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The effectiveness of land use controls in curbing urban sprawl. A case study in Richmond, B.C. Foerstel, Hans-Joachim Fritz Otto Arthur 1964

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LAND USE CONTROLS IN CURBING URBAN SPRAWL. A CASE STUDY IN RICHMOND, B. C. by HANS-JOACHIM FRITZ OTTO ARTHUR- FOERSTEL B . S c i C i v . Eng., The U n i v e r s i t y o f New Brunswick, 1959 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of Community and R e g i o n a l i P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d sta'ndard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Community &, R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , . V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . D a t e A p r i l . 1964.  i i ABSTRACT The movement of p o p u l a t i o n from r u r a l t o urban areas has been accompanied i n North America by the e x p l o s i v e d i s p e r s a l of the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n t o suburban a r e a s . Much of the r e s u l t i n g l o w - d e n s i t y suburban r e s i d e n t i a l growth has developed i n an u n c o o r d i n a t e d , i n e f f i c i e n t p a t t e r n d e s t r o y -i n g the a m e n i t i e s and appearance o f , and i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h , the a g r i c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f the c o u n t r y s i d e , y e t not p r o v i d i n g adequate urban a m e n i t i e s . This phenomenon of "urban s p r a w l " i s u n d e s i r a b l e s i n c e i t devours v a s t areas of l a n d i n an uneconomic p a t t e r n , c r e a t e s problems f o r both the r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l use of the l a n d i n urban-i z i n g a r e a s , and compromises f u t u r e urban development. The most d i r e c t means of m i n i m i z i n g urban s p r a w l and promoting b e t t e r l a n d use i s the s t r i c t enforcement o f r a t i o n a l l a n d -use c o n t r o l s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l to examine the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f s p e c i f i c l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s to the urban s p r a w l problem, and t o t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these c o n t r o l s i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s i n o r d e r to a r r i v e at a m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y f o r c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . S i n c e s o c i a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n f l u e n c e the use of and development on l a n d , a comprehensive view must be taken o f the f u n c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s , and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s to combat urban s p r a w l . Although c o n t r o l s d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the use o f l a n d appear to i n f l u e n c e the p a t t e r n of i t s development most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , a number of " i n d i r e c t " c o n t r o l s may be -of use i n g u i d i n g the p a t t e r n of development and the use of l a n d . Although the causes o f urban s p r a w l and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are many and s t i l l under d i s c u s s i o n and s t u d y , i t i s g e n e r a l l y acknow-l e d g e d t h a t the l a c k of c o n t r o l over l a n d use and development i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t , p e r m i s s i v e , cause o f urban s p r a w l . The h y p o t h e s i s i s advanced " t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l l i e s w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Government, which s h o u l d ensure t h a t i t s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s implement a comprehensive l a n d development p o l i c y " . F o l l o w i n g a g e n e r a l r e view of land-use c o n t r o l s and urban s p r a w l , d i r e c t l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s , such as r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , and m u n i c i -p a l s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s , are examined w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n a m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y aimed at c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . To a r r i v e at a method f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l e c t e d l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s f o r t h e i r normal, designed purpose, p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r s of the i n c i d e n c e of and changes i n the c h a r a c t e r and l o c a t i o n of urban s p r a w l are d i s c u s s e d . A s i m p l i f i e d method i s then proposed and a p p l i e d t o an u r b a n i z i n g area to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i t s land-use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . I t i s found t h a t the waste of l a n d and the p a t t e r n of l a n d uses c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of urban s p r a w l have s e r i o u s i v i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e as w e l l as f o r the p r e s e n t . Urban s p r a w l , a r e g i o n a l phenomenon, r e q u i r e s a r e g i o n a l , c o o r d i n a t e d l a n d development p o l i c y ; z o n i n g s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s can be used to curb urban s p r a w l on a l o c a l s c a l e . The complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s found to e x i s t between c o n t r o l s d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g the use of l a n d make f u r t h e r study n e c e ssary and, to a degree, f r u s t r a t e the attempt to d e v i s e a methodology f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i r e c t land-use con-t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . I t i s concluded t h a t r e m e d i a l p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n can be drawn up i m m e d i a t e l y on the b a s i s of e x p e r i e n c e gained so f a r w i t h urban s p r a w l . However, a p o l i c y d i r e c t e d at c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l ought to be a compon-ent p a r t o f a l a r g e r p o l i c y having the o b j e c t i v e of promoting d e s i r a b l e forms of urban development. The P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment i s f u l l y and s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s and t h e r e f o r e has the solemn duty t o ensure t h a t urban s p r a w l i s curbed e f f e c t i v e l y and i m m e d i a t e l y . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I sh o u l d l i k e to thank the many people who i n v a r i o u s ways a s s i s t e d the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s ; t h e i r i n v a l -u a b l e help i s indeed a p p r e c i a t e d . Thanks are due to Dr. H. P. Ober l a n d e r , Head, Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; Dr. K. J . C r o s s , o f the same Department; and Miss M. Dwyer and s t a f f of the F i n e A r t s s e c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , f o r t h e i r encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h i s t h e s i s . E s p e c i a l l y s i n c e r e thanks are extended t o Dr. Cross f o r h i s i n t e r e s t i n the t h e s i s , h i s prompt help and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m throughout i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . S i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d a l s o are the c o o p e r a t i o n pro-v i d e d by o f f i c i a l s o f The C o r p o r a t i o n o f The Township of Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, e s p e c i a l l y by the Town P l a n n e r , Mr. Wm. K e r r ; Mr. V. W i e l e r , the A s s i s t a n t Town P l a n n e r , and t h e i r s t a f f , i n making a v a i l a b l e so many o f t h e i r r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s f o r use i n t h i s t h e s i s and f o r d e v o t i n g v a l u a b l e time to d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r p l a n n i n g program. I thank my w i f e f o r her many hours o f t y p i n g and supp o r t d u r i n g the programme and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , the comple-t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . G r a t i t u d e i s extended to The C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n f o r the P l a n n i n g F e l l o w -s h i p s which so g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d the c o m p l e t i o n o f the two-year programme. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. . . v LIST OF TABLES . i x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS x URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE LAND USE PROBLEM OF URBAN SPRAWL 1 CHAPTER I . LAND USE CONTROLS IN NORTH AMERICA 4 A. DIRECT LAND USE CONTROLS 1. H i s t o r i c a l and L e g i s l a t i v e Background 5 2. Zoning . . . . . 7 3. S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s 19 B. INDIRECT LAND USE CONTROLS 1. Development Guidance 25 2. P u b l i c Land P o l i c y 32 3. Government C o o r d i n a t i o n 36 Reference Footnoes 39 I I . URBAN SPRAWL IN NORTH AMERICA 44 A. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 45 1. Land Development P a t t e r n 46 2. M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e D e f i c i e n c i e s . . . 47 3. Governmental F a i l u r e s 50 4. Encroachment on A g r i c u l t u r e 51 5. D i s r e g a r d f o r I n d u s t r i a l Land Needs . 53 6. S o c i a l Inconveniences 54 B. LAND 1. Land Fragmentation 56 2. Timing and L o c a t i o n of S u b d i v i s i o n . . 57 3. L o c a t i o n and S t a g i n g of Development . 59 4. Community Design 60 5. S t r e e t System . 61 v i i PAGE C. SERVICES 63 1. Access 64 2. Water Supply and 5ewage D i s p o s a l . . 65 3. Neighbourhood and D i s t r i c t S e r v i c e s . 67 D. LOCAL GOVERNMENT 71 Reference Footnotes 74 I I I . LAND USE CONTROLS AS TECHNIQUES FOR CURBING URBAN SPRAWL 77 A. CONTROLS RELATED TO LAND 1. Zoning C o n t r o l s 78 2. S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l s 87 3. L o c a t i o n and S t a g i n g of Development. 97 B. SERVICES 98 C. LOCAL GOVERNMENT 100 Reference Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 IV.. THE EVALUATION OF LAND USE CONTROLS AIMED AT CURBING URBAN SPRAWL 103 P o t e n t i a l E v a l u a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s : A. LAND 105 B. SERVICES 110 C. MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT . 115 V. RICHMOND, BRITISH COLUMBIA - A CASE STUDY.. . 117 A. DESCRIPTION OF RICHMOND, B. C 1. Geography and Community Growth . . . 120 2. Land C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 122 B. CA5E STUDY PROCEDURE FOR THE EVALUATION OF LAND USE CONTROLS 1. Zoning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P r i o r t o the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of Richmond's P l a n n i n g Department 128 2. Land Use C o n t r o l s Developed A f t e r the E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Richmond's P l a n n i n g Department 129 v i i i PAGE C. AN EVALUATION OF LAND USE CONTROLS IN RICHMOND 1. Zoning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P r i o r t o E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Richmond's P l a n n i n g Department 133 2. Land Use C o n t r o l s Developed A f t e r the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of Richmond's P l a n n i n g Department . . 147 D. CA5E STUDY CONCLUSIONS' 170 Reference Footnotes 175 V I . TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR CURBING URBAN SPRAWL 178 A. THE STUDY IN REVIEW 1. Summary of Study 179 2. Review o f Assumptions 180 3. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 180 4. Areas f o r F u r t h e r Study . . . . . . 182 5. R e l a t i o n of T h e o r e t i c a l Approach to Case Study R e s u l t s . . . 183 B. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 185 APPENDICES 191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 228 i x LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Richmond's Dependence on i\IHA-Insured Mortgages 137 2 Ri c h m o n d ' B u i l d i n g P e r m i t S t a t i s t i c s 137 3 Degree o f C u l t i v a t i o n R e l a t e d to Number of D w e l l i n g U n i t s and L o t s per s e c t i o n , and Acres per P a r c e l o f Land 158 Net D w e l l i n g U n i t I n c r e a s e and New R e s i d e n t i a l L o t s i n : 4 Block 4-6 220 5 Block 4-7 222 6 Block 5-6 . 224 7 Summary Table Showing Net D w e l l i n g U n i t I n c r e a s e and New R e s i d e n t i a l L o t s i n Richmond by Block and Range 1955 to 1963 . . 226 X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS MAP PAGE 1 Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, i n i t s M e t r o p o l i t a n and R e g i o n a l S e t t i n g 119 2 Land Use Map - Richmond, B. C. 123 3 Farming S o i l Map 124 4 Paved Main Roads 125 5 P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y - 1946 (1950) 134 6 Major Zoning Changes: 1946-1956 . . . . . . 135 7 Zoning Map f o r Bylaw No. 1134, December 28, 1949 . . 136 8 Major Zoning Changes: 1956-1963 139 9 Zoning Map f o r Bylaw No. 1430, October 29, 1956 140 10 P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y - 1957 (1961) 142 11 Year of Development o f Major S u b d i v i s i o n s . . 143 12 L e g a l Map 144 13 E x i s t i n g D w e l l i n g U n i t s and I n c i d e n c e of Sprawl • 145 14 Zoning Map f o r Bylaw No. 1971, June 10, 1963. 153 F i g u r e 1 Richmond, B. C. -P o p u l a t i o n Growth and Annual P o p u l a t i o n Increments . . . . 121 1 URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE LAND U5E PROBLEM OF URBAN SPRAWL Throughout the w o r l d , the r a p i d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n urban areas and s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n have c r e a t e d one o f the most c r i t i c a l problems today: p l a n n i n g the use o f l a n d . E s p e c i a l l y i n h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d and r e l a t i v e l y wealthy North America, the proc e s s of u r b a n i z a t i o n has been accom-panied by an "urban e x p l o s i o n " , the d i s p e r s a l o f the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n t o the c o u n t r y s i d e . Much o f the r e s u l t i n g low-d e n s i t y development i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n fragmented and un c o o r d i n a t e d f a s h i o n , d e s t r o y i n g the openness, appearance and l a n d use p a t t e r n o f the c o u n t r y s i d e u n n e c e s s a r i l y and compromising both the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e use of l a n d , y e t p r o v i d i n g n e i t h e r the a m e n i t i e s and atmosphere of a r u r a l s e t t i n g nor urban a m e n i t i e s . Such a p a t t e r n of development, known as "urban s p r a w l " , i s both u n d e s i r a b l e and uneconomical. That s p r a w l can oc c u r i s due p r i m a r i l y to the p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e unpreparedness o f , and l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n between, the l a r g e number o f l o c a l governments i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r communities 1 i n t e r e s t i n the most r a t i o n a l use and development o f t h e i r l a n d . T h i s t h e s i s i s based on the assumption t h a t t h e r e i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e t o the 2 most r a t i o n a l use o f the l i m i t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i f the o b j e c t i v e s of community p l a n n i n g are to be r e a l i z e d . Much a t t e n t i o n has been devoted to the phenomenon of urban s p r a w l by v a r i o u s governments, r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s concerned w i t h the development and c o n t r o l of urban l a n d . Urban sprawl i s so w a s t e f u l o f l a n d r e s o u r c e s t h a t most r e g i o n a l and m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n s i n v a r i a b l y draw a t t e n t i o n to t h i s f a c t and urge p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s to curb i t . I t would appear t h a t d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of urban s p r a w l c a l l s f o r a comprehensive approach to urban development; t h i s r e q u i r e s c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n , w i t h i n the branches of a l o c a l government, and between n e i g h b o u r i n g l o c a l governments, and F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i n f o r m u l a t i n g , a d m i n i s t e r i n g and a d j u s t i n g a l a n d development p o l i c y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a "comprehensive approach" r e f e r s to a p u b l i c l a n d development p o l i c y aimed at c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l and promoting the development o f a community on a r a t i o n a l and d e s i r a b l e b a s i s . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y i t i s the duty of the P r o v i n c i a l Government to p r o t e c t the resources', of and to promote sound development g e n e r a l l y i n the P r o v i n c e . From the p o i n t of view, a l s o , of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and b a s i c p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g urban development, the P r o v i n c i a l Government i s b e t t e r equipped than m u n i c i p a l governments and q u a s i - g o v e r n m e n t a l s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e bodies to cope w i t h the problem o f urban s p r a w l . I t i s p r e c i s e l y because the problem of urban s p r a w l has not yet been subjected' to the amount and q u a l i t y o f 3 r e s e a r c h , which i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e and magnitude would suggest i t s h o u l d have, t h a t t h i s t h e s i s was c o n c e i v e d . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the problem of urban s p r a w l i s beyond compre-h e n s i o n , l e t alone s o l u t i o n , by any one perso n . I f indeed t h e r e i s a s o l u t i o n , i t must i n c l u d e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , i n a d d i t i o n to the p h y s i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c t o r s , a l l of which tend t o promote a g e n e r a l urban d i s p e r s a l i n what may be c a l l e d a s p r a w l i n g type of r e s i d e n t i a l development. In t h i s t h e s i s an attempt i s made to develop an o v e r -a l l view of the problem of urban s p r a w l by examining as r a t i o n a l l y as p o s s i b l e i t s major a s p e c t s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and r e s o u r c e s p r e c l u d e a d e t a i l e d study of many of i t s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s . The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine the major a s p e c t s o f the urban s p r a w l problem; the o b j e c t i v e can be c o n s i d e r e d as c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e component p a r t s : a. t o determine the causes o f urban s p r a w l and to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these causes and l a n d use c o n t r o l s ; b. to e s t a b l i s h a procedure f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the va l u e of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l ; and c. t o t e s t t h i s procedure by means of a case study o f a s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y having a p o s i t i v e p o l i c y aimed at c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . The h y p o t h e s i s i s t h e r e f o r e advanced "THAT THE RESPON-SIBILITY FOR CURBING URBAN SPRAWL LIES WITH THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT, WHICH SHOULD ENSURE THAT ITS MUNICIPALITIES IMPLEMENT A COMPREHENSIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT POLICY". CHAPTER I LAND USE CONTROLS' IN NORTH AMERICA 5 A. DIRECT LAND U5E CONTROLS 1. HISTORICAL AND LEGISLATIVE BACKGROUND The h i s t o r y of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n North America i s a matter of record.^" A most v a l u a b l e r e a l i z a t i o n f o r the p l a n n e r i s t h a t "American l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s cannot be t r a c e d to an i d e o l o g i c a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r the planned community. There i s n o t h i n g U t o p i a n about those c o n t r o l s , and t h e i r o r i g i n i s to be found not i n a t h e o r y of town p l a n n i n g but i n the common law of nui s a n c e and i n the p u b l i c s t a t u t e s . 2 r e l a t i n g noxious i n d u s t r i e s " . There p r e v a i l s s t i l l "a r e a l antagonism towards anyone who presumes to l i m i t a man's 3 r i g h t to do as he p l e a s e s w i t h h i s own p r o p e r t y " . By and l a r g e i n North America today, however, r i g h t s i n h e r e n t i n the ownership o f r e a l p r o p e r t y the r i g h t t o use or not to use, to s e l l , to l e a s e , t o e n t e r , t o g i v e away, and f i n a l l y the r i g h t t o r e f u s e to e x e r c i s e any of these r i g h t s ^ have been m o d i f i e d i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . These r i g h t s of r e a l p r o p e r t y ownership are m o d i f i e d today p r i m a r i l y by the f i v e powers of government: " p o l i c e power"; power of expro-p r i a t i o n ("eminent domain"); t a x a t i o n power; spending power; and p r o p r i e t a r y power. These powers are e x e r c i s e d , i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , by the s e n i o r governments ( F e d e r a l ; P r o v i n c i a l and S t a t e ) , which are deemed to be s o v e r e i g n w i t h i n t h e i r , sphere of j u r i s d i c t i o n as s e t out i n the B.N.A. A c t ^ o r the 6 American C o n s t i t u t i o n , as the case may be. P r o v i n c i a l and S t a t e governments may then d e l e g a t e any or a l l of the s e powers, to t h e i r own a p p o i n t e e s , commissions, and l o c a l e l e c t e d b o d i e s . Any d e l e g a t i o n o f powers must be m a n i f e s t ; " e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n " i s t h e r e f o r e f a i r l y s p e c i f i c , i n a w e l l d r a f t e d s t a t u t e , to a v o i d m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and l i t i g a t i o n over i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The g e n e r a l power to c a r r y out community p l a n n i n g proceeds from such e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , which may a l s o s t a t e the aims of p l a n n i n g , the l i m i t a t i o n s o f l o c a l government power, the nature and scope of land-use c o n t r o l s , and the natu r e and scope of j u d i c i a l r e v i e w . R i g h t s of p r o p e r t y are s t i l l m o d i f i e d by common law co n c e p t s , as they have been from the b e g i n n i n g s of common law, al t h o u g h few o c c a s i o n s are l i k e l y to a r i s e today r e q u i r i n g common law judgements i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the use o f l a n d . The i n t e n t of s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l s on the r i g h t s and use of r e a l p r o p e r t y i s l a r g e l y t o prevent u n d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s o f l a n d use, not to puni s h f o r what c o u l d and s h o u l d have been prevented by p u b l i c a c t i o n . To the degree t h a t p u b l i c c o n t r o l s may work h a r d s h i p s on i n d i v i d u a l s , they a l s o prevent the i n d i v i d u a l from a c t i n g a g a i n s t h i s own i n t e r e s t and p r o t e c t the p u b l i c at l a r g e from the e f f e c t of h i s use of the l a n d . The i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n the use o f s t a t u t o r y l a n d use c o n t r o l s i s not whether o r not they s h o u l d be used, but how the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and i n d i v i d u a l s ' r i g h t s are weighted. 7 2. ZONING The most common la n d - u s e c o n t r o l d e v i c e i s "ZONING", which i n i t i a l l y was but the a s s i g n i n g of " p l a c e s i n each town, where l e a s t o f f e n s i v e , f o r s l a u g h t e r h o u s e s , s t i l l h o u s e s , and houses f o r t r y i n g t a l l o w and c u r r y i n g l e a t h e r " . "Compre-he n s i v e z o n i n g " meant the d i v i s i o n o f the whole area of a town i n t o zones p e r m i t t i n g uses and r e s t r i c t i n g the h e i g h t , bulk and l a y o u t of b u i l d i n g s . Zoning i s s t i l l based on the o r i g i n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f the New York o r d i n a n c e s : The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f comprehensive z o n i n g were developed b e f o r e the automobile e r a , the g r e a t expansion o f metro-p o l i t a n c i t i e s , and the t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n , s t i l l going on, i n ways of housing people, b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y . A f i r s t t e n e t of comprehensive z o n i n g was and s t i l l i s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to map an urban l a n d area i n t o d i s -t r i c t s i n which a c l a s s o r c l a s s e s of c o m p a t i b l e uses are p e r m i t t e d and uses c o m p a t i b l e w i t h them are p r o h i b i t e d . The f i r s t z o n e r s , however, l i k e d t h e i r d i s t r i c t s ' s t r a i g h t ' w i t h few or no a c c e s s o r y or mixed uses or b u i l d i n g types.7 Another t e n e t o f z o n i n g was and l a r g e l y s t i l l i s t h a t the l a n d b e i n g r e g u l a t e d i s c u t i n t o s m a l l l o t s , to be b u i l t on by d i v e r s e owners, one a t a t i m e . I t was n e g a t i v e r a t h e r than p o s i t i v e i n a p p l i c a t i o n . Perhaps the g r e a t e s t f l a w of t h i s b r i l l i a n t l y c o n c e i v e d l e g a l d e v i c e was t h a t , more o f t e n than not, i t was used as an end i n i t s e l f ; whereas any d e v i c e , i n f a c t , can be used p r o p e r l y o n l y when t h e r e i s an under-s t a n d i n g of the end to be a c h i e v e d . Zoning i s , a f t e r a l l , a t o o l which a m u n i c i p a l i t y or o t h e r g o v e r n i n g agency uses to e f f e c t u a t e a p l a n . Much of the d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting p r e s e n t z o n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s stems from the b a s i c f a c t t h a t most communities have no p l a n advanced to such a p o i n t t h a t i t c l e a r l y guides growth or r e b u i l d i n g , and have no c l e a r concept of a l l . the b a s i c reasons f o r z o n i n g . Moreover, t h e r e i s l a c k of c o o r d i n a -t i o n between a Master P l a n (where i t does e x i s t ) and the Zoning R e s o l u t i o n s . . . 8 8 A summary re v i e w o f z o n i n g , indeed any o t h e r type of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l , can o n l y be s u p e r f i c i a l , f o r z o n i n g r e s o l u -t i o n s have become r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e ; a d i s c u s s i o n of z o n i n g beyond the i n t r o d u c t i o n above must n e c e s s a r i l y be s p e c i f i c and w i l l t h e r e f o r e be r e s t r i c t e d to e i g h t a s p e c t s of z o n i n g : use, d e n s i t y , performance s t a n d a r d s , planned developments, o t h e r methods of z o n i n g c o n t r o l ; and z o n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . a.) Use R e g u l a t i o n s The t r a d i t i o n a l f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of " s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l " , " m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y " , "commercial" and " i n d u s t r i a l " zones are b e i n g supplemented by a host o f new zones w i t h a view to d e f i n i n g u s e - d i s t r i c t s more p r e c i s e l y , " to take account of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between uses, and t o a s s e s s t h e l o c a t i o n r equirements of p a r t i c u l a r uses as w e l l as the 9 c o n f l i c t s between uses". Refinements a r e , on the one hand, very i m p o r t a n t because the z o n i n g system a l l o w s very l i t t l e , i f any, l a t i t u d e i n any u s e - d i s t r i c t ; on the o t h e r hand, they are cumbersome f o r a l l uses must be s t a t e d p r e c i s e l y , and the r a t i f i c a t i o n of r e f i n e m e n t s i s a l s o a weary p o l i t i c a l and l e g i s l a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g and c o m p l i c a t e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The l e n g t h of z o n i n g by-laws i s e x p l a i n e d by the l i s t i n g o f p e r -m i t t e d uses, which s t i l l l e a v e s the problem of n o v e l uses or c o m b i n a t i o n o f uses not l i s t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y . ^ A p e r s i s t e n t f l a w i n the d r a f t i n g of these r e g u l a t i o n s i s t h a t the purpose of the u s e - d i s t r i c t s i s l e f t i m p l i c i t . Attempts to r e l a t e c o n t r o l s more d i r e c t l y to p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s can be seen i n the i n c r e a s e i n number and types 9 of zones, a l s o making f o r g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y and c h o i c e ; the welcome change i n the l e g a l and l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ; and y e t another, the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o two t r a d i t i o n a l zones, the r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l . Formerly 'pure' r e s i d e n t i a l zones now g e n e r a l l y admit p a r k s , s c h o o l s , shopping f a c i l i t i e s and o f f i c e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s , such as d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , a c c o u n t a n t s , and e n g i n e e r s . Duplexes and apartment b u i l d i n g s may be p e r m i t t e d on c o r n e r l o t s o r i n r e s t r i c t e d p a r t s o f s i n g l e - f a m i l y ^ a r e a s . Zoning p a r a d o x i c a l l y never d i d concern i t s e l f w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use ( o l d or new) i n i n d u s t r i a l zones; i n the c u r i o u s h i e r a r c h y o f zones, the i n d u s t r i a l zone was the l o w e s t of them a l l , the c a t c h - b a s i n of urban development. Not o n l y was z o n i n g p a r t i a l i n a p p l i c a -t i o n , but i t p o s i t i v e l y d i d not p r o t e c t uses o t h e r than the r e s i d e n t i a l , and not even t h a t i f i t e x i s t e d i n o t h e r zones. I n d u s t r i a l , and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t commercial, uses were thus c o n s t a n t l y encroached upon by random n o n - i n d u s t r i a l development c a p i t a l i z i n g on the p r o x i m i t y and t r a f f i c generated by the i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t can r e a s o n a b l y be assumed t h a t some of the p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l slums developed as a r e s u l t of the s i n g l e - m i n d e d purpose and m i s d i r e c t e d a p p l i c a t i o n of z o n i n g . J u s t as motels were once r e l e g a t e d to i n d u s t r i a l zones, so t r a i l e r s are e i t h e r f o r b i d d e n or r e s t r i c t e d t o the l e s s d e s i r a b l e areas o f a community. There i s a l s o a tendency on the p a r t of c e n t r a l and suburban communities to "zone out" 10 c e r t a i n l a n d uses, which are v i t a l y e t c o n s i d e r e d ' u n d e s i r a b l e 1 , and "prey" upon n e i g h b o u r i n g communities which have not y e t got around to f o r b i d d i n g these uses. Some of these uses a r e : w h o l e s a l e o i l s t o r a g e , s l a u g h t e r houses, noxious i n d u s -t r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n ( e . g . , c a m p s i t e s ) , r a d i o t owers, sewage d i s p o s a l p l a n t s , a i r p o r t s , c e m e t e r i e s , dumps, junk y a r d s , auto w r e c k i n g , t r a c k c a r r a c i n g , e x p l o i t a t i o n o f e a r t h p r o d u c t s , and outdoor movies. Use r e g u l a t i o n s i n the more c e n t r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n thus bear d i r e c t l y on l a n d uses i n the urban fringe.*'"'*' b.) D e n s i t y R e g u l a t i o n s The i n t e n s i t y of l a n d use i s measured i n v a r i o u s ways. I t may be i n terms of " d e n s i t y " , or p o p u l a t i o n per u n i t of l a n d a r e a ; i n terms of "coverage" of the l a n d ; or i n terms o f " b u l k " . Land use p l a n n i n g i s concerned w i t h a l l t h r e e f a c e t s as a measure of d e n s i t y g e n e r a l l y . D e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , a i ming to c o n t r o l c o n t a g i o n ; i n s u r e access to d a y l i g h t , sun-s h i n e , and v e n t i l a t i o n ; p r o t e c t a g a i n s t e x c e s s i v e n o i s e ; p r o t e c t a g a i n s t p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e from c o n g e s t i o n and p r o v i d e f o r adequate p r i v a c y ; and p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r normal f a m i l y and community l i f e . D e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s are seen here not so much as the " p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t " t y p e , but as p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s p r o p o s i n g an o p t i m a l r e s i d e n t i a l environment. S i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g g e n e r a l l y does not p r e s c r i b e o u t r i g h t a n u m e r i c a l p a p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y ; r a t h e r i t p r e s c r i b e s a minimum l o t s i z e , the p e r c e n t coverage of the l o t by the house, and the bulk o f b u i l d i n g p e r m i s s i b l e . Such r e g u l a t i o n s have g e n e r a l l y l e d t o an accepted low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , g i v e n the h a b i t s o f North American suburban d w e l l e r s . D e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s must be supplemented w i t h occupancy r e g u l a t i o n s i f they are to l i m i t the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y d i r e c t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . Bulk r e g u l a t i o n s i n l o w - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l areas r e q u i r e a) minimum s i d e y a r d s , f o r f i r e s a f e t y , l i g h t , a i r and p r i v a c y ; b) minimum f r o n t and r e a r y a r d s ; and c) h e i g h t l i m i t a t i o n s . Perhaps the u t i l i t y of b u l k r e g u l a t i o n s can be gauged best by r e f e r r i n g to what the t r a d i t i o n a l low-12 d e n s i t y z o n i n g s h o u l d p r o v i d e : (1) Assurance of l i g h t and a i r . Requirements f o r f r o n t and r e a r yards a r e , i f a n y t h i n g , e x c e s s i v e ; t h e r e i s waste l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the s i d e y a r d s , so t h a t o f t e n t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e v i s u a l l y between row houses and a row of houses. (2) P r i v a c y . There are no. s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the arrangement o f windows f a c i n g the s i d e y a r d ; however, t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f houses g e n e r a l l y has s e c u r e d some degree of 13 p r i v a c y . (3) F u l l use of l a n d . The owner of a l o t d e f i n i t e l y does not have the f u l l use o f h i s l a n d . He i s r e q u i r e d to s i t e h i s house i n accordance w i t h f r o n t , r e a r and s i d e y a r d r e g -u l a t i o n s which, v a l i d as t h e i r purpose may be, are unneces-s a r i l y i n f l e x i b l e . The c l e a r a n c e s r e q u i r e d f r a c t u r e a l o t i n t o s u b - a r e a s , which are o f g r e a t l y reduced v a l u e t o the owner. I f s e t b a c k s of b u i l d i n g s were s t a g g e r e d , the open areas of a 12 l o t c o u l d be used as one u n i t and the p r i v a c y o f n e i g h b o u r i n g housing would be v a s t l y enhanced. (4) Freedom of d e s i g n . T h i s freedom, a l r e a d y c i r c u m s c r i b e d by economic and t e c h n i c a l f o r c e s t e n d i n g to f a v o u r the r e p e t i t i o n of c e r t a i n types of d w e l l i n g s , i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by the y a r d c l e a r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . " ^ (5) P r o t e c t i o n of neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r . The very u n i f o r m -i t y imposed by the s i t i n g , h e i g h t and use r e g u l a t i o n s and the n a t u r e of the b u i l d i n g type on the market has tended to promote a r t i f i c i a l d e c o r a t i o n s and s u p e r f i c i a l ornamental treatment to s a t i s f y people's d e s i r e f o r v a r i e t y . Although the r e g u l a t i o n s may promote a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g neighbourhood 14 c h a r a c t e r , t h e r e i s no guarantee as to i t s q u a l i t y . Bulk r e g u l a t i o n s i n h i g h e r - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and o f f i c e d i s t r i c t s have been more f l e x i b l e , s i n c e the concept o f f l o o r - a r e a r a t i o . ( F A R ) was i n t r o d u c e d . T h e FAR may be a c o n v e n i e n t guide, but i t ... does not a s s u r e the generous open space t h a t i t t h e o r e t i c a l l y p e r m i t s . D e t a i l e d c o n t r o l s a p p r o p r i a t e to ,the development of a one-house p l o t can h o p e l e s s l y impede a more s u b t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b u i l d i n g s i n a l a r g e s c a l e development.17 New York's r e v i s e d o r d i n a n c e e v i d e n t l y has supplemented i t s o t h e r d e n s i t y c o n t r o l s of maximum rooms per acre and minimum l o t area per room by s p e c i f i c h e i g h t and setback r e q u i r e m e n t s , a "sky exposure p l a n e " f o r the setback at the upper s t o r e y s , f l o o r area r a t i o s , an "open space-area r a t i o " based on the f l o o r area of a proposed b u i l d i n g , and an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a f o r r e g u l a t i n g the space between b u i l d i n g s i n a l a r g e - s c a l e 13 development. The "bonus" system f o r e x t r a open space i s a l s o w i d e l y used elsewhere. The d e t a i l s of the s e c o n t r o l s , however, are l e s s s i g n i f i -c ant than the p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y ' s c l a i m t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y s t andards have been r e l a t e d not t o vague g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n s about types o f r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood but t o the ' c a p a c i t y ' of a d i s t r i c t i n terms of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t , r o a d s , s c h o o l s , open spaces and o t h e r community f a c i l i t i e s . Whether o r not these c r i t e r i a have a c t u a l l y been f o l l o w e d . , . , the p r i n c i p l e i s c l e a r l y v a l i d and must e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e the o l d s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s on which so-c a l l e d d e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s have been based.18 While t h e r e i s some s i n c e r e concern a v e r d e n s i t y as a determinant of d e s i r a b l e l a n d use i n u r b a n i z i n g a r e a s , much of the concern i s induced by economic and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s on suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A lower a l l o w a b l e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y appeals to the suburban r e s i d e n t , who t y p i c a l l y wants to stem the t i d e o f urban r e s i d e n t i a l d i s p e r s a l , of which he p o s s i b l y was p a r t at one time; and a lower d e n s i t y reduces the need f o r immediate a s c e r t a i n a b l e communal e x p e n d i t u r e s and i n v e s t m e n t s . c. ) Performance Standards N o i s e , v i b r a t i o n , smoke, d u s t , odour, f i r e and e x p l o s i v e h a z a r d s , h u m i d i t y , heat and g l a r e , and r a d i a t i o n are now capable of measurement, but the s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n are t e c h n i c a l and d i f f i c u l t to a d m i n i s t e r . As l o n g as s a f e l e v e l s o f these n u i s a n c e s can be a s s u r e d , t h e r e i s no l o g i c a l t e c h n i c a l reason why i n d u s t r y s h o u l d be segregated c a t e g o r i c a l l y from o t h e r l a n d u s e s . E v e n t u a l l y performance s t a n d a r d s may render t r a d i t i o n a l use d i s t r i c t s unnecessary; at p r e s e n t performance s t a n d a r d s are used c a u t i o u s l y on a p r o j e c t - b y - p r o j e c t 14 b a s i s i n e v a l u a t i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y o f a l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y ' i n c o m p a t i b l e ' l a n d uses i n p r o x i m i t y of uses h i g h e r up i n the h i e r a r c h y of uses. d.) Planned Developments The a c t u a l b u i l d i n g " b l o c k " of our r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n today i s an e n t i r e s u b d i v i s i o n , not the i n d i v i d u a l l o t i n terms o f which t r a d i t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s have been d r a f t e d . To promote and accommodate d e s i r a b l e l a r g e - s c a l e s u b d i v i s i o n l a y o u t s w i t h a s s o c i a t e d shopping and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s d e s i g n a t e "comprehensive development zones". The r e g u l a t i o n s i n such cases remain f l e x i b l e , and r e l a x a t i o n s on s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e m e n t s are commonly granted i f compensating f e a t u r e s warrant a d e v i a t i o n . e.) Other Methods o f Zoning C o n t r o l (1) S p e c i a l - U s e Zone. T h i s s e p a r a t e zone p r o v i d e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r use or a group o f r e l a t e d uses, such as t r a i l e r p a r k s , p a r k i n g l o t s and m u l t i p l e - s t o r e y garages. One a l t e r e d form used i s t h a t o f a "combination-zone", i n which c e r t a i n k i n d s of use are a l l o w e d i n some but not a l l areas of one p a r t i c u l a r use zone. The "combination-zone" can be a p p l i e d more s e l e c t i v e l y i n t h a t i t a l l o w s many k i n d s o f use, under a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s , where a s p e c i a l - u s e zone would have to e i t h e r e x c l u d e or i n c l u d e i t . (2) 5 p e c i a l - U s e P e r m i t . T h i s d e v i c e a l l o w s p l a n n i n g a u t h o r -i t i e s to permit s t a t e d c o n d i t i o n a l uses ( g e n e r a l l y of a p u b l i c n ature) i n use zones f o r p r i v a t e development. 15 (3) F l o a t i n g Zone. A " f l o a t i n g zone" combines the advantages of both d e v i c e s above: a s p e c i a l - u s e zone i s d e f i n e d but not a p p l i e d to any p a r t i c u l a r a r e a ; r a t h e r i t f l o a t s over a g e n e r a l area t i l l r e z o n i n g f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r use i s sought by a d e v e l o p e r . The d e v i c e i s of p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e to develop-i n g areas where the l o c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s are d i f f i c u l t t o determine i n advance and where avoidance of i n e q u i t i e s i n l a n d v a l u e s c r e a t e d by 'spot z o n i n g ' are a b e n e f i t . The f a r t h e r a c t u a l community development has p r o g r e s s e d , however, the more d i f f i c u l t i t becomes to a p p l y t h i s d e v i c e . (4) M i s c e l l a n e o u s C o n t r o l s . Such c o n t r o l s may s t a t e , f o r example, the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g and l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s . (5) 5 p e c i a l - P u r p o s e Zone. Such zones have been c r e a t e d to prevent b u i l d i n g i n f l o o d a r e a s , to p r o t e c t watersheds, and to l i m i t b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s around a i r p o r t s . (6) A g r i c u l t u r a l and F o r e s t r y Zone. A g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g , p i o n e e r e d i n C a l i f o r n i a to save farm l a n d from b e i n g used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t , c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t weapon a g a i n s t urban s p r a w l . I t s use w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s . (7) A e s t h e t i c and H i s t o r i c Zones. Germany has had l e g i s l a t i o n f o r a e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l s i n c e 1869; i n r e c e n t y e a r s " r e s t r i c t i o n s a g a i n s t d i s f i g u r e m e n t " have been enacted, " d i s f i g u r e m e n t " b e i n g "the c r e a t i o n of any p o s i t i v e l y u g l y c o n d i t i o n which would o f f e n d the s e n s i b i l i t i e s of an e s t h e t i c a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t 19 o b s e r v e r " . In Canada, d i r e c t p r o p o s a l s f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l 16 c o n t r o l s have been unpopular w i t h laymen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e , a l t h o u g h " z o n i n g by-laws d i s c l o s e a wide range of c o n t r o l s commonly imposed t h a t have f a r g r e a t e r e f f e c t on the ' d e s i g n , c h a r a c t e r and appearance 1 o f our c i t i e s and towns than any c o n t r o l over even i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s would 20 l i k e l y have". The g r e a t e s t clamour has u s u a l l y a r i s e n a g a i n s t the c o n t r o l of outdoor a d v e r t i s i n g . The g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g powers a p p a r e n t l y s u f f i c e i n most Canadian p r o v i n c e s to c o n t r o l a t l e a s t the most u n s i g h t l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . "The most s u c c e s s f u l and l e a s t m e r e t r i c i o u s a e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l s are those designed to p r o t e c t a s p e c i f i c area of h i s t o r i c , 21 a r c h i t e c t u r a l , s c e n i c or c i v i c i m p o r t a n c e " . f.) Zoning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1) Enforcement of Zoning R e g u l a t i o n s . S i n c e commencement of c o n s t r u c t i o n u s u a l l y i s dependent on the i s s u a n c e of a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t , t h i s a f f o r d s the best o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e n f o r c -i n g a z o n i n g by-law. The b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r must i n t e r p r e t the by-law s t r i c t l y and i s not a l l o w e d to e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n . T h i s m e c h a n i c a l type of a p p r o v a l i s u n d e s i r a b l e from a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of view, but i t i s e n t i r e l y i nadequate i f a p p l i e d to more complex and s o p h i s t i c a t e d z o n i n g by-laws or complex s i t u a t i o n s . The a p p r o v a l procedure ought to be c o n t r o l l e d by q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l and s h o u l d r e q u i r e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p l a n n i n g department. I t i s s t r i k i n g l y obvious t h a t the community w i t h a z o n i n g by-law ( u s u a l l y drawn up by c o n s u l t a n t s ) but no continuous p l a n n i n g a d v i c e l a c k s one i m p o r t a n t cog i n 17 the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . (2) Zoning A p p e a l s . Appeals a g a i n s t z o n i n g d e c i s i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can be made to a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l , q u a s i -independent body d e r i v i n g i t s power d i r e c t l y from a P r o v i n c i a l o r S t a t e government. Although i n t h e o r y z o n i n g appeal boards have s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d powers, they have i n many communities s u b v e r t e d the zon i n g codes. R e l a x a t i o n may be made not i n the p e r m i t t e d use of l a n d , but i n d e t a i l e d , t e c h n i c a l p r o -v i s i o n s o f the r e g u l a t i o n - and then o n l y f o r "undue h a r d s h i p " . ( 3 ) Zoning By-Law Amendments. The power to enact z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e s the power to amend or withdraw these r e g u l a t i o n s . P r i o r t o both the o r i g i n a l enactment and the amendment or w i t h d r a w a l , a p u b l i c h e a r i n g must be h e l d by C o u n c i l . The amending power has been misused on o c c a s i o n i n c r e a t i n g s m a l l "spot zones"; these are zones a l l o w i n g a p a r t i c u l a r use not a l l o w e d under the e x i s t i n g z o n i n g . There may be v a l i d p l a n n i n g reasons f o r "spot z o n i n g " ; f r e q u e n t l y i t i s done f o r p o l i t i c a l or o t h e r , l e s s honourable, r e a s o n s . (4) J u d i c i a l Review. " J u d i c i a l r e v i e w " , r e f e r r i n g t o the re v i e w of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s by the j u d i c i a r y , d i f f e r s between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. The B r i t i s h system o f law p r a c t i c e d i n Canada holds t h a t p a r l i a m e n t ( i . e . , any d u l y c o n s t i t u t e d l e g i s l a t i v e body) i s supreme. " J u d i c i a l r e v i e w " thus has a l i m i t e d , though v i t a l r o l e t o p l a y ; i t may be thought o f as r e f e r r i n g t o f o u r d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s made necessary by the "encroachment 22 o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e on the p r e s e r v e s of the j u d i c i a r y . . . " : 18 (a) to l i m i t t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f powers of d e c i s i o n ; (b) to examine the f a i r n e s s o f procedure o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s ; t h i s procedure r e s t s on common law and can be m o d i f i e d by a c t o f l e g i s l a t u r e ; (c) not to t r y the m e r i t s o f the c a s e , but merely s p e c i f i e d d e f e c t s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s ; (d) i t i s a r e m e d i a l procedure l i m i t e d to a f r a c t i o n o f a l l p o s s i b l e c a u ses. B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , the American c i t i z e n may a ppeal t o the c o u r t s a g a i n s t any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n on a p o i n t o f law ( c o n s t i t u t i o n a l or o t h e r w i s e ) , or on grounds t h a t the a c t i o n was a r b i t r a r y , c a p r i c i o u s , o p p r e s s i v e or u n r e a s o n a b l e , or r e p r e s e n t e d an abuse of a u t h o r i t y . T h i s a l l o w s almost any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n o r l e g i s l a t i v e a c t to be brought b e f o r e the c o u r t s , but the scope f o r j u d i c i a l r e v e r s a l of those a c t i o n s i s more l i m i t e d . In z o n i n g m a t t e r s l i t i g a t i o n may take the form e i t h e r o f c h a l l e n g i n g the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y or l e g a l i t y o f the whole o r d i n a n c e o r p a r t of i t , or i f d i s p u t i n g the r e a s o n -a b l e n e s s of the a u t h o r i t y ' s e x e r c i s e o f t h a t power i n a p a r t i c u l a r case.23 In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , z o n i n g was the work of the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n and any c o n t r o v e r s y over the use o f l a n d i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d a m atter o f j u d i c i a l r a t h e r than a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e v i e w . Zoning i n Canada was adopted i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t ; here i t i s h e l d t h a t " . . . p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a governmental not a j u d i c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o r s h o u l d be i f p l a n n i n g i s seen as a means of promoting the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than 24 r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t " . In both c o u n t r i e s , however, t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r tendency f o r the j u d i c i a r y to show r e l u c t a n c e i n s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e i r judgement f o r t h a t o f the d u l y a p p o i n t e d body; i n o t h e r words, they are showing an 25 i n c r e a s i n g f a v o u r to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . 19 3. SUBDIVISION REGULATIONS S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s govern not the use of the l a n d o r the type of b u i l d i n g s on i t ( i . e . , z o n i n g ) , but the p r e p a r a t o r y s t a g e s o f development - the l a y o u t of s t r e e t s , b l o c k s , l o t s , and the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s and the r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r t h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n . I t i s o b v i o u s , of c o u r s e , t h a t s u b d i v i s i o n and z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s are i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t because the l a y o u t of an area i s a f u n c t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r o f the use to be made o f the l a n d . One d e f i n i t i o n o f "sub-d i v i s i o n " s t a t e s t h a t i t i s "the d i v i s i o n o f a p a r c e l of l a n d i n t o two (2) or more l o t s o r p a r c e l s f o r the purpose o f t r a n s f e r o f ownership o r b u i l d i n g development, o r , i f a new s t r e e t i s i n v o l v e d , any d i v i s i o n o f a p a r c e l of l a n d ; p r o v i d e d t h a t a d i v i s i o n of l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes i n t o l o t s o r p a r c e l s o f f i v e (5) ac r e s or more and not i n v o l v i n g a new 26 s t r e e t s h a l l not be deemed a s u b d i v i s i o n " . The term " s u b d i v i s i o n " i s a l s o used to denote a group of homes on improved l o t s , h aving the c h a r a c t e r of a more or l e s s d i s t i n c t development u n i t . S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e g i s t e r i n g l a n d ownership, t r a n s f e r , and road a c c e s s , but they were r e a l l y o n l y "paper" r e q u i r e m e n t s . Road access to p r o p e r t y had t o be r e c o r d e d , but i t d i d not have to be a c t u a l l y b u i l t and provided,' nor d i d the roads have to bear a p r o p e r , f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to each o t h e r . 20 a.) Development Standards Whatever the m e r i t s o f l e g a l "paper" requirements r e g a r d i n g the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d , the community has a fundamental i n t e r e s t i n the l a y o u t o f s t r e e t s , l o t s and u t i l i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d must be approved by an " a p p r o v i n g 27 O f f i c e r " . His terms of r e f e r e n c e are not c l e a r l y s p e l l e d o u t ; i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y he may f o l l o w a few g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s s t a t e d i n the Land R e g i s t r y A c t , whereas i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s he must f o l l o w the l o c a l s u b d i v i s i o n bylaw (Appendix I , page 1 9 l ) . (1) G e n e r al Powers. The A pproving O f f i c e r i s not r e q u i r e d t o , but may choose to r e q u e s t a s u b d i v i s i o n s k e t c h i f he a n t i c i p a t e s r e s u b d i v i s i o n of the l a n d ; i n t h i s way he can presumably ensure t h a t the new l o t s can be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d c o n v e n i e n t l y . In a c t u a l f a c t he does not have the power o f u l t i m a t e r e f u s a l under t h i s c l a u s e , but i n the meantime he can i n f l u e n c e the a p p l i c a n t c o n s i d e r a b l y by a d v i s i n g him and c o n t i n u i n g to r e q u e s t new s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s . (2) In Unorganized T e r r i t o r y . The Approving O f f i c e r may r e f u s e a p l a n f o r a number of t e c h n i c a l reasons and i f "the d e p o s i t o f the p l a n i s a g a i n s t the p u b l i c interest".2® De t e r m i n i n g and s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " i s a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g at b e s t ; u n l e s s the A pproving O f f i c e r i s a q u a l i f i e d p l a n n e r , p o s i t i v e a c t i o n f o r b e t t e r l a n d use and a g a i n s t urban s p r a w l i s i n d e e d a m a t t e r of chance. 2 1 One o f the t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i s t h a t of road access to s u b d i v i d e d l a n d . T h e r e f o r e , i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, D i s t r i c t E n g i n e e r s of the Department of Highways have been made approv-i n g o f f i c e r s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . S u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l i s very much a m e c h a n i c a l o f f i c e procedure judged on the c r i t e r i o n o f road a c c e s s . The Community P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Department appears n e i t h e r to have nor to seek a say i n the p rocedure. There i s i n such areas an u t t e r l a c k of community p l a n n i n g , which aggravates the d i f f i c u l t i e s of u n q u a l i f i e d o f f i c i a l s burdened w i t h the t a s k o f a p p r o v i n g a community's p a t t e r n of development. The p r o v i n c i a l government i s c l e a r l y n e g l e c t i n g i t s d u t i e s i n d e l e g a t i n g the power to approve the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d to u n q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l . ( 3 ) In M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The Approving O f f i c e r may r e f u s e t o approve a s u b d i v i s i o n i f i t does not conform to the by-laws of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s today encompass not o n l y the l a y o u t and type of road or s t r e e t , but the area and dimensions of l o t s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l o t s to s t r e e t s , the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n . The t r e n d i n improvement re q u i r e m e n t s has been to r e q u i r e d e v e l o p e r s to p r o v i d e most or a l l improvements; c o n s e q u e n t l y , f l y - b y - n i g h t o p e r a t o r s and i r r e s p o n s i b l e l a y o u t and c o n s t r u c t i o n have been d i s c o u r a g e d . S u b d i v i s i o n by-laws may r e q u i r e the p r o v i s i o n of a s e w a g e - c o l l e c t i o n system and c o n n e c t i o n to the m u n i c i p a l 22 s e w a g e - d i s p o s a l system, i f one e x i s t s . The a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r may a l s o r e f u s e t o approve a s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n i f , i n h i s o p i n i o n , "the c o s t to the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s o r o t h e r m u n i c i p a l works or s e r v i c e s would be 29 e x c e s s i v e " . T h e o r e t i c a l l y at l e a s t , t h i s c l a u s e i n t h e M u n i c i p a l Act enables urban s p r a w l to be p r e v e n t e d , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e one o f i t s marked f e a t u r e s i s the e x c e s s i v e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . In c o n s i d e r i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n b e f o r e him f o r s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l , the a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r may hear o b j e c t i o n s from any i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s , and may r e f u s e to approve the s u b d i v i s i o n i f i n h i s o p i n i o n the a n t i c i p a t e d development of the s u b d i v i s i o n would i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t the e s t a b l i -shed a m e n i t i e s of a d j o i n i n g or a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t i e s or would be a g a i n s t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . 3 0 T h i s d i s c u s s i o n shows t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n i s e q u i v o c a l and o f f e r s l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l h elp to u n i n c o r p o r a t e d , r u r a l areas i n c o n t r o l l i n g and p r e v e n t i n g urban s p r a w l . S econdly, the a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r o p e r a t e s i n a t w i l i g h t zone: a c t i n g as a d i r e c t d e l e g a t e of the p r o v i n c i a l government, he i s never-t h e l e s s p a i d by and r e s p o n s i b l e t o h i s m u n i c i p a l government. No m atter how p r o m i s i n g the p r o v i n c i a l d e l e g a t i o n of power, the a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r i s under p r e s s u r e to c a r r y out o n l y those d i r e c t i v e s which are s u f f i c i e n t l y p r a c t i c a b l e i n terms of l o c a l p o l i t i c s . T h i r d l y , the a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r ' s c a l c u -l a t i o n s on " e x c e s s i v e " c o s t s can be c h a l l e n g e d q u i t e e a s i l y u n l e s s t h e r e e x i s t s , i n f a c t , a community development p l a n w i t h a development p r i o r i t y and some form of c a p i t a l b u d g e t i n g . 23 b.) Planned U n i t Development P h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s f o r planned u n i t development are designed to encourage d e v e l o p e r s to use a more c r e a t i v e approach than h i t h e r t o i n the development of r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d ; to a c h i e v e f l e x i b i l i t y i n l a n d development; to encourage a more e f f i c i e n t and more d e s i r a b l e use of open l a n d ; to a c h i e v e a more d e s i r a b l e l i v i n g environment than through s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n of z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s ; and to encourage v a r i e t y i n the p h y s i c a l development p a t t e r n of the c i t y . T h e r e f o r e the s u b d i v i s i o n bylaw may s t i p u l a t e o n l y a few e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e -ments, one of which would be the p r e s e n t a t i o n of competently designed p l a n s f o r l a n d s c a p i n g , s i t i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n . Such r e g u l a t i o n s a l l o w the d e v e l o p e r to take advantages of new la n d - u s e c o n c e p t s , such as the " c l u s t e r l a y o u t " . T h i s s i m p l y means t h a t houses are grouped around c o u r t s , l e a v i n g the r e s t of the l a n d as common open space i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e . Planned u n i t development i s an i m p o r t a n t s t e p away from s i n g l e - l o t development, but i t i s very much dependent on the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u i t a b l e and r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d t r a c t s o f l a n d , which i s the primary f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the l o c a -t i o n a l d e c i s i o n of the b u i l d e r . " T r a c t b u i l d e r s ... are the most s e n s i t i v e t o ;.. l a n d c o s t s and seek the l e a s t expensive 31 l a n d " . A very p r o m i s i n g method of " s a l v a g i n g " s u b d i v i d e d l a n d i s by e r a s i n g the e x i s t i n g s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n and r e -p l o t t i n g the l a n d . Land assembly schemes f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e 24 r e p l o t t i n g * as do the r e l o c a t i o n o f roads and l a r g e - t r a c t development on modern s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s . However, s u b d i v i s i o n problems encountered i n r e p l o t t i n g and l a n d assembly schemes are g e n e r a l l y unique and ought to be r e s o l v e d o n l y w i t h competent p l a n n i n g a d v i c e . c.) Other F u n c t i o n s The s u c c e s s of s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s depends very much on the enforcement of t h e i r p r o v i s i o n s and the r e view by p r o f e s s i o n a l m u n i c i p a l s t a f f of most, i f not a l l , cases of s u b d i v i s i o n . I n c r e a s i n g l y so, s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s are c i r c u l a t e d among s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l departments so t h a t the A pproving O f f i c e r has the b e n e f i t of t h e i r comments and they are kept a b r e a s t of new l a n d development. In Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, to name one example, a " s t a f f c o o r d i n a t i n g committee" meets once a week f o r m a l l y ; the whole s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l hinges on the procedure of c i r c u l a t i n g t o a l l m u n i c i p a l departments, the s c h o o l board, and the u t i l i t y companies the s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r comment or r e f u s a l . Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, has i t s " T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee"; the a p p l i c a n t i s r e l i e v e d of the n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h s e p a r a t e departments w h i l e s t i l l g e t t i n g the b e n e f i t of t h e i r r e v i e w . There are a l s o the s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s which are a p p l i e d to the d e v e l o p e r not by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , but by mortgage i n s t i t u t i o n s . They are d i s c u s s e d under "Mortgage Le n d i n g " ..on page 29 • 25 B. INDIRECT LAND USE C0NTR0L5 1. DEVELOPMENT GUIDANCE One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f suburban d e v e l o p -ment i n America i s i t s l a c k of c o n t i g u i t y . I n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p e r s use whatever l a n d they can a c q u i r e q u i c k l y and c h e a p l y ; u n i v e r s a l c a r ownership overcomes the d e t e r r e n t of i s o l a t i o n ; vacant s i t e s l e f t behind by the outward spread of s u b u r b i a seldom get f i l l e d i n l a t e r ; the r e s u l t i s a patchwork of development, u n s i g h t l y , w a s t e f u l , i n -c o n v e n i e n t , and expensive to s e r v i c e . 3 2 D e l a f o n s c o n s i d e r s the worst d e f i c i e n c y of American l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s t o be t h e i r f a i l u r e to prevent t h i s k i n d o f develop-ment r e f e r r e d to as "urban s p r a w l " . Zoning d e a l s o n l y w i t h the "what" and not the "when" of development. S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t a i n no d i r e c t c o n t r o l element e i t h e r ; they may even be c o n s i d e r e d handicapped by the z o n i n g t r a d i t i o n which a s s i g n s a l l l a n d to some type o f use. In a c t u a l f a c t , the a s s i g n e d use was r a r e l y the "best use" f o r t h a t l a n d nor was i t based on a p l a n n i n g a n a l y s i s of l a n d use needs o r p r o b a b l e development. One prominent l a y m i s c o n c e p t i o n h e l d t h a t z o n i n g was tantamount to a c t u a l p h y s i c a l development. Urban s p r a w l was made p o s s i b l e as much by " o v e r z o n i n g " as by the l a c k of m u n i c i p a l l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s . One o f the v a l i d reasons f o r land-use c o n t r o l s i s t h a t they can improve the f u n c t i o n i n g of a community. One aspect of f u n c t i o n i s e f f i c i e n c y ; i n terms o f e f f i c i e n c y , urban s p r a w l development f a i l s abominably. I f land-use c o n t r o l s 26 are to e f f e c t a b e t t e r c i t y under the l i m i t e d terms above, they must attempt to e f f e c t e f f i c i e n c y . The c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r ought t o be the economical and adequate p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . T h i s can be a c h i e v e d o n l y by a p o s i t i v e p o l i c y and program, of c o u r s e . Zoning alone has not p l a y e d a g r e a t r o l e i n c o n t r o l -l i n g the l o c a t i o n and sequence of development, but sub-d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s have been used on the s t r e n g t h o f the " e f f i c i e n c y " argument and, o f t e n , the a u t h o r i t y of the p u b l i c h e a l t h s t a t u t e s . The procedure thus i s t o r e q u i r e new houses to be l i n k e d to the p u b l i c water and sewer system, which makes t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n dependent on the programmed e x t e n s i o n of these m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . An a d d i t i o n a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o r c e i s the mortgagee's f i n a n c i n g p o l i c y which may r e q u i r e t h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n . a«) M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s The use o f l a n d i s very much dependent on the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of a number of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . A m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o l i c y to p r o v i d e or not to p r o v i d e these s e r v i c e s can t h e r e -f o r e c o n s t i t u t e a p o w e r f u l d e v i c e c o n t r o l l i n g l a n d use. There are e i g h t m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s which are b a s i c to the use of l a n d : s t r e e t s , water s u p p l y , sewage d i s p o s a l , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , f i r e and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , s c h o o l s , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The huge sums i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g t hese s e r v i c e s and m a i n t a i n i n g them sh o u l d ensure, one would have imagined, c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to the r e l a t i o n between s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , d e n s i t y o f s e t t l e m e n t , and the p r o v i s i o n 27 o f these s e r v i c e s . I n s t e a d , m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d on an ad hoc b a s i s ; s e r v i c e s are seldom planned on a l o n g -range sound economic b a s i s nor can they be, i n the absence of an o v e r a l l development program. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s have been c o n s i s t e n t l y s h o r t o f f u n d s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1945. They r e l i e v e d themselves of t h e p r e s s u r e f o r p u b l i c improvements by (1) r e q u i r i n g d e v e l o p e r s to p r o v i d e many of the s e r v i c e s h i t h e r t o p r o v i d e d m u n i c i p a l l y , and ( 2 ) themselves skimping on e x p e n d i t u r e s . Many of the s t a n d a r d s r e q u i r e d of d e v e l o p e r s were and are not matched i n q u a l i t y and s c a l e by o v e r - a l l m u n i c i p a l u t i l i t y and community p l a n n i n g ; e x c e l l e n t f a c i l i t i e s s c a t t e r e d throughout a community, but u n r e l a t e d to each o t h e r , may be a gross waste of money i n the l a r g e r view. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s a p p a r e n t l y have f o r g o t t e n t h a t ...decades a f t e r the b u i l d i n g s are f i n i s h e d , and the names of t h e i r b u i l d e r s and f i r s t occupants are f o r g o t t e n , the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l s t i l l be c l e a n i n g the r o a d s , p l o u g h i n g the snow, removing the garbage, c o l l e c t i n g t a x e s - and perhaps u n d e r w r i t i n g d e m o l i t i o n and redevelopment. The l o c a l government s h o u l d be i n t e n t on having the new p i e c e o f urban f a b r i c put i n shape, f o r the c i t y w i l l have to pay to keep i t i n shape. I n e f f i c i e n t l a y o u t , f a c i l i t i e s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o the people to be s e r v e d , r e p e l l e n t appearance w i l l add to s o c i a l f r i c t i o n s and p u b l i c c o s t s . 3 3 The p r i n c i p l e r e l a t i n g m u n i c i p a l c o s t s t o l a n d - u s e and s e t t l e -ment p a t t e r n i s " t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l development s h o u l d always be c o n t i n g e n t on the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s to s t a n d a r d s r e q u i r e d by h e a l t h and s a f e t y " . ^ 28 b. ) P u b l i c Roads I t i s obvious t h a t the more e f f i c i e n t the t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n s e r v i c e c o n n e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t l a n d - u s e s , the b e t t e r these l a n d - u s e s may f u n c t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s and f a c i l i t i e s are becoming s i g n i f i c a n t l a n d u s e r s : when l a n d becomes u r b a n i z e d , at l e a s t o n e - t h i r d of i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d from p r i v a t e t o p u b l i c a c c o u n t s . Very expensive p u b l i c works are i n s t a l l e d , i n v o l v i n g the use of p u b l i c t a x i n g and borrowing powers. V i s u a l l y , the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s are becoming o u t s t a n d i n g elements i n the urban scene.. Most i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e i s a p o w e r f u l c a u s a l l i n k between t r a n s - ' 35 p o r t a t i o n and l a n d use. c.) Real P r o p e r t y T a x a t i o n Real p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n can be used to d i r e c t l a n d use i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: ( l ) to f o s t e r the more i n t e n s i v e o r h i g h e r and b e t t e r use of l a n d r e s o u r c e s ; ( 2 ) to promote c o n s e r v a t i o n a l g o a l s ; ( 3 ) to a t t a i n p a r t i c u l a r t e n u r e g o a l s ; and ( 4 ) to d i s c o u r a g e or p r o h i b i t c e r t a i n types o f l a n d use. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t a x a t i o n and l a n d use i s complex and embraces many d i v e r s e f a c e t s ; s u f f i c e i t here t o p o i n t out the n o t a b l e r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n . One prominent p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t i s the b a s i s of p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n : s h o u l d t a x a t i o n be l e v i e d on l a n d alone or on l a n d and improvements? The g r e a t e s t c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g t a x a t i o n framework has been the assessment o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d 29 37 t h r e a t e n e d by u r b a n i z a t i o n . The stea d y t a x i n c r e a s e s , i n the absence of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n t o c o n t r o l r u r a l l a n d a s s e s s i n g , have f a r c e d farmers t o s e l l t h e i r l a n d ; t h e r e are at l e a s t two f a c e t s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n any l o c a l i t y ; one i s whether any l a n d , and then which l a n d , must be kept i n 3 8 a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ; the o t h e r , when i s the ' d i s p e n s a b l e 1 l a n d b e s t t u r n e d over t o o t h e r than a g r i c u l t u r a l uses? In o t h e r words, the optimum use of l a n d must be optimum w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s o i l c a p a b i l i t y , l o c a t i o n , q u a n t i t y , and t i m e . The optimum use of l a n d can be de c i d e d o n l y i n a p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t because the c o m p e t i t i v e market has proved i t cannot o p t i m i z e s o c i e t y ' s l a n d r e s o u r c e s . d.) Mortgage Lending The most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d - u s e a f t e r 1945 has been the a v a i l a b i l i t y of F e d e r a l mortgage money f o r new s i n g l e - f a m i l y housing i n the suburbs. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s i n g l e - f a m i l y housing and a l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c r u c i a l r o l e o f proper community p l a n n i n g and neighbourhood s t a n d a r d s are s t i l l s haping suburban r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . D e s p i t e some p r o g r e s s i n promoting v a r i e t y i n housing as w e l l as l a r g e - s c a l e development, the a p p r a i s a l o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l o a n s on new houses s t i l l seems "... t o o c l o s e l y l i n k e d to measurable and mech a n i c a l elements of the i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y i n today's market; p r e s e n t a p p r a i s a l methods are too i n d i f f e r e n t to those a s p e c t s o f housing en masse which o n l y a r c h i t e c t u r a l and p l a n n i n g judgment can 39 d i s t i n g u i s h " . 30 The u n c e r t a i n t y of mortgage funds over the y e a r s , s h o r t r a t i o n s i n o t h e r words, have encouraged s h o r t v i e w s , and s h o r t views are u l t i m a t e l y e x p e n s i v e . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , b u i l d e r s and p r o s p e c t i v e home owners have been f o r c e d to accommodate them-s e l v e s as best as they can to the s p u r t s of b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y t r i g g e r e d by the s p o r a d i c r e l e a s e o f F e d e r a l mortgage funds. F e d e r a l mortgage l e n d i n g i s a c o i n w i t h two s i d e s : 'easy 1 mortgage money was made a v a i l a b l e w i t h few s t r i n g s a t t a c h e d c o n c e r n i n g l a n d use, m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and community p l a n n i n g ; and the modern suburb was made p o s s i b l e , w i t h i t s monotony, l a c k of housing v a r i e t y , economic c l a s s s e g r e g a t i o n , and waste of s i t e and s t r e e t space. At the same t i m e , income r e s t r i c t i o n s were so h i g h and development s t a n d a r d s so r i g i d i n Canada, t h a t a s i z e a b l e percentage of the n a t i o n ' s income ea r n e r s were i n e l i g i b l e f o r N a t i o n a l Housing Act mortgages. Many f a m i l i e s were thus f a r c e d to c o n t i n u e r e n t i n g t h e i r accommodation, which was and i s both expe n s i v e and u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y ; o t h e r s chose to b u i l d a c c o r d i n g to the s t a n d a r d s and the mortgaging they c o u l d a f f o r d , where they c o u l d a f f o r d i t . F r e q u e n t l y t h i s meant subs t a n d a r d housing i n the urban f r i n g e and i n urban s p r a w l a r e a s ; i t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t communal s e r v i c e s were a l s o s u b s t a n d a r d or even l a c k i n g . T h i s c u r s o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the r o l e o f i n d i s c r i m -i n a t e and y e t r e s t r i c t e d F e d e r a l mortgage spending i n h e l p i n g to c r e a t e the l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n of suburbs and s p r a w l i n g f r i n g e areas has i g n o r e d o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s and the n a t u r e of F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The F e d e r a l t 31 Government, as the mortgagee, d i s p e n s i n g F e d e r a l money, has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - from a b u s i n e s s p o i n t of view, to say the l e a s t - o f e n s u r i n g t h a t the housing b u i l t does c r e a t e s a t i s f a c t o r y communities of a l a s t i n g n a t u r e ; or e l s e i t s h o u l d not l e n d . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the P r o v i n c i a l Government, however, to ensure proper community and l a n d use p l a n n i n g . e.) Housing, B u i l d i n g and S a f e t y Codes Housing codes have had a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on l a n d use through t h e i r s a n i t a r y and f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s . The former p r e s -c r i b e d minimum room s i z e s , f l o o r areas and window s i z e s , water s u p p l y and sewage d i s p o s a l s t a n d a r d s . The l a t t e r p r e s c r i b e , among o t h e r t h i n g s , the space s e p a r a t i o n between a d j a c e n t b u i l d i n g s . I f these r e g u l a t i o n s are combined w i t h the s t r u c t u r a l p r o v i s i o n s i n b u i l d i n g codes, i t i s f a i r l y easy t o t r a c e both the development of l o t s i z e s , s i d e y a r d c l e a r a n c e requirement and a f a i r l y u n i f o r m s t r e e t - s c a p e as w e l l as the p l a n n i n g e f f o r t to d e s i g n more compact s e t t l e m e n t to reduce p u b l i c u t i l i t y c o s t s . With the i n c l u s i o n of occupancy and d e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s , housing codes e x e r t much s t r i c t e r l a n d use c o n t r o l inasmuch as the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y as w e l l as the q u a l i t a t i v e a spect of occupancy can be c o n t r o l l e d . B u i l d i n g codes have o c c a s i o n a l l y p l a y e d a r o l e i n promoting h i g h e r - c o s t r e s i d e n t i a l development by r e q u i r i n g more expen-s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n than the r e a s o n a b l e use of modern b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s i t a t e s ; by being o b s o l e t e ; or by b e i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y misused to a l l o w o n l y h i g h - c o s t houses. 32 2. PUBLIC LAND POLICY a» ') P u b l i c Land A c q u i s i t i o n Complete c o n t r o l over the use of l a n d n a t u r a l l y means ownership o f the l a n d . Ownership of cour s e does not guaran-tee good l a n d - u s e a l l o c a t i o n , but i t does a s s u r e e f f i c i e n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p l a n n i n g measures where p l a n n i n g i s a f u n c t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t . ^ O p p o s i t i o n to governments' r e a l e s t a t e o p e r a t i o n s has been so s t r o n g i n North America t h a t even l a n d l e g i t i m a t e l y needed i n the f u t u r e f o r p u b l i c purposes has not been a c q u i r e d i n advance; exc l a i m e d W i l l i a m s Whyte, J r . : "Long-range p l a n n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y , but what we need most i s some r e t r o a c t i v e p l a n n i n g : get the good l a n d f i r s t and th e n , at l e i s u r e , r a t i o n a l i z e w i t h s t u d i e s how r i g h t we were to have done i t " . ^ Land a c q u i s i t i o n by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s l i m i t e d o n l y by t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s ; " l a n d assembly" schemes between the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments have not borne f r u i t and are not de s i g n e d , i n any cas e , f o r planned long-range, l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n . Short o f an a l l - o u t e f f o r t , the a c q u i s i t i o n of s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d l a n d can s t i l l help a l o c a l government to d i r e c t the f u t u r e l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n . Key determ i n a n t s o f l a n d use are the t r a f f i c r o u t e s , shopping d i s t r i c t s and c e n t r e s , town c e n t r e s w i t h commercial, i a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n t e r t a i n m e n t and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , and p a r k s • 33 b. ) E x p r o p r i a t i o n One of the governmental powers i s t h a t o f " e x p r o p r i a t i o n " , which i s the f o r c e f u l a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y f o r p u b l i c purposes. E x p r o p r i a t i o n may be the o u t r i g h t a c q u i s i t i o n o f a l l p r o p e r t y r i g h t s (such as t a k i n g l a n d f o r open spaces or f o r p u b l i c use p r e s e n t or f u t u r e ) o r the t a k i n g of a l l development r i g h t s (as of p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l , f o r e s t and g r a z i n g l a n d , o r even l a n d o n l y s u i t e d f o r b u i l d i n g p u r p o s e s ) . E x p r o p r i a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y prominent i n l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n f o r urban renewal, highways and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c developments. The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether e x p r o p r i a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d l e g i t i m a t e i f the p r o p e r t y e x p r o p r i a t e d i s not needed i n the near f u t u r e f o r p u b l i c use. c.) Open Space The g e n e r i c term "open space" can be made more s p e c i f i c by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between two t y p e s : "open c o u n t r y " , which would i n c l u d e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , and c o n s e r v a t i o n and f l o o d c o n t r o l a r e a s ; and "open space i n the urban area p r o p e r " , which would i n c l u d e l a n d f o r p a r k s , r e c r e a t i o n and m i s c e l l -aneous p u b l i c use. ( l ) Open c o u n t r y . P r e s e r v i n g open c o u n t r y f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n -a l and s c e n i c v a l u e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been achieved by o u t -r i g h t a c q u i s i t i o n ; but the whole pace and p a t t e r n of s e t t l e m e n t have made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s t o f i n d the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r t h i s purpose. A number o f d e v i c e s have been t r i e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , w i t h v a r y i n g 34 s u c c e s s . A g r i c u l t u r a l Zoning ( i . e . , z o n i n g areas e x c l u s i v e l y f o r farm l a n d ) was p i o n e e r e d i n Santa C l a r a County; Alameda County has been c o n s i d e r i n g "planned a g r i c u l t u r a l p a r k s " . A g r i c u l t u r a l Zoning appears to be a weak d e v i c e u n l e s s t a x -a t i o n i s based on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d v a l u e s and the l a n d i s a c t u a l l y being worked. Where a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d has a low c a p a c i t y , i t s v a l u e may l i e i n r e m a i n i n g as a p r o t e c t e d n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e o r r e c r e a t i o n a l zone. The C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e adopted a b i l l f o r " e x c l u s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l zones"., w i t h the immediate but not e x c l u s i v e purpose of p r o t e c t i n g g o l f c o u r s e s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ; the measure proved e n t i r e -l y i n e f f e c t i v e because the assessment d i d not f o l l o w p r e s e n t use, but p o t e n t i a l use. The a s s e s s o r i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s a i d he took h i s o r d e r s from the s t a t e c o n s t i t u t i o n and i t _ t o l d him to t a x the l a n d a t f a i r market v a l u e . Although the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s i n Canada i s not r e s t r i c t e d i n the American sense, the example i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s . O u t r i g h t purchase i s c e r t a i n l y the most s a t i s f a c t o r y t e c h n i q u e where the l a n d i s to be developed p r i m a r i l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use, or as a r e s e r v a t i o n , but t h e r e remains the problem of a g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r open l a n d t h a t s h o u l d remain i n p r i v a t e ownership but needs to be p r o t e c t e d from incongruous development. I t i s here t h a t the h i a t u s i n the American system between uncompensated c o n t r o l and p u b l i c a c q u i s i t i o n i s most apparent. In an e f f o r t to overcome t h i s , the i d e a of ' c o n s e r v a t i o n easements' has r e c e n t l y been i n t r o d u c e d . The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t the p u b l i c s h o u l d a c q u i r e not the f r e e h o l d but o n l y the c o n s e r v a t i o n o r development 'easement' o f l a n d t h a t i t wants t o see kept permanently as open space.42 The easement i s i n f a c t o n l y a r i g h t i n p r o p e r t y ; the p r o p e r t y s t i l l belongs to the owner. Easements have been 3 5 s u c c e s s f u l l y used to conserve f u t u r e r i g h t s - o f - w a y and s c e n i c areas f o r highway purposes; t o prevent the e r e c t i o n o f b u i l d -i n g s o r b i l l b o a r d s i n the v i c i n i t y o f p a r k s ; f o r highway • s i g h t c o r n e r s ' , paths and t r a i l s t o s c e n i c p l a c e s ; f o r e n s u r i n g p l a n t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g shrubs and t r e e s a l o n g r i v e r s and ponds; f o r a s s u r i n g an u n o b s t r u c t e d path f o r the e n t r y and e x i t of a i r t r a f f i c ; and f o r p i p e l i n e s . The s t a t e o f W i s c o n s i n i s p u r s u i n g an a c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n program w i t h the a i d o f easements; p r o h i b i t i o n s a g a i n s t the b u r n i n g and f i l l i n g o f wetlands are e n f o r c e d , and p u b l i c h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , 4 3 t r a p p i n g , weed c o n t r o l , e t c . , are a s s u r e d . C o n s e r v a t i o n and s c e n i c easements have been used to m a i n t a i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a l or r e g i o n a l l a n d s c a p e c h a r a c t e r , such as along the M i s s i s s i p p i Parkway. I t i s i n t e n d e d to p r e s e r v e the l a n d s c a p e i n i t s normal c o n d i t i o n ; the d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i t i s not a 'museum p i e c e ' under p u b l i c ownership, but p a r t o f a f u n c t i o n -i n g , p r o d u c t i v e r e g i o n . I t remains to be seen whether easements a f f o r d permanency of s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t development p r e s s u r e s ; they may or may not be the "more or l e s s tenuous l e g a l s a f e g u a r d s o f undeveloped l a n d " , ^ D e l a f o n s e n v i s a g e d . One p r i n c i p a l drawback i s t h a t they do not a l l o w access to much o f the l a n d . ( 2 ) Open Space i n the urban area p r o p e r . Where p u b l i c open space must be c r e a t e d i n a b u i l t - u p a r e a , i t i s u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e o n l y w i t h o u t r i g h t purchase by the p u b l i c ; d e m o l i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r p h y s i c a l changes may or may not be i n v o l v e d . The p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c open space i n u r b a n i z i n g 36 areas i s not r e s t r i c t e d to o u t r i g h t purchase o r any p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e , but i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d . I t i s s i m p l e enough to r e q u i r e t h a t every l o t be s e r v e d by a paved s t r e e t and u t i l i t i e s i n an o r d i n a n c e t h a t t r e a t s the i n d i v i d u a l l o t as the t h i n g b e i n g r e g u l a t e d . S m a l l p a r k s , c o n c e p t u a l l y are a n e c e ssary s e r v i c e to an e n t i r e s u b d i v i s i o n r a t h e r than a s i n g l e l o t , hence i t i s i ncongruous to r e q u i r e them i n an o r d i n a n c e r e g u l a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l l o t . I t i s even d i f f i c u l t i n such an o r d i n a n c e to p e r mit minimum l o t s i z e s to be reduced to make way f o r common open space. But an o r d i n a n c e or s e c t i o n a p p l y i n g to e n t i r e s u b d i v i s i o n s can handle the m a t t e r of p e r m i s s i v e or o b l i g a t o r y i n c l u s i o n of open space w i t h s i m p l i c i t y and d i r e c t n e s s . 4 5 S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s have come a l o n g way i n d i v o r c i n g themselves from the s i n g l e - l o t c o n c e p t s . In r e g u -l a t i n g the l o c a t i o n and amount of p u b l i c open space, however, they ought to be based on a g e n e r a l development p l a n which e s t a b l i s h e s the need f o r and l o c a t i o n of these open spa c e s . S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s can then be used to r e s e r v e the l a n d at the time of s u b d i v i s i o n . Once i t i s known whether the open space has a neighbourhood, l o c a l , m e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l use, e q u i t a b l e f i n a n c i a l s e t t l e m e n t s can be arranged w i t h the l a n d d e v e l o p e r . Developers presumably w i l l be much more c o o p e r a t i v e i f they do not have to c a r r y an u n j u s t burden i n p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c open space. 3. GOVERNMENT COORDINATION P r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s have been accused of not c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y c a l l o u s l y d i s r e g a r d i n g l e g i t i m a t e l o c a l i n t e r e s t s when pr o -gramming and e x e c u t i n g t h e i r own d e p a r t m e n t a l work. Whereas 37 no m u n i c i p a l government has r e c o u r s e a g a i n s t the a c t i o n s of s e n i o r governments, s m a l l communities i n p a r t i c u l a r are i l l -equipped to make t h e i r needs known and to d i r e c t and c o n v e r t i n t o b e n e f i t s the impact of major p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s -w i t h o u t the help of s p e c i a l s t a f f , c o n s u l t a n t s or advance warning. There comes to mind the case of R e v e l s t o k e , B r i t i s h Columbia; the opening o f the Trans-Canada Highway was " l i k e p u l l i n g the p l u g out of the b a t h t u b " , a r e s i d e n t lamented. I f the town was unprepared f o r t h i s l o n g f o r e s e e n o n s l a u g h t o f t r a v e l l e r s , what e f f e c t w i l l the spending of $400 m i l l i o n on t h r e e water s t o r a g e dams i n the area have on the town? Another o p e r a t i n g t i e r of government has a r i s e n over the years to f i l l a governmental vacuum, c r e a t e d by the l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g and sympathy between govern-ments at a l l l e v e l s . T h i s t i e r of government i s a l a b y r i n t h o f s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e b o d i e s , ad hoc a g e n c i e s , and s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s . S p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s are f r e q u e n t l y used i n the development, p r o t e c t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of l a n d r e s o u r c e s . These d i s t r i c t s range from the i r r i g a t i o n , d r a i n a g e , l e v e e , weed c o n t r o l , g r a z i n g , and s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n d i s t r i c t s used i n r u r a l areas to the water, s a n i t a t i o n , park development, and m e t r o p o l i t a n d i s t r i c t s used i n and around our c i t i e s . Each of these types o f d i s t r i c t s c a l l s f o r s t a t e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n ; and each i n v o l v e s ad hoc u n i t s o f government v e s t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e , t a x a t i o n , and o t h e r powers.46 L o c a l governments are thus i n a weak p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to the two s e n i o r governments and, o f t e n enough, the s p e c i a l -purpose 'governments'. The l a t t e r h o l d p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g p o s i t i o n s i f they perform such e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s as water d i s t r i b u t i o n and sewage d i s p o s a l . 38 The d i s c u s s i o n has shown t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i s determined by not o n l y t h e i r t e c h n i c a l adequacy, but a l s o the p u r p o s e f u l n e s s of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n t e n t . Land use c o n t r o l s are t e c h n i q u e s and w i l l remain mere t e c h n i q u e s u n t i l they are made to implement a l a n d development p o l i c y . T h i s would suggest t h a t urban s p r a w l poses not o n l y the f a i r l y s p e c i f i c problem of how to curb i t , but a l s o the more g e n e r a l one o f how, a t the same t i m e , to guide community development. The i n v e s t i -g a t i o n i n t o causes and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban s p r a w l i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of urban s p r a w l , but the' emphasis w i l l be on the l a n d use a s p e c t s o f urban s p r a w l . 39 Reference Footnotes Edward M. B a s s e t t , Zoning (New York: R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1940). John D e l a f o n s , Land Use C o n t r o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Cambridge, Mass.: J o i n t Center f o r Urban 5 t u d i e s o f the Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1962). A r t h u r B. G a l l i o n , The Urban P a t t e r n ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: D. van Nostrand Company, I n c . , 1962). James B. M i l n e r , Community P l a n n i n g - a Casebook on Law and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1963). 2 D e l a f o n s , 17. 3 D e l a f o n s , 7. "^John F. Rowlson, "Zoning versus A l t e r n a t e V a l u e " , The  A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l . XXXI, (October, 1963), p.513. 5 Canada, B r i t i s h North America A c t . 1867. c.VI: " D i s t r i b u t i o n o f L e g i s l a t i v e Powers". ^Massachusetts 1692 law, quoted i n : E. D. S o l b e r g , R u r a l  Zoning In the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 59 (Washington: U. 5. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1952), p.2. "^ C. Mckim Norton, " E l i m i n a t i o n o f I n c o m p a t i b l e Uses and S t r u c t u r e s " , Law and Contemporary Problems, XX ( S p r i n g , 1955), 307. g W i l l i a m C. V l a d e c k , "Large S c a l e Developments and One House Zoning C o n t r o l s " , Law and Contemporary Problems, XX ( S p r i n g , 1955), 263. D e l a f o n s , 41. 40 T r a i l e r s , as r e s i d e n c e s , were a l l o w e d i n i t i a l l y o n l y i n i n d u s t r i a l zones, the " l o w e s t " q u a l i t y of zone; t r a i l e r s had not been a n t i c i p a t e d and were thus not l i s t e d as a l a n d use under any zone. " ^ H a r o l d M. Mayer, and Clyde F. Kohn ( e d s . ) , Readings i n Urban  Geography (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1959), p.542. 12 Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , New Approaches to R e s i d e n t i a l Land  Development; a Study of Concepts and I n n o v a t i o n s , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 40 (Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e and N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of House B u i l d e r s , 1961), p.66. ( P e r s o n a l comments added). 13 R. D. Cramer, "Zoning and what we can do to improve i t " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s , XXXIII (January, I 9 6 0 ) , 90-94. " ^ R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada, Report o f the Committee of I n q u i r y i n t o the Design of the R e s i d e n t i a l  Environment (Ottawa: Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada, 1960), paragraph 74. 15 Many s u b d i v i s i o n s o f the l a t e 1950's can s e r v e as example, "Westlynn T e r r a c e " , i n the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver, B. C , e x e m p l i f i e s how a d e v e l o p e r c a p i t a l i z e d on the buyer's c r a v i n g f o r " c h a r a c t e r " and q u a i n t n e s s of h i s neighbourhood. " ^ F l o o r Area R a t i o (FAR) J the r a t i o between the t o t a l f l o o r area of the b u i l d i n g and the ground area of the s i t e . Noteworthy i s the e f f e c t of the method of c a l c u l a t i n g the t o t a l f l o o r area on the l i v a b i l i t y and 'phycholog-i c a l d e n s i t y ' of a group o f h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g s ( e . g . , the i n c l u s i o n o f balcony and h a l l w a y s p a c e ) . 1 7 D e l a f o n s , 39. 1 8 D e l a f o n s , 40. 19 C h r i s t o p h e r Tunnard and B o r i s Pushkarev, Man-Made America:  Chaos or C o n t r o l ? (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), p. 35. 20 James B. M i l n e r , "An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Zoning E n a b l i n g L e g i s l a t i o n , P a r t 1. The Zoning Power", P l a n Canada, I I I , No. 3 ( J a n u a r y , 1963), 151. 41 21 D e l a f o n s , 54. 22 J . A. Corry and J . E. Hodgetts, Democratic Government and  P o l i t i c s ( Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) , p. 512-550. 2 3 D e l a f o n s , 59-60. 24., ., i b i d . 25 Whether expressed or not, the " r i g h t " t o s p e c u l a t e i s prominent i n l i t i g a t i o n . Someone remarked t h a t North America i s r u l e d by the s p e c u l a t o r , o r at l e a s t the s p e c u l a t i n g s p i r i t . D e l a f o n s c i t e s the case of the 38-week b e s t s e l l e r i n the New York Times l i s t : "How I Turned a Thousand D o l l a r s i n t o a M i l l i o n i n Real E s t a t e i n my Spare Time" (1959). 2 6 U. S., Housing and Home Finance Agency, Suggested Land  S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s (Washington, D.C: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952), p.9. 27 B r i t i s h Columbia, Land R e g i s t r y A c t . R.S.B.C. 1960, c.208, sec.88 (See Appendix I ) . 2 8 Land R e g i s t r y A c t , sees. 86, 92 to 96. 2 9 B r i t i s h Columbia, M u n i c i p a l A c t . R.S.B.C. 1960, c.255, s e c . 711 (4) (See Appendix I I ) . 30 Land R e g i s t r y A c t , s e c . 96. 31 Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, S e l e c t e d  Determinants of R e s i d e n t i a l Development ( S t . P a u l , Minn.: Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, 1962), p. 25. ^ ^ D e l a f o n s , 65. 33 R.A.I.C. I n q u i r y , paragraph 60. 34 Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board of B. C , Land f o r  L i v i n g (New Westminster, B. C : L.M.R.P.B., 1963) p.31. 42 35 R. B. M i t c h e l l and C. Rapkin, Urban T r a f f i c ; A F u n c t i o n  of Land Use (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954). R. B. M i t c h e l l , M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g f o r Land Use and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , U . 5 . Dept. of Commerce(Washington: U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1961). J . N. Jackson and J . L. Northey, The Impact o f Highway Development on Land Use, (Vancouver, B.C.: Dept. o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963), e s p e c i a l l y Chapter I . Wm. S. P o l l a r d , J r . , " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g Re-Examined", J o u r n a l of the C i t y P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s of  the American 5 o c i e t y of C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , LXXXIX, No. CPI (September, 1963), 17-45. . . "Interdependence of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and C i t y P l a n n i n g " , i b i d . , p. 47-66. 3 6 Clyde E. Browning, "Land Value T a x a t i o n : Promises and Problems", J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXIX, No. 4 (November, 1963), 301-309. 37 Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board of B.C., Land f o r  Farming (New Westminster, B.C.: L.M.R.P.B., 1962), p.17-19. 3 8 A. D. C r e r a r , "The Loss of Farmland i n the Growth o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Regions of Canada", Resources f o r Tomorrow  Conference, Supplementary Volume, p. 181-195. The C o n s e r v a t i o n C o u n c i l of O n t a r i o , A Report on Land Use (Tor o n t o : The C o n s e r v a t i o n C o u n c i l of O n t a r i o , 1960). 39 R.A.I.C. I n q u i r y , paragraph 71. ^ G . W. B r y a n t , "Land Ownership and C i t y Development", P l a n Canada. IV, No. 1 (1963), 43-50. "^"""William H. Whyte, J r . , "A.-Plan to Save the V a n i s h i n g U. S. C o u n t r y s i d e " , L i f e Magazine, August 17, 1959, p.102, 4 2 D e l a f o n s , 69. 43 H a r o l d C. J o h r d a h l , J r . , " C o n s e r v a t i o n and S c e n i c Easements: An E x p e r i e n c e Resume", Land Economics, XXXIX (November, 1963), 343-365. 43 D e l a f o n s , 70. Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , Tech. B u l l . No. 40, 140. R a l e i g h Barlowe, Land Resource Economics, (Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1958), p.512. CHAPTER I I URBAN 5PRAWL IN NORTH AMERICA 4 5 "For s p r a w l i s the m u n i c i p a l l o c u s t , the g r e a t devourer o f both money and l a n d , and producer o n l y of g r i e f - even more f o r the f u t u r e than f o r the p r e s e n t " . ! A. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS "Urban s p r a w l " i s the i n f r i n g e m e n t of urban uses on r u r a l l a n d i n the form o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s , u n c o o r d i n a t e d and uneconomical l o w - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l development. I t may mean s c a t t e r e d b u i l d i n g development. " I t may c o n s i s t of ' r i b b o n ' development along roads; o r s u b d i v i s i o n s which do not s e l l ; o r an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e m i x t u r e of d w e l l i n g s on 2 s m a l l l o t s i n r u r a l a r e a s " . In the s h o r t - t e r m view i t means waste o f l a n d , money, time , and l i v a b i l i t y ; i n the long - t e r m view i t c o n s t i t u t e s waste of r e s o u r c e s and t h e development of u n d e s i r a b l e community growth p a t t e r n s . Sprawl ta k e s many forms, but a l l forms have one common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . This c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c i s the b a s i s f o r the d e f i n i t i o n of s p r a w l . . . : Sprawl i s a stage of t r a n s i t i o n between t r u e a g r i c u l t u r a l development, which has a d e n s i t y l e s s than 0.3 people per a c r e , and suburban r e s i d e n t i a l development, w i t h a d e n s i t y g r e a t e r than 3.5 people per a c r e . That i s , s p r a w l areas have a d e n s i t y between 0.3 and 3.5 people per acre.3 Fundamentally, f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r urban s p r a w l do e x i s t , f o r "... the pre s e n t widespread use o f the aut o -m o b i l e , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of modern conveniences l i k e 46 t e l e v i s i o n , s e p t i c t a n k s , power d r i v e n pumps, t e l e p h o n e , r e f r i g e r a t o r , f r e e z e r and the h i g h s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g indeed make i t t e c h n i c a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r many to l i v e i n a r a t h e r spread-out manner, w h i l e y e t the c i t y - a s - a - w h o l e can remain i n t e r r e l a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to i t s d a i l y r e q u i r e m e n t s " . ^ What makes urban s p r a w l p o s s i b l e i s the l a c k o f governmental p o l i c y on and c o n t r o l over urban development. S p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of urban s p r a w l w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 1. LAND DEVELOPMENT PATTERN Sprawl areas are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f l a n d i n t o ever s m a l l e r r u r a l p l o t s w i t h an encroachment of urban s i z e l o t s , many of them p r e m a t u r e l y s u b d i v i d e d and t h e r e f o r e l e f t vacant f o r l o n g p e r i o d s . I n c r e a s e d t a x a t i o n l o a d s , g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n g from the i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e needs and i n c r e a s e d assessments of urban houses, have f o r c e d farmers i n such areas from a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y must p r o v i d e more and more s e r v i c e s f o r the urban f r i n g e . Many f r i n g e homes have too low a v a l u a t i o n to c a r r y the c o s t s of s c h o o l s , r o a d s , p o l i c e , w e l f a r e , and o t h e r needed s e r v i c e s . The t a x l o a d i s extended to the farmers and s i n c e p r o p e r t y t a x e s r e p r e -sent a l a r g e p a r t of a farmer's f i x e d c o s t s , t a x e s may r i s e to the p o i n t where the farmer f e e l s he no l o n g e r can remain i n f a r m i n g . At t h i s p o i n t he i s tempted by any r e a s o n a b l e o f f e r f o r h i s l a n d , now based on non-a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , or he may a c t u a l l y promote the s a l e o f h i s l a n d f o r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes h i m s e l f . ^ The by-products of such c a s u a l , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and g e n e r a l l y a m a t e u r i s h approach to l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n are s e v e r a l : 47 a) the s u b d i v i s i o n p a t t e r n i s not f u n c t i o n a l ; b) much o f the l a n d remains vacant or i s l o c k e d i n by p e r i m e t e r s u b d i v i s i o n , c a u s i n g a form o f mixed urban and r u r a l slum; c) much o f the urban growth has to s k i p o v er s u b d i v i d e d l a n d because the owners, whose l a n d i s n e a r e s t t o e x i s t i n g growth and s e r v i c e s , h o l d out f o r tomorrow's p r i c e today; d) l a n d ownership becomes fragmented; and e) l a r g e - s c a l e l a n d d e v e l o p e r s , unable to f i n d s u i t a b l y p r i c e d l a r g e t r a c t s , have to " l e a p f r o g " to f i n d such l a n d . Sprawl areas are f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d i s -o r g a n i z e d l a n d use p a t t e r n and c o n t r a s t s i n l a n d use. R u r a l and urban, a g r i c u l t u r a l , commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d uses a re i n t e r m i x e d ; i n c o m p a t i b l e or u n d e s i r a b l e l a n d uses e x i s t s i d e by s i d e . Furthermore, the d e n s i t y of r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t i s so low as t o p r e c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n o f the b a s i c m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . 2. MUNICIPAL SERVICE DEFICIENCIES M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s are grouped under " b a s i c household s e r v i c e s " , " s t r e e t s e r v i c e s " , and "neighbourhood and d i s t r i c t II 6 s e r v i c e s " , a. ) B a s i c Household S e r v i c e s The low d e n s i t y and haphazard development i n s p r a w l areas have the e f f e c t o f making i t uneconomical t o p r o v i d e water s u p p l y and sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s on a communal . 48 b a s i s ; r e l i a n c e i s based on i n d i v i d u a l w e l l s and s e p t i c t a n k s . U t i l i t y s e r v i c e s ( e l e c t r i c i t y , gas, t e l e p h o n e ) , b e i n g l e s s e x p e n s i v e to d i s t r i b u t e and a l s o under government c o n t r o l , are g e n e r a l l y s u p p l i e d where needed, even where uneconomical. Sprawl areas are l o w - c o s t and l o w - t a x a r e a s , at l e a s t super-f i c i a l l y and o n l y i n the e a r l y s t a g e s of urban s p r a w l . The h e a l t h hazards posed by f a u l t y s e p t i c tank o p e r a t i o n are a major source of r e s i d e n t s ' ' c o m p l a i n t s . b.) S t r e e t S e r v i c e s These s e r v i c e s are the p aving i t s e l f and the s e r v i c e s a l o n g s i d e or under i t . Commonly a s t r e e t i n a s p r a w l area i s not paved; no s i d e w a l k s are p r o v i d e d and d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s are open and unkempt. These t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s , s y m b o l i z i n g danger and i n c o n v e n i e n c e to c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , p e d e s t r i a n s and m o t o r i s t s a l i k e , arouse by f a r the g r e a t e r number of c o m p l a i n t s . Other s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y not p r o v i d e d are s t r e e t l i g h t s (even at i n t e r s e c t i o n s ) , s t r e e t s i g n s , and a f u n c t i o n a l s t r e e t system. c.) Neighbourhood and D i s t r i c t S e r v i c e s These s e r v i c e s a f f e c t the r e s i d e n t s of an area as a whole. S i n c e they are o r i e n t e d toward a l a r g e r area and the whole p o p u l a t i o n , and s i n c e t h i s p o p u l a t i o n a r r i v e s over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , the need f o r these s e r v i c e s i s f r e q u e n t l y i g n o r e d d u r i n g the i n i t i a l urban development. The p r o v i s i o n o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s may be a major cause of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t s ; s c h o o l s may be too f a r away from homes, too 49 s m a l l , o r i n e f f i c i e n t . Such f a c i l i t i e s cannot be p r o v i d e d , of c o u r s e , on the spur of the moment. The r e s e r v a t i o n o f s c h o o l s i t e s i n proper l o c a t i o n s , the budgeting f o r and con-s t r u c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g s , and the a t t r a c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , a l l depend on a long-range approach, i m p l y i n g some knowledge of and c o n t r o l over the r e s i d e n t i a l growth o f an a r e a . The absence of playgrounds and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i s another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s p r a w l development. The p r o v i s i o n of v a r i o u s types o f f a c i l i t i e s i s dependent on a community p l a n , r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g the ne c e s s a r y space to be s e t a s i d e by d e v e l o p e r s , and the proper f u n c t i o n i n g of a l o c a l govern-ment to e n f o r c e the requ i r e m e n t s and i t s e l f undertake the p r o v i s i o n of such f a c i l i t i e s . Standards e s t a b l i s h e d by the Canadian U n d e r w r i t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n and the N a t i o n a l F i r e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , of d i s t a n c e from the f i r e h a l l t o the f a r t h e s t house to be p r o t e c t e d , are seldom met. There are o t h e r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s which a f f e c t an area g r e a t e r than one neighbourhood, and many of which need not be p r o v i d e d i n each neighbourhood. S i n c e they are e s s e n t i a l to each, however, they ought t o be envisaged and l o c a t e d f o r optimum u t i l i t y t o a l l . There are the s e r v i c e s which are n o r m a l l y a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n p u b l i c ownership o r o p e r a t i o n : p o l i c e p r o t e c -t i o n , h e a l t h c l i n i c s , l i b r a r i e s , community c e n t r e s , and p u b l i c h a l l s , s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s such as zoos and b o t a n i c a l gardens, p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . And t h e r e are the 50 p r i v a t e l y or c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d s e r v i c e s : shops, e n t e r -tainment and i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , c h u r c h e s , p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , m e d i c a l and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s . In s p r a w l a r e a s , t y p i c a l l y , many of these p u b l i c or p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s are not a v a i l a b l e at a l l ; t hose which are a v a i l a b l e have been l o c a t e d to the be s t knowledge and a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l owners and o p e r a t o r s . T h e i r d e c i s i o n s , almost by d e f i n i t i o n , cannot but be based on a s h o r t - t e r m , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c amateur i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f urban development. The e x c e s s i v e d i s t a n c e t o and the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of playgrounds and r e c r e a t i o n , s c h o o l and shopping f a c i l i t i e s a r e , a l o n g w i t h inadequate s t r e e t s , s i d e w a l k s , p u b l i c t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and s e p t i c t a n k s , the major sources of d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n o f s p r a w l area r e s i d e n t s . 3.. GOVERNMENTAL FAILURES Urban s p r a w l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y spreads most wantonly i n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d t e r r i t o r y or where the q u a l i t y of l o c a l government i s poor. T y p i c a l l y , no p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g l a n d development has been f o r m u l a t e d nor have r e g u l a t i o n s been enacted; enforcement of whatever r e g u l a t i o n s t h e r e e x i s t i s f r u s t r a t e d by l a c k of p e r s o n n e l or by p o l i t i c a l maneuvering. Furthermore, t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y of purpose over a p e r i o d of y e a r s ; t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o s s i b l e or d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s o f a p o l i c y i f one were to be adopted. The P r o v i n c i a l Government has n e g l e c t e d i t s d u t i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o community development c o n t r o l ; the government's 51 n e g l e c t weighs p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy i n uno r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y f o r which i t i s d i r e c t l y and im m e d i a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e . There may e x i s t s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e b o d i e s , s u p p l y i n g one or more s e r v i c e s , among them community improvement, h o s p i t a l s , i r r i g a t i o n , d r a i n a g e , d y k i n g , water, sewerage, f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , ambulance s e r v i c e , parks and e l e c t r i c power. The " d i s t r i c t s " are the p r i n c i p a l g overning e n t i t y below the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , h o p e f u l l y o n l y stop-gap arrangements p r i o r to f u l l m u n i c i p a l government. G e n e r a l l y t h e i r work i s u n c o o r d i n a t e d , o v e r l a p p i n g and s i n g l e - p u r p o s e ; i t i s d i f f i c u l t to expect urban s p r a w l to be c o n t r o l l e d by them i f even m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have been unable t o do so. 4. ENCROACHMENT ON AGRICULTURE I t was suggested e a r l i e r how farmland tends t o be taken out o f p r o d u c t i o n by s u b d i v i s i o n o f farmland f o r urban purposes. The r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which t h i s form o f sub-d i v i s i o n can proceed has encouraged s p r a w l g r e a t l y ; t h e r e remains the q u e s t i o n as to which a g r i c u l t u r a l areas are so v a l u a b l e t o s o c i e t y t h a t they s h o u l d remain i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n d e f i n i t e l y , as opposed to those r u r a l areas which c o u l d be taken over u l t i m a t e l y f o r urban purposes. 52 The p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e towards l a n d has come s h a r p l y to the f o r e i n r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n s o f the e v a l u a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l v e r s u s urban l a n d use. A f a i r l y g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e i s t h a t whether l a n d s h o u l d be farmed or r a t h e r used f o r some o t h e r purpose (or perhaps f o r no purpose whatsoever) s h o u l d be d e c i d e d i n a f r e e market. I f a g r i c u l t u r e cannot compete i n the l a n d market w i t h urban development, then t h e r e i s no sense i n t r y i n g to keep l a n d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l use. I f d e v e l o p e r s can o u t b i d a g r i c u l t u r e , even i f urban development i s at very low d e n s i t i e s , t h e r e s h o u l d be no i n t e r f e r e n c e f o r whatever purpose, be i t c o n s e r v a t i o n of a food r e s o u r c e base, comparative advantage, c o n s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s , avoidance of diseconomies of " s c a t t e r e d " l a n d use p a t t e r n s or the achievement of c e r t a i n l o c a l urban b e n e f i t s . The market w i l l - i f - n e c e s -s a r y - r e g u l a t e at l e a s t s e v e r a l o f these t h i n g s . I f , f o r i n s t a n c e , food gets s c a r c e , a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of l a n d w i l l r i s e to an even or perhaps h i g h e r l e v e l than urban v a l u e s . 7 One o f the l e s s o n s o f the l a s t c e n t u r y i s , however, t h a t the " c o m p e t i t i v e market" i s unable to o p t i m i z e l o n g - r a n g e s o c i a l and economic g o a l s ; the encroachment of urban uses on p r o -d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d by urban s p r a w l i s a n other i n c i d e n t i n c o m p e t i t i v e market h i s t o r y . Even the s h o r t - r a n g e view, t h a t as l i t t l e l a n d as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be so o b v i o u s l y non-p r o d u c t i v e as much of the l a n d i n s p r a w l areas i s , c a r r i e s no weight i n the c o m p e t i t i v e market. Farmland which s h o u l d be conserved f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n cannot be u t i l i z e d e f f i c i e n t l y i f fragmented o r i f the a b s o l u t e amount of product d e c l i n e s so t h a t p a c k i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n become uneconomical. I t i s s i m p l e to cut up farmland but d i f f i c u l t t o r e -assemble i t , and the s m a l l e r the u n i t the fewer th e a l t e r n a t i v e s open to the farmer. Yet s u c c e s s f u l and r e s i l i e n t a g r i c u l t u r e may r e q u i r e freedom to manoeuvre from time t o t i m e . Thus the b r e a k i n g up o f farm l a n d s i s not o n l y a one-way s t r e e t but a s t e a d i l y n arrowing one from which t h e r e may be no r e t u r n . 8 53 Farmland may be p r o t e c t e d by p u b l i c a c t i o n not o n l y f o r i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l u e , but a l s o i t s s c e n i c , e d u c a t i o n a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e . Of a l l good farmland t h r e a t e n e d by urban s p r a w l , two k i n d s are s i n g l e d out f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n : unique, i r r e p l a c e a b l e f r u i t - g r o w i n g areas ( N i a g a r a p e n i n s u l a , F l o r i d a , C a l i f o r n i a ) ; and farmland s u p p l y i n g l a r g e , l o c a l urban markets w i t h m i l k and market-garden produce. No s a t i s f a c t o r y way has been found y e t o f e i t h e r t i m i n g the t r a n s f e r of use of farmland or a s s u r i n g i t s c o n t i n u e d a g r i -c u l t u r a l use, unmenaced by v a c i l l a t i n g p o l i c i e s , h i g h t a x a t i o n or o t h e r harassment. 5. DISREGARD FOR INDUSTRIAL LAND NEEDS The expens i v e s e r v i c i n g of urban s p r a w l areas and the low r e a l p r o p e r t y tax revenue (low assessments on l a n d , improvements, farms, and vacant l a n d ) have l e d to c o m p e t i t i o n f o r i n d u s t r y , which g e n e r a l l y i s taxed d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f o r the s e r v i c e s i t r e c e i v e s . T h i s has l e d to an e r r a t i c i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n . C o n v e r s e l y , i n d u s t r i e s have l o c a t e d i n s p r a w l areas because of low raw l a n d c o s t s and r e l a t i v e l y low t a x e s . Problems a r i s e p a r t i c u l a r l y from the s c a t t e r e d n a t u r e of i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n ; the preemption of c h o i c e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d by o t h e r than i n d u s t r i a l uses o r i n d u s t r i a l uses which c o u l d be l o c a t e d e q u a l l y w e l l or even b e t t e r elsewhere; the l a c k of p r o t e c t i o n from i n t r u d i n g uses; u n c e r t a i n t y o f adequate f u t u r e water s u p p l y a n d . p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ; and the s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y o f s h a r p l y i n c r e a s e d and 54 o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g t a x a t i o n , when r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e demands e n t a i l major unexpected e x p e n d i t u r e s . 6. SOCIAL INCONVENIENCES L i v i n g i n urban s p r a w l areas means a d j u s t i n g to the l a c k o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and t o new s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r and inducement t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and educa-t i o n a l l i f e are g r e a t l y reduced, compared w i t h suburban and urban a r e a s . Many houses are u n f i n i s h e d , some o c c u p i e d , some unoccupied; o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s s e r v e p u r e l y as temporary l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . T h i s p o i n t s out t h a t s p r a w l areas a t t r a c t many who cannot a f f o r d to e i t h e r r e n t i n the c e n t r a l c i t y o r own a home c l o s e r t o the urban c o r e . One i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o l i v i n g i n the urban f r i n g e and s p r a w l areas s t a t e s : . . . t h e r e remains the i n t r a c t a b l e f a c t t h a t the f r i n g e a r e a s - e s p e c i a l l y the o u t e r f r i n g e s - p r o v i d e a haven f o r some who cannot f i n d a c c e p t a b l e housing w i t h i n t h e i r means i n the c i t y . C l e a r l y , i n l o o k i n g a f t e r i t s own i n t e r e s t s - which are the i n t e r e s t s of every t a x p a y e r and r e s i d e n t i n the r e g i o n - the community s h o u l d bear i n mind the needs of t h i s m i n o r i t y and t r y to make sure t h a t improved d e v e l -opment of the r e g i o n i s not ac h i e v e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y at t h e i r expense.9 Another study i n the same s e r i e s found t h a t about o n e - t h i r d o f the income ea r n e r s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver (1959) were i n e l i g i b l e f o r a N a t i o n a l Housing Act mortgage on a very moderately p r i c e d (9600) home.'*'""' 55 P o s s i b l y the most s t r i k i n g t h i n g about the f r i n g e s i s the e x t e n t to which they are b u i l t on i l l u s i o n s . Most of t h e i r r e s i d e n t s expected open space, peace and q u i e t , but a l l of t h e s e v a n i s h as the area d e v e l o p s . They appear to have thought they c o u l d do w i t h o u t urban u t i l i t i e s ; but the need f o r t h e s e has c r e p t upon them unawares. They thought they c o u l d do w i t h o u t c i t y f a c i l -i t i e s and c o n v e n i e n c e s , but found t h a t both they and t h e i r c h i l d r e n need them. They presumably expected low t a x e s , o n l y to f i n d t h a t the t a x e s o f ' r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g suburban areas i n e v i t a b l y r i s e , and t h a t what they don't pay i n d i r e c t t a x e s they may have to pay i n s p e c i a l c h a r g e s . Behind these minor i l l u s i o n s l i e s a g r e a t i l l u s i o n -t h a t a l a r g e number of people u m b i l i c a l l y a t t a c h e d t o a g r e a t m e t r o p o l i s can escape urban c o s t s and c o n d i t i o n s merely by moving one step away from i t . For a s m a l l community t h i s may be f e a s i b l e , but where s c o r e s of thousands of people are i n v o l v e d i t i s s e l f - d e f e a t i n g . The advantages and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n l i f e cannot be enjoyed f r e e . They can be embraced by l i v i n g i n the urban area and paying the p e n a l t y of c i t y c o s t s and r e s t r i c t i o n s ; or they can be enjoyed more s e l e c t i v e l y -at l e a s t f o r some time - by l i v i n g f a r out o f town and spending both time and money i n commuting. But to s e t t l e h o p e f u l and unprepared i n the path of the m e t r o p o l i t a n t i d e i s not a s o l u t i o n , but a s u g a r - c o a t e d e x p e d i e n t , c o s t l y and d i s i l l u s i o n i n g f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d . i l 56 B. LAND Thi s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h those a s p e c t s of l a n d which are c r u c i a l to the p r e v e n t i o n of urban s p r a w l . The break-down of t h i s s e c t i o n i n t o components i s a m a t t e r of convenience o n l y ; i t i s not i m p l i e d t h a t they e x i s t s e p a r a t e l y . 1. LAND FRAGMENTATION T y p i c a l evidence of s p r a w l i s the l a r g e i n c r e a s e o f u r b a n - s i z e l o t s , o r l a r g e r l o t s i n the one to f i v e a c r e range, too s m a l l f o r f a r m i n g , at the f r i n g e of urban a r e a s . T h i s l a r g e i n c r e a s e i s due not so much to a s u b s t a n t i a l immediate demand, but r a t h e r to an a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e demand. There are of course many examples where s p e c u l a t o r s a n t i c i p a t e d an immediate demand and found none. T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g f o r the economics of urban and e s p e c i a l l y f r i n g e development are f a r from p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d . The o p e r a t i o n of the housing market, moreover, i s f a r from p e r f e c t , e s p e c i a l l y i n s p r a w l areas where b u i l d e r , buyer, and landowner are i n f a c t amateurs i n v o l v e d i n what amounts to urban development. Urban s p r a w l can indeed be a s c r i b e d , i n a sense, to the " c o l l u s i o n " between a l a r g e number of customers, i n e x p e r i e n c e d , u n d i s -c r i m i n a t i n g , i n a rush to b u i l d , w i t h j u s t s u f f i c i e n t money to be a b l e to venture i n t o a t r a n s a c t i o n of t h e i r own. 57 G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the l a r g e r the t r a c t o f land' r e m a i n i n g under one ownership, the b e t t e r the chances f o r c u r b i n g s p r a w l development. For i n s t a n c e , e f f i c i e n t f a r m i n g r e q u i r e s l a r g e , compact and c o n t i n u o u s p l o t s o f l a n d ; the more l a n d t h a t i s r e t a i n e d i n such p a r c e l s , e i t h e r vacant or under c u l t i v a t i o n , the e a s i e r i t w i l l be to m a i n t a i n economical u n i t s of farm p r o d u c t i o n o r to a d j u s t and s h i f t urban and r u r a l uses. R e s i d e n t i a l and urban development l i k e w i s e b e n e f i t s from l a r g e - s c a l e development. I t i s t r u e t h a t the s c a l e of development does not a s s u r e q u a l i t y , nor any improvement over piecemeal development; there' are examples to prove t h a t . However, the t e c h n o l o g y o f l a n d development, u t i l i t y i n s t a l l a t i o n and house b u i l d i n g i s such to-day t h a t piecemeal development i s both expensive and u n d e s i r a b l e from the p o i n t of view of q u a l i t y and f u n c t i o n a l acceptance of a growing body of p l a n n i n g knowledge has l e d to development requirements (such as a f u n c t i o n a l c i r c u l a t i o n system, walkways, neighbourhood parks and l o c a l shopping f a c i l i t i e s ) which are e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o s a t i s f y i n piecemeal development. 2. TIMING AND LOCATION OF SUBDIVISION S i g n i f i c a n t evidence of urban s p r a w l i s t h e premature s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d . The pace of s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t s n e i t h e r a s h o r t a g e nor a demand f o r sub-d i v i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d ; t o the c o n t r a r y , t h e r e i s a l r e a d y 58 p l e n t y of l a n d a v a i l a b l e elsewhere and t h e r e i s l i t t l e demand l o c a l l y . Much of the r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d on the market i n f a c t remains i d l e , the assessment system p r o v i d i n g l i t t l e i n c e n -t i v e to keep or make l a n d p r o d u c t i v e of produce, income or t a x e s . The t h r e a t o f f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n and i n c r e a s e d , f r e q u e n t l y u n f a i r , t a x assessments d i s c o u r a g e l o n g - t e r m c a p i t a l investment i n a g r i c u l t u r e , compounding the adverse e f f e c t s of premature s u b d i v i s i o n . Development proceeds i r r a t i o n a l l y , which i n f i n a n c i a l terms means t h a t the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of t h i s development have no demonstrable r e l a t i o n s h i p . One m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the Lower Ma i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia had, i n 1954, "8548 unoccupied l o t s l e s s than one a c r e i n s i z e , enough by themselves to accommodate the whole 12 of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s growth f o r more than 8 y e a r s " . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Area of Vancouver, B. C , p r e s e n t l y has more 13 than 30 y e a r s ' s u p p l y o f zoned but vacant r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d . "Easy c r e d i t " makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r even the i n e x p e r -i e n c e d to s t a r t d e v e l o p i n g l a r g e r t r a c t s of l a n d . There are i n s t a n c e s i n the Lower Mainland where not o n l y most of the s u b d i v i d e d l a n d i s v a c a n t , but a l s o most of the houses, 14 which were s p e c u l a t i v e l y b u i l t . The l o c a t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n i n urban s p r a w l areas i s l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d to e x i s t i n g l a n d uses and f a c i l i t i e s i n both the u r b a n i z e d and the s p r a w l a r e a s . I t g e n e r a l l y r e p -r e s e n t s an i n f r i n g e m e n t on the e x i s t i n g uses. The s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d throws an "urban shadow" over wide a r e a s , d i s p r o p o r -t i o n a t e to the urban development t h a t has a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d ; 59 and f o r c e s the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s which cannot be economic-a l l y p r o v i d e d to unplanned, haphazard, l o w - d e n s i t y s e t t l e m e n t at such low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s . " L o c a t i o n " of S u b d i v i s i o n i n c l u d e s two a s p e c t s : l o c a t i o n i n geographic terms, t h a t i s , community d e s i g n ; and i n terms of s t a g i n g and sequence. 3. LOCATION AND STAGING OF DEVELOPMENT Urban s p r a w l i m p l i e s not o n l y the premature and i r r a t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d , but a l s o the i n e f f i c i e n t use and development of t h a t l a n d , a l l b e i n g c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . Development i s p a s s i b l e , of c o u r s e , wherever s u b d i v i s i o n i s p e r m i t t e d o r has taken p l a c e . The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia has p o i n t e d out a most s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d w i t h i n s p r a w l a r e a s : . . . i n s p i t e of the complete l a c k o f encouraging f a c t o r s , a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of c o n c e n t r a t i o n of development seems to take p l a c e n a t u r a l l y . Of the l o t s l e s s than 1 acre o c c u p i e d i n North Surrey between 1949 and 1954, 44 p e r c e n t were l o c a t e d on o n l y 1.75 s e c t i o n s out of a t o t a l a v a i l a b l e of over 50 s e c t i o n s , t h a t i s , on 3.5 p e r c e n t of the l a n d a v a i l a b l e . Another i n d i c a t i o n o f the apparent d e s i r a b i l i t y o f l o t s i n denser areas i s shown by l o t occupancy r a t e s . In a sample a r e a , those sub-areas w i t h a d e n s i t y o f more than 3.5 people per acre had 65 p e r c e n t o f l o t s l e s s than 1 a c r e o c c u p i e d ; those between 1.2 and 3.5 people per a c r e had 53 p e r c e n t o c c u p i e d ; and those between 0.3 and 1.2 people per a c r e had o n l y 32 p e r c e n t occupied.16 This s h o u l d not s u g g e s t , the Board c o n t i n u e s , t h a t s p r a w l i s s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g , t h a t development w i l l f i l l i n the s p r a w l areas to urban d e n s i t i e s and t h a t "today's s p r a w l w i l l merely be tomorrow's urban a r e a " , ^ To b r i n g 33,150 acres i a t s p r a w l d e n s i t i e s i n 1955 to a low suburban d e n s i t y of 60 5 people per acre would r e q u i r e a p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e of 145,000 over S u r r e y ' s 1955 p o p u l a t i o n of 45,000. By the time t h i s d e n s i t y c o u l d be expected, about 40 y e a r s , "new sp r a w l areas would have sprung up f a r t h e r out and the problem 18 would be repea t e d on a l a r g e r s c a l e i n a new a r e a " . 4. COMMUNITY DESIGN I t has been i n t i m a t e d t h a t the e v e n t u a l i n f i l l i n g of s p r a w l areas may never be f u l l y r e a l i z e d ; whether t h i s w i l l be borne out i n p r a c t i c e remains to be seen. Meanwhile, the o p e r a t i o n of the f r e e or c o m p e t i t i v e l a n d market i s such t h a t o n l y about 50$ o f the t o t a l b u i l d i n g l a n d s u p p l y appears to be u t i l i z e d ; once t h i s "magic" percentage has been reached i n an a r e a , the development o f l a n d t h e r e t a p e r s o f f very 19 q u i c k l y and becomes a s y m p t o t i c . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of l a n d thus appears to be d e s t i n e d t o l i e i d l e and vacant f o r a l o n g p e r i o d . S e v e r a l reasons can be suggested: the p r i c e may be too h i g h , i n d i c a t i n g i n f l a t e d expected r e t u r n s of the landowner; the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a " c h a r a c t e r " f o r the area l i m i t s the market; t h e r e may be weary l e g a l procedures i n o b t a i n i n g t i t l e t o l a n d s u b d i v i d e d many years ago, i f the owner i s not a l o c a l r e s i d e n t ; and t h e r e c o u l d be many o t h e r r e a s o n s . The p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t here i s t h a t s p r a w l d e v e l o p -ment ( u n l e s s i t occ u r s on an approved development l a y o u t , which i s r a r e ) p r e c l u d e s a r e a s o n a b l y complete o r e f f i c i e n t f u t u r e use of l a n d . I t has been shown t h a t l a n d i n our l a n d market system, i f not " f o r c e d " by d e s i g n to be u t i l i z e d , may 61 indeed not be u t i l i z e d . There can be no q u e s t i o n i n g the f a c t t h a t the f u t u r e p h y s i c a l l a y o u t o f a community i n a s p r a w l area i s s e r i o u s l y compromised by the e x i s t i n g development. As was i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d f o r p u b l i c purposes becomes c o s t l i e r and c o s t l i e r as urban d e v e l -opment f o r c e s l a n d p r i c e s up. I t has a l s o happened, however, t h a t l o c a l governments have been a b l e to a c q u i r e e a s i l y some of the l a n d l o c k e d i n by p e r i m e t e r development, f o r s c h o o l -and park s i t e s . The d e s i r a b l e tendency t o l a r g e - s c a l e s u b d i v i s i o n and development as one u n i t has i t s e l f not been a remedy f o r s p r a w l . T h i s development of l a r g e - s c a l e u n i t s has l e d to g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n w i t h d r a w a l or w i t h h o l d i n g of l a n d f o r urban purposes i n s o f a r as vacant l o t s are concerned. The l a r g e - s c a l e development u n i t , however, has i n t r o d u c e d a new p a t t e r n of vacant a r e a s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s o r l i m i t a t i o n s i n the process of a c q u i r i n g t r a c t s of l a n d l e a v e l a r g e b l o c k s of vacant l a n d around and between these l a r g e - s c a l e u n i t s of development. The tendency i s f o r the p a t t e r n o f development to assume a p a t t e r n of l a r g e developed u n i t s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h areas of. vacant l a n d of v a r y i n g s i z e s but of s u b s t a n t i a l s c a l e . These l a r g e vacant l a n d u n i t s may p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r p o s s i b i l -i t i e s f o r r e s e r v a t i o n of park areas or f o r maintenance of o t h e r nonurban l a n d uses. But i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f i c i e n c y i s b e i n g achieved.20 5. STREET SYSTEM One of the most permanent f e a t u r e s o f urban development i s i t s network of s t r e e t s ; c i t i e s b i g and s m a l l have been d e s t r o y e d and burned, but n e a r l y always the o l d s t r e e t p l a n has d i c t a t e d the p a t t e r n o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . So i t can be proved to-day t h a t s t r e e t s , d e s i g n a t e d as such or a c t u a l l y b u i l t , w i l l be p e r p e t u a t e d , whatever t h e i r c o s t or l o c a t i o n . In the l o n g r u n , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of a s u f f i c i e n t number of complementary r o a d s , c i r c u l a t i o n i n sp r a w l areas may indeed f u n c t i o n r e a s o n a b l y . Patchwork i s of course never cheap, nor can i t s u b s t i t u t e f o r good o r i g i n a l workmanship; some t h i n g s cannot be patched at a l l . The c i r c u l a t i o n system has a f o r m a t i v e c o n t r o l over l a n d use. Roads g a i n and l o s e f u n c t i o n s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s as p a r t s of a g r e a t e r c i r c u l a t i o n system; as new l i n k s are i n t r o d u c e d , the e x i s t i n g network a d j u s t s i t s e l f . So i t can happen t h a t l a n d uses depending f o r support and access on a s t r e e t can see t h e i r f o r t u n e s t u r n , o r t h a t e x i s t i n g l a n d uses suddenly become i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the new t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s . In e i t h e r c a s e , a b l i g h t e d area may w e l l r e s u l t . Where the improvement and the use o f l a n d are not i n a f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , temporary or permanent f r i c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t . A haphazard road system e v o l v i n g i n s p r a w l areas can thus be expected to cause f r i c t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n at l a t e r stages of urban development. 63 C. SERVICES The s i n e qua non o f modern r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t are the s e r v i c e s which are e i t h e r n e c e s sary o r d e s i r a b l e . To a degree not r e c o g n i z e d by most urban r e s i d e n t s , t h e i r homes are t i e d t o an " u m b i l i c a l c h o r d " o f sewage and water, power and tel e p h o n e l i n e s . They are a l s o v e r y much dependent on roads and s t r e e t s f o r a c c e s s . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n i n s p r a w l areas d i s p l a y s a wide range o f a t t i t u d e s toward the k i n d o f environment they w i s h , and a l s o r e c o g n i z -i n g t h a t s p r a w l development as a t r a n s i e n t s tage o f urban development w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a much denser s t a g e o f development, one would do w e l l t o e x p l o r e how the presence or absence, and the q u a l i t y o r l a c k o f q u a l i t y , o f c e r t a i n t y pes of s e r v i c e s a f f e c t s p r a w l development and p r e j u d i c e the urban s t a g e o f development. L e s t the o r d e r o f f i n a n c i a l commitment t o s e r v i c e s not be a p p r e c i a t e d : a study conducted i n 1958 by the Southern C a l i f o r n i a Research C o u n c i l on the c o s t s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n growth i n the Los Angeles area found t h a t f o r every new f a m i l y t h a t moved i n t o the a r e a , $13,290 would be needed f o r j u s t p u b l i c l y p r o v i d e d p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . 21 O p e r a t i o n c o s t s would be a d d i t i o n a l . In the Lower M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1962, the average householder i n the r e g i o n had an average investment o f $12,000 i n h i s own home 64 and owned, as h i s share o f h i s community's a s s e t s , 36 f e e t o f sewer, 61 f e e t of water main and 64 f e e t o f paved r o a d , to 22 say n o t h i n g o f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s * 1. ACCESS The most b a s i c need of any r e a l p r o p e r t y i s the p r o -v i s i o n o f access to i t ; f o r t h i s r e a s o n , new s u b d i v i d e d l o t s must have access b e f o r e they can be r e g i s t e r e d i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o v i d i n g access means p r o v i d i n g l a n d f o r the "highway" which w i l l presumably be c o n s t r u c t e d when the l a n d goes i n t o use. In u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y , t h i s highway i s g e n e r a l l y a g r a v e l road; i n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y i t may be a g r a v e l or a paved r o a d , depending on the s t a n d a r d s adopted i n the s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u -l a t i o n s . In e i t h e r case, the u s e f u l n e s s of the access depends on i t s u t i l i t y w i t h r e g a r d to o t h e r highways and f o c a l p o i n t s i n the a r e a , as w e l l as on i t s adequacy and f u n c t i o n . The r e l a t i o n o f a road t o neighbourhood, c o l l e c t o r and r e g i o n a l roads needs c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The f u n c t i o n of a road may be l o c a l o r area-wide i n n a t u r e ; u s u a l l y i t has an o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n , c a r r y i n g a c e r t a i n type o f t r a f f i c . High-ways i n urban s p r a w l areas are t y p i c a l l y not planned on any b a s i s , l e t alone a f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s ; t h e r e f o r e i t might be asked, what t r a f f i c s h o u l d use i t , c o n s i d e r i n g the l a n d use i n i t s v i c i n i t y . C o n v e r s e l y , one must c o n s i d e r whether the l a n d use i s s u i t e d t o the f u n c t i o n o f the r o a d . The u t i l i t y o f a road i n a community c o n t e x t determines whether shops, s c h o o l s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s can be reached f a i r l y d i r e c t l y , and whether so by p r i v a t e c a r , p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o r f o o t . The l i n k a g e s ought to be envisaged and not l e f t t o chance, and the d i s t a n c e s must be r e a s o n a b l e . The adequacy of a road depends on the r e l i a b i l i t y and d i r e c t n e s s o f s e r v i c e , and the s a f e t y of u s i n g i t . The adequacy depends g r e a t l y on the de s i g n purpose o f the highway, i f t h e r e was a r a t i o n a l purpose, and changes i n the e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . 2. WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL The r e s i d e n t i a l use o f l a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r n e c e s s i t a t e s a water s u p p l y and a method o f sewage d i s p o s a l . T h i s s u b j e c t must be c o n s i d e r e d under the a s p e c t s o f q u a l i t y , q u a n t i t y , c o s t and e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s , s i n c e s p r a w l areas are g e n e r a l l y not b l e s s e d w i t h a communal system of such s e r v i c e s . The q u a l i t y o f water from an i n d i v i d u a l w e l l stems from i t s " n a t u r a l " q u a l i t i e s and those i m p a r t e d by e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s , such as o i l s e e p i n g i n t o the ground, i n d u s t r i a l wastes, and s e p t i c tank e f f l u e n t nearby. The q u a n t i t y may be l i m i t e d by e i t h e r the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d -u a l s u p p l y o r the e x p l o i t a t i o n by too many u s e r s . The c o s t of water, as w e l l as the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y , i s l i k e w i s e s u b j e c t t o much u n c e r t a i n t y and wide f l u c t u a t i o n s . Due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t g e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n and, g e n e r a l l y , a non-e n g i n e e r i n g approach t o w e l l - d r i l l i n g , the i n i t i a l o u t l a y f o r attempts to reach water are u n p r e d i c t a b l e , i f water i s reached at a l l . I f water i s drawn, t h e r e may s t i l l be e x t r a c o s t s i n v o l v e d i f the q u a n t i t y i s i n s u f f i c i e n t at any t i m e . A g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n o f groundwater r e s o u r c e s , c o upled w i t h such w a t e r - d e v o u r i n g p r a c t i c e s as i n t e n s i v e lawn s p r i n k l i n g and a u t o m a t i c washing of c l o t h e s and d i s h e s , can be expected to i n c r e a s e the problems of the i n d i v i d u a l well-owner s h a r p l y . In b r i e f one c o u l d say t h a t the u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g an adequate s u p p l y o f c l e a n water i s i n e v i t a b l y accounted f o r by unforeseen c o s t s . In some a r e a s , l i b e r a l p u b l i c water s u p p l y p o l i c i e s have enabled urban sprawl to o c c u r . " G e n e r a l l y , r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g , a i d e d and a b e t t e d by wide-open z o n i n g and l i b e r a l water s u p p l y p o l i c i e s , has f o l l o w e d i t s own p r o f l i g a t e p a t h , 23 l e a v i n g sewerage problems to develop piecemeal behind i t " . P u b l i c h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s and town p l a n n e r s g e n e r a l l y h o l d t h a t the p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c water s u p p l y and waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s i s a b a s i c p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r urban development along w i t h such t h i n g s as s t r e e t s and s c h o o l s . Y e t , the bulk of r e s i d e n t i a l development s i n c e World War I I has o c c u r r e d w i t h o u t the p r o v i s i o n of c e n t r a l water and sewage systems. I t i s by no means c l e a r whether the p r o v i s i o n of these s e r v i c e s on i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s i s cheaper t h i s way than on a communal b a s i s , on a per c a p i t a b a s i s . The c e n t r a l f a c t s o f s p r a w l development promoting and i n d u c i n g o n - s i t e water and sewage systems are the l a c k of p l a n n i n g , low r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y , the l a c k of c o n t r o l s and s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g s e r v i c e s , the l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o i n s t a l l s e r v i c e s on an area-wide b a s i s p r i o r t o 67 development, and the na t u r e o f the North American housing "market". In s p i t e o f the g e n e r a l l y acknowledged d e s i r -a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e systems, the absence of thes e systems has not d e t e r r e d d e v e l o p e r s from l o c a t i n g i n un-ser v e d a r e a s . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Area o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, has a s u p p l y o f vac a n t , but r e s i d e n t i a l l y zoned l a n d f o r t h i r t y y e a r s o r more; i n c l u d e d are an e i g h t and f i v e y e a r s u p p l y , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f vacant l a n d now sewered, and vacant 25 l a n d not yet sewered but w i t h access t o e x i s t i n g t r u n k s . Y e t , even w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area and c e r t a i n l y beyond i t , new r e s i d e n t i a l development i s p r o c e e d i n g w i t h o u t p u b l i c sewerage c o n n e c t i o n s . While a huge p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t i s l y i n g i d l e , new investment i s made on p r i v a t e o n - s i t e f a c i l -i t i e s i n new r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . When d e n s i t i e s i n c r e a s e l a t e r and w e l l p o l l u t i o n or s o i l d i f f i c u l t i e s c a l l f o r p u b l i c sewage d i s p o s a l , e x p e n d i t u r e s are made again on i n e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s v i c i o u s c i r c l e i s g a i n i n g ground i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a t l e a s t , where i n f a c t the use o f 2 6 s e p t i c tanks f o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y houses i s ag a i n i n c r e a s i n g . 3. NEIGHBOURHOOD AND DI5TRICT SERVICES The group known as "Neighbourhood and D i s t r i c t S e r v i c e s " are i l l u s t r a t i v e , p r i m a r i l y , of the s o c i a l a s p e c t o f urban s p r a w l . The absence or r e l a t i v e l y i n c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n o f these s e r v i c e s i s an i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s p r a w l . In the e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these s e r v i c e s 68 and s p r a w l more a c t o r s come i n t o p l a y than j u s t the new r e s i d e n t , l a n d owner and, perhaps, the l o c a l -.government«' a.) S c h o o l s T r a n s p o r t i n g c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l where i t i s too f a r f o r w a l k i n g i s an emergency measure to o f f s e t the l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s i n adequate numbers and l o c a t i o n s . U n t i l the d e n s i t y o f development i n c r e a s e s , the l o c a l t a x base may be too s m a l l t o s u p p o r t a l o c a l s c h o o l , t h a t i s o b v i o u s . The q u e s t i o n i s : s h o u l d i t be p o s s i b l e f o r people t o e s t a b l i s h r e s i d e n c e i n an area which i s known t o be unable to p r o v i d e adequate s c h o o l i n g i n proper l o c a t i o n s to t h e i r c h i l d r e n ? One o f the i m p o r t a n t reasons why people are moving i n t o s p r a w l areas i s to p r o v i d e a b e t t e r environment and l i f e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , the very t h i n g they a r e , most l i k e l y , not a b l e to do - i f the l o n g e r view i s taken and s c h o o l i n g i n c l u d e d . The r e l a t i v e l y low assessment i n s p r a w l areas y i e l d s such low s c h o o l t a x income t h a t the c o s t of 27 s c h o o l i n g cannot be c o v e r e d . Yet i t i s the low assessment and the low t a x r a t e which have a t t r a c t e d many of the r e s i d e n t s i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e . They are c o r r e c t i n assuming t h a t the t a x p a y e r at l a r g e w i l l a s s u r e s c h o o l i n g to h i s c h i l d r e n , at p r a c t i c a l l y any c o s t to the p u b l i c . -b.) Playgrounds and R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s L i k e s c h o o l s , these f a c i l i t i e s must be both planned and p a i d f o r by the community; they are i n f i n i t e l y more 69 d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h than s c h o o l s . F a c i l i t i e s such as parks are most d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h because they r e q u i r e l a r g e amounts o f l a n d as w e l l as money; urban s p r a w l so fragments l a n d t h a t t h e r e may be no s u i t a b l e l a n d l e f t f o r p a r k s ; the assembly o f l a n d i s always more c o s t l y than the purchase of l a r g e p l o t s . The apparent need to account to the p u b l i c i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s f o r the u t i l i t y o f parks f u r t h e r h i n d e r s r e a l p l a n n i n g f o r such f a c i l i t i e s . In urban s p r a w l areas t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y so much open l a n d at the o u t s e t t h a t i t seems a waste of money, to an " o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n " , - to buy park l a n d a t t h a t t i m e . Indeed t h e r e e x i s t s a n o t i o n t h a t open l a n d i s "park" l a n d and any spot of g r a s s i s park. O b v i o u s l y , i f park l a n d i s not r e s e r v e d or a c q u i r e d when t h i s i s cheapest, then w a i t i n g f o r a d d i t i o n a l s e t t l e m e n t t o " j u s t i f y " i t (and today we know t h e r e w i l l be ample " j u s t i f i c a t i o n " ) can but i n c r e a s e the c o s t s s t e e p l y . When people i n u r b a n i z i n g areas do get around to making improvements i n t h e i r l a r g e r environment, they f i n d them-s e l v e s w i t h few r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . Not o n l y i s i t commonly found to be expensive t o a c q u i r e l a n d f o r p u b l i c purposes, but the a v a i l a b l e s i t e s are o f t e n p o o r l y l o c a t e d and compromises have to be made. In urban s p r a w l a r e a s , neighbourhood, community and m e t r o p o l i t a n parks are few and f a r between. In the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Area o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Burnaby has a 89$ d e f i c i e n c y i n m e t r o p o l i t a n p a r k s , two o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a 100$ d e f i c i e n c y , and another 45$. Burnaby i s a good 7 0 example o f a former s p r a w l a r e a , now having a gross p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of over 5 persons per a c r e and c o m p l e t e l y surrounded by urban and suburban development; the g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r of a new u r b a n i z i n g area i s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the e a r l y stage o f development, a p p l i e s to Burnaby. By the time the p o p u l a t i o n had r i s e n t o 115,000, o n l y 0.7 acre (as a g a i n s t a d e s i r a b l e s t a n d a r d of 7) of 2 m e t r o p o l i t a n park per 1000 l o c a l r e s i d e n t s had been a c q u i r e d . Neighbourhood parks and playgrounds may be more f r e -q u e n t l y found than l a r g e r p a r k s , but t y p i c a l l y they are f a r from adequate i n s i z e , number and l o c a t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , t y p i c a l l y , are l a c k i n g too i n urban s p r a w l a r e a s . c.) Commercial F a c i l i t i e s Commercial f a c i l i t i e s are n o t o r i o u s l y s c a t t e r e d , i n c o n v e n i e n t t o r e a c h , and g e n e r a l l y inadequate i n urban s p r a w l a r e a s . Commercial c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s r a r e , as are the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c h o i c e o f goods and s e r v i c e s . Yet where a n o d a l p o i n t o c c u r s , t h e r e i s a c l u t t e r o r s t r i n g of commercial e n t e r p r i s e s ; g e n e r a l l y the l a y o u t i s u n c o o r d i n a t e d and t h e r e i s l i t t l e convenience o f f e r e d t o the customer. The promotion o f commercial c e n t e r s as nodes of s e t t l e m e n t i s h eld t o be a s e n s i b l e and necessary a n t i d o t e i n s p r a w l a r e a s ; a v a r i e t y of o t h e r f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s c o u l d be a t t r a c t e d as w e l l . 