Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The printed workbook as a teaching device in the fields of English and social studies in the junior high… Higginbotham, Frances Irene 1936

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1936_A8_H5_P7.pdf [ 11.83MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302556.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302556-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302556-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302556-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302556-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302556-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302556-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302556-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302556.ris

Full Text

LIB s lh7- tts&ff* • i-** Py THE PRINTED WORKBOOK IS A TEACHING DEVICE IN THE FIELDS OF ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL by Frances Irene Higgihbotham A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of » , PKILOSDFHl The University of British Columbia JUNE, 1956 CONTENTS Chapter £gg& Introduction........... .'>.-. ... .- . . . i I Possible laities of.the Workbook with special reference to the Fields of English and Social Studies................1 II The Relation of Workbook to Textbook. .15 III A Gritieal Examination ©f Somei'Workbooks-. ..................25 • IV Part A Investigations ' >and Eitperfaeatal Results. as reported in Gorreat Literature...>..».....-.'.'..................................52 Part B An Experimental Evaluation of nA Work Book in British History". ...68 : V • Goqaelnsions and Stt|gestious..............................97 THE FEINTED WORKBOOK AS A TEACHING DEVICE IN THE FIELDS OF ENGLISH AND SOCIiiL STUDIES IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Introduction One of the most unique educational devices of modem times has been the student 8s workbook, Moreover, the use of the workbook has become so widespread that i t would seem desirable to ascertain to what ex-tent i t i s of value in educational pr a c t i c e . Special reference w i l l he made throughout t h i s t h e s i s to workbooks i n the f i e l d s of E n g l i s h and so-c i a l studies, .In the f i r s t chapter the possible values that may accrue from the use of workbooks wi l l be considered, In the pages which follow an attempt w i l l he made to prove or disprove the v e r i t y of these claims and to a r r i v e at a true evaluation of the student's workbook. In the second chapter the r e l a t i o n of the workbook to the textbook w i l l be studied. Workbooks' w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d i n three groups according to whether they are designed to accompany a s p e c i f i c textbook, or to be used with any standard text, or to be used independently of a l l textbooks* Examples from each of these three groups of workbooks will' then be examined c r i t i c a l l y , and comparisons in regard to content, form, s u i t a -b i l i t y , and cost w i l l be made. A. study of some investigations i n the nse of workbooks and i n c l o s e l y a l l i e d topics w i l l be undertaken with a view to determining what r e s u l t s have been obtained already or may j u d i c i o u s l y be expected to obtain from the use of the workbook.. Finally., reports of in d i v i d u a l s within t h i s province w i l l be considered, and the findings of i i . experiments undertaken i n the K i t s i l a n o Junior High School of t h i s c i t y v ; i l l be reported i n " f u l l . In the conclusion w i l l be given a b r i e f summary of the values and l i m i t a t i o n s of the workbook as they have been revealed from time to time throughout t h i s t h e s i s . A f i n a l estimate of the printed workbook as a teaching device i n the f i e l d s of English and s o c i a l studies i n the j u -n i o r high school w i l l be deduced from the preceding pages i n t h i s conclud-ing summary. CHAPTER I POSSIBLE VALUES OF THE WORKBOOK The habit of study. No one w i l l question the f a c t that one of the most valuable habits that a junior high school p u p i l may acquire i s that of study. Volumes have been written on how to i n s t i l i nto a youth those s i g -n i f i c a n t habits of study which w i l l s p e l l h i s success or f a i l u r e i n any l i n e of endeavour throughout h i s l i f e . We have r e a l i z e d that habits can not be imposed, but rather that they must grow and develop from some desire which s t i r s within the youth himself. So to i n s p i r e t h i s desire and then to d i r e c t i t along channels that w i l l bring due reward and encouragement i s the task of every teacher. To help i n d i r e c t i n g t h i s desire by providing for i t s happy issue i n e f f e c t i v e study habits i s one of the chief aims of the student 8 s workbook. Even the unwilling p u p i l may become addicted to the happy habit of studious occupation when he recognizes the challenge that the workbook presents to him, and i n accepting t h i s challenge he goes forward to acquire those valuable habits of study. V. T. Thayer of Ohio State Uni-v e r s i t y states that, "The most important part of a child's i n t e l l e c t u a l growth consists i n the methods of work he grows into while preparing h i s lessons."-*- Few would question t h i s viewpoint, and advocates of the work-book claim that, by providing the student with s p e c i f i c assignments, varied i n t e r e s t i n g d r i l l s , and c a r e f u l l y adapted exercises the workbook may a s s i s t the p u p i l i n developing these desirable, "methods of work." V. T. Thayer: "Passing of the Recitation", B.C. Heath & Co., 1928, page 170. A reading guide. Those who recommend the workbook claim that not only may i t assist the student in forming excellent study habits but that i t may act as an effective guide in h i s reading. By thought-provoking questions and by carefully-prepared problems the workbook guides a student i n his search for truth through the pages of an English or social studies book,—pages that under other circumstances might bore and confuse the indifferent pupil with their mass of fact and detail. An attitude of alertness replaces that of passivity as the student eagerly scans the chapter in search of an ans-wer to his problem. The meaningless labyrinths of history, grammar or composition become clear pathways toward a definite goal. And i f , as V. T. Thayer claims, "One of the chief objectives in the teaching of a subject should be to develop in the pupils progressively, the a b i l i t y to proceed independently i n that subject"^ then the workbook may assume an invaluable place i n educational practice to-day-A time-saver. Not the least important advantage that may be gained by the use of the vrorkbook i s the saving of time. This benefit i s appreciated especially by teachers and pupils in rural schools, and also by peripatetic teachers in the junior high schools and platoon schools. Consider, for ex-ample , an average day for a Grade Nine pupil attending the Kitsilano Junior High School. Here a school day consists of six fifty-minute periods. Dur-ing each period a different subject is studied, and during each interval of three or four minutes the pupil changes his classroom. As the typical day progresses he attends lessons in mathematics, French, English, general science, home economics, and social studies. Consider the time required in ibid, page 30A. 3. the course of one day alone for copying assignments and exercises from the blackboard. From the report of a teacher of English grammar and composi-tion in Grade Nine (see appendix.) one may calculate that no less than twenty-five minutes were spent by each pupil simply i n copying work from the blackboard i n the course of one week. A similar record of time spent i n the social studies i n copying assignments in Grade Eight has been tabu-lated i n the appendix.^ Moreover, much of this time has probably been wasted, for pupils of Grades Seven to Nine derive no great value from copy-ing on assigned exercise. In fact, the time may be even worse than wasted for a pupil may develop slovenly habits of work, careless ? i l l e g i b l e hand-writing, and even a distaste for the subject i t s e l f when the zealous tea-cher, himself busily engaged at the blackboard, bids the student copy with haste the outline of work to be completed for the following day. Yet the use of the blackboard can not be eliminated entirely without entailing great loss. In the presentation of the lesson no other device has been so widely accepted and so justly approved. The workbook i s a tool for the studentE s use i n the assimilation step of the lesson just as the blackboard i s f o r the teacher 1s use i n the presentation step. Both workbook and black-board have services to render in the classroom. It i s probable, too, that the use of the workbook would allow for more time than i s given at present to be spent i n oral work,—especially 2 during the steps of the presentation, recitation, and organization of the lesson. Oral expression, that medium for action and reaction that plays such an important part in the business and social world i n after l i f e , could Appendix^ page 9^~-H. C. Morrison: "The Practice of Teaching i n the Secondary School", U. of Chicago Press, Revised, 1931. assume i t s rightful place on the daily curriculum. Too frequently in our schools there i s no time for this important activity; i t i s crov/ded out by the more imperative demands of study assignments. With workbooks which contain outline maps, problems already prepared, and printed exercises more time for oral work w i l l be allowed for both teacher and pupil. Oral work w i l l motivate the study assignment, the challenge w i l l appear as soon as the workbook i s opened, and the student at once w i l l resolve to accom-plish what he can. Teachers, too, have frequently deplored the fact that much time i s spent year after year in copying assignments on the blackboard. Surely the copying of the same exercises on the blackboards of four or five d i f -ferent junior high school classrooms during a single day i s a tedious part of the teaching procedure. To remedy this situation many large schools have been equipped with mimeograph machines, and by this means work-sheets or study-guides have been provided for the students. These work-sheets and study-guides are the forerunners of the student's workbook, and i n one res-pect they are probably superior to the workbook, namely—they can be more readily altered to meet changing conditions and requirements. Prepared assignments. However, any of these devices probably has a great advantage over the average teacher 1s daily assignment from the blackboard in that the work-sheet, study-guide, and workbook have been well prepared beforehand. Workbooks have frequently been the outcome of many years' ex-perience and of extensive study. l e t not a l l assignments in workbooks are excellent; but i t i s probable that most assignments in workbooks are more adequate, varied, and thought-provoking than those supplied by the average teacher in the classroom. After scanning the long l i s t of authors who have devoted their time and talent to the preparation of workbooks, onewould 5. be just i f i e d i n expecting the assignments in xvorkbooks to be of a high standard. Such educationalists, professors, and teachers as the following have contributed valuable workbooks for junior high school studentss R\» B. Wilder. Head of History Dept., High School, Melrose, Mass."*" 2 Zenos E. Scott, Superintendent of Schools, Springfield, Mass. 5 R. T. Congdon, Principal, State Normal School, New York. M. E. Branom, Head of Geography Dept., Harris Teachers' College, St. Louis, ' MoA H. R. Lockwood, Instructor i n English Methods, State Teachers' College, Oshkosh, Wisconsin^ Harold Rugg, Teachers' College, Columbia University^* Contrast with the characteristics of the exercises prepared by these educationalistJ'the characteristics of the daily assignments of the average teacher. Having given of his best in energy and enthusiasm during the presentation of the lesson, the average teacher has but l i t t l e resource l e f t when the moment arrives for him to challenge the pupils with a stimu-lating assignment. The result of his f i n a l effort i s an impromptu exercise which, through i t s very lack of being carefully prepared, leads the class into confusion and ultimate disaster. How discouraging for both teacher and pupil i s this unfortunate procedure! Of course not a l l assignments by the teacher should be abolished. Frequently class discussion and current events alter the regular course of a lesson, and i n such cases the natural 2 "Work Guide in American History", Houghton Mi f f l i n Co.,/f^ "Open Door Language Series", Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1933. 3 i b i d . 4 "Geography Problem Projects", A. J. Nystrom & Co, r /f35. 5 "Practice Sheets in English Grammar", American Book Co., 1930. 6 "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", Ginn & Co., 1932. 6. and desirable outcome of the lesson w i l l be an oral assignment. Moreover, the teacher may discover that a fundamental principle i n previous lessons has not been grasped, or that a more thorough d r i l l than the workbook pro-vides i s especially necessary for his class. Under such circumstances an oral assignment supplied by the teacher w i l l be of utmost value. The very best student's workbook w i l l not provide for the needs of a l l pupils at a l l times. Much of the success in any classroom depends, as always, on the re-sourcefulness of the teacher. But a good student's workbook does supply varied and carefully prepared lesson assignments. George W. Peterson and Harl R. Douglass concluded from their investigations in the f i e l d of Ninth Grade general science, that "from the standpoint of their contribution to the objectives of the course, the assignments in carefully prepared work-books are superior to typical teacher assignments; i.e. the workbook assign- . raents promote pupil learning i n the right directions more economically and effectively. 1 , 1 Coordinated studies. Another possible value that has been claimed for the student's workbook i s that i t coordinates the studies of the junior high school grades. Up to the present time the textbook generally has failed to perform this very valuable service. For example, there i s usually one his-tory textbook for Grade Seven, and quite other books for Grades Eight and Nine. There has been too l i t t l e effort by textbook writers and curriculum builders to adapt the work to the needs of the pupil and to formulate a pro-gramme that may proceed logically from year to year through the junior high school. Consequently, at the present time, much adverse criticism i s being directed towards both form and content of textbooks and courses of study. 1 G. W. Peterson & H. R. Douglass: "School Review", October, 1 9 5 5 ^ 5 ^ 7. It i s altogether probable that changes w i l l be forthcoming i n the construc-tion of English grammar, composition, and history books for classroom use. In the meantime the student's workbook has evolved. A detailed study of several workbooks w i l l appear later i n this thesis, but a few examples of workbooks which coordinate junior high school studies are; H . E. Peet, G . L. Robinson, G . M, Bigelow, "Practice Exercises in English" 1 2 H. R. Locksrood, "Practice Sheets in English Grammar and Punctuation" R. A. Sharp, "Sharp's English Exercises" 3 C. G . Vannest, "Workbook in Community Civics''^-In these workbooks the exercises have been based on certain fundamental points to be mastered and have been arranged in. order of i n -creasing d i f f i c u l t y . In "Practice Sheets in English Grammar and Punctua-tion"-' the work i s organized in seven units. On examining the table of contents we find f i r s t a general treatment of the sentence as a whole. In the second unit a detailed study of sentence parts i s begun, and this de-tailed study i s continued throughout the remainder of the book. The student proceeds from a study of simple generalities to complex details. At the. present time there are fifteen committees at work on curriculum revision for the junior high schools. One of their most d i f f i -cult problems i s that of adjusting desired curricula to the available text-books, a problem that i s a l l but in surmountable in view of present-day textbook contents and costs. The committee revising the English course has drawn up an outline of the course to be covered i n the junior high schools. To meet the requirements of the course and to meet the needs of teachers """ Houghton* M i f f l i n Co., San Francisco 2 American Book Co., Chicago, 1930 y Webster Publishing Co., St. Louis, Mo. ^ Webster Publishing Co., St. Louis, Mo. H. R. Lockwood, "Practice Sheets in English G r a m m a r ^ Punctuation", American Book Co., Chicago, 1950 (360) 8. and students the committee has called for students' workbooks to be sub-mitted for i t s consideration. It seems probable that workbooks w i l l be able to satisfy the requirements of the course most effectively and econ-omically. Attention to individuals. Moreover, by the use of the workbook the teacher i s afforded an opportunity of directing the pupils individually, and of giving assistance to those who require i t most. No one w i l l question the value of these moments, when, after a student has confronted a problem, tackled i t again and again in vain, and i s on the point of surrender, the teacher has time to offer him a word of direction. V. T. Thayer of Ohio State University writes, "One great advantage of the directed study period is the opportunity i t affords for giving adequate attention to individual differences on the part of both problem and capable p u p i l s . D . G. Fan-cier and C. C. Crawford vision the teacher as a stimulator of individual thinking and a developer of the individual capacities of his pupils during this period of supervised study. "Directed study gives a real opportunity for guidance, offers a chance to learn the needs of the individual child, and opens the way for a closer cooperation between teacher and pupil that means much i n the way of growth and development." Under the directed study plan the assignment assumes an added importance. The student's work-book is one means of supplying the pupil with a valuable assignment during this period of supervised study. A V. T. Thayer, "The Passing of the Recitation", D. C. Heath & Co., Chicago, 2 1928, page 510. ' D. G. Fancier, C. C. Crawford, "Teaching the Social Studies", U. of Southern California, 1952, page 151. Pupil activity. Finally, curriculum-makers to-day are generally aware of the importance of pupil activity. The student's workbook claims a place in such an activity programme. If the learning process i s to be v i t a l , the lesson must have a purpose that the pupil embraces as his own, and the teacher must provide for activities that lead to the fulfilment of that purpose. Just such activities, motivating and v i t a l i z i n g the learning process, are the very "raison d'etre" of the student's workbook. In the primary grades of school the children actually perform the activities that assist them i n getting an understanding of their lessons,—they count the red and green blocks i n their number work, they make the three beds i n their reading of "Goldilocks", they dramatise the words of their songs. In junior high school the students have advanced beyond this elementary stage and they prefer to carry out their activities i n the form of diagrams, cartoons and debates. The student's workbook i s one of the devices de-signed to assist the pupil i n learning through act i v i t i e s . Edith Putnam Parker, assistant professor of geography teaching i n the University of Chicago, i s emphatic in her support of activities. She writes that "much practice in getting geographic information with a minimum of guidance i s requisite to the derelopment of the a b i l i t y to get such information independently. Subsequent practice i s essential i n order to increase one's s k i l l and effectiveness i n acquiring such information without aid. Similarly, oft repeated activities are essential in gaining the a b i l i t y to perform those activities independently, accurately, and without waste of time and effort. Accordingly, children should be guided, i n so far as practicable (1) to be active in getting geographic information for themselves instead of being passive recipients of i t j (2) to think through geographic relationships-for themselves instead of memorizing 'reasons'; (3) to express geographic information and ideas in their own words instead of 'parrotting' them; and (A) to be active in using geographic understanding as an aid in solving new problems, instead of being shown passively how those understandings are useful in such connections.... Only by careful discrimination between (1) materials from which a child can gain information accurately by himself, by reason of familiarity with i t s elements, and (2) materials that should be given him, can one effectively guide him in the performance of geographic learning activities."~ Nisbet's "Geography Class Books"2, Branom's "Geography Problem Projects" , and "Study Guide Lessons i n Geography by W. R. McCdnnell 4 are examples of workbooks that make ample provision for pupil activity in the Geography class; that are, i n fact, invaluable i n any programme of pupil activities. The core around which the studies of the National Society for the Study of Education were built up during 1954. v/as the Activity Movement in Education. To the thirty-third Yearbook of this organization Adelaide M. Ayer, Mildred English, J. F. Hosic and L. G. Mossman have contributed "A Description of some ways of interpreting the Principle of Activity when Applying i t to School Work." In this article they support whole-heartedly those practices which place great emphasis upon the significance and impli-cations of the learner's part in the work. "Reliance i s placed upon learning through doing....Mastery of s k i l l s and of significant knowledges often comes through repeated experienc-E. P. Parker: "The Teaching of Geography" in the "National Society Year-book for the Study of Education", 1953. W. J. Weston, H. R. Sweeting, et a l . ; "Geography Class Books", J. Nisbet and Co., London, Eng. (not dated) M. E. Branom: . "Geography Problem Projects", A. J. Nystrora and Co., Chicago, 1955. 4 W. R. McConnell: "Study Guide Lessons in Geography", Webster Publishing Co., St. Louis, Mo., 1935. 11. ing. If such knowledges and s k i l l s appear valuable to the learner in the course of action, and i f the experiences do not give an amount of repeti-tion sufficient for fixing them, then use of practice material i s made with the definite purpose of the learner to master. The teacher seeks to de-velop this consciousness of need. In a l l this the learner sees himself as v i t a l l y concerned in what he does because i t i s an expression of himself... Effort and concern of the learner are v i t a l to the learning process,—a belief that learning and growth come through things the learner does as he engages in l i f e and that proper guidance of this activity i s the way to promote the desired learnings and growth."