was not the answer to the problem of bright children.  In fact, the tendency was  for the selected class to move more slowly through the course of study than the other classes.  Of course, they could have "crammed" poems and  facts about them i n less time than other classes; but they could also spend more time on any one poem, discussing i t and pointing out i t s beauties of sound and phrase, o f t e n d e a l i n g with matters that had escaped  and always wouId escape the notice of the others.  This second p o s s i b i l i t y ,  seems to offer the most satisfactory answer to the problem. Secondly, the students of t h i s class were urged to read a great number of books.  They were given only v e r y g e n e r a l guidance a s to what  books they should read.  Each p u p i l kept a l i s t of the bo oks which he had  read, and pupils were given the opportunity of r e p o r t i n g to the class on any  book that they had found -particularly interesting. ..MQjedLJlf— thasj.  l . P o r a l i s t of material for e n r i c h i n g the  English Cours* see  son "Enriched Teaching of English i n the High School."  Woodring-Ben-  _  - 43 reports proved very interesting to the class, and also gave the reporter some very good practice in public speaking.  The reading l i s t s , as might  be expected, revealed a great v a r i a t i o n . i n the number of books read, and ,  an even greater v a r i a t i o n in the subject matter concerned. Thirdly, the class undertook the publication of a school newspaper. The f i r s t issue of the paper was published towards the end of the f i r s t year.  During the second year, the class published one issue each month.  In the following year a regular school paper was formed, this class doing a large part of the e d i t o r i a l work. business basis.  These papers were operated on a  Ho f i n a n c i a l aid was received from the School Board.  Paper, ink, stencils, and staples were bought.  A r t i c l e s were written by  members of the class and given to the sub-editors. i n turn by the sub-editor and e d i t o r .  These were examined  V/hen the material was selected,  it  was turned over to the commercial department to be out on the s t e n c i l . Pupils were always w i l l i n g to stay after school to help run o f f the copies on the mimeograph machine.  The separate pages were then collected  into papers and stapled together and the paper was ready for s a l e .  This  sale was then carried on by the members of the class under the direction of the sales -manage r .  The money so gained, together with that obtained  from advertisements of l o c a l merchants ( s o l i c i t e d by the students) was sufficient for covering the entire cost of the paper. In this way then, the curriculum was enriched.  As we have said be-  fore the teachers concerned a l l felt that what was done f e l l very far short of what might be done i n this respect.  Further, it should be rem-  embered that not the subject matter alone, but also the way in which it i s presented, i s of importance when one is considering the matter of en-  - 44 richment.  This scatter of method, however, we shall discuss l a t e r .  F i n a l l y , the question of the t e s t i n g of t h i s class arose.  Were these  as  pupils to be given the  same e x a m i n a t i o n other p u p i l s i n t h a t year, or  ' should they be given a d i f f e r e n t one.?:  The matter © a s discussed, a t some  l e n g t h , and i t was f i n a l l y decided t h a t they should be g i v e n the same examination a s the other c l a s s e s .  decision.  There were three main reasons f o r this  F i r s t , the result of each examination must be placed on each  p u p i l s Graduation C e r t i f i c a t e . 5  Then he is given a rank A, B, C, etc.  He w i l l use that Certificate to indicate how well he has done in school. Hothing is said on that c e r t i f i c a t e about superior classes.  Hence, in  order to give these pupils the standing that they deserved on t h e i r certificate,  i t was necessary t o give them the same examination a s the other  pupils in the school.  Secondly,we were anxious to compare the s p e c i a l  group with the rest of the school to learn whether our selection and our methods had been sound.  Perhaps we had not chosen the right pupils?  Perhaps, in our enthusiastic endeavour to enrich the course, we had neglected the necessary d r i l l on the fundamentals?  We felt that i f such  mistakes had been made, a common examination would r e v e a l them.  Finally,  we f e l t that i n a small school, p a r t i c u l a r l y , the common examination would tend to keep clear the idea that pupils were i n the special class as a result of their efforts.  If those i n the class demonstrated that they  were doing poorer work than others outside, t h e i r places could be changed. Thus, a l l knew that those i n the class were there only so long as they deserved the pos it ion, w h i l e those in the other classes felt t h a t the door was not forever closed to them.  - 45 ~ O H A P T E B  ?1.  lATIOg OF PUPILS * SOME CRITICISMS. There are c e r t a i n criticisms which are commonly made concerning any plan of segregation.  L e t us now c o n s i d e r some of the more s e r i o u s o f  these. One c r i t i c i s m that i s sometimes brought against this plan i s that the plan is not democratic.  The argument seems to be that, by s i n g l i n g  out certain pupils and giving them special t r a i n i n g , we are n o t treating a l l pupils i n the school a l i k e . clear that t h i s is not the case. are  b e i n g treated a l i k e .  ment of each c h i l d .  A very l i t t l e serious t h i n k i n g w i l l make From the standpoint of the teacher a l l  The teacher i s t r y i n g to assist in the develop-  If c h i l d "A" shows the most satisfactory development  when he i s t a k i n g the regular course, and c h i l d "B" shows the most s a t i s factory development when he i s taking an enriched course, they must be given these different courses.  In each case the teacher is providing the  best possible situation for the development of the c h i l d . p l a n i s not undemocratic from the standpoint of the chiId. open to a l l .  Further, the The class i s  Those wno are kept out are kept out as a result of their  own f a i l u r e to make a required standard.  Making the achievement rank the  f i r s t basis for selection emphasises t h i s , and appeals to the pupils' sense of j u s t i c e .  We r e a l i z e that f a c t o r s over which the pupil has no  control play a part i n determining h i s success or f a i l u r e .  This,however,  is a matter over which we have no control, and we must adapt our ideas of democracy to i t .  The plan is not undemocratic.  In fact, it is a good  deal more democratic than the system we now g e n e r a l l y follow, simply because i t approaches more nearly to the ideal of p r o v i d i n g for each child  conditions under which that particular c h i l d can best develop. A second c r i t i c i s m is  that parents object to having their children  placed into 'bright' 'average' and ' d u l l ' classes. c a l l attention to a r e a l danger i n the plan.  This c r i t i c i s m does  I f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Is  carried on i n such a way that there is any stigma attached to the lower groups, parents w i l l certainly object, and r i g h t l y so.  If, however, the  facts o f the case are presented f a i r l y , and the r e a l reasons f o r the change are explained, there should be no trouble from t h i s source. case of the experiment in Eorth Vancouver is an example of t h i s .  The The plan  was explained to the parents a t a Parent Teacher Association meeting. was pointed out that there were differences i n the pupils of grade some learned q u i c k l y , others learned slowly,  It  IX  -  some had a firm grasp of their  public school work, others grasped i t only well enough to s l i p through the entrance examination.  It was also pointed out that those -who came into  h i g h school w i t h a f i r m grasp of their elementary work could cover more work than those who d i d not.  Parents saw f a i r l y c l e a r l y that the proposed  segregation would benefit not only the group who were to do more work, but also the other group. from parents.  In our experience there were no serious complaints  The situation i n North Vancouver was comparatively simple  because there was no d u l l group. ary  course.  No c h i l d was given less than the ordin-  Mo parent could very well demand that his child be given more.  Howevero the experience of other experimenters in the f i e l d seems f a i r l y uniform on t h i s matter.  That of Mr. Coming i s a good essanpieo  He s t a t e s  that he had anticipated great opposition from the parents, and, to prevent it,  he conducted a p u b l i c i t y campaign before the actual inception o f the  plan.  He reports that "the storm of opposition which vas anticipated has  - 47 The p l a n had been i n p r a c t i c e f o r f o u r y e a r s when he  arrived,"  n e v e r  wrote?  Many,  "The homes a r e more than p a s s i v e l y agreeable to the p l a n .  a s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e percentage of them, a r e e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e i r p r a i s e ,  • Even many parents of A - d i v i s i o n children have expressed to the a u t h o r i t i e s t h e i r enthusiasm f o r the new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . the  school  The patrons of  T r i n i d a d schools a r e convinced that the a b i l i t y ~ grouping idea i s a  great  improvement- over the  o l d g r a d i n g plan."  There i s no need f o r secrecy parents r e a l i s e that there are stigma a t t a c h e d  i n the a d o p t i o n of such a scheme,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n , that there  if i s no  to the slow l e a r n e r , and t h a t the p l a n i s n o t f o r the- > . . .  b e n e f i t of any p a r t i c u l a r group but f o r the good of a l l concerned, they w i l l not o f f e r o p p o s i t i o n to i t , but rather.they  w i l l support i t . Parents  (and t e a c h e r s too) must be made t o r e a l i z e t h i s a l l important f a c t i f the scheme i s to be r e a l l y  successful.  A t h i r d c r i t i c i s m to the plan i s that it tends to produce a special c l a s s - consciousness and within that class to produce an attitude of snobbishness.  With the f i r s t part o f the statement  denies that i t is an objection. ness.  the writer agrees, but  It does produce a certain class conscious-  Any class i n a h i g h school should have a c e r t a i n class s p i r i t .  