UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of the Renner effect in the linear XY2 molecule Carlone, Cosmo 1965

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A STUDY OF THE•RENNER EFFECT IN THE LINEAR XY~ MOLECULE COSMO CARLONE B . S c ( H o n . ) j U n i v e r s i t y o f Wi n d s o r , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the- Department o f • PHYSICS We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y , I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n * D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e i i • 'ABSTRACT : v a r i a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i s a p p l i e d t o the -Schroedinger equation f o r t h e X Y 2 l i n e a r molecule. T r i a l s o l u t i o n s are synthesized from the nuclear e i g e n s t a t e s , which are assumed to be simple harmonic o s c i l l a t o r e i g e n s t a t e s , and from the unperturbed e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s , whose azimuthal dependence i s known because of-the c y l i n d r i c a l symmetry of the f i e l d of the n u c l e i . The I s e c u l a r equation i s discussed, and an expression f o r the R e n n e r . s p l i t t i n g of the TT" s t a t e i s obtained. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k Dr. F.W. D a l b y who o r i g i n a l l y s u g g e s t e d t h e p r o b l e m , and whose many comments were a l w a y s v a l u a b l e and g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o than k Dr.'L. de S o b r i n o who made t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h h i s c o n s t a n t g u i d a n c e . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t o me i n t h e f o r m o f a B u r s a r y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS "Page A b s t r a c t . ., .. . .. .. .. .. • . .. .. .. .. .. t .. ... .. .. i i • Aknowledgements ...... . •. . .. .. . .. ,. . .. . .. . .. i i i • • I n t r o d u c t i o n . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. , ..... 1 C h a p t e r I Normal c o - o r d i n a t ' e s o f t h e L i n e a r XYg m o l e c u l e . . . . . . 4 C h a p t e r T I Treatment o f t h e H a m i l t o n i a n . . .. . .. .. .. . •• .. . .... 8 . a) E x p a n s i o n o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c - n u c l e a r Coulomb p o t e n t i a l .. 10 b ) E x p a n s i o n o f t h e n u c l e a r - n u c l e a r Coulomb p o t e n t i a l . .. 15 •c) The . i n t e r a c t i o n H a m i l t o n i a n . .. •• . , .. . .. . '.. 15 •Chapter I I I U n p e r t u r b e d E i g e n s t a t e s • ,. .. ... .. , 16 •a) E l e c t r o n i c e i g e n s t a t e s . .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. 16 b ) N u c l e a r e i g e n s t a t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. 17 •Chapter IV A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . •• .. .. ... .. . .. .. 19 C h a p t e r V N o n - v a n i s h i n g m a t r i x . e l e m e n t s .. •• • -. . • • .. - • . 23 .-.a) S e l e c t i o n r u l e s f o r - a n g u l a r p a r t o f m a t r i x .elements . •. 25 b ) S e l e c t i o n r u l e s f o r r a d i a l p a r t o f m a t r i x e l e m e n t s . . 28 c ) E v a l u a t i o n o f r a d i a l p a r t o f m a t r i x e l e m e n t s . . . . .. 34 •Chapter V I D i s c u s s i o n o f s e c u l a r e q u a t i o n .. .. .. . •. . . .. . . .. 37 a) Case o f the. p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e ' t o t a l . a n g u l a r momentum • a l o n g m o l e c u l a r a x i s e q u a l t o z e r o . -. •• .. ... . -. •. . . 42 b ) Case o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momentum a l o n g m o l e c u l a r - a x i s e q u a l to. one . .. . . . .. •. 44 •c) Case o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momentum -along m o l e c u l a r a x i s e q u a l t o two . . •. . .. ...... .. 45 d) • Case o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momentum •along m o l e c u l a r a x i s e q u a l t o t h r e e . . . -. . .. . .. 46 e) Summary . . • • • • • • • • • • •• •• • • - •• • - 47 V A p p e n d i x Page . A s s o c i a t e d L a g u e r r e P o l y n o m i a l s . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. 49 R e f e r e n c e s . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. . .. ,. . ... .. .. .. ,. .. .. .. .. . 52 1 1 INTRODUCTION I n l i n e a r m o l e c u l e s , t o t h e z e r o e t h a p p r o x i m a t i o n , t h e e l e c t r o n s move i n t h e c y l i n d r i c a l l y .symmetric f i e l d p r o v i d e d by "the f i x e d n u c l e i . Hence th e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e o r b i t a l a n g u l a r momentum•along t h e n u c l e a r a x i s i s c o n s e r v e d , and t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e r e s p e c t i v e l y ; s t a t e s h i g h e r t h a n A a r e n o t u s u a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d . The o r ground s t a t e i s n o t d e g e n e r a t e b u t t h e o t h e r s t a t e s a r e t w o - f o l d d e g e n e r a t e ; t h a t i s - , t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momentum a l o n g t h e a x i s can be + A ^ • When c e r t a i n v i b r a t i o n s o f . t h e n u c l e i .are c o n s i d e r e d , t h e s o - c a l l e d d e g e n e r a t e v i b r a t i o n s , t h e c y l i n d r i c a l symmetry .of t h e f i e l d seen by t h e e l e c t r o n s i s b r o k e n , and hence t h e d e g e n e r a t e l e v e l s o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c s p e c t r a o f l i n e a r m o l e c u l e s a r e s p l i t ; t h i s i s c a l l e d t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g o r Renner e f f e c t . The method c u s t o m a r i l y u s e d • t o o b t a i n e x p r e s s i o n s f o r the: Renner 2 s p l i t t i n g has been t h e Born^-Oppenheimer a p p r o x i m a t i o n . However, t h i s 3 >4 method l e a d s t o a p a i r o f second o r d e r -coupled e q u a t i o n s ; ' f o r non-de g e n e r a t e s t a t e s t h e c o u p l i n g terms can'be n e g l e c t e d and t h e e q u a t i o n s c a n be s i m p l i f i e d , b u t - t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e f o r ' d e g e n e r a t