^ Thus the old, vague and comparatively inadequate study ques-tions, and the casual assignment of "-the next five pages" are gradually being supplanted by specific, thought-provoking study tasks and by the performance of definite activities. Many of the recent publications in social studies, mathematics, science and English grammar—such as the "Canadian History Workbook"2, "Pupil 8s Workbook of Directed Study"5, "Plane Geometry Text-Workbook"^, and others—recognize this viewpoint and stress "Things to Do" and "Activities to Perform". With the workbook the pupil, adequately motivated, progresses at his best individual rate and becomes engrossed in carrying out the varied and numerous activities which make learning a pleasurable and profitable series of experiences. It i s interes-A. Ayer, M. English, J . F. Ho sic, L. C. Mossrnan: "National Society Year-„ book for' the Study of Education", 195 A, Chapter IV.' '" G. G. Harris: "Canadian History Workbook", The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1950. ° H. Rugg, J . E. Mendenhall: "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", Ginn and Co., Boston, 1952. A G, C. Eartoo, J. 0sbom: "Plane Geometry Text-Workbook", Webster Publish-ing Co«, 193 A. 12. tin g to note that at the time of writing the government of Alberta i s reorganising i t s educational system and i s i n i t i a t i n g a new curriculum which w i l l form "an a c t i v i t y programme". The Minister of Education states? "The purpose i s to provide more actual p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n classroom a c t i v i t y f o r the p u p i l , whose r o l e up to the present has been l a r g e l y that of l i s -tener while the teacher talked.... Thereby, i t i s hoped, the p u p i l maybe adjusted properly to h i s work and greater l a t i t u d e may be given to his p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t s . " 1 Thus by r e v i s i n g the school curriculum on an a c t i v i t y programme basis the province of Alberta w i l l be brought i n l i n e with recent developments i n educational practice elsewhere. Conclusion, In conclusion, many possible values have been claimed f o r the student's workbook. I t i s a device which i s designed to help the student i n acquiring valuable study habits, i n guiding h i s reading, i n providing him with well-planned assignments, and i n stimulating a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . How j u s t l y these values may be claimed f o r the workbook may be better judged a f t e r a detailed study of some selected workbooks has been undertaken. "The Vancouver Da i l y Province", 28th A p r i l , 1956, page 5* CHAPTER II THE RELATION OF WORKBOOK TO TEXTBOOK Much of the adverse c r i t i c i s m directed towards the workbook . has been due to a misunderstanding of i t s r e l a t i o n to the textbook. Work-books may be c l a s s i f i e d into three types: f i r s t , those that have been designed to accompany a s p e c i f i c textbook; secondly, those that have been designed to be used with any standard textbook on the same subject; and t h i r d l y , those that require no textbooks i n the hands of the pu p i l s . Workbooks to accompany s p e c i f i c textbooks. An example of the f i r s t type i s "Our Country's Story" by R. West and Wallace. 1 The introductory sent-ence i n the preface explains: "This workbook i s planned to s i m p l i f y your study of the textbook, 'The Story of Our Country ! (by West and West), and to help you f i n d i t s most i n t e r e s t i n g and important features." The authors then sketch the plan followed i n each lesson. F i r s t there i s a t o p i c a l outline to sum up the subject matter of the chapter i n the textbook which i s about to be studied with the a i d of the workbook. Chapter II of the workbook, f o r example, begins thus: The White Man i n the Old florid Ancient peoples The Egyptians and Chaldeans make important discoveries and inventions. The Hebrews contribute a new idea i n r e l i g i o n . West & Wallace: "Our Country's Story", A l l y n & Bacon, San Francisco, 1935. The Phoenicians spread c i v i l i z a t i o n . The Greeks and Romans contribute liberty and law. Europeans of the Middle Ages Lif e in the village. The important part played by the Christian Church. Europe from 1000 to 1A00 New governments organized. Growth of trade and towns. Need of new trade routes. Invention that aided explorers. Under the heading "Content", which follows the "Topical Outline appear these sub-topics: "Test Review", which consists of twenty-two sentence blanks to be f i l l e d i n . "Text Picture Study", which directs the pupil 5 s attention to page 22 in the textbook and asks three questions regarding the historical picture there. "Picture Map Study", which consists of four questions formulated to help the pupil to interpret intelligently the picture maps of the textbook. ' "Terms to Define" which supplies words such as "papyrus", "caravans", "potter 5s wheel" etc. with adequate blank spaces provided for the response. "Names to Remember" which includes a chart entitled "The Gifts of Various Peoples to Civiliza t i o n " . Under this heading are l i s t e d the Egyptians, Babylonians, Hebrews etc. Then there follows a section of "Supplementary Work" which i n -cludes topics for class discussion, topics for individual or group assign-ments, and f i n a l l y an outline map with directions to be followed by the 15. student. Throughout this division of the lesson references are made again to the textbook which each student i s required to use in conjunction with "Our Country's Story." In this case, then, workbook and textbook go hand in hand, the former supplementing the latter, and undoubtedly enriching the social studies course. Another example of this type of workbook designed to accompany a specific textbook i s the "Pupil's Workbook"1 which accompanies "An Intro-2 duction to American Civilization." Louise ffi. Mohr, Supervisor of social studies in Wiunetka, I l l i n o i s , writes concerning these books; "Rich as the 'Introduction' i s , i t i s not complete in i t s e l f . It i s a widely recognized fact that mere reading about problems does not always give a thorough understanding of them, much less give adequate training i n thinking them through. Greater and more varied activities on the part of the pupil are necessary i f assimilation i s to be expected and the habit of thinking i s to be insured. To this end, the author with James E. Mendenhall, has paralleled the 'Introduction', chapter by chapter, in a 3 pupil's workbook. This workbook suggests activities and provokes thought. It proposes topics for group discussions, not for recitations, and plans exercises which w i l l make graphic the facts presented i n the text. I t provides self-checking devices and map d r i l l s . I t stimulates the writing of stories, the debating of issues under discussion, and the dramatization 1 fl. Rugg, J. E. Mendenhall; "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", Ginn & Co., San Francisco. ($.36) 2 H. Rugg: "An Introduction to American Civilization", Ginn & Co., San Francisco. ($1.92) 5 H. Rugg, J. E. Mendenhall: "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", Ginn & Co., San Francisco, 1935. of colourful events. The workbook i s not a series of exercises which every child must complete i n order to understand the 'Introduction 3 f u l l y . Rather, i t i s a collection of stimulating materials from which teachers and pupils may select items suited to their needs, and to which equally, they may add."1 Some other workbooks of this type are: ' (1) "Targets for English Practice" based on Center and Holmes5 English 2 Series for Junior High Schools, (2) Workbook to accompany Schapiro and Morris's "Civilization in Europe",5 (5) "The Open Door Workbooks" to accompany "The Open Door Language Series",A (A) "Pupils' Help Books in Geography" to accompany Brigham.and McFarlane's 5 "Geographies". The material in the above-mentioned workbooks i s closely correlated with the textbooks i n every case. Moreover, there are some textbooks in every-day use i n our schools that really require workbooks to bring out their true 6 value. Such a textbook i s McCaig's "Studies in Citizenship". Workbooks to be used with any textbook. In the second class of workbooks, those that may be used with any standard textbook, are included many valua-~ble workbooks. A recently published series of this type includes "Geography 1 L. M. Mohr in "The School Review", March, 1950, fage. -Z3L S. S. Center, E. E. Holmes: "Targets for English Practice", Books I,II, • III, Allyn & Bacon, New York, 1932. 0 Schapiro & Morris: "Workbook to accompany Civilization in Europe", Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1935. * Z. E. Scott, R. T. Congdon, H. Peet: "Open Door Language Series", Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1931. 5 Schockel, Fry, Switzer: "Pupils' Help Books in Geography", American , Book Co., Chicago. James McCaig: "Studies in Citizenship", Educational Book Co. Ltd. , Toronto, 1928. 17. Problem Projects" on North America, South America, Europe, and other conti-1 nents for the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh grades. In the preface to each book the author explains that i n the working of the problem-projects "the use of any good text and the application of the principles of geography w i l l be found sufficient i n nearly every case." On examination, we find that the book on "Europe" begins with a lesson on Climate. A full-page outline map accompanies this lesson and each of the other nine lessons. The pupil i s supplied with certain infor-mation about the temperature belts of Europe and i s asked to indicate these by colours on the map. Four thought-provoking questions follow and a space i s provided below for answers. To answer these questions a study of Euro-pean climate, as found i n any good standard textbook, would be necessary. The second lesson, accompanied by no less than three full-page maps, con-tinues the study of climate with special reference to r a i n f a l l . Lesson Three on "The Plant Life of Europe" commences with an assignment in mapping the various plant regions, and concludes with questions to be solved. Lesson Four, "A Travel Tour of Europe", consists of four parts:—names of places you w i l l need to know, names of waters you w i l l need to know, trips that you may want to take, and some things to find out about the countries of Europe. This book contains seven chapters of interesting problem-projects which the student may solve by using any standard geography text-book. One of the latest publications, "A Work Guide in American 2 History", i s also recommended for use with any textbook. This workbook M. E. Branom: "Geography Problem Projects", A. J. Nystrom & Co., Chicago, 1955. H. B. Y/ilder: "A Work Guide i n American History", Houghton Mif f l i n Co., New York, 1935. ($0.60) supplies the following activities to guide the pupil in the learning pro-cess: Pre-tests to establish points that need mastery. Study guides to direct the pupils 1 work. Minimum activities for a l l pupils. Map activities,, review exercises, and review tests. In the f i e l d of English the series entitled "Practice Exercises in English" offers a separate workbook for each of the junior high school years and i s designed to be used with any textbook. Each of the three workbooks contains a variety of exercises in composition planning and writing, i n vocabulary d r i l l , and i n functional grammar. "Practice Sheets i n English Grammar and Punctuation" i s another 2 workbook admirably suited for use with any standard textbook. As the author states i n the preface: "They (the exercises) are so arranged that they w i l l be found suitable to any text and to any method of teaching, furnishing a basis for supplementary work, additional d r i l l , or further investigation." The exercises, which are the result of continued experi-mental work at State Teachers' College, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, are grouped in seven blocks, each of which covers one phase of the subject. Block I consists of eight sets of exercises on the sentence as a whole and includes assignments on sentence recognition, types of sentences, punctuating sent-ences, and using subjects and predicates. Exercises i n Block II centre about the study of the noun and pronoun, and include exercises on the H. E. Peet, G. L. Robinson, G. M. Bigelow: "Practice Exercises in English" Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York. ($0.32) H. R. Lockwood: "Practice Sheets in English Grammar and Punctuation", American Book Co., New York. ($0,36) 19. number of nouns, possessive pronouns, agreement of pronouns, and similar studies. Block III supplies exercises on the verb, Block IV follows with an appropriate study of adverbs. Block V contains only two lessons,—one on a comparison of adjectives and adverbs, and the other on choosing cor-rect forms of adjectives and adverbs. An important study of prepositions i s contained in Block VI, and lessons on conjunctions and interjections with a review of parts of speech i n Block VII bring the workbook to a satis-factory completion. A key and set of mastery tests are provided with each workbook. This workbook, Part I of a series of three designed for use in Grades Seven, Eight, and Nine, could be used advantageously without having any grammar textbook in the hands of the pupils. Each lesson in the work-book i s introduced by a brief definition or explanation, and frequently examples are offered to elucidate the new principle to be mastered. If the lesson topic i s adequately presented by the teacher, these key words in the introduction w i l l provide enough information so that the student may proceed unhesitatingly, to work out the assignment i n the workbook. Workbooks to be used without any textbook. The authors of some students' workbooks have definitely planned to make the workbooks complete i n them- , selves. Typical workbooks of this class have been designed as the one above mentioned.1 The minimum number of key-words necessary for solving the exercise has been provided, and an abundant supply of practice material has also been supplied. Such workbooks rely considerably for their success on a thorough .and well-planned presentation of the subject by the teacher. H. Lockwood: "Practice Sheets in English Grammar and Punctuation", American Book Co., New York.. 20. After the new topic has been introduced and his interest has been aroused the student may find in the workbook of this type a series of exercises designed to assist him in the mastery of the new lesson. Such was the aim which the writers had i n view when they prepared "A Grade IX Student's Workbook i n English Grammar, Composition, and Language Usage."1 Each of the lessons in this book begins with a brief "Introduction" in which i s set forth i n concise form the rule or principle around which the lesson centres, and concerning which the teacher beforehand has dilated at length. After , ; a brief survey of the introduction, the class attempts the "First Try", which consists usually of about ten to twenty easy sentences emphasizing the point to be learned. The students mark their work, record their I scores and, with the teacher's assistance, correct any errors. To cl a r i f y some phase of the lesson principle i t may then be necessary for the tea-cher to re-teach and thus to prepare the class to attempt the "Second Try." The procedure would follow as for the First Try. Finally, the concluding exercises of the lesson would be assigned to the class for further practice, possibly for work i n a study h a l l period. Another example of an English grammar and composition workbook that requires no textbook i n the hands of the pupils i s "English through 2 i Experience" by R. M. Weeks, T. Cook and P. W. Defendall. As i t s sub- • j heading, "A Text-Workbook", implies, the students are provided with exer- j cise material—four or five assignments in each lesson—as well as with j clear, concise explanations. The exercises are detachable and hence may be || submitted singly for correction. However, the students are given every j j F. Higginbotham, F. Hardwick, J . Keenen "Grade IX Student's Workbook". Unpublished. R. M. Weeks, T. Cook, P. W. Defendall: "English through Experience", MacMillan Co., Toronto, 1936. encouragement to correct t h e i r own work and to tabulate t h e i r corrections f o r f u r t h e r study. There are reviews and tests at regular i n t e r v a l s , and also many in t e r e s t i n g ideas f o r o r a l composition lessons, such as those i n Lesson Seven on "Description". There i s motivation too, found e s p e c i a l l y i n the ingenious suggestions given i n the marginal notes. For example, the authors suggest that the student go on a motor t r i p from Calgary to Banff* One mistake i n doing the exercise means one breakdown and hence delay. The student i s urged to make the t r i p i n the shortest possible time without experiencing any mishaps en route. Conclusion. Obviously workbooks designed to be used without the assistance of textbooks would be more appropriate i n the study of English composition and grammar than i n the s o c i a l studies, f o r i n the courses of the former the range of topics i n any one grade i s d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d , whereas i n the courses of s o c i a l studies the range of topics i s dependent on the l o c a l i t y , n a t i o n a l i t y , and status of the pupils concerned, as well as on the scope and aims of the curriculum-makers. Consequently a workbook i n s o c i a l studies i s usually organised around a s p e c i f i e d course, or a required text-book* but a workbook i n English i s based on certain recognized fundamentals of our language. • However, both i n s o c i a l studies and i n English there are work-books of the three types,—those that accompany a s p e c i f i e d textbook, those that require any 'standard textbook, and those that axe complete text-workbooks. By f a r the l a r g e s t number of workbooks belongs to the f i r s t c l a s s . Frequently a f t e r a writer has prepared and has used h i s textbook he r e a l i s e s i t s inadequacies as a h e l p f u l instrument i n the hands of his pup i l s . He attempts to make the adjustment between p u p i l and textbook by a student's workbook adapted to meet the needs of the p u p i l . Often some other teacher foresees the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n using a c e r t a i n textbook and he may attempt to overcome these by preparing a workbook. But the general purpose of a l l three types of workbook i s the same, namely—to a s s i s t the student i n gaining a clear comprehension of the subject and i t s r e l a t i o n to h i s own l i f e by providing him with i n t e r e s t i n g p r a c t i c e material and by v i t a l i z i n g the learning process. "More and more teachers are f i n d i n g i t p r o f i t a b l e to provide pupils with guide sheets which indicate what i s expected of a l l pu p i l s , but which r a i s e suggestive questions f o r the stimulation of thinking, provoke informal discussions between pupils and groups and' indicate special readings and supplementary projects for those pupils who may be interested or capable of p r o f i t i n g therefrom."''* Like guide sheets, workbooks of a l l three types are simply other devices whereby a student may be assisted i n h i s educational development. V. T. Thayer: "Passing of the Recitation", D. C, Heath & Co., Chicago, 1928, page 508. CHAPTER I I I A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF SOME WORKBOOKS Let us no?; examine some t y p i c a l workbooks with a view to de-tec t i n g good and poor features that characterize current publications. By a study of the contents i n each workbook under consideration i t may be pos-s i b l e to determine whether or not i t f u l f i l s the course requirements gene-r a l l y recognised to-dayj by a study of form to decide whether or not i t . presents the work a t t r a c t i v e l y and c l e a r l y f o r classroom and i n d i v i d u a l use; by a study of s u i t a b i l i t y to judge whether or not the workbook supplies motivation and i n t e r e s t f o r the pupils f or whom i t was designed; and f i n a l l y by a study of cost to learn the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y or otherwise of using the student's workbook. "Targets f o r English P r a c t i c e " . "Targets f o r English Practice, Book One"1 i s a student's workbook f o r Grade Eight based on "Elements of English." This workbook covers a wide range of topics, beginning with a study of the simple sentence i n Lesson I and concluding with a lesson on the ar t of reading e f f i c i e n t l y i n Lesson XXI. Other topics included i n the two hun-dred pages of t h i s workbook are: The Greatest Game i n the World (Conversation) A Special Kind of Sentence for a Special Kind of Thought (Compound Sentence) S. S. Center & E. 1. Holmes: "Targets f o r English Practice, Book One," A l l y n & Bacon, San Francisco, 1935* 2 S. S. Center & E. E. Holmes: "Elements of English", A l l y n & Bacon, San Francisco, 1935. 24, A Magic Carpet (The Telephone) The Work o f Yfords (Parts of Speech) Hands Across the Sea (Writing Fr i e n d l y Letters) The Mechanics of Writing Sharing Experiences ( T e l l i n g Stories J> and The Work of Verbs. As one may conjecture from t h i s l i s t , the authors aim to pre-pare the student to be ready "at any time and i n any place to apply his knowledge of Eng l i s h i n those ways which insure happy and successful living,." Consequently the i n t r i c a c i e s of formal grammar f i n d no place i n t h i s work-book, f o r every lesson i s given a setting i n a l i f e s i t u a t i o n , and compo-s i t i o n , language usage, and a minimum of fu n c t i o n a l grammar are combined to create natural circumstances arousing the required responses. Consider-ing a t y p i c a l lesson, "Acquiring Power", one observes the stated aim i s : 2 "To acquire power i n the use of words." The f i r s t page deals with a con-sid e r a t i o n of "How Others Do I t " . The student i s required here to read f i v e poems found on pages 252-255 of the accompanying textbook. Questions regarding the single words and expressions i n each selection are written i n the workbook and ample space i s provided f o r the student's answers. There follows another sub-heading, "How Others Do I t and Doing I t Our-selves." Again the student i s referred to models i n h i s textbook and then - under the headings "Sound", "Motion", "The Rain" and others, he i s r e -quired to make word-pictures of h i s own. Three other sub-headings, a l l of which r e f e r back to textbook i l l u s t r a t i o n s , are: "An Order f o r a Picture", S. S. Center, E. E. Holmes: "Targets f o r English Practice", A l l y n & Bacon, San Francisco, 1935, preface. op. c i t . , p. 140. 25. "Following a Pattern" and "Finding Points of Difference". In each case the student is required to write a short composition to express his views. Following these exercises i s a Chart or Individual Record on which the s tudent supplies the date, new words heard, new words seen or read, and synonyms and antonyms he has learned. Finally there are two and a half pages of exercises for testing the student 1s power of description. These exercises c a l l for words suitably describing certain actions, such as entering the room, speaking to the class, and giving a book. Then there are sentences in which the student i s required to substitute more appro-priate words for such words as nice, good, and said. The lesson concludes with two brief exercises on suffixes and prefixes. Throughout this workbook coordination has been effected not only by linking topics within a certain lesson but also by arranging the lessons i n logical sequence. For example, immediately following the lesson on new vocabulary, which has been referred to above, appears a timely les-son on spelling, and following this again are lessons on sharing knowledge (a study of exposition), and another on the work of verbs. Moreover, the coordination of subject matter throughout the i whole book has been supported by the consistently uniform plan adopted in the lessons. Each lesson is modelled after a game of archery. Above the heading of each lesson i s a small picture which i s related to the topic to be studied. Lesson VI, "Hands Across the Sea", i s illustrated by a scene of a city with an aeroplane flying above i t ; Lesson XIII, "Sharing Know-ledge", i s illustrated by a steamship laying the Atlantic cable; Lesson VII, "The Mechanics of Writing", i s headed by samples of various styles of writing including Babylonian, Roman, Mediaeval English, and Indian. Below eabh illustration and heading i s a small silhouette of Robin Hood with 26. his quiver of arrows. The aim of the lesson i s expressed thus: Target:—To make friendly letters sound like talking on paper, or Target:—To make an everyday explanation clearly and briefly, or Target:—To master the mechanics and the tools of writing so that I may be free to concentrate on the thought I wish to express. Targets to shoot at, goals to reach, the zest of excelling in a game! In the land of make-believe, dramatized as a game of archery, i s developed the practical work of acquiring proficiency i n English composition and grammar. The target or central point i s set up for each chapter. The strong bow i s the information with which the student i s equipped, the arro?(S are the facts which the repeated work on the practice exercises gives the pupil, Hitting the bull 1s-eye i s recorded on a score card at the end of each chapter. When the material of the chapter in the textbook has been carefully studied the pupil takes the mastery tests i n the workbook, and records his score. If his score i s low, he takes the test again after further study of the textbook. In the d i f f i c u l t sections of the textbook many additional practice exercises have been included i n the workbook. The scoring device makes i t possible for the pupil constantly to compete with his own record, and to judge his mastery of each topic and so his abi l i t y to progress to the next lesson. "Targets for English Practice, Book One", consists of two hundred and four pages, and i t s cost i s sixty cents. 1 This,added to the price of the accompanying textbook ($1.20) makes a total of one dollar and eighty cents. This cost would provoke much adverse criticism, especially 1 S. S. Center & E. E. Holmes: "Targets for English Practice, Book One", Allyn & Bacon, San Francisco, 1935. 