If  that class happens to be composed of individuals who are nearly a l i k e in mental a b i l i t y and who have many interests i n common, that class s p i r i t • l i k e l y to be very strong. in our  i t s e l f harmful  e  But this recognit ion of a s p e c i a l group is not  The same sort of segregation is talcing p l a c e before  eyes i n adult l i f e .  One's c i r c l e o f friends, a residential d i s t r i c t ,  an association of business men, a fraternal organization - a l l these are I and Z'>  is  Comings  A f t e r T e s t i n g What?  Page 183.  examples °£ s e l e c t i v e groupings that take life.  We  do not argue  place n a t u r a l l y in ordinary  that a d u l t s of s i m i l a r i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n t e r e s t s ,  and  s o c i a l s t a n d i n g should he f o r c e d a p a r t and compelled to work w i t h people  who d i f f e r from them in these respects. We have found that the best res u l t s are obtained when such people are allowed to form more or less homogeneous groups, of which each member i s quite conscious, and to work and learn together.  If t h i s i s so, there can be no r e a l harm i n the mere fact  of c l a s s consciousness. The real danger, the danger of  i s suggested i n the second part of the c r i t i c i s m -  developing a snobbish attitude toward, other pupils.  there i s a r e a l danger here avoided-.  no one would deny.  That  Yet the danger can be  In fact, such an attitude can be discouraged more easily in a  segregated class than i n a class formed by chance selection.  Perhaps the  most powerful factor i n this respect i s that suggested by Miss Helen Davis i n her report on t h i s particular problem.  She says, "Our respondents  almost universally report that the attitude of pupils who have shown tendencies toward egotism, snobbishness, and an overbearing sense of importance changes when they are placed i n competition with those whose capacity 1. •  i s equal or superior to their own."  It seems to be the common experience  of those who have actually worked with the system that pupils who  might  become conceited through leading an ordinary class are kept within bounds when they rank near the middle of the superior class, and that those pupils who are able to top the superior class are bright enough to be impressed with the vast amount that they have yet to learn.  Such a realization i s  always a healthy a n t i d o t e f o r any tendency towards conceit. 1.  1224 Yearbook: Hat. Soc. f o r the Study of Education, page 129.  - 49 Furthermore, this tendency toward snobbishness can be further opposed by getting these children to see that they are no 'better' than children in other classes.  It i s very wholesome f o r them to reflect that they have  generally achieved their success through hard work, and that as soon as they cease to work they w i l l cease to be successful.  It i s well, too, f o r  them to r e a l i z e that i f they f i n d i t easier to learn than do soma of their friends, they can take no credit f o r that fact.  The a b i l i t y to learn and  think comes as a g i f t from those forces which give us l i f e , and i f anyone who has been given that a b i l i t y in large measure does not make correspondingly large returns to society, he i s f a i l i n g i n his trust.  Finally,  children i n such a group should be brought to see that the a b i l i t y to succeed i n school work i s not the only q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r l i f e , i t y , a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , the a b i l i t y to persevere i n the  musical a b i l -  face of defeat, the  a b i l i t y to sympathize and co-operate with other people - these and many others go to make up a well formed personality. some of them, i n t e l l e c t u a l success i s empty.  Without them, or at least  Many of our 'bright pupils'  could well afford to learn from some of our 'school f a i l u r e s ' i n t h i s respect.  The writer does not suggest that children should be 'kept down' by  being constantly reminded of such facts as these.  It has been his exper-  ience that even the superior group needs to be encouraged much more often than i t needs to be reminded of i t s shortcomings. i s no need f o r secrecy i n the matter.  Yet he feels that there  His experience with these people  leads him to believe that i f the whole situation i s put before them i n a sincere and sympathetic way, they grasp i t with amazing c l a r i t y and understanding.  When that i s done, there is l i t t l e l i k l i h o o d of developing  snobbishness.  ~ 50 ~ One point i n this connection - the attitude of the parents and the teachers to this whole matter i s of utmost  attitude of the children.  importance i n determining the  If only a l l parents and teachers could he  . brought to see the situation as a whole, there would, be l i t t l e trouble with the children,  when a class is told that i t is supposed to be "brainy",  or when parents make a habit of discussing the outstanding a b i l i t y of t h e i r child in that c h i l d ' s presence, the c h i l d does not have a f a i r chance to develop normally. After a l l , the problem i s one of attitude; and these broader a t t i t u d e s , while they may have their r a t i o n a l background more or less c l e a r l y defined, are to a very considerable degree 'caught• from those with whom we l i v e and work - especially from those who have won our respect.  If this be true, the need of an enlightened, sane a t t i t -  ude on the part of parents and teachers is obvious.  Granted that, we may  reasonably expect that the class w i l l work effectively to i t s goal i n academic work and at the same time develop wholesome s o c i a l attitudes. A fourth c r i t i c i s m is that this plan necessitates the shifting of pupils into and out of the c l a s s .  If we were equipped with reliable tests  to cover every phase of p e r s o n a l i t y involved in learning, we might be able to choose our class i n such a way that, b a r r i n g accidents, no change would be necessary*  Such, however, i s not the case, and we do find that some  changes are necessary.  The number of changes which actually were made i n  our experiment has already been discussed i n Chapter  IV - These changes  were rcade on the basis of the rank of the pupils i n the term examinations. No actual l i m i t s were set,  but those who ranked in the f i r s t - say twenty  five - were moved into the superior class.  Generally, the staff did not  f e e l satisfied with this part of the experiment.  Obviously, the number  - 51 of cases dealt with has  teen s m a l l , and i t would be f o o l i s h to draw g e n e r a l  c o n c l u s i o n s from so few. importance  However, some of the problems are of such v i t a l  that they deserve s p e c i a l comments  In the f i r s t p l a c e , there i s a danger that the p u p i l who w i l l miss p a r t of the work o f the grade.  i s moved  True, the p l a n i s adopted w i t h  the idea of e n r i c h i n g the course rather than that of accelerating the pupil.  There i s , however, a tendency to accelerate the class during the  f i r s t part of the year and use the time thus gained for enrichment later on.  Further, when different teachers are teaching different classes, i t  is p r a c t i c a l l y impossible f o r a l l to keep together so closely that  -  changes may be nade from one class to another without forcing the pupil to miss some part of the work.  This loss i s of special importance  case of a student who i s being moved into a superior group.  i n the  If the  principles applied i n the o r i g i n a l selection were at a l l sound, any students who w i l l be moved into the c l a s s w i l l be students who outstanding.  are not  Under most favourable circumstances, they could not be  e-cpected to rani; high i n the superior group.  If' they are placed i n this  group without having covered a l l the work that has been done by the group, i t i s very l i k e l y that they w i l l become discouraged i n an apparently vain attempt  to keep up w i t h the rest of the class.  The only solution for this  problem seems to be that these pupils should be taught out of class the work they have missed.  This seems to offer a solution, yet when teachers  are actually teaching i n the classroom f o r ninety f i v e p e r cent of their time, and correcting books, preparing lessons, and carrying on athletics and other a c t i v i t i e s outside of school hours, i t is often a physical impossibility to f i n d time to give these pupils the attention that they  -  52  -  need.  In the second place, the attitude of the student toward the change must he  taken into account.  Here we  must remember t h a t the  student's  .scale of values may d i f f e r very markedly from that of the teachers. him sohool i s a large part of l i f e . teachers and academic work.  For  It involves many things other than  From h i s stand point the re nay be many reasons  for his not moving to the superior c l a s s . s e l f as part of h i s own c l a s s .  He has learned to regard him-  He has his friends there.  Often, perhaps,  he has pointed out i n no uncertain terms the superiority of h i s own class to that to which i t i s suggested he should move. He has become acquainted with c e r t a i n teachers and with h i s own c l a s s mates.  To him i t may seem  almost an a c t of disloyalty to .leave h i s o l d class and go to another.  Then  too, he must picture to h i m s e l f what h i s condition i n that other class w i l l be.  He has been able to show himself to good advantage i n his own class,  w i l l he be able to do the same in the new one?  Quite l i k e l y he w i l l not.  He w i l l be not only a new student i n the class, but one of the poorer students i n the class.  He i s being asked to change from a class where he  is known and respected to a class where he w i l l be regarded as a 'new boy' who  i s 'only f a i r ' .  so why  change?  Furthermore, he has done very well i n his o l d class,  No one can t a l k to these students without sensing the  sincerity of t h e i r attitude.  True, some of them simply wish to avoid the  extra work involved i n the change, and others have only some vague notion that they do not want to change.  The f a c t remains, however, that many of  them have good reason f o r the position which they take. Of course, many of those who rank high wish to go into the superior class.  They regard i t as an opportunity and they w i l l do their best to  ~ 53  hold t h e i r places there.  -  Some however, do not wish to go. It seems a  l i t t l e u n f a i r that they should he rewarded f o r their good work by being forced into a new class when they would much prefer to stay i n their own. .In such cases, the only real solution of the problem seems to l i e i n a frank discussion of the matter between the principal, the student parents.  