e s t a t e s . M oreover, t h i s method i s n o t v e r y p r a c t i c a l b ecause i t f i r s t -approximates t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s , and t h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s t h e n u s e d t o o b t a i n t h e n u c l e a r s t a t e s . B u t i t c a n be assumed t o a v e r y good a p p r o x i m a t i o n t h a t t h e o f t h i s p r o j e c t i o n , u s u a l l y denoted'by A n~. F o r A = 0 , 1, 2, t h e s t a t e s a r e c a l l e d 1 2 n u c l e i undergo harmonic v i b r a t i o n s .only, so t h a t t h e n u c l e a r s t a t e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y known and so i s t h e a n g u l a r dependence o f t h e u n p e r t u r b e d e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s because o f t h e c y l i n d r i c a l symmetry Of t h e n u c l e a r f i e l d . I n t h i s t h e s i s / t h e s e two f a c t s a r e u s e d t o • c o n s t r u c t t r i a l s o l u t i o n s w h i c h a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y u s e d t o s o l v e t h e S c h r o e d i n g e r e q u a t i o n by a v a r i a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e . The Renner e f f e c t i s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o u p l i n g between t h e e l e c t r o n i c and v i b r a t i o n a l m o t i o n s o f the. l i n e a r m o l e c u l e . • S p i n e f f e c t s .are n e g l e c t e d (see r e f e r e n c e 3) a s a r e t h e r o t a t i o n a l and t r a n s l a t i o n a l m o t i o n s o f t h e m o l e c u l e . Thus i f N ' i s t h e t o t a l number, o f e l e c t r o n s and N' t h e t o t a l number o f n u c l e i , t h e number o f c o - o r d i n a t e s needed.to d e s c r i b e t h e p r o b l e m i s 3N+(3N / _6) f o r a n o n - l i n e a r m o l e c u l e o r 3N+(3N'-5) f o r a l i n e a r m o l e c u l e . The (3N'-6) o r (3N'-5) c o - o r d i n a t e s a r e known as t h e n o r m a l c o - o r d i n a t e s o f t h e n u c l e a r v i b r a t i o n s . The c l a s s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y o f t h e n u c l e i c o n t a i n s p u r e l y q u a d r a t i c terms i n t h e t i m e d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e s e n o r m a l c o - o r d i n a t e s , ' ' t h a t i s , i f i s t h e oi. t h n o r m a l c o - o r d i n a t e o f a m o l e c u l e , t h e n t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y i s •where TCi* i s a r e d u c e d mass a s s o c i a t e d w i t h (see C h a p t e r I s i m i l a r l y , i f harmonic o s c i l l a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . The s e t o f • d i s p l a c e m e n t s , o r modes o f v i b r a t i o n c o n t a i n s f o r l i n e a r m o l e c u l e s d i s p l a c e m e n t s b o t h p a r a l l e l and p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e m o l e c u l a r a x i s . The f i r s t do n o t remove t h e symmetry o f t h e n u c l e a r f i e l d , . and hence t h e i r e f f e c t i s m e r e l y t o s h i f t t h e e nergy l e v e l s ; t h e second do remove t h e d egeneracy•and cause t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g . T h e . l a t t e r a r e 3 c a l l e d d e g e n e r a t e v i b r a t i o n s and t h r o u g h them the- n u c l e i have a n g u l a r momentum d i r e c t e d .along t h e m o l e c u l a r - a x i s . Thus i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momentum a l o n g the. a x i s w i l l s t i l l be c o n s e r v e d . That i s , . ' l e t t i n g 2 $T be t h e n u c l e a r ' a n g u l a r momentum, w i t h = 0, +1, +2, ..... t h e n < = | A + £ l s o, • •• c h a r a c t e r i z e s s t a t e s c o m p r i s i n g t h e n u c l e a r v i b r a t i o n s and e l e c t r o n i c m o t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e v i b r o n i c s t a t e s . ' L i k e w i s e , v i b r o n i c s t a t e s a r e c a l l e d 2 / T T , 4 , -s t a t e s . •The t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d i s a p p l i c a b l e t o any l i n e a r m o l e c u l e b u t t h e n o r m a l c o - o r d i n a t e s - d e p e n d on t h e m o l e c u l e i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . - The l i n e a r XYg m o l e c u l e has been chosen as t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s . A s i m i l a r t r e a t m e n t can be g i v e n t o any o t h e r l i n e a r m o l e c u l e i f ; i t s ' n o r m a l c o - o r d i n a t e s a r e u s e d . The number o f n u c l e i does n o t m a t t e r . I n d i a t o m i c m o l e c u l e s t h e c y l i n d r i c a l symmetry c a n n o t be removed because v i b r a t i o n s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a x i s a r e r e a l l y r o t a t i o n s . F o r t r i a t o m i c m o l e c u l e s t h e r e i s o n l y one d e g e n e r a t e mode o f v i b r a t i o n , w h i l e f o r m o l e c u l e s w i t h more t h a n 3 atoms t h e r e a r e more t h a n one d e g e n e r a t e mode. F o r example, t h e a c e t y l i n e m o l e c u l e C2H2 has two d e g e n e r a t e modes; however, each mode can be p u t i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s and the' Renner s p l i t t i n g o f each c a n be s t u d i e d . I n s h o r t , each m o l e c u l e has a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e t o f n o r m a l v i b r a t i o n s b u t t h e method r e m a i n s t h e same f o r a l l o f them. CHAPTER T Normal C o - o r d i n a t e s o f t h e XY2 L i n e a r M o l e c u l e The XY^ l i n e a r m o l e c u l e has f o u r n u c l e a r d e g r e e s o f freedom so t h a t f o u r c o - o r d i n a t e s a r e needed t o d e s c r i b e i t s n u c l e a r v i b r a t i o n s . These a r e de n o t e d b y S-p S2 a, >?2h> they are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. S 2 a and S2b d e s c r i b e t h e d e g e n e r a t e mode and t h e y cause t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g , whereas S i and S3 do n o t remove t h e c y l i n d r i c a l symmetry.of t h e n u c l e a r f i e l d . I n F i g u r e -1, the-'Z a x i s i s chosen-as t h e a x i s o f t h e m o l e c u l e ; ' M^ i s t h e mass o f t h e Y atom, Mg t h a t o f the: X atom. The atoms a r e l a b e l l e d 1, 2, 3 f r o m . l e f t t o r i g h t . The o r i g i n o f t h e c o - o r d i n a t e frame c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e c e n t e r o f the-'X atom, t h a t i s . , t h e c e n t e r o f mass o f t h e n u c l e i w h i c h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h a t o f t h e whole m o l e c u l e . Mode 1: S i n c e M-j_ = M3, c o n s e r v a t i o n o f l i n e a r momentum.requires t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f one Y atom t o t h e r i g h t t o be e q u a l t o t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e o t h e r Y atom, t o t h e l e f t . These d i s p l a c e m e n t s a r e d e n o t e d by.