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Neighbourhood analysis in Vancouver : four exploratory studies for community organization purposes Allardice, Ethel Margaret 1964

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NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS IN VANCOUVER Four Exploratory Studies for Community Organization Purposes  by ETHEL MARGARET ALLARDICE CLARENCE CAMERON MacKENZIE FRANCIS ROWE HERBERT L . ZIEGLER  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment the Requirements  for the Degree of  MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work  Accepted as Conforming to the Standard Required for the degree of Master of Social Work  School of S o c i a l Work THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  1964  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree that the Library shall make i t  freely available for reference and study.  I  further  agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  i s understood  that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  School of Social Work The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree that the Library shall make i t  freely available for reference and study.  I  further  agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  i s understood  that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  School of Social Work The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  In p r e s e n t i n g the  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  agree t h a t  and  I further  permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Head of  my  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver Canada. Date  X  Columbia,  written  permission.  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t  freely available for reference and study.  I  further  agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  i s understood  that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  School of Social Work The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  May 29th, 1964  ii  ABSTRACT  Community organization as a basic s o c i a l work method has taken on increasing emphasis during the past decade. There i s a growing awareness of the contribution this method has to make i n a variety of settings i n s o c i a l welfare and a l l i e d f i e l d s . This year, the School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n i t i a t e d courses and f i e l d work p]a;ements i n t h i s specialization for students i n t h e i r second year of professional t r a i n i n g . Partly because of the absence of t h i s type of training i n the past, there has been a dearth of studies of Vancouver neighbourhoods from a community organization point of view. Opportunity wa6 provided through student placements to examine four disparate, dynamic and changing communities. The scarcity of previous studies denied access to any defined r a t i o n a l e . The examinations were based upon the tentative assumption that there should be a s i g n i f i c a n t involvement of both physical and s o c i a l planning at a l l stages of neighbourhood development. For the present studies, a variety of methods for obtaining information was employed. Primary among these were:- interviewing of key individuals i n the communities and of representatives of agencies, i n s t i t u t i o n s and associations knowledgable about the communities; an examination of pertinent agency records; attendance at a variety of meetings of l o c a l import; obtaining demographic s t a t i s t i c a l information. The findings of the West End study reveal i t to be an area undergoing rapid change. The f a i l u r e to establish decisive physical planning for the area creates uncertainty among l o c a l leaders otherwise well equipped to engage i n s o c i a l planning. A new community i s thus evolving i n haphazard response to this f a c t . Problems related to the behaviour of young people have given Fraserview, a veterans' housing area, a degree of notoriety which i s not altogether deserved. Although the present density of teenagers was predictable seven years ago, the s o c i a l planning process, at the agency as well as at the Community Chest and Councils l e v e l , was unable to marshall community resources to meet adequately the specif i c needs of this area. The mobilization of the professionals and their subsequent incorporation as the Fraserview Youth Services Society i s designed to provide the needed l o c a l planning body. Skeena Terrace Public Housing i s a major low-rental housing project located i n an o f f i c i a l l y undefined community. Tenants have come from many parts of the c i t y , but none from the area adjacent to the housing project. The findings indicate a degree of neighbourhood feeling developing on the project but l i t t l e integration with the community of Sunrise Park.  iii  Strathcona, a severely blighted area, i s presently undergoing planned physical redevelopment on a comprehensive scale. Results of this study which has been conducted i n the very early stages of the changing environmental conditions indicate a need for extensive preplanning on the part of the governments, private agencies, and c i t i z e n r y . Co-Ordination of a l l concerned i s required so that satisfactory s o c i a l arrangements for t h i s community can be effected and thus ease the problems of relocation and redevelopment. These studies are of an exploratory nature - a deliberate effort to look at the communities without i n i t i a l preconceptions. Although a few neighbourhood studies i n Vancouver have been undertaken by students from this School, the value of this thesis may well stem from i t s community organization focus which could complement and supplement those with a case work and group work emphasis. These p i l o t projects may give r i s e to further analyses of Vancouver neighbourhoods and thus contribute to more comprehensive understanding of changing neighbourhoods within the c i t y .  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The preparation, of this thesis has required assistance from many sources. In p a r t i c u l a r , the writers are indebted to two members of the faculty of the School of S o c i a l Work. Mr. William N i c h o l l s , as Faculty Advisor, suggested the i n i t i a l thesis subject, c l a r i f i e d study goals, and provided thoughtful suggestions as to the evaluation of data and the f i n a l writing of the thesis. Dr. Leonard C. Marsh also contributed from his wealth of experience to encourage and guide the thesis during i t s formulation and subsequent progress. Messrs. Rowe and Ziegler express their gratitude respectively to Mr. Elmer J . Helm and Mr. D.R. McComb who i n supervising their f i e l d placements contributed wisely and generously of their time and of their knowledge of the communi t i e s studied. The kind co-operation of a l l the i n d i v i d u a l s , agencies and government departments l i s t e d i n the Appendix i s acknowledged with thanks.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Introduction a) b) c) d) Chapter I . a) b) c) d) e) Chapter I I . a) b) c) d) e) f) Chapter I I I . a) b) c) d) Chapter IV. a) b) c) d)  1 Rationale Scope of Study Definition Methods West End  8  Introduction Assets and L i a b i l i t i e s of the West End Commentary on Existing Community Problems Extent of Co-Operation Among E x i s t i n g Welfare Agencies Exploration of P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Organizations and Resources to Deal with Community Problems Fraserview  54  Introduction Social Problems Community Disorganization Community Associations and Institutions Structures for Co-Ordinating and Planning Summary Skeena Terrace Public Housing  98  Characteristics of "Sunrise Park" The Housing Project and i t s People Health Welfare and Recreational Services Some Aspects of S o c i a l Planning Affecting "Sunrise Park" and Skeena Terrace Strathcona Area  154  The Study Area and Its People Redevelopment i n Strathcona McLean Park Public Housing Project Future Development - Its Implications  Appendix A.  Sources of Information - F . Rowe  216  Appendix B.  Sources of Information - H . L . Ziegler  217  Page Appendix C.  Map of Fraserview  Appendix D.  Questionnaire re Fraserview  220  Appendix E .  Sources of Information Used i n the Study C.C. McKenzie  221  Vancouver Housing Authority Progressive Rent Scale  222  Appendix F . Appendix G.  Statistical  Appendix H.  "Terrace Times" March 2 3 r d , 1964  227  Appendix I.  Sources of Information Used i n the Study E. Allardice  228  Explanation of Lease Form - Vancouver Housing Authority  230  Bibliography  231  Appendix J . Appendix K .  Tables for "Sunrise Park"  219  224  vi TABLES AND CHARTS Page Table A«  Table B.  Sample of Type and Incidence of Known Family Problems Among Gordon Neighbourhood House Members Age Distributions h9  Table C.  for  1951, I956,  35  i n Vancouver, Census Tract 1961  59  I96I Ethnic Groupings i n Vancouver, Census Tract 4 9  59  Table D«  Education Levels for Fraserview Adults i n 1 9 6 1 . . 6 0  Table E .  Number of Children Per Family i n 1 9 6 1 , Fraserview and Vancouver 6 l Length of Occupancy of Fraserview Dwellings as of  Table F .  June 1 9 6 1  62  Table G.  Occupational Divisions of Fraserview Males  62  Table H.  Income Levels for Fraserview Residents, 1 9 6 1  63  Table I .  Rates of Juvenile Delinquency i n Vancouver,  Table J .  Response by Fraserview Residents to Questions Regarding Reputation of the Community Former Residence of Tenants i n Skeena Terrace Showing Whether Normal Families, Broken Families or Senior C i t i z e n s , 1 9 & 3  Table K.  I96I...67 75 H5  Table L .  Age of Tenants i n the High-rise Building Showing the Number, Sex, and Marital Status, 1 9 6 3 117  Table M.  Families i n Skeena Terrace Public Housing by Numbers of Children and Whether Normal or Broken Families with Percentages - 1 9 6 3 118  Table N.  Distribution of Child Population Showing Whether From Normal or Broken Families, Skeena Terrace 1963  119  Table 0 . Amount of Income Received Monthly by Tenants of Skeena Terrace - 1 9 6 3  121  Table P.  Ethnic Distribution - Strathcona and Vancouver . . 1 5 6  Table Q.  Educational Level - Strathcona and Vancouver . . . . 1 5 7  Table R.  Source of Income i n Percentage of McLean Park  Population 193  vii  Page Table S. Amount of Income i n Percentage of Population McLean Park  193  Table T. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n : In Percentage of Population McLean Park, Strathcona, Vancouver  195  Table U. Percentage of Those on S o c i a l Assistance Public Housing Projects i n Vancouver  198  at  Figure 1.  Map of West End Neighbourhood F a c i l i t i e s and Institutions  Figure 2 .  Map of Current Zoning of West End Study Area . .  20  Figure 3»  Cenus Tracts, Vancouver  5^  Figure 4 .  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n s , 1 0 - Ik years, Vancouver . . .  58  Figure 5»  Incidence Delinquency - Vancouver  65  Figure 6 .  Sketch Map of Skeena Terrace Showing Types of Living Units  99  Figure 7«  Map of "Sunrise Park" Showing Location of Skeena Terrace, Parks, Schools, Church, Senior Citizens Housing and Government Offices 100  Figure 8 .  Bar Graph Showing Population Increase i n "Sunrise Park" 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 6 3 101  Figure 9.  Demographic Chart Showing National Origins i n "Sunrise Park" 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1  Figure 1 0 .  Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Population by Age and Sex, Vancouver City and "Sunrise Park" 1961  Following Page 15  103  103  Figure 1 1 .  Religious Denominations of Persons i n "Sunrise Park" by Percentages for the period 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 . . 10k  Figure 1 2 .  Map Showing Former Besidence of Tenants of Skeena Terrace  Figure 13«  Map of Vancouver Showing Redevelopment Areas (A.B.C.D.) and Added Divisions E . F . G . H  Il4 Ilk  Figure l a  Map I l l u s t r a t i n g Survey Area  153  Figure 2 a  Map I l l u s t r a t i n g D i s t r i b u t i o n of Ethnic and Racial Numbers  15^-  viii  Following Page Figure 3a  Map I l l u s t r a t i n g Location of Institutions and 154  Figure 4a Figure 5a  City of Vancouver Redevelopment Project 2 180 .  191  INTRODUCTION Rationale: The a n a l y s i s of the f o u r Vancouver areas was undertaken when a need was evidenced for  f o r a g r e a t e r number o f such s t u d i e s , p r i m a r i l y  t e a c h i n g and student use. A r t h u r Dunham s t a t e s t h a t , "no s o c i a l  worker i s prepared  to p r a c t i c e s o c i a l work i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n a community  u n t i l he knows c e r t a i n b a s i c f a c t s about that community".^" The  first  task of the community o r g a n i z a t i o n person i n any  neighbourhood i s to gain a thorough knowledge o f the neighbourhood b e f o r e assessment and p l a n n i n g i s i n t r o d u c e d .  The i n f o r m a t i o n and  analyses may be of some value to e f f o r t s aimed at b e t t e r of  the changing  areas i n Vancouver.  In the main, t h i s  understanding  undertaking  should be seen as a p i l o t p r o j e c t as few a n a l y s i s o f t h i s type appear to  be a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia or i n other p a r t s of  Canada. D i f f i c u l t y was experienced by the w r i t e r s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a f i r m r a t i o n a l e a t the outset o f the p r o j e c t . around the apparent  l a c k o f concepts  This d i f f i c u l t y  centred  that might have equal and v a l i d  a p p l i c a t i o n to d i f f e r i n g areas o f the c i t y s e l e c t e d f o r study. t e n t a t i v e assumption was that there should be s i g n i f i c a n t of  A  involvement  both p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a t a l l stages of neighbourhood  development.  The f i r s t o b s t a c l e to the t e s t i n g o f t h i s  assumption  was the l a c k of consensus i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the d e f i n i t i o n  ". A r t h u r Dunham, Community Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n : P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e , Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1958, p.16  -  2  -  o f t h e s e two t e r m s . " P r o b a b l y t h e one e l e m e n t w h i c h t h e many d e f i n i t i o n s o f p l a n n i n g a g r e e upon i s t h a t o f t h e r a t i o n a l u s e o f v a r i o u s means f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f d e s i r a b l e g o a l s . ^ n  And  f u r t h e r , Perlman  concludes that s o c i a l  planning:  2 "has a s many d e f i n i t i o n s a s i t h a s a d v o c a t e s a n d o p p o n e n t s " . Many s o u r c e s were e x a m i n e d  where t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d  b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g was s e l e c t e d a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t : " C o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g " ^ a n d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n on a c o n c u r r e n t b a s i s . E f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e l i a i s o n among a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each type o f long-range p l a n n i n g . The two t y p e s o f p l a n n i n g h a v e common g o a l s a n d u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o v i d e s an u n p r e c e d e n t e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s " . E a c h community was a n a l y z e d w i t h t h i s b r o a d r a t i o n a l e i n m i n d to c o n s i d e r the degree o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e assumption.  Rather  than p r e c o n c e i v e d , t h e r a t i o n a l e has tended t o e v o l v e d u r i n g t h e p r o g r e s s o f the s t u d y , through p e r i o d i c meetings and d i s c u s s i o n s o f the  writers.  Scope o f t h e S t u d y : The main  s e l e c t i o n o f the neighbourhoods  f o r s t u d y w a s b a s e d on two  factors: 1.  T h a t a l l were u n d e r g o i n g c h a n g e , a n d  2.  The w r i t e r s were e n g a g e d i n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n f i e l d placement a c t i v i t i e s i n each o f t h e a r e a s .  H e r b e r t H e w i t t S t r o u p , Community W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n , New Y o r k H a r p e r s , 1952, p.4l R o b e r t P e r l m a n , S o c i a l W e l f a r e P l a n n i n g and P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g , D o c t o r o f P h i l o s o p h y D i s s e r t a t i o n , B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y , 196l. "Working t o g e t h e r f o r Urban Renewal", N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g a n d R e d e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c i a l s , S e p t e m b e r , 1958, - "Compreh e n s i v e development i s t h e term a p p l i e d t o t h e l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g t h a t i s done by c i t y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s o r d e p a r t m e n t s " , p.4. T h i d . , p.5*  -  3  The four n e i g h b o u r h o o d s West End  Community;  changing w i t h the blocks. in has  -  are:  The  character  o f t h i s a r e a has  been  e r e c t i o n of large h i g h - r i s e , high-density  apartment  P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y a l a r g e r percentage of o l d e r people are  the a r e a . not  A proposal  to b u i l d a housing p r o j e c t f o r s e n i o r  been a c c e p t e d ; and  a proposal  f o r harbour development  living  citizens presently  l i e s i n abeyance. Fraserview:  The  presence of a l a r g e veterans housing  containing a disproportionate i m p a c t on  the a r e a ,  young p e o p l e .  The  and  number o f t e e n a g e r s has  had  i n p a r t i c u l a r on a l l o r g a n i z e d  Fraserview  Youth Services  project  considerable  services  S o c i e t y has  been  for  given  a p a r t i c u l a r impetus a r i s i n g from concerns of p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s . Skeena T e r r a c e ; u n i t s has  T h i s new,  low-rental housing p r o j e c t of  r e s u l t e d from urban renewal p l a n s  Development P l a n  f o r the  p r o b l e m s , i n d i v i d u a l , g r o u p and t h e p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n and surrounding  Area:  city.  as p e o p l e are  i s given  r e s i d e n t s have moved  T h e r e a r e a number  of  l a c k of n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  This  severely b l i g h t e d area i s  displaced  the  presently  Problems of r e l o c a t i o n are  f r o m t h e i r homes.  Special attention  t o t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , McLean P a r k , w h i c h has  completed.  Further  h o u s i n g and  clearance  i s imminent.  been  There  are  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y many p e o p l e o f C h i n e s e e x t r a c t i o n as \ ^ e l l as a p e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e o l d e r men The  i n this  s e c o n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  to  Park).  undergoing comprehensive redevelopment. evident  The  c o m m u n i t y , r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e due  a r e a (known as S u n r i s e  Strathcona  u n d e r the Twenty Y e a r  C i t y of Vancouver.  i n t o i t from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the  23^  area.  that these areas o f f e r e d  an  high  -  k  -  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f i e l d work experience f o r Master of S o c i a l Work students whose major methods course was In  i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n .  both the West End and F r a s e r v i e w Communities, agencies  physical f a c i l i t i e s  offered  under s u p e r v i s i o n of s e n i o r s t a f f with  experience  i n t h i s f i e l d and an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the students to p r a c t i c e Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n neighbourhood s e t t i n g s . The  student placements at the two p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s ,  Skeena Terrace and McLean Park, were made p o s s i b l e through o p e r a t i o n of the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . p r o v i d e d by the p r o j e c t managers. to  There was  the co-  O f f i c e space  was  considerable opportunity  observe many problems, such as, those of the o l d e r persons, of the  one-parent  f a m i l y , of the a l c o h o l i c , of tenant  adjustment  to new  interrelationships,  accommodation and the r e g u l a t i o n s , of the  on very low-incomes, e t c .  families  S u p e r v i s i o n i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n  was  p r o v i d e d by a f a c u l t y member of the School of S o c i a l Work. Definitions; I t was  the d e c i s i o n of the w r i t e r s t h a t each should p r o v i d e  a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n s and terminology i n r e l a t i o n to the area s t u d i e d . T h i s d e c i s i o n grew out of r e c o g n i t i o n that uniform agreement on many such d e f i n i t i o n s haet not been  reached.  Methods; The methods used have been d i v e r s e and not a l l have been employed e q u a l l y by each w r i t e r . P a u l i n e Young i n her book Chapters XVII and XVIII.  The g e n e r a l approach i s suggested  ' S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys  and  by  Research , 1  1  In these chapters she examines a number of  P a u l i n e Young, S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Ppssarch, An Introduction. t,c> the Background, Content, Methods, P r i n c i p l e s and A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l S t u d i e s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1956.  methods for Studying of Community L i f e i n Urban and Rural Natural Areas.  The writers have used a variety of methods because "it  should be remembered that these methods are not mutually exclusive; they are closely interdependent and related to each  other"Some  are a result of the dictates of a c t i v i t y related to f i e l d work. These have been supplemented by other methods to gain information s p e c i f i c a l l y for these analyses. In the early stages of planning, to determine the focus of the studies and methods to be used, several meetings of the writers were held.  In addition, meetings were arranged with individuals who  could advise and direct the group i n their thinking.  Each writer  examined previous Master of Social Work theses written by University of B r i t i s h Columbia students which were considered to be pertinent. Ideas, findings, and suggestions from these were shared. F i e l d work placement required the gathering of factual material i n order to better understand the community i n which each student worked.  This was done i n part by interviewing numerous i n d i v i d u a l s : -  l o c a l leaders, professional workers, and residents. interviews were arranged with representatives  In addition,  of agencies,  associations  and i n s t i t u t i o n s whose knowledge, interest or a c t i v i t i e s would provide further information. Specific reference i s made here to the method of non-controlled observation which was used by each writer.  Thid.,  p. 474  -  6 -  "In non-controlled observations we resort to careful scrutiny of r e a l l i f e situations making no.attempt to use instruments of precision or to check for accuracy of the phenomena observed". 1  The limitations of such a method are recognized as "there i s  the  danger that non-controlled observation i s l i k e l y to give us the feeling that we know more than we actually do about what we have 2 seen".  Eecognized c l e a r l y was the fact that "these observations  should, of course, be supplemented by other methods and devices 3 which best suit the purposes of the study". Non-participant observation method was employed to observe "community l i f e or s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . . . n o t i n g the physical aspects, the s o c i a l atmosphere, the i n d u s t r i a l organizations, the symbiosis ( l i v i n g together) of the population, and the effects of l i v i n g i n such a s o c i a l world". observer.  Each writer also acted as a participant  This occurs when he "lives or otherwise shares i n the 5  l i f e of the group which he i s studying".  These methods were  employed as f i e l d work experience provided the opportunity of attending many meetings.  It was also possible to make observations  l a r l y of the physical characteristics as a c t i v i t i e s  particu-  demanded moving  around the area by foot or by car. Because these studies were so closely related to f i e l d work placements, considerable use was made of the records kept by each student.  Not only factual material was recorded, but also observations  made by i n d i v i d u a l s , and the student's own impressions and interpretations were noted.  In reviewing these, i t was frequently possible to  obtain some consensus about each community. l a r l y as Thid., \ Laid., Ibi c\. , k Ibid.,  1  5  This was valuable particu-  there was often a lack of pertinent s t a t i s t i c a l information. p.157 p.157 p.157 p.158  Valuable briefs,  sources  7  -  o f i n f o r m a t i o n were m i n u t e s , r e p o r t s ,  and o t h e r r e c o r d s  of organizations, agencies  were e x a m i n e d a n d r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n  r e l a t i o n to n a t i o n a l i t y ,  was o b t a i n e d  characteristics  s e x , age, income, economic l e v e l , e t c .  from census t r a c t s and f i e l d work f i l e s .  t a b l e s a n d maps were p r e p a r e d A comprehensive survey  to i l l u s t r a t e  significant  Charts, factors.  o f p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e was u n d e r t a k e n  i n 1963.''' Use was made o f t h i s m a t e r i a l , s u p p l e m e n t e d by related  These  extracted.  S t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the p o p u l a t i o n in  etc.  s p e c i f i c a l l y to the i n d i v i d u a l  reading  studies.  James S. Brown, D a v i d Kogawa a n d Raymond E. P e t e r s , P u b l i c H o u s i n g and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19^3•  CHAPTER I AN INQUIRY INTO THE CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS OF THE WEST END COMMUNITY  Introduction As indicated i n the introduction to this thesis, this study of the West End i s of an exploratory nature - an e f f o r t to look at the community without any preconceptions.  The value of what  emerges l i e s perhaps i n the information gathered and the gained from the use of a variety of study methods.  insights  It may be  regarded as a p r o f i l e of the area compiled from the vantage point of a student placement, and a base upon which future studies might be built. I n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n the attempt to employ existing community organization terminology and definitions to the study area.  Terms such as d i s t r i c t , neighbourhood, community and sub-  community are either described for one specific  context or used nearly  synonymously. The West End can be defined as a d i s t r i c t inasmuch as i t served by a high school and elementary schools."''  is  But, as i s not  usually the case, this d i s t r i c t does not lend i t s e l f  to subdivision, 2  into what are usually termed disparate neighbourhoods.  Due to the  compact and 'locked i n ' nature of the area, i t i s a l l one neighbourhood - referred to as such, and served by one neighbourhood house. Creating further ambiguity i s the fact that the West End can 1  2  Sidney D i l l i c k i n "The Functions of Neighbourhood Organization", Community Organization i n Action, eds. E . B . Harper and A. Dunham, New York, Assoc. Press, 1959, P- 352. J.nc.ci  t.  -  9 -  simultaneously be defined as both a community and a sub-community. It i s a community i n that within a given i d e n t i f i a b l e area, inhabitants associate and i n t e r a c t , become conscious of l o c a l unity and establish organizations to act i n a corporate capacity i n l i n e with recognized interests and needs. i s a sub-community. exist;  1  But the West End i n a truer sense  The study reveals two i d e n t i f i a b l e groupings to  some 70 percent form a transient, anonymous majority who 2  shun involvement.  The balance amount to a sub-community  whose long  residence and personal stake i n the area prompt them to associate and organize for community betterment. The wide variations i n definitions arise from the fact that they embrace two main characteristics - the physical or town planners context, and the s o c i o l o g i c a l context, which may vary.  the emphasis upon either of  For puposes of c l a r i t y i n this study reference must  be made to the context within which each term i s employed. H i s t o r i c a l Development of Area A prerequisite to the h i s t o r i c a l development of an area i s a geographic expression of that area's l o c a t i o n .  While ambiguity may  exist i n the minds of most Vancouverites, except long term residents, as to the boundaries of most communities, the West End proves a t y p i c a l due to i t s well defined l o c a l e .  It i s contained on the west by Stanley  Park, north and south by the waters of Burrard Inlet and English Bay Edmund De S. Brunner, "The Nature of the Community: Definitions", op. c i t . p.27*  Selected  P a t r i c i a Anne Tanabe, Rehabilitation Potential i n a Changing Urban Residential Area. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Master of Social Work Thesis, 1963, p.6.  -  10  -  and i t s eastern boundary i s the major t r a f f i c artery Burrard Street. The West End has i t s origins i n the e a r l i e s t days of the c i t y when i t s favourable l o c a t i o n , adjacent to the early business and trading centres, as well as i t s topography made i t the natural choice for an exclusive r e s i d e n t i a l area.  Circa the early decades of this  century, the expanding commerce of the growing c i t y began to confine the area and encroach upon i t from i t s northern and eastern boundaries. A competing area of an exclusive r e s i d e n t i a l nature started to usurp the West End's preferential p o s i t i o n , namely Shaughnessy.  A gradual  decline enisuue,d with residences giving way to rooming and apartmat houses.  The changed nature of the housing naturally gave r i s e to an  increased density of population. Following World War I I , the decade of high immigration, coupled with a native influx from other provinces and outlying areas of B . C . i t s e l f , brought about a gradual increase i n the population of one square mile area. habitants.  It presently exceeds twenty-five  this  thousand i n -  The newcomers were attracted to the natural attributes of  the area and the proximity to their place of employment, together with low rental i f sub-standard accommodation.  This recent decade has seen  a continuance of this trend upon which private developers have c a p i t a l ized.  Zoning by-laws, unlikely to undergo change,  future as a r e s i d e n t i a l setting.  1  assure the area's  Each year has seen the demolition of  older housing and replacement by high rise apartments.  The process  is  far from complete, however, and throughout the area i s evidenced this incongruity, side by side of the old and the new. Interview Mr. L . Monroe, City of Vancouver Planning Department.  11  -  The foregoing aspects of the h i s t o r i c a l development of the area would be incomplete i f reference were not made to the demographic changes which accompanied the change i n housing.  It should be noted  that the h i s t o r i c a l development shows a trend from long term resident home owners, to a highly mobile transient tenant populace; and from family groups with members of a l l ages to growing concentrations of single people, couples without children and senior c i t i z e n s .  In  summary, the area has been, and i s now i n a state of r e l a t i v e l y rapid t r a n s i t i o n , one that i s without known p a r a l l e l i n this province though not unknown i n older North American c i t i e s .  As such, i n terms of both  physical and social planning, i t creates unique challenges, problems and p o s s i b i l i t i e s and proves worthy of study and comparison with the three other areas of Vancouver with which this thesis i s concerned.  WEST END ASSETS Physical Assets The West End occupies an unusually attractive setting. The peninsula on which i t i s situated affords a majority of  residents  panoramic views of Stanley Park, the North Shore mountains, the waters of Burrard Inlet and English Bay.  The density of the popu-  l a t i o n , three times that of areas of similar size i n Vancouver, would seemingly t e s t i f y to the inhabitants' appreciation of the setting. Views alone are rarely sufficient residence within an area.  inducement to  establish  The West End i s adjacent to renowned  Stanley Park which provides a remarkable number and variety of natural and man made attractions.  Admittedly the Park serves the  whole metropolitan area and therefore cannot be interpreted solely as a l o c a l asset but there i s multiple evidence to presume that West Enders make much use of i t together with adjoining beaches.  It  cannot be ignored as a major factor i n attracting growing numbers of people to this area, whether they make use of these assets or not. West End Housing Assets These numerous assets must, however, be regarded as secondary to the nature of available housing which exerts the greater influence i n dictating where one w i l l reside.  In the West End, 87,percent of  a l l housing i s i n apartments or f l a t s and 92.5 percent of a l l dwellings are tenant occupied.  1  This naturally i s i n s t r i k i n g contrast to the  rest of the c i t y , due to the small size of the area, one square mile, Unless otherwise indicated, the source of s t a t i s t i c s used throughout this study i s : D.B.S. 196I Census, Census Tract B u l l e t i n , c . t . 2 2 . (Tracts 1,2,3 & 4)  THE WEST END: Viewed from G o a l Harbour l o o k i n g N o r t h . P h o t o g r a p h : C o u r t e s y B i l l D e n n e t t , Vancouver Sun, September 1963.  -  J  13 -  and the high land costs and taxes.  The cost of either owning or  occupying a single detached dwelling proves prohibitive to a l l but the most affluent.  The median value of owner occupied dwellings  is  $21,394 as compared to $13,783 for a l l of Vancouver and taxes rose between 20 to 30 percent i n the past year alone. Such a one-sided housing picture as the West End presents, obviously cannot be construed as either a complete l i a b i l i t y or an asset.  But assets i t has.  post war construction.  Almost one half of a l l residences are of  The more recent of these are ultra-modern  high rises incorporating every convenience and luxury to attract tenants.  Some are almost wholly s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  with patios, swimming  pools, privately furnished recreation rooms, laundries, dry cleaners, etc. The appeal of such accommodation i s primarily to adults for there i s no catering to younger children even i f these are not deliberately excluded.  What larger families there are i n the West End, and they are  few, have resort, with rare exceptions, has been converted to apartments.  only to the oldest housing which  But even old housing has advantages,  inasmuch as being within walking distance of downtown job locations, commuting expenses are n i l .  While admittedly sub-standard housing, the  poorest are at a rent residents can afford and the outer environment compensates i n some degree for the home i t s e l f .  Suffice to say that  residents remain long enough to earn sufficient consider more spacious accommodation elsewhere.  to permit them to 1  The older apartments  S t a t i s t i c a l proof i s lacking for this statement, but discussions with real estate interests on the l o c a l Council and with other knowledgeable l o c a l sources lend to i t s v e r i s i m i l i t u d e .  -  Ik  -  and rooming houses may be seen as an asset for retired pensioners, married, single, or widowed, i n that many elect poorer housing i n order to be within walking distance of busy downtown l i f e as well as the other amenities which are close to hand.  1  They likewise  benefit  i n that l i v i n g for the most part away from their own children, they have the companionship of their peers.  An outstandingly high percent-  age of West Enders - 23«5 percent -are over the age of  sixty-five.  Proximity to the downtown area i s a pronounced asset.  Here  are concentrated the multitude of large stores, the Art G a l l e r y , Library, theatres,  cinemas, clubs and restaurants.  the  While much of the  downtown area i s blighted, plans are afoot for i t s early rejuvenation. The West End which adjoins i t cannot but benefit as a r e s u l t .  The area  i s likewise seen as an asset to the concentration of the younger single men and women who work i n downtown offices and after hours make use of nearby commercial entertainment. Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s To conclude a description of what are primarily physical assets of the area, one cannot ignore such necessary f a c i l i t i e s as schools, churches, hospitals, or clubs and meeting places within the a r e a . ( F i g . 1 ) Schools The West End i s served by a junior/senior high school, plus two public and one private elementary schools.  U n t i l September 1963 when  the new high school was opened, a l l of the schools were more than half a century o l d , with their architecture and f a c i l i t i e s r e f l e c t i n g their Interview with pensions worker for West End c l i e n t s at City Social Services Department, December 5» 1963*  FIG;  3, t-o«^» -R^B>eK-TS  7.  1.  picsr  9 Fwtsr  ?eESBiTee\Ar4 C H O ^ C H  idO-eHcVAH^  —  — B u s -e&o-re CENSUS -reAC-r^ BouHp/vciet  6 f cHeist*scieKTfef WITNESS  1^*3j4i  15 , C A i * A p ( t w Le&(oH &fcA*ictt  '^GAuSSy****"  n.  v.  VM.CA-  I S , eevs-TAV-'fooU  i  - 15  -  i n a d e q u a c i e s as c o n c e i v e d by c o n t e m p o r a r y  standards.  The  new  s c h o o l and m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f o t h e r s h a s gone f a r t o r e c t i f y cisms.  The  these  s c h o o l s g e n e r a l l y must a p p e a r a l m o s t w h o l l y on t h e  s i d e o f t h e West E n d  o n l y 265  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e S i r W i l l i a m Dawson p u p i l s , a l m o s t a 100  percent decrease  designed to handle  present enrolment.  I t was  s c h o o l b u t t h i s was  g r a n t e d a new  from  t e a c h i n g f o r a c l a s s o f 10  planned  - 15  two y e a r s ago l e a s e on l i f e  new  a h a r d o f h e a r i n g c l a s s o f 15  to c l o s e the  Canadians,  from  former  by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  a slow l e a r n e r c l a s s  t h e J e r i c h o S c h o o l and  a c r o s s f r o m t h e s c h o o l on B u r r a r d S t r e e t . seen as d e s i r a b l e p l a c e m e n t s  1  A l l West End  f o r e d u c a t o r s and  With  separate of  maintains  teacher f o r c h i l d r e n h o s p i t a l i z e d at S t . Paul's Hospital  directly  schools are  the p r i n c i p a l s of a l l of  them s p e a k i n l a u d a t o r y t e r m s o f t h e h i g h c a l i b r e o f t h e i r s t a f f . themselves  that  approximately twice i t s  t h e b e s t s t a f f / p u p i l r a t i o . \ o f any V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l , i t o f f e r s  another  Elementary  A l l o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n c o u l d be accommodated i n L o r d  R o b e r t s S c h o o l w h i c h a l s o was  15,  credit  have g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d t h e d e c l i n i n g number  o f c h i l d r e n i n the a r e a .  o f a d e c a d e ago.  criti-  ledger.  School enrolments  S c h o o l has now  high  a r e , from a l l l o c a l r e p o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c a p a b l e  They  men.  Churches A p a r t f r o m t h e West End the average  h a v i n g 7 p e r c e n t more A n g l i c a n s t h a n  Vancouver community, r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s a r e  almost i d e n t i c a l .  S i x churches  l i e w i t h i n t h e W e s t End.  otherwise  The  denomin-  a t i o n s a r e Roman C a t h o l i c , U n i t e d , A n g l i c a n , P r e s b y t e r i a n , F i r s t o f C h r i s t S c i e n t i s t and Jehovah; s W i t n e s s e s . 1  While  there are  I n t e r v i e w Mr. A.F. C l a r k e , P r i n c i p a l , S i r W i l l i a m Dawson School. December 5th, 1963  has  Church  innumerable  Elementary  -  ways o f m e a s u r i n g  appeared  -  c o m m u n i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c h u r c h e s , most b e y o n d  s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y , one degree to which  16  f a c t o r d i d emerge a s s t r i k i n g .  the c h u r c h  t o be r e l a t e d  c o u l d be  it  appears  a local  geographic  I f , h o w e v e r , i t i s on  i n area,  the a r e a i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  the p e r i m e t e r , a d j o i n i n g the  town a r e a , i t i s c l a s s i f i e d a s b e i n g a c i t y is  church.  While  this  m i n i s t e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a t t e s t to t h i s as a f a c t h a v i n g major the growth or g r a d u a l demise o f a To i l l u s t r a t e y e a r s ago  the  implications  church.  t h i s p o i n t , C e n t r a l P r e s b y t e r i a n Church which  had a f l o u r i s h i n g West End  p a r o c h i a l c o n g r e g a t i o n , now  o n l y 20 p e r c e n t o f i t s 200 members f r o m congregations are o l d e r ,  fewer  down-  statement  an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i g n o r i n g many o t h e r r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s ,  for  the  location.  i s o n l y ten b l o c k s square  t h a t i f the church i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n  church.  T h i s was:  c o n s i d e r e d a s a community a s s e t  t o the c h u r c h ' s  R e c a l l i n g t h a t t h e West E n d  the  there.  o f them own  One  c a r s and,  twenty  draws  factor i s that having to walk to  c h u r c h , more a r e l i k e l y  t o do so i f a c h u r c h i s w i t h i n t h e a r e a r a t h e r  t h a n on i t s p e r i m e t e r .  Only  c h i l d r e n are yet fewer. and  i t s auxiliary  a s c o r e o f members a r e y o u n g a d u l t s ,  and  D e s p i t e a r e c e n t $40,000 r e n o v a t i o n o f the  facilities,  t h e s e go a l m o s t  t o t a l l y unused.  The  church church  only  is  a c t i v e l y i n use'at  t h e Sunday m o r n i n g s e r v i c e ,  a c u r a t e , i s d i s c o u r a g e d as h i s a t t e m p t s into to  t h e c h u r c h meet w i t h f a i l u r e ,  i n v o l v e themselves.  ing  from  his  pessimism  The  life  1  s t e m m i n g f r o m a r e l u c t a n c e o f newcomers  in  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  Edward Bragg,  given to  End,  selling  doubt.  the o t h e r hand, the A n g l i c a n Church,  I n t e r v i e w Reg.  spring-  a s t h e s e become f e w e r i n t h e W e s t  A few y e a r s a g o ,  the c h u r c h and i t s f u t u r e i s s t i l l On  t o b r i n g known l o c a l P r e s b y t e r i a n s  o f a c h u r c h i s o f t e n c o n s t r u e d as  f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n and mounts.  the m i n i s t e r w i t h o u t  which  i s located quite  C e n t r a l Presbyterian Church,Nov.25,1963'  -  near the centre  17  -  o f t h e West E n d , i s b e t t e r s t a f f e d a n d b o t h more  a c t i v e and o p t i m i s t i c .  1  Though a l s o e n c o u n t e r i n g t h e d e s i r e f o r  a n o n y m i t y a n d o b j e c t i o n t o i n v o l v e m e n t w h i c h many a p a r t m e n t p r o j e c t , the congregation i s expanding. from w i t h i n the a r e a ,  the church provides.  resources  for  indigenous  Miscellaneous  f r o m a community p o i n t  Anglican,  o f view, and the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l  Facilities and s e r v i c e s , a r e the f o l l o w i n g .  H o s p i t a l , w i t h 6 0 0 b e d s , i s l o c a t e d on t h e e a s t e r n  t h e West E n d . greater  religi-  leadership.  Among f u r t h e r f a c i l i t i e s  it  The  a n d Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h e s a p p e a r t o be t h e s t r o n g e s t  ous  Paul's  I t i s drawn p r e d o m i n a n t l y  a n d may be a t t r a c t e d , t o o , by t h e number o f  a d u l t and youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s United  dwellers  St.  boundary o f  A l t h o u g h i t s e r v e s the c i t y o f Vancouver i t i s o f  i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e West E n d .  a l s o has a S o c i a l S e r v i c e s  I n a d d i t i o n to the medical  D e p a r t m e n t w i t h two p r o f e s s i o n a l  staff social  workers. B o t h F i r e a n d P o l i c e s e r v i c e s a r e on a p a r w i t h t h e Test o f t h e c i t y a n d a r e deemed q u i t e a d e q u a t e . c o a c h a n d i s so l o c a t e d a s t o l o o p a three  b l o c k w a l k from any p a r t  P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s by  trolley  t h r o u g h t h e West E n d n e v e r more t h a n  of the area.  Small l o c a l  stores  a b o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a b u t f e w , when j u d g e d by t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e otf the v o i c e  o f t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n , seem t o be t h r i v i n g .  proximity  o f downtown s t o r e s u n d o u b t e d l y i s a f a c t o r i n s w a y i n g West  End  r e s i d e n t s t o make m a j o r p u r c h a s e s o u t s i d e The m a j o r m e e t i n g p l a c e  and  of their  f o r the greatest  The  community.  numbers o f b o t h t h e o l d  young i s Gordon N e i g h b o u r h o o d House, as i t o f f e r s l a r g e and v a r i e d  Interview  Rev. J.W.  E l l i s , S t . Paul's  Anglican  C h u r c h , Nov.  28,1963  -  18  programmes f o r t h e s e g r o u p s . l e s s t h a n one favoured areas  hundred.  s p o t s , and  Two  Young a d u l t members, h o w e v e r , number l o c a l Royal  Canadian Legion  Stanley Park w i t h surrounding  t h i s being the  many p e n s i o n e r s  b e a c h e s and  O n l y one  s m a l l cinema operates  s i n g l e commercial entertainment  also  other  park  As  room i n t h e a r e a , c e r t a i n c o f f e e s h o p s and c a f e t e r i a s  s e r v e as i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g p l a c e s . academic evening  The  new  can a f f o r d ,  high school offers  also  non-  c l a s s e s w h i c h t o o a c t as m e e t i n g p l a c e s f o r a d u l t s .  However, as t h i s i s the  first  l i m i t e d programmes a s  Personal  w i t h i n the  available.  w h e r e t h e y p u r c h a s e t h e o n l y d a i l y wholesome m e a l t h e y  for  H a l l s are  a r e l i k e w i s e i m p r o m p t u m e e t i n g p l a c e s f o r l a r g e numbers when  clement weather p e r m i t s . area,  -  experimental  y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n , t h i s makes  yet.  Assets  L e s s t a n g i b l e t h a n a c o m m u n i t y ' s p h y s i c a l a s s e t s and more d i f f i c u l t  of e v a l u a t i o n , are i t s p e r s o n a l ones.  s t u d i e s o f the E a s t K i t s i l a n o liabilities  1  a n d Mount P l e a s a n t  2  therefore  Recalling prior  areas  of Vancouver,  m e n t i o n e d h e r e were t h e l a c k o f r e s i d e n t s ' c o n s e n s u s a s  to  the boundaries  o f community, the l a c k o f community s p i r i t , o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  l e a d e r s h i p and  personal involvement  w i t h i n the  the p o t e n t i a l f o r community p r o g r e s s then  t h e West End Wot  betterment  i s a s s u r e d l y i n an a d v a n t a g e o u s  I f one  to hinge  spirit  upon  adjudges these,  position.  o v e r l o o k i n g t h e anonymous mass o f t r a n s i e n t " c l i f f  a c o m m u n i t y s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y and  1  and  community.  nevertheless exists.  dwellers", Its  P a t r i c i a Anne T a n a b e , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P o t e n t i a l i n a C h a n g i n g U r b a n R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 3 , p.78 H e l g a M. H i c k s , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n N e i g h b o u r h o o d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 & 3 i p.76 f.f.  -  19 -  development i s promoted by the unambiguous location of the area.  The  West End boasts a certain s p i r i t and tolerance, a ' s l i g h t l y racy' atmosphere that approaches, but f a l l s short of,  one interviewee's  description of the area as a " l i t t l e Greenwich V i l l a g e " . mild cosmopolitan aura to it}  There i s a  observable i n the variety of European  stores, delicatessens and restaurants within the area.  This spreads  across a l l age groups; one elementary school boasting a United Nations Club with 36 n a t i o n a l i t i e s among i t s members.  1  The area attracts new  immigrants together with foreign ships' crews from the harbour close by, ensuring that the sound of strange tongues i s no longer cause for heads to be turned. Lending strength to the community i s a long resident core group which take a real pride i n i t s for i t s betterment.  community and works i n innumerable ways  Attendance at a variety of l o c a l meetings together  with personal interviews and informal discussions, evidence of the strength of l o c a l leadership.  provided f i r s t hand  This i s impressive, i n  i t s knowledge and sophistication; i t s voice and actions,  depending upon  the issues, gains a ready hearing and carries recognition and weight not merely l o c a l l y , but through and beyond the c i t y as a whole.  Citizens  have at t h e i r disposal, an array of associations and organizations within the area, strengthened by this leadership, through which they may make their views known.  They can, and do t h i s , on many issues, and the  West End i s a most a r t i c u l a t e community.  It has, i n addition to the  usual c i v i c , church and school organizations, a strong Community Council which serves to draw these myriad views together and achieve i t s through a unified voice.  A l o c a l bi-weekly newspaper, the West Ender,  adds to community cohesion through i t s 1  goals  3)500  circulation.  Interview Mr. J . B r o o k s , P r i n c i p a l , Lord Roberts Elementary School,Nov.28/63  -  20 -  WEST END LIABILITIES Zoning and Housing The l i a b i l i t i e s of the West End are inseparable from i t s assets.  The beauty and d e s i r a b i l i t y of i t s environment attracts  ever growing numbers of residents and serve to compound existing problems. stand,  1  The present accommodations, the zoning laws as they now  their implications for future r e s i d e n t i a l construction, the 2  high value of land  and the high tax assessments are a l l factors  m i l i t a t i n g against a balanced community.  It has made for an area  i n t r a n s i t i o n but the direction of change i s not wholly c l e a r .  For  long term West Enders with a r e a l stake i n the area, this makes for some anxiety and concern. More than 70 percent of the West End i s zoned for apartment construction. ( F i g . 2 ) . Whole c i t y blocks of apartments have been erected, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the past twenty years, and each year sees old houses wrecked to make room for more glass and concrete high r i s e apartments.  These stand incongruously, side by side with d i l a p i -  dated seventy year old frame homes converted into rooming houses.  Yet  the l a t t e r pay exactly the same taxes per square foot of land as i f a t h i r t y storey high r i s e was already upon i t .  (A recent  legislative  proposal seeks to qualify this state of a f f a i r s but w i l l l not become effective before 1965.)  The limited rents old houses may command when  ^City of Vancouver, Zoning and Development By-Law, No. 3575• 2 Recent real estate advertisement show high r i s e l o t s s e l l i n g at between $800 to 81200 per front foot. •^Pamphlet issued at Aldermanic Election Meeting, Nov. 26, 1963* published by the West End and Downtown Ratepayers Association  .CURRENT ZotftKKS- NMCST EMj?  COMMERCIAL  w OISTRICT  •••••  INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT MULTIPLE DWELLING OISTRICT  M A  INDUSTRIAL OISTRICT  *TUJ?Y A ^ A .  -  new  apartments are  21  -  constantly being  opened, t o g e t h e r w i t h the  taxes, p r o h i b i t s adequate maintenance.  Each year  their  high  shabbiness  grows more n o t i c e a b l e . With rare exceptions, and  one  400  i d e n t i c a l one  bedroom a p a r t m e n t s . bedroom  the owner's p e n t h o u s e . has  entrepreneurs  occurred  The  s i n c e 1945«)  Few  of a l l r e s i d e n t i a l  L i k e - w i s e , the highest  no  new  astoundingly  a home o f any  from  apartments. Each year  i t i s revealed  that only five  of a l l r e s i d e n c e s  This i s i n contrast with Greater  roomers or  are  boarders.  owner o c c u p i e d ,  V a n c o u v e r w h e r e 60.7  the average f a m i l y s i z e i s 3*2  and  old  f a m i l i e s have  and  the s i z e o f the a v e r a g e f a m i l y t h r o u g h o u t the community i s 2 . 2 8  a r e owner o c c u p i e d  and  s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s r e p l a c e them. A m i d  homes t o t a l l y t o t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t i s , w i t h o u t Presently, only 7 percent  lower  returns  size.  being  construction  Their u n i t c o n s t r u c t i o n costs are  f a m i l i e s can a f f o r d t o m a i n t a i n  25,000 people,  contained  homes comes f r o m s i n g l e rooms o r s m a l l  homes become f e w e r and  bachelor  the s o l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i e f  percent  the monetary r e t u r n s g r e a t e r . r e n t i n g converted  most r e c e n t , s t r u c t u r e  'cells'  (47.3  have b u i l t o n l y  percent  persons.  o f homes  persons.  Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The  d i c t a t e s of a v a i l a b l e accommodation are  community's a t y p i c a l tracts 1,  2 , 3 and  4,  demographic c h a r a c t e r . t h e West End  people aged 25 or over; i n the group 19 y e a r s decreasing  has,  2 3 . 6 percent  or under.  a r e 6 5 and  over,  Generally speaking  b e t w e e n c e n s u s e s 1 9 5 6 and  to i n t e r p r e t t h i s as a t r e n d .  Embracing a l l of  The  the  census  f o r example, 8 2 . 3 percent  c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e West End  reversal occurred  reflected in  and  o n l y 9«6  t h e r e has  been  of i t s percent a  f o r many y e a r s .  A  1 9 6 l , but  difficult  i t is  explanation attracting  the  slight  greatest  -  /  22 -  consensus among those interested i n , and conversant with,  this  phenomenon, i s that periodic spurts i n new apartment growth leave older and roomier apartments with vacancies.  To avoid loss of rents,  r e s t r i c t i o n s against renting to families with children are temporarilyrelaxed.  It i s significant that the increase was among ik - 1 9 year  olds, an age group usually recognized as being more acceptable to landlords than younger children. Briefly,  the West End population i s made up of large numbers  of r e t i r e d people, single men and women, and couples without c h i l d r e n . Families with children are few, and the numbers of children within families also few i n comparison with the rest of Vancouver.  This  creates problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y for families with children and also for senior c i t i z e n s .  Children for the most part l i v e i n cramped rooming  houses or apartments with lack of play space i n the area.  Other than  Stanley Park which i s not suitable, safe or always conveniently distanced for unchaperoned young children, there i s but one outside of the inadequate school grounds.  'tot-lot'  Older people of limited  means, many of them long resident i n the area and anxious to remain there, are forced to move due to increasing taxes or rent.  However, the  overall numbers of r e t i r e d people of greater affluence shows a steady increase. The fact i s that expanding numbers of people, young and o l d , find apartment l i v i n g i n the West End a satisfactory way of l i f e .  For a 30  storey apartment with kOO one bedroom suites opened i n November 19631 there were over 700 a p p l i c a n t s .  1  Who are these tenants?  Some as stated  Interview with Miss G. McCorqudale resident of Imperial Towers Apartments.  are  retired,  some y o u n g ,  23  s i n g l e business people, others are those  who h a v e come b a c k t o t h e c i t y o f k e e p i n g s u b u r b a n homes. t h e r e i s no l o n g e r a n e e d  -  to avoid the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and expense  W i t h c h i l d r e n grown a n d o u t o f t h e home, f o r 3 o r k bedroomed h o u s e s , t h e u p k e e p o f  w h i c h t o g e t h e r w i t h g a r d e n i n g c h o r e s o f t e n becomes a n u n n e c e s s a r y burden which apartment  living  End t o many b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s and e x p e n s e  o f commuting.  sense o f anonymity. or  relieves.  The p r o x i m i t y o f t h e West  a l s o s p a r e s them t h e r u s h h o u r  Some p r e f e r a p a r t m e n t  living  strain  f o r the greater  F r i e n d s , a c q u a i n t a n c e s a r e drawn f r o m t h e i r  work  c l u b a s s o c i a t i o n s - t h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t and o u t s i d e o f t h e s e , don't  w i s h t o be known a n d l i k e ments o f f i n a n c e , i l l  t o be l e f t a l o n e .  