and his  Each should be allowed to present his particular point of view,  and together they should come to a decision. Generally speaking, pupils should be shifted into and out of the superior group only when i t i s absolutely necessary.  Much harm may be  done to the student, and much d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n to both student and teacher may arise*  The s h i f t i n g of each p u p i l should be made an individual study.  Gare should be taken to see that he does not miss any necessary vork, and he should not be forced into the superior group against his wi11. :  A f i f t h c r i t i c i s m to this plan of segregation i s that such a plan w i l l  s p o i l the other classes f o r teaching by robbing them of the best pupils. The writer feels that this i s a very weak objection, and w i l l deal with i t very b r i e f l y .  Let us grant at once that when the best students are segre-  gated into one class, the average brightness of the other classes i s lower than i t would have been, had there been no segregation.  Let us grant, too,  that on the examinations the other classes do not come up to the standard of the superior class. for  teaching.  This does not prove that those classes are spoiled  After a l l , we are teaching individuals and not classes* I f  we go into a room (not the superior) and find that no one in the room i s answering our questions, that seems to show us that our questions are too d i f f i c u l t for the individuals whom we are iteaching.  Had there been s i x or  seven 'bright students' i n the room, they would probably have answered our  q u e s t i o n s f o r us.  The f a c t that our q u e s t i o n i n g was  most of the c l a s s might have passed u n n o t i c e d . students from any  the d u l l .  n o t be a very p l e a s a n t experience, but  the t e a c h e r .  Kow  removal of the b r i g h t  o r d i n a r y c l a s s simply f o r c e s upon our a t t e n t i o n what i s  , happening a l l the time w i t h the average and t h i s may  The  above the heads of  The  r e a l i z a t i o n of  i t i s very wholesome f o r  s e g r e g a t i o n not only shows the teacher the need of  d i f f e r e n t methods with these c l a s s e s I i t a l s o provides a s i t u a t i o n i n which these methods can be a p p l i e d .  When the b r i g h t e r p u p i l s a r e removed,  t e a c h i n g methods can be a d j u s t e d and more time can be g i v e n to d r i l l . teacher i s r e l i e v e d of the problem of keeping ted.  the b r i g h t e r p u p i l  reasonable  to expect  that each i n d i v i d u a l wi11  would have i n an o r d i n a r y c l a s s . of  but i t seems  We must r i d o u r s e l v e s of the o l d e r r o r r e s u l t s as shown i n c l a s s  When our i n t e r e s t i s i n the development of each c h i l d , and  i n the c l a s s marks, s e g r e g a t i o n becomes a  h e l p , r a t h e r than a  not  hindrance  teaching. The f i n a l c r i t i c i s m  p u p i l s may  i s that i n such a system of segregation, some  be f o r e e d to. do too much work.  T h i s o b j e c t i o n does, mark a  very r e a l danger i n the system - e s p e c i a l l y i n the s m a l l e r s c h o o l s . a  as  do at l e a s t as w e l l as he  j u d g i n g the success of our work by examination  averages.  in  interes-  T h i s , of course, does not mean t h a t the c l a s s average w i l l be  h i g h as t h a t of the s u p e r i o r c l a s s on the f i n a l examination,  The  ' s u p e r i o r c l a s s ' c o n t a i n s the top twenty-five  p u p i l s i n grade  .IX  i n any  When  or t h i r t y percent o f the  school, ths weaker p u p i l s i n t h a t 'superior  group' are not r e a l l y s u p e r i o r students i n the o r d i n a r y sense c f the word* They are probably a l i t t l e  b e t t e r than average.  There i s a danger, i n  such c a s e s , of becoming s l i g h t l y o v e r - e n t h u s i a s t i c i n the scheme and  of  ~ 55 expecting too much from these people.  Most of them are very  conscientious  workers, and they w i l l o f t e n make courageous e f f o r t s to do this extra work without complaining.  They may  even go to the extent of  giving up the  time ordinarily used f o r a t h l e t i c s and s o c i a l functions and use this time for study.  In the case of the experiment i n North Vancouver, I f e e l that  the large exodus from the superior group to the Commercial Course part due to this cause.  • is in  Of course there were other causes, hut the  students themselves named the amount of work that was required i n the superior class as one of the causes for their change.  Ho one, would  argue that any student should he forced to work so hard that he finds the work burdensome or loses time whi ch should be given to recreation.  The  danger i s that the teacher may place the pupil i n this position without r e a l i z i n g that lie i s doing i t . the scheme.  It i s merely a  One could scarcely c a l l this c r i t i c i s m to  warning that those in charge should  satisfy  themselves that the weaker pupils of the superior class are not being overworked.  These, then, are the most serious criticisms which are brought against the plan of 1. 2. 2. 4. 5. 6.  segregation:  The plan i s not democratic. The parents object to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The plan tends to develop class consciousness and an attitude of snobbishness. The plan necessitates too much moving of pupils from one class to another. The plan spoils the other classes for teaching. The weaker pupils of the selected group may be required to do too much work.  We have seen that none of these statements needs be true of a plan ' of segregation. •'1.  We have not said that they could not be true of such a -  Chapter (17) page  —  plan*  On the c o n t r a r y  c a r e f u l l y avoided these dangers w i l l  ?  each statement represents a danger whi'oh must he  i f the p l a n i s to he a success., The  t a s k of a v o i d i n g  r e q u i r e a l l the s k i l l and t a c t that one  It i s not an easy t a s k ; hut  i t i s not an impossible  one.  can command.  CHAPTER-  .Til'»  SEGREGATION OF PUPILS - SOME ADVANTAGES. Having noted some of the dangers to he avoided  i n following out  p l a n , l e t us no?; t u r n to c o n s i d e r some of the advantages t h a t may  ed from i t .  this  he gain-  Let i t be clear at the outset that mere segregation i n i t s e l f  offers, so f a r as we know, no advantage over the ordinary method of grouping.  D. R. Cook-s report of an experiment carried on i n this connection  i s interesting.  He says:  "As a result of t h i s experiment, we are unable  to say that the grouping of high school children according to a b i l i t y secures better results than random grouping, for the comparison of the scores obtained by pupils of high a b i l i t y i n selected and mixed classes, and, also, a comparison of the scores of pupils of i n f e r i o r a b i l i t i e s i n the various subjects, do not a l l show the same tendencies. " I t w i l l be noted that i n planning t h i s experiment, no attempt was made to formulate teaching methods specially adapted to classes of high or low a b i l i t y .  Each teacher v&s instructed to use such methods as she would  o r d i n a r i l y have used i n dealing with pupils of varying a b i l i t i e s i n t h e i r classes.  It i s the sole purpose of this study to determine i f there was  any advantage to be gained from homogeneous groupings.  While the mere  device of grouping according to a b i l i t y does not siow strong enough or consistent enough advantages i n any subject to j u s t i f y the time and work which i s required to c l a s s i f y the pupils in this manner, i t i s quite possible that with a special method of instruction, adapted to each of these groups according to i t s needs, such a plan of grouping might show very positive results." . 1.  1924 Yearbook':" Nat. Soc. for the Study of Education - Pages 311-32.  -  58  -  T h i s lengthy q u o t a t i o n c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o a f a c t which i s of great  importance i n any scheme o f segregation. I t i s a mistake to think that, when the best p u p i l s a r e segregated  into one c l a s s , the b e n e f i t s of the  scheme are going to come a s the d i r e c t consequence of t h a t  segregation.  Any o f the dangers mentioned i n the previous chapter may be the r e s u l t . The most that can be s a i d f o r s e g r e g a t i o n i s t h i s , t h a t i t p r o v i d e s the  conditions under which the teacher and pupils may work more e f f i c i e n t l y , and  i t makes possible f o r each child a closer approximation to the goals  that we set f o r a l l i n education. One advantage of segregation of a. more j u s t  i s that i t makes possible the setting  standard of accuracy than could be set i n an ordinary c l a s s .  In p r a c t i c a l l y every subject, there are certain facts that pupils should know.  In matters involving bald facts, we strive to make the standard  "Absolute Accuracy."  The d i f f i c u l t y comes when we attempt to say just  how f a r this p r i n c i p l e of "Absolute Accuracy" s h a l l be applied.  It has  been pointed out i n a previous chapter that the bright student can learn not only more quickly, but also more thoroughly, than the ordinary c h i l d . It would seem, then, that we a r e q u i t e j u s t i f i e d i n demanding a h i g h e r standard of accuracy from these superior students.  Obviously, i t i s  e a s i e r to set these different standards i f the p u p i l s are grouped accord-ring to a b i l i t y .  It becomes a matter of different standards f o r d i f f e r e n t  classes; and, while the teacher w i l l s t i l l need to make allowance f o r individual d i f f e r e n c e s within any one class, those differences w i l l not be as great as they would be i n ordinary classes. But this demanding of a higher standard of accuracy from the superi o r students does not mean that these students spend more time i n d r i l l  - 59 -  than the others.  As a matter of f a c t ,  they spend much less.  They  achieve t h e i r greater accuracy through their greater a b i l i t y to l e a r n , and they learn i n l e s s time than the o r d i n a r y student. , drill  i n the s u p e r i o r c l a s s .  There must be  The c h i l d r e n do not d i s l i k e  i t as l o n g as  they r e a l i s e that they are d r i l l i n g on t h i n g s that they do not a l r e a d y know.  