+S^ r e s p e c t i v e l y . Mode 2a (2b): I f +S2 a (+S2^) i s t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e X. atom i n t h e y ( x ) d i r e c t i o n , t h e n a g a i n b y c o n s e r v a t i o n o f l i n e a r momentum, each Y atom must move S (S ) Mode 3: I f +S3 i s t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f atom'X i n t h e Z d i r e c t i o n , t h e n each Y atom must move -S3 M£ i n the-'Z d i r e c t i o n . 2 M 1 5 K 1 2a Mi t l x 1* - 5 , O + 5 X y X of S-ijOk. Sib 9 $ G—>• + 5j 3 Furore 1 The -foor n e r w K v L I x o d e s o f the Une*r X Y, w e L e t u L t L e t u = M2 2 M 1 ' t h e n t h e t o t a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e XY2 l i n e a r m o l e c u l e can he summarized as i n C h a r t I . The n u c l e a r k i n e t i c e n e r g y i s g i v e n b y vhere Vf)x - ^ 3 = M a , ( 1 + ^-) S i m i l a r l y t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y i s b i l i n e a r i n the. C a r t e s i a n c o - o r d i n a t e s , b u t b y d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e n o r m a l c o - o r d i n a t e s , ^ i t becomes I t i s hereby, assumed t h a t t h e m o l e c u l e e x e c u t e s s i m p l e harmonic o s c i l l a t i o n s o n l y . 7 a, - - 5, - u S 3 - -e X ^ Sxfc X 3 - - M.^k» y 3 - - ^ S aa CKoLrt 1 T h e G£ i s p L o . c e trie rtt"s of" the L C n e ^ r X % , moLecuLe. N o t e ' - L.5 t h e e ^ u u L t t r t w r T v C^L ' i " t "«vnc€ b e t w e e n t h « / n ^ t L e c ( s e -e c h ^ p C - c r JT ) 8 CHAPTER II Treatment of the Hamiltonian The Hamiltonian of a system of N electrons and N* nuclei can be written as ^ = T e + U E E + T„ + U n n + Une ^ where T Q is the electronic kinetic energy, T n is the nuclear kinetic energy, U is the Coulomb interaction between the nuclei, nn IF is the Coulomb interaction between the electrons, ee * U N E is the Coulomb interaction between the electrons and nuclei. The static approximation0 will be used to separate the Hamiltonian (II-l), i.e. it is assumed that the electrons are sensitive only to some equilibrium configuration of the nuclei. In general, the equilibrium position varies for each electronic state but for the molecule of interest, the linear XY2 molecule such as CO2, CSJJ, this can be neglected. In other words, each electronic state, except the ground state, is two^fold degenerate because the electrons see a cylindrically symmetric field of the nuclei, and the equilibrium configuration of the nuclei remains approximately the same for the first few electronic states. The eigenstates of the unperturbed Hamiltonian of the static approximation are known; because the electrons move in the cylindrically symmetric field provided by the nuclei the azimuthal dependence of their eigenstates are known, and the eigenstates of the nuclear motion are those of the simple harmonic oscillator. In the adiabatic approximation, the electrons follow the moti&ii of the nuclei very closely rather than being sensitive to one e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e n u c l e i . (See r e f e r e n c e fa for a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n . ) I n t h i s l a t t e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n t h e u n p e r t u r b e d e i g e n s t a t e s a r e n o t known a t a l l . Only U and U i n ( l l - l ) depend on t h e i n t e r n u c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n Q. ( V e c t o r q u a n t i t i e s w i l l be d e n o t e d by a b a r under t h e q u a n t i t y . ) L e t V(Q) = U ^ ( Q ) + ^ ( Q ) I n t h e s t a t i c a p p r o x i m a t i o n , one s o l v e s f o r MQo)|^c(Qo)> - C T « t ^ e e + v ( ^ ) ] Mc(aO> i / E - i ) where (^.oj , t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n u c l e i i s determined, by s o l v i n and p u t t i n g The l«<i(«i«)> a r e t h e d e g e n e r a t e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s and. t h e dependence w i l l be o m i t t e d h e n c e f o r t h . S i n c e the { Q_oJ a r e assumed t o be i n d e p e n d e n t o f the e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s , w h i c h i s a v e r y good a p p r o x i m a t i o n f o r t h e CO2, CS2 m o l e c u l e s , t h e l^i ,^ form a co m p l e t e s e t . The n u c l e a r H a m i l t o n i a n i s H . = T „ + i j ^ t M t ^ i . ( 1 - 3 ) where and ( D i f f e r e n t i a l o p e r a t o r s a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e i r d y a d i c n o t a t i o n . ) A g a i n , E n j depends on t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e i n g e n e r a l b u t n o t f o r t h e CO2, CS2 l i n e a r m o l e c u l e s . 