For others with impedi-  h e a l t h o r o l d age, i t i s not a matter o f p r e f e r e n c e  b u t one o f n e c e s s i t y . A resultant l i a b i l i t y  of this situation  from a community s t a n d -  p o i n t i s the h i g h l y transient n a t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n .  Single people,  c o u p l e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , a n d r e t i r e d p e o p l e move f r e q u e n t l y the  a r e a when a y e t n e w e r a p a r t m e n t  p r o v i d e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t one.  o f f e r s inducements  their  staying.  to tenants not  Couples o t h e r than i n the few l a r g e  a p a r t m e n t s must move t o t h e s u b u r b s when t h e y s t a r t terms o f apartment  within  l e a s e , as w e l l as l i v i n g  their  families, f o r  space, m i l i t a t e  against  F u r t h e r , many r e s i d e n t s o f o l d e r , c h e a p e r a p a r t m e n t s a n d  r o o m i n g h o u s e s a r e i m m i g r a n t s o r newcomers t o t h e c i t y  who s e t t l e  only  l o n g enough t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s i n employment - s a v e e n o u g h t o make a down payment o n a h o u s e a n d t h e n move. their or  Others ( a f t e r  the nature of  employment) a r e t r a n s f e r r e d here f o r a m a t t e r o f a c o u p l e o f y e a r s  s o , and f o r such s h o r t term r e s i d e n c e see apartment  most s e n s i b l e s o l u t i o n .  Those w i t h m a r g i n a l i n c o m e s ,  living  as the  or i n receipt of  - 2k s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , e.g. p e n s i o n e r s c h i l d r e n , occupy the p o o r e s t  and d e s e r t e d wives w i t h s m a l l  d w e l l i n g s , o f t e n those  slated  t o make  room f o r new a p a r t m e n t s w h i c h n a t u r a l l y r e n d e r s a move m a n d a t o r y . M e a s u r e m e n t s o f t r a n s i e n c y come f r o m a l l o f t h e s c h o o l s w i t h i n the a r e a which r e p o r t a 5 0 - 60 p e r c e n t annual The  turnover of pupils.  community n e w s p a p e r e d i t o r r e p o r t s , t o o , t h e f a i l u r e o f s u b s c r i p t i o n  d r i v e s a s due t o p e o p l e ' s  r e l u c t a n c e t o see themselves  enjoying a b r i e f sojourn i n the area. them i n j o i n i n g t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s ,  other  M i n i s t e r s who s e e k t o i n t e r e s t s c h o o l s w h i c h w o u l d welcome them  to  P.T.A.s, a n d c i v i c  to  c o m m u n i t y i m p r o v e m e n t , a l l r e p o r t on t h e i r a v o i d a n c e  and  their parallel  o r g a n i z a t i o n s which s o l i c i t  d e s i r e f o r anonymity.  community t h e r e i s l i t t l e The  than  While  their contribution of  involvement  there i s recognition of  attachment to i t .  t o t a l p i c t u r e , however, i s not a l t o g e t h e r gloomy.  Though  the m a j o r i t y a r e t r a n s i e n t and i n a sense r e p r e s e n t a community some 30 p e r c e n t  a r e l o n g term  residents.  liability,  A l t h o u g h even t h i s g r o u p may  move w i t h i n t h e a r e a , t h e y y e t m a i n t a i n a c o m m u n i t y i d e n t i t y w h i c h s t i t u t e s a confirmed section of this  con-  a s s e t a n d one w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f i n a l  study.  Proximity to City The  geographic  p r o x i m i t y t o t h e downtown a r e a , w h i l e  as an a s s e t , i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l i a b i l i t y .  The n o r t h a n d e a s t  a d j o i n i n g Eobson and B u r r a r d S t r e e t s , see t h e near s o l i d  s t o r e s and b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s .  The  boundaries  residential  c o r e g i v i n g way t o a v a r i e t y o f l a r g e a n d s m a l l c o m m e r c i a l such as h o t e l s , motels,  described  establishments remaining  h o u s e s a n d some s m a l l e r f a m i l y h o t e l s i n t e r s p e r s e d b e t w e e n new s t r u c t u r e s p r o v e t h e most d i l a p i d a t e d .  The C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s D e p a r t m e n t  confirm  -  25  -  a h i g h number o f t h e i r s i n g l e m a l e r e c i p i e n t s f r e q u e n t l y m o v i n g i n out  of these  residences.  An  unascertainable  but r e p o r t e d l y  and  signifi-  c a n t number o f them h a v e p r o b l e m s o f a l c o h o l a n d / o r d r u g a d d i c t i o n , w i t h a s s o c i a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s and Numerically,  however, they  are  often c r i m i n a l records,too.  s m a l l compared t o numbers o f  c l i e n t s r e s i d i n g j u s t t o t h e e a s t o f t h e West E n d Likewise for  t h e i s o l a t i o n and  a g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e and  trade.  h o m o s e x u a l c o t e r i e and  a n o n y m i t y t h e West End  S i m i l a r l y no  while  p o l i c e b e l i e v e i t has  a f f o r d s , makes  l a i s s e z f a i r e among t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . P r o s t i -  c i t y o f any  the e x t e n t  known e v e n to t h e p o l i c e , a n d study,  similar  community.  t u t i o n c o n v i c t i o n s i n r e c e n t months r e v e a l t h i s a r e a n a t u r a l l y to t h i s  1  i n any  to l e n d  itself  size i s without i t s  of t h i s a b e r r a t i o n cannot  be  event i s beyond the scope of  a b r o a d e r i n c i d e n c e i n the West End  this than  elsewhere.^ The  t o t a l of these  scientifically, o f the  has  community.  f a c t o r s r e p o r t e d l y , but  an u n d e s i r a b l e Principals,  d i s o r d e r s among y o u n g s t e r s . any  i n f l u e n c e upon t h e  school nurses,  workers c l a i m to observe a higher  and  from o t h e r  sources  they  which cover  youth  social  are unable to f u r n i s h  t h i s area.  impressions,  h o w e v e r , a r e b a s e d u p o n many y e a r s  t h e West End  and  2  c h i l d r e n and  than average i n c i d e n c e of p e r s o n a l i t y  Regrettably,  o t h e r a r e a s and  verifiable  l o c a l medical  s t a t i s t i c s i n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of t h e i r impressions  available  1  not  and  none  Their  strong  of experience  t h u s c a n n o t l i g h t l y be  are  i n both  dismissed.  I n t e r v i e w s on J a n u a r y 6, 1 9 6 4 , r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e A l c o h o l i s m F o u n d a t i o n o f B.C. and t h e N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n F o u n d a t i o n do n o t m a i n t a i n s t a t i s t i c s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s s t a t e m e n t . W o r k e r s n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t some o f t h e i r c l i e n t s move i n and o u t o f t h i s s e c t o r o f t h e West End as o f t e n a s e v e r y month o r two. Interview with S t a f f Inspector 1964.  Brown, Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e , M a r c h  5i  -  26  -  T e e n a g e r s , a c c o r d i n g to the High S c h o o l p r i n c i p a l ,  a r e much more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d than t h e i r  s u b u r b a n p e e r s , l e s s b o i s t e r o u s and  but w i t h o n l y a s l i g h t l y  h i g h e r than average i n c i d e n c e of  T h e i r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and  h i g h e r r a t i o of emotional d i s t u r b a n c e  a t t r i b u t e s l a r g e l y to t h e i r environment. grade y o u n g s t e r s ,  delinquency. he  principal  ' s t r e e t w i s e ' sense but as f o r the  most p a r t t h e y come f r o m p o o r e r  f a m i l i e s and broken  r e f l e c t s the d e a r t h of s t i m u l i i  to which  p r i n c i p a l s s t r e s s the l i a b i l i t y  arising  their students' existence.  homes, t h e i r  they are exposed.  I.Q.  Both  out of the t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e  M o v i n g c o n s t a n t l y , even w i t h i n the  t h e y c l i n g t o s c h o o l a s t h e one  1  S i m i l a r l y , among p r i m a r y  t h e s e a r e d e s c r i b e d by t h e Dawson S c h o o l  as a l s o b e i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d - i n a  juvenile  symbol o f permanency i n an  of  area,  otherwise  'footloose* existence. Although  t h e numbers o f c h i l d r e n a r e r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l i n com-  p a r i s o n w i t h s u b u r b i a , the a r e a does not c a t e r a d e q u a t e l y w e l f a r e and  r e c r e a t i o n a l needs.  While  these w i l l  to  their  be d e a l t w i t h a s  s e p a r a t e i s s u e , s u f f i c e h e r e t o t o say t h a t i t i s p r e s e n t l y a  a  liability  w i t h i n t h e a r e a f o r w h i c h no i m m e d i a t e remedy i s a t h a n d . It and  has b e e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e West End  t h a t t h i s may  be  deemed a l i a b i l i t y .  a s e t o f v a l u e s which would not l i k e l y not  the aim of t h i s  t h a t p l a n n e r s o f new  be a c c e p t e d u n c h a l l e n g e d . t o c o n t i n u e on t h e  f o r e x a m p l e , see a  community as e s s e n t i a l t o i t s h e a l t h y c o n t i n u a n c e . parallel is  t h a t t h e West E n d ,  population  To p o s i t t h i s i s t o i n t r o d u c e  study to argue these but towns, i n B r i t a i n  has an u n b a l a n c e d  One  premise  balanced  can  draw t h e  though unplanned i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l  n e v e r t h e l e s s e v o l v i n g a s a new  It i s  sense,  community.  P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y S t a t i s t i c s , V a n c o u v e r , V a n c o u v e r J u v e n i l e and F a m i l y C o u r t , e t a l . May, 1962  B.C.  - 27  -  T h i s l i a b i l i t y a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y w i l l be homes, o r f a m i l y s i z e d a p a r t m e n t s a r e l i k e l y entrepreneurs.  One  No  f o r f a m i l i e s and  argue c o n v i n c i n g l y there i s .  o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s t h i s has  already  family  t o be b u i l t by p r i v a t e  might w e l l ask i f there i s a need, then,  s i d i z e d low r e n t a l p u b l i c housing l i m i t e d means and  perpetuated.  been d o n e .  f o r sub-  o l d e r people  Indeed, i n the  of case  However, i n t h e  1  o f f a m i l i e s o f l i m i t e d means, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e  s t r e n g t h of the  argument,  the l i k e l i h o o d of p u b l i c housing  being  r e m o t e due  P r e s e n t l y too, Vancouver's l o n g  to high land values.  case  c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e W e s t End  is  term  2 r e - d e v e l o p m e n t scheme d o e s n o t Under the p r e s e n t  i n c l u d e the West  End.  order of p r i o r i t i e s i n b u i l d i n g , plus  the  fact  3 that p u b l i c housing End  has  w i l l l o n g , i f not  proved p e r e n i a l l y slow of r e a l i z a t i o n ,  permanently, continue  Physical Liabilities,  t h e West  unaffected i n this  regard.  R e a l and P o t e n t i a l  A m o b i l e p o p u l a t i o n has  a major concern w i t h access  t o and  from  t h e a r e a i n w h i c h i t r e s i d e s and  a need f o r p a r k i n g space w i t h i n t h a t  area.  l i a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s regard.  The  West End  has  p a t t e r n s were d e s i g n e d  distinct and  laid  down a h a l f c e n t u r y  c o n s e q u e n c e , s t r e e t s a r e n a r r o w , and vollume o f t r a f f i c .  The  recent years  p r o v i s i o n of parking 1  West End  r e a c h e d the  a p a r t m e n t s c o u l d be facilities  o r more a g o .  As  a  many o f them p o o r l y l i t f o r t o d a y ' s  increased population  p a r k i n g p r o b l e m w h i c h l o n g ago  Street  d e n s i t y a l s o makes f o r a  saturation point.  b u i l t without f o r new  necessity for  tenants.  Until the  Building restrictions,  Community C o u n c i l b r i e f on S e n i o r C i t i z e n H o u s i n g , J a n .  21  I960.  2 Redevelopment i n the C i t y of Vancouver, Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , August  I960.  3 L e o n a r d C. M a r s h , R e b u i l d i n g a N e i g h b o u r h o o d . The U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l u m b i a , R e s e a r c h P u b l i c a t i o n s No. 1, 1950, p. i v .  British  - 28 s i n c e imposed, p r o v i d e came t o o l a t e and  slow moving t r a f f i c  cause e x a s p e r a t i o n . other areas  f o r adequate basement p a r k i n g s p a c e , but on c o n g e s t e d  these  streets continue.to  Even back l a n e s between s t r e e t s have, as i n  of the c i t y ,  o f n e c e s s i t y been p r e s s e d  i n t o use  few  for parking  space. The  pedestrian population fares l i t t l e  bear c o n s t r u c t i o n dates even.  Successive  c i r c a 1900.  better.  Sidewalks,  They a r e c r a c k e d , b r o k e n and  r e p a i r s serve but  to accentuate  their  o l d s h a d e t r e e s whose g r o w t h has  up  a e s t h e t i c a l l y be  s i d e w a l k s , may  ation for this l i a b i l i t y . with criminal intent.  Press a r t i c l e s  a s numerous a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m latter  v i e w e d a s some compens-  s t r e s s e d t h i s a s one  and  b r e a k i n g and  a n o n y m i t y w i t h i n a community.  Strangers  c a r s as w e l l  entering into  r o a m i n g t h e West E n d  A s p e c i a l rooming house p o l i c e d e t a i l o f f o u r c o n s t a b l e s has  Traffic  of  do  not  district. l o n g been  crime.  Liability  A l o o k b a c k t o t h e map  o f t h e West E n d  o f V a n c o u v e r p o i n t s up i t s s t r a t e g i c business  apartments.  degree  a t t r a c t t h e same c u r i o s i t y t h e y w o u l d i n a s e t t l e d s u b u r b a n  The  those  factor i n  t h e f t s from parked  c r i m e , h o w e v e r , i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e  f o r m e d t o combat t h i s  heaved  Poor s t r e e t l i g h t i n g l i k e w i s e encourages  p e d e s t r i a n a t t a c k s , p u r s e s n a t c h i n g and  The  un-  inadequacy.  However, a m i d g r e e n b o u l e v a r d s the a d j a c e n t  too,  cores of both  suburbs of North  downtown and  and W e s t V a n c o u v e r .  n e a r l y s t r a n g l e d d u r i n g m o r n i n g and a r t e r i e s handling a dangerously  c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n between the Broadway and The  evening  1963.  major  t h e m u s h r o o m i n g bedroom  West End  i s encircled  r u s h h o u r s by m a j o r  heavy l o a d of  V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , December 18,  i n r e l a t i o n to the r e s t  traffic.  and traffic  1  - 29  -  Each y e a r , w i t h the c o n t i n u i n g growth of the c i t y , worsens.  Numerous p r o p o s a l s  the  problem  t o b r i n g about a m e l i o r a t i o n have  sparked  c o n t i n u a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s f o r over being  c o n d u c t e d by  from N o r t h to  traffic Two  f r u i t i o n was  This served  and  a study i s p r e s e n t l y interim  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new  to i n c r e a s e the  Second  f l o w of t r a v e l to  through  S t a n l e y P a r k and  the West  and  did  volume on t h e L i o n s G a t e B r i d g e w h i c h  little  funnels  End.  p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s to t h i s p r o b l e m , i f a c t e d upon, would  prove decided p h y s i c a l l i a b i l i t i e s the p o s s i b i l i t y  f o r West End  residents.  then p a r a l l e l i n g Georgia  S t r e e t to cut another  P a r k p r i o r t o j o i n i n g a new Vancouver.  but w i t h a c c e s s  The  area,  Stanley  Stanley Park,  to t h e K i t s i l a n o  have c r e a t e d more a n x i e t y and  the n o x i o u s  through  the  r e s i d e n t i a l areas  and  then  area. concern  concomitants  among W e s t  of both  a s s e t s and  of  liabilities  Illustrative  i s the  of  fact that  this  t h i s t h r e a t , has  spirit  a c t i o n u n d e r s t r o n g l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p t h a n any  West End  concerted  done more t o c r e a t e a  Community C o u n c i l S c r a p b o o k .  values  the  potential l i a b i l i t y , and  The  freeways  c o n s e q u e n t e f f e c t upon p r o p e r t y  a r e v i e w e d by r e s i d e n t s as n e a r c a t a s t r o p h i c .  to  bridge  o t h e r l o c a l i s s u e i n the h i s t o r y of the community.  d e s p o l i a t i o n of Stanley Park,  a l l i e d nature  swath through  s e c o n d p r o p o s a l v i s u a l i z e s a s i m i l a r new  roads running w e s t e r l y through  Both proposals  t h e West End  Creek  b r i d g e , p a r a l l e l i n g L i o n s Gate B r i d g e  a c r o s s a c a u s e w a y o v e r E n g l i s h Bay  E n d e r s t h a n any  First i s  o f a freeway s t a r t i n g a t the n o r t h s i d e o f F a l s e  near the B u r r a r d B r i d g e , running north-west through  North  One  Vancouver a t the e a s t e r n boundary o f the c i t y but  r e l i e v e the t r a f f i c  all  1  the S t a n f o r d Research I n s t i t u t e .  s o l u t i o n which reached Narrows B r i d g e .  a decade  community other  - 30 concern.  This has d i r e c t l y contributed to the building and strengthen-  ing of an important asset - the West End Community Council. Of more recent o r i g i n , yet running a close second to the Burrard Inlet Crossing concern, i s the potential threat known as the Coal Harbour Development P l a n  Depending upon which side i s discussing the  1  issue, i t i s either a "blessing and a mark of real progress", or, to West Enders, "a l i a b i l i t y of incalculable proportions".  The plan c a l l s  for comprehensive development of 22.3 acres of waterfrontage on Coal Harbour.  It would be composed of luxury high r i s e apartments, marinas  and stores.  If proceeded with, i t  threatens to destroy views, compound  t r a f f i c problems and to usurp potential new apartment dwellers for some years to come.  E x i s t i n g West End apartments may be expected to lose  tenants to i t , and future development of apartments on West End property, long zoned and taxed for this purpose, w i l l be delayed at great cost to West End property owners.  The strength of this concern may be gauged  from the fact that seven hundred people turned out to hear and voice their opinions at a public meeting on this subject, i n June 1963. In summary, i t i s these, together with less dramatic issues and the lack of firm plans for the West End's future, which make for an overall uncertainty.  For the many who have a personal or monetary stake  i n the area, i t i s a d i s t i n c t l i a b i l i t y .  The concerns prove more wide-  spread, however, for West End b r i e f s opposing both suggestions have received a high degree of approval from many organizations and individuals 2 throughout the metropolis.  In truth, however, i t must be said that  perhaps a majority of West Enders, by the dual nature of their transiency 1  2  Coal Harbour Investments L t d . , Departnmt, June 21, 1963  Eezoning Application, City Planning  Press Clippings, Letters to Editor of Vancouver Sun, Vancouver Province May and June 1963, West End Community Council, Historians Scrapbook  and  d e s i r e f o r anonymity, are i l l  issues.  They a r e s e e m i n g l y  i n f o r m e d and  a p a t h e t i c on  incapable of being aroused  these  to face  c o n c e r n s , and a s i s f r e q u e n t l y t h e c a s e , c o n t e n t t o l e a v e t h e to  t h e e n e r g e t i c few.  real fight  - 32 COMMENTARY ON E X I S T I N G COMMUNITY PROBLEMS Before embarking  upon a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e W e s t E n d  community's  p r o b l e m s , a w o r d o f c a u t i o n i s i n o r d e r i f t h e y a r e t o be v i e w e d i n perspective.  An i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r s o f t h e Community  C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s r e v e a l e d a r e l a t i v e l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e West End. or  1  S o c i a l problems  t h e a r e a u n d o u b t e d l y h a s , b u t n o n e , by n a t u r e  d i m e n s i o n , a r e s u c h a s t o be  ' v i e w e d w i t h a l a r m ' when c o m p a r e d w i t h  other l e s s f o r t u n a t e areas o f Vancouver.  The p l a n n e r s s t a t e  their  e q u a n i m i t y a r i s e s from the o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n the a r e a o f Gordon Neighbourhood ative  H o u s e , whose e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f a s s u r e s a s u p e r i o r p r e v e n t -  j o b t h r o u g h t h e many programmes o f f e r e d . In  r e c o u n t i n g West End p r o b l e m s a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s  their  i n c i d e n c e , r e s o r t m u s t a l l t o o o f t e n be made t o i m p r e s s i o n s , i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n s and e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s r a t h e r t h a n s t a t i s t i c s .  This problem i s  2 i d e n t i c a l to the d i f f i c u l t i e s  r e v e a l e d by t h e W h e e l e r  despite the dearth of s t a t i s t i c s , when no more s c i e n t i f i c  criteria  Report.  However,  i m p r e s s i o n s w i l l n o t be q u o t e d e x c e p t i s a v a i l a b l e , and o n l y when s u c h  i m p r e s s i o n s o r i g i n a t e w i t h , and a c h i e v e c o n s e n s u s among t h o s e whose specific  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d e x p e r i e n c e a r e s u c h as t o l e n d v a l i d i t y  to  them. Problems o f the Aged To c o n s i d e r p r o b l e m s by age  g r o u p s , among t h e s e n i o r  i n c o m e d e f i c i e n c y and h o u s i n g must t a k e t o p p r i o r i t y . 1  2  citizens,  Limited  income  I n t e r v i e w Mr. B.A. R o b i n s o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s , November 28, 1963 M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , A R e p o r t on N e e d e d R e s e a r c h i n W e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , A u g u s t  1961.  i s a u n i v e r s a l problem but where h i g h e r  one  33  -  w h i c h i s more a c u t e  While the harsh  the market p l a c e would d i c t a t e t h a t those elsewhere, they  thus a f f e c t e d should  a s s o c i a t i o n s they are l o a t h to sunder.  c a n m e r e l y s u b s i s t on  The  2  and  the  senior  t h e i r l i v e s o f meaning.  f o r the  as  cured,  s u p e r i o r d i e t and The  of t h e i r income.  The  express  need i s a l o n g r e c o g n i z e d  a t t e n t i o n denied  them a t  and  'home'.  For  of  i n the a r e a .  much t h o u g h t and  e f f o r t has  r e a l i z a t i o n of such a g o a l . ^  s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and  promote n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s i s n e c e s s a r y  I n t e r v i e w M i s s B. S t a n l e y , D i r e c t o r West End D e p a r t m e n t , December 5» 19&3  subsidized  t h e a g e d as a w h o l e  expended towards the  1  to  a n d / o r an i n c r e a s e i n  r e n t a l p u b l i c housing one  f o r many  the d e s i r e to l i n g e r i n the h o s p i t a l  homes w i t h i n t h e a r e a ,  demand f o r l o w  who  h o s p i t a l repotts that older p a t i e n t s ,  numbers o f homemakers a v a i l a b l e t o them. i s a great  Yet  w o r k e r s , w o u l d be  n e e d s o f t h i s g r o u p i s f o r some c o m b i n a t i o n  n u r s i n g and/or boarding  occupying  an a v e r a g e r e n t o f tk^.OO p e r month  t h e meagre b a l a n c e  the  City Social Services  t o move, as t h e y p a t h e t i c a l l y r e m a r k t o t h e s e  though d i s c h a r g e d  different  h a v e f o r m e d many c l o s e  s o c i a l workers at the l o c a l h o s p i t a l  d i l a p i d a t e d room p a y i n g  deprive  move  a  c i t i z e n s w o r k e r a t Gordon House, a l l r e p o r t o f aged p e r s o n s one  of  Numerous among them h a v e b e e n l o n g r e s i d e n t i n  have a s t r o n g a t t a c h m e n t t o i t and  1  accommo-  realities  c o u l d do so i n many c a s e s o n l y t o e x p e r i e n c e  kind of hardship.  Department,  End  t h a n a v e r a g e r e n t s f o r what i s o f t e n s u b - s t a n d a r d  d a t i o n , p r o v e s an u n d u l y h e a v y b u r d e n .  West E n d ,  i n t h e West  The  This  the  there latter  already  been  n e e d t o combat f o r , though  not  Unit of C i t y S o c i a l Service  2 I n t e r v i e w M i s s M. M i l l e r , S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t , S t . P a u l ' s H o s p i t a l , December 12, 1963 ^ B r i e f p r e s e n t e d J a n u a r y 21, i960 t o V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l by S e n i o r C i t i z e n s H o u s i n g C o m m i t t e e o f t h e West End Community C o u n c i l on t h e n e e d f o r , and f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s e n i o r c i t i z e n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w i t h i n the West End.  - 34 c o n f i n e d t o , the aged.  To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s a n d y e t a v o i d  any  i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y i s a p r o b l e m i n t h e West E n d a s e l s e w h e r e , and one w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t o g i v e c o n c e r n t o o t h e r s a s w e l l a s  social  workers. G o r d o n House p r e s e n t l y o f f e r s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a r r a y o f programmes and f a c i l i t i e s  to over t h r e e hundred s e n i o r c i t i z e n s .  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e r v i c e i t p e r f o r m s i s r e l a t e d i n no  The  small  m e a s u r e t o t h e feet t h a t t h e w o r k e r f o r t h i s g r o u p h a s t w e l v e y e a r s of experience i n t h i s  job.  The House s e e k s a l w a y s t o r e a c h o u t t o  t h i s g r o u p and e x t e n d a n d i m p r o v e u p o n what i t a l r e a d y o f f e r s .  This  w i l l become more o n e r o u s w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e a s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a g e d who  retire  a r e n o t s o l e l y economic  to t h i s a r e a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e s .  Their  but a r e y e t such as t o s t r a i n the  resources presently available  problems  limited  to d e a l w i t h them.  P r o b l e m s Among F a m i l i e s The  f o l l o w i n g d a t a on p r o b l e m s o f f a m i l i e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a i s  drawn p r i m a r i l y  f r o m a s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y c o m p i l e d i n November 19&3  by  Gordon House w o r k e r M a r g a r e t M. M i t c h e l l on 440 f a m i l i e s s e r v e d by G o r d o n House.  The  c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e f a m i l i e s numbered 1,036  o f t h e s e were e n r o l l e d i n G o r d o n  House.  and  I t i s true to say t h a t  612 perhaps  a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n come f r o m t h e l e s s a f f l u e n t homes w i t h i n t h e West E n d , b u t an o v e r a l l v i e w o f f a m i l y p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e a r e a i s n o t g r o s s l y d i s t o r t e d by t h i s  fact.  F i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s do n o t l o o m  l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s and s t a t i s t i c s on i n c o m e s show no d i f f e r e n c e s from the average incomes of a l l  major  Vancouverites.  R e p r e s e n t i n g some 60 p e r c e n t o f a l l West End  families  with  c h i l d r e n , t h e 440 f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d showed o n l y 257 w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s in  t h e home.  Of t h e b a l a n c e , s e v e n t e e n homes had f a t h e r s o n l y , t w e n t y -  - 35 s i x were f o s t e r / a n d t h e b a l a n c e o f ikO f a m i l i e s were m a i n t a i n e d by the  mother a l o n e .  indicates  This high percentage of broken f a m i l i e s  a correspondingly high incidence of a variety  An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s may be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g drawn up f r o m 98 f a m i l i e s  naturally  of problems.  table  w h i c h was  t o t a l l i n g some kOO members f o u n d t o be i n  n e e d o f s p e c i a l h e l p ; t h e e s t i m a t e s e r r on t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s i d e . the  98 f a m i l i e s , i t may be s e e n t h a t t h e y a v e r a g e almosb t h r e e  Of  problems  each o f those l i s t e d i n the t a b l e . T a b l e A.  S a m p l e o f Type a n d I n c i d e n c e o f Known F a m i l y P r o b l e m s Among G o r d o n N e i g h b o u r h o o d House Members  ^ P  ., r  o  b  l  e  Number o f F a m i l i e s Affected  m  31 27 • 25 15 61  Disturbed Child Disturbed Adolescent Disturbed Family Relations Multi-problem Families One P a r e n t F a m i l i e s F i n a n c i a l Problems Delinquent Behaviour Unmarried Mothers Mental Retardation P h y s i c a l Health Problems P s y c h i a t r i c Problems Child Neglect C h i l d Care Problems Alcoholism Cultural Conflicts  Source:  P r o b l e m s Among  G o r d o n N e i g h b o u r h o o d House. S t u d y , 1963.  2k  18 5 13 8 13 15 8 k 7  Joint F mily Service a  Teenagers  P r o b l e m s among t e e n a g e r s i n t h e West E n d , i n n a t u r e a n d i n c i d e n c e , r e v e a l no g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n Vancouver as a whole.  t h i s a r e a and  The H i g h S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l was u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e  s t a t i s t i c s on t h e ' d r o p o u t ' r a t e b u t h i s ' e d u c a t e d g u e s s ' p l a c e d  this  a t a b o u t 50  percent;  higher than  average f o r the P r o v i n c e . enrollment  36  A 60  -  the average f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver percent  t u r n o v e r each year i n  The  Chant R e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h e s e  e v e n t a s b e i n g s u b j e c t t o numerous d e f i n i t i o n s and A measure o f d e l i n q u e n c y appeared before  rates i n  t h e c o u r t s and difficult.  t o be  on o t h e r t h a n  traffic  offenses.  However, t h e h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l ,  high school students  the C i t y  the P o l i c e Y o u t h D e t a i l The  do n o t  consider  relatively  low  delinquency  o n l y 70  r a t e i s e v e n more  g r o u p , one  G o r d o n House s e n i o r t e e n a g e members  o f them h a v e b o t h p a r e n t s  could reasonably  the p r e v e n t i v e j o b o f Gordon House. c u t down on  behavioural  significant  i n t h e home.  number r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l West End t h i s age  As  this  children i n  assume t h a t some c r e d i t must go R e g r e t t a b l y i t has  t h e v o l u m e o f s e r v i c e s i t can o f f e r  had  to  r e c e n t l y to  to chilcren o f a l l gjes.  H a v i n g t o r e d u c e s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s , t h e p r o b l e m insufficient  less  living".  c o n s i d e r s t h a t o f t h e 133 - 18),  this  P r i n c i p a l r e f e r r e d to h i s  a s b e i n g "more a d u l t , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d and  bi-product ofapartment  15  before  Probation  b o i s t e r o u s than t h e i r suburban c o u n t e r p a r t s - presumably a  (age  It  t h a t an a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m i s t h e r e f o r e  a problem of s e r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n .  when one  1  i n t h e a r e a r e v e a l e d t h a t 21 j u v e n i l e s  t h e c o u r t s i n 1961  f o r t h e a r e a and  The  any  qualifications.  t r u e t h a t an unknown number o f d e l i n q u e n t s a r e n o t b r o u g h t  Officer  student  i s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n p r o h i b i t i n g a c c u r a t e measurement o f  school retention rates.  is  but  of  summer camps i s a f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t i o n .  P r o b l e m s Among C h i l d r e n The 1  p  problems of younger c h i l d r e n  stem f r o m t h e  R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n , C o l u m b i a , I 9 6 0 , p.43 ~  fact  Province of  P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y S t a t i s t i c s , V a n c o u v e r J u v e n i l e and F a m i l y C o u r t , e t a l . May 1962.  that  they  British  Vancouver,  B.C.  - 37 r e s i d e i n a n a r e a w h i c h becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s a d a p t e d t o t h e i r needs. be  I n confined rented quarters, t h e i r innate boisterousness  c o n t r o l l e d t o o b v i a t e annoyance t o a d j a c e n t  tenants.  must  Outside of  t h e home, t h e r e i s b u t one l o c a l p a r k i n w h i c h t o p l a y , a n d w i t h back l a n e s and s t r e e t s crowded w i t h parked  c a r s and moving t r a f f i c ,  prove too hazardous f o r the younger c h i l d r e n . n o t a d e q u a t e t h o u g h t h e new H i g h S c h o o l of a c i t y b l o c k f o r p l a y i n g f i e l d s .  both  will  they  School playgrounds a r e  soon a c q u i r e an e x t r a h a l f  W h i l e S t a n l e y P a r k i s an  obvious  boon, i t i s n o t c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d and i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n c a n n o t s a f e l y make u s e o f i t u n l e s s by p a r e n t s  accompanied  or elders.  Problems of Parents A problem f o r parents Of  i s t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f day c a r e  t h e kkO f a m i l i e s i n t h e G o r d o n House s t u d y ,  73 f a m i l i e s h a v e  parents working,  a n d 90 o f t h e ikO  home a l s o w o r k .  G o r d o n House c a n o f f e r day c a r e  both  f a m i l i e s w i t h t h e mother o n l y i n the  c h i l d r e n , w h i c h l e a v e s a l a r g e unmet n e e d . but  facilities.  f o r b u t k^> t o 50  Some m o t h e r s n o t now  working,  d e p e n d e n t on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , w o u l d p r e f e r t o w o r k i f t h i s was  possible. M a r c h 196k,  A check o f C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department f i l e r e v e a l e d some 15 p e r c e n t  f a m i l i e s both  capable  o f and a n x i o u s  cards i n  o f a l l West E n d r e c i p i e n t s  with  t o w o r k i f day c a r e w e r e made  available. Two t h i r d s o f t h e West E n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n a r e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 20 a n d 65.  Some e i g h t h u n d r e d o f t h i s g r o u p a r e S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e  with the f u l l The  range o f problems such dependent s t a t u s t y p i c a l l y r e v e a l s .  f a c t t h a t t h i s d e p a r t m e n t h a s o n l y one p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d  w o r k e r w i t h a c a s e l o a d s m a l l enough t o p e r m i t a real  clients  difficulty.  'A'  any sound casework, p o s e s  P r e s e n t l y t h i s worker c o v e r i n g a wide geographic  area,  -  38 -  can serve only six West End families and this l i m i t a t i o n places a heavier burden upon other•agencies  operative within the area.  Unfortunately, however, this i s not a problem unique to the West End. The problem of unemployment among West Enders i s not different from the rest of Vancouver.  significantly  In 1 9 6 l , 7 percent of West  Enders were registered as unemployed when 6 percent of Vancouverites were i n the same category.  - 39 THE  EXTENT OF  CO-OPERATION AMONG  E X I S T I N G WELFARE AGENCIES  The C e n t r a l Community O r g a n i z a t i o n F a c i l i t a t i n g R o l e o f G o r d o n N e i g h b o u r h o o d House En any End  one  commentary upon w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s w i t h i n t h e W e s t  must i n e v i t a b l y b e g i n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f G o r d o n  hood House.  I n numerous c o n t a c t s w i t h s o c i a l w o r k e r s ,  o f f i c e r s , n u r s e s , s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , p o l i c e e t . a l . on of welfare g e n e r a l l y , i t i s abundantly t h e r o l e o f G o r d o n House emerge a s  s e r v e d the a r e a f o r twenty-one y e a r s . A l e x a n d r a Community A c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h  occupying  the seventy  owns and  The  s t e a d i l y expanded i t s s e r v i c e s . social services for  S u p p l e m e n t e d by v o l u n t e e r s , i t s  groups from p r e - s c h o o l e r s t o s e n i o r  programmes r u n t h e gamut o f i n f o r m a l p l a y and  games and i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , activity  arts,  c r a f t s and  f a m i l y and  neighbourhood  hobbies  years, i n i t s Nursery  c h i l d r e n and  S c h o o l and  team  the  any best  life.  day  - 50  children  care s e r v i c e .  t e e n a g e programmes s e r v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 700  s e n i o r c i t i z e n m e m b e r s h i p i s o v e r 300.  citizens.  and i n d e e d ,  I n t e r m s o f i t s m e m b e r s h i p , t h e House s e r v e s 45 aged 3 - 6  of  club groups,  deemed h e l p f u l i n e n a b l i n g i t s members t o a c h i e v e  possible individual,  of  administers i t s properties,  professionally trained staff provides leadership for a variety programmes f o r a l l age  year  f o r G i r l s , i t has  t i m e r e c r e a t i o n a l and  families.  and  O p e r a t i n g under the a u s p i c e s  G o r d o n House f r o m m o d e s t b e g i n n i n g s h a s  b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s and  the s u b j e c t  synonymous.  C r o f t o n House S c h o o l  Presently i t supplies leisure  probation  clear that this topic  C e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e West E n d , o l d b u i l d i n g s o f the former  Neighbour-  Its  and i t s  A d u l t membership i s under  but g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s achieved f o r s p e c i a l events.  A  100,  noteworthy  - 40 a c t i v i t y receiving growing emphasis i s Joint Family Services which serves to integrate both casework and groupwork s k i l l s .  In the process  i t finds i t s e l f involved quite extensively i n community organization too.  Far from being agency centred, the House wins professional acclaim  for i t s widespread co-operation and co-ordination with a host of agencies and resources both i n and outside of i t s immediate neighbourhood. Particul a r l y fortunate i n the qualifications and a b i l i t y of i t s staff which has a minimum of turnover, i t has been a prime factor i n i n i t i a t i n g and furthering the goals of family focussed neighbourhood services. From information obtained on members at intake, from noting behaviour during programme and outside of i t as well as from r e f e r r a l s , Gordon House staff are able to ascertain those who need i n d i v i d u a l help. Regular case conferences are held involving caseworkers, groupworkers and the nursery school d i r e c t o r .  Also i n v i t e d for consultation and joint  planning, where appropriate, are school p r i n c i p a l s , counsellors, nurses, probation o f f i c e r s .  school  A Family Service Association worker i s  another team member employed two days per week at Gordon House and manages a small case load. Gordon House has further taken an active role i n i n i t i a t i n g and maintaining l i a i s o n with the City Social Service Department, the Child Care Centre, the Metropolitan Health Unit and many other agencies. It refers some c l i e n t s to specialized resources when case  conferences  indicate this course of action, and because i t i s associated with the West End i n the minds of many s o c i a l workers and operates widespread programmes, receives r e f e r r a l s from other agencies too.  Each year i t  carries out an active r e c r u i t i n g programme among the four schools i n the area with the f u l l co-operation of school p r i n c i p a l s .  On  i t s a g e n c y b o a r d and  41  -  i t s advisory  committees are  p e r s o n s prominent i n a l l the m a j o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s within  the  includes school  community.  four school  For  counsellor, a probation and  local  two  local ministers, a  s e r v i c e c l u b members.  and  the  receive  opportunity  activity  derives  goal  " t o develop a b e t t e r neighbourhood i n w h i c h to l i v e " .  some C o u n c i l  Community C o u n c i l i n t h a t b o t h have t h e  committees, provide  The  Organizations the  boundary.  They a r e  organizations, of the The  and  t o a c h i e v e t h e i r common g o a l .  d a n c e s , rummage s a l e s and  w i t h w h i c h G o r d o n House has  c h u r c h e s , the  l o c a t e d on B u r r a r d  staff  f o r many G o r d o n  s p e c i a l c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s s u c h as C h r i s t m a s  H a l l o w e ' e n p a r t i e s and  are  The  c l e r i c a l help  l o c a l newspaper a l s o g i v e s g e n e r o u s l y of p u b l i c i t y  House programmes and  same avowed  a l l Council meetings,  p r o f e s s i o n a l and  g e n e r a l l y work i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n  concerns  from i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h e West End  D i r e c t o r or h i s a s s i s t a n t attend  and  P e r h a p s i t s most  with  Executive  may  t h e i r meetings  to p r e s e n t house  support of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  a c t i v e community o r g a n i z a t i o n  organiz-  S t a f f members  b e l o n g t o t h e s e g r o u p s o r more f r e q u e n t l y , a t t e n d f o r t h e m s e l v e s an  Parks  I t s community  f a c t t h a t many l o c a l  t h e i r m e e t i n g s w i t h i n Gordon House.  thus create  Committee  public health nurses, a s p e c i a l  o f f i c e r and  r o l e i s f u r t h e r advanced through the ations hold  associations  example, i t s J u n i o r A d v i s o r y  principals,  Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  and  lay  Y.M.C.A. and  S t r e e t i n the  t h e Y.W.C.A..  downtown a r e a ,  large metropolitan  the Annual t h e minimum The  latter  and  Fair. liaison two  t h e West E n d ' s  are eastern  rather than neighbourhood  d r a w i n g t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p f r o m V a n c o u v e r c i t y and a l l  adjoining municipalities.  Few  members r e s i d e i n t h e West  Y.M.C.A. a p p r o a c h e s t h a t o f a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g r e c r e a t i o n  End.  centre  - k2 w i t h n e g l i g i b l e w e l f a r e emphasis.  While i t i s prepared t o o b t a i n  s u b s i d i e s f o r a h a n d f u l o f West E n d y o u t h who c o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e a f f o r d membership  f e e s , i t does n o t 'reach o u t ' t o t h i s  community.  I t accepts r e f e r r a l s b u t i t s primary r o l e i s a r e c r e a t i o n resource and it  i s not staffed  t o p r o v i d e o t h e r than  this.  The Y.W.C.A. s t a f f h a s a s t r o n g s o c i a l w o r k e m p h a s i s a n d i t s w i d e r a r r a y o f programmes activities  reflect  this fact.  Carrying a l l the  t h a t i t s s t a f f c a n p r e s e n t l y cope w i t h , i t d o e s n o t o f i t s  own v o l i t i o n r e a c h o u t t o c o m m u n i t i e s come f r o m l o c a l a g e n c i e s .  butwaits f o r thei n i t i a t i v e to  The Y.W.C.A. i s p r e p a r e d  to offer  a t i o n a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e c r e a t i o n of. new programmes l i m i t s o f i t s s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s . source o f volunteer l e a d e r s h i p . e x p l o i t e d by Gordon  consult-  within the  I t s H i 'Y' g r o u p i s a p o t e n t i a l  T h i s may b e o n e r e s o u r c e n o t y e t f u l l y  House.  C h u r c h e s a r e aware o f t h e r e s o u r c e s o f G o r d o n H o u s e , o f i t s community r o l e w h i c h  they see as supplementing  have p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h  they a r e prepared  appreciative  t h e i r own.  t o a l l o w Gordon  They House  t o u s e i f t h e y a r e n e e d e d a n d i f t h e House c a n a f f o r d t o d i s p e r s e i t s staff.  T h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y e l d e r l y a n d numerous o f  t h e i r i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s a r e a l s o i n v o l v e d w i t h G o r d o n House  concerns.  Because o f t h i s , m i n i s t e r s f e e l l e s s n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t i n u o u s p e r s o n a l involvement  w i t h Gordon House, though they sometimes s e r v e on  committees.  What f e w l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o p e r a t i v e w i t h i n t h e i r p a r i s h e s a r e s e e n as supplementary  t o a n d n o t c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e House.  I n summary, G o r d o n House p e r f o r m s zation f a c i l i t a t i n g activity  t h e c e n t r a l community o r g a n i -  f o r t h e West E n d .  I t must be s t a t e d ,  however,  t h a t i n common w i t h a l l a g e n c i e s , t h e q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e s i t o f f e r s i s  -  limited by i t s budget. staff  43  -  While i t has the framework and the experienced  to serve as the nucleus for a f u l l y comprehensive programme, i t  has had to l i m i t i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  Funds from the Community Chest which  comprise some 7 0 percent of i t s budget have decreased i n the past few years.  Only sound community organization work by the Executive Director  and his Board enabled them to replace the l o s t dollars by grants from the c i t y .  In b r i e f , having to struggle to maintain the status quo  i t i s unable to consider any needed expansion. But the prime factor i n l i m i t i n g services to West Enders i s the absence i n the area of a community centre.  The Board of Parks and  Public Recreation's community centre plan divides the c i t y into twenty s o c i a l areas and plans to i n s t a l l community centre f a c i l i t i e s i n each. The West End i s one such area.  A centre i s constructed when an area's  Community Association i n i t i a t e s a plebiscite and sixty percent of householders vote to pay for i t as a l o c a l improvement, on a front footage tax basis over a twenty year period.  The Parks Board, on  completion of constructions, pays a l l costs amounting to some $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 per year for recreational and administrative staffing building maintenance.  together with  1  The present p o l l i n g area for the West End extends eastwards to Main Street.  This brings about an inclusion of many downtown stores  and business offices whose owners cannot visualize a community centre as being other than a f i n a n c i a l burden.  Within the West End too are  many absentee landlords and corporation owned apartments who also would - a c t i v e l y oppose having their already high taxes raised yet further. 1  2  2  P r o f i l e for Planning, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, J u l y , 1 9 5 9 These statements represent a consensus of membership views expressed at meetings of the West End Community Council and the West End and Downtown Ratepayers Association during the period November, 1963» to March 1 9 6 4 .  -  kk  -  W h i l e a l t e r n a t e methods o f o b t a i n i n g presently to  cal  b e i n g e x p l o r e d a n d a c t e d u p o n , G o r d o n House has f e l t  'spread  to serve  community c e n t r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e  itself  t h i n ' and s u f f e r s reduced e f f e c t i v e n e s s  by  compelled attempting  t h e d u a l n e e d s o f w e l f a r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n i n an outmoded  structure.  physi-  -  4  -  5  EXPLORATION OF P O S S I B I L I T I E S OF ORGANIZATION AND RESOURCES TO DEAL WITH PROBLEMS  As but  the  has  been d o c u m e n t e d , t h e West End  temps and  that while  i s an area i n  d i r e c t i o n o f change i s n o t w h o l l y  t h e e x i s t i n g p r o b l e m s may  be  clear.  of those  who  f a c t engenders a g r e a t will  l i k e l y be  West End  Community  While planning these  w i l l be  o f who  charged w i t h the  s o l u t i o n of  pinpointed. minds  community  Council f o r the f u t u r e w i l l p r e s e n t  charged w i t h the p l a n n i n g .  a s s e t s o f t h e West E n d , C o u n c i l and  the  take.  difficulties -  e l a b o r a t e d upon f u r t h e r - t h e r e i s no  w i l l be  of  deal of ambivalence i n the  p r o b l e m s as t o what forms s u c h s o l u t i o n s s h o u l d The  T h i s means  seen c l e a r l y , those  f u t u r e , e v e n o f t h e n e x t d e c a d e c a n n o t w i t h c e r t a i n t y be In t u r n , t h i s  transition  b r i e f m e n t i o n was  i t s s t r o n g core  of indigenous  t h i s neighbourhood's problems are  t o be  and  problem i n terms  I n d i s c u s s i n g the  personal  made o f t h e  Community  experienced  leadership. I f  solved i t i s this  organization  w h i c h w i l l assume t h e c e n t r a l r o l e , w i t h t h e c l o s e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f G o r d o n N e i g h b o u r h o o d House. make-up, i t s p a s t The u n t i l 1950, nucleus  West End had  will illustrate  Community C o u n c i l , t h o u g h n o t  i t s o r i g i n s d u r i n g the years  d e v e l o p e d confidence::and  C i v i l Defence p o s t s ,  nucleus, End  experience  examination  o f W o r l d War  much e n l a r g e d ,  t h e Red  experience  C r o s s and  of i t s this  officially  o f t h e C o u n c i l , West E n d e r s w i t h a c l o s e and  w i t h the area, in  a c t i v i t i e s and  An  and  truth.  founded  II.  The  l o n g term  i n working  affinity together  t h e Community C h e s t .  This  p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n the West  today. The  a s w e l l as  C o u n c i l c o m p r i s e s i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s from the from a host  o f l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  community  associations.  Most  - 46 prominent among these are Gordon Neighbourhood House, the Apartment and Rooming House Owners Association, the West End Downtown Ratepayers Association, and the West End Business Association.  But there i s a great  overlapping of membership and representation from among Legion membership, service clubs, P . T . A . s and church groups. one sees some of the same familiar faces.  In countless meetings  This i s not to i n f e r that  the Council i s dominated by any one clique, for annual elections of new officers by these organizations sees a corresponding turnover i n the leadership of the C o u n c i l .  1  The Council meets monthly at Gordon Neighbourhood House with an average attendance of about twenty.  However, on certain issues i t  can command a turn-out i n excess of one hundred, for example before  2 c i v i c elections, or on zoning or tax issues.  On the Coal Harbour  Development issue i t played a major role i n forcing a public hearing before an audience of seven hundred at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre on Monday, June 24, 1963. By any yardstick the Council proves a r e a l power i n the community. A spot review of Council minutes and the h i s t o r i a n ' s scrapbook between the years i960 to 1963 revealed involvement i n some twelve greater or lesser concerns a l l having relevance to the betterment of the West End. It would prove f r u i t l e s s  to speculate as to members' motivations.  First  hand evidences of r e a l estate concerns have been noticed during attendance at meetings, but these appear to be balanced by elements of seemingly pure altruism.  Certainly the breadth of issues with which Council  concerns i t s e l f , many unconnected with personal p r o f i t , prohibits one from assuming a cynical outlook. From writer's review of Council's Executive O f f i c e r s , 1955 to 1964. Personal attendance at Alderinanic Election Meeting, Nov. 26,1963 at Lord Roberts School, convened by West End Community Council.  - 4? Two welfare  r e l a t e d and r e l a t i v e l y minor C o u n c i l concerns w i t h i n a  c o n t e x t , w e r e e f f o r t s t o k e e p G o r d o n House programmes  d e s p i t e a 1962  c u t i n Chest funds,  abandoned, t o a t t a i n p u b l i c  and an a t t e m p t , d e l a y e d  housing for senior c i t i z e n s .  of Council, with s t a f f advisors  but not Committees  from Gordon House, sought  support  t h r o u g h F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . research,  operative  Sound  s o p h i s t i c a t e d a w a r e n e s s o f power s t r u c t u r e s , s u p e r i o r know-  ledge and p l a n n i n g  r e s u l t e d i n r a t i o n a l , w e l l formulated  supplemented by p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s on t h e f i r s t  The s e c o n d i s s u e on s e n i o r c i t i z e n s '  s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s from o t h e r  claim e a r l i e r p r i o r i t y .  which,  a p p e a r a n c e i n v e r b a l s u p p o r t o f them, b r o u g h t  issue.  l i e s i n abeyance w h i l e  briefs,  The p r o g n o s i s  housing  areas o f the c i t y  for i t s eventual  success appears  t o be g o o d . Two the b u l k  m a j o r a n d l o n g c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e r n s w h i c h c u r r e n t l y consume  of Council's  time a r e o f a p r e v e n t a t i v e  nature.  These a r e , a s  m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f West E n d l i a b i l i t i e s , additional Burrard Not  content  Inlet Crossing  and t h e C o a l Harbour Development P l a n .  with merely f i g h t i n g a rearguard  o b s t r u c t i o n i s t r o l e , Council prepared counter strained soundly.engineered plans p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l levels." ' 3  and  the proposed  a c t i o n o r a s s u m i n g an proposals.  These  con-  have b e e n p u b l i c i z e d l o c a l l y a n d a t t h e The volume o f p u b l i c i t y  afforded  o t h e r i s s u e s o f C o u n c i l by a l l t h e news m e d i a , i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  this reveals  2 t h e i r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n from a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s s t a n d p o i n t . forceful, intelligent  and 'grass  Working i n C o u n c i l ' s  represent  r o o t s ' e v i d e n c e s o f demogracy a t work.  favour  i s t h a t i t h a s been f o r c e d t o t a c k l e  i s s u e s o f major, immediate and p e r s o n a l 1  They  c o n c e r n , and c o n t i n u i t y has been  B r i e f s i n c l u d e d i n West E n d Community C o u n c i l M i n u t e s o f Jan.22,1964 C o u n c i l s c r a p b o o k c i r c a May a n d J u n e 1963 r e w e a l s e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s on t h i s i s s u e t h r o u g h p u b l i c s p e e c h e s , n e w s p a p e r , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n .  - 48 possible through there being no dearth of lesser but yet important issues.  Further, i t has had a number of r e a l successes which engender  confidence that one can 'fight c i t y h a l l ' - and win. The foregoing has attempted to i l l u s t r a t e that within the West End there exists the leadership, a b i l i t y and interest with the area's problems.  to deal  But these as stated are undergoing change.  Future needs and resources are d i r e c t l y related to the people of the area and i t i s by no means certain what classes of people w i l l reside here a few years hence. To c l a r i f y this at the cost of some r e p e t i t i o n , the biggest drawback to i n t e l l i g e n t planning i s uncertainty as to the rate and rapidity of high rise apartment construction.  This we have noted i s  at the expense of older homes, forcing the occupants of these families and individuals with lower income - out of the area.  And i t i s these  groups which are the predominant consumer of private welfare and recreational  services.  The prime uncertainty relates to the Coal Harbour Development. While a choice area adjacent to Stanley Park was rezoned for this development,  the l o c a l ratepayers p u b l i c l y claim that the developing  company's f i n a n c i a l backing i s not such as to allow i t to proceed with i t s plans.  A recent meeting they persuaded Aldermen to attend revealed  uncertainty among them as to whether the project w i l l proceed, or i f i t does, whether i t w i l l be completed.  1  Meanwhile ratepayers have  proposed an alternative Centennial complex of buildings for this same location on the unconfirmed assumption that the Coal Harbour Development w i l l not materialize.  West End and Downtown Ratepayers Meeting. March 24, 1964 at Gordon House.  - 49 A t t h i s p o i n t i n time is  vital.  will  f a c t s are obscured.  But  the  issue  I f t h e c o m p l e x o f a p a r t m e n t s i s c o m p l e t e d as p l a n n e d , i t  a b s o r b some t w e l v e  lation  the  thousand people.  d e n s i t y o f t h e West End  This w i l l  b r i n g the  popu-  45,000 t o t a l w h i c h c i t y  near to  1 planners  s t a t e i s t h e d e s i r a b l e maximum f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  this i s realized One  can  the  f u t u r e o f t h e West End  will  o n l y s p e c u l a t e on w h e t h e r p l a n n e r s w i l l  be be  an unknown q u a n t i t y . o v e r - r u l e d and  d e n s i t y r e v i s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y upward, o r whether a r e z o n i n g of area  f o r o t h e r than h i g h r i s e s w i l l  issue yet f u r t h e r , alternate plans  occur.  