B r i g h t c h i l d r e n a r e much more p a t i e n t i n t h i s respect than o r d i n -  ary children* They are usually w i l l i n g to stay at the d r i l l work u n t i l the work i s known thoroughly*  Even g r a n t i n g that g r e a t e r accuracy i s  demanded of the superior class, and that d r i l l i s necessary f o r achieving i t , the f a c t remains that less time i s r e q u i r e d for this p a r t of the work.  The question then arises, what s h a l l we do with time thus gained"?  Under  the o l d system the bright student either wasted the extra time, or became bored through being f o r c e d to d r i l l on work that he already knew.  Under  the system of segregation, the students of the superior class may be given work in which they are interested during this extra time. This work, however, must not be regarded as merely a pleasant way of p a s s i n g some l e i s u r e  tame.  I t i s of quite as much importance a s the work  that i s required of a l l p u p i l s .  If the student i s properly guided in  t h i s work, he w i l l be broadening h i s knowledge o f the subject which he i s  studying.  He w i l l be learning f a c t s about i t that w i l l not be considered  in the r e g u l a r classes.  i n a systematic way,  In short, he w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g h i s knowledge  and thus w i l l be p r o v i d i n g himself with a better  background both f o r the formation of judgments regarding matters pertaining to t h a t f i e l d and f o r f u t u r e study i n i t .  I t i s much e a s i e r t o make  p r o v i s i o n f o r such a d d i t i o n a l study i n a segregated group than i n an uns e l e c t e d one.  I n f a c t , the a d d i t i o n a l work i s c a r r i e d out l a r g e l y a s  - 60  part o f the regular c l a s s work.  -  This is the second advantage of the plan.  The t h i r d advantage of the plan is that i t provides a good opportunity for the adjusting of teaching methods to the a b i l i t i e s of the pupils. • With the modern emphasis on c h i l d developments new  i n g have been brought forward.  Two  ' s o c i a l i z e d , r e c i t a t i o n ' and  ' p r o j e c t method.'  the  methods of group teach-  of the most common of these are the These terms are used  to denote so many different things that i t i s impossible to define them clearly.  The  outstanding f e a t u r e s of each of them, however, are q u i t e  w e l l known to a l l .  They both i n v o l v e a cooperative effort on the p a r t of  students and teacher i n the completion of some task in which they are naturally interested. We s h a l l not discuss here to what extent these methods are suited to the 'fundamentals' of the curriculum.  It i s generally  granted that, when they are properly followed, they do provide the pupil with an experience which should result i n desirable social attitudes and habits.  The contacts which he makes with other students, the teacher and  those outside the c l a s s room, while he i s 117/ing to complete his task a l l these help him to learn how  to live successfully with other people. A  segregated group of superior students .offers an excellent opportunity for the use of such a method. In the experiment i n North Vancouver, much of the a d d i t i o n a l work that was done was work of this 'project' nature.  The preparation and  presentation of the L a t i n play, f o r instance, involved a good deal of planning and o r g a n i s i n g as well as the a c t u a l memorizing of the Latin. This planning and organising was done by the pupils themselves.  Surely  the experience gained from this is at least as valuable as that gained i n actually l e a r n i n g the f a c t s of the language.  The production of the newspaper provided v a l u a b l e experience i n w r i t ing and drawing,  p u p i l s took s p e c i a l care to do t h e i r work a s w e l l as they  could, f o r they knew t h a t t h e i r reward would be. not merely a mark from a •teacher, but  the p r a i s e or blame of t h e i r f r i e n d s .  T h i s d e s i r e to produce  good a r t i c l e s f o r the p a p e r a l s o s t i m u l a t e d many of the p u p i l s both to read mors and to a n a l y s e what they read more c a r e f u l l y .  Many situations which arose i n the production of the paper provided good opportunities f o r class debates. may seem at f i r s t to be unimportant.  Many o f the points that were debated Yet they were of v i t a l importance  .to the class, for the success of the paper depended on t h e i r proper solution.  Periiaps, too, these questions were actually of great importance i n  themselves, because they were c l o s e l y connected w i t h the every day l i f e of the pupils.  A few i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the subjects which were debated follow.  Some thought that the paper did not have a sufficient number of jokes I others thought that i t had too many, or that the jokes were too f o o l i s h . Some thought that the paper should be "pepped up " by the use of modem s l a n g ; others thought that the use of SLIch would lower i t s standard. Some  thought that the paper should be edited i n such a way that i t would s e l l e a s i l y ; others thought that i t should be used to improve the tone of the school.  These are only a few of the points which arose during the produc-  tion of the paper.  They were debated during class periods, according to  the form of a r e g u l a r business meeting.  The pupils- not only settled the  question i n hand, but they also gained experience in taking part i n a business meeting.  They were urged to think independently during the d i s -  cussion, to express t h e i r thoughts clearly and forcefully to the chairman, and  to state a l l that they had to say in one speech.  Of course, they often  -  62  -  f e l l f a r short o f p e r f e c t i o n i n a l l of these things- ~ what group of a d u l t s does not?  -  Yet there  i s l i t t l e doubt that the experience gained  i n such d i s c u s s i o n s was o f very great 'well  value and that the time r e q u i r e d was  spent. These two " p r o j e c t s " have been mentioned to suggest some o f the pos-  s i b i l i t i e s o f a d d i t i o n a l work i n a segregated s u p e r i o r c l a s s . pupils  who  Had the  composed t h i s c l a s s been s c a t t e r e d through the f o u r c l a s s e s o f  that grade, such an undertaking would have been impossible a s a c l a s s project.  I t i s t r u e there a r e many other types of p r o j e c t that would be of  equal or g r e a t e r value. - Segregation on the b a s i s o f a b i l i t y should  prove  h e l p f u l i n a l l , f o r i t b r i n g s those students who have time to spend on such p r o j e c t s i n t o one c l a s s where they may work a s one group d u r i n g  school  hours. But  discussion's a r e n o t c o n f i n e d to e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ,  in  the t e a c h i n g o f the work r e q u i r e d i n t h e course o f study, there a r e many opportunities f o r class discussion.  Problems o f h i s t o r y and o f current  events, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of poems, r e f e r e n c e s  to s c i e n t i f i c  these t h i n g s r e q u i r e d i s c u s s i o n by the c l a s s .  inventions, -  Such d i s c u s s i o n s a r e much  more l i k e l y to be s u c c e s s f u l i n a s e l e c t e d group than i n a n u n s e l e c t e d one. I f there  i s a very great  range i n a b i l i t y i n a c l a s s , the d i s c u s s i o n i s  almost c e r t a i n to be e i t h e r b o r i n g to the b r i g h t students or 'over the heads' o f the d u l l .  When c l a s s e s are segregated, s t u d e n t s have an oppor-  t u n i t y f o r d i s c u s s i n g matters w i t h other level  students who are n e a r e r t h e i r own  o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . Thus the b r i g h t students a r e given  the advantage  o f matching t h e i r ideas w i t h those o f people who are e q u a l l y b r i g h t ; and  the d u l l e r students, who might otherwise remain s i l e n t , are given the opportunity f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r ideas i n a group i n which those  ideas  w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d .  Here a g a i n i t i s necessary to bear i n mind that the b e n e f i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y come w i t h the s e g r e g a t i o n . are  We can say only that when c l a s s e s  segregated, the t e a c h e r has a b e t t e r opportunity to have c l a s s d i s -  c u s s i o n than when they are not.  But the teacher must keep the s i t u a t i o n  well in hand i f the re i s to be success under any sort of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Many pupils are very self-conscious and find i t extremely hard to take part i n such discussions; others wish to be i n the lime-light and w i l l t a l k even when they have n o t h i n g t o say.  I t has not y e t been shown that there  i s any d i f f e r e n c e between 'bright* and ' d u l l *  students i n t h i s r e s p e c t .  There i s always the danger of getting away from the subject and simply wasting time  (bright students are p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e v e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t ) .  If the t e a c h e r hopes to be s u c c e s s f u l i n conducting d i s c u s s i o n s , he mast see  that such dangers are a v o i d e d .  We might sura the matter up b r i e f l y by  s a y i n g t h a t , a l t h o u g h there a r e many t h i n g s which may s p o i l c l a s s discus-  s i o n s and render them valueless,the chances for success are greater i n a selected, than i n an unselected, group. In the f i r s t chapter of this study, an attempt was made to indicate modem emphasis on the wholesome development of the personality of the child,  i t was pointed out that the attitudes which a c h i l d develops to-  ward, himself, and toward society,are of v i t a l importance i n any system of training.  The last claim of this chapter is that the plan of segregation  offers a better situation f o r the development of proper attitudes, than the old method of random grouping.  - 64  -  In d e a l i n g w i t h the g e n e r a l attitudes of a c h i l d , we must r e a l i z e that the c h i l d comes i n t o h i g h s c h o o l with h i s attitudes a l r e a d y p a r t i a l l y formed.  Each p u p i l a r r i v e s w i t h c e r t a i n ideas of proper conduct.  Certain  'things he has l e a r n e d a r e wrong, and other t h i n g s he has l e a r n e d a r e r i g h t .  He has developed attitudes of one kind or another toward teachers. r e g a r d them as f r i e n d s who  help, or as a u t h o r i t a t i v e "beings who  He  may  demand.  