Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The planned industrial district: its significance for urban development in Canada Kennedy, William Jean Vianney 1964

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1964_A8 K45.pdf [ 8.14MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302537.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302537-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302537-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302537-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302537-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302537-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302537-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302537-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302537.ris

Full Text

THE PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT: ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN CANADA by WILLIAM JEAN VIANNEY KENNEDY M.A., The N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f I r e l a n d , 1956 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that, copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission* Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada D a * e A p r i l , 1 9 6 4 , i i ABSTRACT The most u n d e s i r a b l e s i d e - e f f e c t o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n was t h e b l i g h t i n g o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t by smoke and e f f l u v i a f r o m t h e f a c t o r i e s . T h i s has r e s u l t e d f i r s t l y , i n an a t t e m p t by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s t o c u r b t h e e x c e s s e s o f i n d u s t r y and t o make i t more c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; a nd, s e c o n d l y , i n a move-ment o f the f a c t o r y w o r k e r s away from t h e i r p l a c e o f work i n t o a r e a s r e s e r v e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Today, due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s , i n d u s t r i a l n u i s a n c e s have been v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d and a t m o s p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n i s c a u s e d m a i n l y by t h e e x h a u s t fumes f r o m t h e a u t o m o b i l e s o f commuting m o t o r i s t s . I n t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t e r e s t has i n c r e a s e d , f o r a number o f r e a s o n s , i n b r i n g i n g t h e home and w o r k - p l a c e c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . I n d u s t r y w o u l d l i k e t o l o c a t e c l o s e r t o i t s m a r k e t s and t o i t s l a b o r p o o l . The w o r k e r w o u l d l i k e a s h o r t e r j o u r n e y t o work, p r o v i d e d t h e a m e n i t y o f h i s home i s n o t a f f e c t e d . The s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t y , b u r d e n e d by t h e c o s t s o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d l i k e t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y t o s t r e n g t h e n i t s t a x b a s e . The p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t a p p e a r s t o be t h e most p r o m i s i n g t o o l t o a c c o m p l i s h a l l t h e s e a i m s . A p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n d u s -t r i a l s i t e w h i c h i s s u b d i v i d e d and d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o a i i i c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r t h e use o f a community o f i n d u s t r i e s , w i t h s t r e e t s , r a i l w a y s p u r s , and u t i l i t i e s e i t h e r r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e o r i n s t a l l e d b e f o r e t h e s i t e s a r e s o l d o r l e a s e d t o p r o s p e c t i v e o c c u p a n t s . U s u a l l y t h e d i s t r i c t i s u n d e r one management and t h e t y p e o f t e n a n t a d m i s s i b l e i s r e s t r i c t e d by c o v e n a n t . P l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t a i n and N o r t h A m e r i c a d a t e f r o m t h e end o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . I n B r i t a i n p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s have been u s e d by t h e S t a t e t o c o n t r o l t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s . 5 i n c e W o r l d War I I t h e y have been u s e d t o accommodate i n d u s t r y i n t h e New Towns. I n A m e r i c a t h e m a j o r i t y d e v e l o p e d s i n c e W o r l d War I I and a r e f r e q u e n t l y s p o n s o r e d by r a i l r o a d s o r o t h e r p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s . T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and m a r k e t s a r e key f a c t o r s i n t h e i r l o c a t i o n . The c o n c e p t has u n d e r g o n e some r e f i n e m e n t , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e a m e n i t y - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i a l p a r k , w h i c h has been u s e d i n some u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t schemes. I n Canada t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has been s l o w , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g . Though i t has power t o i n f l u e n c e and e n c o u r a g e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , t h e F e d e r a l g overnment has as y e t d e v e l o p e d no c o h e r e n t i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c i e s . Some t h o u g h t has been g i v e n t o t h e d a n g e r o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y i v b e i n g d o m i n a t e d by U. S. i n v e s t m e n t and c o n t r o l b u t no s o l u t / i o n a p p e a r s e v i d e n t . B r a n c h p l a n t s o f U. 5. f i r m s a r e an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n C a n a d i a n s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g / i n d u s t r y . [' \ I n t h e a b s e n c e o f F e d e r a l o r P r o v i n c i a l g u i d a n c e t h e b u r d e n o f d i r e c t i n g ( o r a t t r a c t i n g ) i n d u s t r y f a l l s on t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . To t h i s end i t has us e d z o n i n g , t a x i n c e n -t i v e s , i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o m m i s s i o n s a nd, i n c r e a s i n g l y , p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , w h i c h have been d e v e l o p e d i n some o f t h e more p r o g r e s s i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . I n d u s t r y i s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s e d i s t r i c t s by t h e i r e x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t a l l e d u t i l i t i e s , i n f a c t by t h e w h o l e " p a c k a g e d e a l " w h i c h a l l o w s i t t o go i n t o a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e p r o d u c t i o n . The p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s e r v e s t h e com-m u n i t y b e c a u s e i t c o n c e n t r a t e s a d e s i r a b l e t y p e o f i n d u s t r y i n a d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n , m i n i m i z e s t r a f f i c i n t e r f e r e n c e , p r o m o t e s t h e e c o n o m i c a l use o f s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s , e l i m -i n a t e s t h e w o r s t i n d u s t r i a l n u i s a n c e s , e n h a n c e s t h e v i s u a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e community, p r o v i d e s b e t t e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and s t r e n g t h e n s t h e t a x b a s e . A l l t h i s i t w i l l do p r o v i d e d i t i s p r o p e r l y p l a n n e d . The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s h o u l d promote t h e use o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s t o a c h i e v e e f f i c i e n t community d e v e l o p m e n t . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My t h a n k s a r e due t o Dr. K e v i n J . C r o s s , who d i r e c t e d t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and g u i d a n c e ; t o t h e L i b r a r y s t a f f o f t h e F i n e A r t s Room f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g i n t e r e s t and h e l p i n l o c a t i n g r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l ; and t o Mr. W i l l i a m K e r r o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond f o r some i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l -opment • v i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . THE PROBLEM OF PLANNING FOR INDUSTRY 1. A S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m and H y p o t h e s i s . . 1 a) S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m 1 b) S t a t e m e n t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s 4 2. I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t i n P e r s p e c t i v e . . . 5 3. I n d u s t r y and t h e S t a t e 8 4. C o n t r o l s f o r I n d u s t r y 13 5. The P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t 20 6. The A p p r o a c h t o t h e P r o b l e m 25 7. R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e on P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s 31 Summary 37 I I . THE ORIGIN AND CONCEPT OF THE PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT 1. B a c k g r o u n d o f P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t D e v e l o p m e n t 40 2. P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n 42 a) T r a f f o r d P a r k and S l o u g h I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s 42 b) P u b l i c i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s i n B r i t a i n . 46 c) I n d u s t r y i n t h e New Towns 51 v i i CHAPTER PAGE 3. P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s 55 a) P i o n e e r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n th e U n i t e d S t a t e s 55 b) P l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n th e U n i t e d S t a t e s a f t e r W o r l d War I I 62 c) The f u t u r e o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . . 67 Summary 70 I I I . THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY IN CANADA 1. C a n a d i a n S o c i o - e c o n o m i c C l i m a t e 72 2. Background o f C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r i a l Development 78 3. Economic and I n d u s t r i a l P o l i c i e s a t t h e T h r e e L e v e l s o f Government 88 4. I n d u s t r i a l D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n : The Problem o f R e g i o n a l . P l a n n i n g f o r I n d u s t r y . . . 99 5. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s p e c t s o f I n d u s t r i a l P l a n n i n g 103 6. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t Program 109 Summary 113 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE I V . THE PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT IN CANADA 1. I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n P r o b l e m s a t t h e L o c a l L e v e l 116 2. The Dy n a m i c s o f I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n . . 122 3. M u n i c i p a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n I n d u s t r i a l P l a n n i n g 126 4. The P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t i n t h e Community 133 5. Some E x a m p l e s o f P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n Canada 139 a) Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o 140 b) A n n a c i s I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e , B. C. . 144 c) E v a l u a t i o n 148 Summary 149 V. PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS: MUNICIPAL POLICY AND PROGRAM 1. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t 151 2. P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r I n d u s t r i a l P l a n n i n g . 156 3. I n d u s t r i a l P o l i c y Recommendations a t t h e T h r e e L e v e l s o f Government i n Canada. 163 4. P l a n n i n g t h e I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t . . . 168 5. E f f e c t s o f a P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m 173 i x CHAPTER PAGE 6. C o n c l u s i o n 178 Summary 182 BIBLIOGRAPHY 184 X L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . Growth o f I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s 63 I I . P r i n c i p a l S p o n s o r s o r Owners o f I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1954 . . . . 64 I I I . E s t i m a t e s o f F o r e i g n C a p i t a l I n v e s t e d i n Canada, 1950-1960 ( b i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s ) . . . 85 I V . N o n - R e s i d e n t i a l C o n t r o l as a P e r c e n t a g e o f S e l e c t e d C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r i e s , 1 9 4 8, 1 9 5 5 , and 1958 86 i CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM OF PLANNING FOR INDUSTRY 1. A Statement Of The Problem and Hypothesis a) Statement o f the problem. Land i s the p l a t f o r m o f a l l human a c t i v i t y . S i n c e much of the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s v i r t u a l l y u n i n h a b i t a b l e , the amount of l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r human s e t t l e m e n t i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . Throughout h i s t o r y man has s e t t l e d i n the c h o i c e s t areas and t h e r e he has b u i l t h i s c i t i e s . While advances i n te c h n o l o g y have broadened h i s c h o i c e c o n s i d e r a b l y , man's o r i g i n a l d e c i s i o n s have proved sound and most human s e t t l e m e n t s tend to s u r v i v e i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n s . Land i n or near our towns and c i t i e s has always been a very v a l u a b l e commodity. So v i t a l i s i t to man's w e l l -b e i n g t h a t many b e l i e v e i t to be a r e s o u r c e worthy of the most c a r e f u l c o n s e r v a t i o n . In c o u n t r i e s l i k e B r i t a i n and H o l l a n d , w i t h a l i m i t e d s u pply of l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r dev e l o p -ment, t h i s argument i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r c e f u l . With p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s r i s i n g throughout the w o r l d , most c o u n t r i e s would do w e l l to heed i t . In most western democracies, c o m p e t i t i o n f o r urban l a n d t a k e s p l a c e among the v a r i o u s u s e s — r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, 2 industrial and public. The rules of the competition are laid down by the authorities—zoning, subdivision by-laws and other regulations—and within the framework of these rules the rivals contend. A number of concepts have evolved which are designed to increase efficiency and amenity in the plan-ning and development of these urban land uses. Among these are the neighbourhood concept and the planned subdivision for residential land; for commercial land use the outlying shopping centre with pedestrian malls and ample parking space is the latest trend. Industry is a major consumer of urban land and as such is of particular interest to planners. Until fairly recently the location of industry was determined almost entirely by such factors as cost, accessibility, and taxation policies. However, because industrial development is not compatible with other types of development, and because the use of land for industrial purposes tends to persist on account of the heavy capital investment involved, planners have become acutely aware of the need to co-ordinate industrial with other types of land development. One of the major tools in accomplishing this purpose has been the zoning by-law, which limits the amount and location of land for industrial purposes. However in many cases industry has ignored these industrial zones and has 'leap-frogged' into the unzoned rural areas beyond the city limits, where the city has no jurisdiction 3 and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t u s u a l l y l i e s w i t h a h i g h e r l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t . One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i s t h a t z o n i n g o f l a n d f o r i n d u s t r y o f t e n meant n o t h i n g more t h a n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o s t o f l a n d . As a c o n s e q u e n c e a new t o o l i s e v o l v i n g w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d t o make z o n e d i n d u s t r i a l l a n d more a t t r a c t i v e t o i n d u s t r y . T h i s t o o l i s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . P l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s t a k e many f o r m s . They can be p r i v a t e l y owned, as a r e many i n t h e U n i t e d 5 t a t e s and Canada, o r p u b l i c l y owned, as i n B r i t a i n and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . They c a n be l a r g e o r t h e y c a n be s m a l l . They c a n r a n g e from raw l a n d w i t h few i m p r o v e m e n t s t o f u l l y d e v e l o p e d s i t e s w i t h c o m p l e t e f a c i l i t i e s and even c u s t o m - b u i l t f a c t o r i e s . I n t e r e s t i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e has grown c o n s i d e r a b l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s and a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e has a c c u m u l a t e d so t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n f u t u r e community d e v e l o p m e n t i s s l o w l y t a k i n g s h a p e . B e c a u s e e v e r y c o u n t r y has d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i c needs and p r o b l e m s i n t h e f i e l d o f g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , s i m i l a r t o o l s w i l l have d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y . Here i n Canada we have a p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n where B r i t i s h l a w and t r a d i t i o n e x i s t s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f A m e r i c a n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . We a r e f o r c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f w h e t h e r t o employ t h e B r i t i s h methods o f t i g h t d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l o r t o r e l y on o u r a b i l i t y t o d i r e c t s p o n t a n e o u s 4 development along d e s i r e d channels with a minimum of p u b l i c i n t e r f e r e n c e . The scope of the present paper embraces an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the r o l e o f planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n the p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c climate of Canada. The proposed i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e s an examination of the h i s t o r y of i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s , the needs which prompted t h e i r growth, t h e i r present r o l e i n the Canadian scene and t h e i r p o s s i b l e u t i l i t y as a t o o l of planned development i n the f u t u r e . Because the adopted B r i t i s h law and t r a d i t i o n s make p u b l i c ownership both p o s s i b l e and acceptable i n Canada, the s p e c i a l r o l e that might be taken by l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n i n s t i t u t i n g planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i s examined; and s i n c e the problems generated by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n are most obvious at the l o c a l l e v e l , t h i s paper deals with i n d u s t r i a l development mainly from the point of view of the l o c a l community. b) Statement of the hypothesis. The hypothesis of t h i s paper i s "that Canadian communities should promote the use of planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s as a t o o l to achieve e f f i c i e n t community development". Before i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s theme, however, a general review i s made of the development of i n d u s t r y and the o r i g i n and use of the planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . 5 2. I n d u s t r i a l Development i n P e r s p e c t i v e In a w o r l d where the t h r e a t of mutual d e s t r u c t i o n has made the a s s e r t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y over o t h e r n a t i o n s by f o r c e of arms i m p r a c t i c a l , i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y has become the y a r d s t i c k by which n a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p l a c e i n the wo r l d power s t r u c t u r e . The gross n a t i o n a l product has become the barometer o f a n a t i o n ' s p r e s t i g e . More than t h a t , an e f f i c i e n t i n d u s t r i a l base has become an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e to the economic v i a b i l i t y of a n a t i o n . The e x p l o i t a t i o n and ex p o r t of raw m a t e r i a l s may enable a d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n t o l i m p a l o n g f o r many years w i t h o u t going bankrupt, but i n the l o n g run such a course can o n l y l e a d to economic d i s a s t e r . In a world o f s o a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n l i m i t e d to the p r o d u c t i o n o f primary p r o d u c t s i s no l o n g e r s u f f i c i e n t , and the development o f secondary i n d u s t r y has become the goal of s c o r e s of d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . To develop e f f i c i e n t l y , i n d u s t r y needs space, not j u s t any space, but the space which i s most f a v o u r a b l y s i t u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to raw m a t e r i a l s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , markets, l a b o u r , and a l l the o t h e r f a c t o r s which e n t e r i n t o the d e c i s i o n -making process of i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . In the p a s t , i n d u s t r y was o f t e n h a p h a z a r d l y l o c a t e d , but today r e s e a r c h i n t o the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y has i n c r e a s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f making c o r r e c t and r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s about i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n , , 6 S i n c e t h e l i v e s o f p e o p l e a r e i n t i m a t e l y bound up w i t h i n d u s t r y , t h e p r o b l e m o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n has many s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d i n B r i t a i n , where a p o l i c y o f " b r i n g i n g work t o t h e w o r k e r s " has l e d t o t h e p r o m o t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n and g r o w t h i n a r e a s where t h e s e w o u l d n o t n o r m a l l y t a k e p l a c e i f i n d u s t r y were l e f t t o i t s own d e v i c e s . Thus t h e S t a t e has t a k e n a hand i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i n a c o u n t r y l o n g a d m i r e d f o r i t s d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s e x e r c i s e o f c o n t r o l i s d w a r f e d by t h a t w h i c h e x i s t s i n t h e Communist c o u n t r i e s and i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . I n s u c h c o u n t r i e s i n d u s t r y i s t o o v i t a l a f a c t o r i n t h e n a t i o n ' s economy t o be l e f t t o l o c a t e and d e v e l o p s p o n t a n e o u s l y . I n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i s c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d where i t w i l l do t h e most good f r o m a s o c i a l as w e l l as an e c o n o m i c v i e w p o i n t . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada c o n t r o l o v e r t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y on t h e p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s has been l i m i t e d m a i n l y t o a d v i c e and p e r s u a s i o n . I t has been p o s s i b l e i n some a r e a s t o s t i m u l a t e t h e l o c a l economy by t h e j u d i c i o u s p l a c i n g o f government c o n t r a c t s , and c e r t a i n f i s c a l d e v i c e s have been a p p l i e d t o g u i d e i n d u s t r y i n t h e d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . The k i n d o f c o n t r o l f o u n d i n B r i t a i n and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s does n o t , however, e x i s t h e r e . The t y p e o f i n d u s t r y w h i c h i s t h e ma i n c o n c e r n o f t h i s p a p e r i s m a n u f a c t u r i n g , as o p p o s e d t o e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r y . 7 The l a t t e r type of i n d u s t r y i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s l o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e by the l o c a t i o n and type of raw m a t e r i a l w i t h which i t i s concerned. M a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , which may be d e f i n e d as those i n d u s t r i e s engaged i n the p r o d u c t i o n or d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods f o r consumption, are g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d toward the market and l o c a t e i n or near l a r g e con-c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n . Because of advances i n the t e c h n o l o g y of power and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a wide range of l o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s i s open to them. The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y which has taken p l a c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada s i n c e World War II. i s a r e s u l t o f i n d u s t r i a l concerns e x e r c i s i n g t h i s c h o i c e . The expansion of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y c o u pled w i t h the phenomenon of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n suggest the need f o r some form of p l a n n i n g to ensure not o n l y t h a t i n d u s t r i a l growth w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r l a n d uses, but a l s o t h a t these l o c a t i o n s w i l l be r e s e r v e d t o accommodate the expected growth. In the absence of any r e a l n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h problems asso-c i a t e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l development f a l l s on the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The presumed i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of i n d u s t r i a l w i t h o t h e r l a n d uses and the a c t u a l problems which have r e s u l t e d where such uses have been mixed has l e d to a m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y by which v a r i o u s t r a c t s of l a n d are zoned f o r i n d u s t r i a l use by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . In many cases t h i s measure of 8 c o n t r o l h a s b e e n t o o l i t t l e a n d t o o l a t e , a n d h a s i n i t s e l f c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s . T h e u s e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s a d v a n c e d h e r e a s a p o t e n t i a l a n s w e r t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e s a r e v i e w o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : - t h e h i s t o r i c e v o l u t i o n o f c o n t r o l s o v e r t h e l o c a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r y a n d t h e p r o b l e m s t h e r e b y c r e a t e d ; t h e o r i g i n a n d c o n c e p t o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t ; t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e o f C a n a d a ; a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . F i n a l l y a n a t t e m p t i s m a d e t o f o r m u l a t e a m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p m e n t f o r C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d t h e i m p l i -c a t i o n s o f s u c h a p o l i c y a r e a s s e s s e d . 3. I n d u s t r y a n d t h e S t a t e S i n c e A d a m S m i t h ' s " W e a l t h o f N a t i o n s " " * - a p p e a r e d i n 1 7 7 6 , c o u n t l e s s t h o u s a n d s o f w o r d s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n d u s t r y . T h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e s t e a m e n g i n e b y J a m e s W a t t i n 1 7 8 9 o p e n e d t h e f l o o d - g a t e s o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n a n d u n l e a s h e d a p o w e r f u l f o r c e f o r g o o d o r e v i l o n A d a m S m i t h , A n I n q u i r y i n t o t h e N a t u r e a n d C a u s e s o f  t h e W e a l t h o f N a t i o n s (2 v o l s . ; 4 t h e d . ; L o n d o n : M e t h u e n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 0 4 ) . 9 m a n k i n d . E v e r s i n c e t h a t t i m e an u n c e a s i n g s t r u g g l e has gone on b e tween t h o s e who w o u l d use t h i s f o r c e t o e n s l a v e m a n k i n d and t h o s e who w o u l d u s e i t t o s e t him f r e e . Bentham, C a r l y l e , M i l l , R u s k i n , and Keynes have p r o p o u n d e d t h e i r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c t h e o r i e s t o s w i n g t h e t i d e o f o p i n i o n t h i s way o r t h a t . R e v o l u t i o n s have come and gone, g r e a t n a t i o n s have r i s e n on t h e c r e s t o f e c o n o m i c power, o n l y t o f a l l b e f o r e a g r e a t e r ; and s t i l l some f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n u n a n s w e r -ed , so t h a t even t o - d a y t h e p l a c e o f i n d u s t r y i n t h e f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y i s n o t y e t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . I t may be s a i d , how-e v e r , t h a t t h i s p o w e r f u l young g i a n t has been tamed s u f f i c i e n t l y t o become t h e s e r v a n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e m a s t e r o f man. T h i s s t r u g g l e t o tame i n d u s t r y has n o t been e a s y and has e n t a i l e d many s a c r i f i c e s . The p e r i o d f r o m 1825 t o 1870 was t h e heyday o f Adam S m i t h ' s " l a i s s e z f a i r e " p h i l o s o p h y , t h e t h e o r y o f t h e " i n v i s i b l e hand" g u i d i n g t h e a f f a i r s o f i n d u s t r y , and e n s u r i n g t h a t what was good f o r i n d u s t r y was good f o r e v e r y o n e . The l a w o f s u p p l y and demand was t h o u g h t t o need no o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n s e c u r i n g t h e g r e a t e s t good f o r a l l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e f a c t s i n c r e a s i n g l y t e n d e d t o show t h a t t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e . P u b l i c i n q u i r i e s and t h e o b s e r -v a t i o n s o f p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s r e v e a l e d t h a t w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t e d i n m i n e , m i l l , and shop t h a t c o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d on t h e g r o u n d s o f any e c o n o m i c t h e o r y . Even t h e l a i s s e z f a i r e e c o n o m i s t s t h e m s e l v e s were s h o c k e d by t h e inhuman c o n d i t i o n s 10 spawned by the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , and t r o u b l e d man s e t 2 out on the road t o r e f o r m . R e l i e f came f i r s t to the weak and h e l p l e s s , and by means of l e g i s l a t i o n women and c h i l d r e n were spared the worst k i n d s o f p h y s i c a l l a b o u r . In 1867 the f r a n c h i s e was extended to t he i n d u s t r i a l worker i n England, and t h e r e a f t e r the S t a t e took an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n p r o t e c t i n g h i s r i g h t s . F a c t o r y and Mines Ac t s were passed, o u t l a w i n g the worst forms o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , and i n a d d i t i o n the S t a t e c o l l e c t e d and pub-l i s h e d f a c t s about abuses i n i n d u s t r y . I t i s now an unques-t i o n e d p r i n c i p l e t h a t the S t a t e has the r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e i n the workings of i n d u s t r y and the o n l y q u e s t i o n i s to what e x t e n t t h i s c o n t r o l s h o u l d take p l a c e . By and l a r g e " l a i s s e z f a i r e " remains the g e n e r a l r u l e i n Western d e m o c r a c i e s — b u t 3 i t i s l i a b l e to l a r g e e x c e p t i o n s . The t h e o r y o f Western democracy i s t h a t Government expresses and executes the w i l l of the m a j o r i t y of the pe o p l e , t h a t i s , i t a c t s i n accordance w i t h p u b l i c o p i n i o n . In t h i s r o l e i t may f i n d i t s e l f t a k i n g a stand which may not appeal to i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . As F l o r e n c e s a y s : P. Sargant F l o r e n c e , I n d u s t r y and the 5 t a t e (London: Hutchinson &. Co. ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . , 1957) , p . 3 4 . 3 I b i d . , p. 35. 11 The v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n a r e l i k e l y t o d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h o s e o f t h e p e r s o n s d e c i d i n g t h e p o l i c y o f f i r m s i n p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i e s . The S t a t e t a k e s a c t i o n i n i n d u s t r y l a r g e l y t o b r i n g i n d u s t r y i n t o l i n e w i t h p u b l i c o p i n i o n . 4 I n i t s p u r s u i t o f p r o f i t , i n d u s t r y f r e q u e n t l y p r o d u c e s c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e o b n o x i o u s t o a g r e a t number o f p e o p l e and i t i s t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h u s c r e a t e d w h i c h j u s t i f i e s t h e S t a t e i n c u r b i n g t h e o f f e n d i n g i n d u s t r y . The e c o n o m i c i m p o r t a n c e o f i n d u s t r y i n a town o r a n a t i o n c a n h a r d l y be o v e r s t r e s s e d . A town as an e c o nomic u n i t l i v e s l a r g e l y e i t h e r by m a k i n g t h i n g s o r t r a d i n g i n them, o r b o t h and a l l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a r e s u b s i d i a r y t o t h e s e . I f m a n u f a c t u r e o r t r a d e d e c l i n e , f e w e r h o u s e s o r s c h o o l s c a n be b u i l t , and i f t h e y d e c l i n e beyond a c e r t a i n p o i n t , t h e community s t a r v e s . 5 T h e r e i s no need t o b e l a b o u r t h i s p o i n t . An e f f i c i e n t and d i v e r s e i n d u s t r i a l b a s e i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y o f a modern n a t i o n . However, i n i t s p u r s u i t o f e f f i c i e n c y i n d u s t r y some-t i m e s p r o d u c e s c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e o f f e n s i v e and o f t e n d a n g e r -o u s . A i r p o l l u t i o n c r e a t e s h e a l t h h a z a r d s ; r i v e r and s t r e a m p o l l u t i o n d e s t r o y s a q u a t i c l i f e and r e n d e r s t h e w a t e r u n u s a b l e ; i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e s d e s t r o y t h e a m e n i t y o f r i v e r - b a n k s ^ I b i d . , p. 1 5 . Gordon L o g i e , I n d u s t r y i n Towns ( L o n d o n : George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 15. 12 and b e a c h e s ; i n d u s t r y ' s t r u c k s and t r a f f i c c l o g c i t y s t r e e t s and c r e a t e a h a z a r d i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ; e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s l e a v e u n s i g h t l y p i t s and s l a g heaps t o mar t h e b e a u t y o f t h e l a n d s c a p e and r e n d e r t h e a r e a u n u s a b l e e x c e p t a t g r e a t e x p e n s e . These w e l l - k n o w n i n s t a n c e s o f i n d u s t r i a l ' n u i s a n c e s ' have l e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s , a p r i n c i p l e w h i c h i s s o m e t i m e s c a r r i e d t o e x t r e m e s . On a l a r g e r s c a l e t h e a c t i v i t i e s and s h i f t s o f i n d u s t r y c r e a t e d i s e c o n o m i e s w h i c h a r e o f c o n c e r n t o t h e S t a t e . When an i n d u s t r y i s d i s c o n t i n u e d o r moves t o a new l o c a t i o n , unemployment e n s u e s a nd, i f o u t - m i g r a t i o n f o l l o w s , s o c i a l c a p i t a l s u c h as s c h o o l s and h o u s e s a r e u s e d b e l o w t h e i r f u l l c a p a c i t y . I n d u s t r y may move t o a new l o c a t i o n w h i c h may e n t a i l t h e o v e r l o a d i n g o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n t h e new a r e a , and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e new s o c i a l c a p i t a l t o meet t h e need f a l l s on t h e l o c a l g overnment f u n d s i n one f o r m o r a n o t h e r . ^ I n t i m e s o f war and n a t i o n a l c r i s i s i n d u s t r y becomes t h e s i n e w s o f t h e n a t i o n . A t s u c h t i m e s t h e d e c i s i o n s o f p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o m o t e t h e m e a s u r e s P e t e r S e l f , The P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s L t d . , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 1 0 . 13 t h a t become n e c e s s a r y i f t h e n a t i o n i s t o s u r v i v e . I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e S t a t e , as t h e g u a r d i a n o f t h e f r e e d o m o f a l l , must t a k e w h a t e v e r s t e p s a r e n e c e s s a r y , i n c l u d i n g c u r b s on t h e f r e e d o m o f i n d u s t r y , f o r t h e s a k e o f n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l . 4. C o n t r o l s f o r I n d u s t r y I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e xamine t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c o n t r o l s t h e S t a t e has a t i t s d i s p o s a l i n d i r e c t i n g i n d u s t r y t o w a r d t h e g o a l s w h i c h i t c o n s i d e r s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w e l l -b e i n g o f s o c i e t y . The means a t i t s d i s p o s a l a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e . The 5 t a t e . . . h a s f o r i t s v a r i o u s aims a l a r g e t o t a l i t y o f t o o l s . I f one s e t o f t o o l s f a i l s t o a c h i e v e a g i v e n aim o t h e r s c a n be t r i e d ; a g o vernment s h o u l d n o t p i n i t s f a i t h t o any one s e t s u c h as s a y t a r i f f s o r n a t i o n a l i z a -t i o n . The a r t o f S t a t e government i s t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t t h a t o f c o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e v a r i o u s t o o l s a v a i l -a b l e and f i n a l l y d e c i d i n g w h i c h t o o l s t o u s e — w h a t p r o c e d u r e s t o a p p l y — f o r t h e v a r i o u s aims p u b l i c o p i n i o n j u d g e s o f v a l u e . ' Stemming f r o m i t s c o n c e p t i o n o f " t h e common good" o r " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " t h e S t a t e w i l l f o r m u l a t e c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c i e s w h i c h i t c o n s i d e r s d e s i r a b l e i n t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t and w i l l a p p l y s u c h c o n t r o l s t o i n d u s t r y as w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s . I t i s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y t o s a y t h a t g r e a t c a r e s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f any k i n d o f c o n t r o l t o i n d u s t r y . The f r e e m a r k e t economy i s d e l i c a t e l y b a l a n c e d and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c u r b s t o c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s may p r o d u c e F l o r e n c e , op. c i t . , p. 1 8 8 . 14 u n e x p e c t e d and e n t i r e l y u n d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r e n t c o n t r o l s i n B r i t a i n as a r e s u l t o f W o r l d War I I l e d t o a c u t - b a c k i n t h e p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g s e c t o r w h i c h f o r c e d t h e Government t o u n d e r t a k e l a r g e s c a l e h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n t h e same way t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r a t i o n i n g and p r i c e c o n t r o l s g e n e r a l l y - l e a d s t o l a r g e - s c a l e b l a c k - m a r k e t e e r i n g . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e r o l e o f t h e S t a t e i n b o t h B r i t a i n and t h e U. S. up t o t h e t i m e o f t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n had been c o n f i n e d t o " k e e p i n g t h e r i n g " a r o u n d i n d u s t r y , w h i l e t h e l a w s o f s u p p l y and demand o p e r a t e d w i t h i n . I n a f a s h i o n t h e y " s e t up" t h e c o n t e s t a n t s by p r o v i d i n g t h e l e g a l f r a m e -work u n d e r w h i c h c o m p a n i e s c o u l d sue and be s u e d and be 8 h e l d t o t h e i r c o n t r a c t s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e S t a t e p r o t e c t e d t h e p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h t h e F a c t o r i e s and M i n e s A c t and i t s e l f u n d e r t o o k q u a s i - i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as r o a d - b u i l d i n g and p u b l i c w o r k s . The S t a t e a l s o c o l l e c t e d and p u b l i s h e d f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l a b o u t i n d u s t r y , p u r c h a s e d i t s p r o d u c t s i n p e a c e and e s p e c i a l l y i n war and p r o m o t e d f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y by r e g u l a t i n g b a n k i n g and f i s c a l m a t t e r s . I b i d . , p. 29. I b i d . . p. 32. 15 S i n c e t h e D e p r e s s i o n o f t h e ' T h i r t i e s s t a t e ' c o n t r o l s * o v e r i n d u s t r y have m u l t i p l i e d and i n c r e a s e d i n v a r i e t y . I n many c a s e s i t i s i n no s e n s e c o n t r o l l i n g i n d u s t r y b u t r a t h e r m e d i a t i n g b e tween p a r t i e s — b e t w e e n l a b o u r and e m p l o y e r , b e tween p r o d u c e r and cons u m e r . I t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n d u s t r y , s e r v i c e s t o i n d u s t r y , and p a l l i a t i v e s a g a i n s t t h e h a z a r d s o f i n d u s t r y , and so m e t i m e s t a k e s on t h e d i r e c t o p e r a t i o n o f an industry." 1"'"' The r e a l weapons a g a i n s t i n d u s t r i a l p r o b l e m s i n t h e armo u r y o f t h e S t a t e a r e t a x a t i o n and f i s c a l p o l i c i e s . T axes may d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t i n d u s t r i e s ; s u b s i d i e s may e n c o u r a g e o t h e r s ; q u o t a s , r a t i o n i n g , and t a r i f f s a r e s t r o n g p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l s . Thus t h e Bu d g e t i s a d e v i c e w h i c h t h e S t a t e c a n and does use f r e e l y t o p o i n t t h e economy i n t h e d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . The U n i t e d S t a t e s no l e s s t h a n B r i t a i n makes f u l l u s e o f t h e s e c o n t r o l s and government r e g u l a t i o n "has been a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y t o a w i d e r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l l i f e . " " * " ^ The New D e a l o f R o o s e v e l t w h i c h s p r a n g f r o m t h e D e p r e s s i o n made l i b e r a l use o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f s p e n d i n g on p u b l i c w o r k s and d e f i c i t f i n a n c i n g t o s t i m u l a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n 1 0 I b i d . , p. 1 6 5 . P. S a r g a n t F l o r e n c e , The L o g i c o f B r i t i s h and  A m e r i c a n I n d u s t r y ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , r e v . e d . , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 2 6 9 . 16 t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r ; t h i s method has i t s t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n 12 i n K e y n e s ' " G e n e r a l T h e o r y o f Employment" p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 35. I n a d d i t i o n t h e modern government has a w h o l e h o s t o f l e g a l , f i s c a l , b u d g e t a r y , and s u p e r v i s o r y t o o l s t o g u i d e t h e d i r e c -t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and one m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h e m a s s i v e government s p e n d i n g on ' d e f e n s e ' as b e i n g j u s t i f i e d m a i n l y f r o m an e c o n o m i c v i e w p o i n t . A t t h e l o c a l l e v e l c o n t r o l s a r e a p p l i e d t o i n d u s t r y m a i n l y w i t h t he i n t e n t i o n o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e a m e n i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l o r o t h e r a r e a s , and t o s e c u r e p l e a s a n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The t e c h n i q u e o f z o n i n g i s u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . Z o n i n g was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n New York i n 1917 and s i n c e t h e n i t has been w i d e l y u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t . P r e v i o u s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w , o r o r d i n a n c e , s e g r e g a t i o n o f u s e s had been a c h i e v e d i n some i n s t a n c e s by means o f home-owners' a s s o c i a -t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t s ; nowadays few c o m m u n i t i e s o f any c o n s e q u e n c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e w i t h o u t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e z o n i n g b y - l a w . T y p i c a l l y t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e z o n i n g b y - l a w d i v i d e s t h e community i n t o f i v e z o n e s — r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , p u b l i c o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and open s p a c e . W i t h i n t h e s e z o n e s J o h n M a y n a r d K e y n e s , The G e n e r a l T h e o r y o f Employment, I n t e r e s t and Money ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n and Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , 403 pp. 17 d e v e l o p m e n t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e d e s i g n a t e d u s e , t h o u g h i n some " c u m u l a t i v e " b y l a w s t h e s o - c a l l e d " h i g h e r " u s e s a r e a l l o w e d i n a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d f o r o t h e r u s e s . R e s i d e n t i a l i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e " h i g h e s t " u s e , f o l l o w e d by p u b l i c , c o m m e r c i a l , and i n d u s t r i a l , i n t h a t o r d e r . T h i s r e l e g a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y 13 t o t h e b o t t o m o f t h e p i l e , s o m e t i m e s j u d i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d , has c a u s e d g r a v e m i s g i v i n g s on t h e p a r t o f many w r i t e r s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f i n d u s t r y ' s p l a c e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e a v e r a g e U. S. o r C a n a d i a n community d i s p l a y s a s c h i z o p h r e n i c a t t i t u d e i n i t s t r e a t m e n t o f i n d u s t r y . On t h e one hand i t d e s i g n a t e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e t h e p o o r e s t , r o u g h e s t , most i l l - d r a i n e d s i t e s w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s ; and i f some o t h e r use s h o u l d by c h a n c e c o v e t even t h e s e , i t makes them r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r n o n - i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . On t h e o t h e r hand i t d e s p e r a t e l y s e e k s t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y i n t o i t s i n v e n t o r y w i t h a v i e w t o s t r e n g t h -e n i n g i t s t a x b a s e , f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r i n g s u c h i n d u c e m e n t s as t a x e x e m p t i o n s and r e d u c e d r e n t s . ^ The n e t r e s u l t o f a l l D o r o t h y A. Muncy, "Land f o r I n d u s t r y — A N e g l e c t e d P r o b l e m " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w . X X X I I ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 5 1 . I b i d . , p. 5 1 . 18 t h i s i s o f t e n t h e f l i g h t o f i n d u s t r y away from t h e community i n t o u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y beyond t h e m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s , where t h e l o s s o f t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f c e n t r a l i t y i s b a l a n c e d by t h e a b s e n c e o f r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l s . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e o f many c o m m u n i t i e s i s c h a n g i n g t o w a r d s i n d u s t r y , t h o u g h p e r h a p s n o t q u i c k l y enough. T h e r e i s more need f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t t h a t " t h e community w h i c h i s e f f i c i e n t t o work i n w i l l 15 a l s o be p l e a s a n t t o l i v e i n " . I n t h e o l d days i n d u s t r y was i n d e e d g u i l t y o f many t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a g a i n s t a m e n i t y and h e a l t h , b u t a l l t h i s i s r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g . B r e a k - t h r o u g h s i n t e c h n o l o g y have r e s u l t e d i n a v a s t new r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h a r e i n no s e n s e o b n o x i o u s , o r i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h o t h e r u s e s , and t h e o l d e r , n u i s a n c e - c r e a t i n g i n d u s t r i e s have grown l e s s u n d e s i r a b l e t h r o u g h t h e use o f e l e c t r i c power and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f a c i l i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , w o r k e r s a r e no l o n g e r s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e o l d w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Modern f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g s c a n now be d e s i g n e d t o p r e s e n t a v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e and c a n be a p o s i t i v e a e s t h e t i c a s s e t t o a c ommunity. A l l t h i s p o i n t s t o t h e need f o r a r e - a s s e s s m e n t on t h e p a r t o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e v a l u e o f i n d u s t r y t o t h e community I b i d . , p. 52. 19 and f o r a new s y s t e m u n d e r w h i c h i n d u s t r y , c o n f o r m i n g t o p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s , may o c c u p y s i t e s more i n k e e p i n g w i t h i t s needs w i t h i n , o r a t l e a s t c l o s e r t o , t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and t h e u r b a n c o r e . I t may be v a l u a b l e t o draw a p a r a l l e l b e t w een t h e c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r y ( i n t h e w i d e r s e n s e ) by t h e S t a t e , and t h e c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r y ( i n t h e n a r r o w e r s e n s e ) a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . I n b o t h c a s e s i n d u s t r y i s n e c e s s a r y f o r e c o n o m i c s u r v i v a l and i n b o t h c a s e s c o n t r o l i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e common good. A t b o t h l e v e l s t h e r e e x i s t s a v a r i e t y o f t o o l s a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s and s u c c e s s i n a c h i e v i n g t h e d e s i r e d f o r m and p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y d epends on t h e j u d i c i o u s u se o f t h e s e t o o l s . T h e r e i s one o t h e r t o o l w h i c h has been u s e d a t b o t h t h e l o c a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l ( t h e l a t t e r i n B r i t a i n and e l s e w h e r e ) t o i n f l u e n c e t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i n t h e commun i t y . T h i s t o o l i s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . A t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h i s t e c h n i q u e was u s e d by t h e B r i t i s h Government t o " b r i n g work t o t h e w o r k e r s " i n t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s o f B r i t a i n , b e g i n n i n g i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 ' s . A t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , i t was used, a g a i n i n B r i t a i n , t o p r o v i d e e m p l o y -ment and t o c r e a t e e f f i c i e n t and l i v a b l e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e " G a r d e n C i t i e s " o f Welwyn and L e t c h w o r t h , i n t h e "New Towns" o f B r i t a i n , and i n o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s who saw i n i t a u s e f u l t o o l t o i m p r o v e t h e i r u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e i r e c o n o m i c 20 b a s e as w e l l . The s u c c e s s o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t p rogram a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l i n B r i t a i n s u g g e s t s t h a t i t m i g h t be i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h p r o f i t by any c o u n t r y w h i c h h a r b o u r s r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n i t s r a t e o f unemployment and s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . I t s s u c c e s s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l makes i t w o r t h y o f s t u d y by any l o c a l o r m u n i c i p a l body t h a t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g a more h e a l t h f u l , more e f f i c i e n t , and more e c o n o m i c -a l l y v i a b l e community f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . 5. The P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t B e c a u s e a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine and e v a l u a t e a few d e f i n i t i o n s b e f o r e m o v i n g on t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . Much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n c a n be a s c r i b e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s have been known by d i f f e r e n t names a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s and i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t a i n a r e known as " i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s " o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , " t r a d i n g e s t a t e s " . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s were s i m p l y c a l l e d " i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s " ; t h e words " p l a n n e d " o r " o r g a n i z e d " were added t o d i s t i n g u i s h them f r o m u n p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . F i n a l l y , as g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t y p e o f e n v i r o n m e n t and s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d began t o emerge, t h e more 21 l u x u r i o u s t y p e o f d i s t r i c t became known as an " i n d u s t r i a l p a r k " . Though t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s l y w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s among p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e d e g r e e o f p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p m e n t s t a n d a r d s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l t h e y d i s p l a y , nobody has been a b l e t o p i n p o i n t e x a c t l y what d i s -t i n g u i s h e s an " i n d u s t r i a l p a r k " f r o m an " i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t " . D e v e l o p e r s a r e p r o n e f o r p r e s t i g e p u r p o s e s t o l a b e l t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t s w i t h t h e t e r m " i n d u s t r i a l p a r k " , but " i n many i n s t a n c e s t h e t e r m i s n o t h i n g more t h a n a s e m a n t i c gimmick u s e d t o g a i n community a c c e p t a n c e on t h e one hand and t o p r o m o t e a p i e c e o f r e a l e s t a t e on t h e o t h e r " . F o r t h i s r e a s o n no a t t e m p t i s made h e r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b etween " i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s " and- " i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s " . I t i s c o n -s i d e r e d h o w e v e r , t h a t a t r a c t o f u n i m p r o v e d l a n d w h i c h has been z o n e d and s e t a s i d e f o r i n d u s t r y c a n u n d e r no c i r c u m -s t a n c e s be r e g a r d e d as a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . O n l y s i t e s w h i c h have a minimum number o f s e r v i c e s i n s t a l l e d o r g u a r a n t e e d and w h i c h c a n o f f e r a minimum amount o f p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e p r o s p e c t i v e i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a n t c a n p o s s i b l y l a y c l a i m t o t h e t i t l e o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . R o b e r t E. B o l e y , I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s R e s t u d i e d : An A n a l y s i s o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 4 1 , ( W a s h i n g t o n , B , C . : U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e , A p r i l , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 11 22 T h e o d o r e K. Pasma d e f i n e s an o r g a n i z e d o r p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t as f o l l o w s : An " o r g a n i z e d " o r " p l a n n e d " i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s a t r a c t o f l a n d w h i c h i s s u b d i v i d e d and d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d -i n g t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r t h e use o f a community o f i n d u s t r i e s , w i t h s t r e e t s , r a i l l e a d t r a c k s , and u t i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d b e f o r e s i t e s a r e s o l d t o p r o s p e c t i v e o c c u p a n t s . The c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n must p r o v i d e f o r a d e q u a t e c o n -t r o l o f t h e a r e a and b u i l d i n g s t h r o u g h r e s t r i c t i o n s and z o n i n g w i t h a v i e w t o p r o t e c t i n g t h e i n v e s t m e n t s o f b o t h d e v e l o p e r s o f t h e d i s t r i c t s and i n d u s t r i e s o c c u p y i n g t h e i m p r o v e d s i t e s . 17 A s i m i l a r b u t more d e t a i l e d and d e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n was f o r m u l a t e d by t h e D a r t m o u t h C o l l e g e C o n f e r e n c e on I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s , as f o l l o w s : An o r g a n i z e d o r p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s a t r a c t o f l a n d w h i c h i s s u b d i v i d e d and d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r t h e use o f a community o f i n d u s -t r i e s . The p l a n i n c l u d e s d e t a i l e d p r o v i s i o n f o r s t r e e t s , r a i l l e a d t r a c k s and u t i l i t i e s , e i t h e r i n s t a l l e d b e f o r e t h e s i t e s a r e s o l d o r o t h e r w i s e a s s u r e d t o p r o s p e c t i v e o c c u p a n t s . The c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n must e n s u r e a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l o f t h e a r e a and b u i l d i n g s t h r o u g h z o n i n g , p r i v a t e r e s t r i c -t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d as l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n deeds o f s a l e o r l e a s e s , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g management, a l l w i t h a v i e w t o p r o t e c t i n g t h e i n v e s t m e n t s o f b o t h d e v e l o p e r s o f t h e d i s t r i c t and i n d u s t r i e s o c c u p y i n g t h e i m p r o v e d s i t e s . The management h a n d l e s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s on b e h a l f o f t h e t e n a n t s , and i t may e r e c t b u i l d i n g s p r i o r t o s a l e o r l e a s e f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s . 1 8 T h e o d o r e K. Pasma, O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s : A T o o l f o r Community D e v e l o p m e n t ( W a s h i n g t o n , U . C . : U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, June 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 1. 18 W i l l i a m Lee B a l d w i n , A R e p o r t on t h e D a r t m o u t h  C o l l e g e C o n f e r e n c e on I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s (New H a m p s h i r e : A r t h u r D. L i t t l e , I n c . , J u n e , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 27. 23 It can be seen from these definitions that a planned industrial district as examined in this paper must have certain minimum characteristics. It must be under unified management; it must be comprehensively planned or subdivided: (this does not mean that i t must be subdivided all at once, but that progressive subdivision should proceed according to pre-conceived planning principles); i t should have adequate road, rai l , and other transportation facilities; i t should have basic services and utilities installed or available; and finally i t should be developed only for industry, and the kind of industrial occupant admitted should be controlled. A typical planned industrial district is between 50 and 500 acres in extent and is operated by a private real estate developer who acquires, plans, and improves the tract, usually with the cooperation of the municipality within which it is situated. Sites in the tract may be either bought or leased and plant facilities may be either leased, built by the developer to specifications, or self-built by the tenant under the developer's architectural control. The tract is located close to a major highway and often has rail and water transportation available, or both. Some-times an airport is close by. The district is laid out with well graded and curbed streets, and water, sewers and power are installed or readily available. 24 T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f l a n d s c a p i n g and t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e s e t w e l l back f r o m t h e s t r e e t s and a r e i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l harmony w i t h e ach o t h e r . A d v e r t i s i n g s i g n s a r e c o n t r o l l e d , o f f s t r e e t p a r k i n g and l o a d i n g i s t h e r u l e , and u n s c r e e n e d o u t d o o r s t o r a g e i s f o r b i d d e n . The t e n a n t s a r e d i v i d e d between m a n u f a c t u r i n g and n o n - m a n u f a c t u r i n g ( i . e . w h o l e s a l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n ) e n t e r p r i s e s and t h e t y p e o f i n d u s t r y i s r e s t r i c t e d by c o v e n a n t o r c o n t r o l l e d by p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s . S i t e c o v e r a g e i s l o w i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e s p a c e f o r f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n . O t h e r s e r v i c e s s u c h as b a n k s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s may be a v a i l a b l e . The w h o l e i s d e s i g n e d f o r maximum a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p e r and maximum i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e t o t a l c o mmunity. By A p r i l 1962 t h e r e was an e s - t i m a t e d t o t a l o f 1,500 p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c a u s e s o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s have 19 been p a r t i a l l y l i s t e d by R o b e r t E. B o l e y . They may be s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : 1. An i n c r e a s e d demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . 2. B l i g h t , t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , and l a c k o f s p a c e i n t h e C e n t r a l C i t y . 3. L a c k o f s u i t a b l e z o n e d i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n t h e C e n t r a l C i t y . B o l e y , o p. c i t . , p. 13 25 4. The s w i t c h - o v e r t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l p r o d u c t i o n - l i n e . 5. I m p r o v e d i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n i q u e s m a k i n g i n d u s t r y more a c c e p t a b l e f r o m a n u i s a n c e v i e w p o i n t . 6. The i n c r e a s e d u se o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e f o r t h e j o u r n e y t o work. 7. The i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f t r u c k t r a n s p o r t . 8 . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a p l e a s a n t w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t * 9. The a d v e r t i s i n g p o t e n t i a l o f a handsome p l a n t . 1 0 . The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f a p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n v e s t o r s . 1 1 . The a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e t e n a n t o f a p r e p a r e d s i t e . To t h e s e may be added t h e d e s i r e o f i n d u s t r y i t s e l f t o make i t s e l f a t t r a c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e community (we a r e a l l f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e g l o s s y b r o c h u r e ) and a l s o t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r who knows a good t h i n g when he s e e s i t . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t has p a s s e d i t s i n i t i a l t e s t and i s h e r e t o s t a y . I t r e m a i n s f o r t h e p l a n n e r t o a d a p t i t t o h i s p u r p o s e s and t o i n c l u d e i t among h i s a r r a y o f w o r k i n g t o o l s f o r t h e b e n e f i t b o t h o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p e r and t h e community as a w h o l e . 6. The A p p r o a c h To The P r o b l e m The f o r e g o i n g g i v e s a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f i n d u s t r y , t h e need f o r c o n t r o l s and t h e m e a s u r e s 26 d e v i s e d , and f i n a l l y t h e use o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t as a t o o l f o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e l o c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r y . The b u l k o f t h i s p a p e r i s d e v o t e d t o an examina,-? t i o n o f t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n Canada, and s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t h e l o c a l community l e v e l i n Canada t o promote e f f i c i e n t community d e v e l o p m e n t . I n t a c k l i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y i n Canada some a s s u m p t i o n s must be made. I t i s assumed t h a t g o v ernment a t t h e f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l i n Canada have c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o i n d u s t r y . Some o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s r e l a t e t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y b u t most do n o t . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i s m a i n l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e r p l a y o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g c o s t s and p r o f i t s i n a f r e e m a r k e t economy. These a r e t h e f a c t o r s t h a t have c a u s e d t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y and i t i s assumed t h a t t h e y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e i n t h e f u t u r e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r y a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d c a n be m o d i f i e d o n l y t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . T h i s p a t t e r n , h owever, i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g i n t h e f a c e o f new r e s o u r c e d i s c o v e r i e s and p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , so t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y and m o d i f y i n g i t s p a t t e r n o f g r o w t h a r e a l s o i n c r e a s i n g . I t i s assumed t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by h a p h a z a r d i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h , 27 as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , i t i s d e s i r a b l e to modify i n d u s t r i a l growth i n accordance w i t h r a t i o n a l development g o a l s and the demands of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The approach taken i n t h i s paper i s to examine the problem of i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l i n Canada, r e f e r r i n g to r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s and p o l i c i e s o n l y where these have a b e a r i n g on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . I t was de c i d e d to approach the problem from the v i e w p o i n t of the l o c a l community because i t i s at t h i s l e v e l t h a t the problems c r e a t e d by haphazard i n d u s t r i a l development are most severe and i t i s at t h i s l e v e l a l s o t h a t the absence o f i n d u s t r y as i t a f f e c t s the tax base i s most ke e n l y f e l t . A more e n l i g h t e n e d a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of l o c a l communities than has p r e v a i l e d i n the past i s assumed. L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s are becoming more aware of the importance o f i n d u s t r y to the community, e s p e c i a l l y i n suburban m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s on the o u t s k i r t s of the l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , where the preponderance o f r e s i d e n t i a l development coupled w i t h a high p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n has put a s t r a i n on m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e s by reason of the demand f o r s c h o o l s and s e r v i c e s ; a s t r a i n which can o n l y be eased by broadening the tax base to i n c l u d e commercial and i n d u s t r i a l development. Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are meeting the c h a l l e n g e by means of comprehensive community p l a n n i n g which i n c l u d e s the s e t t i n g a s i d e of pre-determined s i t e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l development which 28 will be progressively serviced and developed as required. An example of this response is the suburban municipality of Scarborough, east of Toronto, Ontario, which has allocated suitably zoned and buffered land for industrial development in its official community plan. These industrial areas are suitably located with regard to road and rail transportation and are subdivided and serviced in accordance with the demands of the industries locating in them. They are not true planned industrial districts since sites are generally owned by the industries themselves and the compatibility of industrial development with other land uses is maintained through the municipality's industrial zoning by-law. However the approach does show what can be accomplished by positive planning for industrial development at the local level. At the present time about 80% of the manufacturing industry of Canada is concentrated in the Great Lakes area, 20 that is, in Southern Ontario and the St. Lawrence Lowland. However, manufacturing is expanding all across the country and several well-defined nodes exist in the Maritimes, the Prairie Provinces, and the Pacific Coast region. The growth of the petro-chemical industry in Alberta and Saskatchewan in E. Willard Miller, A Geography of Manufacturing (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962), p. 112 29 t h e wake o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f o i l i n t h e s e P r o v i n c e s i s e s p e c -i a l l y n o t e w o r t h y . As t h e d o m e s t i c m a r k e t i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e and a f f l u e n c e t h i s g r o w t h o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t y i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e , and w i l l p r o b a b l y c l u s t e r a r o u n d t h e e s t a b l i s h e d n o d e s . I t i s i n t h e towns and c i t i e s i n t h e s e n o d a l r e g i o n s t h a t t h e demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w i l l be a t i t s h i g h e s t , and i n a r e a s w i t h l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s o f s u i t a b l e l a n d f o r i n d u s t r y , s u c h as S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o and t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a c u t e p r o b l e m s a r e l i k e l y t o a r i s e . A n o t h e r n o t e w o r t h y t r e n d i n C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h i s t h e r e c e n t p r a c t i c e o f A m e r i c a n f i r m s , o f e s t a b l i s h i n g b r a n c h p l a n t s n o r t h o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o r d e r i n o r d e r t o have d u t y f r e e a c c e s s t o t h e C a n a d i a n m a r k e t , t o be c l o s e r t o raw m a t e r i a l s , and t o e n j o y Canada's r e l a t i v e l y f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t r a d e w i t h t h e Commonwealth n a t i o n s . C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c a n p u t t h e m s e l v e s i n a r e l a t i v e l y more a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n t o " c a p t u r e " t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s by p r o v i d i n g w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s t h e k i n d o f s e r v i c e s t h a t i n d u s t r y has come t o e x p e c t f r o m l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Two a r g u m e n t s t h e r e f o r e a r e p u t f o r w a r d t o s u g g e s t t h a t C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s s h o u l d a d o p t a p o l i c y o f e s t a b l i s h -i n g p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . F i r s t l y i t i s a r g u e d t h a t by p r o v i d i n g s u c h a s e r v i c e t o i n d u s t r y t h e y w i l l p u t t h e m s e l v e s i n a more f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n 30 t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y as compared w i t h c o m m u n i t i e s who have n o t a d o p t e d t h i s p o l i c y . A l l o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , i n d u s t r y w i l l c h o o s e t o l o c a t e i n a community w h i c h has shown c o n c e r n f o r t h e needs o f i n d u s t r y by p r o m o t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . S e c o n d l y i t w i l l be a r g u e d t h a t a b e t t e r l i f e w i l l be c r e a t e d f o r t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s b e c a u s e (a) t h e new i n d u s t r i e s w i l l add t o t h e t a x b a s e and l i g h t e n t h e b u r d e n on t h e o r d i n a r y t a x p a y e r ; (b) more j o b s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e , t h u s r e d u c i n g unemployment and r a i s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g ; and ( c ) t h e community w i l l be more h e a l t h f u l and p l e a s a n t t o l i v e i n when i n d u s t r y i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n w e l l - p l a n n e d , w e l l - s i t u a t e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s and t h e t y p e o f i n d u s t r y l o c a t i n g i n them i s c o n -t r o l l e d by r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t so t h a t n o x i o u s i n d u s t r i e s w i l l be e x c l u d e d . The more o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n d u s t r i e s do have t o l o c a t e somewhere, o f c o u r s e , b u t even t h e s e c a n be made l e s s u n d e s i r a b l e by p l a n n i n g t h e i r l o c a t i o n and r e q u i r i n g them t o u t i l i z e e v e r y method o f r e d u c i n g n u i s a n c e t h a t s c i e n c e has d e v i s e d . T h i s c a n be e n f o r c e d by e n a c t i n g a b y l a w s e t t i n g up p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s f o r i n d u s t r y . I t i s a f a c t t h a t many i n d u s t r i e s r e f u s e t o a d o p t m e a s u r e s d e s i g n e d t o r e d u c e s u c h n u i s a n c e s as a i r p o l l u t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e i n i t i a l c o s t i n v o l v e d ; b u t i t has been shown i n many i n s t a n c e s t h a t t h e s u b s t a n c e s t r a p p e d and r e c o v e r e d by suc h means, m a i n l y c h e m i c a l compounds, o f t e n r e p a y t h e c o s t o f t h e e q u i p m e n t and 31 add a n o t h e r p r o d u c t t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s . The h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s p a p e r t h e r e f o r e i s " t h a t C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s s h o u l d promote t h e use o f p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t s as a t o o l t o a c h i e v e e f f i c i e n t community d e v e l o p m e n t " . To s u p p o r t t h i s argument t h e o r i g i n and c o n c e p t o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t a r e r e v i e w e d , t h e g r o w t h o f C a n a d i a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y and t h e use o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n Canada a r e e x a m i n e d , and f i n a l l y a p r o p o s a l i s made f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . The p a p e r i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e i m p a c t o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , and t h e i n d u s t r y r e f e r r e d t o i s m a i n l y l i g h t m a n u f a c t u r i n g and w a r e h o u s i n g . C u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e on t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages b e f o r e t h e o r i g i n and c o n c e p t o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s d e a l t w i t h . 7. R e v i e w Of The L i t e r a t u r e On P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s The o r i g i n and g r o w t h o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n B r i t a i n has n o t been h e a v i l y d o c u m e n t e d , b u t d u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e some f a i r l y i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y s have been made o f t h e e x i s t i n g d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and a body o f c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has begun t o t a k e s h a p e . W h i l e a few books have been w r i t t e n on t h e s u b j e c t o f p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e more r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s 32 t o be f o u n d i n j o u r n a l s and p e r i o d i c a l s d e v o t e d t o p l a n n i n g and a s s o c i a t e d f i e l d s . The B r i t i s h v e r s i o n o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , t h e i n d u s t r i a l o r t r a d i n g e s t a t e , has r e c e i v e d o n l y i n c i d e n -t a l t r e a t m e n t i n b o o k s , a r t i c l e s and p a m p h l e t s d e a l i n g w i t h i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t . P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g , a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , d e a l t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t a t some l e n g t h , i n d i c a t i n g t h e r a n g e o f s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by 21 t r a d i n g e s t a t e s and t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t , M, D, M e t h v e n , a t t h e Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g Summer S c h o o l a t B r i s t o l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1 9 4 5 , gave an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t r a d i n g e s t a t e s i n p l a n n i n g , b a s e d on h i s e x p e r i e n c e as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e Team V a l l e y T r a d i n g 22 E s t a t e , s i t u a t e d c l o s e t o N e w c a s t l e - o n - T y n e , i n B r i t a i n , The s t o r y o f B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s a f t e r W o r l d War I I i s t o be f o u n d m a i n l y i n t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e New Towns C o r p o r a t i o n s and i n B r i t i s h p l a n n i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l j o u r n a l s . P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g , R e p o r t on t h e  L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y ( L o n d o n : P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g , M a r c h , 1 9 3 9 ) , 314 pp. 2 2 M. D. M e t h v e n , " P l a c e o f T r a d i n g E s t a t e s i n P l a n n i n g " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g Summer S c h o o l ( L o n d o n : Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 9 1 e t s e q q . 3 3 The s i g n i f i c a n t l i t e r a t u r e on p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t e x t i n c l u d e s T. K. Pasma's b o o k l e t on " O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s " p r o d u c e d f o r t h e 23 U. S. Department o f Commerce i n 1954. I t i s i n t e n d e d f o r t h e use o f l o c a l c o mmunities c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , w h ich a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t h e s u b - t i t l e as " t o o l s f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t " . The b o o k l e t assumes t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t has been t a k e n and goes on t o d i s c u s s many problems c o n n e c t e d w i t h new i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s : p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , f i n a n c i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g and m a r k e t i n g . I t g i v e s d e t a i l s on t w e l v e e x i s t i n g s u c c e s s f u l d i s t r i c t s and l i s t s many o r g a n i z e d d i s t r i c t s i n t h e c o u n t r y . I t i s u s e f u l i n p o i n t i n g o u t t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f p l a n n i n g an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t and t h e many a s p e c t s t h a t have t o be a t t e n d e d t o i f t h e d i s t r i c t i s t o be a s u c c e s s . T h i s work o f Pasma's was p r e c e d e d by a T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n o f t h e Urban Land I n s t i t u t e i n which a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y was made o f t h e p l a n n i n g and development o f i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , w i t h d e t a i l s o f 17 e x i s t i n g d i s t r i c t s . T h eodore K. Pasma, O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s :  A T o o l f o r Community D e v e l o p m e n t . ( W a s h i n g t o n , I K C . : I J . 5 . Department o f Commerce, June 1 9 5 4 ) , 112 pp. 34 5 e v e r a l T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n s o f t h e U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e d e a l i n g w i t h p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s f o l l o w e d , c u l m i n -a t i n g i n R o b e r t E. B o l e y ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d 24 f r o m 272 d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. T h i s s t u d y , p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 6 1 , p l a c e s p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on d i s t r i c t s p o n s o r s h i p and i t s r e l a t i o n t o d i s t r i c t l o c a t i o n , s i z e and o c c u p a n c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s t u d y a l s o c ompares and c o n t r a s t s s i t e s i z e s , b u i l d i n g s i z e s , s i t e c o v e r a g e r a t i o s , employment p e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and e m p loyee d e n s i t i e s o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g v s . n o n - m a n u f a c t u r i n g o c c u p a n t s o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . The s t u d y i s n o t a t r e a t i s e on how t o p l a n an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o r even an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e m e r i t s o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . R a t h e r i t d e m o n s t r a t e s i n g r a p h i c and s t a t i s t i c a l f o r m t h e r o l e t h a t t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e i n t h e f r e e m a r k e t economy o f t h e U n i t e d 5 t a t e s . One o f B o l e y ' s m a j o r f i n d i n g s i s t h a t t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t c a n and does change t o meet c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . P a u l D o u g l a s s o f t h e C e n t e r f o r P r a c t i c a l P o l i t i c s , W i n t e r P a r k , F l o r i d a , has w r i t t e n a 102-page t r e a t i s e o r i e n -t e d t o w a r d t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t and s e l l i n g o f an R o b e r t E. B o l e y , I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s R e s t u d i e d :  An A n a l y s i s o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 41 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e , A p r i l , 1 9 6 1 ) , 77 pp. 35 i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . D i r e c t e d toward the commercial d e v e l o p e r , i t u n d e r l i n e s the f a c t t h a t the development o f an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t cannot be undertaken i n a h a l f - h e a r t e d f a s h i o n , but a d e t a i l e d development program and a f u l l s c a l e promotion-a l campaign must be c a r r i e d out i f i t i s to prove a s u c c e s s . T h i s p o i n t s up the danger f o r any l o c a l community a t t e m p t i n g to s e t up an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w i t h o u t f i r s t : (a) d e t e r m i n -i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t by means of a survey of i n d u s t r i a l l a n d needs i n the a r e a ; and (b) e s t a b l i s h i n g the most s u i t a b l e s i t e f o r an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t by an a n a l y s i s of the f a c t o r s g o verning the l o c a t i o n of the i n d u s t r y i t hopes t o a t t r a c t . An i n t e r e s t i n g and unexpected c h a p t e r i n Mr. Douglass' work d e a l s w i t h the i n d u s t r i a l park i n i t s r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g . P e n a l t i e s f o r what Douglass terms " t h o u g h t l e s s growth" would not seem to be the k i n d o f t h i n g to i n t e r e s t the commercial d e v e l o p e r , but i f one tak e s the l o n g view (and some i n s t i -t u t i o n a l d e v e l o p e r s o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s _do ta k e the l o n g view) t h i s i s the k i n d of t h i n k i n g t h a t w i l l pay d i v i d e n d s i n the f u t u r e . The f o r e c a s t i n g o f r e g i o n a l growth i s a hazardous b u s i n e s s but some of the u n c e r t a i n t y can be e l i m -i n a t e d through c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g of the major r e g i o n - b u i l d i n g components, i . e . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s and s e t t l e m e n t n u c l e a t i o n s . R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e , through the use of i n p u t -output a n a l y s i s , l i n e a r programming and g r a v i t y models, may 36 s o o n make e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e an a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f t h e 25 i m p a c t o f a p r o p o s e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t on a r e g i o n . W i l l i a m B r e d o has exam i n e d t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t f r o m a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w — a s a t o o l f o r i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . He t r a c e s t h e h i s t o r i c g r o w t h o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t and has some good a c c o u n t s o f t h e b e t t e r - k n o w n and s u c c e s s f u l e x a m p l e s i n B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . He a l s o d e a l s w i t h t h e use o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n P u e r t o R i c o as an i m p o r t a n t t o o l i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -ment p r o g r a m o f t h a t c o u n t r y . A l l t o o o f t e n i n a t t e m p t s t o a i d t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e m e r g i n g n a t i o n s t h e p h y s i c a l b a s e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s o v e r l o o k e d . B r e d o 1 s book a t t e m p t s t o show how t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t c a n be u s e d t o r a t i o n a l i z e s p a t i a l l y t h e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s o f t h e new n a t i o n s . 2 ^ Many r e c e n t a r t i c l e s and r e p o r t s have a p p e a r e d i n v a r i o u s j o u r n a l s d e v o t e d t o p l a n n i n g and r e l a t e d f i e l d s : t h e s e w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e need a r i s e s . R e s e a r c h i n t o P a u l D o u g l a s s , The ABC o f I n d u s t r i a l P a r k D e v e l o p m e n t ( W i n t e r P a r k , F l o r i d a : C e n t e r f o r P r a c t i c a l P o l i t i c s , 1 9 6 1 ) , 102 pp. W i l l i a m B r e d o , I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s : T o o l s f o r I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( G l e n c o e , 1 1 1 . : S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 6 0 ) , 240 pp. 37 t h e p h e n o m e n a l i n c r e a s e i n p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i s o n l y i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s a n d t h e c a u s e s a s l i s t e d b y B o l e y 27 a r e l i t t l e m o r e t h a n i n t e l l i g e n t g u e s s e s . H o w e v e r , t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r s u c c e s s i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d l o c a -t i o n s i s p l e n t i f u l ; t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s p a p e r i s t o s h o w t h a t t h e y w i l l b e e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e y a r e a d o p t e d a s a t o o l f o r i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t b y C a n a d i a n c o m m u n -i t i e s a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , w i l l m a k e t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s m o r e h e a l t h f u l , m o r e a t t r a c t i v e , m o r e e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e , a n d b e t t e r p l a c e s i n w h i c h t o l i v e . S U M M A R Y M o d e r n i n d u s t r y w a s b o r n i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n o f t h e 1 8 t h a n d e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s . I n t h o s e " b a d o l d d a y s " i n d u s t r y w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a n y o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t h u m a n d i g n i t y a n d m a n y f e l l v i c t i m t o i t s c r u e l a n d u n b r i d l e d d e m a n d s . W h e n t h e c o m m o n m a n b e c a m e e n f r a n c h i s e d a n d p u b l i c o p i n i o n b e c a m e a f o r c e t o b e r e c k o n e d w i t h , t h e S t a t e s o u g h t b y m a n y s u b t l e ( a n d s o m e n o t s o s u b t l e ) m e a n s t o r e d u c e t h e e x c e s s e s o f a l a i s s e z f a i r e i n d u s t r i a l e c o n o m y . S o s u c c e s s -f u l h a s i t b e e n i n c u r b i n g i n d u s t r y a n d i n f o r c i n g i t t o B o l e y , l o c . c i t . , p p . 1 3 - 1 4 . 38 direct some of its energies towards reducing its own noxious and injurious aspects that a modern nation can aspire to became an industrial society without having to pass through the awesome growing-pains which were a feature of the old Industrial Revolution. One tool which has been used in Britain to influence the location of industry is the planned industrial district, or industrial estate. A planned industrial district is essentially a tract of land which is subdivided and developed according to a comprehensive plan for the use of a community of industries, with streets, rail lead tracks, and utilities installed before sites are sold or leased to prospective occupants. Usually i t is under unified management and the type of tenant admissible is restricted by covenant. To industry the planned industrial district offers the advantage of optimum transportation facilities, installed services, custom designed buildings, pleasant surroundings, financial assistance when necessary, off street parking and freedom from the encroachment of other land uses. To the community the planned industrial district offers a desirable type of industry concentrated in a desirable location, a minimum of interference with traffic, economical utilization of services, elimination of the worst industrial nuisances, pleasant design of factory buildings and a better working environment for employees. 39 The device of the planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t has been widely used throughout the world as a t o o l f o r community development. I t i s proposed to show that the device, i f adopted as a development p o l i c y by l o c a l communities i n Canada, can create a b e t t e r l i v i n g and working environment f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s and can strengthen the i n d u s t r i a l base of the community. In order to do t h i s the h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n and concept of the planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t are t r a c e d , the experience of other c o u n t r i e s as d e t a i l e d i n the cu r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s reviewed, the Canadian economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e are evaluated and the elements of a p o l i c y are formulated f o r the planning and o r g a n i z a t i o n of planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s at the l o c a l community l e v e l i n Canada. CHAPTER I I THE ORIGIN AND CONCEPT OF THE PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT 1. B a c k g r o u n d o f P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t D e v e l o p m e n t . The f i r s t p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d anywhere i n t h e w o r l d was The T r a f f o r d P a r k E s t a t e s L i m i t e d , s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d t h e " M o t h e r o f I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s " , w h i c h was f o u n d e d a t M a n c h e s t e r , E n g l a n d , i n 1 8 9 6 . S h o r t l y a f t e r -w a r d s , i n 1 8 9 9 , t h e C l e a r i n g I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t i n C h i c a g o , U.S.A., went i n t o o p e r a t i o n . T hese two p i o n e e r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s were p r i v a t e l y owned and were o p e r a t e d f o r a p r o f i t m o t i v e , b u t t h e s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t a i n came i n c r e a s i n g l y u n d e r t h e p u b l i c i n f l u e n c e , w h e r e a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has r e m a i n e d l a r g e l y i n p r i v a t e h a n d s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r l i m i t e d s u p p l y o f l a n d , t h e B r i t i s h Government has had t o t a k e an a c t i v e r o l e i n s u p e r v i s i n g t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f a l l f o r m s o f l a n d u s e , i n c l u d i n g i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e . I n g u i d i n g i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i t has made i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t most p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t a i n a r e now owned and o p e r a t e d by t h e Crown. I n A m e r i c a , by c o n t r a s t , b e c a u s e o f t h e s e e m i n g abundance o f l a n d and t h e d o m i n a n t l a i s s e z f a i r e e c o n o m i c p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h has l o n g 41 stressed the importance of private enterprise and private capital investment, decision-making with regard to the loca-tion of industry, with the exception of such government-controlled developments as defense establishments and harbour projects, has remained largely in the hands of private entrepreneurs with whom the profit motive is supreme. In the light of this fact, the increasing number of planned industrial districts in the United States is a striking testimony to their economic efficiency. The United States Government, however, has never taken an active role in promo-ting planned industrial districts, except in so far as i t has pointed out their advantages to industrialists; conse-quently most existing planned industrial districts in the United 5tates have been developed by private entrepreneurs on a strictly commercial basis. Because industry in the United States is under no pressure to locate in any particular area, the standards of planned industrial districts in the United States are often extremely high. Because of differences in the manner in which they have developed, the history of planned industrial districts in Britain and the United States will be examined separately. In the United States the terms "industrial district" and "industrial park" are used, the latter presumably being a 42 more s o p h i s t i c a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e former." 1" I n B r i t a i n t h e most common te r m f o r a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s " i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e " , w i t h " t r a d i n g e s t a t e " a f r e q u e n t a l t e r -n a t i v e . However t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t w h i c h goes u n d e r t h e s e d i f f e r e n t l a b e l s i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same. 2. P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n -a) T r a f f o r d P a r k and S l o u g h I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s . The T r a f f o r d P a r k E s t a t e s L i m i t e d was o r g a n i z e d a t M a n c h e s t e r i n 1896 by a p r i v a t e company w h i c h had r a i s e d t h e n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l t h r o u g h t h e i s s u e o f s h a r e s . The e s t a t e i s l o c a t e d on a 1200 a c r e s i t e and t h e i n i t i a l c o s t o f d e v e l o p -ment was h e a v y . The s i t e had v a l u a b l e l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s , b e i n g s i t u a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e M a n c h e s t e r Docks and t h e B r i d g e w a t e r C a n a l w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h 35 m i l e s o f p r i v a t e r a i l l i n k e d w i t h t h e m a i n l i n e r a i l w a y s , p r o v i d e d i t w i t h e x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The f a c t t h a t i t was a t t h e hub o f an i m p o r t a n t and h e a v i l y - p o p u l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l a r e a drew t o i t a w i d e r a n g e o f l i g h t i n d u s t r i e s t o g e t h e r w i t h many he a v y i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h c o u l d u t i l i z e i t s e x c e l l e n t f a c i l i t i e s . F r a n k F o g a r t y , " I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s — C i t y 5 t y l e , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. I l l : 94 (December, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 95. Gordon L o g i e , I n d u s t r y i n Towns ( L o n d o n : George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 4 2 . 43 The e s t a t e was n o t c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y p l a n n e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t r a t h e r d e v e l o p e d p i e c e m e a l as new i n d u s t r i e s were i n t r o d u c e d o r o l d e r ones e x p a n d e d ; t h u s t h e l a y o u t l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d . The Company p r o v i d e d a l l s e r v i c e s s u c h as s e w e r s , w a t e r and power and o b t a i n e d f a v o u r a b l e t r a n s p o r t c h a r g e s f o r i t s t e n a n t s . The r e s u l t has been a h i g h l y d i v e r s e and s u c c e s s f u l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s on t h e e s t a t e . The Company a l s o u s e d a number o f methods f o r m a k i n g s i t e s a v a i l a b l e t o i t s t e n a n t s . F i r m s who w i s h t o a c q u i r e s i t e s may e i t h e r p u r c h a s e t h e l a n d o u t r i g h t o r l e a s e i t a t an a n n u a l r e n t . F i r m s n o t w i s h i n g t o i n v e s t i n l a n d o r b u i l d -i n g s may l e a s e p r e m i s e s on t h e e s t a t e . Some o f t h e s e p r e m i s e s a c t as " n u r s e r i e s " f o r young b u s i n e s s e s w h i c h o f t e n p u r c h a s e 3 o r l e a s e o t h e r s i t e s on t h e e s t a t e as t h e y e x p a n d . O f t e n m e n t i o n e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h T r a f f o r d P a r k i s S l o u g h E s t a t e s L i m i t e d , l o c a t e d a t S l o u g h , B u c k s . , a b o u t 25 m i l e s f r o m L o n d o n . T h i s e s t a t e was an Army M o t o r R e p a i r Depot i n W o r l d War I ; a f t e r t h e war i t was a c q u i r e d by a p r i v a t e company who l e a s e d t h e e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s t o i n d u s t r i a l t e n a n t s . As t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s p r o s p e r e d t h e demand f o r new s i t e s grew and i n 1927 t h e Company began t o p l a n ahead and P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g , R e p o r t on t h e  L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y i n G r e a t B r i t a i n ( L o n d o n : P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g , M a r c h , 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 102. 44 b u i l t f a c t o r i e s i n advance of demand; by 1958 the e s t a t e boasted 230 i n d u s t r i a l t e n a n t s o p e r a t i n g 500 f a c t o r i e s employ-4 i n g 25,000 pe o p l e . The Slough E s t a t e i s a t y p i c a l p r i v a t e l y owned i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t o p e r a t e d f o r p r o f i t d e r i v e d from the r e n t a l of f a c t o r y s i t e s and/or b u i l d i n g s , and from charges on the s e r -v i c e s i t p r o v i d e s . These would be p r o v i d e d by the c i t y i n any o r d i n a r y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a . C a p i t a l i s r a i s e d through the i s s u e of s h a r e s , which are t r a d e d on the Stock Exchange, and management i s by a Board o f D i r e c t o r s which i n c l u d e s a managing d i r e c t o r and g e n e r a l manager. The o r i g i n a l Company now o p e r a t e s i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s at Birmingham and G r e e n f o r d , England, and a l s o i n Melbourne, A u s t r a l i a and at Ajax i n O n t a r i o . The Slough e s t a t e i s unusual i n t h a t i t has p r o v i d e d housing f o r workers on the e s t a t e p a r t l y on the s i t e i t s e l f , p a r t l y i n the town of Slough. North American i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s never attempt to p r o v i d e t h i s s e r v i c e but r a t h e r endeavour to l o c a t e at p o i n t s o f maximum a c c e s s i b i l i t y to automobile t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as a d j a c e n t to freeway i n t e r -s e c t i o n s , thus s h o r t e n i n g the time consumed i n the j o u r n e y W i l l i a m Bredo, I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s ; Tools f o r  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n (Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : S t a n f o r d Research I n s t i t u t e , 1960), p. 17. 45 t o work-. As t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f r e e w a y s , o r m o t o r w a y s , as t h e y a r e c a l l e d , has o n l y j u s t begun i n B r i t a i n i t i s c o n -c e i v a b l e t h a t a s i m i l a r t r e n d w i l l d e v e l o p t h e r e i n t h e f u t u r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e v i r t u a l l y e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s s u c h as s e w e r s , w a t e r , power, and r o a d s , t h e S l o u g h E s t a t e a l s o p r o v i d e s o t h e r s e r v i c e s w h i c h , t h o u g h n o t e s s e n t i a l , a r e b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y common as f e a t u r e s o f t h e more s o p h i s -t i c a t e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n b o t h E u r o p e and N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e s e i n c l u d e a community c e n t e r , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , a h e a l t h c e n t e r , a t r a d e s c h o o l and a t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e t o h e l p s o l v e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l t e n a n t s . A l l t h e b u i l d i n g s on t h e e s t a t e a r e l e a s e d t o t h e i r t e n a n t s ; new b u i l d i n g s a r e l e a s e d a t a r e n t a l b a s e d on t h e a m o r t i z e d b u i l d i n g c o s t s p l u s a f i x e d p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e o p e r -a t i n g c o s t s and a m a r g i n o f p r o f i t . O l d e r b u i l d i n g s a r e l e a s e d a t a r e n t b a s e d on t h e a p p r a i s e d v a l u e o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . Of c o u r s e t h e r e n t s v a r y w i t h s i z e , l o c a t i o n , and s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i t e , b u t t h e y compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h 5 s i m i l a r f a c t o r y s p a c e o b t a i n a b l e o f f t h e e s t a t e . R a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y was a l s o a f e a t u r e o f t h e G a r d e n C i t y movement i n B r i t a i n . T h i s movement was B r e d o , op. c i t . , pp. 182-184. 