If  Recently,  the  the  t o compound  f o r the r e j u v e n a t i o n of the  the  down-  2 town c o r e a r e a have b e e n p u b l i c i z e d . r i s e apartments there too  too, seemingly  f a r a h e a d o f demand.  One  such p l a n v i s u a l i z e s  adding  A l l of these  to the s i t u a t i o n o f  f a c t o r s render  t i c a t i o n s as t o t h e West E n d ' s f u t u r e e x t r e m e l y C o u n c i l can  r e a c h and  widely c r i t i c i z e d West E n d  i s as  abide  f o r not  c i t i z e n s ' housing  years which w i l l  care  having  done t h i s ,  Until  they are  social planning  weakened i s a b r i e f  i n t h e a r e a , when t h e o l d s t e r s w i t h l o w each y e a r ? ^  How  i n e v i t a b l y elapse before  Similarly s e r v i c e s and  t h e r e i s an  City quite  f o r the  'tot-lots'  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr.  many w i l l  for senior income  remain a f t e r  such a p r o j e c t c o u l d  e s t a b l i s h e d need f o r e x t e n s i o n f o r younger c h i l d r e n .  p a r t i c u l a r w o u l d p r o v e a most e x p e n s i v e 1  sound prognos-  hazardous.  some f i r m d e c i s i o n s , and  f o r e x a m p l e , how  d e c r e a s e by 4 - 5 p e r c e n t  day  any  zoning  f r a u g h t w i t h f r u s t r a t i o n as i s p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g .  Specifically,  realized?  by  high  The  the  be of  latter in  p r o p o s i t i o n w i t h l a n d i n the  L. Monroe o f C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , M a r c h 16,1964  A r t i c l e s i n V a n c o u v e r Sun,  M a r c h 17,  1964  et.  seq.  ^ F i g u r e s d e r i v e d from C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department s t a t i s t i c s Sept. 1959 a n d M a r c h 1964, f o r West E n d e r s on S u p p l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e .  West End the high price i t i s .  50 © Can even the most experienced leader-  ship embark upon s o c i a l action to achieve these resources,  competing  as they must with equal or greater p r i o r i t i e s of needs of other areas, while the present uncertainties abound? Nowhere are the planning d i f f i c u l t i e s more discernible than i n the efforts of the Welfare and Recreation Committee of the West End Community Council.''"  This committee has explored several  alternatives  to f i n a l l y settle upon a need for the establishment of a j o i n t p u b l i c / private recreation and welfare centre.  It would attempt to integrate  the recreation services which are normally provided by a community centre with the multitude of resources Gordon House presently  offers.  This plan represents a considerable departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l provision of services and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the financing of them.  A  formidable task i n i t s e l f , i t i s made more d i f f i c u l t by uncertainty as to whether to direct i t s briefs to secure resources to meet the needs of a population similar i n composition to that which Gordon House now serves, or to a population with the d i f f e r i n g needs which might be expected of residents of high r i s e apartments. To summarize these planning d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  i t emerges that there  i s , not unnaturally, ambivalence and indecision among committee members. The leadership i s both sound, experienced and sophisticated, action i s impeded due to the uncertainties with which i t i s  yet s o c i a l faced.  Planning must be based on reasonably accurate knowledge of what the next ten to fifteen years portends for an area.  This being unknown, none of  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g parties to such a proposed centre w i l l be prepared to make any commitments other than i n p r i n c i p l e . Opinions expressed here derive from personal experience as Gordon House staff member on this committee and from consultations with Executive Director of Gordon House and committee chairman.  - 51 SUMMARY The general assumption that there should be significant involvement of s o c i a l planning and physical planning at a l l stages of neighbourhood development needs to be c l a r i f i e d i n i t s application to the West End. Within Vancouver, as indeed i n most of Canada, those who do the planning may pay l i p service to such an assumption but have not acknowledged i t i n p r a c t i c e .  In ignoring this need they do so at  considerable cost to the public by whom they are elected, to serve.  or employed,  That i n ignoring the necessity for involvement of s o c i a l and  physical planning they engender anxiety, uncertainty and h o s t i l i t y may be observed from the emotionally charged meetings of West Enders when they have an opportunity to face their representatives  on planning  issues. Some of this h o s t i l i t y a r i s i n g out of anxiety, admittedly stems from those whose concerns are primarily f i n a n c i a l .  They may be those  who have invested i n the area ohly i n recent years for f i n a n c i a l rather than s o c i a l gains.  P o l i t i c i a n s and others may be tempted to dismiss  their concerns l i g h t l y as a r i s k which entrepreneurs have t r a d i t i o n a l l y had to run i n a free enterprise society.  While even the legitimacy of  this dismissal may be questioned there are other groups, with more powerful and personal concerns for whom the f a i l u r e to consider i n planning i s  inexcusable.  The l a t t e r group include those long resident i n the area who are being painfully uprooted against their w i l l .  Their protests at  public meetings observedly receive the least consideration; they are i r o n i c a l l y deemed to be the 'victims' of 'progress'.  It may prove  - 52  -  t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e c e n t  l e g i s l a t i o n may  c o n d i t i o n o f some o f t h i s g r o u p b u t  t h i s i s by no means  T h e i r good f o r t u n e , i f r e a l i z e d , i s due ability i s one  to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r concerns. w h i c h does n o t  community.  apathy about the  t h e most p a r t t h e y  p o i n t of view, these  any  and  those  priority.  the h e a v i e s t who  affairs  The  not  For and  While  recreation  other,  less  consumers of  welfare  s u f f e r the g r e a t e s t impact physical planning i n  they  are a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the  c o n s i d e r s a s a b a r e minimum t h o s e  most, as b e i n g  who  from  their  P r e s e n t l y almost every  these  resource  population.  potentially will  c h i l d r e n , s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s and  w i t h o n l y p e n s i o n s to l i v e on,  senior  t o t a l i n excess of four  suffer citizens thousand.  i s inadequate f o r t h e i r needs. P e r e n n i a l l y  i s t h i s g r o u p w h i c h i s t h e l e a s t a r t i c u l a t e i n m a k i n g i t s demands  known, w h i c h e x e r t s t h e l e a s t i n f l u e n c e and planning.  1  the  development.  Numerically  it  c u r r e n t w e l f a r e , but  to i n v o l v e b o t h s o c i a l and  neighbourhood's  I f one  in  community i n v o l v e m e n t w h a t s o e v e r .  segment o f t h i s g r o u p , a r e  failure  a f i n a n c i a l stake  o f m a n a g i n g t h e i r own  are of the l o w e s t  s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the a r e a the  considered  dynamics of t h e i r neighbourhood.  have p r o b l e m s , f r o m t h e  affluent  their  consolation.  without  are w e l l capable  t o do so w i t h o u t  t h e y may  s m a l l p a r t to  1  T h o s e whose i n c o m e a l l o w them t o r e n t d e c e n t accommo-  dation express  prefer  i n no  the  certain.  A f i n a l g r o u p t o be  have e v e n t h i s  T h i s group embraces those  ameliorate  They a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y  served  f o r whom o t h e r s must do  the  i n the average neighbourhood  An amendment t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l A s s e s s m e n t E q u a l i z a t i o n A c t was p a s s e d on Monday, M a r c h 9,196k. I t p r o v i d e s t h a t ' r e s i d e n c e s u s e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , f o r f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o J a n u a r y 1,1964, s h a l l be a s s e s s e d on t h a t b a s i s r e g a r d l e s s o f z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s . Not y e t i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e C i t y A s s e s s o r , i t w i l l n o t become e f f e c t i v e b e f o r e 1965.  -  53 -  where s o c i a l planning merely follows upon the heals of physical planning.  In the West End, while the present sine qua non - physical  planning - i s so indecisive,  this group seems destined to be over-  looked, or more l i k e l y , to be eventually forced out of i t s neighbourhood altogether.  CHAPTER I I FRASERVIEW Introduction The  c o n c e p t o f community h a s a t l e a s t two r e l a t e d  the g e o g r a p h i c a l  and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l .  Elliott  that " s i n c e both o f these elements a r e important,  aspects,  and M e r r i l l we may  state  consider  t h e community t o be a c o m p l e x s o c i a l u n i t y t h a t h a s b o t h a p h y s i c a l l o c u s and a p s y c h o l o g i c a l It i s fairly  consensus".^  easy t o d e f i n e  r e f e r r e d t o as Fraserview  the geographical  but the p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects  a community a r e much more d i f f i c u l t l o g i c a l components w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and  area which i s  to describe.  of such  Some o f t h e p s y c h o -  i n t h e s e c t i o n s on S o c i a l P r o b l e m s  Community D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  name F r a s e r v i e w  square mile  s h a l l r e f e r t o t h e s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n one  o f l a n d i n the extreme south east  wherein a vdterans*  housing project i s located  corner  o f Vancouver  (see Figure  3)> A l t h o u g h  c e n s u s t r a c t 49 i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y much l a r g e r t h a n t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t there a r e very  few houses i n i t apart  from v e t e r a n s '  h o u s e s s i n c e much  o f t h e l a n d a r e a i s u s e d a s a c i t y g a r b a g e dump a n d a p u b l i c g o l f course.  The 1961 s t a t i s t i c s  project.  Late  f o r t r a c t 49 r e f l e c t t h e v e t e r a n s '  housing  i n 1963 t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r o p e n e d a new h o u s i n g s u b -  d i v i s i o n n o r t h o f t h e g o l f c o u r s e a n d a f e w new horn© were c o m p l e t e d by the  e n d o f t h e year a n d many a r e p r e s e n t l y u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . Fraserview  i s n o t an a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y d e f i n e d a r e a  C i t y o f Vancouver has never d e v e l o p e d an o f f i c i a l  since the  city-wide  analysis  M a b e l A. E l l i o t t a n d F r a n c i s E. M e r r i l l , S o c i a l D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , Y o r k , H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 3 r d e d . , 1950, p.473.  New  Figure "3  C e n s u s  T7-ac*f5-  Vavcoauer  t The only changes In 1961 were the division o f eight of the 1956 tracts. These divisions are shown with dotted boundaries and their 1961 numbers.  Fra*,er  \t 1 e UJ  - 55  -  of i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l sub-communities.  Marine Drive i n the South,  v i e w G o l f C o u r s e on  the E a s t .  If  we  The  western  and  veterans'  r o u g h l y , the F r a s e r -  unequal p a r t s .  north-south  At l e a s t three  s c h o o l , F r a s e r v i e w w o u l d have t h r e e  areas  served  The  southern  by  neighbourhoods.  h a l f , s e r v e d by S i r James D o u g l a s S c h o o l , w o u l d be  neighbourhood.  distinct  evident w i t h i n the housing p r o j e c t .  t h i n k o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s as g e o g r a p h i c  an e l e m e n t a r y  of the  V i c t o r i a D r i v e , a major  r o a d , d i v i d e s t h e a r e a i n t o two neighbourhoods are  boundaries  54th A v e n u e i n t h e N o r t h , A r g y l e S t r e e t on t h e  housing p r o j e c t are West, S o u t h e a s t  The  1  one  t w o - t h i r d s of the remaining h a l f would  a n e i g h b o u r h o o d s e r v i c e d by D a v i d O p p e n h e i m e r S c h o o l .  The  be  children i n  the upper t h i r d o f the e a s t e r n h a l f o f F r a s e r v i e w a t t e n d S i r C h a r l e s Kingsford-Smith School, which i s l o c a t e d one-half block north of Veterans' to  Housing P r o j e c t .  In t h i s chapter, Fraserview w i l l  c o n s i s t e n t l y as a sub-community w i t h i n the C i t y of  H i s t o r i c a l Sketch U n t i l 19^-5  of  the south-east  sparsely settled.  kept  c h i c k e n s and  and w i t h o u t roads  and  cows.  t h e t e r r a i n was The  Vancouver.  c o r n e r o f V a n c o u v e r was  heavily  M o s t o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s were p o o r Many o f t h e h o u s e s were c r u d e l y  sewer and w a t e r s e r v i c e s .  Fraser River.  referred  Fraserview  wooded and a few  be  the  extremely  There were t r a i l s  rather  uneven as i t s l o p e d toward  and finished than the  s t r e e t c a r r o u t e on V i c t o r i a D r i v e went a s f a r a s  54th A v e n u e d u r i n g r u s h h o u r s , t h e r e s t o f t h e t i m e i t s t o p p e d a t 45th Avenue. The  1  F r a s e r v i e w a r e a had  one  e i g h t room s c h o o l ( S i r James D o u g l a s  S i d n e y D i l l i c k , "The F u n c t i o n s o f N e i g h b o u r h o o d O r g a n i z a t i o n ' , ' Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n A c t i o n , e d . E r n e s t B. H a r p e r and A r t h u r Dunham, New Y o r k , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1959» p. 332.  - 56 S c h o o l ) w i t h an e n r o l l m e n t U n i t e d C h u r c h was  of about three hundred p u p i l s .  the o n l y church  i n s t i t u t i o n s served  l o c a t e d i n the a r e a .  as m e e t i n g p l a c e s f o r t h e  Second  Both of  citizenry.  T h e r e was  P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n a t S i r James D o u g l a s S c h o o l w h i c h s t a r t e d i n t h e 1920's and except  for four years  d u r i n g the l a t e The  people.  t h e y w e r e due  New  to b u i l d a veterans'  housing  project i n  w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n from the  few  r e s i d e n t s w o u l d be a l l o w e d  local  t o r e m a i n where  a l o t i n the a r e a . w o u l d no  Most of the r e s i d e n t s d e c i d e d  l o n g e r be  the s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d  option  t o move  semi-rural  taxes which they p r e f e r r e d .  Fraserview The  end  o f W o r l d War  thousands of servicemen. city  community,  d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n , u n t i l i n t e r e s t waned  a r e a met  community w i t h low The  was  t o t h e p r o p o s e d s t r e e t l a y o u t , t h e y w e r e g i v e n an  as F r a s e r v i e w  a  1950's.  Since very  of keeping  i t p l a y e d an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e  d e c i s i o n , i n 19^5,  the F r a s e r v i e w  these  I I r e s u l t e d i n the r e t u r n to Vancouver of  T h e r e was  t h a t i t became n e c e s s a r y  cost housing  f o r the v e t e r a n s .  available in  the  f o r t h e F e d e r a l Governmat t o p r o v i d e  low  The  a b l e t o t h e F e d e r a l Government and  so l i t t l e  housing  C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r made l a n d C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and  Housing  availCorpor-  a t i o n , a c r o w n c o r p o r a t i o n , became t h e owner o f t h e h o u s e s b u i l t this land.  The  b l o c k of land i n Fraserview  became t h e l a r g e s t f e d e r a l  housing  p r o j e c t i n Canada.  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the houses s t a r t e d i n  and was  c o m p l e t e d i n 1952.  A t o t a l o f 1137  Mortgage and  Housing at the completion  upon  h o u s e s were owned by  of t h i s p r o j e c t .  The  19^6 Central  h o u s e s were  b u i l t by  f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o n t r a c t o r s , e a c h w i t h many s u b - c o n t r a c t o r s .  a result  o f t h i s , many p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  in  the q u a l i t y o f the houses.  As  variation  Many o f t h e l o t s h a v e e x c e l l e n t v i e w s o f  - 57 Mount B a k e r laid  or the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a ( L u l u I s l a n d ) .  out i n the form  o f c r e s c e n t s and  throughout  the  service,  f o r a h o u s e was  c u l - d e - s a c s (see Appendix  (years of s e r v i c e ,  times over from  overseas  service, The  e t c . ) and  r e n t s c a l e has b e e n  t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s b u t e v e n now  1150.00 p e r month f o r a two  for their u t i l i t i e s  w h i c h may  be i n c u r r e d by  and  the  During vacant.  been s e l l i n g  i s extremely low. I t  bedroom h o u s e w i t h o u t  t h e C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and  the houses t o those  occupants.  t i m e 51  the p r e s e n t  v e t e r a n s who  to s e l l  basement Occupants damages  Housing wished  Corpor-  to  purchase.  e v e r y h o u s e t h a t becomes  p e r c e n t o f t h e h o u s e s a r e owned by  There i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n  Corporation wishes  to.be  raised  d e p o s i t a s m a l l fee to cover  t h e p a s t y e a r i t became p o l i c y At  f o r war  occupants.  B e g i n n i n g i n A u g u s t 1955 a t i o n has  C).  t h e r e had  t o $ 6 4 . 0 0 p e r m o n t h f o r a f o u r bedroom h o u s e w i t h b a s e m e n t . must p a y  are  alternated  b a s e d upon a p o i n t s y s t e m  o r more c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y .  varies  streets  area.  Eligibility  several  The  t h e r e a r e o n l y 5 b a s i c house p l a n s , t h e y are  Although  two  -  t o remove i t s e l f  t h a t C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and  from  the Housing  the r e n t a l b u s i n e s s i n F r a s e r v i e w .  D e m o g r a p h i c P a t t e r n s o f Change" " 1  The  p o p u l a t i o n of F r a s e r v i e w (census  b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1956  t o 196l.  the C i t y of Vancouver.  The  T h i s was  t r a c t 4-9)  d e c l i n e d by  three  the s m a l l e s t f l u c t u a t i o n i n  p o p u l a t i o n of F r a s e r v i e w a t the time o f  the  1 Unless otherwise noted, s t a t i s t i c a l data r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s s e c t i o n has b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g b u l l e t i n s o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ; 1961 1956 1951  B u l l e t i n CT - 22 B u l l e t i n 4 - 14 B u l l e t i n CT - 11  - 58 last  three  c e n s u s e s was a s f o l l o w s : -  1951 1956 1961  — — —  4,187 7,398 7,395  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e number o f p e o p l e i n F r a s e r v i e w a f t e r the p e r i o d of r a p i d growth a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  became  constant  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  project. I n 196l  t h e r e was v e r y  little  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e number o f  m a l e s a n d t h e number o f f e m a l e s . The most s t r i k i n g  f e a t u r e o f t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s  community i s t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f p e r s o n s f o u n d i n two o f t h e age r a n g e s , n a m e l y , 10  - 14 y e a r s ,  a n d 35 - 44 y e a r s .  The e f f e c t on  t h e c o m m u n i t y o f t h e l a r g e number o f p e r s o n s i n t h e e a r l y t e e n s h a s not  b e e n u n l i k e t h a t o f a t i d a l wave i n i t s i m p a c t upon t h e community  and  subsequent d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s .  The e f f e c t s o f t h e o t h e r  p e a k a t a g e s 35 - 44 h a v e n o t b e e n n e a r l y a s n o t i c e a b l e range r e p r e s e n t s continue  during  a d u l t s a t the prime of l i f e . the next f i f t e e n  o f t h i s community w i l l  I f the present  to ^ e n t y years,  trends  the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  F i g u r e 4? shows t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e 10-14  o f c h i l d r e n under  T h i s i s l i k e l y a n a t u r a l phenomenon r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e h i g h  proportion  o f h u s b a n d s a n d w i v e s who a r e i n t h e i r f o r t i e s a n d no  w i s h t o have y o u n g c h i l d r e n .  Information  received  from a p u b l i c  n u r s e i n d i c a t e d t h a t s l i g h t l y l t s s s t h a n one h u n d r e d c h i l d r e n were in  Fraserview  will  age  tracts.  T a b l e © i n d i c a t e s a s u b s t a n t i a l d r o p , i n 1961, age 5«  s i n c e t h i s age  be t h e l a r g e number o f r e t i r e d p e r s o n s a n d t h e  s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n . group f o r a l l census  population  i n b o t h 1963  a  n  d  1962,  therefore i ti s l i k e l y  be a f u r t h e r d r o p i n t h e f i r s t age b r a c k e t  census i n  1966.  by t h e n e x t  that  longer health born there  partial  - 59 Table  B.  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n s  Age Range (In Years)  1956  1961  0 - 4  1023  1133  609  5-9 10 - 14  569 267 134  1779  1138  767  1587 666  1068  45 - 54 55 - 64 65 - 69  463 162  1284  147  151 108  4187  Totals  170  177  57 198  7398  7395  f r o m t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s a r e 10 p e r c e n t  then i n the C i t y as a whole.  t o any s i g n i f i c a n t  Table  1687 616  a r e widowed.  Ethnic origins  represented  171 496  7,395 p e o p l e i n F r a s e r v i e w , 4,209 a r e s i n g l e , 2,985  a n d 159  i n Fraserview  315  93 121  70 +  the  331 137 1216  140  25 -34 35-44  are married  1961  1951  15 - 19 20 - 24  Of  i n V a n c o u v e r - Cenus  T r a c t 49 f o r 1951,1956,  C.  British  degree.  Isles  Percent of Population  70  French  5  German  5 5 15  Scandinavian All  No o t h e r c o u n t r y i s  196l E t h n i c G r o u p i n g s i n V a n c o u v e r C e n s u s T r a c t 49  Ethnic Origin  Others  higher  - 60 The  religious a f f i l i a t i o n s of Fraserview residents reveal  that the percentage of persons who are Anglican, Roman Catholic and Presbyterian i s almost the same as the percentages for these faiths on a city-wide basis. in  The United Church a f f i l i a t i o n for Fraserview  1 9 6 l was 35 percent of the t o t a l population as contrasted with a  city-wide a f f i l i a t i o n of 26 percent. In  the City of Vancouver the percentage of adult population  which had some university training ranged from 1.1 percent i n the heart of the Skid Road area to 36 percent i n the Shaughnessy d i s t r i c t . There are more adults i n Fraserview with no formal education than there are with university education.  While only 4 percent of Fraserview  adults have attended university, a large majority of the adults have attended high school (see Table D . ) . Table D.  Education Levels for Fraserview Adults i n 1961 Amount of Education  No  education  Percentage of Total Adult Population 6  Some elementary  26  Some high school  64  Some university  k  Fraserview has the largest number of persons per household ( 4 . 6 ) , the largest number of persons per family ( 4 . 6 ) , and the largest number of children per family (2.6) i n the City of Vancouver.  Population over 15 years of age not attending school.  61  -  Table E  As  Number o f C h i l d r e n P e r F a m i l y i n 1 9 6 1 F r a s e r v i e w and Vancouver  Number o f Children  Percent of Families i n Fraserview  Percent of Families i n Vancouver  0  13  42  1-2  36  42  3 - 4  40  14  5  11  2  shown i n T a b l e E, F r a s e r v i e w h a s t h e l a r g e s t r a t i o o f  f a m i l i e s w i t h t h r e e o r f o u r c h i l d r e n i n the- c i t y .  This feature of  F r a s e r v i e w has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the h i g h e s t r a t i o o f persons i n Vancouver (1.0 person  p e r room).  30 percent  p e r room  of the d w e l l i n g s i n  F r a s e r v i e w a r e r a t e d as crowded by t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . ' The l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y o f d w e l l i n g s i n F r a s e r v i e w , a s shown i n T a b l e F, r e f l e c t s a f a i r l y Nearly 65 percent for over  h i g h degree o f r e s i d e n c e  o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f F r a s e r v i e w have l i v e d  s i x years.  has c o n t r i b u t e d to the r e l a t i v e  permanency o f F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s .  on  there  The l o w r e n t a l p o l i c y o f C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e a n d  Housing Corporation undoubtedly  available  stability.  Unfortunately, f i g u r e s are not  t o show what e f f e c t t h e i n c r e a s i n g home o w n e r s h i p i s h a v i n g  the m o b i l i t y f a c t o r .  being sold p r i m a r i l y  We do n o t know w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e h o u s e s a r e  to occupants  o f them.  The amount o f u n e m p l o y m e n t a t t h e t i m e was 4 . 7 p e r c e n t  of the 1 9 6 1 census  of the t o t a l labour f o r c e .  The D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s d e f i n e s " c r o w d e d " d w e l l i n g s a s t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e number o f p e r s o n s e x c e e d s t h e number o f rooms occupied.  Table F  -  L e n g t h o f Occupancy o f F r a s e r v i e w D w e l l i n g s a s o f J u n e 196l  Percent of Occupied Dwellings  Length of Occupancy  Up t o 2 y e a r s 3 - 5  62  years  6-10  years  O v e r 10  years  20 16 45  19  Along w i t h the adjacent census t r a c t s m a l l e s t percentage of  ( 4 8 ) F r a s e r v i e w had the  o f s e l f - e m p l o y e d males i n the c i t y .  7 » 3 percent  t h e m a l e l a b o u r f o r c e i n F r a s e r v i e w was s e l f - e m p l o y e d w h e r e a s t h e  city's  r a t e was 1 3 * 4 p e r c e n t .  Fraserview c l a s s e d themselves Table G  The b u l k o f t h e e m p l o y e d m a l e s i n a s c r a f t s m e n , a s shown i n T a b l e  S.  Occupational D i v i s i o n s of Fraserview Males  Occupation  Percentage o f male Labour Force  Craftsmen  43  Managerial  11  Clerical  11  Sales  11 Workers  11  Professional or Technical  7  Service  6  Labourers  Many members o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w C o u n c i l on Y o u t h , a b o d y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l people  directly  concerned  w i t h F r a s e r v i e w p r o b l e m s were  - 63 o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t an u n u s u a l l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f m o t h e r s i n t h e community were e m p l o y e d .  The f a c t s do n o t b e a r o u t t h i s  Of a t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e of' 2,288 i n 1 9 6 l , 30 p e r c e n t were This p r o p o r t i o n i s almoi i d e n t i c a l  impression. female.  to the a v e r a g e o f the twelve  census  t r a c t s w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d s o u t h o f h i s t Avenue a s w e l l a s w i t h t h e c i t y as a w h o l e . I n d i v i d u a l m a l e a n d f a m i l y e a r n i n g s were v e r y c l o s e t o t h e c i t y - w i d e average.  Table H a l l o w s a quick comparison  of these  census  categories. Table H  Income L e v e l s f o r F r a s e r v i e w  A n n u a l Wage  Residents,1961  Fraserview  Vancouver  A n n u a l wage p e r wage-earner head o f household  $kk51.00  $Vf08.00  Annual income per f a m i l y  $5301.00  $5366.00  I n many r e s p e c t s t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F r a s e r v i e w a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r t o many o t h e r a r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r .  The most  unusual  a s p e c t s o f t h i s c o m m u n i t y a r e t h e l a r g e number o f p e o p l e w i t h i n two r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w age r a n g e s . and,  In addition,  the f a m i l i e s are l a r g e  a s a r e s u l t , many o f t h e homes a r e c r o w d e d .  F a m i l y income i s  very c l o s e to the average f o r the C i t y of Vancouver.  When c o m p a r e d  to other r e s i d e n t i a l areas of the C i t y , Fraserview a d u l t s are not w e l l educated  n o r a r e many o f them e m p l o y e d i n v o c a t i o n s w h i c h  much f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . r e f e r t o the impact  The r e m a i n d e r  which  require  of t h i s chapter w i l l frequently  t h e above f a c t o r s have had upon t h e community.  - 64 -  SOCIAL PROBLEMS To obtain information about s o c i a l problems i t proved necessary to rely mainly on the informal opinions of persons representing i n s t i t u tions and associations which regularly deal with s o c i a l problems i n Fraserview.  Three reports by the Community Chest and Councils were  of assistance and w i l l be referred to s p e c i f i c a l l y .  It would appear  that most agencies are not i n a p o s i t i o n , due to the cost, to keep s t a t i s t i c s on a census tract basis yet this would be necessary to understand s o c i a l problems i n r e l a t i o n to sub-communities. Juvenile Delinquency . Since i 9 6 0 Juvenile Delinquencyhas been the s o c i a l problem most often attributed to the Fraserview area.  The emphasis put on this area  by the police and s o c i a l agencies has led to a considerable amount of p u b l i c i t y i n the news media.  The residents of Fraserview were aware  of delinquency as a result of thefts and vandalism.  The s o c i a l agencies  were genuinely concerned about their seeming i n a b i l i t y to cope with the delinquency problem.  Many Vancouver residents were aware of the problem  as a result of the p u b l i c i t y . The role of the news media i n "glamourizing" the problems i n Fraserview has been debated by many psple.  At least six major newspaper  a r t i c l e s during the past four years were focussed upon the Fraserview area and none of them could be described as favourable toward the area. While the a r t i c l e s featured the problems of the community, they did not attempt to put them into a perspective which allowed comparison on the basis of population.  The l a s t feature a r t i c l e on Fraserview appeared i n  the Vancouver Sun on November 6, 1963. The caption was of 3/8 inch bold type and read as  follows:  "TOUGH NUTS ARE CRACKED, AND FRASERVIEW STILLED".  -  Agency s t a f f s r e p o r t  wide-scale  p u b l i c i t y r e c e i v e d and answer p e r i o d  65  -  resentment i n Fraserview  t h i s seemed t o be  f o l l o w i n g a s p e e c h by  1962  1961  on  to the the  the  Community C h e s t and  Juvenile Delinquency s t a t i s t i c s . e f f e c t t h a t the  1961  R e p o r t does not  c e n s u s s t a t i s t i c s were n o t  considerable report  and  this gradually  and  the F a m i l y  t h a t , a l t h o u g h the  yet  and  Enquiries  Children's  I 9 6 I  very  the  The  lived part  w i d e - s p r e a d amongst  involves deliqnency  was  the  necessary to i n c l u d e  the  t h a t o f an  of the  t o t h e Community C h e s t  grouping to that  1 9 year old population  a d u l t as  f a r as o u r  I t w i l l be  rate of delinquency i s comparatively A l t h o u g h the  and  indi-  census  which  1 0 y e a r t o 1 9 y e a r g r o u p i n g , i t became e v e n t h o u g h t h i s age  j u d i c i a l system i s concerned.  F i g u r e 5 i s a comparison of d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s i n the C i t y of Vancouver.  in  delinquency.  c l o s e s t c e n s u s age  were s t i l l  public.  c e n s u s f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e , n e i t h e r  the  the  seems t o have b e e n  Court i n February, 1 9 6 4 ,  Since  legally  since  w r i t e r s u b s e q u e n t l y c a l c u l a t e d d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s on a  tract basis.  is  report  delinquency rates  l e d t o an a s s u m p t i o n , on  c a l c u l a t e d the r a t e s o f The  reflect  a  statements  s e c o n d l a r g e s t number o f d e l i n q u e n t s  young p e o p l e of t h i s community.  had  released  I n s p i t e o f two  a v a i l a b l e , there  many i n d i v i d u a l s , t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y was  Councils  .  Councils  1  and  Oppenheimer  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n amongst a g e n c y s t a f f and  showed t h a t t h e  Fraserview  cated  1964  the  i n a question  the w r i t e r to the  P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n on M a r c h 1 7 , I n May  born out  over  census t r a c t s of  noted from Table E t h a t low  (see  r a t e of d e l i n q u e n c y i s not  t h i r t y - f o u r adjudged delinquents  tract  Fraserview&s  49).  excessively high,  i n l e s s t h a n one  there  square  R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y S t a t i s t i c s V a n c o u v e r , B.C. 1 9 6 1 , May 1962  - 66 m i l e i n 1961. broad with a  Both  t h e p o l i c e and t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t a r e a l l o w e d  d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers as t o whether o r n o t a c h i l d i s charged delinquency. D u r i n g 1961  gangs w h i c h  a n d 1962  caused  t h e r e were i n e x i s t e n c e s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r e d  c o n s i d e r a b l e concern  o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g the area.  b u t i t was n o t u n u s u a l  T h e s e were g a n g s w i t h  D u r i n g 1963  l e a d e r s and membership.  t o t h e p o l i c e and o t h e r identifiable  t h e g a n g s were no l o n g e r n o t i c e a b l e  t o f i n d up t o one h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y  l o i t e r i n g on V i c t o r i a D r i v e i n t h e v i c i n i t y Senior o f f i c i a l s  o f the Boys'  o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y P o l i c e have  teenagers  Club. indicated  t o t h e w r i t e r t h a t d u r i n g t h e p a s t t w e l v e months an a v e r a g e o f 25 p e r c e n t o f a l l c o m p l a i n t s r e c e i v e d a t t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n were the V e t e r a n s ' Housing  Project.  The same o f f i c i a l s  l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o m p l a i n t s were r e l a t e d  from  state that a very  to the behaviour of  j u v e n i l e s o r the commission o f o f f e n c e s e i t h e r b e l i e v e d o r proven t o be  j uveniles.  Constables working  i n F r a s e r v i e w have a d v i s e d t h e  w r i t e r t h a t t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a have  con-  v i n c e d them t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l v a n d a l i s m a n d m a l i c i o u s damage i s r e p o r t e d t o t h e p o l i c e . the p o l i c e but  Many f a m i l i e s have a d v i s e d  t h a t they would f e a r r e p r i s a l s i f they were t o r e p o r t any  t h e most s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t s t o t h e p o l i c e . Although  the r a t i o of delinquency i n Fraserview i s not high, the  area continues to l e a d a l l r e s i d e n t i a l areas of the C i t y as a f o c a l p o i n t o f concern Evidence In  f o r the Vancouver C i t y  o f Other S o c i a l  Police.  Problems  i960 t h e Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s c o n d u c t e d a c h e c k - l i s t  survey of multi-problem  f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver.  F o r purposes  of this  Table I  Census tract number  -  Rates of J u v e n i l e Delinquency i n  V a n c o u v e r , 1961-*-  Percent of Population w h i c h was delinquent  Census tract number  Percent of population w h i c h was delinquent  Census tract number  Percent of population w h i c h was delinquent  33 34  1.6%  35 36  1.5% 0.61%  37  22  2.3% 3.4%  0.51% 0.68%  23  2.0%  40  2.1%  24  1.6%  41  0.31% 1.2%  0.74% 1.0%  25 26  42  0.56%  1.1%  12  0.61%  27 28  43 44  1.1%  11  1.1% 0.81% 1.4% • 2.0%  45  13  3-7%  1.9%  46  14  5.7%  29 30  0.29% 0.58% 1.6%  1.5%  47  1.3%  15 16  3.3% 1.4%  31 32  2.5% 1.4%  48  1.3%  49  1.5%  1 2  17 18  3  1.0%  1.2%  4  0%  19 20  3.9%  21  2.5% 2.8%  7 8 9 1  2.0%  3-3% 2.4%  5 6  .  67  0  0.58% 2.0%  39  0.60%  1  S t u d y a m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y i s d e f i n e d as " a f a m i l y i n iirhich 18  t h e r e i s a t l e a s t one p a r e n t a t home a n d one o r more c h i l d r e n o r u n d e r , a n d w h e r e t h e r e i s o n e o r more b e h a v i o u r d i s o r d e r s  (child  n e g l e c t , d e l i n q u e n c y , o r o t h e r s e r i o u s b e h a v i o u r problem) p l u s a  2 s e r i o u s problem i n e i t h e r o r . b o t h t h e h e a l t h and economic  area."  S i n c e t h e R e p o r t o f t h e Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s was b a s e d on 1956 c e n s u s t r a c t b o u n d a r i e s a d j u s t m e n t s were made so t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f p e r s o n s a g e s 10 - 19 y e a r s i n t h e 196l c e n s u s were a p p l i e d t o t h e 1956 b o u n d a r i e s . Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , C h e c k l i s t o f M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l i e s , I960, V a n c o u v e r , i960, p . l .  Survey  - 68 The incidence of multi-problem families i n Fraserview was i n the lowest category, 0.0 - 1.4 percent of families with children. there may be many families with specific problems, the  While  check-list  survey would indicate a scarcity of s o c i a l l y debilitated  families.  Factual material i s not available with regard to alcoholism i n Fraserview.  Many of the f i e l d staff of agencies working i n  Fraserview have indicated some concern about the amount of problem drinking.  These persons are of the opinion that many Fraserview  adults have continued drinking patterns t y p i c a l of m i l i t a r y l i f e . Apparently the pay day party and the celebration of various m i l i t a r y battles are well entrenched as the things to do.  The Pyramid Group  of Alcoholics Anonymous meets regularly i n the Fraserview United Church, however, only t h i r t y of the members l i v e i n the Veterans' Housing Project.  - 69 COMMUNITY DISORGANIZATION Community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n inability faces.  to act c o l l e c t i v e l y James S. Coleman  1  w h i c h may  o r may  community  disorganization:  r e f e r s to a  community's  toward the problems which i t  believes  that there  a r e two e l e m e n t s  not operate together to b r i n g about a s t a t e of the absence o f any c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t 2  and/or the e x i s t e n c e  of c o n f l i c t i n g c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s .  A l a n F. K l e i n r e f e r s t o d a n g e r s i g n s i n a community  which  w o u l d i n d i c a t e much t h e same p r o c e s s w h i c h Coleman  r e f e r s to as  community  follows:-  disorganization.  The n i n e p o i n t s a r e a s  1. 2.  T h e r e i s no l e a d e r s h i p o r b a s i s f o r l e a d e r s h i p . T h e r e i s t e n s i o n a n d c o n f l i c t ; an a t m o s p h e r e o f s u s p i c i o n ; d i s t r u s t and j e a l o u s y marks p e r s o n a l and g r o u p r e l a t i o n s .  3.  Pressure groups a r e a c t i v e .  k.  The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  5.  There i s a l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n s t u p i d i s o l a t i o n and p r i d e .  6.  Community p r o b l e m s a r e a p p r o a c h e d instead of r a t i o n a l l y .  7.  T h e r e i s c o n f l i c t among t h e c h u r c h e s .  8.  The a t t i t u d e t o w a r d p o l i t i c s i s l e t h a r g i c .  9.  T h e r e i s no community i s poor.3  Although these p o i n t s terms, they s t i l l  could  i s inefficient.  planning  among  organizations;  emotionally  o r what t h e r e i s  be r e p h r a s e d and p u t i n t o more t e c h n i c a l  p r o v i d e a u s e f u l b a s e f r o m w h i c h community d i s -  James S. C o l e m a n , "Community D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n " , C o n t e m p o r a r y S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , e d . R o b e r t K. M e r t e n and R o b e r t A. N i s b e t , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 l , p. 556. 2 _ loc.c i t . ^ A l a n F. K l e i n , "X-Ray Y o u r Community", p . 2 . M i m e o g r a p h e d m a t e r i a l , f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s unknown. 1  - 70 organization may be studied.  The present study could in no way  pretend to be an exhaustive and penetrating analysis of Fraserview, however, i t i s hoped that even a limited study may be of some value to those who must continue to work with social problems i n the c i t y and i n Fraserview.  Much of the information collected from i n t e r -  views i s subjective  and therefore there i s always the  of distorted information.  possibility  Those who daily work i n the midst of  s o c i a l problems may very e a s i l y ,  though inadvertently,  concepts and attitudes which are not always objective.  develop During the  course of field-work this has been shown to be true on a number of very important issues. Eleven of the persons interviewed are d i r e c t l y involved i n programmes which require c i t i z e n participation and which attempt recruit their lay leadership from the community.  to  Of the eleven,  eight reported considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining a satisfactory l e v e l of membership and nine reported d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining people with a b i l i t y to serve as leaders.  It was the opinion of these persons  that they have had to provide f a i r l y firm direction to their groups and remain i n f a i r l y close contact with the programmes offered. Of the persons with direct knowledge of the character of many Fraserview residents,  the majority freely commented on what they saw  as a high degree of inter-personal c o n f l i c t ,  suspicion and resentnmt  of those individuals who were "progressing" (improving their in l i f e ) ,  station  jealousies over accumulation of material goods, and a basic  distrust of well educated persons.  In such a homogeneous community  apparently very small things can take on great importance. 1  The writer's f i e l d work was a community organization placement with the Fraserview Youth Services Society. The supervisor was Mr.D.E.McComb Executive Director of the Boys' Clubs of Vancouver. Two days per week, for the entire academic year, were a l l o t t e d to field-work.  - 71 This the  community has a v e r y  Fraserview  vocal pressure  g r o u p , known a s  Homeown.e r s ' a n d T e n a n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , whose  p u r p o s e seems t o be " t o g e t a b e t t e r d e a l f r o m t h e F e d e r a l ment".  T h i s g r o u p h a s c a r r i e d on i t s a c t i v i t i e s  executive  w h i c h meets r e g u l a r l y and g e n e r a l  c a l l e d a t times of c r i s i s .  that the majority  organization.  meetings which a r e  o f r e s i d e n t s do n o t s e r i o u s l y s u p p o r t  T h o s e who do a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t t h i s  association  the government's  o f t h e l a s t d e c a d e t h a t t h e y now r e s e n t  change i n r e n t s o r p o l i c y .  The  p u r c h a s e d must be a n  a r e p r i m a r i l y t h o s e who a r e so c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h •benign p a t e r n a l i s m '  t h r o u g h an  houses a r e too h i g h .  i n c r e a s i n g number o f homes w h i c h a r e b e i n g  the  Govern-  This a s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e s that the  r e n t s and s a l e p r i c e s of the veterans'  indication  sole  any  Many o f t h e p e o p l e who have p u r c h a s e d  t h e i r homes have e x p r e s s e d r e s e n t m e n t t o w a r d t h o s e who r e m a i n ent  and t o t h e a d v e r s e p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o the l o b b y i n g .  the F r a s e r v i e w  depend-  Recently  Homeowners' a n d T e n a n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n p i c k e t e d t h e  L i b e r a l P a r t y h e a d q u a r t e r s i n V a n c o u v e r and t h i s a c t i o n a l o n g a t e l e v i s i o n i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. A l e x Watson, p r e s i d e n t  with  of the  a s s o c i a t i o n , may h a v e c a u s e d t h e b r e a c h b e t w e e n r e s i d e n t s t o w i d e n . Mr.  V/atson h a s s t a t e d , i n a p u b l i c m e e t i n g , t h a t he i s c o n v i n c e d  t h a t t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n given he  the w r i t e r f a l s e information  a b o u t t h e number o f h o u s e s s o l d ,  i s c e r t a i n t h a t h i s f i g u r e s a r e more  accurate.  The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n F r a s e r v i e w Fraserview  has d e l i b e r a t e l y  i s r a t h e r d i f f u s e . The  Community A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h a t one t i m e was v e r y  no l o n g e r  h o l d s membership m e e t i n g s .  veterans'  clubs but there  active,  Many o f t h e a d u l t s b e l o n g t o  i s a s p l i t b e t w e e n t h e L e g i o n a n d t h e Army  - 72 N a v y and  A i r Force Veterans'  well organized them i n t o one The  but  t h e r e has  Association. been l i t t l e  Certain sports success  w r i t e r i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o comment on  interest i n politics.  T h e r e i s no  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and  regarding  this  little  good.  the  these the  first  few  establishment  years  i n f o r m a t i o n has  to work t o g e t h e r  I t was  to t h e  1957  to  o b t a i n s e r v i c e s are unco-ordinated  i n the  people  f o r t h e good o f the and  and  It is  mid-fifties  d i s a p p o i n t i n g to  completion  a Community C h e s t r e p o r t s t a t e d , " t h e  evidence of competition  from  of a b u i l d i n g . another  e f f o r t s of the  At  this  over-  time t h e r e  c o n f l i c t which could a f f e c t  the  and  groups  there i s a l a c k of  community.  is  morale  community"."'" Many o f t h e p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d by  1  were  do now.  t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s s t a r t e d b i c k e r i n g w i t h one  planning  three  light  that i t took n e a r l y e i g h t years  community's o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t  o f the  the  f a r more h a r m o n i o u s l y  of the p r o j e c t than they  by  all  come t o  the w r i t e r t h a t the  of a Boys' Club.  p e r s o n s to f i n d out  Gradually  and  Voting s t a t i s t i c s  known t h a t many c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s w o r k e d t o g e t h e r for  churches  factor.  t h i s community were a b l e  d u r i n g the  of  apparent c o n f l i c t between  A number o f p e r s o n s have t o l d in  two  i n f a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the m i n i s t e r s o f the  d o m i n a n t c h u r c h e s seem t o be v e r y not  i n amalgamating  major o r g a n i z a t i o n .  K l e i n ' s d a n g e r s p o t s , n a m e l y , c o n f l i c t among t h e  churches,  are  the w r i t e r r e p o r t e d  that  Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , R e p o r t on t h e Need f o r R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w A r e a , V a n c o u v e r , M a r c h 29, 1957, p.l.  -  73 -  during the f i r s t few years of the housing project a large number of the men were attending university but, as they "got on their feet" f i n a n c i a l l y , many of them moved into other areas of the c i t y . A school p r i n c i p a l said he s t i l l expects to lose two of his best families each month. It i s evident that there i s considerable community or s o c i a l disorganization i n Fraserview.  To the w r i t e r ' s knowledge  there i s no rating scale or measurement device whereby we could say that this community i s worse than others or that i t i s at a danger point leading to disintegration.  We do know that  this  community was faced with one very serious s o c i a l problem - delinquency, and that the residents of the community have not been able to mobilize their resources to combat the problem.  The section to follow w i l l  discuss the role of the i n s t i t u t i o n s and associations,  as well as  the planning bodies, i n controlling the problem of delinquency. Opinion Testing Questionnaire On March 17, 1964, the writer addressed a meeting at the Oppenheimer Parent-Teacher Association.  Before starting the speech  a questionnaire was circulated amongst the audience. completed questionnaires were returned.  Forty seven  Although the sample was  small and from an area served by only one school i t i s  contended  that some of the responses may be significant and useful i n understanding the community.  The questionnaire was a modified version of  a t r i a l one presented one month e a r l i e r to a group of six persons on the executive of this Parent-Teacher Association.  The questionnaire  may be found i n Appendix D. The purpose of the questionnaire was to determine  response  74'  -  -  t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h may be r e l a t e d t o a p e r s o n ' s toward  t h e community he l i v e s i n .  determine  the respondent's  feelings  Q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o  individual activity i n organizations  a s w e l l a s w h e t h e r o r n o t he o r s h e h e l d p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p i n them, v i e w p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g community r e p u t a t i o n , a n d e x t e n t to which  they would p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a n o t h e r community.  c o n c e r n i n g l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e a n d home o w n e r s h i p  Questions  were i n c l u d e d t o  t e s t w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e f a c t o rs and  the responses  to the other questions.  Twenty s e v e n o f t h e r e p l i e s w e r e f r o m p e o p l e who a r e p u r c h a s i n g t h e i r homes, 20 were f r o m r e n t e r s .  Length o f r e s i d e n c e ranged  from  1 t o 15 y e a r s and e v e r y y e a r i n t h e r a n g e was r e p r e s e n t e d , a l t h o u g h 77 p e r c e n t h a d l i v e d i n F r a s e r v i e w f o r 6 o r more y e a r s .  Seventy  p e r c e n t o f the r e s i d e n t s i m p l i e d t h a t they p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e i n F r a s e r v i e w r a t h e r t h a n some o t h e r  neighbourhood.  Many o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d were o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t common e x p e r i e n c e s a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t i e s h a s l e d t o a s o c i a l l y ingrown respondents  community.  Seventy-seven  percent o f the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t most o f t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s l i v e d o u t s i d e  of the Veterans' Housing  Project.  I t i s o f i n t e r e s t to note  a c i t y - w i d e s u r v e y o f K a l a m a z o o , M i c h i g a n , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 75  that percent  o f t h e p e o p l e p o l l e d h a d most o f t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s o u t s i d e o f t h e a r e a where t h e y  lived.  1  Most o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t V a n c o u v e r i t e s thought F r a s e r v i e w had a poor r e p u t a t i o n a s a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a but  1 Center f o r S o c i o l o g i c a l Research o f Western Michigan U n i v e r s i t y , R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s on I n t e g r a t e d H o u s i n g i n K a l a m a z o o , W.E. U p j o h n I n s t i t u t e f o r Community R e s e a r c h , K a l a m a z o o , J u l y , 1959» p.10.  the  g r o u p was  75  almost evenly  -  split  regarding  were grounds f o r s u c h a r e p u t a t i o n . during  the  that there  considerable  r e p u t a t i o n was  l a c k of resources press. bility with  and  t h a t the  T h e r e seemed t o be of the  the  t h e y f e l t much o f t h e  r e l a t e d to the  local citizens  there the  writer  questionnaire,  poor  reputation.  trouble which  l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n ,  e n t i r e i s s u e was  little  to  s p e e c h and  d e f e n s i v e n e s s about the  Many p e r s o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t to the  I t became e v i d e n t  d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d r e l a t e d to the was  whether or not  the  exaggerated i n  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  to m o b i l i z e  lead  apparent  t h e i r resources  the incapa-  to h e l p  deal  d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r o f some o f t h e y o u n g p e r s o n s .  Table J .  R e s p o n s e By F r a s e r v i e w R e s i d e n t s t o Q u e s t i o n s R e g a r d i n g R e p u t a t i o n o f t h e Community  j Content of  Question  Reply  C i t y Wide R e p u t a t i o n i s poor i s not poor  81% 19%  P e r s o n a l l y f e l t there were grounds f o r p o o r reputation. P e r s o n a l l y f e l t there were i n s u f f i c i e n t grounds f o r a poor reputation  Most of the organizations,  respondents b e l o n g to three  e t c . , and  four out  a t one  time or a n o t h e r .  little  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the  m o s t p e r s o n s who T h e r e was  attend no  55%  or f o u r  o f t e n have h e l d  I t i s possible  that  clubs,  elected  office  these f a c t o r s bear  e n t i r e community a s  t h e y may  Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n  be  common t o  meetings.  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  length  of  residence to l i v e  76  -  o r home o w n e r s h i p and  o r how  t h e y saw  the  where the  reputation  In t h i s section questions  relating  d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d . are  some s i g n s o f p r o b l e m s i t i s n o t  on a c o m p a r a b l e b a s i s w i t h o t h e r  of  r e s i d e n t s has  opinion-questionnaire.  preferred  Fraserview. to e v i d e n c e o f  W h i l e i t can possible  be  community  seen  to evaluate  areas i n Vancouver.  p r o b l e m i s that of j u v e n i l e delinquency. s e e n by  respondents  The  there them dominant  Awareness of problems  been t e s t e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w i n g and  an  as  -  77  COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS  "To  u n d e r s t a n d a c o m m u n i t y one must a l s o know i t s a s s o c i -  a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s "  1  These elements a r e a b a s i c p a r t  community's s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  I t i s believed t h a t  social  of a  problems 2  have t h e i r r o o t s i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f a c o m m u n i t y . R.M. M a c l v e r s t a t e s t h a t " i n s t i t u t i o n s  a r e forms o f o r d e r  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n s o c i a l l i f e b y some common w i l l " . an  a s s o c i a t i o n a s " a body o f s o c i a l b e i n g s o r g a n i z e d  He  defines  for the pursuit  3  o f some common i n t e r e s t o r i n t e r e s t s . " I n s t i t u t i o n s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s s e r v i n g F r a s e r v i e w w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o three leadership  major c a t e g o r i e s :  those w i t h p u r e l y  a n d no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r  l o c a l leadership  and d i r e c t a f f i l i a t i o n  national organization,  writer w i l l  groups-, t h o s e  and those i n s t i t u t i o n s which p r o v i d e  a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e  s h i p , and endeavoured t o promote a sense o f community. implied i n part  services  leadership.  i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s have sought t o d e v e l o p l o c a l  be  with  w i t h a c e n t r a l and/or  to t h e community w i t h o u t t h e u s e o f l o c a l The  local  through a n a l y s i s of the l e a d e r s h i p  This  leadermay  structure of  s e l e c t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . Since  p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o y o u t h have b e e n a f o c a l p o i n t o f  concern i n Fraserview, 1  particular attention w i l l  be a t t a c h e d  tothe  Ray J o h n s a n d D a v i d F. D e M a r c h e , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A g e n c y R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , New Y o r k , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ? p . 2 1 .  