10 The i n t e r a c t i o n Hamiltonian i s Since the n u c l e a r displacements cfj. are much smaller than the e q u i l i b r i u m nuclear separations and the distance from any e l e c t r o n to any nucleus, v(a) can be expanded about ( 3o and ay. E x p l i c i t expressions f o r and f o r l i n e a r molecules such as CO2, CS2> w i l l now be obtained a) Expansion of U. ne The e x p l i c i t expression f o r U n g i s L i^ i'=i l i t ' where i s the charge number on the i ' t h nucleus, He i s the distance between the i ' t h nucleus and the i t h e l e c t r o n . Since the v i b r a t i o n of each nucleus i s s m a l l , 1^^' can be expanded about the e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n of each nucleus. That i s , r e t a i n i n g the co-ordinate system chosen i n Chapter I , and r e f e r r i n g to Figure I , l e t the e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n of the n u c l e i be O , - - t K , y ith eLzc"tr00 1 >f figure 1 11 L e t ft U' be t h e p o s i t i o n v e c t o r o f t h e i t h e l e c t r o n f r o m t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n o f t h e £,'th n u c l e u s . P u t where has d i m e n s i o n L ( Ct has been i n t r o d u c e d t o h a v e - a l l c o - o r d i n a t e s d i m e n s i o n l e s s ) J)-^ i s t h e r a d i a l v e c t o r f r o m t h e Z a x i s t o t h e i t h e l e c t r o n . The d i s p l a c e m e n t o f each n u c l e u s f r o m i t s e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n . i s g i v e n by a ql - Q . = 2.1 & where t h e q ' s ' a r e d i m e n s i o n l e s s n o r m a l c o - o r d i n a t e s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e S'-s w i t h The i n t e r a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l i s 12 B u t (^l — X + i ) * i s t h e g e n e r a t i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e Legendre p o l y n o m i a l s f^ > i f S i n c e t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e n u c l e i i s much s m a l l e r t h a n t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n u c l e i t o t h e e l e c t r o n s , Q,' « Ru< and - L e t The f i r s t few Legendre p o l y n o m i a l s a r e P, ( *) = * •Thus, 13 where 10^ i s the a z i m u t h a l angle of ^ Let 2 0.C «>.< Then Ik U K * " , c a n tie w r i t t e n as u£ = - & * % V K ti+^Ul+C ©.net 3 t rvi I L arf-y -for U n t j ' t ) tan f e y t a ^ e > A , 3 , A ?. j > A , , A t > A 3 • U n e r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e e l e c t r o n s and t h e n u c l e i f i x e d a t t h e i r e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n ; -f- — V ( Q._p ) Thus, t h e e l e c t r o n i c e i g e n s t a t e s | ^tC'iL0)^ a r e t h e d e g e n e r a t e s t a t e s o f t h e e l e c t r o n s i n t h e c y l i n d r i c a l l y symmetric f i e l d o f t h e n u c l e i . ID (!) U n e and U n e r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e e l e c t r o n s and t h e d i p o l e and q u a d r u p o l e moments o f t h e n u c l e i r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t has n o t been f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r h i g h e r moments i n t e r a c t i o n . The d i s p l a c e m e n t s and <£3 do n o t remove t h e c y l i n d r i c a l symmetry and t h e y w i l l be o m i t t e d ; s i m i l a r l y t h e terms i n v o l v i n g ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 5^. i n ^ne ^ e o m i t t e d b e c a u s e t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a c o u p l i n g between t h e ^, ( and v i b r a t i o n w i t h t h e e l e c t r o n i c m o t i o n and w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a second o r d e r e f f e c t . Thus 15 b ) E x p a n s i o n o f U n n U n n c a n be expanded s i m i l a r t o U n g about t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n o f each n u c l e u s s i n c e t h e e q u i l i b r i u m • d i s t a n c e £ between t h e atoms i s much g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f t h e n u c l e i . P r o c e e d i n g as i n t h e c a s e o f U , one f i n d s ne' U™ = ^{'IHr^^^^l +('+*)( 3*3*-3.30 frj O m i t t i n g t h e terms i n and (%3 , c ) E x p l i c i t e x p r e s s i o n f o r H £ n . I n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t o A 4 t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f < ^ f r o m U n n and a l s o 16 CHAPTER I I I U n p e r t u r b e d E i g e n s t a t e s From ( I I - 2 ) , ( I I - 3 ) , ( H - 5 ) , t h e H a m i l t o n i a n i s -. ( I I I - 1 ) ft - H € i " (-U + He^ where ^ w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e e l e c t r o n i c c o - o r d i n a t e s arid t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n u c l e i , and 1 ^ ••-rv < ,6 c«c.oC"i' I n t h e H a m i l t o n i a n ( j l l - l ) t h e .only t e r m s t h a t we w o u l d l i k e t o r e t a i n a r e t h o s e t h a t b r e a k t h e c y l i n d r i c a l symmetry o f t h e n u c l e a r f i e l d , t h a t i s ter m s t h a t c o n t a i n ^ o n l y ; s i n c e t h e energy o f t h e n u c l e a r s t a t e s does n o t depend on t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s f o r l i n e a r 1 X Y 2 m o l e c u l e s .such.as CO2, C S 2 , f r o m ( i - l ) and ( 1 - 2 ) , (111-2) ^ = £ ™ a ( C + • C a ) + - t X ( + ^ b 1 ) The e i g e n s t a t e s o f H e and H n a r e known and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d p r e s e n t l y . a) E i g e n s t a t e s o f H g • Due t o t h e c u l i n d r i c a l symmetry o f t h e n u c l e a r f i e l d , t h e wave f u n c t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r o n s c a n be w r i t t e n as A-^  , and t h e s t a t e s s h a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d s i m p l y as I A * > Here i t i s assumed t h a t when t h e e l e c t r o n s a r e r o t a t e d t h r o u g h an a n g l e l i ' , t h e symmetric / and a n t i s y m m e t r i c ( A*/\ £ J wave f u n c t i o n s .of t h e d e g e n e r a t e 17 e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e t r a n s f o r m l i k e and r e s p e c t i v e l y . /\ d e n o t e s t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l e l e c t r o n i c a n g u l a r momentum-on t h e Z a x i s and i t w i l l be u s e d f r o m now -on t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e e n e r g y - o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s , t h a t i s ( I I I - 3 ) b ) E i g e n s t a t e s o f The n u c l e a r H a m i l t o n i a n i s where ^ : 4"TT a 'nnn a and 2 ^ i s t h e o b s e r v e d c l a s s i c a l f r e q u e n c y o f o s c i l l a t i o n . H<r = 3^+ + ^TT^-Wa 3 A i - f S , . ! , ^ where Rj- i s t h e momentum c o n j u g a t e t o 5<\r • I n terms o f t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s c o - o r d i n a t e s ^ ? a_ ^ ^xb ) = a* + - + ill.'' ™* V ( ? * o > + ?u lJ 3 T O a, ct* v By p u t t i n g P « i - t t ^ - . a n d £ = ZJLSL , becomes v 18 where i s t h e n u c l e a r wave