27. at the present time, Yet the price of the workbook could be appreciably reduced without loss in effectiveness, for there are many blank or lined pages and half-pages included i n l i e u of which a simple five-cent exercise book could be used. Pages 79, 80 and half of 81 are taken up with five rectangles designed to represent envelopes; half of page 19 and also pages 20 and 21 are ruled for simple subjects and predicates; pages 152, 155 and 154- contain ruled and numbered spaces for spelling words to be dictated by the teacher; pages 174- and 175 are numbered blanks also, for transitive and intransitive verbs. There are innumerable examples of half pages l e f t for work which could be accomplished more advantageously in a less bulky notebook. Moreover, there i s l i t t l e or no justification for the inclusion of four out of the twenty-one lessons i n this workbook. Lessons IV, XVII, XV and XX, aiming to teach pupils how "to use the telephone courteously and efficiently", "to use the voice pleasingly", "to organize a club", and "to learn to memorize efficiently", encroach on the f i e l d of oral composi-tion which relies for i t s very effectiveness on oral practice in the class. Yvhile i n the four lessons named there are suggestions that may be helpful to teachers i n directing oral work, this circumstance hardly justifies their inclusion in a student's workbook. The workbook may function well in the f i e l d of written English or social studies but one of the advantages of using i t should be that i t allows more time than was possible otherwise for oral work in the classroom. "Grade IX .Student's Workbook in English Grammar". Another type of workbook in English i s the "Grade IX Student's Workbook in English Grammar, Composi-tion and Language U s a g e " . T h i s book i s made up of seven units on topics 1 F. Higginbotham, F. C. Hardwick, J-. Xeenan: "A Grade IX Student's Work-book in English Grammar, Composition and Language Usage." Un-published. of major importance in functional English: General Analysis, Nouns and Pronouns, Verbs, Modifiers, Connectives, The Paragraph, and Other Vocabu-lary Studies, Each lesson i s subdivided into an "Introduction", which gives the key-words of the lesson, a "First Try" consisting of simple ex-amples for practice, a "Second Try" including more d i f f i c u l t examples, and one or more assignments. Several lessons so planned constitute a unit, and the lessons of each unit are graduated from simple to complex. For exam-ple, "Unit Three, Verbs" begins with a lesson on verb recognition, is f o l -lowed by lessons on principal and auxiliary verbs, principal parts of verbs, and f i n a l l y , in Lessons XIV and XV,by case after verbals and contractions of the verb. Moreover, each lesson i s organized methodically, beginning with easy examples and progressing to those of greater d i f f i c u l t y . This concentric plan of organization i s well exemplified i n "Unit II, General Analysis". The f i r s t lesson tests the pupil 1s a b i l i t y to recognize a sentence. As this workbook does not depend on any text, a clear, concise definition—the keynote of the lesson—is supplied in the introduction of each new lesson in the workbook. In the "First Try" the pupil i s asked to construct sentences by making changes in certain incomplete expressions of thought, as: "John and his u n c l e . I n the "Second Try" the student i s required to make complete sentences by f i l l i n g blanks with suitable words, for example: "Walking slowly toward the dock, the boys " For study assignments he i s instructed to make alterations and additions to thirty groups of words in order to effect complete thoughts and to con-struct five good sentences on each of the following topics: Aeroplanes, My Club, and Honesty. Then follows, very appropriately, a lesson on sentence unity. A brief introduction with illu s t r a t i v e examples contrasts the sentence 29. which !Lacks unity with the unified sentence. The "First Try" consists of fifteen pairs of short sentences containing related ideas, and the students are asked to use the given thoughts i n constructing fifteen unified sen-tences. The "Second Try" consists of fifteen sentences containing un-related ideas, and the students are required to separate the ideas and to build unified sentences. In the assignment which follows the students have been supplied with simple subjects and simple predicates and, using these, are told to form interesting unified sentences of their own. A f i n a l as-signment calling for ten well-constructed sentences on any one of several topics concludes the lesson. As may be discerned from a survey of the lesson topics, every effort has been made to correlate the grammar, composition and language usage, and at the same time to progress from the simple to the more complex phases of each subject. At the end of each of the units, tests have been provided to be used for diagnostic or grading purposes, and also a student's chart, whereon he may record his mark beside the possible score for each test. Here i s a workbook especially prepared to appeal to the Grade Nine student. The sentences and topics chosen have been selected with re-gard to the average maturity and interests of Grade Nine boys and g i r l s . The workbook provides them with an abundance of practice and testing material and excludes meaningless formal definitions, lengthy explanations, antiqua-ted procedures and irrelevant material. It relies on the ab i l i t y of the teacher to present clearly and forcibly the principle involved; i t chal-lenges the pupil to compete against his own score. But this challenge i s not in i t s e l f adequately stimulating for many of our Grade Nine students, and i t i s probable that this workbook would benefit by a closer relationship so. with many of the masterpieces of English literature, and by more interest-ing and thought-provoking projects, especially in the composition work. The cost of the workbook would be about f i f t y cents, and as i t requires no accompanying textbook this price would probably be considered reasonable. An account of an experiment in the use of one section (Unit III, Verbs) of this workbook, conducted by Mr. Straight of the Bureau of Measurements, may be found in the next chapter.""" "Workbook in English Usage and Composition". A contrast i n many ways to o the "Targets for English Practice", referred to above , i s the "Workbook in English Usage and Composition" by Brown, Reed, Sherman and Steeves 5. This workbook has none of those qualities which i n the former series appealed so strongly to the pupils. There are no exercises supplied for the very bright pupils; the minimum required exercises lack variety and interest; there i s nothing in the tone of the book to stimulate activity on the part of the pupils, for the form of work i s conventional, and impersonal. This "Workbook in English Usage and Composition" consists of one hundred and fifteen exercises, and i n the printed copy of eighty pages sufficient space i s provided either below or at the side of each exercise for the pupil 1s work. The book includes a multitude of d r i l l s which would be of great value i n developing language power and grammatical s k i l l but which would probably be tedious for the student. Typical examples which indicate the scope of the workbook follows—• Information los t . See footnote, page 26. SupT^z^-2.% J. E. Brown, E. W. Reid, R. S. Sherman, fi. P. Steeves, T. W. Wppdhead: "Workbook in English Usage and Composition" - Books for Grades 3-7 - J . M. Dent & Sons. 31. Exercise 5A (Grade 8) Write the abbreviations f o r the following t i t l e s : 1. Mister 7. General 2. Golonel 8. Honorable 3. Doctor 9. Secretary A. Professor 10. Treasurer 5. Reverend 11. Member of Parliament 6. Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly Exercise 72 In the brackets designate whether the form i n i t a l i c s i s a p a r t i c i p l e , a gerund, a verbal noun, a simple i n f i n i t i v e , or an adjective. ('Fourteen sentences folio?/. They are graduated i n d i f f i c u l t y , the l a s t one being?) (1-4) To reach the sheltering trees without being observed was the problem. ( ) Exercise 99 Underline the word i n brackets that means the opposite of . the given word:—• Go (went, t r a v e l l e d , embarked, come, sailed) Exercise 111 The following are disarranged paragraphs. Number the parts i n t h e i r r i g h t order. (The f i r s t paragraph consists of eleven parts, and brackets are supplied at the l e f t of each part f o r inse r t i n g the answers.) Exercise 110 Y/rong: The music sounds very sweetly. Correct:......... Because: • There i s no required text book to be used with t h i s "Workbook i n English Usage and Composition". As the authors explain i n the teacher's foreword, the workbook was designed to supplement the teacher* s work i n developing language power on the part of the pu p i l s . The authors are f u l l y aware of l i m i t a t i o n s i n the workbook when they make t h i s explanation, and 52 also when they add, "It cannot take the place of the f r e e r types of compo-s i t i o n exercise, correlated with the work of the class i n other subjects." For providing busy-work in an ungraded school, for acquiring s k i l l in the mechanics of formal grammar, and for preparing students for a high school entrance examination t h i s workbook may be useful i f a conventional pro-gramme of studies i s followed. But for developing attitudes and under-standings and for training i n pleasurable pupil-activities i t i s inadequate, in view of the present-day needs of pupils and i n view of the sound prin-ciples of pedagogy. "Workbook for World History in the Making". Workbooks i n the social studies appear to have been less hampered by formalized devices than workbooks in English. An excellent example of a workbook in social studies i s the "Workbook for World History in the Making".1 As the authors explain in the preface, this workbook has been prepared to supplement a textbook in world history covering the story of mankind from the earliest times t i l l the days just preceding the French Revolution. The workbook i s especially adapted for use with the text "World History i n the Making", although the workbook could be used with any textbook on world history that records events from the dawn of history to the Nineteenth Century. The workbook directs i t s appeal to the student at once by means of a page of suggestions. He i s advised to use the workbook to assist him i n studying the text. "Like an automobile guide book, the workbook i n d i -cates the distances to be travelled, the important stopping places, the scenes which should be closely observed and understood, and in general i t 1 McKinley, Rowland, laagers "Workbook for World History in the Making", American Book Co., New York, 1930 (A0^) 55. gives practical advice to the t r a v e l l e r . On the journey from long ago to the late Eighteenth Century a care f u l use of the workbook w i l l give under-standing and enjoyment in places which might otherwise be a r i d and un-interesting ." What student could turn away from this introduction without having his curiosity and his interest aroused? This direct appeal to the student i s admirably maintained throughout the whole workbook. The student i s brought at once into the authors' confidence by the very tone and wording of the f i r s t sentences. "We are studying world history i n order to learn how the ci v i l i z a t i o n of our times has grown from many widespreading roots into the l i f e of today. We s h a l l see that different peoples and races have added b i t by b i t of knowledge and experience, and we s h a l l come to realize that our indebted-ness to these older peoples i s very great indeed. We cannot understand our modern l i f e unless we learn to appreciate the services of these early contributors to the advancement of mankind." 1 The authors then go on to relate the part that was played by prehistoric man in the march of c i v i l i -zation. This occupies the f i r s t page of Unit I. The entire period of history included in the workbook i s divided into ten units. Each unit i s introduced by an outline similar to that referred to above. This outline gives i n narrative form a survey of the f i e l d to be studied. For example, the full-page introduction to Unit II, "The Achievements of the Ancient Greeks", consists of three paragraphs. The f i r s t paragraph treats of the contributions of the Greeks to c i v i l i z a -tion; the second paragraph describes the scattered colonies of the Greeks in ancient times and contrasts them with the land owned by the Greeks op. c i t . , page 7. to-day; and the third outlines the five main topics to he studied in this unit and relates them to one another in the following paragraph: . "In the development of this unit five topics w i l l be treated. F i r s t , you w i l l study the early l i f e of the Greeks and the rise Into pro-minence of two Greek cities—Athens and Sparta. Second, you w i l l see how the disunited Greek states succeeded in beating off the very dangerous attempts of the Persians to conquer their lands. After this victory the Greeks, led by Athens, advanced into the great age of art, literature, and philosophy. A study of the remarkable achievements in these activities w i l l be the third and most important topic i n this unit. Fourth, you w i l l note the rather feeble attempts at p o l i t i c a l union among the Greeks—all of which failed. Finally you w i l l see how Alexander the Great conquered the Greek c i t i e s and compelled them to follow his extensive expeditions against the Persians. His conquests led to the establishment of Greek culture and learning throughout the entire eastern Mediterranean. There i t persisted for centuries, influencing the Romans and many other peoples." Several interesting features of this concluding paragraph are at once apparent. Fi r s t l y , the vocabulary is well within the range of 1 grade nine pupils; secondly, there i s a direct appeal to the individual student through the use of the personal pronoun "you"; thirdly, there i s a well-defined plan clearly expressed; fourthly, the cor.eluding sentence anticipates the study which i s to follow in Unit III, "How Rome Organized the Ancient World." Each unit is subdivided into topics. In Unit II the preview i s followed by Topic I, "Early Greeks", which includes a page of outline McKinley, Howland, Wanger: "Workbook for World History in the Making", American Book Co., 1930, page 29, paragraph 3. 55. to be f i l l e d i n by the student. For example, the t h i r d heading i s , Athens Advances toward Democracy and the subheadings are: (a) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Athenian Democracy 1..... 2.,... 3,,,,, and (b) Modern democratic features lacking 1..... 2 f 9 «j « *> 3..,,, The s i x t h and f i n a l heading i s Greek Colonization with subheadings: (a) Why fostered and (b) Where colonies located. Provided with such an outline the student i s encouraged to organize his ideas and to plan h i s work methodically.. The authors next supply a l i s t of twenty-one books, with chap-te r s or pages indicated, and c l a s s i f y them as "Textbook References" or as "Supplementary Reading". The l a t t e r l i s t contains a s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of "Sources" and " F i c t i o n " . Fourteen questions on the textbook provide a means of s e l f - t e s t i n g on each topic studied. The questions are varied, c a l l i n g f o r f a c t u a l material, problem-solving, exposition and description. Some examples of the questions follow: (2) How do we know what happened i n the "Dark Ages" of Greece? Locate the Greek settlements at the beginning of the h i s t o r i c period. Why were they c a l l e d city-states? (3) Describe the development of government from monarchy to democracy. What was the "Age of Tyrants"? Why was i t not permanent? 1 1 I b i d . p. 51. 56, Following the fourteen questions on the text are thirteen problems and projects. The questions aim to guide the attention of the students i n their reading of the textbook; the problems aim to develop a deeper insight into historical events and to assist the pupil in interpret-ing aright the significant aspects of present-day occurrences. Many of the problems and projects could be used for class debates, committee reports, or individual projects. Two examples of problems that could be so used may be found i n Unit II, and are given as follows; "Compare a Greek city-state with a modern city in (a) plan of building, (b) government, and (c) relation to other communities. Your textbook and'a community civics book are sufficient references." and "Read Chapter 2, sec. 5, in Grant; 'Greece in the Age of Peri-cles '. Then look up in the 'World Almanac' i n the library present-day Olympic games. Compare modem Olympic games with the Greek games in (a) purpose, (b) nature of competition and competitor, and (c) accomplishments.1,1 Topic 1 of Unit II concludes with an assignment on an outline map which i s included in the workbook. This topic, one of the five com-prising Unit I I / i s typical of the topics throughout this workbook for "World History i n the Making". The topical outlines, maps, assimilation exercises and test questions can be f i l l e d in on the pages included in the workbook, but problems, descriptions, and explanations would need to be prepared f u l l y i n other books or on foolscap. Each unit of the workbook i s accompanied by a test of from eighty to one hundred items. These tests include a wide variety of objective-type questions which may be given for examination or diagnostic purposes, since they are not bound in the workbook. op.cit., page 55. 37. Three Grade l i n e pupils who were absent from the.social studies classroom at different times during periods of from two .to three weeks used this workbook after their return. The students had been studying ancient history from "The Story of World Progress", 1 but nevertheless they found the outlines and suggestions as given i n the "Workbook for World History i n the Making" extremely helpful i n getting an understanding of and an interest in the work they had missed. Many features combine to make this workbook decidedly attractive and practicable. The work has been s k i l f u l l y planned to meet the needs of average Grade Nine students; possible d i f f i c u l t i e s in the comprehension of the text have been anticipated and clarified; thought-provoking questions and interest-stimulating projects have been included for the brighter pupils; the price of forty cents i s reasonable; the suggested references are numerous and within the scope of average students. A l i s t of books to which reference has been made i s arranged, with authors * names in alpha-betical order, in the six-page appendix. This workbook could be adapted admirably for use with West's "World Progress". 1 "A Work Guide in American History". A workbook very similar to the "Work-book for World History i n the Making" i s a recent publication entitled "A Work Guide in American History". 5 This guide arranges the American, history course i n a series of ten units, as follows: 1 W. M. West: "The Story of World Progress", Allyn & Bacon, New York, 192A. 2 McKinley, Rowland, Wanger: "Workbook for World History in the Making", American Book Co., 1930. 5 H. B. Wilder: "A Work Guide in American History", Houghton Mi f f l i n Co., Boston, 1932. (60{S) The Discovery of a New World, 1000-1607 The Fulfilment of a Vi s i o n , 1607-1775 The Establishment of a New Nation, 1763-1789 Our National Government The Achievement of our Independence, 1739-1814 America t r i e s her Strength, 1814-18A0 Expansion and C o n f l i c t , 18AO-1865 The Beginnings of Modem America, 1865-1898 The United States becomes a World Power. 1898-1920 3 and Whither are We Bound? For each u n i t of work the author has supplied an introductory motivating overview, assignment references i n several textbooks, leading questions to a i d pupils i n studying the assignments, l i s t s of important dates, l i s t s of maximum a c t i v i t i e s and supplementary a c t i v i t i e s , and, l a s t l y , pretests and f i n a l t e s t s f o r each u n i t . There are also extensive map and chart exercises and a well-selected bibliography. In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Recent Happenings i n the S o c i a l Studies" Dr. H. E, Wilson writes concerning t h i s workbook, "The 'Work Guide 1 em-bodies most of the best c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of workbooks as developed i n recent years. I t s u n i t s are defensible; i t s exercises are a c t i v i t i e s and un-us u a l l y well motivated. In format the book i s well made, and i t s pages are punched and perforated to f a c i l i t a t e i t s use i n connection with a h i s -tory note-book." 1 H. E. Wilson of Harvard University: "The H i s t o r i c a l Outlook" Vol. XXIII, page 371. 39, "A Work Book in British History". In Canada there are as yet only a very limited number of students 5 printed workbooks. Two of these, however, have found very ready sales in Western Canada,—"A Work Book in British History" by A. Anstey and F. C. Boyes1, and a "Canadian History Workbook" by G. G. Harris . Neither of these workbooks measures up to the standard of the books studied on the pages immediately preceding. Yet each of these Ca-nadian social studies workbooks i s an attempt to satisfy a need for i n -spiring pupil-activity and for guiding the pupil i n his study of textbook material. "A Work Book in E r l t i s h History" i s designed to accompany "A 3 New History of Great Britain and Canada", a textbook which i s used exten-sively i n Alberta, Ontario, and British Columbia. The workbook is organized under four main headings, corresponding to the four principal divisions in Part I of the textbook. Under the f i r s t heading, "The Story of the British Nation", there are nine sub~headings, below each of which are lis t e d from two to nine exercises, covering altogether twenty-seven pages (12" 9"). Under the second heading, "Growth of the Br i t i s h Empire", may be found four topics bearing on this important subject. Under the third heading, "The Story of the British Parliamentary Development", are five topics relating to the growth of the powers of parliament from i t s origin in Anglo-Saxon times to the present; and under the fourth and last heading, "Language and Literature", are two subheadings, namely "The English Language" and "Story of English Literature". On the inside of the cover-page the student i s - A. Anstey,. F.. C. Boyes: "Workbook in British History", J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., Vancouver. (25£) 2 G. G. Harris: "Canadian History Workbook", Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1930. . (1C¥) ° W. S. Wallace: "A New History of Great Britain and Canada", MacMillan Co., Canada, 1925. 40. provided with.a record chart with columns for "Possible Total", "Actual Total" and "Percentage Correct". This workbook consists entirely of exercises. There are no introductory paragraphs to arouse the interest of the student and awaken in him a feeling of kinship with the past and responsibility to the present; there are no topical outlines that help to develop his organizing ability; there are no reference books suggested to s t i r i n him a desire for broader reading on the subjects under consideration; there are no pre-tests or mastery tests that could give the student that tangible reward for work well done, or inspire him to compete against his own record for a higher measure of success. This workbook contains nothing but exercises. There i s , however, much variety i n the exercises, which are of the following types: enumeration, matching, picture study, map study (three full-page outline maps are included), true-false statements, sent-ence completion (the student supplies meanings of quoted lines, reasons, explanations, or purely factual information), and problems. The book con-tains forty-six pages and space i s provided for a l l of the student 8s assign-ments. As this workbook has been used this term for experimental pur-poses i n the Kitsilano Junior High School, certain flagrant weaknesses, as well as some noteworthy merits, have become apparent. These findings w i l l be recorded i n the next chapter, and suggestions w i l l be offered for a re-vision of the workbook.1 A. Anstey, F. C. Boyes: "Workbook in British History", J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., Vancouver, /fL£?