2  H a r o l d L. W i l e n s k y a n d C h a r l e s N. L e b e a u x , I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y a n d S o c i a l W e l f a r e , New Y o r k , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 5 8 , p. 2 1 7 •5  R.M. M a c l v e r , Community - A S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d y , New Y o r k , M a c M i l l a n , 1917» PP 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 » c i t e d b y J o h n s a n d D e M a r c h e , o p . c i t . p . 2 1 .  - 78 s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s t o y o u t h w h i c h a r e o f f e r e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s and  associations.  Fraserview  Community  The  Fraserview  Association Community A s s o c i a t i o n i s one o f a  city-wide  n e t w o r k o f community a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h a r e o p e r a t e d by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s w i t h programme a s s i s t a n c e P a r k s and P u b l i c This  from t h e Vancouver Board o f  Recreation.  a s s o c i a t i o n was f o r m e d i n 1 9 5 0 t o p r o v i d e  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e community. h o u s e was d o n a t e d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n place. and  s o c i a l and  A large construction  field-  f o r i t s use a s a community m e e t i n g  Between 1 9 5 0 and 1 9 5 6 t h e A s s o c i a t i o n had a l a r g e membership  o f f e r e d a programme g e a r e d t o t h e n e e d s o f a l l a g e s .  This  b u i l d i n g b u r n e d down i n 1 9 5 6 . F o r t h e n e x t f e w y e a r s a l i m i t e d programme was s p o n s o r e d , a l l m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n p r i v a t e homes and  church basements. The  A new b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d  present executive  i n I960.  and board o f d i r e c t o r s c o n s i s t o f  s e v e n t e e n p e r s o n s , a l l o f whom l i v e i n F r a s e r v i e w .  Membership  a t t e n d a n c e , a t t h e m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s h e l d s i n c e 1 9 6 2 , was so l o w t h a t a l l r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s were c a n c e l l e d i n November 1 9 6 3 . p r e s e n t time the e x e c u t i v e  a n d b o a r d meet once a month.  A t the  The p r e s -  i d e n t o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e o f f i c e r s have done a l l that  t h e y c a n do t o make t h e a s s o c i a t i o n e f f e c t i v e .  future of this organization  are s t i l l  dancing lessons, girls'  being  Community A s s o c i -  c a r r i e d on.  Baton  one Cub P a c k a n d one S c o u t T r o o p , s q u a r e  s o f t b a l l , and a L i t t l e  f o r the  e x t r e m e l y vague a n d u n c e r t a i n .  In s p i t e o f the problems o f the Fraserview a t i o n , a l i m i t e d programme i s s t i l l  Plans  League b a s e b a l l  lessons,  dancing,  team a r e y o u t h  - 79 activities  still  s p o n s o r e d by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n .  Fraserview  Homeowners' a n d T e n a n t s '  Association  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n arose i n response t o t h e need f o r a group to represent  individual residents i n negotiations with  Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n Affairs.  Central  and the Department o f V e t e r a n s '  This a s s o c i a t i o n appears to e x i s t  solely  f o r t h e purpose  o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h o s e v e t e r a n s who a r e s t i l l houses. 1963  T h e r e was b i t t e r o p p o s i t i o n  and there  ation believes The  very  i s opposition  on  t o t h e p u r c h a s e o f homes a s t h e a s s o c i -  nature of the purpose o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n  been d i s p l a y e d .  intends  i n rent i n  t h a t t h e purchase p r i c e o f t h e houses i s f a r t o o h i g h .  meetings i n which a great has  to a slight increase  has r e s u l t e d i n  deal o f emotion, p a r t i c u l a r l y  The p r e s i d e n t  hostility,  i n d i c a t e d t o t h e w r i t e r t h a t he  to broaden t h e purpose o f the a s s o c i a t i o n t o i n c l u d e  a l l issues which a f f e c t residents of  Athletic  Fraserview.  h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n team  Many a d u l t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n c o a c h i n g teams f o r b o t h s e x e s . . a p p e a r s t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e  friction  sports.  t o coach  The programme d i r e c t o r o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w  encouraging other planning  There  body w h i c h w o u l d , amongst o t h e r  specific  B o y s ' C l u b h a s been  coaches t o u n i t e and form a u n i t a r y  co-ordinating  things, assign a  common team name t o t h e b e s t team i n e a c h s p o r t .  help  sports.  between some o f t h e g r o u p s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y a r o u n d i s s u e s o f who i s q u a l i f i e d  believe  action  I n t e r e s t Groups  Fraserview  and  renting  Some p e r s o n s  t h a t a s i n g l e name f o r t h e b e s t team i n e a c h s p o r t  would  d e v e l o p c o m m u n i t y i n t e r e s t i n t h e s p o r t s a s w e l l a s more  community  identity.  - 80 The  Churches The  U n i t e d C h u r c h o f Canada has a c h u r c h l o c a t e d w i t h i n  the V e t e r a n s ' Housing  Project.  The  building i s quite plain  and  much o f t h e f i n i s h e d w o r k has b e e n done by p a r i s h i o n e r s . The  U n i t e d C h u r c h m i n i s t e r , Rev.  i n F r a s e r v i e w f o r e i g h t y e a r s and was  H a r r y P a r k e r , has  c h o s e n by  because of h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h v e t e r a n s . L e g i o n C h a p l a i n b e f o r e W o r l d War war  and  s i n c e then has  m i n i s t e r ' s concern  the  Rev.  been  congregation P a r k e r was  a  I I , a m i l i t a r y padre d u r i n g  the  been a p a d r e f o r an army r e s e r v e u n i t .  a b o u t t h e c o m m u n i t y and  w i t h t h e l a r g e number o f y o u t h h a s  i t s r e s o u r c e s to  extended  beyond the  The  deal  church's  programme t o a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a B o y s ' C l u b and  t h e K i l l a r n e y Community  The  Centre.  F r a s e r v i e w U n i t e d C h u r c h has a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a d u l t s i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s which v a r y from programmes f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  Rev.  r o l e i n t h e c h u r c h and  energy  t o o t h e r community S l i g h t l y o v e r 400  in  church  sponsored  hundred  the church board  themselves  t o c o n t r i b u t e some o f t h e i r t i m e  y o u n g p e o p l e , a g e s 6 t o 25 y e a r s ,  a c t i v i t i e s a p a r t f r o m Sunday S c h o o l .  The  The  and  Both  c h u r c h b u i l d i n g i s v e r y p l a i n and  p r e s e n t m i n i s t e r has  sexes  activities.  b a s e m e n t s e r v e s a s a k i n d e r g a r t e n on week The  to  participate  S t . Timothy's A n g l i c a n Church i s a l s o l o c a t e d i n the Project.  he  activities.  have s e p a r a t e as w e l l as mixed group  Housing  to  Parker stated that  encourages each o f h i s a d u l t l e a d e r s to r e s t r i c t one  one  been w i t h t h i s  Veterans'  functional.  days. church f o r four years  - 81 a l t h o u g h he i s a l s o of  fairly  Fraserview. Over f i f t y  adults  contribute  some f o r m o f l e a d e r s h i p . difficulty  The  to undertake the p o s i t i o n s which  responsibility.  y o u t h programme d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be w e l l  teenagers there  Guild  t o c h u r c h s p o n s o r e d a c t i v i t i e s by  The m i n i s t e r s t a t e d t h a t he does have some  f i n d i n g persons w i l l i n g  c a r r y t h e most  For  a c t i v e w i t h d u t i e s which take him o u t s i d e  i s o n l y one y o u n g p e o p l e s ' c l u b a n d a  (which i s r e s t r i c t e d  to boys).  very  both  c l a s s o f young p e r s o n .  C o r p u s C h r i s t i Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i s l o c a t e d from t h e n o r t h e a s t  Server's  The m i n i s t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t  a c t i v i t i e s involve primarily a superior  s i x blocks  developed.  portion of Fraserview.  o r n a t e and of s t r i k i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e .  approximately The c h u r c h i s  Along with the church i s  a c o m p l e x o f b u i l d i n g s w h i c h h o u s e a gymnasium, e l e m e n t a r y a n d secondary school, o f f i c e and  teaching The  space and r e s i d e n c e s  f o r the p a r i s h  priest  staff.  p a r i s h P r i e s t has been a t t a c h e d  to t h i s area f o r over  t w e l v e y e a r s a n d h a s s e e n t h e b u i l d i n g s d e v e l o p on an a c r e a g e w h i c h was o n l y b r u s h when he a r r i v e d . has  b u i l d i n g programme  t a k e n much o f t h e c h u r c h ' s e n e r g y a n d o n l y i n r e c e n t  t h e m i n i s t e r been a b l e with  The c o n c e n t r a t e d  months has  t o devote e x t r a time t o p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n  the p a r i s h i o n e r s . The  P r i e s t i n d i c a t e d a great  to r e c r u i t a d u l t l e a d e r s outside  deal o f concern about h i s i n a b i l i t y  from t h e F r a s e r v i e w  area.  The y o u t h programme,  o f c h u r c h f u n c t i o n s , i s now i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g  Parent-Teacher  developed.  Associations  There a r e o n l y  two P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h  involve  82  f a m i l i e s from  the V e t e r a n s ' Housing  s c h o o l , which  serves Fraserview e x c l u s i v e l y ,  teacher association. was  The  on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r e n t s and  seem t o be r e l a t e d  D a v i d Oppenheimer P a r e n t - T e a c h e r  four meetings per school year. and a t t e n d a n c e  a t each meeting  t h e p r i n c i p a l c o n s i d e r s t o be  A s s o c i a t i o n had  at meetings u n t i l  So  Operation Doorstep,  a s s o c i a t i o n to attempt  the  e x c e p t i o n a l l y good.  present  There a r e  i s new  twelve This  t o t h e a r e a , has  The  for  principle  encouraged  the  a more a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d programme.  i s u s u a l l y v e r y good.  I t i s understood  and  that this  group  o f t h e b e s t s c h o o l l u n c h programmes i n t h e c i t y .  o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n come f r o m fore the involvement  which  door to door canvass  P.T.A. a t K i n g s f o r d - S m i t b h S c h o o l i s v e r y a c t i v e  o p e r a t e s one  Only  the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a t h e r e -  of parents i s a l s o not g r e a t .  Although  three  out  t h e p a s t f i v e p r e s i d e n t s o f t h e P.T.A. w e r e F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s  o n l y three out of the p r e s e n t e x e c u t i v e of t h i r t y The  been  has b e e n a r o u n d s e v e n t y p e r s o n s ,  a T u b e r c u l o s i s c o n t r o l campaign.  O p p e n h e i m e r S c h o o l , who  attendance  apathy  f a r , t h r e e m e e t i n g s have been h e l d  a s s o c i a t i o n r e c e n t l y o r g a n i z e d an a r e a - w i d e  of  to  on i t s e x e c u t i v e and a l l a r e F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s .  The  parent-  I n September 1 9 & 3 the e x e c u t i v e d e c i d e d to h o l d o n l y  school year.  of  does n o t have a  the s c h o o l .  experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n attendance  persons  S i r James D o u g l a s  S i r James D o u g l a s P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n  i n 1962 f o r reasons which  disbanded  The  Project.  p r i n c i p a l has  observed  are from  Fraserview.  t h a t t h e p a r e n t s f r o m F r a s e r v i e w do  not  a t t e n d i n p r o p o r t i o n , t o t h e number o f s t u d e n t s . L e i s u r e Time S e r v i c e s The  Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n c o n d u c t s  a decentralized  - 83 programme i n S o u t h V a n c o u v e r .  Administrative offices are located  i n a s m a l l cottage l o c a t e d near K i l l a r n e y Secondary School, one  m i l e from t h e n o r t h east c o r n e r o f F r a s e r v i e w .  The v a r i o u s  programmes t a k e p l a c e i n homes, s c h o o l s , o r w h e r e v e r facilities  c a n be  The is  about  suitable  found.  S o u t h V a n c o u v e r Y.M.C.A. i s an a u t o n o m o u s b r a n c h  which  d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r Y.M.C.A.  A f u l l - t i m e E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y i s employed except  f o r t h e summer  m o n t h s when he i s n e e d e d a t Camp Howdy, a camp f o r b o y s a n d g i r l s operated  b y t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Y.M.C.A.  F i v e o u t o f f o u r t e e n S o u t h V a n c o u v e r Y.M.C.A. b o a r d are Fraserview r e s i d e n t s . has  h a d no d i f f i c u l t y  assistance  e n l i s t i n g l e a d e r s h i p and o t h e r forms o f  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a Men's K e e p - F i t  activity  people  The E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y s t a t e s t h a t he  from F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s .  With gym  members  t h e programme i s d e s i g n e d  o f both sexes,  c l a s s and young a d u l t  t o meet t h e n e e d s o f y o u n g  ages e i g h t t o n i n e t e e n .  Swimming, gym c l a s s e s  s k i l e s s o n s , and horseback r i d i n g , a r e o f f e r e d t o both sexes. club and w i l d e r n e s s c l u b a r e e x c l u s i v e t o boys.  Both  have a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l - r e c r e a t i o n a l s m a l l - g r o u p Approximately and,  g i r l s and boys c l u b programme.  480 c h i l d r e n a r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e Y.M.C.A. programmes  o f them, a b o u t 50 p e r c e n t The  A car  come f r o m  Fraserview.  Y.M.C.A. h a s a s p e c i a l programme o f l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g  f r o m w h i c h i t r e c r u i t s many o f t h e a c t i v i t y l e a d e r s .  The Veterans'  F r a s e r v i e w Boys' Club Housing P r o j e c t .  i s l o c a t e d near the centre o f the  T h i s c l u b i s owned a n d o p e r a t e d  by B o y s '  - 84  Clubs of Vancouver.  The  -  b u i l d i n g was  designed s p e c i f i c a l l y  a n t i c i p a t e d programme n e e d s o f F r a s e r v i e w  and  was  for  the  opened i n O c t o b e r  1962. The  B o y s " C l u b has  a f u l l - t i m e D i r e c t o r and  Assistant.  B o a r d o f Management, c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t r e s i d e n t s o f and  two  non  r e s i d e n t s , serves  and  the  central office.  add is  a s s i s t e d i n c l u b programmes.  approved, i t i s quite l i k e l y  1  C l u b and  belong to t h i s c l u b .  small  A p a r t i c u l a r l y good  t o come t o t h e  unorganized a c t i v i t i e s the  clubs  not  i n f u l l use  relation-  the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e .  years.  a study  A  boys,  t o t a l o f 550  boys  s u c h as p i n g p o n g and  the  K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e was I t i s located adjacent  take  The  Boys  part i n  shuffleboard.  special occasions.  on w e e k e n d s o r d u r i n g  crafts,  programme, stamp c l u b .  c l u b a f t e r s c h o o l and  s p o n s o r m i x e d d a n c e s on  1963«  efforts  A c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e s p o r t s of a l l t y p e s ,  car c l u b , woodworking, ceramics, also allowed  19  to  community.  programme o f t h e B o y s * C l u b i s r e s t r i c t e d t o  u s u a l l y b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 8 and  October  120  If this position  the p e r s o n w i l l work w i t h  relationships.  s h i p e x i s t s between the B o y s  The  super-  s t a f f o f t h i s c l u b i n p a r t i c u l a r have s p e a r h e a d e d  to improve inter-agency  are  Director  There are p l a n s  staff.  g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g some f a m i l y u n i t s i n t h e  The  c a p a c i t y to the  D u r i n g t h e month o f F e b r u a r y 1964,  a t r a i n e d group worker t o the p r e s e n t  The  Fraserview  A v a r y i n g number o f a d u l t v o l u n t e e r s  vise specific activities. adult volunteers  i n an a d v i s o r y  A  Many o f building i s  summer.  officially  opened i n  to. t h e K i l l a r n e y S c h o o l .  b u i l d i n g i n c l u d e s c l u b rooms o f v a r i o u s s i z e s a s w e l l as an  The  indoor  - 85  -  swimming p o o l and a r t i f i c i a l i c e a r e n a . The  K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e i s p a r t o f t h e B o a r d  of Parks  and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n p l a n f o r a t o t a l o f f i f t e e n c e n t r e s c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e c i t y .  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Community C e n t r e s i s f i n a n c e d by  a p p r o v a l o f a money b y - l a w b y a m a j o r i t y o f p r o p e r t y o w n e r s .  To  a c c o m p l i s h t h e n e c e s s a r y c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a new community a s s o c i a t i o n was f o r m e d  by amalgamating  the e x i s t i n g  associations  i n F r a s e r v i e w , C o l l i n g w o o d - K i l l a r n e y and V i c t o r i a D r i v e . Board  supplies basic  s t a f f , maintenance  Each c e n t r e has a board o f d i r e c t o r s , which determines  The P a r k  and equipment f o r the c e n t r e . consisting of l o c a l  citizens,  t h e t y p e o f programme t o be o f f e r e d a n d i s r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r r e n t a l s and t h e income from r e n t a l s and programmes. S i n c e t h e C e n t r e s e r v e s a l a r g e a r e a t h e r e i s no a t t e m p t t o determine  how many p e r s o n s  neighbourhoods.  come f r o m p a r t i c u l a r s u b - c o m m u n i t i e s  The D i r e c t o r o f t h e K i l l a r n e y  t h e r e s i d e n t s o f F r a s e r v i e w have n o t u s e d as she had e x p e c t e d facilities,  they would.  Centre b e l i e v e s  or that  t h e f a c i l i t i e s a s much  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e newness o f t h e  the D i r e c t o r s u s p e c t s t h a t the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e  f r o m F r a s e r v i e w a n d a name w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s c o m m u n i t y , have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n i t i a l r e s i d e n t s t o take advantage  the Centre w i t h another reluctance of Fraserview  of the Centre.  P r o g r a m m i n g a t t h e C e n t r e i s d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e a s many p e o p l e as p o s s i b l e .  I n o r d e r t o s e r v e a s many p e o p l e a s p o s s i b l e i t becomes  rather d i f f i c u l t  t o programme f o r g r o u p s w h i c h have s p e c i a l n e e d s .  spite of this d i f f i c u l t y , Squad o f t h e Vancouver  In  t h e K i l l a r n e y C e n t r e and t h e Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e  C i t y P o l i c e have w o r k e d t o g e t h e r t o b r i n g many  o f t h e i d l e y o u n g p e o p l e o f t h e a r e a i n t o s p e c i a l programmes f o r them at the Centre.  R e c e n t l y h e l d d a n c e s have a t t r a c t e d o v e r s i x h u n d r e d  teenagers.  -  A l a r g e a r e a i n the basement of the C e n t r e i s b e i n g  f i n i s h e d and  decorated  Other c l a s s e s and  86  to s e r v e as a lounge  programmes f o r y o u n g p e o p l e  area f o r teenagers.  include popular sports,  gym  hobby w o r k .  S e r v i c e s P r o v i d e d by M u n i c i p a l Government Although Project,  t h e r e a r e two  schools within  the V e t e r a n s '  t h e r e s i d e n t s a r e a b l e t o make v e r y l i t t l e  special activities.  T h i s i s due m a i n l y  use  to School Board  p r o v i d e s f o r a c e n t r a l i z e d R e n t a l s Department to handle s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s a p a r t from s c h o o l a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y . e v e n i n g use  o f them f o r policy  w i t h the s c h o o l s .  The  neighbourhood  e d u c a t i o n a l purposes  a l l use The  of  extensive  and  V a n c o u v e r one  will  sub-  identification  s c h o o l i s a p l a c e to send  o u t s i d e of t h i s t h e r e i s l i t t l e  ment t o have r e s i d e n t s i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m .  C e n t r e s and  which  o f s c h o o l s by o r g a n i z a t i o n s n o t i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e  community does not h e l p t o b r i n g about sub-community  for  Housing  children  encourage-  Throughout  f i n d t h e e x t r e m e l y w a s t e f u l s i t u a t i o n o f Community  l a r g e s c h o o l s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o one  separate maintenance s t a f f ,  another  s e p a r a t e gymnasiums and  and  separate  requiring meeting  rooms. High  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s from F r a s e r v i e w l o s e t h e i r  w i t h F r a s e r v i e w by b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d i n t o High Schools which statistics of  of  t h e D a v i d Thompson and  f r o m a much l a r g e r a r e a .  on s t u d e n t s f r o m F r a s e r v i e w who  a course are not The  serve students  identification Killarney  As a  leave school before  result  completion  available.  s c h o o l s i n F r a s e r v i e w have e x p e r i e n c e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  v a n d a l i s m as w e l l as a r s o n and  t h i s s i t u a t i o n has  improved  break-ins.  F o r r e a s o n s a s y e t unknown  d u r i n g the p a s t f o u r months.  The  -  Board of Health  has  a U n i t on K n i g h t Road  49th Avenue w h i c h i s r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o F r a s e r v i e w  and an  Metropolitan  87  automobile.  X - r a y s e r v i c e s , c h i l d r e n ' s d e n t a l work,  i m m u n i z a t i o n s , m e d i c a l s o c i a l w o r k s e r v i c e s and c o n s u l t a t i o n are a v a i l a b l e at Two Their  r e l a t i o n to t h i s and  n a t a l and Fraserview  they contact  limited psychiatric  the U n i t b u i l d i n g . Fraserview.  schools  on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , and  many o f  t h e homes w h e r e  emotional problems are  evident  i n the  contagious  children.  i s not  a f a c t o r i n most o f  t o become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  does encourage  c a t i o n with geographic  the  nurses  I n a d d i t i o n the  o p e r a t e s on a d e c e n t r a l i z e d b a s i s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s f u r t h e r  Board identifi-  areas.  C i t y of Vancouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e  d e c e n t r a l i z e d b a s i s , s h a r e s the Health  Pre-  women.  h e a l t h s e r v i c e s the Board of H e a l t h  The  in  p o s t - n a t a l p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s are a l s o a v a i l a b l e to  Although l o c a l leadership public  has  adult  p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s work a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n  d u t i e s t a k e them t o t h e  sickness  i f one  D e p a r t m e n t , a l s o on  b u i l d i n g on K n i g h t Road w i t h  a  the  Unit. The  providing  Social Service  D e p a r t m e n t has  financial assistance  the  responsibility  t o a l l p e r s o n s who  are  for  eligible  by  lav;. The  Fraserview  a r e a a t t h i s t i m e does n o t  p r o b l e m s to t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . t o 1959  there  was  of Fraserview  D u r i n g the b u s i n e s s r e c e s s i o n  a noticeable  requiring social assistance. males i s very  present s p e c i a l  increase  i n t h e number o f  This would i n d i c a t e t h a t  of  1957  persons  employment  s e n s i t i v e to f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the  world  -  88  -  market. The  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y  w i t h Fraserview through i t s d e c e n t r a l i z e d o p e r a t i o n s . s p e c i a l n e e d s e r v i c e s may  The  be o b t a i n e d i n S o u t h  identified In times of  Vancouver.  B o a r d o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Community C e n t r e s a n d  to i t s  Associations,  o p e r a t e s a s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s e r v i c e d u r i n g t h e summer months and a l s o a d m i n i s t e r s the use o f a t h l e t i c L a s t summer t h e B o y s '  parks.  C l u b and P a r k s B o a r d w o r k e d o u t  a r r a n g e m e n t w h e r e b y two B o y s '  C l u b s t a f f members, who  would  an normally  have a v e r y l i g h t programme d u r i n g t h e summer, vere e m p l o y e d as  parks  s u p e r v i s o r s and p a i d t h e r e g u l a r s a l a r y by t h e P a r k s B o a r d and  the  Boys'  C l u b made up  staff  remained  the P a r k s  the d i f f e r e n c e .  I n t h i s manner t h e B o y s '  e m p l o y e d a l l summer t o t h e i r a d v a n t a g e  Club  as w e l l  as  Board's.  F r a s e r v i e w has one m a j o r  p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d a r e a , B o b o l i n k  P a r k , a s w e l l a s numerous s m a l l e r o n e s .  The  h i s t o r y of the Vancouver  C i t y P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t does n o t  i n c l u d e much r e f e r e n c e t o c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t o u t s i d e o f t h e u s u a l duties.  D u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r t h i s Department has  demonstrated  that  t r a d i t i o n need not d e t e r change. A t a t i m e when t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l were u n a b l e  agencies  t o cope a d e q u a t e l y w i t h s p e c i a l n e e d s o f F r a s e r v i e w , t h e  P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t a s s i g n e d two programme o f " d e t a c h e d "  c o n s t a b l e s to the development of a  group work.  The  c o n s t a b l e s w o r k e d on  the  - 89 streets of Fraserview  w i t h t h e y o u n g p e o p l e , g o t t o know them a n d  many o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ,  interviewed  a l l key persons connected  with  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d a s a r e s u l t were p r i m a r i l y responsible  f o r o b t a i n i n g a degree of c o n t r o l over the d e s t r u c t i v e  behaviour o f the young people. e x i s t i n g agencies to "catch e f f e c t i v e programmes  This  c o n t r o l then enabled the  their breath"  o f t h e i r own.  a n d t o d e v e l o p more  The s u c c e s s o f t h e i r  t h e p o l i c e t o s e t up what i s now a n i n e man  efforts led  Youth Preventive  Squad  w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e f o r s p e c i a l y o u t h s i t u a t i o n s on a c i t y - w i d e The P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t does n o t c o n s i d e r  g r o u p w o r k t o be one  o f i t s f u n c t i o n s and as a r e s u l t p r i m a r y emphasis i s p l a c e d w o r k i n g w i t h young p e o p l e o n l y c i p a t e i n e x i s t i n g programmes The c o - o p e r a t i o n  basis.  on  t o t h e p o i n t o f g e t t i n g them t o p a r t i provided  by t h e a g e n c i e s i n a n  area.  between the P o l i c e Department and c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l  a g e n c i e s has a l r e a d y  b e e n commented u p o n .  The o f f i c e r i n c h a r g e o f t h e O a k r i d g e p r e c i n c t a n d t h e Y o u t h Preventive  Squad has worked h a r d t o c o - o r d i n a t e  department w i t h those of c e r t a i n agencies.  This  the s e r v i c e s o f h i s officer  that h i s Department's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the F r a s e r v i e w  believes  Youth  Services  S o c i e t y , an a g e n c y c o - o r d i n a t i n g b o d y , has b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l t o h i s men  and the community.  He h o p e s t o s e e a c i t y - w i d e  co-ordination  of youth s e r v i c e s and, to d i s c u s s  t h i s , a meeting of a l l i n t e r e s t e d  p e r s o n s h a s been c a l l e d  6,  for April  1964.  I t i s the o p i n i o n of a l l persons i n t e r v i e w e d d o e s n o t have a s e r i o u s l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s  can a d j u s t  t o v a r y i n g demands.  Fraserview  o r s e r v i c e s f o r young p e o p l e .  M o s t o f t h e a g e n c i e s r e f e r r e d t o h a v e programmes and  that  which a r e  flexible  A few p e o p l e have s u g g e s t e d  that  - 90 -  there i s a l a c k of organized activities willing  for girls  to develop  activity  and  new  programmes i f t h e y c o u l d be  hours.  b e e n o v e r c o m e due The  mainly  To t h e p r e s e n t to the  months o f F e b r u a r y  onset of s p r i n g w i l l  agers are w i l l i n g  and M a r c h , 1964,  As  activity  that  effort. on  weekends  t h i s p r o b l e m has  are reported  the e x t e n t  to remain i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z e d and  communities develop  and  f o r young people than  help evaluate  Structures for Co-Ordinating  seem  not  e x t r a c o s t of such programming.  had more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s The  time  fewer  convinced  the expense, time  the g r e a t e s t l a c k i s t h a t of o r g a n i z e d  l a t e evening  There are  than boys, however, e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s  t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t need to j u s t i f y Probably  for girls.  Planning  i n s i z e and  t o have ever  before.  to w h i c h the  teen-  activities.  Services character, social  problems  a r i s e w h i c h u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e r v i c e s t o cope w i t h the problems.  The  m u l t i p l i c i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h come  i n t o b e i n g t o meet p r o b l e m s and to c o - o r d i n a t e  the s e r v i c e s  Co-Ordination  n e e d s e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a need  provided.  1  u s u a l l y l e a d s t o p l a n n i n g , w h i c h can be  o f as " t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o r d e r l y t h i n k i n g i n t o a r e a s  thought  formerly  2 r u l e d by u n c o n s i d e r e d The  decisions'J  major instrument  of our  society for co-ordinating  p l a n n i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i s t h e community w e l f a r e C o u n c i l s a r e u s u a l l y o f two Ray J o h n s and D a v i d R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , New loc. c i t .  types;  and  council.  c e n t r a l or neighbourhood.  F. D e M a r c h e , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and Y o r k , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1951, P«75  The Agency  -  91  -  c e n t r a l c o u n c i l may o r may n o t be r e l a t e d t o a c e n t r a l f u n d r a i s i n g body s u c h a s a Community The C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r the  Chest.  h a s a Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s a s  c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n and planning.  exception  o f one i n t h e West E n d o f V a n c o u v e r ,  have n o t e x i s t e d u n t i l  very  n e g l e c t o f the neighbourhood  With the  neighbourhood  recently i n this city.  councils  Apparently  this  has been q u i t e w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e U n i t e d  States as well.''  ,  T h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be t h r e e c o u n c i l s : 1) m e m b e r s h i p r e s t r i c t e d  types o f d i s t r i c t  community  t o persons from the agencies;  2) c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s a n d l o c a l  r e s i d e n t s ; 3) member-  ship r e s t r i c t e d to l o c a l residents. A b r i e f commentary on V a n c o u v e r ' s structures w i l l help  c o - o r d i n a t i n g and p l a n n i n g  t o understand Fraserview  as i t presently i s .  S i x months f r o m now t h e r e may be new e l e m e n t s i n t h e p i c t u r e , s o r a p i d a r e the changes which can o c c u r ,  not o n l y i n our communities  b u t a l s o o u r community s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e . The Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r  Vancouver  Area  The r e s u l t s o f t h e 1956 c e n s u s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t Fraserview,  d u r i n g t h e 1960s, w o u l d be c o n f r o n t e d  number o f t e e n a g e  children.  A 1957 Community C h e s t r e p o r t o n F r a s e r -  view i n d i c a t e d that the "schools, a t i v e s a l l i n d i c a t e d concern about  1  w i t h an overwhelming  church and law enforcement the l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s  represent-  for children."  V i o l e t M. S i e d e r , "The R o l e o f D i s t r i c t Community C o u n c i l s , " Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n A c t i o n , e d . E r n e s t B. H a r p e r a n d A r t h u r Dunham, New Y o r k , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1959> P«335« Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , R e p o r t o n t h e Need f o r R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w A r e a , V a n c o u v e r , M a r c h 29, 1957, p.6.  -  92  -  I n s p i t e o f t h e f o r e w a r n i n g t h e Community C h e s t and unable  t o g i v e t h e dynamic l e a d e r s h i p t h a t such  C o u n c i l s appeared  a situation  called  for. Mr.  Hill,  D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , a d v i s e d the  t h a t , u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , h i s d e p a r t m e n t was  unable  a n y t h i n g more t h a n a s t o p - g a p p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e . handicap  Two  to  agencies  and  Councils without  district  councils.  Hill  priority  s t u d y w i l l h e l p to overcome the f i r s t  b e e n t a k e n by  structures.  w a t c h e d v e r y c l o s e l y by Mr.  Sunrise  Hill.  of  lack.  Steps  have  i n s e v e r a l d i s t r i c t s which  parti-  areas which i n c l u d e Fraserview,  Park. a c t i o n t a k e n by  the  Community  C o u n c i l s which a f f e c t s F r a s e r v i e w i s the temporary  s e r v i c e p r o j e c t known a s  the A r e a Development P r o j e c t .  r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d p r o j e c t to determine mated s e r v i c e s t o m u l t i - p r o b l e m  worker r e p r e s e n t i n g f i v e agencies S e r v i c e A g e n c y , C h i l d r e n ' s And  Selected  multi-problem social  Children's Aid Societies,  F a m i l y C o u r t , and  Family  Social Service  Present plans include p r o v i s i o n f o r three  workers to serve three f a i r l y  This i s a  r e c e i v e s e r v i c e s f r o m one (2  direct  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of amalga-  families.  f a m i l i e s i n South Vancouver w i l l  Department).  may  being  An A s s o c i a t e P l a n n e r has  P e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t C h e s t and  the counter balance  These developments a r e  c i p a t e d i n the development i n these S t r a t h c o n a , and  detailed  b e l i e v e s t h a t the r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d  the p r o f e s s i o n a l people  lead to c o u n c i l - l i k e  for this  the c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e of  t h e Community C h e s t a n d Mr.  provide  reasons  were s e e n a s t h e l a c k o f b a s i c t o o l s s u c h a s a  knowledge o f s e r v i c e s and  writer  community  s m a l l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n South Vancouver.  I t seems l o g i c a l ,  i n v i e w o f t h e p r e p a r a t o r y w o r k done by t h e  i n F r a s e r v i e w and  the  existence of a d i s t r i c t  writer  council i n that area,  that  - 93 one  o f the community w o r k e r s s h o u l d work i n F r a s e r v i e w .  Fraserview Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y L a t e i n 1962 S c h o o l , met  Mr.  Don  Capon, t h e n p r i n c i p a l o f Oppenheimer  i n f o a i m a l l y w i t h Mr.  L a r r y Goble,  Executive  Secretary  o f t h e S o u t h V a n c o u v e r Y.M.C.A., J o h n B a l l a m , D i r e c t o r o f  the  F r a s e r v i e w B o y s ' C l u b , and Mr.  D o n a l d McComb, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r  of the Vancouver Boys' Clubs.  The  p u r p o s e was  the problems they were f a c i n g i n F r a s e r v i e w . h e l p f u l t o a l l and other persons date.  The  Although  The  discussion  made t o d e t e r m i n e  was  whether or  not  w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n j o i n i n g them a t some f u t u r e  response  November, 1962  a d e c i s i o n was  t o d i s c u s s some o f  was  o v e r w h e l m i n g and a m e e t i n g was  a t w h i c h t i m e Mr.  Capon was  appointed  called i n  Chairman.  known i n f o r m a l l y as t h e F r a s e r v i e w C o u n c i l on Y o u t h ,  plans  a r e u n d e r w a y t o i n c o r p o r a t e as a s o c i e t y u n d e r t h e a b o v e name. The  o b j e c t s of the S o c i e t y a r e :  a)  To s e r v e i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y t o v o l u n t a r y and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s o c i a l problems of youth i n the F r a s e r v i e w D i s t r i c t of Vancouver.  b)  To e n h a n c e s u c h s e r v i c e s by e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e amount and q u a l i t y o f s u c h s e r v i c e s i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h o t h e r s a n d / o r by d i r e c t l y e n g a g i n g i n t h e same where t h o u g h t fit.  c)  To p r o v i d e s u c h o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e and s e r v i c e s t o t h e y o u t h o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w a r e a as t h e S o c i e t y may f r o m t i m e t o t i m e see f i t t o undertake.-'-  M e m b e r s h i p i n t h e c o u n c i l has persons During  been open t o p r o f e s s i o n a l  w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n youth problems i n Fraserview. t h e p a s t y e a r m e m b e r s h i p has  stood at t h i r t y - n i n e  persons  From t h e p r o p o s e d C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w Y o u t h S e r v i c e s Society.  - 9k representing  twenty-six  d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and  Many o f t h e members h o l d respective  associations.  senior administrative positions i n  their  agencies.  The Council.  -  w r i t e r ' s f i e l d p l a c e m e n t has  Duties  have i n c l u d e d  meetings, resource s e r v i c e s and  the  been w i t h  s e r v i n g as  the  secretary  person to a committee s t u d y i n g  Fraserview  to  general  the need f o r  development of s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n  new  about  Fraserview. It i s difficult fulfilled  to e v a l u a t e  the stated o b j e c t i v e s .  t o what e x t e n t  O u t s i d e of a l e t t e r  C o m m i s s i o n commending t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t S q u a d , no  specific  J u n e 1963  the  formal  the  a c t i o n has  t o the  of the Youth  b e e n t a k e n by  Council  the  has  Council.  C o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d a c o m m i t t e e t o s t u d y ways and  not  t h a t t h e y now  yet  1  that  t h a t a s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s u c h as  d e s i r a b l e and  existing institution. t h e y now  existence o f one  a n o t h e r ' s w o r k has  formal  a-community  t h a t s u c h a w o r k e r c o u l d be A l l of the  attached  C o u n c i l members have  These p e r s o n s a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t l e d to g r e a t e r  appreciation of  J o h n s and  DeMarche s t a t e t h a t "No  Ray  be,  they represent  e f f o r t and  service."  J o h n s and  m a t t e r how  imperfect  a r e c o g n i t i o n of  w o r t h y a t t e m p t s t o p l a n and  the  cases.  present  the need f o r  co-  p r o m o t e more a d e q u a t e  1  D a v i d F. D e M a r c h e , o p . c i t . , p.  the  respective  a t e n d e n c y t o w o r k more h a r m o n i o u s l y on i n d i v i d u a l  welfare  stated  knowledge  r o l e s and  operative  means  know a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l whom t h e y d i d n ' t know b e f o r e  of the C o u n c i l .  c o u n c i l s may  In  been p r e p a r e d , h o w e v e r , c o m m i t t e e members s t a t e  believe  w o r k e r w o u l d be t o an  Police  Preventive  of o b t a i n i n g a " d e t a c h e d " group worker f o r F r a s e r v i e w . report  has  117  The in  95  -  r o l e o f the F r a s e r v i e w Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y i s s t i l l  the process of being defined.  The c h a i r m a n w i s h e s t o have t h e  m e m b e r s h i p j o i n i n a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y a t some f u t u r e meeting. of  One i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n w h i c h  c i t i z e n or l a y involvement.  faces the Council i s that  S i d n e y D i l l i c k a p t l y d e s c r i b e s why  t h i s m a t t e r s h o u l d be i m p o r t a n t : " V i g o r o u s e f f o r t s a r e needed today i n neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n t o make s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e , t o o f f e r i n t e g r a t e d p a t t e r n s o f s e r v i c e s t o met t h e v a r y i n g needs o f neighbourhoods and d i s t r i c t s , t o c o - o r d i n a t e s e r v i c e s t o p r e v e n t o v e r l a p p i n g and o v e r l o o k i n g , t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t t h e neighborhood and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s f o r p e o p l e t o form groups t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y can a c t t o g e t h e r and t o p r o v i d e c h a n n e l s f o r groups t o a c t t o g e t h e r , t o change s o c i a l g o a l s a n d c r e a t e new o n e s . I n c a r r y i n g out these f u n c t i o n s the keyn o t e must be t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e p r o c e s s e s o f p e o p l e i n t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d s — where f a m i l i e s l i v e , s h o p , go t o s c h o o l a n d c h u r c h , a n d where t h e y vote." 1 Some members o f t h e C o u n c i l w i s h t o s e e t h e C o u n c i l to  improve  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c e r t a i n a g e n c i e s w h i c h a t t h e  p r e s e n t t i m e have w e l l known d i s h a r m o n y to  attempt  b e t w e e n them.  A  decision  u n d e r t a k e s u c h a r o l e must have t h e c o n s e n t n o t o n l y o f t h e member-  ship but also  t h e a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d i f t h e r e i s t o be much c h a n c e o f  success. The judicially  c h a i r m a n i s aware o f t h e n e e d t o a c t c a u t i o u s l y a n d s i n c e t h e development  of this Council i s being  w i t h i n t e r e s t by many l e v e l s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  watched  community.  S i d n e y D i l l i c k , " F u n c t i o n s o f N e i g h b o u r h o o d O r g a n i z a t i o n " Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n A c t i o n , e d . E r n e s t B. H a r p e r a n d A r t h u r Dunham, New Y o r k , A s s o c i a t i o n Press., 1959» p. 330.  - 96  -  SUMMARY  F r a s e r v i e w i s a sub-community w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver which e x p e r i e n c e d a phenomenal r a t e of growth d u r i n g a f i v e  year  p e r i o d as a r e s u l t of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a l a r g e housing p r o j e c t for veterans.  The a d u l t s who  moved i n t o the houses were v e r y  s i m i l a r i n age and had a common background of m i l i t a r y  experience.  V i r t u a l l y a l l of them r e c e i v e d what s c h o o l i n g ' they had d u r i n g the depression years.  Many of them were m a r r i e d i n Canada and  then  s e p a r a t e d due to overseas s e r v i c e , o t h e r s m a r r i e d g i r l s they net whil  Most of the v e t e r a n s had young c h i l d r e n most of  whom were born d u r i n g the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s a f t e r the  war.  As the l a r g e group of c h i l d r e n approached t h e i r t e e n s , t h e r e was  l i m i t e d awareness, on the p a r t of r e s i d e n t s of the community and  the a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g i t ,  of the need to a c t q u i c k l y to o b t a i n i n c r e a s e d  f a c i l i t i e s f o r these c h i l d r e n as they became teenagers. t h e r e has been a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of crime and behaviour i n t h i s community.  Since i960  delinquent  I n a b i l i t y of the r e s i d e n t s to cope w i t h  the b e h a v i o u r of the teenagers has undoubtedly  c o n t r i b u t e d to what  appears to be a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Many of the a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g F r a s e r v i e w were overwhelmed by the demands upon them.  T h i s l e d to a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e was  need to get t o g e t h e r and attempt  a  to c o - o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s , get to know  one a n o t h e r and the s e r v i c e s they \ere o f f e r i n g and to encourage the development of hew  s e r v i c e s f o r the young p e o p l e .  Out of t h i s  n i t i o n arose the F r a s e r v i e w Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y .  recog-  A l l of t h i s i s  v e r y much i n k e e p i n g w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n o f Johns and DeMarche t h a t  -  "The n e c e s s i t y  97  -  f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  degree grows out o f t h e e x i s t e n c e  to a  of s o c i a l  The F r a s e r v i e w Y o u t h S e r v i c e s  Society  considerable  disorganization."  1  arose out of the  r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m m u n i t y s e r v i n g  thb a r e a  that  t h e y must a t t e m p t t o w o r k t o g e t h e r more c l o s e l y on a s u b - c o m m u n i t y basis.  I t i s possible  p o i n t a l o n g t h e way  that t h i s  a c t i o n may become a n h i s t o r i c  to d e c e n t r a l i z e d  planning  and c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n  Vancouver.  J . Ray J o h n s a n d D a v i d F. D e M a r c h e , op c i t . , p .  7^.  CHAPTER I I I  SKEENA TERRACE PUBLIC HOUSING - SUNRISE PARK  A.  CHARACTERISTICS OF In order  "SUNRISE PARK"  t o u n d e r s t a n d S k e e n a T e r r a c e and  n e c e s s a r y t o know some o f t h e in  which i t i s l o c a t e d .  parks, To  the  the p r o f i l e  and  religious  library  of "Sunrise  a  geographical persuasions,  facilities. P a r k " and  Skeena T e r r a c e  1)  examination of census t r a c t s  2)  p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h r o u g h f i e l d v i s i t s on a b l o c k by b l o c k b a s i s and p r e s e n c e i n t h e P r o j e c t M a n a g e r ' s o f f i c e .  3)  i n t e r v i e w s both w i t h r e s i d e n t s of the and w i t h c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s .  k)  review of t a i n e d by  5)  r e v i e w o f m i n u t e s , r e p o r t s , and  6)  attendance a t committee meetings.  by an  under the  T e r r a c e was  the  third  f u t u r e and  the  project  of  agencies.  Housing  Housing Act  of B r i t i s h  F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l P u b l i c Housing i n the  Authority presently  the  files  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y i s a c o r p o r a t i o n  Order-in-Cbuncil  operating  housing  f i l e s r e l a t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l t e n a n t s mainthe Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y .  o f Skeena T e r r a c e P u b l i c The  for  community  geographical  distribution,  p e o p l e , c h u r c h e s and  shopping area,  obtain  local  f o l l o w i n g m e t h o d s o f i n q u i r y were u s e d :  Location  The  l o c a l community i n i t s  growth, p o p u l a t i o n  a r e a of o r i g i n of the schools,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  I n t h i s c h a p t e r i t i s p l a n n e d to p r e s e n t  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the location, population  i t s needs i t i s  constituted Columbia  C i t y of  Vancouver.  o p e r a t e s f o u r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s o f which Skeena  t o be  constructed.  Further  p r o j e c t s are  p l a n n e d p r o j e c t on Raymur A v e n u e w i l l  be  planned larger  -  t h a n any  of  t h o s e now  commenced i n  operating.  of  The  plans  The  the  City i s planning  o f i t s most  extreme " b l i g h t e d "  or  T e r r a c e was  nearing  completion  i n l a t e 1962  moved i n t o  t h e i r new  homes on  and  the  O c t o b e r 1,  1962.  to Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y  last  to  rid  "sub-standard" areas. and  as  a itself  Skeena  the  first  The  buildings  t h e y were  o r i g i n a l t e n a n t s moved i n d u r i n g  the  were  Vancouver  r e d e v e l o p m e n t programme c o v e r s  twenty y e a r s i n which  turned over  f o r Skeena T e r r a c e  I960 a f t e r an a n a l y s i s o f the n e e d i n the  r e d e v e l o p m e n t programme. period  -  99  tenants were  completed  month o f  January,  1963. Among t h e Authority,  projects  Skeena T e r r a c e  serves both senior the  location  now  i s the  younger high-rise  the  s i x storey  ment b u i l d i n g s ,  and  the  c i t i z e n s while  the  the  smaller  row  houses since  families.  The  e a c h has  of  new  east of  of  larger  divided the  from two  i s located  city.  This  highway c r e a t i n g  community.  tenants are  I t has  23^-  families.  houses.  one  to  directed  From many s t a n d p o i n t s  high-rise  suites  for  senior for  accommodated i n  the  bedrooms.  most e x t r e m e  easterly  the  a  p r i n c i p a l cross-town  p r i n c i p a l highway i s i n t e r s e c t e d man-made b a r r i e r s  the the  apart-  each  Virtually a l l activities toward  6- shows  L o u g h e e d Highway, w h i c h i s of  and  seven  bedroom s u i t e s  five  i n the  the  The  Housing  units  Figure  building,  f a m i l i e s are  Broadway Avenue, one  t h o r o u g h f a r e s i n the the  b a c h e l o r and  o f V a n c o u v e r b o r d e r i n g on  continuation  row  Vancouver  o t h e r a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s have t e n  Skeena T e r r a c e portion  ninety-five  sixt:y.-nine  the  largest.  c i t i z e n s and  of  b u i l d i n g has  o p e r a t e d by  n o r t h and district  to  and  west of  does not  the  south  by and  relationships the  location.  seem to  be  a  CAS3IAR  3*  <  SKEENA  F i g u r e b: !  ST  S k e t c h Map o f Skeena T e r r a c e P u b l i c Housing showing L o c a t i o n and Types o f H o u s i n g  l ^ H i g h .Rise Apartment Row  Houses  Building Blocks  -  100  -  desirable l o c a t i o n f o r a public housing project, distance  from major h e a l t h , w e l f a r e  s h o p p i n g , and  employment.  s e n i o r o f f i c i a l i n the sites  the  encing  This  one  c i t y and  was  i t was  i n an  interview with  consideration  was  the  that of a s l o p i n g h i l l built  next to the  l e v e l s with  g r o u p s and  so much on  already  influ-  serviced  h o u s e s and  land  apartments  high-rise building located  as a b a s i c p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l  l a r g e r and  n e v e r been d e f i n e d  work,  h i s n e e d s o r on  the  more i n c l u s i v e w e l f a r e  I n t h i s a r e a o f the  city  e i t h e r f o r o f f i c i a l purposes  the or  Many p e o p l e r e f e r t o i t a s p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r E a s t ,  same t e r m i s u s e d when r e f e r r i n g t o any For p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y the  described  A further  owned  Community  p r o b l e m s o f t h e w h o l e community."'''  common u s a g e .  already  contour of the  t h e i n d i v i d u a l and  i t s g r o w t h as upon t h e  c o m m u n i t y has  been con-  level.  "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , not  The  t h e row  the  D i f f i c u l t y i n D e t e r m i n i n g the  concentrates  was  a r e a was  sewerage f a c i l i t i e s .  at various highest  f a c t t h a t the  permitting  a  Department t h a t s i x p o s s i b l e  f r e e of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s .  is  the  out  chosen because the p r o p e r t y  e x i s t i n g w a t e r and  The  pointed  City Planning  by  t o be  recreation services, hospitals,  f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t had  sidered. by  I t was  and  I t i s r e m o v e d by-  t e n t a t i v e l y by  using  area east  geographical  but  o f Cambie S t r e e t .  community w i l l  the boundaries of T r a c t # 1 0  of  be  the  2 O f f i c i a l Census T r a c t s . be:  p  b o u n d a r i e s o f the  West - R e n f r e w S t r e e t .  H e r b e r t S t r o u p , S o c i a l Work An I n t r o d u c t i o n Book Company, New Y o r k , 1 9 ^ 8 , page 1 8 . The 19^1.  area would  therefore  N o r t h - Adanac S t r e e t ; S o u t h - Broadway Avenue (Lougheed Highway);  E a s t - B o u n d a r y Road; and 1  The  boundaries f o r census t r a c t # 1 0  has  Figure  „7 i s a  to the F i e l d ,  map  American  remained c o n s i s t e n t  since  J  I  I  I  I  fJoor Le fig sr*-£cr  v5 ULLOC- TT  •a  1  sraeer  V  <v I.  c •a  =5: 111  Oo  <: %  <3;  V)  c  ui  — i cn  o  a:  n 1111  llllliltl 5r^£G r  s  •5.  u  O  *VV  1-  t •a  5 Tnylcf.  Figure 7.  Map of "Sunrise Park" Showing Location of Skeena Terrace, Parks, Schools, Church, Senior C i t i z e n s ' Housing, and Government Offices.  - 101 showing the b o u n d a r i e s  -  of the a r e a .  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  that these  b o u n d a r i e s a r e t h e same b o u n d a r i e s  u s e d by t h e e l e m e n t a r y  the a r e a .  Other  departments have  boundaries  f o r t h e a r e a w h i c h a r e much l a r g e r and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  w i t h the census  established  do n o t  correspond  tracts.  For purposes shown w i l l  school i n  o f t h i s s t u d y t h e community whose b o u n d a r i e s  are  be known a s " S u n r i s e P a r k " s i n c e t h e p a r k l o c a t e d n e a r e s t  t h e c e n t r e o f t h e a r e a i s known by  t h a t name.  D e s c r i p t i o n of "Sunrise Park" In  t h i s s e c t i o n some o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e f e a t u r e s w i l l  as they r e l a t e facilities, of  to p o p u l a t i o n growth,  s c h o o l s , p a r k s , shops,  national origins,  and  library  be  given  religious  facilities.  The  source  i n f o r m a t i o n has b e e n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h community l e a d e r s and i n f o r m a t i o n  from  the census  tracts.  Population: "Sunrise Park"has c e n t r a l l y developed  focal area.  i n c r e a s e d t o 7,846 i n 196l. p r o j e c t i n 1962 T h e r e was  been a r a p i d l y g r o w i n g a r e a w i t h o u t The  p o p u l a t i o n was  ( F i g u r e Bi)  The  i n c r e a s e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n by a f u r t h e r 922  tapered o f f u n t i l  t h e t e n a n t s moved i n t o  - 1951  the h o u s i n g  M o s t o f t h e homes i n t h e a r e a a r e p r i v a t e o c c u p i e d by t h e owner. to  t h e 196l  census  Of  t h e 2,290 h o u s e h o l d s  listed  and  housing  persons.  b u t i t had  project.  family dwellings  i n the a r e a a c c o r d i n g  2,005 were owner o c c u p i e d w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s 87.55  p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number o f h o u s e h o l d s . 12.45  3,578 i n 194l  a d d i t i o n of the  c o n s i d e r a b l e g r o w t h i n t h e p e r i o d 194l  any  p e r c e n t were r e n t i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n . as a p a r t m e n t s  or f l a t s .  The  On  t h e o t h e r hand o n l y  T h e r e were no  buildings  owner o c c u p a n c y i n V a n c o u v e r  City  19U1  1951  1956  1961  1963  Figure &  : Bar Graph Showing Population Increase i n "Sunrise Park"  19U1 - 1963  Source: Census, 1 9 5 1 , CT 1 1 , (D.B.S.) Census, 1 9 5 6 , (D.B.S.) Census, 19$1, CT 2 2 , (D.B.S.)  \  - 102 a s a w h o l e i s much l o w e r t h a n i n t h e " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a .  The  V a n c o u v e r a r e a shows o n l y 6O.83 p e r c e n t a s owner o c c u p i e d . " S u n r i s e P a r k " a l s o has a l o w e r p e r person occupancy  p e r room t h a n t h e c i t y  a s 3. w h o l e .  " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a h a s .6 p e r s o n s p e r room w h i l e t h e  c i t y average  i s .7 p e r s o n s .  Of t h e 8,544 h o u s e h o l d s  "Crowded D w e l l i n g s " i n t h e 1961 " S u n r i s e P a r k " community.  