71 D. LOCAL GOVERNMENT Urban s p r a w l has many causes, but i n terms of the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l development on the ground, t h e r e i s but one t h i n g which makes i t p o s s i b l e : the a p p r o v a l by government, as the c o l l e c t i v e w i l l o f the p e o p l e . The l e v e l o f govern-ment most v i t a l l y a f f e c t e d by urban sprawl i s of c o u r s e l o c a l government, which i s g e n e r a l l y a l s o the l e a s t prepared to d e a l w i t h urban s p r a w l . L o c a l governments are l i m i t e d by human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , not to mention l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p from s e n i o r governments and the l a c k of r e g i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . In North America, however, urban s p r a w l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a d e n s i t y which i s low by any s t a n d a r d s ; urban s p r a w l i n the U n i t e d Kingdom • 29 i s a l s o " b i t s o f c i t i e s i n the wrong p l a c e " , but a t a much h i g h e r d e n s i t y and much s m a l l e r i n s c a l e than i n North America. I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l governments to a n t i c i p a t e and r e c o g n i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s and the impact o f urban s p r a w l , and to f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s and apply measures to curb i t . A p o l i c y of n e g l e c t i n g i t amounts to an endorsement of the p a t t e r n of development r e c o g n i z e d as urban s p r a w l . How can l o c a l government a c t i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l be analyzed? A l o o k at any e f f e c t i v e 72 m u n i c i p a l program r e v e a l s a sequence of a c t i o n which proceeds i n c i r c u l a r r a t h e r than s t r a i g h t - l i n e f a s h i o n : r e c o g n i z i n g the problem, a n a l y z i n g the problem, f o r m i n g o b j e c t i v e s r e g a r d i n g the problem, d e v i s i n g p o l i c i e s t o a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v e s , implementing the p o l i c i e s , and e v a l u a t i n g the r e s u l t s o f the p o l i c i e s . B e f o r e a c t i o n i s taken w i t h r e g a r d to urban s p r a w l , a problem connected w i t h i t must be r e c o g -n i z e d . At t h i s p o i n t , an i n c a p a b l e government w i l l l a u n c h i n t o a c t i o n , hoping to remedy the problem; a good government w i l l a n a l y z e the problem a t hand, e n q u i r i n g about the causes and a n a l y z i n g t h e s e to come t o g r i p s w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g 3D problem. To i l l u s t r a t e w i t h a c t u a l e v e n t s : P a r e n t s i n the suburban m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond, B. C , demand of the Sc h o o l Board the purchase of. e x t r a s c h o o l buses to take t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l . The demand i s r e j e c t e d , but r e m e d i a l a c t i o n i s promised. I t i s obvious t h a t the problem i s not the inadequate number of buses, but the e x c e s s i v e d i s t a n c e between home and s c h o o l . Is the l o c a t i o n of s c h o o l s at f a u l t , o r the number of s c h o o l s ? Or i s i t the l o c a t i o n and number o f houses? A number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s are r e c o g n i z e d a t t h i s s t a g e : s p r a w l development y i e l d s i n s u f f i c i e n t t a x e s t o p r o v i d e an adequate number o f s c h o o l s ; even an adequate number would be i n c o n v e n i e n t t o reach because s e t t l e m e n t i s so s c a t t e r e d ; i n any c a s e , urban s p r a w l makes i t i m p o s s i b l e to a n t i c i p a t e the volume and l o c a t i o n of s c h o o l i n g demand; the p o p u l a t i o n i n f l u x may be e x c e s s i v e ; and t h e r e are o t h e r unknowns. The problem 73 u n d e r l y i n g a l l the above problems i s t h a t t h e r e i s no p o l i c y g u i d i n g the urban development of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ; t h i s l a c k of p o l i c y , i n t u r n , r e s u l t s from the l a c k o f a s y s t e m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i d e a s and concepts r e g a r d i n g urban develop-ment i n g e n e r a l , and the development o f t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r . A l a s , t h i s i s the problem. One i m p o r t a n t symptom of the q u a l i t y of a c t i o n thus i s whether the r e a l problem and i t s p r i n c i p a l components are d e f i n e d . The l i k e l i h o o d of t h i s happening i s enhanced i f competent a d v i c e i s sought. Success from then on depends on the c o o r d i n a t i o n of competent p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g a d v i c e , p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . An i n d i c a t o r o f s u ccess may be the c o n s i s t e n c y of a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s o b j e c t i v e s and the e f f o r t expended on e v a l -u a t i n g what has been l e a r n e d from past d e c i s i o n s and i n c o r -p o r a t i n g t h i s knowledge i n t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Urban s p r a w l i s so m u l t i - f a c e t e d and has so many i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e t h a t the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s i t r e p r e s e n t s can be c o n t r o l l e d and advantage-o u s l y guided o n l y i f the whole range of governmental powers i s employed to a c h i e v e t h i s end. 74 Reference Footnotes Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, Land f o r Farming (New Westminster, B r i t i s h Columbia: L.M.R.P.B., 1962), p.21. 2 Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, 5prawl (Ottawa: CPAC, 1957), note, p.2. 3 L.M.R.P.B., Economic A s p e c t s of Urban S p r a w l , (New Westmin-s t e r , B. C : L.M.R.P.B., 1956), p.8. 4G. A. W i s s i n k , American C i t i e s i n P e r s p e c t i v e (Assen, N e t h e r l a n d s : Royal Van Gorcum L t d . , 1962), p.155. 5 E. G. P l e v a , " I n d u s t r y Crops Canadian F r u i t l a n d s " , B u s i n e s s  Q u a r t e r l y . (Winter 1956/57), p.320-321. ^L.M.R.P.B., C o u n t r y s i d e to 5uburb, Supplementary Study 3 t o Land f o r L i v i n g (New Westminster. B. C.: L.M.R.P.B., 1963), p.13 f f . 7 W i s s i n k , 244. 8 L.M.R.P.B., Land f o r Farming, 15. 9 L.M.R.P.B., The Urban F r o n t i e r , Supplementary Study 1 to Land f o r L i v i n g . (New Westminster, B. C : L.M.R.P.B., 1963), p.20. ^~"*L. M. R. P . B., C o u n t r y s i d e to Suburb, 36. 1 1L.M.R.P.B., The Urban F r o n t i e r , 20. 12 L.M.R.P.B., Economic A s p e c t s . . . , 10. 13 Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, Land f o r L i v i n g (New Westminster, B. C : L.M.R.P.B., 1963), p.20. 75 14 In a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n boom i n 1958, f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c -t i o n of the D e l t a Thruway, 360 l o t s were c r e a t e d on farmland of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a , about 30 m i l e s south o f Vancouver, B. C. By August, 1962, o n l y f i f -teen houses had been b u i l t i n "Hawthorne E s t a t e s " ; 345 l o t s remained v a c a n t . 15 Joan Hind-Smith, and L. 0. G e r t l e r , "The Impact o f Urban Growth on A g r i c u l t u r a l Land: A P i l o t Study", Resources  f o r Tomorrow, Supplementary Volume (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962), p . 155-180. ^L.M.R.P.B., Economic A s p e c t s . . . , 12. 1 7 i b i d . " ^ i b i d . , 13. 19 Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board of B r i t i s h Columbia Dynamics of R e s i d e n t i a l Land S e t t l e m e n t , Supplementary Study 2 to Land f o r L i v i n g (New Westminster, B. C : L.M.R.P.B., 1963), p.15. 20 Land Economics I n s t i t u t e , Modern Land P o l i c y , H a r o l d G. Halcrow ( e d . ) , (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1960), p.146-147. 21 Southern C a l i f o r n i a Research C o u n c i l , The Cost of M e t r o p o l i t a n  Growth (Pamona C o l l e g e , 1958), quoted i i R i c h a r d W. C u t t e r , " L e g a l and I l l e g a l Methods f o r C o n t r o l l i n g Community Growth on the Urban F r i n g e " , W i s c o n s i n Law  Review. 1961 (May, 1961), 371-372, f o o t n o t e . 2 2 Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Chance and C h a l l e n g e (New Westminster, B. C : L.M.R.P.B. 1964), p.15. 2 3L.M.R.P.B., Land f o r L i v i n g , 20. 24 Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, S e l e c t e d  Determinants o f R e s i d e n t i a l Development ( S t . P a u l , Minn.: Twin C i t i e s Met. P I . Comm., 1962), p.36-38. 2 5L.M.R.P.B., Land f o r L i v i n g . 20. 2 6 News item i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , J o u r n a l of the American S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , (March, 1963), p.29. Over h a l f the new r e s i d e n t s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i n the U.S.A. depend on s e p t i c t a n k s . 76 In Richmond, B. C , the 1959 imbalance between the a c t u a l revenue per d w e l l i n g and the t o t a l s e r v i c i n g c o s t was $210 minus $337 = $127, which e q u a l l e d the c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n per d w e l l i n g ($130). Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Land f o r L e i s u r e , (New Westminster, B. C.s L.M.R.P.B., 1961), Table 3, p.10. L.M.R.P.B., The Urban F r o n t i e r , p.4. As t o l d by C o u n s e l l o r Robert A. McMath, January 14, 1964, i n the course "Problems of M u n i c i p a l Government", The Department of U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER I I I LAND USE CONTROLS AS TECHNIQUES FOR CURBING URBAN SPRAWL 78 A number of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s may be used to c o u n t e r -ac t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s of urban s p r a w l s i n g l e d out p r e v i o u s l y , and these are reviewed below. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s ' t h e o r e t i c a l ' inasmuch as no r e f e r e n c e i s made to a c t u a l p l a c e s and s i t u a t i o n s . The v a l u e of the s u g g e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l emerge as a r e s u l t of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n the case study i n Chapter V, where the p o l i t i c a l element i n p r a c t i c a l day-to-day d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i l l temper the t h e o r e t i c a l o r 'pure' p l a n n i n g and l e g i s l a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A. CONTROLS RELATED TO LAND 1 . ZONING CONTROLS a.) Large-Acreage Zoning Large-acreage zoning r e q u i r e s p a r c e l s o f l a n d to have a c e r t a i n minimum acreage, commonly f i v e or ten a c r e s . I t may be a p p l i e d s e l e c t i v e l y to c e r t a i n areas of a community or to a community as a whole. There are two fundamental purposes f o r such z o n i n g : to prevent s m a l l - l o t s u b d i v i s i o n g e n e r a l l y , and to ensure minimum l o t areas f o r s p e c i f i c purposes r e q u i r -i n g l a r g e r a r e a s . ( 1 ) The P r e v e n t i o n o f S m a l l - l o t S u b d i v i s i o n . A p r i m a r y reason f o r the attempt to prevent the c r e a t i o n o f u r b a n - s i z e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s appears to be the avoidance o f problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s ; t h i s would i n c l u d e the p o l i t i c a l problem c r e a t e d by the p o s s i b l e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f 79 an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l e l i t e or d o c t r i n e , the problem of p r o v i d i n g the new p o p u l a t i o n w i t h p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , and the problem of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s l i g h t , the d e v i c e i s a n e g a t i v e measure p e r p e t u a t i n g the s o c i a l s t a t u s quo and d e r i v i n g i t s r e a s o n i n g from e x i s t -i n g , " t e c h n i c a l " i n a d e q u a c i e s . Commonly a f i v e to t e n - a c r e s t a n d a r d i s s p e c i f i e d f o r s e l e c t areas i n a community. While z o n i n g cannot be r e l i e d on to guarantee the e x c l u s i o n of s m a l l , u r b a n - s i z e l o t s i n p e r p e t u i t y , at l e a s t d u r i n g the i n i t i a l y e a r s the d e s i r e d r e s u l t w i l l be a c h i e v e d . Any such c o n t r o l r e f l e c t s a community's wishes at any one time; i t may t h e r e f o r e be expected t h a t changing s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i l l e f f e c t new r e s o l u t i o n s a f f e c t -i n g the use of l a n d . One c o n c e i v a b l e p r a c t i c a l and r e a s o n a b l e purpose i s the p r e v e n t i o n of urban sprawl by p r e v e n t i n g the premature s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d . I t has been suggested a l r e a d y i n t h i s paper t h a t r e s t r i c t i n g development o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n urban-i z i n g areas near the c e n t e r of p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y accen-t u a t e s urban s p r a w l t e n d e n c i e s e l s e w h e r e , u n l e s s a l l o u t l y i n g communities i n a r e g i o n are p r o t e c t e d by l a n d use c o n t r o l s a g a i n s t urban s p r a w l . T h e r e f o r e , l a r g e - a c r e a g e z o n i n g can be used t o prevent the premature s u b d i v i s i o n of l o c a l l a n d ; i f a p p l i e d throughout an u r b a n i z i n g r e g i o n , i t can be used s u c c e s s f u l l y to prevent urban s p r a w l . By c r e a t i n g a l a r g e - a c r e a g e zone and t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g c o n t r o l l e d r e s i d e n t i a l development, a m u n i c i p a l i t y may be 80 a b l e to have h i t h e r t o vacant l a n d r e t u r n e d to use. R e s i d e n t s c o u l d use the l a n d p r o f i t a b l y f o r g a r d e n i n g , g r a z i n g or s m a l l - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e , or by p r o v i d i n g s p o r t s and r e c r e a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The urgency f o r l a r g e - a c r e a g e z o n i n g , the p r i c e of the l a n d , the expected demand f o r l a r g e - a c r e a g e l o t s , the adequacy o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and the community d e s i g n e n v isaged w i l l bear on the d e c i s i o n what area s t a n d a r d to s e l e c t . There i s p e r s i s t e n t danger t h a t development may, i n s p i t e of c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , compromise f u t u r e development. A r e l a t e d purpose may be to i n c r e a s e the p o p u l a t i o n i n s e l e c t e d areas of a community so as to u t i l i z e more f u l l y the e x i s t i n g , uneconomical s e r v i c e s , such as r o a d s , s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s , power and telephone i n s t a l l a t i o n s , s c h o o l s and community c e n t e r s . One o t h e r purpose may be to p e r mit j u s t s u f f i c i e n t s u b d i v i s i o n to f o r e s t a l l s t r o n g a n t i c i p a t e d p r e s s u r e s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e s u b d i v i s i o n . T h i s i s a c o n c e i v a b l e remedy where farms are t h r e a t e n e d by undue assessments. S i m i l a r l y , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d can be phased out of a g r i c u l t u r a l use and i n t o urban use g r a d u a l l y , w i t h the l e a s t i n c o n v e n -i e n c e and f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y f o r the f a r m e r . There may a l s o be a d e s i r e to p r e s e r v e some of the open c o u n t r y s i d e i n and near u r b a n i z i n g a r e a s . The ever i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e of l a n d g e n e r a l l y i n urban areas and the i n c r e a s -i n g c o m p e t i t i o n f o r and c o n f l i c t between d i f f e r e n t l a n d use i n t e r e s t s make i t more and more- d i f f i c u l t and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y i m p o r t a n t to p r e s e r v e open space. The i n t e r e s t i n l a n d use i n t h i s case goes beyond immediate concerns i n t o the realm o f 81 s o c i a l t h i n k i n g and b a s i c p u b l i c p o l i c y . The measures proposed to p r e s e r v e such areas i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e must t h e r e f o r e have a g r e a t e r i n h e r e n t permanence and e f f e c t i v e -ness than measures implementing s h o r t - r a n g e g o a l s or a p p l y i n g to changing s i t u a t i o n s . The most e f f e c t i v e guarantee f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of such areas would be an o f f i c i a l community p l a n , which would p r o t e c t them not so much by the f o r c e of law, f o r a p l a n can be amended, but by i t s i n n e r l o g i c . In o t h e r words, u n l e s s such areas can be shown to have a r o l e to p l a y i n the community, by b e i n g planned i n t o and as p a r t of i t , an o f f i c i a l community p l a n o f f e r s no more p r o t e c t i o n than the i n e r t i a and m i l d l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s r e q u i r e d to change i t . ( 2 ) E n s u r i n g Minimum Lot Areas f o r S p e c i f i c Uses. Under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s any f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f l a n d o r l a n d h o l d -i n g s i s d e p l o r e d ; c e r t a i n types of economic a c t i v i t y and r e s i d e n t i a l development r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s i t e s and, above a l l , minimum s i t e a r e a s . Having determined the s u i t a b i l i t y of i t s l a n d f o r v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of l a n d uses and having a l l o c a t e d l a n d to them, a community can deduce by study the l a n d needs of p o t e n t i a l economic a c t i v i t i e s and e s t a b l i s h i t s p o l i c y a c c o r d i n g l y . F r e q u e n t l y urban sprawl i s i n f r i n g i n g upon e x i s t i n g farm l a n d . Where farms are not c o n t i g u o u s , where f a r m i n g i s m a r g i n a l , o r where farming i s a p a r t - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n o f v a r y i n g i m p o rtance, zoning the area f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use i s an u n r e a l i s t i c c o n t r o l because f a r m i n g i s o b v i o u s l y not 82 s u f f i c i e n t l y v i a b l e to warrant such e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l . I n s t e a d , a minimum l o t area s t a n d a r d i s determined, s u f f i c -i e n t l y l a r g e f o r a range of f u l l and p a r t - t i m e farming to be c a r r i e d on, and y e t not so s m a l l as to make p o s s i b l e urban s p r a w l or pre v e n t the assembly o f l a n d f o r far m i n g o r o t h e r purposes i n the f u t u r e . The s e l e c t i o n o f an area s t a n d a r d s h o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by not o n l y f u n c t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but a l s o the p r i c e of and demand f o r l a n d , f o r the s e w i l l h e l p determine the l o c a t i o n and amount of l a n d which w i l l be s u b d i v i d e d . Urban sprawl i n g e n e r a l i s a l s o i n f r i n g i n g upon l a n d which i s r e q u i r e d f o r f u t u r e i n d u s t r y . I t i s known, f o r example, t h a t most modern i n d u s t r i e s r e q u i r e s i t e s of a t l e a s t 10 a c r e s . S i n c e i n d u s t r y does r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s i t e s and i n most cases depends f o r i t s l a b o u r , c a p i t a l and market on areas o u t s i d e a m u n i c i p a l i t y , i t i s both necessary and re a s o n a b l e to d i v o r c e the c o n t r o l of l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l use from p u r e l y l o c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In a c t u a l f a c t , communities compete v i g o r o u s l y f o r i n d u s t r i e s because l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l t a x a t i o n g e n e r a l l y compensates f o r d e f i c i t s p r o -duced by s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g . I f i t i s assumed t h a t i n d u s t r i a l development areas have been determined by a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g body, t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the r e g i o n have a common i n d u s t r i a l l a n d use p o l i c y and have agreed to f o l l o w the i n d u s t r i a l development area p r o p o s a l s , then the best way to p r o t e c t e s s e n t i a l s i t e s i s e x c l u s i v e i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g w i t h a minimum acreage c l a u s e . 83 Farming, i n d u s t r y , commercial and p u b l i c e s t a b l i s h -ments, and l a r g e s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d , o r m a i n t a i n e d , u n l e s s s u i t a b l y l a r g e l a n d p a r c e l s are a v a i l a b l e or can be assembled r e a s o n a b l y e c o n o m i c a l l y . The s m a l l e r the p a r c e l s , the g r e a t e r the number o f p a r c e l s needed to make up a c e r t a i n a r e a , the g r e a t e r the p r i c e per square f o o t , the g r e a t e r the c o s t of l a n d assembly, and t h e r e -f o r e the s m a l l e r the chances of a t t r a c t i n g these l a n d uses to a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . The aim of l a n d use c o n t r o l i n t h i s case must a l s o be the maintenance of as much of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s l a n d i n as few and as l a r g e p a r c e l s of l a n d as i s p o s s i b l e . Not o n l y w i l l s u i t a b l e l a n d be a v a i l a b l e f o r major d e v e l o p -ments, but the e x i s t e n c e , i n l a r g e p a r c e l s , of a l a n d area i n excess of t h a t needed f o r these major developments a l l o w s f l e x i b i l i t y and adjustments i n the arrangements of l a n d uses i n the f u t u r e . The r e a l s t r e n g t h o f a c o n t r o l a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n l a r g e l a n d p a r c e l s l i e s i n keeping t h i s l a n d i n p r o d u c t i v e use u n t i l development tak e s p l a c e . (3) P r o t e c t i o n o f C o u n t r y - E s t a t e s . Large-acreage zoning may a l s o be a p p l i e d to b i g a r e a s , perhaps even a whole m u n i c i p a l -i t y . Here one comes to the moot p o i n t of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between urban sprawl and c o u n t r y - e s t a t e development. The l a t t e r can be d e s c r i b e d as urban s e t t l e m e n t on l a r g e acreages of r u r a l l a n d ; "gentleman f a r m i n g " may be c a r r i e d on and c a t t l e o r a s t a b l e of horses k e p t . A p u b l i c road past the p r o p e r t y may be the o n l y d i r e c t m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d . T y p i c a l l y , c o u n t r y - e s t a t e p r o p e r t i e s are w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d . 84 In urban s p r a w l a r e a s , on the o t h e r hand, much l a n d i s vacant and t h e upkeep of both l a n d and improvements f r e q u e n t l y has been n e g l e c t e d . To p r o t e c t the c h a r a c t e r o f c o u n t r y - e s t a t e a r e a s , some such s e t t l e m e n t s i n c o r p o r a t e and impose l a r g e -acreage z o n i n g on the whole community, r a t h e r than depend on zoning p r o t e c t i o n i n a l a r g e r governmental u n i t . A good case can be made f o r p r e s e r v i n g some c o u n t r y -s i d e c l o s e to the c i t y i n as n a t u r a l a c o n d i t i o n as p o s s i b l e , f o r p r i v a t e and p u b l i c use, and f o r i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a l u e . A p u b l i c p o l i c y t o t h i s e f f e c t would have to be e s t a b l i s h e d and then the amounts of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l a n d , i n e i t h e r a whole g r e e n b e l t o r s e p a r a t e c o u n t r y e s t a t e zones, around urban areas c o u l d be determined. I f c o u n t r y e s t a t e s are to be a permanent f e a t u r e f o r a number of ye a r s to come, then the l e a p f r o g g i n g of r e s i d e n -t i a l development beyond t h i s p r o t e c t e d zone must be accepted and t h i s arrangement i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the community p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . For example, m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s would have to be re a r r a n g e d and the f a c t u t i l i z e d t h a t the e s t a t e areas would r e q u i r e bare minimum o f s e r v i c e s . I f t h e r e i s reason t o doubt the permanence and c o n t i n u e d success of a c o u n t r y -e s t a t e a r e a , the m u n i c i p a l i t y must ensure t h a t l a r g e - a c r e a g e z o n i n g i s not misused. As soon as development f a r t h e r out s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c r e a s e s the p r i c e of l a n d c l o s e r i n , owners o f l a n d i n l a r g e - a c r e a g e zones c o u l d then a p p l y f o r r e z o n i n g and s e l l t h e i r l a n d a t a good p r o f i t . Landowners would a c t u a l l y f i n d i t i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t to zone i n i t i a l l y as much l a n d as 85 p o s s i b l e f o r l a r g e acreages to f o r c e as much r e s i d e n t i a l development as p o s s i b l e beyond i t s zone, f o r t h e i r l a n d p r i c e s would r i s e f a s t e r . Even presuming t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p -ment beyond t h i s zone, and the l a t e r r e s i d e n t i a l development of the zone i t s e l f , i s not urban s p r a w l , m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s would have to be p r o v i d e d u n e c o n o m i c a l l y to the more d i s t a n t development i n the meantime. The m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d e n t e r i n t o c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h landowners so p r o t e c t e d , to share the p r i v a t e c a p i t a l g ains from the s a l e o f l a n d and thus r e c o v e r the accumulated a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c i n g c o s t s . Permanent p r o t e c t i o n o f any k i n d cannot be expected from z o n i n g , s i n c e i t i s a r a t h e r mundane, day-to-day working t o o l s u b j e c t to c o n t i n u o u s p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s . b•) A g r i c u l t u r a l Zoning The obvious purpose o f z o n i n g e x c l u s i v e l y f o r a g r i c u l -t u r a l and a s s o c i a t e d uses i s to prevent the i n f r i n g e m e n t o f u n r e l a t e d uses on t h i s l a n d . T h i s c o n t r o l can s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce s p r a w l , because i t i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s f o r urban purposes t h a t enables s p r a w l to proceed. I t may not be r e a s o n a b l e , however, to zone an area f o r a g r i c u l -t u r a l use when i n f a c t the l a n d i s not s u i t e d f o r i t , the product grown i s not e c o n o m i c a l l y m a r k e t a b l e , o r o t h e r reasons pr e v e n t the e f f i c i e n t use of the l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . A g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g ought to be used o n l y where the l a n d so zoned can be used f o r economical, a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . 86 A g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g , to be e f f e c t i v e , must be accom-panied by measures p r o t e c t i n g the farm o p e r a t o r , to a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i s now the c a s e , from t a x a t i o n based on s u r r o u n d i n g urban and suburban l a n d v a l u e s and s e r v i c e s . Farmland t a x a t i o n s h o u l d be based on the a c t u a l use and not the p o t e n t i a l use of the l a n d . S i n c e the community would f o r e g o a c e r t a i n amount of t a x income, i t s h o u l d be sure t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g i s a c t u a l l y d e s i r a b l e . Furthermore, i f the z o n i n g were ever changed, the community s h o u l d r e c e i v e a share of the c a p i t a l g a i n s from the s a l e of l a n d at t h a t t i m e . In the absence of p u b l i c l a n d use c o n t r o l s i t has been r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r farmers to s e l l or s u b d i v i d e t h e i r l a n d at h i g h p r o f i t s ; the a l l e g e d t a x a t i o n squeeze may w e l l be a c o n v e n i e n t d e v i c e f o r r a t i o n a l i z i n g the s a l e of l a n d . There-f o r e t h e r e must be a r e a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l t a x a t i o n arrangements. Because farm i n v e s t m e n t i s such l o n g - t e r m i n v e s t m e n t , a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g must be s u b s t a n t i a l l y permanent and c o n s i s t e n t . I f urban development oc c u r s i n a c o n t r o l l e d , c o n c e n t r a t e d manner, the r a t e of r e s i d e n t i a l development and the p r o s p e c t s f o r l a n d becoming needed f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l -opment can be demonstrated to the p u b l i c much e a s i e r and more c o n v i n c i n g l y . I t s h o u l d be much e a s i e r , under these c i r c u m -s t a n c e s , to m a i n t a i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l use o f l a n d at a h i g h l e v e l . 87 2. SUBDIVISION CONTROLS a.) Timing o f S u b d i v i s i o n T r a d i t i o n a l l y the s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d has been more a l e g a l a c t than a p o s i t i v e s t e p toward p h y s i c a l development on and use of t h a t l a n d . O c c a s i o n a l l y the t i m i n g and a r r a n g e -ment of l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n have been s t i p u l a t e d i n l a n d s a l e agreements, as f o r l a r g e r r e s i d e n t i a l developments. The s p e c u l a t i v e r e a l e s t a t e market i s very fond of "raw" l a n d , t h a t i s , l a n d not s u b d i v i d e d and wi t h no improvements on i t . Such l a n d can be o b t a i n e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s ; i t can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h a t number of p a r c e l s y i e l d i n g the h i g h e s t p r o f i t s ; and i t can be t r a d e d q u i c k e r and e a s i e r than d e v e l - . oped l a n d . Urban sprawl i s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h an u n c o n t r o l l e d s p e c u l a t i v e l a n d market. The premature s u b d i v i d i n g of l a n d and the a c c u m u l a t i o n of vacant l o t s commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban s p r a w l c o u l d be prevented by making the a p p r o v a l o f l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n c o n d i t i o n a l upon development and use of t h a t l a n d w i t h i n a ve r y l i m i t e d p e r i o d . S t u d i e s have shown t h a t " f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d the market seems to r e q u i r e as much s u i t a b l e and a v a i l -a b l e , but v a c a n t , l a n d w i t h i n the a c t i v e development area as i s a c t u a l l y o c c u p i e d to f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y , and p r o v i d e a s i t e f o r every i n d u s t r y at a p r i c e i t i s w i l l i n g to pay".''" Another study showed s i m i l a r l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d t h a t "development, ( i . e . occupancy) p e t e r s out when the t o t a l areas of o c c u p i e d and vacant r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d w i t h i n the 2 whole s e t t l e m e n t zone are r o u g h l y e q u a l " . Whether t h i s 88 f i n d i n g s h o u l d become a s t a n d a r d f o r g u i d i n g p o l i c i e s i s a r g u a b l e , of c o u r s e ; t h e r e i s a case to be made, however, f o r not h o l d i n g the s u p p l y of d e v e l o p a b l e l a n d down too c l o s e l y t o the l e v e l of demand. Whatever the " a l l o w a n c e " d e c i d e d upon, the t o t a l amount of l a n d approved f o r sub-d i v i s i o n would be geared much more c l o s e l y than i t i s now to the p r e s e n t and the a n t i c i p a t e d demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g . By c o n c e n t r a t i n g i t s a t t e n t i o n on the community and p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s o f premature s u b d i v i s i o n , the community would d e c i d e upon the sequence and l o c a t i o n of development; the demand f o r development would determine the pace of development. The most f r e q u e n t l y proposed c r i t e r i o n f o r the sequence of development i s the economical e x t e n s i o n o f the p u b l i c water s u p p l y and sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s . S c h o o l and t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the sequence. Three major p o i n t s emerge from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n : (a) A s u b d i v i d e d vacant l o t has l i t t l e v a l u e to the commun-i t y because i t i s u n p r o d u c t i v e and y i e l d s a low t a x income. M u n i c i p a l r e a l p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n on both l a n d and improve-ments e f f e c t i v e l y " p e n a l i z e s " the owner f o r i m p r o v i n g h i s l a n d ; s i n c e he does enjoy the use of l a n d , however, t h e r e can be no s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n to such a t a x . This system of t a x a t i o n does enable landowners to h o l d on to vacant l a n d , however, s i n c e i n the absence of improvements o n l y the l a n d i s t a x e d . 89 That c o n t i g u i t y and c o n t i n u i t y of l a n d development i s d e s i r a b l e and economical has been shown e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y . T a x a t i o n can be used to b r i n g about t h i s p a t t e r n of development by t a x i n g vacant l o t s w a i t i n g f o r urban use as i f c e r t a i n improvements had been made on them. C o n t r o l over the p a t t e r n o f l a n d development c o u l d a l s o be a t t a i n e d i f the a c t u a l development on the l a n d were made a c o n d i t i o n of a p p r o v a l f o r s u b d i v i d i n g i t . A c t u a l demand would thus j u s t i f y the t a k i n g o f l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. There may be a q u e s t i o n o f the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . In many, i f not most, cases the s u b d i v i d e r i s not the d e v e l o p e r but o n l y s e l l s i n d i v i d u a l or groups of l o t s to i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d e r s a c c o r d i n g to market demand. The answer i s t h a t t h i s s u b d i v i d e r - d e v e l o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p has r e a l l y no s p e c i a l c l a i m to being e s s e n t i a l i n urban development. I f t h e r e i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t s u b d i v i s i o n and development are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be done w e l l , knowledgeably and on an i n t e g r a t e d b a s i s , p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e -neurs must arrange t h e i r a f f a i r s t o s u i t the re q u i r e m e n t s r e a s o n a b l y imposed by a community. (b) There i s no reason to suppose t h a t l o n g - t i m e l a n d -owners such as farmers would " s u f f e r " f i n a n c i a l l y from such r e g u l a t i o n s , not t h a t the p o s s i b l e s p e c u l a t i v e gains from the s a l e of t h e i r l a n d ever s h o u l d be a norm g u i d i n g p u b l i c p o l i c i e s . One c o u l d expect t h a t o r d e r l y development would a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e the v a l u e o f the l a n d , and t h a t the l a n d -owner would occupy i n f a c t a monopoly p o s i t i o n i f development 90 were to take p l a c e i n a predetermined sequence. " H o l d i n g o u t " f o r h i g h e r l a n d p r i c e s c o u l d s t i l l l e a d t o l e a p - f r o g d e v e l o p -ment and urban s p r a w l as i t now does. T h i s l e a d s the d i s c u s s i o n t o the e x t e n t of l a n d use c o n t r o l j u r i s d i c t i o n (see next paragraph) and to the remedy to " e x t o r t i o n " i n l a n d d e a l i n g s . There i s no s i m p l e remedy, f o r the problem i s t h a t of r e c o n c i l i n g the p r i v a t e r i g h t s t o l a n d e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter I w i t h the development and use of l a n d i n the i n t e r e s t o f the community as w e l l as the landowner. Two co u r s e s of t a c t i o n suggest themselves: one i s f o r the p u b l i c t o a c q u i r e the l a n d now and i t s e l f reap the b e n e f i t s o f p u b l i c improve-ments; and the o t h e r i s to r e c o g n i z e the c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t and make p r i v a t e landowners f o r e g o a l l but the most r e a s o n a b l e c a p i t a l g a i n s from l a n d s a l e s . The former course has been d i s c u s s e d and found to l a c k the support of governments and the p u b l i c ; the l a t t e r has been attempted elsewhere, but found d i f f i c u l t t o a d m i n i s t e r and e n f o r c e from a p o l i t i c a l p o i n t of v i e w . 3 (c) The t h i r d p o i n t to a r i s e i s t h a t c o n t r o l over the t i m i n g o f s u b d i v i s i o n must be area-wide, f o r urban s p r a w l i s by na t u r e a m e t r o p o l i t a n , i f not r e g i o n a l phenomenon. The o v e r - a l l s u ccess of c u r b i n g i t depends, to be s u r e , on the r e s u l t s i n each sub-area of a r e g i o n ; s u c c e s s i n a few sub-areas alone c o u l d , on the c o n t r a r y , s e r i o u s l y i n c r e a s e the hazard of urban s p r a w l elsewhere i n the r e g i o n . No d e f i n i t e stand need be taken i n t h i s study on whether s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l s h o u l d be made by m u n i c i p a l bodies o r by one r e g i o n a l 91 body. The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t o have l a n d r e g u l a t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d , at l e a s t , by a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g board and reviewed p e r i o d i c a l l y . b•) L o c a t i o n of S u b d i v i s i o n (1) D e t e r m i n i n g the L o c a t i o n of S u b d i v i s i o n . The l o c a t i o n o f development can be c o n s i d e r e d from the p o i n t of view of sequence, which was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , and t h a t o f space a l l o c a t i o n . The attempt to c o n t r o l urban s p r a w l i s bound up w i t h an attempt to f o r m u l a t e a p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the a r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the v a r i o u s l a n d uses i n a community. A s e n s i b l e way of going about t h i s would be to study the s i t u a t i o n t h o r o u g h l y and produce a p l a n which c o u l d guide d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g development, assuming t h a t urban s p r a w l c o u l d i n p r a c t i c e be prevented h e n c e f o r t h . Urban s p r a w l proceeds too r a p i d l y to a l l o w one to w a i t f o r f o r m a l l o n g -range p l a n s to be made, however. To make mat t e r s worse, r e m e d i a l a c t i o n i s sought by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s at a f a i r l y l a t e s tage of development. The word " l a t e " has s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e here, f o r "the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r of a new u r b a n i z i n g area i s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the e a r l y s tage o f development".'* Under p r e s s u r e of time i t may w e l l be nec e s s a r y to develop i n a s h o r t time a p r e l i m i n a r y develop-ment program which may or may not be put down on paper or adopted by l e g i s l a t i o n . A c o n v e n i e n t g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e w i t h an added p o l i t i c a l a p p eal i s t h a t of economy: to prevent the diseconomies of 92 urban s p r a w l , a l l s u b d i v i s i o n and development i s made con-t i n g e n t upon the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to p r o v i d e the b a s i c m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I , s e c t i o n A.2. The l o c a t i o n o f new development sh o u l d o ccur as an e x t e n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g development; the d i r e c t i o n of e x t e n s i o n may be determined by both e c o n o m i c - e n g i n e e r i n g and p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . An e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o n t r o l s i s t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s be reviewed p e r i o d i c a l l y and the c o n t r o l s a d j u s t e d t o changed c o n d i t i o n s . Review and a d j u s t -ment are p a r t i c u l a r l y n e c e s s a r y d u r i n g the f o r m a t i v e s t a g e s of urban development. Nowhere i s t h i s more i m p o r t a n t than i n urban s p r a w l a r e a s . S i n c e development p r i o r t o the enactment of s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l s may oc c u r anywhere, t h e r e i s no o b v i o u s o r v a l i d precedent to guide the new c o n t r o l l e d development. Although some " n a t u r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n " i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n some sp r a w l a r e a s , the p l a n n e r w i l l have t o s e l e c t one or s e v e r a l p o i n t s f o r c o n c e n t r a t e d development and remain f l e x i b l e , a l l o w i n g f o r s h i f t s i n emphasis, i f not r a d i c a l changes. The d e s i g n a t i o n of l a n d f o r p u b l i c use i s more d i f f i c u l t t o c a r r y out p r o p e r l y than f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use, the reason bei n g t h a t c e n t e r s of p u b l i c a c t i v i t y a t t r a c t development and have a d e f i n i t e f o r m a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on a community. An i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n urban sprawl areas i s thus to l o c a t e key p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s so as to induce a n a t u r a l g r a v i t a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l development toward them and 9 3 r e i n f o r c e l a n d use c o n t r o l s d i r e c t l y aimed a t p r e v e n t i n g urban s p r a w l . (2) C o n t r o l l i n g the Timing o f S u b d i v i s i o n . (a) R e s i d e n t i a l S u b d i v i s i o n . The f i r s t s t e p s to c o n t r o l l i n g s u b d i v i s i o n s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward t h a t l a n d which i s the most t h r e a t e n e d by urban s p r a w l , has the h i g h e s t l o c a t i o n a l and q u a n t i t a t i v e p r i o r i t y i n terms of community development, and i s l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t most from and r e a c t q u i c k e s t to p r o t e c t i v e measures. The p r i o r i t y of l a n d f o r community development i s governed, o f c o u r s e , by the development p l a n s of a community. C o n t r o l l i n g the t i m i n g o f s u b d i v i s i o n i s a meaningless e x e r c i s e u n l e s s t h e r e i s some consensus on the f u t u r e development of the community; o n l y i n t h i s way can the p r i o r i t y of s u b d i v i s i o n be e s t a b l i s h e d . I f i t had been d e c i d e d , f o r example, to c o n c e n t r a t e f u t u r e s e t t l e m e n t a t a d e f i n i t e l o c a t i o n , then the p r e v e n t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n o f o u t l y i n g areas can be j u s t i f i e d . Some urban sprawl areas may w e l l be so s u b d i v i d e d and developed t h a t s h o r t of major redevelopment very l i t t l e can be done to a m e l i o r a t e the s i t u a t i o n ; c o n t r o l s a p p l i e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case c o u l d w e l l e f f e c t no r e a l change and need t h e r e f o r e not be a p p l i e d . R ather, a l l e f f o r t s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward those areas not a f f e c t e d to such a degree by urban s p r a w l ; f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n would a f f e c t such areas a d v e r s e l y and the p r e v e n t i o n of s u b d i v i s i o n b e n e f i t them immensely. The a p p l i c a t i o n of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n v o l v e s the b a l a n c i n g o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of such a c t i o n s ; account 94 sh o u l d be taken o f the probable p h y s i c a l r e s u l t s , the ••resources" of p o l i t i c a l b a c k i n g and g o o d w i l l , the urgency o f the s i t u a t i o n , and the p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f knowledge, time and s t a f f . On the assumption t h a t l i t t l e s u b d i v i s i o n would go on i f r e s i d e n t i a l development were p r e v e n t e d , a m u n i c i p a l i t y l a c k i n g , or t h i n k i n g i t l a c k s , the power to c o n t r o l o u t -r i g h t the r a t e o r l o c a t i o n o f l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n can attempt to c o n t r o l development by u s i n g powers g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n e d 5 i n p r o v i n c i a l h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s . A by-law can be adopted, r e q u i r i n g a new house to be connected to a p u b l i c sewer or p u b l i c water s u p p l y . S i n c e the m u n i c i p a l i t y cannot be c o e r c e d , except by l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e , t o p r o v i d e such s e r v i c e s , the m u n i c i p a l i t y can c o n t r o l the l o c a t i o n of development. Land s p e c u l a t i o n and s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d can be expected to drop s h a r p l y . A l t h o u g h the more or l e s s s t r i c t c o n t r o l of s u b d i v i s i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t means to c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l , complementary means of a c h i e v i n g t h i s end s h o u l d be kept i n mind at a l l t i m e s . While the s u p p l y o f . s u b d i v i d e d l a n d i s h e l d steady i n one p l a c e , f o r example, i n f i l l i n g i s promoted where i t i s d e s i r e d . The d e c i s i o n where to promote i n f i l l i n g and where to " f r e e z e " development i s not e n t i r e l y u n r e l a t e d t o the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f new p u b l i c works i n the l i g h t of the c a p a c i t y and l o c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , the p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , and changes i n d e n s i t y and l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s . 95 (b) P r e s e r v i n g Land f o r P u b l i c Purposes. The obvious way of s e c u r i n g l a n d f o r p u b l i c purposes, such as s c h o o l s , parks and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , i s o u t r i g h t purchase. At pr e s e n t i t appears i m p o s s i b l e f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o r a i s e the moneys r e q u i r e d , not t h a t t h e r e i s evidence of an o v e r -whelming sympathy on the p a r t of v o t e r s and governments f o r a p u b l i c l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n program. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s a c q u i r e d t i t l e of hundreds of thousands of l o t s d u r i n g the 1930's through t a x s e i z u r e s ; today, t a x s e i z u r e s are r a r e o c c u r r -ences. S u r p r i s i n g l y enough, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a b s o l v e d them-s e l v e s of t h i s " w i n d f a l l " as soon as they c o u l d , u s u a l l y a t b a r g a i n r a t e s f o r the bu y e r s . Amazing s i t u a t i o n s have a r i s e n where m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have had to a c q u i r e , at p r i c e s many times t h e i r own b a r g a i n p r i c e s , l a n d s o l d by them o n l y a few yea r s p r e v i o u s l y ; a l t h o u g h some of the i n c r e a s e i s due to s p e c u l a t i o n , much of i t i s due, i r o n i c a l l y enough, to the v a l u e s c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f m u n i c i p a l improvements and p u b l i c works. S c h o o l s i t e s have had the best chance, i n the p a s t , o f being purchased b e f o r e the need f o r the s i t e became ac u t e ; g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , however, t h e r e has not been a p o l i c y of a c q u i r i n g s c h o o l s i t e s p r i o r to s u b s t a n t i a l urban development. Only a community development p l a n p r o v i d e s the framework w i t h i n which the l o c a t i o n and q u a n t i t y of s c h o o l s i t e s can be predetermined r a t i o n a l l y . A s i t e can then be zoned f o r s c h o o l purposes, but must e v e n t u a l l y be bought by the p u b l i c . 96 Urban sprawl i s most e f f e c t i v e i n c a r v i n g up l a n d so t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , to assemble l a t e r the l a r g e p a r c e l s of l a n d needed f o r parks and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . One task i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s g e n e r a l l y ; the o t h e r i s the r e s e r v a t i o n of s p e c i f i c s i t e s and f e a t u r e s f o r p u b l i c use. The former i s a c h i e v e d i n c r e a s i n g l y by the p u b l i c ' s buying the d e v e l o p -ment r i g h t s o f l a n d or e l s e a c q u i r i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n easements (Chapter I , page 3 4 ) ; the p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y does not have the use o f the l a n d under t h i s system. I f the p u b l i c wants to use l a n d , i t must be prepared to pay f o r the use; o u t r i g h t purchase i s the c h e a p e s t , most c o n v e n i e n t and e f f e c t i v e way o f e n s u r i n g c o n t i n u o u s a c c e s s i b i l i t y to l a n d . The r e a l q u e s t i o n i s when to buy o r , i f t h a t i s not f e a s i b l e f i n a n c i a l l y , when and how to r e s e r v e the l a n d t i l l i t can be bought. The most c o n v e n i e n t but a l s o the l e a s t r e l i a b l e way to r e s e r v e the l a n d i s through z o n i n g ; i t can be zoned " a g r i c u l t u r a l " o r " r e c r e a t i o n a l " , both o f f e r i n g e s s e n t i a l l y the same " p r o t e c t i o n " . S i n c e z o n i n g can work gre a t i n j u s t i c e on i n d i v i d u a l landowners, the s u c c e s s of such zoning f o r p u b l i c use depends to a l a r g e degree on i t s p o l i t i c a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y . The b e s t c l i m a t e f o r p o l i t i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n of landowners can be c r e a t e d , i t seems, i f C o u n c i l can propose and adhere to a d e f i n i t e , c o n t i n u o u s l a n d development p o l i c y . For example, by t a k i n g a stand on i t s l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y , C o u n c i l may succeed i n a l l a y i n g landowners' unfounded f e a r s of i t s use o f the power of e x p r o p r i a t i o n . 97 The r e s e r v a t i o n or purchase of l a n d f o r a d e f i n i t e p u b l i c purpose removes l a n d from the market and t h e r e b y removes the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n f r i n g e m e n t on t h i s a r e a . Much more i m p o r t a n t , the d e s i g n a t e d l a n d can s e r v e as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r f u t u r e development p l a n s or f o r immediate d e v e l o p -ment. The l o n g e r the i n t e r v a l between d e s i g n a t i o n and a c t u a l use or a c q u i s i t i o n by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the more a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d to the use of t h a t l a n d d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . I d e a l l y , a l l l a n d s h o u l d be used to c a p a c i t y i n i t s b e s t use at any t i m e . An u n r e s o l v e d q u e s t i o n i s what to do about l a n d which cannot be used p r o d u c t i v e l y i n t h i s p e r i o d by the landowner, y e t w i l l not be a c q u i r e d f o r the d e s i g n a t e d p u b l i c use u n t i l some f u t u r e d a t e . 3. LOCATION AND STAGING OF DEVELOPMENT The f u t u r e use of l a n d s h o u l d r e f l e c t the l o c a t i o n and p a t t e r n of s u b d i v i s i o n and the development on t h a t l a n d . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of. s u b d i v i d e d l a n d f o r development i s the key to urban s p r a w l ; c o n t r o l l i n g the sequence and l o c a t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y i m p l i e s c o n t r o l o v er d e v e l -opment. F r e q u e n t l y , however, l a r g e numbers of s u b d i v i d e d l o t s are i n e x i s t e n c e i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y . There appears t o be no d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y ( o t h e r than through a s e r v i c i n g p o l i c y p o s s i b l y ) f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y to prevent b u i l d i n g on such l o t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g as i t does u n d e s i r a b l e urban s p r a w l . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ' shows how p u b l i c h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s can be used to c o n t r o l r e s i d e n t i a l development. 