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Junior high school composition for gifted adolescents Broome, Enoch Bunting 1936

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JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL COMPOSITION FOR GIFTED ADOLESCENTS by ENOCH BUNTING BROOME A T h e s i s submi t ted f o r the Degree o f MASTER OP ARTS i n the Department o f PHILOSOPHY THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA October , 1936.. ' G O H M T S . 1. C h a p t e r I:Introduction. 2. Chapter I I ? F o s t e r i n g Creativeneso i n Adolescents. 3 . C h a p t e r I I I : l f n a t G i f t e d A d o l e s c e n t s W r i t e A b o u t . 4. C h a p t e r IV:Values of V e r s e C o m p o s i t i o n for G i f t e d A d o l e s c e n t s . 5. C h a p t e r V;Prose C o m p o s i t i o n f o r G i f t e d A d o l e s c e n t s . 6 . Chapter VI:Classroom C o m p o s i t i o n Activities. , 7 . C h a p t e r V I I : T h e A u d i t o r i u m P r o g r a m . 8 . Chapter V I I I : T h e School P a p e r and t h e School Annual. 9 . Chapter IX:Oral and Written Composition i n E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . 1 0 . Chapter X:Composition Weaknesses of Gifted Adolescents. 1 1 . Chapter XI:F o l l o w-up Work with Gifted A d o l e s c e n t s . 12. C h a p t e r X I I : S u m m a r y . 1 3 . A p p e n d i x , A : J u n i o r High S c h o o l Verse. 1 4 . A p p e n d i x B: J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l P r o s e . 15. B ibliography» Chapter I. • i IHTRODUCTIOH. I n recent years much attention has been paid to the education of pupils of i n f e r i o r ability.They have been segregated into separate classes and given suitable i n s t r u c t i o n i n work within t h e i r capacity.Universities have given special courses to t r a i n teachers i n abnormal psychology and i n the best methods of dealing with these unfortunates.Little attention,however,has been paid to the other end of the scale, and g i f t e d children,at l e a s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia,have been greatly neglected.fhe emphasis i s easy to understand as society feels that i t must give i t s f i r s t attention to the subnormal and the average,to the former because of i t s incapacity and. i t s latent danger to the future,to the l a t t e r because i t constitutes the majority. Few people have given the exceedingly bright students a thought.The general attitude has been that these pupils, being c l e v e r , w i l l be able to take care of themselves i n any s i t u a t i o n that may a r i s e . I n B r i t i s h Columbia v/e have had the anomaly of the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients of a class ranging from about niety to one hundred f i f t y or sixty.On f i r s t thought this does not seem to be nearly so serious a thing as grouping average students with morons,but r e a l l y i t i s just as bad. There i s always a tendency f o r the slowest to set the pace f o r the class. This i s a f a c t well-known to tiie experienced teacher, p a r t i c u l a r l y when an inspector i s favouring him with a v i s i t . One must be thorough;there must be no suggestion of super -f i d e l i t y ; t h u s , f i f t e e n minutes devoted to the d u l l e s t p u p i l i n the c l a s s In order that he may understand the d i f f e r e n c e between the present p e r f e c t and the past p e r f e c t tense i s quite j u s t i f i a b l e ; I n f a c t , i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the most commendable p r o f e s s i o n a l zeal.Throughout the o r d e a l the g i f t e d student i s s u f f e r i n g from intense e n n u i j h i s a t t e n t i o n f l a g s ; h e appears lazy;he c l a n d e s t i n e l y reads something i n -Raich he i s i n t e r e s t e d he becomes a nuisance,and invents ingenious ways of tormenting h i s neighbors w i t h o u t , o f course,being caught by the teacher; or,worst o f a l l , h e develops i n t o an i n s u f f e r a b l e smart-aleek, showing o f f at every opportunity. Y e s , l i t t l e indeed has been done f o r those of outstanding a b i l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.If there are extremely i n t e l l i g e n t students,B O much the better:examination r e s u l t s w i l l be good, the school w i l l get a name,and the p r i n c i p a l a r e p u t a t i o n . Reversing Kant•s dictum,one can say that eery o f t e n p u p i l s have been regarded as means r a t h e r than as ends.And the slogan, education f o r democracy,has of t e n meant endeavouring to b r i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y e l i t e to the l e v e l of the average,Many of us,I f e e l sure,are s t i l l r e s t r i c t e d by the 2?our-Square Gospel o f pedagogical fundamentalism:examinations,formal d i s c i p l i n e , standardization,and a devout b e l i e f that the only j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the present l i e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e . I n c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the United States a t t e n t i o n has been d i r e c t e d to the needs of g i f t e d children.Some schools have opportunity c l a s s e s f o r p u p i l s w i t h I.Q.*s of 1 4 0 and over; 3 some c i t i e s have s p e c i a l schools f o r the gifte£,an&; some are experimenting with the a c t i v i t y school f o r the purpose of I . ' ' " -encouraging creativeness. We,in B r i t i s h Columbia,are some-what backward i n making experiments,I do not mean to disparage our accomplishments .Much has been achieved s i n c e the educational survey;the i n c e p t i o n of the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , v o c a t i o n a l guidance,and improved courses of study.But many things remain to be done,and not the l e a s t of these i s the making of adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r the g i f t e d student* The observations i n t h i s t h e s i s are the r e s u l t of s i x years experience a t Terapleton J u n i o r High School,during which time the c o n c l u s i o n has been reached that even i n the j u n i o r h i g h schools we are not doing a l l we could f o r our most i n t e l l i g e n t s t u d e n t s ; I t i s so easy to d i s r e g a r d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and to i n s t r u c t a l l p u p i l s i n n the same manner. At the present time the two c h i e f obstacles to educational progress are obscurantism and faddism.If a d i s -c i p l e of the former, the teacher regards h i m s e l f as the ex-ponent of a d i v i n e order,to question which i s h e r e s y ; i f of the l a t t e r , h e t hinks of h i m s e l f as the s a v i o u r of the world and f a i l s because of r a d i c a l departures from accepted standards. I s h a l l endeavour to avoid both o b s t a c l e s . I.According to B u l l e t i n # 7 of the" United States Department of the Interior,,there are seven s p e c i a l schools f o r g i f t e d students i n the United States and one hundred twelve s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . In t h i s t h e s i s the term " g i f t e a r i e s s " a p p l i e s to a combination of s p e c i a l a b i l i t y i n the f i e l d of E n g l i s h com-p o s i t i o n and general a l l - r o u n d i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . B x p e r i e n c e has shown that most students who possess w r i t i n g powers to a marked degree a l s o have i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients ranging from 120 to 150 of over,but t h i s i s not always the case.Occasionally one has a p u p i l of pronounced a b i l i t y i n w r i t i n g who i s unable to t h i n k up to the l e v e l of h i s s t y l e . " A n i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d may be of any s t a t u s whatever i n respect to s p e c i a l t a l e n t I-f o r they are independent of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . " This i s an extreme statement but there i s no doubt t h a t " s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s are present to a g r e a t e r extent than general i n -t e l l i g e n c e . I have i n mind a young g i r l of .some t a l e n t v;ho made a considerable r e p u t a t i o n i n J u n i o r High School,a student whose e a r l y career seemed to augur a l i t e r a r y future,A short time ago the subject of discussion,now aged nineteen,brought a p l a y f o r c r i t i c i s m . I t seems impossible that the student of such e a r l y promise could produce a work of such l i t t l e merit.The play was e n t i r e l y out of balance and mawkishly sentimental.I have had fourteen year o l d p u p i l s who could ha\Te pointed out i t s defects,but t h i s p a r t i c u l a r person seemed to l a c k c r i t i c a l i n s i g h t e n t i r e l y . l t may be that immaturity and inexperience are responsible,but more l i k e l y the explanation i s an i n -t e l l e c t u a l l i m i t a t i o n . I . Hollingsworth.l.5.,Gifted.Children.page 202;The Macmillan Co.,Hew York,1926. Davis l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g as evidence of gifte d n e s s i n I . .•children: 1. Ease of a s s i m i l a t i o n . 2, Power o f sustained a t t e n t i o n . 3 . I n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y and i n i t i a t i v e . 4 . A b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e . 5. Broadrmindedness. 6 . S e l f - c r i t i c i s m . 7. Sens e ^ of humour. S . Y e r s a t l i t y and v i t a l i t y of i n t e r e s t s . 9 . S p e c i a l t a l e n t s . F ive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seem to be present i n the w r i t i n g of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . l t w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t a t t h i s p o i n t to r e f e r to them b r i e f l y , a s they w i l l be elaborated i n succeeding chap-t e r s . They are.: I.E x t r a o r d i n a r y powers of expression. 2 . S e n s i t i v i t y of f e e l i n g , ,3.Imaginative power. 4. M a t u r i t y of thought. 5. Understanding of human nature. The word "composition",as used i n t h i s t h e s i s , i n c l u d e s both o r a l and w r i t t e n expression.An e f f o r t w i l l be made to discuss f u l l y those phases of the subject t h a t provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development of g i f t e d adolescents. I . N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , T w e n t y - t h i r d Yearbook:Report of the S o c i e t y ' s Committee on the E d u c a t i o n of G i f t e d C h i l d r e n , p a g e 130. ' Chapter: II. mmm&M CRSATIVEIBSS m ADOLEBOOTPB, Questions have often been as Iced as to what method should be used to el i c i t from Junior High School students verses like those in Chapter III.There is no"open sesame" that unlocks the door to creative work.If the ability is present,it is easily encouraged;and,in a sympathetic atmosphere,develops of its own accord.It has been my experience that in any class in which the intelligence quotients cluster around 120 or 125 there is much latent literary ability that needs only encouragement to cause i t to blossom forth. Hughes Mearns in Creative Youth says;poetry.an outward expression of i n s t i n c t i v e insight .must be summoned from the vasty deeps of our mysterious selves.Therefore,it cannot be taught; Indeed,it cannot be summoned;it may only be permitted." Later he says*"The new education becomes simply,then,the wise guidance of enormously important native powers."Leonard,writing on the same subject,has this to say:"I do not believe that the writing of imaginative narrative or verse should ever be a requirement; i t should rather always be permissive with the option of writing some wholly matter-of-fact incident.'5 Host of those who have written on the subject em-phasize the fact that there must be no compulsion,that the r e a l l y good work comes from the mysterious depths of being and I . M e a r n s , H f , C r e a t i v e " " Y o u t h , page 287 rDoubleday.page and""r».n ' Hew York,I93Ur ;-a,-.Leonard,St-A.,Essential P r i n c i p l e s o f Teach ing Reading and L L i t e r a t u r e , p a g e ' 2fcU; J . B . h i p p m c o t t Co . . P h i l a d e l n h i a r m a a . — 3.See C r e a t i v e E x p r e s s i o n . a r t i c l e s by P . H . B . L y o n and F l o r e n c e S . H o y t ; J o h n Day Co. ,Hew York ,1932 . emerges p a r t l y i n response to an inward urge and p a r t l y i n response to sympathetic surroundings.In t h i s connection the teacher i s of paramount importanee.lt i s h i s p r i v i l e g e to f o o t e r the f i r s t f e e b l e s t r i v i n g s of the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t , a n d h i s duty to see that the environment i s conducive to c r e a t i v e work.But i t i s so easy f o r us teachers of g i f t e d students to adopt an a t t i t u d e of " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " and to be s a t i s f i e d w ith very o r d i n a r y work.To get the best from h i s students,the teacher must be c o n s t a n t l y on the look-out f o r unusual a b i l i t y and must,unless he i s a mere pensioner,give encouragement and sympathetic guidance.He w i l l not wait f o r i n s p i r a t i o n , b u t w i l l search f o r s p e c i a l t a l e n t w i t h an evangelic a e a l . There i s r e a l l y no d e f i n i t e program of development that w i l l i n e v i t a b l y b r i n g r e s u l t s i n c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g . E v e r y teacher must evolve h i s own technique. The s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s , o f course,the atmosphere of the classroom as e s t a b l i s h e d by the p e r s o n a l i t y of the teacher. I f the room i s saturated w i t h good l i t e r a t u r e , a n d i f the s o i l has been c a r e f u l l y prepared,the time i s r i p e f o r c r e a t i v e buds to blossom under the warmth of the student*s own enthusiasm. The taeeher must be c o n s t a n t l y drawing a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t that the harvest f o r c r e a t i b e work i s reaped through the senses and then passes to the alembic of the imagination,that poetry does not merely happen,but Is the r e s u l t of a number of elements,three of which are of e s p e c i a l importanceskeen s e n s i b i l i t y , t h e shaping imagination,and apt and o r i g i n a l expression.If the p e r s o n a l i t y of the teacher i s strong enough, 8 this w i l l become a gospel among his tudents,not to be v i o l a t e d Otnlesa superseded by something better* The consensus of opinion among the few. writers who have treated the subject of creativeness i n c h i l d r e n seems to ' " " ' " ' ' ' ''X.'" be that assignments i n verse should never be required. Frankly, this i s contrary to my p r a c t i c e . I endeavour to f i n d the most promising youngsters,and do so, through formal assignments,as 1 have found that otherwise much time i s wasted i n l o c a t i n g the g i f t e d students,and that sometimes they remain undiscovered. I often commence by assigning a limerick or t r i o l e t on some popular topic.The assignment w i l l be w e l l received,as p u p i l s l i k e the n o v e l t y of i t . ^ h e purpose,of course,is not to d i s c o v e r p o e t i c a l a b i l i t y but t o make a commencement.The f i r s t s et w i l l almost i n v a r i a b l y be poor.This gives the teacher the occasion f o r p o i n t i n g out the n e c e s s i t y of watching one's metre and accenting the l i n e properly.The students r e t u r n to the next one w i t h zest and u s u a l l y show some improvement.A few of the productions w i l l be good*so good they w i l l be kept.Here i s one: "I'm a p u p i l a t Templeton High; I study t h i s grammar,but why I haven't a n o t i o n , •I'm'lost on the•• oceans But I "guess" I must do-or d i e . " These p o e t i c t r i f l e s may not c o n s t i t u t e poetry,but they c e r t a i n l y l e a d p u p i l s to a r e a l i z a t i o n that more than an i n s p i r a t i o n i s required to w r i t e a poem. I t draws t h e i r a t t e n t i o n I.See a r t i c l e s op.cit.page 6 ,note 3 . to matters of metre and rhythm and,if they do nothing else,they a s s i s t i n developing a knowledge of these t h i n g s . I f no good i s served,no harm i s done. These are g e n e r a l l y f ollowed by an i n t e n s i v e study of b a l l a d s * d u r i n g which t h e i r main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e l i c i t e d . I then r e q u i r e an o r i g i n a l b a l l a d to be handed i n . P u p i l s are always e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h i s assignment:there i s a dramatic s i t u a t i o n , a simple verse pattern,and scores of good models. By t h i s time they are prepared f o r more o r i g i n a l work. I f the f i r s t steps have been pr o p e r l y motivated,the p u p i l s w i l l l i k e l y be requesting i t . A t t h i s p o i n t I o f t e n make assignments, g i v i n g students the o p t i o n of choosing any other subject they p r e f e r . I n t h i s way much o l d work i s brought to l i g h t . I t i s not long before the t a l e n t e d persons are revealed,and afterward i t i s j u s t a matter of sympathy and encouragement, A warning must here be given.teachers sometimes commit an e r r o r more seriou s than n e g l e c t 4 t h a t of over - a s s i d u i t y , The p u p i l must not h i n k that the teacher i s probing i n t o the s e c r e t recesses of h i s mind;rather the r e l a t i o n s h i p should be one of mutual understanding and confidence. The next step,which always f l a t t e r s , i s i n v i t i n g the g i f t e d c h i l d r e n to c o n t r i b u t e to the school magazine or paper. 'I:.. More w i l l be s a i d of t h i s i n a l a t e r chapter. I.Chapter V I I I . Chapter 111,. MAT GIPIED ADOLBSGEHTS TOTS- ABOUT. MATURE. In my estimation not n e a r l y enough, a t t e n t i o n has he en paid In books d e a l i n g w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of adolescence to " ' I . the par t played by nature i n the l i v e s of c h i l d r e n . A t t h i s time there i s a s t i m u l a t i o n of perception;things are no t i c e d and admired that before had been unobserved or j u s t taken f o r granted.Hiking becomes very popular,nature clubs are i n demand, and books t r e a t i n g of the outdoors replace the e a r l y j u v e n i l e s . A d o l e s c e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i r l s , a r e ardent nature v/orshippers, and o f t e n express t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n verse* Mary,writing about the subject of spring,gives us the f o l l o w i n g : A p r i l . I have walked so f a r to-day. With the wind i n my face and the sun on my back; The newness of s p r i n g sang i n my heart As I followed the f a i n t and winding t r a c k . For where the breeze has s t i r r e d the grass I have seen young A p r i l pass. I have seen her m i s t y eyes, -And the f u l l young beauty o f her l i p s , Breathed the sweet g l o r y of her h a i r Unbound^as from i t s l i p s I .According to the f i n d i n g s of R.S.Halmud i n the Journal of Educational Psychology f o r October,1930 ,of 1917 elementary and h i g h school verses examined,44^ deal w i t h s u b j e c t i v e themes a»d 5i% of the remainder w i t h nature. The fragrance of the new-turned, earth, The secret of a flower's birth. I returned from afar to-day, When the wind dropped and the sun went down, And April came through the perfumed dusk And sang her song o'er the twinkling town. Then/fchrough my garden,hushed and s t i l l , • • • • • • ' I. There echoed the song she sang on the h i l l . There is no doubt, to my mind, that this poem shows a true affection for early spring.It i s not a mere repetition of hackneyed sentiment t r i t e l y expressed.There is a freshness and beauty about ut that mark i t as an a r t i s t i c expression of deep personal feeling.The metre is faulty in pices,but the total effect is one of sincerity;'and the poem,like most true poetical achieHement©, gives us the writer's experience vicariously. Here is another,written by Eileen,a less mature g i r l in grade eight. Frost Fairies. Old King Frost i s here again With a band of e l f i n folk; They love to paint on the window pane,-; And the naked trees to cloak. They cover the ground with silver lace; The roofs of the houses too, I Jfary .-HE.'! r ., grade 9,19] 32. And on the fences patterns trace I n g l i s t e n i n g , c r y s t a l dew. Over the land they make t h e i r way, Dancing w i t h f r o s t y g l e e , Leaving t h e i r f o o t p r i n t s sparking white For everyone to see. I remember asking E i l e e n to w r i t e a poem f o r the " T . J . n , the school paper.She r e p l i e d very s e r i o u s l y that she would do what she could,but that she was a f r a i d she would be unable to comply w i t h my wishes as she could w r i t e verse only when she f e l t l i k e it.Sometimes,she said,she had a poem w i t h i n h e r and could w r i t e i t down very q u i c k l y ; a t others she couldn't w r i t e a n y t h i n g . l t occurred to me that h e r a t t i t u d e was e x a c t l y that of one type of c r e a t i v e a r t i s t . The poem j u s t quoted i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of a tendency n o t i c e a b l e i n the verse of many young writers;namely,the con-s t a n t p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of aspects of nature i n the fona of . f a i r y f o l k . T h i s cannot be explained on the same grounds as "rosy-fingered dawn", nruby lips",etc»Tne most o r i g i n a l students who deride the use of t r i t e expressions cannot keep away from p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s kind.The explanation i s l i k e l y the adolescent a t t i t u d e towards nature.To boys and g i r l s of t h i s age nature i s not j u s t a b e a u t i f u l t h i n g to be admired;she i s v i b r a n t l y a l i v e , and has many moods and many voices which one can hear i f he understands and gets "en rapport" w i t h her. Hence the constant p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . I . E i l e e n P..grade 8,1931. / 3 WSFL'SG'SIW TERSE. The m a t u r i t y of some of our g i f t e d adolescents i s a source of s u r p r i s e and sometimes of consternation.^hey commence t h i n k i n g about l i f e s e r i o u s l y and consider fundamental problems to a greater degree than t h e i r parents or teachers suspect.As the r e u l t of a questionnaire given to my grade nine c l a s s e s , 1 found that one fourteen year o l d g i r l was f a m i l i a r w i t h the major works of Scott,Stevenson,and Dickens;had read Tess,.Jude  the Obscure.The.Return of the Native.Vanity F a i r . B a b b i t . Elmer Gantry.Toilers of the Sea.Les Hiserabies;and i n poetry, most of Golerid^e,t:Endymion»Ode to a nightingale,, The Spoon R i v e r Anthology,and leaves of Grass.Another g i r l had i n her l i s t Paradise lost.,Paradise.Regained.and the complete works of K e a t s . A l l g i f t e d c h i l d r e n are not as mature as these two g i r l s of fourtoen(or f i f t e e n ) , b u t the l e v e l i s very h i g h . Most teachers-even most E n g l i s h teachers-would be put to shame by the reading m a t u r i t y of A l i c e and Mary. One of the best expressions of t h i s concern w i t h the deeper things of l i f e i s the f o l l o w i n g u n s o l i c i t e d poem. Said the Carpenter, t o Me. "What t h i s house i s going to be," Said the carpenter t o me, "Prom the p l a n I cannot see; With my hammer, Baw, and plane I can b u i l d i t to remain long to bu f f e t wind and r a i n . I.See Tracy.,P. ,The Psychology of Adolescence,page 9R ;Ma.nmi i 1 a.w •Co. , j s l e w York.l923i "Square the room and strong the roof; I can make i t weather-proof, True below and f a i r a l o o f ; But I cannot guarantee That t h i s house s h a l l l o v e l y be, F i l l e d w i t h j o y and sorrow-free. "I have t r i e d to b u i l d i t w e l l ; But s h a l l beauty t r u l y d w e l l 'Heath t h i s roof,the years must t e l l By the tenderness displayed* By the brave souls u n a f r a i d 1 . Must this'home at l a s t be made!1 Without t h i s poem noo^he would have suspected what was going on i n Andrew's mind,as he appeared the a n t i t h e s i s of a s e n s i t i v e person.His manner was brusque almost to the p o i n t of unraannerliness,and h i s general a t t i t u d e bespoke bored i n d i f f e r -ence. But underneath the leaven was working. An i n t e r e s t i n g phase of t h i s work i s i t s t e c h n i q u e ; i t i s f r e e from the c r u d i t i e s that oo o f t e n mar adolescent produc-ti o n s * ........ These g i f t e d students of the p o e t i c a l type have to be handled very c a r e f u l l y . A few of them,more g i r l s than boys, become"sicklied o'er w i t h the pale cast of thought". One g i r l .writes s 1.Andrew J..*grade 9:*193I. • " I am so i n s i g n i f i c a n t When the f i r s t wind "blows the hanging leaves, And the l i q u i d notes of the f i r s t c a r o l S l i p from the s i g h i n g green." This verse was w r i t t e n by a very well-balanced g i r l , and was l i k e l y j u s t the spontaneous expression of a mood of the moment soon to he replaced by others.The teacher of such students,however,should make sure that too much "grave-yard" l i t e r a t u r e i s not studied,because there i s danger of inducing a morbid s t a t e of mind.The w r i t e r on s e v e r a l occasions haB been aoked whether poets wrote about anything but death and • unhappines .0 . IMAGINATIVE VERSE. 1 Most g i f t e d adolescents are i n c o r r i g i b l e r o m a n t i c i s t s . The " f a r away" and the "long ago" have a l u r e that i s o f t e n not present to the same degree e i t h e r before or a f t e r the period.