46 s p a r k e d by E b e n e z e r Howard's book "A P e a c e f u l P a t h t o R e a l R e f o r m " , p u b l i s h e d i n 1898 and r e v i s e d and r e i s s u e d i n 1902 u n d e r t h e t i t l e : G arden C i t i e s o f Tomorrow.^ From t h e move-ment s p r a n g t h e b u i l d i n g o f two Garden C i t i e s - L e t c h w o r t h and Welwyn Garden C i t y - i n w h i c h t h e p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d i n Howard's book were p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e . These i n c l u d e d t h e p l a n n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s w h i c h were s e p -a r a t e d f r o m t h e h o u s e s , b u t a t a d i s t a n c e w h i c h w o u l d n o t e n t a i l a l o n g j o u r n e y t o work. The i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s a t L e t c h w o r t h and Welwyn d e v e l o p e d r a t h e r s l o w l y b u t t h e p r i n -c i p l e s on w h i c h t h e y were b a s e d p r o v e d sound so t h a t t o d a y t h e y a r e an i n t e g r a l and i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e t o t a l c o m m u n i t y . b) P u b l i c i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s i n B r i t a i n . A f t e r W o r l d War I , B r i t a i n e x p e r i e n c e d a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n w h i c h made t h e i m p a c t o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n o f t h e ' T h i r t i e s a l l t h e more s e v e r e . The a r e a s where t h e heavy r e s o u r c e - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s were l o c a t e d were t h e h a r d e s t h i t . M e a s u r e s were t a k e n by t h e B r i t i s h E b e n e z e r Howard, Tomorrow: A P e a c e f u l P a t h t o R e a l  R e f o r m ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , L i m i t e d , 1 9 4 5 ) . ^ U n i t e d Kingdom I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , C a nada. The  New Towns o f B r i t a i n , p. 2. 47 g o v e r n m e n t t o a s s i s t t h e r e c o v e r y o f i n d u s t r y b u t t h e h a r d - c o r e " d e p r e s s e d " a r e a s f a i l e d t o r e s p o n d as s a t i s f a c t o r i l y as t h e r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e p r o b l e m was u n d e r t a k e n and t h e r e s u l t was t h e e n a c t m e n t o f t h e S p e c i a l A r e a s ( D e v e l o p m e n t and Improvement) A c t o f 1 9 3 4 . Under t h i s A c t , C o m m i s s i o n e r s were a p p o i n t e d and a S p e c i a l A r e a s Fund was s e t up t o i n i t i a t e , o r g a n i z e and prom o t e m e a s u r e s d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and s o c i a l i m p r o v e m e n t . Most o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s were o f t h e "government g r a n t " v a r i e t y and had been u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s t i m u l a t i n g t h e e c o n o m i e s o f o t h e r r e g i o n s ; two m e a s u r e s , h o w e v e r , were i n c l u d e d w h i c h had n o t been t r i e d b e f o r e . The f i r s t o f t h e s e was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r a d i n g e s t a t e s i n t h e s p e c i a l a r e a s ; t h e s e c o n d was t h e a d v o c a c y and p r o m o t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o Q p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h e p o l i c y o f p r o m o t i n g t r a d i n g e s t a t e s was t h a t t h e economy o f t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s had t o be d i v e r s i f i e d i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t o f e c o n o m i c s l u m p s . S i n c e no i n d u s t r y c o u l d be i n d u c e d t o move i n t o t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f a d e q u a t e s i t e s , h i g h t a x e s and u n p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t , t o name a few o f t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e o n l y way t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y and D o n a l d F. H e a t h e r i n g t o n , " L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y — B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e and Pr o g r a m s i n a M a t t e r V i t a l l y A f f e c t i n g T r a d e " , F o r e i g n Commerce W e e k l y , V o l . X X I I I , No. 5 (May 4, 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 5 1 . 4 8 reduce unemployment i n these areas was to p l a n the development of the area as a whole and to p r o v i d e adequate and economic f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n d u s t r y at p u b l i c expense. This was to be accomplished by means of t r a d i n g e s t a t e s modeled on the o l d e r p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s i n the south of England. The method adopted f o r promoting these e s t a t e s was as f o l l o w s . Groups o f prominent c i t i z e n s i n the depressed areas were encouraged to form n o n - p r o f i t companies which would s e l e c t , purchase, develop and l e a s e s i t e s , b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l development. As soon as the s e groups had a working p l a n they c o u l d apply to the Commissioner f o r S p e c i a l Areas f o r the necessary c a p i t a l t o c a r r y out the scheme. This was made a v a i l a b l e at f a v o u r a b l e i n t e r e s t r a t e s and the t r a d i n g e s t a t e s were s e t up under a p p o i n t e d d i r e c t o r -a t e s . W i t h i n a year t h r e e companies had been e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s scheme: the N o r t h - E a s t e r n T r a d i n g E s t a t e s L i m i t e d , the South Wales E s t a t e Company and the S c o t t i s h I n d u s t r i a l g E s t a t e s L i m i t e d . North E a s t e r n T r a d i n g E s t a t e s L i m i t e d was the f i r s t group to take advantage of the government's p o l i c y of promoting planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . T h e i r f i r s t and b e s t -known v e n t u r e was at Team V a l l e y , near Gateshead, t h r e e m i l e s I b i d . , p. 5 . 49 s o u t h o f N e w c a s t l e - o n - T y n e . The e s t a t e i s s e r v e d by t h e main London r a i l w a y l i n e and i s a d j a c e n t t o t h e G r e a t N o r t h Road. The s i t e i s a b o u t 700 a c r e s and t h e p l a n n i n g has been h a n d l e d w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n . I t has a f i n e c e n t r a l avenue w i t h d u a l c a r r i a g e - w a y , f l a n k e d by s e r v i c e r o a d s and o r i e n t e d on a c h u r c h s t e e p l e on a h i l l c l o s e by. A r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l i s m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t and open s p a c e and l a n d s c a p i n g a r e i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e p l a n . The R i v e r Team f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e E s t a t e and a t one p o i n t i s b r i d g e d by a " r o s e c a r p e t " on a m e t a l g r i l l e . ^ N o r t h E a s t e r n T r a d i n g E s t a t e s L i m i t e d , i s a r e g i s t e r e d company l i m i t e d by g u a r a n t e e b u t h a v i n g no s h a r e c a p i t a l . I t i s a n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h an u n p a i d b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s ; members o f t h e Company a r e a p p o i n t e d by t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e . S i n c e 1936 t h e Company has g r e a t l y e xpanded i t s a c t i v i t i e s and by 1958 i t was a d m i n i s t e r i n g 14 e s t a t e s , 8 group s i t e s ( s m a l l e s t a t e s ) , and 15 i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s ; a b o u t 2,388 a c r e s had been a c q u i r e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t p u r p o s e s , w i t h 310 t e n a n t s a l r e a d y o c c u p y i n g 12.3 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t o f f a c t o r y s p a c e and g i v i n g employment t o 54,000 people.''"^ ^ Gordon L o g i e , I n d u s t r y i n Towns ( L o n d o n : George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 4 2 - 4 5 . ^ B r e d o , op. c i t . , p. 1 8 5 . 50 O t h e r p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d t r a d i n g e s t a t e s were t h e S c o t t i s h I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s , L i m i t e d , w h i c h d e v e l o p e d t h e H i l l i n g t o n I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e i n G l a s g o w , and t h e S o u t h Wales and M o n m o u t h s h i r e T r a d i n g E s t a t e s , L i m i t e d , w h i c h d e v e l o p e d t h e w e l l known T r e f o r e s t E s t a t e c l o s e t o C a r d i f f i n S o u t h W a l e s . These and o t h e r e s t a t e s had a marked e f f e c t i n b o l s t e r i n g t h e economy o f t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s . I n 1947 t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u p e r v i s i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y p a s s e d t o t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e u n d e r t h e Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g A c t . The e m p h a s i s was s l o w l y s h i f t i n g f r o m c o n c e r n w i t h t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s t o c o n c e r n w i t h p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l . However, p o l i c y s t i l l d i c t a t e d t h a t i n d u s t r y s h o u l d move i n t o t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s , b u t c o m p u l s i o n t h r o u g h t h e w i t h h o l d i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c e r t i f i c a t e s began t o g i v e way t o i n d u c e m e n t i n t h e f o r m o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f a c t o r y b u i l d -i n g s , a d v a n t a g e o u s s i t e s and i m p r o v e d s e r v i c e s . By 1954 t h e momentum o f t h e d r i v e t o s t i m u l a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s had s l o w e d down b u t t h e work had been l a r g e l y c o m p l e t e d and d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s was a l m o s t a t a p a r w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e i n wages p e r c a p i t a and p e r c e n t u n e m p l o y e d . By 1954 t h e y c o n t a i n e d a b o u t o n e - f i f t h o f t h e t o t a l m a n u f a c -t u r i n g employment and a c c o u n t e d f o r o n e - t h i r d o f p o s t - w a r f a c t o r y c o m p l e t i o n s . The t r a d i n g e s t a t e s by t h i s t i m e 51 amounted t o 40 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t o f f a c t o r y s p a c e (35 m i l l i o n b u i l t a f t e r t h e war) and e m p l o y e d some 182,000 p e o p l The c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e new D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n d u s t r y A c t ( I n d u s t r i a l F i n a n c e ) o f J u l y , 1958 w h i c h p e r m i t s g r a n t s o r l o a n s t o be made o u t s i d e t h e D e v e l -opment A r e a s p r o p e r , and a p p l i c a b l e t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e s . Thus new i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s may be b u i l t o u t s i d e t h e D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a s as c i r c u m s t a n c e s demand. The number o f g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d t r a d i n g e s t a t e c o m p a n i e s has now grown t o f i v e , e a ch o f w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r s e s t a t e s i n i t s own d e f i n e d r e g i o n . The g overnment a c q u i r e s t h e l a n d and l e a s e s i t w i t h o u t r e n t t o t h e company. The e s t a t e s a r e f i n a n c e d by t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e t o w h i c h any s u r -p l u s o f r e v e n u e o v e r e x p e n d i t u r e i s r e t u r n e d . O t h e r w i s e t h e 13 c o m p a n i e s a r e f r e e t o r u n t h e e s t a t e s as t h e y s e e f i t . c ) I n d u s t r y i n t h e New Towns. The a l a r m i n g g r o w t h o f t h e g r e a t c o n u r b a t i o n s i n B r i t a i n i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y l e d t h e Government t o s e t up a number o f C o m m i s s i o n s between 1935 and 1945 t o s t u d y c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o b l e m . P e r h a p s t h e most 12 P e t e r S e l f , C i t i e s i n F l o o d ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 1 2 9 . 13 B r e d o , op. c i t . , p. 1 9 . 52 i n f l u e n t i a l o f t h e s e was t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e D i s t r i b u -t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l P o p u l a t i o n ( B a r l o w C o m m i s s i o n ) , whose r e p o r t i n 1940 e m p h a s i z e d t h e e c o n o m i c as w e l l as t h e s o c i a l d r a w b a c k s o f c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h o f t h e l a r g e r c e n t e r s . D e c e n -t r a l i z a t i o n was t h o u g h t t o be t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s p r o b l e m and i n 1946 t h e New Towns A c t was p a s s e d . T h i s A c t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a number o f a l m o s t e n t i r e l y new and s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t c o m m u n i t i e s , w h i c h w o u l d accommodate t h e o v e r s p i l l f r o m London and t h e o t h e r c o n u r b a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t f i f t e e n New Towns were s o o n on t h e d r a w i n g - b o a r d , e i g h t o f them i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f London and s e v e n o t h e r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f E n g l a n d , S c o t l a n d and W a l e s . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e work f o r t h e p e o p l e who have come t o l i v e i n them t h e New Towns have had t o a t t r a c t a g r e a t , d e a l o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and f o r t h i s p u r p o s e t h e y have l a i d o u t i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s , p r o v i d e d a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y f a c i l i t i e s , b u i l t s t a n d a r d f a c t o r i e s t o o r d e r and o f f e r e d a house f o r i m m e d i a t e o c c u p a t i o n t o e v e r y e m p loyee o f i n c o m i n g f i r m s . T h e i r e f f o r t s have met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s and f r o m a s l o w b e g i n n i n g i n d u s t r y i n t h e New Towns i s c o m i n g 14 c l o s e t o f u l f i l l i n g t h e w i s h e s o f t h e i r d e s i g n e r s . I n S e l f , op. c i t . , p. 87. 53 a d d i t i o n t o s t a n d a r d and i n t e r m e d i a t e f a c t o r i e s t h e y p r o v i d e n u r s e r y f a c t o r i e s f o r f l e d g l i n g b u s i n e s s e s and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y b a y s f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s as s h o e r e p a i r i n g , j o b p r i n t -i n g , and r a d i o and T. V. r e p a i r i n g . " ^ I n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s i n t h e New Towns a r e t y p i c a l l y on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e b u i l t - u p a r e a , and a d j a c e n t t o r o a d and r a i l t r a n s p o r t . T h e r e a r e g e n e r a l l y two o r t h r e e m a i n s i t e s , t h u s m i n i m i z i n g t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n a t r u s h h o u r s . D e t a i l e d d e s i g n o f f a c t o r y p r e m i s e s and s i t e l a y o u t i s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e New Town C o r p o r a t i o n ' s A r c h i t e c t s D e p a r t m e n t w o r k i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e t e n a n t and t h e C o m m e r c i a l E s t a t e s D i v i s i o n . The C o r p o r a t i o n r e t a i n s o w n e r s h i p o f a l l i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l s i t e s w h i c h a r e l e t on l o n g t e r m l e a s e s . The B o a r d o f T r a d e ' s p o l i c y o f d i r e c t i n g i n d u s t r y t o t h e New Towns has p r o b a b l y h e l p e d t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -ment p r o g r a m t o some e x t e n t , b u t t h a t i s n o t t h e w h o l e s t o r y . The New Towns c a n n o t o f f e r any i n c e n t i v e s t o i n d u s t r y i n t h e f o r m o f g r a n t s , as t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s c a n , so t h e y have t o r e l y m a i n l y on l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s . I n d u s t r y has f o u n d t h e s i t e s and e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e d i n t h e New Towns g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h e r e i s l e s s a b s e n t e e i s m among t h e w o r k e r s 1 5 B r e d o , op. c i t . , pp. 190-194. 1 6 I b i d . t p. 194. 54 s i n c e t h e y e n j o y b e t t e r h e a l t h . They a r e w i l l i n g t o work o v e r t i m e b e c a u s e s u r r o u n d i n g s a r e more p l e a s a n t and t h e j o u r n e y t o work s h o r t . Most i n d u s t r i e s have n o t e d an i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i v i t y , a f a c t t h a t has l e d t o an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r p r e m i s e s w i t h t h e i r i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y i n some c a s e s . ^ S i n c e a b o u t 1954 t h e i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n p o l i c y o f t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e has been s l o w l y c h a n g i n g . The d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s a r e i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y h e a l t h y s t a t e and s i n c e 1958 government g r a n t s have been a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l and o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o u t s i d e t h e s c h e d u l e d d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s . I t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e p u l l e x e r c i s e d by t h e s o u t h - e a s t o f E n g l a n d i s n o t e n t i r e l y due t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e London c o n u r b a t i o n b u t t h a t t h e a r e a has c l i m a t i c and o t h e r e n t i c e -ments t o a t t r a c t t h e g r e a t number o f i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have no l o n g e r t o be l o c a t e d n e a r t h e c o a l m i n e s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e d e p o s i t s s i n c e t h e a d v e n t o f cheap e l e c t r i c power and f a s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s we may e x p e c t t h a t i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s t r a d i n g e s t a t e s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d i n i n c r e a s -i n g numbers o u t s i d e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s . The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t modern ' c l e a n ' i n d u s t r i e s do n o t have t o be s e g r e g a t e d f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s may l e a d t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t r a d i n g S e l f , op. c i t . , p. 91 55 e s t a t e s o u t s i d e o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s . F i n a l l y t h e g o v e r n -ment's p o l i c y o f e x p a n d i n g e x i s t i n g towns w i l l l e a d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f many new p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s u n d e r t h e a e g i s o f t h e New Towns C o r p o r a t i o n s . 3. P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d States,-. a) P i o n e e r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The r a i l r o a d s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e i r p r i m a r y m o t i v e f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e d i s t r i c t s was t o g e n e r a t e f r e i g h t f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i n e s and i t was p a r t o f t h e i r p o l i c y t o a l l o w i n t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s o n l y t h o s e f i r m s w h i c h w o u l d g e n e r a t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e volume o f f r e i g h t . T h i s i n t e r e s t o f t h e r a i l r o a d s i n p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s -t r i c t s has p e r s i s t e d up t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h o u g h i t i s l e s s s t r o n g l y marked t h a n f o r m e r l y . A s u r v e y by t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t D i v i s i o n o f t h e U. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce i n 1952 showed t h a t 47 o f t h e 122 i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e s u r v e y were c o n t r o l l e d by r a i l w a y s . " ^ The t e n d e n c y t o o r g a n i z e on a p l a n n e d b a s i s a p p e a r e d e a r l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The New Yo r k Dock Company, t h o u g h C h a r l e s W. H a c k e t t , J r . , An A n a l y s i s o f P l a n n e d  I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s ( W a s h i n g t o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , J u n e , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 9. 56 not a planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n the modern sense o f the term was o r g a n i z e d on a planned b a s i s i n 1830. The f i r s t genuine planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t was the C l e a r i n g Indus-t r i a l D i s t r i c t , which was o r g a n i z e d i n Chicago i n 1899. T h i s was f o l l o w e d by the North Kansas C i t y I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t i n 1900 and the C e n t r a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g D i s t r i c t i n Chicago i n 19 1905. 3 The C e n t r a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g D i s t r i c t and the C l e a r i n g I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t i n Chicago developed a l o n g c l o s e l y s i m i l a r l i n e s and p r o b a b l y l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l from each o t h e r as they developed. A f u l l and i n t e r e s t i n g account of t h e i r 20 development has been g i v e n by Robert L . W r i g l e y , J r . S i n c e they are t y p i c a l of the o l d e r type of i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t and s i n c e they u t i l i z e d s i m i l a r development t e c h n i q u e s i t seems n a t u r a l to combine the h i s t o r i e s of t h e i r development. The C e n t r a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g D i s t r i c t was o r g a n i z e d i n 1890 by the Chicago J u n c t i o n Railways and the Union S t o c k y a r d Company, but development d i d not begin u n t i l 1905. The d i s t r i c t , composed of s i x s i t e s t o t a l l i n g 851 a c r e s , was V i c t o r R o t e r u s , Planned I n d u s t r i a l Parks (Washington: U. S. Chamber of Commerce, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 3. 20 Robert L . W r i g l e y , J r . , "Organized I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s " , Readings i n Urban Geography (ed. Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn; Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1959), pp. 478-495. 57 d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f g e n e r a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l f r e i g h t f o r t h e r a i l r o a d . P r e v i o u s l y t h e l a n d on w h i c h t h e s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d had been b y - p a s s e d b e c a u s e o f e x c e s s i v e l y r o u g h t o p o g r a p h y , a f a c t w h i c h made i t e a s i e r f o r t h e Company t o a s s e m b l e them. A l l s i x s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n C h i c a g o p r o p e r , f i v e o f them w i t h i n 6 m i l e s o f t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . The C l e a r i n g I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t was o r g a n i z e d i n t h e 1890's b u t d e v e l o p m e n t d i d n o t g a i n momentum u n t i l a b o u t 1912, when c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C h i c a g o B e l t L i n e R a i l r o a d made t h e o r i g i n a l d i s t r i c t r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e by r a i l f r om a l l p a r t s o f t h e C h i c a g o a r e a . The Company now has s e v e n i n d u s -t r i a l t r a c t s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e C h i c a g o a r e a , two o f w h i c h a r e o u t s i d e t h e c i t y p r o p e r . The t o t a l amount o f l a n d c o n t r o l l e d by t h e Company i s a b o u t 4,000 a c r e s . The C l e a r i n g D i s t r i c t was a l s o o r g a n i z e d by r a i l r o a d i n t e r e s t s ; a f t e r s e v e r a l c h a n g e s i n t h e i n i t i a l y e a r s i t f i n a l l y became i n c o r p o r a t e d and o p e r a t e s u n d e r t h e u s u a l management s t r u c t u r e . The C e n t r a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g D i s t r i c t , by c o n t r a s t , i s o r g a n i z e d l e g a l l y as a common l a w t r u s t . I t has t h r e e t r u s t e e s who c o n t r o l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n as a b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s , a p p o i n t i n g a g e n e r a l manager and s t a f f t o h a n d l e d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n has c e r t a i n a d v a n t a g e s f r o m a l e g a l p o i n t o f v i e w , s u c h as e a s e 58 o f t r a n s f e r r i n g c o n t r o l and development o f p r o p e r t i e s to o t h e r p a r t i e s , fewer t a x e s and l e s s s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n . Both companies spend a gre a t d e a l of time and energy i n promoting t h e i r d i s t r i c t s , m a i n l y through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , though many o t h e r methods o f a d v e r t i s i n g are u t i l i z e d . S m a l l and medium-sized f i r m s are p r e f e r r e d , as these make maximum use of the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the Company. S i n c e the a t t r a c -t i o n s of the grea t Chicago market area and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n complex are w e l l known, t h e i r t a s k i s made much e a s i e r . They s t r e s s the v a l u e to an i n d u s t r y of "an a t t r a c t i v e and conven-i e n t l y l a i d out i n d u s t r i a l neighbourhood, of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , of b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance s e r v i c e s , o f s p l e n d i d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and of o t h e r s e r v i c e s 21 and f a c i l i t i e s " In d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l t r a c t s , the two Com-panies f o l l o w a s i m i l a r p o l i c y . S t r e e t s are p l a t t e d , p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d and i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s are d e s i g n e d , f i n a n c e d and e r e c t e d . Depending on the s i z e of the t r a c t , the Company may r e t a i n ownership of the s t r e e t s or d e d i c a t e them to the C i t y . At f i r s t t he t r a c t s were not planned and developed as a whole but were s u b d i v i d e d o n l y as n e c e s s a r y , I b i d . , p. 484. 59 w i t h l a r g e t r a c t s kept i n r e s e r v e i n case an i n d u s t r y w i t h g r e a t e r l a n d needs s h o u l d wish to l o c a t e t h e r e . S m a l l d i s -t r i c t s are now f u l l y s e r v i c e d and s u b d i v i d e d but l a r g e r t r a c t s are commonly developed bl o c k by b l o c k . ( A l l s u b d i v i s i o n i s on the " g r i d " s ystem). Gas mains and power l i n e s are i n s t a l l e d by the u t i l i t y companies but methods of d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s e r v i c e s v a r y . Methods of d i s p o s i n g o f the l a n d and b u i l d i n g s a l s o v a r y , depending on the needs and r e s o u r c e s of the c l i e n t . Some of these methods a r e : 1. Land i s s o l d o u t r i g h t and the p u r c h a s e r improves i t h i m s e l f w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d time l i m i t governed by h i s expansion program. A p p l y i n g a time l i m i t reduces to a minimum the purchase of l a n d f o r s p e c u l a t i o n . A l l improvements, of c o u r s e , must conform w i t h D i s t r i c t s t a n d a r d s . 2. Land w i t h improvements i n or about to be i n s t a l l e d by the D i s t r i c t i s s o l d o u t r i g h t . In t h i s manner the c l i e n t can submit h i s r equirements and then accept or r e j e c t the p r o p o s a l s of the D i s t r i c t . Moreover, the D i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s e s a l l d e t a i l s of d e s i g n , e n g i n e e r i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n . 3. Land w i t h improvements i n or to be put i n by the D i s t r i c t i s s o l d on a deferred-payment p l a n . In most cases between 20 and 30 per cent o f the c o s t of l a n d and b u i l d i n g s i s p a i d i n cash. The b a l a n c e i s a m o r t i z e d over a p e r i o d of f i f t e e n y ears or l e s s w i t h i n t e r e s t at 6 per c e n t . I n s u r a n c e , t a x e s , and o t h e r c o s t s are p a i d by the e n t e r p r i s e . In most i n s t a n c e s the d i s t r i c t s w i l l f i n a n c e a g r e a t e r percentage of the c o s t of a s t a n d a r d i z e d s t r u c t u r e than a s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t designed f o r one k i n d o f i n d u s t r y , because the l a t t e r b u i l d i n g , i f i t r e v e r t s to the D i s t r i c t , cannot be c o n v e r t e d to o t h e r uses e a s i l y . 60 4. Land and i m p r o v e m e n t s b u i l t t o o r d e r by t h e D i s t r i c t may be l e a s e d on a l o n g - t e r m c o n t r a c t . The e n t e r p r i s e pays an a n n u a l c h a r g e o f 6 p e r c e n t on t h e a g r e e d v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l a n d and 9 p e r c e n t f o r c o s t o f i m p r o v e m e n t s . Of t h e 9 p e r c e n t c h a r g e , 3 p e r c e n t i s t h e c o s t f o r use o f i m p r o v e m e n t s . T a x e s , i n s u r a n c e and o t h e r c o s t s a r e p a i d by t h e t e n a n t d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f t h e l e a s e . 5. S p a c e i n b u i l d i n g s a l r e a d y e r e c t e d c a n be l e a s e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d a t v a r i o u s t e r m s . 2 2 The Company m a i n t a i n s c o n t r o l o f t h e d e s i g n and a e s t h e t i c a p p e a r a n c e o f a l l b u i l d i n g s , w h e t h e r e r e c t e d by o u t s i d e c o n -t r a c t o r s , as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e C e n t r a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g D i s t r i c t , o r by t h e Company's own c o n s t r u c t i o n team, as i s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e C l e a r i n g I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t . Though some o f t h e e a r l i e r s i t e s have been b u i l t up a t h i g h d e n s i t i e s , t h e t e n d e n c y now i s t o p r o v i d e more l a n d s c a p i n g and t o c o n f i n e d e v e l o p m e n t t o 23 b u i l d i n g s o f one o r two s t o r i e s , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . As m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , t h e r a i l r o a d s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e D i s t r i c t s , b u t m o t o r c a r r i e r t r a n s p o r t i s g r o w i n g i n i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s i s e n h a n c e d by C h i c a g o ' s s i t u a t i o n a t a n o d a l p o i n t a l o n g n a t i o n a l t r u c k i n g r o u t e s . W a t e r t r a n s p o r t i s o f n e g l i g i b l e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e D i s t r i c t s . The p l a c e o f t r u c k t r a n s p o r t 2 2 I b i d . , PP. 286-487. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 48 8. 61 i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f w a r e h o u s i n g i n t h e D i s t r i c t s . The g r o w t h o f t h e C h i c a g o d i s t r i c t s has by no means been u n i f o r m . S l o w a t f i r s t , i t h i t a s t e a d y pace a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e B e l t L i n e R a i l r o a d i n 1912. A f t e r 1 9 1 9 , t h e p ace s h a r p e n e d i n s t e p w i t h t h e o v e r a l l e x p a n s i o n o f t h e economy b u t t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s saw a s h a r p s e t b a c k i n d e v e l o p m e n t . S i n c e 1939 g r o w t h has been s t e a d y . As o l d t r a c t s become f u l l y o c c u p i e d t h e D i s t r i c t s a c q u i r e new ones f u r t h e r away f r o m t h e c e n t r a l c i t y and a l s o t h e y a r e now more w i l l i n g t o b i d e t h e i r t i m e and w a i t f o r t h e p r e s t i g e (and h i g h l y p r o f i t a b l e ) i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a n t . ^ The D i s t r i c t s have a l s o d e v e l o p e d i n t h e number o f s e r v i c e s t h e y o f f e r t o t h e i r o c c u p a n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e b a s i c s e r v i c e s s u c h as r o a d , r a i l , s e w e r s , w a t e r , power and g a s , w h i c h a r e n o r m a l l y p r o v i d e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r p r i v a t e u t i l i t y c o m p a n i e s , t h e y now p r o v i d e p o l i c i n g , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , b a n k i n g and c l u b r o o m f a c i l i t i e s and some m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . They a l s o s p o n s o r s p o r t i n g e v e n t s and s o c i a l 25 g a t h e r i n g s f o r t h e w o r k e r s . 2 4 I b i d . , p. 4 9 3 . 2 5 I b i d . , p. 4 9 1 . 62 b) P l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U. S. a f t e r  W o r l d War I I . P r i o r t o 1940 o n l y 33 p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s had been d e v e l o p e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e s e were m o s t l y p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e C l e a r i n g I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t i n C h i c a g o . Up t o t h i s t i m e t h e r a i l r o a d s were t h e p r i m e s p o n s o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s and t h e i r m o t i v e was m a i n l y t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f p r o f i t a b l e f r e i g h t . A f t e r 1940 t h e number o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s g o i n g i n t o b u s i n e s s began t o i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y , as T a b l e 1, page 63, shows. The c a u s e s o f t h i s s u d den i n t e r e s t i n p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t s have been e n u m e r a t e d by many w r i t e r s b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a r r a n g e them i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e . The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t i s p r o b a b l y t h e r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n -s i o n w h i c h t o o k p l a c e as a r e s u l t o f t h e war and t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y w h i c h i s t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f p o s t - w a r i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e o f t h i s i n d u s t r y f o u n d i t s way i n t o p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s has t o be e x p l a i n e d by: 1, t h e i n i t i a t i v e - o f t h e d e v e l o p e r s and 2, t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t . A s t u d y was made by t h e U. 5. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce i n 1954 o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s p o n s o r s o r owners o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U. S. and t h e r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e I I , page 64. TABLE 1 GROWTH OF ORGANIZED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS IN THE UNITED STATES 26 Y e a r D e v e l o p m e n t Began B e f o r e 1900 1900 - 1909 1910 - 1919 1920 - 1929 1930 - 1939 1940 - 1949 1950 - 1954 1955 - 1957 Number o f D i s t r i c t s 2 6 5 8 12 74 84 98 P e r c e n t o f T o t a l R e p o r t i n g  0.7 2.0 1.7 2.8 4.2 25.6 29.1 33.9 289 100.0 S o u r c e : J . R. Lee and G. K. H. Wong, An A n a l y s i s o f  O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s ( M e n l o P a r k , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , J a n u a r y 1 9 5 8 ) . p. 5. B r e d o , op. c i t . , p. 1 2 . 64 TABLE I I PRINCIPAL SPONSORS OR OWNERS OF INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT5 IN THE UNITED STATES , 1 9 5 4 2 7 S p o n s o r o r Owner Number o f D i s t r i c t s P e r c e n t o f T o t a l P r i v a t e D e v e l o p e r s 124 41.1 R a i l r o a d s 88 29.1 Community O r g a n i z a t i o n s 52 17.2 Government A g e n c i e s 17 5.6 Community O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n C o o p e r a t i o n W i t h O t h e r s 21 7.0 T o t a l 302 100.0 S o u r c e s : O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s , U. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, 1954. 1957 S i t e S e l e c t i o n Handbook, I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t M a g a z i n e , Conway P u b l i c a t i o n s , O c t o b e r , 1956. S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e . R o b e r t E. B o l e y , " E f f e c t s o f I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s on t h e Community", U r b a n L a n d , V o l . 17, No. 10, (November, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 4. 6 5 Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t to emerge from t h i s breakdown i s t h a t , though the p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r heads the l i s t w i t h 41 per c e n t , community o r g a n i z a t i o n s accounted f o r about 25 per cent o f the s p o n s o r s h i p of a l l planned i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n the U. 5. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t a good percentage of the p r i v a t e l y owned d i s t r i c t s were i n s p i r e d by community a c t i o n and encouragement to undertake d e v e l o p -ment. There a r e , as Table I I , page 64, shows, t h r e e main groups at work i n promoting the growth of planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n the U. 5. A. The f i r s t group, the p r i v a t e d e v e l -o p e r s , see i n planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to secure a good r e t u r n on t h e i r i n vestment and the r a p i d growth i n the number of d i s t r i c t s would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r i nvestment i s p r o f i t a b l e . The second group, the r a i l w a y companies, are s e e k i n g to i n c r e a s e t h e i r f r e i g h t b u s i n e s s i n a d d i t i o n to any r e t u r n they may get from the s a l e or l e a s e o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . I t i s p o s s i b l e a l s o t h a t they are a b l e to u t i l i z e h i t h e r t o vacant l a n d h o l d i n g s by d e v e l o p i n g them as planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . The t h i r d group, under what may be c a l l e d p u b l i c s p o n s o r s h i p , may be broken down i n t o t h r e e Urban Land, V o l . 19, No. 7 (Washington, D. C. Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , J u l y — A u g u s t , 1960), pp. 3-4. 66 s u b - g r o u p s . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e p r i v a t e l o c a l community g r o u p s a c t i n g on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e ; s e c o n d , t h e r e a r e g o v e r n m e n t -s p o n s o r e d g r o u p s , w h i c h i n c l u d e L o c a l , F e d e r a l , S t a t e and T e r r i t o r i a l G overnments and p o r t a u t h o r i t i e s ; t h i r d , t h e r e a r e j o i n t g o v e r n m e n t - p r i v a t e l o c a l community g r o u p s . A s u r v e y o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s by t h e U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e i n 1961 examined t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a . Some o f t h e h i g h l i g h t s o f t h e s u r v e y were as f o l l o w s : 1. The p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , m a i n l y a p o s t - w a r phenomenon, i s c h a n g i n g i n s t e p w i t h t h e needs o f modern i n d u s t r y . 2. I n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e m a r k e t - o r i e n t e d and g r a v i t a t e t o w a r d t h e b i g c i t i e s b u t l o c a t e i n t h e s u b u r b s b e c a u s e o f u n a t t r a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . Most a r e between 50 and 500 a c r e s i n a r e a . 3. A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e ; n e a r l y a l l a r e c l o s e t o m a j o r h i g h w a y s and 90 p e r c e n t a r e s e r v e d by r a i l . 4. D i s t r i b u t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and l i g h t m a n u f a c t u r i n g r e q u i r i n g f r o m 0.5 t o 5 a c r e s a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t t e n a n t s . F i r m s r e q u i r i n g more t h a n 25 a c r e s s e l d o m l o c a t e i n a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . 67 29 5. S i t e c o v e r a g e and e m p loyee d e n s i t i e s a r e l o w . I n a d d i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e common c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s t h e s t u d y a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t s v a r i e d i n s i z e , l o c a t i o n and t y p e o f i n d u s t r i a l t e n a n t d e p e n d i n g on t h e t y p e o f g r o u p w h i c h s p o n s o r e d them, as f o l l o w s : 1. Those s p o n s o r e d by p r i v a t e p r o f i t - m o t i v a t e d i n t e r e s t s t e n d e d t o l o c a t e i n t h e l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s , w h i l e c o m m u n i t y - s p o n s o r e d d i s t r i c t s a r e f o u n d m a i n l y i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s o f l e s s t h a n 50,000 p o p u l a t i o n . 2. P o r t a u t h o r i t i e s s p o n s o r t h e l a r g e s t d i s t r i c t s and r e d e v e l o p m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s t h e s m a l l e s t . 3. C o m m u n i t y - s p o n s o r e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s have a h i g h e r r a t i o o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g t o n o n - m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e n a n t 30 t h a n p r i v a t e - s p o n s o r e d d i s t r i c t s . c ) The f u t u r e o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s . The r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g g r o w t h r a t e o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e p a s t 10 y e a r s w o u l d a p p e a r t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e has become a c c e p t e d as a t o o l f o r i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t . C r i t i c i s m has n o t been l a c k i n g , and t h i s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h R o b e r t E. B o l e y , I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s R e s t u d i e d : An A n a l y s i s o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 4 1 , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e , A p r i l , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 6. I b i d . , p. 6 68 e l s e w h e r e , b u t by and l a r g e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e d i s t r i c t s seems t o show t h a t a t l e a s t t o some i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p e r s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o f f e r s a t t r a c t i o n s w h i c h o u t w e i g h any d i s a d v a n t a g e s i t may h a v e . P e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g o f t h e U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e ' s s t u d y was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t was c a p a b l e o f c h a n g i n g i n t h e f a c e o f c h a n g i n g e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s have r e d u c e d o r e l i m i n a t e d t h e n u i s a n c e f a c t o r i n many m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y can now c o e x i s t h a r m o n i o u s l y i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o r e s i d e n t i a l and o t h e r t y p e s o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . The t e c h n i q u e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t has made i t p o s s i b l e t o r e d u c e t h e n u i s a n c e f a c t o r even f u r t h e r by g r o u p i n g t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s and b u f f e r i n g them v i s - a - v i s o t h e r l a n d u s e s by means o f l a n d s c a p i n g and p l a n t i n g s t r i p s . An i n t e r e s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t c o n c e p t i s t h e i n d u s t r i a l p a r k , w h i c h i s a s o r t o f p r e s t i g e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w i t h s u p e r i o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l and l a n d s c a p i n g f e a t u r e s and a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f open s p a c e . T h i s t y p e o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t a p p e a l s s t r o n g l y t o f i r m s engaged i n r e s e a r c h and t o t h o s e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r e c i s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s and components demanding h i g h l y s k i l l e d w o r k m a n s h i p . S i n c e t h i s t y p e o f f i r m i s a g r o w i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e s p a c e age, t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h i s a r e a seem v e r y b r i g h t . 69 A r e c e n t and i m p o r t a n t t r e n d i n t h e use o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i s t h e i r employment as a t e c h n i q u e o f u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t . U n t i l r e c e n t l y i n t h e U. 5. t h e p h i l o s -ophy and i n d e e d t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f u r b a n r e n e w a l demanded t h a t s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g w h i c h had been d e m o l i s h e d must be r e p l a c e d by new h o u s i n g i n s i t u . The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s method o f o p e r a t i o n has l o n g been q u e s t i o n e d and f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s now p e r m i t r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s t o be r e d e v e l o p e d by p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n u s e s o t h e r t h a n r e s i d e n t i a l . T h i s c hange o f p o l i c y has s e e n t h e use o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p a r k t e c h n i q u e i n r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s and t h e e x p e r i m e n t has been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . One m a j o r drawback has been t h a t t h e p r e s t i g e f i r m s w h i c h o c c u p y t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s do n o t employ many p e o p l e f r o m t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a b u t r a t h e r have h i g h l y s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l who t e n d t o l i v e i n t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s . W i t h t h e g r o w t h o f h i g h - i n c o m e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p -ment c l o s e r t o t h e c e n t r a l c i t y t h i s o b j e c t i o n may have l e s s v a l i d i t y . T h e r e i s a g r o w i n g body o f o p i n i o n i n p l a n n i n g c i r c l e s t h a t a m i x t u r e o f l a n d u s e s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a bad t h i n g and t h a t i n f a c t t h e m u l t i p l e use o f l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y n e a r t h e c i t y c e n t r e , i s v i r t u a l l y an economic n e c e s s i t y . The p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t may have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n m a k i n g t h i s m i x t u r e o f u s e s p r a c t i c a b l e . 70 SUMMARY P l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s d e v e l o p e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t a l o n g d i f f e r e n t l i n e s . I n B r i t a i n t h e f i r s t i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s were p r i v a t e v e n t u r e s s p o n s o r e d by c a p i t a l i z e d r e g i s t e r e d c o m p a n i e s . These e s t a t e s , n o t a b l y a t T r a f f o r d P a r k and S l o u g h , o p e r a t e d f o r p r o f i t on t h e s a l e o r l e a s e o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g s and were v e r y s u c c e s s -f u l . I n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s were a l s o p a r t o f t h e p l a n s f o r t h e G a r d e n C i t i e s o f L e t c h w o r t h and Welwyn, where t h e y p r o v e d a s u c c e s s . A f t e r t h e e c o n o m i c slump o f t h e ' T h i r t i e s , t h e B r i t i s h Government s p o n s o r e d and f i n a n c e d p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n o r d e r t o b o l s t e r t h e e c o n o m i e s o f t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s . T h e i r p r o g r a m s u c c e e d e d i n b r i n g i n g t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e d e p r e s s e d a r e a s a l m o s t on a p a r w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . A f t e r W o r l d War I I t h e B r i t i s h Government d e c i d e d t o b u i l d new c o m m u n i t i e s t o accommodate t h e o v e r s p i l l f r o m t h e g r e a t c o n u r b a t i o n s . The Government's p r e v i o u s s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s l e d t o t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e New Towns where t h e y a r e h e l p i n g t o w a r d t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e i d e a l o f t h e b a l a n c e d community. T h i s c o n t i n u e d s u c c e s s may l e a d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f many more i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s were p r o m o t e d by r a i l r o a d s w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f p r o v i d i n g more 71 f r e i g h t ; n o t a b l e among these were the C l e a r i n g I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e and the C e n t r a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g D i s t r i c t i n Chicago. Planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , though s u c c e s s f u l , were few i n number u n t i l a f t e r World War I I , when a sudden s p u r t i n the number of d i s t r i c t s being o r g a n i z e d took p l a c e . T h i s s p u r t c o i n c i d e d w i t h the phenomenon of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n - the movement of man and i n d u s t r y out o f the c e n t r a l c i t i e s i n t o the suburbs and beyond. S i n c e 1940 the p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r has taken the l e a d i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t development i n the U. S., but the r a i l r o a d s and government-and community-sponsored d i s t r i c t s are a l s o s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a key f a c t o r i n the l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s as i s a l s o the presence of a l a r g e market, such as a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . The planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t has shown a marked a b i l i t y to respond f a v o u r a b l y to changes i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s and demand. The r e f i n e d v e r s i o n , c a l l e d the " i n d u s t r i a l park", has developed i n response to the needs of modern c l e a n " p r e s t i g e " i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s , and may be used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the f u t u r e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h urban renewal p r o j e c t s . CHAPTER I I I THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY IN CANADA 1. C a n a d i a n S o c i o - e c o n o m i c C l i m a t e I t has o f t e n been s t a t e d t h a t i n many r e s p e c t s Canada s t a n d s h a l f - w a y between B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n t h e a r e a o f l a w and g o v e r n m e n t , p a r -t i c u l a r l y i n t h e m a t t e r o f S t a t e c o n t r o l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f t h e n a t i o n a l l i f e . B r i t a i n and Canada have s i m i l a r f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t , i . e . , an e l e c t e d P a r l i a m e n t w i t h v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d powers t o c o n t r o l and d i r e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Canada s h a r e s w i t h t h e U n i t e d 5 t a t e s a d e s i r e f o r f r e e d o m and i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m g o v e r n -ment c o n t r o l . I n r e s o l v i n g t h i s d i l e m m a Canada has t o s t e e r a m i d d l e c o u r s e and h e r s u c c e s s i n t h i s e x e r c i s e w i l l d e t e r -mine t h e q u a l i t y o f h e r n a t i o n a l l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o C o r r y " t h e r e a l l y f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n i s t h e s u p r e m a c y o f P a r l i a m e n t " ."