9B B. SERVICES The p r o v i s i o n of such m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s as water s u p p l y and sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s seems to emerge as the most p r o m i s i n g d e v i c e c a p a b l e of b e i n g used to prevent the premature s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d , to m i n i m i z e or prevent development i n s u b d i v i d e d p o t e n t i a l urban s p r a w l a r e a s , and to guide new s u b d i v i s i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l development i n a p o s i t i v e manner. The p r o v i s i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i s a u s e f u l d e v i c e f o r two r e a s o n s : p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and p u b l i c works improvements are e s s e n t i a l f o r the p h y s i c a l use of the l a n d and f o r the maintenance of s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s ; and they are p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s whose i n s t a l l a t i o n can be j u s t i f i e d o r r e f u s e d on o b j e c t i v e grounds, and whose s u b s t a n t i a l c o s t s t ands to remind and warn a community of i t s permanent, i r r e t r i e v a b l e commitment to development. I f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g i s to guide a community's development, then a d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s (water, sewerage, s c h o o l s , and p a r k s ) t h a t has been r e l a t e d to the a n t i c i p a t e d demand from new development p r o v i d e s the s u r e s t b a s i s f o r the e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of suburban growth. The r e l a t i o n s h i p should be t h a t p r i v a t e development determines the pace (tempo) of p u b l i c d e v e l o p -ment, but t h a t p u b l i c development determines the p l a c e (sequence) of p r i v a t e development. Once t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d by f a c t u a l a n a l y s i s of p r o -j e c t e d growth and planned e x t e n s i o n of s e r v i c e s , the l o c a t i o n o f new development can be c o n t r o l l e d on a r e a s o n a b l e b a s i s . 6 For t h i s system t o be t r u l y e f f e c t i v e , areas o f h i g h and low p r i o r i t y would have to be determined by a competent p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , s u p p o r t e d by a c o n s i s t e n t p u b l i c works program. P a r t i c u l a r l y i f the a c t i v i t i e s of a l l a g e n c i e s of p u b l i c development can be c o o r d i n a t e d , t h i s system seems very p r o m i s i n g . 100 C. LOCAL GOVERNMENT C o n t r o l l i n g i f not p r e v e n t i n g urban s p r a w l has a c o r o l l a r y : the c h a n n e l i n g of r e s i d e n t i a l development i n t o d e s i r a b l e p a t t e r n s , f i t t i n g a g e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l development p a t t e r n . P l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s can be made p r o p e r l y o n l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a concept of the d e s i g n and growth o f the community; the more d e f i n i t e the concept the b e t t e r . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the g r e a t e r the d e t a i l w i t h which a d e s i g n concept has been adopted i n a l e g a l community p l a n , the l e s s f l e x i b i l i t y t h e r e i s i n a d a p t i n g the concept to changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The problem thus i s to s t r i v e f o r an optimum ba l a n c e of d e f i n i t e n e s s , d e t a i l and f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h i s c o n c ept• I t would be f o l l y t o expect the d e s i g n of a f u t u r e community to be so complete as not to need ch a n g i n g , o r to make i t so immutable as to make changes d i f f i c u l t t o accom-p l i s h from the l e g a l and p l a n n i n g p o i n t o f view. Even i f t h i s were p o s s i b l e , i t i s not d e s i r a b l e . The most l o g i c a l p rocedure, and y e t the most d i f f i c u l t , would be to assemble a " c a t e c h i s m " of g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and p r i n c i p l e s w i t h a view to " t r a n s l a t i n g " these i n t o a broad but f i r m development p l a n . A broad development p l a n would i n c l u d e , among o t h e r s , an o u t l i n e of e s s e n t i a l l a n d uses, the c i r c u l a t i o n system, and p a r k s , r e c r e a t i o n areas and o t h e r 101 p u b l i c l a n d ; a c a p i t a l budget; and a p h y s i c a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n program. Adjustments, changes and d e t a i l e d d e c i s i o n s would then be e v a l u a t e d s t r i c t l y a g a i n s t the " c a t e c h i s m " . T h i s t r a i n of a c t i o n i s so d i f f i c u l t to s e t i n motion because i t i n v o l v e s agreement and d e c i s i o n s on fundamental aims of urban development and a l l t h i s i m p l i e s . The more b a s i c a d e c i s i o n , the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s to arouse i n t e r e s t i n i t and to reach a d e c i s i o n ; the g r e a t e r i s the commitment by, and the more courage i s r e q u i r e d from, each i n d i v i d u a l i n c o n t r i b u t -i n g to r e a c h i n g a c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n . I t has been demonstrated t h a t urban s p r a w l cannot be c o n t r o l l e d e f f e c t i v e l y u n l e s s l a n d use c o n t r o l s can be designed to a chieve o b j e c t i v e s of the o v e r - a l l community concept. I t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the o v e r - a l l concept and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s can be developed except through the l e a d e r -s h i p and f a c i l i t i e s o f the m u n i c i p a l government. I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t to see how p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s a t the l o c a l l e v e l can be v a l i d u n l e s s made w i t h a view to r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and even n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . The P r o v i n c i a l Government, supreme i n i t s power to c o n t r o l p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s , has the duty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the g e n e r a l p o l i c y t h a t urban sp r a w l as an u n d e s i r a b l e form of urban development must be p r e v e n t e d . 102 Reference Footnotes A. D. C r e r a r , i n "Urban Growth and Resources Workshop A", Resources f o r Tomorrow, Volume 3 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962), p. 193. Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Dynamics o f R e s i d e n t i a l Land S e t t l e m e n t (New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B., 1963), p. 2. "Compensation and Betterment" was i n t r o d u c e d i n the U n i t e d Kingdom w i t h the Town and Country P l a n n i n g Act of 1947, but p r a c t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems l e d to the abandonment of t h i s p o l i c y i n 1951. Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, S e l e c t e d Determinants of R e s i d e n t i a l Development ( S t . P a u l , Minn.: Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, 1962), p. 4. B r i t i s h Columbia, M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 255, se c . 634 ( 1 ) . (See Appendix I I , page 196). John D e l a f o n s , Land Use C o n t r o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Cambridge, Mass.: J o i n t Center f o r Urban S t u d i e s o f the' Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1962), p. 66. CHAPTER IV THE EVALUATION OF LAND U5E CONTROLS  AIMED AT CURBING URBAN SPRAWL 104 I t i s i n t e n d e d to e s t a b l i s h i n t h i s c h a p t e r the approach to be taken i n the case study i n e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l a n d use c o n t r o l s aimed at c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . I t was hoped t h a t a methodology f o r e v a l u a t i n g these c o n t r o l s c o u l d be developed. T h i s would i n v o l v e the group-i n g o f a l l e f f e c t s and causes o f urban s p r a w l w i t h a view t o a n a l y z i n g them to determine s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them. The aim then would be to s e l e c t a few i n d i c a t o r s which r e f l e c t the i n c i d e n c e and c h a r a c t e r of urban s p r a w l ; the emphasis i n s e l e c t i n g these i n d i c a t o r s would be on p h y s i c a l measurements s i n c e they are the most c o n v e n i e n t way of e v a l u a t i n g p h y s i c a l changes and of comparing d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l s e t t i n g s . L i m i t e d know-l e d g e , r e s o u r c e s and time a v a i l a b l e and the d e t a i l of procedure necessary f o r a "methodology'' prevent the a u t h o r from p u r s u i n g t h i s c o u r s e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n s t e a d , a g e n e r a l survey of a l l p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l measurements and r a t i o s i s made, w i t h o u t p r o p o s i n g any d e f i n i t e c r i t e r i a t o be adopted. F i n a l l y , i n the next c h a p t e r , the approach to the case study i s p r e s e n t e d ; the t h e o r e t i c a l p l a n of approach t o the case study i s expected to be o f l i m i t e d v a l u e because the author i s at t h i s s t a g e n e i t h e r e x p e r i e n c e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n d e t a i l the e f f e c t s of l a n d use c o n t r o l s nor s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the case study i t s e l f . 105 A. POTENTIAL EVALUATION PROCEDURES RELATED TO LAND 1. LAND AS A MARKET COMMODITY a.) Land P r i c e s The s p i r a l l i n g p r i c e of both raw ( i . e . , u n s u b d i v i d e d ) and s u b d i v i d e d l a n d f o r c e s b u i l d e r s and d e v e l o p e r s t o s k i p beyond t h i s l a n d and s u b d i v i d e and b u i l d on cheaper l a n d , thus c a u s i n g urban s p r a w l . I t i s e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , to i d e n t i f y the p a t t e r n o f l a n d p r i c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o l o c a t i o n , type and degree of development; s i n c e the p r i c e changes may be q u i t e s u b t l e , p r i c e s may have to be checked f r e q u e n t l y . S p e c u l a t i o n i n l a n d i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of urban sprawl a r e a s . A s u p e r f i c i a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the e x t e n t and p r o f i t a -b i l i t y o f t h i s e n t e r p r i s e would be the number of r e a l e s t a t e agents and salesmen engaged i n l a n d t r a n s a c t i o n s ; t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may be s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s t r i c t z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s has been known to reduce n o t i c e a b l y the number of r e a l e s t a t e a g e n c i e s i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y . b.) Land T r a n s a c t i o n s I t seems reasonable' t o suppose t h a t the number, type and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d t r a n s a c t i o n s may i n d i c a t e e x p e c t a -t i o n s of the market, t r e n d s of development, or p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the development of l a n d . Such i n f o r m a t i o n may be h e l p f u l i n p o i n t i n g out f r i c t i o n s between l a n d uses and d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r c e r t a i n l a n d uses, such as a g r i c u l t u r e . The 106 " s e l l i n g out" of farms may r e s u l t from f a r m e r s ' being o v e r -t a x e d , f o r example, or from f a r m e r s ' u n w i l l i n g n e s s to r e - i n v e s t i n t h e i r p r o p e r t y and c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g i n the f a c e of urban s p r a w l i n f r i n g e m e n t i n t h e i r areas and a l a c k of governmental p o l i c y and p r o t e c t i o n . Data c o u l d be o b t a i n e d on the t o t a l number o f t r a n s -a c t i o n s and the number of t r a n s a c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o l o t s s u b d i v i d e d i n d i f f e r e n t y e a r s . 2. LAND U5E a•) O v e r - a l l P a t t e r n The present p a t t e r n o f l a n d use, and changes i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n , d e n s i t y , l o c a t i o n and type of l a n d use need to be r e c o r d e d , s t u d i e d and understood f o r they are i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s of t r e n d s d i c t a t e d by, among o t h e r s , market f o r c e s , development t r e n d s , and g e n e r a l economic c o n d i t i o n s . These o t h e r f o r c e s must be understood so t h a t both the e f f e c t s and causes of urban sprawl may be a t t a c k e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . For example, much of the r e s i d e n t i a l development i n urban s p r a w l areas i s of a m a r g i n a l c h a r a c t e r , r e f l e c t i n g a need f o r housing which the c o m p e t i t i v e market e v i d e n t l y cannot s a t i s f y w i t h r e g a r d to q u a n t i t y , q u a l i t y , l o c a t i o n and p r i c e . b.) Zoning S i n c e z o n i n g i s the most w i d e l y used o f any d i r e c t l a n d use c o n t r o l s , i t i s ext r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t to e s t a b l i s h the i n f l u e n c e i t has had on l a n d uses and development. Thus, zon i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and t h e i r changes can be t r a c e d over the 107 y e a r s and then used to r e l a t e to each o t h e r a v a r i e t y of l a n d use, development and s u b d i v i s i o n phenomena. The d e v e l -opment of a community i s i n f l u e n c e d most s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the z o n i n g which r e g u l a t e s the h i g h - p r i c e d l a n d ; t h e r e may w e l l be a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p here i n t h a t communities, i n t u r n , w i l l e x e r c i s e g r e a t e r c a r e i n z o n i n g h i g h - p r i c e d l a n d . R a t i o s can be worked out on the l a n d zoned f o r v a r i o u s uses per p o p u l a t i o n , changes i n the amount of l a n d zoned f o r t hese uses, the r e l o c a t i o n of use-zones, and the permanency of use-zone b o u n d a r i e s . 3. SUBDIVISION a.) Rate and L o c a t i o n of S u b d i v i s i o n Important f a c e t s o f urban s p r a w l i n u r b a n i z i n g areas are the i r r e g u l a r pace of s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y and the exaggerated a n t i c i p a t e d demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s . From the number of ways i n which the r a t e of s u b d i v i s i o n can be e x p r e s s e d , s e v e r a l have been s e l e c t e d as b e i n g p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t as w e l l as r e l a t i v e l y easy to determine: number of l o t s s u b d i v i d e d per y e a r ; number of s u b d i v i d e d l o t s per t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y per y e a r ; number of s u b d i v i d e d l o t s per new houses b u i l t i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y per y e a r ; and the number of sub-d i v i d e d l o t s r e l a t e d to the t o t a l m u n i c i p a l p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s f a i r l y d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t which of these r a t i o s may c o r respond c l o s e s t to the i n c i d e n c e Df urban s p r a w l and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l a n d use c o n t r o l s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the 108 i n d i v i d u a l r a t i o s p r o b a b l y won't emerge u n t i l s e v e r a l o f these have been determined and compared w i t h those of o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . They are thought o f here as i n d i c a t o r s complementary to o t h e r s proposed i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A way must be found to d e s c r i b e , the l o c a t i o n o f sub-d i v i s i o n n u m e r i c a l l y and to i n d i c a t e the type of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n e f f e c t e d by a s u b d i v i s i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s would r e q u i r e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the type of l o t g r o u p i n g , t h e number o f l o t s per group, and the amount and c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f l a n d l o c k e d i n or o t h e r w i s e a f f e c t e d . New s u b d i v i d e d l o t s can be r e l a t e d , p r o b a b l y by a d i s t a n c e , time o r conven-i e n c e f a c t o r , to e x i s t i n g o r proposed s c h o o l s , b u s i n e s s , r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t a r e a s . Furthermore, the g e o g r a p h i c a l s c a t t e r or c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s u b d i v i s i o n can be determined, e i t h e r f a i r l y p r e c i s e l y w i t h geographic t e c h -n i q u e s , o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y and s u b j e c t i v e l y by p l o t t i n g a map. b.) Timing and L o c a t i o n o f Development B e f o r e a judgment can be made on the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d , something must be l e a r n e d about the t i m i n g o f d e v e l o p -ment of t h a t l a n d . In urban sprawl a r e a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , much of the s u b d i v i d e d l a n d l i e s i d l e f o r many y e a r s ; the t i m i n g o f development t h e r e f o r e has s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The l o c a t i o n and q u a n t i t y o f house c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t time p e r i o d s ( e . g . , a y e a r , o r the p e r i o d a z o n i n g bylaw was i n e f f e c t ) can be r e l a t e d to the 109 l o c a t i o n , q u a n t i t y and t i m i n g o f s u b d i v i s i o n . I f some i n d i c a -t o r o f the use of l a n d between the time of s u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g development c o u l d be o b t a i n e d , a b e t t e r i d e a might be o b t a i n e d whether the l a n d was s u b d i v i d e d p r e m a t u r e l y or n o t . Changes i n the p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y are an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f the pace of i n f i l l i n g i n urban s p r a w l areas i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y . To ensure a d e s i r a b l e l a n d use p a t t e r n , the l o c a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, and i n d u s t r i a l development must be s t e e r e d i n the d i r e c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o implementing a community development p l a n . Only a f l e x i b l e p l a n n i n g approach can a chieve t h i s g o a l i n urban s p r a w l areas where m i x t u r e s of types and i n t e n s i t i e s o f l a n d use, as w e l l as of raw, s u b d i v i d e d and h a p h a z a r d l y developed l a n d , are encountered. A r e a l p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y changes can be mapped and attempts made to r e l a t e these to changes i n l a n d - u s e r e g u l a -t i o n s , new commercial and s e r v i c e developments, the p r o v i s i o n o f new s c h o o l s and p a r k s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n changes. 110 B- POTENTIAL EVALUATION PROCEDURES RELATED TO SERVICES One of the major problems of s p r a w l development i s the i n e f f i c i e n c y of a l l types o f r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s . 5uch b a s i c s e r v i c e s as r o a d s , water and power at times have been p r o v i d e d to s t i m u l a t e development; i n some areas t h i s p o l i c y has been s u c c e s s f u l , i n o t h e r s the a n t i c i p a t e d r a t e and q u a n t i t y development was i n s u f f i c i e n t to ensure the e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n s t a l l e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y to examine f o r what purpose and at which stage of r e s i d e n t i a l development these s e r v i c e s were p r o v i d e d i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s . I t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e then to judge whether the o b j e c t i v e was reached or whether, i n a c t u a l f a c t , the u n t i m e l y p r o v i s i o n o f the b a s i c s e r v i c e s i n i t i a l l y promoted urban s p r a w l . 1. ACCESS a.) Roads The c i r c u l a t i o n system i n urban s p r a w l areas g e n e r a l l y i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e f i c i e n t . For t h i s r e a s o n , the l e n g t h s of roads, by type and s u r f a c e , ought to be r e l a t e d to the r a t e and l o c a t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n and d e v e l -opment, the p a t t e r n of l a n d uses, and the s i z e and growth of p o p u l a t i o n . A l t hough i t i s d i f f i c u l t and p r o b a b l y f u t i l e t o g e n e r a l i z e , c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s can p r o b a b l y be adopted as i n d i c a t o r s of the s u f f i c i e n c y or d e f i c i e n c y of the system. Once the d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the c i r c u l a t i o n system have been I l l d e s c r i b e d , an i d e a o f i t s i n e f f i c i e n c y can be o b t a i n e d by the l i n e a r measurements o f v a r i o u s road types s e r v i n g vacant l o t s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g a l s o to e s t a b l i s h whether c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c works, and i n d u s t r i a l or commercial developments, helped to b r i n g vacant -land nearby i n t o use and thus i n c i d e n t a l l y improve the u t i l i z a t i o n of the c i r c u l a -t i o n system. b.) P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a s u b s i d i z e d , c o n t r o v e r s i a l s e r v i c e i n North America. There are arguments f o r b e t t e r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n at low f a r e s on the one hand, and arguments on the o t h e r hand f o r o n l y t h a t p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n which can op e r a t e w i t h a p r o f i t and w i t h o u t s u b s i d i e s . No matter what i t s f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l b a s i s , p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s n e v e r t h e l e s s r e l a t e d i n some r a t i o n a l way to the d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n and the p a t t e r n o f community development. These f a c t o r s can be r e l a t e d and d e s i r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s worked out i n a s e p a r a t e s t u d y ; here the concern i s w i t h a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n and some measurement of t h e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o v i d e d , e s p e c i a l l y changes and improvements. A map showing the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and the frequency o f s e r v i c e , as w e l l as l a n d uses and p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s , s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t f o r a g e n e r a l study of the e f f e c t s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s on urban s p r a w l . Changes i n 112 s c h o o l bus r o u t e s and the number of s c h o o l buses s h o u l d be r e c o r d e d . 2. SANITARY SERVICES a.) Water 5upply The l i n e a r measurements o f water mains can be r e l a t e d to p o p u l a t i o n , s u b d i v i s i o n , and r e s i d e n t i a l development d a t a . R a t i o s r e l a t i n g to m u n i c i p a l water s e r v i c i n g can be expected to be s i g n i f i c a n t because t h i s s e r v i c e i s r e c o g n i z e d as e s s e n t i a l t o urban l i v i n g and a l a c k of i t as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s , uneconomic s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , i n s u f f i c i e n t p u b l i c works and l a n d use p l a n n i n g , and i n a d e -quate m u n i c i p a l development c o n t r o l and f i n a n c i n g . The time of i n s t a l l a t i o n may r e v e a l what type of and t o what e x t e n t l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n and development were promoted as a consequence. b•) 5ewaqe D i s p o s a l Data on sewage mains and d i s p o s a l may be l e s s s i g n i f -i c a n t than those f o r water mains, because sewage d i s p o s a l o f t e n i s not a s e r i o u s problem d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e s of urban development and t h e r e may be no a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y t o i n s t a l l proper m u n i c i p a l sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s p r i o r t o or c o n c u r r e n t w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l development. There i s no q u e s t i o n i n g the f a c t , o f c o u r s e , t h a t they are d e s i r a b l e and an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of urban development.' The b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d i s the l o c a t i o n and number of l o t s sewered and on s e p t i c t a n k s , and the l e n g t h o f 113 •sewage mains. Such data can then be r e l a t e d to thos e on l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n , development, and p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s . Some r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f such f a c i l i t i e s and urban s p r a w l may be d i s c e r n e d . Where a d e f i n i t e s e r v i c -i n g p o l i c y i s employed to i n f l u e n c e s u b d i v i s i o n and de v e l o p -ment, o r perhaps curb urban s p r a w l , the f a i l u r e o r sucess s h o u l d emerge from the a n a l y s i s and comparison o f the d a t a . 3. NEIGHBOURHOOD AND DISTRICT SERVICES Such s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s as s c h o o l s , parks and r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s , and commerce are o r i e n t e d toward a l a r g e r group o f p e o p l e , are few i n number and s e l e c t i v e i n l o c a t i o n . T h e i r u s e f u l n e s s and importance on a l o c a l or r e g i o n a l s c a l e cannot be determined u n e q u i v o c a l l y ; a g e n e r a l judgment on the l o c a l s c a l e can be attempted, however, on the b a s i s o f c e r t a i n d e s i r a b l e , i f not a c c e p t e d , c r i t e r i a . Elementary and h i g h - s c h o o l s are c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l elements i n a community, t h e i r c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n and access to them d e t e r m i n i n g to a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s to a community. A maximum d i s t a n c e of on e - q u a r t e r m i l e from home to elementary s c h o o l i s a common l o c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d ; f o r h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s of l e a r n i n g t h e r e are o n l y the vaguest of l o c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , because the l a r g e r "catchment" area a l l o w s more freedom i n l o c a t i o n and the number and types o f i n s t i t u t i o n s are determined by the demand f o r them and the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . 5 i n c e elementary s c h o o l s , o f a l l s c h o o l s , are the l a r g e s t i n number and t h e i r l o c a t i o n most c r i t i c a l , they are most i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g . 114 Parks and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas must be judged from the p o i n t of view of number, l o c a t i o n , type and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . A g a i n , the main concern should be to o b t a i n the most p e r t i n e n t i n d i c a t o r of the adequacy of these f a c i l i t i e s as they r e l a t e to l a n d use. Thus the a r e a s , l o c a t i o n s and t ypes o f park and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y such as g o l f c o u r s e s , beaches and a t h l e t i c grounds, can be r e l a t e d to p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n and development, and a c c e s s . As more l e i s u r e time i s a v a i l a b l e , t r a v e l made e a s i e r , and more d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n and c h o i c e sought between types o f r e c r e a t i o n and l o c a l e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a , the r e c r e a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n tends t o become a r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n . Tenuous arguments r e g a r d i n g r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l demands on l o c a l l a n d can be a voided by u s i n g l o c a l neighbourhood parks t o e v a l u a t e the adequacy of park and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas as l o c a l l a n d uses. S i m i l a r l y , the adequacy of commercial and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , by t y p e , number, and l o c a t i o n , are d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e because they can be s u p p l i e d from and o b t a i n e d at l o c a t i o n s o u t s i d e m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s ; they are very much a r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , because o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e to the development of a community, they may s e r v e as an i n d i c a t o r o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n promot-i n g a b e t t e r l a n d use p a t t e r n . A knowledge of the number and l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , c h u r c h e s , community c e n t r e s , and i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s can complement f i n d i n g s d i r e c t -l y r e l a t e d to l a n d use c o n t r o l s . 115 C POTENTIAL EVALUATION PROCEDURES RELATED TO  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 1. ZONING AND SUBDIVISION A thorough review and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l o c a l l a n d use c o n t r o l s , from t h e i r i n c e p t i o n to the p r e s e n t , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s and c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n t r o l s w i t h l a n d use and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g d a t a . S i n c e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s i s so dependent on the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the admin-i s t r a t i v e p rocess s h o u l d be reviewed w i t h r e s p e c t to p e r s o n n e l , scope of involvement of the m u n i c i p a l departments, e f f i c i e n c y of p r o c e s s , and the r e c i p r o c i t y of l a n d use p o l i c y -making and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 2. PLANNING Before the s t a t u s of p l a n n i n g i n a community can be a p p r e c i a t e d , the c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which i t e v o l v e d must be r e v i e w e d . I t i s the community's temperament and g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward betterment which, i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , makes the d i f f e r e n c e i n the v a l u e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p l a n n i n g . In communities which i n t e n d to and a c t u a l l y do pursue,, i n t e l l i g e n t l y and d y n a m i c a l l y , t h e i r p l a n s of community development, l a n d use c o n t r o l s p l a y a p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l r o l e ; l a n d use c o n t r o l s then have no i n h e r e n t v a l u e and can be changed to y i e l d the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . As a c o r o l l a r y , l a n d use c o n t r o l s have a s i g n i f i c a n c e a l l t h e i r own i n communities 116 which do not pursue d e f i n i t e development p o l i c i e s . Because they then l a c k d i r e c t i o n and p u b l i c s u p p o r t , l a n d use c o n t r o l s a r e , a t b e s t , p l i a b l e and weak and at w o r s t , i n e f f e c t i v e and p o t e n t i a l l y d e t r i m e n t a l . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of p l a n n i n g can be e v a l u a t e d from the r o l e i t has been p l a y i n g i n m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g and from i t s f a i l u r e s and s u c c e s s e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p l a n n i n g , and much of i t s s u c c e s s , w i l l depend on whether and how i t i s a p p l i e d to everyday p r i v a t e and p u b l i c problems c o n c e r n i n g urban development and the use of l a n d . One q u e s t i o n i s whether l a n d use c o n t r o l s are or are not d r a f t e d and a d m i n i s -t e r e d by the P l a n n i n g Department. An e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n concerns the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the c o n t r o l , i f any, e x e r c i s e d and the q u a l i t y of p l a n n i n g g e n e r a l l y . The q u a l i t y of the p l a n n i n g done sh o u l d emerge from an o v e r - a l l a n a l y s i s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s development, as w i l l be attempted i n the next c h a p t e r . 3. GENERAL ADMINISTRATION To complement the e v a l u a t i o n o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s , some i n d i c a t i o n s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and c o n t i n u i t y of l o c a l government and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t would be u s e f u l , f o r example, to e s t a b l i s h s u c c e s s i v e governments' a t t i t u d e s toward the use of " e x p e r t " a d v i c e i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r d u t i e s . There i s p r o b a b l y no b e t t e r case m a t e r i a l i n a m u n i c i p a l h a l l than t h a t p r o v i d e d by the a c t i v i t i e s of a P l a n n i n g Department, f o r the l a t t e r i s c o n t i n u o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o p o s i n g i m p o r t a n t p o l i c i e s and p r o j e c t s . CHAPTER V RICHMOND, BRITISH COLUMBIA  A CASE STUDY 118 An attempt w i l l be made i n t h i s case study t o propose an e v a l u a t i o n procedure f o r l a n d use c o n t r o l s aimed at c u r b -i n g urban s p r a w l , and to t e s t the v a l i d i t y o f both the p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s and g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a of the p r e v i o u s two c h a p t e r s , and o f the e v a l u a t i o n procedure i t s e l f . The C o r p o r a t i o n o f the Township o f Richmond, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, was chosen f o r the case study f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : f i r s t , u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y , Richmond was p r i m a r i l y a r u r a l community, Vancouver's p e r s o n a l market garden; s e c o n d l y , i n i t s s i t u a t i o n d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o Vancouver, Richmond e x p e r i e n c e d a sudden wave of suburban r e s -i d e n t i a l development which c r e a t e d urban sprawl problems w i t h a t t e n d a n t i n f r i n g e m e n t on good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ; t h i r d l y , Richmond enacted l a n d use c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n t o curb urban s p r a w l ; f o u r t h l y , the c o n t r o l s have been a p p l i e d f o r a s u f f i c i e n t number of ye a r s by p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f , so t h a t some c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn a t t h i s time; f i f t h l y , Richmond to date i s the o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the Lower Main-l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia which has a p p l i e d these c o n t r o l s c o n t i n u o u s l y i n a p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t , by p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s , so t h a t e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made here r e g a r d i n g the u t i l i t y of l a n d use c o n t r o l s to curb urban s p r a w l ; and l a s t l y , e s s e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s r e g a r d i n g l a n d development and use are a v a i l a b l e from the P l a n n i n g Department. 120 A. DESCRIPTION OF RICHMOND, B. C. 1. GEOGRAPHY AND COMMUNITY GROWTH The C o r p o r a t i o n o f the Township o f Richmond, l o c a t e d i n the d e l t a l o w l a n d s and at the mouth of the E r a s e r R i v e r i s comprised of L u l u I s l a n d (25,082 a c r e s ) , 5ea I s l a n d (3,821 a c r e s ) , M i t c h e l l I s l a n d (262 a c r e s ) , and numerous s m a l l e r i s l a n d s . Richmond l i e s at the extreme western end of the Lower Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia, south of the C i t y of Vancouver and s e p a r a t e d from i t by the North Arm of the Fras.er R i v e r (Map l , page 119). The wave of suburban r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the 1950's t o g e t h e r w i t h improved access to Richmond from Vancouver by the new Oak S t r e e t t o l l b r i d g e (opened i n June, 1957) are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n Richmond, i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 , page 121. The enforcement of f a i r l y h i g h p l a n n i n g and e n g i n e e r i n g s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development, accompanied by a high g e n e r a l s t a n -dard of p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have borne f r u i t i n p r e v e n t i n g urban s p r a w l on a l a r g e s c a l e ; f u r t h e r m o r e , the groundwork has been l a i d f o r a long-range community development program, w i t h t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s , p l a n s and a c t u a l work i n pr o g r e s s a t t e s t i n g to the f e r t i l i t y of the community's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I RICHMOND, B.C. [ 121 50,rjoo«"f 45,000 40,000=4 35,000 20,00CFf 30,000=f3,000 25,000 H-2,000 Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s and Richmond P l a n n i n g Department T 1 r 1951 '53 •55 T r 57 l r -•59 i r-•61 i r-'63 F i g . 1 POPULATION GROWTH AND ANNUAL POPULATION INCREMENTS 1951-1963 2. LAND CHARACTERISTICS 122 a,) Geology Richmond i s comprised of t h r e e major i s l a n d s l o c a t e d i n the F r a s e r R i v e r d e l t a , which i s s t i l l i n the p r o c e s s of f o r m a t i o n . The d e l t a l a n d , m o s t l y below the l e v e l of extreme high t i d e , i s dyked to prevent f l o o d i n g . Top l a y e r s o f sand o f f i f t y f e e t t h i c k n e s s and more are u n d e r l a i n by t h i c k c l a y and s i l t y c l a y s e c t i o n s , to make a t o t a l d e l t a d e p o s i t depth of up to 700 f e e t on L u l u Island."'' The s u b s t a n t i a l c o s t s o f .dyking and pumping water to m a i n t a i n a d e s i r a b l e water l e v e l are f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by the c l e a r a n c e o f l a n d and the development of b u i l d i n g u p l a n d , which i n c r e a s e r u n - o f f and t h e r e f o r e aggravate the f l o o d problem i n the bottom of the d r a i n a g e b a s i n . There i s at p r e s e n t no b a s i n - w i d e s h a r i n g o f the e x t r a c o s t s among l o c a l governments. Foundation problems are i n c u r r e d i n the peat bogs of Richmond. Problems are encountered w i t h the o p e r a t i o n o f s e p t i c tank sewage d i s p o s a l systems when the ground water l e v e l i s up to or n e a r l y up to the a b s o r p t i o n t i l e . The l a n d c a p a b i l i t y of Richmond s o i l s as determined by the Lower -Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board of B r i t i s h Columbia (Appendix IV, page 202) i s shown i n Map 3 , pagei24. The l a n d c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s the l i k e l i h o o d w i t h which urban s p r a w l may o c c u r . Grain Ce>£ales LEGEND 123 Industrial Areas Zones industrielles Commercial Areas Zones commerciales Residential Areas Zones d'habitations St2.4r^y9 Recreational Areas Pares et terrains de jeux Associated Urban (non-agricultural) Areas Zones urbaines associees (non agricoles) Horticulture Exploitations horticoles Fur Farms Fermes d'animaux a fourrure Poultry Farms Fermes avicoles Improved Pasture PMurage amdliore' Open Grassland Prairie d^couverte Scrub Grassland Prairie a brousse Dense Woodland Terrains boisds, serrds Scrub Woodland Terrains broussailleux Unproductive Land Terrains improductifs Swamps and Marshes Marecages et tourbieres Log Storage Areas Reserves de billes f lottantes I II Base compiled by the Army Survey Establishment, R .C .E . , 1961 . Land use information obtained from field observation in 1958 by the Geographical Branch in co-operation with the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B.C. Source: Lower Ma i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board of B r i t i s h C olumbia, Land  f o r Farming (New We s t m i n s t e r , B. C.: L.M.R.P.B., 1962), p.7. RICHMOND, B.C h a n * ( o c r s u l rn.sc. t h t s i s in c o m m u n i t y and regional p l a n n i n g S o i l Q u a l i t y | Good ~ j Medium Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s I I & I I I IV F a i r / Poor FARMING SOIL MAP MAP 3 Paved Main Roads D e l t a Thruway Note: s u b d i v i s i o n roads shown on Map PAVED MAIN ROADS MAP A 126 b.) Land Use The case study i s concerned m a i n l y w i t h the l a r g e s t i s l a n d i n Richmond, L u l u I s l a n d , which does i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t the major l a n d area and p o p u l a t i o n of the whole m u n i c i p a l i t y . S l i g h t s t a t i s t i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h i s s t u d y may r e s u l t where data are g i v e n f o r the whole M u n i c i p a l i t y . Sea I s l a n d i s not i n the study because the major p a r t o f the i s l a n d has been zoned as an A i r p o r t D i s t r i c t t o enable Vancouver I n t e r -n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t to expand; i n any case , r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g has come to a s t a n d s t i l l (1960-1963: 5 new d w e l l i n g u n i t s , 11 d e m o l i t i o n s ) . M i t c h e l l I s l a n d i s an i n d u s t r i a l area w i t h i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t . E a r l y farm s e t t l e m e n t o c c u r r e d on the f e r t i l e c l a y s o i l areas west of the l a r g e peat bog b i s e c t i n g the i s l a n d ; about the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y a l a r g e number of one-acre h o l d i n g s were c r e a t e d i n t h i s same area p o s s i b l y as a s p e c u l a t i v e v e n t u r e . Most i m p o r t a n t , S t e v e s t o n , the o r i g i n a l urban " c e n t e r " o f Richmond, a t t r a c t e d s e t t l e m e n t to the w e s t e r l y p a r t o f Richmond. With the advent of the suburban expansion a f t e r 1945 and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of e a s i l y s u b d i v i d e d l a n d w i t h good s o i l b e a r i n g v a l u e s , the area west of No. 5 Road a t t r a c t e d 92% o f the i n c r e a s e i n d w e l l i n g u n i t s between 1946 3 and 1960. T h i s can be c a l l e d a " n a t u r a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a " . A " n a t u r a l n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a " l i e s e a s t of No. 5 Road; two l a r g e peat bogs (9500 a c r e s ) , s e p a r a t e d by a s t r i p of good farm s o i l , make r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t u n a t t r a c t i v e from the p o i n t of view o f f o u n d a t i o n c o s t s and g e n e r a l environment. 127 The D e l t a Thruway i s an added d e t e r r e n t to an eastward r e s i -d e n t i a l e x p a n s i o n . A v a r i e t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d on s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h i s a r e a , among them market gard e n i n g , d a i r y f a r m i n g , s m a l l f r u i t growing, and commercial h o r t i c u l t u r e . Peat i s mined on a l a r g e s c a l e . Commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n Richmond are c o n c e n t r a t e d near r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , or at key c o r n e r s of main r o a d s ; t h e r e i s p r a c t i c a l l y no " r i b b o n " commercial development as can be found along Vancouver's Kingsway or S e a t t l e ' s Aurora Avenue. I n d u s t r i a l areas have been r e s e r v e d a t the p e r i m e t e r of Richmond to enable them to have water access (see Map 2, page 1 2 3 ) , and Map 14, page 153). 128 B. CASE STUDY PROCEDURE FOR THE EVALUATION OF  LAND USE CONTROLS 1. ZONING ADMINISTRATION PRIOR TO ESTABLISHMENT OF RICHMOND' PLANNING DEPARTMENT F i r s t the l a n d use c o n t r o l s used d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . Only the most i m p o r t a n t l a n d use c o n t r o l z o n i n g , w i l l be examined here and r e l a t e d t o the l a n d use and d e n s i t y p a t t e r n e x i s t i n g at the time z o n i n g was i n t r o d u c e d , and as they change over the p e r i o d o f the bylaw. Zoning i s then r e l a t e d to the s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y and p a t t e r n , the growth i n p o p u l a t i o n and the e s t i m a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are then examined f o r the r o l e they p l a y i n promoting o r c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . A s i m i l a r t r a i n of thought w i l l be f o l l o w e d i n i n v e s -t i g a t i n g s i m i l a r e f f e c t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the new z o n i n g bylaw i n t r o d u c e d i n 1956. A more l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n w i l l r e s u l t from the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a S m a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t and the changed c o n d i t i o n s p r o v i d e d by the s h i f t toward l a r g e - s c a l e , d e signed s u b d i v i s i o n development. The r o l e of the 1956 zon i n g bylaw i n promoting urban s p r a w l , or making i t f e a s i b l e , w i l l be s t u d i e d by means of data on the sub-d i v i s i o n o f l a n d , b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y , and p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y changes. 129 2. LAND USE CONTROLS DEVELOPED AFTER THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RICHMOND'S PLANNING DEPARTMENT An attempt w i l l be made to e s t a b l i s h the p o l i c y toward development which was developed, f o r m a l l y adopted, or used w i t h o u t f o r m a l s a n c t i o n a f t e r the P l a n n i n g Department was e s t a b l i s h e d . I t was de c i d e d to r e s t r i c t the study o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l a n d use c o n t r o l s t o Zoning and S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s which a p p l y to the two major l a n d uses i n Richmond: the r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use and a g r i c u l t u r e . a.) Zoning Non-farm r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t o c c u r s p r i m a r i l y i n r e s i d e n t i a l l y - z o n e d areas and s m a l l h o l d i n g s a r e a s . The 1958 amendment to the 1956 z o n i n g bylaw w i l l be examined w i t h r e s p e c t t o the e f f e c t i t had on the s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d and b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y , i n both the s e c t i o n s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d and o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l l y - z o n e d s e c t i o n s . The e f f e c t on the a g r i -c u l t u r a l use of l a n d w i t h i n the r e s i d e n t i a l areas w i l l be t r a c e d . The g e n e r a l aim i s t o e s t a b l i s h whether or not the e f f e c t of the amendment was to curb urban s p r a w l , and i f s o , i n which a r e a s . The e f f e c t s of the 1963 z o n i n g bylaw, t o o , w i l l be t r a c e d . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis w i l l be g i v e n t o the e v o l u t i o n o f the t h r e e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , as d e v i c e s to curb urban s p r a w l . The 1961 p o l i c y change of the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n i n r e q u i r i n g N a t i o n a l Housing Act i n s u r e d houses to be connected to a p u b l i c sewer w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d to f i n d out to what degree i t has i n f l u e n c e d Richmond's 130 attempts to d i s c o u r a g e r e s i d e n t i a l development at the p e r i m e t e r o f the urban area and encourage i t i n the c e n t r a l a r e a . Then the 5 m a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t w i l l be s t u d i e d : t h e l o c a t i o n , p a t t e r n o f s u b d i v i s i o n , b u i l d i n g development, p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y changes, a c t u a l l a n d use, and i t s urban s p r a w l a s p e c t s . The e f f e c t of A g r i c u l t u r a l Zoning on the c r e a t i o n o f u r b a n - s i z e l o t s , on r e s i d e n t i a l development and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . I f i t can be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t A g r i c u l t u r a l Zoning has, i n f a c t , prevented non-farm s e t t l e m e n t i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s , then urban s p r a w l can be s a i d t o have been curbed by t h i s z o n i n g d e v i c e . b.) S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s The i n c i d e n c e o f urban s p r a w l i s v e r y much dependent on the r e q u i r e m e n t s c a l l i n g f o r c e r t a i n improvements to the l a n d p r i o r to r e s i d e n t i a l development. The s t a n d a r d s ' a d o p t e d and the a l l o c a t i o n o f c o s t s w i l l determine the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the development to p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p e r s . The p o l i c y o f Richmond r e q u i r i n g the d e v e l o p e r to c a r r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y the whole c o s t of s e r v i c i n g of a "major s u b d i v i s i o n " may be found to have a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t i n d i s c o u r a g i n g l a r g e numbers of s m a l l d e v e l o p e r s from a t t e m p t i n g to develop l a n d i n Richmond. The q u a l i t y of s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d a l s o may be shown to have been e f f e c t i v e i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . 131 The r o l e o f the " p r e - p l a n n i n g " s e r v i c e by the Richmond Town P l a n n i n g Department i n m i n i m i z i n g f u t u r e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the development of l a n d on which l o w - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t i s now p e r m i t t e d , w i l l be s t u d i e d . c.) E f f e c t s of 5 e n i o r Government P o l i c i e s R e s i d e n t i a l development has been i n f l u e n c e d s i g n i f i -c a n t l y by the p o l i c i e s of two f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , the V e t e r a n s ' Land Act A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . The r o l e of t h e i r p o l i c i e s as r e g a r d s urban sp r a w l w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . d.) O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Case Study Approach C o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y has been encountered i n r e l a t -i n g , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , even the l i m i t e d number of f a c t o r s chosen f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the case s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s , among o t h e r s , c o n t r i b u t e to the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered: (1) There i s no one d e f i n i t i o n o f s p r a w l , nor can i t be measured c o n v e n i e n t l y and o b j e c t i v e l y . ( 2 ) T h e ' i n f l u e n c e of l a n d use c o n t r o l s on an e x i s t i n g l a n d use p a t t e r n i s m o d i f i e d i n v a r i o u s ways by the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n and may t h e r e f o r e not be determined c o n c l u s i v e l y . (3) The very f a c t t h a t z o n i n g , f o r example, p r o h i b i t s means t h a t one cannot determine i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h a t development which might have o c c u r r e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y ; e x p ressed d i f f e r e n t l y , the urban s p r a w l curbed i n Richmond may have been d e f l e c t e d to o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the r e g i o n . 132 (4) The s i m u l t a n e o u s a c t i o n of a number of f a c t o r s having the e f f e c t of i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g the use o f l a n d com-p l i c a t e s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . For example, the r a p i d development o f Richmond Gardens i n 1963 (and c o n t i n u i n g i n 1964) n a t u r a l l y l e d to a decrease of b u i l d i n g development elsewhere i n Richmond; however, of the l a r g e number of v i s i t o r s a t t r a c t e d t o Richmond by the Richmond Gardens adver-t i s i n g campaign, some found o t h e r areas i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y to t h e i r l i k i n g and s t a r t e d a compensating t r e n d of d e v e l -opment i n these a r e a s . (5) The l o c a t i o n o f a number o f h i g h e r - d e n s i t y s u b d i v i s i o n s a t the p e r i m e t e r of Richmond's urban area i n t r o d u c e s y e t another concept o f urban s p r a w l , t h a t of f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d and s e r v i c e d s u b d i v i s i o n s s c a t t e r e d i n the c o u n t r y s i d e and not f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r . The f o r e g o i n g comments s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the a u t h o r , d u r i n g the course of t h i s s t u d y , has come to doubt t h a t a w e l l - d e f i n e d methodology f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e -ness of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l can be d e v i s e d . 