c e n s u s o n l y 196  in  o f them a r e i n t h e  The y e a r s o f o c c u p a n c y  a l s o showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r a s t .  l i s t e d as  of t h e i r  dwelling  77 p e r c e n t o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s  "Sunrise Park" occupied t h e i r dwellings f o r a period of f i v e  y e a r s o r more w h i l e t h e V a n c o u v e r a v e r a g e o n l y 45.18 National  f o r t h e same p e r i o d was  percent. Origins:  The  national origins  o f t h e p e o p l e i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " has been  p r e d o m i n a t e l y from t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s b u t t h e s i t u a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the past ten years.  has changed  T a b l e I i n A p p e n d i x (F w i l l  show t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e number o f p e r s o n s i n c r e a s e d t o 4,589 f r o m 4,413  the percentage  t o 58.48 p e r c e n t .  distribution  h a s d e c r e a s e d f r o m 69.01  percent  S m a l l i n c r e a s e s a r e n o t e d i n most a r e a s o f n a t i o n a l  o r i g i n b u t t h e g r e a t e s t change h a s t a k e n p l a c e i n t h o s e o f b o t h I t a l i a n and A s i a t i c  origins.  The i n c r e a s e i n I t a l i a n s i n t h i s  has been g r e a t e r than i n t h e C i t y  o f Vancouver as a whole.  i n c r e a s e o f I t a l i a n s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " h a s b e e n f r o m 2.37  area  The percent to  5.78 p e r c e n t o r an i n c r e a s e o f 3«4l p e r c e n t w h i l e i n V a n c o u v e r t h e distribution  h a s b e e n f r o m 1.47  p e r c e n t t o 3«36 p e r c e n t o r a n o v e r -  a l l i n c r e a s e of only I.89 percent. of A s i a t i c 2.21  origins,  2.36  Although the i n c r e a s e i n persons  percent, i s g r e a t e r than the c i t y i n c r e a s e ,  p e r c e n t , " S u n r i s e P a r k " i s s t i l l much l o w e r t h a n t h e c i t y  percentage  o f 5«l8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  O n l y 3«89  percent of the p o p u l a t i o n i n "Sunrise Park" i s of A s i a t i c  origin.  - 103 F i g u r e 9 shows t h e c h a n g e s i n n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s  f o r t h e p e r i o d 1951  and 1961. Population The less  Distribution: p e r c e n t a g e o f o l d e r p e r s o n s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " i s much  than i n Vancouver  City  even  though  t h e r e a r e two  special  l o c a t i o n s f o r senior c i t i z e n s i n "Sunrise Park":  Beulah Gardens  and T a y l o r M a n o r .  senior  Beulah Gardens i s a l o w r e n t a l  citizens'  h o u s i n g p r o j e c t a n d T a y l o r Manor i s a b o a r d i n g home f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s o p e r a t e d by t h e C i t y S o c i a l  S e r v i c e Department.  36.71  p e r c e n t o f t h e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n a n d 37.11 p e r c e n t o f t h e f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n i n Vancouver the  a r e o v e r 4-5 y e a r s o l d w h i l e i n " S u n r i s e P a r k "  d i s t r i b u t i o n i s : m a l e 31.05 p e r c e n t a n d f e m a l e 29-53 p e r c e n t . As a r e s u l t  o f the younger  population there i s also a greater  p e r c e n t a g e o f t e e n a g e r s and younger i n Vancouver  as a whole.  people i n "Sunrise Park"  than  36.11 p e r c e n t o f t h e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n a n d  34.44 p e r c e n t o f t h e f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e u n d e r age 20 w h i l e t h e c o m p a r a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e f o r V a n c o u v e r  City are  30.57 p e r c e n t m a l e a n d 28.82 p e r c e n t f e m a l e . The  p e r c e n t a g e s shown above a r e d e r i v e d  from t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  p r o v i d e d i n t h e 1 9 6 l c e n s u s t r a c t s a n d do n o t i n c l u d e any o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f the persons r e s i d i n g persons r e s i d i n g  i n Skeena T e r r a c e .  Of t h e 922  on t h e p r o j e c t 48.37 p e r c e n t a r e u n d e r  t w e n t y a n d o n l y 14.74 p e r c e n t a r e o v e r age f o r t y - f i v e .  t h e age o f The d i s t r i b u -  t i o n o f y o u t h t h e r e f o r e i s much g r e a t e r i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " when t h e young p e o p l e from Skeena T e r r a c e a r e i n c l u d e d and c o n v e r s e l y t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p e r s o n s o v e r age f o r t y - f i v e w o u l d  be s t i l l  F i g u r e 10 shows t h e c o m p a r i s o n  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  o f the percentage  lower.  p o p u l a t i o n by age a n d s e x f o r " S u n r i s e P a r k " a n d V a n c o u v e r  City.  Figure ?: Demographic Chart showing National Origins i n " "Sunrise Park"for 1951 and 1961  1951  Others and Not Stated Netherlands French Ukranian  1961  Other European British Isles  Source:  Census, 1951,  CT 11, (D.B.S.)  Census, 1961, CT 22, (D.B.S.)  Figure »8 : Comparative Distribution of the Population by Age and Sex, Vancouver City and "Sunrise Park" 1961  FEMALE  MALE  70 /  65 - 69 55 - Sh US 35 25 20 15 10  -  5k Uh 3U 2h 19 1U  5 - 9 0 - h 16  12  li  8  12  16  PERCENT  Indicates higher proportion of age group i n Vancouver City Indicates higher proportion of age group in "Sunrise Park"  Source: Census, l ° 6 l , CT 22, (D.B.S.) \  - 104  -  C h u r c h e s and R e l i g i o u s P e r s u a s i o n s : In t h i s predominately r e l i g i o u s denominations have c h u r c h e s in  Protestant area  have a c h u r c h  The  " S u n r i s e Park" i s the Four Square Gospel  The operate  Convention  and  Church l o c a t e d at  o f the B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h  5 t h Avenues, h o l d church The  t h e r e a r e o v e r one  Columbia  C a s s i a r S t r e e t s and  between  s e r v i c e s i n t h e b a s e m e n t o f one  A Sunday S c h o o l was  of  Gardens  organized i n  hundred c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d ,  which e i g h t y c h i l d r e n are from Skeena T e r r a c e . Cub  the  Beulah  s e r v i c e s are f o r the t e n a n t s of Beulah  f o r the community as w e l l .  November, and  do  only church l o c a t e d  a low r e n t a l housing p r o j e c t f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ,  the b u i l d i n g s .  major  4 t h Avenue.  G a r d e n s i n t h e b l o c k b e t w e e n R u p e r t and 4 t h and  none o f t h e  a l t h o u g h some o f them  i n the immediate v i c i n i t y .  c o r n e r o f R u p e r t S t r e e t and  1  of  I n r e c e n t months a  P a c k and an E x p l o r e r s G r o u p have been f o r m e d .  Schools: There a r e  two  s c h o o l s i n the " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a , S i r  Matthew Begbie S c h o o l l o c a t e d at L i l l o e t t  and  Kitchener Streets,  and S i r M a t t h e w B e g b i e A n n e x on t h e c o r n e r o f C a s s i a r S t r e e t 7 t h Avenue, a c r o s s Both  and  from the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t .  s c h o o l s a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d by  the P r i n c i p a l of S i r Matthew Begbie  S c h o o l w i t h a Head T e a c h e r i n S i r M a t t h e w B e g b i e A n n e x . I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e P r i n c i p a l i t was  learned that a  h i s t o r y o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e a r e a had been p r e p a r e d  and  F i g u r e 11 shows t h e R e l i g i o u s D e n o m i n a t i o n s o f P e r s o n s P a r k " by p e r c e n t a g e s f o r t h e p e r i o d 1951 - 1961.  was  made  i n "Sunrise  Figure  fj: Religious Denominations of Persons in"Sunrise Park'by Percentages f o r the Period 1951 - 19°1 Percent  5  10  15  20  25  30  35 Percent og  United Church  29.16 30. Sh Roman Catholic  11.88 20.18  Church of England  26.26 18.91 7.71A  11.10 6.U3 7.00 Presbyterian  12.58 6.U1 Baptist  3.39 2.77 Greek Orthodox 1.01  1.81 Ukranian Catholic  1.26 1.25  Mennonite  •o 2  1951 1961  6  Source: Census, 1951, B u l l e t i n 11 (D.B.S.) Census, 1961, B u l l e t i n 22 (D.B.S.)  - 105 a v a i l a b l e to the  student  -  f o r the  study  of t h i s aspect  of  community  development. The area. a s an  The  p r o b l e m s o f growth have a l w a y s been e v i d e n t i n  present  S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l  e i g h t room s c h o o l i n 1930.  p u p i l s and  10  At  that time  originally  built 369  t h e r e were  teachers.  E a r l i e r we p e r i o d b e t w e e n 194-1  had  noted  and  1951  the and  r a p i d growth i n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s growth c r e a t e d  problems to the s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . Sir  M a t t h e w B e g b i e A n n e x was  to  S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l .  d u r i n g the  was  this  I t was  additional  during this period that  c o n s t r u c t e d and The  A n n e x was  a new  w i n g was  used f o r the  194-5-1946 t e r m and c o n t a i n e d f i v e c l a s s r o o m s .  added  first The  classrooms, In  1959  l i b r a r y , a r t room, and four additional  added to the Annex. a d d i t i o n o f two  The  to  gymnasium-auditorium.  classrooms  and  a gymnasium were  o n l y change s i n c e t h a t t i m e  portable classrooms  has  been  the  on t h e g r o u n d s o f t h e A n n e x  three portable classrooms  on t h e g r o u n d s o f S i r M a t t h e w B e g b i e  School.  are used f o r the f i r s t  present  These c l a s s r o o m s school  o n l y Grades I to IV are  r e p o r t s tha.t t h e a n n e x w i l l the next  term.  time  during  and  the  year.  Grades I to VI are year  time new  wing i n c r e a s e d the accommodation i n S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l 20  the  taught  i n t h e m a i n s c h o o l and  taught  i n the annex.  The  for  this  Principal  r e v e r t to the u s u a l Grades I to I I I f o r  In a d d i t i o n , both  t h e s c h o o l and  t h e a n n e x have a  kindergarten. The prior  enrollment  a t S i r M a t t h e w B e g b i e S c h o o l was  to c o n s t r u c t i o n of Skeena Terrace  and  now  i s 804  63O  students  students.  The  - 106 number a t t e n d i n g t h e a n n e x i s 365 s t u d e n t s , a n i n c r e a s e o f 165 s i n c e t h e f a m i l i e s moved i n t o  the housing p r o j e c t .  F o r Grades V I I and above, t h e c h i l d r e n a t t e n d Vancouver T e c h n i c a l School  o r Templeton J u n i o r High  either  School  d e p e n d i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e a r e a i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . from t h e housing  The c h i l d r e n  p r o j e c t a t t e n d Vancouver T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l .  From t h e 1 9 6 l c e n s u s i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r higher education i n "Sunrise Park" city  of Vancouver g e n e r a l l y .  I n "Sunrise Park"  than i n t h e  21.55 p e r c e n t  of the  p o p u l a t i o n are a t t e n d i n g school o r u n i v e r s i t y while i n Vancouver o n l y 18.77 p e r c e n t The  o f the population are i n school or u n i v e r s i t y .  s i t u a t i o n i s q u i t e r e v e r s e d when c o m p a r i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e s  those a t t e n d i n g high school o r u n i v e r s i t y . 21.55 p e r c e n t  I n Vancouver C i t y as a whole t h e comparable  w o u l d be 26.62 p e r c e n t  a n d 7«03 p e r c e n t .  come d o e s n o t seem t o be a f a c t o r i n t h e s e r e d u c e d " S u n r i s e P a r k " 56.38 p e r c e n t incomes i n excess percent total  percentages.  In  o f $4,000 w h i l e i n t h e c i t y a s a w h o l e o n l y 54.58  l a b o u r f o r c e , b o t h male a n d f e m a l e ,  38.46 p e r c e n t .  The f a m i l y i n -  o f t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e a r e r e c e i v i n g  o f t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e f a l l i n t o  "Sunrise Park"  only  o f t h o s e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l a r e i n h i g h s c h o o l a n d 2.72  percent are i n u n i v e r s i t y . percentages  I n "Sunrise Park"  of  this category. 4 l . l 4 percent  Of t h e  o f them i n  e a r n o v e r $4,000 a s o p p o s e d t o t h e c i t y p e r c e n t a g e I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e  w i t h t h e total f a m i l y income b u t i t i s noted have some b e a r i n g on why more p e o p l e  the s i z e of the family  that the r e s u l t s might  do n o t go on f o r h i g h e r  education.  Parks: T h e r e a r e two p a r k s  of  s e r v i n g t h e community, S u n r i s e  Park,  f r o m whose name we Adanac P a r k .  have named t h e  community f o r o u r  Both are a d m i n i s t e r e d  Public Recreation was  -  107  and  the  by  the B o a r d o f P a r k s  descriptive information  r e c e i v e d f r o m a s e n i o r member o f t h e Sunrise  south  Park covers  b e t w e e n 3 r d A v e n u e and  e a s t by R u p e r t S t r e e t and facilities  on  a two 5th  study,  given  and and  below  staff.  block area  Avenue.  running  north  I t i s b o u n d e d on  and the  t h e w e s t by W i n d e r m e r e S t r e e t .  i n c l u d e p l a y i n g f i e l d s , a w a d i n g p o o l , and  a  The  small  field-house. f i e l d - h o u s e c o n s i s t s o f a room, 60  The  complete w i t h stage, quarters.  A l l of  the  a k i t c h e n , washroom f a c i l i t i e s a c t i v i t i e s i n the  s u p e r v i s i o n of the S u n r i s e  40  and  feet,  caretakers'  f i e l d - h o u s e are under  P a r k Community A s s o c i a t i o n .  r e g u l a r monthly meetings, whist c u b s and  f e e t by  d r i v e s , bingo,  and  the  They have  sponsor  both  scouts. A d a n a c P a r k i s on t h e n o r t h w e s t c o r n e r  a field-house caretakers'  f a c i n g on B o u n d a r y R o a d .  quarters,  The  d r e s s i n g rooms and  of the a r e a  field-house  s h o w e r s and  with  contains  washroom  facilities. The fields  park i s used p r i m a r i l y  for football,  much a c t i v i t y  during  soccer, the  p l a y i n g time i s a l r e a d y Shopping  f o r team s p o r t s and  b a s e b a l l and  summer m o n t h s and reserved  softball.  has  The  most o f t h e  playing  park  has  prime  f o r t h e c o m i n g summer.  Facilities The  shopping f a c i l i t i e s  Other than small corner done e l s e w h e r e .  grocery  i n the a r d a are  very  inadequate.  s t o r e s most o f t h e s h o p p i n g i s  T h e r e a r e a b o u t 12  s t o r e s l o c a t e d on  Renfrew  - 108 S t r e e t between 1 s t and 2nd Avenue.  None of the l a r g e r grocery-  chain s t o r e s are l o c a t e d i n the immediate Many people  vicinity.  from "Sunrise Park" and e s p e c i a l l y Skeena  Terrace take advantage of the f r e e bus s e r v i c e from Boundary Road to  Brentwood Shopping Centre i n nearby Burnaby.  Centre i s one of the l a r g e r shopping Library  p l a z a s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver.  Facilities: The nearest branch  from " S u n r i s e Park". district  Brentwood Shopping  of the c i t y l i b r a r y i s some d i s t a n c e  For those i n the southern p o r t i o n of the  the nearest branch would be at the corner of Rupert S t r e e t  and Kingsway.  The Hastings Branch l o c a t e d a t 267^ East  Hastings  S t r e e t would be the branch most f r e q u e n t l y used by that p o r t i o n of the d i s t r i c t n o r t h of 1 s t Avenue. Because o f the d i s t a n c e from e i t h e r branch  of the l i b r a r y  the area does have the s e r v i c e s o f the Mobile Branch which makes stops i n the area on a weekly b a s i s . In summary, "Sunrise Park" has been an undefined in  the extreme e a s t e r l y p o r t i o n o f Vancouver.  community  I t has experienced  c o n s i d e r a b l e growth, more than doubling the p o p u l a t i o n i n the past twenty y e a r s .  There i s an extremely  occupied s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . of  The m a j o r i t y of the people are  B r i t i s h I s l e s o r i g i n and the m a j o r i t y of the people  a l l e g i a n c e to the P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h . of  high p r o p o r t i o n of owner-  There i s a l a r g e  young people n e c e s s i t a t i n g a d d i t i o n s to the s c h o o l  The young people  do not continue  claim percentage facilities.  f o r higher education as a r u l e , but  they a r e able to earn an average r a t e of income.  The s e r v i c e s ,  -  s c h o o l s and p a r k s , appear travel in  109  -  t o be a d e q u a t e ,  some d i s t a n c e f o r l i b r a r y  but i t i s necessary to  facilities.  the area are very inadequate, e s p e c i a l l y  The s h o p p i n g  facilities  f o r those persons  without  t h e i r own t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d who p r e f e r t o do t h e i r s h o p p i n g i n t h e larger  supermarkets. The  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " was i n c l u d e d i n  t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r t o p o r t r a y t h e community w h i c h was c h o s e n f o r t h i s large public housing project.  The c o m m u n i t y , a s we h a v e  seen,  has  f e w a s s e t s a n d many l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c  The  p r i n c i p a l l i a b i l i t y i s t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e major  housing.  health, welfare  and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , h o s p i t a l s , s h o p p i n g , a n d e m p l o y m e n t . Another of  l i a b i l i t y w o u l d be t h e p l a c e m e n t  h i g h home o w n e r s h i p .  o f many t e n a n t s i n a n a r e a  The s c h o o l s were n o t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e l a r g e  number o f c h i l d r e n who l i v e d on t h e p r o j e c t and t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e over-crowding u n t i l average  t h e p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s were c o n s t r u c t e d .  r a t e o f i n c o m e i n t h e community i s much h i g h e r t h a n t h e  income r e c e i v e d by t h e t e n a n t s o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . of  The  t h e income f o r t e n a n t s w i l l  be shown i n t h e n e x t  The d e t a i l s  section.  - no  B.  THE  HOUSING PROJECT AND  ITS  PEOPLE  A d e q u a t e h o u s i n g i s one and  i n t h i s c h a p t e r we  will  -  of the b a s i c needs o f  attempt  to p r o v i d e a background  need f o r a l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t ,  tenant  of  the a r e a of o r i g i n o f  t e n a n t s , the c o m p o s i t i o n of the f a m i l i e s , and m o b i l i t y o f t h e p e o p l e  people  the f i n a n c i a l  on t h e p r o j e c t , a n d  the  the  circumstances  some o b s e r v a t i o n s o f  problems. The  literature,  m e t h o d s o f s t u d y f o r t h i s c h a p t e r were a r e v i e w o f a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l  t e n a n t problems as p r e s e n t e d  and o b s e r v a t i o n o f  to the P r o j e c t Manager.  B a c k g r o u n d o f Need f o r L o w - R e n t a l "Urban r e n e w a l  tenant f i l e s ,  Housing  i s the term used  i n Vancouver to d e s c r i b e the  diversi-  f i e d e f f o r t s of l o c a l i t i e s w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the F e d e r a l Government ( i n C a n a d a , t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s ) f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n o f s l u m s and b l i g h t , w h e t h e r or  n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l , and  and  the removal  blighting conditions.  locally  c o n c e i v e d , p l a n n e d and  c o r r e c t u r b a n b l i g h t and  planned  development."  of the f a c t o r s t h a t c r e a t e slums  ...Urban R e n e w a l i s a l o c a l programme executed.  by a c o m m u n i t y t h r o u g h i t s p u b l i c and  residential  I t i s a concerted  and p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s t o  d e c a y and  to set i n motion  effort prevent  long-range  1  Vancouver C i t y i s u n d e r t a k i n g i t s redevelopment y e a r p l a n r e l a t i n g i t to the C i t y ' s twenty y e a r o v e r a l l  as a  twenty  development  F e r n M. C o l b u r n , The N e i g h b o u r h o o d and U r b a n R e n e w a l , The N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e s , New Y o r k , 1963 page 8. ( B r a c k e t s a d d e d )  - I l l plan.  Because  according planning  redevelopment,  to a defined  t o be e f f e c t i v e ] s h o u l d p r o c e e d  and comprehensive  means l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g  s o c i a l and economic  community f a c i l i t i e s ,  i n d i c a t e s the k i n d o f urban  a l s o s u g g e s t s the need f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  future  of g o a l s . "  renewal The  1  which w i l l  density  be  writer  dealt  D.  I n 19^7 determine  I t determines  standards f o r population  t r e a t m e n t n e e d e d and e s t a b l i s h e s p r i o r i t y  with i n Section  "Comprehensive  w h i c h i s e v e r c h a n g i n g t o meet  need of the community.  l a n d use, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes, and  plan.  the f i r s t major  the degree  s u r v e y of an a r e a i n V a n c o u v e r  o f b l i g h t and  to  the need f o r urban r e n e w a l  was  2 c o n d u c t e d by L.C.  Marsh.  He  chose  about  M a i n S t r e e t , b o u n d e d by H a s t i n g s E a s t , the  False  1950  and  Creek F l a t s . contained  neighbourhood. advanced  "The  r e d u c e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i n g  than  5)  grid flexhouses project,  c o s t s , as w e l l  r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h more ample open s p a c e .  case f o r patchwork  renovation. 1  t h e n e e d f o r r e p l a c i n g t h i s by a more  in  the  the i n e f f i c i e n c y of the  t h e economy o f a m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g and l a r g e s c a l e  a s meet t h e p o p u l a t i o n  and  o f a whole  p o s i t i v e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e c i s i o n a r e 1)  t h e wisdom o f b u i l d i n g a c o m m u n i t y r a t h e r  which alone w i l l  i s no  Gore S t r e e t , G l e n D r i v e  r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y were p u b l i s h e d  d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e a r e a 2)  i b l e p l a n , 3)  east of  f i f t e e n p r o p o s a l s f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  system o f s t r e e t s , and  a l o n e , 4)  The  forty blocks  r e p l a c e m e n t , n o r f o r p i e c e m e a l and  There  doubtful  A f u r t h e r h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e a r e a ±0  Working Together f o r Urban Renewal, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Housing and R e d e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c i a l s , (N.A.H.R.O.) C h i c a g o , S e p t e m b e r , 1958. N.A.H.R.O. P u b l i c a t i o n N-407 page (L..  p L.C. M a r s h , R e b u i l d i n g a N e i g h b o u r h o o d , U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h P u b l i c a t i o n s , V a n c o u v e r 1950*  British  - 112 the n o r t h cannot  be  c l e a r e d o f i t s s l u m s and p u t t o  i n d u s t r i a l use u n l e s s decent Other  -  housing i s provided  s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h e one  E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r L o w - R e n t a l for  redevelopment  and p u b l i c  elsewhere." ' 1  completed  Housing,  housing a l i v e ,  effecient  by M i c h a e l W h e e l e r  h e l p e d t o keep the need and were no  doubt  p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n and p a s s i n g i n 1957 "Vancouver Redevelopment Study" i n which  o v e r 1,000  of  the  a c r e s were  2 d e l i n e a t e d as c o m p r e h e n s i v e sub-standard  redevelopment  c o n d i t i o n s i n these comprehensive  were so p r e v a l e n t t h a t l a r g e - s c a l e t h e o n l y remedy. of  F a l s e Creek "The  The  blight  redevelopment  c l e a r a n c e was  t o a s "AM,  "B",  "C"  the F e d e r a l Government toward  d i s p o s s e s s e d by  or areas  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  and  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and  south  "D".  N a t i o n a l Housing A c t s t a t e s that there w i l l  p r o j e c t u n l e s s c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e met, be  The  a r e a s s o ' d e l i n e a t e d a r e t o t h e e a s t and  and a r e r e f e r r e d  c o n t r i b u t i o n from  to  areas.  be  no  cost of a clearance  i n c l u d i n g - 'the  families  clearance of the area are  o f f e r e d a t the time of the d i s p o s i t i o n , h o u s i n g accommodation i n a housing p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t e d under S e c t i o n l 6 , that  ...  a r e f a i r and  r e a s o n a b l e ; o r i t c a n be  19  o r J>6 a t  established  rentals that  such  r e n t a l h o u s i n g i s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e open m a r k e t . " ^ The  Wheeler study  low r e n t a l housing.  i n 1955  T h i s s t u d y was  proved  conclusively  directed particularly  h o u s i n g and i n c o m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e f a m i l i e s who 1  I b i d . , page  the need f o r to  the  applied for  "x"  2 3 k  Redevelopment i n the C i t y of Vancouver, C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, A u g u s t , I960. I b i d . , page 3 M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r L o w - R e n t a l H o u s i n g , 6f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955  Master  - 113 entrance  to L i t t l e  Mountain  housing p r o j e c t .  Mr. Wheeler found  t h e g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e f a m i l i e s on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t  f o r accommo-  d a t i o n "were o c c u p y i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n u n s u i t e d t o t h e i r n e e d s . high incidence of overcrowding, d a t i o n were r e p o r t e d .  and o f g e n e r a l inadequacy  that  A  a n d accomo-  A l t h o u g h me.ny f a m i l i e s w e r e p a y i n g m o d e r a t e  r e n t s , t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r a c c o m m o d a t i o n s was v e r y l o w :  the fact  t h a t some o f t h e f a m i l i e s w e r e p a y i n g h i g h e r r e n t s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t a d e q u a t e s h e l t e r was a s s u r e d . " The for  1  s h o r t a g e o f s u i t a b l e accommodation n e c e s s i t a t e d p l a n n i n g  low-rental public  h o u s i n g b e f o r e any major p r o g r e s s i n the r e -  development p r o j e c t c o u l d take p l a c e o r any o f the e x i s t i n g  inadequate  h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n c o u l d be d e s t r o y e d .  To b e g i n t h e programme two  h o u s i n g programmes w e r e p l a n n e d  t h o s e p e o p l e who n e e d e d  and  r e q u e s t e d accommodation.  t o rehouse  T h e r e were some who were a b l e t o make  t h e i r own h o u s i n g - a r r a n g e m e n t .  The f i r s t p r o j e c t c o m p l e t e d  a r e a o f o u r s t u d y , Skeena T e r r a c e , and t h e second followed shortly after.  one, Maclean  Park  S k e e n a T e r r a c e was o p e n e d i n O c t o b e r ,  1962  and M a c L e a n P a r k i n A p r i l , The geared pay  1963.  rents i n the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l housing projects are  t o f a m i l y income and s i z e  so t h a t a f a m i l y o f l o w i n c o m e  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21 p e r c e n t o f i t s i n c o m e i n r e n t .  c h o s e n f o r t h e s i z e o f t h e f a m i l y a n d no a d j u s t m e n t i n c r e a s e d r e n t a l s f o r the l a r g e r s i z e apartments purpose  was t h e  will  The s u i t e s a r e i s made f o r  o r row h o u s e s . F o r  o f c a l c u l a t i n g i n c o m e f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e s a r e exempt a s i s  i n c o m e i n e x c e s s o f $75  f o r c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e age o f 25 who  continue  J . S . B r o w n , D. Kogawa, R.E. P a t e r s , P u b l i c H o u s i n g a n d W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1963, page 5.  - 114 to  reside with their"parents i n public  r e c e i p t o f O l d Age Allowance $10  -  A s s i s t a n c e , O l d Age  or B l i n d Persons Allowance  (1963) i s a l s o  Areas  T h e r e a r e 234  S e c u r i t y , D i s a b l e d Persons  t h e most r e c e n t i n c r e a s e o f  L i v i n g at Skeena  f a m i l i e s or i n d i v i d u a l s  d a t i o n i n Skeena T e r r a c e p u b l i c  h o u s i n g , 69  s i n g l e pensioners or pension couples.  a d d r e s s was  occupy the s u i t e .  up.  The  original  file,  of 12)  on 224  f a m i l i e s from  redevelopment has  the redevelopment  Even i f the former address  that area.  the t e n a n t s .  built  former  i s made  therefore,  a r e a o n l y 44.19  percent  C a n d D.  (Figure  of the m i s s i n g f i l e s were a l l from  a r e a o n l y 48.66 p e r c e n t w o u l d have o r i g i n a t e d  area.  I n t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g map  the f r i n g e of  the C i t y  B,  C, a n d D c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e  the areas i n the Redevelopment Study.  of  v a r y i n g s i z e b u t were c h o s e n those  areas.  from  the  ( F i g u r e 13)  down i n t o 8 a r e a s t o show t h e p l a c e o f o r i g i n  S e c t i o n s A,  the  t o accommodate  f r o m A r e a s A, B,  of  t e n a n t s from  incomplete f i l e  T h e r e w e r e many o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , on  been broken  the  families.  the p r e s e n t t e n a n t s o r i g i n a t e d  the redevelopment  for  the spouse c o n t i n u e s to  o f c a l c u l a t i o n on fommer l o c a t i o n s  be b a s e d  either  w i t h the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n ,  A l t h o u g h t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t was primarily  of which are  T h i s s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s when a t e n a n t i n t h e  t o t h e Head O f f i c e a n d a new  For purposes  details will  o c c u p y i n g accommo-  t e n a n t s t h e r e were 10 p e n s i o n e r s i n w h i c h  n o t shown.  forwarded  Terrace  In r e v i e w i n g the f i l e s  h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g d i e s o r moves o u t and  is  For tenants i n  exempted.  of O r i g i n of the Tenants  the i n d i v i d u a l  housing.  for  definition  E, F. G and H a r e  areas  because of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  Figure 13'  Map of Vancouver Showing Redevelopment Areas (A.B.C.D.) and Added D i v i s i o n s , E . F . G . H .  Figure 12:  Map Showing Former Residence of Tenants of Skeena Terrace  X Normal Families  ABroken Families  •  Pensioners  - 115 E i s t h a t a r e a w e s t o f Cambie S t r e e t e x c l u d i n g t h o s e p o r t i o n s t h a t a r e p a r t o f t h e redevelopment a r e a and i n c l u d i n g the downtown a r e a w e s t o f M a i n S t r e e t . F i s t h e a r e a s o u t h o f Broadway A v e n u e by F r a s e r S t r e e t a n d on t h e w e s t by Cambie  bounded i n t h e e a s t  Street.  G i s t h e a r e a s o u t h o f Broadway Avenue  and e a s t o f F r a s e r  Street. H i s t h a t a r e a n o r t h o f Broadway A v e n u e  and i n c l u d i n g t h e  a r e a e a s t o f Main S t r e e t b u t e x c l u d i n g the redevelopment a r e a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  t h a t none o f t h e t e n a n t s o f  Skeena Terrace l i v e d i n the a r e a o f " S u n r i s e Park" p r i o r into public  housing.  Table  AREA  t o moving  Former Residence of Tenants i n Skeena T e r r a c e Showing Whether Normal F a m i l i e s , Broken F a m i l i e s , o r S e n i o r C i t i z e n s , 1963  K.  Normal Families  *  Broken Families  **  Senior Citizens  Total  Percent  A  10  14  23  47  20.98  B  7  8  6  21  9.37  C  1  3  7  3.12  D  3 10  7  7  24  10.71  E  6  7  5  18  F  18  7  6  31  8.05 13.84  G  21  17  5  43  19.19  H  16  13  4  33  14.73  Total:  91  74  59  224  100.00  * C o n s i s t s o f b o t h p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ** C o n s i s t s o f one p a r e n t o n l y a n d d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n  - 116 -  Composition  of the F a m i l i e s  High-Rise  Building:  a r e 69  s u i t e s , 21 o f w h i c h  person  o n l y , and 48  o r two  s i n g l e persons  one  In the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g  a r e b a c h e l o r s u i t e s o c c u p i e d by  bedroom s u i t e s o c c u p i e d e i t h e r by  l i v i n g as a f a m i l y u n i t .  s u i t e s occupied i n t h i s l a t t e r 117  people  living  p r o j e c t and  category.  i n the b u i l d i n g .  The  There are  b a c h e l o r s u i t e s a r e o c c u p i e d by 11 men  manager o f t h e  and  b u i l d i n g i s meant p r i m a r i l y  one couples three  There are t h e r e f o r e  h i s w i f e o c c u p y a s u i t e on t h e t o p f l o o r .  The  there  12  housing The  21  women.  f o r those persons  over  65 y e a r s o l d b u t i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e s p o u s e i s y o u n g e r . a r e 4 men  and 19 women b e l o w t h e minimum age  i n the  There  building.  4-2.97 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e b u i l d i n g a r e i n t h e 60 69 age  range. The  and  h i g h e s t r e n t p a i d by any  t e n a n t i s $99*20 p e r month  t h e l o w e s t r e n t i s $22.00 p e r month.  a r e p a y i n g t h i s l o w amount. t h e b u i l d i n g i s $34.90.  The  T h e r e a r e 12  tenants  For the b a c h e l o r s u i t e s the average $39.05 i s t h e a v e r a g e m o n t h l y  f o r t h e one  Heat, stove, r e f r i g e r a t o r , l o c k e r  room, u s e  bedroom s u i t e s .  o f w a s h e r s and  i n c l u d e d i n the r e n t , but l i g h t and  who  average r e n t f o r each s u i t e i n  m o n t h l y r e n t a l i s $25«4l, and  own  -  d r y e r s and  the use  of the lounge  the t e n a n t s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  rental  are their  'phone.  D u r i n g t h e p a s t few m o n t h s i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t the t e n a n t s a r e v e r y p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r accommodations and one  o f them had any  viewed  expressed  any  d e s i r e t o move e l s e w h e r e .  None o f t h o s e  no  inter  c o m p l a i n t s about the n o i s e of the c h i l d r e n  on  - 117 T a b l e L.  -  Age o f T e n a n t s i n t h e H i g h - R i s e B u i l d i n g S h o w i n g t h e Number, S e x , and M a r i t a l . Status 1963  Male  Female  Total  0  1  1  - 49  1  3  4  50 - 59 60 - 69  3 22  15  18  3.51 15.78  39  34.20  70 - 79 80 - 89  14  17 11  5  1  25 6  21.93 5.26  Age  Range  Percent  COUPLES Under 40  40  .88  SINGLE  60 - 69 70 - 79 80 - 89  2  8  10  8.78  9 0  l  10  1  l  8.78 .88  TOTAL  56  58  114  J  project.  The  only- e x p r e s s i o n  100.00  o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was  the  d i s t a n c e t h e y must t r a v e l f o r s h o p p i n g . A p a r t m e n t s and Row  Houses:  h o u s e s p r o v i d e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r 256 the  165  families,  p e r c e n t o f t h e s e 91  "Broken" if  not a l l ,  95  row  children.  Of  apartments  a d u l t s and 550  one  o r more c h i l d r e n .  f a m i l i e s have f i v e  common f a m i l y w o u l d be f a l l into  70  and  55«l6 p e r c e n t a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s " n o r m a l "  t h a t i s , w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s and  families  The  this  three children.  families, 16.59  Only  o r more c h i l d r e n .  The  25.27 p e r c e n t o f t h e  most "normal"  category.  f a m i l i e s p r e s e n t s p e c i a l problems s i n c e i n most,  o f the f a m i l i e s  l o s s o f the breadwinner  suffer  through  from low income because of  death, d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n .  the There  - 118 a r e 74 f a m i l i e s i n S k e e n a T e r r a c e w i t h one p a r e n t m i s s i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s e f a m i l i e s i n c l u d e 242 c h i l d r e n  o r 44.00percent  o f a l l t h e c h i l d r e n on t h e p r o j e c t .  78.36 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e  m a r r i a g e s a r e c a u s e d by s e p a r a t i o n .  Only 9 and 7 o f these  broken marriages  a r e b r o k e n by d e a t h o r d i v o r c e r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T a b l e M.  F a m i l i e s i n Skeena T e r r a c e P u b l i c Housing by Numbers o f C h i l d r e n a n d W h e t h e r N o r m a l o r B r o k e n F a m i l i e s w i t h P e r c e n t a g e s - 1963  Number o f Children  Number o f Families  1  14  9.09  12  13.18  2  48  29.70  21  23.08  27  36.49  3 4  42 24  25.45 14.55  23 12  25-27  19  5  8.48  8  13.19  12  16  6  11  6.67  7 8  5 4  9 10  Percent o f Total  Percent  Broken Families  2  Percent  2.70  8.79  8  9  9.89  2  2.70  3.03  2  2.20  3  4.05  2.42  3  3.30  1  1.35  0  0.00  0  0.00  0  1  0.61  1  1.10  0  0.00 0.00  91  10000  74  100.00  100  The  Normal Families  25.68 16.22 10.81  165  Total  Percent  100.00  J I  44.84  55.16  l a r g e s t s i n g l e percentage  I  o f parents i n the p r o j e c t ,  b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e , i s i n t h e 25 t o 29 age r a n g e .  26.73 p e r c e n t  o f a l l the male p a r e n t s a r e i n t h i s range and f o r t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g age  group,  22.43 p e r c e n t o f a l l f e m a l e p a r e n t s .  p a r e n t s u n d e r t h e a g e o f 20 b u t t h e r e a r e f i v e category.  There  a r e no m a l e  female p a r e n t s i n t h i s  - 119  26 m a l e p a r e n t s and 33  There a r e o n l y o v e r t h e age o f 4 0 .  -  These numbers r e p r e s e n t  p e r c e n t of t h e i r groups  female p a r e n t s  28.33 £nd  21.75  respectively. o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e 12-14  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n  acres of  S k e e n a T e r r a c e i s v e r y h e a v y i n a l l age g r o u p s b u t e s p e c i a l l y i n the  pre-school category.  T h e r e a r e 117  female c h i l d r e n between b i r t h c h i l d r e n between  B i r t h to  5  6 - 7 8 - 9  j  the i n f o r m a t i o n  possible  Total  Female  Male  Female  8o  69 28  37 22 19  16  10 - 11  9  12 16  12 - 13 14 - 15 16 - 17 18 - 21 O v e r 21  14  9  6  12  l  13 3 3 0  155  153  7 4  The P r o j e c t  Because o f the  i t i s n o t now  Broken  Male  18  Total  123  there are  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d P o p u l a t i o n Showing W h e t h e r From N o r m a l o r B r o k e n F a m i l i e s , S k e e n a T e r r a c e 1963  Normal Range  Also  106  t h e a c t u a l number o f t e e n a g e r s on t h e p r o j e c t .  T a b l e N.  Age  and s i x y e a r s .  t h e a g e s o f t w e l v e and t w e n t y - o n e .  age b r e a k d o w n i n c o l l e c t i n g to a s c e r t a i n  male c h i l d r e n and  15 9 4  Total  Male  37 18  223 86.  117 X4o  106  13 16  60  35  56  24  45  23 18  25 32 22  13 9 13  40  Female  46  22 16  11  l  3 0  27 11 2  5 2  0  120  122  550  275  275  1  6  as a Whole  Income; a h i g h dependence  The s o u r c e o f i n c o m e on t h e p r o j e c t on t h e v a r i o u s  forms o f p u b l i c  indicates  welfare.  Of t h e  - 120 t o t a l o f 234 u n i t s o n l y 86 f a m i l i e s a r e t o t a l l y 75 f r o m e a r n i n g s a n d 11 on m o r t g a g e s ,  from o t h e r s o u r c e s w h i c h i n c l u d e s payments  a s s i s t a n c e from r e l a t i v e s ,  etc.  a r e 102 f a m i l i e s o n e i t h e r s o c i a l  There or  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n p a r t t o supplement  In any c a s e , the t o t a l income would rates.  be b a s e d  on s o c i a l  The o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i n c o m e s u p p l e m e n t i n g pensions - 3 families;  families;  and p a r t i a l e a r n i n g s - 6 f a m i l i e s .  ance r a t e s a r e :  assistance  social  assist-  The s o c i a l  assist-  2 p e r s o n s - $103«80  - $125.^0 p e r month; k p e r s o n s - $1^7.00 p e r  5 p e r s o n s - $168.60;  - $211.80.  alone  unemployment i n s u r a n c e - 7  1 p e r s o n - $66 p e r month;  p e r month; 3 p e r s o n s  in  assistance  o t h e r sources o f income.  ance a r e :  month;  self-supporting,  6 p e r s o n s - $190.20; a n d 7 p e r s o n s  I f the f a m i l y i s g r e a t e r than seven  t h e r e i s no i n c r e a s e  s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e e x c e p t i n e x t r e m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u t i n no c a s e  can i t exceed  $233»40 p e r m o n t h .  I n the case o f s o c i a l  assistance  s u p p l e m e n t i n g p a r t i a l e a r n i n g s o f a s e p a r a t e d o r widowed m o t h e r , the expenses  f o r t h e employment o f a b a b y s i t t e r a r e exempted.  Twenty-four additional  o f t h e t e n a n t s a r e on p e n s i o n s a l o n e a n d a n  f o u r f a m i l i e s have p e n s i o n s a n d e a r n i n g s .  The r e m a i n i n g  e i g h t e e n f a m i l i e s a r e i n r e c e i p t o f War V e t e r a n s A l l o w a n c e o r Unemployment I n s u r a n c e , w i t h t w e l v e a n d s i x c a s e s Mobility:  C o n t r a r y t o t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d b y many  p e o p l e , t h e r e i s not a h i g h degree of  the housing p r o j e c t .  original first  respectively.  o f m o b i l i t y among t h e  One h u n d r e d  and seventy-two  t e n a n t s c o n t i n u e t o r e s i d e on the p r o j e c t .  t h r e e months o f o c c u p a n c y  tenants  of the During the  on the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t  t h e r e were  T a b l e 0.  121 -  Amount o f Income R e c e i v e d M o n t h l y b y T e n a n t s o f S k e e n a T e r r a c e - 19&3  Amount o f Income  Under  $200  Number o f Families  Percent  61.54  144  $201 - $300  62  26.50  $301 - $377-50  17  7.26  Over $377-50*  9  3.85  Unknown  2  .85  Total  234  10000  Maximum Income p e r m i t t e d f o r a d m i s s i o n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o December, 1963« I n c r e a s e d t o $412.50 f o r 1964. n i n e t e e n changes o f t e n a n t s .  S i n c e t h a t time  the rate o f m o b i l i t y  w o u l d seem n o r m a l a n d w o u l d p r o b a b l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e m o b i l i t y i n any p a r t o f the c i t y . In  r e v i e w i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e t e n a n t s and t h e i r  special  problems s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e noted: 1.  The t e n a n t s have come f r o m most a r e a s o f t h e c i t y w i t h h e a v i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n o r near  2.  the r e d e v e l o p -  ment a r e a s where t h e h o u s i n g was e x t r e m e l y  poor.  44.84 p e r c e n t o f t h e f a m i l i e s a r e " b r o k e n "  families,  t h a t i s , f a m i l i e s w i t h one p a r e n t , i n w h i c h a r e 242 c h i l d r e n .  there  B e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e number o f  c h i l d r e n , employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e l i m i t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n l o w income. 3«  T h e r e i s a h e a v y c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n on t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , 275 b o y s a n d 275 g i r l s , w i t h 223 o f  - 122 them u n d e r t h e age o f s i x . 4.  The  g e n e r a l l e v e l o f income i s v e r y l o w , w i t h  6 l . 5 4 p e r c e n t r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n $200 p e r m o n t h . 5.  T h e r e i s a l a r g e number o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s have l i m i t e d  O b s e r v a t i o n o f Tenant  income.  Problems  F o r t h e p e r i o d f r o m O c t o b e r , 1963  t o A p r i l , 1964,  s t u d e n t s p e n t two d a y s p e r week on t h e p r o j e c t . was  who  spent i n the P r o j e c t Manager's  this  Most o f t h e t i m e  o f f i c e , a n d he was a b l e t o  o b s e r v e , and i n some i n s t a n c e s p a r t i c i p a t e , i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f the t e n a n t s ' problems. T h e r e w e r e some p r o b l e m s c e n t r e d a r o u n d d e f e c t s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g s , l e a k i n g a r o u n d t h e d o o r s a n d windows during rainstorms,  f a u l t y o p e r a t i o n o f t h e h e a t i n g s y s t e m , and  dampness i n some o f t h e b a s e m e n t s .  The M a n a g e r h a s been v e r y  o p e r a t i v e i n h a v i n g the problems corrected as soon as  co-  possible.  The p r i n c i p a l s o c i a l p r o b l e m s c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e i n a d e q u a t e income  t o meet t h e f a m i l y n e e d s .  These w o u l d seem t o be  legitimate  p r o b l e m s s i n c e s u c h a l a r g e number o f t e n a n t s a r e d e p e n d e n t s o c i a l w e l f a r e measures  f o r t h e i r maintenance.  upon  I n some c a s e s t h e  s m a l l m e m b e r s h i p dues t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e g r o u p s on t h e p r o j e c t c r e a t e d a f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m and d e l a y e d t h e p r o s p e c t i v e member's admission f o r a short period of time. T h e r e were some c a s e s w h e r e a s e p a r a t e d h u s b a n d u s u a l l y i n a d r u n k e n c o n d i t i o n , and hoped the f a m i l y .  returned,  t o be p e r m i t t e d t o r e j o i n  R e f u s a l o f t e n l e d t o n o i s y b e h a v i o u r and t h e n e e d t o  have t h e p o l i c e c a l l e d . type of problem.  She  The  c a s e o f M r s . "C" i s t y p i c a l o f  this  s e p a r a t e d f r o m h e r h u s b a n d a f t e r many y e a r s  - 123 of i l l She  treatment  was  able  the  F o r t u n a t e l y , she  s u i t e and  refused  s u i t e and  a r r i v e d and  are not  f o u n d e d and  small children with of the  her.  t e n - s u i t e apartQ  a night lock attached  to the  commenced t o c r e a t e a d i s t u r b a n c e  t o do  so u n t i l  t o o k him  and  low  I n one  standards  case the  door she  outside  the n e i g h b o u r s . t e l e p h o n e d  the  away.  were r e p u t e d  i n the o t h e r  for this  had  common p r o b l e m s .  o f the t e n a n t s  investigated.  not  He  continued  Alcoholism tenants  two  when h e r h u s b a n d a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n a d m i s s i o n  to a d m i t him.  p o l i c e who  any  abuse t a k i n g her  t o o b t a i n a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n one  ment b l o c k s . of her  and  -  o f m o r a l s on  the p a r t of  T h e r e were o n l y two t o be  p r o s t i t u t e s and  r e p o r t was  case the  i n s t a n c e s when the m a t t e r  was  b e l i e v e d t o h a v e been  tenant  r e a s o n a l o n e , b u t was  the  was  un-  g i v e n an e v i c t i o n n o t i c e ;  a poor tenant  i n other aspects  as  well. The  p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s of the  a p p e a r t o be w i d e l y known. the p a s t  On  tenants'  a t leeast two  few m o n t h s a d v e r s e comments on  were made p u b l i c l y .  A c i t y alderman i s reported  to w i t h d r a w h i s remarks s i n c e the  ported  unreliable.  In the  There are lodge few  few  occasions  The  their  during behaviour  t o have made s t a t e found i t  necessary  o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  w r i t e r was  present  and  proved re-  and attempted  misinformation.  r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e occasions  a complaint  later  and  heard p r o s t i t u t i o n , bootlegging,  a l c o h o l i s m were common p r o b l e m s .  The  not  other instance a p r o f e s s i o n a l person  i n a m e e t i n g t h a t he  to c o r r e c t t h i s  source  do  d i f f e r e n t occasions  the t e n a n t s  m e n t s a b o u t c o n d i t i o n s on t h e p r o j e c t and  t o be  behaviour  tenants  when a t e n a n t  will  a p p e a r s t o be  very  come t o t h e o f f i c e  against a neighbour or a neighbour's c h i l d .  t h i s l o y a l t y has  caused expense s i n c e the t e n a n t  good. and On is  a  -  124  -  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r e a k a g e s i n h i s own generally speaking, of the  child  t o pay  the  apartment.  e x p e n s e r a t h e r t h a n r e p o r t i n g t h e name  responsible.  From t h e management s t a n d p o i n t t o be  They w o u l d p r e f e r ,  t h e g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m seems  the improper d i s p o s a l of garbage.  There are  receptacles for  g a r b a g e on many l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t b u t p r o p e r l y used.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n u s u a l l y r e v e a l s t h a t the  the c h i l d r e n "take not  tall  not  seem t o  t h e g a r b a g e o u t " and  enough t o r e a c h  Generally speaking,  tenants  i n many i n s t a n c e s  o p e n i n g and  i s not  most of the  days o f the p r e c e d i n g  due.  the  not have  they  are  i n some o t h e r i n s t a n c e s  to  care.  Rent c o l l e c t i o n  few  they are  a problem a t Skeena tenants  month o r t h e  I n most m o n t h s a l l o f t h e  pay  their  first  Terrace.  r e n t on  days a f t e r  t e n a n t s have t h e i r  the  the  last  rent i s  rent paid  before  i X/  the  t e n t h o f t h e m o n t h , and  i n few  instances is/necessary  to  remind  them t h a t t h e i r r e n t i s o v e r d u e . I n summary, t h e r e s i d e n t s o f S k e e n a T e r r a c e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of Vancouver, but p r i n c i p a l l y area.  from the  redevelopment  T h e r e i s a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s vvith a  number o f c h i l d r e n . senior citizens  and  The  principal  very  schedule.  conscious  problem f o r a l l of the  f a m i l i e s a l i k e , a p p e a r s t o be  t h e i r i n c o m e t o meet t h e i r n e e d s . are  have come f r o m  t o pay  tenants,  the inadequacy  Even w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d  of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  large  their  income  rent  on  of they  -  C.  HEALTH, WELFARE AND  125  RECREATIONAL SERVICES  Having examined the of "Sunrise now  P a r k " and  t u r n t o an  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l o c a l  e x a m i n a t i o n of the  of Skeena Terrace. t h o s e under the  voluntary  s e c t i o n was in  and  will  followed  The  may  recreational  i n p a r t i c u l a r , to the  or p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s .  we  residents  review  first  by  services  the  information  for  this  s e c u r e d f r o m i n t e r v i e w s , a t t e n d a n c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the p r o j e c t  newspaper.  Services The  standard  p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r the a r e a a r e  as i s p r o v i d e d  p o l i t a n Health units,  and  of p u b l i c agencies,  c o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g s , and  Health  health, welfare  I n e a c h o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s we  auspices  community  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Skeena T e r r a c e ,  s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the a r e a ,  o f f e r e d by  -  one  Services  i n a l l of of Greater  include:  school  P a r k " and  health  the  areas of Vancouver.  same The  Vancouver operate e i g h t  o f w h i c h i s l o c a t e d a t 2610  s e r v e s the area of " S u n r i s e provided  the  on  V i c t o r i a Drive. Skeena Terrace.  health  This The  o f f e r e d and  education.  the  Unit  services  services, well-baby c l i n i c s ,  n a t a l c l a s s e s , t u b e r c u l o s i s c o n t r o l , mental health c l i n i c i s , public health  Metro-  A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f some o f  d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  preand  the  r e s i d e n t s of the  services a r e a seems  indicated. Every school varying periods  a public  health nurse i n attendance  o f t i m e d e p e n d i n g on  Begbie School there while  has  the  size.  I n S i r Matthew  i s a nurse i n attendance four mornings per  i n the Annex the n u r s e i s p r e s e n t t h r e e mornings p e r  duties while  there  i s t o a s s i s t the m e d i c a l o f f i c e r i n the  p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of the  students,  for  a r r a n g e f o r and  week  week.  Her  periodic  a s s i s t with  - 126 immunization c l i n i c s , provide out  emergency f i r s t - a i d  r o u t i n e assessment o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s h e a l t h s t a t u s i n c l u d i n g  vision  testing,  p r i v a t e doctors  arrange with parents f o r r e f e r r a l and h e a l t h c l i n i c s ,  emotional health of students. up The  t r e a t m e n t , carry  and confer  of children to  with teachers  Home v i s i t s a r e t h e u s u a l  p r o c e d u r e s when p h y s i c a l o r e m o t i o n a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s  follow-  are detected.  p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e i n t e r p r e t s agency s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e  community a n d o f t e n a r r a n g e s r e f e r r a l  to these resources  Out-Patients  Centre f o r C h i l d r e n .  Department o f t h e H e a l t h  The  a r e a v a i l a b l e t o any c h i l d w i t h  emotional problems.  M e n t a l H y g i e n e team i s composed o f a p s y c h i a t r i s t ,  psychiatric  When a r e f e r r a l i s made t o t h e M e n t a l H y g i e n e  a s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e d by t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e . appointment w i t h t h e c h i l d and p a r e n t s , follow-up  plan o f treatment evolves  diagnosis  of the s i t u a t i o n . I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h  schools  i n "Sunrise  The  based on t h e f i n d i n g s and  P a r k " i t was l e a r n e d  was  responsibility  that  In the period  serving  t h e number o f  from Skeena T e r r a c e  areas of the c i t y .  f o r t h e programme o f p r e - n a t a l  t a k e n o v e r by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Order o f Nurses i n  A f t e r the c l i n i c  t h e two p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s  on a n a v e r a g e w i t h most o t h e r  Clinic  a c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d and a  c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o the Mental Hygiene C l i n i c is  psychologist,  s o c i a l worker, and t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse w i t h h e r  supervisor.  the  such a s ,  s e r v i c e s o f t h e M e n t a l Hygiene S t a f f o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Board o f Health The  about  Health  Services  classes  from t h e V i c t o r i a n  i960 a n d c l a s s e s a r e h e l d r e g u l a r l y i n e a c h u n i t .  s i n c e S k e e n a T e r r a c e was o c c u p i e d none o f t h e p a r e n t s  a v a i l e d themselves of t h i s  s e r v i c e and i n t h e same p e r i o d o n l y  eight  - 127 parents  i n "Sunrise  Park" attended  the courses.  I n q u i r i e s about attendance a t the w e l l - b a b y i n d i c a t e d none o f t h e p a r e n t s children a very  to the clinics  from Skeena T e r r a c e  clinics  took  their  h e l d i n S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l  f e w o f them a t t e n d e d  the c l i n i c  and o n l y  at the health u n i t .  The  u n i t s t a f f b e l i e v e d t h a t p o s s i b l y the mothers found the d i s t a n c e t o t h e s c h o o l was t o o f a r , e s p e c i a l l y i n v i e w o f t h e h i l l s i n the a r e a .  The d i s t a n c e  f r o m t h e p r o j e c t t o t h e s c h o o l i s one  mile. I n v i e w o f t h e f i n d i n g s i t was d e c i d e d should  a further  clinic  be s e t up i n S i r M a t t h e w B e g b i e A n n e x t o e n c o u r a g e t h e  mothers to b r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . December, 1963.  attended  clinic  was h e l d i n  I n t h e new c l i n i c ~ t h e y f o u n d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t  s c h e d u l e was f i l l e d were b r o k e n .  The f i r s t  each time and very  Both the tenants  i n d i c a t i n g that  few o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s  and others  i n t h e n e a r b y homes  t h e s e r v i c e s a r e u s e d when t h e y a r e  readily available. The  s t a f f o f t h e h e a l t h u n i t u s e v a r i o u s means f o r p u b l i  health education,  one o f w h i c h i s a s e r i e s o f m o v i e s f o l l o w e d by  discussion periods. Family  I n O c t o b e r , 1963,  a s e r i e s o f f o u r movjes,  R e l a t i o n s h i p s , Shyness, C h i l d r e n ' s F a n t a s i e s , and C h i l d r e n  P l a y , was h e l d .  