f u n c t i o n . From the. a p p e n d i x where t h e • S o l u t i o n t o t h i s e q u a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d , and where J> -=. <^ ^ X r . V a , V A -2 , KO. . Nj-^ i s a n o r m a l i z i n g c o n s t a n t i s t h e a s s o c i a t e d ' L a g u e r r e p o l y n o m i a l . Once a g a i n , t h e n u c l e a r s t a t e s w i l l be d e n o t e d by l ^ a > ~^ ~ ( o r | (T, IX > ) and ( i n - 5 ) H ^ | V , , ^ > = £ - w J • 19 "CHAPTER IV A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e V a r i a t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e The S c h r o e d i n g e r - e q u a t i o n f o r .a system.of i e l e c t r o n s and i ' n u c l e i i s ( S - l ) - K i t ) - t I * ) where H = He + HL + > f r o m ( i l l - l ) The H a m i l t o n i a n P{ o p e r a t e s i n t h e H i l b e r t space o f "both t h e e l e c t r o n s and t h e n u c l e i , arid t o denote t h i s , t h e r o u n d ket-, l ) , has been used. The u s u a l ket 1 ^  d e n o t e s a s t a t e i n t h e H i l b . e r t space o f e i t h e r t h e e l e c t r o n s , o r t h e n u c l e i , t h a t i s , He I A * > - Ee*\Kt> F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a p p l y i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t a t i o n w i l l be used': N c > M A , s ' > where t h e s u p e r s c r i p t ( s ) d e n o t e s t h e s i g n o f A . The one-to-one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between ^ and / \ ^ may be made i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: I O = i » > , ; e t c . 20 Thus ( I I I - 3 ) becomes and E e u ~ E-e 1 I •+ 1 ) f ° r each odd i . • S i m i l a r l y , | fij > = ^ S J > . A g a i n a one-to-one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e may be made i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way": l£.> = l U f > ) l | 3 t > = l>>r> e t c . S i n c e J£ t a k e s on t h e v a l u e s V^, V^-^. • • •, 1 o r 0 f o r each V^, t h e deg e n e r a c y f o r each n u c l e a r s t a t e i s e a s i l y seen t o be (Vg.+l) - f o l d , f o r each v a l u e o f E g ^ . Thus ( i l l - 5 ) becomes (H-3) ^ E^j\ (5j> , 'j = 0, 1, 2 , and E n l = ^ 2 E n3 = EnU = E n5 E n6 = E n7 = E n 8 = E n9 j e t c -The I I ^ j ^  e a ch f o r m a complete o r t h o n o r m a l s e t i n t h e H i l b e r t space o f t h e e l e c t r o n s and n u c l e i r e s p e c t i v e l y , s i n c e f o r l i n e a r m o l e c u l e s such as COg, CSg t h e e q u i l i b r i u m i n t e r m u c ' l e a r d i s t a n c e i s t h e same f o r a l l e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s and t h e n u c l e a r energy i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e . 21 A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e t o ( i V - l ) g i v e s I t i s now assumed t h a t t h e | ) can he s y n t h e s i z e d f r o m t h e I°(I ^ and \ @>^y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: t h a t i s , | ^  ") c o n s i s t s o f a l l t h e p o s s i b l e l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c and v i b r a t i o n a l s t a t e s , and hence t h e s e c u l a r d e t e r m i n a n t t h a t w i l l r e s u l t f r o m . a p p l y i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e w i l l be most g e n e r a l . P r o c e e d i n g t o c a r r y t h r o u g h t h e v a r i a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , ( +| ft I *) = 2 . I- <*cj aVy [Eti <fu, Jjj, + 4 ; ' 4 j< t H) C 'J w h e r e H j } . ' - (o<cft| H ^ l ^ , ^ , ) . ( t i t ) - 2 2, «y <ty /CC./JV " T h e r e -f o r e ( + | K l t ) - £ ( * f l t ) Applying a v a r i a t i o n w i t h respect to CL »j , In order to solve f o r the i = 0 , 1, .2, • • . j = 0 , 1, 2, . . . i = 0 , 1, 2, . . . J = 0, 1, 2, . . . From the determinant (P7,-4) a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n about the v i b r o n i c s t a t e s of the l i n e a r molecules such as CO2, CS2 can be obtained. Howevei only some of the matrix elements H j j / are non-vanishing, and before a n a l y z i n g the determinant (IV-U) the values of the non-vanishing m a t r i x elements H j j , . w i l l have to be found. 23 CHAPTER V Non-vanishing M a t r i x Elements From-(lI-5), the i n t e r a c t i o n Hamiltonian i s , The e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s c o n t a i n the angle if as defined i n Chapter I I I Par t ( a ) . P u t t i n g the angular matrix element of the f i r s t term i n H e n becomes The s u b s c r i p t e i n ^  w i l l be omitted from now on and w i l l a l s o be put equal to (ft • S u b s t i t u t i n g ~ ^ , equation ( I I - 5 ) becomes U UL The angular p a r t of the m a t r i x elements 17 ;; ' can be obtained from the f o l l o w i n g i n t e g r a l : (3-0) ® = £ j j ) M ) € € [ C ^ J ^ - ^ J ^ £ Gt<f°t^ ao w i t h A , A') £ t a k i n g on both p o s i t i v e and negative i n t e g r a l values. The r a d i a l m a t r i x elements i n the H i l b e r t space of the n u c l e i are of the f o l l o w i n g type: oO w i t h CTj <T'^ £ always t a k i n g on p o s i t i v e i n t e g r a l values. In both •(V-2) and (V-3) n i s a p o s i t i v e m u l t i p l e .of• The value 2n corresponds to OJ i n U ti g . N o matter what VO is, H • ; / -.always contains products of (V-2) and (V-3) X ^^ ^/ > where r f ' ^ A ~ A ' A " A ' f 0 ^ A * A ' Thus, the e v a l u a t i o n of (V-2), (V-3) allows one to go to any order to 1 J M approximation i n w>y\£, i f i t i s necessary. 