* The imagination achieves a f i n e f l o w e r i n g a t t h i s time and sometimes gives f o r t h rare blossoms.The f o l l o w i n g verse, w r i t t e n by Vioiet»a g i r l of f o u r t e e n , i s one of the best imaginative poems I have received from a j u n i o r h i g h school p u p i l . From the "Garden of l o s t Dream." The dew was making c r y s t a l s to l i g h t the golden way, The sun was making sunbeams to hurry on the day. U See K i r k p a t r i c k , E . A . , I m a g i n a t i o n and I t s P l a c e i n E d u c a t i o n page I 3 I ; G i n n and Co. , l lew York ,1920 . The grass was making emeralds to l i n e the dreamland s t r e e t ; I t made them s o f t and shiny f o r a l l good f a i r y f e e t * 'Che wind had knocked at heaven's gates and sought admittance there To ask the King of Angels to greet the "bride so f a i r ; So Gfod had c a l l e d h i s horses and c a l l e d the golden sun To d r i v e him to the palace,and s t a y ' t i l l day was done. The o l d moon smiled and shed her beams to l i g h t the way f o r 'God., And sacred h e l d f o r evermore the green spot where Ee t r o d . The f a i r y brush had swept the sky of a l l the dark black clouds, And painted i n t h e i r stead the blue that drew a l l f a i r y crowds. The bride was Beauty wrapped i n l i g h t , a n d Beauty wrapped i n lo v e ; She moved»and a l l "the world moved too,and God smiled from above. Her s p a r k l i n g eyes were two l a r g e s t a r s , t h e b r i g h t e s t blue that's given; They made God t u r n and view again,then use them f o r h i s heaven. Her h a i r was threads of s h i n i n g gold,the work of F a i r y Sun; He t o i l e d and t o i l e d f o r c e n t u r i e s u n t i l that work was done. Her gown was p e t a l s of the rose which l e f t t h e i r fragrance there; : Her s l i p p e r s carved from deep-sea p e a r l s , t h e r a r e s t of the She bowed,she smiled,she moved away;the dreamland moved along. And everywhere from out the g l e n arose a f a i r y song. From Heaven's gates the t i n k l i n g b e l l s s t i l l echoed out t h e i r chimes; From glen to g l e n they burst once more,and echoed many times. I . V i o l e t C.,grade 9,1931. The g i r l who w r i t e t h i s s u r p r i s i n g poem xvas the most d i f f i c u l t p u p i l t o handle I have ever taught.She had an un-deniable t a l e n t and an i n t e r e s t i n w r i t i n g which was almost a mania.She wrote short stories,poems,plays,and novelettes j u s t because she l i k e d doing so.But what an unbalanced nature! She could never be depended on,was exceedingly f l i g h t y , c o u l d not stand a word of c r i t i c i s m even when she knew i t was just,and was so h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e that she c o n s t a n t l y imagined people were r i d i c u l i n g her.She l i v e d i n a world of the imagination,and never r e a l l y found out that there was another world of s o c i a l i n t e r -course, of g i v e and t a k e , i n which i t i s sometimes necessary to res r e s t r a i n one's feelings.when i n grade X,she suddenly l e f t school because she "was fed up w i t h the E n g l i s h teacher^ and continued w r i t i n g w i t h more enthusiasm, than ever.She w i l l always be to me the example,par excellence,of s u r p r i s i n g t a l e n t a l l i e d to s u r -p r i s i n g i n s t a b i l i t y of temperament. The poem given above i s an excerpt from, the "Garden of Lost Dreams",written to amuse her younger br o t h e r . I was never able,although I t r i e d every i n d i r e c t approach I could thank of, to o b t a i n the r e s t of the poem.The author belongs to what Hughes Mearns c a l l s "a group of i n g l o r i o u s poets who p r e f e r to blush THE APPEAL OP BEAUTY. The appeal of beauty i s f e l t very s t r o n g l y by p u p i l s emerging i n t o adolescence.Prom the time of bi r t h * the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n the world around him has been i n c r e a s i n g g r a d u a l l y . ' I... but at t h i s stage i t i s considerably accelerated. This i n t e r e s t often f i n d s i t s expression i n nature worship,sometimes i n hero-worship, sometimes i n a s t r o n g l y f e l t nympholepey and a d e s i r e f o r change,sometimes i n l e s s admirable ways such as pre-occupat-ion w i t h s e l f and d e s i r e to impress others. The f o l l o w i n g u n s o l i c i t e d poem^written by a young g i r l of f o u r t e e n , i s the best expression of t h i s I have come across. There are a few c r u d i t i e s of s t r u c t u r e i n i t , t h e r e s u l t of im-m a t u r i t y , but i t has a haunting beauty and an evident s i n c e r i t y t hat augur b e t t e r things from i t s author. Beauty. Beauty I have known— The heart-break l o v e l i n e s s of some s t i l l n i g h t . When my s o u l , f l u n g down the e t e r n i t y of s t a r s , Was caught and h e l d suspended In i t s f l i g h t By the g h o s t l y arms of a t r e e that fashioned bars Of silver,woven of the moon's l i g h t . Beauty I have known— When A p r i l w i t h her laughing face sighed For a moment,and l a i d her calm brow Close to the p u l s i n g earth,and c r i e d A l i t t l e moan and murmured s o f t l y how Her heart had wept to make her starry-eyed. Beauty I have known-— Tftien I saw a dew-wet rose blush As I walked through the long shadows of the trees I.See ch.XI.op.cit.page 15. ~~ The down wind whispering o f the f i r s t f l u s h ; Laughter 1 have knQwa,,and my sorrows cease ' ' I . • At the sudden heaven o f a b i r d ' s song i n the hush. This i s a t r u l y remarkable performance f o r one so young. One h e s i t a t e s about being too en t h u s u i a s t i e about the works o f a f a v o u r i t e p u p i l , b u t opinions of d i s i n t e r e s t e d o u t s i d e r s v e r i f y my conclusion that adolescent productions of t h i s q u a l i t y are very rare.For once*at least,.the boundaries of verse have been passed and an entrance made i n t o the l a n d of p o e t r y . I t w i l l not be su r p r i s i n g , i f t h i s i s not the l a s t record of such a journey by t h i s g i f t e d young w r i t e r . The poem i s interesting,too,because i t i l l u s t r a t e s most o f those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s already mentioned as i n d i c a t i v e of 2. oustanding a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h composition. I t gives evidence of keen s e n s i t i v i t y of f e e l i n g and,in the second verse,an example o f that constant p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of nature noted . . . • 3* e a r l i e r i n the chapter. This f i g u r e of speech i s an e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n of that precocious m a t u r i t y found i n g i f t e d students.In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a command over language,a f e l i c i t y of expression t h a t many ad u l t s would envy.A remarkable performance. Reference has already been made t o at a l e n t e d student 4 . whose g i f t s were not c o n t r o l l e d by a well-organized p e r s o n a l i t y . 1. Eary H..grade 9,J932. 4.Page 17. 2. Chapter I . 3. Page 13. I t i s pleasant to p o i n t out that the w r i t e r of these verses was not only the most g i f t e d student I have taught,"out a l s o one of the most mature and one of the best-balanced p e r s o n a l i t i e s She was e q u a l l y endowed i n prose and verse^and possessed a true a r t i s t i c h u m i l i t y r a r e i n young writers*She always f e l t , the inadequacy of her style,was c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v i n g f o r im-provement ,andwas alwaysaaenable to suggestion.A great reader* she had an i n s t i n c t f o r good l i t e r a t u r e * p r e f e r r i n g Keats to H a s o f i e l d and Hardy to Zane Grey.She was p r o f i c i e n t I n a l l her studies and f i n i s h e d her h i g h school course i n two years. I n c h aracter she showed the same even balance* escaping the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and f i i g h t i n e s s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of adoles-cent g i r l s . I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to see whether her t a l e n t s and character w i l l enable h e r , i n the face of many handicaps, to f i n d a place i n modern l i t e r a t u r e . :. I I A E B A T I Y E ; TORSE*. There i s ho doubt that adolescents have a great i n t e r e s t i n narration,as evidenced by the great p o p u l a r i t y of Poems C h i e f l y Narrative.perhaps the best-loved of school texts,and by y o u t h f u l p r e d i l e c t i o n s f o r reading matter of an adventurous nature;but,strange as i t may seem*students very seldom w r i t e n a r r a t i v e verse. A number of reasons can be advanced f o r t h i s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e * a c t i o n can g e n e r a l l y be t o l d more e f f e c t i v e l y i n prose than verse.In contrast to the wealth of m a t e r i a l i n l y r i c and dramatic poetry* n a r r a t i v e i s r e l a t i v e l y scarce and,with few I .See Ghap t e r -. VI11, p ag e 76'.* 2.MacdonaId and Walker.Poems C h i e f l y Narrative;Sent and Sons, Toronto,1930. e x c e p t i o n s , i n f e r i o r i n q u a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , a d o l e s -cents have l i t t l e experience upon vfiiicii to base poems of a c t i o n . Moreover,writing a s t o r y i n verse i s a much, more d i f f i c u l t matter than i s g e n e r a l l y r e a l i z e d , a s a n a r r a t i v e poem i s not a spontaneous expression of something demanding immediate utterance,but a c a r e f u l l y planned and s l o w l y executed piece .•of work. One type of n a r r a t i v e verse that can be attempted by adolescents w i t h some hope of success i s the i m i t a t i o n of b a l l a d forms. HIMOROUS VERSE. One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that i n d i c a t e s the person of I . • s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e i s a sense of humour.1 As one would expect,this t r a i t i s responsible f o r a good deal of adolescent e • . verse.As no great dgree of l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y i s r e q u i r e d f o r verses of a humorous nature,the b r i g h t students w i t h no par-t i c u l a r w r i t i n g talent, enjoy composing them.In a competition among grade nine classes', the f o l l o w i n g was g i v e n f i r s t place. M i s l a i d Pearls.* Tour teeth,my dear,are l i k e the s t a r s That shine so b r i g h t above you;. T h e i r p e a r l y whiteness holds a charm That makes the whole world l o v e you. Haene*er your ©yes look up to mine, They set my heart a-danoing; I»Davis,0,,Personal and S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of G i f t e d  Children,page 1-51; Eat i o n a l Society f o r Study of Education, Yearbook 23. But when you smile at me ,my dear, *Tis then you're most entrancing. Those l o v e l y J r e e t h , I ' l l s i n g t h e i r p r a i s e As long as 1 am ahle; But do you yhink i t proper,dear, I . To leave them on thetahle? SSITTIMMTAL VERSE. A great deal of sentimental verse i s w r i t t e n by adoles-cents, e s p e c i a l l y by g i r l s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to know j u s t how to r e c e i v e i t , a s one r e a l i s e s i t s l a c k of r e s t r a i n t and balance but does not wish to discourage the p u p i l s * endeavours.And when one r e a l i z e s that adolescence i s e s s e n t i a l l y a sentimental period,at l e a s t f o r the g i r l s , h e h e s i t a t e s to c r i t i c i z e too strongly.As Hughes Mearns says*"A laugh may s e a l f o r e v e r one o u t l e t of the s p i r i t * 4 1 I t h i n k s e n t i m e n t a l i t y should never be d i r e c t l y r i d i c u l e d . l t i s f a r b e t t e r to e s t a b l i s h c r i t i c a l standards i n the l i t e r a t u r e lesson.The able student*who u s u a l l y has a keen sense of the r i d i c u l o u s , w i l l soon be applying these c r i t e r i a to h i s own works. I have included a number of examples of sentimental verse i n Appendix A.For ofcrious reasons I do not r e f e r to them by page;however,lt i s unnecessary 1 they speak f o r themselves. I . E l s i e H,,grade 9,1932. ,2.Mearns H..Creative Power,page 5; D o ubl ed ay,Page and Co., New York, 1929. Chapter I V . VALUES OF VERSE COMPOSITIOff FOR GIFTED ADOLESCENTS' . One d a y , a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r l y onerous grammar le s s o n during which a few sharp, things had been s a i d , ! picked up a crumbled piece of paper and,to my great surprise,,found t h i s : YOU. I l i k e d you at f i r s t i Your eyes smiled and s a i d n i c e t h i n g s ; I worshipped at your f e e t * Then I sa?/ you as you were; Tour v o i c e f i l l e d the room, Growding me i n t o a corner; Your eyes were dark hollows Harbouring snakes;they were saying, "look a t the f o o l ! " I thought I should have died then, But I never t o l d you,-Perhaps you would have been i n t e r e s t e d . The shock was great.Here I was accused by a r u t h l e s s c r i t i c of not H i r i n g up to e a r l y promise,of t a l k i n g too l o u d l y and g e t t i n g on the nerves of a s e n s i t i v e person,of l o s i n g c o n t r o l of my temper,of using c u t t i n g sarcasm and,in the t e r r i b l e l a s t l i n e of having a t y p i c a l pedagogical i n t e r e s t i n but l a c k of understanding of my students;.Certainly a very serious indictment. I t r i e d te r e c o l l e c t what had given r i s e to such a d i a t r i b e , h u t could r e c a l l nothing p a r t i c u l a r l y d r a s t i c . I t occurred to aie t h a t poetry o f t e n records moods of the moment which q u i c k l y g i v e place to others.Perhaps t h i s was one. S u r e l y enough,the next day the. p u p i l seemed to have f o r g a t t e n a l l about the cause of annoyance.,.and even volunteered f o r somi r a t h e r arduous work.However,I d i d not f o r g e t the l i n e s . Worsworth i n one of h i s poems says, " A t i m e l y utterance gave my thoughts r e l i e f . " P e r h a p s t h i s explains the above vers? Very l i k e l y there was annoyance at some thoughtless word of the teacher'e,foilowed by the urge to express.This s a t i s f i e d , a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d to more important t h i n g s , Hughes Mearas i n Greative Youth draws a t t e n t i o n to the impo rtant f u n c t i o n of poetry i n the l i f e o€ the adolescent. The same author t e l l s us that he was s u r p r i s e d to f i n d that many of h i s students had w r i t t e n a great d e a l of verse w i t h -out any encouragement from the teacher.Hy experience has been the same.Many p u p i l s , ! have found,have pages of manuscript hidden away where no one can f i n d them.lhy i s t h i s ?These are not conscious s t r i v i n g s towards p o e t i c a l p e r f e c t i o n w i t h thoughts pf p u b l i c a t i o n i n view, when the, young g i r l w r i t e s the i n v a r i a b l e doggerel to s p r i n g or,more l i k e l y , t o her " g i r l friend* 5,she has not, i n the manner of some poets, thoughts of the A p r i l e d i t i o n of a Canadian magazine o r the Sunday supp-lement of a d a i l y newspaper. Ho, i t i s not t h a t . I t i s r a t h e r an urge w i t h i n , d r i v i n g her to express h e r s e l f , a n urge that does not leave her content u n t i l i t has been s a t i s f i e d . The r e s u l t may be,generally i s , e x c e e d i n g l y bad,but i t i s the same urge that produces some of our best poetry. fixe adolescent p e r i o d i s one of the most p o e t i c a l i n l i f e . D a i l y one becomes conscious of v i s t a s never before suspected. Every adolescent i s an E l i z a b e t h a n l i v i n g i n a g r a d u a l l y ex-e a r t h . • / pending world.The w$$:d i s ! new and not h a l f revealed.We are young w i t h the verve of youth coursing through us.-Be?! worlds unfold before us b r i n g i n g new wonder and n6w beauty.There i s much to be done,there are uncharted seas to s a i l , a n d strange peoples and e x o t i c lands to discover.There are storms o f t e n , sometimes even shipwreck but,above a l l , t h e r e i s z e s t and en-thusiasm; i t i s a g l r i o u s t h i n g to be a l i v e i n an enchanting world*¥e r e t u r n from our journeyings w i t h enriched experience and w i t h enhanced knowledge*And a f t e r the voyage i s over, what i s more d e l i g h t f u l than to ruminate over one's experiences to f a l l under the s p e l l of "emotion r e c o l l e c t e d i n t r a n q u i l l i t y to r e c a l l the wonders encountered on the way,and to endeavour to g i v e adequate expression to thetjt? The w r i t i n g of verse by adolescents has a number of values.Sot l e a s t among these i s that thoughts and f e e l i n g s t h a t have been s l o w l y germinating come t& l i f e and take a recognizable form.The r e l a t i o n between language and thought i s a very c l o s e one.The student through endeavouring to g i v e expression to h i s own Ideas,not only receives p r a c t i c e i n w r i t i n g , b u t a l s o c l a r i f i e s and develops h i s own thoughts.The attempt at c r e a t i o n thus becomes an agent of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . Another w o r t h w h i l e value i s that o r i g i n a l attempts 4 t T e r s e - w r i t i n g i n e v i t a b l y b r i n g a deepened a p p r e c i a t i o n of the poetry of others. STo person can attempt to record a f e e l i n g of h i s own without r e a l i s i n g , through comparison, the i n t e n s i t y of the experiences of others and the f e l i c i t y of expression t . that gives utterance to thsa.Such poems as The Ode to a l i i a h t l n - fiale and the Ode to the west Wind are seen i n a new l i g h t i n which many things stand revealed. I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s , i s the f a c t that p r a c t i c e i n the use of verse patterns i s instrumental i n emphasizing that a s t r i c t economy ©rigidly excluding a l l non-essentials and c a r e f u l l y weighing the aptness of each word,is the sur e s t way to e f f e c t -iveness o f e x p r e s s i o n . l t w i l l be shoiwa that g i f t e d students are o f t e n c a r e l e s s i n matters of form. The a t t e n t i o n that verse w r i t i n g n e c e s s i t a t e s to i n g e n u i t i e s of. economy i s one of the best remedial devices f o r t h i s tendency. I .See Chubb P .7The Teaching: of Engl i sbcha-pter 18; The M a c m i l l a n Co . ,New Y o r k , 1 9 2 9 . PROSE COMPOSITION FOR GIFTED ADOLESCENTS. TShen p u p i l s enter j u n i o r h i g h school they are i n posses-s i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s i n composition.They u s u a l l y have some knowledge of the elements of the sentence.They know there are d e c l a r a t i v e , imperative, interrogative.,and exclamatory sentences; and understand how to punctuate these,and that they should have subjects and p r e d i c a t e s . I n a r a t h e r vague way they r e a l i z e what a parapgraph i s , t h a t i t t r e a t s of only one topic,and that gener-a l l y i t has a t o p i c sentence. xhey can s p e l l the simpler words of the language q u i t e well^and can handle quotations i n a very commendable manner. The w r i t e r s of t e x t s on j u n i o r h i g h schools make much of the f a c t that the three grades,seven,eight,and nine,form, a 1. • p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t , t h a t of e a r l y adolescence. This does not not seem to be the ease at Templeton:there appears to be a decided gap between grades ©even and grades eight and nine. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the b r i g h t e r classes,as a c c e l e r a t i o n has caused them to enter a year o r so before the general age of admission.Some p u p i l s have a r r i v e d at ten years of agepand a a l a r g e number at eleven.Whether t h i s i s good grading or not i s not the question t h a t concerns us here. M a t does concern us i s that t h i s e a r l y entry has an e f f e c t c upon the composition course I.Koos L.V. .The Jun i o r High School.-page 55;Ginn and Co., Hew York,1927. Davis C.Q.,Junior High School Education.ch.3;World Book Co.,Hew York,1925. Pre-adolescent c h i l d r e n are very d i f f e r e n t from adoles-cents, and t h i s d i f f e r e n c e Is r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r school programs. U n t i l the j u n i o r h i g h school age the curriculum i s c h i e f l y concerned w i t h subjects of the " d r i l l " v ariety,and f o r t u n a t e l y , elementary school p u p i l s u s u a l l y f i n d such subjects i n t e r e s t i n g , ^hus,in grade s e v e n , i t i s a good id e a to concentrate upon the . mechanical phases of c o m p o s i t i o m d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t n a r r a t i o n , d e t a i l s of sentence and paragraph s t r u c t u r e , e t c . H i e n the student enters grade eight,he w i l l be w e l l grounded i n the fun-damentals of the sentence and the paragraph,and w i l l be ready f o r an adolescent program. DESCRIPTION AS THE STARTING POINT OP COMPOSITION COURSE. I have done a considerable ampunt of experimenting w i t h various types of composition couoeo f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , and have come to the conclusion that one w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n as i t s s t a r t i n g p o i g t i s by f a r the most e f f e c t i v e . I n the f i r s t place,the w r i t i n g of d e s c r i p t i v e paragraphs i s j u s t and exten-s i o n of the work done i n previous grades.The u n i t y of the simple paragrah becomes the dominant tone or s i n g l e e f f e c t of the d e s c r i p t i v e ; i n f a c t , a l l the knowledge obtained i n grade seven i s r e l e v a n t to the new work.Furthermore,descriptive themes are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the expanding world of the a d o l -escent. At t h i s time there i s a tremendous i n t e r e s t i n people and nature, which provides e x c e l l e n t equipment f o r work that requires keen observation and emotional response.Pupils of t h i o ~ I.See Finch R. ,How to Teach E n g l i s h Composition,-Spok I,ch.6; Evans. Bros.Ltd.,London,1920. 2 . P r i n g l e R.W..Methods with  Adolescents,page' 56;Heath and Co.,Hew York, 1927. e s s e n t i a l l y hero-worshippers:they worship t h e i r e l d e r brothers, t h e i r f a t h e r s , o l d e r boys at school,and sometimes,strange to re l a t e , e v e n t h e i r school teachers.Another very p r a c t i c a l reason fo-r commencing w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n i s that d e s c r i p t i v e paragraphs are q u i t e short.Since there i s no s a c r i f i c e of .educational ends r.this i n i t s e l f i s ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r ' i t s p o s i t i o n o f p r i o r i t y . A teacher who has two hundred f l e d g e l i n g s .under h i s wing has to consider such matters.There i s another argument f o r beginning w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n i n s t e a d of n a r r a t i o n or e x p o s i t i o n . I f commencement Is made w i t h n a r r a t i o n •much s l i p s h o d work i s bound to go unchecked,since the teacher cannot g i v e adequate a t t e n t i o n to such lenghty themes;if e x p o s i t i o n i s the s t a r t i n g p oint,the whole emphasis i s on f a c t u a l statement,the "bete no i r ' o f d e s c r i p t i v e w r i t i n g , t h e t h i n g the teacher holds up as an-athema. I am convinced that d e s c r i p t i o n should be s t u d i e d f i r s t , then narration,and l a s t l y e x p o s i tion.This does not mean,of course,that three months w i l l be devoted to each r e s p e c t i v e l y ; v a r i e t y w i l l be introduced as occasion gives opportunity. A3J EFFECTIVE METHOD OF TEACHING DESCRIPTION. To most of us at school,the composition period was one of i n e x p r e s s i b l e boredom.How w e l l we remember the hours spent memorizing the r u l e s of paragraph atructure.Hov; v i v i d l y we r e c a l l w r i t i n g d e f i n i t i o n a f t e r d e f i n i t i o n one hundred times because explanations were not verbatim.The most o p t i m i s t i c of ua would not deny that t h i s k i n d of t h i n g i s s t i l l done i n some of our schools. what i s wrong wi t h t h i s method of teaching composition 3 & principles? I t is far too abstract.Such a method ie particularly pernicious for gifted students who have active imaginations that Bust be appealed to in order that any permanent impression be. made. -. 1 have experimented with several ways of teaching descrip* tion to gifted children and have found only one that is really successful. At is vivid in its presentation and lasting i n Its effects. I shall outline this method briefly,as i t may save someone else from the preliminary failures attending mgr efforts. .1 commence by informing the class that vre are going to commence a new phase of our work in composition,but do not t e l l them what i t i s . I admit that at f i r s t i t w i l l not sound li k e composition at all,but recommend that they give their best attention as the new work is very important and has far reaching influences,Some of the most intelligent,' 1" state,may see the purpose of. the lesson before i t s application.Ihis enlists their interest;here is something different with a mystery to he solved. 1 inform the students that Y/illie(a mythical character met in many exercises) has been l e f t a fortune by a rich relative and has decided to move into a new house in which he has a room a l l to himself.As he is wealthy,he i s able to decorate the interior to suit his individual taste.I here e l i c i t from the Glass that rooms reveal the individualities of the owners to discerning p«raons£-Then ensues a short discussion as to the XJersonality of our hero's apartment.lt i ; . , . suggested that Y/illie i s primarily an athlete,an artist,a dude,a musician,a sheik,etc. J~.¥OT a good d i s c u s s i o n of concreteness i n compos i t ion t e a c h i n g see Y/ebster and S m i t h , T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h i n the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , ch.II.World Book Go. .Chicago,1927. 