^  W h a t e v e r i s l e g i s l a t e d by t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t becomes t h e l a w o f t h e l a n d and t h e C o u r t s have no power t o p r o n o u n c e on i t s v a l i d i t y . However, t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t has a l w a y s J . A. C o r r y , D e m o c r a t i c Government and P o l i t i c s , ( R e v . e d . by J . E. H o d g e t t s ; T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) , p. 2 1 . 73 been c i r c u m s p e c t i n t h e e x e r c i s e o f i t s power and has d e l e g a t e d much o f i t s d i s c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y t o v a r i o u s B o a r d s and C o m m i t t e e s s u c h as t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e . The B r i t i s h p u b l i c has l o n g been a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e S t a t e i n t h e f r e e c h o i c e o f t h e i n d i v i d -u a l . The B r i t i s h r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r c r o w d e d i s l a n d demands a measure o f S t a t e c o n t r o l t h a t w o u l d be e x c e s s i v e i n a l e s s d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d n a t i o n . Thus B r i t a i n c o u l d r e g a r d w i t h e q u a n i m i t y t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h t o o k p l a c e a f t e r W o r l d War I I , and t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e l o c a -t i o n o f i n d u s t r y w h i c h has e x i s t e d i n one f o r m o r a n o t h e r s i n c e t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s . I n f a c t , p u b l i c o p i n i o n s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s l a n d u s e c o n t r o l i n a c o u n t r y where open s p a c e i s a t a premium, and c o n s e q u e n t l y i s h i g h l y v a l u e d . The B o a r d o f T r a d e i n f a c t has t h e power t o c o n t r o l i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n s i n c e i t has t h e power t o v e t o i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i n a r e a s where i t c o n s i d e r s t h a t i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d n o t be i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , by c o n t r a s t , t h e f o r m and powers o f g overnment a r e d i c t a t e d by t h e p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e A m e r i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n . The C o n s t i t u t i o n s t r e s s e s t h e f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f government a r i s i n g f r o m t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n 74 o f t h e i n t e g r i t y and s u b s t a n t i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s e p a r a t e 2 s t a t e s . The A m e r i c a n s y s t e m s u b s c r i b e s t o a k i n d o f l i m i t e d g o v ernment b a s e d on r e s p e c t f o r human r i g h t s , and f r e e d o m f r o m g o v e r n m e n t a l t y r a n n y i s s o u g h t by " t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p o w e r s " , i . e . t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e 3 and j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t . The l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h i n t e r p r e t s t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e by m a k i n g l a w s , t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h c a r r i e s o u t t h e l a w s , and t h e j u d i c i a r y i n t e r p r e t s t h e l a w s by d e c i d i n g what i s r e q u i r e d o r f o r b i d d e n i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e l a w s . I n a c o u n t r y d e d i c a t e d t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and t h e f r e e d o m o f i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e i t i s e a s y t o s e e t h a t any measure r e q u i r i n g t i g h t l a n d u s e c o n -t r o l w o u l d have a d i f f i c u l t t i m e g e t t i n g t h r o u g h o n g r e s s , n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e t e s t o f j u d i c i a l s c r u t i n y . The C a n a d i a n s y s t e m o f government i s more a k i n t o t h e B r i t i s h t h a n t h e A m e r i c a n s y s t e m , a l t h o u g h t h e s y s t e m o f f e d e r a t e d p r o v i n c e s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The D o m i n i o n P a r l i a m e n t has n o t n e a r l y t h e same powers as t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t , and i n c e r t a i n s p h e r e s o n l y t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s c a n e n a c t l a w s . When t h e l e g i s l a t i v e s p h e r e s o f each have been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , t h e y each e n j o y 2 I b i d . , p. 2 1 . 3 I b i d . , pp. 22-23. 75 w i t h i n t h e i r own s p h e r e s t h e k i n d o f power w i e l d e d by t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t . I n Canada " t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f powers i s f l o u t e d t o a l m o s t t h e same d e g r e e as i n B r i t a i n " , ^ b u t a l l s u b s c r i b e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e R u l e o f Law. The D o m i n i o n P a r l i a m e n t s e l d o m e n a c t s amendments w h i c h a f f e c t t h e p r o v i n c e s w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g them and " i n f o r m a l amend-ment comes a b o u t e i t h e r t h r o u g h c u s t o m o r j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n " . However, " t h e p r o v i n c e s ( b u t n o t t h e D o m i n i o n ) a r e empowered by t h e B.N.A. A c t t o add t o o r m o d i f y t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n s , 6 and t h e y have o f t e n e x e r c i s e d t h e power". The power t o r e g u l a t e l a n d u s e w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s i s g i v e n t o t h e p r o v i n c e u n d e r t h e B.N.A. A c t ; t h e r e f o r e any l a n d use p o l i c i e s i n i t i a t e d a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l w o u l d have t o be i m p l e m e n t e d a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s t h r o u g h a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r l i a m e n t . T u r n i n g f r o m t h e government t o t h e g o v e r n e d i n Canada, one f i n d s a n a t i o n o f m i x e d n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s t r e t c h i n g f o r f o u r t h o u s a n d m i l e s i n a n a r r o w band f r o m t h e A t l a n t i c t o t h e P a c i f i c . I n t h i s m i x t u r e t h e B r i t i s h and F r e n c h s t r a i n s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t , t h e l a t t e r m a i n l y i n Quebec. R e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t b u t e v e r y w h e r e one phenomenon s t a n d s o u t — t h a t o f c h a n g e . Canada, from t h e A t l a n t i c t o t h e P a c i f i c , ^ I b i d . , p. 27. 5 I b i d . ^ I b i d . . p. 1 3 . 76 i s r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g f r o m a r u r a l t o an u r b a n n a t i o n . From 1949 t o 1 9 6 0 , t h e number o f f a r m o p e r a t o r s d r o p p e d f r o m 663,000 t o a b o u t 440,000, a r a t e o f 20,000 a y e a r . The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n on t h e f a r m d e c l i n e d f r o m 1 9 . 8 % i n 1951 t o 1 1 . 4 % i n 1 9 6 1 . 7 T h i s i s a t r e m e n d o u s r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e n a t i o n a l way o f l i f e and i t i s a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e f o r c e w h i c h makes i t p o s s i b l e — t h e d r i v e t o i n d u s -t r i a l i z e . Long a "hewer o f wood and d r a w e r o f w a t e r " f o r o t h e r n a t i o n s , Canada i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f e x p l o i t i n g h e r own m a r k e t s and o f u t i l i z i n g t h e s k i l l s o f h e r own l a b o u r f o r c e . Canada's new o r i e n t a t i o n i s s p u r r e d on by f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t , p r i n c i p a l l y U n i t e d S t a t e s i n v e s t m e n t . I n 1900 t h e U. S. a c c o u n t e d f o r 1 4 % o f t h e $1.2 b i l l i o n o f f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t i n Canada; i n 1955 i t c l a i m e d 7 7 % o f t h e 13.5 b i l l i o n t h e n i n v e s t e d . R e s i d e n t s o f t h e U. S. owned o r c o n t r o l l e d 6.5 b i l l i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n Canada i n 1 9 5 5 , more t h a n t w i c e t h e amount t h u s owned o r c o n t r o l l e d g i n 1 9 4 5 . IMo o t h e r c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d t o - d a y w i t h a s i m i l a r d e g r e e o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t has so much o f i t s i n d u s t r y c o n t r o l l e d by f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s . T h i s i s t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , B i g C i t y ( P a m p h l e t No. 3, M a r c h - A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 3. 8 A l b e r t A. S h e a , Canada 1980 ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d , I960),p.22. 77 d i l e m m a f a c i n g C a n a d i a n s — t o r e j e c t t h i s f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t w h i c h seems t o be v i t a l t o r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and e n j o y t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e c o u p l e d w i t h a l o w e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , o r t o a c c e p t i t and r u n t h e r i s k o f becoming an e c o n o m i c s a t e l l i t e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Some o f t h e d i s -a d v a n t a g e s o f f o r e i g n - o w n e d c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n Canada have been e n u m e r a t e d by W a l t e r G o r d o n , who headed t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on Canada's E c o n o m i c P r o s p e c t s , s e t up i n 1 9 5 5 . The C o m m i s s i o n recommended some m e a s u r e s aimed a t r e d u c i n g 9 t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f o r e i g n o w n e r s h i p on t h e C a n a d i a n economy. These i n c l u d e d : (1) t h e employment o f C a n a d i a n p e r s o n n e l and t h e p u r c h a s e o f C a n a d i a n s u p p l i e s , m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p -ment by f o r e i g n - o w n e d f i r m s ; (2) t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s by t h e s e f i r m s ; and (3) t h e i n c l u s i o n o f C a n a d i a n d i r e c t o r s and t h e s e l l i n g o f s t o c k t o C a n a d i a n s t o c k h o l d e r s . W i t h demand f o r t h i s t y p e o f a c t i o n has come t h e f e a r t h a t u n d e r some c o n d i t i o n s t h e C a n a d i a n r e a c t i o n t o e x t e n s i v e f o r e i g n o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l " m i g h t d e v e l o p i n t o demands f o r r e s t r i c t i v e o r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a c t i o n o f an e x t r e m e k i n d , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f w h i c h w o u l d be u n f o r t u n a t e f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d " . " ^ I t i s i n t h i s c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n t h a t W. L. G o r d o n , T r o u b l e d C anada: The Need f o r New D o m e s t i c P o l i c i e s ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 94. ^ I b i d . , p. 96. 78 C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y f a c e s t h e f u t u r e . 2. B a c k g r o u n d o f C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , The h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e x p o r t s f o r w h i c h she i s known t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d — f u r s , w h e at, o r e s , l u m b e r , and p a p e r p u l p . C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y has l o n g been o r i e n t e d t o t h e e x t r a c t i o n , p r i m a r y p r o c e s s i n g and e x p o r t o f t h e s e p r i m a r y p r o d u c t s and i t i s o n l y i n r e c e n t t i m e s t h a t a s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o m p l e x has begun t o emerge. A r e v i e w o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y may i n d i c a t e why a s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c -t u r i n g i n d u s t r y has e v o l v e d a t t h i s t i m e . The h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y began i n S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o and t h e S t . L a w r e n c e L o w l a n d r e g i o n and b e c a u s e o f t h e happy c o m b i n a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a d v a n t a g e s w i t h w h i c h i t i s b l e s s e d , t h i s r e g i o n now c o n t a i n s more t h a n 8 0 % o f t h e n a t i o n ' s m a n u f a c t u r i n g . F i r s t came t h e f u r i n d u s t r y , t h e n t h e l u m b e r i n d u s t r y , w h i c h c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e 186Q's as t h e m a i n p r o d u c e r f o r e x p o r t f r o m t h e r e g i o n . G r a d u a l l y , as t h e f o r e s t s were c l e a r e d , a g r i c u l t u r e began t o t a k e an i n c r e a s -i n g l y i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n t h e economy, and t h i s c r e a t e d a demand f o r o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r e d goods s u c h as f a r m i m p l e m e n t s . A g r i c u l t u r e a l s o f o r m e d t h e b a s e f o r o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s s u c h as t a n n e r i e s and w o o l t e x t i l e f a c t o r i e s , w h i c h were f o l l o w e d by s u c h m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s as 79 b o o t s and s h o e s , a p p a r e l , d i s t i l l e r i e s and b a k e r i e s . " ^ A f t e r 1870 a g r i c u l t u r e i n Quebec and O n t a r i o began t o s p e c i a l i z e i n d a i r y p r o d u c t s , b u t f o r e s t p r o d u c t s r e -m a i n e d i m p o r t a n t and i n t h e y e a r s a f t e r 1900 t h e p u l p w o o d s e c t o r o f t h e i n d u s t r y began t o d o m i n a t e . An embargo was p l a c e d on t h e e x p o r t o f p u l p w o o d f r o m O n t a r i o i n 1900 and Quebec i n 1910 t o p r o t e c t t h e g r o w i n g C a n a d i a n p a p e r i n d u s t r y . The g r o w i n g demand f o r n e w s p r i n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e e x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e r e g i o n d i d t h e r e s t . Now Quebec and O n t a r i o have a b o u t 100 p u l p and p a p e r m i l l s , one o f t h e l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n 12 t h e w o r l d . The e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y saw a s t r u g g l e between t h e C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o m b i n e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f o r e r e f i n i n g p l a n t s i n Canada. The S u d b u r y a r e a o f O n t a r i o was a t t h i s t i m e p r o d u c i n g a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' s n i c k e l , and t h e o r e and n i c k e l m a t t e were b e i n g s h i p p e d t o r e f i n e r -i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by t h e U. S.-owned C a n a d i a n C o p p e r Company. Ca n a d a , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t e n j o y t h e same monopoly i n n i c k e l o r e as she d i d i n p u l p and p a p e r and t h o u g h s e v e r a l 1 1 E. W i l l a r d M i l l e r , A G e o g r a p h y o f M a n u f a c t u r i n g ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 1 1 3 . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 114. 80 s t a t u t e s a l l o w i n g e x p o r t d u t i e s t o be i m p o s e d on u n r e f i n e d o r e s were p a s s e d , t h e y were n e v e r p u t i n t o e f f e c t . And so m a t t e r s s t o o d u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f W o r l d War I I , when t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e and t h e f o r c e o f p u b l i c o p i n -i o n c o m p e l l e d t h e D o m i n i o n Government t o p e r s u a d e t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l N i c k e l Company ( a s i t had become i n 1902) t o 13 b u i l d a n i c k e l r e f i n e r y a t P o r t C o l b o r n e . S i n c e t h e n (1918) t h e n o n - f e r r o u s m e t a l s m e l t i n g and r e f i n i n g i n d u s t r y has e x p e r i e n c e d r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t i n Quebec and O n t a r i o , b e i n g t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y i n t h e f o r m e r , t h e f o u r t h l a r g e s t i n t h e l a t t e r . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f cheap h y d r o -e l e c t r i c power, as w e l l as o f f u e l s and o r e s , have been t h e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , and a r e a d y m a r k e t has been f o u n d a t hand i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The m e t a l s i n d u s -t r i e s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , w i t h an i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y a t H a m i l t o n and aluminum r e f i n e r i e s a t 14 A r v i d a , S h a w n i g a n F a l l s , and B e a u h a r n o i s i n Quebec. The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s i n S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o and t h e S t . L a w r e n c e L o w l a n d has l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s b a s e d on t h e d o m e s t i c m a r k e t . Many a r e p r o t e c t e d f r o m f o r e i g n c o m p e t i t i o n Hugh G. J . A i t k e n , "The C h a n g i n g S t r u c t u r e o f t h e C a n a d i a n Economy", The C a n a d i a n Economy; S e l e c t e d R e a d i n g s ( J o h n J . D e u t s c h e t a l . , e d s . ; T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 535. 14 M i l l e r , o p. c i t , , p. 1 14. 81 by p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f s and some a r e C a n a d i a n b r a n c h e s o f A m e r i c a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m s . E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s a r e a u t o m o b i l e s , f a r m m a c h i n e r y , e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t and c h e m i c a l s . I n 1964 t h i s r e g i o n shows no s i g n s o f l o s i n g i t s d o m i n a n c e i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i e l d , n o r i s i t l i k e l y t o do so i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . A c c o r d i n g > t o F u l l e r t o n and Hampson: As a l r e a d y n o t e d , a b o u t 8 7 % o f C a n a d i a n s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, and a l m o s t a l l o f i t i n a n a r r o w , 6 0 0 - m i l e l o n g s t r i p o f l a n d r u n n i n g f r o m Quebec and S h e r b r o o k e i n t h e n o r t h e a s t t o W i n d s o r and S a r n i a i n t h e s o u t h w e s t . M o r e -o v e r , t h e r e has been l i t t l e c hange i n t h e e x t e n t o f t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a t l e a s t i n t h i s c e n t u r y . W h i l e we have h e a r d much a b o u t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t most o f i t c o n s i s t s o f p l a n t s m o ving f r o m downtown T o r o n t o t o S c a r b o r o u g h o r t o B a r r i e , and f r o m M o n t r e a l t o P o i n t e C l a i r e o r t o C o r n w a l l , r a t h e r t h a n a s h i f t o u t o f t h e main i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n s o f t h e c e n t r a l p r o v i n c e s . 1 5 N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s a s s e r t i o n , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h e d nodes o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g o u t s i d e t h e Q u e b e c -O n t a r i o c o m p l e x w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow and p e r h a p s s u p p l y l o c a l l y some o f t h e goods and s e r v i c e s now s u p p l i e d by t h e " c e n t r a l p r o v i n c e s " . The M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s have a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f l u m b e r i n g , m i n i n g and s h i p b u i l d i n g , and an i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y has d e v e l o p e d a t S y d n e y , Nova S c o t i a . The H a l i f a x and S t . J o h n a r e a s a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e s D. H. F u l l e r t o n and H. A. Hampson, C a n a d i a n  S e c o n d a r y M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r y ( O t t a w a : R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on Canada's E c o n o m i c P r o s p e c t s , May, 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 1 9 7 . 82 f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g , w i t h s u c h i n d u s t r i e s as p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g , f o o d p r o c e s s i n g , p u l p and p a p e r , and m a c h i n e r y . The two o t h e r i m p o r t a n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g r e g i o n s a r e t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s and t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t . W i n n i p e g has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h e c e n t r e f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p r a i r i e s , w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c t s . The r a i l w a y r o l l i n g s t o c k i n d u s t r y i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e . The s u p r e m a c y o f W i n n i p e g as t h e i n d u s t r i a l hub o f t h e P r a i r i e s i s b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d by t h e g r o w t h o f t h e new p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r y i n A l b e r t a , s p a r k e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y o f l a r g e o i l r e s e r v e s a t L e d u c i n 1946. S i n c e t h e n t h e a r e a has e x p e r i e n c e d an enormous e x p a n s i o n i n i t s i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -ment. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p e t r o l e u m , a c c o r d i n g t o M i l l e r , " t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p e t r o l e u m as a raw m a t e r i a l has c r e a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p e t r o c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y . A w i d e v a r i e t y o f p e t r o c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s a r e p r o d u c e d , i n c l u d i n g r a y o n and p l a s t i c s . O t h e r t y p e s o f c h e m i c a l s a r e now p r o -d u c e d i n t h e r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g f e r t i l i z e r s and t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f s u c h i n o r g a n i c p r o d u c t s as c a u s t i c s o d a and c h l o r i n e " . ^ The g r o w t h o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s has a l s o p r o d u c e d what i s p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t M i l l e r , op. c i t . , p. 119 83 i n Canada t o u s e t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t as a t o o l f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The c i t i e s o f C a l g a r y , Edmonton and R e g i n a have t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l boom by c o n v e r t i n g c i t y - o w n e d l a n d ( m a i n l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t a x d e l i n q u e n c y i n t h e ' T h i r t i e s ) i n t o f u l l y - s e r v i c e d p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . T h i s p o l i c y o f d e v e l o p i n g o r g a n i z e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s where i n d u s t r y c o u l d move i n t o c o m p l e t e -l y s e r v i c e d a r e a s i n a p a c k a g e d e a l began i n C a l g a r y a b o u t 1950 and " t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t C a l g a r y ' s r e c e n t i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h c a n be c r e d i t e d i n l a r g e measure t o ( t h e s e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s ) " . ' ^ C a l g a r y ' s example has been f o l l o w -ed by R e g i n a , where t h e c i t y has a c q u i r e d l a r g e t r a c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o be p r e - s e r v i c e d as r e q u i r e d ; and s e r v i c e d s i t e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n Edmonton " i n p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s 18 o r I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s " . The g r o w t h o f s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t R e g i o n has n o t been s p e c t a c u l a r , b u t has k e p t p a c e w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n . West C o a s t i n d u s t r y i s s t i l l v e r y much r e s o u r c e - o r i e n t e d , b a s e d on t i m b e r , f i s h , a g r i c u l -t u r e , m i n e r a l s and w a t e r - p o w e r r e s o u r c e s . The m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B. C , W e s t e r n B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y , V o l . 35, No. 9, S e p t e m b e r 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 4 5 . 1 8 I b i d . , V o l . 3 5, No. 4, A p r i l 1 9 6 1 , p. 4 1 . 84 w i t h i s o l a t e d nodes a t t h e aluminum town o f K i t i m a t and t h e s m e l t e r c i t y o f T r a i l . I n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n t h e Lower M a i n -l a n d i s b e i n g s e r i o u s l y d e p l e t e d by u r b a n s p r a w l and p r e -m a t u r e s u b d i v i s i o n , and h i g h l a n d p r i c e s t e n d t o d i s c o u r a g e p r o s p e c t i v e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . These c o n d i t i o n s have p r o d u c e d f o u r p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a , two o f them s t i l l i n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e . P a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d a r e A n n a c i s I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e n e a r New W e s t m i n s t e r and L a k e C i t y I n d u s t r i a l P a r k i n B u r n a b y . Two e s t a t e s a r e b e i n g p l a n n e d , one i n Richmond, t h e o t h e r i n L a n g l e y . A l l s t u d i e s o f t h e e c o n o m i c and m a n u f a c t u r i n g b a c k -g r o u n d o f Canada e m p h a s i z e one o u t s t a n d i n g a s p e c t - - t h e e x t r e m e d e p e n d e n c e o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y on U n i t e d S t a t e s c a p i t a l , t e c h n o l o g y , and even p e r s o n n e l . T a b l e I I I , page 85 shows t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t i n Canada between 1950 and I 9 6 0 . The b u l k o f t h i s i n c r e a s e came f r o m t h e U n i t e d 5 t a t e s . T a b l e I V , page 86, shows t h e d e g r e e o f n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l c o n t r o l a s a p e r c e n t a g e o f s e l e c t e d C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s i n 1948, 1 9 5 5 , and 1 9 5 8 , and i n d i c a t e s t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n v e s t m e n t i n some o f Canada's m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s . Hugh A i t k e n e x p l a i n s t h e s i t u a t i o n t h u s : U n i t e d S t a t e s c a p i t a l f l o w s i n t o Canada p r i n c i p a l l y t o a c c e l e r a t e d e v e l o p m e n t i n s e c t o r s t h a t w i l l s e r v e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s m a r k e t . S i n c e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s a l r e a d y a h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d economy w i t h a v e r y p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r , t h e m a r k e t demand t h a t i t e x e r t s on Canada i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l raw m a t e r i a l s . The r a t e o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n Canada 85 TABLE I I I ESTIMATES OF FOREIGN CAPITAL INVESTED IN CANADA 1 9 5 0 — 1 9 6 0 ( b i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s ) D i r e c t I n v e s t m e n t s P o r t f o l i o I n v e s t m e n t s T o t a l I n v e s t m e n t s 1950 4.0 4.7 8.7 1951 4.5 5.0 9.5 1952 5.2 5.2 10.4 1953 6.0 5.5 11.5 1954 6.8 5.7 12.5 1955 7.7 5.8 13.5 1956 8.9 6.7 15.5 1957 10.1 7.4 17.5 1958 10.9 8.1 19.0 1959 11.8 9.0 20.8 1960 12.8 9.5 22.3 S o u r c e : W. L. G o r d o n , T r o u b l e d Canada ( T o r o n t o ! M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 8 3 . 86 TABLE IV NON-RESIDENTIAL CONTROL AS A PERCENTAGE OF  SELECTED CANADIAN INDUSTRIES 1948, 1955 AND 1958 M a n u f a c t u r i n g P e t r o l e u m and N a t u r a l gas M i n i n g and s m e l t i n g R a i l w a y s O t h e r U t i l i t i e s C o n t r o l by U n i t e d S t a t e s R e s i d e n t s  1948 1955 1958 39 42 44 * 73 69 37 55 51 3 2 2 24 6 4 C o n t r o l by a l l N o n - R e s i d e n t s  1948 1955 1958 43 52 57 * 79 75 40 57 60 3 2 2 24 7 5 * Not a v a i l a b l e S o u r c e : W. L. G o r d o n , T r o u b l e d Canada ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 84, 87 depends l a r g e l y upon e x p l o i t i n g s u c h demand. The i n f l u -e n ce o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h e r e f o r e s u c h as t o e n c o u r -age t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n economy a l o n g l i n e s c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t h e economy o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s c a s t s C a nada, i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n t h e r o l e o f a s u p p l i e r o f u n m a n u f a c t u r e d o r s e m i -m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e U n i t e d 5 t a t e s t a r i f f r e f l e c t s and r e i n f o r c e s t h e p r e s s u r e a l r e a d y e x e r t e d by t h e p a t t e r n o f U n i t e d S t a t e s l a b o r , c a p i t a l and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . 1 9 The f a c t t h a t C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s a r e so d i r e c t e d and d o m i n a t e d by o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s i s d i s t r e s s i n g t o many i n d i v i d -u a l s and a l a r m i n g t o some e c o n o m i s t s and p o l i t i c i a n s , y e t i t a p p e a r s i n e v i t a b l e i f Canada i s t o m a i n t a i n i t s r a t e o f g r o w t h . The g r o w i n g C a n a d i a n d o m e s t i c m a r k e t has i n d u c e d many U n i t e d S t a t e s f i r m s t o e s t a b l i s h b r a n c h p l a n t s h e r e t o s u p p l y t h e C a n a d i a n c o n s u m e r s ' w a n t s . T h e i r c a p i t a l i n v e s t -ment and t e c h n i c a l know-how e n a b l e them t o do t h i s c h e a p l y and e f f i c i e n t l y . I f t h e y d i d n o t do so t h e C a n a d i a n consumer w o u l d e i t h e r pay a much h i g h e r p r i c e f o r t h e i m p o r t e d a r t i c l e , o r e l s e go w i t h o u t . The c u t t i n g o f f o f A m e r i c a n i n v e s t m e n t and t h e c o n t r o l w h i c h t h i s i m p l i e s c o u l d have p a i n f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r C a n a d i a n s . A i t k e n sums up t h e s i t u a t i o n when he s a y s t h a t " t h e a t t i t u d e i t s e l f i s u n d e r -s t a n d a b l e ; t h e s u g g e s t e d p o l i c i e s t o w h i c h i t g i v e s r i s e , h o w e v e r , a r e o f q u e s t i o n a b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and r a r e l y show 20 an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e r e a l c o s t s o f n a t i o n a l i s m " . A i t k e n , op. c i t . , p. 526. I b i d . , p. 527. 88 The p o l i c i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f Government i n Canada r e g a r d i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t d e s c r i b e d b e l o w may i l l u s t r a t e what t h e i r r e s p o n s e has been t o t h e s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s . 3. E c o n o m i c and I n d u s t r i a l P o l i c i e s a t t h e T h r e e L e v e l s o f  Government S i n c e Canada became a n a t i o n i t has been h e r p o l i c y t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e . I n t h i s she has been f r u s t r a t e d r e p e a t e d l y by t h e p o l i c i e s and demands o f h e r n e i g h b o u r s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r and by t h e e x p e d i e n c y o f t h e moment, w h i c h g e n e r a l l y d i c t a t e d t h a t i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f any k i n d was b e t t e r t h a n no d e v e l o p m e n t a t a l l . Whenever t h e r e was a c h a n c e t o h a l t t h e o u t f l o w o f raw m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s them a t home t h e Government t o o k t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s t o b r i n g t h i s a b o u t . Thus i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p u l p and p a p e r i n d u s t r y , Canada was i n a m o n o p o l i s t p o s i t i o n and so was a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e i n f a n t p a p e r i n d u s t r y by p r o h i b i t i n g t h e e x p o r t o f raw l u m b e r . T h i s p o l i c y was i n f a c t c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l by t h e Quebec, O n t a r i o , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t s s i n c e t h e y , and n o t t h e D o m i n i o n , c o n t r o l l e d t h e f o r e s t s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e n i c k e l i n d u s t r y and l a t e r t h e p e t r o l e u m and n a t u r a l gas i n d u s t r i e s , Canada d i d n o t e n j o y a m o n o p o l i s t p o s i t i o n and was t h e r e f o r e u n a b l e t o e n f o r c e h e r p o l i c y o f p r o m o t i n g s e c o n d a r y i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s i n g b e f o r e e x p o r t . The m a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t i n g h e r i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s 89 p o l i c y have b e e n , a c c o r d i n g t o A i t k e n , t h e " s t r u c t u r e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t a r i f f , f a v o u r i n g raw m a t e r i a l i m p o r t s and p e n a l i z i n g i m p o r t s o f m a n u f a c t u r e d and s e m i - m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s , t h e r e t a l i a t o r y power o f U n i t e d 5 t a t e s p r o d u c e r s , d e t e r m i n e d t o r e t a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e d o m e s t i c m a r k e t ; t h e l o c a t i o n o f c o r p o r a t e c o n t r o l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s o f s u p p l y and t h e b a s i c l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s o f s i t u a t i n g t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e and f i n a l s t a g e s o f p r o c e s s i n g c l o s e t o t h e m a r k e t and t o a l l i e d 2 1 i n d u s t r i e s " . He goes on t o s t a t e t h e Canada's s u c c e s s was r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f h e r b a r g a i n i n g power and t h a t h e r p o l i c y was e f f e c t i v e " o n l y where i t has o p e r a t e d t o r e i n f o r c e o t h e r l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f b u s i n e s s c o s t s , and t o a c c e l e r a t e a t r a n s f e r o f p r o d u c t i o n t h a t w o u l d p r o b a b l y have t a k e n p l a c e anyway, 2 2 t h o u g h more s l o w l y " . A p a r t f r o m h e r d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e S t a t e s , Canada i n t h e f i r s t t h i r d o f t h i s c e n t u r y p u r s u e d a t r i p l e p o l i c y o f n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t — a measure o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r C a n a d i a n m a n u f a c t u r e r s , l a n d g r a n t s and r e l a t e d s e t t l e m e n t p o l i c i e s c o v e r i n g a r e a s o f W e s t e r n Canada, and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f I b i d . , p. 547. 2 2 I b i d . 90 23 r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I t has been s a i d t h a t t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n made Canada, and by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s meant " r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " . The s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n i s c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n i n Canada and she has p u r s u e d a p o l i c y o f f r e i g h t r a t e a d j u s t m e n t s i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t . The D e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930's h i t Canada h a r d and r e s u l t e d i n a c h a n g e i n e m p h a s i s i n h e r e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s . A d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e t a r i f f s t r u c t u r e c o n t i n u e d b u t now s o c i a l w e l f a r e and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s became i m p o r t a n t . The s p e c i a l needs o f v a r i o u s r e g i o n s began t o be met w i t h f i s c a l a i d . The a d v e n t o f W o r l d War I i b o o s t e d Canada o u t o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n , and g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n c e r n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l -opment c o n t i n u e d t o be i m p o r t a n t . S p e c i a l m e a s u r e s were t a k e n t o h e l p i n d u s t r y , new i n d u s t r i e s were e n c o u r a g e d t o d e v e l o p , and government began t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l m a r k e t i n g . F i n a l l y , i n t e r r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s were p r o m o t e d and a s s i s t e d by t h e F e d e r a l G overnment, s u c h as t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y . 2 ^ Of l a t e C a n a d i a n e c o n o m i c p o l i c y has f o c u s s e d on two m a i n t a r g e t s : m a i n t a i n i n g employment a t a h i g h l e v e l and I b i d . , pp. 62-63. 91 c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l a t i o n . The f o r m e r i s p r o m o t e d by s u c h p o s i t i v e m e a s u r e s as e n c o u r a g i n g p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e w i t h s u b s i d i e s , t a r i f f s and l a n d g r a n t s . The f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e economy have been m i n i m i z e d somewhat by m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p u r c h a s i n g power o f i n d i v i d u a l s t h r o u g h s u c h r e m e d i e s as unemployment i n s u r a n c e , f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e s , o l d age p e n s i o n s and p r o g r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i ncome t a x . The n a t i o n a l b u d g e t and m o n e t a r y p o l i c i e s a r e a l s o u s e d as t o o l s t o c u r b i n f l a t i o n . The Bank o f C a nada, t h r o u g h i t s c o n t r o l o f i n t e r e s t r a t e s , has one o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e means o f i n f l u e n c i n g t h e l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s t a c t i c a f f e c t s t h e s m a l l C a n a d i a n b u s i n e s s m a n more t h a n t h e b i g company, w h i l e t h e s u b s i d i a r i e s o f U. S. c o m p a n i e s i n Canada may n o t be 25 a f f e c t e d a t a l l . The C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t i s c o n s c i o u s o f r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g and l e v e l s o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t r i e s t o m i n i m i z e them as f a r as p o s s i b l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o s p e c i a l a r e a s ( i . e . P r a i r i e Farm R e l i e f ) i t m o d i f i e s f r e i g h t r a t e s and d e v e l o p s i n t e r r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . The r e s o u r c e s o f t h e C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , w h i c h g u a r a n t e e s S h e a , op. c i t . , p. 96. 92 l o a n s f o r new h o u s e s , a r e u s e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y i n an e f f o r t t o r e l i e v e unemployment. The n a t i o n a l g o vernment has no i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n p o l i c y as s u c h , b u t i s c o m m i t t e d t o o v e r a l l i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t s a l l o c a t i o n o f g o vernment c o n t r a c t s sometimes r e f l e c t s t h i s a i m . The P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s a r e p o s s i b l y more a g g r e s s -i v e t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l government i n w o o i n g new i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and as s u c h a r e a p r e y t o t h e b l a n d i s h m e n t s o f f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r s . Tax and f i s c a l p o l i c i e s a r e u s e d t o e n c o u r a g e i n d u s t r y t o l o c a t e i n a p r o v i n c e , and t h e p r o v i n -c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o n t r o l o f l a n d s , f o r e s t s and m i n e r a l r i g h t s p r o v i d e s a p o w e r f u l weapon i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e d i r e c -t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Most p r o v i n c e s m a i n t a i n d e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t e n j o u r n e y a b r o a d t o c o u r t f o r e i g n i n v e s t -ment and i n d u s t r y . The t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i s one i n w h i c h t h i s t y p e o f a d v e r t i s i n g i s v i r t u a l l y e s s e n t i a l . Some p r o v i n c e s , s u c h as M a n i t o b a , have a t t a c k e d t h e p r o b l e m o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t by means o f a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f 2 6 t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , even i n t h i s t h o r o u g h and c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y , t h e p h y s i c a l and l o c a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e on M a n i t o b a ' s E c o n o m i c F u t u r e , M a n i t o b a  1962-1975 ( W i n n i p e g s The Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , 1 9 6 3 ) . 93 a s p e c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t were c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d . The p r o v i n c e s seem t o l e a v e t h e d e t a i l s o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n up t o t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , o r t o t h e i n d u s t r i e s t h e m s e l v e s . The p o l i c y o f l o c a l g o vernment t o w a r d s i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . The g r o w t h o f t r a d e and i n d u s t r y has been t h e c a u s e o f most u r b a n c o n c e n -t r a t i o n s a c r o s s C anada, and t h e i r c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h i s v i t a l t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e community. But i n d u s t r y i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y b e c a u s e t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e i s t h e t a x on r e a l p r o p e r t y . I n d u s t r y , b e c a u s e o f t h e amount o f v a l u a b l e l a n d i t o c c u p i e s and t h e v a l u a b l e p l a n t and e q u i p m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , i s u s u a l l y an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e m u n i c i p a l c o f f e r s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i n d u s t r y i s c o n s t a n t l y wooed by l o c a l m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s , and, f o r t h e same r e a s o n , i n d u s t r y t e n d s t o l o c a t e i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y i f p o s s i b l e , o r , f a i l i n g t h a t , i n a l e s s u r b a n i z e d m u n i c i p a l i t y where a l o w e r m i l l r a t e and l e s s s t r i n g e n t l a n d use c o n t r o l s make i t a p p e a r more d e s i r -a b l e . R e s o u r c e - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s s o m e t i m e s i n c o r p o r a t e t h e a r e a o c c u p i e d by t h e i r p l a n t and some o f t h e i r e m p l o y e e s ' h o u s i n g , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d p a y i n g t a x e s t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y where most o f t h e i r e m p l o y e e s r e s i d e . T h i s i s t h e c a s e i n T r a i l , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , where t h e main i n d u s t r i a l b a s e o f t h e c o m m u n ity, t h e s m e l t e r c o m p l e x , i s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f T a d a n a c , w h i l e most o f t h e e m p l o y e e s r e s i d e i n T r a i l o r i n 94 n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The Tadanac a r e a i n c l u d e s o n l y t h e s m e l t e r and some h o u s i n g f o r company o f f i c i a l s and was c r e a t e d s o l e l y f o r t a x e x e m p t i o n p u r p o s e s . T h i s i s a r e g r e t -t a b l e a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n d u s t r y b u t one c a n u n d e r s t a n d i t s p o s i t i o n . P e r h a p s some s p e c i a l t a x - s h a r i n g f o r m u l a i s t h e answer i n t h e s e c a s e s . A d e v i c e e m p l o y e d by C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y i s t h e " f i x e d a s s e s s m e n t " , d e s c r i b e d by D o n a l d Rowat as f o l l o w s : I t has l o n g been t h e c u s t o m f o r u r b a n C o u n c i l s i n Canada t o make c o n c e s s i o n s t o i n d u s t r i e s o r t o community e n t e r p r i s e s l i k e r i n k s o r h o t e l s t h r o u g h a g r e e m e n t s e x e m p t i n g a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r p r o p e r t y f r o m t a x a t i o n f o r a s p e c i f i e d number o f y e a r s . I n t h e c a s e o f i n d u s t r i e s , t h e f i x e d a s s e s s m e n t i s g r a n t e d i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t a new i n d u s t r y t o a m u n i c i -p a l i t y , t h e t h e o r y b e i n g t h a t i n f a n t i n d u s t r i e s need s u c h f i n a n c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t w h i l e t h e y a r e g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r " g r o w i n g p a i n s " . B u t many i n d u s t r i e s i n Canada seem t o have a r a t h e r l o n g w e a n i n g p e r i o d . The p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s o f l e a v i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f r e e t o make t h e i r own t e r m s w i t h new i n d u s t r i e s has been u n h e a l t h y c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g among l o c a l u n i t s i n t h e f o r m o f h i g h e r and l o n g e r e x e m p t i o n s . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s a r e f i n a n c i a l l y s t r o n g enough t o a f f o r d s u c h s u b s i d i e s , b e y o n d t h e f i r s t few y e a r s a t l e a s t . M o s t p r o v i n c e s t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t t h e e x e m p t i o n s i n new a g r e e -m e n t s , and some s p e c i f y t h a t f i x e d a s s e s s m e n t s must i n c r e a s e e a c h y e a r u n t i l t h e y r e a c h f u l l v a l u e ( a f t e r , s a y , t e n y e a r s ) . But even where t h e r e i s p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n , C o u n c i l s s o m e t i m e s f i x a s s e s s m e n t s t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t s t h a t a r e n o t p u b l i c i z e d . 2 7 D o n a l d C. Rowat, Y o u r L o c a l Government ( T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 94. 95 I n Canada t a x e s a r e p a i d on r e a l p r o p e r t y , and a r e b a s e d on t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g s w i t h o u t any r e g a r d f o r t h e " a b i l i t y t o p a y " . A s u r v e y o f 3G " a v e r a g e " A m e r i c a n c i t i e s by t h e U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e r e v e a l e d t h a t w h i l e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d pays 15% o f t h e t o t a l p r o p e r t y t a x r e v e n u e s , i t r e c e i v e s o n l y 1% i n r e t u r n i n t h e f o r m o f s u c h s e r v i c e s as a w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e m , a sewage t r e a t m e n t and d i s p o s a l s y s t e m , s t r e e t m a i n t e n a n c e and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n . By c o n t r a s t , r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d pays 54% and u s e s 80% o f t h e 28 t o t a l p r o p e r t y t a x r e v e n u e . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e n t h a t most o f t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s i n Canada have an i n d u s t r i a l c o m m i s s i o n o f one f o r m o r a n o t h e r . Some o f t h e s e , f o r e x a m p l e C a l g a r y ' s I n d u s t r i a l D e p a r t m e n t , work i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h c i v i c l e a d e r s and c i t y p l a n n e r s and have 29 a c h i e v e d a l a r g e m e asure o f s u c c e s s ; o t h e r s , f o r e xample V a n c o u v e r ' s C o m m i s s i o n , t h o u g h endowed w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e b u d g e t , o p e r a t e more o r l e s s i n a vacuum and have been s e v e r l y c r i t i c i z e d i n C o u n c i l f o r i t s l a c k o f t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s . The C o m m i s s i o n may be l e s s t o blame t h a n l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p a t t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l i n f o r m u l a t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t 2 8 M y l e s B o y l a n , E c o n o m i c s o f t h e Community ( M i n n e a p o l i s : C u r r i c u l u m R e s o u r c e s , I n c . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 7 6 - 7 7 . 29 W e s t e r n B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y , V o l . 3 5 , No. 9 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 4 5 . 