The a t t e n d a n c e was v e r y  p e r s o n s who a t t e n d e d were f r o m S k e e n a The  poor and o f t h e f i f t e e n  f o r the complete s e r i e s only  f o u r o f them  Terrace.  P r o v i n c i a l Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and the C i t y  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, j o i n t l y ,  provide  a Health  Services  I d e n t i t y C a r d t o m o s t r e c i p i e n t s o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , O l d Age  -  A s s i s t a n c e , D i s a b l e d Persons The  card e n t i t l e s  complete  128  -  Allowance,  and B l i n d Persons  Allowance.  t h e r e g i s t e r e d h o l d e r and h i s dependents t o  medical coverage  i n c l u d i n g drugs and h o s p i t a l  co-insurance  payments. The  c a r d i s not i s s u e d t o employable  recipients of Social  A s s i s t a n c e o r p e n s i o n e r s who h a v e n o t l i v e d i n B r i t i s h f o r one y e a r p r i o r The  to a p p l y i n g f o r the pension.  M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e do n o t p r o v i d e  care under p u b l i c a u s p i c e s . by  and S k e e n a T e r r a c e  For service i n "Sunrise  o f t h e V.O.N, i s b e d s i d e  S i n c e t h e main  service  care o f the aged, the nurse  f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t s i n the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g . is  Park"  t h e V.O.N, h a s an o f f i c e i n t h e H e a l t h a n d  B u i l d i n g on V i c t o r i a A v e n u e .  requested  bedside  I n Vancouver t h i s service i s p r o v i d e d  the V i c t o r i a n Order o f Nurses,  Welfare  Columbia  The f e e f o r s e r v i c e  on a s l i d i n g s c a l e d e p e n d i n g on i n c o m e a n d s i n c e most o f t h e  t e n a n t s , a s we have s e e n , a r e on a v e r y l i m i t e d i n c o m e much o f t h e service i s free.  The V.O.N, a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t o t h e r homes  e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e t h e r e a r e new b a b i e s . Welfare  Services As we have o b s e r v e d  t e n a n t s i n Skeena T e r r a c e  i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , many o f t h e  a r e r e c e i v i n g some f o r m o f p u b l i c  a n c e a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t . service operates Drive.  from  t h e H e a l t h and W e l f a r e  Three o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s  assist-  This  B u i l d i n g on V i c t o r i a  f r o m t h i s u n i t have p a r t s o f  t h e i r caseloads i n the housing p r o j e c t ,  The c a s e s a r e d i v i d e d  a c c o r d i n g to t h e c a t e g o r y o f s e r v i c e r e q u e s t e d : a) those i n r e c e i p t o f O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e , B l i n d P e r s o n s Allowance;  Allowance,  and D i s a b l e d  b) those i n r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e  where  Persons  rehabili-  - 129 -  tation seems indicated i f the person i s i n receipt of casework services;  and c) others i n receipt of Social Allowance. The "pension worker" has a l l her cases on the housing  project located on the high-rise building.  Services other than the  pension and medical care are very l i m i t e d .  The only l e g a l require-  ment i s a home v i s i t once a year to determine continued e l i g i b i l i t y . Other than this v i s i t ,  any request for service i s i n i t i a t e d by, or  on behalf of the c l i e n t and i t might include a n c i l l i a r y services, nursing and bc-arding home care, etc.  Occasionally, when a tenant  becomes incapable of caring for himself i t i s necessary for the Project Manager to make a r e f e r r a l to this worker. The "A" worker i n East Unit i s a f u l l y qualified s o c i a l worker who renders casework services on an intensive basis with a view to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l independence. i s not permitted to exceed f i f t y cases.  Her caseload  Although i t would seem  from personal observation that many persons on the project should receive this casework service,  there are only fifteen  cases on her  caseload l i v i n g on the housing project."*" The regular worker who v i s i t s Skeena Terrace for Social Assistance cases other than those described above has a t o t a l caseload of approximately 200 cases, the housing project.  85 of which are l i v i n g on  In an interview with this worker i t was  learned that because of the large size of her caseload and because of her lack of formal s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , most of her work i s confined to determining continued e l i g i b i l i t y for Social Allowance. The family counselling which the family might ireed and want i s not available to i t because of a policy arrangement between the City 1  The writer has been administrator of a l o c a l public welfare for six years.  office  -  -  130  Social  S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t and  Family  S e r v i c e A g e n c y c l o s e s any  it  when t h e  client  T h i s would  of  l a r g e number o f  Social  Service  seem t o be  an  There are  no  have a s  their  f u n c t i o n the  service  throughout  the  Community  of  the  C i t y ' s health, welfare  study  learn  Chest  and  determine  i n order  P a r k " and  t h a t among t h e  the  to  Children's Aid The  service  i s being  sufficient  Recreational We  and  of  assist-  the  City  located i n  agencies  work. or  i n the  to p r o v i d e  city  adequate 19Sk,  In February, Planning  together  by  the  Section  representatives  and  agencies  whether t h e r e the  welfare  the at  i n the  should  n e e d s and  Skeena T e r r a c e .  be  "Sunrise  a  thorough  resources  I t was  agencies,  of  s u r p r i s i n g to the  Family  the A r c h d i o c e s e  of  Children's Aid Society,  the p r e s e n t  T h i s agency r e p o r t e d  the F a m i l y  of  because  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , both p u b l i c  activity  a c t i v e cases  limited  funds to  agencies  Children's A i d Society of  Society.  with  training in social  called  vcrious social  any  representative  staff  the S o c i a l  determine  Vancouver, C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s , agency w i t h  the  voluntary  Councils  especially  S e r v i c e Agency, the  only  the  f u r t h e r to d e t e r m i n e  completed  "Sunrise  welfare  Council of  the  and  for social  whole V a n c o u v e r a r e a .  of  Park" area  to a p p l y  responsibility  Recreation  p r i v a t e , to  been a c t i v e  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement  voluntary  Park", although  The  t h a t has  l a c k formal  near "Sunrise  and  S e r v i c e Agency.  s o c i a l w o r k e r s on  D e p a r t m e n t who  t h e W e l f a r e and  case  finds i t necessary  ance. the  the F a m i l y  only  t i m e was  the  seven a c t i v e  S e r v i c e Agency r e p o r t e d  because of a l o n g  "waiting  the  that  list"  and  cases. this in-  employ a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f .  Services have n o t e d i n t h e  s e c t i o n on  "Sunrise  Park"  that  the  -  131  -  Board of Parks and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n operate two parks i n the area, S u n r i s e Park and Adanac Park.  Due to the l o c a t i o n of Adanac Park  i t i s r a r e l y used by the tenants of Skeena T e r r a c e P u b l i c  Housing.  In S u n r i s e Park a playground s u p e r v i s o r i s employed each year f o r the p e r i o d June 1st to August 31st to conduct outdoor group a c t i v i t i e s . 1 p.m.  The hours of s u p e r v i s i o n a r e from 9 a.m. to  on two weekdays and from 1 p.m.  noons.  to 5 p.m.  on weekend a f t e r -  The s u p e r v i s o r s employed are u s u a l l y from the a r e a , and  p r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n to u n i v e r s i t y students s t u d y i n g p h y s i c a l t i o n , s o c i a l work and r e l a t e d  educa-  fields.  Records are kept d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f s u p e r v i s i o n and from these r e c o r d s members of the Parks Board s t a f f are able to determine the approximate number of persons who are e n j o y i n g the b e n e f i t s of  the park s u p e r v i s o r .  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u n t  during the summer o f 19&3 was: August - 5,093*  June - 3.955;  1  i n S u n r i s e Park  J u l y - 7,376; and  S i n c e most of the c h i l d r e n take p a r t i n a t l e a s t  two a c t i v i t i e s each day, the number i s d i v i d e d by two and the r e s u l t .is then d i v i d e d by the number o f days o f s u p e r v i s i o n d u r i n g the month.  The r e s u l t i s the average number of persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g  daily.  Using t h i s formula the d a i l y average f o r each month  June - 109; J u l y - 205;  was:  and August - l 4 l .  The d a i l y average was c o n s i d e r e d low by the Parks Board o f f i c i a l who was i n t e r v i e w e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r parks with a playground s u p e r v i s o r .  The o f f i c i a l  a l s o p o i n t e d out even  though t h i s park i s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to Skeena Terrace there was little  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n park a c t i v i t i e s by the c h i l d r e n o f the  project. 1  He was not able to p r e s e n t any reason f o r the l a c k of  D e t a i l s secured from the f i l e s Recreation.  o f the Board of Parks and P u b l i c  - 132 participation. and  He n o t e d  facilities  -  f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e damage o f t h e g r o u n d s  i s a b o u t t h e same a s o t h e r p a r k s w i t h a p a r k  t a k e r a n d t h a t t h e r e was no i n c r e a s e i n damage a f t e r moved i n t o S k e e n a The  the tenants  Terrace.  Board o f Parks and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n operate nine .  Community C e n t r e s  i n Vancouver.  Skeena T e r r a c e  to  u s e t h e s e r v i c e s o f any o f them.  is  Hastings  housing  care-  Community C e n t r e ,  i s poorly located  The c e n t r e n e a r e s t  approximately  the p r o j e c t  two m i l e s n o r t h o f t h e  development.  Recreational F a c i l i t i e s  a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e P r o j e c t  T h e r e was a l m o s t no p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n f o r a n y o f the age g r o u p s . on  t h e r e was a s m a l l  the main f l o o r and t h r e e t a b l e s o u t s i d e the b u i l d i n g  for to  F o r the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s  checkers, reserve  animals reserved  cards, Ac.  lounge  suitable  The o n l y o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y  three s m a l l areas  n e a r t h e row h o u s e s i n w h i c h  a n d a s a n d b o x were p r o v i d e d .  Initially,  f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n and teenagers.  Since  t h e r e was  was  concrete nothing  that time, a  s m a l l a r e a w a s e q u i p p e d w i t h a hoop s u i t a b l e f o r b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e . T h e r e i s no a r e a to  play baseball.  on t h e w h o l e p r o j e c t Hsrge e n o u g h f o r t h e c h i l d r e n A t t i m e s when one o f t h e t h r e e p a r k i n g l o t s i s  f r e e o f c a p s t h e c h i l d r e n c a n be s e e n p l a y i n g The  tenants  themselves recognized  p l a n n i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e h o u s i n g through  the l a c k o f adequate  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l a r g e l y  t h e i r own e f f o r t s have a t t e m p t e d t o o v e r c o m e t h e  p l a n n i n g by o r g a n i z i n g t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h both  ball.  leisure  time  inadequate  activities  on a n d o f f t h e p r o j e c t . The  Mothers' Club:  g r o u p t o be o r g a n i z e d .  The M o t h e r s * C l u b was t h e f i r s t  I t was s t a r t e d by t h r e e m o t h e r s on t h e  p r o j e c t who  -  133  had b e e n l i v i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y  House p r i o r t o m o v i n g i n t o p u b l i c  housing.  of Alexandra  T h e y had b e e n a c t i v e i n  t h e programmes o f t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d House and a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n f i r s t meeting all  19^31  in April,  o f t h e m o t h e r s on  mothers responded  i n t h e new and  the p r o j e c t  Neighbourhood  felt  area.  t h a t some o f  They c a l l e d  through a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r to a t t e n d .  the  their invited  Although only eight  t h e y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d go a h e a d w i t h o r g a n i z -  ation plans. The  f u n c t i o n o f t h e g r o u p was  social outlet b)  t w o - f o l d : a) t o p r o v i d e a  f o r t h e members a t t h e r e g u l a r w e e k l y m e e t i n g s ,  to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to themselves  and  o t h e r s on t h e  and  project.  Membership i n c r e a s e d i n the group d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r the average  attendance  m e m b e r s h i p i s 32 one  o r more new The  and  has b e e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y .  i s steadily increasing.  members e a c h m e e t i n g  meetings  They a r e a b l e t o r e p o r t  f o r the p a s t t e n weeks.  refreshments.  The  l a d i e s have had  programmes t o d a t e i n c l u d i n g b i n g o , movieB and  varied  s l i d e s w i t h commentary.  a few o c c a s i o n s t h e y were a b l e t o a r r a n g e programmes o f f t h e  swimming p a r t i e s , is  present  c o n s i s t of a short business s e s s i o n f o l l o w e d  by s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and  On  The  and  roller  s k a t i n g and b o w l i n g .  a s m a l l r a f f l e w i t h the proceeds Some o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s  At every meeting  going toward  the  project, there  activities.  of the group d u r i n g the p a s t  year  i n c l u d e : a) a h a l l o w e ' e n p a r t y ; b) C h r i s t m a s p a r t y ; c) p r o v i s i o n t w e l v e C h r i s t m a s h a m p e r s ; d) two  c l o t h i n g e x c h a n g e s ; e) o r g a n i z e d  and  t h e G i r l s C l u b and  f)  s u p e r v i s e d two  other groups,  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n and  the Tot  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  of  Spot;  project  newspaper. The  " T e r r a c e T i m e s " , t h e p r o j e c t n e w s p a p e r was  f i r s t issued  -  on  February 2 1 ,  project.  1964.  Since  the  e v e r y g r o u p on that the  ing  I t i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o e v e r y t e n a n t on  first  i s s u e , m e m b e r s h i p has  i s included  The  D u r i n g the  the p r o j e c t .  project's parking  They o r g a n i z e d  lots.  s h o r t p e r i o d of time but other of the the  q u a l i t y of the  p a r t s of the  city  Youth Preventive  activity  disorganized.  and,  seeing  the  P r o j e c t Manager r e p o r t s  o f t h e two  o f two  men  on  by  40  visited  rec-  project.  t h a t ^ a m e e t i n g was  released  Youth Preventive  the  s o c i a l and  D e t a i l , i n attendance.  the p r o j e c t , were a b l e  teenagers dismantle  members  held  with  It  was  Detail, with  the  assistance  t o a r r a n g e t o have a b o u t 3 0  lockers i n order  was  c o m p l i e d i n two  The  Youth Preventive  of  for r e c r e a t i o n purposes  that  the  large 6 0  feet  f e e t room w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s .  activity  and  l a r g e l o c k e r rooms i n t h e b a s e m e n t  h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g w o u l d be The  from  Manager o f V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y ,  members o f t h e Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e  project.  the  dances, r e a l i z e d the  the  the  The  D e t a i l of the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e  t e e n a g e r s on  on  of  t o unwelcome v i s i t s o f t e e n a g e r s  r e a t i o n a l needs of the  the  teen-  due  t o meet t h e  a r r a n g e d t h a t one  Mothers'  l i m i t e d success for a  organization  the S e c r e t a r y  one  project.  d a n c e s met  t h e y became v e r y  with  report-  the  f o r the  w e e k l y d a n c e s on  n e e d f o r a more f o r m a l  himself,  read  The  Project i n a routine v i s i t  The  on  summer o f 1 9 6 3 t h e  Club r e a l i z e d the i n a d e q u a c y of o r g a n i z e d a g e r s on  u n t i l they  f u r t h e r d e t a i l s of the a c t i v i t i e s  T e r r a c e Teens:  i n almost  A copy of the i s s u e of March 2 3 ,  as A p p e n d i x H t o show t h e  to provide  the  members s t a t i n g  group's e x i s t e n c e  a c t i v i t i e s i n the p a p e r .  and  increased  t h e p r o j e c t w i t h many o f t h e new  t h e y were u n a w a r e o f t h e  1964,  -  134  The  evenings. D e t a i l were a b l e  t o have one  of  the  large  -  135  d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s f u r n i s h a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e room a s  lounge.  The  remainder  o f t h e room was  equipped  with  ping-pong  t a b l e s , w e i g h t - l i f t i n g e q u i p m e n t and m a t s , d a r t b o a r d , by t h e Y.M.C.A., B r o a d w a y E a s t T h e r e was  at which  s h i p i s open t o any  teenager  etc. loaned  Branch.  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g  i n November, 1963,  a  time  of the Terrace  t h e e x e c u t i v e was  living  Teens  e l e c t e d . Member-  on t h e p r o j e c t .  There i s  p r o v i s i o n f o r membership i n the group to those t e e n a g e r s l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a whose r e q u e s t f o r m e m b e r s h i p i s a p p r o v e d  by 70  percent  t h e members.  The  p r e s i d e n t o f t h e T e r r a c e T e e n s does n o t l i v e  the p r o j e c t .  The  p r e s e n t m e m b e r s h i p i s 75>  activities  t h e g r o u p has had  two  F o r money  of on  raising  s u c c e s s f u l c a r washes and  a  "cake  walk". The each  room i s a v a i l a b l e  evening provided there i s a d u l t supervision.  been a b l e to s e c u r e to  t o t h e T e r r a c e T e e n s f o r a few  t h e c a p a b l e l e a d e r s h i p o f one  a c t a s an a d u l t a d v i s o r .  He  p a r e n t s on t h e p r o j e c t t o w h i c h p a r e n t s he was  arranged 35  The  of the  f o r a meeting  responded.  group  of a l l  From t h i s g r o u p  a b l e t o o b t a i n t h e names o f e n o u g h p a r e n t s t o  activities  of the group i n c l u d e ping-pong,  chess, d a r t s , cribbage, weight  lifting,  They hope t o h o l d m o n t h l y  w i t h the t w o - f o l d purpose and  of  to  the  Teens. The  records.  had  tenants  p r o v i d e s u p e r v i s i o n f o r arery p e r i o d t h e room i s a v a i l a b l e Terrace  hours  d a n c i n g and  checkers,  listening  b i n g o games i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e  o f p r o v i d i n g e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r the  t o r a i s e money f o r t h e i r  to  activities.  tenants  The  136  -  Hi-Tower S o c i a l Club;  The  Hi-Tower S o c i a l Club i s  open t o a l l s e n i o r c i t i z e n s l i v i n g on t h e p r o j e c t .  Most of the  r e s i d e n t s o f t h e h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g members and take advantage  of the f e l l o w s h i p  Business meetings convenors  a r e h e l d once a month a t w h i c h t i m e  of the v a r i o u s committees  committees  make t h e i r r e p o r t s .  the  The  are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v i s i t i n g s i c k tenants i n h o s p i t a l ,  h e l p i n g w i t h the shopping of  offered.  i l l n e s s o r age,  and  f o r those unable  t o do t h e i r own  f o r a r r a n g i n g programmes.  Programmes a r e a r r a n g e d so t h a t t h e r e i s one a c t i v i t y i n the lounge  because  e a c h week.  dance, s l i d e s o r movies.  I t may  Refreshments  organized  be a c a r d game, b i n g o ,  are s e r v e d a f t e r each  of  the programmes.  are On a number o f o c c a s i o n s s p e c i a l d i n n e r s / a r r a n g e d i n t h e l o u n g e w i t h t h e members p r e p a r i n g t h e f o o d .  The  Christmas Party  t o o k t h e f o r m o f a c a t e r e d d i n n e r and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 members were in  attendance. The  d u e s f o r m e m b e r s h i p i s $2.00 p e r p e r s o n p e r y e a r  the funds are used The in  group  to p r o v i d e refreshments a f t e r  activities.  i s n o t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h any o t h e r o l d age p e n s i o n  the c i t y .  c l u b i n nearby  Some f e l l o w s h i p has been a r r a n g e d w i t h t h e Beulah  group  social  Gardens.  Y.M.C.A. B o y s C l u b s is  the  and  The  Y.M.C.A., Broadway E a s t  Branch  the o n l y v o l u n t a r y r e c r e a t i o n a l agency l o c a t e d near " S u n r i s e  P a r k " and whose programme e x t e n d s Y.M.C.A.  to the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t .  The  has a p a r t - t i m e s t a f f member t o w o r k w i t h t h e b o y s  the p r o j e c t .  His d u t i e s are to i n s t i l l  on  t h e Y.M.C.A. v a l u e s o f  character building  137  -  through a s s o c i a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n .  They b e g a n  t h e i r programme on t h e p r o j e c t i n M a r c h , 1963,  and f o r m e d two g r o u p s w i t h a m e m b e r s h i p o f t h i r t y b o y s b e t w e e n t h e age o f 8 a n d l 4 . of  the f a l l  The numbers i n c r e a s e d t o f i f t y  with the opening  programme s o t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o f o r m f o u r g r o u p s .  The a t t e n d a n c e a g a i n d r o p p e d t o f o r t y members t h e r e f o r e one o f t h e g r o u p s was e l i m i n a t e d . The programme c o n s i s t s o f a one h o u r m e e t i n g a n d a one h o u r gymnasium s e s s i o n e a c h week. was  a t h r e e day c a m p i n g t r i p  Y.M.C.A. Camp H o l l y b u r n . G i r l Guides:  The h i g h l i g h t o f t h e w i n t e r programme during the Christmas h o l i d a y s to the  T h e r e were t w e n t y b o y s who a t t e n d e d .  The l e a d e r s o f t h e G i r l G u i d e s have been  some-  what d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h a t t h e g r o u p began i t s a c t i v i t i e s on t h e p r o j e c t last  fall  and they were o n l y a b l e t o r e c r u i t  P a t r o l Leaders f e e l the of  e l e v e n members.  The  t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t f e e l  l a c k o f m e m b e r s h i p i s b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t the parents. The  G i r l s Club:  The G i r l s C l u b , u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e  M o t h e r s C l u b , was f o r m e d i n J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 4 , a n d h a s a m e m b e r s h i p o f 4-3 g i r l s .  The m e m b e r s h i p age i s f r o m 6 t o 12 y e a r s .  They meet  w e e k l y a n d t h e i r programmes i n c l u d e games, m a k i n g d o l l s ' learning to k n i t ,  etc.  clothing,  R e c e n t l y t h e y have b e g u n w o r k i n g w i t h  clay.  T h r o u g h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House t h e y a r e a b l e t o have t h e i r w o r k f i r e d i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d h o u s e ' s Tot  Spot:  on t h e p r o j e c t .  The T o t S p o t i s t h e n e w e s t  kiln.  g r o u p t o be f o r m e d  I t i s a p l a y group f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and meets  one m o r n i n g p e r week.  Though t h e M o t h e r s C l u b o n l y f o r m e d t h e g r o u p  - 138 in  the  w i t h an  -  f i r s t week o f M a r c h , t h e y have f o r t y - t h r e e average attendance of t h i r t y .  The  children registered  Mothers Club are  o f a d d i t i o n a l e q u i p m e n t w h i c h t h e y hope t o o b t a i n i n t e r e s t e d i n the  the  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by  a g e n c i e s and  health, welfare  t o show, t h r o u g h t h e  i n a d e q u a c y of the  the  The  recreation  q u a l i t y and  quantity  have s e e n t h a t  the  and,  not  h e a l t h n e e d s seem t o be  overcome by  o f the  Health  Services  the V i c t o r i a n Order of  s o c i a l welfare  have s e e n , t h e  r e s o u r c e s i n the  needs are  a r e a i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t many, i f n o t  the whole p r o j e c t are  the  In  housing provision  her  own  yet  of  worker w i t h  wid  Greater  City Social  a r e a are  very l i m i t e d  From o u r  a l l , of the only  fifteen  r e c e i v i n g t h i s form of a s s i s t a n c e .  social assistance  D e p a r t m e n t , by  area.  Nurses.  very great.  would b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from casework h e l p ,  regular  staffs,  c a r e d f o r a d e q u a t e l y i n the  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  D e p a r t m e n t and  as we  the  t e n a n t s of the  Vancouver, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of W e l f a r e , the  The  of  offered,  alone.  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by  Service  details  d e t a i l s o f t h e programmes  have s p e c i a l n e e d s w h i c h a r e  o f good h o u s i n g  and  s e r v i c e s t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e  t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n we project  have been a t t e m p t i n g to p r o v i d e the  the l o c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s , the  from p e r s o n s  project.  I n t h i s s e c t i o n we of  i n need  the C i t y S o c i a l  a d m i s s i o n , f e e l s t h a t she  knowledge families cases  on  The  Service  cannot give  any  c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e o t h e r than a t a very s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l because o her  large  her  position.  unless  caseload The  and  her  inadequate t r a i n i n g i n preparation  p e n s i o n w o r k e r i s not  i t i s r e q u e s t e d by  expected to give  t h e r e c i p i e n t , and  any  even then i t i s  for help only  - 139 the p r o v i s i o n of a n c i l l i a r y of  s e r v i c e s o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l change because  needed c a r e . The  s e r v i c e s o f t h e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s seem t o be e q u a l l y  inadequate. of  I n t h e F e b r u a r y , 1964,  meeting  of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  t h e a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g t h e " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a i t was  evident i n  t h e d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t many o f a g e n c i e s were n o t aware o f t h e n e e d s in  t h e a r e a and  some o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d t h a t b e c a u s e o f  l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and  s t a f f they were unable  to p r o v i d e  1  the n e c e s s a r y The  service. r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and  f a c i l i t i e s would appear to •  l e a v e more u n f i l l e d n e e d s t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f  service  agencies.  the  Other  than the f a c i l i t i e s  programme o f f e r e d by w o u l d seem t h a t no of  o f the nearby  t h e Broadway E a s t B r a n c h  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  p a r k and  o f t h e Y.M.C.A. i t  g i v e n to the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs  t h e t e n a n t s e i t h e r on t h e p r o j e c t o r i n t h e a r e a .  p r o j e c t h a s been o c c u p i e d two  Since  the  c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e s have e i t h e r  been  b u i l t o r a r e u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n t o s e r v e t h e a r e a i n c l u d i n g most of  " S u n r i s e P a r k " and S k e e n a T e r r a c e .  E i t h e r o f them i s f u r t h e r  f r o m t h e p r o j e c t t h a n t h e H a s t i n g s Community On provision to  necessary men  we  have s e e n  t h e r e was  f o r r e c r e a t i o n u n t i l the tenants themselves  provide recreational outlets  groups.  It  the p r o j e c t i t s e l f ,  Centre.  The  took  action  through the f o r m a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s  members o f t h e M o t h e r s C l u b seem t o be p r o v i d i n g t h e  "spark".  They have b e e n a t t e m p t i n g t o g e t more o f  on t h e p r o j e c t i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s i s t i n g w i t h t h e i s b e l i e v e d they w i l l  The The  almost.no  respond  the  activities.  i n t h a t many o f them have v o l u n t e e r e d  w r i t e r a t t e n d e d t h e m e e t i n g and t h e s e a r e p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . m i n u t e s o f t h e m e e t i n g h a v e n o t y e t been d i s t r i b u t e d .  -  1*4-0  t o a c t a s s u p e r v i s o r s so t h a t t h e T e r r a c e T e e n s m i g h t t a k e advantage o f the time a l l o c a t e d The  to  t o them i n t h e R e c r e a t i o n Room.  R e c r e a t i o n Room i t s e l f ,  respects, i s f u l f i l l i n g  a g r e a t need.  though inadequate  i n many-  R e c e n t l y i t was n e c e s s a r y  f o r m a House C o m m i t t e e w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m a l l g r o u p s t o  co-ordinate i t s use.  Though t h e a t t a i n i n g o f t h e room f o r  r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes  c r e a t e d some d i s a d v a n t a g e  citizens,  they co-operated  fully  the young p e o p l e i n t h e b u i l d i n g . by  full  them r e g a r d i n g n o i s e .  to the senior  a n d , i n f a c t , seem t o e n j o y  having  T h e r e h a s b e e n no c o m p l a i n t s  -  D.  -  Ikl  SOME ASPECTS OF PLANNING AFFECTING "SUNRISE PARK" AND SKEENA TERRACE In  and  S e c t i o n "A"  attempted  we  l o c a t e d t h e community o f " S u n r i s e  t o p o r t r a y some o f t h e m a i n p h y s i c a l and  Park"  institutional  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as: the l o c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , s c h o o l s ,  parks,  churches,  a  l i b r a r y and  shopping  facilities.  d e s c r i p t i o n of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s public housing  of the people  h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and  A r e v i e w of the  w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on new themselves.  We  s h o u l d now  attempt,  the h o u s i n g  through  project.  w e l f a r e and In  made i n  recreational look  briefly  the p r o v i s i o n o f adequate h e a l t h ,  d e v e l o p i n g a programme o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g  service agencies  available  welfare  recreational services.  should e n l i s t  facilities  the  S o c i a l p l a n n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y i s an  " t h a t i n t h e e a r l y p l a n n i n g s t a g e s o f any agencies  places  d e l i b e r a t e p l a n n i n g , t o meet t h e s o c i a l and  needs o f the community t h r o u g h  the  existing  the a s p e c t s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r i o r to the a r r i v a l o f  t e n a n t s on  i n determining  t o t h e p r o j e c t and  housing  community  libraries, health c l i n i c s ,  the k i n d of o n - s i t e f a c i l i t i e s These f a c i l i t i e s  a v a i l a b l e b o t h t o t h e p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s and 1 , 1  necessary  development, p u b l i c  the adequacy of e x i s t i n g  (schools, playgrounds,  neighbourhood.  i t is  t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e community  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t .  1  moved i n t o  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e a r e a was  a c t i v i t i e s of the t e n a n t s at  who  d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h some e m p h a s i s on t h e i r f o r m e r  o f r e s i d e n c e i n the C i t y of Vancouver.  S e c t i o n "C",  S e c t i o n "B" was  other people  etc.) that  should  be  i n the  In i n t e r v i e w s w i t h senior personnel i n both  the  Working T o g e t h e r f o r Urban Renewal, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of H o u s i n g and R e d e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c i a l s , (N.A.H.R.O.) C h i c a g o , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 5 8 , N.A.H.R.O. P u b l i c a t i o n N-40?, page 19.  -  142  -  p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s i t would appear the p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s f o r the h o u s i n g development gave l i t t l e , i f any,  consideration.to  r e v i e w of the adequacy of the e s s e n t i a l h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and a l s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a .  None of the persons i n t e r v i e w e d  a  recreation-  were con-  tacted p r i o r to the announcement t h a t the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t would be b u i l t on the p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . In the view of the w r i t e r , a f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of good s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be a r e v i e w of the a t t i t u d e s of the community i n which the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s t o be l o c a t e d , about p u b l i c housing g e n e r a l l y , and "Sunrise  s p e c i f i c a l l y about p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e i r a r e a .  Park" t h i s was  not  done, and i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l  persons i n the community t h i s f a c t o r was "stumbling  In  mentioned as a p o s s i b l e  b l o c k " i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n t o  the community.  I t was  p o i n t e d out t h a t  " S u n r i s e P a r k " was  a com-  munity w i t h a h i g h i n c i d e n c e of owner-occupied s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g units. was  In our r e v i e w of s t a t i s t i c s i n S e c t i o n "A"  borne out.  The  i n f o r m a n t s f e l t there was  t h i s statement  a degree of resentmat  about h a v i n g a l a r g e number o f low income f a m i l i e s "dumped" i n t o t h i s area. and  There a r e some who  see" i n r e g a r d  s t i l l o t h e r s who  have adopted the a t t i t u d e o f  to the people o c c u p y i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  "wait There are  seem to have a c c e p t e d the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and  have  attempted to e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the t e n a n t s .  No  formal r e v i e w of the a t t i t u d e s of the people l i v i n g i n " S u n r i s e  Park"  was  considered  f o r t h i s study.  In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , i t was  learned  t h a t the f e e l i n g of resentment i s o f t e n expressed i n the meetings of  - lif-3 the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r s  Association.  The P.T.A. g r o u p i n " S u n r i s e  P a r k " h a s been v e r y a c t i v e , w i t h a n a v e r a g e  attendance  To d a t e o n l y a b o u t e i g h t p a r e n t s f r o m S k e e n a T e r r a c e attended the meetings is  o f 100.  have  o r t a k e n p a r t i n any o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s . I t  n o t known w h e t h e r t h i s s m a l l number o f t e n a n t members i s  because o f t h e i r l a c k of i n t e r e s t ,  or the e x p r e s s i o n s o f r e s e n t -  ment on t h e p a r t o f t h e o t h e r p a r e n t s . e x p r e s s i o n s of resentment  I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e s e  m i g h t have been r e d u c e d  had t h e i r  been  a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e l a r g e number o f t e n a n in  t h i s a r e a o f h i g h home  ownership.  There a r e t e c h n i q u e s whereby adequate s o c i a l p l a n n i n g may t a k e p l a c e a s a c o - o p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s and t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . would c u r t a i l The  some o f t h e r e s e n t m e n t  T h i s type o f p l a n n i n g  we have e v i d e n c e d  above.  techniques l i s t e d a r e : "1.  S o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s c a n become f u l l y i n f o r m e d on t h e p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f p u b l i c housing a g e n c i e s ; p u b l i c housing agencies can become f u l l y i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e community.  2.  S o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s can p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c y on p l a n n i n g new d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d on management.  3.  P u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s can s e e t o i t t h a t a d e q u a t e w e l f a r e programmes s e r v e p r o j e c t r e s i dents. These a g e n c i e s can h i r e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a f f , they can c o n t r a c t w i t h p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r they can get other p u b l i c agencies t o c a r r y o u t s u c h programmes.  h.  P u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s c a n have s o c i a l w e l f a r e w o r k e r s on t h e i r s t a f f s t o a s s u r e f u l l u s e o f community w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  5.  S o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s can work t o g e t h e r t o a s s i s t t r o u b l e d and t r o u b l e s o m e f a m i l i e s i n s o l v i n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s .  - Ikk 6.  Of  -  P u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s c a n h e l p a l l e v i a t e some of t h e s p e c i a l problems o f t h e e l d e r l y and m i n o r i t y groups. the s i x techniques l i s t e d  seems t o have b e e n g i v e n  above, o n l y  t h e l a s t one  a n y amount o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  I n the other  h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n Vancouver, and e s p e c i a l l y Orchard P a r k , the h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s was p l a c e d This  very  close  to the housing f o r f a m i l i e s .  p h y s i c a l arrangement of housing u n i t s created  many p r o b l e m s . "The  u n i t s f o r t h e a g e d a n d h a n d i c a p p e d a r e s i t u a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e row houses and apartment b l o c k s  h o u s i n g l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n , a n d  2 many c o m p l a i n t s a r e v o i c e d  concerning t h i s arrangement."  I n Skeena  T e r r a c e t h i s p r o b l e m seems t o h a v e been s o l v e d w i t h t h e e r e c t i o n o f the  high-rise b u i l d i n g with  senior c i t i z e n s a r e very  elevator  pleased  with  s e r v i c e f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The t h e i r accommodation and, i n  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h many o f them, have n o t e x p r e s s e d a n y f e e l i n g s o f i n c o n v e n i e n c e l i v i n g on t h e u p p e r  floors.  L i m i t e d u s e o f t e c h n i q u e #4 a b o v e h a s b e e n made i n t h a t t h e Secretary-Manager o f Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y has p e r m i t t e d the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work t o u s e two o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , M c L e a n P a r k and Skeena T e r r a c e , social  work. Social welfare  of s o c i a l planning O c t o b e r 17, Section  1  a s f i e l d work p l a c e m e n t s f o r s t u d e n t s i n  196l,  a g e m c i e s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h  f o r the housing p r o j e c t s and i n a l e t t e r t h i s c o n c e r n was e x p r e s s e d t o t h e S o c i a l  o f t h e Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s  of Greater  the lack dated Planning  V a n c o u v e r by  I b i d . , page 19 - 23  2 E l l a M a r y E e i d , O r c h a r d P a r k , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962, page 20  University  - l4 5  the Board  o f A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House.  number o f p e o p l e  area  There  "A  1  where two  was  o r more  i n the neighbourhood  'multi-problem'  'problems'  i n adults  or c h i l d r e n  between  the B o a r d  family  evidence  of the c o n t r i b u t i o n  of s o c i a l  responsibility and  for social  and  behaviour  of co-operation  Housing  "There  in local  housing developments.  of t h i s  a  is programmes  housing as a  'welfare i n s t i t u t i o n " ,  social  s e r v i c e programmes, and  The  i n public  function  i s marred i n l o c a l  housing  in relation  discussion Fear of criticism  by  welfare o f f i c i a l s  for clarification  and  and  question adminito  uncertainties  identifying of  proposed  hesitancy i n developing close  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h o u s i n g and the need  Social  of Vancouver,  never undertaken.  welfare matters  public  of  possible  C o u n c i l s , Vancouver  a u s p i c e s and m u t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  symptomatic  3)  of lack  misunderstanding  the proper p o s i t i o n  housing administration about  and  three  one  welfare personnel i n both p l a n n i n g  c o n t i n u i n g management o f p u b l i c  stration  of the  and members o f t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e C i t y  o f some c o n t r o v e r s y and  "multi-  i s d e f i n e d as  o f A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House, the  s t u d y o f the n e e d s o f t h e area was  housing  o r both'.'"'"  as a r e s u l t  P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f Community C h e s t Authority,  the  in  for a  were c o n s i d e r e d  are c u r r e n t out  Unfortunately, possibly  are  who  around  economic d e p e n d e n c y , 2) h e a l t h p r o b l e m s ,  maladjustment  of  aware o f t h e n e e d  were many o f t h e p e o p l e  problem,', - f a m i l i e s .  - 1)  the Board  type of s e r v i c e  project.  significant  s e r v e d by A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House l i v e d  the redevelopment similar  Since a  working  at a l l l e v e l s ,  perhaps  some  con-  2 sideration  of the i s s u e s  involved."  I n t e r v i e w s were h e l d 1  2  with s e n i o r p e r s o n n e l of both  Alexandra  James S. Brown, D a v i d Kowaga, and Raymond E . P e t e r s , P u b l i c H o u s i n g and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963, p a g e s 49-50. I b i d . , page 196.  -  N e i g h b o u r h o o d House and Community C h e s t a n d  prepared  complete  -  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of  C o u n c i l s and i t was  f u n d s were a v a i l a b l e , was  146  the Board  learned that, providing  o f A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House  t o o f f e r s e r v i c e s i n t h e a r e a and a t t h e same  a survey o f the needs b o t h  Terrace.  the  In order to undertake  time  f o r " S u n r i s e P a r k " and  this project  the Board  Skeena  of Alexandra  N e i g h b o u r h o o d House r e q u i r e d t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e Community and  Councils.  Member a g e n c i e s o f t h e Community C h e s t  and C o u n c i l s  h a v e an a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e C o u n c i l s t h a t a p p r o v a l must be t h e C o u n c i l s b e f o r e any new The C o u n c i l s was involved.  Chest  given  programme i s u n d e r t a k e n .  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f t h e Community C h e s t  and  r e l u c t a n t t o have A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House become  R e a s o n s g i v e n w e r e : 1) t h e s o u r c e o f f i n a n c e f o r t h e  o p e r a t i o n and  2) t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e o f a v o l u n t a r y a g e n c y i n a  p u b l i c housing The  project.  Board  of Vancouver Housing  have a s t u d y c o m p l e t e d  A u t h o r i t y was  reluctant  on S k e e n a T e r r a c e a l o n e b u t was  t o have a s t u d y c o m p l e t e d  on " S u n r i s e P a r k " .  Board  felt  Naturally,  this project.  t h a t S k e e n a . T e r r a c e s h o u l d become i n t e g r a t e d w i t h  t h e community o f w h i c h i t i s a  part.  D u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d t h e r e was the wishes  to  agreeable  s t u d y w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e n e e d s o f t h e t e n a n t s on t h e h o u s i n g The  by  misunderstanding  of the C o u n c i l of the C i t y of Vancouver.  The  of  Board  of  A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House had a r e q u e s t f r o m t h e Chaiman o f the W e l f a r e Committee to e s t a b l i s h s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a .  It  on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e B o a r d  Neighbour-  hood House c o n t i n u e d t o a t t e m p t  of Alexandra  t o have t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e  was  Social  - 14? -. P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f t h e Community C h e s t and t h i s e x t e n s i o n of s e r v i c e . was  i n f o r m a l and The  learned l a t e r  provide  t h a t the  request  d i d not r e p r e s e n t the wishes of the whole C o u n c i l .  whole matter  a n d / o r " S u n r i s e P a r k " was o f the i n i t i a l  I t was  C o u n c i l s to  letter  of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r Skeena  Terrace  d i s c u s s e d by v a r i o u s g r o u p s f r o m t h e  to t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f t h e  C h e s t and  C o u n c i l s on O c t o b e r 17,  e v e n now,  t h e r e i s no  196l,  to the present  d e f i n i t e assurance  Community  time,  that a study w i l l  time  and  be  com-  pleted. In requests Park"  r e c e n t m o n t h s t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n has  from p r o f e s s i o n a l people  t o have a s t u d y c o m p l e t e d on t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e  F o l l o w i n g up  these  a t i o n a l agencies and  s e r v i n g i n the area of  s e r v i n g t h e a r e a was  s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a . the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s  and  Skeena T e r r a c e .  t r a t e d on  the l a c k of  o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t was  for  p r o b l e m s was  teenagers, The  Developing If  1  and  we  The  1964,  o f the needs  I t was  and  representing gave  their a c t i v i t y i n "Sunrise  d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w e d concen-  s t r e s s e d by  not  recre-  s e r v i c e s , b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ,  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s .  C i t y P o l i c e Department. o f d e l i n q u e n c y was  area.  c a l l e d i n February,  In the i n i t i a l meeting those  1  some e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s and and  "Sunrise  r e q u e s t s a m e e t i n g o f h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and  p l a n s a r e e v o l v i n g t o have a c o m p l e t e s u r v e y  Park"  received  The  need f o r co-  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the i n t e r e s t i n g to note  Vancouver  t h a t the  h i g h i n the area even though the  rate  potential  g r e a t w i t h t h e l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n ,  especially  t h e l a c k o f o r g a n i z e d programmes f o r them. Neighbourhood Feelingwere t o c o n s i d e r S k e e n a T e r r a c e  as a n e i g h b o u r h o o d  A l t h o u g h t h e m e e t i n g was h e l d i n F e b r u a r y , 1964, the m i n u t e s are not yet a v a i l a b l e . The w r i t e r was p e r m i t t e d t o r e a d t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o r e f r e s h h i s memory o f t h e d e t a i l s .  in  the  -  148  community o f " S u n r i s e  P a r k " t h e r e w o u l d seem t o be  neighbourhood f e e l i n g e v o l v i n g a t a r a p i d r a t e ; but to c o n s i d e r  "Sunrise  i f we  r e s p o n s e w o u l d be  i n reverse.  than the a c t i v i t i e s  T e r r a c e T e e n s who  are  o f the  members f r o m o u t s i d e  the p r o j e c t there  close relationship with "Sunrise the p r o j e c t i t s e l f  of organizations ing  during  neighbourhood.  helping  The  t h i s process.  formation  the  the  formation  I n t h e most r e c e n t  by  the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y .  o c c u p i e d i n December, 1958,  the  Little  for  that  that i t w i l l  i s no  become  i t will operated  Tenant A s s o c i a t i o n  M o u n t a i n H o u s i n g P r o j e c t was an a s s o c i a t i o n was  in  formed operation  formed.  Manual of Guidance f o r Housing A u t h o r i t i e s encourages  have b e e n f o r m e d .  These are  r e a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which help w i t h i n the p r o j e c t .  encourage the  a  A l t h o u g h O r c h a r d P a r k became  development o f Tenant A s s o c i a t i o n s .  spirit  i t i s believed  four housing projects  there  a number o f y e a r s b e f o r e  Associations  develop-  future.  second A s s o c i a t i o n i n the  The  number  i s a proposal  T e n a n t A s s o c i a t i o n does become o r g a n i z e d  Likewise,  a  i s s u e o f the p a p e r ,  shown i n t h e p r o p o s a l  the  for  of.-the l a r g e  as A p p e n d i x H t h e r e  be  as y e t .  a p p e a r t o be  Park".  o f a T e n a n t A s s o c i a t i o n and  a r e a l i t y i n the near  accepting  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r o j e c t newspaper i s  enough i n t e r e s t i s b e i n g  If  does not  Other  the p a s t y e a r i s e v i d e n c e o f the  copy of w h i c h i s a t t a c h e d the  were  P a r k " as a n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i t h S k e e n a T e r r a c e  as a s u b - n e i g h b o u r h o o d the  On  a  " I n some p r o j e c t s to a l a r g e e x t e n t  to promote a h e a l t h y  Generally  Tenants' rec-  community  speaking, A u t h o r i t i e s  should  growth of such a s s o c i a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y those which  -  149  t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n s p o n s o r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s can perform not  -  community a c t i v i t i e s .  a v a l u a b l e f u n c t i o n p r o v i d i n g t h e y do  t a k e on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f g r i e v a n c e It  activity  1  t h e r e i s much  a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e p r o j e c t have n o t made f u l l  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s .  This  through  use o f the  f a c t o r i s evidenced  the l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Sunrise Park a c t i v i t i e s while the  supervisor i s present,  and i n t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n a l movies  shown i n t h e H e a l t h U n i t . be  committees."  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that although  the i n t e r e s t groups, the tenants  by  Such  A p o s s i b l e reason  f o r the l a t t e r  the n e c e s s i t y o f using p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to t r a v e l  unit. Terrace  could  to the  I t h a s n o t b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d why t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m S k e e n a have n o t t a k e n  a more a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e p l a y g r o u n d  activities. Considerations In  f o r F u r t h e r Neighbourhood Development  order to continue  development, three important creased  t h i s process  of neighbourhood  f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d :  recreational facilities;  a) i n -  b) encouragement; and c ) l e a d e r -  ship. The  e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n room i n t h e h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g  of t h e Skeena T e r r a c e  Housing P r o j e c t i s f i l l i n g  a need b u t a l r e a d y  t h e r e i s some i l l f e e l i n g a b o u t t h e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e room. In  a r e c e n t i n t e r v i e w w i t h a Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  Assembly  it  was l e a r n e d t h e t some i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n h a s t a k e n p l a c e  with  a v i e w t o h a v i n g a r e c r e a t i o n h a l l c o n s t r u c t e d on one o f t h e p a r k i n g  1  Manual f o r Guidance o f Housing A u t h o r i t i e s - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , Ottawa, 19^0, P a r t i , A r t i c l e 1.8, page 5.  -  150  -  l o t s near the c e n t r e of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . In  view of the shortage o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n  " S u n r i s e P a r k " and t h e f e e l i n g o f r e s e n t m e n t r e p o r t e d t o it  exist  w o u l d seem more p r o p e r t o h a v e a b u i l d i n g a n d programme o f  the  "neighbourhood house" type l o c a t e d near the p r o j e c t  a c c e s s i b l e to the whole  community.  A programme o f t h i s n a t u r e  m i g h t a s s i s t i n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " and T e r r a c e as w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g a much n e e d e d tenants of the housing p r o j e c t . for  but  Skeena  r e s o u r c e f o r the  In a l e t t e r  e x p r e s s i n g the  need  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s e r v i c e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s were made: " I n f o r m a t i o n b a s e d on t h e b e s t a u t h o r i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to u s , a n d e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d f r o m n e a r l y e v e r y h o u s i n g development of t h i s k i n d i n N o r t h America (Skeena Terrace P u b l i c Housing) i n d i c a t e s that the p r o v i s i o n o f new h o u s i n g t o r e p l a c e s l u m s i s n o t e n o u g h . F a m i l i e s i n some p u b l i c h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s b e r e f t o f some o r a l l o f t h e c o m m u n i t y resources of t h e i r former neighbourhoods. Despite the g a i n s i n l i g h t , a i r , a n d c l e a n l i n e s s , t h e s e p a r a t e n e s s o f some p r o j e c t s s e t s t h e i r o c c u p a n t s a p a r t from the normal l i f e o f the community, s t i g m a t i z i n g them a n d f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t i n g t h e s o c i a l problems w i t h i n the group. N e i g h b o u r h o o d h o u s e s have had s u c c e s s i n w o r k i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and e n t i r e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n the a t t a i n m e n t of h i g h e r standards of neighbourhood l i f e and g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s of s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . " ! The  any  second f a c t o r , t h a t of encouragement,  co-operative venture.  T h i s encouragement  from the f e e l i n g of w e l l - b e i n g i n t h a t  i s needed i n  h a s been  coming  the a c t i v i t i e s have b e e n a  From a l e t t e r i n t h e S k e e n a T e r r a c e f i l e o f t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s , V a n c o u v e r , (dated September 2 5 , 1 9 6 2 .  success,  -  from the Secretary-Manager  A u t h o r i t y , and  o f the V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g  the P r o j e c t Manager.  occasion attended approval  151  Both  g r o u p m e e t i n g s and  f o r a c t i v i t i e s , and Leadership  o f t h e s e men  f u n c t i o n s , have  have  on  given  s u p p l i e d e q u i p m e n t and s u p p l i e s .  i s essential  t o any programme  development.  T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n amount o f n a t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s on p r o j e c t , but  the  they need o u t s i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c t i o n i n o r d e r  t o s u s t a i n t h e i n t e r e s t and a r r a n g e The  new  and  need f o r the s e r v i c e s of a f u l l  very evident.  The  i n t e r e s t i n g programmes. time  s o c i a l worker i s  w o r k e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o p e r f o r m  i n any  of  methods o f s o c i a l work, s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  As  a s o c i a l c a s e w o r k e r he  t o t h e community h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and  and  s h o u l d be  t o g i v e e m e r g e n c y c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e and make e f f e c t i v e  the  able  referrals  r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies; as  a  s o c i a l g r o u p w o r k e r t o w o r k w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g g r o u p s on t h e p r o j e c t and  h e l p w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new  programmes; a s a c o m m u n i t y  o r g a n i z a t i o n worker to h e l p w i t h the i n t e g r a t i o n of the project into  t h e community and  new  resources  I n v i e w o f t h e n e e d s i n t h e a r e a g e n e r a l l y , and  i n Skeena  t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e  Terrace  to attempt  to develop  tenants.  