-a. "Canadian History Workbook". The "Canadian History World,' i s a pocket-size booklet of thirty-one pages.1 I t i s based on Wrong, Martin and Sage's "The Story of Canada" which i s a prescribed textbook in Alberta and Sask-2 atchewan. In the foreword of the workbook the student i s addressed thus: "Studying history i s not merely a matter of reading over the text-book. There are other things to do." The author then suggests various activities for the student, such as: finding pictures to make things seem real, mak-ing charts and diagrams, writing stories to t e l l to the class, preparing questions for his classmates to answer, and acting playlets of interesting incidents. The workbook has been planned with a view to supplying certain definite pupil-activities with each new major topic that i s introduced. Throughout the pages, particular things to do in connection with each of the thirty-five lessons have been l i s t e d . The f i r s t assignment, covering about a page and a half, i s organized under the following three headings: A. Reading: pages 5 to 12. "The Story of Canada". B. Questions, and C. Things to Do. Under the heading "B" are included three topics,—Before the White Man Came, How America was Discovered, and The Vikings in Canada. Each of these topics i s followed by two, three, or four questions, such as: "How do Indians on reserves l i v e nowadays ?" and "Why did not the Vikings make settlements in America?" Part C contains six things-to-do, such as: — — — — 1 G. G. Harris: "Canadian History Workbook", Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1950. 2 Martin, Sage, Wrong: "The Story of Canada", MacMillan Co., Toronto 2,2, "Make a l i s t of Indian a r t i c l e s which you have seen or read about" and "Make a l i s t of a l l the proper names i n the sections read, and see i f you can t e l l something about each." 1 The f i r s t seven lessons are very s i m i l a r i n general plan, but there i s a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s suggested i n the sections e n t i t l e d "Things to Do". Some of the a c t i v i t i e s included are: topics f o r debate, map a c t i v i t i e s , poems or a r t i c l e s to be read, and compositions or summaries to be prepared. In the eighth lesson a review of the work previously covered i s recommended, and the students are given d i r e c t i o n s f o r preparing a matching t e s t . Altogether there are t h i r t y - f i v e lessons contained i n the thirty-one pages of the booklet, and an outline map of Canada i s supplied on the back cover. This "Canadian History Workbook" i s a sample of .the workbook i n i t s most elementary form. I t presupposes the formal type of h i s t o r y lesson procedure i n which the teacher concludes h i s presentation of a new topic with some such commands as thtsgr "Read so many pages. Open your notebooks and answer these questions." Stereotyped assignments, vague questions, and meaningless g e n e r a l i t i e s may a l l be found i n the pages of t h i s "Canadian Hi s t o r y Workbook". Consider, f o r example, the f i r s t of three things to do given on page 8. "Try making a summary of the causes, events, and r e s u l t s of the American Revolution." On page A also, questions 2 and 5 are: "What connection was there between Radisson and the Hudson's Bay Company? G. G. Harris: "Canadian History Workbook", Hyerson Press, Toronto, 1930, page 1-2. Where, when, and by whom was the region of the Great Lakes and beyond claimed by France?" Another example of a poor assignment i s from page 8: "Outline the l i f e of S i r W i l f r i d Laurier.". 1 Between such a workbook, which may contain many'topics suitable f o r c l a s s discussion but which does not consciously aim to develop r i g h t a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s and understandings i n the i n d i v i d u a l and workbooks such as "Geography Problem Projects"," "Workbook f o r World History i n the Making" 5 and "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study"4" there i s indeed a wide gap. "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study". The "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study" 4 prepared by Harold Rugg and J . E. Mendenhall, both of Teachers' j College, Columbia University, has been designed to accompany the textbook i "Changing Governments and Changing Cultures." In t h i s workbook the j authors have endeavoured to organize the work of the course around a core J of dynamic p u p i l - a c t i v i t i e s . In the-,introductory note to the teacher the j TBriters deplore the f a c t t h a t so much of the work i n s o c i a l studies has j consisted of "memoriter r e c i t a t i o n from the contents' of textbooks,," In j contrast with t h i s procedure the writers sponsor a s e l f - a c t i v i t y programme. j . i •t op. c i t . , page 8. M» Branom: "Geography Problem Projects", A. J . Nystrom & Co., Chicago, ; - 1955* 3 McKinley, Rowland, Wanger; "Workbook for World History i n the Making". j. American Book Co,, New York, 1950. 4 B. Rugg, -T, E» Men&enh&lli "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", Ginn & Co., Boston, 1932. 5 H. Rugg." "Changing Governments & Changing Cultures", Ginn & Co., Boston, 1950. Each problem of the course i s an organisation of things f or the p u p i l to do. Each u n i t compels him to f i n d the answer to one or more important questions. The workbook, measuring eight by eleven inches, consists of eighty-four pages with a six-page introduction f o r the p u p i l . There are twenty-five problems included i n the workbook, and- f o r each problem there i s a corresponding chapter i n the textbook. In the' introduction, which explains to the student hoy; he may derive the most benefit from his s o c i a l studies course, the following procedure i n working through each d i v i s i o n of the workbook i s suggested! PI. Read the corresponding chapter i n the 'Reading Book',,1 "2, 'Take the tests and have your answers corrected either by yourself or by your neighbour, "5. In the 'Reading Book' study the points of the te s t on which you f a i l e d . "A. Enter dates and events on the term time l i n e , (directions f o r construction of which are given on page 3 of the work-book.) "5. Contribute something to the class discussion of that problem."2 These suggestions are followed by an i n d i v i d u a l record sheet which gives i n one column the t o t a l score possible for each problem, and i n a blank column the space f o r recording the student's score. A t h i r d -• Rugg & Mendenhall: "Changing Eovernirients and Changing Cultures", Ginn & Co., 1920. Rugg & Mendenhall: "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", Ginn & Co., 1932, page x i . column i s provided f o r checks which may be used to record minimal require-ments, spe c i a l reports, and special projects that have been completed. The introduction includes also l i s t s of reference books and suitable magazines, as well as many valuable suggestions f o r p u p i l - a c t i v i t i e s , such as exhibits, debates, excursions, and class organization with p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s con-cerning the drawing up of a co n s t i t u t i o n . Two or three t y p i c a l problems from t h i s workbook may now be studied with a view to determining i t s r e a l value' to the student. Problem I i s stated thus: "What are the storm centres of the World?" The f i r s t section of t h i s problem consists of three general questions: A. What were the p r i n c i p a l effects of the World War upon the people i n Europe? D. What were some of the leading dictatorships during and f o l -lowing the World War? C. What methods are used by dictators to gain and to hold con-t r o l over people? The student i s advised to seek help i n answering these by studying Chapter I i n the textbook. The time a l l o t t e d f o r t h i s reading i s twenty minutes. In the second section of t h i s problem the student finds a cartoon and i n the space provided below i t he i s required to explain i t s meaning. In the t h i r d section there are f i v e objective-test questions which may give a possible score of 19, and which may be answered without further reference to the textbook. The fourth section consists of f i v e suggested topics f o r open-forum discussion or f o r further reading and sp e c i a l report. Such questions as the fallowing are t y p i c a l ; "Have the nations of the world learned any lesson from the World War? What lesson? Are they to-day preparing for peace or war? Why -46. do you think s o ? 1 , 1 The f i f t h and concluding section of t h i s f i r s t problem gives suggested a c t i v i t i e s f o r the c l a s s , such as searching f o r newspaper and magazine material that i s r e l a t e d to the main topics under discussion and -that would be i n t e r e s t i n g f or an i n d i v i d u a l scrapbook or for the b u l l e t i n board. A f t e r two introductory problems on changing governments and changing cultures there follow four problems related to the growth of Western democracy. These problems are succeeded by others concerning England's advance toward democracy, the advance toward democracy of France and Germany, and the r e l a t i o n of governments to war, with sp e c i a l reference to the new experiment i n Russia. F i n a l l y , the emergence of a new culture i n i n d u s t r i a l Europe and the spread of European c i v i l i z a t i o n lead to a study of present-day conditions. The concluding units on the government of the modern world and i t s problems are designed to show the dependence of the present conditions on the past h i s t o r y of the world. Problem XX?, "World'Conflict versus World Organisation", the l a s t problem i n the work-book, begins with three general questions to be considered i n the classroom, a f t e r the students have read the corresponding chapter i n the textbook. The students are required, as i n the problem previously referred to, to explain the meaning of a given cartoon which represents world armament and mutual d i s t r u s t among nations. Division Three of t h i s problem consists of te s t s , allowing a t o t a l possible score of 90 and aiming to reveal what the student knows, without further reference to h i s textbook, on the subject of world c o n f l i c t versus world organization. There folio?; seven suggested 1 H * E ugg> J - E - Mendenhall: "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", Ginn & Co., Boston, 1952, Unit I, page 3. 47, topics f o r open-forum discussion or f o r further study and spe c i a l report. The whole Problem XX? concludes with "Suggested A c t i v i t i e s f o r Rapid Workers or f o r the Class" and a "Final Summary Exercise f o r the Class", Here and there throughout the workbook the student finds p e r t i -nent questions or statements printed i n heavy type and enclosed i n a frame-work of heavy black l i n e s . The following are examples selected at random:— "Have you a l l the important fa c t s bearing on the matter?" (from page 56) "Real reasons* not prejudices" (from page 51) "Are you keeping yourself informed about the modem world by reading current newspapers, magazines, and books?" (from page 28) and "The internationally-minded c i t i z e n i s informed about and c r i t i -c a l of the events reported i n newspapers and magazines. Are you an internationally-minded c i t i z e n ? " (from page 17) As w i l l be r e a d i l y surmised, the course of work undertaken i n th i s workbook i s a most comprehensive one. Yet by t h i s very feature i t represents an amount of work that w i l l challenge even the brightest student. The scope i s world wide* how can i t f a i l to give the student v i s i o n , to• influence h i s ideas, to stimulate well-directed reactions to h i s environ-ment and to society and to develop r i g h t attitudes and understandings,— these objectives of a l l educational enterprise? For the bright pupil there are a c t i v i t i e s to develop h i s resourcefulness and broaden h i s sympathies * f o r the average and d u l l many elementary exercises are suggested. Ac t u a l l y every workbook i s dependent for i t s success on the measure with which i t i s able ( l ) to adapt the textbook material to the scope of the student, (2) to avoid meaningless abstractions, (3) to a t t a i n 48, the whole-hearted cooperation of the student i n tac k l i n g problems that l i e within h i s grasp. (4) to help him i n i d e n t i f y i n g h i s problems with those of changing world conditions, and (5) to give him an understanding of his i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s i n h i s school and l a t e r i n society. Probably no workbook has yet f u l f i l l e d a l l these i d e a l s , but t h i s " P u p i l 8 s Workbook of Directed Study" 1 has gone f a r along t h i s roadway to complete success, Much of the i n t e r e s t aroused w i l l depend f o r i t s d i r e c t i o n on the manner of conducting o r a l discussions i n the classroom and, as always, much of the success i n using the workbook,—as i n using any educational d e v i c e , — w i l l depend on the zeal, the knowledge and foresight of the teacher. Conclusion. One of the most s t r i k i n g revelations from the foregoing study of workbooks has been the wide v a r i e t y of t h e i r types. In content, form, s u i t a b i l i t y and cost one may observe a wide range, probably an even greater divergence than one would f i n d i n selecting at random the same number of school textbooks. And t h i s d i v e r s i t y augurs well f or the future, f or i t s i g n i f i e s the searching a f t e r an i d e a l along many d i f f e r e n t paths, and i t characterizes the experimental stage from which the workbook, now i n i t s rudimentary state, i s due to emerge as a f u l l - f l e d g e d success. Even i f the workbook i s already advanced into i t s prime, the variety of types i s an excellent feature, f o r i t indicates a freedom from stereotyped pro-cedures and a happy o r i g i n a l i t y as an inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . However varied the types of workbooks, there are certain features i b i d . common to many of them in one form or another. The topical outline i s one of these features. I t assists the student to organize the subject matter of the textbook in a very effective way. If the workbook be without an accompanying text, the teacher can be guided by this outline in the pre-sentation of the lesson, and may measure the effectiveness of his teaching by the interest and accuracy revealed as the class undertakes to complete the topical outline. From the beginning, then, the workbook calls for activity on the part of the student and i t i s this very demand on the student* s abi l i t y that wins supporters for the workbook among both teachers and students. Such topical outlines as may be found i n "Our Country's Story", 1 i n "Workbook for World History in the Making",2 and in "A New 3 Approach to European History" present at the outset a challenge and an appeal to junior high school students. The lessons in some workbooks begin by arousing thought-pro-voking problems, either by asking a few direct questions or by giving a short explanatory paragraph which leads to a problematical situation. In "A Work Guide to American History"A and i n "Exercise Manual to Accompany our Changing Social Order"^ may be found this type of introduction to each lesson. Other workbooks, particularly those in English grammar, com-mence each unit with a rule or a brief explanation. This type of intro-West & Wallace: "Our Country's Story", Allyn & Bacon, 195$. McKinley, Rowland, Wanger: "Workbook for World History etc.", American _ Book Co., 1950. E. T. Smith: "A New Approach to European History: Student's Guide Sheets", University of Chicago Press, 1929. (90£) 4 H. B. Wilder & G. T. Spaulding: "A Work Guide to American History", Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1935. 5 R. W. Gavian & -T. M. Stinnett: "Work Guide to Accompany Our Changing Social Order", D. C. Heath & Co., New York, 1936. 50. auction may obviate the necessity for a textbook, as i s the case with "Practice Sheets i n English Grammar and Punctuation",'1 "A Student's Work-book i n English Grammar and Language Usage"2 and "A Text-Workbook".3 When such rules or explanations are provided, the workbook usually contains i n -troductory pre-tests, as well as concluding tests and reviey/s. A l l of the forms of introductory procedure suggested here are probably superior to the old conventional practice, whereby the pupil sat l i s t l e s s l y regarding the teacher as the humdrum monologue of a weary lesson rolled on. The introductory challenge of the workbook rouses the student from his wonted reverie; the time for action i s at hand. In the main body of each workbook lesson as well as i n the i n -troduction, one finds the activity programme.continued. In the minimum assignments, i n supplementary exercises, and i n fi n a l reviews numerous and various activities are suggested to accompany the specific study require-ments . Frequently the workbook includes unit tests, sometimes two or three tests to cover each unit, and this provision enables even the poorest pupil to attain some measure of success. Breadth of treatment i s another of the praiseworthy traits of many of the workbooks which have been considered. The author of a textbook i s concerned primarily with placing before the student, by means of narra-tion, description or exposition, his factual material or his impression re-garding the topic under consideration. He must exercise meticulous care in the selection of his facts, and great judgment in presenting those facts to represent truly the information he wishes to impart. The scope of the 1 H. Lockwood: "Practice Sheets i n English Grammar etc.", American Book Co., 1930. 2 F. Higginbotham, F. Hardwick, J . Keenan: "A Student's Workbook ete." ~ Unpublished. 0 R. Weeks, T. Cook, P. W. Befendall: "A Text-Workbook", MacMillans, Can.,1936, 51. workbook i s , i n a sense, broader, and i t s f i e l d i s more i n c l u s i v e . The author of a workbook reaches out toward the p u p i l , taps h i s background and then s t r i v e s to adapt the content of the textbook to the p u p i l ' s under-standing . He seeks a reaction from the contact of student and textbook through the medium of the workbook, just as a s c i e n t i s t , seeking reaction from the contact of opposite poles of e l e c t r i c i t y , watches the flame leap through the medium of a i r . The use of the workbook kindles new attitudes and i n t e r e s t s and r e l a t e s them to the situations of everyday l i f e . Moreover, the workbook can be of r e a l service to the student only i f i t serves as a guide i n his study and as an a i d i n h i s development. The good workbook should marshall f a c t s with a view to t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t organization. In t h i s way the workbook wall a s s i s t i n developing the i n -dependent s e l f - d i r e c t e d student. Nevertheless some workbooks are d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s very important matter of providing guidance f o r the student. I t i s not enough that a workbook should merely ask questions, c a l l f o r the making or checking of l i s t s , or o f f e r blanks to be f i l l e d i n . Teachers must not be b l i n d to c e r t a i n inadequacies i n some workbooks,—poor organization of ma-t e r i a l , l a c k of v a r i e t y i n exercises, or omission of a l l forms of testing, reviewing, and o u t l i n i n g . Recognition of such inherent weaknesses should lead to providing f o r d e f i c i e n c i e s and to stimulating progress i n evolving improved workbooks. CHAPTER IV Part A INVESTIGATIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AS REPORTED IN CURRENT LITERATURE Up to the present time there have been few attempts made to measure o b j e c t i v e l y the r e s u l t s obtained from the use of the workbook. No doubt t h i s i s due to the f a c t that only within recent years,-—as supervised study, p u p i l a c t i v i t y , and objective testing have claimed a prominent place i n the school curriculum, have workbooks become popular i n the classroom. No doubt, too, the lack of experimentation i s due to the d i f f i c u l t y of ob-taining conditions i d e a l f o r carrying on research. However, teachers who have used workbooks with t h e i r classes have submitted to various magazines t h e i r conclusions, frequently very subjective but nevertheless valuable i n •estimating the true worth of the workbook. "So t h i s i s the Workbook!" In "The English Journal." of May, 1955, appears an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "So t h i s i s the Workbook!"1 In t h i s a r t i c l e the author, as a teacher of English at T i r o High School, T i r o , Ohio, r e l a t e s her ex-periences i n substituting a workbook i n English grammar and language usage f o r the text-book previously i n use. The r e s u l t s i n t h i s Grade Nine class C. J . A l l e n , B. A., S. B. i n Education, Ohio State University: "The En g l i s h Journal", May 1953, page 73. 55, were most unsatisfactory. The writer blames the authors of the workbook who, she claims, do not recognize the f a c t that high school pupils can learn only one thing at a time. She charges that "workbooks cannot readily be used to teach with". She f i n d s i t necessary to go over the material of the workbook very c a r e f u l l y , to select points on which the exercises of the workbook have been based, and to teach thea--e points to the class be-fore the pupils undertake to do the work. She c r i t i c i z e s the authors f o r assuming that the pupils are f a m i l i a r with a certain grammatical p r i n c i p l e before the exercise on that p r i n c i p l e i s assigned to them. In conclusion Miss A l l e n w r i t e s : — "Are there any teachers who f e e l that my analysis has been too minute and that pu p i l s can le a r n i n large gulps? Or do the editors of workbooks f e e l that a supplementary grammar text i s indispensable? But fo r what? I f only one thing can be taught at a time and only through prac-t i c e , surely textbook and p r a c t i c e book can be fused into one to the best i n t e r e s t of both. n r should l i k e to say, i n ending, that the workbook with i t s a t t r a c t i v e cover, b e a u t i f u l p r i n t , and detachable sheets has, with a l l the l i m i t a t i o n s I have implied f o r i t , proved superior to a grammar t e x t . 1 , 1 Now t h i s teacher had discovered from her pupils' written com-positions that a general weakness throughout her class was the f a u l t y con-st r u c t i o n of sentences. She found that not u n t i l Part I I I i n the workbook were sentence errors considered. But she explains, " t h i s had been the most conspicuous need of the c l a s s , as demonstrated by the i r s t o r i e s , and I 0. J . A l l e n i n "The English Journal", May, 1953, page 80. 54. could see no reason f o r not beginning our attack there," 1 However, the cla s s became confused and b a f f l e d when confronted with the assigned exer-cises on sentence construction, The students had no background on which to begin Part I I I of the workbook. Apparently they had not been taught the fundamentals on which the exercises of Part III were based. A workbook, l i k e any other educational device, s t i l l demands much of the teacher. In t h i s case, the teacher, being f u l l y aware of the needs of the class, should have been prepared to give an e f f e c t i v e presentation of the points to be mastered. Then, ascertaining that the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s had been grasped, she would r e a l i z e that the students could attempt to do the work-book exercises with some reasonable assurance of success. Then, and not t i l l then, would she be warranted i n assigning the work to be mastered. Moreover, the organization of a workbook, l i k e that of any other book, was probably made a f t e r due deliberation by i t s authors. To begin i n Part I U of any well-prepared workbook would be, to say the l e a s t , inadvisable. Had the teacher begun at the beginning and prepared the stu-dents to advance l o g i c a l l y step by step u n t i l they had reached t h i s p a r t i -cular lesson on sentence construction, the e f f e c t would have been les s disastrous. No textbook or workbook ever was made to be begun i n the middle! Undoubtedly Parts I and I I would have helped to supply that back-ground which vja.s so deplorably lacking i n Part I I I . In the preface of "Pra-ctice Sheets i n English Grammar and Punctuation" the author c l e a r l y states that the subjects treated i n t h i s workbook are arranged i n l o g i c a l sequence, and that there i s coordination throughout effected by a gradual op. c i t . , page 78. 55. development from the simple to the complex. 