96 p o l i c y and p r o g r a m . The q u e s t i o n o f z o n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y i s a c o m p l i c a t e d p r o b l e m and d e s e r v e s f u l l e r t r e a t m e n t t h a n i t can be g i v e n h e r e . The p r o b l e m i s o f t e n n o t a l a c k o f z o n e d i n d u s t r i a l l a n d b u t o f t o o m u c h — i n t h e wrong p l a c e s . I n d u s -t r y t h e r e f o r e has a w i d e c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n i n most m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s — b u t so have a l l i t s c o m p e t i t o r s , t h e s o - c a l l e d " h i g h e r " u s e s , r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l , w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y a l l o w e d t o t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r i n d u s t r y and o c c u p y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d even when i t i s z o n e d i n d u s t r i a l . The e x c l u s i v e z o n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i s n o t y e t a common phenomenon. T h i s p u t s i n d u s t r y a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e v i s - a - v i s t h e s o - c a l l e d " h i g h e r " u s e s . I n a s t u d y o f t h e p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a , t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d f o u n d t h a t r e l a t i v e l y few i n d u s t r i e s c a n compete w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t f o r l a n d . I t e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s f i n d i n g as f o l l o w s . I t i s n o t e a s y t o make a c c u r a t e c o m p a r i s o n s between r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s s i n c e t h e f o r m e r may i n v o l v e much g r e a t e r s e r v i c i n g c o s t s p e r a c r e , b u t i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t i n many c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n d u s t r y , w h i c h n o r m a l l y o c c u p i e s o n l y a b o u t one f i f t h as much l a n d i n a community as r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i s n o t by any means i n t h e s t r o n g c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n w h i c h many p e o p l e seem t o t h i n k . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n a r e a s where r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a l r e a d y f a i r l y w i d e s p r e a d and a l l l o c a l i n d i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t t o t h e s u b -d i v i d e r t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l use o f h i s l a n d w o u l d be more i m m e d i a t e and no l e s s p r o f i t a b l e t h a n i n d u s t r i a l u s e . 97 I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n d u s t r y w i l l s e l d o m buy up s m a l l l o t s c o n t a i n i n g e x i s t i n g h o u s e s e x c e p t u n d e r t h e most c o m p e l l i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 2 9 To f i n d t h e k i n d o f l a n d w h i c h i s b o t h s u i t a b l e f o r i t s needs and w i t h i n t h e r a n g e i t c a n a f f o r d , i n d u s t r y has t o m i g r a t e f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r f r o m t h e c i t y c e n t e r : t h i s may t a k e i t beyond t h e c i t y l i m i t s and p o s e s t h e p r o b l e m o f how a c i t y w i t h an i n t e r n a l r a t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l l a n d d e v e l o p -ment p r o g r a m can c o n t r o l i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s e t t l e m e n t o u t s i d e i t s b o u n d a r i e s . One c o u l d a r g u e t h a t f o r a c i t y w i t h a r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y and p r o g r a m t h i s p r o b l e m w o u l d n o t a r i s e ; h owever, few c i t i e s a r e so f a r a d v a n c e d and some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h a g e n u i n e d e s i r e t o p u t i n t o e f f e c t a r a t i o n a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s f r u s t r a t e d by h a p h a z a r d d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r i n g j u s t beyond t h e c i t y l i m i t s . The d e v i c e o f a n n e x a t i o n has been t r i e d w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s ; t h e p r o b l e m i s s i m p l y p u s h e d o u t a l i t t l e f u r t h e r f r o m t h e c i t y c e n t e r . T h i s r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how i n d u s t r i a l s p r a w l c a n be t a c k l e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s ; t h e n e x t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s and needs o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y . I t may be u s e f u l f o r t h e s a k e o f c l a r i t y t o draw a L ower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , The D y n a m i c s  o f I n d u s t r i a l L a nd S e t t l e m e n t (New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 57 and 59. 9 8 d i s t i n c t i o n b etween p h y s i c a l and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g . G e n e r -a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g . The f o r m e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s , s u b s i d i e s , t a r i f f s and ways and means o f k e e p i n g t h e economy on an even k e e l . The l a t t e r a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h r a t e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e s and w i t h p r o m o t i n g l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l p r o j e c t s s u c h as power d e v e l o p m e n t schemes t o m a i n t a i n and a c c e l e r a t e g r o w t h . N e i t h e r l e v e l o f g o vernment i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y as s u c h , and where e i t h e r one has power t o i n f l u e n c e l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s i n i n d u s t r y i t i s more l i k e l y t o be swayed by p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n by any o t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e d e c i s i o n . The l o c a l c o m m u n ity, h o w e v e r , must o f n e c e s s i t y g r a p p l e w i t h b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l and e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o b l e m o f i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h , a t a s k f o r w h i c h i t i s n o t o f t e n w e l l e q u i p p e d . The m u n i c i p a l i t y i s i t s e l f c o m p e t i n g w i t h o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s t o a t t r a c t new i n d u s t r y and t h e r e f o r e t h e e c o n o m i c i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e l i a b l e t o t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a l l o c a t i o n . T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e as t h e a d v a n t a g e s g a i n e d by a t t r a c t i n g t h e i n d u s t r y may be d i s s i p a t e d by t h e c o s t s t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f i n e f f i c i e n t l a n d u s e . I f c o m p e t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were i n an e q u a l p o s i t i o n f r o m an e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f v i e w , t h a t i s , i f t h e o n l y a d v a n t a g e s t h e y c o u l d o f f e r t o i n d u s t r y were t h e i r e f f i c i e n t 99 i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e and t h e l o c a t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e n most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w o u l d pay more a t t e n t i o n t o p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l -opment r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y t o l o c a t e t h e r e a t g r e a t r e l a t i v e c o s t t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s i s d e a l t w i t h more f u l l y b e l o w . 4. I n d u s t r i a l D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ; The P r o b l e m o f R e g i o n a l  P l a n n i n g f o r I n d u s t r y I n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s when i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t t a k e s p l a c e on t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e u r b a n i z e d a r e a s o f e s t a b l i s h e d p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s , o r i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s beyond o r i n t h e s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s s i t u a t e d c l o s e t o t h e main c e n t e r . T h i s i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t may be due t o new i n d u s t r i e s m o v i n g i n t o t h e a r e a , o r o l d e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i e s m o v i n g o u t f r o m t h e c e n t r a l c i t y t o t h e s u b u r b a n p e r i m e t e r o r b e y o n d . F u l l e r t o n and Hampson o b s e r v e d t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n d i d n o t e n t a i l a s h i f t o u t o f t h e mai n i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n s b u t r a t h e r a " s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n " o f i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n 31 o f r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and o t h e r l a n d u s e s . The p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e f a m i l i a r t o t h e C o u n c i l s o f s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and F u l l e r t o n and Hampson, op. c i t . , p. 197. 100 t o a l l s t u d e n t s o f u r b a n a f f a i r s : B e c a u s e b o t h t h e t a x r e s o u r c e s and t h e a u t h o r i t y o f l o c a l g overnment u n i t s . . . a r e l i m i t e d and b e c a u s e o f t h e s u d d e n l y i n c r e a s e d need f o r u r b a n s e r v i c e s and f o r u r b a n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n s i t u a t i o n i s now t h e i m b a l a n c e between t a x r e s o u r c e s and t a x n e e d s . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , some c o m m u n i t i e s have a c q u i r e d i m p o r t a n t t a x a b l e p r o p e r t i e s s u c h as a new f a c t o r y , w h i l e t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g community may g a i n o n l y t h e homes o f t h e f a c t o r y w o r k e r , w i t h t h e i r o v e r f l o w o f c h i l d r e n n e e d i n g s c h o o l i n g . Thus t h e s p l i n t e r e d p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s make i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h l a r g e r p r o b l e m s , and e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o f i n a n c e t h e s e r v i c e s and d e v e l o p m e n t s now c a l l e d f o r . 3 2 T h i s q u o t a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t b e d e v i l g r o w i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t i t i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h c o n f r o n t s t h e l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i n C a n a d a . To c i t e a C a n a d i a n e x a m p l e , t h e p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by u r b a n s p r a w l i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have been d e t a i l e d as f o l l o w s : I t has p r o d u c e d s e r v i c i n g p r o b l e m s - ~ w a t e r s u p p l y , s e w e r s , r o a d p a v i n g and p u b l i c t r a n s i t , f o r e x a m p l e — w h i c h b e d e v i l t h e C o u n c i l s and t a x p a y e r s i n many a r e a s . I t has p r o d u c e d i n many p l a c e s l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e u n s a f e and u n h e a l t h y as w e l l as i n c o n v e n i e n t . I t has w i p e d o u t p o t e n t i a l k ey s i t e s . I n t h e l a s t d e c a d e t h e r e g i o n has l o s t s e v e r a l a i r p o r t s i t e s and h u n d r e d s o f a c r e s o f p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . W h i l e d e v o u r i n g new l a n d on a g r a n d s c a l e , i t has l e f t a v a s t p a t c h w o r k o f unus e d l a n d i n i t s wake. I f t h e 10,000 s c a t t e r e d a c r e s o f v a c a n t r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i n t h e L u t h e r G u l i c k , " R e a c t i o n s t o M e t r o p o l i t a n E x p a n s i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 183-184. 101 B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a , t h e N o r t h S h o r e and Richmond c o u l d be r e a s s e m b l e d i n one b l o c k i t w o u l d measure f i v e m i l e s by t h r e e ; b u t t h e y c a n n o t t h u s be r e a s s e m b l e d . I t u n d e r m i n e s t h e w h o l e e c o n o m i c p y r a m i d b a s e d on a g r i c u l t u r e , w h i c h d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t s 20% o f t h e j o b s i n t h e r e g i o n , and i t makes t h e r e g i o n u n n e c -e s s a r i l y d e p e n d e n t on o t h e r a r e a s f o r i t s f o o d s u p p l y . 3 3 The Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d ' s s o l u t i o n t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s i s a p o l y n u c l e a t e d r e g i o n — a s y s t e m o f w e l l - p l a n n e d u r b a n n u c l e i s e p a r a t e d f r o m each o t h e r by b e l t s o f open s p a c e and f a r m l a n d , l i n k e d t o g e t h e r by r e g i o n a l f r e e w a y s . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e g i o n i s b a s e d on two main p r i n c i p l e s — t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n b u i l t - u p a r e a s and t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t u n l e s s s u p p l i e d w i t h t h e f u l l r a n g e o f u r b a n s e r v i c e s . The need f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g has been r e c o g n i z e d i n Canada and a number o f a t t e m p t s t o . c o p e w i t h t h e p r o b l e m have been made. The most n o t e w o r t h y and s u c c e s s f u l i s t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , a k i n d o f s u p e r -m u n i c i p a l i t y e m b r a c i n g 13 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h o s e s e r v i c e s and f u n c t i o n s w h i c h a r e common t o a l l t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Chance and  C h a l l e n g e (New W e s t m i n s t e r : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Dec. 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 5. 102 a r e a - w a t e r s u p p l y , sewage d i s p o s a l , r o a d s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , j u s t i c e , h o u s i n g , p l a n n i n g , p a r k s , and t a x a t i o n and f i n a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The "member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s " a r e l e f t w i t h t h e l o c a l p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t even i n t h i s r e l a t i v e l y a d v a n c e d a t t e m p t a t m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l i t t l e t h o u g h t has been g i v e n t o p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e h e a r t l a n d o f Canada's most c o n c e n t r a t e d i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n . The T o r o n t o r e g i o n has some v e r y u g l y i n d u s t r i a l s p r a w l a r e a s and a l s o some e x a m p l e s o f f i n e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n -n i n g , s u c h as c a n be f o u n d a t Don M i l l s and S c a r b o r o u g h . I f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d had t h e power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y and p r e s e r v e p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and t o a s s e m b l e them w i t h i n a r a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s p l a n n e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t — r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s , c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n and open s p a c e — i t c o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e r e g i o n t o c r e a t e w e a l t h — a n d t o e n j o y i t . J u s t as o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l A l b e r t Rose, "The C h a l l e n g e o f M e t r o p o l i t a n G r o w t h " , Community P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , V o l . I V , 1954, p. 97. 103 p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f an i n d u s t r i a l p a r k p r o g r a m , and even more t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e b r o a d e r r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s t o w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s a r e e x p e c t e d t o c o n -t r i b u t e , so a l s o a r e g i o n a l p l a n w h i c h i g n o r e s t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t has a b d i c a t e d c o n t r o l o v e r one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l s h a p e r s o f t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s n o t a s u b s t i t u t e f o r l o c a l p l a n n i n g b u t s h o u l d c r e a t e t h e m i l i e u i n w h i c h l o c a l p l a n n i n g c a n f u n c t i o n most e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s k i n d o f i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g w i l l n o t o f c o u r s e come a b o u t u n t i l an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m e x i s t s t o cope w i t h r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s . The n a t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m and t h e c h a n g e s t h a t a p p e a r n e c e s s a r y a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . 5. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s p e c t s o f I n d u s t r i a l P l a n n i n g U n d e r t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a n A c t s -"the power t o r e g u l a t e p u b l i c l a n d s , m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s has been g i v e n t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a -35 t u r e s . I t w o u l d seem t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n g o v e r n -ment can do l i t t l e t o r e g u l a t e t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t c a n h o w e v e r , i n f l u e n c e t h e r a t e o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h t h e p o l i c i e s i t p u r s u e s i n a c c o r d a n c e E l m e r A. D r i e d g e r , A C o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h  N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t s ( O t t a w a : The Queens P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 2 7 -28. 104 w i t h i t s powers t o r e g u l a t e t r a d e , commerce and f i n a n c i a l 3 6 a f f a i r s . I n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s v i t a l l y a f f e c t e d by government p o l i c y i n t h e s e a r e a s , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s a need f o r a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g on t h e p a r t o f g o v e r n m e n t , o f t h e e f f e c t s i t s p o l i c i e s w i l l have on t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . W a l t e r Gordon p o i n t e d up t h i s need f o r u n d e r -s t a n d i n g i n O t t a w a , and t h e n e w l y - c r e a t e d D e p a r t m e n t o f 37 I n d u s t r y may h e l p t o b r i n g i t a b o u t . I n d u s t r y c o u l d a l s o be a i d e d by e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s , t a x i n c e n t i v e s , i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s i n d e p r e s s e d a r e a s , and an expanded r o l e f o r t h e I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Bank t o a s s i s t s m a l l and g r o w i n g i n d u s t r i e s . To be e f f e c t i v e t h i s p r o g r a m must be a c c o m p a n i e d by c o n c e r n f o r t h e p h y s i c a l b a s i s o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; t h i s means an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r m a j o r i n d u s -t r i a l a r e a s , o u r m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and i n u r b a n g r o w t h i n g e n e r a l . T h i s p r e s u p p o s e s a l e v e l o f c o o r d i n a t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s among t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n -ment w h i c h may be d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k . R e g a r d i n g t h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f I b i d . , p. 25. 37 W. L. G o r d o n , op. c i t . , pp. 114 - 5 . 105 g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i v i t y , t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d has t h i s t o s a y : I f a r e g i o n i s a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t y , i t must be p l a n n e d , s e r v i c e d and d e v e l o p e d as a u n i t y , n o t as an open h u n t i n g g r o u n d f o r d o z e n s o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s made f o r d o i n g so must be i n s c a l e w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e and p r o s p e c t s o f t h e r e g i o n . T h i s w i l l , o f c o u r s e , i n v o l v e c h a n g e . But as Edmund B u r k e s a i d : "The S t a t e w i t h o u t t h e means o f some change i s w i t h o u t t h e means o f i t s own c o n s e r v a t i o n " . 3 8 The r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l g o vernment i n p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y i s t h e n t o c r e a t e a c l i m a t e f a v o u r a b l e t o i n d u s -t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; t o f u r n i s h a d v i c e and i n s p i r a t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s and l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; and t o e n c o u r a g e a scheme o f n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t by t h e j u d i c i o u s u s e o f t h e e x p a n d e d r e v e n u e s o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Bank and t h e M u n i c i p a l L oan F u n d . I t c o u l d , f o r i n s t a n c e a d v a n c e l o a n s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d p u t f o r w a r d a r a t i o n a l scheme f o r a s y s t e m o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . T h i s money c o u l d be u s e d t o a c q u i r e t h e n e c e s s a r y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d and t h e D o m i n i o n government c o u l d i n d u c e i n d u s t r i e s t o s e t t l e i n them by p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t i n g r a n t i n g l o a n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s p o l i c y c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d by t h e f a c t t h a t a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o f f e r s f a r more s e c u r i t y t h a n does an i n d u s t r i a l a r e a n o t s i m i l a r l y p l a n n e d , Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Chance  and C h a l l e n g e , p. 1 3 . I 106 z o n e d and p r o t e c t e d by c o v e n a n t . 5 p e a k i n g o f p u b l i c c o n t r o l o v e r i n d u s t r y a t t h e macro l e v e l , P e t e r S e l f has s u m m a r i z e d t h e r o l e o f government as f o l l o w s : P u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o r r e c t t h e o n e - s i d e d a p p r o a c h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i r m by b r i n g i n g i n t o a c c o u n t a b r o a d r a n g e o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s t h a t a r e h i d d e n f r o m i t . They c a n a l s o a c q u i r e d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o s p e c t s and r e q u i r e -ments o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h may be u s e d t o p e r s u a d e f i r m s t o make w i s e and f a r s i g h t e d d e c i s i o n s . I n f a c t , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e i s t o d a y t h e main method o f p u b l i c c o n t r o l o v e r i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . I t i s a method w h i c h c a n a c h i e v e v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s . 3 9 U n d e r o u r p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f government t h e P r o v i n c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I t h a s , o f c o u r s e , d e l e g a t e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g and l a n d u s e p o l i c y t o t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s b u t t h i s d e l e g a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has not been accompan-i e d by commensurate powers o f t a x a t i o n . One new s p a p e r made t h e e d i t o r i a l comment t h a t : L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t has had t o assume a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e c o s t l y c o n s e q u e n c e s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n — u r b a n g r o w t h , b r o a d e n e d e d u c a t i o n , t h e u b i q u i t o u s c a r w i t h i t s c o n s u m i n g demand f o r s t r e e t s , e x p r e s s w a y s , p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Y e t l o c a l g overnment i s s t i l l l o w man on t h e t a x t o t e m p o l e . I t s t a x i n g r e s o u r c e s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y what t h e y were when o u r c i t i e s were m a i n l y m a r k e t towns.40 P e t e r S e l f , The P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n , ( L o n d o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s L t d . , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 1 2 . Joh n T. S a y w e l l and Jo h n C. R i c k e r , How A r e We  Go v e r n e d ? ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e I r w i n and Company L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 7 3 . 107 I t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s s h o u l d e x e r c i s e s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r t h e f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s and come t o t h e i r a i d when t h e y g e t i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s . . By l i m i t i n g t h e i r b o r r o w i n g powers and a p p r o -v i n g money b y - l a w s t h e y p l a c e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n a p o s i t i o n where i t has t o se e k a i d a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . T h i s a i d i s e x t e n d e d m a i n l y i n t h e f o r m o f s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e g r a n t s and i n d i r e c t p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e g e n e r a l r e v e n u e . T hese c o n t r i b u t i o n s now f o r m t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e s o u r c e o f m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e n e x t t o t h e r e a l p r o p e r t y and b u s i n e s s t a x e s . ^ I n t h e a b s e n c e o f i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s i n u n d e r t a k i n g t h e p r o m o t i o n o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , i t m i g h t be d i f f i c u l t t o p e r s u a d e t h e t a x p a y e r t h a t m u n i c i p a l money e m p l o y e d i n t h e p u r c h a s e o f p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l l a n d was w e l l s p e n t . The p r o b l e m has been s t a t e d s u c c i n c t l y by J . K. G a l b r a i t h : New p u b l i c n e e d s , o r even t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e r e q u i r e -ments f o r o l d ones i n c i d e n t on i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , r e q u i r e a f f i r m a t i v e s t e p s t o t r a n s f e r r e s o u r c e s t o p u b l i c u s e . T h e r e must f i r s t be a f i n d i n g o f n e e d . The b u r d e n o f p r o o f l i e s w i t h t h o s e who p r o p o s e t h e e x p e n d i t u r e . R e s o u r c e s do n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c r u e t o t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f o r a d e c i s i o n as t o how t h e y may b e s t be d i s t r i -b u t e d t o s c h o o l s , r o a d s , p o l i c e , p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and o t h e r c l a i m a n t ends.42 ^ Rowat, o p . c i t . , p. 88. ^ 2 J . K. G a l b r a i t h , The A f f l u e n t S o c i e t y ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1958), p. 310. 108 The m u n i c i p a l t a x p a y e r seems t o s u f f e r f r o m a m e n t a l b l o c k when new e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e p r o p o s e d , no m a t t e r how n o b l e t h e c a u s e . He i s l i k e l y t o e x p r e s s h i s d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h m u n i c i p a l s p e n d i n g h a b i t s a t t h e p o l l s and so most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( b u t n o t a l l ) a r e u n w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t l a r g e amounts o f money i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . However, t h o s e w h i c h have t a k e n t h e p l u n g e , e.g. C a l g a r y and Edmonton, have f o u n d t h e i n v e s t m e n t so p r o f i t a b l e t h a t t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o r i s k f u r t h e r amounts o f t h e t a x p a y e r s * money i n s i m i l a r v e n t u r e s . I t i s a s a f e b e t t h a t i f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e a t t r a c t i v e t o p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s , t h e y a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . Hence a m u n i c i p a l i t y t h a t embarks on t h e e s t a b l i s h -ment and p r o m o t i o n o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s on f a i r l y s a f e g r o u n d , p r o v i d e d i t makes s u r e t h a t t h e demand e x i s t s , t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y i s w e l l - l o c a t e d and t h a t i t i s p r e p a r e d t o w a i t f o r some y e a r s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t o r e a p a p r o f i t . I t w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s u c c e s s f u l i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g , i n w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m , must be p r o m o t e d a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . The a c t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y r e s t w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ; t h i s s h o u l d be f u l f i l l e d by means o f a c o o r d i n a t e d p r o g r a m f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e a r e many ways i n w h i c h s u c h a p r o g r a m m i g h t be i m p l e m e n t e d ; t h e i m p o r t a n t 109 t h i n g i s t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y be a c c e p t e d and t h e t a s k u n d e r t a k e n . The c o n t r o l and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i s t h e t a s k o f t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . The m u n i c i p a l i t y s t a n d s t o g a i n i n t a x r e v e n u e i f i n d u s t r y l o c a t e s w i t h i n i t s b o r d e r s ; i t s t a n d s t o g a i n even more i f i t p r o v i d e s f o r i n d u s t r y a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w h i c h w i l l e n hance t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y . A p o l i c y o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s may be u n d e r t a k e n by a m u n i c i p a l i t y on i t s own a c c o u n t (and i n d e e d a number o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have done j u s t t h a t , as we have s e e n ) b u t t h e p r o c e s s w o u l d be much s i m p l i f i e d i f i t were s u p p o r t e d and e n c o u r a g e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . I d e a l l y i t s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n by a number o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , l e a d i n g t o an a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t by t h e p u b l i c and i n d u s t r y a l i k e . 6. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t P r o g r a m Once a m u n i c i p a l i t y has made a d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o r a number o f d i s t r i c t s , i t f i n d s i t s e l f i n a l m o s t t h e same p o s i t i o n as t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r . F o r one t h i n g , i t s c h o s e n s i t e must be i n a c o m p e t i t i v e l o c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y . T h i s w i l l depend on a number o f f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g m a r k e t s , t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , l a b o u r f o r c e and m a t e r i a l s . The s i t e must t h e n be a c q u i r e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , i f i t does n o t a l r e a d y 110 own i t . T h i s means b u y i n g o u t t h e p r i v a t e owners who may own a l l o r p a r t o f t h e p r o p e r t y . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t h e i r n a t u r e must have power t o a c q u i r e and h o l d r e a l p r o p e r t y . A v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e l a n d a r e a o f most towns and c i t i e s i s h e l d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , i n t h e f o r m o f s t r e e t a l l o w a n c e s , w o r k s y a r d s , p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p a r k s and o t h e r p r o p e r t y . Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h o l d a g r e a t d e a l o f l a n d w h i c h has r e v e r t e d t o m u n i c i p a l o w n e r s h i p t h r o u g h t a x d e l i n -q u e n c y i n t h e T h i r t i e s . Most o f t h i s l a n d i s u s e d f o r m u n i c i p a l o r p u b l i c p u r p o s e s . C o u n c i l s however a r e u s u a l l y g r a n t e d t h e power t o a c q u i r e l a n d f o r o t h e r t h a n m u n i c i p a l p u r p o s e s . The M u n i c i p a l A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l l o w s c o u n c i l s : To d e v e l o p p r o p e r t y owned by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r u s e as a r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , o r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a , o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h u s e s , and p r o v i d e s u c h w o r k s and s e r v i c e s as a r e deemed n e c e s s a r y o r b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , and f o r p u r p o s e s e n u m e r a t e d above i t may (a) by r e s o l u t i o n o r b y - l a w , a c q u i r e p r o p e r t y o t h e r t h a n e x p r o p r i a t i o n ; o r , (b) by b y - l a w and w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , a c q u i r e p r o p e r t y by e x p r o p r i a t i o n . 4 3 H y J The M u n i c i p a l A c t : R.S.B.C. 1960, Ch. 255; 1 9 6 1 , Ch. 4 3 ; 1962, Ch. 4 1 . ( V i c t o r i a , B. C : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , S e c . 4 6 5 , ( l ) , ( 2 ) . I l l I t w i l l be s e e n f r o m t h i s e x t r a c t f r o m t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y has one weapon n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r — t h e r i g h t o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n . W h e ther t h i s method i s u t i l i z e d o r n o t , t h e n e c e s s a r y f u n d s w i l l have t o be r a i s e d f o r a c q u i r i n g t h e p r o p e r t y ; t h i s c o u l d c l e a r l y be a d i f f i c u l t p r o p o s i t i o n and a c l e a r - c u t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y w o u l d be a u s e f u l a s s e t . When i t i s a f i r s t a t t e m p t by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t h e t a x - p a y e r i s l i k e l y t o be s u s p i c i o u s and an e a s y v i c t i m f o r p a r t i e s w i t h v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s who may o p p o s e t h e m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y . T h i s c a n be q u i t e a h a n d i c a p i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n w h i c h C o u n c i l s a r e e l e c t e d a n n u a l l y o r b i e n n i a l l y (and many 44 C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y ) b u t a s t r o n g C o u n c i l w h i c h can s t a n d on i t s r e c o r d has l i t t l e t o f e a r . Once t h e money i s s p e n t , t h e t a x - p a y e r s o o n f o r g e t s what h i s o b j e c t i o n s w e r e , e s p e c i a l l y when he c a n f e e l some p r o p r i e t a r y a t t a c h m e n t t o a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s e t up f o r h i s b e n e f i t . When t h e p r o p e r t y has been a c q u i r e d t h e t a s k o f d e v e l o p m e n t b e g i n s . T h i s w i l l i n c l u d e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f an o u t l i n e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r t h e s i t e and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d e q u a t e a c c e s s , w a t e r , s e w e r s , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s . Hand Rowat, op. c i t . , p. 27 112 i n hand w i t h t h i s w i l l go t h e c a m p a i g n t o " s e l l " t h e d i s t r i c t t o i n d u s t r y , as w e l l as t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t t o p r o t e c t o c c u p a n t s o f t h e d i s t r i c t . I t may a l s o be n e c e s s a r y t o have e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n e n a c t e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e t o a l l o w t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o l e a s e l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s . A t some p o i n t o r a n o t h e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t o r l e a s e o r s e l l s i t e s w i l l a r i s e . T h e r e i s no d e f i n i t e t r e n d e i t h e r way i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , b u t i n B r i t a i n t h e t r e n d i s d e f i n i t e l y t o w a r d s l e a s i n g s i t e s on a l o n g - t e r m b a s i s and t h e B r i t i s h I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e c o m p a n i e s w h i c h have d e v e l o p e d p r o p e r t y i n Canada a p p e a r t o f o l l o w t h i s t r e n d . T a k i n g t h e l o n g - t e r m v i e w (and a m u n i c i p a l i t y c a n a f f o r d t o t a k e t h e l o n g - t e r m v i e w ) l e a s i n g i s s u p e r i o r t o s e l l i n g t h e p r o p e r t y , f o r by l e a s i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' r e t a i n s e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l and a t t h e same t i m e b e n e f i t s f r o m any i n c r e a s e i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e p r o p e r t y o v e r t h e y e a r s . I n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y t h e q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i c v e r s u s p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i s bound t o a r i s e . The s h o r t i a n s w e r t o t h i s i s t h a t t h e r e i s a p l a c e f o r t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y , so l o n g as h i s d e v e l o p m e n t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e l o n g - r a n g e p l a n s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and as l o n g as he i s w i l l i n g t o m a i n t a i n a d e q u a t e s t a n d a r d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e . I n t h e words o f D o u g l a s s : 113 " . . . ( p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d ) i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s t h e m s e l v e s s h o u l d be b o t h b e n e f i c i a r i e s and s u b j e c t s o f p u b l i c p l a n n i n g and 45 r e g u l a t i o n " . The g e n u i n e p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p e r w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h s e t s and m a i n t a i n s a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p -ment and w i l l g l a d l y c o m p l y w i t h m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n s , f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l c o n c e r n e d . I n t h e n e x t C h a p t e r t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a -t i o n i n Canada w i l l be r e v i e w e d . The use o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t as a s o l u t i o n t o some o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s w i l l be p r o p o s e d , f o l l o w e d by a s u r v e y o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada i n c o m b a t i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s . SUMMARY B o t h t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l p a r l i a m e n t s o f Canada have a l m o s t u n l i m i t e d powers i n t h e s p h e r e s o f g o v e r n m e n t a s s i g n e d t o them u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t . They g o v e r n a c o u n t r y w h i c h i s r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g f r o m a r u r a l t o an u r b a n n a t i o n . I n Canada one o f t h e most w i d e s p r e a d f e a r s i s t h a t o f e c o n o m i c d o m i n a t i o n by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . P a u l D o u g l a s s , The ABC o f I n d u s t r i a l P a r k D e v e l o p m e n t ( W i n t e r P a r k , F l o r i d a : C e n t e r f o r P r a c t i c a l P o l i t i c s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 8 2 . 114 C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y has grown t o m a t u r i t y i n a v e r y few h i g h l y - c o n c e n t r a t e d r e g i o n s . M a i n l y b a s e d on t h e e x t r a c t i o n and p r i m a r y p r o c e s s i n g o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , i n d u s t r y has r e c e n t l y begun t o d i v e r s i f y and b r a n c h o u t i n t o t h e s e c o n -d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f consumer g o o d s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . B o t h t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l p a r l i a m e n t s have s t r i v e n t o p r o t e c t i n f a n t C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s by means o f embargos on t h e e x p o r t o f c e r t a i n raw m a t e r i a l s and by means o f t a r i f f s . T h i s c a m p a i g n has been o n l y m o d e r a t e l y s u c c e s s -f u l . The e f f o r t s o f t h e F e d e r a l g overnment a r e now d i r e c t e d m a i n l y t o w a r d s a t t a i n i n g f u l l employment and c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l a t i o n . C a n a d i a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y has s h a r e d i n t h e phenomenon o f s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h has been a f e a t u r e o f p o s t - W o r l d War I I N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h i s i n d u s t r i a l " s p r a w l " has l e d t o d i s t r e s s i n g p r o b l e m s i n t h e u r b a n i z i n g m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s w h i c h s u r r o u n d t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t i e s and has p o i n t e d up t h e need f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o f a g r e a t many u r b a n and n o n - u r b a n f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . The f e d e r a l government c a n t a k e an a d v i s o r y r o l e i n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n a n d, i n a d d i t i o n , c a n h e l p l o c a l a u t h o r -i t i e s , i f i t s h o u l d so c h o o s e , by means o f g r a n t s , l o a n s , and t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s . The p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o pro m o t e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and t o h e l p t h e 115 t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s . A l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f h e l p and e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m h i g h e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , c a n i t s e l f a c q u i r e l a n d f o r a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , and c a n s u b d i v i d e , s e r v i c e and s e l l o r l e a s e ( w i t h p r o v i n c i a l s a n c t i o n ) i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f i t s c i t i z e n s . I t c a n a l s o r e q u i r e p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p e r s t o meet m u n i c i p a l s t a n d a r d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e . CHAPTER IV THE PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT IN CANADA 1« I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n P r o b l e m s a t t h e L o c a l L e v e l T h e r e i s a need t o p r o t e c t l o c a l a m e n i t i e s and t o s e c u r e p l e a s a n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s an a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e t h a t , so f a r as p o s s i b l e , i n d u s t r y s h o u l d be s e g r e g a t e d f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s . S e g r e g a t i o n i s o f c o u r s e e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c a s e o f n o x i o u s and n o i s y i n d u s t r y . Today, s t r o n g e r m e a s u r e s a r e p o s s i b l e t o p r e v e n t t h e p o l l u t i o n o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e by smoke and d i r t . The t e c h n i q u e o f i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g i s u s e d t o p r o m o t e t h e s e e n d s . l T h i s s t a t e m e n t by P e t e r S e l f i s p e r h a p s more a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e B r i t i s h t h a n i t i s t o t h e C a n a d i a n s c e n e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e p r i n c i p l e s c o n t a i n e d i n i t r e f l e c t C a n a d i a n t h i n k i n g c o n c e r n i n g i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . More and more C a n a d i a n s a r e l i v i n g i n p l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l s u b u r b s and a r e d r i v i n g t e n o r t w e n t y m i l e s t o work each m o r n i n g . T h i s d i v o r c e o f t h e p l a c e o f work f r o m t h e p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e , w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n t i n c r e a s i n g j o u r n e y t o work, has p l a c e d a t e r r i f i c r u s h - h o u r b u r d e n on o u r s t r e e t s and h i g h w a y s , and w a s t e s t h e t i m e and f r a y s t h e n e r v e s o f t h e commuting m o t o r i s t . Though no a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f t h e w a s t e o f human t i m e and e n e r g y i n v o l v e d i s p a s s i b l e i t i s c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r a b l e . P e t e r 5 e l f , The P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1953)., p. 20. 117 I n t h e p a s t i t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by t h e j o u r n e y t o work c o u l d be s o l v e d by t h e t r a f f i c e n g i n e e r i n g a p p r o a c h , t h a t i s , by b u i l d i n g b e t t e r and w i d e r h i g h w a y s t o accommodate t h e f l o w o f t r a f f i c . T h i s a p p r o a c h , h o w e v e r , has n o t been b r o a d enough t o p r e v e n t t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y f r o m t h e c e n t r a l c i t y t o t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s w h i c h i s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t c a u s e d by a d e s i r e t o e s c a p e t h e t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and l a c k o f p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h p l a g u e t h e downtown a r e a s o f o u r l a r g e r c i t i e s . T h i s d i s p e r -s i o n o f t h e c e n t r e s o f a c t i v i t y and c o n s e q u e n t d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f t r a f f i c " d e s i r e l i n e s " has l e d t o an e a s i n g o f t h e t r a f f i c b u r d e n on many t h o r o u g h f a r e s , b u t t h e s i t u a t i o n i s s t i l l u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n most u r b a n c e n t r e s . T h e r e i s n e e d , t h e r e -f o r e , o f more u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween t r a f f i c and l a n d use as w e l l as a need o f more l a n d use 2 p l a n n i n g t o accommodate t h e q u a n t i t y o f t r a f f i c i t g e n e r a t e s . I t i s no l o n g e r enough t o b u i l d t r a f f i c s a f e t y i n t o r e s i d e n -t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s : we must t a k e a c c o u n t o f where t h e r e s i d e n t s w i l l w i s h t o w o r k — a n d p l a y — s o t h a t t r a f f i c and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s c a n be p l a n n e d a c c o r d i n g l y . D u r i n g t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s t h e r e has been much t a l k o f b u i l d i n g b a l a n c e d c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d c o n t a i n a l l t h e f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r r e s i d e n t s t o work and p l a y and F. S. C h a p i n , U r b a n Land Use P l a n n i n g ( U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p~. 259. 118 l i v e w i t h o u t g o i n g o u t s i d e t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . The New Towns o f B r i t a i n have been d e s i g n e d t o f i t t h i s c o n c e p t , but even h e r e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e g r e g a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l f r o m i n d u s -t r i a l a r e a s i s r i g i d l y a p p l i e d . The r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e g e n e r a l l y i n s u l a t e d f r o m t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . Even when t h e f a c t o r i e s a r e n o t o b j e c t i o n a b l e on t h e g r o u n d s o f n o i s e , smoke, o r a p p e a r -a n c e , r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l u s e s a r e n o t b e i n g m i x e d b e c a u s e o f t r a f f i c and o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . 3 The s e p a r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l f r o m o t h e r t r a f f i c i s a l e g i t i m a t e r e a s o n f o r s e g r e g a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l f r o m i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . The " o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , n o t e l a b o r a t e d on by Mr. Rodwin, may i n c l u d e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f l i v i n g c l o s e t o an i n d u s t r i a l a r e a , however c l e a n and f r e e o f n u i s a n c e i t may be. These e f f e c t s a r e v e r y r e a l and p r o b a b l y stem f r o m t h e days when t h e p o o r e r w o r k e r s had t o l i v e c l o s e t o t h e f a c t o r i e s , w h i c h were o f t e n n o i s y , d i r t y and o b j e c t i o n -a b l e , w h i l e t h e more p r i v i l e g e d and h i g h l y p a i d m a n a g e r i a l s t a f f c o u l d a f f o r d t o l i v e a t some d i s t a n c e away. F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s some b u f f e r i n g and s c r e e n i n g o f a l l i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i s d e s i r a b l e . L l o y d R o d w i n , The B r i t i s h New Towns P o l i c y ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p~. 53. 119 I n a d d i t i o n , p e o p l e o b j e c t t o i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s on a c c o u n t o f the n u i s a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e y o f t e n e x h i b i t . The f o l l o w i n g i s a f a i r l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t : ^ N o i s e > F i r e H a z a r d s Smoke I n d u s t r i a l Wastes Odour T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a f f i c D u s t and D i r t P s y c h o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s N o x i o u s Gases A e s t h e t i c s G l a r e and Heat Of t h e s e , some s u c h as f i r e h a z a r d s and i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e s w i l l be o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s w h i l e o t h e r s , s u c h as n o i s e , a e s t h e t i c s , d u s t and d i r t , w i l l i m p i n g e on t h e s e n s e s o f t h e p r i v a t e c i t i z e n . A method o f z o n i n g i n d u s t r i a l u s e s by means o f " p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s " has been p r o p o s e d . T h i s method, s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y , a t t e m p t s t o j u d g e e a c h i n d u s t r y on i t s m e r i t by t h e amount o f d u s t , g l a r e , h e a t , e t c . , t h a t i t e m i t s , and m e a s u r e s i t a g a i n s t an a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e . The t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s method make i t i m p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e o r d i n a r y m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g d e p a r t -ment. The most u s e f u l method f o r some t i m e t o come w i l l be t o e v a l u a t e e a c h i n d u s t r y s u b j e c t i v e l y on a q u a l i t a t i v e b a s i s U n i t e d N a t i o n s , The P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l  E s t a t e s (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 9. 