s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s h o p e d t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d s t u d y by  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f t h e Community C h e s t and proceed  housing  without  will  delay.  I n t h e meantime a s t u d e n t can p e r f o r m  Councils  the  a " l i m i t e d r o l e " on  f r o m t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  the housing  t h e p r o j e c t manager t o u n d e r s t a n d  and  and  t o w o r k w i t h t h e g r o u p s on  t o make e f f e c t i v e r e f e r r a l s ;  accept  project i n assisting s o c i a l work  values the  - 152 p r o j e c t s , and and  a c c e p t the  liability. only  able  By  through the  -  groups help  " l i m i t e d r o l e " i s the  to g i v e  the  able  and  develop not  a  student i s  f i e l d work w h i l e  an  t o d e v o t e more t i m e t o  It i s r e a l i z e d that  have a t t e m p t e d t o p o r t r a y  there  a large  l a c k i n g i n many  a r e many a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n i t y  been c o v e r e d and  would give a b a s i s  housing  resources. organization  for further  study,  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d h o u s e t y p e o f programme  i n a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , t h e means o f o b t a i n i n g a b e t t e r o r d i n a t i o n of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e e f f e c t i v e ways o f a t t e m p t i n g an  the  tenants.  p r o j e c t b u i l t i n a c o m m u n i t y w h i c h was  such as,  asset  f a c t that the  s e r v i c e on h i s d a y s o f  I n t h i s s t u d y we  t h a t have n o t  community t o  t e n a n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t as an  e m p l o y e d s o c i a l w o r k e r w o u l d be needs of  the  e x i s t i n g community.  and  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , or  to i n t e g r a t e a housing p r o j e c t  cothe into  CHAPTER I V STRATHCONA AREA  THE  STUDY AREA AND I T S PEOPLE  For purposes o f t h i s study, will  be c a l l e d  "Strathcona".  over  the years and i s taken  school, Lord Strathcona. S t r e e t , north along and  T h i s name h a s b e e n commonly u s e d  H a s t i n g s S t r e e t , on t h e e a s t b y C l a r k D r i v e , Avenue ( F i g u r e liV).  adjacent  be made t o t h e a r e a  which serve Strathcona The  boundaries  o f the Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s i n  area w i l l  t o t h e downtown a r e a .  just north of Strathcona  community a c t i v i t y . will  references  as a few agencies  be d i s c u s s e d i n i t i a l l y i n t e r m s o f i t s  However, a p a r t i c u l a r  social  problems  emphasis i n t h i s  be t h e e f f e c t s o f programmes o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e  community. acquiring  Some  Strath-  are located there.  population, resources, physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  study  These  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e 196i c e n s u s f i g u r e s .  cona i s i m m e d i a t e l y  and  elementary  The a r e a i s b o u n d e d on t h e w e s t b y M a i n  1  w e r e drawn t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e  will  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  f r o m t h e name o f t h e l a r g e  on t h e s o u t h b y T e r m i n a l  order  the area  Redevelopment i s d e f i n e d here a s "the p r o c e s s o f blighted land, demolishing  existing  s t r u c t u r e s , a n d making 2  the  cleared land available  been p l a n n e d first 1  f o r new development."  t o take p l a c e over  p r o j e c t already having  Redevelopment has  t h e p e r i o d o f a number o f y e a r s , t h e  b e e n c o m p l e t e d a n d a s t a r t i s t o be made  S t a n l e y D. M c L a r t y , The S t r a t h c o n a S t o r y , 1873-1961; The S t o r y o f S t r a t h c o n a S c h o o l , Vancouver School Board, Vancouver, B.C.,196l. This s c h o o l was f i r s t named E a s t S c h o o l b u t L 9 0 0 was renamed L o r d S t r a t h c o n a , a f t e r one o f C a n a d a ' s o u t s t a n d i n g f i n a n c i e r s a n d p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s . Working t o g e t h e r f o r Urban Renewal, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Housing and R e d e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c i a l s , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , S e p t e m b e r 1958p.'2., A  2  ;  V A N C O U V E R A N D VICINITY. R E P R O D U C T I O N S OF THIS MAP OR PARTS THEREOF MAY NOT BE MADE WITHOUT PERMISSION OF OWNERS .,  DOMINION M A P LIMITED VANCOUVER,  B. C .  - 154 on t h e s e c o n d s t a g e  -  soon.  S t r a t h c o n a i s one o f V a n c o u v e r ' s communities.  earliest  residential  I t developed q u i c k l y i n i t s l o c a t i o n adjacent to  the w a t e r f r o n t a r e a , w i t h t h e e a r l y l o g g i n g and l u m b e r i n g i n d u s t r y . However, a s i n d u s t r y e v o l v e d a n d t h e c i t y  grew l a r g e r , many o f  t h e o r i g i n a l r e s i d e n t s moved t o newer a r e a s . dences  This l e f t  the r e s i -  t o be t a k e n up by a number o f g r o u p s o f a v a r i e t y o f r a c i a l  and n a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s . g r a v i a t e towards same l a n g u a g e .  Immigrant  t h e i r kinsmen A consequence  p o p u l a t i o n s have t e n d e d t o  a n d t o w a r d t h o s e who s p e a k t h e of t h i s i s that c u l t u r a l  "islands"  were e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t t o a m a r k e d e x t e n t t o d a y . Some o f t h e e a r l i e s t still  live  s e t t l e r s , n o t e a b l y the C h i n e s e and I t a l i a n  t h e r e i n s u b s t a n t i a l numbers.  Indeed, the Chinese are  i n c r e a s i n g i n number a n d a r e m o v i n g f u r t h e r e a s t i n S t r a t h c o n a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a s t  f i v e y e a r s ( F i g u r e 3l#).  who w e r e e v i c t e d d u r i n g W o r l d War 11, l i m i t e d numbers.  The J a p a n e s e ,  have r e t u r n e d b u t i n v e r y  O t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s a t one t i m e l o c a t e d t h e r e  have moved e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c i t y .  Today t h e r e i s a t r e n d f o r  i m m i g r a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y o f Chinese and I t a l i a n backgrounds, t o settle, at least i n i t i a l l y , born o f these groups  i n the Strathcona area w h i l e Canadian-  t e n d t o move t o o t h e r a r e a s i n V a n c o u v e r .  One o f t h e e f f e c t s o f n a t i o n a l g r o u p s s e t t l i n g i n S t r a t h c o n a h a s been t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a number o f t h e i r own and n a t i o n a l h a l l s  ( F i g u r e 3./i).  e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l  These have f u l f i l l e d  functions.  social,  The c h u r c h e s c o n t i n u e t o  a t t r a c t a t t e n d a n c e f r o m members o f t h e e t h n i c g r o u p even  churches  they serve  t h o u g h t h e members may now be r e s i d i n g o u t s i d e S t r a t h c o n a .  FIGURE DISTRIBUTION  2A OF  —  MAP  ETHNIC  ILLUSTRATING  a  RACIAL  GROUPS L  1200  —jap*-'  ^1,100/  SACRED HEAJT SCHOOL  ct < CC  • •••• * SEYMOUR SCHOOL  ST.  VENABLE S  LEG CHINESE  END  FALSE  _  • •• •  ITALIAN  _  NEGRO  •• • •  c  JAPANESE  ST.  PARKER  :': PARK  CREEK  NAPIER  ST.  WILLIAM  _ r*  u  A  o i  rr r*  ST.  ALEXANDER  FIGURE  J L  ST.  LOCATION  OF  3 A  —  INSTITUTIONS  MAP  ILLUSTRATING  COMMUNITY  a  SERVICES  100  L POWELL  POWELL STREET GROUNDS  200 t I  300  ©  200  ®  t2  ST  t3  ST  CORDOVA +4  300  400  500  CD  600  700  HASTINGS  ST.  PENDER  ST .  900  800  400 w  STRATHCONA  500  CO UJ  o  ^SCHOOC-%  + 12  KEEFER  S7: FRANCIS  600  SACRED HEA<?7 SCHOOL  ® ST.  t 7  SEYMOURx . . ^ J | SCHOOL  XAVIER^^, SCHOOL  ..  GEORGIA  ST.  UNION  ST.  800 I INCH S S S S  = 4 0 0 q  CHITRCHSS  1 2 3  5 6  7  8 9  10 11 12  VENABLES  FEET o  <3  .  1  r  L E 6E ND  St. James Anglican St. Paul's Cathedral Vancouver Buddhist Church First United (temporary location) Chinese Pentecostal Chinese United Chinese Anglican The Christ Church of China Chinese Catholic« St. Francis Xavier Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox St. Mary's Ukrainian Catholic Sacred Heart  COMMUNITY SERVICES 1 t 2 : 3 J k x 5* 6* 7* 8 i 9 t 10 « 11 * 1*2 i  13 »  ®  + 10 '  +9  700  :  n r  PRIOR  ST  PARKER  o  Police Station McLean Park Public Fire Hall Housing Projeot Pender Y.W.C.A. Oibbs Boys Club Kivassa G i r l s Club Schools Museum Salvation Army Child Care Centre Parks Second Mile Society St. Vincent's Home Russian People's Hall Yugoslavian Educational Home Association of United Ukrainian Canadians  ST.  •  FA L SE  CREEK  ST.  - 155 When i n t e r v i e w e d , most o f t h e m i n i s t e r s ? * : p r i e s t s a n d c h u r c h w o r k e r s , indicated  t h a t a l a r g e number o f t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s were n o t r e s i -  dent i n t h e a r e a .  T h e s e c h u r c h l e a d e r s have f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o  c o n s i d e r t h e n e e d s o f two m a i n e l e m e n t s i n t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p : is,  that  f o r t h o s e f r e q u e n t l y o f m i d d l e c l a s s s t a t u s , h i g h e r Income,  o f t e n b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n from o u t s i d e t h e a r e a , and t h o s e from Strathcona  within  itself.  Many o f t h e o n c e s u b s t a n t i a l homes h a v e been c o n v e r t e d t o b o a r d i n g and rooming houses. out adequate  planning.  M o s t o f t e n , t h i s h a s b e e n done  with-  T h i s h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o accommodate  immigrant people, as w e l l as those migratory workers o f lumbering, l o g g i n g , m i n i n g a n d f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s who have t a k e n up t h e l e s s e x p e n s i v e a c c o m m o d a t i o n n e a r t h e downtown c e n t r e . was  i n e v i t a b l e because  nized o f f i c i a l l y  o f o v e r c r o w d i n g a n d b y 1958 i t was r e c o g -  that redevelopment  necessary f o r Strathcona a r e a . In which  Deterioration  on a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  s c a l e was  1  1961 t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n S t r a t h c o n a t o t a l l e d 8,493 o f  5i5l8 were m a l e , a n d 2,975 f e m a l e .  Many n a t i o n a l i t i e s a r e  represented i n the area but p a r t i c u l a r l y noteable i s that o r 56.9 p e r c e n t a r e A s i a t i c  4,832  ( T a b l e P.) a n d t h i s i s d o u b l e t h a t o f  3 1950 when t h e p e r c e n t a g e was 28 o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Sixty-  t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was b o r n o u t s i d e C a n a d a a n d 19 p e r c e n t s p e a k l i t t l e 1  3  o r no E n g l i s h .  Vancouver Redevelopment S t u d y , P r e p a r e d by t h e C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e H o u s i n g P.esearch C o m m i t t e e , December 1957. T h i s r e p o r t was a d o p t e d i n Feb.1958 b y t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . A l l s t a t i s t i c s a r e f r o m t h e 1961 C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , D o m i n i o n of S t a t i s t i c s , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e acknowledged.  Bureau  L e o n a r d C. M a r s h , R e b u i l d i n g a N e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r C a n a d a , 1950, p . v i i i .  - 156 Table  P.  Ethnic  Distribution  Vancouver  Strathcona  Number British  1104  Isles  Number  Percent  13  230,234  60 3 3  2.5  German  215 118  1.5  12,113 16,561  Italian  783  9  12,941  Netherlands  .5  9,311  Polish  35 142  1.5  Russian  113  1.5  7,117 4,840  Scandinavian  225 268  2.5  18,782  French  Ukrainian  489 4832  Other European Asiatic  169  Other  to  over  percent  1 5  9,247  2.5 7  57 2  19,915 6,692  5 2 100%  f a m i l i e s i n S t r a t h c o n a a n d c h i l d r e n up o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and  t h e age o f 55 r e p r e s e n t 34.4 p e r c e n t  ( o f w h i c h 82  are males). In  and  2.5 2  26,769  t h e a g e o f f o u r t e e n make up 22 p e r c e n t  those  7  3 6  100%  T h e r e a r e 1,550  Percent  p l a n n i n g h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s  resources  t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e p e o p l e  of Strathcona,  s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s seem t o s t a n d o u t a n d r e q u i r e s p e c i a l One i s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n o f A s i a t i c s w i t h c u l t u r a l backgrounds.  attention. different  A second f a c t o r i s t h a t r e l a t e d to the  problem o f communication w i t h almost o t h e r than E n g l i s h .  three  Still  another  one i n f i v e h a v i n g a l a n g u a g e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s theage d i s t r i -  - 157 b u t i o n , w i t h one h a l f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d young and the o l d e r  segments.  It i s frequently said that i n Strathcona, occupy t h e i r d w e l l i n g s but r a t h e r , tend they  live  elsewhere.  almost a t h i r d which, although  (Table  Q).  o w n e r s do n o t  t o h a v e them r e n t e d  A c h e c k o f t h e c e n s u s f i g u r e s showed  (30 p e r c e n t )  while that  of the dwellings are owner-occupied  i t i s l o w when c o m p a r e d t o V a n c o u v e r o w n e r - o c c u p i e d  d w e l l i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f 60 p e r c e n t , The  i n the very  educational level  i sstill  quite  significant.  t e n d s t o be l o w , w i t h some  P o s s i b l y t h i s i s one c a u s e o f t h e l o w i n c o m e  illiteracy level,  w i t h a n a v e r a g e p e r f a m i l y h e a d o f $2,478 c o m p a r e d t o V a n c o u v e r ' s a v e r a g e o f $4,408.  A l m o s t 60 p e r c e n t  age  limited  o f s i x has v e r y  T a b l e Q.  of the population over the  education.  Educational  Level  Strathcona Those o v e r 6 y e a r s no s c h o o l i n g  with  Those o v e r 6 y e a r s w i t h some e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g only  Religious  Italian),  9%  1%  h9%  22%  Institutions: In Strathcona  definite  Vancouver  the Churches c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  ethnic or r a c i a l groups.  They a r e : S a c r e d  Chinese U n i t e d , S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r  serve  Heart  (Catholic,  (Catholic,  Chinese),  Chinese A n g l i c a n , Chinese P e n t e c o s t a l , Chinese C h r i s t Church, S t .  -  Mary's  (Catholic,  There a r e a l s o but  also  young  Catholic second  a number o f " m i s s i o n s " , w i t h  north  church  of Hastings  e m p h a s i s on " s o u l - s a v i n g "  interest  i n activities for  S t r e e t a r e S t . James A n g l i c a n  i n Vancouver),  oldest  church  i n the h a l l  occupied  I n a few months' t i m e ,  new b u i l d i n g , Apart  from  planned.  church  activities,  quarters i n this  will  move b a c k t o  Personal v i s i t i n g  such  S t . James A n g l i c a n  (36 p a i d up members) when  d a y s a week, t h r o u g h  Activities  work i n t h e d i s t r i c t through  U n i t e d Church (the  by t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n  this  the u s u a l church  i s open f i v e  each a f t e r n o o n .  First  now u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n S t r a t h c o n a .  h a s a programme f o r p e n s i o n e r s  clubroom  Church.  i n Vancouver) has temporary  originally  the day.  as c a r d s , c h e c k e r s ,  and c r a f t s a r e  i s done when members a r e i l l .  i s another  assistance i n clothing  a c h u r c h w o r k e r o r member,  pension  and  phase o f emphasis, i n l a r g e p a r t and f o o d .  A l s o on r e f e r r a l  administration of s o c i a l  from  need  City  observed  a s s i s t a n c e and  U n i t e d C h u r c h programmes f o r o l d e r p e r s o n s are i n t h e  of a Saturday  n i g h t " f e l l o w s h i p " h o u r when a b o u t  200 p e o p l e  a t w h i c h t h e r e a r e programmes, a s h o r t d e v o t i o n a l , a n d  Cn Wednesday a f t e r n o o n s for  Welfare  cheques i s u n d e r t a k e n . First  form  their  Tea i s s e r v e d  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, o r a s t h e r e i s an i n d i v i d u a l by  Church  t h e S a l v a t i o n Army Temple, S t . P a u l ' s  Church, Vancouver Buddhist  Ukrainians.  also  Orthodox, S t . V i n c e n t s S h e l t e r .  people.  (the o l d e s t  its  Ukrainian), Russian  some w i t h q u i t e a s u b s t a n t i a l  Just  area,  158 -  social  purposes,  are a c t i v i t i e s  there i s a l s o  w i t h an average  including  attend  refreshments.  a g a t h e r i n g f o r d e v o t i o n a l and attendance  o f about  70.  cub a n d s c o u t p a c k s f o r t h e y o u n g e r  There people.  - 159 Social is  s e r v i c e work i s c a r r i e d o u t by s t a f f a n d a l t h o u g h no money  g i v e n , t h e r e i s p r o v i s i o n o f c l o t h i n g and f o o d .  T h i s i s con-  s i d e r e d t o be a " m i s s i o n a r y " c h u r c h w i t h e m p h a s i s on w o r k w i t h l o w income groups.  F i n a n c i a l support  S o c i a l S e r v i c e e x p e n s e s i n 19&3  U n i t e d Churches i n Vancouver.  f o r items i n c l u d i n g meal t i c k e t s , clothing,  furniture,  Educational  f o r t h i s w o r k comes f r o m a l l  g r o c e r i e s , beds and rooms,  tranportation, totalled  $5,931•93*  1  Institutions  A number o f p r i v a t e p r e - s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n the area or j u s t to the north of i t . is  f o r 60 c h i l d r e n  licensed  but has o n l y f o u r c h i l d r e n parts of Greater Vancouver).  The C h i l d C a r e  from t h e ages o f t h r e e y e a r s f r o m t h e .area ( t h e b a l a n c e S t . P a u l ' s Day N u r s e r y  two  c l a s s e s ( t o t a l l i n g 113  o p e r a t e d by o f kO.  In addition,  total  p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e a r e a a r e S t r a t h c o n a a n d Seymour  Schools.  o f w h i c h 89 p e r c e n t the b a l a n c e  children  o f 60.  The Elementary  Some  t h e r e are.  children) of kindergarten-aged  i n S t r a t h c o n a S c h o o l , a n d two c l a s s e s i n Seymour w i t h a enrollment  to s i x ,  from a l l  t h e F r a n c i s c a n S i s t e r s o f A t o n e m e n t , h a s an e n r o l l m e n t o f t h e C h u r c h e s have k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s .  Centre  S t r a t h c o n a h a s a r e g i s t r a t i o n o f 9^0 are A s i a t i c  i s a mixture  (thegreat majority being  of other n a t i o n a l i t i e s .  pupils, Chinese),  Seymour S c h o o l ,  w h i c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f S t r a t h c o n a a r e a , h a s 500 s t u d e n t s , some o f w h i c h come f r o m b e y o n d t h e e a s t e r n b o u n d a r y o f S t r a t h c o n a a r e a , C l a r k D r i v e , over as f a r as Commercial D r i v e . There  Annual Report, B.C. p . kl.  19&3> F i r r s t U n i t e d C h u r c h , G o r e a n d  Hastings,Vancouver  a r e a b o u t one t h i r d A s i a t i c negro, and the balance i p l e s and nurses  160 k  children, one-third Italian,  i s made up o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s .  s t a t e that attendance  compared t o o t h e r a r e a s , p a r t l y  i nboth  percent Princ-  1  schools i s high  they b e l i e v e because h e a l t h i s  g e n e r a l l y good, and p a r t l y because these  c h i l d r e n seem t o w e l c o m e  t h e warm, c l e a n a t m o s p h e r e a n d r e a l l y want t o come t o s c h o o l . private schools also l i e w i t h i n thed i s t r i c t : 130 s t u d e n t s  (69 p e r c e n t  Italian,  5 percent  Sacred  Portuguese,  Heart  Two with  the balance  xtfhite a n d a m i x t u r e ) ; a n d S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r w h i c h i s l a r g e l y f o r Chinese c h i l d r e n .  T h e r e i s no h i g h s c h o o l l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e a r e a .  T'here a r e language s c h o o l s f o r t h e Japanese and C h i n e s e children. need i t ,  E n g l i s h c l a s s e s a r e o f f e r e d f o r i m m i g r a n t s o r o t h e r s who b y t h e P e n d e r Y.W.C.A. a n d b y some o f t h e c h u r c h e s .  adult education School  Board.  programmes a r e s p o n s o r e d i n t h e a.rea b y t h e V a n c o u v e r T h i s h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e r e  b e e n no r e q u e s t s in  No  f o r them.  have  The V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e i s  downtown V a n c o u v e r , a f e w b l o c k s b e y o n d t h e w e s t e r n b o u n d a r y o f  S t r a t h c o n a , Main S t r e e t . Recreational Services: The are  t h r e e main r e c r e a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s  the Kiwassa G i r l s '  Club, Gibbs Boys' Club,  located i n Strathcona a n d t h e P e n d e r Y.W.C.A.  T h e r e a r e a l s o some n a t i o n a l h a l l s w h i c h have l i m i t e d programmes f o r t h e i r own n a t i o n a l g r o u p s a n d whose m e m b e r s h i p i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o the immediate community. by  T h e r e a r e r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes  some o f t h e C h u r c h e s ( S a c r e d H e a r t ,  provided  f o r example has a g r e a t  e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on t h e i r s p o r t s programmes f o r t h e i r y o u n g  people).  These f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d from t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a n d c o r r o b e r a t e d by t h e s c h o o l n u r s e s .  -  161  -  Programmes a r e a l s o a r r a n g e d a n d s p o n s o r e d by t h e B o a r d o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n . The  o n l y agency t h a t o f f e r s a s o c i a l work approach i s  P e n d e r Y.W.C.A.  I n t h e p a s t i t h a s o f f e r e d some g r o u p p l a n n i n g  f o r b o y s , b u t now, w i t h s t a f f s h o r t a g e , i s r e s t r i c t e d f o r g i r l s a n d women. teenage  group  There  forgirls  r e s i d e n t a n d day c a m p i n g . The girls ties age  The  girls  is day is  but a f t e r  I t would  like  to provide  some e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n f o u n d  craft, knitting,  activi-  that  Programmes a r e i n t h e  a t t e n d a n c e i s between  The C l u b i s n o t open i n t h e e v e n i n g s .  There  a l s o a summer programme when day t r i p s a r e a r r a n g e d e v e r y throughout  July.  Again t h i s c l u b c l o s e s d u r i n g August.  a l s o an o r g a n i z e d m o t h e r s '  c l u b meeting  p l a c e s e m p h a s i s on t h e s o c i a l c o n t a c t . r e g i s t e r e d and an average b a z a a r s and c o n t r i b u t e  this  cooking classes, gymnastics e t c .  come a f t e r s c h o o l a n d a n a v e r a g e  30 a n d kO p e r d a y .  such as  Club' h a s r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes f o r  was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g .  nature o f sewing,  e l a b o r a t e p l a n s a r e made  d u r i n g t h e month o f J u l y ,  to f i f t e e n years.  f o rolder g i r l s  Fairly  The a g e n c y c l o s e s d u r i n g A u g u s t .  Kiwassa G i r l s '  from f i v e  group  a r e c r a f t and hobby c l a s s e s , c l u b s , one  on Wednesday n i g h t s .  f o r summer a c t i v i t i e s  t o programmes  second There  t w i c e a month a n d w h i c h  Twenty-five mothers are  a t t e n d a n c e i s 12  t o 15•  They h o l d  t o s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s f o r t h e g i r l s by p r o v i d -  i n g r e f r e s h m e n t s and s u p e r v i s i o n .  Although a l l  n a t i o n a l i t i e s are  represented i n the c l u b , I t a l i a n i s predominant. Gibbs Boys'  C l u b o p e r a t e s i n what was o n c e a J e w i s h  synagogue - a l a r g e , w e l l k e p t b u i l d i n g w i t h p l e n t y o f accommodation. There lounge  are a c t i v i t y f o r dances.  r o o m s , a l a r g e gymnasium a n d a l a r g e There  a r e about  downstairs  100 b o y s f r o m e i g h t t o e i g h t e e n  - 162 y e a r s who  use the c l u b each day, a f t e r n o o n and e v e n i n g s .  a d d i t i o n , some y o u n g men f l o o r hockey.  The  r e c r e a t i o n because b u t he does  up t o t h e age o f 25  For  o n l y on  healthy  s t a f f and l a r g e numbers o f b o y s ,  f e e l t h e r e i s a g r e a t need  w o r k f o r t h o s e who  come once a week f o r  d i r e c t o r must p l a c e e m p h a s i s of very l i m i t e d  In  f o r i n d i v i d u a l and  group  have p e r s o n a l e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s .  the o l d e r person, i n a d d i t i o n  t o t h e c h u r c h programmes,  t h e r e i s a s o c i a l c l u b , t h e S e c o n d M i l e S o c i e t y , l o c a t e d on H a s t i n g s Street.  1  The  clubrooms are f u r n i s h e d w i t h c o m f o r t a b l e , o l d e r  f u r n i t u r e a n d a r e open s i x d a y s a week f r o m 11 u n t i l 5« is  on a s o c i a l a t m o s p h e r e .  Emphasis  A c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e c a r d games, r u g  b o w l i n g , and a l i b r a r y w h i c h i s u s e d i n a l i m i t e d way.  Tea i s  s e r v e d e v e r y day b y v o l u n t e e r s f r o m c h u r c h e s , s e r v i c e c l u b s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s from a l l p a r t s o f Vancouver.  Membership,  open t o any p e r s o n 65 y e a r s a n d o v e r , s t a n d s a t 198 daily  attendance o f about  and  which i s  w i t h an  average  4-5.  T h e r e i s no p a r k o r p l a y a r e a i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e S t r a t h c o n a Community e x c e p t f o r t h e s c h o o l g r o u n d s , and t h i s i s  2 limited i n size.  A square b l o c k t o r e p l a c e McLean P a r k  which  has  b e e n u s e d f o r t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , has been s e t a s i d e a d j a c e n t t o the 1  2  s c h o o l , but has n o t y e t been d e v e l o p e d .  North of Strathcona, i n  The S e c o n d M i l e S o c i e t y , was s t a r t e d a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n m a i n l y o f the l a t e A l d e r m a n A n n a S p r o t t . She was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l o s s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e e t i n g p l a c e f o r - o l d e r men a t t h e V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y when i t was moved f r o m i t s o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n a t M a i n and H a s t i n g s . T h e r e has been c o n f u s i o n a r o u n d t h e s p e l l i n g o f McLean P a r k . O f f i c i a l l y , t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r r e c o g n i z e s M c L e a n P a r k (named a f t e r one o f V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t m a y o r s ) . H o w e v e r , when t h e H o u s i n g P r o j e c t was c o n s t r u c t e d , due t o an e r r o r , t h e s p e l l i n g became M a c L e a n P a r k , a n d i s so r e c o g n i z e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y i n i t s l e g a l d o c u m e n t s w i t h C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p oration. I n t h i s s t u d y , the o r i g i n a l s p e l l i n g o f McLean P a r k w i l l be u s e d .  -  163  -  the heavy i n d u s t r i a l i z e d a r e a i s Oppenheimer P a r k . u s e d t o any but  has  extent  organized  games t e n d  pool.  b a s e b a l l , s o f t b a l l and  to a t t r a c t  I n the e a s t e r n field  a s an i n f o r m a l p l a y i n g f i e l d  the  by  s e c t i o n of Strathcona  south-eastern  not  the c h i l d r e n  s o c c e r games.  ' d r i f t e r s ' , u n e m p l o y e d and  w i t h some e q u i p m e n t . In the  It is  These  older  people.  there i s a temporary p l a y i n g  I t i s grassed  and  corner  a r e a , on t h e  of the  has  a small  wading  False  C r e e k f l a t s t h e r e i s a l a r g e p a r k o f a b o u t 20  a c r e s , known a s  F a l s e Creek Park,  The  and  Public Recreation  vision ing  and  which i s h e a v i l y used. provides  Parks  e x t e n s i v e programming under  d u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s on  these  t h a t i n t h i s a r e a w i t h so l i t t l e  B o a r d has  Board of  locations.  the  super-  It i s interest-  citizen activity  the  Parks  f o u n d i t p o s s i b l e t o w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h community g r o u p s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n connection  w i t h p l a n n i n g and  u s i n g the F a l s e  Creek  Park. Health  and  Welfare  Although reported  Services: i n the p a s t , h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n S t r a t h c o n a ,  over the y e a r s  considered  t o be  very  by  bad,  the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h i n the past  been a n o t i c e a b l e improvement. to  the i n f l u e n c e of S t r a t h c o n a  C o m m i t t e e , were  f i f t e e n years  there  This i s i n large part and  Seymour s c h o o l s and  h e a l t h programme c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h . t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , through p r i v a t e kindergartens. to  compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h o t h e r  exceptions.  W i t h o u t an a c c u r a t e  Health personnel  are  General  has  attributed the p u b l i c as w e l l  as  h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s appear  areas i n the c i t y w i t h a comparison, the  o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e may  higher p r o p o r t i o n of d e f e c t i v e v i s i o n  as  few  Metropolitan be  a somewhat  than i n other areas.  They  q u e s t i o n how  164  -  much o f t h i s i s due  to poor l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n  t h e homes o r p e r h a p s b e c a u s e l o w i n c o m e s p r o h i b i t of g l a s s e s .  the  purchasing  A l s o , there i s a recognized high incidence of  t u b e r c u l o s i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e C h i n e s e , w i t h the Chinese common k i t c h e n s .  s i n g l e men  and more  particularly  l i v i n g i n communal a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h  There i s a l s o h i g h i n c i d e n c e of t u b e r c u l o s i s  i n an  " a d v a n c e d " s t a g e among t h e  cases  l o c a t e d more i n t h e downtown a r e a , w e s t o f M a i n  'drifters'  ( a l t h o u g h these  are  those o f f e r e d . i n other areas  and  child  care c l i n i c s .  t h a t few i f any  many t a k e  The b a s i s and  such as  maternal  a t t e n d the p r e - n a t a l c l a s s e s  to the w e l l - b a b y  emphasizes work w i t h f a m i l i e s .  on a p r e v e n t i v e  I t e n t a i l s home  I f emotional  or s o c i a l problems are  r e f e r r a l i s made t o an a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c y .  p r o b l e m s a s r e q u i r e them.  Mental  hygiene  tend  The  to i n t e r n a l i z e  nurses  have o b s e r v e d  t h e i r emotional  i n s t e a l i n g , psychosomatic  ailments  i n t e r n a l i z e d s e l f - c o n t r o l s and  it  will  services  such  that  Chinese  problems but  symptoms  (psychosomatic  a r e a l s o common t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ) ; w h e r e a s , t h e I t a l i a n  way.  visiting  detected,  are a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Agency f o r  show up  although  are g e n e r a l l y w e l l r e c e i v e d , a l t h o u g h a d v i c e i s not  always f o l l o w e d .  children  ailments  children lack  a c t out i n a h o s t i l e ,  belligerant  Absentee r a t e s i n both s c h o o l s are comparatively low,  i s recognized that these  r a t h e r than  to  clinics).  programme i n t h e s c h o o l s i s p l a n n e d  where n u r s e s  Committee  (In t h i s connection i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  Chinese  t h e i r babies  of the c i t y ,  are  Street).  Programmes o f f e r e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h  note  active  c h i l d r e n r e a l l y p r e f e r to a t t e n d  although school  not.  School nurses  have i n d i c a t e d  they  find i t d i f f i c u l t  to work  with the parents are  165  -  o f b o t h I t a l i a n and Chinese c h i l d r e n .  o p e n l y h o s t i l e and d i s t r u s t i n g , and the l a t t e r  passively resistant. particularly  On t h e o t h e r  hand, they f i n d  the newly a r r i v e d immigrants, a r e very  tend  The f o r m e r t o be  the Japanese, anxious to  u n d e r s t a n d and l e a r n western c u l t u r e , as evidenced i n the d i l i g e n c e w i t h which they pursue the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h , the q u e s t i o n i n g of how t h i n g s a r e done h e r e i n C a n a d a . Among a g e n c i e s a c t i v e i n S t r a t h c o n a , t h e y have i n o t h e r  p a r t s of the c i t y are the V i c t o r i a n Order of  Nurses, the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e S e r v i c e Department, Family Catholic Family and  Pension  Chinese  Board.  high proportion  to provide  of Chinese people i n the area  requires  P a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t must be made by t h o s e  s e r v i c e s t o u n d e r s t a n d them, t h e i r  backgrounds, behavioural  patterns,  cultural  r e s i s t a n c e s , and l e a d e r s h i p .  a n a l y s i s f o l l o w i n g i s b a s e d o n l y on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a f e w  i n d i v i d u a l s and s h o u l d the  S e r v i c e Agency, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y ,  S e r v i c e Agency, C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y  special consideration.  The  f o r the B l i n d , C i t y S o c i a l  Population: The  planning  providing the services  be r e g a r d e d a s i m p r e s s i o n s .  So g r e a t a r e  c o m p l e x i t i e s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t o be c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d  accurate  would r e q u i r e a separate  study.  T h e r e a r e a b o u t 65 C h i n e s e s o c i e t i e s , zations.  t o n g s , and o r g a n i 1  Some o f t h e s e have d e v e l o p e d a s a r e s u l t o f f a m i l y  ties,  F a t h e r P e t e r Chow e x p l a i n e d a t o n g a s a n a s s o c i a t i o n whose members a r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y , o r who c a r r y t h e f a m i l y name.  - 166 or  from geographic  -  places of o r i g i n i n China.  these a l t h o u g h m a i n l y s o c i a l a l s o a r e based olent a s s o c i a t i o n s , educational elements have s p r u n g up f r o m m u t u a l  The p u r p o s e s  on m u t u a l  of  a i d , benev-  a n d r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s . Some  o r common b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n t h e a r e a  a n d / o r a r e d e p e n d e n t on p a t r o n a g e  from t h e r e s i d e n t s t h e r e .  Chinese  Chamber o f Commerce, t h e C h i n e s e  Chinese  P r o p e r t y Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n w o u l d be e x a m p l e s .  ships a r e maintained w i t h the Chinese  The  L i o n s C l u b , and the Relation-  community a n d i t s s o c i e t i e s .  However, t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a p p e a r t o be c a r e f u l n o t t o t a k e on c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s , s u c h a s p u b l i c h o u s i n g a n d (with the exception of the Chinese  redevelopment  P r o p e r t y Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n ) f o r  f e a r o f a n t a g o n i z i n g t h o s e on whom t h e y a r e d e p e n d e n t It  i s suggested,  of  t h e members h a v e d e f i n i t e i n d i v i d u a l o p i n i o n s . The  stands  financially.  h o w e v e r , by t h o s e who were i n t e r v i e w e d , t h a t many  tongs and s o c i e t i e s b e f o r e the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y  federated into  the Chinese  Benevolent  A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h was once  r e g a r d e d a s t h e spokesman f o r t h e e n t i r e C h i n e s e  community a n d  i n d e e d , f r o m what h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d , c a r r i e d t r e m e n d o u s i n f l u e n c e and was a r e a l p o w e r .  T o d a y , some i n f o r m e d p e o p l e  suggest, i t  c o n t i n u e s t o be v e r y v o c a l on i s s u e s e v e n a l t h o u g h i t s m e m b e r s h i p is  no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e n t i r e C h i n e s e  it  h a s no l o n g e r t h e same t r e m e n d o u s i n f l u e n c e .  p o p u l a t i o n and  When t h e y a t t a i n e a r l y a d u l t h o o d , t h o s e C h i n e s e b o r n i n Canada t e n d t o l e a v e S t r a t h c o n a t o r e s i d e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y , w h i l e t h o s e o f a p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n r e m a i n where t h e y  first  settled.  those  New i m m i g r a n t s  first  r e s i d e i n t h e a r e a t o be w i t h  - 16? who  s p e a k t h e same l a n g u a g e and  As  t h e y become more s e c u r e  western the  ways and  have a s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l - b a c k g r o u n d .  f i n a n c i a l l y , and  the E n g l i s h language,  they  more k n o w l e d g a b l e a b o u t t o o t e n d t o move o u t  of  area. Those C h i n e s e  to seek to preserve  who  of working  loyalty.  undertaken  t h e n e e d f o r day  a t l e a s t a t the p r e s e n t  care  by  for their children; T h e r e was  Activity t o be a r e no  as t h e s t r o n g  on  As an  t h e Community C h e s t and  community.  recogexample,  Councils,  indicated  d i d not see a need f o r such  services,  and  aunts,  the acceptance  p a t t e r n of  old friends,  c o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t , tha.t e v e n i f s e r v i c e s used.  and E f f o r t s  towards  Co-Ordination  the p a r t of c i t i z e n s i n the neighbourhood  Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n s ;  Strathcona School  to  o f t h i s r o l e by a l l  v e r y l i m i t e d when c o m p a r e d w i t h most o t h e r communities. Parent  1  children  This study  t i m e , because of the Chinese  were p r o v i d e d , t h e y w o u l d be C i t i z e n involvement  appear  T h i s f a c t o r n e e d s t o be  the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , grandparents,  generations.  such  care services f o r pre-school  parents i n Strathcona  that the m a j o r i t y of people  using  culture,  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r determining needs.  a r e c e n t s t u d y was to determine  residency i n Strathcona  much o f t h e i r own  e x t e n d e d f a m i l y u n i t y and n i z e d a s i t has  continue  for a parent-teacher  o n l y a 30 p e r c e n t conference,  and  appears There  turnout  at  a b o u t 60-70  Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , Committee S t u d y i n g t h e Need f o r Day C a r e S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a ( E a s t End) A r e a , 1 9 6 4 .  -  168  -  p e r c e n t a t Seymour S c h o o l w o u l d r e p r e s e n t an a v e r a g e One  s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l q u e s t i o n s how  much t h i s i s due  attendance. to f e a r of  t h e unknown, n o t i n g t h a t p a r e n t a l t u r n o u t i s e x c e l l e n t on a day  o r f o r a c o n c e r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f m u s i c and  sports  dancing are i n -  volved. There i s a M o t h e r s ' Club a t Kiwassa activity.  A s m a l l g r o u p o f o l d e r women a t F i r s t U n i t e d  meets r e g u l a r l y .  Leadership  T h e r e i s no a t t e m p t f o r these  on a c o m m u n i t y  Church  o f e t h n i c g r o u p s seems t o be g e n e r a l l y  from o u t s i d e S t r a t h c o n a a l t h o u g h  time  w h i d h shows some  t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s msset i n t h e  made, n o r any  a v e n u e a p p a r e n t l y open a t  g r o u p s t o w o r k t o g e t h e r a r o u n d any m u t u a l  area.  this  concerns  level.  "Of more t h a n one h u n d r e d s t a f f p e r s o n n e l and v o l u n t e e r s of the G i b b s ' Boys' C l u b , Kiwassa G i r l s ' C l u b , P e n d e r Y.W.C.A., S t r a t h c o n a and Seymour S c h o o l s , o n l y t h r e e l i v e i n t h e a r e a . Of a l l o t h e r s o n l y t h e S i s t e r s and P r i e s t s o f t h e p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s and k i n d e r g a r t e n s r e s i d e there. This statement, is  true today.  made t e n y e a r s ago  There i s l i t t l e  l e a d e r s h i p f r o m p r o f e s s i o n a l and  almost  e x c l u s i v e l y elsewhere.  One  of  other personnel  m i n i s t e r who  Strathresides  does l i v e i n t h e  t h i s phenomenon, b e l i e v i n g t h e r e c a n n o t  t h e same u n d e r s t a n d i n g under these  B o r i s Steiman  change i n t h i s a s p e c t  cona:  community q u e s t i o n s  by Mr.  and knowledge of the people  and  the  be community  circumstances.  B o r i s S t e i m a n , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e : An A n a l y t i c a l S t u d y o f a Low-Income T r a n s i t i o n a l D i s t r i c t ( V a n c o u v e r 1952-54) w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o P r o b l e m s o f I n t e r - C u l t u r a l • P a r t i c i p a t i o n , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955, PP 53 and 5^  - 169 I n h i s s t u d y Mr. S t e i m a n problems,  brought  f o r w a r d a number o f  such as the l a c k o f communication  ethnic groups,  between t h e v a r i o u s  t h e l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between these g r o u p s and  t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e number o f s m a l l a g e n c i e s p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e i n the a r e a b u t w i t h l i t t l e  c o - o r d i n a t i o n , t h e n e e d t o have  about h o u s i n g m a t t e r s , t h e needs o f t h e o l d e r p e o p l e .  concern He  p o i n t e d o u t s t r o n g l y t h e n e e d f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p t o e n a b l e members o f t h e community t o learn gradually to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y own  f o rsolutions to t h e i r  problems. I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s shown i n M r .  s t u d y and w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e v a l i d i t y  Steiman's  o f them, a g e n c i e s made 2  a r e a l attempt  to involve citizens  a b e g i n n i n g , a g e n c i e s sought  As  out adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n using as a  nucleus the mothers o f the Kiwassa also  on a p a r t i c i p a t i n g b a s i s .  Girls'  found i n t e r e s t e d parents through  i n t e r e s t was s t i m u l a t e d i n l a t e 1953  Club.  Other  agencies  t h e i r memberships. a n d e a r l y 195^.  This  A great  d e a l o f w o r k was done i n t h e way o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , t h r o u g h interviewing of i n d i v i d u a l s . fifteen End  As a r e s u l t , i n January  of  195^,  a c t i v e p a r e n t s had banded t o g e t h e r and formed t h e E a s t  R e c r e a t i o n Committee.  The i n i t i a l  a n o t h e r newly o r g a n i z e d group,  o b j e c t i v e was t o w o r k w i t h  a teenage  council, i n sponsoring  and p l a n n i n g f o r a s e r i e s o f d a n c e s f o r t h e y o u n g p e o p l e . teenagers  conducted  t h e i r own m e e t i n g s  and d i v i d e d i n t o  The  committees  I b i d : pp 6 l a n d 62 2  The a c c o u n t o f t h i s a g e n c y e f f o r t , c i t i z e n a c t i v i t y , a n d r e s u l t s , a r e b a s e d on m i n u t e s a n d r e p o r t s o f t h e E a s t E n d I n t e r - A g e n c y A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e f r o m J a n u a r y 195^ t o November 1957•  - 170 to a s s i s t the adults i n operating the f i r s t dance i n February, 1954.  Staff members of agencies acted as an advisory body to  both the teenage and adult groups, and i n t h i s capacity, became the East End Inter-Agency Advisory Committee. Although the experience of working with t h e i r children was valuable to the parents, and considered to be e f f e c t i v e ,  also  recognized was a lack of experience on the part of these people i n terms of taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or leadership. slower than normally expected.  Development was  Moreover the high rate of  and o v e r a l l lack of community organization, as well as the culty i n r e c r u i t i n g representatives  transiency diffi-  from ethnic groups, indicated  that much time and patience, was needed to develop a strong community committee and to maintain membership i n i t .  From an agency  point of view i t was observable that their programmes and general operation improved with this community i n t e r e s t . In the process of contacting the i n d i v i d u a l s , i t had been noted that some individuals were not interested i n working on dance programmes but expressed enthusiasm for other community projects. A need to expand and broaden the concerns of the committee seemed i n order.  Apathy, which formerly was seen to be the cause of lack of  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n no longer seemed so much a problem.  A need  for direction and help i n the development of leadership and provi s i o n of the opportunity for further community experience was i n d i cated.  The Community Chest and Councils was approached i n June of  1954 with a request, made by the East End Infeer-Agency Advisory Committee on behalf of t h e i r agencies, and also on behalf of the East End Recreation Committee, to supply a staff person to work  - 171 i n the neighbourhood.  It was recommended this person could work  not only with the Red Feather agencies, but also strive to stimulate involvement on the part of other agencies, associations, schools.  The Community Chest and Councils turned down this  mainly because of lack of funds.  and request,  It d i d , however, make arrange-  ments for a student from the School of Social Work i n October to assist. From June, 1954, however, and for the next few months the East End Recreation Committee worked only to arrange a few dances. By October, 1955 > although i t was l i s t e d as one of the sponsoring groups for the annual Hallowe'en dance, the committee did not appear to be a c t i v e .  Its function seemed to have been taken over  by the staff members of the agencies of the East End Inter-Agency Advisory Committee. There appears to be no further mention of the a c t i v i t y of the Teenage Council although deliberate efforts seem to have been made by the agencies to involve this age group i n the planning for the Hallowe'en dances.  This pattern has continued to this date  with the East End Inter-Agency Advisory Committee (later known as the East End Inter-Agency Committee, one p r e s u m e s because i t s advisory role was no longer necessary) continuing to meet annually to arrange Hallowe'en dances. It had been many years, combined with a comprehensive study and i t s recommendations, and sincere effort by agencies to lead up to creating this nucleus of c i t i z e n a c t i v i t y .  It seems  unfortunate that Community Chest and Councils was unable to be active i n i t s requested assistance to help to foster and maintain  - 172 t h i s movement when the time was  ripe.  e l a p s e d s i n c e t h i s occurred and  there appears to have been  little  Ten y e a r s have  now  f u r t h e r done to r e c r e a t e the c l i m a t e . Concern on the p a r t of the E a s t End  Inter-Agency  Committee i n connection w i t h problems of redevelopment w i l l discussed l a t e r .  Apart from the Hallowe'en dances and  be  efforts  around problems o f redevelopment, t h i s c o u n c i l has become a c t i v e i n few other matters.  An attempt was  made a y e a r ago  to broaden  i t s scope to c o - o r d i n a t e around o t h e r concerns, but t h i s d i d not meet w i t h s u c c e s s .  T h i s s p r i n g , the committee has met  a g a i n to  d i s c u s s the need f o r c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g of summer a c t i v i t i e s f o r young people, to determine o v e r l a p p i n g and gaps i n s e r v i c e s , and  to attempt to meet these problems.  I t i s to be hoped that  i t w i l l concern i t s e l f with other matters  as w e l l , broaden i t s  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , even i f on a g r a d u a l b a s i s , and so become a s t r o n g e r c o - o r d i n a t i n g f o r c e i n the community. In December, 1954, End  Inter-Agency  concern was  expressed by the E a s t  A d v i s o r y Committee as to the a d v i s a b i l i t y of  e s t a b l i s h i n g a Community C o u n c i l .  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c i r c u l a t e d  to e t h n i c s o c i e t i e s , churches, a g e n c i e s , a s s o c i a t i o n s and  indivi-  d u a l s , but the r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the community not y e t ready to e s t a b l i s h a c o u n c i l .  I t needed to b u i l d  s t r o n g e r community c i t i z e n involvement  before t h i s c o u l d be  was  up effect-  ive. Mr. Steiman, i n h i s t h e s i s mentioned a body c a l l e d  the  S t r a t h c o n a Case Committee, made up of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of nineteen agencies.  I t s purpose was  to meet " p e r i o d i c a l l y to d i s c u s s and  - 173 handle  specific  he a d d e d ,  s o c i a l welfare  that i t s  if*  cases w i t h the  work h a d n o t  locality".  been v e r y e f f e c t i v e  1  But  as i t  seldom  2 met a n d s e l d o m had any c o n c e r n s a b o u t Unfortunately,  after  discussions  the neighbourhood g e n e r a l l y .  w i t h agency p e r s o n n e l ,  v i e w s w i t h p e o p l e who were w o r k i n g i n t h e has been i m p o s s i b l e one p e r s o n had t h e not  exist  does.  to  determine the  vaguest  area at  course of  that  this  r e c o l l e c t i o n of i t .  One c a n o n l y assume and j u s t  that  dropped out  it of  it  h a d n o t b e e n c o n v e n e d f o r some t i m e a n d e f f o r t s to  The c a s e al  one.  p r e p a r e d by t h e P e n d e r Y . W . C . A :  revive  pattern that  On o c c a s i o n , w h e n a p r o b l e m i s  fact  s h o u l d be  that put  exists  today i s  an  inform-  d i s c e r n e d , a g e n c i e s w h i c h are,  o r s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d , may meet t o g e t h e r  place  the  made  it.  conference  approach i n the i n t e r e s t s  does  really  One m e n t i o n i s  a r e p o r t i n 1955  attempt  it  Only  committee  had n e v e r managed t o be existence.  it  committee.  Certainly,  in  to  time,  t o d a y a l t h o u g h a somewhat m o d i f i e d c a s e s t u d y  effective  forth  and i n t e r -  to  discuss  a co-ordinated  of a f a m i l y or i n d i v i d u a l .  t h r o u g h an a r r a n g e d m e e t i n g o r may be  T h i s may t a k e  done by t e l e p h o n e  con-  versation. Since critical  of a l a c k  to i n t e r e s t Parent  the  t i m e o f M r . S t e i m a n * s s t u d y when he was  quite  of  schools  parents,  3  a genuine attempt no f u r t h e r  efforts  Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n i n e i t h e r An o f f i c i a l  reported a definite  of  the  interest  of  on t h e p a r t  the  two  evident  i n the  Op c i t B o r i s S t e i m a n , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n page 46  2  Ibid,  3  I b i d pp 55-58  form a  schools.  Board of Parks and P u b l i c is  the  h a v e been made t o  ^  p.46  of  Recreation  Strathcona area i n for Social  Welfare,  - 174 the sphere of sports.  There are well-organized groups to promote  baseball, s o f t b a l l , and soccer.  These groups are represented on  a Council of the entire area east of Main Street.  As a result of  this organized c i t i z e n involvement, a f u l l schedule of games i s arranged for both Oppenheimer and False Creek Parks i n co-operation with the Board of Parks and Public Recreation.  The Board notes  the primary interest i n sports i n Strathcona and compares this with the primary interest i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver's West End area.  1  One must ask the question whether this involvement with i t s  leadership might be broadened to interest i n other areas of a c t i v i t y . 2 Some Opinions about Strathcona: The need for greater co-ordination of agency  activities  i s repeatedly mentioned by those who were interviewed. unclear, however, who should take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for towards effecting t h i s .  It seems  efforts  Some opinions expressed about this are?  there are too many agencies providing s i m i l a r services, and yet gaps exist i n the o v e r - a l l programming;  agencies tend to be focussed  on t h e i r own programmes rather than on the needs of the community as a whole;  the existing limited co-ordinating body, East End Inter-  Agency Committee, i s "dying" but not dead and could be revived to serve a better purpose; between agencies,  there are many jealousies and r i v a l r i e s  and between churches;  need exists for agencies  to reassess their programmes i n order to "move with the times" and develop more "give and take" between them; and more o p t i m i s t i c a l l y , 1  2  These observations were made by the Recreation Director, Board of Parks and Public Recreation i n an interview. For a complete l i s t of those who were interviewed, see Appendix.  -  175 -  that the community i s almost ready for tSo-ordination which might be promoted through some successful  experiences around specific  mutual community problems and perhaps to lead to the formation of some kind of community or neighbourhood c o u n c i l . Lacks i n services are mentioned as:  insufficient  park  or playground area at t h i s moment i n the western part of Strathcona (since McLean P a r k i s no longer a v a i l a b l e ) ; inadequate group work services for boys; need for a study and evaluation of the problems and services for the type of older people i n the area; lack of recreational resources for adult males; organized a c t i v i t i e s  need for more  for teenagers, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the summer  need for a community centre . . . . to name some. From only one source was there any mention made of juvenile delinquency i n the area as being a problem and that was of a minor rather than major concern.  School p r i n c i p a l s have been impressed  with the lack of delinquency, noting that the school buildings are rarely damaged or defaced i n any way;  and also that compara-  t i v e l y few cases are brought to t h e i r attention by the p o l i c e . One explanation offered was the schools have taken an increasing interest i n and have supervised any delinquents known to them. Another reason given was that Chinese parents are firm d i s c i p l i n arians. Generally, the area i s thought to be quite stable,  in  spite of the trend on the part of some individuals and families to stay for a year o r two and then move out.  There are  old-time established families, i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  sufficient  churches, and agencies  which appear to act as a bond to maintain s t a b i l i t y .  One evidence  - 176 -  of t h i s i s the comparatively low turnover i n school population. We have looked at Strathcona and i t s people.  It i s an  older, run-down area, overcrowded, somewhat apathetic, and a l o c ation i n which many s o c i a l problems e x i s t . i s t i c s i n i t s population make-up.  It has unusual character-  But i t has definite  i s t i c s of being an i d e n t i f i a b l e community with i t s m u l t i p l i c i t y of services,  character-  stability,  associations and churches.  Let U B turn now to examine i n the next section how this community reacted to a c r i s i s situation . . . that of planned redevelopment with s o c i a l implications that inevitably accompany wide-scale changes i n environmental circumstances.  - 177 REDEVELOPMENT IN STRATHCONA As mentioned, Vancouver's Strathcona area i s one of the oldest r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  For many reasons:  overcrowding, i n -  adequate conversion, closeness to the downtown area, and indeed, the very nature of the construction of the buildings combined with the neighbourhood's age, t h i s area was considered to be one of the most deteriorated of any i n the city."''  Land and property  values had reached such a low l e v e l that there was l i t t l e for  attraction  private investment to move i n and do any redeveloping as i t has  i n other areas of the C i t y , ( t h i s may be seen occurring i n the West End today). History of Redevelopment Planning for Strathcona In 1950, Dr. Marsh recognized the need for a thorough examination of the entire c i t y to determine blighted areas i n need of renewal i n one form or another.  However, he limited his study  to the Strathcona area and saw i t as a location where not just new housing was needed, but more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  low-rental subsidized 2  housing to serve the low-income area:-  that i s , public housing.  