3 / E v e n t u a l l y the c l a s s decides on h i s indent i t y . T H i s v a r i e s w i t h the c l a s s e s hut many choose,in s e l f - p i t y perhaps,to make him a student and h i s room a student's room. At t h i s point I write.on the blaekboard? f lPurpose:to create a student's room,'5 We then decide that the next step i s to buy the equipment, and' to s e l e c t the proper items i n accordance, with our purpose. The p u p i l s suggest these and they are w r i t t e n on the board under the heading,"Selection of de t a i l s , " I t e m s such as the f o l l o w i n g w i l l be included:desk,chair,reading lamp,dictionary, l a t i n Lessons f o r Beginners(always mentioned).Advanced E n g l i s h Grammar,pictures of famous l i t e r a r y men and eminent s c h o l a r s , d i p l o a a s , e t c , O c c a s i o n a l l y a question i s i n t e r j e c t e d asking why such and such a d e t a i l i s included,the answer being that i t f u r t h e r s W i l l i e ' s purpose.Similar questions are. asked as to why c e r t a i n u nsuitable d e t a i l s are omitted. In response to questioning the students decide that the next t h i n g to do i s to arrange these d e t a i l s i n the best manner possible,and that the arrangement w i l l be a r t i s t i c , governed by t a s t e and e f f e c t , n o t s c i e n t i f i c , a s i n the school l i b r a r y or science laboratory,where l i k e things are placed together.I then w r i t e on the b o a r d , " A r t i s t i c arrangement of detai l s . . The c l a s s i s next informed that V f i l l i e ^ a d to t o l l , i s a very v a i n person and l i k e s to impress v i s i t o r s w i t h h i s s c h o l a r l y propensities.The p u p i l s , i n r e p l y to questioning, suggest that he w i l l endeavour to arrange h i s d e t a i l s i n such a way as to g i v e strong f i r s t andlast impressions.To the out-l i n e on the blackboard i s added,?«Give, strong f i r s t and l a s t • Impressions, The a p p l i c a t i o n i s then made.In d e s c r i p t i o n we must have a d e f i n i t e purpose i n mindjwe must s e l e c t , n o t a l l -the d e t a i l s , . but o n l y those that., w i l l .bring.out our I n t e n t i o n most e f f e c t i v e l y we must be c a r e f u l to arrange these d e t a i l s a s . a r t i s t i c a l l y as possible,and must endeavour to have a strong opening and con-; e l u s i o n . . I t i s b e t t e r not to make any assignments yet.The .next step i s t o show how s u p e r i o r the method of suggestion i e to •that, of f a c t u a l statement.One very e f f e c t i v e means of making t h i s concrete i s to have l a s t e d on the blackboard a number of senten-ces s i m i l a r t o the following.: I.The moon was p a r t l y hidden by clouds. 2.She looked down the r i v e r w i t h a f i x e d expx-ession. 3. The leaves along the brook are very withered. The p u p i l s are then r e q u i r e d to quote passages from the l i t e r a t u r e s t u d i e d during the year that e x p r e s s . s i m i l a r ideas. G i f t e d students enjoy doing t h i s as i t presents a challenge to t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . E v e n t u a l l y the sentences are matched as f o f o l l o w s * 1. The moon was a g h o s t l y g a l l e o n tossed upon cloudy seas. • . 2. And ..down the r i v e r ' s dim expanse L i k e some b o l d seer i n a trance,etc. S.Brown skeletons of leaves t h a t l a g By f o r e s t broolc along. As a r e s u l t of observation and d i s c u s s i o n , t h e c l a s s decides that, suggestion i s b e t t e r than f a c t u a l statement because the reader uses h i s imagination and because a' p i c t u r e i s nve&@n~ ted which can be v i s u a l i z e d , T h e students then g i v e examples of t h e i r own,s triving f o r v i v i d n e s s and accuracy,This i s continued u n t i l the idea i s w e l l understood. Even now I would not make any assignments that demand w r i t t e n x?ork.A few good models should be studied so that the p r i n c i p l e s learned can be seen i n a p p l i c a t i o n . C a r e must be taken t h a t they are w i t h i n the r a t h e r l i m i t e d experiences of the c h i l d r e n * t h a t they are concrete,and q u i t e short.The study of models should not be emphasized too much,as the "sedulous ape" i s t o be avoided, i f possible.Teachers conversant ?/ith the works of Dickens,Stevenson,and E i p l i n g should not l a c k any number of e x c e l l e n t examples. When i t i s evident t h a t the c l a s s has some knowledge of d e s c r i p t i o n , a n assignment should be made on some easy,concrete t o p i c . I o f t e n f o l l o w up the approach o u t l i n e d above by assigning, as the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i v e task, "A Room w i t h a P e r s o n a l i t y , '''tfhile the p u p i l s are working,.an o u t l i n e s i m i l a r to the f o l l o w i n g i s placed an the blackboard. 1. Have you a c l e a r l y f i x e d purpose i n mind? 2. Do the d e t a i l s s e l e c t e d b r i n g out t h i s purpose i n the best maimer p o s s i b l e ? 3 , I s the arrangement of d e t a i l s the best? 4.1s there a strong opening? .5vis there a s t r o n g conclusion? 6.1s suggestion used as well,as statement? 7, Are vague,abstract words such as "seems","impression «niee%*raf ul%«t o»avoided? ' 8, Are the, verbs v i v i d , and appropriate?" • • 9, Do you avoid „he excess!ve use of adjectIves?Are • the, ones used necessary and. v i v i d ? 10.Is t h e r e v a r i e t i n your sentence s t r u c t u r e ? I t i s very important that the f i r s t few set s of d e s c r i p -t i o n s be read c a r e f u l l y by the teacher so that bad h a b i t s be eradicated before deeply ingrained.The best, compositions should be read.to the c l a s s as t h i s provides an i n c e n t i v e to good work.. As soon as possible,assignments i n d e s c r i b i n g people and nature scenes should be given,as these are two of the engrossing i n t e r e s t s of adolescents.At f i r s t well-know types such as p i r a t e s o l d maids,crooks,school t e a c h e r s , e t c . , w i l l be very popular;then, . when a g r e a t e r knowledge.of the a r t i s . o b t a i n e d , t h e r e w i l l develop a tendency to describe scenes of l o c a l i nterest,one's classmates,,and persons of one's acquaintance. Here are two examples of what can be done l a d e s c r i p t i v e work by j u n i o r , h i g h school p u p i l s , . A Witch.. . She was the u g l i e s t of the ugly;the e v i l e s t of the e v i l . As 1 gazed upon h er shrunken f i g u r e bent low over the dying e embers,! was reminded of a tw i s t e d t r e e i n some dark f o r e s t , l o n g gray hairs,matted together l i k e a p i e c e of f e l t , c l u n g round her parched and withered face.Small red-rimmed eyes g l i n t e d l i k e those of the' l i t t l e mice that shared .her abode and,sometimes,as i f a n t i c i p a t i n g some wicked d e e d , a malignant s m i l e would wreath her s i n i s t e r features ^ r e v e a l i n g a lone sabre tooth much yellowed and decayed.Fow and then she would croak i n a hollow voice some magic s p e l l that had brought sorrow and 1. " d i s t r e s s to many a brave k n i g h t and innocent maid, The. .De r e l i c t * He stood i n the h a l f - l i g h t of e a r l y morning w i t h h i s c h i n sunk on h i s breast,hands deep i n the pockets of an o l d gray coat, and a drawn look on h i s f a c e ,A long hooked nose and hunched shoulders made him. not u n l i k e a weary b i r d of prey.Hot a v e s t i g e of colour r e l i e v e d h i s sombre countenance but,as he r a i s e d h i s queer eyes,they f l a s h e d with a strange blue f i r e as i f resenting my i d l e c u r i o s i t y . A c y n i c a l smile t w i s t e d h i s l i p s and h i s sh shoulders shrugged d e f i a n t l y . The sun rose h i g h e r and,as i t touched the haze of smoke and the grim b u i l d i n g s , t h e scene was changed to one of ethereal beauty.Castles w i t h s h i n i n g t u r r e t s and cloudsof pink and gold predominated.The man gazed over the c i t y w i t h glowing eyes,a spot of c o l o u r h i g h on each cheek.Suddenly he wrenched h i s hands out of h i s pockets and reached up as i f to entangle some of the beauty i n h i s fingers.They f l u t t e r e d a moment l i k e b i r d s on the wing while 1 eatched f a s c i n a t e d . l o n g and white they were,sen-s i t i v e hands,almost transparent,As the cloud turned again k t o I.Anna R,.grade 9,1932. gre,y»he hunched h i m s e l f once more and s h u f f l e d down the s t r e e t . Turning to a passer-by. I asked who he might be. ; .«-:QlT thiEi?*' he gLa^aed,/»he»s a brazy artist.» .' * these d e s c r i p t i o n are ' t y p i c a l , o f what the teacher o f g i f t e d students can expect from h i s most t a l e n t e d pup i l s . Both show a good knowledge,of d e s c r i p t i v e method»both sust a i n , a s i n g l e e f f e c t throughout*in b o t h there i s a • s e l e c t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l w e l l - a r r a n g e d , i n both the choice of words i s e x c e l l e n t , a and both by means of c a r e f u l l y chosen f i g u r e s suggest.the a t -mosphere the writer.wishes to create."The D e r e l i c t " j i n p a r t i c -u l a r * gives evidence of that m a t u r i t y which we have noted as .one of, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n * There must be v a r i e t y i n d e s c r i p t i v e assignment i f the teacher wishes the c l a s s to r e t a i n a favourable a t t i t u d e towards t h i s k i n d of work*Gifted students are always very imaginative* and are apt t o expect the same amount of. imagination.and i n t e l -l i g e n c e i n the teacher as they have themselves*If disappointed, and i f g i v e n the same hi n d of theme t i m e . a f t e r time., they l o s e i n t e r e s t and become i n a t t e n t i v e * An I n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n Is to t e l l the p u p i l s to w r i t e upon anything they wish,but not to s t a t e anvw&ere what the subject is-.Later,when the d e s c r i p t i o n i s read, the c l a s s endeav-ors to supply a t i t l e . T h i s I s a very e f f e c t i v e assignment;It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to the pupils,and i t i s a good t e s t of oh*s d e s c r i p t i v e powers as.he Is forded to: .suggest r a t h e r than to I .Mary M.,grade 9,1932. s t a t e f a c t s . I n the same way,an assignment r e q u i r i n g the desc-r i p t i o n of some member of the c l a s s can be given with,of course, the t i t l e o m i t t e d . I t . i s necessary to give a warning that no one's f e e l i n g s are to be hurt,as b r i g h t p u p i l s w i l l go to ca r i c a t u r e i f p e r m i t t e d . l t i s e q u a l l y necessary to f o r b i d <teae" d e s c r i p t i o n of the E n g l i s h teacher* Here i s an example of t h i s k i n d of assignment. - 221 . "He was t a l l and gaunt and brown,and he looked at me with g l i t t e r i n g eyes.His countenance was drawn and f u l l of a nightmarish i n t e n s i t y that repulsed even wh i l e i t f a s c i n a t e d . He laboured under an overpowering emotion that seamed h i s face w i t h deep l i n e s that accentuated the pigment of h i s parchment-l i k e skin.A long,skinny hand,thrust before him as i f to de t a i n my contemplated f l i g h t , t r e m b l e d l i k e a lone l e a f before winter's b l a s t . I stood i r r e s o l u t e ; a n i n v i s i b l e f e t t e r bound my limbs. A s " i f i n a dream 1 l i s t e n e d , h i s v o i c e c l e a v i n g the t h i c k fog of my consciousness." A f t e r a l i t t l e thought,the reader i s aware that the above i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of a character i n a long n a r r a t i v e poem. OTHER TYPES OP I3IAGIHATIYB WRITIJJG. 1. I n a r e c e n t l y conducted survey i n the United S t a t e s , i n which a questionnaire was sent to t h i r t y j u n i o r h i g h schools representing ten thousand pupils,some valuable evidence was obtained about the composition preferences of adolescents. • Page 7 8 , o p . c i t . o n page 30. The r e s u l t s were: 1 . P e r s o n a l experience t o p i c s ; 7 Q O Q 2,Imaginatice themes . ! 20.0 3.How to do or make things • 7 4.School expeditions or -? community e n t e r p r i s e s 5•Current events or community Q Q prop!ems. I have g i f e n the same questionnaire to cl a s s e s of g i f t e d students and have found that I and 2 are always favoured;some-times personal experience t o p i c s are placed f i r s t and sometimes imaginative themes .The others have varying p o s i t i o n s but are always w e l l down the l i s & . The tendency, judging by experimental questionnaires and p u p i l s 1 preferences when allowed to choose t h e i r own toxoics, i s to p r e f e r those based on personal experience,which they w i l l almost i n v a r i a b l e t r e a t i m a g i n a t i v e l y or humorously.Even the formidable assignment of w r i t i n g "A Paragraph on the Paragraph? which appears p u r e l y factual,becomes a task of i n t e r e s t to g i f t e d students.This theme was t r e a t e d i m a g i n a t i v e l y or humorously by over bQ% of Class One. Ho d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s were given; the p u p i l s were t o l d to w r i t e on the t o p i c i n any way they wished.. Here i s the sho r t e s t treatment,written by a very b r i g h t % choice 2. \ 3. j 4. j PL y • 23.4 o.o ; 6.6 0.0 36.6 23.4 : 10.0 ' 10.0 13.4 43.3 ' 10. 0 '• 26.6 13.3 13.3 33.4 , 36.7 13.3 20.0 40.0 i 26.7 Japanese g i r l : Paragraph. V i l l a g e . Paragraph was a l i t t l e v i l l a g e s i t u a t e d near the bigger c i t y , S t o r y . . I t .was q u i t e a s m a l l town,the only i n h a b i t a n t s being Mayor Topic Sentence,Mr,TJnity,Mr..Gontinuity*Mr.Hepetition, • and K r . E x p l i c i t Keference;and to liiake l i a t t e r s worse, the people d i d not have any community s p i r i t a t a l l . T h e v i l l a g e d i d not progress and the sm a l l town's backwardness was very n o t i c e a b l e . The people were poor and were unable to make a success of any business.Many years went by and they d r i f t e d more and more from each o t h e r , u n t i l one day the mayor,understanding the reason f o r t h i s , h e l d a p u b l i c meeting which a l l c i t i z e n s attended.Ee t a l k e d about the poor co-operation among the inhabitants;and f o r the f i r s t time^thejr r e a l i z e d why they had never prospered. Prom that day they a l l u n i ted as one to make Paragraph V i l l a g e a b i g s u c c e s s . A l l having a c l e a r n o t i o n of each o t h e r 8 s d u t i e s , before long every t h i n g was running along smoothly. Teachers of g i f t e d students should c o n s t a n t l y bear i n mind t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the imaginative,and should e x p l o i t i t f o r educational ends. HABRATIOF A l l imaginative p u p i l s l o v e t o t e l l a story,and should be given opportunity to do so o c c a s i o n a l l y . ! am not one of those who th i n k that a l l assignments should have a n a r r a t i v e basis,as 1 t h i n k 1 have made c l e a r ; b u t to deny a place i n the composition course f o r n a r r a t i v e themes would be going contrary to a t r a i t of human nat u r e . I t has been my experience that des-c r i p t i v e themes g r a d u a l l y merge i n t o the s t o r y form,pupils unconsciously g i v i n g a n a r r a t i v e framework to t h e i r p i c t u r e s . From t h i s i t i s very easy to branch out i n t o s t o r y . A type very popular w i t h j u n i o r h i g h school., p u p i l s of. marked a b i l i t y . i s the w r i t i n g of a s t o r y w i t h a dramatic climax. A good way t o Introduce thi s , k i n d of VQTIZ i s t o read a few of O.Henry'a masterpieces,"The Two Gun Man",and others of l i k e nature.Too much time should, not be spent d i e cues i n g technique, as the students w i l l be anxious to make t h e i r own attempts. C e r t a i n standard types are always forthcoming:the s t o r y of the man mistaking tiie cat f o r a b u r g l a r , the boy r e c e i v i n g the d e l i g h t f u l s u r p r i s e when he f i n d s he i s not l a t e f o r school, the p u p i l suddenly c a l l e d to the office,etc.;tout some r e a l l y i . f i n e pieces of work are w r i t t e n . "The R e l i g i o n of Muiuptygonia" i s one of the s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s of t h i s assignment. N a r r a t i v e themes of a humorous nature have a p a r t i c u l a r appeal to g i f t e d boys;the g i r l s i n c l i n e more towards the sentimental.One might expect that s l a p - s t i c k treatment would be very common,but most of the students are saved from t h i s toy t h e i r I n t e l l i g e n c e and good taste.A s i n g l e warning i s a l l that i s r e q u i r e d . I n Appendix B there are s e v e r a l examples of what one can expect I n t h i s manner from j u n i o r h i g h school p u p i l s . S t o r i e s i l l u s t r a t i n g proverbs,with the proverb to be guessed from the c o n t e x t # p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t imaginative work. This i s an extremely e f f e c t i v e assignment i f not given too often. I.See Appendix B . • — and i s e q u a l l y u s e f u l i n o r a l and w r i t t e n composition..Sometimes the b r i l l i a n t students w i l l i n clude more than one proverb i n the story.The r e d u c t i o n ad ^s-urdaa of t h i s assignment came i n a s t o r y w r i t t e n by a h i g h l y g i f t e d Chinese g i r l (grade nine a t twelve) i n which she smoothly incorporated twenty-two proverbs into, her n a r r a t i v e . Some of the t o p i c s I have found very s t i m u l a t i n g to g i f t e d students are: I . School One Thousand Years from How. 2. A Strange Dream. 3, L i t t l e W i l l i e I n B i f f i c u l t y . 4.If I Were a M i l l i o n a i r e . 5. How I. Should Cure the Depression. 6. A V i s i t t o F a i r y l a n d , ?.An Outdoors Story. 8.If I Had Aladdin's Lamp. 9,lvaahoe and Jo© Louis Converse. 10.Sly Favourite Age i n H i s t o r y . I I . An O r i g i n a l Legend. 12.An Autobiography. -A CLASS PROJECT. Oc c a s i o n a l l y f o r v a r i e t y I I n s t i t u t e a c l a s s p r o j e c t i n composition.I have brefore me such a p r o j e c t based upon "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came." I r e c a l l the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c l a s s w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n of the poem and the demand th a t I t end more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y * T h i s ' provided e x c e l l e n t m o t i v a t i o n f o r an extensive assignment on the subject.lt-was decided to w r i t e f i v e chapters»each row being h e l d responsible foreone. Ihe subjects of these••wex&iThe O r i g i n of the <^ uest;.9?he Adventures of the Band;Chile Roland's Last Attempt;The Pight;The Rescue. Each p u p i l was r e q u i r e d to w r i t e on the t o p i c assigned to h i s row and the best ones were chosen by the group method..An a r <~ t i c u l a t i o n " committee was appointed to ensure the f u s i n g of the.sections;and later,when everything was completed,, the r e s u l t . was read i n the auditorium . . :. • T i l l s k i n d of work takes a great d e a l of time and con-sequently cannot he given too frequently;once a term i s o f t e n enough. On no account should i t "be assigned. to.-classes that are .not . d i s t i n c t l y above- aver&ge^as . i t r equires an imaginative ,grasp and q u a l i t i e s of p e r s i s t e n c e t h a t . . w i l l l i k e l y discourage, l e s s g i f t e d p u p i l s . A u s e f u l - a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i s the continuing of s t o r i e s s t u d i e d i i i c l a s s . Ext ending Treasure l a 1 and»1 vanhd e. and The l a d f t o f the Lake i s very popular w i t h b r i g h t students. EXPOSITION". I t i s unwise to have classes of g i f t e d students spend much time w r i t i n g p u r e l y expository themes i n the E n g l i s h classroom. They w i l l get p l e n t y of p r a c t i c e i n t h i s k i n d of work i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s and science classes.The E n g l i s h teacher should e n l i s t the. support of the teachers of these subjects to ensure observance of an acceptable expository method,and should o c c a s i o n a l l y examine xmxk done i n other rooms t o prevent a double standard arising-one f o r the composition p e r i o d and one f o r other classrooms* mm m MODELS* Models must be very c a r e f u l l y used, or they w i l l do more harm than good.They should never be merely d i s p l a y s of unat-!» See Chubb P.,The Teaching of Emglish,pages 326 to 328;,s:he Macmillan Co.,.flenf *ork, J-929. t a i n a b l e excellence f o r these w i l l discourage the pupils., however g i f t e d . I f p r o p e r l y employed,models can be a source of i n s p i r a t i o n p r o v i d i n g stimulus to f u r t h e r endeavour* The success of the model'depends upon i t s f u l f i l l i n g some need .common to the p u p i l s of the c l a s s . i t must be • used i n conjunction w i t h a p r o j e c t already i n s t i t u t e d , a n d never as an exercise i n formal- d i s c i p l i n e , for,.as i n m o s t exercises of t h i s ' type,there w i l l be no t r a n s f e r to w r i t t e n work.The use of books of the nature of'••^Composition Through Reading® i s to be deprecated,as such a formidable array of m a t e r i a l ( i n many hi g h schools so many pages each month) tends to make the com-p o s i t i o n p e r i o d another but l e s s valuable l i t e r a t u r e l e sson. One should not f o r g e t that the purpose of composition i s to a s s i s t students to develop l a t e n t a b i l i t i e s . , a n d the model I s j u s t i f i e d or condemned to the degree i n which i t does t h i s . Often i t i s a good p l a n t o reserve the study of models t i l l the c l a s s has made an attempt of i t s own so that the e x e r c i s e w i l l not seem academic and unrelated to the student needs.There i s danger th a t the p e r f e c t work might discourage the p u p i l s or e l s e r e s u l t i n s l a v i s h imitation,which,despite the i l l u s t r i o u s example of R.l.S. o f t e n does more harm than good,An assignment f o r which there i s a p a r a l l e l model should be g i v e n to the class;and a f t e r everyone has attempted i t and a few d i f f i c u l t i e s discovered,the model should be examined. •I..See page 55 op.cit.on page 28,note I. 2. Pickles. P. .Composition Through Reading;Dent and Sons L t d . , Toronto,1930. 3, D i l t z B..Models and Projects;Copp Clark Co.,Toronto,1932, o f f e r s a wide s e l e c t i o n of good models. The ensuing d i s c u s s i o n w i l l a c c o r d i n g l y be i n t e l l i g e n t and, a r i s i n g as i t does, from a f e l t need,, the model w i l l provide informative study r a t h e r than acaderaie ennui. The students should then make another attempt i n the l i g h t of. the guidance they have received. The model should be as short as possible.Long examples cause a d i f f u s i o n of a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when they are w r i t t e n on the blackboard. P r o p e r l y handled,the examination of the model a s s i s t s i n the formation of s t y l e : i t develops a f e e l i n g f o r f e l i c i t o u s : e x p r e s s i o n , a s s i s t s i n expansion of vocabulary,and provides i l l u s t r a t i o n s of v a r i e t y i n sentence s t r u c t u r e . Examples of J u n i o r High School prose may be found i n Appendix B. Chapter ¥1  CLASSROOIf COMPOSITION ACTIVITIES. T H E TEACHER As the q u a l i t y of work obtained from g i f t e d students i s determined very l a r g e l y by the i n f l u e n c e of the teacher, a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n of h i s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to h i s p u p i l s and the classroom i s i n order. I d e a l l y , t h e teacher of g i f t e d students should be w e l l -grounded i n educational theory and practice.He w i l l not,how-ever , remain s t a t i e * b u t w i l l know how to adapt h i s I n s t r u c t i o n to. the varying needs of h i s p i i p i l s . H e w i l l maintain an ex-perimental a t t i t u d e a n d , i f not s u b j e c t too much to outside pressure,his procedure at times may be i c o n o c l a s t i c . B u t he -w i l l have a reason f o r h i s departure from t r a d i t i o n a l method. The s c h o l a r s h i p of t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l g i f t e d teacher of g i f t e d students w i l l be exceptional,and w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by breadth of knowledge and p r o f u n d i t y of scholarship.As t a l e n t e d p u p i l s have a wealth of a s s o c i a t i o n , i t i s necessary that teachers of such students possess a wide range of i n f o r -mation; as they have a r u t h l e s s p e r t i n a c i t y i n t h e i r search f o r t r u t h , i t i s e q u a l l y necessary that he possess an i n t e n s i v e l e a r n i n g . l t may seam a t r u i s m to say that the person i n charge of g i f t e d students should be as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y keen as they are themselves,but so prevalent i s the ide a that anyone can do good work w i t h p u p i l s of t h i s type that i t i s worthy of mention.lt i s not long before able students have completed an inventory of t h e i r teacher's strengths and weaknessee,and t h e i r deportment In the classroom i s influenced by t h i s to a considerable, extent. In the matter of p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e teacher of g i f t e d students must be e n t h u s i a s t i c , and energetic,Psychologists have pointed out t h a t such students are s u p e r i o r not only i n mental powers but a l s o i n p h y s i c a l endowments, They enter i n t o things w i t h tremendous gusto and an a i r of b u s t l i n g a c t i v i t y , T h i s zest must be matched by t h e i r teacher*B ,or e l s e h i s i n f l u e n c e w i l l diminish,Ke must l i k e w i s e be resourceful,and must be able to match h i s wits w i t h t h e i r s when occasion requires,But above a l l , he must be a person of broad human sympathies who commands r e s -pect and confidence, HETHOD" Hiss Iftirich,on being asked to account f o r the progress' her c l a s s of g i f t e d students had made,saidt"The g a i n was made p o s s i b l e by a v o i d i n g a l l mechanical teaching^appealing to the reason and judgment of the x>upils,reducing a l l d r i l l to' a minmum,studying c a r e f u l l y i n advance the e n t i r e yearns course, and s e l e c t i n g k i n d r e d f a c t s and subjects^This made much c o r r e l -a t i o n possible,and prevented s i d e - t r a c k i n g of p u p i l s * energies by presenting such m a t e r i a l s when they could be e f f e c t i v e l y a s s i m i l a t e d , t t One of the most necessary m o d i f i c a t i o n s of method f o r g i f t e d students i s a reduction i n the amount of d r i l l work, •1, n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the Study of Education, 19th Yearbook, • page.96, Although t h i s r e duction w i l l vary w i t h c l a s s e s , a conservative estimate i s f i f t y p e rcent.Closely a l l i e d to t h i s a minimizing of formal r e v i e w , i t has been found that short Intensive d r i l l s , ; frequently used,are much b e t t e r than l o n g e r more formal ones. ;For g i f t e d students there i s a l s o a lessened amount of explanation ;with a consequent decrease i n i l l u s t r a t i o n . ' The keyword of tiie composition p e r i o d i s freedom. "Free- ; "dom to develop n a t u r a l l y , t o be spontaneous,.unaffected,and un- •'• ; s e l f c o n s c i o u s # i s the f i r s t a r t i c l e of f a i t h , 5 i An attempt should be made to repla c e teacher i n i t i a t i v e by p u p i l i n i t i a t i v e i n such matters as choice of subjects f o r compositions,the method of development,and c o r r e c t i o n of themes. Some advocates v. of the new freedom even go so f a r as to permit the c h i l d r e n to i n i t i a t e t h e i r own course of study,with somewhat s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s at times. I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r freedom to degenerate i n t o l i c e n s e or even chaos,but t h i s happens only when the teacher i s weak. The desideratum i s an o s t e n s i b l e student i n i t i a -t i v e a r i s i n g out of wise guidance by the teacher. A number of values a t t a c h to g i v i n g g i f t e d students a gr e a t e r amount o f freedom than i s ens ternary «ITot the l e a s t of these i s that the p u p i l f e e l s a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l t y , a n d puts more conscientious tnSfhrt i n t o h i s work than i n t o the usual teacher imposed t a s k . A l l l e d to t h i s i s the growth of a rigorous s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p that sets up i t s own exacting standards.But of 1. N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, 19 th Yearbook, :.page 101. 