133 0. AN EVALUATION OF LAND USE CONTROLS IN RICHMOND 1. ZONING ADMINISTRATION PRIOR TO ESTABLISHMENT OF RICHMOND'S PLANNING DEPARTMENT Richmond began e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l o v e r the use and development o f l a n d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y by e n a c t i n g a zo n i n g bylaw, Bylaw No. 1134, on December 28, 1949. Richmond's p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18,000 was d i s t r i b u t e d , i n 1946 and 1950, as shown on Map 5, page 134. A comparison o f the zo n i n g map accompanying Bylaw No. 1134 (Map 7» page 136), w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y map shows t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g f o l l o w e d the e x i s t i n g use f a i r l y w e l l ; about 25 " s e c t i o n s " were zoned r e s i d e n t i a l , compared w i t h 26 s e c t i o n s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , i n 1950, g r e a t e r than 1.15 persons 4 per gross a c r e . T w e n t y - f i v e s e c t i o n s developed a t a subur-ban d e n s i t y o f 12 persons per gross a c r e would have accom-modated a p o p u l a t i o n o f 48,000, the p r e d i c t e d 1964 Richmond p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e . B e g i n n i n g i n 1952, Richmond's p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y ( F i g u r e 1, p a g e l 2 l ) . In 1954 and 1955 the number o f b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s of a l l types i s s u e d was 420 and 723, r e s p e c t i v e l y , whereas the p r e v i o u s h i g h f i g u r e had been 302 p e r m i t s i n 1949; 1951 was the low y e a r w i t h 185 p e r m i t s (Table 2» page 137). The quickened pace of r e s i d e n t i a l development g e n e r a l l y and the b r i g h t p r o s p e c t s f o r i t s Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department LEGEND ~~\ R e s i d e n t i a l f o r Bylaw No. 1134 (Adopted on December 28, 1949) MAJOR ZONING CHANGE5 1946-1956 L o c a l Shopping Commercial I n d u s t r i a l R u r a l MAP 6 MAP 7 137 TABLE 1. RICHMOND'S DEPENDENCE ON NHA-INSURED MORTGAGES Richmond N.H.A. S t a r t s ( S i n g l e -f a m i l y homes as % of • T o t a l S t a r t s ) 1961 (Jan-Auq.) 1959 1960 83 73 75 T o t a l S t a r t s as % o f Vancouver Area S t a r t s 1959 1960 13.2 9.7 1961 (Jan-Auq.) 5.4 Vancouver Area 38 24 26 Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department TABLE 2. RICHMOND BUILDING PERMIT STATISTICS Year No. o f P e r m i t s Year No. of P e r m i t s 1943 143 1955 723 1944 195 1956 649 1945 208 1957 633* 1946 246 1958 1,442 1947 268 1960 298 1948 299 1961 219 to Aug 1949 302 1962 1950 246 1963 1951 185 1952 197 1953 259 1954 420 Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department Note: * i n c l u d e s a l l b u i l d i n g s p r i o r t o 1957 138 c o n t i n u a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t p r e s s u r e , as has happened so f r e q u e n t l y i n the h i s t o r y of z o n i n g , to zone l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use. Although the s e r v i c e s o f p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s had been r e t a i n e d , the new z o n i n g Bylaw No. 1430, adopted on October 29, 1956 ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the "1956 z o n i n g b y l a w " ) , showed a l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r u d i m e n t a r y f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n urban, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i d e n -t i a l , development (Map 9, page 140). O b v i o u s l y the p a t t e r n and magnitude of p o p u l a t i o n growth was not very w e l l understood; o r i f i t was, then at l e a s t no attempt was made t o r e l a t e i t i n any way to p h y s i c a l development and the amount of l a n d used. The e q u i v a l e n t of 39 s e c t i o n s zoned r e s i d e n t i a l was f a r i n excess of what was needed (the area zoned r e s i d e n t i a l i n 1949 would have accommodated the 1964 p o p u l a t i o n ) ; f u r t h e r -more, the e q u i v a l e n t o f 23 s e c t i o n s was opened to r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t as " S m a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t s ! , ' . Thus, 62 s e c t i o n s became p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The General R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t alone c o u l d have accommodated t h r e e times the Richmond p o p u l a t i o n at the time the 1956 bylaw was passed. A number of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o urban s p r a w l under t h i s new z o n i n g : ( l ) O v e r z o n i n q. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l a r g e area of unser-v i c e d , p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d encouraged a s c a t t e r i n g o f development. S i n c e the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n was s m a l l and the i n c r e a s e of p o p u l a t i o n very s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n to the s i z e of the new areas opened up f o r development, a low p o p u l a -t i o n d e n s i t y p e r s i s t e d i n the s e t t l e d s e c t i o n s , and the new RICHMOND, B.C ham tocrtlcl m s c . th«sis in community and regional p l a n n i n g | 1 General K e s i d e n -{ J t i a l D i s t r i c t f o r Bylaw No. 1430 (Adopted on October 29, 1956) MAJOR ZONING CHANGES 1956-1963 Sm a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t (Other z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s o m i t t e d ) MAP 8 MAP 9 141 s e c t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d s c a t t e r e d , e x t r e m e l y low d e n s i t y "urban" s e t t l e m e n t . The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n 1957 i s shown on Maplfj, page 142. (2) P e r i m e t e r Development. In a c o m p e t i t i v e l a n d market, the cheapest l a n d w i l l be developed b e f o r e the more expens i v e l a n d ; s i n c e t h i s cheaper l a n d l i e s at the p e r i m e t e r o f the e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t , and beyond, a l l t h a t was needed to b r i n g t h i s l a n d i n t o the market was p e r m i s s i v e z o n i n g . Thus t h e r e i s a tendency f o r development to oc c u r at the p e r i m e t e r ; urban s p r a w l may then take the form of i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s , i s o l a t e d groups of houses, o r whole s u b d i v i s i o n s , s c a t t e r e d throughout the l a n d s c a p e . (3) L a r g e - T r a c t Development. A s h i f t has been t a k i n g p l a c e i n the s i n g l e - f a m i l y house c o n s t r u c t i o n b u s i n e s s from s i n g l e -house b u i l d i n g t o l a r g e - s c a l e b u i l d i n g and l a n d development; c o n s e q u e n t l y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f u n d i v i d e d l a n d determined the l o c a t i o n o f whole s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the r e s i d e n t i a l zone. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of these t r a c t s i s a m a t t e r of l o c a t i o n ( i . e . , p e r i m e t e r ) and the h i s t o r i c a l development o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y ( r e f e r t o s e c t i o n s 22 and 27 of b l o c k 4-7; 29 and 35 o f b l o c k 4-6; on Maps 11 and 1.2, pages 143 and 144). (4) Land C o s t s . As the s i z e and p r i c e of houses and l o t s . i n c r e a s e , and h i g h e r s e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d s are a p p l i e d , much g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n has to be p a i d t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c o s t of l a n d , house, and s e r v i c e s . S i n c e t h e l a t t e r two are g e n e r a l l y l e s s v a r i a b l e than the f i r s t , the Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department i Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department 12 r § MAP 12 Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department 146 p r i c e o f l a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e s r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s g e n e r a l l y means b u i l d i n g on l a n d a t the f r i n g e o f e x i s t -i n g s e t t l e m e n t , p r e f e r a b l y i n l a r g e p a r c e l s because of the lower u n i t l a n d p r i c e . (5) S m a l l H o l d i n g s . " S m a l l h o l d i n g s " p a r c e l s are a t l e a s t 5 o n e - h a l f a c r e l a r g e . To s a t i s f y the minimum acreage r e q u i r e -ment, deep l o t s w i t h narrow road f r o n t a g e s are c r e a t e d , w i t h l a r g e areas o f l o c k e d l a n d r e m a i n i n g dormant, f o r i t i s seldom economical, now f o r a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r to develop t h i s l a n d . Thus, almost by d e f i n i t i o n , ' , s m a l l h o l d i n g s develop the symptoms and d e n s i t y o f urban s p r a w l . (6) S m a l l H o l d i n g s i n the Wrong L o c a t i o n . The l a n d use p a t t e r n encouraged by the z o n i n g o f the 1956 z o n i n g bylaw c o u n t e r a c t e d the n a t u r a l tendency f o r urban development t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n the v i c i n i t y of the Brighouse commercial area by p e r m i t t i n g s m a l l h o l d i n g s i n t h i s a r e a . S m a l l h o l d i n g s were, i n f a c t , designed to p r o v i d e v e t e r a n s w i t h a p i e c e o f l a n d which, i n time o f need, would supplement i f not con-s t i t u t e t h e i r e a r n i n g s . The 1956 zoning bylaw e f f e c t i v e l y encouraged s m a l l - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e near the commercial c e n t r e o f Richmond. T h i s bylaw g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n e d urban s p r a w l t e n d e n c i e s by encouraging l o w - d e n s i t y development where a h i g h e r d e n s i t y would have formed n a t u r a l l y o r c o u l d have been e f f e c t e d r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y , and by opening up r u r a l areas f o r s e t t l e m e n t . For example, of nine r e s i d e n t i a l l y -zoned s e c t i o n s changed to s m a l l h o l d i n g s , numbers 10, 15 and 22 o f b l o c k 4-6 are prime r e s i d e n t i a l areas w i t h a h i g h -147 d e n s i t y p o t e n t i a l . Ten h i t h e r t o r u r a l s e c t i o n s were zoned f o r s m a l l h o l d i n g s . S e c t i o n s 11, 12, 13, 14, 23 and 24 o f b l o c k 4-6 never were developed because they are l o c a t e d i n the g r e a t peat bog. In a c t u a l f a c t they are scr u b woodland and marsh, u n s u i t e d f o r fa r m i n g and both u n s u i t e d and uneconomical f o r urban development (Map 2, page 123). S e c t i o n s 10 and 15 were developed, however; they have now reached (1964) a s t a t i c p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of 4.1 and 5.6 persons per gross a c r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , because much of the p e r i m e t e r road f r o n t a g e has been u t i l i z e d and the l o c k e d l a n d i s not being developed. For example, a t o t a l o f 15 new d w e l l i n g s were added to both s e c t i o n s i n the 1960 to 1963 f o u r - y e a r p e r i o d (Appendix V I I , p a g e 2 2 l ) . 2. LAND USE CONTROLS DEVELOPED AFTER THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RICHMOND'5 PLANNING DEPARTMENT a.) A Development P o l i c y In F e b r u a r y , 1957, a Town P l a n n i n g Department was c r e a t e d as p a r t o f the m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . General p r i n c i p l e s of l a n d use and community development f o r m u l a t e d by t h i s department i n t h e i r f i r s t two years of o p e r a t i o n were pr e s e n t e d to C o u n c i l as s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a f o r m a l p o l i c y statement on the development and use of l a n d w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y (Appendix V , page 203). I t s t a t e d , among o t h e r s , the o b j e c t i v e of c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . A f o r m a l p o l i c y s t a t e -ment was not adopted by C o u n c i l , however; the auth o r i s not 148 f a m i l i a r w i t h the reasons why t h i s a c t i o n was not t a k e n . b.) R e s i d e n t i a l Zoning (1) General R e s i d e n t i a l Z o n i n g . P l a n n i n g Department s t u d i e s had shown t h a t i n 1956 and 1957 t h e r e was a l a r g e o v e r s u p p l y o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s i n Richmond. I:t was d e c i d e d t o e s t i m a t e the growth of r e s i d e n t i a l development f o r the f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d from 1958 to 1963 and to attempt to r e s t r i c t r e s i d e n -t i a l development and s u b d i v i s i o n by amending Zoning Bylaw No. 1430. The e s t a b l i s h e d z o n i n g would then be reviewed at the end o f the f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , t h a t i s , i n 1963. The q u e s t i o n of where t o r e s t r i c t and where to encourage d e v e l o p -ment must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t of another o b j e c t i v e . One p r e s s i n g community development o b j e c t i v e was to encourage the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n around the B r i g h o u s e a r e a ; not o n l y i s t h i s Richmond's commercial d i s t r i c t , but i t i s a l s o f a i r l y c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n the community, has adequate road access and c o n t a i n s the M u n i c i p a l H a l l . P o s s i b l y the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l a r g e t r a c t o f u n s u b d i v i d e d l a n d ( S e c t i o n s 5, 6, 7 and 8 o f b l o c k 4-6) i n the p r i v a t e s o - c a l l e d Brighouse E s t a t e p l a y e d a r o l e i n p r e s s i n g f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development i n t h i s a r e a . The sooner the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y can be r a i s e d i n the B r i g h o u s e a r e a , the sooner a l a r g e - s c a l e c e n t r a l m u n i c i p a l sewage d i s p o s a l scheme can be f i n a n c e d . Then a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y of c a p i t a l b u d g e t i n g and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e e x t e n s i o n c o u l d be e n f o r c e d and u t i l i z e d to guide urban development.^ The obvious aim was thus to p r e v e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development at the p e r i m e t e r and encourage i t i n 149 the remainder of the G e n e r al R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t . (a) Amendment Bylaw No. 152B ( A p r i l , 1958). The r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s e s t a b l i s h e d by the 1956 z o n i n g bylaw (No. 1430) i n the s e c t i o n s marked i n map 8, p a g e l 3 9 , were changed to a new General R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 2, w i t h the remainder of the r e s i d e n t i a l l y zoned area changing i t s name to General R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 1. Amendment Bylaw No. 1528 ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the "1958 z o n i n g bylaw") " f r o z e " development i n 20 s e c t i o n s o f the t o t a l 32 s e c t i o n s zoned r e s i d e n t i a l , by s t i p u l a t i n g t h a t "...no l o t s h a l l be used as the s i t e f o r an unsewered d w e l l i n g , t h a t i s to say, no l o t s h a l l be used as a s i t e f o r a d w e l l i n g which i s not connected t o a p u b l i c s a n i t a r y sewer..." 7 L o t s o f r e c o r d a t the time of p a s s i n g o f the bylaw can s t i l l be b u i l t on, of c o u r s e , f o r z o n i n g must not be r e t r o a c t i v e . In o t h e r words, i t was not the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d which was p r e v e n t e d , but r a t h e r the b u i l d i n g on l a n d , because t h e r e d i d not e x i s t nor was i t the immediate i n t e n t of the M u n i c i p a l i t y to c o n s t r u c t a p u b l i c s a n i t a r y sewer. S i n c e t h e r e would be l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e to s u b d i v i d e l a n d i f i t c o u l d not be b u i l t on, the r a t e of s u b d i v i d i n g l a n d c o u l d be expected to drop s h a r p l y . I t i s now proposed to t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s z o n i n g d e v i c e i n r e d u c i n g the s u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i n the G e n e r a l R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 2. U n f o r t u n -a t e l y , s u b d i v i s i o n s o f l a n d were not r e c o r d e d by the M u n i c i p a l i t y b e f o r e 1958; i t would have taken more time and money t o gather these data (from the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e ) 150 than i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y . I d e a l l y , some r e c o r d o f s u b d i v i d e d , but vacant l o t s would be needed to judge the i n f i l l i n g e f f e c t of the bylaw; b u i l d i n g permit f i g u r e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g d w e l l i n g u n i t s , f o r the p e r i o d 1955 to 1957 are used to g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f the pre-bylaw d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y (Appendix V I I , page 219). In b l o c k 4-6, most of the development o c c u r r e d i n the a f f e c t e d s e c t i o n s 27, 29, 32, and 34; the same number of d w e l l i n g u n i t s was added i n both 1957 and 1958 i n s e c t i o n 27, a l t h o u g h the t o t a l f o r b l o c k 4-6 i n c r e a s e d from 354 t o 662. The 53 new l o t s s u b d i v i d e d i n 1958 may have been s u b d i v i d e d b e f o r e A p r i l of t h a t y e a r , i n s p i t e of the bylaw, o r e l s e because i t s f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s were not r e a l i z e d by the s u b d i v i d e r . Cause and e f f e c t are not c l e a r f o r a l o o k at the s u b d i v i s i o n concerned (Map 12, page 144) may suggest t h a t the 53 l o t s were c r e a t e d to f i l l out the one h a l f of the s e c t i o n . In any case, i n the f a i r l y a c t i v e year of 1959, no l a n d was s u b d i v i d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n ; s i n c e t h e n , o n l y one l o t has been c r e a t e d , and the remainder of the s e c t i o n i s i n t a c t i n two l a r g e p a r c e l s . S u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g was a l s o s e v e r e l y c u r t a i l e d i n s e c t i o n 28, where the number o f new l o t s decreased from 81 to 15 to 1 i n 1958, 1959 and I960, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; the a v a i l a b i l i t y of unused road f r o n t a g e and a number o f medium-acreage p a r c e l s would p r o b a b l y have l e d to the c r e a t i o n o f a l a r g e number o f urban s i z e l o t s on the p e r i m e t e r roads. I t i s obvious from Appendix V I I , page 219, and Map 12, page 144, t h a t the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d was 151 c u r t a i l e d s h a r p l y and l a r g e l a n d areas p r e s e r v e d as f a i r l y l a r g e p a r c e l s . R e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g were used by Richmond i n the attempt to curb urban s p r a w l . The e f f e c t o f the 1958 z o n i n g bylaw has been i m p r e s s i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the- o v e r -zoned General R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t was c u r t a i l e d ' i n c e r t a i n p e r i m e t e r s e c t i o n s by the c r e a t i o n of a new General R e s i d e n -t i a l D i s t r i c t 2, s e v e r a l y e a r s ' s u p p l y o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d b e i n g a v a i l a b l e i n the rem a i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t . In the second i n s t a n c e , the s m a l l - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y found i n the s e c t i o n so zoned r e c e i v e d s u f f i c i e n t " p r o t e c t i o n " a g a i n s t r e s i d e n t i a l i n f r i n g e m e n t i n the s h o r t boom o f 195B and 1959 to be a b l e t o c a r r y on; some s e c t i o n s are now under i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n , w h i l e a l l s e c t i o n s show some a g r i c u l -t u r a l a c t i v i t y r e g a r d l e s s of p r o x i m i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e -ment. At the same tim e , r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t was r e s t r i c t e d v ery e f f e c t i v e l y by d e f i n i t e , a s c e r t a i n a b l e r e g u l a t i o n s ; they have not been changed i n anyway s i n c e enactment. By c o n t r a s t , the 1949 zo n i n g bylaw had p r o v i d e d f o r C o u n c i l ' s d i s c r e t i o n i n a l l o w i n g r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i n the R u r a l Zone. (b) Amendment Bylaw No. 1971 (June 10, 1963). When Zoning Bylaw No. 1430 was passed i n 1956, a re v i e w at the end of f i v e y ears had been a n t i c i p a t e d . T h i s r e v i e w , a l t h o u g h not on s c h e d u l e , d i d r e s u l t i n Amendment Bylaw No. 1971 152 ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the "1963 z o n i n g b y l a w " ) . The amendments i n t h i s bylaw c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t s tep i n a two-s t e p r e v i s i o n o f the o r i g i n a l 1956 zoning bylaw toward a new z o n i n g bylaw, expected to be ready l a t e i n 1964. The major change c o n c e r n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development was the c r e a t i o n o f a new General R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 3. S i x out o f IB R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t I s e c t i o n s were changed t o t h i s new D i s t r i c t , as were 11 out of the 19 s m a l l h o l d i n g s s e c t i o n s on L u l u I s l a n d . T h i s D i s t r i c t was designed to be a " h o l d -zone", where no a p p r e c i a b l e development was f o r e s e e n f o r the next 8-12 y e a r s . I t was d e c i d e d to make t h i s zone a u s e f u l one i n the meantime by making the use o f the l a n d f l e x i b l e . A g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y was a l l o w e d on any p a r c e l o f l a n d over o n e - h a l f a c r e ; to keep the v a l u e of improve-ments down, a. maximum s i z e of n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s (such as a barn) was s t i p u l a t e d . One u r b a n - s i z e d l o t , having an area o f between 7,200 and 10,000 square f e e t , i s a l l o w e d per a c r e ; i n t h i s way a maximum of two l o t s are c r e a t e d on an a c r e : a normal l o t w i t h a minimum f r o n t a g e o f 66 f e e t and an L-shaped l o t of a t l e a s t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of an a c r e . E x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t the L-shaped l o t i s more f l e x i b l e and, i n t h i s c a s e , l a r g e r than the t y p i c a l 126 f e e t wide by 330 f e e t deep o n e - h a l f a c r e l o t c r e a t e d when a one-acre p a r c e l i s d i v i d e d i n t o two equal l o t s . In a t t e m p t i n g to assess the r o l e of the R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 3 z o n i n g d e v i c e one must r e c o g n i z e t h a t the l o t p a t t e r n i n most of the s e c t i o n s so zoned has been i n h e r i t e d ; 154 f o r example, the l o t p a t t e r n i n the v i c i n i t y of s e c t i o n s 10 to 15 of b l o c k 4-6 was e s t a b l i s h e d around 1910. Furthermore, the z o n i n g i n h e r i t e d w i t h most of the s e c t i o n s a f f e c t e d has p e r m i t t e d r e s i d e n t i a l development a l l a l o n g . I f t h i s z o n i n g were to have c o n t i n u e d , urban s p r a w l d e n s i t i e s would have r e s u l t e d i n any case. C o n s i d e r i n g the c h o i c e t h a t l e d to D i s t r i c t 3: One c o u l d have attempted to pre v e n t f u r t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l development; t h i s might have been p o l i t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e or c r e a t e d h a r d s h i p f o r landowners and prosp e c -t i v e buyers a l i k e . Because Richmond has problems of l a n d f r a g m e n t a t i o n , of i n a c c e s s i b l e and unused r e a r p o r t i o n s of p e r i m e t e r p r o p e r t y , and of m i s p l a c e d development i n many a r e a s , one c o u l d argue i n f a v o u r of a l e s s p r o h i b i t i v e approach to development i n a new "hol d - z o n e " . On the o t h e r hand, one c o u l d r e c o g n i z e the b a s i c d i s a d v a n t a g e s to sound and d e s i r a b l e immediate development imposed by t h e e x i s t i n g s u b d i v i s i o n p a t t e r n , and encourage the most p r a c t i c a l and economical use o f the l a n d ( i n t h i s c a s e : a g r i c u l t u r e ) , y e t i n t r o d u c i n g f l e x i b i l i t y by p e r m i t t i n g some r e s i d e n t i a l development t o take p l a c e . T h i s has happened w i t h D i s t r i c t 3. Map 8, pagel39t shows a l s o t h a t the c r e a t i o n of a "hold-zone" may w e l l a c t as a l e g a l , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r to r e s i d e n t i a l development o u t s i d e the R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t I . A new tenant i n D i s t r i c t 3 knows t h a t f o r the next e i g h t t o tw e l v e years at l e a s t , the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to a low f i g u r e and the a g r i c u l t u r a l use o f l a n d w i l l be p r o t e c t e d . T h i s may induce him to s e t t l e , or keep 155 him from s e t t l i n g , i n R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 3. I f urban s p r a w l as an i n t e r i m stage o f urban development i s w e l l - n i g h u n a v o i d a b l e , as i t appears to be i n Richmond on the b a s i s of the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n , at l e a s t some of the d i s a d v a n -tageous e f f e c t s can be m i n i m i z e d by keeping the l a n d i n as p r o f i t a b l e a use as p o s s i b l e t i l l t he d e n s i t y can be b u i l t up. The c r e a t i o n o f D i s t r i c t 3 must a l s o be seen i n the l i g h t o f the 1961 p o l i c y change of the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , i n making th e i n s u r i n g o f N a t i o n a l Housing Act (NHA) l o a n s dependent on the c o n n e c t i o n of NHA houses t o a p u b l i c sewer. Given Richmond's dependence on NHA mortgages (Table 1, pagel37) and the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l a r g e p u b l i c sewage d i s p o s a l system may not be b u i l t f o r a number o f y e a r s i n the c e n t r a l a r e a , i n c e n t i v e s must be g i v e n to p r i v a t e money to come i n and make up f o r any decrease i n NHA money. The p r o s p e c t of p a r t - t i m e or f u l l - t i m e p r o f i t a b l e f a r m i n g or o t h e r non-urban use o f the l a n d may i n d u c e r e s i d e n -t i a l s e t t l e m e n t i n D i s t r i c t 3; thus the p o l i c y of a t t e m p t i n g t o d r a i n development from the p e r i m e t e r toward the c e n t r a l B r i g h o u s e a r e a , a l t h o u g h hampered, i s being c o n t i n u e d . (2) S m a l l H o l d i n g s Zoning. Under the V e t e r a n s ' Land Act o f 1942, t r a c t s of l a n d were a c q u i r e d by the f e d e r a l Department of Veterans A f f a i r s and s u b d i v i d e d i n t o one " a c r e - t y p e " l o t s Q o r " o n e - h a l f a c r e - t y p e " l o t s . S m a l l h o l d i n g s r e p r e s e n t the most w a s t e f u l type of l a n d development i n Richmond; a house can be b u i l t on a p a r c e l of 66 f e e t w i d t h or more and a 156 minimum s i z e of o n e - h a l f a c r e . Not o n l y i s the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y kept down and p e r i m e t e r development encouraged, but the r e a r p o r t i o n s of p a r c e l s are rendered i n a c c e s s i b l e and unusable• In 1956, t w e n t y - t h r e e s e c t i o n s were zoned f o r s m a l l -h o l d i n g s ; e l e v e n of the 19 s e c t i o n s on L u l u I s l a n d were r e -zoned to the new R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 3 by the 1963 z o n i n g bylaw. There had never been much d i f f e r e n c e , w i t h r e g a r d t o the type and c l u s t e r i n g of r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g a l o n g the p e r i m e t e r r o a d s , and the s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d , between some s e c t i o n s i n the General R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t and the S m a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t . P e r i m e t e r development was a l l o w e d i n both d i s t r i c t s on a 60 to 66 f o o t f r o n t a g e ; i n the meantime, d e s p i t e the low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y (by d e f i n i t i o n ) of the S m a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t , "a p a t t e r n of demands f o r s e r v i c e s e v o l v e s which i s i d e n t i c a l to t h a t o f any o t h e r r e c o g n i z e d 9 r e s i d e n t i a l area i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y " . I t so happened f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t most o f the S m a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t i n b l o c k 4-6 i s l o c a t e d i n poor s o i l ; thus the redeeming f e a t u r e of a p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l use on l o c k e d l a n d and r e a r p o r t i o n s of p a r c e l s l a r g e r than o n e - h a l f a c r e i s absent on these s e c t i o n s . c.) A g r i c u l t u r a l Zoning Richmond has two p r i n c i p a l l a n d uses: r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l . R e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g i n Richmond can be seen i n i t s proper p e r s p e c t i v e o n l y when c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g . The 157 A g r i c u l t u r e D i s t r i c t o f the 1956 z o n i n g bylaw i s shown on Map 9, pagel40; i t was not changed i n the 1963 g e n e r a l z o n i n g amendment and^ i t i s expected t h a t some o f the i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned l a n d w i l l be r e t u r n e d to the A g r i c u l t u r e D i s t r i c t i n the next z o n i n g change. A g r i c u l t u r e has been r e c o g n i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y by Richmond, and f o r t h i s reason t h e o b j e c t i v e of p r o t e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from urban encroachment on a long-term b a s i s was f o r m u l a t e d . From 1956 on, l o t s l e s s than 330 f e e t i n w i d t h c o u l d not be used as s i t e s f a r d w e l l i n g s , except those l o t s w i t h a minimum w i d t h o f 66 f e e t r e g i s t e r e d b e f o r e the a d o p t i o n o f the bylaw. A l o t s m a l l e r than 5 a c r e s c o u l d not be used as a s i t e f o r a d w e l l i n g w h i l e l o t s l a r g e r than 2 acres were a c c e p t a b l e i f r e g i s t e r e d b e f o r e the date of the bylaw, as were l o t s l a r g e r than 7,920 square f e e t and r e g i s t e r e d b e f o r e January 30, 1950. The minimum s i z e of 5 a c r e s was i n t e n d e d to ensure economic-a l l y workable a g r i c u l t u r a l p a r c e l s ; the minimum f r o n t a g e s p e c i f i e d r e s t r i c t e d the number of r e s i d e n c e s c o n s t r u c t e d i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t (8 per h a l f - m i l e of road at the maximum) and prevented the c r e a t i o n of l o n g and narrow f i v e -a c r e l o t s . A g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g has i n d e e d kept r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g to a minimum: i n the seven-year p e r i o d between 1957 and 1963, i n b l o c k s 3-6, 4-5, 4-4, 5-5, and 5-4, which i n c l u d e a s m a l l r e s i d e n t i a l and s m a l l - h o l d i n g d i s t r i c t , about 130 d w e l l i n g u n i t s have been c o n s t r u c t e d . To a s s u r e adequate l a n d areas f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and use o f farmland were s t u d i e d by the 158 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. Three methods were used t o study a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . In one method, the range o f dwel-l i n g u n i t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l p a r c e l s , the range o f p a r c e l s of a g r i c u l t u r a l s i z e , and the range of d w e l l i n g u n i t s on r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s s e r v e d as a type o f i n d i c a t o r o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l l a n d use. "True" a g r i c u l t u r a l areas are t h o s e , by d e f i n i t i o n , where 65% o f the s e c t i o n i s c u l t i v a t e d . TABLE 3 . DEGREE OF CULTIVATION RELATED TO NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS AND LOTS PER SECTION, AND ACRES PER PARCEL OF LAND (1) (2) (3) $ C u l t i v a t e d D.U./Section A c r e s / P a r c e l L o t s / S e c t i o n from 65-70 21 4.5 33 to 96-100 3 50.7 2 Source; Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s (mimeo.), Appendix V I I to General Land Use Report, 1961-1981 (March, 1962), p. 4 f f . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the range i n (3) i s c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than i n ( 1 ) , i n d i c a t i n g the c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between non-farm r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t and percentage o f l a n d c u l t i v a t e d . The "urban shadow" e f f e c t o f non-farm s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t e d i n areas g e n e r a l l y devoted t o farm o p e r a t i o n s i n an u r b a n i z i n g area was mentioned i n Chapter I I . The data above support the g e n e r a l f i n d i n g t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e non-farm s e t t l e m e n t can s e r i o u s l y " d i s r u p t " a g r i c u l -t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n i t s v i c i n i t y . 159 There are 70 t r u e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t i o n s (out o f a t o t a l area o f 156 s e c t i o n s on L u l u I s l a n d ) , a c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i o n above. They are l o c a t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the c l a y s o i l a r e a s ; i n o t h e r words, a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c i n g areas are s i t u a t e d on the b e s t n a t u r a l s o i l s i n Richmond, or c o n v e r s e l y , "the l a n d s r e q u i r i n g l e a s t c a p i t a l improve-ment are under a c t i v e c u l t i v a t i o n " . " ^ At the p e r i m e t e r of r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t but on r e s i d e n t i a l l y s u b d i v i d e d and r e s i d e n t i a l l y zoned l a n d , a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y p e r s i s t s i n s p i t e o f the r e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g on the l a n d ; the c r e a t i o n o f R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t I I s t r e n g t h e n e d t h i s tendency of l a n d use. The 65% c u l t i v a t e d l a n d c r i t e r i o n seemed f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t r u e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t i o n s . The s i z e o f l a n d p a r c e l s , the e x t e n t of c u l t i v a t i o n and the s o i l q u a l i t y a t any l o c a t i o n are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , as i n d i c a t e d above. The prime reasons f o r c o n t i n u e d a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n Richmond are the s o i l c a p a b i l i t y , the f a rmers* t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , and the s t r a t e g i c m a r k e t i n g p o s i t i o n of the farms w i t h i n the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . I t appeared from the P l a n n i n g Department's study t h a t t h e r e had been l i t t l e change, from 1958 t o 1960, i n the l a n d under c u l t i v a t i o n and the average number of d w e l l i n g u n i t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l p a r c e l s . In another method, the urban s p r a w l c r i t e r i a used by the Lower Ma i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board (Chapter I I ) were a p p l i e d to Richmond c o n d i t i o n s . Richmond found t h a t 160 • • • t h i s method of a n a l y s i s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f , as i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y o f housing i s not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o p o r -t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to l a c k o f use o f l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. The e x i s t e n c e of many pr o d u c i n g s m a l l - h o l d i n g p a r c e l s on which houses are l o c a t e d does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a ' s p r a w l ' area i n t r u e p e r s p e c t i v e , but r a t h e r o f ' s m a l l h o l d i n g s ' e n t e r p r i s e s f l o u r i s h i n g w i t h i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y . i l The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y c r i t e r i o n was found u s e f u l , however, i n p o i n t i n g out p o t e n t i a l o r a c t u a l urban s p r a w l areas (Map 13, p a g e l 4 5 ) ; the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n d i c a t o r can then be used f o r d i r e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development. Twenty-two s e c t i o n s i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t were at urban s p r a w l d e n s i t i e s at the end of 1963, f i f t y were at a r u r a l p o p u l a -t i o n d e n s i t y . A t h i r d method c o n s i s t s of r a t i n g s e c t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s u i t a b i l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o f o u r c r i t e r i a : (a) the s o i l q u a l i t y and c a p a b i l i t y ; (b) the e x t e n t of c u l t i v a t i o n per s e c t i o n ; (c) the d e n s i t y of h o u s i n g ; and (3) the average s i z e of p a r c e l s o f l a n d . T h i r t y - t h r e e s e c t i o n s were r a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y as " t r u e " a g r i c u l t u r a l . Because o f the weight g i v e n t o d e n s i t y of h o u s i n g , c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s w i t h a h i g h i n t e n s i t y of c u l t i v a t i o n were not being r a t e d as t r u e a g r i c u l t u r a l . The Richmond P l a n n i n g Department study of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d by the t h r e e methods r e v e a l e d t h a t a c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to q u a l i t y of s o i l , so t h a t the b e t t e r the s o i l the more e x t e n s i v e i t s c u l t i v a t i o n . In s e c t i o n s c u l t i v a t e d t o an e x t e n t g r e a t e r than 65$, i n c r e a s i n g c u l t i v a t i o n e f f e c t s an i n c r e a s e i n s i z e of p a r c e l s from 4.6 1 6 1 a c r e s t o 50.7 ac r e s per p a r c e l . Large l a n d p a r c e l s i n R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t s have remained i n a g r i c u l t u r a l use, r e g a r d l e s s of z o n i n g or p r o x i m i t y to r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t . d.) S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s S i n c e the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d i s the f i r s t s tep toward the development and use of l a n d , Richmond z o n i n g bylaws i n c l u d e r e g u l a t i o n s r e s t r i c t i n g the s i z e and shape of p a r c e l s a l l o w e d to be c r e a t e d or used i n a p a r t i c u l a r zone. Sub-d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , which are s e p a r a t e from z o n i n g r e g u l a -t i o n s , r e f e r not so much to the q u a n t i t a t i v e a s pect of l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n but r a t h e r t o the procedure of g e t t i n g a sub-d i v i s i o n approved and r e g i s t e r e d and to the c o n s t r u c t i o n and s e r v i c i n g of the s u b d i v i d e d l a n d . The s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d b e f o r e i t can become l e g a l ( t h a t i s , r e g i s t e r e d ) , must be approved by an Approving O f f i c e r . The whole p a t t e r n of s u b d i v i s i o n , i n f a c t the p a t t e r n of community development, may be determined almost s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y (as f a r as the l e g i s l a t i o n i s concerned) by the Approving O f f i c e r when he makes h i s d e c i s i o n s t o approve or not to approve. Richmond has t h e r e f o r e taken the obvious st e p of making the Town P l a n n e r the Approving O f f i c e r ; f u r t h e r m o r e , m u n i c i p a l departments at a l l concerned w i t h the s u b d i v i s i o n and use of l a n d are t i e d i n t o the s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l procedure; and f i n a l l y , o f supreme importance: a l a n d development p o l i c y adopted by the M u n i c i p a l i t y guides the Approving O f f i c e r . T h i s l a n d development p o l i c y f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n the zoning bylaws which s p e c i f y the type of use 162 and d i r e c t i o n of development, and the s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , which s p e c i f y the p a t t e r n of development and the minimum st a n d a r d s of c o n s t r u c t i o n and s e r v i c i n g , Richmond developed f a i r l y h i g h m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d s between 1949 and 1952; the l a t e s t s e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r new r e s i d e n t i a l development (Appendix V I , page 213) were adopted on February 16, 1959, w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t new development u t i l i z i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s would not be expected to s a t i s f y t hese high s t a n d a r d s i m m e d i a t e l y . The a p p r o v a l of a s u b d i v i s i o n i s a l s o c o n d i t i o n a l upon the p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n b a s i c s e r v i c e s , such as paved road access and water s u p p l y ; i f the s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d n e c e s s i t a t e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of road a c c e s s , then the whole complement of s t a n d a r d s i s imposed. F i n a l l y , the p r o v i s i o n of these f a c i l -i t i e s i s made e n t i r e l y the d e v e l o p e r ' s f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y . T h i s t h r e e f o l d p o l i c y has had an a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on urban s p r a w l : (a) Land cannot be s u b d i v i d e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development u n t i l the Approving O f f i c e r i s a s s u r e d of the p r o v i s i o n of adequate f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s ; i r r e s p o n s i b l e l a r g e - s c a l e s p e c u l a t i o n i n l a n d i s d i s c o u r a g e d because of the p r o s p e c t s o f expenses i n p r o v i d i n g these s e r v i c e s ; because of the c o s t f a c t o r , the s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d i s l i k e l y to be r e l a t e d r e a s o n a b l y to a c t u a l demand, so t h a t l a r g e t r a c t s of v a c a n t , s u b d i v i d e d urban l o t s are u n l i k e l y to o c c u r . (b) The h i g h q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d f o r sub-d i v i d e d l a n d i s an added d e t e r r e n t to wanton s u b d i v i s i o n of 163 l a n d ; because of the q u a l i t y o f s t a n d a r d , and t h e r e f o r e c o s t , o f development i n Richmond, the m u n i c i p a l i t y has not a t t r a c -t e d so much development as i t would have done w i t h a l o w e r , y e t "adequate'* s t a n d a r d . (c) The f a c t t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l not s u b s i d i z e new r e s i d e n t i a l development by paying f o r s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d i s another p o w e r f u l d e t e r r e n t f o r would-be d e v e l o p e r s and sub-d i v i d e r s . The r e a s o n i n g behind t h i s p o l i c y i s based on sound p r i n c i p l e s : urban development e n t a i l s s e r v i c e s whose c o s t ought to be m a n i f e s t l y obvious and be borne d i r e c t l y by the b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f the development. S i n c e s i n g l e - f a m i l y houses i n Richmond do not y i e l d s u f f i c i e n t m u n i c i p a l revenue to c o v e r the c o s t of s e r v i c i n g , the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h j u s t i f i c a t i o n 12 r e f u s e s to promote r e s i d e n t i a l development a c t i v e l y . The m u n i c i p a l i t y f u r t h e r shows no i n t e r e s t i n development which cannot stand the t e s t o f the market a t the s t a n d a r d of s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e d . S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s i n Richmond are supplemented by a ' p r e - p l a n n i n g ' and c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e by the P l a n n i n g Department. S e c t i o n s where r e s i d e n t i a l development i s p e r -m i t t e d are " p r e - p l a n n e d " inasmuch as a road system i s l a i d out p r o v i s i o n a l l y so t h a t the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and anomalies engendered by piecemeal development are kept t o a minimum and a r e a s o n a b l e road p a t t e r n i s a s s u r e d . Persons w i s h i n g t o s u b d i v i d e l a n d are encouraged to c o n s u l t w i t h the P l a n n i n g Department i n making t h e i r p l a n s , so t h a t an ex-change of i n f o r m a t i o n can take p l a c e between s u b d i v i d e r and 164 P l a n n i n g Department. Land development c r i t e r i a e v o l v e d over the years enable the p l a n n e r to suggest changes, i f any, f a i r l y q u i c k l y and w i t h some assu r a n c e ; at the same t i m e , approval, becomes a s c e r t a i n a b l e . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f l o w - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p -ment f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s a l o ne was demonstrated i n 1960 by the Town P l a n n e r f o r the R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t I I . I t s e f f e c t was to c o n c e n t r a t e much r e s i d e n t i a l development i n a l r e a d y s e r v i c e d and sewered a r e a s ; had i t not been enacted, an e s t i m a t e d 500 l o t s would have been c r e a t e d i n v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the D i s t r i c t i n the two y e a r s s i n c e i t s c r e a t i o n i n A p r i l , 1958. There would have been at l e a s t t h r e e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f 100 l o t s or more, i n areas f o r which s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s had not been planned; the c o s t o f 3 new s c h o o l and park s i t e s and t h r e e 3 t o 4-room s c h o o l s would have c o s t some $100,000 f o r l a n d and another $100,000 f o r the b u i l d i n g s . T h i s same amount of development c o n c e n t r a t e d by Zoning c o n t r o l i n areas where p r o v i s i o n had a l r e a d y been made f o r s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be c a t e r e d to by the a d d i t i o n o f 10 classrooms to e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s . The c o s t o f t h i s i s e s t i m a t e d at $140,000. Without, at t h i s t i m e , c o n s i d e r i n g the many o t h e r advantages o b t a i n a b l e from c o n c e n t r a t i n g R e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y , the s a v i n g i n s c h o o l c o s t s alone can be c o n s e r v a t i v e l y e s t i m a t e d a t $150,000. not c o u n t i n g s a v i n g s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Maintenance f o r such new f a c i l i t i e s . 1 3 c.) S e n i o r Government P o l i c i e s P roper l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n Richmond has been hampered by the a c t i o n s of s e n i o r governments. Bef o r e the m u n i c i p a l -i t y had adopted l a n d use c o n t r o l s , the F e d e r a l Department of 165 Veterans A f f a i r s bought t r a c t s of l a n d ( b e g i n n i n g i n 1943) to s e t t l e v e t e r a n s of World War I I on one or o n e - h a l f a c r e p a r c e l s of l a n d ( s m a l l h o l d i n g s ) . T h i s program c o n s t i t u t e d , i n e f f e c t , a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to promote urban s e t t l e m e n t a t s p r a w l d e n s i t i e s . In the a u t h o r ' s view, the erroneous assumption was made t h a t v e t e r a n s would car e to and be a b l e to farm - from a p h y s i c a l and economical p o i n t of view - to any e x t e n t on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . P a r t - t i m e f a r m i n g i s f e a s i b l e o n l y on those s m a l l h o l d i n g s l o c a t e d on good s o i l i n Richmond, f o r one t h i n g ; even where i t i s f e a s i b l e , the 15 r e a r p o r t i o n o f many s m a l l h o l d i n g s l i e s i d l e . The f a v o u r -a b l e market s i t u a t i o n and c l i m a t e i n Richmond have c e r t a i n l y helped to promote more p a r t - t i m e farming than can be expected i n most o t h e r Canadian communities. A much g r e a t e r e f f o r t s h o u l d have been made i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between urban s e t t l e m e n t (which even i n 1942 c o u l d be expected to predominate) and t r u e s m a l l h o l d i n g s development. The s t a t e d purpose of s e t t l i n g v e t e r a n s "on s m a l l b l o c k s of l a n d o u t s i d e h i g h t a x a t i o n areas' 1"^ shows the l a c k of a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t r e n d s i n urban development and i n the s t a n d a r d o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c -i n g , because these very s e m i - r u r a l areas are now i n the process o f b e i n g u r b a n i z e d and are taxed more h e a v i l y . A second major i n f l u e n c e was the l i b e r a l d i s p e n s a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l Housing Act mortgage money through the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . S i n g l e - f a m i l y housing was promoted f o r a number of years a f t e r World War I I as an end i n i t s e l f , not as a b a s i c and f o r m a t i v e s t e p o f community 166 b u i l d i n g i n a r a p i d l y u r b a n i z i n g c o u n t r y . Even housing was not seen i n proper p e r s p e c t i v e : t h e r e was an overwhelming emphasis on s i n g l e - f a m i l y housing and complete d i s r e g a r d f o r v a r i e t y i n hou s i n g . There were no requ i r e m e n t s w i t h r e g a r d to community p l a n n i n g , and those r e g a r d i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s have been minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s . B a s i c a l l y , community p l a n n i n g and the p r o v i s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i s t h e concern o f l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, so t h a t t h e r e are c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t s on the freedom o f a c t i o n o f a F e d e r a l Crown C o r p o r a t i o n . CMHC's s u b d i v i s i o n acceptance p o l i c y was t o "a c c e p t " (not "approve") s u b d i v i s i o n s f o r a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d of y e a r s and t h i s "acceptance" meant t h a t IMHA l o a n i n s u r a n c e would not be w i t h h e l d from the p r o j e c t on the b a s i s of s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n w i t h i n the s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d of y e a r s . O c c a s i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n p r o j e c t s have been r e f u s e d or r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s of l a c k of adequate community f a c i l i t i e s , but the " p o l i c y " i s not p r o p e r l y s p e l l e d out and t h i n g s are t h e r e f o r e done on an ad hoc b a s i s . The d i f f i c u l t r o l e o f CMHC i s to a d m i n i s t e r a nominal "housing p o l i c y " , which i s i n r e a l i t y an employment p o l i c y . The f r e q u e n t adjustments i n the l e n d i n g p o l i c y d i c t a t e d by the F e d e r a l Government, w i t h the ' o n - o f f 1 e f f e c t s on r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , , are not condu c i v e t o p l a n n i n g , so t h a t CMHC has a d i f f i c u l t problem i n a t t e m p t i n g to r e c o n c i l i n g i t s ( u n o f f i c i a l ) concern f o r p l a n n i n g w i t h the performance of i t s d u t i e s . 