1 On closer investigation one finds that the lessons on sentence construction are included where such a topic i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the subject under consideration. For example, i n Block I V — a study of a d v e r b s — a f t e r preliminary lessons on the recog-n i t i o n of adverbs, words modified by adverbs, and a comparison of adverbs, there follows a lesson on "Dsing Adverbs". Here we have -a d e f i n i t e con-t r i b u t i o n towards improving sentence structure by studying the position and choice of adverbs i n any sentence. So i t i s throughout. As each part of speech i s studied i t s function i n the sentence i s considered and good sentence structure i s developed gradually. In the "Student's Workbook i n En g l i s h Grammar, Composition and Language Usage" the same p r i n c i p l e may be observed. In Unit I there are simple lessons on sentence building and emphasis i n the sentence; i n Unit I I there are more d i f f i c u l t lessons on sentence structure, stress being placed on avoiding the use of the ambi-guous pronoun; i n Unit I I I there are lessons on the agreement of subject and predicate and on the correct use of verbals. At the conclusion of each u n i t there are t e s t s which include questions on those sentence errors which the p u p i l has been taught to avoid i n the intensive d r i l l exercises immedi-ate l y preceding. To begin to use t h i s workbook by asking the pupils to correct the sentence errors would be to put "the cart before the horse". To begin at Part I I I i n any workbook or textbook could hardly be considered aught but unwise procedure, c e r t a i n to produce very disappointing r e s u l t s . The writer of t h i s a r t i c l e has c r i t i c i z e d the workbook i n that i t i s dependent on the textbook. Many editors of workbooks do f e e l that a 1 H. Lockwood: "Practice Sheets i n English Grammar and Punctuation", American Book Co., 1930. F. Higginbotham, Hardwick, Keenan: "A Student's Workbook i n English Grammar, Composition, and Language Usage". Unpublished 56. supplementary text i s indispensable; in fact, certain workbooks are con-structed, chapter for chapter, on the basis of the subject matter in a particular textbook. .Such i s the case in "Targets for English Practice" 1 by Center and Holmes, which, as the authors avow, adheres to the material contained i n the textbook "Elements of English, Book One". 7/ilson and Wilson's "Workbook in United States History" claims to be adapted for use with any of the standard textbooks on American history, as does also Wilder and Spaulding's "A Work Guide in American History". 2 However, there are <_ many workbooks which do combine practicebook and textbook in one, as for example "Practice Sheets i n English Grammar" by H. R. Lockwood , "Science Problems of Modern L i f e " 4 , "Plane Geometry, A Text-Workbook"5 and "Stu-dent' s Workbook i n English Grammar, Composition and Language U s a g e " A s 7 . has been pointed out before , this fusion of workbook and textbook i s pro-bably practicable, especially i n the fields of English grammar and language usage, where the long written explanations of a textbook are seldom as ef-fective and comprehensible as a teacher's presentation at the blackboard. "Directed Study; Materials and Means". Very different from the views ex-pressed in the ar t i c l e considered above are the judgments of C. C. H i l l i s of Danville High School, Indiana, and J. R. Shannon, Superintendent of Schools, Danville, Indiana. In the "School Review", November, 1926, appeared 1 Center & Holmes: "Targets for English Practice", Allyn & Bacon, New York, 1952. , 2 See footnote A, page 49. S See footnote 1, page 50. -+ E. S. Osbourn, E. D. Heiss: "Science Problems of Modern Life", Webster Publishing Co., 1935. (56^) 5 G. C. Bartoo, J. Osborn: "Plane Geometry", Webster Pub. Co., 6^. 6 See footnote 2, page 50. ^ See page 21. 57. their a r t i c l e , "Directed Study; Materials and Means". The writers intro-duce their subject by insisting on the need for some device that w i l l mea-sure the extent to which effective study has been carried on by the student. "Supervised or directed study without objective evidence of study i s des-tined to f a l l short of i t s ideal. Often i t drifts backward to former practices; the recitation periods are lengthened, and l i t t l e or no time i s l e f t for study under the direction of the classroom teacher. Even where the proper balance between recitation and directed study i s religiously maintained, the procedure cannot rise to i t s f u l l height i f there i s not this objective evidence of study." 1 In an effort to obtain objective materials for directing study the authors created the "objectified assignment sheet", the forerunner of the student's workbook. The authors explain i n this article the results obtained from using objectified assignment sheets with classes in Danville, Indiana. "The objectified assignment sheet i s one of the best, i f not the very best, of devices for putting before the pupils in any class an assign-ment that w i l l serve as the basis for truly directed study. It is designed to do for any subject what problems do for arithmetic or algebra It i s apparent at the outset that by this means much time w i l l be saved in making assignments and that a l l pupils are certain to get each assignment more nearly correct. The sheets are prepared with blanks for the pupils to f i l l i n with their own work. Therefore, since a l l sheets are printed alike, and a l l blanks appear i n the same respective places on a l l sheets, the teacher finds i t easy to t e l l at a glance what each pupil i s doing, for he knows exactly where to look on each paper for a certain pupil response. The C. C. H i l l i s , J. R. Shannon: "School Review" November, 1926, page 672. 58. questions are so designed that thorough study of the assigned material i s necessary in order to make an answer that can be stated in a few words. The questions raise problems for the pupils, motivate their work, and cover the essential elements of a lesson or unit of work."1 The truth of this last statement may be verified by examining their selection of actual specimens of assignment sheets i n literature, biology, c i v i l governrne nt, United States history, and European history. These assignment sheets had been used by the Danville High School pupils during the session 1925-'26. In their conclusions the authors states "Experience and evo-lution w i l l doubtless improve the quality of assignment sheets and also the technique of using them. At present their chief value l i e s in their usefulness as objective evidence of what pupils are doing i n their study periods. They enable a teacher to diagnose the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the indi -vidual pupils whose silent study she i s trying to direct. Incidentally, they can be used for other purposes, such as a basis for marks and periodic reports, and for review and test material. These things, however, are by-products. Their main purpose, the same as that of other means of directing study, i s to elevate the work above the level of pseudo-supervised study and to provide for the supervision of individual pupils studying silently 2 at their desks." "Worksheets as aids i n supervised study" • A similar article to that just considered i s one by H. E. Wilson, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. In "The Historical Outlook" of October, 1929, appeared his C. H i l l i s , J. Shannon in "School Review", Nov. 1926, page 672. 2 i b i d . , page 678. 59. contribution, "Worksheets as Aids in Supervised Study". The writer estab-lishes the importance of supervised study i n educational procedure and recognizes the necessity for specific and continuous activity in study. This necessity leads him to ask, "What activities or things-to-do may be useful i n studying history and the social sciences?" He believes this question i s answered most satisfactorily by the use of worksheets, which, as the name implies, are similar in content and form to the workbook. Sev-eral different types of worksheets are reproduced in the magazine, and their values discussed at some length. Experience in using the various worksheets with classes in the Department of Social Studies at the Uni-versity High School, University of Chicago, revealed to the writer the de-fects i n certain types, and also the merits. After a detailed examination of three types of worksheets the writer selects the best type and l i s t s the following advantages which he has found to accrue from i t s use: "(l) The pupil's time Is saved because he knows at a l l times exactly what to do next. The worksheet carries work-directions for a period of from two to four weeks. The pupil using i t works at his own rate of progress, conferring with the instructor or with classmates only when con-ference fa c i l i t a t e s study. "(2) The pupil's energy i s conserved because he does not waste his resources i n a trial-and-error method of finding study-activities which may lead to a desired result. To be sure, there i s no guarantee whatever that the activities chosen for the worksheet w i l l eventuate in learning, but the chances are much better that such w i l l be the case than they are under an arrangement where the assignments are a hand-to-mouth, day-by-day aff a i r . "(3) The worksheet aids in the establishment of a learning 60. situation i n the classroom because i t connotes to the pupil's mind the idea of the classroom as a workshop, because i t gives pupils no excuse for loitering while 'waiting for an assignment', and because i t frees the teacher from routine matters of assignment-making. "(A) The worksheet enables the teacher to supervise study more closely and adequately, because i t implies that pupils w i l l work normally no matter what the teacher i s engaged in doing and because i t gives the teacher more time to observe, diagnose, and treat study d i f f i c u l t i e s indi-vidually. "•"* In his sunimary the writer of this article adds: "Worksheets of the types described i n this article are helpful to the teacher sincerely attempting to work out a technique of supervised study which w i l l measure up to the standards suggested. No objective evidence has been accumulated to prove the point} the only evidence is a subjective opinion formulated on the basis of several years of experience in constructing and using such worksheets i n the University High School, University of Chicago. And, by no means, i s the worksheet to be regarded as a device which w i l l run of i t s 2 own momentum. Its success depends upon the manner in which i t i s used." "Problems of the Workbook". So i t i s with any device in education, — i t s value w i l l depend on the use that i s made of i t . The workbook does not claim to be the panacea for a l l classroom i l l s . Its f i e l d i s of necessity a limited one. Consequently i t i s the duty of the teacher using any par-ticular workbook to ascertain i t s limits, and to furnish motivation for 1 H. S. Wilson$ "The Historical Outlook", Vol. XX, 1 9 2 9 , page 2 9 1 . 2 ibid, page 293. those desirable activities for which the workbook has made no provision. For instance, i t i s not the purpose of the workbook to preclude a l l oral composition from the classroom; few workbook writers would question the fact that oral composition should occupy a very prominent place in the curriculum. Yet the workbook can hardly provide adequately for this. In "The English Journal" of September, 1933, an article headed "Problems of the Workbook" directs our attention to this limitation of workbooks in English. 1 The writer considers that "as. far as oral language i s concerned the grammar workbook is practically useless; for s k i l l in correct speech comes not from written but from oral d r i l l . " He goes on to instance a teacher who has spent the entire f i r s t three months of the school term in presenting to Eighth Grade students about thirty pages from a two-hundred-page workbook. The writer of this article foresees that literature, crea-tive composition, and oral composition are to be relegated to a very infer-ior position i f indeed they are to be studied at a l l . He overlooks that fact that most up-to-date English and social studies workbooks include composition projects that depend for their very success and inspiration on oral discussion i n the classroom; debate topics that provoke thought, and stimulate and direct oral composition; and literature problems that arouse class discussions when such questions are being checked by students in the post-study period. In "Targets for English Practice", based on "Elements of English Composition",3 the sub-heading for the workbook i s "Speaking, Heading and Writing" and the f i r s t three chapters are designed to give x Fred G. Walcott: "Problems of the Workbook" in "The English Journal", Sept. 1933. 2 i b i d . , page 576. 5 Center & Holmes: "Targets for English Practice", Allyn & Bacon, New York, 1932. 62 assistance to the student i n o r a l composition, Conversation. Discussion, and Informal Narration and Explanation, the t i t l e s of these chapters, i n -dicate the stress placed on various forms of o r a l work. Throughout t h i s workbook there are other chapters which emphasise the importance of ora l compositioni e",g. Chapter V. Speeches, which has as i t s aims "To under-stand how to make speeches that are convincing and appropriate and to apply my knowledge i n actual speeches", and Chapter_XI, Speech Improvement, which has as i t s stated purpose: "To speak c l e a r l y , correctly, and agreeably". "Targets f o r E n g l i s h P r a c t i c e " 1 based on "Elements of English,, Book One" places p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the mechanics of writing and on language usage. l e t Part II i s devoted to "The Greatest Game i n the World" (Conversation); Part VIII i s headed "Sharing Experiences" and states as i t s aim "To t e l l the story of experience pleasingly and s k i l f u l l y " ; Part X i s e n t i t l e d " T e l l i n g the World" the aim of which i s to help the p u p i l "To make a convincing speech"; and Part XX "Voice and Speech" lays stress on pro-nunciation, enunciation, and developing resonance. Many workbooks i n s o c i a l studies contain s p e c i a l sections i n each lesson where topics f o r class discussion and suggested assignments for reports and f l o o r t a l k s are given. The "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study", 2 "Our Country's Stor y " , 3 "Canadian History Workbook"4 and "Exer-5 else Manual to accompany Our Changing Soc i a l Order" are examples of work-books, selected at random, that provide for much oral work i n the classroom. ' The writer of t h i s a r t i c l e , "Problems of the Workbook", considers See footnote 1, page 2k. 2 See footnote 1, page J+6. 5 West & Y/allace: "Our Country's Story", A l l y n & Becon, San Francisco, 1935. 4 See footnote 1, page A2. Gavian & Stinnett: "Exercise Manual", Heath & Co,, New York, 1936. 65 that a more serious d i f f i c u l t y than that mentioned above arises from the content of the workbook. He writes: "Many of them (the workbooks) ignore the r e p e t i t i v e and cumulative p r i n c i p l e almost e n t i r e l y , presuming to teach t h e i r units with a single s e r i e s of exercises, and with no r e c a l l provided at lengthening i n t e r v a l s . Some of them do not repeat units from year to year i n a rudimentary-to-complex progression, thereby contributing to the old f a l l a c y that any grammatical d e t a i l can be mastered by the students at one teaching and thenceforth w i l l never be for g o t t e n . " 1 These contentions have been met r e c e n t l y by the i n c l u s i o n of pre-tests, mastery t e s t s , — f r e -quently two or three at the end of each u n i t of work,—and also by the i n -c l u s i o n of achievement te s t s at frequent i n t e r v a l s . For example, "Practice Sheets i n English Grammar and Punctuation" contains a Mastery Test f o r each "Block"; "A Student 1s Workbook i n English Grammar, Composition and Language Usage"* contains at l e a s t two tests f o r each u n i t of w o r k , — f i r s t , second, and frequently t h i r d t r i e s , as well as two or three "Assignments", f o r each lesson i n the u n i t , — a n d several achievement tests i n the appendix: the workbook to accompany " C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe" sxipplies the p u p i l with adequate means f o r measuring h i s progress by new-type study tests and f i n a l review tests 4";. "A Work Guide i n American History" provides review exercises, review tests and supplementary a c t i v i t i e s . - ^ However, there i s no doubt that some workbooks are d e f i c i e n t i n the matter of s u f f i c i e n t exercise material and review t e s t s . The F. G. Walcott i n "English Journal", Sept. 1933, page 575. 2 See footnote 1, page 50. See footnote 2, page 50. 4 Schapiro & Morris: " C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe", Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1935. 5 Wilder & Spaulding: "A Work Guide i n American History", Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1955. 64. "Workbook i n B r i t i s h History" by A. Anstey and F. C. Boyes i s decidedly weak i n t h i s regard, as w i l l be pointed out i n the following section of t h i s chapter." As workbooks come to be used more u n i v e r s a l l y i n our schools, i t i s probable, too, that the concentric plan of progression i n various subjects w i l l be c a r r i e d out; that i s , progress i n each u n i t of work w i l l advance from simple to more complex stages year by year. But t h i s improve-ment i n the organization of workbook material w i l l r e l y to a great extent on the judicious s e l e c t i o n and organization of the subject-matter of t e x t -books and on the c a r e f u l b u i l d i n g of c u r r i c u l a . "A Comparison of P r i n c i p l e s and Practices of Study". Although very l i t t l e has been published about experimentation with workbooks, several recent studies have a d i r e c t bearing on the methods and technique employed i n using workbooks. One such study i s that of Mathews and Toepfer, e n t i t l e d , 2 "A Comparison of P r i n c i p l e s and Practices of Study." After some research work these authors conclude: " ( l ) Many of these and perhaps thousands of other high-school pupils do not know the best p r i n c i p l e s and procedures f o r e f f e c t i v e study. "(2) A mere knowledge of these p r i n c i p l e s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to insure e f f i c i e n c y i n study. I t would seem that one of the prime responsi-b i l i t i e s of high-school p r i n c i p a l s and teachers should be to a s s i s t pupils to acquire t h i s l i f e - t i m e equipment by providing r i c h opportunities f o r actual p r a c t i c e i n e f f i c i e n t study methods under the s k i l f u l supervision of teachers." 3 1 See footnote 1, page 44« 2 4C. 0. Mathews & N. Toepfer i n "The School Review", March, 1956. 5 C. 0. Mathews & N. Toepfer "Comparison of P r i n c i p l e s and Practices of Study" i n "The School Review", March, 1956, -fta$e What could afford a better opportunity for study.practice than the student's workbook? So equipped, the pupil i s encouraged to develop invaluable study habits; so .assisted, the teacher i s free to aid the pu-p i l s i n acquiring efficiency in their study. "Reading Guided by Questions". A yet more pertinent investigation was made by E. Holmes, Laboratory Schools, University of .Chicago. In her ar t i c l e , "Reading Guided by Questions versus Careful Reading and Re-reading without Questions'^ two parallel groups were formed from eighty-six stu-dents. Six experiments were planned in the major investigation, four re-lating to immediate rec a l l and two relating to delayed recall of the mat-er i a l read. In each instance half of the experiments made use of material in the f i e l d of the history of English literature,and half made use of material in the f i e l d of science. Group A was directed to read the f i r s t question then to read the ar t i c l e carefully u n t i l the answer was found. The pupil was then to read the second question before continuing the reading of the ar t i c l e . In Group B the students were told to read the article through completely and to re-read i t as many times as possible in the time allowed. Both groups took the same test after the study period. In the immediate-recall experiments the test was administered directly following the read-ing. In the delayed-recall experiments the test was administered two weeks after the study period. Holmes arrived at the following conclusions: "Reading guided by questions significantly surpasses reading and re-reading without questions i n the immediate recall of the answers to the questions E. Holmes: "Reading Guided etc." in "The School Review", May, 19-51. 66. used i n study, and answers to supplementary questions. Therefore students should be provided with questions f o r guidance i n reading material when immediate r e c a l l of s p e c i f i c information seems desirable. Secondly, read-ing guided.by questions s i g n i f i c a n t l y surpasses c a r e f u l reading and r e -reading without questions i n the delayed r e c a l l . Therefore students should be stimulated to an active determination to remember what they read, and should be provided with questions f o r guidance i n reading when delayed 1 r e c a l l seems desirable." In summary the author adds: " I t may be said that, i n delayed r e c a l l of material, reading guided by questions involves mental a c t i v i t y of the same types as does c a r e f u l reading and re-reading without questions, though the f i r s t technique i s much more e f f e c t i v e . The probable explana-t i o n of the s u p e r i o r i t y of reading guided by questions i s that such reading f a c i l i t a t e s the organization of what i s read by eliminating mental groping 2 f o r the more important points of the a r t i c l e . " As many workbooks contain exercises of questions to be answered a f t e r reading a textbook the r e s u l t s of t h i s investigation should be i n d i -cative of the value of workbooks. Some workbooks that help to organize and evaluate reading material by supplying questions on the text are: "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study" 5 by Rugg and Mendenhall, "Workbook f o r World History i n the Making"^ by McKinley, Howland and Wanger, "Geography Problem Projects" by Branom, "Canadian History Workbook" by G. G. Harris and 1 E. Holmes i n "The School Review", May, 1931, page 370. 2 E. Holmes i n "The School Review',' May, 1931, page 570. 5 See footnote 2, page h%< 4 See footnote 2, page A 9 . 5 See footnote 1, page 17-6 See footnote 1, page 11. "Targets f o r Engl i s h P r a c t i c e " 1 by Center and Holmes. Conclusion. From the above survey of reports from current l i t e r a t u r e i t may be i n f e r r e d that there i s a d i v e r s i t y of opinion i n regard to the value of students' workbooks. This i s probably due to a misunderstanding on the part of some teachers, of the r e l a t i o n of the workbook to classroom teaching and to the textbook. Some c r i t i c s have f a i l e d to recognize the l i m i t e d scope of the workbook and have r e l i e d on the workbook to supply a l l the steps i n the lesson procedure,—presentation, assimilation, organization ' 2 and r e c i t a t i o n . Yet the educational p r i n c i p l e s of directed study, on " which the student's workbook r e l i e s f o r i t s success, have apparently been proven sound, See footnote 1, page 26. H. C. Morrison: "The Practice of Teaching i n the Secondary School", U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 193/-. 68. CHAPTER I? PART B ' ' An Experimental Evaluation of "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h H i s t o r y " 1 The problem. During the past few years i t has been the practice of teachers at the Kitsilano Junior High School to follow a "unit" plan of teaching similar i n some respects to the Morrison plan. This plan emphasizes the importance of supervised study, called the period of the pupils' "assimi-lation", which follows the steps of "exploration" and "presentation" con-ducted by the teacher. In the Kitsilano Junior High School supervised study usually occupies the last twenty minutes of a fifty-minute period, although this arrangement of time i s not ri g i d l y adhered to. During the time allotted for study students are engaged i n various forms of assigned work, such as drawing maps,, charts and cartoons, solving problems from the blackboard, w r i t i n g outlines and preparing textbook material.for recitation. I t was the purpose of this investigation to determine, in so far as was possible, the relative value of study when a student's workbook was used and study when other educational devices, such as those forms of assigned work referred to above, were employed. In particular, the investigation aimed to measure the success attained by pupils who used "A Work Book in Br i t i s h History", and to compare • i t with that attained by a control group of junior high school students not using a workbook. 