2, Rugg and Shumaker. ,J-he Child-Centred School,page 56;World Book Co.,New York,1928. 3 S © © " 0 g QQ 4.See Rugg and. Shumaker, The Child-Centred School:The D a i l y Program greater importance s t i l l i s the spur to creativeness that i s provided by a f r e e environment* DISCIPLINE a D i s c i p l i n e i n the room f o r the g i f t e d need h a r d l y be con-1. Mdere&.as t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n present few s p e c i a l problems* One p o i n t worthy of note i s that they must be kept very busy to prevent l a x i t y from creeping i n . T h i s .however,is not a prob-lem i f the r i g h t s e l f - i n i t i a t i n g a t t i t u d e has been developed. I t lias been my experience that n e a r l y a l l cases of i n a t t e n t i o n are caused by p u p i l s already being acquainted w i t h the subject o& discussion.The most annoying h a b i t of g i f t e d students i s a tendency to i n t e r r u p t y one another,to snap t h e i r f i n g e r s , and to jump out of t h e i r seats i n t h e i r enthusiasm.These are not serious i n f r a c t I o n s , s i n c e they a r i s e from i n t e r e s t ; a gentle reproof i s a l l that i s u s u a l l y required.as a r u l e , g i f t e d students can be gi v e n a great d e a l of freedom i n the classroom because t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e prevents them from abusing p r i v i l e g e s THE CLASSROOM. Under i d e a l conditions the classroom f o r g i f t e d students would be decorated i n an a r t i s t i c way;but s i n c e conditions are f a r from ideal,we must do our best t o endeavour to m i t i g a t e the j a i l - l i k e appearance of the average classroom. There should be a few goos p i c t u r e s , n o t from popular magazines or Christmas calendars,but p r i n t s of works that have stood the t e s t of time.Care must be taken to ensure that they i * . N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , I9 th Yearbook, page 53. ? • some adolescent appeal.A few that have been found sul&fcble .. a r e M^.l?aaghlng .•Savalier-,. The, M i l l * The Avenue of Trees. Mona Lisa,The STight Watch.Occasionally the teacher should draw a t t e n t i o n to them, p o i n t i n g out s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t urea, but he ? / i l i be c a r e f u l not t o overdo i t l e s t the cancer of "love's sad s a t i e t y " should do i t s d e s t r u c t i v e work. I n the matter of f i x t u r e s , e x p e r i e n c e teaches that t a b l e s w i t h movable c h a i r s mounted on rubber are superior to standard equipment,because t h i s arrangement Is b e t t e r adapted to group work,as the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l show. , A CrROUP METHOD. 03? 15EARE3HS. One Of the c h i e f reasons why so many teachers d i s l i k e the composition p e r i o d i s that i t so o f t e n r e s u l t s i n the marking, of papers.?/hen i t i s r e a l i z e d that the average j u n i o r h i g h school teacher i n s t r u c t s between two hundred and two hun-dred e i g h t y s t u d e n t s , i t I s evident t h a t reading t h e p u p i l s * e ssays.is a formidable task.Consequently,this very important f u n c t i o n of the composition teacher i s o f t e n neglected e n t i r e l y or performed i n a perfunctory way. nothing w i l l ever e n t i r e l y replace the c r i t i c i s m of the teacher,which i s based upon a profounder knowledge and wider experience than even the most b r i l l i a n t students possess.But s t i l l , t h e r e i s no reason why he should make a g a l l e y s l a v e of himseldt or d r i f t down the stream of i n d o l e n c e . % p r a c t i c e has been to endeavour to mark one set of papers monthly f o r each class.Other assignments are c o r r e c t e d by the group method. Tliis method of c o r r e c t i o n , ! have found,is e x c e l l e n t f o r g i f t e d and good average classes,hut disastrous' whezi used by poorer ones..The reasons f o r . t h i s w i l l become evident as the o u t l i n e develops. - - -••••, •• •The p u p i l s are d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e o r s i x .groups, and a l l o c -ated to e e r t a i a - p a r t s of the room where they form i n t o a c i r c l e . •.Care must be taken to see that the groups are-evenly balanced from-the p o i n t of view of . i n t e l l i g e n c e . A pupil' w i t h l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s i s appointed to each group to d i r e c t i t s proceedings. Each member -of- the group reads h i s composition and then t h e l e a d e r c a l l s - f o r suggestions-and c r i t i c i s m , w h i c h are g e n e r a l l y g i v e n q u i t e - f r e e l y .An o u t l i n e has-previously been-placed oa the blackboard by the teacher,and the p u p i l s r e f e r to t h i s when they w i s h . A f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n i s ended,the-group evaluates the composition,.assigning A,B,or C to i t according to i t s worth. This method i s followed u n t i l a l l themes have been discussed; the l e a d e r ' s , l a s t . T h e best one,representing the group,is then chosen,after which the p u p i l s r e t i r e to t h e i r seats to make the necessary a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e i r work. I t may be thought that s i x g r o u p s , a l l reading at the same time i n a s m a l l room,would sound l i k e the Tower of Babel,but t h i s i s not the case.The p u p i l s of one group become so i n t e r e s t e d i n what they are doing t h a t they do not pay any a t t e n t i o n to the o t h e r s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e to have an " a c t i v i t y " period without i t s d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n t o a ^ l a c t l v i f c y ' 1 period. A f t e r a l l the groups are f i n i s h e d , t h e best compositions are read to the class.These are discussed and c r i t i c i s e d as the others were before*. . . ; • 'She group method has obvious advantages when used with c l a s s e s of g i f t e d children.Some of these are: . I.The students enjoy i t and get e x c e l l e n t p r a c t i c e In ., c r i t i c i s m * . . 2 . A l l p u p i l s , n o t j u s t the best,get used to an audience s i t u a t i o n . % i s i s b e n e f i c i a l to the t i m i d students. 3.It i s an i n c e n t i v e to good work as i t i s an honour to have one's composition chosen to reprentot the group. 4.The c r i t i c i s m i s more d e t a i l e d than the teacher . . would, give* 5.It gives p r a c t i c e i n leadership to the a b l e r .pupils.. . 6.The two important s o c i a l d r i v e s , c o m p e t i t i o n and co-operation,are u t i l i z e d . 7.Many more assignments can be given. . _ I f the teacher sees that the same p u p i l s are being chosen eonstantiy,he can change the groupings.Another e x c e l l e n t device Is to place those who were chosen as best on a previous occasion i n the same group ..This makes the others f e e l as i f jihey are not merely attendants upon s u p e r i o r b e i n g s ; i t i s a l s o good f o r the t a l e n t e d writers.*as. they compete w i t h others j u s t as. g i f t e d * The group method has a number of other a p p l i c a t i o n s out-, s i d e the scope, of this, t h e s i s , B r i e f l y they a r e i f o r checking, memory work* f o r o r a l composition, and f o r d r i l l work*,. • Chapter ¥11. T H E Amtwrnm P H O G R A K ! In recent years o r a l composition hag been comingminto i t s own.Educationists have begun to r e a l i z e that It i s a rather senseless procedure t r a i n i n g pupils i n written expression aid, neglecting oral.A few years age,anyone who mentioned the new emphasis was looked upon with suspicion as a 5 8faddist";at presenl he i s accepted as- "sounds—so progress i s being made. At Tempieton Junior High School,practice i n oral com-pos i t i o n i s given In the auditorium.Each;class has one f o r t y -f i v e minute period each weak devoted to t h i s work. The remarks i n this section are the r e s u l t of experience with such periods; they would apply,however, to oral compositions i n the classroom,and with equal force to grade assemblies. Many teachers have no good whatever to say of the audit-orium period,and regard i t as time e n t i r e l y wasted. There are a number Of reasons f o r this attitude.Some principals,very un-wisely, use i t as a teacher-saving device,and send a l l t h e i r classes there regardless of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n order to keep the per capita cost of the school down.Even worse than this i s the practice of indiscriminate grouping,which often results i n a very bright class and a very d u l l one p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the same program.There i s also a considerable amount of nervous s t r a i n i n connection with the auddtorium period. Principals i v i l l use i t as "window dressing" and as a place to take interested visitors,who w i l l be duly impressed by the standard of work being done.Advertising i s a curse not li m i t e d to Eommercial f i e l d s alone.Another reason .is t hat auditorium d i s c i p l i n e i s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t matter, from classroom control,as many of us have found,to our discomfiture.And moreover,a Gupeessful series.,of programs demands a tremendous amount of o r g a n i z a t i o n , :, a great, d e a l .more, than/lessons in.the. classroom. This i s enough t o condemn i t wi tlx most of us. There i s a l s o the a d d i t i o n a l f a c t that good sponsors of auditorium periods are, very r a r e , much r a r e r , I think,than e f f i c i e n t classroom men. For the h i g h l y endowed the auditorium has much of value. Ho part of the school program o f f e r s more i n the,.wayof growth or s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n than this.The student i s confronted w i t h a r e a l l i f e situs/fcion,one which, he w i l l l i k e l y meet many times i n l a t e r years.How many of us i n the teaching p r o f e s s i o n quake inwardly when c a l l e d upon to say a few words to a P.T.A. or teachers'* meeting.How many of us are incapable of saying anyr . t h i n g at a l l i n a new s i t u a t i o n w i t h an unaccustomed atmosphere. The auditorium p e r i o d gives the p u p i l a composure and s e l f -confidence that e l i c i t the admiration of many a d u l t s . I t teaches him t o organize h i s work and to t h i n k q u i c k l y on h i s feet,as h i s classmates are unsparing i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m . I t g i ves him. p r a c t i c e i n handling a meeting,in developing good auditorium manners,and i n l e a r n i n g matters of e t i q u e t t e p e r t a i n i n g to speeches,formal debates,toasts*.etc,For many i t creates new i n t e r e s t s , a n d f o r n e a r l y a l l sets standards of t a s t e i n speech, i n manners,and i n entertainment.it i s one of the most u s e f u l and refining .functions, of the school. - •• • . . . AtoXTQRItM' TECHFIQDE. Many teachers have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h auditorium periods because they have not evolved a s u c c e s s f u l t e c h i l i q u e . i i i the' f i r s t p l a c e j i t i s necessary to plan'the programs I n advance. I t i s a good i d e a to arrange them at the beginning of the year f o r the whole semester.This discourages h a s t i l y prepared work and ensures the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l p u p i l s . I t a l s o makes f o r v a r i e t y arid prevents t h e ennui so' prevalent at many auditorium periods from developing,It Is exceedingly important that the teacher i n s i s t on the c o r r e c t procedure from the s t a r t * a n d that he check any departure immediatley.He should assume that every-one w i l l take p a r t i n auditorium work and should accept no ex-cuses unless sanctioned by the nurse,Most imporiiimt of a l l i s to award c r e d i t f o r s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s places o r a l composition on a par w i t h other school subjects and provides a wonderful i n c e n t i v e to good work. A matter of great importance o f t e n ne&lected by a u d i t o r -ium sponsors i s to g i v e the audience something to do.It i s ex-p e c t i n g too much to i n s i s t on p e r f e c t a t t e n t i o n to t e a or twelve speeches,some of which w i l l be i n d e s c r i b a b l y bad,without i n t e r -m i s s i o n o f some kind*A way of overcoming t h i s , b o t h i n t e r e s t i n g and e d u c a t i v e , i s to have each speech c r i t i c i z e d by a member of the audience.An o u t l i n e s i m i l a r to the f o l l o w i n g provides an e x c e l l e n t b a s i s f o r "discussion. » ' Bat lea' of Audience. X.Give a t t e n t i v e and sympathetic hearing. 2.At conclusion of speech commend excellencies and make suggestIons,using the following outline.as guide: a.V/as the talk well-planned?1^ the speaker master ,. of the subject or did he depend too much on notes? : , , { b.Did he; talk: with ©aseSWas he inter©sting?Why? e.Was the. speaker's voice clear and pleas ing?W*as his enunciation good?His pronunciation? d.Tfere you pleased with the bearing of the speaker? Was his posture easy yet dignified? .e«Did he clearly convey his message?Would change of . rate,stress,or pitch have helped him at any time? f .Did .he use good English?Were his words well chosen? Did you notice any particularly vivid words and phrases?What substitutes can you supply for slang • ' expressions or hackneyed terms? It will often be necessary to give short talks on public speaking,drawing attention to common errors.A pooe 7/ay to do this Is the usual fllecture1*,berating the 'students for what is chiefly the result of inexperience;an even worse way is a typical pedagogical iniquity in the form of depressing advice "for your own goodtt.As has been mentioned before,gifted children are highly imaginative, and this imagination must be mat died by the teacher of such students .One of the most successful lessons In my experience dealt with this matter of common speech errors. Attention was drawn to them In the form of °Ten Commandments for Public Speaking,^Including them here would be a n act of suoererorgation,but I mention them a s they illustrate how - g i f t e d s tudent s can "be appea led to through imagination and sense of humour.Kany students r eques ted copies,and j u s t recently a s tudent at the university reminded me of them.A permanent impression was made. • It has already, been stated t h a t organisation i s the key to s u c c e s s f u l auditorium work.The semester program g i v e n belo?/ i s the r e s u l t of s i s years1* experimentation-at Templet on Junior . H i g h ' S c h o o l ,In a l l programs oral reproduction o f the printed . page is deprecated and original presentation encouraged. The principles ppon which the program is based are •'as follows: • • • •' •• . 1,The programs must appea l to the imagination. 2. They must be of intrinsic value. 3 . They must pertain to the world of the adolescent. 4. There must be variety i n program. 5. The programs must lend themselves to original teatment . A .TEBK'S AUDITORIUM PROG-RAM. • Book Reports. A program i n which r epor t s ; . a re g i v e n on worthwhile books I s not o n l y i n t e r e s t i n g and instructive but a l s o stimulates an interest i n reading. Care must be talc en t h a t the books are appropriatedand of some literary value,as pupils w i l l often take the p a t h of l e a s t resistance and r e p o r t on an easy juven-i l e . If not p r e v e n t e d , I t i s not neces sary f o r the teacher to a . assign a l l the t i t l e s , b u t he should g i v e his approval to the p u p i l * s selection. One of the most e f f e c t i v e kinds of book reports does not t e l l the e n t i r e p l o t ; i t leads up to a dramatic climax and then stops,This always creates i n t e r e s t and a desire., to hear jshe r e s t - o f the story;consequently,.the book w i l l l i k e l y be i n great demand.during the f o l l o w i n g week. Another i n t e r e s t i n g way.to present the report i s f o r the p u p i l to. i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f : w i t h the bookyspeak i n the f i r s t person,and. r e v e a l s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a t t e n t i v e members of the audience t o g u e s s , i t s t i t l e . • •• Books of the f o l l o w i n g , types are very popular w i t h g i f t e d adolescents; -The Three Musketeers Dumas Huckleberry F i n n — Twain The Benson Murder Case Van Dyne St.Ives Stevenson. Talks on Authors. This makes a very i n t e r e s t i n g program and i s , i n a d d i t i o n , h i g h l y informative as the p u p i l l e a r n s many f a c t s about the l i v e s of important authors,.It can be used i n conjunction w i t h l i t e r a t u r e lessons since i t provides an e x c e l l e n t basis f o r classroom, d i s c u s s i o n . The program i s capable.of a v a r i e t y of treatment: I f ,At the conclusion of h i s speech the student asks a number of questions to t e s t the audience's knowledge of h i s subject. 2.The speaker does not announce h i s t o p i c / x e o u t l i n e s the author's l i f e , t h e n sees how many oan give h i s name. 3.The speaker t a l k s i n the f i r s t person about h i s experiences and the audience supplies the name. O r i g i n a l S t o r i e s to I l l u s t r a t e Proverbs. A p u p i l t e l l s an o r i g i n a l story,but does not announce what proverb he i s I l l u s t r a t i n g . A t the conclusion of the speech, the audience i s asked to supply the name.This i s a very popular program w i t h b r i g h t classes,as i t presents an i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge. A popuar v a r i a t i o n of the program i s to have short p l a y -l e t s representing proverbs acted,with the audience once again s u p p l y i n g the name.This method has the a d d i t i o n a l advantage of appealing to the dramatic sense so pronounced i n adolescents. Magazines Worth While, A p e r i o d spent becoming f a m i l i a r with worth-while magazines i s not wasted.V/hen one r e a l i z e s that many students know only movie and d e t e c t i v e s t o r y magazines,he sees the n e c e s s i t y f o r a period such as this.. A magazine t r i a l i s one means of making the program v i v i d i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n and l a s t i n g i n i t s appeal.Some c a r e f u l l y chosen p e r i o d i c a l s are t r i e d as to whether or not they are s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the school l i b r a r y . P u p i l s representing defending and prosecuting attorneys b r i n g out the merits and demerits o f the magazines.The audience ac t s as j u r y and the chairman as judge.Some magazines w i l l be sentenced to i n c i n e r -a t i o n i n the school furnace;some,alas,to a none too reverent interment i n the E n g l i s h Elassroom. Another means of a c q u i r i n g that imaginative touch so appreciated by g i f t e d students Is to present-the program i n the form of a salesmanship competition.•The speaker dwells on the most d e s i r a b l e features of h i s j o u r n a l and endeavours to convince the audience t h a t everyone should buy i t . A t th£ conclusion, the students by a show of hands i n d i c a t e to which p e r i o d i c a l they g i v e t h e i r s u b s c r i p t i o n . T h i s program,properly motivated, i s both c o n s t r u c t i v e and interesting.@£ten i t w i l l be followed by, t a l k s on "The magazine. Past, Pre sent, and Future," i n which the h i s t o r -i c a l development i s o u t l i n e d and i t s f u t u r e course f o r e c a s t . I n a l l forms of t h i s program i t i s necessary to i n s i s t t h a t coxJies of the magazine be brought to the auditorium; other-wise the per od w i l l be a b s t r a c t and without permanent impression. Debates. • - . > - < Debates g i v e e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g to those p a r t i c i p a t i n g , but should not be used too o f t e n as only a few can take p a r t . One should i n s i s t on the c o r r e c t procedure from the beginning as p u p i l s get i n t o very s l o v e n l y h a b i t s i f not checked often, care should be taken to choose s u i t a b l e subjects f o r debate, s u b j e c t s t h a t are r e l a t e d to adolescent experience.Topics such as the f o l l o w i n g are appropriate: 1. Resolved t h a t , a l l things considered,.the I n t r o d u c t i o n o f the t a l k i e s has been a good t h i n g . , 2. Resolved that p u b l i c schools are more b e n e f i c i a l to boys and g i r l s than p r i v a t e schools. 3 .Resolved that every school should have some form of school government. An " I n t e r e s t i n g " Program. I . I n t e r e s t i n g Characters,, in, P l o t i o n . P u p i l s report on characters i n f i c t i o n they have found interesting.The program i s very e f f e c t i v e when the speaker does not announce the subject of h i s speech and' e l i c i t s the name 'of the character,hook,and author from tiie audience at the conclusion of h i s address.This method ensures the a t t e n t i o n of the audience, as i t provides a" stimulus i n the form of' an i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g programs I have witnessed was an adaptation of t h i s . A f t e r "Ivanhoe" had been s t u d i e d , a group of p u p i l s modernized the characters,described t h e i r occu-pa t i o n s , and asked the audience to i d e n t i f y them. 2 . I n t e r e s t i n g Escapes i n L i t e r a t u r e . This i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y popular program,especially with the boys.Pupils g i v e reports on i n t e r e s t i n g escapes i n l i t e r a t u r e and endeavour to make them so a t t r a c t i v e that a demand a r i s e s f o r the s t o r i e s i n which they occur. The f o l l o w i n g have been found of engrossing i n t e r e s t ; a. The escape of David B a l f o u r from the o l d tower i n "Kidnapped." b. The escape of Edmund Dantes from the Chateau d ' l f in"The Count of Eonte O r i s t o , " c. The escape of the p r i s o n e r i n "The P i t and the Pendulum" d. The escape i n "The Host Dangerous Game," e. The escape i n "The Su i c i d e Club," - O r i g i n a l P r o d u c t i o n s . I t i s a g o o d p r a c t i c e t o h a v e o n e p e r i o d e a c h t e r m d e v o t e d t o o r i g i n a l p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s , I f p r o p e r e n c o u r a g e m e n t i s g i v e n , . t h i s p r o g r a m i s ' n e a r l y a l w a y s o n e o f ' t h e o u t s t a n d i n g . s u c c e s s e s o f t i i e y e a r . S h o r t l y r i c s , n a r r a t i v e v e r s e , s h o r t s t o r i e s , l e g e n d s , a n d s h o r t o n e - a c t p l a y s h a v e b e e n c o n t r i b u t e d , ^ A u t h o r a n d B o o k " P e r i o d , I n t h i s p r o g r a m s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n p a i r s . O n e r e p r e s e n t s t h e a u t h o r a n d r e l a t e s h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y . ; . t h e o t h e r r e p r e s e n t s h i s m o s t n o t a b l e w o r k , B o t h o f t h e m s p e a k i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n . , t a k i n g c a r e n o t t o a n n o u n c e t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s , A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s p e e c h e s t h e a u d i e n c e e n d e a v o u r s t o s u p p l y t h e n a m e s . T h i s m e t h o d , a s I k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e , e n s u r e s t h e c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e a t t e n t i o n a n d e v o k e s a r e s p o n s e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e r e p o r t s e l d o m e l i c i t s . P r o g r a m s f o r S p e c i a l . O c c a s i o n s . A n u m b e r o f i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s c a n be a r r a n g e d d u r i n g t h e y e a j ^ . A f e w f o u n d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l a r e . 