120 and g r oup t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s i n some r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e u s u a l 5 o r d e r o f " l i g h t " , "medium" and " h e a v y " . W h i l e g r a n t i n g t h a t i n d u s t r y and r e s i d e n c e s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d , a t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t , and t h e t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s c o n n e c t i n g them r a t i o n a l i z e d , t h e s p e c i f i c needs o f i n d u s t r y i t s e l f must n o t be n e g l e c t e d . T h i s e n t a i l s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s must have good a c c e s s and t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , and s u f f i c i e n t l a n d must be p r o v i d e d t o meet f o r e s e e a b l e i n d u s t r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y a s t u d y o f t h e need f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d must be made on a r e g i o n -a l b a s i s " s i n c e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o f o r e s e e o r t o i n f l u e n c e movements o f p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r y w i t h i n a s m a l l compass".^ Many s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n t h e i r e a g e r n e s s t o c a p t u r e i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t y t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e i r t a x b a s e , have opened t h e i r d o o r s t o i n d u s t r y w i t h o u t even a minimum o f p l a n n i n g . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u b u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l " s l u m " . Though t h e f o l l o w i n g comment i s made i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n t e x t , i t i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o many o f o u r C a n a d i a n s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s : 5 I b i d . , p. 9. ^ S e l f , op. c i t . , p. 42 121 ...most s u b u r b a n i n d u s t r i e s do n o t have t h e e x t r a c a s h t o p u t i n t o l a n d o r l a n d s c a p i n g and t h e y may p r e s e n t as h i d e o u s an e f f e c t i n t h e c o u n t r y as i n t h e c i t y . How t o e n c o u r a g e " c l e a n " i n d u s t r y and e x c l u d e t h e o b j e c t i o n -a b l e i s a r a g i n g i s s u e i n most new c o m m u n i t i e s , f o r i t i s j u s t as e a s y t o c r e a t e a s l u m i n s u b u r b i a as i n t h e c i t y . A t r u c k t r a i l e r t e r m i n a l o r s e r v i c e s t a t i o n w i t h an a u t o m o b i l e s a l v a g e y a r d a t t a c h e d can a c c o m p l i s h wonders a t d e s t r o y i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d v a l u e s f o r a q u a r t e r o f a m i l e a r o u n d . S u b u r b i a i s t o o o f t e n s p l a s h e d w i t h t h i s k i n d o f i r r e s p o n s i b l e f r e e e n t e r p r i s e t h a t d e s t r o y s e v e r y -one e l s e ' s i n v e s t m e n t . 7 The p r o d u c t s o f t h i s k i n d o f i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g a r e a l l t o o e v i d e n t i n C a nada. They a r e t h e r e s u l t o f t h e d i l e m m a i n w h i c h C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s . F a c e d w i t h an e x p l o d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n d i r e need o f s c h o o l s and o t h e r s e r v i c e s , t h e y a r e c o m p e l l e d t o p r o m o t e t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h w i l l a l l o w r e s i d e n t i a l , commer-c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s t o e x i s t s i d e by s i d e i n harmony: t h e s o l u t i o n i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e community p l a n n i n g w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n d u s t r y and w orks w i t h i t , t o p r o d u c e an a t t r a c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The most p o t e n t t o o l a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f a community f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s end i s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . However, b e f o r e e x a m i n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s t o o l i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine t h e way i n w h i c h Edward H i g b e e , The 5 g u e e z e : C i t i e s W i t h o u t 5 p a c e . ( T o r o n t o : George J . McLeod L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 9 5 . 122 i n d u s t r y l o c a t e s a t t h e l o c a l community l e v e l i n C a n a d a . 2. The Dynamics o f I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n The d y n a m i c s o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i s a l a r g e s u b j e c t and has been e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d by a g r e a t many e c o n o -m i s t s . These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o n s i s t o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h p u r p o r t e d l y i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t i n m a k i n g i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , raw m a t e r i a l s , m a r k e t s , l a b o u r , and e n e r g y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s s u p p o r t s t h e l o c a t i o n -a l c h o i c e : t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , u t i l i t i e s , i n d u s -t r i a l p a r k s , h o u s i n g , c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e f a c i l i t i e s , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n . 8 An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i s u n n e c e s s a r y from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h i s p a p e r , as t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s o f a r e a s o r r e g i o n s , w h e r e a s t h i s p a p e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n d u s -t r i a l l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a o r r e g i o n a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d by i n d u s t r y . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s a y t h a t t h e f i n a l c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n among r e g i o n s i s t h e r e s u l t o f an e v a l u a t i o n P. C h i n i t z and R. V e r n o n " C h a n g i n g F a r c e s i n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , V o l . 38, J a n . - F e b . , I 9 6 0 , pp. 1 2 6 - 1 3 6 . 123 o f a l l t h e l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h w i l l y i e l d t h e g r e a t e s t p r o f i t t o t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r . W h i l e some l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s g may be t h e r e s u l t o f p e r s o n a l whim, most b u s i n e s s m e n w i l l be u n w i l l i n g t o make what i s p o s s i b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s w i t h o u t f i r s t m a k i n g a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h w i l l d e t e r m i n e i t s p r o f i t a b i l i t y and u l t i m a t e s u r v i v a l . I n C a n ada, i t has been n o t e d t h a t a number o f i n d u s -t r i a l r e g i o n s c a n be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d . These r e g i o n s have w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i a l b a s e s and s e r v e a g r o w i n g d o m e s t i c m a r k e t as w e l l as p r o d u c i n g e x p o r t a b l e goods and m a t e r i a l s . W i t h t h e g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n i t becomes e c o n o m i c f r o m t i m e t o t i m e f o r a p l a n t t o l o c a t e i n s u c h a r e a s f o r t h e m a n u f a c -t u r e o f p r o d u c t s w h i c h had h e r e t o f o r e been i m p o r t e d f r o m o u t -s i d e t h e r e g i o n . Or, a g a i n , a f i r m w h i c h m a n u f a c t u r e d a c e r t a i n p r o d u c t w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n may f i n d t h a t i t has t o expand i t s p l a n t f a c i l i t i e s t o s e r v e i t s g r o w i n g m a r k e t a r e a . I n c a s e s s u c h as t h e s e t h e d e c i s i o n i s o f t e n made t o l o c a t e t h e new p l a n t i n a community c l o s e t o , o r on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f , t h e m ain u r b a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n . I t i s w i t h t h e means o f i n f l u e n c i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s t y p e o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n t h a t t h i s p a p e r i s c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d . R. C. E s t a l l and R. O g i l v i e B u c h a n a n , I n d u s t r i a l  A c t i v i t y and E c o n o m i c Geography ( L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 18. 124 A s t u d y o f how i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n an a r e a o r r e g i o n was made by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " ^ I n t h i s s t u d y a f i r s t a t t e m p t has been made t o d e v i s e a r a t i o n a l method -by w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s e t t l e m e n t c a n be f o r e c a s t . T h i s was t o be a c h i e v e d i n 3 s t e p s : (1) d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r o b a b l e l a n d demand f o r i n d u s t r y , q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y ; ( 2 ) i d e n t i f y i n g s u i t a b l e a v a i l a b l e a r e a s ; "(3) r e c o n c i l i n g demand and s u p p l y i n a s y s t e m a t i c way."^ W h i l e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s u r v e y have d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n o n l y i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a , t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f s e t t l e -ment p r o b a b l y h o l d t r u e i n most e x p a n d i n g u r b a n a r e a s i n Canada. S i n c e t h e f i n d i n g s were f o u n d t o be e q u a l l y a p p l i c -a b l e t o t h e two m a j o r u r b a n f o c i i n t h e a r e a — V a n c o u v e r and New W e s t m i n s t e r — t h i s may r e a s o n a b l y be assumed t o be t h e c a s e . Some o f t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s w e r e : (1) t h a t b u s i n e s s e s s o u g h t t o l o c a t e as c l o s e t o downtown as p o s s i b l e ; (2) t h a t demand and s u p p l y a d j u s t e d t o e a c h o t h e r , f i r m s t h a t c o u l d a f f o r d t o l o c a t e d c l o s e i n ; o t h e r s f o u n d c h e a p e r s i t e s f a r t h e r o u t . 1 2 Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , The Dy n a m i c s  o f I n d u s t r i a l Land S e t t l e m e n t (New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 1 ) , 90 pp. ^ I b i d . , p. 1. I b i d . , p. 48 125 I n a d d i t i o n t h e i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n was made t h a t " t h e e f f e c -t i v e demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i s s a t i s f i e d when t h e t o t a l amount o f u n o c c u p i e d l a n d on t h e m a r k e t i s r o u g h l y e q u a l t o t h e t o t a l amount o f l a n d a l r e a d y o c c u p i e d . I n o t h e r words t h e f r e e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d m a r k e t seems t o r e q u i r e a r e s e r v o i r o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d e q u a l 13 t o t h e t o t a l a r e a a l r e a d y o c c u p i e d " . The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t as t h e m a r k e t f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i s a t p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t e d t h e r e i s as much l a n d l y i n g i d l e as t h e r e i s o c c u p i e d by i n d u s -t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . Though t h i s r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a n d i s c o n s i d -e r e d t o be one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t , i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r t h i s l a r g e amount o f v a c a n t l a n d i s n e c e s s a r y . C e r t a i n l y i t i s v e r y w a s t e f u l f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h has t o e x t e n d i t s s e r v i c e s o v e r a much w i d e r a r e a . I t w e l l may be t h a t i n t h e c o u r s e o f t i m e t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e m a r k e t w i l l b r i n g a b o u t t h e e f f i c i e n t u s e o f a l l t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w i t h i n an u r b a n a r e a . One i s t e m p t e d t o ask w h e t h e r i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o w a i t f o r t h i s p r o c e s s t o t a k e p l a c e ' n a t u r a l l y 1 . I n most p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i z e s t h e r e i s an e x t r e m e d e g r e e o f p l a n n i n g and e c o n o m i z i n g ; one m i g h t ask why t h i s s h o u l d n o t be so i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r a l s o . I n t h e m a t t e r o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l o f a community, d e l a y may w e l l be d a n g e r o u s and t h e end r e s u l t may be s o m e t h i n g l e s s t h a n d e s i r -a b l e . R e g a r d i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n o f ' n a t u r a l ' v e r s u s p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t , Gordon L o g i e has t h i s t o s a y : I b i d . , p. 51 126 The f r e e p l a y o f e c o n o m i c f o r c e s has i n t h e p a s t g e n e r -a l l y p r o d u c e d , i n t i m e , more o r l e s s e f f i c i e n t l o c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h o f t e n w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e w a s t e o f m a t e r i a l and manpower. The e c o n o m i c p l a n n e r s ' b e l i e f i s t h a t by t a k i n g t h o u g h t , t h e same a d a p t a t i o n t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s c a n be b r o u g h t a b o u t more q u i c k l y , w i t h l e s s w a s t e , and w i t h l e s s damage t o o t h e r n o n - e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s s u c h as a m e n i t y , h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s . 1 4 I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h e n t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f p u b l i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i n i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g on the p a r t o f t h e m u n i c -i p a l i t y i s n e c e s s a r y i f t h e p u b l i c i s t o g e t a f a i r r e t u r n f o r i t s t a x d o l l a r . T h i s w i l l be a c h i e v e d by t i g h t e n i n g up d e v e l o p m e n t and t h u s s a v i n g on s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , w h i l e p l a n n i n g f o r a m e n i t y i n r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . What powers t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y has t o i n f l u e n c e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . 3. M u n i c i p a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n I n d u s t r i a l P l a n n i n g Any community t h a t w i s h e s t o embark on an i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m has f i r s t t o c l a r i f y i t s a i m s . F a i l u r e t o do t h i s has been t h e d o w n f a l l o f many s u c h p r o g r a m s . S e t -t i n g o f f i n h o t p u r s u i t o f i n d u s t r y w i t h o u t k n o w i n g p r e c i s e l y what k i n d o f i n d u s t r y i t wants o r where i t w i l l l o c a t e w i l l c a u s e n o t h i n g b u t t r o u b l e f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y l a t e r o n . S h o r t - t e r m s t o p gap m e a s u r e s t o b o l s t e r t h e t a x b a s e w i t h r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h a r e a s u r e means o f c o m p r o m i s i n g t h e e c o n o m i c f u t u r e o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y . Gordon L o g i e , I n d u s t r y i n Towns, ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n and U n w i n , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 25. 127 I n t h e f i e l d o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , Canada c o u l d do w e l l t o t a k e a l e s s o n from t h e U n i t e d 5 t a t e s . Though many C a n a d i a n c i t i e s do have i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o m m i s s i o n s o f one k i n d o r a n o t h e r , t h e s e have c o n f i n e d t h e m s e l v e s m a i n l y t o " b e a t i n g t h e drum" f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t h e y r e p r e s e n t . T h e i r c a m p a i g n i s u s u a l l y n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any k i n d o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m w h i c h w o u l d make t h e c i t y a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t f r o m an e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f v i e w . When o n l y a few c i t i e s were e n g a g i n g i n t h i s t y p e o f s e l f - a d v e r t i s i n g , t h e r e s u l t s may have been n o t i c e a b l e , but now t h a t e v e r y o n e has got i n t o t h e a c t t h e y c a n o n l y hope t o s t i m u l a t e enough i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t t o c a u s e him t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r t h e a c t u a l b a s i s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s c l a i m s . I f t h e comm u n i t y ' s d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l does n o t measure up, t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t w i l l t a k e h i s b u s i n e s s e l s e -where."*"^ A s u r v e y o f t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o n d u c t e d by D o n a l d R. G i l m o r e , showed t h a t some 14,000 e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t programs were i n e x i s t e n c e i n 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 . ^ These p r o g r a m s a r e p r e p a r e d and c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r 15 A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e  f o r E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , ( H a l i f a x , N. 5.: A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1 3 . ^ D o n a l d R. G i l m o r e , A S u r v e y o f A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t  P r o g r a m s i n t h e U n i t e d 5 t a t e s ( n . p . : A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 1 3 . 128 t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o m m i t t e e f o r E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t s e t up u n d e r t h e A r e a 17 R e d e v e l o p m e n t A c t , w h i c h became l a w i n May, 1 9 6 1 . A r e v i e w o f what has t a k e n p l a c e u n d e r t h i s A c t may be o f v a l u e as t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t Agency o f t h e new D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r y i s l i k e l y t o p l a y a s i m i l a r r o l e i n Canada. The A r e a R e d e v e l o p m e n t A c t i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t l o c a l a r e a s s u f f e r i n g f r o m r e t a r d e d g r o w t h and c h r o n i c u n e m p l o y -ment. I t s e e k s t o c r e a t e a p a r t n e r s h i p o f p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e , t h e c o mmunity, t h e S t a t e , and t h e F e d e r a l G overnment. E v i d e n c e o f l o c a l i n t e r e s t and i n i t i a t i v e must f i r s t be f o r t h -c o m ing i n t h e f o r m o f an O v e r a l l E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m b e f o r e any r e q u e s t s f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a n be c o n s i d e r e d . W h i l e t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c a t i o n as t o what k i n d o f group must s u b m i t t h e O v e r a l l E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m , 3 g r o u p s f a r e x c e e d e d a l l t h e o t h e r s i n number. These w e r e : l o c a l c hambers o f commerce and b o a r d s o f t r a d e ( 4 , 8 4 2 ) , l o c a l , m e t r o p o l i t a n and a r e a p l a n n i n g and z o n i n g b o a r d s ( 3 , 1 0 8 ) , and 19 community d e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s ( 1 , 9 5 2 ) . W h i l e any one o f t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p - t y p e s m i g h t u n d e r t a k e a l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P l a n n i n g f o r New  G r o w t h — N e w J o b s ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U. 5. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 3. I b i d . , p. 3. G i l m o r e , op. c i t . , p. 1 5 . 129 p r o g r a m i n Canada, o n l y t h e f i r s t two a r e a t p r e s e n t v e r y a c t i v e i n t h i s f i e l d , and o f t h e s e t h e f i r s t g r o u p , l o c a l c h ambers o f commerce and b o a r d s o f t r a d e , a r e engaged more i n p r o m o t i o n a l t h a n i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s . S i n c e many C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s s u f f e r f r o m c h r o n i c unemployment and u n d e r e m p l o y m e n t , t h e need f o r more a c t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e s e g r o u p s i s n e c e s s a r y , b u t t h i s i s u n l i k e l y t o come a b o u t u n t i l t h e l e a d e r s h i p i s g i v e n by t h e P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t s . M e a n w h i l e t h e l o c a l C o u n c i l i s u s u a l l y c o n -v i n c e d o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f u n d e r p i n n i n g t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e o f t h e community and h e r e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f m u n i c i p a l and c o u n t y d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s may be o f v a l u e . U s u a l l y t h e l o c a l C o u n c i l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s does n o t i t s e l f u n d e r t a k e t o p r e p a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m , b u t s e t s up a m u n i c i p a l l y - f i n a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y t o c a r r y o u t t h e j o b . T h i s a g e n c y u n d e r t a k e s a s u r v e y o f l o c a l n e e d s , s u p p l e m e n t s t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t s as a c o o r d i n a t i n g body between p r i v a t e g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t o r s , and t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . A f e a t u r e o f t h i s t y p e o f p u b l i c a g ency i s t h a t i t s e e k s t o p r o m o t e i t s a r e a , u s u a l l y on t h e b a s i s o f s e l e c t i n g i n d u s t r i e s t o be a t t r a c t e d w i t h due r e g a r d t o t h e commun-i t y ' s s p e c i f i c e c o n o m i c n e e d s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e u n e mployed l a b o u r f o r c e a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , a l o n g w i t h t h e a s s e t s o f t h e community and t h e p r o b a b l e i m p a c t o f t h e new c o n c e r n on s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e u s u a l p r a c t i c e among t h e m a j o r i t y o f l o c a l a g e n c i e s , whose p r o -grams a r e b a s e d more on o p p o r t u n i s m t h a n on s e l e c t i v i t y . 2 0 A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , op. c i t . , p. 1 5 . 130 W h i l e t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g t o be s a i d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h -ment o f a s e p a r a t e d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y i n a community, t h e r e i s a d a n g e r t h a t t h e a g e n c y may become t o o s p e c i a l i z e d and t o o n a r r o w i n i t s f o c u s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e b a l a n c e d d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e commun i t y . I n a d d i t i o n i t may become t o o f a r removed f r o m t h e m u n i c i p a l c h a i n o f command t o have any r e a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and c o n s e q u e n t l y may become j u s t a n o t h e r p r o m o t i o n a l body. The p r o p e r p l a c e f r o m w h i c h an i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i s t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , where a l l a s p e c t s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a r e c o n s i d e r e d as a w h o l e . The m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t has a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n t o f o r e c a s t t h e e c o n o m i c f u t u r e o f t h e community; i t can c o n d u c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e com m u n i t y ' s s p e c i f i c n e e d s ; i t c a n , and s h o u l d , p l a n f o r t h e most e f f i c i e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e community by o r g a n -i z i n g t h e l a n d u se and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n on a r a t i o n a l b a s i s . F i n a l l y , i t i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , and c a n p u t i t s p r o p o s a l s d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e who make t h e d e c i s i o n s . Why s h o u l d t h e C o u n c i l c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ? The answer i s t h a t i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e community and t h i s i s t h e s p e c i a l c o n c e r n o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l . The C o u n c i l s h o u l d have an image o f what t h e y w o u l d l i k e t h e i r c ommunity t o be and t h e e f f o r t s o f a l l m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s 131 s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a c h i e v i n g t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s i m a g e . The C o u n c i l may have o n l y an image o f a h i g h l y i n d u s -t r i a l i z e d , e f f i c i e n t and b e a u t i f u l community; i t i s t h e d u t y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t agency t o s e t up t h e framework o f a c t i o n w h i c h w i l l b r i n g t h i s a b o u t . I t w i l l n o t be an e a s y t a s k . The g r o w t h o f o u r c i t i e s has h e r e t o f o r e been g o v e r n e d by t h e i d e a s o f i n d i v i d u a l l o t s , p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , c o m p e t i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e , and s m a l l - s c a l e b u i l d i n g . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i n e f f i c i e n t p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h we have i n h e r i t e d . But b e c a u s e b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y have had t h e i r own way f o r so l o n g t h e y a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c e p t i v e t o p l a n n i n g . They do want p l a n n i n g , i t i s t r u e , b u t t h e i r c o n c e p t o f p l a n n i n g may d i f f e r c o n s i d -e r a b l y f r o m t h a t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o u t l o o k o f b i g i n d u s t r y may be v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f l i t t l e i n d u s t r y and n e i t h e r i s v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h a t most m a l i g n e d o f p r i n c i p l e s , t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e C o u n c i l s h o u l d have an image o f t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t y and s h o u l d i n t e r p r e t t h i s image f o r t h e p u b l i c t h r o u g h t h e p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s i t i n s t i t u t e s . I t s h o u l d have a p l a n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and s h o u l d info.rm t h e p u b l i c o f t h e p l a n , t h u s l i m i t i n g t h e a r e a o f s p e c u l a t i o n . F i n a l l y i t must i m p o s e a l l t h e c o n t r o l s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p l a n . 132 How c a n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n t r o l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d ? The most e f f e c t i v e means i s s i t e r e s e r v a -t i o n b u i l t i n t o t h e o v e r a l l community p l a n . I n t h i s way c e r t a i n s i t e s a r e r e s e r v e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and no o t h e r k i n d o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s p e r m i t t e d t o t a k e p l a c e i n them. However, i t may n o t be enough t o r e s e r v e s i t e s f o r i n d u s t r y ; s p e c u l a t i o n may s t i l l p u t t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d beyond t h e r e a c h o f most i n d u s t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s m a l l e r o n e s . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o G a l b r a i t h , " p r i v a t e p r o d u c t i o n w i l l m o n o p o l i z e a l l r e s o u r c e s . O n l y as s o m e t h i n g i s done a b o u t i t w i l l r e s o u r c e s become a v a i l a b l e 21 f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s " . I f the C o u n c i l f e e l s t h a t i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o m m u n ity, i t must a c q u i r e t h i s l a n d and make i t a v a i l a b l e t o i n d u s t r y a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e . The Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d has p u t f o r w a r d t h i s i d e a o f " t i g h t e n i n g up" t h e r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d by a c q u i r i n g i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and m a k i n g them a v a i l a b l e a t p r i c e s a t t r a c t i v e t o i n d u s t r y . I t s e e s s u c h a p o l i c y h a v i n g c e r t a i n e f f e c t s , as f o l l o w s : J . K. G a l b r a i t h , The A f f l u e n t 5 o c i e t v ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 3 1 0 . 133 I t w o u l d accommodate i n d u s t r i e s t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be f o r c e d f a r t h e r o u t ; I t w o u l d accommodate some i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be l o s t t o t h e r e g i o n ; I t w o u l d a c c e l e r a t e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e g e n e r a l a r e a i n v o l v e d i f t h e p r i c e r a n g e were a t t r a c t i v e . 2 2 T h i s i d e a o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d m a r k e t i s n o t new and t h e e f f e c t o f d e v e l o p i n g p u b l i c p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n o t h e r C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s i s c i t e d : I n Edmonton, C a l g a r y and o t h e r p r a i r i e c i t i e s r e l a t i v e l y l o w l a n d p r i c e s have been m a i n t a i n e d and v e r y a t t r a c t i v e ( i n d u s t r i a l ) e s t a t e s have been d e v e l o p e d , t o t h e g r e a t b e n e f i t o f t h e community as a w h o l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s have had t h e most d e s i r a b l e s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t o f m a k i n g c o m p e t i n g l a n d owners match t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c i t y ' s p r o d u c t , so t h a t C a l g a r y i n p a r t i c u l a r now has s e v e r a l s u c h e s t a t e s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . 2 3 B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e p l a y e d by a number o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n Canada i t may be u s e f u l t o r e v i e w t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s -a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t o t h e community. 4. The P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t i n t h e Community When s p e a k i n g o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t one must e x c l u d e t h o s e t r a c t s o f raw i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w h i c h have been Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , I n d u s t r i a l  L a n d P r o s p e c t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n o f B. C.(New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C.: Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1 7 . 23 I b i d . , p. 18. 134 l a b e l e d w i t h t h e t i t l e i n d u s t r i a l p a r k i n a v a i n a t t e m p t t o a t t r a c t t h e unwary i n d u s t r i a l i s t . S p e a k i n g o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , D o u g l a s s p o i n t s o u t t h a t " t h o u s a n d s o f a c r e s o f a d v e r t i s e d i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s l i e v a c a n t t o t h e l o s s o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s t h e y i n t e n d t o s e r v e , t h e i r c l a i m t o u s e f u l n e s s b e i n g p r o c l a i m e d o n l y by ( a ) w e a t h e r e d o u t d o o r s i g n i r r e s -24 p o n s i b l y e r e c t e d on raw i n d u s t r i a l l a n d " . I n t h e k i n d o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s p a p e r t h e a c c e n t i s on p l a n n i n g . The e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t must have been e s t a b l i s h e d ; t h e a r e a must have been l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e t h e maximum s i t e b e n e f i t s t o i n d u s t r y and t o f i t i n t o t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n ; t h e s i t e must have been a d e q u a t e l y d e v e l o p e d and s u i t a b l y c o n t r o l l e d and an a d e q u a t e a d v e r t i s i n g c a m p a i g n c o n d u c t e d . I f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s have been f u l f i l l e d t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g i s more o r l e s s a s s u r e d . What t h e n a r e t h e b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d by t h e community from p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s ? The f u n d a m e n t a l a d v a n t a g e s have been c i t e d by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s as f o l l o w s : P a u l D o u g l a s s , The ABC o f I n d u s t r i a l P a r k D e v e l o p m e n t ( W i n t e r P a r k , F l o r i d a . : C e n t e r f o r P r a c t i c a l P o l i t i c s , R o l l i n s C o l l e g e , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1. 135 I n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l means o f o r g a n i z -i n g l a n d u s e s e c o n o m i c a l l y f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . These e s t a t e s , i f l o c a t e d o u t s i d e l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s , and p r o v i d e d w i t h e x i s t i n g o r new h o u s i n g and community s e r v i c e s , c a n d i s c o u r a g e t h e m i g r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t o l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s ; h owever, even i n l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s , i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f s c a l e e c o n o m i e s and t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l l a n d u s e s f r o m t h e l i v i n g q u a r t e r s o f t h e p e o p l e . 2 5 I n C a nada, where b o t h r u r a l d e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e t o o -r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e l a r g e r u r b a n c e n t e r s a r e p r e v a l e n t , t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t c a n f u l f i l l b o t h t h e s e r o l e s i n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . However, i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s a f f e c t and a r e i n t u r n a f f e c t e d by t h e community i n a number o f ways and t h e s e have been e x p l o r e d by an e x p e r i e n c e d s t u d e n t o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , R o b e r t E. B o l e y . Some o f h i s f i n d i n g s were as f o l l o w s : 1. The p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t h e l p s t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y t o t h e community b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n i t o f f e r s t o i n d u s t r y and b e c a u s e i t c a n o f f e r i t a " p a c k a g e d e a l " ( d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , l e a s e o r s a l e a r r a n g e m e n t s , e t c . ) u n d e r a s i n g l e c o n t r a c t . 2. I t adds t o t h e l o c a l t a x r e c e i p t s . 3. I t h e l p s t o s t a b i l i z e employment i n t h e community by a t t r a c t i n g and h o l d i n g a d i v e r s i f i e d g r o up o f s t a b l e i n d u s t r i e s . 4. I t c a n p r o v i d e a r e a l measure o f c o n t r o l o v e r i n d u s -t r i a l n u i s a n c e s and c a n p r e v e n t u n d e s i r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t . U n i t e d N a t i o n s , The P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l  E s t a t e s . p. 3. 136 5. I t h e l p s t o m a i n t a i n - and even i n c r e a s e - p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i n a community, by r e a s o n o f p r o t e c t i v e c o n v e n a n t s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l and l a n d c o v e r a g e s t a n d a r d s . 6. By c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n one a r e a i t r e d u c e s m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g c o s t r e l a t e d t o s e w e r s , w a t e r mains and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s . 7. I t h e l p s t o e a s e t h e s h o r t a g e o f a v a i l a b l e i n d u s t r i a l -l y z o n e d p r o p e r t y i n t h e c i t y o r c ommunity. 26 T h i s i s an i m p r e s s i v e l i s t o f a d v a n t a g e s and one i s t e m p t e d t o ask why a l l c o m m u n i t i e s a r e n o t r u s h i n g t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . T h e r e a r e a number o f r e a s o n s why t h e y do n o t . F i r s t l y , i f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l i t must be a f e a s i b l e u n d e r t a k i n g and t h e need f o r i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d . Few m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o u n d e r t a k e t h e expense i n v o l v e d w i t h o u t b e i n g r e a s o n a b l y s u r e t h a t t h e i n v e s t m e n t w o u l d p r o v e sound f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . S e c o n d l y , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d a f f o r d t o p u r c h a s e l a n d f o r a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t — t h e o l d e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t e r s — a r e u n l i k e l y t o have a l a r g e enough o r cheap enough s i t e w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h have s u c h s i t e s - on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e b i g c i t i e s -a r e u s u a l l y d e s p e r a t e l y s h o r t o f money f o r s u c h p r o j e c t s . R o b e r t E. B o l e y , " E f f e c t s o f I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s on t h e Community", The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l , V o l . X X V I I , No. 4, O c t o b e r , 1959, p. 559. 137 T h i r d l y , few C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have c o n d u c t e d t h e e c o n o m i c s u r v e y w h i c h , c o u p l e d w i t h a d e t a i l e d l a n d - u s e s u r v e y and a n a l y s i s o f s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w o u l d e n s u r e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . The c o s t o f s u c h a s u r v e y w i l l d e t e r many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . F o u r t h l y , t h e r e a r e many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h o u t enough e c o n o m i c d e v e l -opment p o t e n t i a l o r a v a i l a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e t o make a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t a f e a s i b l e u n d e r t a k i n g . T h i s f a c t m i g h t be e v i d e n t on s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o r m i g h t r e q u i r e a d e t a i l e d e c o n o m i c s u r v e y . F i f t h l y , t h e r e a r e a number o f d r a w b a c k s w h i c h a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a t u r e o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s them-s e l v e s . F o r one t h i n g , t h e y c a t e r o n l y t o a c e r t a i n t y p e o f i n d u s t r y : - w a r e h o u s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n , l i g h t m a n u f a c t u r i n g and a s s e m b l y , f o o d p r o c e s s i n g , and r e s e a r c h f o u n d a t i o n s . Heavy i n d u s t r y , and t h o s e r e q u i r i n g v e r y l a r g e s i t e s , a r e u s u a l l y a b l e t o p u r c h a s e and d e v e l o p t h e i r own s i t e s . I n a d d i t i o n , u n l e s s s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r them, i n f a n t i n d u s t r i e s w i l l be e x c l u d e d b e c a u s e o f c o s t . Then t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s u b u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e a t t r a c t i n g i n d u s t r y and employment o u t o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . Thus t h e s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t y may g a i n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . T h i s may be t u r n e d t o a d v a n t a g e by the c e n t r a l c i t y i f i t u t i l i z e s t h e v a c a t e d i n d u s t r i a l p r e m i s e s by c o n s o l i -d a t i n g them u n d e r a r e d e v e l o p m e n t scheme s u c h as a h i g h - p r i c e d 138 i n d u s t r i a l p a r k , s u i t a b l e f o r t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s t o w h i c h a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t . F i n a l l y , a p o o r l y p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t c a n , w h i l e a t t r a c t i n g i n d u s t r y t o t h e a r e a , e x e r t a d e t r i m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on the community by c r e a t i n g t r a f f i c p r o b l e m s , i . e . , i f i t s h o u l d become m a i n l y a c e n t r e f o r t r u c k i n g and w a r e h o u s i n g . T h i s c a n be a v o i d e d by c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s . B o l e y , i n c o n c l u s i o n , c i t e s t h r e e ways i n w h i c h p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e a p o s i t i v e a s p e c t o f community 27 d e v e l o p m e n t : f i r s t l y , by m a k i n g i n d u s t r y a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e community; s e c o n d l y , by i n c r e a s i n g t h e a m e n i t y o f t h e commun-i t y and m a k i n g i t a more a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e i n w h i c h t o l i v e ; a n d , t h i r d l y , by s t i m u l a t i n g t h e l o c a l economy. The c o n c l u -s i o n t o be drawn f r o m a l l t h i s i s t h a t a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , p r o v i d e d i t i s e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , w e l l - p l a n n e d , s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d , a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d , and o f f e r s s i t e s a t a t t r a c t i v e p r i c e s , c a n c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y t o t h e e f f i c i e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f a community, c a n s t r e n g t h e n i t s e c o n o m i c b a s e and c a n make i t a more a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e i n w h i c h t o l i v e . S e l e c t e d e x a m p l e s o f b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w h i c h have been d e v e l o p e d i n C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s a r e r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . I b i d . , p. 560. 139 5. Some E x a m p l e s o f P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s i n Canada T h e r e were 25 known p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n 2 8 e x i s t e n c e i n Canada i n 1958. These c o n s t i t u t e d 2.4% o f t h e known p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s and p a r k s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada, and P u e r t o R i c o . What t h e s e C a n a d i a n d i s -t r i c t s l a c k e d i n q u a n t i t y t h e y made up i n q u a l i t y , and i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t w i t h s u c h good e x a m p l e s o f what p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t s c a n do f o r a c o m m u nity, Canada does n o t b o a s t many, many more. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e i d e a i s r e l a t i v e l y new and has n o t been v i g o r o u s l y p r o m o t e d , and Canada's m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y i s r e l a t i v e l y u n d e v e l o p e d . T h i s l a t t e r f a c t , h o wever, s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as an a s s e t and e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d be made on t h e p a r t o f p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s a t a l l l e v e l s t o e n s u r e t h a t new i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n s u c h p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , w h e t h e r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e , and t h u s s p a r e C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a p h a z a r d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n Canada a r e s p o n s o r e d by b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s and a r e o f two t y p e s . R o b e r t E. B o l e y , I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s R e s t u d i e d — A n  A n a l y s i s o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 41 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e , A p r i l , 1961), p. 70. 140 The f i r s t t y p e i s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w h i c h i s o r g a n i z e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o c r e a t e a b a l a n c e d c o m m u n i t y — a p l a c e i n w h i c h t o work and l i v e . E x a m p l e s o f t h i s t y p e a r e A j a x and Don M i l l s i n O n t a r i o . The s e c o n d i s t h e o r d i n a r y p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o r g a n i z e d by a p r i v a t e e n t r e -p r e n e u r f o r p r o f i t o r by a p u b l i c a g e n c y t o p r o m o t e t h e e c o n -o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e community. E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e a r e t h e H i g h f i e l d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , ( a p u b l i c p r o j e c t ) and A n n a c i s I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e , D e l t a , B. C. (a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p m e n t ) . I t i s p r o p o s e d t o examine one o f e a c h o f t h e s e t y p e s t o s e e how t h e y came t o be d e v e l o p e d , what p r o b l e m s t h e y have e n c o u n t e r e d , and how s u c c e s s f u l t h e y have b e e n . a) Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o . L o c a t i o n : Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o . I n i t i a l D e v e l o p m e n t : 1953 S p o n s o r o r D e v e l o p e r : Don M i l l s D e v e l o p m e n t s L i m i t e d . S p o n s o r s h i p C a t e g o r y : P r i v a t e R e a l E s t a t e D e v e l o p e r . T o t a l D i s t r i c t A c r e a g e : 391 a c r e s ( i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e i n d u s t r i a l t r a c t s o u t o f a t o t a l 2,127 a c r e community d e v e l o p m e n t . A c r e a g e S o l d o r L e a s e d : 391 a c r e s ( d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p l e t e l y s o l d o u t i n 1 9 6 1 ) . A r e a o f R i g h t s - o f - w a y and E a s e m e n t s : 12% o f t o t a l i n d u s -t r i a l a c r e a g e . 29 Number o f O c c u p a n t s : 74 f i r m s . R o b e r t E. B o l e y , I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s : P r i n c i p l e s  i n P r a c t i c e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 44 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. : U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e , December 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 1 3 5 . 141 The f o r e g o i n g i s a c a p s u l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s o f t h e "new t own" o f Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o . An o u t p o s t o f T o r o n t o 15 y e a r s ago, Don M i l l s was d e v e l o p e d as a b a l a n c e d community t o p r o v i d e work and l i v i n g q u a r t e r s f o r 25,000 p e o p l e . The i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s were k e y e d t o grow w i t h t h e w h o l e d e v e l o p m e n t . The i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e t h r e e i n number and a r e l o c a t e d on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . They a r e w e l l s e r v e d by r a i l and r o a d ( t h e Don V a l l e y p a r k w a y p a s s e s t h r o u g h Don M i l l s and t h e m a j o r Highway 401 i s l e s s t h a n a m i l e a w a y ) . R a i l a c c e s s i s s u p p l i e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% o f t h e s i t e s , b u t o f a l l t h e s i t e s d e s i g n e d t o be s e r v e d by 3 0 r a i l o n l y 1 0 % a c t u a l l y make use o f t h i s f a c i l i t y . T h i s p o i n t s up t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t r u c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e d e c l i n e i n r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y . S i z e o f l o t s were v a r i e d t o g i v e a w i d e r a n g e o f c h o i c e t o i n c o m i n g i n d u s t r i e s . W a t e r , s a n i t a r y s e w e r s , e l e c t r i c power, and gas were s u p p l i e d t o a l l s i t e s . S t o r m s e w e r s were i n s t a l l e d i n some p a r t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t w h i l e s h a l l o w s o d d e d d i t c h e s were u s e d i n o t h e r p a r t s . A l l r o a d d r a i n a g e i s by s h a l l o w d i t c h e s , on t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h i s 31 b l e n d s b e t t e r w i t h t h e l a n d s c a p i n g . I b i d . , p. 1 3 7 . 3 1 I b i d . 142 An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f Don M i l l s ' i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -ment was t h e r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t w h i c h bound a l l i n c o m i n g i n d u s t r i e s . The c o v e n a n t s o b l i g e t h e c o v e n a n t e r s t o r e s p e c t s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o s e t b a c k s , s i d e y a r d s , s i t e c o v e r a g e , o u t s i d e s t o r a g e , undue n o i s e o r o d o r , t y p e s o f o u t -d o o r s i g n s , p a r k i n g c o n t r o l , t h e k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n 32 p l a n t c o n s t r u c t i o n , s i t e p l a n , e t c . R e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s i g n s a r e a l s o i n f o r c e , and p a r k i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e b u i l d i n g s i s b a n n e d . The r e s u l t o f a l l t h i s i s t h a t t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a p r e s e n t s a v e r y o p e n , p a r k - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e , e n h a n c e d by t h e v i s u a l e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n d u s t r y has been t u r n e d i n t o a d i s t i n c t v i s u a l a s s e t , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y 33 o f Don M i l l s as a p l a c e i n w h i c h t o l i v e . B o l e y n o t e s t h a t i n a p r o p e r l y p l a n n e d community " t h e r e s h o u l d be no c i t i z e n r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n d u s t r y a d j a c e n t t o r e s i -d e n t i a l a r e a s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f Don M i l l s a f f o r d s p r o o f o f t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , s i n c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f house r e - s a l e s i n d i s t r i c t s a d j a c e n t t o i n d u s t r y i s n e i t h e r g r e a t e r n o r l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f homes t h a t do n o t a b u t t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l 34 a r e a s ; i n f a c t i t c o n f o r m s t o t h e o v e r a l l a v e r a g e " . 3 2 I b i d . 33 "The P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l Community", A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Forum, 1 1 4 : 1 , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 1 , p. 66. 3 ^ B o l e y , l o c . c i t . , p. 1 4 0 . 