1 A. Anstey & F.C. Boyes: "A Work Book in British History", J. M. Dent 5 Sons Ltd., Vancouver, 1932. _ . 2 H. C. Morrison: The Practice-of Teaching i n the Secondary School, Uni-versity of Chicago Press, 1951. 69-The experiment. For experimental purposes six classes studying British History i n Grade Eight at the Kitsilano Junior High School were used. The experimental procedure was applied during the second term, for a period of eighty-eight school days. An i n i t i a l test of the "objective" type, devised by the experi-menter, was administered to a l l students in the six classes during the f i r s t week i n February. 1 The results of this test and the intelligence quotients of the students were the bases for selecting three pairs of comparative groups. Students were paired individually, boys.with boys and g i r l s with g i r l s . Altogether one hundred and fifty-eight students were studied,— f i f t y g i r l s and one hundred and eight boys. In order that the possibility of serious errors might be reduced,only data from such students in each pair of classes as would result in evenly matched experimental and control groups was u t i l i z e d . Groups A and A I consisted of fifty-four boys taught by Mr. A. McKie. Groups B and BI consisted of fifty-four boys taught by Miss Jean Eraser. Groups C and C I consisted of f i f t y g i r l s , the former group taught by Miss Fraser and the latte r by the writer. The students i n groups A I, B I and C I were each supplied with a copy of "A Work Book in British 2 History", provided free of cost by the publishers. This workbook, which has been f u l l y reviewed above,3 i s based on Part One of "The History of Great Britain" . A A l l the students concerned in this experiment were See Appendix, page 2 A. Anstey & F. C. Boyes: "A Work Book in British History", J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., Vancouver, 1932 ($.52) 3 Op. c i t . , page 3f -4- Wallace, W. S.: "A New History of Great Britain and Canada", MacMillan Co., Toronto, 1925. 70. ' equipped with copies of the textbook. A f t e r a period of seventeen weeks, during which time the stu-dents attended classes for five fifty-minute periods in every six school days, the course as given in the workbook and textbook was covered. The students i n a l l groups covered the same subject matter at approximately the same rate of speed. To a certain extent both the experimental and control groups followed the stages of presentation, assimilation, organisation and recitation in the teaching procedure. The essential variable factor was the educational device used, in the stage of "assimilation". The results. On June 17th the six classes assembled for a period of f i f t y minutes to take the f i n a l test which had been prepared early i n February by the experimenter. This tes t included various objective-test types of questions, such as true-false, completion, matching and multiple choice. 1 Figure I indicates the dispersion of marks ranging from 25 to 125, the median being 78. The r e l i a b i l i t y coefficient of this f i n a l test was calculated as !>i' • : Z .92 with a possible error of .05. The data in Table I show that in a l l three cases the groups using the workbook, A I, B I and C I, obtained better results on the given test than the control groups A, B, and C. The difference which was most st a t i s t i c a l l y significant was that between Groups C and C I. This may be accounted f o r , i n part at least, by the fact that the two groups were taught by different teachers. The teacher of group C adopted her customary meth-ods; the teacher of group C I had used the same workbook during part of a L See Appendix, page 99. 2 . Calculated by the odds versus the evens and the Spearman-Buown formula. 71. TABLE I Showing a comparison of r e s u l t s obtained by using "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History" with r e s u l t s obtained by using any other study devices. Mean I.Q. Mean on I n i t i a l Test Difference on I n i t i a l Test Mean on Difference Percentage F i n a l on F i n a l that d i f f e r -Test Test ence I s o f score of l e s s favored sec-t i o n on F i -n a l Test Group A Group A I 98,85 99.90 49,4-3 55.12 +5,64 64.44 73.26 +8.82 13.7 Group 3 119.1 Group B I 119.1 66.70 72.90 +6.20 86.52 103.00 +16.48 19.04 Group G 98.52 37.04 Group C I 98*46 57,57 + ,55 5Q„60 81.24 +30.64 60,55 72, - / FIGURE I A frequency polygon'showing d i s t r i b u t i o n of marks i n a l l classes .in' J ?inal t e s t , June 17th..1936. A 3C \ £3 'HA \ ~ 2' 2° M. 1 . " /? it /C /4 •J3 , / A J2_ jl . jo / 1 7 / - \ \ Q d" '. 4 • • 7 / \ --3 06^ ro ^ 7f) *3 < S5 1 7rt to 96. . 1 <CXb t/6 \ /Jo / term two.years previously and was i n t e r e s t e d i n using i t again w i t h t h i s . experimental c l a s s . -The r e s u l t s Indicate that the greatest gains were made by group G I, a class of g i r l s s l i g h t l y below average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and de-cide d l y below average i n attitude to school work. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note the difference between the gains of t h i s group C I and those of a simi-l a r group of boys, A I, Although the boys were s l i g h t l y superior i n average I. Q. and i n average achievement on the pre-test, yet t h e i r average on the f i n a l t e s t was increased by only 18.1A points, whereas the average mark of the g i r l s was increased by 4-5.6? points. The numerical r e s u l t s do not indicate that the superior group of boys j B I , benefited appreciably more than the average group of boys, A I, by using the workbook, although no definite conclusions i n t h i s regard should be drawn, since the classes were taught by two d i f f e r e n t teachers. The c h i e f r e s u l t n o t i c e d by the teachers was that in a l l three experimental c l a s s e s there was a marked increase i n the i n t e r e s t of the students i n t h e i r history work.-, The writer, teaching group G I and a s i m i -l a r non-workbook group not included i n t h i s experiment;, found that the 0 I group soon evinced decidedly more I n t e r e s t than d i d the other .group,.- During the f i r s t term both c l a s s e s had been studying a p e r i o d of Canadian, h i s t o r y and, i n s p i t e of c o n t i n u a l efforts on the p a r t of the teacher, they had shown v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the course. However, evident a n t i c i p a t i o n was noted i n group C I when the workbooks were d i s t r i b u t e d . Throughout the remainder of the term the interest increased n o t i c e a b l y . This was a c l a s s where p r e v i o u s l y the a t t i t u d e s had been poor and i n d i f f e r e n t . The new i n t -e r e s t was manifested by p u p i l s 8 questions i n the classroom, by improved attention during the presentation of lessons, and by attempts,, frequently successful, to do exercises i n the workbook that had been unavoidably missed. Since i n t e r e s t i s considered to be almost as potent a f a c t o r in success as intelligence, the increase i n I n t e r e s t r e s u l t i n g from the use of t h i s workbook might be hel d l a r g e l y r e sponsible f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n numerical r e s u l t s , Other results were that the students found more enjoy-ment i n their work than hitherto, and more time was a v a i l a b l e f o r taking o r a l d i s c u s s i o n and f o r giving assistance to i n d i v i d u a l s . L i m i t a t i o n s of experiment. Three l i m i t a t i o n s i n connection with t h i s 74« experiment should be mentioned. F i r s t , the number of students concerned vies not very large. At the outset two hundred and twenty-six students were included i n the experiment;, but due to long absences, withdrawals and other circumstances t h i s number had to be reduced to one hundred and f i f t y - e i g h t . Another l i m i t a t i o n was the teachers' l a c k of experience i n using workbooks. Two of the teachers, one i n charge of groups A and A I, and the other i n charge of B, B I, and C, had had very l i t t l e or no experience i n using stu-dents' workbooks. Yet f o r a period of seven years each had been using the time-honoured methods adopted with the control groups. This condition would probably r e s u l t i n advantages i n favour of Groups A, B, and G, and would tend to minimize the effectiveness of the workbook. The t h i r d and probably most important l i m i t a t i o n was to be found i n the workbook i t s e l f . Although t h i s workbook was prepared i n the year 1952, i n many respects i t may be considered a forerunner i n i t s f i e l d , and as such i t suffers from many serious weaknesses i n both content and form,—weaknesses which have become apparent through i t s use during the i n -t e r v a l since i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . In i t s content there occurs frequently an over-emphasis of unimportant d e t a i l , and a lack of emphasis on many topics of major h i s t o r i c a l importance. Consider, f o r example, Exercise Two on page 6. Here no l e s s than twenty-five completion blanks are to be f i l l e d with names of s e r f s , v i l l e i n s , l i v e - s t o c k etc.; or Exercise C on page IS, where nine blanks are to be f i l l e d with names of household improvements during the Tudor Period. Yet there i s a t o t a l omission of any reference to Magna Carta, only one completion question on the Domesday Book and one on the Spanish Armada, and merely a fourth part of one exercise devoted to the Renaissance period out of a t o t a l of nine exercises on the whole Tudor Period. The workbook could be improved by a better balancing of the subject 75. matter and by a more careful selection of the. material from the point of view of importance and interest. Also as regards content, the workbook adheres much too closely to the wording of the accompanying textbook. I t i s possible f o r students with l i t t l e .or no understanding of th e i r reading to answer the questions i n the workbook correctly, and so to be deluded into b e l i e v i n g that they know t h e i r subject, This was observed to be the case p a r t i c u l a r l y among the s t u -dents of lesser a b i l i t y . They would discover words i n the textbook, some of the same words i n the workbook but with a blank i n the sentence and, r e -gardless of the fact that they did not understand the context, they would substitute the words of the textbook that had been omitted i n the workbook. I t was necessary for the teachers to emphasise repeatedly the f u t i l i t y of this practice, Moreover, i n content t h i s workbook i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y varied and interesting, I t lacks challenging assignments that Induce the student to seek elsewhere than i n his textbook for informationj i t lacks those topics f o r oral reports or debates that so frequently contribute to the student's interest i n and understanding of a subject; and i t lacks pre-views and reviews that give, the student a.comprehensive vision of the, f i e l d of h i s study. Hence i t i s but poorly adapted to f u l f i l i t s function as a guide and inspiration to the student of B r i t i s h History, Anstey and Boyes" workbook has many other limitations. There are no words of introduction addressed to the i n d i v i d u a l Grade Eight stu-dent. True, the teacher, r e a l i z i n g t h i s lack, can supply orally a preface to the workbook; but a. few words to the student i n an appeal for h i s cooper-ation and i n explanation of the purpose of the workbook would supply a de-sir a b l e incentive from the authors themselves. Nor does the form of the 76. work contribute motivating power. There are neither "targets to shoot at" nor "cities to be reached". The instructions f o r the exercises are simply: "Make l i s t s 'of: n l , "Complete the follorring statements: " 2 or " F i l l i n the words omitted i n the following."" 5 Such phraseology gives the student no clue to the continuity of his study and to the sequence of historical events. In short, the workbook tends to become f o r him simply a c o l l e c t i o n of exer-cises, helpful no doubt to both teacher and p u p i l j but decidedly inadequate. Some suggestions for the improvement of this workbook are as f o l -lows: (1) I t should include an introduction addressed to the student and acquainting him with the aims of the workbook and with i t s possible values f o r him,, (2) I t should supply i n two or throe c l e a r , concise paragraphs an orervlm of each unit to be studied. (&) I t should include review tests and outlines, to be f i l l e d i n by the students at the conclusion of each unit." 1*1 the three classes, A I, B I and OX, this procedure was found very necessary;' such tests and out-lines were added to SttpplemsHt workbook assignments- when time permitted* and J A ) Each unit should conclude" with problems requiring study and reading other than that found i n the textbook* Such problems could be used e s p e c i a l l y isdth the brighter students f o r class t a l i s , -OTitien .reports, or other i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s . Sueh alterations and additions as those suggested i n the foregoing paragraphs would undoubt®fily add to the value of Anstey and Boyes* Anstey & Boyes: "A Work Book i n British History" page' 1, J. M. Dent & Sons, Vancouver, 1932. op. c i t . , page 3. op. c i t . , page AA. workbook. Yet i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that, despite the l i m i t a t i o n s which have been r e f e r r e d to, the classes using the workbook had apparently an ad-vantage over the other classes. If ere t h i s workbook revised and brought more into accord with the best workbooks of to-day i t i s possible that future experiments might prove even more conclusively than the experiment which has been reported the worth of the workbook as an educational device. There i s great need f o r further experimentation and investigation i n t h i s f i e l d . Due to the. l i m i t a t i o n s which have, been mentioned the r e s u l t s of t h i s experi-ment should be considered as f a r from conclusive. They are merely i n d i c a -t i v e of what might be expected to obtain when Grade Eight students use "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History". Teachers' Opinions. Miss Jean Eraser, who taught groups B, B I, and C and who had had seven years' experience i n teaching the s o c i a l studies i n the K i t s i l a n o Junior High School, was asked f o r her opinion of the e f f e c t i v e -ness of t h i s workbook. Previously she had not used a workbook. Her reply follows: COMMENTS ON THE ANSTEY AND BOYES' WORK BOOK A set of Anstey and Boyes' B r i t i s h History work books was given to a c l a s s of high I. Q. grade VIII boys. The pupils l i k e d the work book. Some of the opinions they expressed are embodied i n t h i s paragraph. The boys were encouraged to work f o r themselves. They found that the work book made study more i n t e -r e s t i n g , that i t served as an inducement to read the text, that i t simpli-f i e d the text f o r them, and that i t helped them to discover i n t h e i r read-ing the important points i n a paragraph. They said that the work book enabled them to study with greater ease because i t defined the material to be learned and provided a way for d e f i n i t e information to be obtained and kept. They found i t was an aid to memory and useful for review. From the teacher's point of view the work book proved helpful i n that i t introduced v a r i e t y i n class room method and also because i t served as a study project. However, i t was found that the work book could be used as supplementary material only, and that i t was necessary to have something much more extensive as a basis f o r teaching. The chief c r i t i c i s m to be made i s of the completion exercises. These could be the most valuable i n the book i f they were u t i l i z e d to give simple and l u c i d , not merely b r i e f , explanations of topics which are written i n an obscure manner i n the text. Frequently, too, the statements to be completed have the nature of leading questions, worded i n such a way that the p u p i l i s given a clue whereby the work may be completed without under-standing e i t h e r question or answer. The following i s a d e f i n i t e i l l u s t r a t i o n . On page nine i n the work book, the p u p i l i s asked to give "Three defects or abuses that l e d to the Protestant Reformation". The whole exercise i s on the medieval church and the p u p i l has been reading the section i n Wallace's textbook on the medieval church. The word "abuses" i n the question directs h i s attention to the paragraph headed "Abuses i n the Church", The word "defects" i s used i n the f i r s t sentence i n the paragraph. At once the p u p i l r e a l i z e s that the answers are to be found there. Without giving any further thought to the matter, he can copy down the f i r s t three statements i n the paragraph and get that section of the exercise, r i g h t . The p u p i l can complete these answers successfully without having any understanding of the r e l a t i o n of abuses i n the church to the Reformation, indeed, without even reading to the end of the paragraph. In many other instances the completion questions follow the wording i n Wallace 8s textbook so c l o s e l y and the information may be taken from the text so e a s i l y that the exercise becomes purely mechanical. An ex-ample of t h i s may be found i n the exercises on the Renaissance. On page eleven of the workbook, the p u p i l i s required to f i l l i n a blank about Roger Bacon, Bacon i s mentioned i n only one place i n Wallace's textbook, on page f o r t y - f o u r . The p u p i l completes the question on Bacon, and writes that "he l a i d the f i r s t foundations of modern physics". Just what bearing t h i s had on the Renaissance the p u p i l doesn't know and probably doesn't care. The blank i s f i l l e d i n , and he has obtained h i s mark. S i m i l a r l y , the ex-er c i s e on page twenty-eight i n the workbook may be completed from page 138 of the text i n the same puzzle-solving fashion. The c h i l d has only to con-tinue the sequence by copying one. certain word, phrase or sentence and i n the end may not understand at a l l the completed statement or i t s s i g n i f i -cance. The highly i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d i s almost sure to- take these quick short-cuts to r i g h t answers. The purpose of the exercise i s defeated i f the p u p i l i s enabled by these obvious references worded i n the i d e n t i c a l or p a r a l l e l vocabulary of the text, to copy an. answer from the text book and thus be misled into b e l i e v i n g that h i s mechanically-acquired super-f i c i a l answer i s a true understanding of the point i n question. I t i s unfortunate, too, that some s i l l y d e t a i l has not been eliminated to allow space f o r more valuable information. There i s nothing v i t a l l y important about Cromwell's appearance, or Wolsey's g i f t of Hampton Court to Henry VIII, to mention two of the more flagrant instances. What hi s t o r y i s taught by c a l l i n g attention to A l f r e d the Great as "England's Darling"? The rather unusual epithet i s more l i k e l y to remain i n the mind of the p u p i l , than the necessary knowledge of the monarch's achievements. 79. Some names such as "Conqueror" or "Lion Heart" immediately draw attention to some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or incident i n the monarch's l i f e , but the descrip-t i o n "England's Darling" rather makes Alfred an object of r i d i c u l e . Again, i n the section on the feudal system, by cutting out the unnecessary imagi-nary names. Shad, Snout, Hogg and so on, i n the same space the c h i l d could be taught more us e f u l information about feudalism. - In a high I. Q. c l a s s , the problem type question should develop the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to reason independently and. a r r i v e at h i s own solution. The conditions should be placed before him and he should draw h i s own con-clusions. But i n t h i s work book, i n many cases, the answers to the problem questions given could be found i n the text. The purpose of the problem type question, therefore, to make the c h i l d reason independently, was not accom-p l i s h e d , — f o r example, the exercise on the Wars of the Roses, page ten, and on e a r l y B r i t a i n , page four. Moreover, some of these so-called problem questions are simply f a c t u a l questions. Nothing i s done to give a p u p i l a bird's-eye view of history and to show c l e a r l y how one period succeeds another. A page or two could well be taken to give the c h i l d a broad perspective of the whole scope of B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , of each succeeding period, i t s significance and achievements. To sum up, i t was evident that the pupils' study of the English ' h i s t o r y course was enriched by the use of t h i s work book. From the. tea-cher's point of view the work book was a valuable a i d . This p a r t i c u l a r one would more f u l l y r e a l i z e the aims ofthe teaching of s o c i a l studies i f i t forced the p u p i l to give more thoughtful consideration to the problems, of the period which he has been studying. Jean H. Fraser. Many of Miss Eraser's comments substantiate what has already been stated,—namely, that the completion exercises ;are unsatisfactory both i n t h e i r wording and i n the selection of subject matter, that continuity and coordination i n the work being studied should be effected by means of outlines, reviews and previews- and yet that both teachers and students found the workbook h e l p f u l . This teacher found, too, that the workbook provided "supple-mentary material only". This, of course, i s i t s main function. I t should be pointed out that i t i s not the function of a workbook to supply the main body of necessary data. The author of a workbook presupposes that lessons are being presented by the teacher, and that organization at the blackboard and recitation in the classroom are being normally conducted. He frequently presupposes also that textbooks and other books for reference are available to the student. The purpose of the workbook i s to a s s i s t the student i n his individual study efforts, and to serve as an educational device i n the "a s s i m i l a t i v e " stage of the learning process. Mr. A. McKie, who taught Groups A and A I and who had had seven years' experience i n teaching the s o c i a l studies i n the Kitsilano Junior High School, also emphasizes the fact that careful oral teaching i s s t i l l necessary even with the use of workbooks. He adds a new c r i t i c i s m , — a d i f f i c u l t y experienced by the students in interpreting the questions in the workbook. This i s a serious complaint, which, however, judging from the comments which follow, might be due to the indifference of the students concerned rather than to any inherent weakness in the workbook. CRITICISM OF WORK BOOKS 1. These books were used with a poor class—low average I. Q.—and a poor attitude both to work and to the school in general. 2 . Books were forgotten regularly, and many were lost during the term as were the text-books on which they were based. 3.. There was great d i f f i c u l t y on the part of the class to interpret ques-t i o n s and directions except i n the true-false and matching types. In these types however too much worthless detail was introduced. Ques-tions requiring a line or more answer were usually omitted because they looked d i f f i c u l t . When they were done a phrase copied from the text was very often put in the blank without any reference to content and meaning. In this connection many of the completion questions are vague and indefinite, and cannot be marked obj ectively enough to se-cure a definite record. A. The lessons for the class had to be carefully taught to follow the workbook. If the lesson topic was handled without reference to the text—and the workbook was given as a "follow-up" e x e r c i s e — t h e work-book i t s e l f had to be taught. 5. With such a class, constant supervision was needed i f satisfactory work was to be expected. 