1 . C a n a d i a n B o o k V/eek. 2 * H a l l o w e * e n P r o g r a m . . 3 . G o o d w i l l P r o g r a m , 4 . E d u c a t i o n W e e k , e t c . M o c k ffrial. A $ o c k t r i a l p r e s e n t s a n i n t e r e s t i n g c h a n g e f r o m n o r e s e r i o u s p r o g r a m s . W h e n i t i s p r o p e r l y p l a n n e d , t h e p u p i l s s h o u l d o b t a i n some i d e a a s t o h o w a t r i a l i s c o n d u c t e d . One m u s t b e w a r e , h o w e v e r , l e s t . . i t d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o a. t e a r i n g < f a r c e of- the'-slap* stack v a r i e t y . T h i s i s not to say that a humorous touch i s un-desirable., hut to suggest t h a t i t should be kept-under r e s t r a i n t . .. A .."Good", .Program.. . Reports',.awe given'on; < ,, , • .' A good d e t e c t i v e s t o r y . A good humorous s t o r y . A good adventure s t o r y . ;• A good s h o r t s t o r y . A good animal story,• A good love s t o r y . A. good biography. •A good p l a y . . , , A good travelogue. As the aim of the program i s to introduce the students to the best that has been w r i t t e n , c o n s i d e r a b l e guidance by the teacher i s necessary,He must e i t h e r s e l e c t the books hi m s e l f of i n s i s t on p u p i l s g e t t i n g h i s endorsation before d e l i v e r i n g t h e i r r e p o r t s , I f the school l i b r a r y has copies of the books reported on,the program w i l l g a i n i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A Program f o r very Young C h i l d r e n . The r e a l aim of t h i s program i s to acquaint the students w i t h a l i t e r a r y f i e l d almost e n t i r e l y neglected i n school l i f e , that of childhood verse.In order to obt a i n a s e n s i b l e a t t i t u d e towards the program,it i s w e l l to t e l l the p u p i l s that the purpose i s to provide them w i t h s u i t a b l e reading f o r t h e i r younger brothers and s i s t e r s . The' program c o n s i s t s of t o p i c s l i k e the following:. 1. Mmt to read and what not to no ad to young c h i l d r e n . 2. Milne; f lFow we are Six*'j «*lS3ien We Were Very Young";etc. 3 . Lewis G a r o l l and " A l i c e i n Wonderland." 4 . "The C h i l d ' s Garden of Verses." 5. Mother Goose Riiymes. 6. Dr.Coleman's verses f o r c h i l d r e n . 7. "The Water Babies." 8 . Verses by Eugene F i e l d , Modern' Poets. T i l l s program I s gi v e n .in c o njunction w i t h the study of • • • • ' ' "• I... ' ' " ' " modern poetry i n "Poems C h i e f l y n a r r a t i v e ? The object i s to g i v e i n t e r e s t i n g accounts of the l i v e s of the poets and some idea of t h e i r works.Interest i s added to the program i f the audience i s required to s e l e c t t h e i r "poet l a u r e a t e " at the co n c l u s i o n of the program. S t o r i e s fram the G l a s s i e s . Oral reproduction of the c l a s s i c s provides e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l f o r auditorium work.In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t n ecessitated the reading of something r e a l l y worth while *.and thus establishes a c r i t e r i o n before which i n s i p i d j u v e n i l e l i t e r a t u r e seems worthless.This i n i t s e l f would be s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r such a program,even i f no other values attached to i t . . But i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s , p r a c t i c e i s provided i n organizing and condensing subject matter;and,as a r e s u l t of time l i m i t a t i o n , i n e x e r c i s i n g that economy of expression which i s so e s s e n t i a l to e f f e c t i v e .speaking, . Two programs of t h i s type that students always f i n d i n t e r -e s t i n g are given below. I . S t o r i e s from Homer. This should be given i n connection w i t h the "mythical adventure" s e r i e s i n The Canada Book of Prose and Verse,Book I I . Some i n c i d e n t s t h a t have been found i n t e r e s t i n g are; a. The siege of Trot;cause,outstanding events,,capture. b. Ulysses* adventures w i t h the Cyclops. c. U l y s s e s 1 adventures w i t h G i r c e . d. Ulysses and the s i r e n s , e*Ulysses'* r e t u r n . As p a r t of the program,it i s a good idea to read Tennyson's " U l y s s e s " ; the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be very animated,part-i c u l a r l y on the part of the g i r l s , 2.Stories from Edgar A l l a n Poe. The program based on Edgar AllanPoe's works i s always one of the most s u c c e s s f u l of the year.&is works are as t h r i l l i n g as the f a m i l i a r npenny dreadful",and j u s t as popular w i t h students.besides t h i s , t h e y are admirably adapted to the c r e a t i o n of an. atmosphere of suspense and mystery. I s h a l l never forget the occasion when the whole audience, teacher included v/as held spell-bound by a p r e s e n t a t i o n of "The * ' a l l of the House of Usher 1' 1 r e c a l l the i n v o l u n t a r y gasp at the conclusion of thereport and the immdediate demand f o r "Tales of Mystery and Imagination? A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n of h i s l i f e , s t u d e n t s make reports on the f o l l o w i n g : .The PIS'and .the Pendulum.. : •'• "%©• Gold Bug..' • The Descent i n t o ' the Maelstrom. The Murders i n the Rue Morgue. The P a l l of the House of u s h e r . The Kasque of the Red Death. A l l .writers on adolescence mention the great i n t e r e s t young people take i n a c t i n g and make-believe.In Grade Seven, p a r t i c u l a r l y . m u c h can be done i n dramatics i f s u i t a b l e p l ays are a v a i l a b l e .and i f the teacher can take time o f f from the marking of e s s a y s , t e s t s , e t c . , t o g i v e guidance to the students. Unless such d i r e c t i o n can be g i v e n , i t i3 b e t t e r not to go i n f o r dramatics,as p u p i l s l e f t to themselves produce the most astounding trash;the more so s i n c e r a d i o plays have become popular., .Simple dramatizations from the l i t e r a t u r e course are perhaps the most e f f e c t i v e . T r e a s u r e Isl.aiid;,.Ivanhoe.and The l a d y  of the Lake abound i n s u i a t a b l e passages. , Imp romp t u Sue e ches. A program of t h i s k i n d makes an e x c e l l e n t review i n . 1iterative,grammar*and composition;and,moreover,gives t r a i n i n g i n extemporaneous expression. Ilany f i n e programs can be arranged i n co-operation w i t h the s o c i a l studies department. ' Igmginary; Banquet, This provides a:-situation- t h a t w i l l be met l a t e r on i n l i f e , I f the program lias been w e l l organized, the p u p i l s l e a r n much about the e t i q u e t t e f o r such o c c a s i o n s , P r a c t i c e I n i n t r -oductions and responses,in making and answering touts i s given,. School Through the Ages. • Glimpses of education at i n t e r e s t i n g periods of h i s t o r y are given,This program i s an e x c e l l e n t one,necessitating many v i s i t s to t h e - l i b r a r y , Often as a n a t u r a l extension of t h i s f o l l o w s a program on "School i n Other Lands n.,preferably presented during Good-w i l l Week, > - ... , An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p that e x i s t s between o r a l and w r i t t e n composition.Although s k i l l i n O • • . . . . the one does not always augur s k i l l i n the other, some g i f t e d speakers being weak i n w r i t t e n expression and some t a l e n t e d P w r i t e r s unable to speak w e l l , the two are c e r t a i l y complimentary. Oral expression tends to give g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y i n w r i t t e n composition,and w r i t t e n composition tends towards greater accuracy i n o r a l expression.Thus,the person who w r i t e s too sl o w l y and m e t i c u l o u s l y should be given much o r a l work,since i n t h i s he w i l l be compelled to compose more quiokly;and the the student who t a l k s g l i b l y but c a r e l e s s l y should be given w r i t t e n assignments„for they w i l l emphasize c a r e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n and exactness of expression,The i d e a l program w i l l combine both the o r a l and the w r i t t e n as they are r e c i p r o c a l . 7^ I t i s s u r p r i s i n g what progress claildren make i n tiie. a r t of ; speaking when a Taried program which e n l i s t s t h e i r i n t e r e s t i s p r o vided,It i s r a r e indeed'for no improvement, to take place. The r e t i r i n g p u p i l s to whom any f o r a of p u b l i c appearance Is anathema l e a r n to c o n t r o l t h e i r wavering s p i r i t s , a n d f i n d that the ordeal i s not so bad a f t e r a l l . T h e average student with no p a r t i c u l a r g i f t becomes capable of expressing himself adequately on subjects w i t h i n h i s experience.The g i f t e d c h i l d makes ex-tremely r a p i d progress.and o f t e n amazes h i s colleagues and h i s teachers.His presence becomes one of ease and confidence, h i s d e l i v e r y improves u n t i l i t i s a pleasure to l i s t e n to,.and his. arrangement of h i s m a t e r i a l s are.often models of organization I t has been a source of s a t i s f a c t i o n to f o l l o w the careers of some of these t a l e n t e d students.One very g i f t e d Chinese g i r l , w h i l e s t i l l i n her teens.has been g i v i n g radio t a l k s on s e r i o u s subjects;another has played a prominent part • i n a s o c i a l i s t pasty and has made a number of c r e d i t a b l e p u b l i c speeches.These are rare cases.,but the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e engendered by auditorium work, the poise .aeq.uired,,and the standards of speech.,behaviour,and e t i q u e t t e obtained are not rare,but belong t o all.The auditorium p e r i o d i s one of the most useful and c u l t u r a l i n the school program. Chapter V I I I * THE SCHOOL BISWSPAEBR AED THE SCHOOL AlflKJAL. Bb l a r g e body of people can act together and c l a i m k i n -s h i p w i t h each other without some u n i f y i n g agency i n the form of -a'newspaper or magazine. This i s very n o t i c e a b l e i n the out-side worl where every p o l i t i c a l party,trade,arid p r o f e s s i o n has i t s own p u b l i c a t i o n , s & i c h acts as a medium f o r recording matters of f r a t e r n a l I n t e r e s t and f o r the expression of common i d e a l s . The school i s no exception to t h i s tendency of human nature.In our l a r g e r schools,some of which have greater populations than many B r i t i s h Columbia c i t i e s , a p e r i o d i c a l i s necessary f o r t h e maintenance of an flesprit de corps" of the r i g h t kind.Without i t , p n p i l s have a f e e l i n g of ''not belonging' 8,of being sojourners i n a strange land. The school paper makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r p u p i l s to know and appreciate what i d happening around them. I n i t they read about matters of general i n t e r e s t , o f s p o r t s , o f club news*and of p r o j e c t e d e n t e r p r i s e s . I t not only serves as a source of information,but a l s o as an instrument i n arousing enthusiasm f o r worth-while p r o j e c t s . l t i s the i n t e g r a t i n g centre f o r school a c t i v i t i e s . One of the most u s e f u l functions of the paper i s that i t serves as a record of development and a h i s t o r y of the school. Eodem education i s not s t a t i o n a r y ; i t moves wit h the times;arid the o l d f i l e s of the school p e r i o d i c a l a r e , i n truth,the minutes of i t s growth. At Templeton J u n i o r High S c h o o l , a f t e r f i v e years experience w i t h 'the school newspaper,we found such a demand for- information about previous years that-we introduced an innovation i n the form of an " A r c h i v i s t ' s Column,11 i n which excerpts from former "Tee Jays" were given. Tills leads us t o another important f u n c t i o n , i n t a n g i b l e and immeasurable as some obscurantist c r i t i c s measure education, but nevertheless of v a l u e : i t a s s i s t s i n the stablichment of a . school t r a d i t i o n , I i a n y e d u c a t i o n i s t s have regretted that i n the new world there i s not that veneration f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n that i s found in' theold.A school i n i t s i n f a n c y cannottsf course, command t h i s respect,,but i t can be g r a d u a l l y b i a i l t up;and the most e f f e c t i v e medium i s the school paper,In i t are found the ambitions aMthecp22p&Bs&ment s of thepaot,which are an i n c e n t i v e to the present,which i n t u r n 'become an i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e . The school paper, as has already been s h o w n , f u l f i l s a l a r g e number of u s e f u l functions,which the l i m i t s of t h i s t h e s i s prevent our enlarging upon.One,however,which i s relevany to our d i s c u s s i o n aud,happily,one i n which i t proves most valuable i s that i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n developing g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . l t provides f o r them an i n c e n t i v e to good work and a r e c o g n i t i o n of accomplishment" Some flowersfas the poet says,"are born to b l u s h unseen,and waste t h e i r sweetness on the desert a l r , " b u t others t h r i v e only under the g e n i a l rays of p u b l i c i t y and the jmdly dews of general approbation . By means of the school paper a great d e a l of l a t e n t t a l e n t i s 7 ° revealed that otherwise would have been undiscovered. I t i s worthy of note,too,that the school paper provides a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n , T h e c o n t r i b u t o r s f e e l ao i f they are not engaging merely i n .an.academic and .purposeless classroom exercise, but that they are part of an a c t u a l world i n which t h e i r w r i t i n g i s of some importance.f he student who hae a poem or a r t i c l e a accepted f o r the school j o u r n a l has the same f e e l i n g of accom-plishment, the same e x h i l a r a t i o n as the young w r i t e r who f o r the f i r s t time sees h i s name i n p r i n t . I t would be outside our scope to give a complete o u t l i n e I.. of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the school paper i n t h i s chapter. A t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d only to those parts which o f f e r develop-ment to the p u p i l of s u p e r i o r endoements. THE EDITORIAL PAGE. The e d i t o r i a l page gives e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g i n su c c i n c t and pointed expires a i o n . Under the guidance of the sponsor, the members of the e d i t o r i a l board l e a r n to condense t h e i r thoughts and to c o n t r o l the l u x u r i a n t verbiage and rambling s t y l e that so many imaginative students possess.^hey l e a r n a l s o that a good e d i t o r i a l i s a d i s c u s s i o n of a " l i v e " t o p i c which the whole school population i s i n t e r e s t e d in,and that i t i s the most i n -f l u e n t i a l p a r t of the paper as i t a s s i s t s i n the moulding of opinion on important matters. •In t h i s connection i t develops a f e e l i n g of the respon-s i b i l i t y that l e a d e r s h i p entails,and i s good moral as w e l l as l i t e r a r y t r a i n i n g . ' . I . Por a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n see McKown H.C..Extra G u r r i c u l a r  A c t i v i t i e s , ch. 18; Ihe Macmillan ^o.^ew York, 1927. The e d i t o r i a l board should s e l e c t I t s oral t o p i c s without too.much i n t e r f e r e n c e on the p a r t of the sponsors.lt i s s u r -p r i s i n g how s e n s i b l e the choice of the students g e n e r a l l y I s . % r e are a few subjects chosen from the nTee Jay." I.Armistice D a y . •.-•' 2 . F r i l l s ' i n 'Education. • •• : 3.Student Government. *4.Ave At que Vale. 5.The-True P a t r i o t i s m . 332283 ITEMS AID STORIES. I n t h i s category are placed such things as club pews, sports items,routine news,personal items,announcements of s o c i a l events and concerts,reports of debates,interviews,etc. An i n t e r e s t i n sports i s basic i n adolescent nature and the schoi paper must take cognisance of t h i s , b u t a mistake w i l l be made I f athletiers are allowed to occupy the r j o s i t i o n of prominence.A good p r a c t i c e i s to devote one page i n each is s u e to boys * a t h l e t i c s and one to g i r l s * . ^are must be taken that s u i t a b l e students be placed i n charge of t h i s s e c t i o n . 3?oo o f t e n a p u p i l i s g i v e n t h i s p o s i t i o n because he can p l a y b a s k e t b a l l w e l l or p o l e - v a u l t higher than any other boy i n the school.What i s r e a l l y r e q u i r e d i s a person w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n sports who has a g i f t f o r w r i t i n g . 350 • p a r t of the paper gives b e t t e r p r a c t i c e i n the a r t of n a r r a t i o n a n d , e s p e c i a l l y i f the number of pages i d l i m i t e d , the w r i t e r i s bound to put i n t o e f f e c t Ingenuities of economy and . to use a t e r s e quick-moving s t y l e with the consequent s e l e c t i o n •of th© apt.,and. descrlptive> word* •' .•'••••• I t . w i l l be necessary to g i v e some i n s t r u c t i o n to the repor-. t e r s on the. w r i t i n g of news items.The f i r s t t h i n g that has to be emphasised i s . that the lead, or beginning of the s t o r y must contain,,in b r i e f the main events ; that, are a m p l i f i e d in.succeed-i n g paragraphs.lt must t e l l w i t h whom-the a r t i c l e deals,what happeneddwhere the event happened,when i t happened,and v/hy i t happened.As the space allowed i s l i m i t e d , i t - i s a good idea to i n s i s t on the f i v e important questions "who, " "what*1, " whex'e", •;Hwhen",-.and "why" being answered i n the f i r s t paragraph. , To prevent the monotonous recurrence of the suilbject-verb-object c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s a good plan to show the reporters by means of s e l e c t e d items from newspapers and magazines that the l e a d can take many d i f f e r e n t forms,that i t can commence with a s u b j e c t , a p a r t i c i p l e , a phrase,a aubordira-te a d v e r b i a l clause, an i n f i n i t i v e , a iioun clause,and a d i r e c t quotation. gxample of Hews ..Item A d v e r t i s i n g the. Operetta."Zurika". "Oyez'Oyez* Te students of t h i s mighty palace de l a Tempieton,.ye s q u i r e s and dames of the f a i r acres of Grand View and a d j o i n i n g baronies,we b r i n g ye the most joyous tidings.Our palace h a l l s have become one vast h i v e of i n d u s t r y i n a v a l i a n t e f f o r t t o produce a f i t t i n g entertainment f o r our l i e g e l o r d and our gracious patrons. Theref ore j we no?/ b i d ye welcome to the h a l l s of Templeton where,on the evenings of February 9th and I0th,we s h a l l present f o r your pleasure a most d e l i g h t f u l • Operetta.Ancient f e u d a l laws compel us t o l e v y a t a x o f two pieces of s i l v e r on c h i l d r e n and f i v e pieces of s i l c e r on adults f o r -entrance p r i v i l e g e s . I n t i l l s .operetta, you w i l l be e n t h r a l l e d .by the pure beauty of c h o r i s t e r s * voices .Depression may h o l d ye i n i t s malignant clutches*but. come,and, immediately ye soar beyond sordidaess on the c l e a r , t h r i l l i n g notes of the singers.Long ye f o r other &ays?love ye r.omaiice?Come.».fch,en,.and as ye l i s t e n ye are caught up on the'wings d f imagination and w h i r l e d away to the very court i t s e l f .'What court?Ah,,come and see. Doubtless ye expect singers to be of ^reat excellence,and speakers to d i s p l a y marvellous eloquence.,and dancers to lend v a r i e t y to the theme;but' r a r e l y has i t been 'the l o t of mankind to f i n d a l l these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s depicted by every performer on the stage.ire who are incredulous,come;we w i l l convince ye. Te who beliuve,come;we w i l l d e l i g h t ye.Come,ye,come ye, and we swear that ye w i l l behold as we have s a i d : v i v i d scenes,, b e a u t i f u l costumes.To see i s to b e l i e v e . " The student who wrote t h i s s u r p r i s i n g composition,a g i r l of fourteen,was asked to w r i t e a short a r t i c l e a d v e r t i s i n g the op e r a t t a , " Z u r i k a , u which the school was going to ptesent a few weeks la t e r . S h e was gi v e n no d i r e c t i o n whatsoever fbut we«s l e f t e n t i r e l y to her own resources.A few days l a t e r she handed i n the a r t i c l e e x a c t l y as given. I t made such an impression that one of the l o c a l papers p r i n t e d it,.thus g i v i n g us a great deal more a d v e r t i s i n g than we expected. On examination we no t i c e how s k i l f u l l y constructed the a r t i c l e is.Although a l l . the e s s e n t i a l information i s given i n the f i r s t paragraph and the succeeding ones j u s t elaborate i t , they are w r i t t e n i n such an i n t e r e s t i n g way that a t t e n t i o n does not f l a g hut i s sustained to the end.The a r t i c l e gives evidence of that o r i g i n a l i t y , i m a g i n a t i o n , a n d s k i l l i n expression which we have noted as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of giftedneos i n c h i l d r e n . THE BOOK-WORM*S C0R1TBR. I n t h i s s e c t i o n short reports are given on books s u i t a b l e f o r p u p i l s of Ju n i o r High School age.It i s one of the most populi columns and one to which the g i f t e d students,who are n e a r l y always i n v e t e r a t e r e a d e r s , l i k e to co n t r i b u t e . I t provides good p r a c t i c e f o r the c o n t r i b u t o r s .making them t h i n k s e r i o u s l y about the books they have read and f o r c i n g them to condense i n t o a few paragraphs the thoughts they have about them.In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , t h e w r i t e r s are compelled by l i m i t a t i o n s of space to exer c i s e every device f o r the e l i m i n a t -i o n of non-essentials and the emphasizing of s a l i e n t features. As book reports are demanded by the course of study,these supply models xfaich others w i l l s t r i v e to emulate. •Scaramouche. Andre Louis Horeau, the main character, i s a humorous young Bretom lawyer with a rare g i f t of s t i r r i n g oratory,who l i v e s during the French Revolution.A born actor,he v e i l s h i s s i n c e r e s t emotions under a quiet S t o i c w i t . Provided f o r and educated by h i s godfather,Quinton de JCercadiou,a f e u d a l lord,Andre-Louis i s n a t u r a l l y impatient w i t h the Utopian i d e a l s and r e b e l l i o u s t a l k of the ardent r e v o l u t i o n -i s t s , among whose numbers stands h i e dear f r i e n d , P h i l i p p e de •Vilraorin. . Wxy does the c y n i c a l young lawyer become a turncoat and denounce the p r i v i l e g e d few to the people of Rennee and then,under the t i t l e of "Omnes Omnibus" i n c i t e to r i o t the c i t i z e n s of Hantes?^7ho I s E.de l a Tour d*Azyr,whose success Andre-Louis f o r e v e r bars? Read of t h i s French hero who i s i n t u r n a l a w y e r , r e v o l -u t i o n i s t , act or, f e n c i n g i n s t r u c t o r , p o l i t i c i a n , a n d l o v e r . A l l who • l i k e t a l e s of adventure and romance w i l l thoroughly enjoy "Scaramouehe.tt • • THE EAGLE-EYED REPORTER, One of the most popular pages Is that of the Eagle-Eyed Reporter.In t h i s s e c t i o n short personal items of general i n t e r e s are reported,They depend f o r success l a r g e l y upon e f f e c t i v e n e s s of expression and thus provide f i n e t r a i n i n g Cor the students c o n t r i b u t i n g . I t i s e s s e n t i a l that an extremely b r i g h t person witb a r e s t r a i n e d sense of humour be placed I n charge of t h i s p a r t of the paper,as nothing taxes the ingenuity of the r e p o r t e r more than these s u c c i n c t l y worded and o f t e n epigrammatic "thumb n a i l " r e p o r t s * LITERARY PAGE* In t h i s s e c t i o n i s published only the very best prose and verse w r i t t e n by s t u d e n t s . l t i s regarded as a s i g n a l honour to be g i v e n space here,and i n c l u s i o n marks one as possessing w r i t i n g a b i l i t y of a marked degree.Ifuch of the prose and verse i n Appendixes A and B was s e l e c t e d from t h i s department. Some o f the most t a l e n t e d students have been revealed through t h i s ^  page. The w r i t e r of the s u r p r i s i n g s t o r y "Th© .Seeing ..Eye;5*.,, was f i r s t d i s covered through a c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s , section,and the g i f t e d composer o f "Prom the Garden of 2, . Lost Dreams'* f i r s t gave evidence of her a b i l i t y i n verse i n a s i m i l a r .way. , ,. . At times the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s department are so very good, ahat they, not only d e l i g h t but a l s o astound. ¥ae. f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t i o n , w r i t t e n by a Grade l i n e g i r l , h a s been a source of constant encouragement to the w r i t e r . The B l u e l a d y . Long,long ago when I was so young I could look at the moon between my f i n g e r s and see the l i t t l e man nodding there, I f i r s t knew the Blue Lady. At night,when t i r e d and happhy I tumbled i n t o my l i t t l e room,she would be standing there i n the shadows,tall and slender as a w i l l o w tree.She would laugh a l i t t l e laugh and a few tears would s p a r k l e i n the grey l o v e l i n e s s of her eyes as she spread the white c o v e r l e t s down.Then s i n g i n g a song,a quaint l u l l a b y of her own time,she would move about the room, the golden g l o r y of her h a i r l i g h t i n g up the dusk.