He has formed l i k e s or dislikes toward the various subjects which he has studied.  He has come to havejsome more or l e s s d e f i n i t e f e e l i n g s toward  other members of society.  These attitudes have been formed - and very de-  f i n i t e l y formed i n mos't cases - out of the experience of the past. cases the a t t i t u d e i s desirable;  i n others, i t i s not.  In some  The h i g h s c h o o l  teacher i s , then, f a c e d w i t h the t a s k of changing certain undesirable  attitudes, and strengthening the d e s i r a b l e ones. • In d e a l i n g w i t h any a t t i t u d e - l e t us say the a t t i t u d e of a c h i l d to the teacher, to take a very delicate case - a f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o blem i s o f very great value.  and should not do.  Years ago, c h i l d r e n were told what they should  Teachers endeavoured to develop proper attitudes by  preaching a series of moral sermons on the proper attitude of children tov?ard teachers, elders and other children. failed.  We a l l know how t h i s method  Perhaps i n our eagerness to avoid the e v i l s of 'preaching* at  children, we have gone to the other extreme and f a i l e d to give them enough guidance i n their forming o f attitudes and habits. Children enjoy discussing questions of right and wrong, and questions o f attitude, both in class and individually with the teacher.  They like to f i n d the logical basis for  attitudes that are commonly accepted as r i g h t ; and in a surprisingly large number of cases they are q u i t e w i l l i n g to make an attempt to state why  their  - 65 own  attitude i s d i f f e r e n t from that which i s g e n e r a l l y accepted as  These d i s c u s s i o n s , i f they are spontaneous and  students and teacher a l i k e .  right.  f r a n k , are h e l p f u l to  the  They tend to strengthen the desirable a t t i t -  . udes by showing the reason f o r them; and they provide an opportunity f o r these Who have developed attitudes that are considered harmful, to examine the  those attitudes more c l o s e l y and perhaps to discover^fault of their position.  The important point i s that these discussions must be really d i s -  cussions, and n o t lectures, led by the teacher.  The teacher may express  his opinion, but he should not t r y to force i t on the students. But mere discussion of an attitude or habit i s not, i n i t s e l f , sufficient.  Before the ideas which are discussed can be of real value  to the student they must pass from the realm of sion i n a c t u a l practice.  theory and find expres-  Attitudes and habits develop, whether we wish i t  or not, out of every day experiences.  Such development may be influenced  and guided by theoretical discussion, but the fact s t i l l remains that i t takes place during the course of ordinary work. A segregated group provides a better unit both for the discussion and for the development of these attitudes and habits than an unselected group.  It forms a better unit f o r  the d i s c u s s i o n of these problems because the members of such a group are more l i k e l y to have similar p o i n t s of vie?? than members of an unselected group. success.  A l l have passed through public school w i t h more "than average A l l have experienced something of the satisfaction of knowing  that they have done a t a s k w e l l .  P r a c t i c a l l y a l l are looking forward to  completing t h e i r course i n High School, and to gaining as high a standard as possible.  With such experiences as these i n common, the pupils are i n  a position to discuss l o g i c a l l y their common objectives.  It i s true that  some c h i l d r e n i n the selected group f a i l to develop the most d e s i r a b l e habits.  It i s also true that f i n e attitudes and h a b i t s are often develop-  ed i n unselected groups.  Nevertheless,,' i t seems reasonable to suppose  • that the most successful discussions s e l e c t e d groups.  of such matters would be found i n  Experience has shown that such d i s c u s s i o n s can, i n a  s e l e c t e d group p a r t i c u l a r l y , be most i n t e r e s t i n g , a n d h e l p f u l . From another p o i n t of view, the selected- group p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t h a n the unselected group f o r the development attitudes and habits.  of these  It seems a most unreasonable thing- that we should  discuss with a c h i l d the virtues of i n d u s t r y and then allow that c h i l d t h i r t y minutes to do a t a s k that r e q u i r e s o n l y twenty minutes o f h i s time. It  seems e q u a l l y unreasonable that we should d i s c u s s w i t h him the v i r t u e s  of honest e f f o r t , and then g i v e him., a t a s k which he cannot accomplish even with h i s best e f f o r t s . y e t we are actually doing one o r the other of these -when we set common tasks f o r u n s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s .  She b r i g h t p u p i l s  not o n l y f i n d the o r d i n a r y task too easy but f i n i s h i t i n . a very short time, while the d u l l pupils find the same task impossible.  Habits of time  w a s t i n g on the one hand, and a discouraging  on the other,  are the l o g i c a l r e s u l t s ,  sense of defeat  i f , however, the class i s a segregated c l a s s ,  there i s l e s s u n f a i r n e s s to the p u p i l s .  Even w i f e i n the segregated group  there are d i f f e r e n c e s o f a b i l i t y which must be r e c o g n i z e d i n any  satis-  f a c t o r y scheme of t e a c h i n g ! but these d i f f e r e n c e s are not so s i g n i f i c a n t as the d i f f e r e n c e s found i n an ordinary, u n s e l e c t e d c l a s s . it  Consequently,  i s much e a s i e r to set t a s k s t h a t are o f the proper d i f f i c u l t y f o r a l l  the members of the c l a s s .  Under such circumstances the pupils f i n d them-  s e l v e s d o i n g t a s k s that are n e i t h e r too easy nor too hard, and competing  against; other p u p i l s of approximately equal a b i l i t y .  I t i s i n such  circumstances t h a t wholesome a t t i t u d e s to the r e s t of the group and ec  omical habits of work w i l l be developed. These9 then, a r e the main advantages of the p l a n o f segregation:  1.  More j u s t demands r e g a r d i n g accuracy i n the fundamentals  E.  A wider f i e l d of study may be covered,  S.  Socialized methods are more easily adopted.  4.  Most satisfactory conditions are provided for the  may  be made.  development of d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s .  - 68 « 0 H i P I E 1  -..Till''.  DIFFICULTIES IN ADOPTING. A SGK.ME OF SEGREGATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY. In the last two chapters we have considered some of the arguments for and against the principle of segregation.  Let us now turn our atten-  t i o n to the problem of applying such a plan in the schools of our province.  own  The present course of study for the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia  i s compiled on the assumption that classes are not grouped according to ability.  Our system of granting c e r t i f i c a t e s and awards is b u i l t on the  same assumption.  Consequently, when we attempt to carry out a plan of  segregation i n a school i n this province we meet with certain very definite difficulties.  These d i f f i c u l t i e s arise, not from the segregation i t s e l f ,  but from the fact that we are attempting to adopt a system of segregation under an educational system which has made no provision for i t . now consider soma of these d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Let us  In the present chapter we shall  confine ourselves to a statement of the d i f f i c u l t i e s themselves.  In the  following- chapter we s h a l l consider certain suggestions f o r their solution. One very obvious d i f f i c u l t y is the problem of securing a suitable selection of books.  Every scheme of enrichment depends on bringing before  the pupils work that i s not contained i n the regularly authorized text book.  Pupils i n a selected class should be training themselves to study  independently, and to f i n d out for themselves the answers to questions a r i s i n g out of their reading. reference books.  For this, the pupils must have access to  If such books are not available, the pupils must rely  on the teacher or some other older person for their information.  Such  information i s often not so accurate or so complete as information gained  from a r e l i a b l e reference book would be.  Furthermore, when references  are available the t r a i n i n g that the p u p i l gains in the proper use of these  books i s , i n i t s e l f , of great value.  The pupils of the selected class are  . the ones who are most l i k e l y to develop into scholars who w i l l do o r i g i n a l work i n l a t e r l i f e . advantage t o Is a m  It seems reasonable t o suppose that i t i s to their ~ as soon a s p o s s i b l e  to depend on themselves f o r d i s c o v -  e r i n g facts, and not to depend on a teacher.  This, however, can be accom-  plished only when suitable l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s are provided for the schools. A second d i f f i c u l t y l i k e l y to arise i s that w i t h regard to individual differences i n the s e l e c t e d class i t s e l f .  The selected class i s less  heterogeneous than a n u n s e l e c t e d class, but i t i s not homogeneous.  Within  the class i t s e l f , there are great differences of i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y , and these require very c a r e f u l consideration.  For example, the chart of the  classes (page 23 J w i l l show that in the a r t s course there are four grade nine classes, three grade ten classes, two grade eleven c l a s s e s , and two grade twelve classes.  This means that i n grade nine approximately 25$ of  the students a r e i n the selected group; i n grade ten, 33 l/3$; i n grades eleven and twelve, 50%» Granting that ordinarily a small percentage of those who drop cut are from the selected group, i t i s quite obvious that the weaker section of the selected group is very d e f i n i t e l y weaker than the stronger section.  It has already been pointed out as one of the dang-  ers of this system that the weaker section of the class may be over worked. Any  satisfactory method for dealing with such a group must take into con-  sideration the differences of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y w i t h i n the group. In addition t o differences of general a b i l i t y , there were great  diff-  erences of a b i l i t y i n individual subjects among the members i n the c l a s s .  • - 70 <-> Ail  teachers are aware of the f a c t t h a t some students do v e r y good work  in certain s u b j e c t s and would expect.  We  only average work in o t h e r s .  Shis i s just as  one  know t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n between the i n t e l l i g e n c e  , q u o t i e n t and a b i l i t y  i n i n d i v i d u a l subjects  i s not p e r f e c t .  We  know, too,  that by the time pupils reach high school, they have formed definite likes f o r some subjects and  d i s l i k e s for others.  Shose d i s l i k e s ,  be the r e s u l t of poor t r a i n i n g i n the lower s c h o o l .  in turn,  may  I f so, that t r a i n i n g -  would decrease the pupils' chances f o r doing good work i n that particular subject.  We  p u p i l s of  should not,  tiiis  account was  then, be  s u r p r i s e d when we. find t h a t some of the  s e l e c t e d group do poorly i n c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s .  taken of t h i s fact when the group was segregated.  on the p r i n c i p l e that i f any p u p i l ranked h i g h , he must be a p u p i l ' , and,  t h a t , he should be g i v e n an e n r i c h e d c o u r s e .  that some of these pupils, who the  We worked 'bright result  was  would have found i t d i f f i c u l t enough to do  r e g u l a r work i n certain p a r t i c u l a r  subjects, were o b l i g e d to try  enriched course i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s because the r e s t of the it.  She  No  On the o t h e r hand, there were s e v e r a l p u p i l s who  an  c l a s s were doing  were not i n the  class because they did not a t t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h g e n e r a l standing, but who  d i d possess high a b i l i t y i n one or two particular subjects.  Un-  doubtedly, these pupils would have profited from an enriched course i n those p a r t i c u l a r subjects, but t h i s could be given only i n so f a r as i n -  dividual teachers were able to make special arrangements for each case. Another p o i n t of importance  is the fact that the pupils have only a  limited amount of time at t h e i r disposal.  In order to take an enriched  course 'in any subject, any p u p i l must spend more time on that subject than he would for an ordinary course.  A bright pupil might  complete the  - 71  -  * enriched course' in the same time that an average pupil would complete the average course.  But the p u p i l of s l i g h t l y - more - than - average a b i l -  i t y would require longer f o r the enriched course than the average pupil r e q u i r e s f o r the average c o u r s e .  Such a p u p i l might take an  enriched  course i n Latin, i n French, i n Literature or i n A l g e b r a I but he would not have enough time at his d i s p o s a l to take an enriched course i n a l l of these.  Unfortunately,  The  our plan made no accommodation for such pupils.  third, and perhaps the greatest, d i f f i c u l t y which was encountered •  i n t h i s experiment -was that of finding- s u i t a b l e enrichment for the various classes.  I t has been stated that each teacher was made responsible  for h i s own p a r t i c u l a r subject.  Most teachers did, however, f e e l very  uncertain about, and d i s s a t i s f i e d with the enrichment which they were able to provide. teachers.  This, was not due to lack of effort on the part of the The task of arranging such a. course of enrichment is a t a s k  f o r an expert i n curriculum c o n s t r u c t i o n .  It i s easy enough to find ways  and means for passing the time a f t e r the regularly required work has been completed, but i t i s not easy to arrange a cvirriculum that s h a l l be to the g r e a t e s t advantage of the bright children. When teachers are required to teach c l a s s e s of from t h i r t y to forty f i v e pupils without having a s i n g l e free period throughout the term, and when those teachers are giving from f i v e to ten hours per week to the s u p e r v i s i o n of extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s humanly impossible for them to make any serious attempt to deal w i t h the problem of an expert, i n a f i e l d that is r e l a t i v e l y unexplored. Further, even i f i t were p o s s i b l e that this enrichment could be outlined by individual teachers, i t i s not desirable that i t should  be  done by them.  As classes pass through the school,  d i f f e r e n t teachers i n d i f f e r e n t y e a r s .  they are taught by  I f each teacher i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the enriching of the course f o r the class he i s teaching, i t i s l i k e l y • that there w i l l be l i t t l e c o n t i n u i t y i n the course of enrichment from y e a r to year. throughout  Even i f i t i s possible t o keep the same teachers with each class i t s e n t i r e course {a p l a n t h a t w i l l have i t s own disadvantages),  each teacher i s s t i l l working alone and t h e r e i s no means f o r comparing the r e l a t i v e standing o f p u p i l s from d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s i n the same o r i n different schools. A f o u r t h d i f f i c u l t y was that the p u p i l s of the s e l e c t e d group d i d not r e c e i v e any r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r extra work a t the end o f the year*,  2heir  r e p o r t c a r d s , and t h e i r g r a d u a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e s were not i n any way d i f f erent from those o f p u p i l s who had done good work i n .the r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . Consequently,  there was a f e e l i n g on the p a r t of many o f the p u p i l s , and  to a l e s s extent on the p a r t of seme of the teachers, that there was no compulsion about  t h i s a d d i t i o n a l work.  (They regarded i t a s an i n t e r e s t i n g  experiment which might be dropped a t any time,  l a t e r a l l y , where such a  f e e l i n g e x i s t e d , n e i t h e r pupils n o r t e a c h e r s entered i n t o the p r o j e c t with as much enthusiasm as they would have done had they f e l t that they were compl e t i n g a necessary p a r t of the course. It w i l l be objected t h a t t h i s d i f f i c u l t y r e f l e c t s a poor attitude toward study on the part of both teachers and pupils - that i f the teachers are r e a l l y interested i n their work, and i f the pupils have been .properly trained, no such d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l a r i s e . i s only part of the truth.  Perhaps  this i s true.  If so i t  But,both teachers and pupils are human; and.  they tend to f o l l o w the o l d "beaten paths, e s p e c i a l l y when new more d i f f i c u l t than the old ones* e n r i c h e d course, there are  paths are  So matter what i n t e r e s t t h e r e  times when the  interest flags.  i s i n an  At such times,  • the knowledge that there are c e r t a i n very d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e s to be gained o r l o s t i s a very e f f e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e . Let us l o o k a t the s i t u a t i o n as i t i s i n B r i t i s h Columbia today. Each p u p i l r e c e i v e s , when he completes the course s u c c e s s f u l l y , a  certif-  . i c a t e which i s supposed to be a complete r e c o r d of h i s work i n high But  on t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e he g e t s no c r e d i t f o r h a v i n g taken an  course.  H i s narks w i l l  marks may was  not  enriched  be h i g h , f o r he has been ranking near the top of  the grade; but t h e y would have been e q u a l l y h i g h "enriched"  school.  p a r t of the course.  i f he had not done  the  In f a c t h i s chances f o r g e t t i n g high  have been a c t u a l l y lessened  by h i 3 spending tires on work that  r e q u i r e d of a l l the c l a s s e s .  t© It i s not  our purpose i n t h i s study to at t empt j us t i fy or to condemn A  a system of ' c r e d i t s ' as a means of r e c o g n i z i n g the work which p u p i l s . have done.  Our  contention  i s that i f the 'system be a p p l i e d a t a l l , i t  should be a p p l i e d f a i r l y to a l l s t u d e n t s completed a n enriched t h a n those who  r  that i s to say, those who  course should r e c e i v e a g r e a t e r number of c r e d i t s  have completed only the o r d i n a r y course.  the system of g r a n t i n g c r e d i t s i s not a good one, system w i l l take i t s p l a c e .  She  i s t h a t , whatever the system may r i c h e d course i n any work that he has  have  be,  the student who  be  that  that some other  p o i n t of importance f o r our  subject should  done.  and  I t may  has  discussion  completed an  en-  r e c e i v e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the a d d i t i o n a l  These then a r e the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s which arose i n the experiment i n Horth Vancouver.  1.  L i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s were not adequate.  2.  Within the s e l e c t e d group there were great  differences  i n g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , and even g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y i n each p a r t i c u l a r subjects 3.  The enrichment of the course was d i f f i c u l t ,  4.  The p u p i l s r e c e i v e d no r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l work.  - 75 C H A P T E R  IX .  SUGGESTED SOLUTION FOR THE DIFFICULTIES. It i s encouraging to note that the d i f f i c u l t i e s referred to i n the , l a s t chapter are. due not to the stances tinder which i t was  segregation i t s e l f , hut to the  carried, out.  circum-  I t i s the purpose of the  present  chapter to suggest certain s o l u t i o n s for these d i f f i c u l t i e s , and to point out  some of the advantages which might reasonably be expected  from the adoption o f these First,  to  result  suggestions.  schools should be provided w i t h adequate l i b r a r y  facilities.  It i s true that a certain type of enrichment can be carried on with only a very small l i b r a r y i n the school.  On the other hand, i t seems quite  evident that any satisfactory type of enrichment would involve -the use of a large number of books. finance.  The problem of securing these i s purely one of  Gertain .organizations are at present t r y i n g to improve, school  l i b r a r i e s , and we hope that they w i l l continue to be more and more success f u l i n their e f f o r t s .  The library has too long been regarded as an  added feature i n the school - a place where students may pass the time when they are n o t otherwise  engaged.  