167 I t i s suggested t h a t i f a F e d e r a l p o l i c y r e q u i r i n g p u b l i c sewer c o n n e c t i o n s f o r NHA houses had been adopted i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r 1945, cou p l e d w i t h some minimum s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g community p l a n n i n g , much o f the development i n r u r a l and u r b a n i z i n g areas would not have"taken p l a c e i n the l o c a t i o n s and p a t t e r n s t h a t i t d i d . Indeed, p r i v a t e money would have s h i e d away from areas not s a n c t i o n e d by CMHC. Richmond i s i n a f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n i n t h a t l a n d use c o n t r o l s were i n t r o d u c e d b e f o r e and d u r i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n boom, i n t h a t the v i a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y p revented g r e a t e r s u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g d e v e l o p -ment than d i d o c c u r , and i n t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y was a b l e to impose a p u b l i c sewer requirement on 20 r e s i d e n t i a l l y -zoned s e c t i o n s . On the o t h e r hand, Richmond r e s i d e n t i a l development has been much more h e a v i l y dependent on NHA mortgage money and mortgage i n s u r a n c e than o t h e r m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, so t h a t the c a t a l y t i c or r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t of the n a t i o n a l mortgage l e n d i n g p o l i c y has been p o t e n t i a l l y more s i g n i f i c a n t here than e l s e -where i n the area (Table 1, page 137). There i s no doubt t h a t the p o l i c y suggested e a r l i e r would have enabled Richmond to r e s t r i c t - r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p -ment to the Brighouse area by p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c sewers t h e r e , and o n l y t h e r e . L a r g e - s c a l e development a t t h a t time would have been f e a s i b l e i n t h i s a r e a , s i n c e the f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f l a n d would have been much l e s s s e r i o u s ; when the Ge n e r a l R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t 2 was c r e a t e d i n 1958, however, the 168 l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d needed f o r t h i s type o f development were not a v a i l a b l e i n the Br i g h o u s e a r e a . I t i s t r u e t h a t the c r e a t i o n of D i s t r i c t 2 " f r o z e " much of the s u b d i v i s i o n i n 20 s e c t i o n s , and t h a t o n l y l a r g e r , f u l l y - s e w e r e d s u b d i v i s i o n s have been b u i l t s i n c e then, but i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t the c h a n n e l l i n g o f growth i n t o these s u b d i v i s i o n s (map 11, page 143) d e f l e c t e d i t away from the Br i g h o u s e area and c r e a t e d f a i r l y h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l areas d i s t a n t from, and p o o r l y s i t u a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o , the c e n t r e o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y . S i n c e January, 1961, the i n s u r a n c e of NHA mortgage l o a n s through CMHC has been made c o n d i t i o n a l upon the p r o v i s -i o n o f p u b l i c sewer c o n n e c t i o n s . In Richmond t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , a l t h o u g h i t would have been welcomed years b e f o r e , now s e r v e s to f r u s t r a t e attempts t o c o n c e n t r a t e p o p u l a t i o n i n the Bri g h o u s e a r e a . 5 e p t i c tank development has been q u i t e f e a s i b l e t h e r e and was encouraged t o reach a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y Which would s u p p o r t a p u b l i c sewage d i s p o s a l system. As a r e s u l t o f CMHC r e g u l a t i o n s , l i t t l e NHA money has gone i n t o t h i s a r e a ; p r i v a t e money coming i n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r a n y t h i n g but development along e x i s t i n g r o a d s . Road f r o n t a g e i s b e i n g used up at an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e so t h a t , sooner than e x p e c t e d , the problem of a s t a t i c p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n the whole Brighouse area w i l l have to be f a c e d . C o n c u r r e n t l y , r e s i d e n t i a l development i s be i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d i n , and f u r t h e r r a i s i n g the d e n s i t y o f , sewered s u b d i v i s i o n s , a l l of which are p o o r l y s i t u a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c e n t r a l B r i g h o u s e 169 a r e a . CMHC complemented i t s 1961 p o l i c y change by making l o a n s a v a i l a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c sewage d i s p o s a l systems, hoping to i n duce more com-pact s e t t l e m e n t i n t h i s way. Richmond c o u l d take advantage of t h i s l o a n fund f o r f i n a n c i n g a l a r g e - s c a l e p u b l i c sewage d i s p o s a l system, to c o n c e n t r a t e r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the B r i g h o u s e area at t h i s t i m e . The M u n i c i p a l i t y , one g a t h e r s , does not l i k e to c o n s t r u c t the sewage d i s p o s a l system at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time, p o s s i b l y f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r f i n a n c i a l commitments (such as the purchase of the B r i ghouse E s t a t e ) . 170 D. CASE STUDY CONCLUSIONS The c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i r e c t l a n d use c o n t r o l s employed i n Richmond ( t h a t i s , c h i e f l y r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g , and s u b d i v i s i o n and s e r v i c i n g r e g u l a t i o n s ) t o curb urban s p r a w l and t o r e g u l a t e and improve the use o f l a n d has indee d been very e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e n t i n g the s u b d i v i s i o n and development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , and i n m i n i m i z i n g sub-d i v i s i o n and development i n s e c t i o n s a l r e a d y touched by urban s p r a w l . Although urban s p r a w l has been curbed i n Richmond, many s e c t i o n s i n Richmond are s t i l l at an urban s p r a w l d e n s i t y and d i s p l a y the symptoms o f urban s p r a w l a r e a s . The l a n d use s i t u a t i o n i n most r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s i n Richmond i s s t i l l a mad q u i l t of urban use, p a r t - t i m e f a r m i n g o r f u l l -time f a r m i n g , or no use a t a l l . But t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t l a r g e acreages have been p r o t e c t e d from urban s p r a w l and t h a t t h i s i s a g r e a t accomplishment. Urban s p r a w l i s such a long-term d e t r i m e n t because areas a f f e c t e d by i t are so e x t e n s i v e and t h e i r p a p u l a t i o n so low, t h a t i t t a k e s many ye a r s t o develop these areas f u l l y ; at the same time, once urban development has o c c u r r e d , i t i s t h e r e to s t a y , so t h a t t h e r e are u s u a l l y v e r y l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n r e v e r t i n g undeveloped l a n d back to a g r i c u l -t u r a l use f o r a f i n i t e or i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d . I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t so many q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are a t t a c h e d t o the 171 a u t h o r ' s judgment on the Richmond success i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . There i s no doubt t h a t i t w i l l take many y e a r s b e f o r e the i n h e r i t e d e f f e c t s o f urban s p r a w l o f past y e a r s can be c o r r e c t e d and i t appears t h a t the k i n d of p a i n s t a k i n g but n o t i c e a b l e p r o g r e s s which Richmond has been making i s " s u c c e s s " , or r a t h e r " b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l " , as f a r as the c u r b i n g of urban s p r a w l i s concerned. The s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Richmond i s the apparent c o n t i n u i t y of p u b l i c aim, good p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , and the q u a l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon might w e l l form the s u b j e c t o f a t h e s i s i n the f i e l d o f p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , p u b l i c admin-i s t r a t i o n , s o c i o l o g y or even p s y c h o l o g y . The a t t i t u d e o f a community toward i t s own development and the f u t u r e are the very base f o r sound community p l a n n i n g and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , the c u r b i n g of urban s p r a w l . Zoning can then p r o v i d e a "framework of t h i n k i n g " , as the A s s i s t a n t P l a n n e r put i t , c r y s t a l l i z i n g i n a s i m p l e , comprehensible form the l a n d use aims of the community. I t i s n e c e ssary to have a good " p o l i t i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee", which can r e l a t e community needs and r e a c t i o n s t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f . I t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t q u a l i f i e d s t a f f i n a l l m u n i c i p a l govern-ment departments are e s s e n t i a l ; " p l a n n i n g " must a l s o be a s t a f f r a t h e r than a l i n e f u n c t i o n , because more than any o t h e r l o c a l governmental f u n c t i o n , i t s i n h e r e n t tendency to i n i t i a t e , suggest and c o o r d i n a t e i s s t i f l e d i n a l i n e f u n c t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . On a l l these counts Richmond s c o r e s and i t 172 i s i m p o r t a n t to r e c o g n i z e the r o l e these f a c t o r s p l a y i n the s u c c e s s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . Much o f what has been s a i d above can be g e n e r a l i z e d , w i t h the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the phenomenon of urban s p r a w l i t s e l f and those p e r t a i n i n g t o the Richmond s i t u a t i o n . The l a t t e r w i l l be r e c a p i t u l a t e d to f a c i l i t a t e comparison o f t h i s case study w i t h o t h e r s and to enable the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Richmond to be reviewed more e a s i l y by b e i n g assembled i n one p l a c e . The i s l a n d l o c a t i o n o f Richmond, i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to a major c i t y , c o u p l e d w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s i z e a b l e areas of good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l and c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l , have helped v a r i o u s types o f a g r i c u l t u r e to c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i o n and r e s i s t urban p e n e t r a t i o n to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree. The g r e a t peat bog i n the c e n t r e o f L u l u I s l a n d has, of c o u r s e , always a c t e d to c o n t a i n s e t t l e m e n t i n the western p a r t of the i s l a n d . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f z o n i n g i n 1949 and f a i r l y high s e r v i c i n g r equirements between 1949 and 1952, t h a t i s p r i o r to any n o t i c e a b l e upswing of s u b d i v i s i o n or b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i n G r e a t e r Vancouver o r Richmond, i n d i c a t e s good government at the time and must have had a c e r t a i n " c o n d i t i o n i n g " e f f e c t on the community. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the P l a n n i n g Department i n 1957 may w e l l have been a c c e l e r a t e d by the e f f e c t s o f the new 1956 z o n i n g bylaw, which might be nicknamed a r e s i d e n t i a l " o v e r z o n i n g " bylaw. The c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t of t h e s e . r e g u l a t i o n s , s u c c e s s -i v e z o n i n g amendments (1958, 1963), and the a d o p t i o n o f new 173 s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s i n 1959 have r e s u l t e d i n r e s t r i c t i o n s , not o n l y to urban s p r a w l , but to r e s i d e n t i a l development g e n e r a l l y . The M u n i c i p a l i t y r e c o g n i z e s the development-r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t of i t s r e g u l a t i o n s and the urban s p r a w l problems t h i s c r e a t e s f o r some o u t l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; Richmond has t h e r e f o r e been a staunch s u p p o r t e r o f the Lower Mai n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n f o r m u l a t i n g and propounding a R e g i o n a l P l a n , designed to curb urban s p r a w l on the r e g i o n a l b a s i s , as i t s h o u l d be. In l o o k i n g t o the f u t u r e , one can f o r e s e e the d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n making a c c e s s i b l e and b r i n g i n g i n t o a c t i v e use the dormant r e a r l a n d i n the B r i g h o u s e a r e a , of f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t i n g the h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l sub-d i v i s i o n s at the r e s i d e n t i a l p e r i m e t e r to the c e n t e r of development, and of c o r r e c t i n g many o t h e r l a n d use a n o m a lies. In l o o k i n g back, the p r o g r e s s t h a t has been made i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l i n Richmond can be a p p r e c i a t e d espec-i a l l y at t h i s t i m e ; the removal of t o l l s on the Dak S t r e e t B r i d g e and Deas I s l a n d Tunnel ( A p r i l 1, 1964) would have l e d n o r m a l l y to a new wave of s u b d i v i s i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l -opment a c t i v i t y i n Richmond. I n s t e a d , the e f f e c t o f the t o l l removal i s expected to be minor; and even i f major d e v e l o p -ment would r e s u l t , Richmond i s prepared f o r i t . By c o n t r a s t , a n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y to t h e south o f Richmond i s r e l a t i v e l y unprepared f o r r e s i s t i n g p o t e n t i a l urban develop-ment or c o n t r o l l i n g a c t u a l development, so t h a t the e f f e c t o f the t o l l removal may w e l l be s e r i o u s . 174 The case study c o n f i r m s the s u s p i c i o n expressed e a r l i e r t h a t a "methodology" f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e -ness o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l i s extreme-l y d i f f i c u l t t o d e v i s e , and the attempt t o do so i n t h i s study must be thought t o have f a i l e d . W i s s i n k m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e must n e c e s s a r i l y be "a c l o s e a d a p t a t i o n t o the a c t u a l s i t u -17 a t i o n met i n the f i e l d " , presumably because urban s p r a w l t a k e s so many forms and has not been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l l o w o f one approach t o s t u d y i n g i t . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s u p p o r t s t h i s view: As each s e c t i o n d i f f e r s i n i t s development because o f a development p a t t e r n a l r e a d y underway p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f z o n i n g , and a l s o d i f f e r s because o f the e f f e c t of the o r i g i n a l z o n i n g a p p l i e d t o i t and subse-quent changes t h e r e t o , no two s e c t i o n s n e c e s s a r i l y a c h i e v e the same d e n s i t y of development when they are c o n s i d e r e d over a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e . Each s e c t i o n w i l l g r a d u a l l y a l t e r i t s c o m p o s i t i o n as i t i s a f f e c t e d by z o n i n g changes, e x t e r n a l form and shape of i t s p a r -c e l s , underground s e r v i c e s , l a n d use changes, t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n network changes, and changes i n demand and d e s i r e on the p a r t o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s over t h i s p e r i o d of t i m e . i ^ The problems encountered by the auth o r i n d e v i s i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n procedure b e f o r e h a v i n g had the b e n e f i t of the case s t u d y , and the i n s i g h t gained d u r i n g the s t u d y , would suggest t h a t a case s t u d y , such as p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , or s e v e r a l such s t u d i e s , needs to be c a r r i e d out b e f o r e a m e a n i n g f u l methodology can be attempted. 175 Reference Footnotes J . E. Armstrong, S u r f i c i a l Geology of Vancouver A r e a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956), p. 7. For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r , t o : Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Land f o r Farming (New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B., 1962), p. 38-41. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , Appendix VII t o General Land Use Report, 1961-1981 (March, 1962), mimeo., p. 59. The Richmond P l a n n i n g Department c o n c e i v e d of f o u r d e n s i t y c a t e g o r i e s : 0-50, 50-100, 100-300, 300-640 d w e l l i n g u n i t s (d.u.) per gross s e c t i o n (=160 a c r e s ) . 50 d.u. per 160 a c r e s at 3.7 persons/d.u. = 1.15 persons per gross a c r e . A " s e c t i o n " i n l o c a l Richmond t e r m i n o l o g y i s a square of l a n d w i t h s i d e s o n e - h a l f m i l e l o n g (=160 a c r e s ) and i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y a " q u a r t e r - s e c t i o n " i n s t r i c t l y l e g a l terms. " S m a l l H o l d i n g s " were c r e a t e d by The V e t e r a n s ' Land Act 1942, R.S.C. 1952, c. 280 ( o r R.S.C. 1942-43, c. 33, s . l ) . The minimum s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s m a l l h o l d i n g s p a r c e l s have f l u c t u a t e d between o n e - h a l f , one, and one and o n e - h a l f a c r e s . L o t s are b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g o f a c e r t a i n t y p e , such as the "one-acre t y p e " . R e f e r to M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 255, s e c . 711, s s . l ( e ) . ( A p p e n d i x I I , page ). The C o r p o r a t i o n o f the Township of Richmond, C o u n c i l Minutes ( A p r i l , 1958), Amendment Bylaw No. 1528, s. 8, s s . c ( i i ) . In Richmond, farm l a n d and possessed l a n d o f Japanese-Canadian " c i t i z e n s " began to be a c q u i r e d i n 1943. Over 450 "one-acre" type l o t s were c r e a t e d i n VLA s u b d i v i s i o n s ; most o f the b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y took p l a c e from 1946 to 1947. 176 g Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, D e n s i t y 5tudy. Appendix I I I to General Land Use Report, 1961-1981 (March, 1962), mimeo., p• 9• "^Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , p. 3. ^ i b i d . , 8. 12 The imbalance between the a c t u a l annual revenue per d w e l l i n g and the c o s t of s e r v i c i n g were g i v e n i n a mimeographed r e p o r t o f the Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, on November 16, 1959: Cost of Other T o t a l Average D e f i c i t E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s Cost Tax Revenue For The Per d.u. Per d.u. Per d.u. Per d.u. Year 1941 $ 21.00 $ 41.00 $ 62.00 1946 22.00 54.00 76.00 1951 54.00 94.00 148.00 1956 66.00 142.00 208.00 $100.00 $108.00 1959 130.00 207.00 337.00 210.00 127.00 * d.u • = d w e l l i n g u n i t 13 Richmond Town P l a n n i n g Department, " F i n a n c i a l Savings O b t a i n a b l e by C o n t r o l l e d Development, w i t h Richmond Examples" (about 1960), mimeo., p. 2. The Canada Yearbook 1956 (Ott awa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957) 15 s t a t e d on page 311 t h a t about 80% o f the 29,402 a c t i v e s m a l l h o l d e r s i n Canada had " v e g e t a b l e gardens which, i t i s e s t i m a t e d , saved each s m a l l h o l d e r an average o f $135". These are very modest r e t u r n s indeed f o r a whole c l a s s o f p r o p e r t y under the VLA, where i n f a c t the l e g i s l a t i o n ( V e t e r a n s ' Land A c t , 1942-43, C. 33, S . l ) had s t a t e d "...whereas p a r t - t i m e f a r m i n g coupled w i t h o t h e r employment i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of r u r a l and s e m i - r u r a l l i f e i n Canada;...." A. D. C r e r a r s t a t e s t h a t , at l e a s t i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, 90% o f the acreage of s m a l l h o l d i n g s a c q u i r e d under the V.L.A. i s not i n a g r i c u l t u r a l use. I n : Resources f o r Tomorrow, Volume 3 (Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962), p. 194. 177 Canada Yearbook 1943-44, p. 770. G. A. W i s s i n k , American C i t i e s i n P e r s p e c t i v e (Assen, N e t h e r l a n d s : Royal Van Gorcum L t d . , 1962), p. 204. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, D e n s i t y Study, p. 2. CHAPTER VI TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR CURBING URBAN SPRAWL 179 A. THE 5TUDY IN REVIEW 1. SUMMARY OF STUDY A statement of the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the urban s p r a w l problem and the r o l e of land- u s e c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l i n t r o d u c e s the study and l e a d s to the f i r s t two chap-t e r s , i n which a comprehensive e x a m i n a t i o n i s made of c o n t r o l s having the e f f e c t o f i n f l u e n c i n g the use of l a n d , and o f the phenomenon o f urban s p r a w l . A number o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s are then chosen, i n the t h i r d c h a p t e r , f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l ; the r o l e , a p p l i c a t i o n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f these c o n t r o l s are then examined i n d e t a i l and d i s c u s s e d . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r i s devoted t o a d i s c u s s i o n of p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r s o f the i n c i d e n c e o f and changes i n the c h a r a c t e r and l o c a t i o n o f urban s p r a w l , so t h a t a methodology f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t -i v e n e s s of s e l e c t e d l a n d use c o n t r o l s f o r t h e i r normal, designed purpose can be developed. Although i t was not p o s s i b l e a c t u a l l y t o d e v i s e a method, a s i m p l i f i e d procedure f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l i s pr e s e n t e d f o r use i n the case s t u d y . In Chapter V an attempt i s made to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s as they are and have been a p p l i e d i n The C o r p o r a t i o n o f the Township of Richmond to curb urban s p r a w l . In o r d e r t o be a b l e t o now draw c o n c l u s i o n s from the case study and the t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n e a r l i e r , assumptions, s c o p e , and l i m i t a t i o n s 180 o f the study are r e v i e w e d . 2. REVIEW OF ASSUMPTIONS The b a s i c assumption, t h a t d e s i r a b l e communities cannot be r e a l i z e d except through a r a t i o n a l use o f l a n d made p o s s i b l e by proper community and l a n d use p l a n n i n g , i s shown to be v a l i d . The assumed u n d e s i r a b i l i t y o f urban s p r a w l i s demonstrated to e x i s t , and i t i s i n d i c a t e d f u r t h e r i n what way the p e r n i c i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s of urban s p r a w l are even more s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the f u t u r e than they are f o r t h e p r e s e n t . The assumption t h a t l a n d use c o n t r o l s can be used t o curb urban s p r a w l has been proved t r u e , n a t u r a l l y w i t h c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , another assumption was v a l i d a t e d : t h a t the problem of urban s p r a w l i s both a r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l a n d use problem and t h a t t h e r e f o r e the P r o v i n c i a l Government has the solemn duty to p r o t e c t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t of the r e g i o n by e n s u r i n g t h e enactment o f a l a n d development p o l i c y designed to curb urban s p r a w l . 3. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study i s l i m i t e d i n scope; t h a t i s , o n l y a s e l e c t number o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s are examined i n d e t a i l , and the s i m p l i f i e d method o f approach i s t e s t e d i n o n l y one a r e a . The study a l s o has l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the s u b j e c t matter i t s e l f . The l a n d use c o n t r o l s which were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n more d e t a i l cannot r e a l l y be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d u n l e s s t h e i r 181 r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s h aving the e f f e c t o f i n f l u e n c i n g the use of l a n d i s known, or at l e a s t r e c o g n i z e d . A l s o , the attempt t o d e v i s e a methodology f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l f a i l e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y . The d i s c u s s i o n of p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r s of the i n c i d e n c e of urban sprawl may s e r v e t o f ocus a t t e n t i o n on the v a l u e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the v a r i o u s i n d i c a t o r s c o n s i d e r e d ; the approach t o the case study cannot be termed a "method", f o r no o r g a n i z e d procedure or system of thought i s proposed. The case study i t s e l f s u f f e r s from a l a c k of i n f o r m a -t i o n . . Much - i n f o r m a t i o n which might have been p r o f i t a b l y used i s not a v a i l a b l e or c o u l d not be reached c o n v e n i e n t l y . The a uthor was thus unable t o f o l l o w changes i n the a c t u a l use o f l a n d over the y e a r s ; no a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d o f the t y p e , number and l o c a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y p r i o r to 1958, o r i t s e f f e c t s on the type and i n t e n s i t y o f l a n d use. A l t h o u g h the dormancy of l a n d i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n urban s p r a w l a r e a s , and was p o i n t e d out as such i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , no d e t a i l e d q u a n t i t a t i v e or q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s i s attempted. Then t h e r e are the l i m i t a t i o n s which t h e s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f Richmond impose on a g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the case s t u d y : i t s i s l a n d l o c a t i o n , the v i a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n Richmond, and the f a c t t h a t l a n d use c o n t r o l s were i n e f f e c t p r i o r to the f i r s t s u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g boom. 182 4. AREAS FOR FURTHER STUDY The e f f e c t of i n d i r e c t l a n d use c o n t r o l s , such as t a x a t i o n , f i s c a l p o l i c i e s , and o t h e r s mentioned i n the f i r s t two c h a p t e r s , on urban s p r a w l ought to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . In f a c t , urban s p r a w l i s being s u b s i d i z e d i n many ways (see Mason Gaffney's paper, b i b l i o g r a p h y ) ; a knowledge o f the amounts o f s u b s i d y i n v o l v e d and t h e i r e f f e c t s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the phenomenon of urban sprawl and i t s causes. On the o t h e r hand, much g r e a t e r study s h o u l d be devoted to what Gaffney c a l l s a " n e u t r a l containment p o l i c y " , which i s s i m p l y the containment (of urban d e v e l o p -ment) e f f e c t e d by g e a r i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g , t e l e p h o n e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and any o t h e r charges a g a i n s t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y to the a c t u a l c o s t of s e r v i c e . At the same t i m e , much more study s h o u l d be devoted to a " p o s i t i v e containment p o l i c y " , the p r o v i s i o n of p l e a s a n t and f i n a n c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e housing i n the c e n t r a l c i t y . As has been p o i n t e d out i n t h i s s t u d y , the c u r b i n g o f urban s p r a w l i s one t h i n g , t h e encouragement of and i n s i s t e n c e on good urban development i s another t h i n g , e n t i r e l y ; the former i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e of the l a t t e r . The most p r o m i s i n g approach to the study of urban s p r a w l appears to be to pursue the i n t e n s i v e study of " i n d i r e c t " l a n d use c o n t r o l s and o f the " n e u t r a l " and " p o s i t i v e " containment p o l i c i e s proposed by Gaffney. Concur-r e n t l y , e f f o r t s must be made to promote s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n the problem so t h a t the w i s e s t p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s can 183 be reached when the c h o i c e s o f urban development emerging from these s t u d i e s can be c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d f o r d e c i s i o n and p o l i c y - m a k i n g . 5. RELATION OF THEORETICAL APPROACH TO CASE STUDY RESULTS The t h e o r e t i c a l approach g e n e r a l l y i s v a l i d , espec-i a l l y f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y study of t h i s n a t u r e . The a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n o f land - u s e c o n t r o l s enacted as law seems d e c e i v i n g l y s i m p l e , compared to the nuances c o n s i d e r e d i n a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . S i n c e a m u n i c i p a l bylaw g e n e r a l l y i s n ot, and p r o b a b l y cannot be, a very t e c h n i c a l statement and must app l y to l a r g e r areas and many d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , i t i s too much to expect a number of d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s to be a c h i e v e d by one bylaw. I t seems i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b -l i s h the main goal t o be a c h i e v e d by a p a r t i c u l a r land-use c o n t r o l and then to accept the f a c t t h a t a number of s u b s i d i a r y o b j e c t i v e s may not be a b l e to be r e a l i z e d a t the very same ti m e . In a t h e o r e t i c a l approach i t i s n a t u r a l to presume t h a t a whole range of d i r e c t l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s would be a t one's d i s p o s a l . In a c t u a l f a c t , new c o n t r o l d e v i c e s are g e n e r a l l y i n t r o d u c e d one by one, as e x p e r i e n c e i s gained w i t h l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s , t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s become apparent, and the need f o r new d e v i c e s a r i s e s . The number of z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s i n Richmond has r i s e n from the i n i t i a l f i v e ( i n 1949) to twenty ( i n 1963), and such d i s t r i c t s as the "Planned R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t " and Neighbourhood Shopping Centre D i s t r i c t " are used to encourage good development, r a t h e r than 184 merely prevent u n d e s i r a b l e development. S t i l l , t h e r e i s very much an emphasis on z o n i n g , w i t h which Richmond has had s u c c e s s , and as y e t l i t t l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h forms o f l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s not r e l a t e d to z o n i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . 185 B. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The form o f urban development, because o f i t s s i g n i f -i c a n c e i n the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e to a r a p i d l y u r b a n i z i n g s o c i e t y , deserves the a t t e n t i o n o f a l l p r o f e s s i o n s . Community P l a n n e r s are concerned w i t h urban development, as i t r e l a t e s t o the use o f l a n d , r e c o g n i z i n g i t s g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n t a n g i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s . Urban s p r a w l as one form o f urban development i s m a n i f e s t l y w a s t e f u l of our r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n u r b a n i z i n g a r e a s , and i t has t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e d most a t t e n t i o n from p l a n n e r s . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , p l a n n e r s , having been concerned w i t h the phenomenon of urban s p r a w l more than any o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n because i t s most l a s t i n g e f f e c t i s i n the waste o f l a n d and i n compromis-i n g f u t u r e development, have attempted to d e v i s e new l a n d use c o n t r o l s , o r to adapt o l d ones, f o r c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l i n u r b a n i z i n g a r e a s . Land use c o n t r o l s are almost always n e g a t i v e i n approach: they p r o h i b i t . The whole t r e n d i n p l a n n i n g has been towards measures aimed at promoting p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g i d e a s and o b j e c t i v e s . Nowhere i s t h i s more ne c e s s a r y than i n the case of urban s p r a w l ; so d i s r u p t e d i s the l a n d use p a t t e r n by urban s p r a w l , and so l a s t i n g i t s e f f e c t s , t h a t the mere c u r b i n g of i t i s e n t i r e l y i n s u f f i c i e n t as f a r as 186 l a n d use p l a n n i n g i s concerned. I f the e f f e c t s o f e x i s t i n g urban s p r a w l are to be m i n i m i z e d or n e u t r a l i z e d and i f the community i s to develop i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n , then t h e c u r b i n g o f p o t e n t i a l l y new urban s p r a w l must be matched by p o l i c i e s and programmes d i r e c t e d at promoting sound, a t t r a c -t i v e development. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n can a l s o be reached i n another way: s i n c e urban s p r a w l i s a form of urban development, and the l a t t e r i s a phenomenon of our t i m e s , the mere c u r b i n g o f urban s p r a w l w i l l do n o t h i n g to ensure a more d e s i r a b l e form and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f development. A p o l i c y d i r e c t e d at c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l t h e r e f o r e ought t o be a component p a r t of a l a r g e r p o l i c y h aving the o b j e c t i v e o f promoting d e s i r a b l e forms o f urban development. Both the problems of c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l and the f o r m u l a t i o n o f g o a l s r e l a t i n g to urban development i n g e n e r a l are so i m p o r t a n t t h a t s o c i e t y as a whole must concern i t s e l f w i t h i t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e impera-t i v e f o r each community to c o n s i d e r i t s approach to urban development and t o promote and i n s i s t on a sound type of development. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s and the phenomenon of urban s p r a w l r e v e a l s t h a t , on a ' l o c a l l e v e l , t h e r e are a number of l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n e x i s t e n c e which can be used e f f e c t i v e l y to curb urban s p r a w l . Zoning, s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g r e quirements and p o l i c i e s are t h r e e types o f c o n t r o l s which can, and have been shown t o , curb urban s p r a w l w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l boundary. The 187 t e c h n i q u e s themselves have proved to be s i m p l e i n o p e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e i r e f f e c t s cannot be t r a c e d c o n c l u s i v e l y . I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s by t r u l y o b j e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e s . The a c t u a l i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e c o n t r o l s i n an attempt to curb urban s p r a w l may i n v o l v e a h i g h l y p o l i t -i c a l c r u s a d e , demanding s t r a t e g y and good, c o n t i n u o u s l e a d e r s h i p , whether t h i s i s the planner's job or not ( t h e r e are arguments i n f a v o u r o f e i t h e r a t t i t u d e ) , he may indeed be i n v o l v e d i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The c u r b i n g o f urban s p r a w l on a l o c a l l e v e l i s f e a s i b l e under the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , but t h e r e i s no compulsion f o r i t to be done. The argument t h a t the i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y o f urban d e v e l o p -ment and the s a v i n g of t a x d o l l a r s s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e or encouragement i s i m p r a c t i c a l because the e f f i c -i e n c y argument has i n f a c t not l e d to the c u r b i n g o f or c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s at c u r b i n g urban s p r a w l . The very f a c t t h a t urban s p r a w l has p r o g r e s s e d i n the Lower Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r example, f o r many years w i t h o u t b e i n g curbed p o s i t i v e l y i n a c o o r d i n a t e d , c o n c e r t e d manner i n d i c a t e s t h a t a much more p o s i t i v e approach must be d e v i s e d . The P r o v i n c i a l Government i s the r e s p o n s i b l e body charged w i t h g o v e r n i n g the a f f a i r s of the p r o v i n c e ; i t t h e r e f o r e has t h e c l e a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e n s u r i n g t h a t urban s p r a w l i s curbed and t h a t development tak e s p l a c e i n a c o o r d i n a t e d , e f f i c i e n t , and a t t r a c t i v e manner. 18.8 I t i s suggested t h a t r e m e d i a l p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n can be drawn up i m m e d i a t e l y on the b a s i s o f e x p e r i e n c e gained so f a r w i t h urban s p r a w l . The g r e a t e s t amount of knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e has been gained i n the realm of n e g a t i v e c o n t r o l s , such as z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l . They are c e r t a i n l y the most " a c c e s s i b l e ' ' at the p r e s e n t time and f i t i n best w i t h the e x i s t i n g governmental and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework. Presuming the c o n t i n u e d t o l e r -a t i o n o f a l a r g e number of independent l o c a l governments, the c o o r d i n a t i o n of l o c a l c o n t r o l s w i t h r e g i o n a l needs c o u l d be undertaken by a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency w i t h a u t h o r i t y to s p e c i f y the g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d uses. There i s much l e s s e x p e r i e n c e to date w i t h the s e r v i c -i n g p r i n c i p l e , which s t a t e s t h a t o n l y e c o n o m i c a l l y s e r v i c e a b l e development s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d . Area-wide c o o r d i n a t i o n on t h i s p r i n c i p l e would be r e l a t i v e l y easy, s i n c e the type and d i r e c t i o n o f development c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f a r i n advance of a c t u a l development. Urban growth would be r e t a i n e d i n s i d e compact increments c o n t i g u o u s w i t h e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t , by a b o l i s h i n g s u b s i d i e s to s p r a w l and by i n i t i a t i n g an economic g r a d u a t i o n o f r a t e s f o r urban s e r v i c e s . T h i s type of c o n t r o l over urban s p r a w l might be c a l l e d " n e u t r a l containment". C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be undertaken on t h i s p r i n c i p l e , f o r i t i s sound and b a s i c t o proper urban development. The o b j e c t i v e i s not merely to curb urban s p r a w l or to c o n t a i n urban development, but r a t h e r to c r e a t e t h a t 189 urban environment which generates the g r e a t e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f what these s p e c i f i c s a t i s f a c t i o n s a r e , and what the environment s h o u l d be, may w e l l never be r e s o l v e d , but i n the meantime one can be sure t h a t the c u r b i n g of urban s p r a w l i s a f i r s t and c r u c i a l step toward r e a l i z i n g t h a t urban environment. Proper urban development has s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s o c i e t y as a whole and i s not o n l y a ma t t e r o f l a n d use. The use of l a n d i s f u r t h e r m o r e i n f l u e n c e d by a number o f i n d i r e c t c o n t r o l s which are beyond the c o n t r o l o f l o c a l governments, but are w i t h i n the c o n t r o l and power, and s h o u l d be t h e concern of the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Given the p r e s s i n g need f o r c o n t a i n i n g urban s p r a w l on an area-wide b a s i s , i t can be concluded "THAT THE RESPONSIBILITY FDR CURBING URBAN SPRAWL LIES WITH THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT WHICH SHOULD ENSURE THAT ITS MUNICIPALITIES IMPLEMENT A COMPREHENSIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT POLICY". APPENDIX I LAND REGI5TRY ACT, R.5.B.C. 1960, C.208 APPROVAL OF SUBDIVISION PLANS ( S e c t i o n s 88 t o 98) 192 • • i . ' """" • ' •" . . . I960, LAND REGISTRY CHAP. 2 0 8 Suompri8" ^° subdivision plan shall be deposited which designates the land subdivision subdivided as being a city, town, townsite, port, borough, or village, or pi»ns- as a separate part thereof or an addition thereto. R.S. 1948, c. 171, . . s. 85. • ' ' M ?o s u b n e o U 86. All subdivisions shall comply with the following requirements, division*. in addition to all other requirements'contained in this Part:— (a) Necessary and reasonable access to all new parcels and through the land subdivided to lands lying beyond or around shall to the extent of the owner's control be provided by a sufficient public highway, and all existing highways provided for in sub-' division plans of adjoining lands or otherwise legally estab-lished shall be continued without unnecessary jogs: (b) Where the land subdivided borders on the shore of any navir gable water, access shall be given by sufficient public highways to such navigable water at distances not greater than ten chains between centre lines, or, in district municipalities or unor-ganized territory where the parcels into which the land is sub-divided exceed one acre, at distances not greater than twenty chains between centre lines: • (c) Suitable lanes shall be provided in continuation of existing lanes and in every case where lanes are considered necessary by the approving officer. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 86; 1954, c. 18, s. 3. 87. The Attorney-General may, upon application supported by statu-tory declaration, grant relief, either wholly or in part, from a strict com-pliance with the provisions of section 85 or clause (b) of section 86. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 87. A pproval of Subdivision Plans Mwapprovid ^ ° subdivision plan shall be received on deposit in any Land of subdivi- Registry Office unless it has first been approved by the approving officer or is ordered to be deposited by order of a Judge of the Supreme Court as provided in section 98. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 88; 1950, c. 36, s. 3. 89. Where a subdivision plan deals with lands in a municipality, it shall be tendered to the Clerk of the municipality, and where it deals with lands in unorganized territory to the Chief Engineer or the District Engineer of the Department of Highways, for examination and approval by the approving officer, and shall be accompanied by an examination fee of two dollars and a certificate that all taxes which have been assessed on the land subdivided have been paid, and in a case where local improve-ment taxes, rates, or assessments are payable in annual instalments that all instalments owing at the date of the certificate have been paid. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 89; 1961, c. 33, s. 10. •,; ; " •' 2241 Power of Attorney-General to grant relief. alon plan. Tender of plan for approval. 193 CHAP. 208 LAND REGISTRY 9 ELDE. 2 where rpian n t f l Wh e r e a subdivision plan is tendered for examination and ap-thane5re«'ter P r o v a^ a ^ t e r t n e expiration of three months from the date of the comple-monttu after xioa of the survey, the approving officer may require that the surveyor inspect the survey and satisfy himself that all posts and monuments are . in place and that the survey has not been affected by any intervening survey or railway or right-of-way location, and certify the same on the plan by the word " inspected," with the date and his signature. The .- ! surveyor may so inspect and certify before the plan is tendered for approval. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 90. fOTapprovaL Every subdivision plan shall be approved or rejected by the approving officer within a time fixed by regulation of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, /^proving (2) The approving officer shall be, in the case of , (a) a municipality, the Municipal Engineer, or else an officer duly ' J ' - ' 1 . ; a u t h o r i z e d by the Council of the municipality; . : (fc). unorganized territory, the Deputy Minister of Highways, the "'-'fs-'W.-' - '; Chief Engineer or Assistant Chief Engineer of the Department * of Highways, or a person authorized by the Lieutenant-Gov-.. i / . e m o r in Council. (3) Where any subdivision plan relates to land in any improvement < - .i';. district under the Water Act or in & local district municipality, the ap-! "-•> proving officer shall, within seven days after the subdivision plan is ten-.; . • , dered for approval, notify the Trustees of the improvement district, or \" " the local district municipality, that the subdivision plan has been tendered for approval. (4) Where any subdivision plan deals with land in a municipality : „ • adjacent to a controlled access highway within the meaning of the Con-trolled Access Highways Act, the approving officer shall not approve the plan unless and until it has first been approved by the approving officer for unorganized territory; (5) The approving officer for unorganized territory shall not approve 1' ' a plan dealing with land adjacent to a controlled access highway if it does not conform to the orders and regulations made under the Controlled Access Highways Act in respect to the highway. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 91; 1949, c. 34, s. 4; 1954, c. 18, s. 4; 1955, c. 39, s. 2; 1961, c. 33, s. 11; 1963, c. 22, s. 3. of'awtfowng' ^ e P e r s o n tendering a subdivision plan for examination and •fficcr. approval shall also comply with the following requirements, if the '~-y:: approving officer so demands:— y (a) Furnish profiles of every new highway shown on the plan and . " • such topographical details as may indicate the engineering :r-M"**-±-'' problems to be dealt with in opening up the highways shown V y V ^ ; ' ' upon the plan: •; i ; Furnish a sketch showing that the parcels into which the land ~:> ... .is subdivided by the plan can conveniently be further subdi-2242 . •• • 194 I960 LAND REGISTRY CHAP. 208 Extra-munici-pal lands. Lands within municipality. Basis of con-sideration of highway allowances. Grounds for refusing approval of subdivision. vided into further small parcels, but this shall only be demanded if in the opinion of the approving officer the situation of the land is such that there is reason to anticipate its resubdivision. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 92. 93. (1) In case the lands subdivided are not within a municipality, the approving officer may, at the cost of the owner of the lands, person-. ally examine or have an examination and report made on the subdivision, and may refuse to approve the plan if he considers that (a) the roads shown within the plan are not graded and gravelled •. ' ) ; ; : to his satisfaction; ./. (6). the land covered by the plan has not adequate drainage instal-' lations; ... (c) the deposit of the plan is against the public interest; (d) the plan does not comply with the provisions of this Act rela-..... tive to access and sufficiency of highway allowances shown : within the plan, and with all regulations of the Lieutenant-; Governor in Council in regard to subdivision plans. "~ (2) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may from time to time by Proclamation prescribe additional reasons for refusal by the approving officer to approve the plan. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 93; 1950, c. 36, s. 4; 1961, c. 33, s. 12. t 94. Where the lands being subdivided are within a municipality, the approving officer may refuse to approve of the subdivision where it does not conform to the by-laws of the municipality regulating the subdivision of land. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 94; 1954, c. 18, s. 5. 95. In considering the sufficiency of the highway allowances shown upon the plan, the approving officer shall take into consideration whether the land subdivided is (a) business property within cities or towns; (b) residential property within cities or towns or the suburbs thereof; or (e) country lands; and he shall also consider the configuration of the land, the relation of the highway allowances to any existing main highway or approach, whether by land or water, and any local circumstances, and on the ques-tion of width, whether the respective highways shown are likely to be required or. used as main roads or as secondary roads, or merely as roads of access to a few parcels, or as lanes. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 95. 96. In considering an application before him for subdivision approval, the approving officer may "hear objections from any interested persons, and may refuse to approve the subdivision if in his opinion the antici-pated development of the subdivision would injuriously affect the estab-lished amenities of adjoining or adjacent properties or would be against the public interest. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 96; 1954, c. 18, s. 6. :. 2243 195 CHAP. SOS LAND REGISTRY 9 ELIZ. 2 Written approval. Appeal to Supreme Court Judge. Time-limit for deposit of approved Slan with .egistrar. 97. When the plan is approved, the approving officer shall write thereon "Approved under the Land Registry Act," with the date of ap-proval, and shall sign the same and append his official designation, for example, " City Engineer, City of ," or " Chief Engineer, De-partment of Highways." R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 97; 1961, c. 33, s. 13. 98. (1) If the plan has been rejected by the approving officer or has not been approved by him within the time limited by section 91, the owner of the land covered by the plan may, within twenty-one days after receipt by the person who tendered the plan for approval of the notice of the approving officer's refusal to approve the plan, or in a case where the plan has not been approved within the time limited by section 91, within twenty-one days after the expiration of that time, appeal to a Judge of the Supreme Court in Chambers in a summary way by petition, which shall be supported by an affidavit of the owner or his. solicitor or agent, stating fully and fairly all the material facts of the case, and that to the best of the information, knowledge, and belief of the deponent all facts and things material to the application tot approval have been fully and fairly disclosed. (2) The approving officer shall be served with the petition, together with copies of all material and exhibits proposed to be used on the hearing. (3) At least ten days' notice shall be given of the time and place of hearing, and at that time and place all parties interested (whether served ,with the petition or not) may appear and be heard. (4) The Judge may make any order he sees fit as to the notification of other parties of the hearing, and upon the hearing he may make such order in the premises as the circumstances of the case require, and may order that the plan be deposited if it is otherwise in order, and may make such order as to costs of the parties appearing on such petition as he may see fit. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 98; 1950, c. 36, s. 5. Deposit of Subdivision Plans 99. Every plan shall be tendered for deposit with the Registrar within sixty days after it has been approved by the approving officer, or within such further time as the Registrar, on application made to him before the expiration of the time allowed for deposit, may from time to time for sufficient cause allow. If the plan is not so tendered for deposit within the time allowed, the approval of the plan shall be deemed to be revoked. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 99; 1955, c. 39, s. 3. j ueuf^Gover- 100. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may at any time, when-°o fOTbid" 1 0 6 1 1 e v e r appears that the deposit of a subdivision plan is against the public f,i£?itot interest, and whether the same has been approved or has not been approved, and notwithstanding such right of appeal, instruct the Regis-trar not to receive the plan on deposit. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 100. . 2244 . • APPENDIX I I MUNICIPAL ACT. R.S.B.C. I9 6 0 , C.255 DIVISION (4).-SUBDIVISION OF LAND . ( S e c t i o n s 711 to 711 A) 1 I960"': .MUNICIPAL CHAP. 2 5 5 (d) with respect to matters mentioned in subsection (3) of section 705 and subsection (7) of section 711. - (2) Notification of the appeal shall be given by the Board to the ; . .; • owners and occupiers of all real property located adjacent to the property with respect to which the appeal is being heard, and public notice of the hearing shall be given if the matter is deemed by the Board to be of : ;r N- sufficient importance. j (3) The decision in writing of all or of a majority of the members of the Board is the decision of the Board. (4). An appeal lies to a Judge of the.County Court from a decision, of the Board under clauses (a) and (b) of subsection (1), but all other '•'> decisions of the Board are final and binding. 1957, c. 42, s. 706; 1958, r c. 32, s. 311; 1960, c. 37, s. 30; 1961, c. 43, s. 44; 1962, c. 41, s. 30. 