^here was no sound as she m moved and the s o f t blue f o l d s of her gown looked as i f i70\ren of moonlight and dreams.She was not r e a l and I never touched her but the beauty of her presence g l i d e d through my sleep. 1 am o l d e r now and the f a i r i e s dance no more i n the d e l l s , nor do the p i c t u r e s come down from the w a l l s and do a s t a t e l y minuet i n the patch of moonlight before the \7indov?. The Blue l a d y faded too l i k e the rest,but sometimes I hear her s i n g I.See Appendix B . : ~ ~ 2.Page 15. : her song again, tOIGES . m m .PAST* Thia .division of the paper arose i n response t o a demand f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s from p u p i l s who bad l e f t the o c l i o o l . l t lias j u s t i f i e d , i t s e l f . I n many ways.It has created a great deal of i n t e r e s t i n the,school p u b l i c a t i o n , I t has supplied goals of attainment f o r students i n t e r e s t e d i n w r i t i n g and,of major im-portance, i t has provided .a means of keeping i n touch w i t h g i f t e d g r a d u a t e s . l t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the progress made by some students i n c e r t a i n h i g h scho&ls and to see the r e t a r d a t i o n of others who attend schools where l i t t l e i n t e r e s t I s taken i n t h e i r development. Here are two c o n t r i b u t i o n s from King George High School. Pawn. M g h t recedes,her grey shadow qui v e r i n g Across the glowing beauty of the dawn; S o f t l y the man-tongued wind of n i g h t i s s i n g i n g On the b o r d e r , r e l u c t a n t to be gone; Huddled the grim s i l h o u e t t e s of mountains s l e e p . Rugged-edged against the f a i n t - f l u s h e d s k i e s ; Phantoms os smoke from chimneys of the town Weave strange f i g u r e s that crumble as they r i s e ; Morning comes on quiet maiden f e e t With promise o f new day i n h e r calm eyes. S u n s e t . . . . , The sea and heavens were a l l an overwhelming grey save where rare patches of whiteness o u t l i n e d the dim mountains add ' the b l u e Q of the f a r h o r i z o n met the sky,Hushed and expectant, the worl waited.Suddenly the b l a z i n g . d i s k of the sun appeared behind;obscuring.,.clouds -and sank i n majestic splendor beneath the seaAe, f a r t h e s t . waves were poels of. blood, that s p i l l e d • i n t o the surrounding waters,shading i t to pinks of d e l i c a t e hue.^he clouds t h a t a moment before, had been frowning and • threatening r e f l e c t e d the crimson of the s e t t i n g sun.Long ribbons of f i r e f l o a t e d free, and;,as the. sun sank lower, changed i n t o a myriad.of c o l o u r s . Everything that has been s a i d of the school paper a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l to the school annual,an extended d i s c u s s i o n of which would be merely r e p e t i t i o u s .There are, however, a few po i n t s t h a t are worthy o f n o t i c e . Every annual should have a l i t e r a r y s e c t i o n i n which the best prose and verse contributed to the school newspaper throughout the year should be published.Having one*s work included should be regarded as the highest l i t e r a r y honour tha t can be accorded a student,since a c e r t a i n amount of per-manence attaches to the inclusion.Choosing the b e s t c o n t r i b u t -ions gives e x c e l l e n t p r a c t i c e i n c r i t i c i s m to the e d i t o r i a l board because,as few can be accepted,their choice must be h i g h l y a e l e c t i v e . The l i t e r a r y s e c t i o n should include other compositions besides those chosen from the p e r i o & i c a l a , L o n g e r works that were beyond the scope of the school paper can be given space i n the annual.  i . A good example i s m e Seeing E y e , i n Appendix 3 . Short s t o r i e s which are g e n e r a l l y too long f o r the school Journal, are the most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s of the annual,and should he featured because they provide f i n e opportunities- f o r g i f t e d Students.. ,->/.• Club.news a l s o presents o p p o r t u n i t i e s to g i f t e d p u p i l s . The .summarizing of a ,year.*s..•BofcCTlti.es i s a. task t h a t r e q u i r e s p a t i e n t c o l l e c t i n g of material,.sound • o r g a n i z a t i o n to meet the exigencies of space*and t e r s e e x p r e s s i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y the students w i t h a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n towards newspaper work can f i n d u s e f u l occupation f o r t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . I f p r o p e r l y motivated,the school paper and school annual can be among the most e f f e c t i v e agencies f o r developing g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . A s has been shown,they provide standards of attainment,incentives to good work,and rewards'for achievement. The teacher of such students would do w e l l t o consider whether or not the school p u b l i c a t i o n s are being u t i l i z e d to the f u l l . . • ' ' • • Shatter IX.' • - . . • MMk.:,km..mm.mt GGmmmm- prBXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES.,. I n recent years great emphasis has been placed .upon e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n the educative p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y upon the value oi" clubs . I t i s now almost a tr u i s m to say that they have a d e f i n i t e p lace i n school l i f e . E s p e c i a l l y are they of value to the p u p i l of su p e r i o r endowments.|n the club he meets other students of s i m i l a r i n -t e r e s t s and talents,and consequently i s able to express h i m s e l f more f r e e l y than would be p o s s i b l e i n a more heterogeneous group.The r e s t r a i n t of.the classroom i s removed and he i s able to devote h i m s e l f to h i s own engrossing i n t e r e s t s . A n a d d i t i o n a l advantage i s that the teacher f i n d s out the r e a l nature of the p u p i l and the extent of h i s s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s i n a much shorter time than he could i n the classroom s e s s i o n . E n g l i s h clubs cats, be dixrided i n t o three main groups: reading,writing,and speaking.The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s r e s t r i c t our d i s c u s s i o n to the l a s t two. The main x>urpose of the w r i t i n g clubs i s , a s the name suggests,to develop a b i l i t y i n c r e a t i v e writing. s >The development of research a b i l i t y , i m a g i n a t i o n , l i t e r a r y taste,power,and s k i l l i n expression i s the supreme purpose of t h i s type of club." The student chooses h i s own p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of w r i t i n g unham-pered by classroom routine,and expresses h i m s e l f i n h i s own way; and,moreover,receives much u s e f u l advice from the members of the c l u b and i t s sponsor. I.McKown H . G . , S c h o o l C lubs ,page 35 ;Macra i l lan Co. ,Hew York ,1929 . Sy experience lias been that the w r i t i n g clubs should be c h a r a c t e r i z e d at f i r s t by i n f omality.One y & a r l made the mis-take of. * or g a n i z i n g " -.a. group i n the usual l o g i c a l maimer with -. a p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , s e c r e t a r y , e t c . , and an i n s i s t e n c e on formal procedure. The r e s u l t s were disappointing,.to say the l e a s t . ^ h e r e was always present.an a i r of . r e s t r a i n t and a t y p i c a l c l a s s r o o m . f r i g i d i t y . A f t e r a time I discovered.what was.wrong and commenced to introduce more freedom i n t o the meetings.I.did t h i s g r a d u a l l y so t h a t there would not be a v i o l e n t swing from extreme to the other. As an.Innovation we t r i e d a l t e r n a t i n g . chainaen.Ihis im-proved matter©,-as c h i l d r e n f o r some strange reason enjoy a c t i n g i n t h i s capacity. I then discovered something I should have seen from, the f i r s t ; t h a t the r e a l cause of the r e s t r a i n t was the n a t u r a l self-consciousness a r i s i n g from a new end personal situation.Consequently a degree of anonymity was introduced i n t o the meetings.Members,as they entered the room,were required to put t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t o a box nee.r the door. The chairman f o r the day would then read a l l the s h o r t e r s e l e c -t i o n s , r e s e r v i n g the longer ones f o r f u t u r e examination.In connection with these readings,I found i t much better to have a l l the c o n t r i b u t i o n s read through without comment firsthand' then a second time f o r d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i c i s m . T h i s anonymous approach improved conditions g r e a t l y . O f t e n the names of w r i t e r s would be divulged,sometimes i n response to demand,but more o f t e n as the r e s u l t of heated d i s c u s s i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y a par-t i c u l a r l y outstanding piece of work would be placed on the the blackboard f o r minute examination.At one of our meetings someone suggested that the best productions 'should be hnncared by I n c l u s i o n i n a club anthology.I have before me as I w r i t e a number of such selections,many of them q y i t o c r e d i t a b l e per-formances f o r young persons. , • • . A f t e r , a time a - d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t arose,.many choosing a form of prose.,and others .being -drawn towards drama.Accordingly i t ' was decided to d i v i d e into- three sections,,each i n turn '•• ' t a k i n g charge .of the meeting*^he. programs immediately improved and the element of f r i e n d l y competition between the groups added such :to, the. i n t e r e s t • The school, j o u r n a l found-', the W r i t e r s * Glub a great boon, • and the .closest co-operation e x i s t e d between them.Ifo longer was there a dearth of m a t e r i a l f o r p u b l i e a t i o n , s i n c e members, f e l t i t an honour to have work accepted. A t . t h i s p o i n t the problem a r i s e s as to whether the teacher of g i f t e d students should encourage them, to send any of t h e i r productions to outside p u b l i c a t i o n s . I n my o p i n i o n the answer i s emphatically, "Hoi" There has been too much e x p l o i t i n g of t a l e n t e d students f o r p u b l i c i t y purposes..This i s not good f o r them."The i t c h f o r p u b l i c i t y i s a dangerous disease i n the young.,and the word w p o e t R turns more young heads than any. other; the poetaster i s a doubtful blessing,and only too o f t e n needs no encouragement,and deserves none. v Moreover,the adult w i l l h a r d l y thank.-us f o r the p r i n t i n g o f y o u t h f u l verse i n the 1 I.See Chapter I I I and Appendix A. ~~ 2.Lyon P.H.B..Creative Expression,page 186;The John Day Co., New York,1932. Sunday supplement n o r , f o r that matter,.in more d i g n i f i e d p laces. I t •must he home i n mind- • c o n s t a n t l y -that • t?e 'educators 'are • con*' . cerned ; with.'<the.good product. p r i m a r i l y as an' i n d i c a t i o n of student development, and. not.;ae'an -end''in-''its-elf, ** • -. ...The one ..exception to t h i s i s c o n t r i b u t i n g -• to- .-a volume • I . . . . . such as " P u b l i c School Verse," nn annual p u b l i c a t i o n i n .Great B r i t a i n , d e v o t e d ;to p r i n t i n g the best 'poetry from .the E n g l i s h 'public•schools.Here y o u t h f u l w r i t i n g s are seen i n the proper peropectivejjsnd suggestion of undesirable p u b l i c i t y end exploita.t i o n . abs ent. As the subjec t . o f o r a l composition has been discussed ' -'-2.. •••• ' = q u i t e f u l l y , i t would be value l e s s to enter Into an extended 5. treatment-of-tiie speaking clubs here.They can be dismissed with-, a word o r two* Under t h i s heading are Included p u b l i c speaking,debating, and dramatic clubs.The .aim of these i s the discovery and d e v e l -opment of speaking a b i l i t y of various kinds.Some of i t s objec-t i v e s are a n a t u r a l p o i s e , s e l f - c o n t r o l before an audience,an easy and g r a c e f u l carriage.,an e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y . r c l e a r a r t i e u l - , ation,and-a. well-modulated TO i c e ..In a d d i t i o n , tho a c q u i s i t i o n o f c e r t a i n techniques such as,orders of procedure and dramatic • method: Id-made'.pes sibls..', --Just, as i n the w r i t i n g c l u b s i n f o r m a l i t y I s conducive -t o e f f e c t i v e .results,so i n the speaking clubs a degree of • f o r m a l i t y i s productive of best r e t u r n s . C a r e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n s i s t e n c e on t r a d i t i o n a l procedure w i l l / b e found necessary -for s u c c e s s f u l work. ' " "~"~I.See Lvon P . H T B T T c T e a T i v e " Expression,page 185;The John Day Co.,Hew York,1932. : Chapter X. •-. • . .. - -miTms COMPOSITION. • •. C e r t a i n weaknesses are p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the w r i t t e n composition of g i f t e d students.One most common of these can be grouped i n t o three general d i v i s i o n s : f a u l t s of s t y l e , carelessness i n regard to, mechanics. of composition,and'sent* i m e n t a l i t y i n treatment of c e r t a i n subjects.These weaknesses w i l l be discussed i n the order mentioned.. F a u l t s of S t y l e . A very common impropriety among g i f t e d students i s a f f e c -t a t i o n of s t y l e i n the form of euphuism, combined with what one of my b r i g h t e s t p u p i l s described as rtsesgjd.pedalianismythe use of l o n g words,not because they are apt,but simply because they are long and sound impress i\re to l e s s able students.This ten-dency i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by an item i n the nT.-J.w> the school paper.Some simple proverbs had been r e w r i t t e n i n such a way as to obscure t h e i r meanings; the task was to recognize them.Here are a few: 1. Those who ho l d t h e i r d o m i c i l e i n c r y s t a l i z a t i o n should not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the upheaval of g r a n i t e formations, 2. The most degenerate of domesticated f e l i n e s may focus h i s gaze upon him whom h e r e d i t y has decreed should govern a n a t i o n , 3. A superabundance of those who prepare v a r i e d vegetat-ions and animals of many genera f o r the d i g e s t i v e processes w i l l u l t i m a t e l y and i n v a r i a b l e render these i n s i p i d and worthless. The best deterrent i s a m i l d s a t i r e r i d i c u l i n g the un-n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f i c u l t expression,and an i n s i s t e n c e upon aptness and s i m p l i c i t y , O n e must ce c a r e f u l , not to censure too severely, as. t h i s weakness i s r e a l l y , the r e s u l t of a keen i n t e l l e c t u a l I n t e r e s t i n the powers of language.The students i s experimenting w i t h words j u s t as i n the l a b o r a t o r y he experiments with chemicals.One should not be too c r i t i c a l of the product. Ex-perience teaches the value of accuracy and s i m p l i c i t y , a n d the i general Ineffectiveness of euphemistic utterance.With most students a f f e c t a t i o n of language i s j u s t a passing phase,whieh disappears w i t h i n c r e a s i n g m a t urity. Another p r i n c i p a l defect of s t y l e found i n the works of g i f t e d students i s monotony of sentence arrangement,Talented c h i l d r e n seldom have much t r o u b l e w i t h the grammatical s t r u c t u r e of sentences,but they do show a monotonous i t e r a t i o n of the subject,verb,object or complement order.A good c u r a t i v e process i s a number of exercises, on the various types of sentence .arrangement•It i s easy to show g i f t e d students that v a r i e t y can be obtained by commencing sentences with a noun clause,a p a r t i c i p i a l phrase,and an i n f i n i t i v e or gerundial expression. I f necessary,the teacher can i n s i s t on these openings being used i n assignments. Another n o t i c e a b l e weakness of s t y l e i s abuse of the loose :sehtenceji.e»,the sentence ending w i t h subordinate elements. •This tendency i s e x p l i c a b l e by the f a c t that i t i s the sentence jof conversation,.and that by i t s very nature i t encourages rambling through the a d d i t i o n of subordinate and of t e n unneces-sary adjuncts.Once a g a i n , s p e c i f i c d r i l l i s the s u c c e s s f u l ex-ped i e n t . I t must be shown that,although the l o o s e sentence has the v i r t u e s of ease and grace,the p e r i o d i c sentence, ending with the p r i n c i p a l part,possesses, a vigour, and emphasis that i s denied i t s smoother fellow.Constant d r i l l w i l l e l i c i t the v i r t u e s of each,and i t w i l l not he lon g before both w i l l be used i n p r o p o r t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y , i t is a good idea to have students analyze the s t r u c t u r e of. t h e i r sentences by answering questions of t h i s .natures .... 1. flow many simple,complex,and compound sentences have you used? 2. How many loose,periodic,and compromise sentences have . ' you used?... 3 . What kinds o f sentence openings have you used? . Carelessness i n Regard to Mechanics of Composition. The g i f t e d student i s e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e to care l e s s •A composition h a b i t s . ^ i s s p e l l i n g i s o f t e n poor,his punctuation o f t e n worse,his w r i t i n g indecipherable,and such things as maxgins^indentations^and paragraphing of ten neglected. This, I am. s u r e , r e s u l t s from i n t e n s i t y of i n t e r e s t i n what he lias to say. A i s imagination t r a v e l s f a s t e r than h i s pen,and consequently the mechanics of composition,ln which he is. not p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d , s u f f e r . I n t h i s connection,the teacher i s confronted by a dilemma. I f he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n encouraging the c r e a t i v e urge of the the student,he w i l l h e s i t a t e to c r i t i c i z e too severely.but s t i l l he cannot condone slovenliness.The desideratum i s to develop .. a p r i d e i n workmanship that w i l l be i t s own severest c r i t i c . U n t i l ' . t i l l s evolves,the teacher must i n s i s t that the d i c t i o n a r y be-referred to i n a l l cases of. doubt,that m i s s p e l l e d words be w r i t t e n out c o r r e c t l y a number of thues,and that compositions c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y .'faulty punctuation and poor penmanship be r e -w r i t t e n . This i n s i s t e n c e w i l l act as a s u c c e s s f u l p a l l i a t i v e u n t i l the permanent'cure of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d . G i f t e d students w i l l soon f i n d that the way to avoid the montony of c o r r e c t i o n i s to be c a r e f u l over the mechanics of w r i t i n g . S e n t i m e n t a l i t y . A weakness very prevalent i n the works of adolescent c h i l d r e n i s s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , t h e roots of which are imbedded deep i n human nature.Hben one considers how sentimental many adults are,and how l i t t l e r e s t r a i n t they possess,one does not wonder at f i n d i n g t h i s t r a i t i n teen-age s t u d e n t s . ^ e . e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s s e n t i m e n t a l i t y i s p a r t l y the e f f e c t of the " t a l k i e s " , p a r t l y of 'the popular n o v e l , p a r l y of i n h e r i t e d human nature. The f i r s t two can be minimised by the s t t i n g up of standards of t a s t e through f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h good l i t e r a t u r e ; the l a s t w i l l be m i t i g a t e d by experience of the world and the approach of maturity,. ORAL COMPOSITION. Students f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to prepare a subject adequately; they e i t h e r overprepare or underprepare.In the former case,the r e s u l t i s a speech that has been e n t i r e l y committed to memory and which i s d e l i v e r e d w i t h the p r e c i s i o n 6f a gramaphone r e c o r d ; i n the l a t t e r , a speech that sounds w e l l but whose e f f e c t -iveness i s marred by di s c u r s i v e n e s s . xhe students who d e l i v e r the f i r s t type of address are u s u a l l y of conscientous nature and of nervous temperament;the p u p i l s who make the second o f t e n possess a world of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and p e r s o n a l i t y but l a c k the ca p a c i t y f o r t a k i n g pains w i t h t h e i r work, The teacher of such students has a d i f f i c u l t task to perform,To the one he must show that the d e l i v e r y of a speech i s not a matter of l i f e and death;to the other he must p o i n t out that p u b l i c speaking i s not a s u b s t i t u t e f o r an impromptu game of b a l l on the playground and i s not a matter to be taken l i g h t l y , I'he f i r s t he must handle c a r e f u l l y and encourage often; the second he must oft e n repress and sometimes reprimand,For the f i r s t mentioned the teacher w i l l provide exercises i n expressive reading before s m a l l groups;from the second he w i l l r e q u i r e d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e s of h i s speeches,each having a d e f i n i t e beginning,middle,and end. The matter of posture i s a troublesome one,Gifted students are o f t e n very s e n s i t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y during e a r l y adolescence be of re they have learned to c o n t r o l t h e i r embarrasment. They c o n s t a n t l y f e l l the n e c e s s i t y of s c r a t c h i n g t h e i r heads,of moving t h e i r f e e t , o f f l u t t e r i n g t h e i r hands,and of s t a r i n g any-where but at the audience.In t h i s connection there i s l i t t l e the teacher can do save to uphold the i d e a l before the p u p i l s u n t i l i t becomes a r e a l i t y , O n no occasion should he re s o r t to r i d i c u l e , a s t h i s w i l l i n t e n s i f y the s e n s i t i v i t y and e s t a b l i s h i n h i b i t i o n s i n connection w i t h auditorium work. The most common f a u l t i n the d e l i v e r y of g i f t e d students i s speaking too f a s t . T h i s h a b i t i s p a r t l y a t r a n s f e r from con-ve rs at i on t whi ch does not encourage-deliberation and careful.'..' a r t i c u l a t i o n , p a r t l y an e f f e c t of nervousness,but c h i e f l y the r e s u l t of i n t e r e s t In'what i s being s a i d . I t i s a w e l l known f a c t , that g i f t e d students enter i n t o t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h sore en-thusiasm than 'the average, and o f t e n t h i s very enthusiasm Is resp o n s i b l e f o r a d e l i v e r y that i s not only too r a p i d but some* times almost i n a u d i b l e .A good remedy i s to i n s t r u c t the audience•to r a i s e one hand i f the speaker t a l k s too r a p i d l y and two hands i f he cannot be heard. Chapter X I . •  : F O L L O H - H P WOHE mm m%nm' mmjEsem'm* The heading of t h i s chapter immediately brings to mind c e r t a i n troublesome questions:Is follow-up work w i t h t a l e n t e d graduates d e s i r a b l e : # o r even necessary?Should one endeavour to r e t a i n these p u p i l s i n any way?Is such r e t e n t i o n f a i r to the High Schools to which they have gone,or to t h e i r new teachers? w i l l i t not make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r these p u p i l s to o r i e n t themselves i n t h e i r new surroundings? Eh.ese questions are d i f f i c u l t to answer s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The J u n i o r High School teacher w i l l h e s i t a t e to do anything that w i l l make the p o s i t i o n of h i s colleague i n the High School mor d i f f i c u l t . A h e s e p u p i l s , r e c e n t l y graduated,have spent three y e a r s , u s u a l l y q u i t e happy ones rat the same school,and have gone through the f i r s t c r i t i c a l stage of adolescence under i t s guidance. Often they have a sentimental attachment to the o l d school and the new i s seen i n an unfavourable l i g h t , p a r t l y because the unknown always has something fearsome about i t , a n d p a r t l y because they are l e a v i n g a place where they were s e n i o r students to go to one where they f e e l unimportant. There r e a l l y i s no reason why the J u n i o r High School te teacher should f e e l any f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards these t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n , although he always w i l l r e t a i n an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r progress.The High School teacher,besides,should be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to a s s i s t than the J u n i o r High School teacher. Se i s g e n e r a l l y o l d e r and of greater experience;and,moreover, • has more time to devote to them as h i s teaching day i s shorter. What the J u n i o r High School teacher should do i s to hand over to the High School teacher a l l the information at h i s d i s p o s a l so that t i i e new i n s t r u c t o r w i l l ' not waste time f i n d i n g the gifted, c h i l d r e n . I n a combined J u n i o r and Senior High School such as E I t s l l a n o the same teacher should take these students r i g h t through the grades from seven to twelve-finis would be the i d e a l arrangement and would solve many d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t has already been shown that the school paper i s one of the best means of keeping i n touch w i t h p u p i l s of outstanding : •:. 