6. Corrections * — (1) Pupils more anxious to be able to mark thei r work right than to get i t r i g h t , (2) During correction period many of class so busy correcting they take no part i n discussion, A. McKie. The following statements are from two teachers who have had considerable experience i n using workbooks. These writer's, Mr, J . Seenan and Mr, F, C. Hardwick, envisage workbooks as supplanting the " t r a d i t i o n a l textbooks" i n the classroom, and they consider that j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s change l i e s i n the fact that textbooks have become academic, prejudiced, c o s t l y , and unadaptable. THE WORKBOOK AS A PRACTICAL AID IH MODERN EDUCATION The following conclusions have been reached a f t e r two years' experience with workbooks i n B r i t i s h History and with mimeographed portions of the proposed workbook i n Grammar f o r Grade IX. 1, As a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n the workbook lacks the formalism and the academic treatment of subject .matter that are found i n the t r a d i -t i o n a l textbook- yet, the workbook provides for order and uniformity i n the teaching and learning processes. 2, The academic treatment of the subject leads to arbitrary statements which are undesirable i n the Junior High School and often these statements could not be substantiated. 5, The t r a d i t i o n a l textbook i s costly to the pupil and to the publisher, although the l a t t e r i s probably s u f f i c i e n t l y compensated by the greater f i n a n c i a l return on h i s greater i n i t i a l investment. As a result of t h i s cost, educational authorities hesitate to recommend.a change i n textbooks even a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r one has been proved to be undesirable. A, The mechanical d i f f i c u l t i e s which arise i n attempting to teach without either a workbook or a textbook are obvious, The workbook i n the hands 0 f the p u p i l and a manual f o r the teacher w i l l overcome these. 5. The workbook leaves the teacher free to adopt the type of Instruction most suited to the individual needs of the class and this may fee greater or less than that given i n the textbook. J . K. Keenon. WORKBOOKS IN ENGLISH INSTRUCTION FOR GRADES VII, VIII, I I The following values of a well-organized workbook are some which i n the o p i n i o n of the undersigned make such a book one to be preferred to a textbook f o r use i n the classroom* ll A workbook provides a. l a r g e r v a r i e t y of and more extensive exercise m a t e r i a l than does a text. Hence more e f f e c t i v e p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r the i n d i v i d u a l differences"'of the p u p i l s , 2. Those who prepare workbooks r i g h t f u l l y assume that i t i s the duty of the teacher to teach a lesson and not to leave the p u p i l to h i s om un-organized resources. Textbooks are usually written with the apparent understanding t h a t the average p u p i l , without i n s t r u c t i o n , can l e a r n ••grammatical p r i n c i p l e s by himself. Such aa assumption would give weight to the b e l i e f -that a teacher i s dispensible. £, The t=se of a workbook r e l i e v e s the administration of the d i f f i c u l t y of removing from a p r e s c r i b e d l i s t of books a grammar or language text which has become obsolete or has been placed on the l i s t through lobby-i n g . A. Many textbook w r i t e r s disagree.on c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s , and hence p u p i l s are o f t e n taught these p r i n c i p l e s , which they (the p u p i l s ) l a t e r d i s -cover -are not u n i v e r s a l l y accepted. A teacher, r e l i e v e d of the neces-s i t y of u s i n g one t e x t as a gospel, may r e f e r to numerous authorities " desirable s t a t e of a f f a i r s . 5* Teachers u s i n g a vrorkbook are provi€ed w i t h - s u f f i c i e n t d r i l l material to make unnecessary the w r i t i n g on the blackboard of h u r r i e d l y prepared e x e r c i s e s , 6. The p r i n t i n g of a workbook i s much.cheaper than i s that of a textbook. 7. The use of a workbook u s u a l l y assures the p u p i l that the teacher w i l l not take up too much class time i n t a l k i n g . Francis C. Hardwick. P u p i l s 9 opinions. The boys of group B I were asked f o r t h e i r opinions of the h i s t o r y workbook which they had been using under the d i r e c t i o n of Miss Eraser. The following c r i t i c i s m s were selected, owing to t h e i r clear-ness of expression. The f i r s t gives the opinion of a Japanese student who has, i n general, been favourably impressed. Hats o f f to Anstey and Boyes, the authors! I think that i t was a b r i g h t i d e a i n compiling t h i s book. In my opinion, i t i s a u s e f u l S5„ took, I t i s almost e textbook when a l l the blanks are f i l l e d out. I t s use-fulness l i e s i n the f a c t that; 1. the teacher makes i t compulsory f o r you to look up informa-t i o n . 2. d e f i n i t e information i s obtained. 3. the p u p i l s enjoy keeping t h e i r own record of progress. A. i t saves time and labour on the p a r t of the teacher. 5. i t i s w r i t t e n i n a c l e a r , easy s t y l e , understandable by anyone, the book 9 However i f more m a t e r i a l was included, I think i t would Improve Minora Xatabe. A second student found that the questions i n the workbook had been c l e a r l y stated* I f i n d the work-book f a r b e t t e r than ordinary teaching f o r numerous reasons., F i r s t of a l l , . i t i s a review of classwork. Secondly, I f i n d (from the questions) what work I know and work I do not know. T h i r d the questions are presented i n a c l e a r manner which leaves very l i t t l e doubt as to the c o r r e c t answer i n the ease of more than one p o s s i b l e answer. F. B i l s l a n d . Another student i n h i s comments r e - i t e r a t e s some of the weak-nesses i n the workbook that have already been pointed out. YORK BOOK OPINION For 1, Working i n a work-book i s much more in t e r e s t i n g than s t r a i g h t teaching. 2. Maps and graphs i n the work-book give a b e t t e r understand of dates, f a c t s j and p l a c e s , 5, I n note-book work most p u p i l s are more i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g the work done than g e t t i n g the r i g h t m a t e r i a l while the work-book gives an i n -ducement to f i n d the r i g h t answers and nothing e l s e . Against 1. One does not have to understand the question or answer to get the right answer. This may be done by matching as the work-book i s worded the same as the text-book. 2. Some questions are asked that do not seem important but other necessary • points are omitted. 3. When doing note-book work more reference work i n books other than the text-book i s done while i n work-books the reference i s done solely i n the text-book. J , Ferry, A fourth student c r i t i c i z e s not so much the workbook i t s e l f as i t s r e l a t i o n to classroom procedure, i think that the work book doesn't explain the lesson as well as having i t t o l d to us. I t i s r e a l l y a short cat i n learning the- history. Our progress would be increased and give us more value I f we were given an explanation .also'using the workbook. G. Geary. - The concluding quotation draws attention to additional benefits derived from the use of the workbook. I think the workbook i s useful i n many ways, namelys ( l ) I t gives me a much better understanding of our work. (2) I can be more prepared for my tests because many of the t e s t questions are put i n a form similar to that of the workbook, (3) I t i s not necessary to put down as many notes i n my notebook and therefore saves time which can be used on other topics. (A) When looking up the answers on questions i n the Wallace I often read much more work to f i n d the answer than I would o r d i n a r i l y , and thus learn subjects more f u l l y . T. AiTkcns . • The opinions of an overwhelming majority of the pupils were i n favour of the use of workbooks. Several students expressed a wish that work-books i n subjects other than history could be obtained, for they claimed that workbooks s i m p l i f i e d the work, provided variety and interest, and, i n b r i e f ? lightened t h e i r labours. Nevertheless the youthful c r i t i c s deplored some of the weaknesses i n t h i s workbook and candidly suggested various a l t e r a t i o n s . :• ; c. An analysis of the pupils' workbooks. A survey of the students' workbooks which were used i n Groups A I, B I- and G I revealed a q u a l i t y of work probably above the average f o r Grade Eight. In general the books were nea t l y kept, the exercises were c a r e f u l l y written i n ink, and a f a i r l y high standard of work was evident throughout. A sample workbook from Group A I was that submitted by Kenneth who has an I.Q. of 95, and whose mark on the I n i t i a l Test was A5 and on the F i n a l Test 70. This student apparently has c a r r i e d out h i s work conscientiously; he has completed and checked his ex-e r c i s e s c a r e f u l l y ; and he has supplied much uncalled-for information on one •of the three maps = Moreover', he has u t i l i s e d to good advantage the three blank pages at the end of the workbook' by supplying outlines of the Feudal, Tudor and Stewart Periods, and by adding topical, notes on "The Long P a r l i a -ment", "The Restoration" and "The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution". A sample workbook from Group B I i s that of Henry, who has an I.Q. of 12A and whose mark on the I n i t i a l Test was 91 and on the F i n a l Test was 120. Although the exercises i n t h i s book have usually been completed they have not been as c a r e f u l l y checked and improved as were those i n the former case. There are occasional blank spaces, too, where the student has skipped over c e r t a i n questions. Most of these are questions that require no more than a word or two f o r answer and that demand no more s k i l l and i n -ve s t i g a t i o n than others. The omissions would lead one to suspect that t h i s student of superior a b i l i t y was either l a z y or i n d i f f e r e n t . Another student from Group B I, William who has also an I.Q. of 12A and whose marks on I n i -t i a l and F i n a l Tests were 90 and 118 respectively, submitted a model work-book. This student prepared his. work with meticulous care and achieved an 86, almost perfect score on every page. Both of these workbooks and others from Group B I would lead one to believe that challenging problems of a rather d i f f i c u l t kind would probably have been of more inte r e s t and bene-f i t to t h i s c l a s s than exercises that were presumably designed f o r the average. jLjthlrrtl sample workbook i s that of Mary i n Group C I, This stu-dent having an I,Q. of 100 obtained 27 i n the I n i t i a l Test and 88 i n the F i -n a l Test. The work i n t h i s book indicates a steady improvement throughout i n both neatness and accuracy. The blank pages have been used f o r answers i n diagnostic t e s t i n g and f o r two extra assignments supplementing the work-book exercises. In no case among the seventy-nine students using the workbook was good use made of the Record of Progress Chart, which i s printed on the i n s i d e of the cover. In a few esses the f i r s t three or four of the s i x t y spaces provided on the Chart hsvebeen f i l l e d with students' marks; but whether due to lack of time or i n t e r e s t on the part of pupils or of tea-chers, or to the d i f f i c u l t y i n marking and tabulating the score t h i s Chart was apparently valueless. Conclusions. From the data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s investigation i t seems rea-sonable to conclude ( l ) that "A Workbook i n B r i t i s h History" i s l i k e l y to y i e l d examination r e s u l t s s l i g h t l y superior to those obtained by using other devices i n the students', study period; (2) that "A Workbook i n B r i -t i s h History" could, by care f u l r e v i s i o n and a l t e r a t i o n , be made a more e f f e c t i v e study a i d than i t i s at present; and (3) that students enjoyed and benefited from the use of "A Workbook in. B r i t i s h History". 87. CHAPTER 7 Conclusions and Suggestions Introduction, Twenty or t h i r t y years ago there prevailed-what might be c a l l e d a "standard" method of teaching. To-day there are many methods, and the number i s increasing. Yet most .methods which are now widely accepted include some provision f or student participation, either through the i n d i -v i d u a l project, the s o c i a l i z e d r e c i t a t i o n , the workbook assignment or some other means.- For each of the various methods there are re q u i s i t e materials, devices, and equipment. To confine the student s l a v i s h l y to any one of the outlets for s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i s to r e s t r i c t h i s a c t i v i t y , his interests, and h i s understanding. The workbook i s not a device to be used exclusively, but i t should have a place i n the teacher's repertoire of methods. To estimate i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and values, as they may be deduced from the foregoing pages, and to o f f e r suggestions f o r the improvement of the workbook w i l l be the purpose of t h i s chapter. Limitations of the Workbook. In considering the li m i t a t i o n s of the work-book i t i s well to assume that i t i s s t i l l i n a stage of t r a n s i t i o n . A l -though i t follows no fi x e d form, nor content, nor type certain serious l i m i t a t i o n s which have been c l e a r l y recognized i n t h i s study are common to t h i s device. •Probably i t s most obvious l i m i t a t i o n i s i t s inadequacy to pro-vide f o r i n d i v i d u a l differences. Many writers who have prepared a workbook 83. to be used i n a certain grade have presumably estimated the average a b i l i t y and the average int e r e s t s of the students and have neglected to supply ad-d i t i o n a l problems and assignments that would extend the brighter pupils. For the be n e f i t of superior students, i t would seem desirable to include advanced exercises i n the workbook, and f o r the encouragement of the below-average type to include also some simple assignments. "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History" would probably have been of greater value to the superior students i n Group B I i f i t had contained some p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t as-signments . A bri g h t p u p i l frequently becomes bored and disinterested with work which demands only mediocre a b i l i t y . Henry probably needed the chal-lenge of a d i f f i c u l t exercise to arouse him from h i s indifference; William would doubtless have derived much benefit from confronting some serious problems which he was not able to get perfect at the f i r s t attempt. 1 With above or below average classes the teacher would probably be wise to discard such a workbook f o r a time and to supply assignments of h i s own adapted to meet the a b i l i t y of h i s c l a s s . Many teachers, r e a l i z i n g that assignments i n the workbook can not r e a d i l y be adjusted to meet the needs of in d i v i d u a l students, have opposed t h i s device. F a i l u r e to provide adequately for stu-dents at various stages of a b i l i t y i s an important l i m i t a t i o n of many work-books, l e t a few of the most recent publications do take into consideration the exceptional students and provide sp e c i a l assignments and suggestions fo r them. 2 A second l i m i t a t i o n i s the tendency for workbooks to become • 1 supra, 85-2 H, Rugg & J . E. Mendenhall: op, c i t . , A3-A3; A. E. McKinley, A. C. How-land, R. Wanger; op. c i t . , 52-57 and H. B. Wilder: op. c i t . , 57-33. merely c o l l e c t i o n s of exercises. Too frequently workbooks have reduced student a c t i v i t y i n the lesson period to unnecessary drudgery. Of course, not a l l work i s highly pleasurable. The student must.frequently learn by continual p r a c t i c e . I t would be unwholesome i f school l i f e were merely a succession of t h r i l l s . But a workbook should provide something more than prac t i c e material. I f the true aim of the workbook be to give the student opportunity f o r h i s f u l l development, the aim i s defeated by prosaic work-books of t h i s type. In a s a t i s f a c t o r y workbook the student should f i n d motivation, i n s p i r a t i o n , and guidance f o r h i s study. In general, the l a t e s t writers have avoided the error of including only sets of exercises. One of the chief c r i t i c i s m s of "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History", as was pointed out by Miss Jean Fraser and by the experimenter, was t h i s l i m i t a -t i o n i n regard to content. 1 • This workbook consisted e n t i r e l y of sets of exercises of the objective type. As was demonstrated, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Group B I, a b r i g h t student could r e a d i l y become expert i n completing the exercises although he had no r e a l understanding of the facts involved. To f i l l i n the sub-headings of a t o p i c a l outline, &s to investigate certain conditions and a r r i v e a t the solution of a problem, or to prepare an i n -d i v i d u a l project w i l l require more from the student than a s u p e r f i c i a l reading of the textbook. Yet these are types of assignments which w e l a c k i n g i n "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History". Several of the workbooks which have been studied, however, contain previews, outlines, and a var-2 i e t y of suggested a c t i v i t i e s as well as exercises. supra, 76 and 78. . "A Grade IX Student's Workbook i n English" op. c i t . , 27-30 "Targets f o r English P r a c t i c e " : op. c i t . , 23-27 "Workbook f o r World History i n the Making": op. c i t . , 32-37 A t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n of workbooks i s that frequently too l i t t l e s k i l l and understanding have been applied to t h e i r preparation. The know-ledge and the technique necessary f or the preparation of a good workbook d i f f e r considerably from the knowledge and technique required to make a good textbook. I t i s probably more important that the ?<riter of a workbook have a deep sympathy with, an understanding of, and a v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n the students f o r whom he i s writing than that he be an expert authority on f a c -t u a l material. The textbook demands of i t s author f u l l knowledge of a sub-j e c t , and, of the teacher, i n s i g h t i n inter p r e t i n g the knowledge to his students. But the workbook, to f u l f i l i t s function, must be i n i t s e l f s e l f -explanatory and s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e l l i g i b l e to the students. Unfortunately, some workbooks are so vague or ambiguous that they can not always be used independently by the student. This constitutes a serious weakness. In using "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History" with Group B I Miss J . Fraser noted t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . She found that much time was wasted by discussions as to j u s t what answers were expected to certain questions i n the workbook. Group A I, taught by Mr'. A. McKie, experienced the same d i f f i c u l t y i n trying to i n t e r p r e t vague or ambiguous assignments. 1 Occasionally the trouble may be due to poor i n i t i a l presentation of the lesson by the teacher, as was the case with Miss C. J . Allen , but very frequently i t i s due to f a u l t y pre-paration by the authors. This l i m i t a t i o n i n workbooks w i l l be overcome only when t h e i r true functions and values have been f u l l y recognized, and when t h e i r preparation .has become a matter of deep concern to publishers and educationalists a l i k e . Nevertheless, even i n t h e i r present stage of devel-opment, the values of workbooks seem to more than compensate f o r t h e i r supra, 80. supra, 52-56. weaknesses and l i m i t a t i o n s . Values of the Workbook. One of the most outstanding values of the workbook i s that i t tends to arouse the i n t e r e s t of the student. Whether or not he a c t u a l l y learns more through the use of t h i s device than he would otherwise learn has not yet been proved conclusively. But the evidence of both tea-chers and classes i n the foregoing chapter has shown that undoubtedly "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History" provoked the i n t e r e s t of the student and maintained t h i s i n t e r e s t throughout. Undoubtedly t h i s factor i s l a r g e l y responsible f o r the wide popularity of workbooks e s p e c i a l l y i n the United States where the greatest progress has been made i n t h e i r development. The chief reason for. the increased i n t e r e s t on the part of the student probably l i e s i n the nature of workbooks: the s e l f - a c t i v i t y they provide, the res-p o n s i b i l i t y they place on the i n d i v i d u a l , and the variety they add to the routine work of the classroom. Professor E. Branom gives the following explanation f o r the increase i n the student's in t e r e s t : "The pupil w i l l probably be interested i n h i s work i f he can observe tangible products of achievement. In response to the demand nu-merous expression books, variously c a l l e d practice tests, work books, prob-lem-projects etc. have been published. Such books i n general involve d e f i -n i t e things to be done.... Some of these expression books are so comprehen-sive that they become n u c l e i around which the course of study i s developed, " 1 Another value of the workbook i s that i t provides the student with aims and plans f o r h i s course. The s a t i s f a c t i o n that comes from know-ing the d e f i n i t e goals to be reached and the means for achieving those 1 M. E, Branom: "Recent Tendencies i n the F i e l d of Geography", H i s t o r i c a l Outlook, Vol. XX, Dec. 1929, p. A01. goals may be detected i n the students' .letters which have been quoted, 1 A workbook which emphasises t h i s aspect to a marked degree Is "Tea-gets for English Practice J " 4 In this-book the student finds a clearly-stated aim at the beginning of each lesson, and a score card on which he marks his achievement at the end of each lesson. In this connection i t i s of i n t e r -est to note that the Texas State Department of Education has l i s t e d the following as chief among the common weaknesses i n the methods of teaching the soc i a l studies: "1. Lack of definite aim for the course as a whole and for the specific lesson, 2. Lack of a definite plan for the lesson assignment and for the r e c i t a t i o n . : and 12, Written work Is often without plan or object." These three, out of the twelve weaknesses mentioned, appear to be effec-t i v e l y overcome by the use of the student's workbook. Another important value which should r e s u l t frosi the use of the workbook i s the self-reliance which i t should give the student. The days of memorization and assimilation of a single textbook as the chief element In the educational process w i l l probably pass when an a c t i v i t y programme,- now widely accepted i n theory, becomes established i n practice i n the junior high school. By supplying active, purposeful tasks, the work-book may -assist the student i n developing resourcefulness and responsibility The workbook should organize the fac t s , obtainable from texts and other 1 supra, 85;-34. supra, 25—2Y* 5 Texas State Dept. of Education; "The Teaching of History and other Social Subjects", B u l l e t i n No. 260, 1929, pp. 12-14• sources, about a problem i n such a form that the pupil recognizes the prob-lem as his own and r e a l l y strives to solve i t . "A Work Book i n B r i t i s h History" can not be credited with assisting appreciably i n the development of s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n the students of the experimental groups. Due to i t s r i g i d adherence to the wording and facts i n the accompanying textbook, and to the lack of extensive assignments t h i s particular workbook would supply but l i t t l e opportunity for developing self-reliance. Conclusion. The student's workbook i s an educational, device that has come very much to the fore i n the past few years, and i t s popularity i s undoubt-edly the outcome of several new tendencies i n education. The tendencies to organize subject matter into projects and units, to emphasize direct and p r a c t i c a l c i v i c values, to emphasize problem-solving rather than rote memorization, and to break away from the dependence on a textbook-, are re-f l e c t e d i n the developmental stages of the student's workbook.*'' I f these modern tendencies gain support i n the future, there Is every reason to ex-pect that the workbook w i l l benefit. correspondingly i n q u a l i t y and i n quan-t i t y , .At present the somewhat doubtful esteem with which i t i s regarded by some teachers may be due to a lack of experimentation i n t h i s f i e l d and to certain i n f e r i o r types of workbook now on the market. A p r i n c i p a l f a u l t i n the use and advocacy of educational devices to-day i s the selecting of cer-tain aspects of them, the magnifying of t h e i r worth, and the Ignoring of other equally important features. The task for the future, then, i s to at-tempt to estimate accurately the true values and l i m i t a t i o n s of this device, x E. B. G i f t : "The Changing Conception of Teaching United States History", reported i n H i s t o r i c a l Outlook, XXIII. 