25 a) Angular p a r t of m a t r i x elements. I t i s q u i t e easy to see which of the m a t r i x elements ( V - 2 ) a r e non-v a n i s h i n g . o o But "C -f € 4 Therefore - X f J , cT + cT cT + • • • Hence, from the angular p a r t , the s e l e c t i o n - r u l e s f o r the non-vanishing matrix elements are the f o l l o w i n g : or or A A - 2 -n ; A t ~ - 3L -YI A A - 2 ^ - 2 , ) . A ^ - . - 2 7 i + i A A - Z-n- 4- A€ - -7m + 4 simultaneously o r o r A A - ~ 2 - ? i f 2 ^ - A •£ - .2 -71 2 s i m u l t a n e o u s l y A A - - l o v ) A € - -2 - n As a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , f o r n=^r, t h a t i s , . d i p o l e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e n u c l e i , ^ | ^ A ~ A - I s i m u l t a n e o u s l y (. A A - - & € - -1 B u t f o r t h e l o w e s t d e g e n e r a t e e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e , t h a t i s = 1 , and f o r t h e l o w e s t degenerate n u c l e a r s t a t e , t h a t i s •=.1, i n . o r d e r t o have non-v a n i s h i n g o f f - d i a g o n a l e l e m e n t s , A A • = £ 2, and A £ - ~t Q, . ( T h i s i s shown i n C h a p t e r V I , -where t h e m a t r i x i s w r i t t e n i n f u l l . ) Thus t o f i r s t o r d e r , d i p o l e d i s p l a c e m e n t s do n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g . I t w o u l d be n a t u r a l t o go on t o . second o r d e r c o r r e c t i o n t o t h e d i p o l e t e r m b u t i f i t i s assumed t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e l e c t r o n i c e n e r g y l e v e l s i s much g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t between t h e v i b r a t i o n a l l e v e l s , t h e n t h e second o r d e r c o n t r i b u t i o n i s n e g l i g i b l e . F o r n = l , t h a t i s , f o r q u a d r u p o l e d i s p l a c e m e n t s , A A - — A - X, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y (V - 5 ) o r o r A A - - A £ - ~ X and hence t h e s e e l e m e n t s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e -Renner s p l i t t i n g . I n g e n e r a l , b y w h a t e v e r amount t h e e l e c t r o n i c a n g u l a r momentum changes, th e n u c l e a r a n g u l a r momentum-also changes by t h a t amount, b u t i n t h e o p p o s i t e 27 d i r e c t i o n . T h i s means t h a t t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e a n g u l a r momentum • a l o n g :the a x i s i s a l w a y s .conserved even a f t e r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t u r n e d on. That i s , w h a t e v e r a n g u l a r momentum t h e e l e c t r o n s l o s e ; t h e n u c l e i g a i n , and v i c e - v e r s a , so t h a t i t i s a l w a y s m e a n i n g f u l t o t a l k o f ^L. > J ^ ••• s t a t e s . 28 b ) R a d i a l m a t r i x e l e m e n t s . The n o n - v a n i s h i n g r a d i a l m a t r i x e l e m e n t s (V-3), c a n be f o u n d f r o m t h e g e n e r a t i n g f u n c t i o n .of t h e L a g u e r r e p o l y n o m i a l s g i v e n i n t h e a p p e n d i x ; t h a t i s The p r o c e d u r e i s t o i n t e g r a t e o v e r jD i n t h e r i g h t hand s i d e , expand t h e r e m a i n i n g f o r m i n ( ULU,' ) and compare c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h t h e l e f t hand s i d e . The r i g h t hand s i d e o U s i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e |~~ f u n c t i o n , rM - ] x T1 - / t h e r i g h t hand s i d e "» ,10 0 1 U s i n g t h e e x p a n s i o n oO w h i c h i s v a l i d f o r - a l l q, t h e r i g h t hand s i d e = 1 1 1 *(*,».»') u . 4 + " u a ' * * * " ' where ^ ( & ) " j » ' ) - ( H ) ^ r f r + t t j ' + M r(fr-£-»+*J r ( » ' - * - r > + * ' J p u t t i n g 4-t 4 + <r > # +2;' = <r'} t h e r J g h t h<x.n M side. - I l l J(*,r-e-4>>t'-t'-*) *ru,r' B u t Z . £ . = I • Thus t h e r i g h t hand s i d e f = € ( f?-o <r'-<r-e +i $--<r'-e'-n J •30 A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n holds f o r ( <T~ •£ ) and ( (F ~ €' ) interchanged, depending on which i s smaller. Therefore the r i g h t hand side = 1 £ w« • ' - * ' - * ) u . * v r ' «-ae. f?-*o Comparing polynomials w i t h the l e f t hand s i d e , = N«N f f , , . r(«r+i) r(<r'+0 X i(<*. *) -KI.. N., f.H) < f t 'rU>i) r f ' t ' ) x . r t A r (4- f - ) r ( ' r - f - ) £ ' ] r ( - n t i - > ^ ^ » H ) r ( r - 4 - W - t - 4 r ' ) r ( f ' - « - ^ - | - f ) **° r(* + i) r ( + i ) . r i ' I n o r d e r t o see w h i c h m a t r i x e l e m e n t s v a n i s h , o n l y t h o s e J - f u n c t i o n s whose argument may be n e g a t i v e have t o be c o n s i d e r e d , t h a t i s Z l ' ' : f , ) r ( f - » . ^ . ^ - 4 ' ) r i r ' - » - n - f - ^ ) r ( 4 c - ^ - ~ ) r ( £ - £ - * w ^•'-'•» f t r - t - f c - n j - f - i : ) r («•'-<'-*-•*>-£*£'; Since ?/ 0 and C' ~ t'- fc 7/ 0 , then f o r - m t - 4jj ^ O and - TI - ^  -t £ > O there are no non-vanishing elements. However, i f , e i t h e r of the l a s t two mentioned terms are zero or negative, the-arguments of the f f u n c t i o n appearing i n the denominator are zero or negative, and the arguments of the r f u n c t i o n appearing i n the numerator are greater than zero, then there are v a n i s h i n g elements. That is,, i n order-to have no non-vanishing elements l f <r-e 4 r ' - * » t t h e n f > - t f ^ - r)- £ - tl <c o or <r'-c-g < > n , i f < r ' - r < <r- -e , then r - <r' - £ t ^ * r L o r - ( <r'- <r- £ ) $ n . That i s ( V " 7 ) ] * - n 4 < - i \ - t . - i + « ' and '<• T J i<) ' a r e z e r o or negative i n t e g e r Since the s e l e c t i o n r u l e s f o r A are known from the treatment of the *• .angular dependence, the s e l e c t i o n r u l e s f o r A (T can be found from (V-7). For example, f o r n=g- ^ £ £. a i | For - e ' - £ - A - e - = - - H , i £ I <r-<r ' - f x I Therefore • (T =• (T ' or ^ ' r ^ + | In terms of the Vg's, A <T ~ 0 g i v e s A V v -A <r - + 1 g i v e s A \ J i • * f For - A •£ - - / ) i - >/' I r - r ' - i i Therefore f ' - <T OC <T ' - <T - t or 32 F o r n - 1 , t h e s e l e c t i o n r u l e s on 0. a r e F o r t'xl, T h e r e f o r e OT ' ~ <T - I <r' = r + i o r o r F o r I' - £ + Z <r-<r'l w h i c h g i v e s w h i c h g i v e s w h i c h g i v e s i >/ | r A \ U -A V 4 O + 4 T h e r e f o r e o r o r F o r A g a i n <T ' = <T o r o r w h i c h g i v e s V ^ w h i c h g i v e s w h i c h g i v e s ^ I >, I r - <r'-/ T w h i c h g i v e s A ^ 1. •which g i v e s A V A, w h i c h g i v e s A V a. - a, + A - A I n summary, t h e s e l e c t i o n r u l e s f o r t h e n o n - v a n i s h i n g m a t r i x e l e m e n t s o f t h e d i p o l e and q u a d r u p o l e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e n u c l e i a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e I . The n o n - v a n i s h i n g m a t r i x e l e m e n t s of'(V - 3 . ) have been g i v e n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ; a l t h o u g h t h e s e l e c t i o n r u l