1, ' . . . ' • a b i l i t y . The p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e i r work w i l l not only be g r a t -i f y i n g to themselves and t h e i r former teachers,but w i l l a l so act as i n c e n t i v e s to the younger students. O c c a s i o n a l l y the poetry club could have ah a f t e r - s c h o o l meeting and could i n v i t o i n t e r e s t e d former members to attend and b r i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h them. The teacher of g i f t e d students w i l l f i n d that,as long as he stays i n the same school,his former p u p i l s w i l l take the i n i t i a t i v e and keep i n touch w i t h him.Prom time to time they w i l l wander i n a f t e r school hours w i t h some verse or prose they wish c r i t i c i z e d . ^ h e y change i n appearance and acquire more poise and p o l i s h as they get older,but they are e s s e n t i a l l y the same:they are s t i l l as s e n s i t i v e as ever,just as e a s i l y discouraged from f u r t h e r e f f o r t , a n d j u s t as e a s i l y encouraged to s t r i v e towards higher g o a l s . I have had dozens of short I . C h a p t e r V I I I . poems *many short s t o r i e s , a n d one lon g play which, was f i n a l l y performed i n the drama f e s t i v a l "brought to me i n t h i s informal •waf*#&od- •Shis-tin -my -opinion*is one of the most e f f e c t i v e k i a d i l ^ of' follow-up. work*: • >' • ••• ,•••••'••'••• ^3 Chapter X I I . I h t l i i s t h e s i s an attempt has been made to show that g i f t e d students have been lamentable neglected i n B r i t i s h Columbia,and suggestions have been made as to what should be done f o r those who area talented i n E n g l i s h composition. I t has been shown that many of them have considerable a b i l i t y i n the writing of verse,and that t h i s a b i l i t y f l o u r i s h e s best i n a sympathetic,informal atmosphere.Examination of adoles-cent productions i n d i c a t e s a preference f o r nature themes and Imaginative sugbjects of a romantic nature.Often t h e i r verse i s humorous,sometimes sentimental,and o c c a s i o n a l l y of a sur -p r i s i n g m a t urity. I n the study of prose we found i t best to emphasise des-c r i p t i o n , , as t h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t medium f o r expressing that i n t e r e s t i n anture and people which i s so no t i c e a b l e i n adol-escents,Investigations point to the f a c t that personal ex-perience t o p i c s and imaginative themes are the overwhelming preferences of children o f t h i s age.Accordingly,insistence on r o u t i n e work and e x p o s i t i o n should be minimized,and d r i l l should be ai>plied only i n response to immediate s i t u a t i o n s . In regard to the composition period itself,we o u t l i n e d our conception of the i d e a l , f i r s t i n d i c a t i n g the qualities we thought d e s i r a b l e i n the teacher of g i f t e d students,and then TTwebbter and."IJmTthTjunior High School English,page 76;World Book Co. ,,Mew York, 1927. Stedman L.H..Education of G i f t e d Children,oh.12 and 13; World Book Co.,ITew York, 1924. mentioning; the value of freedom i n the classroom,In t h i s con-n e c t i o n we noted hoi? freedom w i t h guidance was conducive to developing a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a n a t t i t u d e of s e l f -censorship, and a f r e e i n g of. .creative e n e r g i e s , D i s c i p l i n e was found to e n t a i l few s p e c i a l problems,the only one worthy of note being the n e c e s s i t y of developing a s e l f - i n i t i a t i n g a a t t i t u d e i n the student, The c o n c l u s i o n was reached t h a t , i f p o s s i b l e , t h e c l a s s -room should have a few good p i c t u r e s which w i l l j u s t i f y t h e i r presence by s t i m u l a t i n g the Imaginations and emotions of students. We showed how the marking of papers provided a f i n e group a c t i v i t y and pointed out the values of such wor±. Oral composition i n the form of auditorium programs was examined and found to have much of value f o r g i f t e d students.as a l i f e s i t u a t i o n i s faced which a s s i s t s I n the development of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and self-expressIon,and which teaches many u s e f u l matters of e t i q u e t t e and procedure. We found t h a t success i n t h i s Icind of work depends upon the e v o l -v i n g of an e f f i c i e n t technique and upon the programs being well-planned,of adolescent i n t e r e s t , a n d of v a r i e d subject matter, l i i e f u n c t i o n of the school paper and the school annual was Investigated,and both were found to be e f f i c a c i o u s i n developing t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n , s i n c e they provide an i n c e n t i v e . , to good work and a formal r e c o g n i t i o n of accomplishment. I n a d d i t i o n to these values,the school paper i s Instrumental i n l o c a t i n g the g i f t e d students. One of the most u s e f u l means of encouraging c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g was discovered to be through the E n g l i s h clubs,which provide an informal atmosphere f r e e from classroom r e s t r a i n t s . The o p i n i o n was o f f e r e d that the best products should be sent to school p u b l i c a t i o n s or p r i n t e d i n a club anthology.Opposition to encouraging young students to s t r i v e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n e l s e -where was emphatically s t a t e d . A few composition weaknesses of g i f t e d students have been mentioned,chief of these being a f f e c t a t i o n of s t y l e and a general d i s r e g a r d of mechanical elements.For the former,a m i l d s a t i r e was found to be the beat c u r a t i v e ; f o r the l a t t e r , immediate a t t e n t i o n to remedial exercises u n t i l the law of e f f e c t has done i t s work. The f e a s i b i l i t y of follow-up work wi t h g i f t e d adolescents was envisaged,and the conc l u s i o n reached that the most e f f e c t i v e work could be done by the High School teacher i n co-operation w i t h h i s J u n i o r High School colleague. Throughout t h i s t h e s i s we have r e i t e r a t e d the idea that g i f t e d c h i l d r e n are being neglected.This neglect does not present any p a l p a b l y serious problem as does the neglect of the subnormal which o f t e n leads to delinquency,but i n a l e s s obvious way i t i s a very s e r i o u matter. I f democracy i n education means anything, s u r e l y i t must mean gifting opportunity to each i n d i v i d u a l to develop h i s c a p a c i t i e s to the f u l l , a n d t h i s i s not provided i f the most i n t e l l i g e n t are put through the same ro u t i n e as the average and the d u l l . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s must be met by i n d i v i d u a l courses;and those best adapted to g i f t e d students,as has been pointed out,are programs enriched I n imaginative and emotional content and cha r a c t e r i z e d by a great e r degree of freedom than i s . u s u a l . ,. This neglect of g i f t e d p u p i l s i s not only u n f a i r to the students themselves but a l s o to s o c i e t y . K I t seems p l a i n that s k i l l i n language has a s o c i a l value,not merely through the amassing, of i t s i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i t s , b u t through a d i r e c t cent- . r i b u t i o n to the welfare of s o c i e t y as an i n s t i t u t i o n developed • A . out of c i v i l i z a t i o n . " S o c i e t y pays f o r the education of these students,and looks f o r i t s reward i n a more able c i t i z e n s h i p ahich w i l l have a grea t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f i c i e n c y i n s o c i a l and p i l i t i c a l l i f e because of gr e a t e r powers of communication,and which w i l l b r i n g a wor t h i e r home membership through increaded refinement and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the best.And perhaps,occasionally some flo w e r that might otherwise have "been bora to blush unseen and waste i t s sweetness on the desert a i r " may be discovered f o r the d e l e c t a t i o n of humanity. I .S tephens de W i t t , I n d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h Compos i t ion , page 96 ;Cambr idge ,Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Pre s s ,1928 . Appendix A. . JOHIOR HIG-H SCHOOL; TERSE. Bowl of RpSeSSBuBk. M,.,Grade 9,1932. The day breathes q u i e t l y at i t s c l o s e , Turning toward the void of night; A f a i r y weaver p l i e s with rose And weaves a shroud of f a d i n g l i g h t ; The f a r h i l l s hunch i n happy sleep, Darkened w i t h shadows that downward creep. A bowl,exotic b a u b l e , f l i n g s 3?ar o f f countries w i t h i n t h i s room, And a l l i t s carved l o v e l i n e s s sings Of ancient peoples i n the gloom, Of other roses long ago That l e n t t h e i r fragrance to the afterglow. Into the room the darkness flows, Quivering w i t h song from c e l e s t i a l c h o i r ; Here i n the dusk a softness glows, A steady flame of Beauty's f i r e . And beauty s h a l l give to them who t r u s t The flame of i t s flame when roses are dust, • • '"'fffrg Moon,. ,'\ ' • ' , E.P.,Grade 7,1931. I love-you^lady moon, Y/ith your face oo b r i g h t , Sending-down t o , e a r t h Tour p r e t t y s i l v e r l i g h t ; •'• Xou make a path o f s i l v e r • Winding o'*er the seas-,-And p r e t t y - f a i r y - l a m p s - : TJhea you're c h i n i n g through the t r e e s . You peep i n t o my window Shen 1 have gone to bed, And I t seems as though you*re saying* {-Bedtime,sleepy head. { ! .131 ves of the Christmas Tree, E.P.,Grade 8,19.32, Pat l i t t l e s p r i t e s i n coats of red,, Gr owned with wreaths of h o l l y ; Prance beneath the Christmas t r e e , laps of harmless f o l l y . M e r r i l y they wink -and g r i n , S t e a l each others' 7 j a c k e t s ; P l a y the game of hide-and-seek, Or peep i n t o the packets. Clambering up the t a l l s t r a i g h t trunk, On the branches swinging, J o y f u l l y they dance around. Each one g a i l y s i n g i n g . Lonely Evening. M.H.,Grade 9,.1932. My mind i s conscious of l i t t l e things to-night: The t i c k i n g of the clock,the f l i c k e r i n g f l e a s * o f l a r e , T h e , r u s t l i n g of the c u r t a i n i n the dusk. The sound of a l i e n footsteps on the s t a i r . 1 should l o o k — y e t ' I know I ' l l only f i n d S w i r l s of dust,mocking whispers by the gate, Where a t w i s t e d t r e e writhes against the wind And s i b i l a n t l y r a i l s against i t s f a t e . -:-:-:-:-:-:-Y.C.,Grade 9,1931. Upon t h i s stone they*ve l a i d ' above my head I do not wish i n flowery phrases f i n e Sere shallow words of p r a i s e f o r a l l the dead, But j u s t these words that I could say were mine: Spring,friendship,dawn,and music a l l were one; She found a l i t t l e of the j o y God meant, And now i n peace she r e s t s beneath t h i s stone, SSo s a t i s f i e d with beauty,so content. ghat Autumn Evening. . V.C.,Grade 9,1931. 'Hie leaves,the dying l a u r e l s of a summer's fa d i n g g l o r y , Drox>ped i n s i l e n t earnest token of the pomp tha t i t ince knew; Spread i t s gorgeous t i n t s , t h e sunset,on a world that f a s t was r e s t i n g In the park j that autumn evening when I f i r s t met you. Bipped the sun behind the s k y l i n e as a l a s t remembered b l e s s i n g Peeped a p a l e gold s t a r i n wonder from the darkening azure blue Beat my heart i n rhythm keeping w i t h the song that f a s t was s w e l l i n g •• . - ; - .• • : From my dreams that autumn evening when I f i r s t met you. Rose the moon,its s i l v e r y splendor cast o'er a l l the worl a halo,... &ade the vanquished r i s e to conquer,made my wan heart smile anew, . . . l i f t e d from despondent v a l l e y s a l l my thoughts ghat care had broken,. Wien you smiled t h a t autumn evening when I f i r s t met you. Wow the years have t o l l e d t h e i r b l e s s i n g s and the past has ranged behind us^ l e t ay memory does not f a l t e r from the nig h t my dreams came true; Ah my sweet! a sacred token of our love s h a l l l i v e f o r e v e r In a golden autumn evening-when I f i r s t met you. The E l f . J.C.,Grade 7,1933. • A l i t t l e e l f through, the f o r e s t ranj Under the leaves he h i d from man. High i n the heavens the sun shone down, Down on the sunmaid's v e l v e t y gown. On through the f o r e s t the l i t t l e e l f went, Th© s u i t o r f o r whom the sunraald had sent; He a r r i v e d at the palace i n a woodland glen Where i t was hidden from eyes of mon. Just then the p r e t t y sunmaiden came And s a i d , " B e t t i n a i s my name." The e l f replied,"My name i s Pinky." And h i s eyes were j u s t a wee h i t winky. He s a i d to B e t t i n a , "How l o v e l y you are, As b e a u t i f u l as a heavenly s t a r . " The e l f was i n l o v e as you must have guessed And was t h i n k i n g of making a l i t t l e l o v e nes Soon happy and gay They both ran away, . And i n a fernglade T h e i r wee home they made. Table, Talk-. " S3!. ,Grade 9, 1932. The t a l k ran o n — ? — - —--Each word came and "bewildered sank, or flew, Or h a l f remained before the other*© blot/a; 1 could see gay a d j e c t i v e s that rose I n rainbow bubbles,and l i k e bubbles broke Before thet a t t a i n e d t h e i r glowing heights; ^erbs,breaking the t a l k i n g l i t t e r i n g l i g h t s ; Tired,depressed words,hldden a l l t h e i r f i r e . That w e a r i l y came on marching s o l d i e r f e e t ; T r i t e coquetting words,drippingly sweet; E p i t h e t s of senoa zlg-zagged through i t a l l . I t seemed so very f u t i l e s i t t i n g there With a i l the words pressed on me.I gave a cry, And i n the s i l e n c e saw i t t w i s t and d i e . **; * : t—i • -s "-»•—• - J * f u t i l i t y . H,E.,-Grade 9,1932. A c h i l d has crept through the darkness And painted the thousand mysteries Of the strange night With a crooked twig dipped i n mud. A f o o l has laughed madly . At the moon's tw i s t e d agony , Refl e c t e d i n the water, And counted frog's f o o t p r i n t s Along the c o o l marsh lands. D . H . , G r a d e 9,1931. B a i n ! Gray s i d e s Spread l i k e a "blanket over a gray c i t y ; A misty, gray aeaj.amall "boats Tossed, and buffeted by tiie winds, I h e i r pale l i g h t s f l i c k e r i n g now and then Through the m i s t . The mountains,gaunt and e r i e , In the distance t h e i r weird o u t l i n e s Phantom-like. She trees bare and l e a f l e s s stand B e r e f t of a l l t h e i r beauty,dripping In the r a i n . Tiie birds 1' song i s f o r once s t i l l e d . Darkness f a l l s . - ^ a r l e t j j a p l e . . M.M.,Grade 9,1932. A l l day i t mocked at me That laughing t r e e i n crimson hung; Whispering,cajoling,hindering me, A taunt t o every breeze i t f l u n g . A l l through the quiet night i t sung, U n t i l ,y young heart longed to be A dancing part of that vagrant t r e e . I-y, -&reara _ ,Sjalg»_ G.K.,Grade 9 , s h i p of dreams g l i d e s smoothly on Down fancy's golden-tinted f l o o d To Grecian I s l e s and Marathon, And h i l l s i d e s red w i t h Persian blood. O'er y e l l o w sands now waste and bare Vihere once geeat J-iace&on conspired Mid gardens b r i g h t with flowers .rare That a l l should do as he desir e d . Ky magic ship would q u i c k l y g l i d e , And now w i t h Arthur's knights l * d roam. Through, mystic woods where dangers h i d e And s c a l y dragons rage and foam. October. E,P.,Grade 7,1931. Golden October g l i d i n g b y — — A misty v e i l she casts around; The leaves against the hazy sky Are f l u t t e r i n g to the ground. The b i r d s are f l y i n g to the south, And b u t t e r f l i e s no longer f l i t ; Ve gather round the f i r e at n i g h t , And a l l the lamps are l i t . Then someone weaves a s t o r y strange, Of p i r a t e s bold i n days of yore, XSho plundered shipd and b&ttles fought On many a f o r e i g n shore. And so October casts her s p e l l And leaves us f o r another year; The suiiimer long has gone her way And winter days are here, Porest Glade. E . P . ,Grade 8,1932, ( T i s there 1 lead my footsteps Through glade and f o r e s t green, 3y t i n y d e l l s and mosey paths Where f a i r y f o l k have been. And v i o l e t s are nodding As I pass upon my way; The whole world i s enchanted T3hen the f a i r i e s are at play. The gentle fawn i s gr a z i n g Beside the woodland stream; And,coming through the leaves above, Darts a, sunny beam. A t i n y bobbing r a b b i t Goes a-skf/piiig o'er the t r a c k ; ! A l i t t l e b i r d i s c a l l i n g , And the echoes answer back. The Parle House. K,B,,<5rade 9,1951. I t once had been c h e e r f u l a long time ago, But the house now i s shrouded i n gloom; The s p i t i t of death seems to walk fro and f r o As he wanders through each l o n e l y room. G a y p a r t i e s and dances were h e l d i n ; i t s h a l l ; But,where laughter and fun should p r e v a i l , The leaves-with the wind do the dances of f a l l . And the fog i s a damp misty v e i l . Biany a time have 1 heard the t a l e t o l d \7ith hushed voice and sorrowful mien, Of the things that happened there long,long ago, Of things that the dark house had seen. I do not know one who can go by i t now With ut seeing spectre or ghost; And the whispers of trees see3£ the cry of the souls That w i t h i n the dark house have been l o s t . So i t stands,and i t w i l l t i l l i t f a l l s with, decay, The house that i s shrouded i n gloom, I'lie house that c o l d death holds under h i s sway As he wanders through, each l o n e l y room. l S L J S £ d § M . • Grade 9, A932 Horning i n the garden: F i t f u l breezes blow Across the grassy stretches Apple blossom snow, To where the l i t t l e flowers Sodding i n t h e i r beds Hear a r o b i n i n the distance . Sing, "Up,you sleepy hsadj ! i Evening i n the garden: .The t w i l i g h t wind sings Of the joys and sorrow's That to-morrow brings; .The ghost c h i l d r e n come Through the fading l i g h t , Galling,Oh,so s o f t l y , f iGarden, go od n i g h t . n - j . Jli.K.,Grade 9, A932. Some songs are f a r to r a r e f o r s i n g i n g . Such are the songs the trees pantomime Vfaen t h e i r leaves are f r a g i l e against the sky Of sp r i n g , o r e x u l t i n g w i t h the wine Of autumn;in winter,when etched i n ebony t r a c e r i e s , a s i g h i s t h e i r l a t h e i r melody,a sorrow st r e t c h e d P a s s i v e l y between each naked bow. With only a joyous l i l t then and now ¥nen the sun laughs,and i t seems Wrapped i n i t s mirth a dryad s t i r s and dreams. Thoughts on Leaving Tempiefton. A,D..»Grade 9,1930* I t h i n k my thought's are what you th i n k , The thoughts I t h i n k i n thought; And t h i n k i n g as • I ' t h i n k I think f t These thoughts my t h i n k i n g thought, I cam and worked and went again; Each day was as before; How that June has come three times, I stand outside the door, 1 am not sad nor am I gay, On t h i n k i n g of my l o t ; But my mind i s pre-engrossed; This i s my trend of thought: The f u t u r e holds up higher goals; And towards these I am set; So meditating on my'way-, I leave without r e g r e t . On,Reading a Rumour about the__Prinee of Wales. . • '• • .,.. , . . K.D.,Grade 1 wish I were the P r i n c e of Wales j I*d face''the ocean's s t o u t e s t gales; To Argentine I'd t u r n my boat And up 'the Rio P l a t t e f l o a t . Ashore,I'd mount a co a l black steed And o'er the tawny p r a i r i e s speed; The w h i s t l i n g breeze would make me f r e e Prom court or home diplomacy. I'd climb the snowy Andean height, And from the highest summit b r i g h t , I'd watch the surging breakers foam And pigmy men through v a l l e y s roam. I ? & r a i s e my arms unto the sky; I *d push the downy c l o u d l e t s by; 'cl stoop to l e t the sum pass o-er To i t s w e l l earned r e s t on western shore. Per I have read i n news of l a t e That matrimony seems h i s f a t e ; How,I don't t h i n k that we can spare Our P r i n c e to any l a d y f a i r . \7hite glowers. M.E.,Grade 9,1932. I once saw a woman by a window P o l i s h i n g s i l v e r and f i n d i n g i t f a i r s I saw the song upon her l i p s , The l o n g grey strands of her t i r e d h a i r That she brushed away from, a happy face; And 1 knew that she h e l d a coveted place That only a few can know and share. I never thought of her name at a l l , Hor of the secret peaces she t r o d ; But the kindness I saw mirrored there Was of those who walk w i t h God; As the s i l v e r g l i n t e d i n the sun. She smiled i n p r i d e at work w e l l done, • And the wind s k i s s made a white flower nod. To, a Robin. E.P.,Grade 7,1931. The n i g h t s : a r e growing longer As s h o r t e r grows the day; The mountain peaks are crowned with snow Y e t , l i t t l e bird,you stay. The golden leaves have f a l l e n now; :. The northern wind blows c o l d ; B u t , l i t t l e bird,though small you are. Your heart i s b i g and bold. A l l w i n t e r long you c h i r p and s i n g , A-hopping on the s i l l ; Down to the south you do not f l y , But l i n g e r at your w i l l . -:-:-:«:-•:-:-:-B u t t e r f l x E.P.,Grade Grade 7,1931, B u t t e r f l y , butt ex-fly, where are you roams, ng? Wandering,wandering ever. You f l y i n the s u n l i g h t t i l l day turns to gloaming On wings as l i g h t as a feather. B u t t e r f l y , b u t t e r f l y , w h y do you hover And l i g h t on a v e l v e t y p e t s l , : Or dance i n the sun mid the sweet purple c l o v e r ? For never f o r long, do you s e t t l e . B u t t e r f l y , b u t t e r f l y , w h y do you t a r r y , And l i n g e r near sweet-scented flowers? To gather the honey and nectar they c a r r y >-Or while away long golden hours? The L i t t l e Three Tear Old. E.H^&rade 9,1931. Bonny l i t t l e three year o l d (Cur l s of brown w i t h gleam of gold) Loved.a baby f a i r .and s m a l l . But i t had no h a i r at a l l . This.was very sad you see; Babies bald should never be! In h i s heart n i s wonder grew, What would the t i n y baby do? So the merry l i t t l e man H i t upon a happy plan; He would share what he has got With the one who has i t not. In h i s tumbling mop of h a i r There i s many a e u r l to share; "Cut them o f f , " he shyly s a i d , "And put them on the baby's head." Ode to frothing i n Particular.. ~ L.P.,Grade 9,1930. I wish I were a pachyderm, A blade of grass,a typhoid germ, A piece of cake,a s l i c e of sky, A b e t t i e or a dragon f l y , A hunk of cheese,a l i t t l e f l e a , A pool of and,a bumble bee, • A d i s k of f r u i t , a keg of b e e r - — -By t i l l s time you must think me queer. 0 yes,I am, that's why,you see, 1 wrote tixis t i l i n g f o r 1»B.B. . (Written i n about f i v e minutes at close of examination.) -:-:-:-;»:-:-:-!-;-;-;-l a r s w e l l , ••' Grade 9,1933. Th.ese l i n e s to you,dear schoolmates. 1 rue from you to part; The memory of your laughs and giniies W i l l l i n g e r i n my heart. We now must cross the Rubicon, Meet V i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e ; Kay the journey be a pleasant one Devoid of war and s t r i f e . IPor some the roads are l e v e l l e d , For others the're l e f t rough; Ho doubt some w i l l f i n d wealth and fame, And others not enough. But whatever our environments , T i l l the reaper takes h i s t o l l , Let us -face I t l i k e Canadians , T i l l we reach tho f i n a l g o a l . 1' o the geachers. The time hasnow a r r i v e d Por your inept p u p i l to leave; I respect your devotion to duty But your patience 1 cannot conceive* Your vocation i n l i f e the most noble, To t r a i n the y o u t h f u l mind To cope r/ith l l f e * s b i g problems. His proper sphere .to find , . ...,'„ For knowledge a t t a i n e d while here A l l c r e d i t i s your due; Grammar, Prench, and algebra, 1 ewe i t a l l to you. To p a r t from you i t grieves me: In you I've found a f r i e n d ; A l l I can giv e you i n r e t u r n Is best wishedto the end, • M # * — . * • - - * * .»#.-.* «»*••«»'••'» *» Appendix 3_. JOBlOa HIGH SCHOOL PROSE. .. A . g f t g 4 » . ••• The d u l l , l e a d e n sky dropped h e a v i l y over a sodden land, while the growl of the receding thunder,like a hungry l i o n d r i v e n from I t s hard-won prey,threatened ominously.But n e i t h e r s u l l e n clouds nor menacing thunder prevented t h a t a i r y - f a i r y zephyr breeze frm b u r s t i n g through the black bank which guarded the south.Gently,so gently,"but nevertheless p e r s i s t e n t l y i t made i t s way through, t h r u s t i n g to r i g h t and le£t i n the most u n d i g n i f i e d manner the gloomy guards. And, behold I there, c l i n g i n g to the back of i t s c h a r i o t with warm,rosy f i n g e r s , was a saucy,twinkling sunbeam,swirling her gooamere s k i r t s r i g h t i n the face of the monstrous clouds.Close at her heels trooped h e r merry maids oC honour,clad i n r a d i a n t hues of gold,crimson,and topaz.With a joyous song on her l i p s , t h e y caught hands and abandoned themselves to the maddest,merriest dance imaginable, l b r d i d they cease t i l l exhaustion overtook them and they sank to the flower-strewn earth.But t h e i r song could not d i e . I t was eagerly caught up by the s i l v e r - t h r o a t e d songsters among the r a i n - j e w e l l e d trees,and the entrancing melody completed the self-imposed mission of the zephyr breeze and the mischievous maidB. .The, Seeing; ffiyq* 1.1.