570, Nov. 1952. unbiased by I t s novelty and uninfluenced by I t s opponents or supporters, l e t I f *to~day as never before, t r a i n i n g In c i t i z e n s h i p i s general l y ac-cepted as the c o n t r o l l i n g purpose of the .school as well as i t s main o b l i -g a t i o n " the values of the student's workbook can not wisely be overlooked.1 Howard H i l l : "Twenty Years of C i v i c s " , H i s t o r i c a l Outlook, XX, 575-579, December, 1929. APPENDIX -r. £• • Time a l l o t t e d to class f o r copying assignments i n Grade Nine English  lessons. • Glass—22, K i t s i l a n o Junior High School. Teacher—Edna F. B a l l a r d . Monday - n i l ( l i t e r a t u r e ) Tuesday - 10 minutes (grammar) Wednesday ~ 8 minutes (grammar) Thursday - 2 minutes (composition) Friday - 5 minutes (spelling) B. Time a l l o t t e d to class f o r copying assignments i n Grade Eight S o c i a l Studies. C l a s s — 5 7 , K i t s i l a n o Junior High School. Teacher—F. I. Higginbotham. Monday - 7 minutes (outline work) Tuesday - n i l Wednesday - 15 minutes (assignment) Thursday - 5 minutes (map instructions) Friday - 5 minutes (project work) 96. 2* A* Social Studies I I . - I n i t i a l Test - February. 1956. TRUE, OR FALSE - Place a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r that t e l l s whether the statement i s true or false. T F T T F 1. The B r i t i s h I sles l i e to the North of Europe. I F 2. The B r i t i s h Isles cover a greater area than B. C. T F 5. The population of the B r i t i s h Isles i s about the same as that of Canada. T F A. Liverpool i s the capital of England, T F 5. The climate of the B r i t i s h Isles i s influenced greatly by the Atl a n t i c Ocean. T F 6. The most mountainous region of the B r i t i s h Isles i s i n England. T F 7. The B r i t i s h Isles produce most of the raw products used i n the i r manufacturing. T F 3. Great B r i t a i n depends mainly on water power for manufacturing. T F 9. ^ he f i r s t conquest of Great B r i t a i n was the Norman conquest. T F 10, The Norman conquest retarded the march of c i v i l i z a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n . 11. The Magna Carta gave more l i b e r t y to early kings of England, F 12. The B r i t i s h I s l e s were unknown to man before the b i r t h of Christ, T F 15, The native inhabitants of the B r i t i s h I s l e s were Romans. T F 14. During the Feudal Period the serf was as powerful as the baron. T F 15, The f i r s t English monarch to become Prince, of Wales was Edward I. T F 16, Robert Bruce was an I r i s h rebel leader. T F 17. Under Henry VIII. England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church, T F 1-3. The f i r s t permanent B r i t i s h settlement beyond the seas was made i n Queen Elisabeth's reign, T F 19, The Wars of the Roses were fought against Viking invaders. T F 20. During Norman rule the language of ths court was Latin. T F 21. The Normans had l i t t l e effect on our English language and cus-toms , T F 22, During the Middle Ages the Church had control of education. T F 25. The Black Death created a great scarcity of labour i n England. T F 24. The chief ministers of the King of England i n the Middle Ages were churchmen. T F 25. An important consequence of'the accession of Queen Elizabeth was the union of England and Scotland, T F 26, Simon de Montfort gave England her f i r s t Parliament, T F 27, The Model Parliament was made up of a House of Lords and House of Commons. T F 23. Under the rule of Tudor monarchs the power of Parliament grew weaker. T F 29, A great struggle between the Crown and Parliament took place during the Stuart period* T F 50, Before the reign of James. I, the Bible was printed only i n Latin, T F 31. Mary, Queen of Scots, was a Roman Catholic. T F 52, The 'Commonwealth Period was a happy one for the masses of Eng-l i s h people, T F 53. Since the revolution of 1688 a l l sovereigns of England have been Protectant. T F 34, Cromwell ruled England through a Parliament, F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F 35. The age of Anne saw a. great advance i n English a r t and a r c h i -tecture . T F 56. George I. of England was a German r u l e r . T F 57, Great B r i t a i n l o s t her o r i g i n a l English colonies i n North America during the reign of Queen V i c t o r i a , 58, -During the Hanoverian Period the Prime Minister of England be-came very powerful. 59. The F i r s t Reform B i l l of 1852 gave England representative govern-ment as we have i t to-day. AO, The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution had an effect only on manufacturing. A l . From the f i r s t children were forbidden to work i n f a c t o r i e s . 42, Roman Catholics have been allowed to s i t i n Parliament f o r over 150 years. 43. Queen V i c t o r i a ruled longer than any other B r i t i s h sovereign. 44* During her reign Canada won responsible government. 45. The "Entente Cordiale" brought to an end r i v a l r y between France and B r i t a i n . T F 46* The Prime Minister of B r i t a i n during the Great War was David Lloyd George, 47, The House of Commons i s more powerful than the House of Lords i n the government of Great B r i t a i n . 48, Gladstone helped e s p e c i a l l y to extend the B r i t i s h Empire. 49, About .one quarter of the people i n the world today owe allegiance to the B r i t i s h Crown. T F 50. The present King has done much to bring closer the bonds of Empire. Supply the words which w i l l complete c o r r e c t l y the following state-ments:— 1. Great B r i t a i n consists of three countries, England, Scotland, and ... 2, Great B r i t a i n with Ireland i s known as ... 5* The water ea.s5> of Great B r i t a i n i s c a l l e d ... 4. The coast-line of Great B r i t a i n may be described as ... 5. The l a r g e s t c i t y i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s i s ... 6. The chief industry on the Clyde River i s ... 7. B e l f a s t i s noted c h i e f l y f o r the manufacture of 8.. The most important industry of Great-Britain i s ... 9. The i l l u s t r i o u s dead of Great B r i t a i n are honored by b u r i a l i n 10. The l a s t great poet to be buried there was 11. E a r l i e s t conquerors to b u i l d roads and defensive walls i n B r i t a i n were the ... 12. A l f r e d the Great was a famous king of the ,.. 15. He opposed the invasions of the 14. The name "England" has been derived from i t s early inhabitants, the ... 15. The Norman Conquest of B r i t a i n began i n the year ... 16. A king of England who l e d a great Crusade ... 17. Before James I came to the English throne he had been r u l e r of ... 18. The wars waged between the Yorkist and Lancastrian nobles were c a l l e d .., 19. The followers of Wycliff were known as ... 20. During the C i v i l War of 1649 the supporters of Parliament were c a l l e d ... 21. The leader of the Puritans and Parliamentary forces was ... 22. With the execution of Charles I England changed from a monarchy to a ... 23. The greatest poet of Puritan England was ... 24. Those Catholics who desired the return of the Stewarts to the B r i t i s h throne were known as ... 25. The greatest Prime Minister of B r i t a i n during the Seven Years' l a s was « « •» 26. The Conformists of English History belonged to .... Church. 27. A great B r i t i s h statesman i n South A f r i c a during Queen V i c t o r i a ' s reign was ... 28. A B r i t i s h s o l d i e r who was mainly responsible f o r driving the French from India was ... 29. A Jewish statesman who bought a large share of the Sues Canal for B r i t a i n was 50. The B r i t i s h f l e e t that" defeated Napoleon was commanded by ... 51. A great V i c t o r i a n writer, who aimed by his stories to reform school and factory conditions, was 52. The freeing of negro slaves i n West India Colonies was due l a r g e l y to the e f f o r t s of the reformer £5. The present King of Great B r i t a i n i s ... MATCHING: Pl.ace the number from column A beside the words to which they correspond i n column B. A,. P -1. Dogger Bank 2. London 5. Dover 4«. Newcastle 5* Cork 6. B r i t i s h Museum 7. Leeds 3. Manchester 9. John Howard 10. William Wallace 11. Ireland 12. Martin Luther 13. Gaxton 14. Caedmon 15. Canute 16. Chaucer , 17. "Wat Tyler 18. Danelaw 19. John Wycliff 20. Crusades 21. Domesday Book 22. J u l i u s Caesar 23. Gaul 24. Cromwell 25. I n v i n c i b l e Armada 26. Shakespeare 27. Renaissance 28. Drake 29. C a l a i s 50. Reformation 51. Henry VIII 52. S i r Walter Raleigh Nearest port to France centre of the cotton industry a prison reformer on the Thames River the Emerald I s l e a record of property famous f i s h i n g grounds the invention of printing r e l i g i o u s wars centre of dairying region a great Danish king early Anglo-Saxon writer coal-mining region once a part of east coast of England Protestant reformer i n Germany champion of Scotland's independence f i r s t English poet a famous bui l d i n g i n London leader of the Peasants' Revolt English woollen manufacturing formerly a Roman province Lord Protector of England the New Learning a great Roman leader knighted for h i s discoveries "Defender of the Faith" translated the Bible into English England's l a s t foothold i n Europe f l e e t of P h i l i p II great Elizabethan writer' colonized i n V i r g i n i a great r e l i g i o u s revolution 99. T F T F T F T F 2. B. Social. Studies I I , F i n a l Test, June, 1956. - - TRUE-FALSE: Place a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r that t e l l s whether the statement i s true or f a l s e . T F 1. Most of our information about the early Britonscomes from Cae-sar's records. T F 2. The early Britons were a l l of one race or type. T F 3. Descendants of the early Britons may s t i l l be found i n Great B r i t a i n . 4, B r i t a i n at one time was a province of the Roman Empire. 5. The Anglo-Saxon conquerors introduced C h r i s t i a n i t y into B r i t a i n . T F 6, Anglo-Saxon and Norman conquerors never united to become one people with a common language. T F 7. Stonehenge was b u i l t by Roman conquerors of B r i t a i n . T F 3. The feudal scheme introduced by William I affected only the higher classes. 9. Everyone who held land owed allegiance to the king alone. 10. E a r l y invaders of England were successful i n t h e i r conquests because B r i t a i n lacked unity. T F 11. During the r u l e of Norman Kings the barons l i v e d peaceably. T F 12. The townspeople had no representation in the f i r s t parliament, T F 13. The Black Death caused a s c a r c i t y of labour during the Middle Ages. T F 14. During the Middle Ages sheep-raising was one of the chief indus-t r i e s i n B r i t a i n . T F ' 15. The Church, during the Middle Ages r e l i e d on the King's authority. T F 16. The L o l l a r d movement contributed to bring about the Protestant Eeformation. T F 17. The Tudors introduced a period of prosperity and amazing de-velopment . I F 18, The Renaissance profoundly affected the English language. T F 19. During the Tudor period a strong f e e l i n g of nationalism was r e -f l e c t e d i n poetry, T F 20. "Benefit of clergy" meant that educated men were able to obtain special p r i v i l e g e s at law. T F 21. The King James version of the B i b l e was the f i r s t to be printed i n English. T F 22, The Cavaliers were sometimes c a l l e d the Ironsides. T F 25. The Hanoverian kings took a very active part i n the government of England. 24. The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution affected manufacturing industries only. 25. The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution improved the working conditions dur-ing V i c t o r i a n Era. T F 26, The Corn Laws kept down the price of bread, T F 27. D i s r a e l i was a Jew who became Prime Minister. T F 28. The primary cause of the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution was a series of discoveries and inventions. T F 29, The House of Lords and the Hous e of Commons f i r s t met separately during reign of Queen Anne. 50. Democratic government has been one of the greatest triumphs of the 20th century i n Great B r i t a i n . T F T F T F 100, MATCHING - Place the numbers from column B beside the words to which they correspond i n A. the invention of p r i n t i n g Protestant reformer i n Germany Lord Protector of England churchman who opposed Henry I I a prison reformer a great Danish king knighted f o r h i s discoveries a former province of Rome Saxon assembly of Icing 1s advisers f i r s t English poet-b u i l t St, Paul 8s Cathedral ea r l y Anglo-Saxon writ e r Factory Act of 1823 poet-laureate i n V i c t o r i a n era f l e e t of P h i l i p II champion of Scotland's independence great minister of Henry VIII the New Learning translated the Bible into English "Defender of the F a i t h " l e d the Britons against Romans England's l a s t foothold i n Europe leader of Peasants' Revolt attempted to obtain Home Rule f o r Ireland once a part of east coast of England b u i l t Roman wall i n B r i t a i n the Emerald I s l e a Puritan poet colonized i n North America great r e l i g i o u s revolution > lb . 1. Thomas a Becket 2. Witan 3. E a r l of Shaftesbury A. Christopher Wren 5. Wolsey ~ 6. Queen Boadicea 7. Gladstone 8. Tennyson 9. John Howard 10. William Wallace 11. Martin Luther 12. Gaxton 13. Caedmon 1A. Canute 15. Cromwell 16. Calais 17. flat Tyler 18. Danelaw 19. Chaucer 20. John Wycliff 21. Hadrian 22. Gaul 23. Ireland 2A. Renaissance 25. Invincible Armada 26. Drake 27. Reformation 28. Henry VIII 29. S i r Walter Raleigh 30. Milton COMPLETION - Y.'rite the word necessary to complete each statement on the l i n e at the l e f t . ~ ~ 1. The f i r s t invaders of the B r i t i s h I s l e s were l e d by 2. The inhabitants of B r i t a i n at t h i s time were l i v i n g i n a state of 5. The p r i e s t s of the early Britons were cal l e d A. Under Roman r u l e many Britons turned from pagan worship to 5. The invaders that had the greatest influence on England were 6. The f i r s t king to unite a l l England about 1000 A.D. was 7. The l a s t conquest of England was by the 8. The barons protected themselves from the i l l - w i l l of King John by 9. The lowest class of people under feudalism was 10. As weal as estates i n England the early feudal rulers con-t r o l l e d land i n 11, The chief ministers of the king i n the Middle Ages were drawn from what class of people? 12. Three valuable services that monasteries rendered to the Erg 15\ 11sh people during the Middle Ages. 14, 15. The Wars of the Roses affected c h i e f l y what class of people? 16. Henry I I I became interested i n exploration as shown by his sending out 17. A r e v i v a l of learning during the 15th century was known as IS, Before James I came to the English throne he had been the r u l e r of 19. During the C i v i l War of 1649 the supporters of Parliament were called 20. The leader of the Parliamentary forces was 21. The long struggle between France and -England during the Mid-dle Ages was known as the 22. With the execution of Charles I England became i n government,a 25. The English Church was separated from Rome during the reign of 24. Religious war's between Christians and Mohammedans during the 12th century were c a l l e d 25. Those Catholics who desired to return of the Stewarts to the B r i t i s h throne were known as 26. The great war minister of B r i t a i n during the Seven Years" War was • ' . 27. The Conformists of England belonged to the . C h u r c h . 23. A Great B r i t i s h Statesman i n South Africa during Queen Vic-t o r i a " s reign was 29. A Victorian statesman who bought a large share of the Suez Canal for B r i t a i n was 50, The wealthiest and most powerful monarch i n Europe during the 17th century was 31. An important European fortress won by England by the Treaty of Utrecht i s 52. A B r i t i s h s o l d i e r who was mainly responsible for founding the B r i t i s h Empire i n India was 33. The B r i t i s h f l e e t that defeated Napoleon's ships was comman-ded by 54. A great Victorian writer who aimed by his stories to improve school and f a c t o r y conditions was 55• The Restoration Period restored three things to England, 0 6 , namely 37-58, The .translation of the Bible published i n 1611 and s t i l l used today i s known as -.the . 59. The f i r s t part of the B r i t i s h Empire to grant p o l i t i c a l free-dom to Roman Catholics was 40, The part of the B r i t i s h I s l e s that suffered most from the laws against Roman Catholics was 41, The founder of the Methodist Church i n England was 42, A groat reformer who helped to abolish the slave trade i n the B t i t i s h Empire. AS. Name f i v e immediate and distressing consequences of the In-44•> d u s t r i a l Revolution. 45, 46, 47, ..,..,».»* 43 „ The prime m i n i s t e r ?/ho brought about- the union of I r e l a n d with Great B r i t a i n was . . . . . . . . . . 49. That p a r t of the B r i t i s h government that makes the laws if? known as the . . . . . . . . . . 50. The present k i n g of England I s 51. 4 great commercial c i t y on the Thames River, * 52, In Important manufacturing c i t y near the month of the Mersey .River, • 55. The greatest s h i p - b u i l d i n g d i s t r i c t i n ths world i s the region around the r i v e r .54- The f i r s t Englishman to explore ths coasts of A u s t r a l i a . Place i n the brackets appropriate dates selected from column B. As. I k ( ' ) Magna Carta 55 B.C. ( } Model Parliament 1660 { } B a t t l e of Hastings 371 ( ) Caesar i n B r i t a i n 1707 ( ) A l f r e d the Great 1315 ( )- Romans leave B r i t a i n 1583 ( ) P r i n t i n g In England 1295 ( )' The Restoration 1901 ( ) Union with Scotland 1215 ( } Congress of Vienna 410 ( ) Death of Queen V i c t o r i a 1476 ( ) Defeat of Armada , 1066 P l a c s the NUMBER of the best answer i n the blank space to the l e f t . 1. The Reform B i l l of 1352 was drawn up because: (1) Tories wished the support of the working c l a s s e s . (2) I n d u s t r i a l Bevolution had caused a s h i f t i n g of the popu l a t i o n . (5) the enfranchisement of C a t h o l i c s made a change necessar, 2.. The f e u d a l system introduced by W i l l i a m I was a (1) system of administering j u s t i c e . (2) system of economic reformation. (o) system of land-holding, 3. R e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n means J — (1) willingness to d i e f o r one's r e l i g i o n . (2) respect f o r another's r e l i g i o n . (5) l i v i n g a good l i f e . 4. England was e a s i l y conquered by the Danes because: (1) the Danes were very c i v i l i s e d . (2) the i n h a b i t a n t s of England had only stone weapons. (o) England was not u n i t e d . .5. The Romans l e f t B r i t a i n because* — (1) the P i c t s and Scots drove them out. (2) they were needed to defend Rome. (3) they thought B r i t a i n was not worth keeping. 6. The Doomsday Book was: — 1) a book of laws. 2) a history of events. 3) a record of people and property. 7. Exploration during the Hanoverian Period was stimulated b y : — (1) huge rewards for explorers, (2) loss of American colonies, : (5) desire for religious freedom. 8. The chief r e s u l t of the Industrial Revolution has been t o : — (1) change completely 'the social l i f e of the nation. (2) reduce the cost of l i v i n g . _____ .' (5) lengthen the hours of work. BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, 0, J.i "So This is the Workbook?w in The English Journal. XXIIj 575-580, May, 1955. Aastey, A. & Boyes, F. C : "A Work Book in British History", J . M. Dent & Sons, Vancouver, 1932. Ayer, A., English, M., Hosic, J. F., & Mossman, L. C.j "National Society - learbook f o r the Study of Education®, 1954, Chapter I?. • Bartoo, .G. C , & -Osborn,. J.: "A Plane Geometry Text-Workbook", Webster Publishing Co., St. Louis, Mo., 1934. Branom, II* •-35..:. "Geography Problem Projects":, A. J . Nystrom;;& Co., Chicago, . . 1955* . Branom, M. £.: "Recent Tendencies i n the Field of Geography", .Historical . Outlook. XX: 400-403, Bee. 1929. Brown, J. E., Reid, E. W., Sherman, R.S. et al.i "Workbook in English Usage and CS©mpositionf,, J* M. Dent & Sons, 'Vancouver. Center, S. S." & .Holmes, E. £.: "Targets for English Practice", Books I, II, and I I I , Allyn & Bacon, Hew•lork, 1932. Fancier, D. G., & Crawford, G. C : "Teaching the Social Studies," U. of S. C , Los Angeles, 1932. Gavian, R. W., & Stinnett, T. M.i "Work Guide to Accompany Our Changing Social Order", D..C. Heath & Co., 1956 (New York) Gift, E. B.j "The Changing Conception of Teaching-United States History", Historical Outlook. XXIII: 370, November, 1932. Harris, G. G.s "Canadian History Workbook", Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1930. Higginbotham, F.I., Hardwick, F.G., & Kesnan, J.K.: "A Grade IX Student's Workbook i n English". Unpublished. 105. H i l l , H.: ""Twenty Years of Civics", H i s t o r i c a l Outlook. XX: 375-379, De-cember, 1929. H i l l i s , 0. G. & Shannon, J . R.s "Directed Study: Materials and Means". School Review. XXXIV? 668-678, Nov., 1926. Holmes, E.: "Reading Guided by Questions etc.". School Review. XXXIX: • 361-371, May, 1951. Lockwood, H. R,: "Practice Sheets in English Grammar and Punctuation", American Book Co., Boston,.1930. Martin, C. B., Sage, W. N., & Wrong, G. M.: "The Story of Canada", MacMil-l a n Co., Toronto, 1929. Mathews, C» A. .Toepfer, ,N»j "A-Comparison of Principle's and Practices of Study". School Review. XLIfs 18A-192, March, 1936. Mohr, Louise M.$ "Introduction to a Unified eours© i n the Social Studies". • ScOiool Rf__l§__, XXXlfllls; 230-252, March, 1930.. Morrison, H. C.; "The P r a c t i c e of Teaching i n the Secondary School", U. of Chicago Press, Revised'1931.' McCaig, James: "Studies i n Citizenship", Educational Book Co., Ltd., Tor-onto, 1920. McConnell, W. R.: "Study Guide Lessons in Geography", Webster Publishing Co., St. Louis, Mo., 1955. McKinley, Howland & Wangers "Workbook f o r World History i n the Making", American Book Co., New York, 1950. OsboUm, E. S„ & fieiss, E. D.: "Science Problems of Modern Life*", Webster Publishing Co., St. Louis, 1955. Parker, Edith Putnam: "Developing the Science of Geography". The Thirty-Second Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Educa-t i o n : 161-177, Bloomington, Illinois,, 1933. Peet, H. Eo, Robinson, G. L. & Bigelow, G. M.t "Practice Exercises in Eng-l i s h , 1 5 Houghton Mi f f l i n Co., San Francisco, 195A. Peterson, George W. & Douglass, Harl R.j "Published Workbooks versus Pupil-made Notebooks in Ninth-Grade General Science". School Review, XLIIIs .600=615, October, 1955. Rugg, H.: "An Introduction to American Civilization", Ginn & Co., San Francisco, 1950. "Changing Governments'and Changing Cultures", Ginn & Co., San . , Francisco, 1950. Rugg, H. &• Mendenhall, J-.E.» "Pupil's Workbook of Directed Study"> Ginn & Go., Saa Francisco, 1932. Sehapir©, J . S. & Morris,, R. B.t "Workbook to accompany Civilization i n Europe", Houghton Mifflia Co., Hew fork, 1955. Schockel, Fry & ^witzer: "Pupils 8 Help Books in Geography", American.Book Co., Chicago. Scott, Z. E., Congdon, R. T., & Peet, H. E.: "Open Door Language Series", Houghton M i f f l i a Go.,'H. T.-, 1951. Sharp, R. A.: "Sharp's English Exercises", Webster. Pub. Co., St. Louis, Mo. Smith, E. T.j "A New Approach to European History: Students5 Guide Sheets", U. of Chicago, 1929. Thayer^ V. T.; "The Passing of the Recitation", D. C. Heath & Go., Chicago, 1928. Vannest, C. G.: "Workbook in-.Community Giviea", Webster Pub. Co., St. Louis, Mo. Walcott, Fred G.s "Problems of the Workbook". The English Journal. XXII: 574-578, September, 1953. Wallace, W. S.: "A lew History of Great Britain and Canada", MacMillan Co., Toronto, 1925. Weeks, R. M., Cook, T., & Defendall, P. W.: "English Through Experience; A Test-Workbook", MacMillan Co., Toronto, 1936. West, R., St Wallace: "Our Country 8s Story", Allyn & Bacon, San Francisco, 1935. West, W. M.j "The Story of World Progress", Allyn & Bacon, San Francisco, 1924, Weston, W„ J.-,. Sweeting, H. R., et al.t "Geography Class Books", J . Jfisbet & Co., London, England. Wilder, H. B., & Spaulding,.-. F. T.: "A Work Guide i n American History", Houghton M i f f l i n : C o . , I . X . , 1935. Wilson, H. E.: "Reeent|Happenings i n the Soc i a l Studies* 1. The H i s t o r i c a l Outlook* XXIIIi' 571, lovember, 1932. Wilson, H. E.s "Worksheets as Aids i n Supervised Study"-. The H i s t o r i c a l Outlook, XX: 287-292, October, 1929. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302556/manifest

Comment

Related Items