e s g i v e n i : i T a b l e T.were n o t . s t a t e d , t h e m a t r i x e l e m e n t s t h a t . w e r e c a l c u l a t e d do c o n f o r m w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n r u l e s g i v e n - i n T a b l e 1. s e l e c t C o n I > A £ _ - f I , A A - -1 n ~ , or A V t -. - I ? A -e - -t I ; A A ~ - 1 •fior d t p o L t A V Z _ + 1 ; A £ = - / , A A - + 1 o f t h e n u c L e t - --1 ; A - | , A A - + 1 5 e L e c t LT> n A v x - 0 ) A € - O j A A : - o fvjLej o T A \u = ; A £ = © ; A A - o n - 1 A ^ - A - £ - o j A A - o A" Vf* - A ^ - +a, A A : -I A - i . > lit ~- -f2> A A X, A N / , - - a ) A I - + Z} A A - 'X A \ o > A £ : - i A A - -t a. A - i > A e - - a A A - •+ X A \ ^ - -*~> A I. * - 2. A A --T a k e I 3^ c ) E v a l u a t i o n o f r a d i a l m a t r i x e l e m e n t s . The a c t u a l v a l u e s o f t h e n o n - v a n i s h i n g m a t r i x e l e m e n t s (V-6) can be worked o u t by d i r e c t s u b s t i t u t i o n . A few c a s e s , t o show how t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n goes, w i l l be worked out s h o r t l y , . and a l l o t h e r c a s e s p e r t a i n i n g t o n=-§, 1 w i l l be t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e s I I , I I I . These m a t r i x e l e m e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d 8 by S c h a f f e r • , however, he d i d n o t s t a t e a t a l l t h e g e n e r a l s e l e c t i o n r u l e (V-7), n o r d i d he g i v e t h e g e n e r a l f o r m u l a (V-6) f o r any r a d i a l m a t r i x element. From'(V-6), 7 a r ( - M - v . ) r(^--^r Example 1. . „, y m = -L ; C a c r - | } JL> z. A-i T h e r e f o r e <$-'-<*- $~- €. ,<r*|PVO = NF<N,.«,(-'>*"' r(r+i)r(D 2_ r(*H+«)r(r-f-A)r(<r-g-ft-Q k c a n t a k e t h e v a l u e o f cr--£ o n l y . «T<IP*|IV>* N r # Nr... rcrt i ) r (r ) r(<r+i) rfo)r(-/) •i r(°)r(-/j nr-e+i)r(i)r (0 - 2. ((r-e)! [r - ' ) i J 3J ^ c r - e ) ' Example 2: Tf - ,^ ; <T - Q ^ T h e r e f o r e a r(«)r(-') fr> r(«--<-*fi)r(<r-*-*fa) r(*+g 35 Again k can only be <T-€ • «rei P * ir'*') ^ ^[>-e)l.^} ^ R r - ^ f o .' 1 ^ ( - i ) ^ ' 1 (-Oj£_LL LC < r !)T"J L (<r."s J 2* r ( ' j rU) ca--«Jf The non-vanishing r a d i a l elements for n--§-, n=l are given i n Tables I I and I I I respectively. The values given i n the tables agree with those given by Schaffer (reference ft). 36 ( r e l r l r ' i 1 ) = <r {jr - A -x i) t _ r + i r- i V i r L<r- - V» IL <r <cr* | J>|<r-e> = <r I IL I JL t l x (Ti I t + X •j[(^i{)(r.eH_+^= i±X. <r itx ([«•-•*+/X<r-^ -H + ^ 37 CHAPTER V I D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e S e c u l a r E q u a t i o n H a v i n g f o u n d t h e s e l e c t i o n r u l e s f o r t h e n o n - v a n i s h i n g m a t r i x e l e m e n t s , and t h e i r v a l u e s , i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e o u t t h e e n t i r e m a t r i x c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e d e t e r m i n a n t ( I V - U ) , and t o d i a g o n a l i z e . i t . S i n c e o n l y two terms i n t h e e x p a n s i o n o f U n e were r e t a i n e d , t h e TT and A e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d ; w i l l be g i v e n t h e v a l u e s o f 0 and 1. The n o t a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t h e f o l l o w i n g : ^ 1 The "X»/\ were i n t r o d u c e d i n e q u a t i o n ( I I I - 2 ) . The f u l l m a t r i x , showing t h e - n o n - v a n i s h i n g m a t r i x .elements, i s g i v e n on page 38. The l a b e l o f each row o r column i s ( A > Q ); t h e symbol ot i n d i c a t e s a n o n - v a n i s h i n g d i p o l e element and .the ^ a q u a d r u p o l e element. The d i a g o n a l n o n r v a n i s h i n g q u a d r u p o l e element. The d i a g o n a l n o n - v a n i s h i n g q u a d r u p o l e e l e m e n t s have been l e f t o u t . The same m a t r i x i s g i v e n - a g a i n . o n page 39-.> w i t h t h e rows and columns r e a r r a n g e d . I n b o t h m a t r i c e s Some -obvious f a c t s c a n be i m m e d i a t e l y seen f r o m t h e l a t t e r f o r m o f t h e m a t r i x . They a r e - t h e f o l l o w i n g - : l ) t h e e n t i r e m a t r i x c a n be grouped i n t o s u b m a t r i c e s , e a c h s u b - m a t r i x b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e v a l u e o f | K \ - | A "+ £ | = D A A' QL &AA' O O O | o -| / o i f i - l -10 "I 1 XI i — -.3-1 t m • o o F 4 o | ? o-[ <? 1 0 of 1 1 H -I o -I 1 - l - l EM 10 dt £ * • A-l <? d a , --?o ? EM * • m * • T h e + U L L O o l - l I I  O I I o x-\ o-t\ •10 -211 I I 0 0 -1 I oi i l l D - l| -10 -XI 10 -•?Q -00 E 01 1 4 • 0| T h e no " t r t UO That i s , i t c a n be b r o k e n up.as f o l l o w s : K--o K--| M o r e o v e r , t h e s u b m a t r i x f o r K = +1 i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t f o r K = - 1 , and t h a t f o r K=2 i s ; i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t f o r K = -2, e t c That t h i s s u b d i v i s i o n i s p o s s i b l e i s a r e s u l t o f t h e g e n e r a l s e l e c t i o n r u l e s g i v e n i n t a b l e 1 o f C h a p t e r V, and i t w i l l a l w a y s o c c u r , no m a t t e r what t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s . 2) I f h i g h e r o r d e r terms i n t h e H a m i l t o n i a n were c o n s i d e r e d , t h e n i t w o u l d be. more o b v i o u s t h a t each o f t h e above s u b m a t r i c e s c o u l d be r e - a r r a n g e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: /I - A " 1 I K = 0 Quadrupole dipole terms ^ terms dipole I quadrupole terms I terms The terms i n t h e up p e r l e f t c o r n e r m a t r i x r e p r e s e n t m i x i n g due t o q u a d r u p o l e i n t e r a c t i o n between 2. and A e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s , and t h e s e w o u l d be v e r y much n e g l i g i b l e compared t o t h e d i p o l e terms. B u t , t h e l o w e r r i g h t s u b m a t r i x g i v e s t h e Renner. s p l i t t i n g o f t h e d e g e n e r a t e s t a t e s . kl The o t h e r s u b m a t r i c e s t a k e on s i m i l a r shape, and t h e meaning o f each t e r m c a n be s i m i l a r l y r e a d f r o m i t . Of c o u r s