*Grade 9,1933. Mr.Jewell's heart hadn't heaten so f a s t i n a l l of h i s f o r t y years.He had never proposed before to any woman.And now he was going to,propose,marriage . t o w o m a n he,had,,neverseem|: He stepped out i n t o the m i l d s u n l i g h t of a Jfew York .afternoon and p a i d the t a x i - d r i v e r w i t h a hand that shook. She apartment house doorman t o l d the f l u s t e r e d , g e n t l e -man that K i s s A r v i a Moonc expected him.Going up i n the elevator J e w e l l mopped h i s face,while the whole wonderful course ©£ • t h i s a f f a i r seemed to f l a s h by him l i k e a motion p i c t u r e . An adolescent disappointment had made him d i s t r u s t f u l o f women.And l a t e r * w h i l e b u i l d i n g up a s u c c e s s f u l wholesale lumber business,he had developed on the si d e a secret l i f e of the imagination. This had l e d him to become convinced that no woman ever could see l i f e as he saw i t . And then, on h i s t h i r t y - n i n t h birthday,he had picked up a magazine and read that s t o r y , "The Lonely Heart",by A r v i a He wrote t o the magazine,asking I f she had w r i t t e n anything else„The magazinevg aided by fate,had forwarded h i s l e t t e r to her.And Hiss Moone had r e p l i e d , e x p l a i n i n g that she had published seven novels. I n c i d e n t a l l y , s h e confirmed h i s impression of a p e r s o n a l i t y somewhat l i k e h i s own. So i t was only n a t u r a l , a f t e r reading her f i r s t novel, to w r i t e and say how much he l i k e d the ^author's vie?/point. I n her r e p l y she had s a i d that i t was so rare to come Upon a man who r e a l i z e d that l i f e was a great romance. r aost men were gross and material,and saw only the surface of things. When she added that he had the Seeing Eye,K r.Jewell experienced the icy,agreeable t h r i l l of r e a l i z i n g that here,at lact,wasaa woman i n a thousand.. Hr..Jewell's business'was i n C i n c i n n a t i . M i s s Ho one l i v e i n Hew York.So he had subjugated h i s gross male c u r i o s i t y and, instead of inconveniencing' himself by t r y i n g to see her, had ta c k l e d her other s i x books.The ensuing correspondence between them delved i n t o the most intimate moral and s p i r i t u a l problems of her characters.Mr,Jewell came to f e e l that t h e i r two beings had met and merged i n the spaemous realm of the Then business brought him to Hew York,and he telephoned her.Magically,her musical voice s e t t l e d some doubts i n s i d e him. I t v i b r a t e d i n a way which assured him that between them,i7ith no need f o r words,had a r i s s n a knowledge that each required the other.And K r . J e w e l l had asked i f he might c a l l — h i s voice saying that he was b r i n g i n g h i s heart. with such a voice and such a aoul,%*.Jewell concluded as the e l e v a t o r rose,she,of course,would be beautiful.But he wished that he knew,at least,whether she was going to be a blond or a brunette. The e l e v a t o r stopped,and as though i n a trance he loc a t e d her s u i t e .He pressed the b e l l . A f u l l minute dragged by, i r r i d e s e e n t w i t h dreams of a l i f e t i m e . Then the door opened, to r e v e a l a woman of nearly h i s own age,with faded, nondescript hair,and a l o n g , p l a i n face.She was dressed i n black and,with the desperation of hope:Blar,. Jewell decided that she was the maid. "Is K i s s A r v i a Mo one at home?" he i n q u i r e d , h i s voice breaking i n the presence of l i f e ' s great moment. ttI am Miss Moone.Won't you come in,ICr. J e w e l l l ? " This was t c r r i b l e J B u t ixhable to f l e e , i i r . J e w e ll entered, hung up h i s hat,mopped h i s face,and followed her i n t o the l i v i n g room.He sat down and stared at her comfortable,low-heeled shoes,The doubts he had returned and increased.And her embarras-ment began to make him acutely uncoinfer&able.She was t a l k i n g d i s j o i n t e d l y , t r y i n g to smooth over t h i s t e r r i b l e moment. I t d i d not smooth over f o r I f r * Jewell.He recognized i n her a l l of the n i c e things he had expected.Her t i m e - t r i e d and homey room w i t h i t s l o v e l y blending of quiet tones r e f l e c t e d h e r deep and understanding pe r s o n a l i t y . B u t she was c e r t a i n l y not the creature of h i s dreams.And because she knew that he had come here i n a frame of mind personal to the point of matrimony,he must escape, " I came by," he b l u r t e d . " t o e x p l a i n that an important matterhhds j u s t come up — I - w i l l telephone l a t e r . * ; E r . J e w e l l discovered himself out on the s t r e e t , p e r s p i r i n g f r e e l y .He had escaped,He need never go back*But he found t h a t he kept walking round and round the b l o c k . A f t e r a l l , h e and she were remarkably congenial, de had been a bachelor long enough. And he would get used to the f a c t that she wasn't b e a u t i f u l . Hot many women were b e a u t i f u l anyway.He'd be b e t t e r o f f married. Ee would go back and marry her, . . Mr.Jewell returned and rang the b e l l . H e noticed,when she answered the door,that she had been ; crying.He f e l t a brute f o r having hurt her by rushing o f f l i k e that. " I was oo f l u s t e r e d at having seen you," he confessed when they were seated,"that I went and walked away to recover my composure.I have come hack,*1 ho added,"to ask you to marry me Miss Moone h e s i t a t e d f o r a long,long time, "I w i l l t r y to make you happy„ n3he s a i d at l a s t a Mr. J e w e l l s a i d t r u t h f u l l y that j u s t her answer made him happy.And,now that the tension was broken,they laughed as they had laughed i n S h e i r l e t t e r s . M r , J e w e l l spent one of the most d e l i g h t f u l afternoons of h i s l i f e . H e k i s s e d her i n k - s t a i n e d f i n g e r s and departed i n a rosy cloud of s e l f - a p p r o v a l . By being b i g and generous he had won a treasure.And i n return,he was making one woman b l i n d l y happy. A f t e r Mr..Jewell had gone, Hiss Ho one unlocked a l e a t h e r -bound diary,and t h o u g h t f u l l y piokedup a pen. "He has j u s t gone,"she wrote,"and we are going to be married.He i s f a t and conceited;he i s p o s i t i v e l y ugly,and he wears awful c l o t h e s . n a t u r a l l y , I wept a f t e r I had seen him.But he i s l o v a b l e and kind.And I know I s h a l l be happy i n making him happy." The R e l i g i o n of Mutant i g o n i a . L.P.,Grade 9,1930. "Ay!I've been on many a strange c r u i s e and seen many a strange s i g h t , " s a i d the o l d s a l t , s e t t i n g doim h i s tankard and wiping h i s f a c i a l fungus. Foreseeing a t a l e of adventure,not to cay imagination,1 prepared accordingly,., .._ •„,•„;,,,..•. "You may have wondered how I gained my present corpulence, he s a i d . "Well, * twas on the good ship Haremba,in . *87 or mebbe •89 t h a t we s a i l e d f o r Hydro Phobea^or somewhere el s e i n those parts;we won't bother;about small things l i k e that though. The c h i e f of the place was a funny s o r t of f e l l o e c a l l e d Mump tygonia. Years ago, a missionary had v i s i t e d the i s land, and his . great great grandfather had become a •Ghayiatiaa, ?© show this,Mumpty sometimes wore a frock coat,top hat,and spats; w h i l e h i s cannibal ancestry was represented at other times by a nose ring,grass s k i r t , a n d s e v e r a l l a y e r s of assorted war p a i n t and d i r t over h i s chocolateihued eompexion. We were welcomed r i g h t warmly on our a r r i v a l , a n d given the biggest hut i n the town to sleep i n . + h e date,as I remember i t , was- -January 31-st.: Hext morning being Sunday,we was prepared to sleep l a t e , but our i n t e n t i o n was f o r e s t a l l e d by what might be termed a moot unearthly and unbecoming d i n . Enter .Mumpty^Siiinus - f r o c k coat.,, top 'hatband spats, but-making up f o r t h i s l a c k of habiliment bj- f r e s h war paint,much a f t e r the f a s h i o n of the f a i r e r sex to-day.Ke was supported by f i v e bouncin* babies,a f i n e ad.for virol.These p r i z e beauties gazed / a t u s w i t h not over benevolent eyes. P e r c e i v i n g the mate, sle e p i n g l i k e dead, except f o r accom-paniment i i i manyl b a r i t o n e , h i s well-upholetered sides r i s i n g - and f a l l i n g w i t h the exertion,they, gave a whoop.of joy. and speared him n e a t l y through the s o l a r p l e x u s . l t must have woke him,' cause he yawned J 'x'hey then took hold of the ends of the skewer,and the worthy mate rode out of the hut with h a r d l y a wiggle. 5>0h lo r V f ! g r o a i a s the captain,"there goes barbecue number one.". They t i e d the r e s t of us up \7ith grass ropes and gave us the best meal we'd ever eaten. ; .Every day one of us went f o r a r l d e , a s : t h e y say i n Chicago.I was a t h i n l i t t l e guy then,so I was fed more than any anybody e l s e i n the crew.There was twenty-eight besides me, so I tad great 'opes th a t I'd be rescued,or the cook would poison them a l l before i t was my t u r n (.Besides turned vegetarian f o r f e a r I'd be enjoyln* a pork chop o f f my shipmate's m i l k -fed ribs.Hy s c h o o l g i r l complexion was also becoming muddy from s l e e p l e s s n i g h t s . At l a s t came the day. when i t was. my t u r n , and I. was f e e l i n d downhearted to. say the least,,and was •oping i t would h u r t them more than i t would h u r t me, when i n came Kumpty and Co.It was a d i f f e r e n t Kumpty, »owever,for *e *ad on ' i s top h a t , f r o c k coat, and a l l . I was s u r p r i s e d at what I considered to be an honour to my e d i b i l i t y . I n s t e a d of a spear *e rad a k n i f e which s t i l l more s u r p r i s e d me;but imagine my embarrassment when,instead of removin my gizzard^he out'.the ropes, . They then l e a d me out on the beach,hailed a passing ship and,bundling me i n t o a canoe f i l l e d w i t h presents of gold and s i l v e r , rovyed me out to the boat.Before I boarded her,Humpty hauled out a b i b l e and preached a f a r e w e l l sermon! His cannibal month was over! His C h r i s t i a n month was begun! .Tundra. H.E.,Grade 9,1930, T w i l i g h t had d r a m her dusky cloak over the vast l o n e l y tundra.Hot a sound broke the heavy silence,oave the monotonous booming of the s u r f as the huge mountains of water broke, thun-d e r i n g against the gaunt,grey crags,Ho l i v i n g thing s t i r r e d . Only the muddy white-capped deep r o l l e d on endlessly,meeting and merging w i t h the muddy y e l l o w sky i n the distance.The f o r l o r n , mangled, almost l i f e l e s s form of a baby s e a l which had been beaten against the rocks and cast on the stony beachyadded the brooding h o r r o r of death to the already gruesome spectacle. Blood poured f o r t h from i t s nose,ears,and ayes,staining the sand to a b r i l l i a n t s c a r l e t . I n i t s l a s t agony of death i t uttered a low moaning sound,not u n l i k e the groan of a s i c k c h i l d , I turned aghast from that loathsome lump of f l e s h to gaze at the barren c l i f f s . H o t a v e s t i g e of a s i n g l e scraggy plant or hardy weed grew from i t s . rooky w a l l s . Ho t h i n g l i v e d i n t h i s abandoned l a n d save I,nothing t h r i v e d i n t h i s desolate waste of hope-lessness save death,and that murderous i c y sea whipped, i n t o f r o t h by the c u t t i n g winds of Thule which blew i n w h i s t l i n g b l a s t s across the p l a i n s d e s t i t u t e of life.On© s o l i t a r y , miserable,, bony wolverine,haggard from long weeks of s u f f e r i n g , , echoed and re-echoed i t s . wailing.death cry.I-turned from the sea and looked over the snowy p l a i n s empty save f o r t h e abominable r o t t i n g , carcass of a v i l e - s m e l l i n g , sea bird,, I t was a land r u l e d by Satan.Truly a land of death, « . .-—.«r.;..^3.:- j : - i s fr s.—s—s 5 * j * |. ^  j A Find. , B^H,, Grade ;9,I93G., Mr.D.C.Jones swung b r i s k l y down the.hotel steps.His manly chest expanded twice i t s usual circumference ashe noted the adoring glances.cast by the female guests. Jones .was-.a d i r e c t o r of the.greatest entertainment i n the world,the movies.Ho secret was i t that he was out f o r a new " f i n d " .But the languishing l a d i e s on the verandah were not to h i s t a s t e , ^ here's enough of t h e i r k i n d , a l l eye-lashes and l e g s , on the screen now, thought he s a r c a s t i c a l l y . Thus reminiscing,the d i r e c t o r s t a r t e d down one of the mountain t r a i l s f o r which the h o t e l was so famous.&e had not gone f a r before he heard a b e a u t i f u l voice s i n g i n g . Ahe owner seemed to be composing as she sang,for Jones had ne\rex heard a so n g . l i k e It.The theme was hauntingly sad,as i f the singer had known great sorrow or pain."Ah! here maybe by search ends," quoth B . C . J o n e s , i n the manner he had taught detectives of the s i l s i l v e r screen.Peering through a w a l l of l a c e - l i k e evergreens he saw her* She was seated at the door of a r u s t i c log-cabin. ~ h e pale, heart-shaped face was framed i n glossy,black h a i r , t h a t was •caught i n a loose knot at the nape of her neck.As she r a i s e d her eyes, Jones saw that they were pools of v e l v e t y brown.V&ry, she'd make' a' second 'f i o n a / l l s a , .thought, he j as' he n o t i c e d the w i s t f u l , h a u n t i n g smile tugging a t her lips.Had h e been c l o s e r the d i r e c t ox'" might : have seen the v i o l e t shadows beneath her eyes,the t r a n s p a r e n t , s i l k - l i k e skin,and the resigned f o l d of her f r a g i l e hands.Around her s l i m shoulders was c a r e l e s s l y f l u n g a quaint Bhawl and her black dress f e l l i n ample f o l d s to the f l o o r . "Humph,-good a c t r e s s , " thought Jones.-^e s t a r t e d forward' to speak to her,and saw w i t h h o r r o r a small p a i r of crutches l y i n g a t her feet.Sow he understood the agony and sorrow i n ' her v oice and eyes.She was a c r i p p l e . - i „ ; *»i - s ~ : - :• - : ' » ' ? •*t~i-~i - 5 - * « * * ~ •The .JCvstory of. ..the ffre.v House.' 1.P.,Grade 9, A95I. The c l o c k i n the church steeple boomed out the hour of midnight to a s l e e p i n g town.But i n tne b i g house on High Street • a l l were not a t r e s t . C a u t i o u s l y opening the bedroom door,a pyjama-clad f i g u r e stepped i n t o the dim moonlit corrldQr.Tha look on h i s deeply* seamed features was c r u e l , y e t f u r t i v e , a n d i t may have been timged w i t h f e a r . He began s t e a l t h i l y to descend the darkened staircase.A board creaked,and he muttered something under h i s breath. Down I n the shadows below something .movedJ'The man paused and peered over the bannisters i n t o the gloom; then, slowly, step by step, went down, to .meet the unknown I He reached the bottom.There was a breathless hush,broken o n l y by h l a laboured" r e s p i r a t i o n . T h e n - — t h e n the coats on the h a l l . s t a n d moved!Across a patch o l pale moonlight a shapeless shadow f l i t t e d , A n unseen body brushed against him.The par l o u r door creaked* then s l o w l y opened to the touch of an unseen hand. S i l e n c e l For a l o n g time the man clung to the post at the foot of the s t a i r c a s e , s t r i v i n g to p i e r c e the gloom. Then,with a c a t l i k e tread,he crossed the h a l l to the parlour door .He enteredlFor a time he remained motionless! Two green eyes about the height of h i s w a i s t f l i c k e r e d , , f i e n d i s h l y at him from the f a r corner of the room. A c r y of e x u l t a t i o n , o f w i l d triumph,rose from hos throat. His body tensed ..He sprang at the Horror i n the corner. Where the t h i n g had been was a c h a i r ! Then h i s hands came i n contact w i t h a s o f t Inhuman shape.A razor^sharp blade l a c e r a t e d h i s w r i s t .A c r y , l i k e t hat of n e i t h e r man nor beast, rose from h i s captive... : ; . He dashed to the f r o n t door,opened,it and threw out a. shapeless black masslHe slatamed the door,heaved a sigh,and . began to suck h i s bleeding /wrist. , • Hr.Spifikena had put: the cat.out! g.ehcol a Thousand Years from .How. ; , • " Grade 9,X9S3. "How i n t o l e r s M y . b o r i n g school, must have been.a thousand .years ago," remarked E t h a b a l f r a to Sernestina,as she l e i s u r e l y adjusted her m e r c u r i a l wings to her d a i n t y heels preparatory to the morning*s l e s s o n on Egypt. "You do t h i n k of the most depressing subjects f o r conver-s a t i o n , « returned her companion,as she adjusted her oxygen mask; "who wants to discuss ancient history.Why 1 " But here she was i n t e r r u p t e d by the master 1s voice as he addressed the assembled boys and g i r l s somewhat s t e r n l y . "You are aware that through gross carelessness i n not c a r r y i n g the required amount of oxygen Zedatab Bernstow f e l l through the stratosphere i n t o the atmosphere above Japan y e s t e r -day, and consequently the. p o l i c e squadron of Glags S i x l o s t two v a l u a b l e hourse i n therescue.Let t h i s happen again to any member of the c l a s s and I s h a l l be compelled to commit the offender to the e l e c t r i c chamber f o r three minutes* punishment.This morning we s h a l l spend one hour i n obtaining a l l the geographical i n * formation we can i n the 'Valley of the E l l e . Prom there we must hurry to P a r i s i n time f o r our French lesson.Be sure that your thinkographs are f i r m l y attached to your foreheads,Some of you may be able to sue more than one reel.But do think . c l e a r l y ! You know,Exobus, when you turned on jrour talkophone on Monday af ternoo you had pink hug-me-tights mixed with your Greek. To-day wo s h a l l f l y i n goose formation.Follow me.;we .must be t h e m i n f i v e minutes Beady—-release controls*"—"With a gentle whir master and p u p i l s vanished i n t o the blue. Great Caesar's Ghost'Shades of Confucius S Wisdom of 3 geaj G a l l a n t r y of Knights I Yes,meet them a l l i n the "Houseboat on the Styx" where the shadowy inhabiatants of Hades meet to argue, smhke,and employ t h e i r l e i s u r e , e t e r n i t y . D r o p i n at the clubhouse and l i s t e n while Shakespeare,Baron Munchausen,Sir Walter Raleigh,and Hero argue over the authorship o f " H a m l e t " . S t r o l l w i t h Queen S l i x a b e t h on the Shores of the Styx,and j o i n i n the conversation between he r and Mrs,Socrates as to the most fashionable a t t i r e f o r b i c y c l e riding,Lend an ear to the d i s c u s s i o n of Burns and Homer, who agree that cooks are very necessary members of s o c i e t y . Enjoy H o a h % account of the voyage i n the ark with the cargo •of .animals. The great characters of a l l the ages are gathered together i n t h i s d e l i g h t f u l l y funny book, the "Houseboat on the Styx'i A Connecticut ¥aaka8_fa_JKin^ , ,Grade 9,1933., A very p r a c t i c a l fijack-of - a l l - t r a d e s " i s transported from modern times to the f a r - o f f glamour of King Arthur's Round Table.He immediately gains a reputation as a powerful magician,becomes a k n i g h t - e r r a n t , and proceeds to renovate the kingdom of the great Arthur very thoroughly.Ac may be expected i n these strange circumstances,his adventures are t r u l y funny. This book 'also gives a c l e a r view of the darker side of the famous Age of Chivalry,showing the foolishness,greed,and c r u e l t y of the nobles;the hardships of the serfs;and the l i v e s of the commoners • .A.,eiie..*-Act Tragedy. L.P.,Grade 9,1951. .•Scene 1——-^lassroara. •' Characters- teacher; student. Enter the student,.wlth s h r i n k i n g mein.Glides to h i s seat and endeavours to become as small a p a r t of surroundings as p o s s i b l e Enter the teacher,.expression on face i s pleased and expectant;also s l i g h t l y malicious.-k-ote book and p e n c i l i n hand* Teacher; (endeavouring to make c l a s s jump by use of a i r pressure} Those who have not done t h e i r punctuation p r o j e c t , stand up! (Student endeavours to hide behind Godfrey and Siddons Elementary Geome.try,faeiai expression l i k e unto a lamb}. Teacher: What have we here, See here,see hers The student h i d e t h His worthless carcass Behind a Godfrey And Siddons 1 Geometry, Seeking to hide His shame behind That good and honourable Worlu Speak now,thou knave, Thou muddy knave, Why h l d e s t thou Behind thy Godfrey And Siddons* Geometry? •Students.- Sl-r^iiononrable- s i r , Who i n thy great Magnificent wisdom W i l l doubtless perceive That 1, -Oh great And honourable s i r -Teacher; I n aooth.,he speaketh With tongue Of g i b b e r i n g ass; Speak up*thou * Pool,speak up, And gargle not Thy words. Student: 2£ost gracious s i r , Oh hear,lend ear. To t h i s my p l i g h t s Last n i g h t , k i n d s i r , I s t a r t e d on i y punctuation progect~~?-Te&eheri^Twere much to l a t e To s t a r t . Take f i f t e y l i n e s . Student10 wisest s i r , Most d a r l i n g teacher. Let my p l e a be F i r s t put f o r t h : My s i s t e r , s h e D i d s p i l l the ink; I'.j brother,lie Did break: the pen; My matheajyshe Did burn the paper; My father,he Did need lay a i d To d i g the g a r d e n -Alas , f o u l garden. The symbol of ISy childhood's xvoeo—-But r e t u r n i n g to My t h e m e — Teacher;: Speak up. Thou squawking ass;. How much,.! say. How much of t h i s Punctuation P r o j e c t Have you done? Student" A l a s , k i n d s i r . Y o u ' l l r e a d i l y see That circumstances Beyond c o n t r o l Have caused me t o — I n sooth,not to Have s t a r t e d y e t This punctuation p r o j e c t . Teachers So t h i s thy, p l e a . Thou muddy knavel Then come'with met' (Teacher e x t r a c t s strap .from desh;exeunt i l s } l o t e : The above was handed i n as an imposition whici: was g i v e n for" neglect of an assignment. BIB1I0GBAPHY.: 1. Adams,F. and Brown,W. .Teaching the B r i g h t Puoil:Henrv H o l t and Co.,Hew York,1930, 2. Brooks ,F.B. ^ Psychology of AdolescencerHoughton M i f f l i n Co., Hew York, 1929, An exhaustive treatment o f the subject p r o v i d i n g an e x c e l l e n t background, 3. Chubb.P..The Teaching of English:The Macmillan Co.,Hew York, 1929. A good general work; chapter 17 on "Composition, i n the High School" of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , 4. Gohen,H.L. and Coryell,H.G.,Educating Superior Students; American Book Co.,Hew York,I935.Go-operative studies c a r r i e d on under the auspices of the A s s o c i a t i o n of F i r s t A s s i s t a n t s i n the High Schools of the c i t y of Hew York. 5. Diltz.B..Models and Projects;Copp C l a r k Co,,Toronto,1932. A f i n e thesaurus of i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l u s e f u l to teachers of g i f t e d students. •6;Tinotu&.?How t o Teach E n g l i s h Gompositlon»Books 1 and I I ; Evans Brothers ltd.,lendon,1920. One of the beet p r a c t i c a l books on the subject,Book I,chapters 13 to 16,are of p a r t i c u l a r value to those i n t e r e s t e d i n encouraging verse w r i t i n g . 7 a'Gesell,A.L. .Exceptional C h i l d r e n and P u b l i c School Pfflbicy; Y ale U n i v e r s i t y Press,Hew Haven, 1931. 8, Gal v i a E.H. and Walker H.E. .Assemblies f o r Junior High Sc h o o l s ; P r o f e s s i o n a l and Technical Press,He?; York, 1929. 9. GoddardJg.K. .School Training; of G i f t e d Children;World Book Company, Hew York,1928. S e c t i o n D gives some concrete examples of enrichment i n a number of subjects. IQ.Holllngsworth.L.S..Gifted Children:The Macmillan Go.,Eew York >1928v . II.Horn,L.H.,The Education of Exceptional Children:The Century • Co.,Hew York,I924. I8»Kirkp,atriok,E.4.,Imagination and I t s P l a c e i n Education; Ginn and Co.,He?? York,.I92G8. Chapter 13 Is of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to teachers of composition. 13.Leonardos.A..Essential P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching Reading and L i t e r a t u r e ; J . B . L i p p i n c o t t Co.,Philadelphia,1922. I4-.McEowi,H,,G..School Clubs;; The B a c m i l l a n Co.,Ifew. York.,1929. 1 5 . Yearns. H. .Creative Power:Doubledav«Page and Co,,Mew York, 19 .This i s one of the best books on the subject of eneouragin creatioreness i n c h i l d r e n . C h i e f a t t e n t i o n i s paid to prose. 16. Hearns,H.,Creative Youth;Doubleday.Page and Co.,Few York, 19 . T i l l s i s aa e x c e l l e n t book devoted, to encouraging verse-w r i t i n g among c h i l d r e n . 17. N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education: (a) I 9 t h Yearbook;Classroom Problems i n the Education  of G i f t e d C h i l d r e n : chapter 7 deals with methods of teaching adapted to g i f t e d children.. (b) 22nd Yearbook:English Composition;:its .Aims:Methods, and Measurement. (c) 23rd Yearbook:Report of the Society's Committee on the Education of G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . A thorough inves-t i g a t i o n i n t o many phases of the problem..Useful as a general background,but l i t t l e s p e c i f i c work on E n g l i s h . • • • • . J8.Pringle,R.W..Methods with Adolescents; B.C.Heath and.Co., Hew York,1927. W. Rugg,H* 0., and Shumaker, A. »%he Chiid-Centred School; World .Book Go 6,Ifew. York* 1928. A d i s c u s s i o n of recent tendencies i n eduoatIon,Chapters .16. to ;20',are of great i n t e r e s t to- those; concerned w i t h the education o f g i f t e d students. . 20 0 The Progressive Education lAgsociatioii..Creative Expression,, e d i t e d by Hartman and Shumaker;:The i b h n Bay-Co., ,l!ew York,1932, This volume, i s a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s that have appeared ' i n the magazine,"progressive Education." They,deal with the. subject o f encouraging creativeness i n students. 2I.Stedman.L.M..The Education of G i f t e d Children;World Book Co,,Hew York,1924* 22. Tracy,P. »The Psychology of Adolescence;The Macmillan STo, Hew York, 1923. This i s the most readable psychology of adolescence.lt combines thoroughness of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and l i t e r a r y s t y l e I n a manner seldom found i n t e x t s . 23. W e b s t e r , B . H . and Smith , D . V . . T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h i n the J u n i o r  H i g h S c h o o l ; W o r l d Book Company,Hew York ,^927 . 

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