143 A l t h o u g h r e s t r i c t i o n s on i n d u s t r y were s e v e r e , t h e a r e a p r o v e d a t t r a c t i v e and q u i c k l y f i l l e d up. The i n d u s t r i a l -i s t s grew to l i k e t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s and when a r e z o n i n g o f l a n d t o t h e n o r t h f o r i n d u s t r i a l use was p r o p o s e d , t h e y i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e c i t y i m p o s e r e s t r i c t i o n s on i t s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n f o r c e i n Don M i l l s . As one spokesman p u t i t , "We d o n ' t want a n y t h i n g t o happen t o t h e n o r t h o f us t h a t w i l l d e t r a c t e i t h e r f r o m t h e v a l u e o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f o u r own it 3 5 a r e a " . The t y p e o f i n d u s t r y i n Don M i l l s c o v e r s a w i d e r a n g e , i n c l u d i n g p u b l i s h i n g , f o o d s , e l e c t r o n i c s , and soap m a n u f a c -t u r i n g . The k i n d o f i n d u s t r y a d m i t t e d i s s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d ; hence most a r e o f t h e l i g h t - m a n u f a c t u r i n g v a r i e t y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some w a r e h o u s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . As a new town Don M i l l s i s o n l y a l i m i t e d s u c c e s s ; b e c a u s e t h e c o s t s o f l i v i n g i n i t a r e h i g h and b e c a u s e i t i s a d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e i t has a t t r a c t e d p e o p l e f r o m a h i g h e r i n c o m e b r a c k e t t h a n was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d . C o n s e -q u e n t l y o n l y a b o u t 15°/o o f t h e p e o p l e who work i n t h e Don M i l l s i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a c t u a l l y l i v e i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a t h e r e . However, j u d g e d on i t s own m e r i t s , t h e i n d u s -t r i a l s e c t o r o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t has been an o u t s t a n d i n g I b i d . , p. 139 144 s u c c e s s and has p r o v e d c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t modern t e c h n o l o g y has b r o u g h t a b o u t a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n b etween i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u s e . D ) A n n a c i s I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e . B. C. L o c a t i o n : New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. I n i t i a l D e v e l o p m e n t : 1955 S p o n s o r o r D e v e l o p e r : G r o s v e n o r - L a i n g (B.C.) L i m i t e d . S p o n s o r s h i p C a t e g o r y : P r i v a t e R e a l E s t a t e D e v e l o p e r . T o t a l D i s t r i c t A c r e a g e : 1,200 a c r e s . A c r e a g e L e a s e d : 82 a c r e s . 3 6 Number o f O c c u p a n t s : 40 f i r m s . The A n n a c i s I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e i s t y p i c a l o f t h e s e c o n d group o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s — t h o s e d e v e l o p e d w i t h a v i e w t o m a k i n g a p r o f i t f r o m r e n t a l s on l a n d and b u i l d i n g s and c h a r g e s f o r s e r v i c e s . Many o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . E x c e p t i o n s a r e some c o m m u n i t y - s p o n s o r e d d i s t r i c t s i n O n t a r i o and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e P r a i r i e s . I n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t r e g i o n a f i r s t c o m m u n i t y - s p o n s o r e d d i s t r i c t i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d i n Ric h m o n d , B. C. A n n a c i s I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by an i n v e s t o r w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l y l o n g - t e r m p o i n t o f v i e w — G r o s v e n o r E s t a t e s . T h i s f a m i l y u n d e r t a k i n g has been i n v o l v e d B o l e y , op. c i t . , p. 8 3 . 145 i n r e a l e s t a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n B r i t a i n f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s b u t t h i s i s t h e i r f i r s t v e n t u r e i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t . The E s t a t e i t s e l f i s l o c a t e d on an i s l a n d e n c l o s e d by two arms o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r c l o s e t o New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C. The i s l a n d was a c q u i r e d by t h e f i r m o f G r o s v e n o r E s t a t e s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r m o f J o h n L a i n g and Son L i m i t e d , a l s o o f B r i t a i n , w h i c h u n d e r t o o k t h e a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f t h e i s l a n d and m i n i m i z e t h e d a n g e r o f f l o o d i n g and p o o r f o o t i n g s f o r b u i l d -i n g s , t h e d e v e l o p e r s a r r a n g e d w i t h t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r H a r b o u r B o a r d t o have s a n d d r e d g i n g s f r o m t h e r i v e r pumped o n t o t h e i s l a n d . F u r t h e r d r a i n a g e p r o b l e m s were e l i m i n a t e d by 37 pumping. The E s t a t e i s w e l l s i t u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a and has 95% o f i t s s i t e s s e r v i c e d by r a i l . The i s l a n d has d e e p - s e a d o c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The two m a i n r o a d e x i t s f r o m t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , t h e T r a n s Canada H i g h -way and t h e Deas I s l a n d Thruway a r e c l o s e by and V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s o n l y 20 m i n u t e s away by a u t o m o b i l e . As no h o u s i n g i s p l a n n e d on t h e E s t a t e i t s e l f , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s c l o s e by i s i m p o r t a n t . Hugh C. Redwood, "An I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e " , The  C a n a d i a n A r c h i t e c t , ( J u l y , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 6 . 146 The d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y o f t h e company i s t o l e a s e a l l s i t e s and i f n e c e s s a r y e r e c t b u i l d i n g s t o s u i t the. t e n a n t s . F o r i n d u s t r i e s r e q u i r i n g t h i s s e r v i c e , t h e d e v e l o p e r s p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y o f d e s i g n s . The f o u r p r i n c i p a l c a.t.e.g,o.r.ie s. a x e : 1. B u i l d i n g s d e s i g n e d and b u i l t t o c u s t om r e q u i r e m e n t s . 2. A s e l e c t i o n o f s t a n d a r d o n e - s t o r e y f a c t o r y . d e s i g n s r a n g i n g f r o m 10,000 s q . f t . u p w a r d s , f e a t u r i n g c l e a r s p a c e , n a t u r a l l i g h t , low m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s , and a d a p -t a b l e t o meet s p e c i a l needs o f i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a n t s . 3. S m a l l f a c t o r y u n i t s w i t h i n a c o m p o s i t e s t r u c t u r e , p r o v i d i n g f o r e a s y e x p a n s i o n , b a s e d on t h e " i n c u b a t o r " f a c t o r y c o n c e p t , and s u i t a b l e f o r young and g r o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p i l o t p l a n t s , s m a l l b r a n c h p l a n t s , e t c . These u n i t s a r e a v a i l a b l e on s h o r t - t e r m l e a s e s . 4. W a r e h o u s e s , b u l k b r e a k i n g o r a s s e m b l y p l a n t s , t r a n s -s h i p m e n t d e p o t s , e t c . , a v a i l a b l e u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l l e a s e -h o l d p l a n . 3 8 Abundant power, w a t e r and n a t u r a l gas a r e a v a i l a b l e t o i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e a m e n i t i e s s u c h as p i p e d o x y g e n , community s a l e s and s a m p l e d i s p l a y c e n t r e s , w a r e h o u s i n g , s h o p p i n g , f a c i l i t i e s , b a n k s , c l u b s , s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s , and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . O t h e r s e r v i c e s , s u c h as d e s i g n , e n g i n e e r i n g , i n s u r a n c e , and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e company w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s s u c h as l e g a l 39 s e r v i c e s and m e e t i n g rooms a r e a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t . 3 8 W i l l i a m Br.edo, I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s : T o o l s f o r  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( G l e n c o e : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 169, 3 9 I b i d . , p. 170. 147 The p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n o f t h e E s t a t e i s s u p e r v i s e d by a team o f a r c h i t e c t s , and e n g i n e e r s and t h e w h o l e E s t a t e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d f r o m a c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e . R e s t r i c -t i v e c o n v e n a n t s p r o t e c t t e n a n t s f r o m i m p r o p e r u se o f s u r r o u n d -i n g s i t e s , g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e e r e c t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t o f p o o r m a t e r i a l s , p r e v e n t h a p h a z a r d and i n h a r m o n i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i t e s , a l l o w no b i l l b o a r d s o r a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n s o t h e r t h a n w e l l - d e s i g n e d s i g n s a d v e r t i s i n g t h e name, b u s i n e s s , and p r o d -u c t s o f t h e t e n a n t s and i n s u r e t h a t t h e t e n a n t s m a i n t a i n and use t h e p r e m i s e s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f modern i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s . 4 ^ A f e a t u r e o f t h e E s t a t e i s t h a t w i t h o u t a l a r g e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e a f i r m may h o l d l a n d f o r e x p a n s i o n a d j a c e n t t o o r c l o s e by i t s e x i s t i n g p l a n t . The d e v e l o p e r s p l a n t o group i n d u s t r i e s t o e n a b l e c o m p a n i e s t o be o f s e r v i c e t o one a n o t h e r and t o b e n e f i t f r o m m u t u a l t r a d e . The c o n c e p t o f t h e i n c u b a t o r f a c t o r y i s d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e needs o f s m a l l and g r o w i n g c o m p a n i e s and o f f i r m s w i s h i n g t o t e s t t h e m a r k e t w i t h a minimum i n i t i a l o u t l a y . 4 ^ * The a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t has been s l o w b e c a u s e o f u n f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e 1957 r e c e s -s i o n and p e r s i s t e d f o r some y e a r s . However, t h e d e v e l o p e r s 4 ^ I b i d . , p. 171, 4 1 I b i d . , p. 170, 148 a r e n o t i n a h u r r y and t h e w h o l e d e v e l o p m e n t may b e n e f i t f r o m t h e f a c t o f s l o w g r o w t h . T h e r e w i l l be t i m e t o l e a r n f r o m m i s t a k e s and t o e l i m i n a t e any f l a w s w h i c h show up i n t h e p l a n n i n g . c ) E v a l u a t i o n The two e xamples e x a m i n e d a b o v e , Don M i l l s and A n n a c i s , may have d e v e l o p e d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s n o t f o u n d i n most C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . C e r t a i n l y Don M i l l s had enormous a d v a n t a g e s i n b e i n g s i t u a t e d on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e most d i v e r s e l y and h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c i t y i n Canada. Had t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s been d e v e l o p e d w i t h o u t any o f t h e p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , t h e y p r o b a b l y w o u l d have been h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l . B u t t h a t i s n o t r e a l l y t h e p o i n t . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s a b o u t Don M i l l s a r e , f i r s t l y , t h a t i n d u s t r y , when i t has t o , w i l l s u b m i t t o s e v e r e c o n t r o l s , and h a v i n g done s o , w i l l come t o r e a l i z e t h e wisdom o f t h e s e c o n t r o l s ; and, s e c o n d l y , t h a t r e s i d e n c e and i n d u s t r y , when a d e q u a t e l y p l a n n e d and c o n t r o l l e d , c a n e x i s t s i d e by s i d e i n harmony, t o t h e i r m u t u a l b e n e f i t . A n n a c i s i s u n u s u a l i n t h a t i t i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by a company w i t h a l o n g - t e r m p o i n t o f v i e w . Few p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s w o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o w a i t f o r d e c a d e s f o r r e t u r n s on t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t . However, t h e r e i s one t y p e o f d e v e l o p e r p r e p a r e d t o w a i t t h i s l o n g — t h e g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d d e v e l o p -ment a g e n c y . I f G r o s v e n o r - L a i n g c a n n o t i n v e s t i n e v e r y 149 community, and o f c o u r s e t h e y c a n n o t , a p o s s i b l y b e t t e r a l t e r -n a t i v e i s f o r t h e community i t s e l f t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . I n t h i s way t h e community c a n n o t o n l y r e t a i n o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f t h e d i s t r i c t , b u t c a n a l s o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l v a l u e and i n c o m e g e n e r a t e d by d e v e l o p m e n t . The o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t where p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s have been d e v e l o p e d i n Canada, t h e y have been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . Not o n l y have t h e y r e i n f o r c e d t h e e c o n o m i c base o f t h e community but t h e y have a l s o i n c r e a s e d t h e a t t r a c t i v e -n e s s o f some a r e a s by p r o v i d i n g open s p a c e and l a n d s c a p i n g where none e x i s t e d b e f o r e . One has o n l y t o i m a g i n e what Don M i l l s w o u l d be l i k e w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l s o v e r i n d u s t r y , i n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s t h e s u r e s t r o a d t o o r d e r l y , e f f i c i e n t and a e s t h e t i c a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . SUMMARY I n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n has c a u s e d numerous p r o b l e m s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n Canada. Many o f t h e s e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l s p r a w l , m i x i n g o f i n c o m p a t i b l e l a n d u s e s and t h e n o x i o u s n a t u r e o f some i n d u s t r i e s . I t i s bec o m i n g i n c r e a s -i n g l y i m p o r t a n t t o c h a n n e l t h e g r o w t h o f new i n d u s t r y i n s u c h a way as t o p r e v e n t t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d u s t r y i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y f r o m b e i n g r e p e a t e d i n t h e s u b u r b s . 150 S t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i s i n e f f i c i e n t and l e a d s t o g r e a t w a s t e i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . A b o u t h a l f t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n a m e t r o -p o l i t a n a r e a l i e s i d l e b e c a u s e p r i c e s a r e beyond t h e r e a c h o f most i n d u s t r i e s . The e n s u i n g i n d u s t r i a l s p r a w l i s v e r y c o s t l y t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , w h i c h has t o b u i l d and m a i n t a i n r o a d s and i n s t a l l s e r v i c e s , w h i c h a r e t h e n u s e d f a r b e l o w c a p a c i t y . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s c a n r e d u c e many o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s by p l a n n i n g p o s i t i v e l y f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s w i l l e n t a i l l a n d use p l a n n i n g , z o n i n g , s i t e r e s e r v a t i o n , and s p e c i a l i n c e n t i v e s f o r and c o n t r o l s o v e r i n d u s t r y . An i m p o r t a n t t o o l w h i c h may be u s e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n i n f l u e n c i n g i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . The use o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t has been p i o n e e r e d i n E a s t e r n Canada, i n t h e P r a i r i e s , and i n B. C. T hese e x a m p l e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e v a l u e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n t h e h a r m o n i o u s i n t e g r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s , i n s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e o f t h e c o mmunity, and i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f i t s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . CHAPTER V PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS: MUNICIPAL POLICY AND PROGRAM 1. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t The p r o b l e m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t have l e d to r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l s o v e r i n d u s t r y i m p o s e d by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s . The e a r l i e s t c o n t r o l s p r o t e c t e d t h e w o r k e r i n i n d u s t r y f r o m h a r d s h i p and h e a l t h h a z a r d s ; l a t e r c o n t r o l s were d e s i g n e d t o s e p a r a t e i n d u s t r y f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l u s e and t o p r o t e c t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . As t e c h n o l o g y a d v a n c e s and many i n d u s t r i e s become l e s s n o x i o u s , t h e t r e n d i s t o w a r d s m a k i n g i n d u s t r y f i t i n t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t by e n d o w i n g i t w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h mark t h e modern r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n — o p e n s p a c e , l a n d s c a p i n g , m i n i m i z i n g o f t r a f f i c c o n f l i c t s . To a c h i e v e t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n -t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d use t h e most p r o m i s i n g means i s t h e us e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w h i c h , n o t w i t h o u t r e a s o n , has been c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e p l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n . B u t j u s t as n o t e v e r y o n e can l i v e i n a p l a n n e d r e s i d e n -t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n so a l s o n o t e v e r y i n d u s t r y c a n l o c a t e i n a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . Some i n d u s t r i e s w i l l n e v e r be s u f f i c i e n t l y f r e e o f n u i s a n c e t o l o c a t e c l o s e t o a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o r t o o t h e r " c l e a n " i n d u s t r i e s ; f o r o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s t h e 152 c o s t o f l o c a t i n g i n a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w i l l be t o o h i g h and t h e y w i l l s eek t o l o c a t e e l s e w h e r e ; s t i l l o t h e r s , w h i c h a r e f i n a n c i a l l y s t r o n g and w h i c h have more t h a n a v e r a g e l a n d n e e d s , w i l l p r e f e r t o a c q u i r e t h e i r own s i t e s and d e v e l o p them as r e q u i r e d . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p e r s a r e r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e t y p e o f i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a n t s t h e y can e x p e c t t o a t t r a c t . Heavy i n d u s t r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , c a n n o t be i n c l u d e d , u n l e s s i t c a n be k e p t a t a r e a s o n a b l e d i s t a n c e f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; t h e same a p p l i e s t o i n d u s t r i e s e m i t t i n g smoke, d i r t , n o i s o m e o d o u r s o r i n v o l v i n g n o i s y m e c h a n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s . The most l i k e l y o c c u -p a n t s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , d i s t r i b u t i v e f a c i l i t i e s , a s s e m b l y p l a n t s and " c l e a n " l i g h t t o medium m a n u f a c t u r e r s . " 1 ' The f i r m s w i l l be o f s m a l l t o medium s i z e and w i l l i n c l u d e b r a n c h p l a n t s o f U. 5. i n d u s t r i e s and o f o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e i n Canada. The p o l i c y o f t h e d e v e l o p e r s r e g a r d i n g l a n d p r i c e s ( o r l e a s e c o s t s ) , number and t y p e o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , and r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t s w i l l o f c o u r s e t o a g r e a t e x t e n t d e t e r -mine t h e t y p e o f i n d u s t r i a l f i r m t h a t w i l l l o c a t e i n a d i s t r i c t . R i c h a r d T. Murphy, J r . and W i l l i a m L ee B a l d w i n , " B u s i n e s s Moves t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l P a r k " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s  R e v i e w ( V o l . 37, No. 3, May, June 1 9 5 9 ) , p. B3. 153 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o v i s u a l i z e a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f -e r e n t d i s t r i c t s , e a c h c a t e r i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , however, t h a t t h e d e v e l o p e r s h o u l d make a s p e c i f i c a p p e a l t o t h e t y p e o f i n d u s t r y d e s i r e d and s h o u l d e n s u r e t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l n o t be " f o r c e d " by t h e t y p e o f i n d u s t r y i n i t i a l l y l o c a t i n g i n t h e d i s t r i c t . I f , f o r i n s t a n c e , a t r u c k i n g f i r m s h o u l d be t h e f i r s t t o l o c a t e i n a d i s t r i c t , i t c o u l d a t t r a c t o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s o f a s i m i l a r t y p e and t h u s s e t t h e t o n e o f t h e whole d i s t r i c t . The s e r v i c e s and a d v a n -t a g e s o f f e r e d by t h e d i s t r i c t s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be g e a r e d t o t h e needs o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s i t i s hoped t o a t t r a c t . The a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t f r o m i n d u s t r y ' s p o i n t o f v i e w have been 2 e n u m e r a t e d by Murphy and B a l d w i n . The m a i n a t t r a c t i o n i s d o l l a r s - a n d - c e n t s s a v i n g s and t h e s e a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by r e a s o n o f t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s , o p e r a t i n g e c o n o m i e s as a r e s u l t o f s h a r e d f a c i l i t i e s , s u c h as sewage t r e a t m e n t and r e s t a u r a n t f a c i l i t i e s , and t a x s a v i n g s as a r e s u l t o f s p e c i a l t a x c o n c e s s i o n s f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d i n p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e " p a c k a g e p l a n " u s u a l l y o f f e r e d by a d i s t r i c t , i n w h i c h i t h a n d l e s a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , as w e l l as a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f s i t e 2 I b i d . . p. 81 154 d e v e l o p m e n t , i s an added a t t r a c t i o n . (Where t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i s t h e d e v e l o p e r , t h i s s h o u l d be even more o f an a t t r a c t i o n ) . O t h e r a s p e c t s o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a d v a n t a g e o u s by i n d u s t r i a l t e n a n t s : - p r o t e c t i o n f r o m n e i g h b o u r -hood d e t e r i o r a t i o n , s i t e r e a d i n e s s l e a d i n g t o a q u i c k s t a r t on p r o d u c t i o n , c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h t h e o t h e r t e n a n t s , p o s s i -b i l i t y o f l i n k a g e w i t h o t h e r f i r m s and c a r r y i n g o u t j o i n t p r o j e c t s and s e c u r i t y f r o m b r e a k - i n s and t r e s p a s s i n g . The o f f s e t t i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e : - p o s s i b l e e x p a n s i o n p r o b l e m s ( t h e s e c a n be m i n i m i z e d b u t n o t e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d ) ; r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t may become o p p o r e s s i v e i f t h e f i r m s h o u l d w i s h t o ch a n g e i t s p r o d u c t o r method o f o p e r a t i o n ; h e avy i n i t i a l c o s t i f t h e s i t e i s p u r c h a s e d ; and l o s s o f i d e n t i t y f o r a d v e r t i s i n g p u r p o s e s . T h e s e , o f c o u r s e , c o u l d be i m p o r -t a n t t o i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s , b u t t h e l e a s e s y s t e m c a n e l i m i n a t e h eavy i n i t i a l c o s t s , t h e " n e s t f a c t o r y " c a n e a s e p r o b l e m s o f e x p a n s i o n and t o t h e s m a l l e r f i r m t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t a d d r e s s i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d v e r t i s i n g i t s own i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t . The e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s o f i n d u s t r y t o a community a r e 3 o b v i o u s , b u t t h e " h i d d e n " c o s t s s h o u l d n o t be i g n o r e d . Thus 3 I b i d . , p. 83 155 t h e r e w i l l be i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c i n g c o s t s f o r sewage d i s p o s a l , w a t e r s u p p l y and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and p o l i c i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e s h o u l d be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e community ( u n l e s s i t i s an a r e a s u f f e r i n g f r o m h i g h u n e m p l o y m e n t ) . I t has been c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n a c o m m u n i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s n e a r l y t r i p l e t h e number o f new j o b s p r o v i d e d by a f i r m ; t h i s means a demand f o r f u r t h e r s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s , new s t r e e t s and u t i l i t i e s and more p o l i c e and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . S i n c e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y l o w - d e n s i t y a r e a s , mean r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o s t s and l o w r e t u r n s t o t h e c i t y , t h e n e t b e n e f i t t o t h e community f r o m h a v i n g i n d u s t r y l o c a t e i n i t may be l e s s t h a n i t a p p e a r s a t f i r s t g l a n c e . The d e c i s i o n as t o w h e t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l community i n Canada s h o u l d a d o p t a p o l i c y o f p r o m o t i n g p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s depends on a c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d — p l u s and m i n u s . A l o t w i l l depend on t h e commun-i t y ' s b a s i c r e a s o n s f o r w a n t i n g t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y , o r a c e r t a i n t y p e o f i n d u s t r y . One community may have a s u r p l u s o f f e m a l e l a b o u r and may w i s h t o p r o v i d e employment o p p o r t u n -i t i e s f o r them. A n o t h e r may have a s e r i o u s unemployment p r o b l e m and be w i l l i n g t o o f f e r s i t e s i n an i n d u s t r i a l d i s -t r i c t a t a t t r a c t i v e r a t e s t o i n d u c e i n d u s t r y t o l o c a t e t h e r e . A t h i r d may be a l a r m e d by h a p h a z a r d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and may w i s h t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h e p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n 156 w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s . A f o u r t h may w i s h t o r e d e v e l o p a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d a r e a o f m i x e d d e v e l o p m e n t e x c l u s i v e l y f o r i n d u s t r y . Most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e aware o f t h e b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r y on t a x r e v e n u e s but t h i s may n o t be t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r f u r t h e r i n g t h e c ommunity's ends by e n c o u r a g i n g i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n t o p r o m o t e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w i l l depend on a f e a s i b i l i t y s u r v e y . T h i s w i l l depend on two f a c t o r s : - one, t h e " n a t u r a l " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a r e a t o i n d u s t r y a n d , two, t h e " a r t i f i c i a l " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t h e commun-i t y c a n c r e a t e by means o f t a x i n c e n t i v e s , c o m p e t i t i v e p r i c e r a t e s , r a n g e o f s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , and s u c h e x t r a s as good community p l a n n i n g , and e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . The s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m w i l l depend on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y , t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e s i t e c h o s e n , t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e s i t e p l a n n i n g , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s i m p o s e d , and t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e management. B e f o r e r e v i e w i n g t h e s e i n d e t a i l , t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o s ound i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d . 2. P r e r e q u i s i t e s t o I n d u s t r i a l P l a n n i n g The most i m p o r t a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e t o i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g i n a community i s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l -opment. The m u n i c i p a l i t y o f S c a r b o r o u g h , i n O n t a r i o , b o a s t s 157 t h a t "The needs o f i n d u s t r y a r e g i v e n p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t e r m s o f power and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s : p l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e a s s u r e d o f p a r k l a n d s , s c h o o l s , commun-i t y and r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s — n o w and i n t h e f u t u r e " . 4 I t goes on t o d e c l a r e t h a t " S c a r b o r o u g h i s one o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n ' s f i r s t p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s . A r e a s f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h p r o p e r l y s e r v i c e d l a n d , w i t h modern r a i l and t r a c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , by a M u n i c i p a l G o v e r n i n g g r oup and P l a n n i n g B o a r d w h i c h works i n s u p p o r t o f i n d u s t r i a l 5 d e v e l o p m e n t — n o t a g a i n s t i t " . T h i s i s t h e t y p e o f e n v i r o n -ment most f a v o u r e d by i n d u s t r y — a community w i t h an o v e r a l l community p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m , a keen eye f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t — r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l — a n d a s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e needs o f i n d u s t r y . The d a n g e r o f e s t a -b l i s h i n g a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n an o t h e r w i s e u n p l a n n e d community i s p o i n t e d up i n a r e c e n t U n i t e d N a t i o n s p u b l i c a t i o n : S c a r b o r o u g h O n t a r i o Canada: The New I n d u s t r i a l P u l s e  o f T o r o n t o ( C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e T o w n s h i p o f S c a r b o r o u g h , 1 9 5 8 ) , unpaged. 5 I b i d . 158 The l a c k o f m u n i c i p a l o r r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l to g u i d e d e v elopment i s s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e d a n g e r s o f i n a d e q u a t e l a n d use p l a n n i n g and z o n i n g and o f i n a d e q u a t e e n f o r c e -ment o f r e g u l a t i o n s ; i t f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t , w i t h o u t s u c h c o n t r o l s and e n f o r c e m e n t , an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e e v e n t u a l l y c o u l d be e n g u l f e d by such growth and t h a t even a w e l l - p l a n n e d p r o j e c t c o u l d t u r n i n t o a c o n g e s t e d i n d u s -t r i a l slum.6 The t o w n s h i p o f S c a r b o r o u g h i s i n d e e d f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t i t n o t o n l y has an e x c e l l e n t community p l a n n i n g s t a f f b ut a l s o t h a t t h e d e v e lopment o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i n which i t i s s i t u a t e d i s g u i d e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s not so w e l l s i t u a t e d s h o u l d heed the w a r n i n g o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t "The e s t a b l i s h -ment o f i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s c a n n o t be a s u b s t i t u t e f o r an economic development p o l i c y o f b r o a d e r s c o p e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o o r d i n a t e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e p r o j e c t s w i t h o v e r - a l l d e velopment p l a n s f o r a r e g i o n o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y " . 7 T h e r e a r e t h e r e f o r e two v i r t u a l l y e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q -u i s i t e s f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o pment program:- a r e g i o n a l d evelopment program and a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g program. I t i s n o t , however, i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n the a bsence o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g scheme, p r o -v i d e d t h a t the e f f e c t i v e demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i s s u c h U n i t e d N a t i o n s , The P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l  E s t a t e s (New Y o r k : The U n i t e d N a t i o n s Department o f Economic and 5 o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 3. I b i d . , p. 3• 159 t h a t i t outweighs the l a c k of r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l over d e v e l o p -ment. Where i n d u s t r i a l growth i s expected but the d i r e c t i o n i t w i l l t ake i s u n c l e a r , a m u n i c i p a l i t y may have t o s u p p l e -ment i t s m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g program w i t h a survey o f r e g i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l development b e f o r e d e c i d i n g whether or not to develop a planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . In many cases a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s may be unnecessary and the t a s k may be w e l l w i t h i n the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f . S i n c e the economic base o f the community i s u s u a l l y bound up w i t h t h a t of the r e g i o n i n which i t i s l o c a t e d , such a survey would have to be undertaken i n any event. The development of a planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n the absence o f a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g program i s a f a r more h a z a r -dous u n d e r t a k i n g . The d i s t r i c t may i t s e l f prove e c o n o m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l and a t t r a c t a great, d e a l o f i n d u s t r y but the a c t u a l c o s t s t o the community i n i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and haphazard growth o u t s i d e the d i s t r i c t can d r a s t i c a l l y reduce the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the form o f tax revenue and i n c r e a s e d employment. Added to t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t many i n d u s t r i a l i s t s nowadays w i l l not l o c a t e i n an unplanned community on the assumption t h a t the unplanned community i s l e s s e f f i c i e n t and t h e r e f o r e more c o s t l y i n i t s day-to-day o p e r a t i o n , thus r e q u i r i n g h i g h e r t a x e s . Even when t a x r e d u c t i o n s are o f f e r e d , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to suppose t h a t they cannot l a s t i n d e f i n i t e l y , and so 160 i n d u s t r i e s w i l l s e e k o t h e r l o c a t i o n s . I n any e v e n t t h e d e v i c e o f t h e t a x c o n c e s s i o n i s a v e r y a r t i f i c i a l i n d u c e m e n t and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a g a i n s t t h e e s t a b -l i s h e d i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , p u t t i n g them a t a compet-i t i v e d i s a d v a n t a g e w i t h t h e new i n d u s t r y . What may be n e c e s s a r y i s a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e t a x b a s e o f t h e c o m m u nity, t o b r i n g r e v e n u e more i n t o l i n e w i t h t h e a c t u a l m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e p r o v i n c i a l s u b s i d i e s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e s e c o n d o n l y t o p r o p e r t y and b u s i n e s s t a x e s as a s o u r c e o f m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e . Thus t h e P r o v i n c e , by r e s e r v i n g t o i t s e l f t h e most l u c r a t i v e f o r m s o f t a x a t i o n , b a s e d on income and c o n s u m p t i o n , i s a b l e t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f t h e b e n e v o l e n t d e s p o t , l e a v i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l government w i t h l i t t l e room t o manoeuvere w i t h i n an a l r e a d y t i g h t b u d g e t . T h r e e p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s have been o f f e r e d t o t h i s p r o b l e m : -t o b r o a d e n t h e l o c a l t a x r e v e n u e b a s e ; t o r e v i s e and r a t i o n -a l i z e t h e s y s t e m o f g r a n t s - i n - a i d ; o r t o r e g r o u p b o t h r e v e n u e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l , on a f u n c t i o n a l g b a s i s . W h i l e t h e r u r a l v o t e c a r r i e s more w e i g h t t h a n i t s D o n a l d C. Rowat, Y o u r L o c a l Government ( T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 88. C. A. P. M u r i s o n , "Avenues f o r R e f o r m " ( p a p e r r e a d a t t h e S e m i n a r on " P r o b l e m s o f M u n i c i p a l Government", D e p a r t m e n t o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 6 4 ) . 161 u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t , ^ ^ r e f o r m o f p r o v i n c i a l - m u n i c i p a l r e l a t i o n s a r e l i a b l e t o be s l o w ; however, r e q u e s t s o f l o c a l m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s f o r p r o v i n c i a l a i d i n t h e f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -ment a r e l i a b l e t o be more s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d t h a n r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s u c h s o c i a l c a p i t a l as s t r e e t s , s e w e r s and w a t e r m a i n s . I f a m u n i c i p a l i t y goes b a n k r u p t i t becomes a c h a r g e on t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t ; c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t h a t w i s h e s t o embark on a p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e amount o f i n i t i a l c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , s u c h as t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , must c o n v i n c e t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n -ment o f i t s f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The most u s e f u l d e v i c e i n p u t t i n g m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e s on a s ound f o o t i n g i s t h e f i v e - y e a r c a p i t a l b u d g e t , by means o f w h i c h a l l c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s s c h e d u l e d i n t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s a r e e s t i m a t e d and t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g l y . S i n c e C o u n c i l l o r s a r e o f t e n e l e c t e d f o r o n l y one o r two y e a r s i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t them t o p l a n f o r f i v e y e a r s a h e a d , but s u c h f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a s ound d e v e l o p m e n t p r o -gram. C a p i t a l b u d g e t s have t o be g e a r e d t o t h e community p l a n and s h o u l d i n c l u d e e s t i m a t e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e s on r o a d s , b u i l d -i n g s , and s t r u c t u r e s i n the a c t u a l l o c a t i o n s t h e y w i l l o c c u p y . J o h n T. S a y w e l l and J o h n C. R i c k e r , How a r e we  G o v e r n e d ? ( T o r o n t o ; C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1 1 . Rowat, op. c i t . , p. 1 0 5 . 162 From t h i s i t c a n be s e e n t h a t c a p i t a l b u d g e t i n g and p l a n n i n g must go hand i n hand; o t h e r w i s e a m u n i c i p a l i t y may a c q u i r e a t r a c t o f l a n d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t as a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s -t r i c t , b u t may f i n d i t s e l f s h o r t o f c a s h t o c a r r y o u t i t s d e v e l o p m e n t i m m e d i a t e l y , t h u s l o s i n g a number o f i n d u s t r i e s and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g r e v e n u e . A c a s e i n p o i n t i s t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond, B. C. w h i c h a c q u i r e d a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i t e i n 1962 b u t must w a i t u n t i l 1965 o r 1966 t o b e g i n d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a u s e t h e n e c e s s a r y c a s h i s n o t 12 i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e . F i n a l l y , b e f o r e d e v e l o p m e n t t a k e s p l a c e a d e c i s i o n w i l l have t o be made on w h e t h e r t o s e l l o r l e a s e s i t e s i n t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . W h i l e t h e s e l l i n g o f s i t e s a p p e a r s t o be t h e most common p r a c t i c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e b e s t t h i n g f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e d e v e l o p e r . I n B r i t a i n a l l t h e g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d e s t a t e s and most o f t h e p r i v a t e l y - s p o n s o r e d e s t a t e s a r e on t h e l e a s e h o l d s y s t e m . T h e r e a r e o b v i o u s a d v a n t a g e s t o l e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y where t h e d e v e l o p e r i s a p u b l i c a g e n c y . T h e r e i s , f i r s t l y , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i n d u s t r i a l t e n a n t s a n d , s e c o n d l y , t h e S t a t e m e n t by W i l l i a m K e r r , Richmond M u n i c i p a l P l a n n e r , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 163 p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l s i t e o v e r t h e y e a r s . W h i l e many p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s i n c l u d e c o v e n a n t s , r e s t r i c t i o n s and d e t a i l e d r e s e r v a t i o n s i n p u r c h a s e c o n t r a c t s , i t i s r a r e l y p o s s i b l e t o e x e r c i s e i n t h i s manner t h e same d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l as i s p o s s i b l e by means o f a l e a s e h o l d c o n t r a c t . B e s i d e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o change t h e r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s a t t h e end o f t h e l e a s e h o l d p e r i o d , whereas t h i s may be more d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p u r c h a s e d s i t e . 3. I n d u s t r i a l P o l i c y Recommendations a t t h e  T h r e e L e v e l s o f Government i n Canada I t i s o f v a l u e h e r e t o r e c a p i t u l a t e t h e p o l i c y r e c o m -m e n d a t i o n s t h a t have emerged f r o m t h e d i s c u s s i o n up t o t h i s p o i n t . From t h e F e d e r a l Government a measure o f g u i d a n c e i s e x p e c t e d i n t h e m a t t e r o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c l u d i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n t o f i n d u s t r y and i t s l o c a t i o n i n t h e community. T h a t g r e a t e r F e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t programs i s j u s t a r o u n d t h e c o r n e r i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e c e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h r e e a g e n c i e s : t h e A r e a Development Agency o f t h e new D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r y , t h e A t l a n t i c D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d , and t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l -i t a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f 13 A g r i c u l t u r e . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s p o l i c y o f r e d u c i n g r e g i o n a l A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o mic C o u n c i l , L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e  f o r E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , P a m p h l e t No. 6 ( H a l i f a x : A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 9. 164 d i f f e r e n c e s - i n i n c o m e , r e l i e v i n g unemployment and g e n e r a l l y s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l b a s e , t h e F e d e r a l p r o g r a m w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r y i n t h e d e p r e s s e d r e g i o n s o f t h e n a t i o n . F o r t h i s t a s k i t has a h e x c e l l e n t t o o l i n t h e u s e o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t . By t h i s means i t c a n a s s i s t g r o w i n g f i r m s i n t h e e a r l y p h a s e s o f g r o w t h ; i t c a n g r a n t s p e c i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ( p e r h a p s t h r o u g h t h e I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Bank) t o i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t i n g i n a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , k n o w i n g t h a t i t s i n v e s t m e n t w i l l be p r o t e c t e d ; and i t c a n s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e n a t i o n a l economy by t h u s s e t t i n g up t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , when t h e s u c c e s s o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m c a r r i e d o u t by F e d e r a l and l o c a l a g e n c i e s i n p a r t n e r -s h i p becomes e s t a b l i s h e d , i t w i l l i n d u c e o t h e r l o c a l a u t h o r -i t i e s t o i n i t i a t e t h e i r own d e v e l o p m e n t programs w i t h a minimum o f a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e F e d e r a l Government. W h i l e t h e F e d e r a l Government may be e x p e c t e d t o p r o m o t e some i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n on t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l t o a s s i s t t h e g r o w t h o f t h e l e s s d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n s , i t w i l l be t h e t a s k o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Governments t o s u p e r v i s e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . The need f o r p l a n n i n g on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s i s p r e s s i n g b u t e f f o r t s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n Canada have so f a r been p i t i f u l l y weak. The P r o v i n c e o f 165 O n t a r i o has done a number o f r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s b u t t h e f i n d -i n g s have n o t been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a r e g i o n a l p l a n o r p r o g r a m . The Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has done some e x c e l l e n t s t u d i e s , l e a d i n g up t o a R e g i o n a l P l a n , b u t i t s s t a f f a r e so few and i t s b u d g e t so s m a l l t h a t i t i s f a s t b e c o m i n g , i n t h e words o f i t s e x - d i r e c t o r , "an 14 D i n e x p e n s i v e , c y n i c a l e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y " . The a . C. P r o v i n c i a l Government's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e B o a r d o f $5,000 p e r annum p o o r l y r e f l e c t s t h e p l a n n i n g needs o f a r e g i o n c o n -t a i n i n g n e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a m i l l i o n p e o p l e . T h e r e i s need f o r a s e a r c h i n g r e a p p r a i s a l on t h e p a r t o f a l l P r o v i n c i a l Governments i n Canada o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d r e g i o n a l and l o c a l p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t . P l a g u e d by f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , t h e m u n i c i p a l government may r e g a r d t h e s e t t i n g up o f a community p l a n n i n g a g e n c y as j u s t a n o t h e r f r i l l c a l c u l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e e x p e n s e s w i t h o u t p r o d u c i n g any r e t u r n s . They may f a i l t o r e a l i z e t h a t i n t h e m a t t e r o f a t t r a c t i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t " t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h l a c k s 15 a sound p l a n n i n g program i s a t a d i s t i n c t d i s a d v a n t a g e " . Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1963 (New W e s t m i n s t e r : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , December 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 8. 15 " P l a n n i n g f o r I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t " , O n t a r i o  P l a n n i n g , V o l . 10, No. 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1. 166 What c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d when p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l b o d i e s g e t t o g e t h e r has been shown i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e Seaway P r o j e c t and t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S o u t h S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r . P r i n c i p l e s o f p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l c o o p e r a t i o n h e r e t r i e d s h o u l d now be a p p l i e d on a p r o v i n c e -w i d e b a s i s . I t i s t h e t a s k o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government t o g i v e l e a d e r s h i p t o the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n i n i t i a t i n g p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s . I t s h o u l d be P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y t o prom o t e r e g i o n a l and l o c a l p l a n n i n g b o a r d s , t o e n c o u r a g e t h e h i r i n g o f p l a n n i n g s t a f f , and where n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t u d i e s . I n a d d i t i o n i t s h o u l d p r o m o t e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , t o a s s i s t them w i t h g r a n t s - i n - a i d and l o w - c o s t l o a n s and t o p a s s t h e n e c e s s a r y e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t o a l l o w t h e l o c a l a u t h o r -i t y t o l e a s e l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s . The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d a c c e p t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p m e n t as t h e most e f f i c i e n t and d e s i r a b l e method o f d e v e l o p i n g i t s i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l . I t must l i m i t s p e c u l a t i o n by i d e n t i f y i n g and r e s e r v i n g i n d u s -t r i a l s i t e s and i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n i t s community p l a n . I t must be p r e p a r e d t o a c q u i r e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d o u t o f m u n i c i p a l f u n d s and d e v e l o p i t as a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . B r e d o s u g g e s t s t h r e e p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h i s m u n i c i p a l 1 6 7 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t : 1 . T h e m u n i c i p a l i t y m a y i t s e l f d e v e l o p i n d u s t r i a l t r a c t s ; t h i s w i l l i n v o l v e t h e p u r c h a s e o f l a n d , t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e u t i l i t i e s , s t r e e t s a n d r o a d l a y o u t , a n d p o s s i b l y b u i l d i n g s . 2 . T h e m u n i c i p a l i t y m a y e s t a b l i s h a p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t c o m m i s s i o n o r c o r p o r a t i o n c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n e s t a t e o n t h e b a s i s o f c e r t a i n p r e s -c r i b e d p o l i c i e s . 