When i t is realized that a good  l i b r a r y i s an essential part of the equipment of any school, and that i t i s just as necessary f o r proper blackboards,  t r a i n i n g of children as are desks and  the finances for such l i b r a r i e s w i l l be found.  Secondly, there should be a d e f i n i t e "enriched course" drawn up for each subject and authorized by the department i n the same way that the regular course i s authorized.  The exact nature of the course would be  determined by the group of q u a l i f i e d men who were responsible f o r arranging i t . ' Certain general features of the enrichment, however, may be mentioned here.  The enrichment should take the form of directed study.  Many reports  of experiments i n s e g r e g a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t the enrichment 'of the cur-  r i c u l u m was accomplished hy the formation of clubs of various kinds in the school. Undoubtedly, pupils may derive great benefits from them. Yet such clubs do not offer a satisfactory solution of the problem of e n r i c h ment in high school.  One would need a l a r g e r number of clubs than can be  provided f o r a single selected- class.  Furthermore, the scheme would  involve the same d i f f i c u l t i e s which were encountered i n North "Vancouver. She work of such clubs seems vague and lacking i n definite objective. What the selected group really need  i s definite guidance i n their study.  There i s no need to make the enrichment take the form of play. students enjoy and p r o f i t from properly directed study.  Superior  It i s the w r i t e r ' s  opinion that the enriched course should run p a r a l l e l to the regular course, and that i t should be so arranged that the enrichment would consist of directions f o r the study of topics which arise out of the regular course. Thus the enrichment would not be some^thisg superimposed upon the regular course, but simply an extension of i t . Furthermore, the enrichment i n each subject should cover a very broad field.  It should offer a wide range of topics so that the p u p i l would be  free to select those which were best suited to his i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s . Having s e l e c t e d his topic, however, he should f i n d clear guidance f o r studying i t .  It i s on this point that we have often f a i l e d in the past.  We have allowed our students free access to the library and have given them a l l the freedom they could w i s h in their reading.  There i s a common con-  ception that the bright pupil i s the one who reads 'every t h i n g he can get h i s hands on', and perhaps that conception has led us to believe that a s  long as a c h i l d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n reading we  need not  interfere.  Now  i t is  undoubtedly true that bright pupils have a great many more interests than d u l l pupils and that many of those interests are shown in their r e a d i n g , habits.  This, however, i s not the point which we are considering.  The  q u e s t i o n i s , i f the bright c h i l d d e r i v e s benefit from random reading, would he not derive much more benefit from organized and directed reading? There can bs l i t t l e doubt that he would.  In order to give him t h i s a s s i s -  tance without l i m i t i n g him to a narrow f i e l d , we suggest that the enrichment o f f e r both a wide range of topics from which he may choose, and  de-  f i n i t e guidance for studying any of those topics. Thirdly, the pupil's c e r t i f i c a t e should indicate that he has comp l e t e d the enriched course s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . this might be done.  There are many ways in which  He might be given a different type of c e r t i f i c a t e .  might be g i v e n an extra c r e d i t .  He  F o r example, f i r s t year literature counts  three credits toward the required one hundred and twenty f o r the Graduation Certificate.  A p u p i l who  four c r e d i t s .  had taken the enriched course might be given  These might be written as three in the regular column of  c r e d i t s and one i n a column of "extra credits".  The t o t a l of the credits  in this l a t t e r column a t the end of four years high school would represent, in a rough way,  the amount of extra work that the pupil had done.  however, are only matters of d e t a i l .  Whatever the method may be,  These, there  should be some permanent recognition of the fact that a pupil has completed the "enriched course." The benefits of such recognition scarcely require mention.  In the  f i r s t place, i t would mean that the c e r t i f i c a t e would be giving a t r u e r picture of the pupils' work than i s now  the case.  Under the present  circumstances, a pupil may do very good work throughout the high school course, but when that pupil graduates, he i s presented with a c e r t i f i c a t e which i s very similar , from the school.  to that r e c e i v e d by every other p u p i l who graduates  I t i s t r u e that h i s l e t t e r grades a r e marked f o r each  subject, but even these give only a vague idea of the student's work and i n d i c a t e n o t h i n g whatever concerning.any e x t r a work t h a t he may have done. If, however, there i s a grading g i v e n on the e x t r a work, i t w i l l be poss-  i b l e to give a much truer picture of what the pupil has done. that  t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n w i l l have on the pupil i s important.  t i o n e d i n Chapter  of the student and  Vlll  The effect  We have men-  that one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s from the stand p o i n t  the teacher was that the work was too indefinite.  There seemed t o be no d e f i n i t e t a s k t o be accomplished! a n d when interest . i n any p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of the work began to f l a g , o r when other i n t e r e s t s  developed, there seemed no r e a l reason for completing the task in hand. The recognition of the extra work as a part of the course would avoid this indefiniteness.  A student would decide a t the beginning of the year that  he was going to take the enriched course.  A specified amount o f work  would be required to gain credit i n that course.  This would render the  work just as definite as that r e q u i r e d f o r the regular course.  The student  would be working toward a definite goal, and at the end of the year he would • have the satisfaction of knowing that his additional work had been recognised. It has been suggested that a definite course of additional work be drawn up f o r the brighter pupils in our high schools, and that credit be g i v e n for the successful completion of t h i s course. is,  The f i n a l  suggestion  that a large part of this extra work be prepared i n the form o f  - 79 individual unit assignments such as are in. use i n the Daiton Plan or the Wirmetka system. definite topic,  Bach of these assignments would be b u i l t around some i t might be an expansion of m a t e r i a l covered i n the  r e g u l a r course of study, or i t might be an new  field.  and. i t  introduction  to  an  entirely  In any case i t would be b u i l t around some d e f i n i t e problem,  would contain guides to help the pupil study that topic.  suggest c e r t a i n readings, certain contacts with men  in the town, certain  ways of reporting the f i n d i n g to the teacher or the c l a s s .  Any number of  such units, let us say sixty, might be prepared i n each subject. to gain the extra credit f o r any  It would  In order  subject, a student might be r e q u i r e d to  do, l e t us say,fifteen of these assignments.  Such a scheme would provide  the student with both freedom of ciaoice and definite assistance i n h i s study.  Some of the reasons for suggesting this individual unit assign- .  ment for the work are given i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. In the f i r s t place, such a scheme provides the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r great e l a s t i c i t y in the f i e l d of enrichment not only for the class, but a l s o for each individual in the c l a s s .  If the assignments are to be worked out  by the individual pupils, i t i s not necessary that a l l members of the c l a s s should take the enriched course.  This a l l o w s the weaker section of the  class - a section which i s l i k e l y to be overworked - to have more time for review and thorough study of the fundamentals.  This point i s of im-  portance, not only i n small h i g h schools where the weaker s e c t i o n o f the c l a s s i s l i k e l y to be only s l i g h t l y above average a b i l i t y , but also i n that g r a d u a l l y increasing number of larger h i g h schools where pupils are promoted by subject.  1  This l a t t e r scheme tends to break up the r e g u l a r  class groups within the school.  Hence, not a l l those i n any one  teaching  80 «*• group w i l l  be f i t t e d  Further, p u p i l to  to take the e n r i c h e d  course.  t h i s scheme o f unit -assignments makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r a  bake the  enriched  course i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s and  not  i n others -  ' a p o s s i b i l i t y that would be welcomed by many students of s l i g h t l y than average a b i l i t y .  Under t h i s scheme i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r any p u p i l i n  a s e l e c t e d c l a s s to take the r e g u l a r course i n any j u s t as i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a student, not to take the e n r i c h e d In a d d i t i o n to great  course i n any  In each s u b j e c t ,  to h i s i n t e r e s t s .  p a r t i c u l a r subject,  in a specially selected class,  p a r t i c u l a r subject  or  subjects.  the above freedom, t h i s system of enrichment a l l o w s a  deal of freedom of choice  pupil.  of subject matter on  the part of each  the p u p i l chooses those u n i t e which appeal most  Thus* s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t members of the  same c l a s s  might be d o i n g e x t r a work i n the same subject, but might be e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t l i n e s of It  i s to be no ted,  a t the cost  too, that t h i s freedom of choice  of d e f i n i t e n e s s  i n the  requirements f o r any  d e f i n i t e requirements f o r each u n i t ; and,  u n i t , the  student i s provided  of h i s  following  study.  