e , t h i s i s o b v i o u s o n l y when h i g h e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . a) K = 0 I n the. a p p r o x i m a t i o n made, t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g f o r t h e e l e c t r o n i c ~TJ s t a t e can he o b t a i n e d and t h i s i s f o u n d f r o m t h e s u b m a t r i x i n w h i c h K = 0, w h i c h i s - i D, P e r f o r m i n g , a u n i t a r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n b y t h e m a t r i x t h e m a t r i x f o r K=0 becomes o 0 E*,+a^ + Q ^ + i « ^ Thus t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g o f t h e v i b r o n i c s t a t e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t\ =1, JL*\*V± i s Moreover t h e e n e r g y v a l u e s o f t h e s t a t e s A - I » 0 a n d a r e A * -e | b ) K = 1 The m a t r i x f o r I = 1 i s 00 Do 3L H J O - 4 J ) * , T h i s m a t r i x w i l l g i v e t h e c o r r e c t e d e n e r g y v a l u e s t o t h e v i b r o n i c s t a t e s f o r w h i c h A -~ o , L-l ; A r , , € - 0 > A = a , I- \ • The d i p o l e t e r m DQ-^ m i x e s t h e e l e c t r o n i c X and "TT s t a t e s and D2Q_mixes t h e e l e c t r o n i c and A s t a t e s , whereas t h e q u a d r u p o l e t e r m mixes t h e and A s t a t e s ; hence Q u can be n e g l e c t e d compared t o t h e d i p o l e t e r m s , and t h i s i s even more o b v i o u s f r o m t h e e x p r e s s i o n s A j _ and via.) A ) l l g i v e n i n C h a p t e r I I . o c c u r s i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r D A A - and i t c o n t a i n s terms o f t h e o r d e r o f — — j , whereas A 3 3 o c c u r r i n g i n L i ^ ' c o n t a i n s t erms o f t h e o r d e r o f The m a t r i x f o r K = 1 becomes o a a. The e i g e n v a l u e s o f t h i s m a t r i x a r e t h e r o o t s o f a c u b i c e q u a t i o n w h i c h w i l l be c a l l e d E^, E^ and Eg. The m a t r i x f o r K = "2 i s - ± D 4 w h i c h w i l l g i v e t h e c o r r e c t e d energy v a l u e s .of t h e v i b r o n i c s t a t e s g i v e n by t 7 -a) K = 3 F o r t h i s c a s e , t h e m a t r i x element i s j u s t w h i c h i s j u s t t h e e n e r g y v a l u e o f t h e v i b r o n i c s t a t e A = 2, = 1 w i t h s l i g h t c o r r e c t i o n t o i t . I n t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n made, t h e s p l i t t i n g o f t h i s t a t e c o u l d n o t he o b t a i n e d . ^7 Summary: The r e s u l t o f a l l t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s c a n b e s t be seen- i n an energy diagram. Diagram 1 on t h e f o l l o w i n g page g i v e s t h e u n p e r t u r b e d e n e r g y l e v e l s and' Diagram 2 t h e c o r r e c t e d l e v e l s . The a r r o w s i n d i c a t e a l l o w e d t r a n s i t i o n s . N e i t h e r d i a g r a m s - a r e drawn t o s c a l e b e c a u s e t h e e nergy v a l u e s a r e n o t known. The m e a s u r a b l e . q u a n t i t i e s a r e 1 ) t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g o f t h e s t a t e , t h a t i s E 2 - Eo 2 ) t h e r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s o f t h e f i v e t r a n s i t i o n l i n e s g i v e n . (These can be o b t a i n e d i n t e rms o f t h e s i x p a r a m e t e r s QQQ , Q-^ , Q-Q •,• §2.2 > DQ-^  ,. and D-^ 2 s i n c e t h e e i g e n v a l u e s o f t h e m a t r i c e s f o r K = 0, 1, 2. a r e g i v e n ; f r o m t h e s e e i g e n v a l u e s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t t h e u n i t a r y m a t r i c e s t h a t w i l l d i a g o n a l i z e t h e m a t r i c e s f o r K = 0, 1, 2.) Thus i t has been p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n f o r t h e l i n e a r XYg r q o l e c u l e such as COg and CS2 an e x p l i c i t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e Renner s p l i t t i n g o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c TT s t a t e and t h e r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s o f t h e s p e c t r a l l i n e s between t h e Z- , "H" , and A e l e c t r o n i c s t a t e s i n terms o f s i x .parameters. 1+8 Tr A = 2 5 4L A - 0 1 I APPENDIX Associated Laguerre Polynomials The wave equation for ^ ( $ ) ±s> from Chapter III, Part (b), In polar co-ordinates ( y ^ - K J defined by - ^ Cf^  equation (A-l) becomes (The subscripts n on 4V\ a n d- 2 on ^ w i l l be omitted in this appendix. ) *f i s separable into • and . + ; ^ i f l 0-TT with *< = 0 , 1, 2 ...... , a positive integer. The radial function R satisfies p u t t l n g R ( ^ ) ^ F U ) F(q) satisfies In trying to find a power series solution, i t i s convenient to put •e and In terms of the v a r i a b l e f> ~ and i f f 5 O ) 4? A power s e r i e s s o l u t i o n gives w i t h N/^ .= 0, 1, 2, ... Thus £ ^ - ^ or The equation f o r ^  can be w r i t t e n - a s [pdt +(e+i-/>) JL + (<r-<sJ1 j - o w i t h <r-t? - V a . - i a. or <r - y?JLl a. which i s the equation of the a s s o c i a t e d Laguerre polynomials 3<P) - L V </>•> Thus fk< (<?) = R „ ( J = J The generating f u n c t i o n of the Laguerre polynomials i s given by The n o r m a l i z i n g f a c t o r i s f o u n d t o be 52 R e f e r e n c e s : 1. R. Renner, Z e i t s . f . P h y s i k 92, 172 (193*0 • 2. M. B o r n and R. Oppenheimer, Ann. d. P h y s i k 81+, 1+57 (1927). 3. H. Sponer and E. T e l l e r , Rev.- o f Mod. Phys. 13, 75 (19I+I). 1+. H.C L o n g u e t - H i g g i n s , Advances i n M o l e c u l a r S p e c t r o s c o p y , V o l I I , E d i t e d by H.W. Thompson, I n t e r s c i e n c e P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , New York. 5.. G . H e r z b e r g , M o l e c u l a r S p e c t r a and M o l e c u l a r S t r u c t u r e ' I I . I n f r a - r e d .and Raman S p e c t r a o f P o l y a t o m i c m o l e c u l e s . .... D. Van N o s t r a n d Co., I n c . , T o r o n t o , p-72-6. J . J . Markham, :Phys. Rev. 103, 588 (1956). 7. . E; T. W i t t a k e r and G.N. Watson, A c o u r s e o f Modern A n a l y s i s , f o u r t h e d i t i o n , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963^ P-302. 8. W.H. S h a f f e r , Rev. o f Mod. Phys. l 6 , 2U5 (19I+I+). 

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