3 . T h e m u n i c i p a l i t y m a y e n c o u r a g e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a d e v e l o p m e n t f o u n d a t i o n h a v i n g t h e b a c k i n g o f a c h a m b e r o f i n d u s t r y a n d c o m m e r c e o r a p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d g r o u p o f c i t i z e n s . 1 6 T h e a p p r o a c h o f t h e C i t y o f C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , h a s b e e n t o s e t u p a D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e c i t y g o v e r n m e n t a n d w o r k i n g i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . T h e C i t y o p e r a t e s w i t h a c a p i t a l b u d g e t , a c q u i r e s a n d i m p r o v e s i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a n d s e l l s o f f t h e r e a d y - m a d e s i t e s t o i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s . T h e r e i s a p a c k a g e p r i c e o f $ 6 , 7 5 0 p e r a c r e w h i c h i n c l u d e s p o w e r l i n e s , s e w e r a n d w a t e r l i n e s a n d r a i l l e a d - i n p l u s d e e p - b a s e g r a v e l r o a d s r e a d y f o r p a v i n g . W h i c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y u s e s t o p r o m o t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i s W i l l i a m B r e d o , I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s : T o o l f o r  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s : S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 5 4 . H. M c K i n l e y C o n w a y , J r . , " C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , C a n a d a " , I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0 , p . 7 4 . 168 unimportant, so long as i t accepts the v a l i d i t y of the p r i n -c i p l e and undertakes the necessary tasks which w i l l make a planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t development program s u c c e s s f u l . These i n c l u d e : - an i n d u s t r i a l survey on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s ; a community planning program; a c a p i t a l budgeting system; survey, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e s e r v a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s ; an educational program to " s e l l " the idea to the c i t i z e n s ; a c q u i s i t i o n and development of the i n d u s t r i a l t r a c t ; and an a d v e r t i s i n g campaign to a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y . The m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l also have to adopt a p o s i t i v e p o l i c y toward i n d u s t r i a l development which takes place o u t s i d e the planned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . This should c o n s i s t of a municipal p o l i c y f a v o u r i n g the development of i n d u s t r i a l land on a planned b a s i s , thus encouraging p r i v a t e developers to emulate the standards set by the m u n i c i p a l l y managed indus-t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . In a d d i t i o n the m u n i c i p a l i t y should d i s -courage i n d u s t r i a l development i n unsewered and unimproved areas and should r e q u i r e a l l i n d u s t r i e s to meet c e r t a i n standards of o f f - s t r e e t parking, b u i l d i n g setback, landscaping, s i t e coverage by b u i l d i n g s , and degree of nuisance f a c t o r s a l l o w a b l e . 4. Planning the I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t To determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t development program i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y a survey of the indus-t r i a l p o t e n t i a l of the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l have to be made. 169 Where s t u d i e s o f t h e f u t u r e demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s have a l r e a d y been c a r r i e d o u t , as i n t h e Low e r M a i n l a n d o f B. C , a d e t a i l e d s u r v e y o f r e g i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e p a r t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i s u n n e c e s s a r y . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h s t u d i e s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l have t o c o n d u c t t h e s u r v e y i t s e l f . M ethods o f f o r e c a s t i n g e c o n o m i c g r o w t h i n a m u n i c i p a l -i t y u s u a l l y c o n s i s t o f t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e b a s i c -18 n o n b a s i c c o n c e p t o f u r b a n e c o n o m i c f u n c t i o n s . The b a s i c -n o n b a s i c employment s u r v e y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n p r o v i d i n g goods o r s e r v i c e s f o r p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e s u r v e y a r e a ( b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s ) and t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n p r o v i d i n g goods and s e r v i c e s f o r p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e s u r v e y a r e a ( n o n - b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s ) . T h i s l e a d s t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t h e b a s i c and n o n - b a s i c employment i n t h e a r e a , and t h e f o r e c a s t i n g o f f u t u r e t r e n d s i n employment. C h a p i n c o n s i d e r s t h e employment f o r e c a s t u s e f u l f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. I t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n o f c o n c e r n t o p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e s w h i c h i n t u r n a r e u s e d i n e s t i m a t i n g s p a c e needs f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and community f a c i l i t i e s , and Jo h n W. A l e x a n d e r , "The B a s i c - N o n b a s i c C o n c e p t o f Urba n E c o n o m i c F u n c t i o n s " , R e a d i n g s i n Urb a n Geography ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 87-104. 170 2. I t s u p p l i e s a d i r e c t y a r d s t i c k f o r use i n s c a l i n g l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s . 19 S i n c e t h e employment f o r e c a s t l e a d s t o p r e d i c t i o n s o f l a n d needs i t i s v e r y u s e f u l t o t h e p l a n n e r . I f t h e t i m e o r t h e s t a f f i s n o t a v a i l a b l e t o c o n d u c t a t h o r o u g h s u r v e y , a c l o s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n may be o b t a i n e d by a n a l y z i n g and f o r e -c a s t i n g employment i n t h r e e o r f o u r b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s . S i n c e employment f o r e c a s t s f o r l a r g e r a r e a s o r r e g i o n s a r e u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t h e y c a n be s c a l e d down t o p r e d i c t employment i n a 20 s m a l l e r a r e a . F o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h s l e n d e r r e s o u r c e s t h i s i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o m p r o m i s e . From t h e i n d u s t r i a l s u r v e y i t s h o u l d become c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s a f e a s i b l e u n d e r t a k i n g . A f t e r t h e d e c i s i o n t o p r o c e e d has been t a k e n , t h e n e x t t a s k w i l l be t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a s u i t a b l e s i t e f r o m t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h w i l l have emerged from t h e l a n d use s u r v e y . Bredo has l i s t e d a number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h 21 w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e f i n a l s i t e s e l e c t i o n . These i n c l u d e : -t h e c o m p a r a t i v e e a s e o f l a n d a s s e m b l y ; t h e p r e s e n t z o n i n g ; t h e s i z e o f t h e t r a c t , t h e s l o p e o f t h e l a n d ; t h e c o s t o f F. S t u a r t C h a p i n , U r b a n Land Use P l a n n i n g ( U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s " i 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 129. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 1 4 0 . 21 B r e d o , op. c i t . t p. 79 e t s e q q . 171 i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s ; t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f e c o n o m i c a l t r a n s -p o r t ; a c c e s s t o r a i l r o a d s and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; 22 and a c c e s s t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . A s u p e r f i c i a l a s s e s s m e n t o f e a c h a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e above f a c t o r s may be enough t o b a s e a d e c i s i o n on b u t i f n e c e s s a r y a de-t a i l e d c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s may be made. I n t h e c a s e o f Richmond, B. C., t h e i n d u s t r i a l s t u d i e s o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f 23 d e v e l o p i n g a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n N o r t h Richmond, b u t t h e d e c i d i n g f a c t o r t h a t i n d u c e d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t was t h e d e s i r e o f t h e owners t o s e l l t h e s i t e t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n t o a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r . 2 4 I n t h i s c a s e a l l t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as z o n i n g , s i z e o f t r a c t , c o s t o f u t i l i t i e s and a c c e s s t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , were f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . 2 2 I b i d . Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d o f B. C. I n d u s t r i a l L a nd P r o s p e c t s (New W e s t m i n s t e r ; Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , November 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1 8 . S t a t e m e n t by W i l l i a m K e r r , Richmond M u n i c i p a l P l a n n e r , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 172 W h i l e i t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o examine t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s i t e p l a n n i n g o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , some o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s w i l l be m e n t i o n e d b r i e f l y . The U n i t e d N a t i o n s p a m p h l e t on "The P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s " has t h i s t o s a y a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a compre-h e n s i v e p l a n f o r d e v e l o p m e n t f o r a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t : 2 ^ I t i s j u s t as n e c e s s a r y t o have a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n o f d e v e l o p m e n t f o r an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e as i t i s f o r a community. T h i s i s c a l l e d p r e - p r o j e c t o r a d v a n c e p l a n n i n g , and i t i s d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e o r d e r l y d e v e l o p m e n t and t h a t t h e s i t e w i l l be e c o n o m i c a l c o n v e n i e n t and a t t r a c t i v e t o i n d u s t r i a l u s e r s . Such a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n o f d e v e l o p -ment s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p o s s i b l e s i t e s and why t h e p r o p o s e d s i t e has been s e l e c t e d ; a t e n t a t i v e l a y o u t i n c l u d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f s t r e e t s , a c c e s s r o a d s , r a i l and u t i l i t y e a s e m e n t s , b u i l d -i n g l i n e s , e t c . , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s t o be o f f e r e d t o t h e t e n a n t s : w h e t h e r f a c t o r i e s w i l l be p r o -v i d e d and t h e i r d e s i g n and r a n g e s o f t y p e s ; p r o v i s i o n , i f any, f o r s u c h communal f a c i l i t i e s as c a n t e e n s , h e a l t h s t a t i o n , p o s t o f f i c e , and bank and f o r t h e v a r i o u s i n d u s -t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as t r a i n i n g and a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s , and l a n d f o r e x p a n s i o n . The a c t u a l s i t e p l a n w i l l depend t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s i t i s hoped t o a t t r a c t t o t h e d i s t r i c t , and t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i t e i t s e l f . However, Bredo has l i s t e d a number o f p r i n c i p l e s U n i t e d N a t i o n s , The P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l  E s t a t e s (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 1 0 . 173 w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and 26 e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e d i s t r i c t , and. w h i c h i n c l u d e s u c h c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s as m i n i m i z i n g t h e l e n g t h o f r o a d s , r a i l w a y s and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s t o r e d u c e c o s t s , p r o v i d i n g a c h o i c e o f s i t e s i z e s t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s , z o n i n g t h e d i s t r i c t i t s e l f i n o r d e r t o s e g r e g a t e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d u s t r y , and m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h d e g r e e o f f l e x -i b i l i t y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . To l o o k a f t e r a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o r d i s -t r i c t s p r o p e r l y , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l have t o h i r e p r o f e s -s i o n a l f u l l - t i m e management. The most p r o m i s i n g d e v i c e i s t h e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t d e p a r t m e n t ( a s i n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a ) w o r k i n g i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t and t h e C o u n c i l . To e n s u r e t h a t t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w i l l be a s u c c e s s , i t has t o be v i g o u r o u s l y p r o m o t e d and t h i s w o u l d be one o f t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y . The p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e tence t h u s a c q u i r e d w o u l d pay d i v i d e n d s s h o u l d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y d e c i d e t o expand i t s p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m . 5. E f f e c t s o f a P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t D e v elopment P r o g r a m The a d v a n t a g e s o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t o t h e community have been d e t a i l e d a b o v e . They i n c l u d e : - t h e B r e d o , op. c i t . , p. 87. 174 a t t r a c t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i n t o t h e community; an i n c r e a s e i n t h e t a x b a s e ; c o n t r o l o v e r i n d u s t r i a l n u i s a n c e s ; t h e p r o v i s i o n o f j o b s ; and r e d u c e d c o s t s f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n o f s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s t o i n d u s t r y . The d i s a d v a n t a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , a r e m a i n l y t h e r e s u l t o f p o o r p l a n n i n g . Some s i d e - e f f e c t s , s u c h as an i n c r e a s e i n r e s i d e n -t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , a r e i n e v i t a b l y c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and i t i s f a r more p r e f e r a b l e t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d accompany i n d u s t r y i n t o t h e community r a t h e r t h a n p r e c e d e i t . One o f t h e m a j o r e f f e c t s o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s -t r i c t program s p o n s o r e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w o u l d be a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s w o u l d r e d u c e s p e c u l a t i o n b u t i f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y d i d n o t i t s e l f u n d e r t a k e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , p r i c e s c o u l d s t i l l r e m a i n p r o h i b i t i v e l y h i g h and f o r c e i n d u s t r i e s s e e k i n g s i t e s t o l o o k e l s e w h e r e . The e f f e c t s o f a m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and s e l l them a t c o s t o r l e a s e them a t f a v o u r a b l e r a t e s have been commented on by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d as f o l l o w s : 175 P r i c e s w i t h i n an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s h o u l d n o t be t o o d i f f e r e n t f r o m n o r m a l m a r k e t v a l u e s . H i g h l a n d p r i c e s a r e n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s e v i l , b u t p e r f o r m a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n i n c i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . They n o r m a l l y mean s m a l l e r s i t e s , w h i c h i n t u r n mean h i g h e r employment d e n s i t i e s and t h e s e , when c o n c e n t r a t e d n e a r f o c a l p o i n t s on a h i g h w a y s y s t e m o r n e a r good t r a n s i t l o c a t i o n s , c o n s t i t u t e e f f i c -i e n t use o f b o t h l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s . D i s r u p t i o n o f t h e p a t t e r n o f l a n d v a l u e s w o u l d d i s r u p t t h e n o r m a l d e v e l o p -ment p a t t e r n . I n s t e a d t h e aim s h o u l d be m e r e l y t o t e m p e r l a n d v a l u e s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o e n s u r e t h a t no i n d u s t r i e s a r e l o s t , o r t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t where d e s i r e d . 2 7 W h i l e t h i s r e s p e c t f o r t h e " n o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n " i s sometimes commendable, one may q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e n o r m a l p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t has p r o d u c e d c o n v e n i e n t , e f f i c i e n t , and e c o n o m i c c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e p a s t o r i s l i k e l y t o do so i n t h e f u t u r e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , s h a l l t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t be deemed t o be s e r v e d by l e t t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t t a k e i t s n a t u r a l c o u r s e , o r i s t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y j u s t i f i e d i n s t e p p i n g i n and a l t e r i n g t h e " n o r m a l p a t t e r n " by a c q u i r i n g and d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s as p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s -t r i c t s and p u t t i n g them on t h e m a r k e t a t s o m e t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e s o - c a l l e d m a r k e t v a l u e ( w h i c h may be somewhat t h e o r e t i c a l s i n c e l i t t l e l a n d i s c h a n g i n g hands and t h e " a s k i n g " p r i c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e l l i n g p r i c e i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t ) ? I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " p r o m p t i n g t h e use o f c o n t r o l s , C h a p i n c i t e s " h e a l t h and s a f e t y " , Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , op. c i t . p. 18. 176 2 8 " c o n v e n i e n c e " , "economy", and " a m e n i t y " . He d e f i n e s " c o n v e n i e n c e " as "a d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e l o c a t i o n a l a r r a n g e -ments o f l a n d use and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t each f u n c t i o n a l 29 use a r e a b e a r s t o e v e r y o t h e r o n e". He c o n s i d e r s c o n v e n -i e n c e as c a p a b l e o f b e i n g " j u d g e d i n terms o f home-to-work, w o r k - t o - r e c r e a t i o n , h o m e - t o - s h o p p i n g , s h o p p i n g - t o - w o r k and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r a r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t r i n s i c t o t h e u r b a n 30 l a n d use p a t t e r n . He a s s o c i a t e s economy w i t h " e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e l a n d u se p a t t e r n and i t s p u b l i c c o s t i m p l i c a t i o n s , w h e t h e r i n t e r m s o f m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s o r c o s t t o t h e 31 u r b a n i t e i n g e n e r a l " , and b e l i e v e s t h a t " t h e l o c a t i o n o f use a r e a s and t h e i r i n t e n s i t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e key c o n s i d -e r a t i o n s o f e c o n o m y " . 3 2 I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l w h i c h s e e k s t o enhance t h e a m e n i t y , c o n v e n i e n c e and economy o f t h e community t h r o u g h p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p -ment i s s i m p l y s e r v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t by p r e v e n t i n g u n d e s i r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f 2 8 C h a p i n , op. c i t . , p. 42 e t s e q q . 2 9 I b i d . , p. 50. 3 ^ I b i d . 31 I b i d . , p. 51 e t s e q . 32 I b i d . , p. 52. 177 t h e r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . T h i s i s a l e g i t -i m a t e a c t i o n o f government and w h i l e s p e c u l a t o r s i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w i l l o b j e c t s t r o n g l y t h e o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n w i l l a p p l a u d t h e wisdom o f t h e d e c i s i o n . When t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f R i c h m o n d , B. C. d e c i d e d t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t , i n t h e e n s u i n g m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s t h o s e who r a n f o r o f f i c e on a p l a t f o r m o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s p u b l i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e 3 3 i n d u s t r i a l l a n d m a r k e t were s o u n d l y d e f e a t e d . The m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l n o t , however, have t o o f f e r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a t p r i c e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r t h a n c u r r e n t m a r k e t p r i c e s , b u t s h o u l d e n d e a v o u r t o keep them r o u g h l y on a p a r w i t h t h e g o i n g r a t e . The a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h e i n d u s -t r i a l i s t w i l l be i n t h e number and r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d i n a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t as compared w i t h t h o s e u s u a l l y o f f e r e d i n a raw i n d u s t r i a l t r a c t . An i m p o r t a n t s i d e - e f f e c t o f a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e d i n d u s -t r i a l d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m i s t h e g e n e r a l u p - g r a d i n g o f t h e q u a l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . To compete w i t h t h e p u b l i c l y - o w n e d d i s t r i c t s , p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s have t o o f f e r t o i n d u s t r y a r a n g e o f s e r v i c e s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f f e r e d i n t h e p u b l i c l y - o w n e d d i s t r i c t . T h i s d o u b l e e f f e c t S t a t e m e n t by Mr. W i l l i a m K e r r , Richmond M u n i c i p a l P l a n n e r , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 178 o f k e e p i n g p r i c e s l o w and q u a l i t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t h i g h has been commented on by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d as f o l l o w s : I n Edmonton, C a l g a r y and o t h e r p r a i r i e c i t i e s r e l a -t i v e l y l o w l a n d p r i c e s have been m a i n t a i n e d and v e r y a t t r a c t i v e e s t a t e s have been d e v e l o p e d , t o t h e g r e a t b e n e f i t o f t h e community as a w h o l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s have had t h e most d e s i r a b l e s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t o f m a k i n g c o m p e t i n g l a n d owners match t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c i t y ' s p r o d u c t , so t h a t C a l g a r y i n p a r t i c u l a r now has s e v e r a l s u c h e s t a t e s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . 3 4 The f a c t t h a t p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s c a n compete w i t h t h e c i t y and s t i l l make a p r o f i t i s u n d o u b t e d l y one o f t h e s t r o n g e s t a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e i n t h e fo r m o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p m e n t . 6. C o n c l u s i o n The g r o w t h o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r y i n t h e 2 0 t h C e n t u r y has made t h e modern-day i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n b o t h n e c e s s a r y and p o s s i b l e . The s h i f t t o m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n methods p i o n e e r e d by t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r y l e d t o t h e m i g r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y f r o m t h e c e n t r a l c i t y t o t h e s u b u r b s i n s e a r c h o f s p a c e t o b u i l d s i n g l e - s t o r e y f a c t o r i e s and h o r i z o n t a l p r o d u c -t i o n l i n e s . The i n d u s t r y ' s p r o d u c t , t h e a u t o m o b i l e , made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e employee t o t r a v e l l o n g e r d i s t a n c e s from h i s home t o h i s p l a c e o f work. As p e o p l e grew more a f f l u e n t Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , o p. c i t . , p. 18. 179 t h e y demanded b e t t e r , s a f e r , more c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e s i n w h i c h t o l i v e . The r e s u l t has been t h e p l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l s u b -d i v i s i o n . W i t h t h e g r o w t h o f l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l m a r k e t s i n t h e s u b u r b s t h e downtown s h o p p i n g c e n t r e became i n c o n v e n i e n t t o use and t h e r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t e r has e v o l v e d . I n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s o r so i n t e r e s t has grown i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f p l e a s a n t , c o n v e n i e n t and e f f i c i e n t w o r k i n g p l a c e s ; hence t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n b u t w i t h d i f f e r e n t 35 l o c a t i o n a l n e e d s . 5ome l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h a t w o u l d n o r m a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d d e t r i m e n t a l t o a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , s u c h as t h e p r o x i m i t y o f a m a j o r h i g h w a y , r a i l w a y , o r a i r p o r t , a r e d e f i n i t e a d v a n t a g e s t o a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . S i n c e one o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s t h a t i t makes i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i t can c o n v e n i e n t l y be us e d to a c t as a b u f f e r between r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and t h o s e u s e s w h i c h o f t h e i r n a t u r e a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . Thus t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s an i m p o r t a n t p o t e n t i a l b u i l d i n g b l o c k f o r a c o n v e n i e n t , e f f i c i e n t , e c o n o m i c a l community. The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Home B u i l d e r s , Home  B u i l d e r s M a n u a l f o r Land D e v e l o p m e n t (2nd r e v . e d . : W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Home B u i l d e r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 222. 180 I t i s p a s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s i n a community w h i c h a r e p o t e n t i a l p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , b u t even when a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r i s w i l l i n g t o d e v e l o p s u c h s i t e s on a p l a n n e d b a s i s he i s p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g so by h i g h l a n d p r i c e s , f r a g m e n t e d o w n e r s h i p , and i n some c a s e s , l a c k o f p r o t e c t i o n s u c h as i s g i v e n by a community p l a n and z o n i n g b y l a w . At t h e same t i m e t h e community f i n d s i t s t a x -a t i o n b u r d e n g r o w i n g y e a r by y e a r t o pay f o r the s c h o o l s , s t r e e t s and u t i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . I n such c a s e s t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o t h e community becomes v i r t u a l l y a n e c e s s i t y . I n Canada many o f t h e g r o w i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s . O t h e r c i t i e s i n t h e d e p r e s s e d r e g i o n s a r e f a c e d w i t h d e c l i n i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and t h e b i g c i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s s u f f e r t a x l o s s e s f r o m t h e m i g r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y f r o m t h e c e n t r a l c i t i e s t o t h e s u b u r b s . F o r t h e s e p r o b l e m s t h e use o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s p r o p o s e d as t h e most p r o m i s i n g s o l u t i o n . By- means o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t h e c e n t r a l c i t y c a n r e o r g a n i z e i t s p r e s e n t i n d u s t r i a l s l u m s as h i g h -c l a s s p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s , w i t h o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g and l o a d i n g p r o v i s i o n s and s h a r e d f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as r e s t a u r a n t s , b a n k s and d i s p l a y a r e a s , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e e a s i n g o f t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n i n c i t y s t r e e t s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g 181 t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , and i n c r e a s e d r e v e n u e f r o m i n d u s t r y . The o l d e r c i t y w i t h d e c l i n i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s c a n use t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t o f o s t e r l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l i n i t i a t i v e , t o s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n i n d u s t r y , and t o a t t r a c t b r a n c h p l a n t s o f n a t i o n a l f i r m s t o s e r v e t h e l o c a l m a r k e t f r o m l o w - c o s t and w e l l - s e r v i e e d i n d u s -t r i a l s i t e s . F o r t h e " f r i n g e " m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h a n a r r o w t a x b a s e and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t u n t e d by s p e c u l a t i o n i n i n d u s -t r i a l l a n d , t h e p u b l i c l y - p r o m o t e d p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o f f e r s t h e g r e a t e s t d i v i d e n d s . I t c a n i m p r o v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e and e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e community by c o n s o l i d a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d e s i r a b l e t y p e i n t h e a r e a s most s u i t a b l e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f o v e r a l l community d e v e l o p m e n t ; i t c a n temper i n d u s t r i a l l a n d p r i c e s t o t h e p o i n t where i n d u s t r y c a n a f f o r d t o buy s i t e s w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ; i t c a n s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h u s c r e a t i n g a f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e f o r i n d u s -t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . F i n a l l y , t h e i n c r e a s e d employment and r e v e n u e f r o m t a x e s w i l l s t r e n g t h e n t h e e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e community as a w h o l e . C a n a d i a n e c o n o m i c p h i l o s o p h y does n o t d i s a p p r o v e o f a m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p m e n t . Such a p o l i c y i s p e r m i s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e framework o f C a n a d i a n 182 m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e r e a r e many ex a m p l e s o f i t s s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e t h e a d o p t i o n o f a p r o g r a m o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t d e v e l o p m e n t , w h e r e v e r f e a s i b l e , i s recommended f o r C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . SUMMARY Though t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i s a u s e f u l d e v i c e i n c r e a t i n g an e f f i c i e n t community i t has i t s l i m i t a -t i o n s . I t i s s u i t a b l e o n l y f o r a r e s t r i c t e d r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i e s ; i t i m p o s e s h i g h s e r v i c i n g c o s t s on t h e commu n i t y ; and i t a t t r a c t s r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h p r o d u c e s l i t t l e -t a x r e v e n u e f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y a community s h o u l d w e i g h c a r e f u l l y t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s b e f o r e d e c i d i n g t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . A s u c c e s s f u l p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s a r e g i o n a l as w e l l as a community p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m . I n a d d i t i o n t h e community s h o u l d o p e r a t e u n d e r a c a p i t a l b u d g e t i n g s y s t e m ; i t s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e an i n d u s t r i a l s u r v e y ; i t s h o u l d i d e n t i f y and r e s e r v e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d ; i t s h o u l d s e l l t h e i d e a t o t h e c i t i z e n s ; and i t s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e an a c t i v e p r o m o t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g c a m p a i g n . P l a n n i n g t h e d i s t r i c t w i l l i n c l u d e an i n d u s t r i a l s u r v e y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s i t e and a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d i s t r i c t . The l a y o u t o f t h e s i t e w i l l be a c c o r d i n g t o t e s t e d p r i n c i p l e s o f i n d u s t r i a l s i t e p l a n n i n g 183 and w i l l depend on t h e t y p e o f i n d u s t r y e x p e c t e d as w e l l as t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i t e i t s e l f . The commun-i t y w i l l have t o d e v e l o p an a d e q u a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m t o u n d e r t a k e t h e management o f t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p u b l i c l y - o w n e d p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t w i l l have c e r t a i n s i d e e f f e c t s on t h e c o m m u n i t y . The m a r k e t f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w i l l be m o d i f i e d , p r o v o k i n g o p p o s i t i o n f r o m s p e c u l a t o r s and p e r h a p s f r o m r e a l e s t a t e i n t e r e s t s a l s o . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y may s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s t o d e v e l o p p r i v a t e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , t h u s enhan-c i n g t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e community t o i n d u s t r y . P u b l i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i n i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s j u s t i f i e d on " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " g r o u n d s . P l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s p r omote t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a h e a l t h f u l , c o n v e n i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l community. The p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e i n Canada i s g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e t o p u b l i c l y owned i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s and s u c h an u n d e r t a k i n g i s w i t h i n t h e l e g a l powers o f t h e C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l i t y . I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t , w h e r e v e r f e a s i b l e , C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s s h o u l d p r o m o t e t h e use o f p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l - d i s t r i c t s as a t o o l t o a c h i e v e e f f i c i e n t community d e v e l o p m e n t . 184 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS A i t k e n , Hugh G. J . , "The C h a n g i n g S t r u c t u r e o f t h e C a n a d i a n Economy", The C a n a d i a n Economy; S e l e c t e d R e a d i n g s . E d i t e d by J o h n J . D e u t s c h and o t h e r s . T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 , pp. 524-549. A l e x a n d e r , J o h n W. "The B a s i c - N o n b a s i c C o n c e p t o f U r b a n Economic F u n c t i o n s " , R e a d i n g s i n U r b a n G e o g r a p h y . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1959, pp. 87-104. B a l d w i n , W i l l i a m L e e . A R e p o r t on t h e D a r t m o u t h C o l l e g e C o n f e r e n c e on I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s . H a n o v e r , New H a m p s h i r e : A r t h u r D. L i t t l e , I n c . and t h e 5 t a t e o f New H a m p s h i r e , 1958, 87 pp. B o y l a n , M y l e s . E c o n o m i c s o f t h e Community. M i n n e a p o l i s : C u r r i c u l u m R e s o u r c e s , I n c . , 1 9 6 1 . I l l pp. B r e d o , W i l l i a m . I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s — T o o l f o r I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . M enlo P a r k , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , I 9 6 0 . 240 pp. C h a p i n , F. S., J r . U r b a n Land Use P l a n n i n g . U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 . 397 pp. C o r r y , J . A. D e m o c r a t i c Government and P o l i t i c s . R e v i s e d e d . by J . E. H o d g e t t s . T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 . 691 pp. D o u g l a s s , P a u l . The ABC o f I n d u s t r i a l P a r k D e v e l o p m e n t . W i n t e r P a r k , F l o r i d a : C e n t e r f o r P r a c t i c a l P o l i t i c s , R o l l i n s C o l l e g e , 1 9 6 1 . 102 pp. E a s t e r b r o o k , W. T., and Hugh G. J . A i t k e n , C a n a d i a n E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y . T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 56. 606 pp. E s t a l l , R. C , and R. O g i l v i e B u c h a n a n . I n d u s t r i a l A c t i v i t y  and E c o n omic G e o g r a p h y . L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n and Co. ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . , 1 9 6 1 . 232 pp. 185 F l o r e n c e , P. S a r g a n t . I n d u s t r y and t h e 5tate» L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n and Co. ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . , 1 9 5 7 . 196 pp. . The L o g i c o f B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n I n d u s t r y . London: R o u t l e d g e &. Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1 9 5 3 . 368 pp. G a l b r a i t h , J . K. The A f f l u e n t S o c i e t y . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a -c h u s e t t s : Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1958. 368 pp. G o r d o n , W a l t e r L. T r o u b l e d Canada: The Need f o r New D o m e s t i c  P o l i c i e s . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 . 134 pp. H a c k e t t , C h a r l e s W. An A n a l y s i s o f P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s . O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r No. 4. S e a t t l e : B u s i n e s s R e s e a r c h B u r e a u , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n ( S t a t e ) , 1 9 56. 54 pp. H i g b e e , Edward. The S q u e e z e : C i t i e s W i t h o u t S p a c e . T o r o n t o : George J . McLeod L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 0 . 348 pp. H o o v e r , E d g a r M., and Raymond V e r n o n . Anatomy o f a M e t r o p o l i s . New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y and Company, I n c . , 1962. 338 pp. Howard, E b e n e z e r . Tomorrow: A P e a c e f u l P a t h t o R e a l R e f o r m . L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , L i m i t e d , 1 9 4 5 . K e y n e s , J o h n M a y n a r d . The G e n e r a l T h e o r y o f Employment, I n t e r e s t and Money. L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n and Company, L i m i t e d , 1 9 3 6 . 403 pp. L e e , James R., and G i l b e r t K. H. Wong. An A n a l y s i s o f O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s . M e n l o P a r k , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 5 9 . 29 pp. L o g i e , G ordon. I n d u s t r y i n Towns. L o n d o n : George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 5 2 . 376 pp. M i l l e r , E. W i l l a r d . A Geography o f M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 2 . 490 pp. Pumphrey, R o n a l d . I n d u s t r y and Town P l a n n i n g . R e b u i l d i n g B r i t a i n S e r i e s , No. 6. L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r L i m i t e d , 1 9 4 1 . 36 pp. R o d w i n , L l o y d . The B r i t i s h New Towns P o l i c y . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 956. 252 pp. 186 Rowat, D o n a l d C. Y o u r L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t . T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 62. 148 pp. S a y w e l l , J o h n T., and J o h n C. R i c k e r . How A r e We G o v e r n e d ? T o r o n t o , V a n c o u v e r : C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 1 . 102 pp. S e l f , P e t e r . C i t i e s i n F l o o d : The P r o b l e m s o f Urba n G r o w t h . L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1 9 5 7 . 189 pp. • The P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n . L o n d o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1953. 48 pp. She a , A l b e r t A. Canada 1 9 8 0 . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d , M a r c h 1 9 6 0 . 107 pp. S m i t h , Adam. An I n q u i r y i n t o t h e N a t u r e and Causes o f t h e W e a l t h o f N a t i o n s . L o n d o n : Methuen and Co., 1904. 4 t h e d . 2 v o l s . W a l k e r , R o b e r t A. The P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n i n U r b a n Government. C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 . 2nd e d . 410 pp. W r i g l e y , R o b e r t L., J r . " O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s " . R e a d i n g s i n U r b a n G e o g r a p h y . E d i t e d by H a r o l d M. Mayer and C l y d e F. Kohn. C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . S e c t i o n 1 4, pp. 4 7 8 - 4 9 5 . B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED S O C I E T I E S , AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l . L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e f o r Economic D e v e l o p m e n t . P a m p h l e t No. 6. H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a : A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 3 . 51 pp. • I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s and E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t . H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a : A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 3 . 23 pp. B o l e y , R o b e r t E. I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s : P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i c e . T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 44. W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e , December, 1 962. 197 pp. 187 « I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s R e s t u d i e d - An A n a l y s i s o f  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 4 1 . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , A p r i l , 1 9 6 1 . 77 pp. C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . B i g C i t y . T o r o n t o : C i t i z e n s ' Forum N a t i o n a l O f f i c e . P a m p h l e t No. 3. M a r c h -A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 . 18 pp. Committee on M a n i t o b a ' s E c o n o m i c F u t u r e . M a n i t o b a 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 7 5 . W i n n i p e g : The Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , 1 9 6 3 . Paged by c h a p t e r s . C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e T o w n s h i p o f S c a r b o r o u g h . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o , Canada: The New I n d u s t r i a l P u l s e o f T o r o n t o . T o r o n t o : C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e T o w n s h i p o f S c a r b o r o u g h , 1958. Unpaged. D r i e d g e r , E l m e r A. A C o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h  A m e r i c a A c t s , 1867 t o 1952. O t t a w a : Roger Duhamel, F.R.C.S., Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 2 . 50 pp. The E d i t o r s o f F o r t u n e . The E x p l o d i n g M e t r o p o l i s . Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y &. Company, I n c . , 1 9 5 7 . 177 pp. F u l l e r t o n , D. H., and H. A. Hampson. C a n a d i a n S e c o n d a r y I n d u s t r y . O t t a w a : R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on Canada's E c o n o m i c P r o s p e c t s , 1 9 5 7 . 274 pp. G i l m o r e , D o n a l d R. D e v e l o p i n g t h e ' L i t t l e ' E c o n o m i e s . S u p p l e m e n t a r y P a p e r o f t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e , Committee f o r E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 0 . 200 pp. G u l i c k , L u t h e r * ' " R e a c t i o n s t o M e t r o p o l i t a n E x p a n s i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a " , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ( H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , Nos. 12 &. 1 3 ) . New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 9 . pp. 1 7 9 - 1 9 3 . Howland, R. Some R e g i o n a l A s p e c t s o f Canada's E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t . O t t a w a : E. C l o u t i e r , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 7 . 302 pp. Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 6 3 . New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , December, 1 9 6 3 . 8 pp. 188 _ . Chance and C h a l l e n g e : A C o n c e p t and P l a n f o r t h e Devel o p m e n t o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d o f B. C , December, 1 9 6 3 . 24 pp. . I n d u s t r i a l Land P r o s p e c t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B. C. New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , November, 1 9 6 1 . 40 pp. • The Dyn a m i c s o f I n d u s t r i a l L a nd S e t t l e m e n t . New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 1 . 90 pp. M e t h v e n , M. D. P l a c e o f T r a d i n g E s t a t e s i n P l a n n i n g . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g Summer S c h o o l . L o n d o n : The Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 4 5 . pp. 91-106. M u n i c i p a l A c t (R.S.B.C. 1 9 6 0 , C h a p t e r 255; 1 9 6 1 , C h a p t e r 4 3 ; 1962 , C h a p t e r 4 1 ) . V i c t o r i a : The Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962. The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Home B u i l d e r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Home B u i l d e r s M a n u a l f o r L a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Home B u i l d e r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 2nd r e v i s e d e d . , 1 9 5 8 . 264 pp. Pasma, T h e o d o r e K. O r g a n i z e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s - A T o o l  f o r Community D e v e l o p m e n t . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ( U. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, O f f i c e o f T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s ) , 1 954. I l l pp. P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g . R e p o r t on t h e L o c a t i o n o f  I n d u s t r y . L o n d o n : P o l i t i c a l and Ec o n o m i c P l a n n i n g , M a r c h 1939. 314 pp. R o t e r u s , V i c t o r . P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s - A Case S t u d y . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce and H o u s i n g and Home F i n a n c e A g e n c y , n.d. 15 pp. U n i t e d N a t i o n s . The P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s . New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 962. 54 pp. U. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce. P l a n n i n g f o r New G r o w t h — N e w  J o b s . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C : U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ( A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , 1 9 6 2 . 28 pp. 189 C. PERIODICALS B o l e y , R o b e r t E. " E f f e c t s o f I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s on t h e Community", A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l , V o l . X X V I I , No. 4, O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 9 , pp. 554-560. " C a l g a r y , 1 9 6 1 " . W e s t e r n B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y . V o l . 35, No. 9, S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 1 , pp. 44-56. " C h a n g i n g F a c e o f S a s k a t o o n " . W e s t e r n B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y , V o l . 35, No. 4, A p r i l , 1 9 6 1 , pp. 38-42. C h i n i t z , P., and R. V e r n o n . " C h a n g i n g F o r c e s i n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , V o l . 38, No. 1, J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 0 , pp. 1 2 6 - 1 3 6 . Conway, H. M c K i n e l y , J r . " C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , C a n a d a " , I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 0 , pp. 62-76. F o g a r t y , F r a n k . " I n d u s t r i a l P a r k s — C i t y S t y l e " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Forum, V o l . I l l , No. 6, December, 1 9 5 9 , pp. 94-97. H e a t h e r i n g t o n , D o n a l d F. " L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y — B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e and Programs i n a M a t t e r V i t a l l y A f f e c t i n g T r a d e " , F o r e i g n Commerce W e e k l y , V o l . X X I I I , No. 5, May 4,1946, pp. 3-5, 50-54. H o l f o r d , S i r W i l l i a m Graham. "The L o c a t i o n and D e s i g n o f T r a d i n g E s t a t e s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e Town P l a n n i n g - I n s t i t u t e , V o l . 25, M a r c h 1 9 3 9 , pp. 1 5 0 - 1 6 7 . "An I n d u s t r i a l H e a r t f o r M e t r o p o l i s " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, V o l . 1 06, No. 6, J u n e , 1 9 5 7 , pp. 1 5 5 - 1 5 9 . Muncy, D o r o t h y A. "Land f o r I n d u s t r y — a N e g l e c t e d P r o b l e m " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , V o l . X X X I I , No. 2, M a r c h - A p r i l , 1 954, pp. 51-63. Murphy, R i c h a r d T., and W i l l i a m Lee B a l d w i n . " B u s i n e s s Moves t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l P a r k " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , V o l . X X X V I I , No. 3, May/June, 1959, pp. 79-88. "The P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l Community", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, V o l . 1 1 4 , No. 1, J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 1 , pp. 63-66. "The P l a n n e d I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, V o l . 1 0 0 , No. 4, A p r i l , 1 954, pp. 1 0 5 - 1 1 5 . 190 " P l a n n i n g f o r I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t " , O n t a r i o P l a n n i n g , V o l . 1 0, No. 3, 1 9 6 3 , pp. 1-4. Redwood, Hugh C. "An I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e " , The C a n a d i a n  A r c h i t e c t , S e v e n t h I s s u e , J u l y , 1 9 5 6 , pp. 14-18. Rose, A l b e r t . "The C h a l l e n g e o f M e t r o p o l i t a n G r o w t h " , Community P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , V o l . I V , 1954, pp. 97-103. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302537/manifest

Comment

Related Items