ThexB are  out  better  i s not  obtained  particular unit.  h a v i n g chosen that  w i t h d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the  carrying  task, a s w e l l as a d e f i n i t e standard to be achieved before  getting credit for i t . l o t only does t h i s scheme of enrichment p r o v i d e the p u p i l s w i t h a wide range of that  choice,  i t a l s o p r o v i d e s them w i t h enrichment i n a form  i s e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t i e s .  Helen Davis,  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the mental t r a i t s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , l i s t s as the most commonly mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , ease of a s s i m i l a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y and  initiative, ability  to g e n e r a l i s e , broad-mindedness,  self  - 81 c r i t i c i s m , etc.  Such q u a l i t i e s as these would seem to f i t the  c h i l d p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the  task of a t t a c k i n g a problem such as he might  f i n d i n the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t assignment. , following quotations the s u b j e c t .  The  The  same idea i n contained  chosen from many s i m i l a r expressions  B  bright  f i r s t quotation  i n the  of o p i n i o n  i s from an a r t i c l e " E n g l i s h For  on  The  G i f t e d " by Helen L. Oohen: " I t has  been found important to give them an opportunity  f r e e work i n the  l i b r a r y and  i n the c l a s s room - f r e e i n the  f o r much sense they  are a l l o w e d to occupy themselves w i t h p r o j e c t s r e q u i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l and o r i g i n a l research." L e t a S.  The  second q u o t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s  the o p i n i o n  of  Hollingworth:  " G i f t e d minds are e s p e c i a l l y amenable to i n s t r u c t i o n by the p r o j e c t method, because they e x c e l i n ' t h i n k i n g things t o g e t h e r , 8  r e l a t i o n s between and endeavour."  Mrs.  in perceiving  among a l l the r e l e v a n t elements i n a g i v e n f i e l d  Hollingwprth  of  then goes on to p o i n t out that these  p u p i l s a l s o accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a u n i t assignment b e t t e r than ordinary pupils  do.  i n p r o v i d i n g b r i g h t p u p i l s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l assignments we a r e i n g them w i t h the means where-by they may personal  confidence.  ers of the f u t u r e .  develop r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s  These are the p u p i l s whom we  l e a d e r must, however, be more than a c l e v e r man.  opposition. 1» 2. '3.  The  and  expect to be the  T h e i r mental a b i l i t y f i ts them f o r the task.  d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n s , and  supply-  lead-  A good  He must be able to. reach  to maintain h i s p o s i t i o n even i n the face of  p u p i l who  has  learned to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a  • >..\ N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r study of Education,  Yearbook 23,  ,pt-& page 130. The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (High School Ed.) " G i f t e d Children" Page 308,  1935.  March,  1924  - 82 ~ u n i t assignment and to work that assignment through to the end  has  c e r t a i n l y developed the q u a l i t i e s that w i l l be valuable f o r l e a d e r s h i p . By presenting enrichment i n the form of individual assignments we a r e , then, p r e s e n t i n g i n a way  that w i l l tend to develop those q u a l i t i e s which  should be of greatest value both to the pupils themselves and to society. T h i s scheme of i n d i v i d u a l u n i t assignments does not, however, p r e clude the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d d i t i o n a l work b e i n g done by the whole c l a s s . She p u p i l who  i s working a t one p a r t i c u l a r unit might be required to report  the results of h i s work to the c l a s s . ' Another might meet w i t h a number of problems which could be d i s c u s s e d w i t h the t e a c h e r and the r e s t of the class.  Such discussions should prove interesting and h e l p f u l to a l l .  She  mere introduction o f such a problem to the c l a s s by the p a r t i c u l a r student concerned would be an experience of great value to him.  But, i n  a d d i t i o n to any c l a s s r e p o r t s or d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t might develop out of i n d i v i d u a l work, the e n t i r e c l a s s might undertake a u n i t as p a r t of i t s regular work.  Certain u n i t s of the enriched course might be made with  this in mind.  She number of cases that could make use of t h i s class work  i n the enriched course would depend on the p a r t i c u l a r circumstances i n the' various schools,  i n any case the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l u n i t  ments as the basis f o r the enriched with the b e n e f i t s that may  assign-  course does not i n any way interfere  be derived from the proper teaching of a spec-  i a l l y selected superior c l a s s .  Shus, without s a c r i f i c i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of a s u p e r i o r c l a s s , we have a p r a c t i c a l means f o r g i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s the opportunity  for doing valuable and well directed work.  - 83 ~ I'o sum up what we  have said], the suggestions which would p r o v i d e  s o l u t i o n f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s which were encountered are as f o l l o w s !  1.  Adequate l i b r a r i e s should be p r o v i d e d f o r a l l s c h o o l s .  £.  An e n r i c h e d course  i n each subject should be a u t h o r i s e d  by the department« So  The p u p i l ' s c e r t i f i c a t e  should  completed the e n r i c h e d course 4.  i n d i c a t e that he  has  satisfactorily.  A l a r g e p a r t of the enrichment should be prepared i n the form of i n d i v i d u a l assignments.  - 84 C O I G L S S I O I  Bright pupils require s p e c i a l instruction.  The experiment which has  fomied the has is f o r t h i s study was an attempt to.provide that special i n s t r u c t i o n by segregating enriched course. out of this plan.  the bright pupils and providing them with an  C e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered in the c a r r y i n g The data available were not e n t i r e l y suitable for the  selection of the c l a s s .  Library f a c i l i t i e s were not adequate.  u a l differences existed between members of the selected group. of the course was  difficult.  IndividEnrichment  Pupils received no formal recognition f o r  the additional work which they had done.  In spite of the d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  however, i t i s f e l t that sany advantages have been gained by the plan. P u p i l s have done more accurate work i n the fundamentals, and have covered  a much broader f i e l d of study than they would have done i f they had been  in an unselected group. Methods of teaching and guidance suited to the group have aided i n developing wholesome a t t i t u d e s . Because i t i s f e l t that the plan of segregation has proven superior to the old method, i t i s to be continued in future; but the plan would be  much mora e f f e c t i v e i f adequate l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s were provided and i f a suitable course of enrichment were authorized by the department. with the hope that these conditions may  i s brought to a close.  It i s  soon be r e a l i s e d that th is study  B I B L I O G R A P H Y Burt, C. :  *• Educationa 1 A b i l i t i e s " P. So King and Son L t d , London.  1917  Cohen, H. L. & C o r y e l l , if. G . " E d u c a t i n g Superior Students" American Boole Oo. Mew Corning, H. Id.:  •  York*  1255  "After Testing What?* Scott Foresman and Oo. New  York..  1926  Dearborn, W. P . " I n t e l l i g e n c e Tests and Their Significance For School and  Society"  Houghton M i f f l i n Go. New Goddard, H. H. :  1928  York.  "Educational Psychology" Do Van Nostrand Co,  Hollingworth, L. S.:  Hollingworth, L. S.:  250  Fourth Ave, New York.  York.  1926  "Special Talents and Defects, Their Significance For  Education"  Macmillan Co. New York. Horn, J . L.:  "The  York.  1924  "Comparative Education" Houghton M i f f l i n Co. New York.  Kelley, T. L.:  1923  Education of Exceptional Children"  Century Co. New Eandel, i . L.:  1954  "Gifted Children, Their Nature and Nurture"  Macmillan Co. New  1935  "Interpretation of Educational Measurements" World Book Go. New York.  Lynch,  1928  "School Training of Gifted Children" World Book Co. New  Eines, C« H.:  York.  : "Rise and Progress of the Dalton Plan" G. P h i l i p and Son, London.  1927  1926  Lynch,  :  " Individual Work and the Daiton Plan" G. P h i l i p and Son, London.  Monroe, W. S.,  1925  J<>:  DeVoss, J . 0., & K e l l y , F.  "Educational Measurements" Houghton M i f f l i n Co. Hew York.  1917  "National S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education" Yearbooks 1924,1925, and 1926 Public School Publishing Co. Bloomington, 111.  Osburo, W. J . and  Rohan, B.  "Enriching the Curriculum F o r  J«: Gifted  Parkhurst, H.:  Children"  Che Maomillan Co. New York. "Education on the B a l t o n Plan"  G. B e l l and Sons, London. Putman, J . H. and Weir, G. M.  1931  1926  "Survey of the School System of B r i t i s h Columbia"  King's P r i n t e r , "victoria, B« 0.  Ryan, H* H. and Crecelius P.:  1925  " A b i l i t y Grouping i n the J u n i o r  High School" Harcourt Stedm&n, L. M.:  Brace and Co. New York.  5  "Education of G i f t e d C h i l d r e n " World Book Go. New Yorko  Teraian, L. M » :  "The  Dickson, V. E.,  Sutnerland, A. H., Franzen, R. H.,  Tapper, C. R.,  1924  I n t e l l i g e n c e of School Children"  Houghton M i f f l i n Co. Terman, L. M.,  1927  and Fernald, G.:  )„  and School Reorganisation"  I n t e l l i g e n c e  ,.,  .  fe  _  New York  f "  T  e  s  a  *  t  1919  s  "  I V<orld Book Co. New York.  ,  Qe>  „  1922  Teraan, L. M.:  "Genetic S t u d i e s of Genius" S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press  "United S t a t e s  Bureau  1925  of E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n " Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, 1952  Whipple, G. Mo:  "Glasses For G i f t e d Children" P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co. Bloomington, 111.  1919  Wooiring, M. N* and Benson, 8. T. "Enriched Teaching of E n g l i s h i n the High School" Bureau.of P u b l i c a t i o n s Teachers C o l l e g e ,  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  1927 New York.  

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