71®. (1) No member of a Zoning Board of Appeal shall receive compensation for his services other than allowances for actual expenses necessarily incurred in the discharge of his official duties. (2) The Council shall include in its annual budget such sums as are necessary to defray the expenses of the Board. 1957, c. 42, s. 707. Division (4).—Subdivision of Land SnSrnta™ 711. (1) The Council may regulate the subdivision of land, and for Sn^ and that purpose may by by-law hi8hwayi>. (a) regulate the area, shape, and dimensions of parcels of land and . the dimensions, locations, alignment, and gradient of highways : i.; .., c,: ..:: :. in connection with the subdivision of land, and may make - different regulations for different uses and for different zones • :.• vL -•< • of the municipality; (/>) prescribe minimum standards with respect to the matters con-j - -. tained in clauses (a) and (d); (c) require that a proposed subdivision (i) be suited to the configuration of the land being sub-•• • divided; and . ^ (ii) be suited to the use to which it is intended; and •Vr ;»••' (ui) shall not make impracticable the future subdivision ' of the land within the proposed subdivision or. of any adjacent . - ' . r . . l a n d ; •'. (d) require that the highways within the subdivision be cleared, drained, and surfaced to a prescribed standard, but excluding . ' ' : - •' the construction of sidewalks and boulevards; ;:. (e) where the municipality has a sewage-disposal system, require '•••<'-•"• •'"that a sewage-collection system be provided in accordance • '• '- with standards set out in the by-law, make provision for ; * the connection of the system with the established sewage-"• disposal system of the municipality, and provide that the lands included in the subdivision shall be exempt from, but only • . - .• • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 3 2 4 1 .. • ^ 198 I CHAP. 2 5 5 MUNICIPAL 9ELIZ. 2 j ; ' - ' ; ; « ' ' f r o m , the charges imposed in the municipality for works of 1 J _' : a like nature for a period of time calculated to be sufficient to i; . ?\ - amortize the actual cost of the collection system computed at I i :\-\ .„•.'.= an interest rate not exceeding four per centum per annum; ! .!' "'• ; • • b u t if the municipality requires that any main of such collection -i • - : - system be of a diameter in excess of that required to service | i . . the subdivision, the municipality shall assume and pay the cost v ; providing the excess capacity. (2) Subject to section 713, the owner of land being subdivided shall provide, without compensation, land for highways in accordance with : a by-law under subsection (1). •/?'• ; . (3) Every approving officer shall give due regard to and take cog-i ; , nizance of any official community plan when dealing with applications . ! ! ...for the approval of any plan of subdivision. J: (4) The approving officer may refuse to approve a subdivision plan I, ••'.. if he is of the opinion that the cost to the municipality of providing public ' V ' v ; u utilities or other municipal works or services would be excessive. i: . | 2 1 '(5) In addition to any other powers exercisable or exercised under . -/''this Act, the Council may by by-law require that where the nearest • ! b o u n d a r y of any land proposed to be subdivided is two thousand feet or , f.;x,'V' : -V more in distance, or such greater distance specified in the by-law, from ; : = -• < an established trunk water-main or a trunk sanitary sewer, or both, pro-j , vision be made by the owner of the land for the installation of water- , i • r;.:[mains or sanitary sewers, or both, including trunk water-mains or trunk ! / I ^Ui'yk'f'i- sanitary sewers, or both, from such established trunk water-main or trunk "•j.•.:••{-:'^:->- sanitary sewer, or both, in and to the proposed subdivision, according . ^ .nKji t o minimum standards prescribed in the by-law. I ; V (6) A by-law under subsection (5) may provide for the sharing of ' ? t h e cost, or any portion thereof, of any trunk water-main or trunk sani- ! ; Y ^ • proposed to be subdivided. ; '^:.\ :.v''e :r-/ (7) Where land proposed to be subdivided is in an area of the p ; municipality zoned for agricultural, rural, or industrial use, an appeal : lies to the Zoning Board of Appeal from the enforcement of any pro-i ; V .^ '• : visions of a by-law enacted under subsection (5), and the provisions of : ; ; clause (c) of subsection (1) of section 709 shall, mutatis mutandis, j -. • * apply. 1957, c. 42, s: 708; 1958, c. 32, s. 312; 1960, c. 37, s. 31; - v: .1961, c. 43, s. 45; 1962, c. 41, s. 31. , RfiminaHon 7HA. (1) Where a physical examination of lands is required, the ; - : r , ; v approving officer may, at the cost of the owner of the land proposed to ''••i-^-j-.be subdivided, personally examine or have an examination or report made o n the proposed subdivision, but the owner shall not be charged I an amount greater than one-tenth of one per centum of the assessed :;'>..'.•; .-.4; value of the land included in the subdivision as shown on the real-., : property assessment roll at the time of subdivision. • j : - ' 1 -VV'3242 ....,; •• ,:;:,: ; ;..'r:h%*-:s;$:?'^^ APPENDIX I I I MUNICIPAL ACT. R.S.B.C. I960, C.255 HEALTH AND WELFARE ( S e c t i o n s 634 to 636) 200 1960. MUNICIPAL CHAP. 255 N a m e of. i (b) to expend moneys for the purpose aforesaid within the amount appropriated therefor by the Council; and (c) to expend other moneys lawfully received by the Commission for the purpose aforesaid. (2) The Commission to whom powers are granted under subsection (1) shall, upon and after the adoption of the by-law, be known as the " Parks and Recreation Commission " or " Civic Properties and i Recreation Commission," as the case may be. 1958, c. 32, s. 291. PART x v m HEALTH AND WELFARE Restr ict ion. Regula t ion , control , and penalties. 633. Except for sections 636, 637, 638, and 639, this Part does not apply to a local district. 1957, c. 42, s. 633. Division (1).—Health 634. (1) Subject to the Health Act, the Council may by by-law (a) regulate persons, their premises and their activities, to further - - the care, protection, promotion, and preservation of the health of the inhabitants of the municipality; (b) make regulations to prohibit the creation of insanitary conditions; (c) require any person to remedy or remove any insanitary con-dition for which he is responsible, or which exists on property owned, occupied, or controlled by him. (2) Subject to the Health Act, the Council may undertake such measures as are deemed necessary for the preservation of public health and the maintenance of sanitary conditions in the municipality, including the chlorination and fluoridation of the water-supply. (3) Notwithstanding subsection (2), the Council shall not fluoridate the water-supply unless and until three-fifths of the electors who vote on the question are in favour of fluoridation. (4) Any regulation made by or contained in any by-law adopted under subsection (1) is not valid until approved by the Deputy Minister of Health, who is hereby empowered to consider and deal therewith accordingly. 1957, c. 42, s. 634; 1958, c. 32, s. 292. to^totbr 635. A Judge of the Supreme Court or a Judge of the County Court conditions'310 m ay» u P o n ^ e c e r t i f i c a t e 0 1 t n e Medical Health Officer, or any person wpubiic18 fulfilling the duties of a Medical Health Officer, appointed by any health. municipality, stating that there exists, in his opinion, serious appre-hension of an epidemic breaking out within the municipality or of the spreading of any contagious or infectious disease of a serious character, and that there exists a real necessity for urgency, and upon the evidence •/•, by affidavit of such Medical Health Officer or other person as aforesaid as to the existence of danger to the public safety or health, declare iC!,j".• 7 toy .building, structure, or erection of any kind, or any drain, ditch, '•' . ' - • 3219 C h l o r i n a t i o n and fluorida-tion o f water. Assent o f electors for fluoridation. A p p r o v a l o f Deputy M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h . 201 CHAP. 2 5 5 .•' MUNICIPAL 9 ELE. 2 .>.;:•;,-,,:. watercourse, pond, surface water, or any other matter or thing in or . upon any private lands, street, or highway, or in or about any building • ' "or structure, a nuisance and dangerous to the public safety or health; • and, further, may upon motion made to him, with such notice to the owner or occupier of any of the premises aforesaid (if any) or otherwise jje m a y direct, and after hearing the parties (if any) appearing thereupon, make such mandatory or other order as may be deemed V ; ••• necessary for the abatement of such nuisance; and, further, may by such r."*order name the time within which the same shall be obeyed or complied v. with and by whom, and in default of compliance may order that anything in the said order directed or required to be done may be done under the direction of the said Medical Health Officer or other person, and '\ •••St by the same or a further order may determine who shall bear and pay - - the costs and expenses incidental thereto, and the cost of any application made under this section. 1957, c. 42, s. 635; 1958, c. 32, s. 293. E ^ b ^ h m e n t • £36. (i) The Council may by by-law, with the assent of the owner-electors, establish a public hospital within the meaning of the Hospital Act, and for that purpose acquire, by purchase, lease, or otherwise, • . accept, and hold real and personal property either within or without the municipality. E ^ i s h m e n t (2) The Council of a city, town, or district municipality may by homes , iso- . by-law, with the assent of the owner-electors, establish an isolation lat ion a n d • * " ' hospitals. hospital, a nursing home, or a hospital for treatment of chronic cases, and for such purposes, or any of them, acquire, by purchase, lease, or '. otherwise, accept, and hold real and personal property. clStrea. • The Council of a city, town, district, or village municipality may by by-law establish a health centre, and for that purpose acquire real and personal property by purchase, lease, or otherwise and accept and hold real and personal property. . ' . S^ ovehospj- The Council may, on any property acquired or held for any tnstituuons! or all of the purposes mentioned in subsections (1), (2), and (3), • construct, maintain, operate, improve, and use buildings and other ' '.improvements and provide any necessary accommodation, facilities, or equipment therefor. oT^arfo/311 (5) The Council may by by-law establish a board of management management. i0 operate any or all of the institutions mentioned in subsections (1), ;;. (2), and (3), whose members shall serve without remuneration, and '. the Council may delegate to the board such administrative powers --of the Council as the Council deems expedient, but not extending to ,; or including any of the powers of Council which are exercisable by by-law only. ofhMi^ment (*>) The Council may provide any health services to and for the scrrica. :• inhabitants of the municipality operated in conjunction with any or all " . : of the purposes mentioned in subsections (1), (2), and (3) as the i±l;:'./';'::>.Coundl deems expedient. 1957, c. 42, s. 636; 1958, c. 32, s. 294. -• • .3220 • APPENDIX IV SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS Index Class Rating Soil description I I Very good soils with level topography, very few stones, desir-•] able structure and moisture holding capacity; above average i n *' f e r t i l i t y and capable of producing sustained yields of a l l climatically suited crops. II i , i . (•• 55+ Good soils with uniform characteristics but having slight de- j ductions for one or more factors; capable of producing good crops under moderately good management practices.: i n l 39 to 54 Pair soils with moderate deductions for several s o i l factors; slight crop limitations, and good management practices required for satisfactory returns. ..„;•..:-__..•.•.„ - •! : IV i 25 to 38 Pair to poor soils, generally limited for some crops; low pro- i ductivity may be due to need for irrigation, drainage, f e r t - . ; i l i z e r or other intensive, management practices. ::; i v i i i. i-i • V.. ' ' • . ! • •• ' 0 to 25 Poor to doubtful soils, for the most part not suited for i general farming purposes; cultivation and productivity re- •;. , -stricted because of steep slopes, stoniness, coarse textures • resulting in droughtiness, low f e r t i l i t y or need of extensive drainage work; may be made productive when there is consider- . ably more demand for land or newer and better methods of farm-ing are developed. In most instances they do have value aa forest or range lands.* • • , \ *Source: Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Land f o r Farming (New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B., 1962), Table 8, p.38. 203 APPENDIX V SUGGESTIONS RELATING TO OBJECTS AND POLICIES TO BE ESTABLISHED CONCERNING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF RICHMOND The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township o f Richmond. P l a n n i n g Department, RICHMOND, B. C. 7th December 1959 204 Reeve and C o u n c i l , M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond OBJECTIVES OF A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e may be c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g : -1. I t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a statement o f p o l i c y and a pr o -gramme designed to encourage and to promote the o r d e r l y and economic' growth of the M u n i c i p a l i t y and having r e g a r d t o : (a) The p r e v e n t i o n of s p r a w l and s i m i l a r uneconomical development. (b) The maintenance of s t a b i l i t y i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . (c) The p r o v i s i o n o f adequate and necessary M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . (d) The p r o v i s i o n of s a t i s f a c t o r y r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . 2. I t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a means of t r a n s l a t i n g such p o l i c i e s i n t o a p r a c t i c a l p l a n s u i t e d to the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the area and e s t a b l i s h i n g means o f implementing these p o l i c i e s . A l l r e s u l t i n g i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n of as d e s i r a b l e an environment as can p o s s i b l y be ac h i e v e d i n which to l i v e , work and p l a y and thus promote the best p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a p p l i c a b l e to b a s i c p o l i c i e s , which have some d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the s p a t i a l d e s i g n a t i o n of the v a r i o u s l a n d use a r e a s . They are g e n e r a l l y d e a l t w i t h under the major use c a t e g o r i e s , and are forwarded f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n . R e s p e c t f u l l y s u b m i t t e d Wm. K e r r Town P l a n n e r 7 t h . Dec. 1959. 205 RESIDENTIAL We have seen from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s and r e p o r t s t h a t f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time p e r i o d our c r i t i c a l development problem has been i n the realm of the economics p e r t a i n i n g t o r e s i d e n -t i a l growth. I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t by our "Suburban" c h a r a c t e r t h e r e seems no r e l i e f i n s i g h t i n t h i s f i e l d . I t can a l s o be s a i d t h a t the burden f a c e d i n R e s i d e n t i a l expansion i s l a r g e l y c r e a t e d by the accepted n e c e s s i t y f o r , and the c o s t s o f E d u c a t i o n . I t i s w e l l known t h a t s t r o n g attempts are bei n g made to o b t a i n a measure of r e l i e f i n s c h o o l c o s t s by r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to s e n i o r l e v e l s of government to assume a more e q u i t a b l e share of these c o s t s , and i t i s t o be hoped t h a t these e f f o r t s w i l l be c o n t i n u e d and u l t i m a t e l y rewarded. As w e l l as e f f o r t s such as t h i s , we must, however, be prepared to do e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e at our own l e v e l t o ensure o r d e r l y and economic development. T h i s i n i t s e l f w i l l g r e a t l y ease the burden of S e r v i c i n g Costs to the Community. A major f a c t o r i n e n s u r i n g a development growth t h a t i s i n the best p u b l i c i n t e r e s t w i l l be our Land Use P l a n . In o r d e r t h e r e f o r e to ensure the maximum use o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and to m i n i m i z e p u b l i c expense i n the p r o v i s i o n o f new f a c i l i t i e s the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l development i s suggested:-1. That wherever p o s s i b l e r e s i d e n t i a l growth be d i r e c t e d i n t o areas c o n s i d e r e d most economical from the p u b l i c v i e w p o i n t by reason of 206 (a) Minimum p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s r e q u i r e d to p r o -v i d e d e s i r a b l e M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g f u l l e s t use of e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s . (b) Minimum p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s r e q u i r e d to p r o -v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h the f o l l o w -i n g precedence:-( i ) Areas where a d d i t i o n s can be made to e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s . ( i i ) Areas where new b u i l d i n g s might be necessary but where s i t e s have a l r e a d y been a c q u i r e d or are p r o v i d e d f o r i n c u r r e n t r e f e r e n d a . 2. That e f f o r t s be made to o b t a i n the c o - o p e r a t i o n of C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n to ensure t h a t mortgage l e n d i n g areas are c o m p a t i b l e w i t h our Land Use Zoning. 3. That an attempt be made to ensure t h a t areas where development can be'encouraged are expanded o n l y a f t e r the need or demand f o r a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s can be demonstrated. 4. That, i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e the b u i l d i n g up of p a r t i a l l y developed r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , where i n -c r e a s e of d e n s i t y i s d e s i r a b l e , a s s i s t a n c e be g i v e n where necessary to encourage l a n d c o n s o l i d a t i o n schemes e i t h e r by c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s o r f o r m a l r e - p l o t t i n g schemes, and t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n to use of a l l a v a i l a b l e powers to a s s i s t such schemes. 5. That as much f l e x i b i l i t y as p o s s i b l e be i n t r o d u c e d to our l e g i s l a t i o n to encourage the development of a b alanced community, o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y o f r e s i -d e n t i a l accommodation s u i t a b l e to f u l f i l l the demands of a l l ages and income groups. 6. That, i n o r d e r to e f f e c t the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e degree of s t a b i l i t y i n urban development and l a n d v a l u e s , n e c e s s i t a t i n g c o n t r o l s beyond our own b o u n d a r i e s , the concept of a R e g i o n a l P l a n be s u p p o r t e d . Such an implement, amongst many o t h e r advantages, would c o n t r o l uneconomic s p r a w l and the t r e n d to d e c e n t r a l i z e l a n d development i n the s e a r c h f o r cheaper l a n d and lower s t a n d a r d s of s e r v i c e s , i n t u r n l e a d i n g to a demand f o r g r e a t e r highway e x p e n d i t u r e s to r e l i e v e the c o n g e s t i o n of commuter t r a f f i c . I t would a l s o be a means of e n s u r i n g t h a t v i t a l and v a l u a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s con-s e r v e d and not p r e m a t u r e l y l o s t . 207 7. That i n s o f a r as e l e c t r i c a l and telephone u t i l i t i e s are concerned our p o l i c y be to c o n t i n u e the e x p l o r -a t i o n o f ways and means to have these put under-ground and f o r the pr e s e n t t h a t d w e l l i n g s be served from the r e a r of l o t s wherever p r a c t i c a b l e . In support of the f o r e g o i n g s u g g e s t i o n s i t i s p o i n t e d out t h a t , at p r e s e n t , and c o n s i d e r i n g our R e s i d e n t i a l and S m a l l H o l d i n g s Zoned areas we are accommodating some 32,000 of our p o p u l a t i o n i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35% o f the areas so zoned. Very b r o a d l y the bal a n c e c o u l d accommodate a n t i c i p a t e d growth f o r some 15 to 20 y e a r s . This means t h a t f o r a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d of time we encourage our uneconomical d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n , and r e q u i r e a l a r g e percentage of our r e s i d e n t s to contend w i t h deadend roads and u t i l i t i e s , i n e f f i c i e n t and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p u b l i c t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s , and inadequate and i n c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d l o c a l shopping o u t l e t s . As f a r as s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s are concerned, i t i s under-stood t h a t a 10 to 12 room elementary s c h o o l can be c o n s i d e r e d the most d e s i r a b l e , e c o n o m i c a l l y and o p e r a t i o n a l l y . Low d e n s i t i e s encourage too many s m a l l two to f i v e room s c h o o l s . We p r e s e n t l y have some f i v e such s c h o o l s w i t h i n our dev e l o p a b l e a r e a . For example, i n any r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped q u a r t e r s e c t i o n , the opening up of-100 l o t s , amounting to some 20% of the p o t e n t i a l would r e q u i r e a two-room s c h o o l . I n c l u d i n g l a n d at pre s e n t v a l u e s , t h i s e n t a i l s an expen-d i t u r e of some 158,000.00, whereas the c h a n n e l l i n g of 100 l o t s i n t o an a l r e a d y p a r t i a l l y developed area might o n l y o c c a s i o n the a d d i t i o n o f two rooms to an e x i s t i n g s c h o o l at a c o s t o f perhaps $20-25,000.00. We can, i n the next f i v e y e a r s , l o o k f o r w a r d to an elementary s c h o o l enrolment i n c r e a s e of some 2100, n e c e s s i t a t -i n g some 60 to 70 a d d i t i o n a l c lassrooms and i t i s f e l t t h a t , w i t h proper c o n t r o l , i t may be p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e the accom-modation by e x t e n s i o n to e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new f a c i l i t i e s o n l y on s i t e s a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d f o r . In r e g a r d to d e n s i t y and as an example, the Broadmoor a r e a , w h i l e not e n t i r e l y developed, generates a gross d e n s i t y of 3.1 d w e l l i n g s per acre and a net d e n s i t y of 4.4 d w e l l i n g s per a c r e . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a gross of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 persons per acre which i s a minimum d e s i r a b l e i n c o n s i d e r i n g t r a n s i t and shopping f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . Th i s q u a r t e r s e c t i o n i s , so f a r , the densest r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y . INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT In t h i s f i e l d and c o n s i d e r i n g the g e n e r a l slowness of I n d u s t r i a l expansion i n the P r o v i n c e , we can l a y c l a i m t o o b t a i n i n g our s h a r e . One of the main f a c t o r s t o be combatted c o n c e r n i n g I n d u s t r i a l development i s the o f t e n e x c e s s i v e v a l u e s p l a c e d on raw l a n d . T h i s has had the e f f e c t , on o c c a s i o n s , of f o r c i n g I n d u s t r y t o a c q u i r e p e r i m e t e r l a n d w i t h the r e s u l t a n t p r e s s u r e on the M u n i c i p a l i t y to rezone and p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s . 209 I t i s f e l t t h a t our b a s i c p o l i c y here s h o u l d be t o : -1. Encourage and promote such developments o n l y where adequate M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s can be p r o v i d e d and to extend s e r v i c e s o n l y on a programmed b a s i s when the need to open up a d d i t i o n a l l a n d i s shown. I t i s f e l t the above p o l i c y would be more e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e d i f 2 below i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . 2. Where i t can be demonstrated t h a t any b o n a - f i d e i n d u s t r y i s d e t e r r e d from l o c a t i n g i n the M u n i c i -p a l i t y by the e x c e s s i v e c o s t of l a n d t h a t (a) We be prepared to mediate and n e g o t i a t e w i t h the p a r t i e s concerned to the e x t e n t o f , perhaps, e s t a b l i s h i n g a competent a p p r a i s a l of the p r o p e r t y v a l u e at our expense, or on a s i m i l a r b a s i s to the p r e s e n t p o l i c y of p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i v e b r i e f s to I n d u s t r i e s . Or (b) When a l l o t h e r methods f a i l , we s h o u l d be p r e -pared to c o n s i d e r e x p r o p r i a t i o n . COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT I t i s f e l t t h a t Commercial development, which i s very l a r g e l y dependent upon r e s i d e n t i a l growth be g e n e r a l l y encour-aged w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y framework:-1. That Brighouse and e s p e c i a l l y No. 3 Road between Westminster Highway and G r a n v i l l e Avenue be encouraged to develop as our C e n t r a l Shopping and B u siness d i s t r i c t , w i t h s p e c i a l study being g i v e n to ways and means of "opening up" the c o n s i d e r a b l e area of p r e s e n t l y zoned l a n d on the east s i d e of No. 3 Road. 2. That, dependent on a need being shown by s u f f i c i e n t i n c r e a s e of r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y , neighborhood type convenience c e n t r e s as a l o c a l s e r v i c e to r e s i d e n t s be c o n s i d e r e d . 3. That the C e n t r a l Commercial Area i n S t e v e s t o n be s p e c i a l l y s t u d i e d . RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT I t i s suggested t h a t the f o l l o w i n g be c o n s i d e r e d as b a s i c p o l i c i e s . 210 1. That where p r a c t i c a b l e l o c a l park and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s be combined w i t h s c h o o l uses and s c h o o l s i t e s . 2. That the f o l l o w i n g minimum s t a n d a r d of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s be c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . (a) For a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n space, t h r e e a c r e s per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . (b) For p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n space, one acre per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . (c) For a community park -( I ) A d j o i n i n g a h i g h s c h o o l - 20 a c r e s ( I I ) Separate - 33 a c r e s (d) For a Neighborhood Park -(1) A d j o i n i n g an elementary s c h o o l - 7 acres ' (11) Separate -12 acres (These standards are as p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d i n the 1957 r e p o r t by the L.M.R.P.B. - "Sc h o o l s and Parks f o r Richmond"). (e) That s p e c i a l n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , f o r example, beach areas be p r e s e r v e d and a c q u i r e d at the e a r l i e s t t i m e . 3. That c u r r e n t e f f o r t s be m a i n t a i n e d to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n and development of Iona I s l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. 4. That the concept of a " b r e a t h i n g space" be kept i n mind when c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to s u i t a b l e l a n d use f o r some \ m i l e south of S t e v e s t o n Highway and \ m i l e East and West of the Deas I s l a n d Tunnel Thruway. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT In view of the concensus of a l l l o g i c a l e s t i m a t e s of p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n growth and the n e c e s s i t y to c o n t r o l development d e n s i t y as a means of a c h i e v i n g an o r d e r l y and economic growth, i t can be seen t h a t f o r a very c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of time a major p o r t i o n of our M u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l be best u t i l i z e d f o r f a r m i n g . One senses, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a , 211 an u n f o r t u n a t e p h i l o s o p h y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a farm use o f l a n d can be c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r i m . T h i s may be r e f l e c t e d i n a l a c k of i n c e n t i v e to make the f u l l e s t use of such a r e a s . I t seems necessary t h a t we c o n s i d e r A g r i c u l t u r e as a most important i n d u s t r y and e s p e c i a l l y an i n d u s t r y t h a t i s not over demanding i n i t s s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . With such a thought i n mind, our p o l i c y c o u l d be: 1. To advocate an up-to-date economic a n a l y s i s o f farming i n the Region. T h i s might be c o n s i d e r e d a base study l e a d i n g to a R e g i o n a l Land Use P l a n . 2. To encourage c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s u i t a b l e l a n d i n t o e c o n o m i c a l l y workable u n i t s . 3. To e x p l o r e a l l p o s s i b l e means, i n c l u d i n g a s s e s s -ment and tax bases to encourage a p r o f i t a b l e c o n t i n u a n c e of farming as a means of l i v e l i h o o d . GENERAL 1. C a p i t a l B u d g e t t i n g . I t i s greatly to be hoped t h a t having weighed the v a r i o u s l a n d use and development p o l i c i e s which have been suggested, C o u n c i l w i l l g i v e the most c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the a d o p t i o n of a p o l i c y r e q u i r i n g C a p i t a l works borrowing to be based on, say a f i v e year programme i n s t e a d of the present ad-hoc system. T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l to the o r d e r l y opera-t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of our l o n g range Develop-ment P l a n . I t might a l s o be adopted as a p o l i c y t h a t , where the M u n i c i p a l Act might be at v a r i a n c e w i t h t h i s concept, the necessary l e g i s l a t i o n be sought to make i t p o s s i b l e . 2. Community Appearance. During the l a s t t h r e e years our e f f o r t s have l a r g e l y been d i r e c t e d towards r a t i o n a l i z i n g the p h y s i c a l and economic f a c e t s o f Community Develop-ment. 212 I t i s now r e s p e c t f u l l y suggested t h a t i t would be t i m e l y to g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to p o l i c i e s designed to encourage neighborhood b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and i n v o l v i n g such matters as S t r e e t t r e e p l a n t i n g , b o u l e v a r d maintenance, e t c . 213 APPENDIX VI THE CORPORATION OF THE TOWNSHIP DF RICHMOND Richmond M u n i c i p a l O f f i c e s , Richmond, B. C. NOTES FOR THE INFORMATION AND GUIDANCE OF LAND OWNERS, SUBDIVIDERS AND LAND DEVELOPERS RELEVANT TO THE SUBDIVISION OF RESIDENTIAL LAND WITHIN THE MUNICIPALITY OF RICHMOND P l a n n i n g Department, September, 1961. 214 1. GENERAL The s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d to thereby c r e a t e new and a d d i -t i o n a l s i t e s f o r d w e l l i n g u n i t s i s an extremely i m p o r t a n t aspect of the proper p l a n n i n g and development of any community. A foremost thought i n the mind o f any person p r o p o s i n g a s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d must n e c e s s a r i l y be t h a t they are c o n t e m p l a t i n g an a c t i o n which i s , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, a permanent t h i n g . Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t the f o r m a l processes l e a d i n g up to the f i n a l a c t of a new pl a n b e i n g r e g i s t e r e d , w h i l e , p e r -haps, appearing complex and time consuming, assume t h e i r p r oper f o c u s . There i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u f f i c i e n t documentation i n e x i s t e n c e to make a l l concerned p r o p e r t y owners aware o f the p i t - f a l l s and problems t h a t can be caused by premature or i m p r o p e r l y planned and c o n t r o l l e d development and i t i s not the purpose o f t h i s brochure to e n l a r g e on these p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s . In our m u n i c i p a l i t y , and e s p e c i a l l y i n our r e s i d e n t i a l l y zoned a r e a s , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from a pre d o m i n a n t l y r u r a l to a suburban r e s i d e n t i a l community i s w e l l advanced. This n e c e s s a r i l y b r i n g s i n i t s t r a i n the need f o r a f a i r l y h igh s t a n d a r d of urban s e r v i c e s and i n the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t these are r e q u i r e d to be i n s t a l l e d by any sub-d i v i d e r and s u b s e q u e n t l y assumed by the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r p e r p e t u a l maintenance. 2. DEFINITION In Richmond we c o n s i d e r R e s i d e n t i a l S u b d i v i s i o n s i n two c a t e g o r i e s - MAJOR and MINOR and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n , which i s not based on area or dimension i s as f o l l o w s : A MAJOR SUBDIVISION - i s a s u b d i v i s i o n which r e q u i r e s f o r purposes o f access t o or beyond any p a r c e l s or l o t s being c r e a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of any new roads and s e r v i c e s . A MINOR SUBDIVISION - i s one where l o t s or p a r c e l s are c r e a t e d , p r o p e r l y s e r v e d by access and u t i l i t i e s from e x i s t i n g roads and s e r v i c e s , (For example the s i m p l e d i v i s i o n of a l a r g e l o t i n t o two p a r t s ) . 215 3. ZONING I t has to be a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the notes i n t h i s p u b l i c a -t i o n presuppose t h a t the l a n d proposed f o r s u b d i v i s i o n i s c o r r e c t l y zoned f o r R e s i d e n t i a l Development. As you are no doubt aware the p e r m i t t e d uses of l a n d are d e t a i l e d i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y ' s "Zoning By-Law" No. 1430 and Amendments t h e r e t o . Copies of the Zoning By-Law are o b t a i n a b l e from the M u n i c i p a l C l e r k ' s O f f i c e f o r the nominal charge of 12.00 and maps showing the a c t u a l l a n d s w i t h i n each zoning c a t e g o r y may be i n s p e c t e d at the M u n i c i p a l O f f i c e s . 4. SUBDIVISION STANDARDS The s t a n d a r d of s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e d f o r R e s i d e n t i a l Sub-d i v i s i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h d e t a i l e d E n g i n e e r i n g S p e c i f i c a -t i o n s , are s e t f o r t h i n the " S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l By-Law No. 1639". Copies of t h i s By-Law are a l s o o b t a i n a b l e from the M u n i c i p a l C l e r k ' s O f f i c e at a p r i c e o f $2.00. C e r t a i n o t h e r r equirements are t o be found i n By-Law No. 1316. The f a l l o w i n g summary r e g a r d i n g minimum l o t s i z e s and s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d i s p u b l i s h e d f o r your i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r t h a t purpose has been e x t r a c t e d from the v a r i o u s By-Laws. N.B. THE PREVAILING STANDARDS FOR GENERAL RESIDENTIAL  DISTRICTS I AND I I ARE SIMILAR BUT IT IS EMPHASIZED THAT  NO DWELLING CAN BE ERECTED IN GENERAL RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT  I I UNLESS IT CAN BE CONNECTED TO A MUNICIPAL SANITARY  SEWER EXCEPT UPON A LOT REGISTERED AT THE LAND REGISTRY  OFFICE PRIOR TO APRIL 8, 1958. 5. MINIMUM LOT DIMENSIONS Zone Frontage Depth Area Remarks Gen. Res. I 66' f o r r e c t a n g u -l a r l o t s - f o r n o n - r e c t a n g u l a r l o t s 50' at s t r e e t l i n e and r e q u i r e 66' w i d t h a t 30' set-back 115' 7920 s q . f t . except i f on sewer then 7,000 sq. f t . N.B. i n a l l cases average wid t h of 66' must be a c h i e v e d Gen. Res. I I 7,000 sq . f t . s i n c e no b u i l d i n g p e r -m i t t e d u n l e s s on s a n i t a r y sewer. 216 Zone Frontage S m a l l H o l d i n g s -Depth Area 1/2 Acre A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t 330' 5 Acres Remarks Frontage determined by compliance w i t h Sec. 712 of the M u n i c i p a l Act, NOTES: 1. The above l o t s are f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s o n l y . In G e n e ral R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t I and I I but NOT i n S m a l l H o l d i n g s or A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t s l o t s to accommodate duplex d w e l l i n g s may be c r e a t e d i f complying t o the f o l l o w -i n g dimensions: Minimum f r o n t a g e - 80' Minimum area - 12,000 s q . f t . w i t h o u t sewer 9,600 s q . f t . w i t h sewer 2. In R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t I where a l a n e i s p r o v i d e d at the r e a r of l o t s , the area can be reduced to 7,260 sq. f t . 3. In a d d i t i o n to s t a n d a r d s s e t by the M u n i c i p a l By-Laws a l l l o t s and p a r c e l s r e q u i r e to comply w i t h S e c t i o n 712 of the M u n i c i p a l Act which s t a t e s i n p a r t : "A p r e s c r i b e d minimum f r o n t a g e s h a l l not be l e s s than one-tenth o f the p e r i m e t e r of the p a r c e l " . In our S m a l l H o l d i n g s D i s t r i c t t h i s i m p l i e s a minimum f r o n t a g e of 74' - 75' . In s p e c i a l cases t h i s p r o v i s i o n can be waived by an a f f i r -m ative vote of at l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l the members of the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l . 6. STANDARD OF SERVICES In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s u b d i v i s i o n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes i n the v a r i o u s zones shown above the f o l l o w i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s are s p e c i f i e d : A. (1) Storm d r a i n a g e by storm sewer. (2) Concrete curb and g u t t e r . (3) S i d e w a l k s - one s i d e of i n t e r n a l roads r e s i d e n t i a l . (4) Paved roads - 26' a s p h a l t i c s u r f a c e on s p e c i f i e d base. (5) Water s u p p l y - minimum diameter of main - 6" and i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n of v a l v e s , f i r e h y d r a n t s , e t c . 217 B. NOTES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B. (6) F i n i s h e d b o u l e v a r d s - shaped and graded. (7) S t r e e t l i g h t i n g - ornamental t y p e . (8) Lanes (where r e q u i r e d ) - 16' wide compacted g r a v e l . (9) Walkways (where r e q u i r e d ) - 8' compacted g r a v e l base w i t h 5' wide a s p h a l t i c s t r i p . E l e c t r i c a l power, gas and telephone s e r v i c e are i n s t a l l e d by the r e s p e c t i v e U t i l i t y Companies and p o l e l i n e s are to be l o c a t e d i n back of l o t l a n e s o r ease-ment wherever p o s s i b l e . Where l a n e s r e q u i r e d 20' wide a l l o w a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y . Where walkways are r e q u i r e d 10' wide a l l o w a n c e i s ne c e s s a r y . The f u l l c o s t of a l l the works d e t a i l e d above and r e q u i r e d i n any major s u b d i v i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o be borne by the s u b d i v i d e r . The i n s t a l l a t i o n o f hydro, gas and,telephone u t i l i t i e s i s arranged w i t h the U t i l i t y Company concerned. The requirement f o r l a n e s and walkways w i l l be d e t e r -mined d u r i n g the d e s i g n i n g o f the s u b d i v i s i o n and the s u b d i v i d e r i s a d v i s e d t h a t where l a n e s are not r e q u i r e d easements i n f a v o u r o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y and/or a U t i l i t y Company w i l l be r e q u e s t e d f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of s e r v i c e s above and below ground at the r e a r o f l o t s . Road al l o w a n c e s are as f o l l o w s : Main roads - 80 1 Secondary roads - 66' Access roads - 56' T h i s l a t t e r can be taken as the normal i n t e r n a l s u b d i v i s i o n r o a d . Where a u t i l i t y easement i s r e q u i r e d , i t w i l l n o r m a l l y be o f 20* w i d t h . From the f o r e g o i n g , the r e a d e r w i l l d o u b t l e s s r e a l i z e t h a t , at l e a s t i n s o f a r as a major s u b d i v i s i o n i s concerned, t h e r e are numerous f a c t o r s r e q u i r i n g to be c o n s i d e r e d and i r o n e d out even b e f o r e any s u b d i v i s i o n p r o p o s a l can be s e t down on paper. The P l a n n i n g , E n g i n e e r i n g and F i n a n c i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s can r e a d i l y be seen to i n v o l v e the s u b d i v i d e r w i t h a l l m u n i c i p a l departments. W h i l s t the f o r m a l a p p r o v a l o f a s u b d i v i s i o n r e s t s w i t h the Approving O f f i c e r d e s i g n a t e d by s t a t u t e , we alone cannot e v a l u a t e the s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h o u t a d v i c e from a l l departments i n the m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and from v a r i o u s o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d b o d i e s . 218 In the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond the Town P l a n n e r i s the Approving O f f i c e r and the P l a n n i n g Department i s the c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency f o r s u b d i v i s i o n p r o c e s s i n g . 9. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s brochure s e t s f o r t h d e t a i l s o f the procedures adopted i n Richmond, l e a d i n g to f i n a l a p p r o v a l and r e g i s t r a t i o n o f new s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s . The procedure i s designed to help and e x p e d i t e a sub-d i v i d e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n , but i t s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d t h a t time i s r e q u i r e d to p r o p e r l y a n a l y s e and process an a p p l i c a t i o n . Your c o - o p e r a t i o n and compliance w i t h the requ i r e m e n t s f o r study and s u b m i s s i o n o f your a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d and w i l l e x p e d i t e your a p p l i c a -t i o n to i t s f i n a l a p p r o v a l . Author's p e r s o n a l comment: The i n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e s f o r another e i g h t pages; the tone and content o f t h i s e x c e r p t i n d i c a t e s the approach to p l a n n i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s on b e h a l f of p l a n n i n g i n Richmond. APPENDIX VII NET DWELLING UNIT INCREASE AND NEW  RESIDENTIAL LOTS (1955 TO 1963) IN... BLOCK 4 NORTH, RANGE 6 WEST: TABLE 4 BLOCK 4 NORTH, RANGE 7 WEST: TABLE 5 BLOCK 5 NORTH, RANGE 6 WEST: TABLE 6 SUMMARY TABLE: TABLE 7 220 APPENDIX V I I TABLE 4 NET DWELLING UNIT INCREASE AND NEW RESIDENTIAL LOTS IN BLOCK 4 NORTH, RANGE 6 WEST 1955 - 1963 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 BLOCK * ** * ** * ** * 2 1 3 1 4 2 2 2 9 9 1 5 6 7 8 10 2 1 1 1 9 20 15 9 25 9 16 8 10 1 2 1 7 2 11 3 1 3 1 12 1 1 2 4 13 1 2 1 1 14 3 1 15 4 1 5 12 6 4 16 12 8 3 10 6 9 6 17 15 3 8 2 2 3 4 18 80 28 9 29 47 36 3 19 9 27 8 27 35 11 4 20 13 17 36 40 2 1 21 106 23 14 5 8 73 22 2 4 7 7 0 3 23 2 1 24 1 2 25 3 49 2 59 4 26 3 72 12 27 59 41 44 45 53 23 28 10 1 106 81 52 15 29 38 105 161 38 81 47 30 8 3 10 9 7 8 3 31 3 2 3 32 11 38 43 14 1 33 16 8 1 17 18 34 31 31 19 18 7 35 66 1 118 84 99 163 36 6 2 3 66 TOTAL 529 361 354 662 474 490 296 221 Note: * D w e l l i n g U n i t s ** R e s i d e n t i a l L o t s F i g u r e s of new s u b d i v i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s not a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e 1958. Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department and B u i l d i n g Department Records. TABLE 4 — C o n t i n u e d 1960 1961 1962 1963 T o t a l ** * ** ** * ** * 1 1 2 1 3 4 2 2 .1 3 3 24 15 2 2 4 102 592 102 592 1 1 265 5 279 8 4 6 14 2 7 9 116 28 2 2 1 1 2 4 15 10 1 2 4 1 4 6 14 4 2 1 2 1 1 11 5 1 1 5 1 3 1 3 4 4 1 3 36 15 7 1 3 3 2 3 54 19 2 3 2 2 38 8 2 9 1 15 15 223 51 1 2 2 1 5 2 92 42 3 3 8 5 2 3 8 1 89 53 19 3 20 5 1 6 206 77 5 5 3 5 4 3 3 25 26 1 1 1 — 3 2 2 1 3 8 3 5 116 6 1 1 87 2 10 1 12 7 2 243 54 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 179 102 9 20 4 10 432 81 6 4 5 1 2 4 2 55 17 2 3 4 1 14 4 2 1 1 109 2 2 1 1 1 63 2 • 2 5 5 1 2 120 1 16 11 111 43 12 2 366 360 13 5 7 18 120 -127 34 124 140 130 32 467 633 222 APPENDIX V I I TABLE 5 NET DWELLING UNIT INCREASE AND NEW RESIDENTIAL LOTS IN BLOCK 4 NORTH, RANGE 7 WEST 1955 - 1963 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 BLOCK * ** * *# * *# * ** * ** 1 1 1 1 2 10 9 49 1 9 5 3 4 1 2 9 1 10 1 1 1 4 11 19. 2 2 1 12 7 6 3 2 2 5 3 13 2 25 72 89 100+ 14 3 13 9 14 2 6 15 4 3 2 15 6 16 2 1 S 2 2 5 40 54 134 94 23 9 1 25 66 25 1 24 4 7 35 140 62 33 25 5 2 18 13 4 5 4 26 10 10 17 29 2 275 69 209 210 257 167 28 33 34 1 35 1 1 36 3 6 2 3 TOTAL 77 82 191 546 513 566 317 Note: * D w e l l i n g U n i t s ** R e s i d e n t i a l L o t s F i g u r e s of new s u b d i v i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s not a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e 1958. Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department and B u i l d i n g Department Records. 1 223 TABLE 5 — C o n t i n u e d 1960 1961 1962 1963 T o t a l ** * •** * #* * ## ** 1 1 2 3 6 2 5 6 6 83 25 3 1 — 1 8 _ 1 5 4 2 36 — 1 3 1 1 4 2 1 27 14 30 1 6 12 8 2 5 3 165 190 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 49 6 7 1 3 26 15 45 73 36 100 576 — 7 6 4 2 1 78 69 14 4 20 5 21 1 24 187 183 2 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 51 16 2 2 3 4 1 77 3 26 20 1 9 17 607 378 1 — 1 7 26 — 33 1 — 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 8 19 14 130 19 146 29 90 26 168 47 224 APPENDIX V I I TABLE 6 NET DWELLING UNIT INCREASE AND NEW RESIDENTIAL LOTS IN BLOCK 5 NORTH, RANGE 6 WEST 1955 - 1963 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 BLOCK * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** 7 15 17 18 19 20 21 . 1 5 22 10 3 3 1 1 1 23 1 4 3 5 2 24 1 1 2 1 25 6 3 4 1 1 3 26 23 10 8 24 6 3 27 4 2 3 4 4 28 1 1 29 1 30 31 32 1 33 2 1 75 16 2 34 5 2 2 1 1 2 1 35 2 1 2 2 2 36 16 15 14 31 55 29 5 TOTAL 68 37 34 134 64 65 30 Note: * D w e l l i n g U n i t s ** R e s i d e n t i a l L o t s F i g u r e s of new s u b d i v i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s not a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e 1958 Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department and B u i l d i n g Department Records. 225 TABLE 6—-Continued 1960 1961 1962 1963 T o t a l * * * * * * * * * * ** * ** 1 _ 1 1 1 1 I 2 1 8 1 1 1 20 2 4 3 2 4 12 3 7 20 30 I I 5 2 1 2 2 1 18 4 3 2 1 3 76 7 5 2 4 1 2 2 15 18 1 1 1 3 6 2 1 1 2 1 10 5 1 111 4 1 2 3 2 16 6 2 1 1 1 7 7 11 1 1 3 3 5 114 75 30 14 12 25 22 25 10 226 APPENDIX V I I TABLE 7 SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING NET DWELLING UNIT INCREASE AND NEW RESIDENTIAL LOTS IN RICHMOND BY BLOCK AND RANGE 1955 TO 1963 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 BLOCK * ** * ** * *•* * ** 3 - 5 1 - - - N e g l i g i b l e 3 - 6 2 - - 1 1 4 3 - 7 15 11 19 46 39 38 14 4 - 4 4 2 1 3 1 2 4 - 5 20 8 18 17 1 17 1 4 - 6 529 361 354 662 474 490 296 4 - 7 77 82 191 546 513 566 317 5 - 4 3 2 - - N e g l i g i b l e 5 - 5 2 18 10 8 2 7 5 - 6 68 37 34 134 64 65 30 5 --7 4 1 8 3 8 TOTAL 725 522 635 1,420 1,093 1,193 664 Note: * D w e l l i n g U n i t s ** R e s i d e n t i a l L o t s F i g u r e s o f new s u b d i v i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s not a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e 1958. 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Wershow, T. S. " A g r i c u l t u r a l Zoning i n F l o r i d a - i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s and problems", U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a  Law Review. X I I I ( W i n t e r , I 9 6 0 ) , 479 f f . Whyte, W i l l i a m H., J r . "A P l a n to Save the V a n i s h i n g U. S. C o u n t r y s i d e " , L i f e Magazine, V o l . 47, No. 7 (August 17, 19*5977 88-102. Woodruff, A. M. "How Changing Tax Laws A f f e c t Land Development", Urban Land. XX (June, 1961), 1, 3-5. 232 PUBLIC DOCUMENTS Armstrong, T. E. 5 u r f i c i a l Geology of Vancouver A r e a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada. Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956. B r i t i s h Columbia. Land R e g i s t r y A c t . R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 208. B r i t i s h Columbia. M u n i c i p a l A c t . R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 255. Canada. Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . B r i t i s h North America A c t , 1867. Canada. Canada Yearbook 1956. 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New Westminster: Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1961. . Economic Aspects of Urban S p r a w l . New Westminster: Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1956. M i t c h e l l , R. B. M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g f o r Land Use and  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . U. S. Department o f Commerce. Washington, D. C : U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1961. 233 Resources f o r Tomorrow. Conference. Background Papers: V o l . 1, 2 and Supplementary Volume. P r o c e e d i n g s of the Conference: V o l . 3. Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962. S o l b e r g , E. D. R u r a l Zoning i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 59, U. 5. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ) Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 952. The C o n s e r v a t i o n C o u n c i l o f O n t a r i o . A Report on Land Use. Toronto: The C o n s e r v a t i o n C o u n c i l o f O n t a r i o , 1960. Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission. S e l e c t e d Determinants o f R e s i d e n t i a l Development. S t . P a u l , M i nnesota: Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, 1962. U. S. Housing and Home Fin a n c e Agency. Suggested Land S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s . Washington, D. C : U. 5. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952. REPORTS American S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s . C l u s t e r S u b d i v i s i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n Report No. 135. Chicago: American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1960. Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada. S p r a w l . Ottawa: Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, 1957. Ja c k s o n , J . N., and Northey, J . L. The Impact o f Highway Development on Land Use. Vancouver, B. C : Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada. Report of the. Committee of I n g u i r y i n t o the Design o f the R e s i d e n t i a l  Environment. Ottawa: Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada, 1960. Urban Land I n s t i t u t e . New Approaches t o R e s i d e n t i a l Land  Development; a Study of Concepts and I n n o v a t i o n s . T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 40. Washington, D. C : Urban Land I n s t i t u t e and N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of House B u i l d e r s , 1961. . The e f f e c t s of l a r g e l o t s i z e on r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment. T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 32. Washington, D. C : Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1958. 234 UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Gaffney, Mason. "Containment P o l i c i e s f o r Urban S p r a w l " . Chapter to be p u b l i s h e d i n Approaches to the Study  of U r b a n i z a t i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s of the M i s s o u r i B a s i n Seminar on U r b a n i z a t i o n . Lawrence: U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas P r e s s , 1964. The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Richmond P l a n n i n g Depart-ment. General Land Use Report, 1961-1981. Richmond, B. C.: P l a n n i n g Department, 1962. . Appendices to General Land Use Report, 1961-1981. D e n s i t y Study, App. I I I . A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , App. V I I . . N0TE5 FOR THE INFORMATION AND GUIDANCE OF LAND OWNERS, 5UBDIVIPERS AND LAND DEVELOPERS RELEVANT TO  THE SUBDIVISION OF RESIDENTIAL LAND WITHIN THE  MUNICIPALITY OF RICHMOND. September, 1961 (Mimeographed). . " F i n a n c i a l Savings O b t a i n a b l e by C o n t r o l l e d Development, w i t h Richmond Examples". About 1960. The C o r p o r a t i o n o f the Township of Richmond. V a r i o u s f i l e s , r e c o r d s , and maps o f the P l a n n i n g Department, B u i l d i n g Department, and M u n i c i p a l C l e r k ' s Department. OTHER SOURCES C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . E n q u i r i e s from v a r i o u s o f f i c e s i n the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , Vancouver, B. C. March and A p r i l , 1964. Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia. P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James ,W. W i l s o n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , March, 1964. Through the c o u r t e s y of Mr. W i l s o n maps were s u p p l i e d f o r use i n the t h e s i s . McMath, R. A. Talk, g i v e n i n the course "Problems o f M u n i c i p a l Government", The Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, January 14, 1964. 

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