Public housing i s defined as "rental housing owned and managed by l o c a l governmental agencies and subsidized by federal and l o c a l  3 contributions".  Its purpose i s described as follows: "to make  good housing available to low-income families who are l i v i n g i n substandard dwellings or who have been displaced from their quarters k by public action." Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study, p. 29  2 Op c i t : Leonard Marsh, p. i i i 3  Op c i t :  Work±ng Together for Urban Renewal, p. 18  4 I b i d : p. 18  - 178 In 1954, due to persistent pressure on the part of Vancouver Housing Association which dated back to 1938, and on the part of a number of other groups, the r e a l i t y of the fact that low rental housing was required i n Vancouver because of a shortage of appropriate accommodation, was recognized by the C i t y . The public housing project of L i t t l e Mountain was constructed. This was not designed for any specific groups, other than lowincome, nor was i t linked with any planning for long-term r e development, but rather merely to a l l e v i a t e a housing shortage. The property was available and the need was recognized. After L i t t l e Mountain was occupied and there was s t i l l a waiting l i s t of people for such accommodation, Orchard Park Public Housing Project was also constructed. "No matter how well planned and economically fortunate a c i t y i s , some d i s t r i c t s w i l l depreciate and normal renewal by private investment w i l l not take place. The p r i n c i p l e . . . i s that urban renewal i s not a once-and-for-all r i s i n g to an emergency but a continuing, normal aspect of a c i t y ' s growth, some part of which w i l l always be a public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ."•*• However, i t was not u n t i l 1955, after the Technical Planning Board proposed to the c i t y of Vancouver that a redevelopment study be made, that a technical committee known as the "Housing Research Committee" was established.  This committee was represent-  ative of Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the Provincial and City Governments.  It was "to guide the City Planning Department 2 i n carrying out the study which began i n July 1956". ^ Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study, p . l 2 Correspondence from Director of Planning, G. Sutton Brown, to His Worship the Mayor and Members of the City Council. This appears i n Vancouver Redevelopment Study  - 179 Its broad terms of reference were recognized as being "to select those areas of predominatly r e s i d e n t i a l use which might require redevelopment during the next twenty years, and to produce a programme of redevelopment, integrated with the C i t y ' s Twentyyear Development Plan.  The study was also to determine areas  vulnerable to b l i g h t , and to recommend r e h a b i l i t a t i o n procedures for thos areas"."'" Strathcona was selected as one area which required Comprehensive Redevelopment.  Comprehensive redevelopment  is  applied to an area where "complete clearance of r e s i d e n t i a l structures should be progressively achieved over the planned 2  twenty-year period".  It was selected because i t had been a good  r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t many years ago and s t i l l had the characteri s t i c s of being a neighbourhood with an abundant supply of churches, s o c i a l centres, substantial schools, but there was wide-spread deterioration i n housing.  A l s o , the encroachment of heavy indust-  r i e s into r e s i d e n t i a l sections was limited i n spite of the fact that the area had been zoned for i n d u s t r i a l purposes.  Industries  have been mainly contained on the fringes of Strathcona. The Redevelopment Study, completed i n December 1957, was approved i n p r i n c i p l e by the City Council i n February, 1958.  The  Technical Planning Board was then asked to proceed to make suggestions for the f i r s t project i n the twenty-year scheme.  These prop-  osals were that the start be i n the nature of building projects Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study: p . 2 . 2  Ibid,  p.h.  -  180  -  at Skeena Street and the Lougheed Highway, and at M<£Lean Park i n Strathcona.  This was to be followed by certain sections of the  c i t y being completely cleared (Fig.4=A«)» The National Housing A c t , under which redevelopment projects are undertaken, requires that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must be assumed for rehousing families who are displaced i n accommodation with a rental that i s f a i r and reasonable."'"  To proceed with  clearance of houses, these two projects would have to be constructed to accommodate those whose homes were to be demolished. The report with i t s proposals was approved i n March I960 by the City Council and a l i t t l e l a t e r by the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments.  Skeena Terrace opened i n October of 1962 and McLean  Park i n A p r i l of 1963*  The individuals whose homes were to be  demolished were given p r i o r i t y and the f i r s t opportunity of moving into these housing projects.  Comparatively few chose to move so  far out as Skeena Terrace, but the majority of residents i n McLean Park came from the adjacent areas.  Demolishment has been p r a c t i c a l l y  completed i n the areas designated i n the Project 1 recommendations. Social Implications of Poor Housing; Other effects than the physical disfigurement to a c i t y which result from deterioration are well recognized.  The Redevelop-  ment Study states: "While not so much an index of blight as a consequence of i t , certain undesirable s o c i a l conditions are associated . . . with substandard Housing. . . The physical symptoms of b l i g h t may be more obvious; the human consequences, i n loss of well-being and s e l f respect, may be more disastrous and i n the long run more expensive."^ Section 2 3 , National Housing Act: Urban Redevelopment, as i t appears i n City of Vancouver Redevelopment, Project 2 , Prepared by The Technical Planning Board, J u l y , 1 9 6 3 . Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study, 1 9 5 7 , p«7«  FIGURE  CITY  OF VANCOUVER AREA  REDEVELOPM  PROJECT 2 IDENTIFICATION  BOUNDARIES OF REDEVELOPMENT  PLAN  ARE/IS  COMPREHENSIVE  .  .  LIMITED  AREAS  INCLUDED IN  PROJECT  I  AREAS RECOMMENDED FOR INCLUSION IN PROJECT 2 (REVISED SEPTEMBER 1963)  IIOO  1700 1800  1900 2000  2000 J  2400 .  (REVISED SEPTEMBER 1963)  359O - C  9  - 181 Dr. Marsh adds to this that: "the costs of wretched housing and demoralizing neighbourhoods are not escaped - there should be no mistake about t h i s . They are borne, day after day, by the men, women and children who l i v e i n the run-down d i s t r i c t s of our own c i t i e s ; but they are borne also i n some part by every property owner and every taxpayer. Public low-rent housing, i n the l a s t analysis, i s the choice of spending money constructively instead of wasting i t on p a l l i a t i v e ; using i t to subsidize decent l i v i n g and the opportunity of healthy c i t i z e n s h i p , instead .. of subsidizing demoralization, apathy and delinquency'^ It i s impossible to overlook the s o c i a l implications of poor housing and blighted areas, as well as the costs of i t . Certainly, over the years, an examination of the caseloads of the Welfare and Health agencies serving this d i s t r i c t , would indicate the high proportion of social problems concentrated i n Strathcona. These tend to be associated with poor housing conditions. Although primarily redevelopment i s not promoted to take care of s o c i a l problems, i t i s reasonable to believe that i f there i s an improved environment there i s more hope of somewhat healthier individuals and families. Strathcona Reaction to Redevelopment: "Relocation involves human problems and i t s success depends on how these are handled. The task of finding alternative accommodation for the displaced, informing people of their l e g a l r i g h t s , ensuring that no unwarranted distress i s caused, and maintaining good public relations for the whole project needs to be assumed by some responsible agency i n co-operation with representatives of the various ^ ethnic and religious groups among the residents". Let us examine the way i n which Strathcona c i t i z e n s , groups, Op c i t .  Leonard C. Marsh, Rebuilding a Neighbourhood, p . i v  Op c i t .  Vancouver Redevelopment Study, 1957, P«9«  - 182 agencies, and i n s t i t u t i o n s reacted to the intervention of redevelopment on t h e i r l i v e s .  Also, we need to note who took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for disseminating information, for attempting to make the process of relocation smoother. Already discussed are the factors of the proportionately great number of agencies; the ethnic d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  with the large  number of Chinese organized into their tongs and s o c i e t i e s ;  the  degree of apathy and lack of communication on the part of  citizens  to meet together to attempt to solve their own problems;  the lack  of co-ordination between agencies. One can only imagine the fears and questions i n the minds of the people i n Strathcona when they f i r s t heard mooted the plans for redevelopment. "Where redevelopment entails complete clearance, a l l the strengths and weaknesses of neighbourhood i n terms of family and community l i v i n g are l a i d open to change: small family businesses may be closed for ever; old people may be separated from the familiar churches, clubs, park benches, and corner stores; hidden family tragedies may be l a i d bare; the plans of young families to save toward some future goal may be destroyed."! Feelings of distress would accompany the knowledge that the homes i n which they had l i v e d , crude as they might be, were to be torn down. They would have l i t t l e ,  i f any, understanding of the alternative  arrangements to be made for them i n terms of provision of accommodation. For those who owned their homes would be many questions, relocation but also of f i n a n c i a l arrangements. to assume that fears,  Op c i t :  not only of  It seems r e a l i s t i c  even i f unwarranted, caused through ignorance  Working Together for Urban Renewal, p.13  - 183 would create a situation i f not a c t u a l l y , at least bordering on, a state of panic.  One leader i n the I t a l i a n groups found there  was comparatively l i t t l e he could do to allay these fears,  to  prevent p a n i c - s e l l i n g of properties and to correct misinterpretations once his people had reached this point. Chinese Reaction The Chinese people, according to one informant, have tended to regard the western portion of Strathcona as belonging to them. They f e l t their rights infringed on, and mobilized to protest.  It  was mainly through the Chinese Benevolent Association and the Chinese Property Owners' Association that they vehemently expressed their disapproval.  Some of their reasons were expressed i n a b r i e f  to the Municipal Council and summarized were as  follows:  1.  There would be a disruption to the Chinese businesses.  2.  There would be a breakdown, because of d i s l o c a t i o n , of the fabric of the s o c i a l structure of the Chinese Community.  3.  There were concerns about the f i n a n c i a l compensation for the expropriated properties.  4.  There seemed to be no opportunity to own t h e i r own^ home; rather, they would be r e s t r i c t e d to renting.  Whether their fears were justifiaHe need not be debated i n t h i s paper.  They were made clear p u b l i c l y , not only by their o f f i c i a l  b r i e f but also through public meetings, and the news media. Agency Reaction and Attempts to Co-ordinate around t h i s C r i s i s Ethnic s o c i e t i e s were not alone to mobilize around this  Submission of the Chinese Community to the Mayor and Council of the City of Vancouver regarding the Vancouver Re-Development Scheme; prepared by Charles C. Locke, Counsel, Vancouver, B . C . , September 30, i 9 6 0 .  - 184 "crisis".  Agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s were recognizing the  fact  that this could have a tremendous impact on the community which they served.  Some f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to take action.  This  was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the Pender Y.W.C.A. which, after a series of discussions with a number of persons both professional and l a y , called a meeting, a 'Redevelopment Meeting', on November 3 0 , I960."'"  Representatives of several of the agencies, churches,  and the Strathcona School were present.  Some of the  questions  brought by the professional people to the meeting indicated a lack of knowledge and considerable confusion about redevelopment plans. Because they f e l t others must be just as unclear about the facts of redevelopment, i t was proposed to have a larger meeting, representative  of many more groups and to include ethnic groups.  Invitations would be extended to the City Planning Department, Vancouver Housing Authority, etc.  so questions could be brought  up and accurate information supplied at that moment. To prepare for this meeting, a working committee was appointed to make arrangements.  When this small group met,  they  came to the conclusion that i t would be advisable to put forth a recommendation that a Strathcona Council be formed to a s s i s t people i n the Strathcona area with their problems i n connection with the City Redevelopment problem.  Such a council would also  be designed to obtain information, to make representations on behalf of individuals or groups.  It would not be used to raise  money, nor would i t infringe on the rights or operations of any The account of the following meetings and results i s summarized from minutes and reports on f i l e at the Pender Y.WC.A.  - 185 of i t s member groups.  This proposal was placed on the agenda for  the meeting. At the meeting, held January 1 1 , 1 9 6 l , were present.  forty-five  persons  Unfortunately, few residents of the area attended,  and there was a heavy proportion of non-resident workers. were the Director of Planning for the City of Vancouver; Secretary of the Redevelopment Committee for the City;  Speakers the  the Regional  Director of the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation; the Executive Secretary of the Vancouver Housing Authority. information was given i n r e l a t i o n to prepared questions.  Valuable But  questions from the floor indicated that c o n f l i c t s and feelings were running high and the atmosphere was described as "electric with tension". In spite of some opposition, a motion was accepted to form a Strathcona Community Council.  However, i t s  to that of obtaining information only.  function was r e s t r i c t e d  A temporary slate of  was appointed to make arrangements for a further meeting, time permanent o f f i c e r s would be elected. this further meeting was never held.  officers  at which  So far as can be ascertained,  One reason for this would appear  to be a lack of enthusiasm on the part of the temporary officers the r e s t r i c t e d function.  for  Also contributing was the fact that the  appointment was made by the City of Vancouver at the same time, of a "City of Vancouver Redevelopment Consultative Committee." was representative  This  of some of the interests i n Strathcona and was to  act as an advisory body to the C i t y .  I t seemed evident that  there  probably would be a duplication of membership on the Consultative Committee and on the Strathcona Council, as well as a duplication of  - 186 function. The City of Vancouver Redevelopment Consultative Committee has been meeting on a monthly basis since the time of i t s appointment i n 1 9 6 l .  It r e f l e c t s the interest and thinking of the groups  which the i n d i v i d u a l members represent. the members may be s i g n i f i c a n t : -  The opinions of one of  that the efforts to have represent-  ation from ethnic groups from the area was well met, but there i s question of how f r u i t f u l discussions are when so many c o n f l i c t i n g interests are presented;  that i t i s regrettable that only one  member of the Committee i s a c t u a l l y resident i n the area.  The  w r i t e r ' s experience i s that seldom does one hear of any of the concerns, considerations or deliberations of this committee as one works i n the community.  There seems to be a vagueness about the  Committee's actions and purposes. noticeable impact i n Strathcona.  It does not appear to make a Other d i f f i c u l t i e s seen for this  committee are i n the area of communication - that people do not confide i n the committee about t h e i r anxieties, and also that they tend to l i s t e n to stories from other sources and get distorted views on the redevelopment plans. When no co-ordinated effort was forthcoming around the Strathcona Community Council, some groups, and most noteably the Pender Y.W.C.A., held a series of small meetings to attempt to interpret p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s of the redevelopment plans and to bring forward accurate information. meetings, i t was f e l t ,  However, the results of these  reached comparatively few people.  ( i t must  be recognized that the Pender Y.W.C.A. was caught i n the dilemma of seeing a need for the preparation for change but also the need to  - 187 h o l d and continue to serve i t s  Chinese membership.  considerable r i s k i n v o l v e d , as the s t a f f saw i t ,  There was  i n t a k i n g too  s t r o n g a p o s i t i o n around the c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e of  redevelopment.)  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y : It  must be s t a t e d h e r e , that from every person  interviewed  came commendation o f the f u l l co-operation of the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y through i t s at meetings whenver i t  executive-secretary,  i n terms of h i s  attendance  was r e q u e s t e d , h i s p a t i e n c e and understanding  as he answered q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t l y and  factually.  A c t i o n by the C i t y of Vancouver The Vancouver Redevelopment study notes  that:  "The common b e l i e f t h a t substandard housing c o n d i t i o n s are c r e a t e d by people may r a i s e doubts as to the value of rehousing former r e s i d e n t s of b l i g h t a r e a s . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n two p o i n t s need to be mentioned . . . . f i r s t , redevelopment i s not proposed p r i m a r i l y i n order to r e h a b i l i t a t e people by improving t h e i r housing c o n d i t i o n s and, second, the areas proposed f o r redevelopment are not occupied g e n e r a l l y by s o c i a l misfits." And f u r t h e r , "That there w i l l be a c a r r y - o v e r of some s o c i a l problems i n t o the r e c o n s t r u c t e d area i s i n e v i t a b l e and i t i s most i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e that the a c t u a l r e l o c a t i o n programme and the management of the housing p r o j e c t s r e c e i v e c a r e f u l and s k i l l e d d i r e c t i o n . " ! Although not s t a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s r e p o r t , it  i s g e n e r a l l y advocated that there i s  certainly  the need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  a s s i s t a n c e i n a community where redevelopment i s p l a n n e d . r e q u i r e d to make smoother the job of r e l o c a t i o n , to a l l a y  This  is  f e a r s and  misunderstandings, to give a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n ; Op c i t .  Vancouver Redevelopment Study: p.  52  - 188 to help the people recognize their problem areas, and work cooperatively to solve them. "As i n the broad sweep of comprehensive planning, so also i n the detailed strokes of redevelopment planning should the physical planners and the s o c i a l planners work closely together. Community organization work should commence when planning begins."1 The appointment of the City of Vancouver Redevelopment Consultative Committee was one means of l i n k i n g the physical planning with the s o c i a l needs of Strathcona.  In addition, the City employed  a s o c i a l worker at a l a t e r date to help individuals and families make t h e i r adjustment to relocation.  A number of those interviewed  expressed the opinion that t h i s worker had too b r i e f a time to meet with the people i n the area, that she was employed belatedly. a result i t was d i f f i c u l t to establish  relationships  As  and build up a  sense of trust - and t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y with the Chinese people.  It  appears that the work done was not too effective,  because i t was not  timely nor s u f f i c i e n t l y well planned i n advance.  Protests,  con-  fusions and misunderstandings seem to have continued ( p a r t i c u l a r l y around further redevelopment plans). So far as the s o c i a l aspects are concerned there i s a noticeable lack of an integrated plan for effecting  redevelopment.  Summary; There had been sound study and planning done preceding the approval of redevelopment for the Strathcona area. study was made of the s o c i a l factors involved.  A comprehensive  Some efforts  to co-  ordinate the s o c i a l and physical planning were made through the appointment of a consultative committee, through meetings by the City Op c i t :  Working Together for Urban Renewal, p.13  - 189 with those who had objections, s o c i a l worker.  and through the appointment of a  Also efforts were made'to bring the community to-  gether around this problem, but they were not effective.  Quite the  contrary, the efforts appeared only to s p l i t the community into two definite  sides. One questions whether or not, i f there had been f u l l e r  recognition at an e a r l i e r date of the strong feelings,  misunderstand-  ings and confusions of the Chinese part of the population and these had been worked with much e a r l i e r , i t might have been possible  to  effect a better acceptance of redevelopment plans and community co-ordination to meet this c r i s i s . It i s now proposed to look at the housing project that completed and occupied and attempt to assess i t s place i n the Strathcona community.  is  -  190 -  MCLEAN PARK  With the decision to proceed with redevelopment i n the Strathcona area, also came the decision to build the f i r s t project to accommodate those whose homes were to be demolished.  This u n i t ,  Skeena Terrace, located on Skeena Street and Lougheed Highway was completed i n October, 1 9 6 2 . completed i n A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 ,  a n <  The second u n i t , McLean Park was * i s located i n one square black  bounded on the north by Georgia Street, east by Jackson Avenue, south by Union Street and west by Dunlevy Avenue.  It i s  situated  on what formerly was a public park and play area.  (Fig.SH)•  Physical Characteristics of McLean Park: McLean Park consists of a High Rise apartment building i n which are 1 2 1 suites:  5 2 are one bedroom for married couples, and  6 9 are bachelor apartments for single people.  There are 3 8 family  units i n row housing, consisting of 1 8 two bedroom, 1 3 three bedroom, 6 four bedroom, and 1 five bedroom homes.  Offices for the manager  are located on the main floor of the apartment b u i l d i n g .  In addition  a large lounge for the use of the tenants i n the apartment i s on the main f l o o r .  There i s a room approximately 2 0 feet by 3 0 feet,  situated i n the row housing for use by the families for children's groups, parties  etc.  Laundry f a c i l i t i e s for the families are located at strategic points i n the row housing and those for the tenants i n the apartment are i n the basement. washers and dryers.  These include coin-operated  Tokens are given to tenants,  the numbers de-  -  191  -  pending on the size of the household, to cover approximately one half of the laundering, and residents must use their own money for the balance. In the centre of the block i s a large open area ( F i g . blacktopped and cement play space for c h i l d r e n , i n the middle of which i s a recessed grassed c i r c u l a r area.  Landscaping has been  completed i n and around the project with appropriate shrubbery, grass.  There i s a parking area off Jackson Avenue to accommodate  3 8 cars.  Generally, the appearance of this project i s clean and  pleasant. The People i n McLean Park: Total population i n McLean Park i s 3 5 5 persons; of which 1 7 5 are resident i n the apartment and l 8 0 i n the family u n i t s . Of the 3 5 5 , 2 3 8 are adults and 1 1 7 are children. A s i a t i c families  There are 29  ( 2 8 Chinese and one Japanese) which count for 1 3 0  persons or 72 percent of the family population.  In the apartment  there are 35 suites occupied by Chinese t o t a l l i n g 6 5 persons or 3 7 percent of the t o t a l apartment population.  Of the t o t a l population  of 3 5 5 i n McLean Park, 5 5 percent are A s i a t i c .  If this i s compared  to the Strathcona community i t might be observed that the  percentage  of A s i a t i c s i s nearly the same... that i s , 5 7 percent i n Strathcona and 5 5 percent i n McLean Park. Thirty-two of the families formerly resided i n the Strathcona area, four from the Mount Pleasant or East K i t s i l a n o area, and two from other areas i n the c i t y (one of which i s the project manager). The s t a t i s t i c s used here are taken from records kept on f i l e i n McLean Park Public Housing Project.  G £OZR G/A  S T.  H/GH  \  0  k  "1  A  f>T.  to An  SA  *  2  S 7-o>«? y  C/A//OA/  sr.  fi. O T  MC  Z £~AA/  ft. A AS  SIM  r/GURE  SA  - 192 Eighty-two percent of the apartment tenants are from the immediate or just adjacent areas, ten percent from Mount Pleasant or East K i t s i l a n o , and eight percent from other areas.  So the  great majority of a l l tenants moved i n from the immediate area. Throughout the past six months, October 1963 u n t i l A p r i l 1964, discussions have been held with many of the tenants to determine their feelings, Efctitudes about l i v i n g i n the project, and to ascertain something of the problem areas for them and for the manager and agencies serving them, as w e l l . It i s clear the majority of tenants are very well contented with the physical surroundings, the l o c a t i o n , and their accommodation. When compared to their previous accommodation, i t i s a very great improvement.  P a r t i c u l a r l y when they f i r s t moved into the apartment,  many of the older people had some fears.  They worried about f i r e s ;  some were fearful of heights (so far as possible they were located on lower f l o o r s ) ; some did not understand operation of the  elevators.  Once they were reassured or became accustomed to these, complaints decreased.  Most c r i t i c i s m s are of a minor nature, such as:-  there  should be more grassed play area, the sand i n the play area i s a nuisance and i s d i r t y .  But, on the whole, tenants appear to be very  satisfied. Some of the single older men moving into their apartments have had problems i n providing themselves with furniture.  I f they  are on very low income, and most are (tables R and S) there i s l i t t l e money to purchase even the simplest furnishings.  When the  manager became aware of t h i s , he established a "furniture exchange", and was able to get donations and provide the essential pieces for these men.  - 193 Table K.  Source of Income i n Percentage of Population Social Assistance  Earnings  Families  16%  74  2  8  Apartments  18%  14  53  15  Table S.  Pensions  Other  Amount of Income i n Percentage of Population  Families  Apartment  18%  84%  151-200  48  10  201-250  13 13 8  3 2 1  under $150  250-300 Over 301  Each apartment has large windows, 4 feet by 14 feet, and a further problem i s presented for those on low income to attempt to cover these.  Although not so noticeable after a year of oper-  ation of the project, i n i t i a l l y a l l types of coverings were used:newspaper, pieces of p l a s t i c , cotton sheets etc.  The question must  arise as to whether or not i n the interests of these people, as well as appearance of the units from the exterior, drapes should be provided by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, when the projects are b u i l t . The s l i d i n g rent scale"*" which i s used to calculate the See appendix for rental scale.  - 19*+ amount to be paid by each tenant based on income i s accepted as fair.  The only c r i t i c i s m s come from those whose income places  them i n such a category that t h e i r rent reaches a high l e v e l . However, as there are few whose incomes reach this l e v e l such c r i t i c i s m i s not widespread.  Some of the older Chinese people  who have previously been l i v i n g i n poor accommodation at lower r e n t a l s , tend to object to paying even the minimum rentals i n McLean Park when they f i r s t move i n .  However, as few move out,  and as there are fewer verbal objections, i t would appear that they adjust to the l i t t l e greater financial s a c r i f i c e i n the interests of the better accommodation. Manager-tenant relationships are very good i n t h i s project.  The manager has been able to convey to tenants a very  f a i r , understanding attitude and has combined this with a marked firmness i n enforcing the regulations which have been established by the Vancouver Housing Authority.  He i s respected and admired  by the tenants, who understand his role there and yet feel quite free to discuss matters with him which w i l l require his understanding. Shopping seems to present no problems to these tenants except for the very old and f r a i l persons, or'those who have a physical d i s a b i l i t y , or some other health problem.  This can be  explained by the proximity to the downtown area, to the Chinese markets and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of corner grocery stores. Those problems common to a l l older people are exaggerated See appendix for Vancouver Housing Authority: Explanation of Lease.  -  195 -  i n McLean Park because of the h i g h number o f o l d e r men,  (Table T.)  and the h i g h percentage o f those who are s i n g l e : 6 7 p e r c e n t . H e a l t h problems are n o t i c e a b l e and are of concern to the manager, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the persons a r e s i n g l e .  S e r v i c e s , such as the  V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses are a v a i l a b l e but of g r e a t e r concern i s sudden i l l n e s s and care of s e l f .  The manager has taken i t upon  h i m s e l f , to make i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i f he has not seen c e r t a i n v i d u a l s f o r a p e r i o d of time,  indi-  In h i s o p i n i o n , however, t h i s  c o u l d and should be done i n some more organized and e f f e c t i v e  Table T.  way.  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n : In Percentage of P o p u l a t i o n  Age i n years  McLean Park  Strathcona  Vancouver  0-4 y e a r s Male Female  10 7  5 5  4 4  5 - 9 years Male Female  2 3  5 3  4 4  1 5 - 1 9 years Male Female  1 1  2 1  3 3  55-64 y e a r s Male Female  6 5  9 3-5  5 5  6 5 y e a r s and over Male Female  21  19  7  6  3  7  One of the requirements of the Vancouver i s that s u i t e s and houses w i l l be kept c l e a n .  Housing A u t h o r i t y  Problems  a r i s e , not  w i t h the f a m i l i e s i n McLean Park but with the o l d e r p e o p l e .  There  -  are some who  -  are l a z y , s l o v e n l y , or not accustomed to l i v i n g i n  c l e a n accommodation and who There are o t h e r s who expected  196  need to be spoken to by the manager.  do not understand  what i s meant by  standards of c l e a n l i n e s s , or who  l o o k a f t e r t h e i r apartments.  are unable  the  to p h y s i c a l l y  Other than cases where the manager  makes s p e c i a l arrangements on h i s own,  based on compassion, to  have t h i s done, there seems to be no resource i n the way c o n s u l t a n t , or a c t u a l p r o v i s i o n of necessary  of a  housecleaning s e r v i c e s  a v a i l a b l e to meet t h i s problem. Many tenants, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s i n g l e male ones, have l i t t l e knowledge about n u t r i t i o n a l matters, meal p l a n n i n g , b u d g e t t i n g . O b e s i t y i s observable i n some i n d i v i d u a l s , and one  questions whether  i n a d d i t i o n there i s m a l n u t r i t i o n . (There seems to be no p r o f e s s i o n a l person a v a i l a b l e to advise on these matters,Other  than a chance v i s i t  by a s o c i a l worker, or nurse, or some advice from the manager.) The most frequent complaint  from the tenants i n the  apartment b u i l d i n g i s that of boredom and of l o n e l i n e s s .  There a r e  programmes operated through agencies i n S t r a t h c o n a area t h a t are seeki n g to meet needs of o l d e r people.  These i n c l u d e the Second M i l e  S o c i e t y , F i r s t U n i t e d Church, S t . James A n g l i c a n Church.  They are  not used to any extent by the s e n i o r people i n McLean Park. persons  A  few  go o c c a s i o n a l l y to F i r s t U n i t e d Church, ten are members o f  the Second M i l e S o c i e t y , and  two  are a c t i v e i n the S a l v a t i o n Army.  Some people i n the community feel these r e s o u r c e s are not w e l l known, and y e t t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t  to e x p l a i n when 82 percent of the  p r e v i o u s l y have l i v e d i n the community.  tenants  A very r e a l r e a s o n , f o r many,  - 197 i s the d i s t a n c e to walk to these p l a c e s . f o r some.  Another  T h i s can be p r o h i b i t i v e  o p i n i o n i s that many are h e s i t a n t about  going  somewhere they are not known, and indeed, are not knowledgable about what i s o f f e r e d , whether they w i l l be accepted, and whether they w i l l l i k e i t .  In t h i s connection except  f o r v i s i t s to i n d i -  v i d u a l s made by a worker from F i r s t United Church when McLean Park f i r s t opened and an i n v i t a t i o n was senior c i t i z e n s  1  issued to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r  programme, no o t h e r s p e c i f i c e f f o r t has been made  to make these people aware of s e r v i c e s , programmes, a c t i v i t i e s , i n v i t a t i o n s i s s u e d to a t t e n d .  N e i t h e r has there been any  made to b r i n g programmes or s e r v i c e s to the p r o j e c t .  nor  effort  A question  seems to be whether or not such s e r v i c e s as do e x i s t s a t i s f y  the  needs of these o l d e r people, and i f not, what i s necessary.  It i s  not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s paper to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s f u r t h e r , but a study d i r e c t e d s o l e l y with t h i s focus might prove i n t e r e s t i n g  and  illuminating. The l a r g e , b r i g h t , and a t t r a c t i v e lounge i n the apartment b l o c k , designed by C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n to be a meeting p l a c e f o r s o c i a l purposes  has been without f u r n i t u r e  so has not been used except f o r s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s . has r e c e n t l y been a c q u i r e d and the room i s now  Some f u r n i t u r e  q u i t e comfortable.  The monotony o f the tenants s i t t i n g i n t h e i r rooms may and more s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n take p l a c e .  and  now  be  broken  In a d d i t i o n , the manager  hopes to arrange f o r a s m a l l woodworking shop i n the basement i n the near f u t u r e .  The need f o r these people to r e c o g n i z e t h i s  and m o b i l i z e themselves  problem  to help overcome i t seems an important a.spect.  Many p e r s o n a l problems e x i s t and come to the a t t e n t i o n of  -  198 -  the manager i n one way or another.  A l r e a d y mentioned a r e h e a l t h  problems, p h y s i c a l problems, but i n a d d i t i o n a r e p e r s o n a l i t y c u l t i e s , b e h a v i o u r a l problems, e t c .  diffi-  One v e r y obvious one i s that  r e l a t e d to e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g which i s only n o t i c e a b l e w i t h the tenants i n the apartment, not w i t h the f a m i l i e s . i s e s p e c i a l l y heavy,  When the d r i n k i n g  f i g h t s , bravrling, n o i s i n e s s , rowdiness  ensue  and can be d i s t u r b i n g to the peace o f other r e s i d e n t s , not to mention i t b e i n g troublesome to the manager.  I t i s important to  note t h a t no d i s t u r b a n c e or touble has been caused through the over-indulgence i n a l c o h o l on the p a r t o f the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n . Many problems e x i s t f o r the f a m i l i e s , such as, dependency.  The f a c t o r o f economic  economic  dependency i s lower than one  might expect and c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than the o t h e r housing p r o j e c t s . (Table U.) Table U.  Percentage of Those on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e a t P u b l i c Housing P r o j e c t s i n Vancouver  Skeena T e r r a c e  36.3%  Little  29.9  Mountain  Orchard Park McLean Park  39.3 18.2  T h i s type of dependency e x i s t s throughout the p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the A s i a t i c .  To meet t h i s problem, the s e r v i c e s o f the  C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department a r e i n v o l v e d , as w e l l as F a m i l y Court (where s e p a r a t i o n of p a r e n t s has been a cause of dependency). Some churches o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e i n hampers and c l o t h i n g f o r these families.  - 199 Although o t h e r agencies are not s e r v i n g the Chinese f a m i l i e s because no c a l l has been made f o r them, among the white f a m i l i e s many problem areas r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n . of m a r i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  There are problems  o f e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , poor  p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c h i l d management d i f f i c u l t i e s , problems.  health  These c a l l f o r s e r v i c e s from such agencies as the  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , and Family S e r v i c e  Agency.  Managers o f housing p r o j e c t s are caught i n a d i f f i c u l t position.  They must a d m i n i s t e r a b u s i n e s s , c o l l e c t r e n t s , d e a l w i t h  d e l i n q u e n t s , e n f o r c e r e g u l a t i o n s , and at the same time they become aware o f and cannot h e l p , to v a r y i n g degrees, b e i n g enmeshed i n t e n a n t s ' i n d i v i d u a l problems.  P o s s i b l y t h i s i s aggravated here i n  Vancouver w i t h the requirement t h a t managers l i v e on the p r o j e c t . As a r e s u l t they are exposed to areas of d i f f i c u l t y hours a day, seven days a week. of  twenty-four  Each must work out h i s own  r e t a i n i n g a degree of o b j e c t i v i t y .  way  Admitted i n s u f f i c i e n t  knowledge of community r e s o u r c e s f o r purposes o f r e f e r r a l or c o n s u l t a t i o n makes t h i s even more p r e c a r i o u s .  A sense of f r u s t r a t i o n  and a f e e l i n g ti.fi inadequacy can be a r e s u l t of not b e i n g sure o f the best way  to help people with t h e i r problems. Because of the heavy p r o p o r t i o n of v e r y young c h i l d r e n and  the  s m a l l percentage of teenaged c h i l d r e n (Table T . ) , r e c r e a t i o n  does not pose a l a r g e problem.  A l s o many r e s o u r c e s e x i s t i n the  S t r a t h c o n a community f o r r e c r e a t i o n o f those c h i l d r e n who Pender Y.W.C.A., Gibbs Boys' c l u b and churches.  need i t :  For the p r e - s c h o o l  - 200 c h i l d r e n , p l a y areas i n McLean Park would seem q u i t e adequate, although b e t t e r designed equipment would be of b e n e f i t . however, p l e n t y o f p r o t e c t e d space  f o r them.  There i s ,  Outdoor a c t i v i t y  area.for the c h i l d r e n 6 to 16 years i s inadequate, but t h i s  should  be remedied w i t h the development o f the park adjacent to t h e school. Although incomes a r e low f o r the f a m i l i e s i n McLean Park, no f a m i l y w i t h p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n has the only parent o r both parents working and care o f t h e c h i l d r e n i s not necessary by other than a parent  ( t h i s excludes the manager's f a m i l y ) .  Tenant A c t i v i t y ; In  the f i r s t  s i x months, there was no organized  activity  on the p a r t of tenants i n McLean Park towards working together on a community p r o j e c t . in  The f i r s t  evidence o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s was  e a r l y October when one woman, with very l i t t l e h e l p , o r g a n i z e d  a Hallowe'en p a r t y f o r the c h i l d r e n . in  T h i s p a r t y , although  lacking  p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t o r y stages, was w e l l  attended and enjoyed. At about the same time another  tenant, experienced i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work, f e l t a need to e s t a b l i s h a cub pack.  Three  packs do e x i s t i n the S t r a t h c o n a a r e a but one i s r e s t r i c t e d to Chinese boys, one i s f u l l , and one w i t h f u l l r e g i s t r a t i o n l a c k s a leader.  In a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time, the pack was s t a r t e d w i t h  membership from n o t only tenant f a m i l i e s but a l s o from the S t r a t h cona a r e a .  I t met i n McLean Park but under the sponsorship o f S t .  James A n g l i c a n Church.  The necessary a d u l t group committee was  formed, members b e i n g r e s i d e n t s i n the p r o j e c t .  The woman h e r s e l f  - 201 a c t e d as l e a d e r and took the t r a i n i n g course f o r t h i s purpose, and an a s s i s t a n t was p r o v i d e d by S t . James' A n g l i c a n Church. Membership i n the pack s t a r t e d w i t h nine boys but i n three months had i n c r e a s e d to 15.  I t r e p r e s e n t s eleven n a t i o n a l i t i e s .  The  room i n the f a m i l y u n i t s i n which the meetings were h e l d was no l o n g e r l a r g e enough and the lounge i n the high r i s e apartment was not an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e because i t i s to be used by the s e n i o r people.  Meetings a r e now h e l d a t the church.  T h i s has been a  very s u c c e s s f u l u n d e r t a k i n g . F o l l o w i n g the i n t e r e s t i n the Hallowe'en p a r t y , the woman who had arranged i t , f e l t c h i l d r e n and adulifc.  there should be a Christmas  p a r t y f o r both  T h i s a c t i v i t y , however, d i f f e r e d from the  other i n that there were about 75 p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y i n the p l a n n i n g and implementing o f the party."*" Chinese  Two  gentlemen, one as an i n t e r p r e t e r , attended meetings; and  four Chinese women a l s o attended took no a c t i v e  the committee meetings,  although  role.  In a d d i t i o n , about f i f t e e n Chinese women, few i f any o f whom c o u l d speak E n g l i s h , worked on a sub-committee c h a i r e d by a white woman.  A l l communication had to be done through an i n t e r -  preter. Having heard o f the p l a n s , F i r s t U n i t e d Church c o n t r i b u t e d by donating a box o f Christmas p r e s e n t s f o r the c h i l d r e n .  d e c o r a t i o n s and a box o f toys f o r  About 250 c h i l d r e n , parents and s e n i o r  "'* The student p l a c e d i n McLean Park P u b l i c Housing P r o j e c t f o r her f i e l d work, had r e c o g n i z e d a need f o r g r e a t e r tenant p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In her r o l e of working w i t h the tenants, she had encouraged i n v o l v e ment o f as many people as p o s s i b l e i n t h i s as w e l l as o t h e r p r o j e c t s .  - 202  -  Chinese and white, attended the evening programme and s o c i a l hour and the evening was  considered to be  successful.  For s e v e r a l weeks, a number of the t e n a n t s , and the manager, had been e x p r e s s i n g concern about lounge.  An open meeting  t h i s and 16  the l a c k of f u r n i t u r e f o r the  i n February,  196*+, was c a l l e d to d i s c u s s  people attended r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of both f a m i l y groups  and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n the h i g h r i s e apartment.  They have been  a b l e to o b t a i n through donations from s t o r e s q u i t e a l o t of appropriate furniture: lounge i s now rooms.  c h e s t e r f i e l d s , c h a i r s , t a b l e s , dishes e t c .  The  open f o r the tenants to use as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e i r  I t p r o v i d e s a p l a c e f o r meeting  each other on a s o c i a l  basis. A sense o f p r i d e i n McLean Park as a community i s developing. When the i d e a of having a f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y p a r t y was mooted, i t met w i t h immediate enthusiasm people.  on the p a r t of both Chinese and  white  Many people were i n v o l v e d i n d e c o r a t i n g , p r e p a r i n g r e f r e s h -  ments, s e r v i n g e t c .  Donations  to defray expenses were p l a c e d i n a  box i n the manger's o f f i c e and amounted to twice the sum f o r expenses.  An a p p r o p r i a t e s h o r t programme was  necessary  arranged w i t h a  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the C i t y C o u n c i l , Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y attending.  Over 100  a d u l t s attended t h i s s o c i a l evening,  a few workers i n the community who project.  One  including  had a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the  c o u l d not help but be impressed w i t h the warm atmos-  phere which e x i s t e d i n s p i t e of age or e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s , or a language  barrier. There i s emphasis i n p l a n n i n g f o r these a f f a i r s on having  them of such q u a l i t y t h a t tenants can be proud of t h e i r own  efforts  - 203 and  the r e s u l t s o f these.  There i s a growing concern  from the  white p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n , not o n l y o f the need f o r g r e a t e r involvement  on the p a r t of more o f the r e s i d e n t s but a l s o about  the l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t o f the Chinese.  In a l l  a c t i v i t i e s , l e a d e r s h i p has come from the white p o p u l a t i o n . i n d i c a t i o n o f the emphasis on i n v o l v i n g the Chinese,  As an  one woman  was a s s i g n e d to the task, i n the p l a n n i n g f o r the A n n i v e r s a r y p a r t y , o f doing e v e r y t h i n g she c o u l d to i n t e r e s t the Chinese people not j u s t i n a t t e n d i n g (which they seem to do anyway) but a l s o i n the e a r l i e r stages of p l a n n i n g . Integration i n t o Strathcona  Community  Tenants i n McLean Park g e n e r a l l y use the r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies i n Strathcona only to a l i m i t e d degree. r e c o g n i z e d that there a r e comparatively  I t must be  few programmes a v a i l a b l e  and o f i n t e r e s t to the a d u l t s e c t i o n of the community, and f u r t h e r that there a r e a s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n who are o f an age to be eligible. and  A few o f the g i r l s a t t e n d Pender Y.W.C.A. programmes,  there may be a few younger boys who take advantage of a c t i v i -  t i e s a t Gibbs Boys' Club.  A little  a c t i v i t y i n Church a f f a i r s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the C a t h o l i c , i s n o t i c e a b l e on the p a r t o f a few parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  In t h i s b r i e f time f o r study, i t has  been i m p o s s i b l e to examine to what extent the Chinese a r e i n v o l v e d in  t h e i r own s o c i e t i e s , tongs and a s s o c i a t i o n s . For the f i r s t  was occupied,  little  e i g h t o r nine months a f t e r the p r o j e c t  e f f o r t was made on the p a r t o f agencies, and  i n s t i t u t i o n s to make known t h e i r programmes to the r e s i d e n t s i n McLean Park.  A very few n o t i c e s were p l a c e d on the b u l l e t i n boards  -  204  -  and  no p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t made, other than the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  one  o f the F i r s t U n i t e d  Church.  One agency had never checked and  had no i d e a a t a l l whether o r not any of i t s members were r e s i d e n t s of the p r o j e c t . In the past two months, however, there seems to be a growing awareness o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a 355 c e n t r a t e d i n one square b l a c k . the student  population  con-  There have been contacts made with  worker t o b r i n g new programmes to the n o t i c e o f tenants  who might be i n t e r e s t e d .  In a d d i t i o n , r e c e n t l y , meetings o f the  East End Inter-Agency Committee have been h e l d i n the lounge o f the apartment, which might i n d i c a t e a growing acceptance o f the p r o j e c t as an e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t of the community.  T h i s a l s o has served to  s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t on the p a r t o f agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  (some o f  whom had never been on the p r o j e c t before) i n the p h y s i c a l l a y o u t , the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some problem  areas.  Summary: In s p i t e o f l i m i t e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a t a  preparatory  stage, McLean Park Housing P r o j e c t now seems to be an a c c e p t e d o f the community.  part  Indeed, there are many evidences that i t con-  s i d e r s i t s e l f as having  a p l a c e i n , and belonging  t o , Strathcona  Community. Many f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n . F i r s t l y , the tenants  themselves a r e l a r g e l y from the area and  problems of adjustment to a new, unknown community have not been i n existence.  The p o p u l a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n terms o f e t h n i c  d i s t r i b u t i o n and ages very c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l that of S t r a t h c o n a itself.  Many r e c r e a t i o n a l , h e a l t h and welfare  s e r v i c e s e x i s t and  - 205 are a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e and The  f a m i l i a r to the m a j o r i t y of the  s e l e c t i o n of the manager has been f o r t u n a t e as he has  tenants. encouraged  tenant a c t i v i t y , and a l s o has sought to develop a r e l a t i o n s h i p  with  p r o f e s s i o n a l workers from h e a l t h and welfare agencies coming to the p r o j e c t .  He has f u r t h e r been c o - o p e r a t i v e with s t a f f members  from agencies l o c a t e d i n S t r a t h c o n a . Perhaps one  of the most s i g n i f i c a n t elements i s that of  the s i z e of the p r o j e c t . and there are fewer people  T h i s i s a comparatively to be absorbed  s m a l l development  by the surrounding  and no major p l a n n i n g has been necessary by agencies, e t c . to e f f e c t t h i s  community  institutions,  .... i t i s j u s t happening.  Perhaps a l o o k at the i m p l i c a t i o n s of f u t u r e development f o r Strathcona could now the next s e c t i o n .  be pursued, and we  t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to that i n  206  -  FUTURE REDEVELOPMENT IN STRATHCONA; ITS IMPLICATIONS  We have looked which make i t unique.  at Strathcona  and some of the c h a r a c e r t i s t i c s  We have examined the way i n which t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  area has responded to the c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n o f undergoing comprehensive redevelopment.  We have seen the b u i l d i n g of the f i r s t housing p r o j e c t ,  the people i n i t and some of t h e i r problems.  I t may be w e l l , i n  l o o k i n g ahead to f u r t h e r stages o f redevelopment to analyze some o f the a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s o f the Strathcona predict possible future  community t o attempt to  reactions.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t many of the a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s found i n the area today correspond c l o s e l y to those l i s t e d by Mr. Steiman i n h i s study o f the community ten y e a r s ago.^" Liabilities: 1.  There are a number of e t h n i c groups and a p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy p r o p o r t i o n o f A s i a t i c s . There i s a s u b s t a n t i a l percentage not able t o speak E n g l i s h .  2.  A l a c k o f communication e x i s t s between the e t h n i c groups, through formal or i n f o r m a l channels.  3.  The l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n among even the few c i t i z e n groups r e s u l t s i n the a r e a having no r e p r e sentative voice.  4.  D u p l i c a t i o n and gaps i n s e r v i c e s are p a r t l y caused by the l i m i t e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n among the agencies.  5«  There i s no community centre o r neighbourhood house.  6.  There i s a tendency towards too much focus by some agencies on t h e i r own programmes r a t h e r than on community needs. A l s o a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n each other or i n community problems i s evident on the p a r t o f the churches.  7.  There i s l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p (with a few exceptions) from w i t h i n the community; o r c o n v e r s e l y , t h a t almost a l l l e a d e r s h i p comes from those r e s i d i n g o u t s i d e the a r e a .  ^ Op c i t . B o r i s Steiman  pp 61-64  - 207  -  8.  There are a great number of s o c i a l problems e x i s t i n g i n the a r e a .  9.  A low income and a low e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ace characteristic.  10. There i s l i t t l e evidence of c i t i z e n s t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own d ' f a i r s . 11. Poor housing continues  to be predominant.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to be h o p e f u l about the f u t u r e of community i n the face of what appears to be an overwhelming of  liabilities.  on the negative  Too  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p o s i t i v e . A  be forthcoming i f we  a s s e t s of S t r a t h c o n a .  list  f r e q u e n t l y , however, there i s undue emphasis  f a c t o r s without  b e t t e r balance may  this  t u r n now  to look a t the  These remarks are made on the b a s i s of  s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l s , p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of the a r e a , statements made by a number of i n d i v i d u a l s knowledgeable about the community, and o b s e r v a t i o n s by the w r i t e r . Assets: 1.  S t r a t h c o n a i s a d e f i n i t e , r e c o g n i z a b l e community, w i t h a good degree of s t a b i l i t y , two good elementary s c h o o l s , a m u l t i p l i c i t y of agencies and churches, and a f a i r percentage of home-owners.  2.  I t i s l o c a t e d so that i t i s convenient f o r the m a j o r i t y of workers to t h e i r p l a c e of employment.  3.  Plans are l a i d out f o r a vast improvement i n the housing, and a p h y s i c a l l y more a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e i n which to l i v e .  4.  There i s a l i t t l e i n d u s t r y i n f r i n g i n g on the r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s of S t r a t h c o n a . What does e x i s t i s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to the f r i n g e s .  5.  There are many h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies, e i t h e r l o c a t e d i n the area or p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s to i t .  6.  There i s some c o - o r d i n a t i o n of agencies through the E a s t End Inter-Agency Committee, through the i n f o r m a l  208  -  channels of telephone communication, and o c c a s i o n a l meetings about s p e c i a l cases. A agencies show some concern around community problems.  few  7.  Although apathy on the p a r t of the c i t i z e n s has been v o i c e d , there are evidences t h a t underneath there may be more p o t e n t i a l f o r involvement than was f o r m e r l y r e c o g n i z e d . E x a m p l e s of t h i s have b e e n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y , s u c h a s , the a c t i v i t y of ten y e a r s ago i n the East End R e c r e a t i o n a l Committee, and present a c t i v i t y on the p a r t of the tenants i n McLean Park.  8.  P o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s are n o t i c e a b l e as expressed by those who work i n the a r e a : concerning i t s s t a b i l i t y , the l a c k of j u v e n i l e delinquency, a v i s i o n of a h a p p i e r f u t u r e f o r the community w i t h improved housing.  Future Redevelopment P l a n s : P r o j e c t 1, w i t h i t s p r o p o s a l s which a f f e c t has been p r a c t i c a l l y completed.  Strathcona  The housing u n i t s at Skeena  T e r r a c e and McLean Park have been c o n s t r u c t e d which allowed f o r the r e l o c a t i o n of people i n the areas to be demolished. are almost completely razed at the present time  These areas  (Fig.  The  b u i l d i n g of f u r t h e r p u b l i c housing on these c l e a r e d l o c a t i o n s likely  will  s t a r t i n the near f u t u r e . In  the recommendations submitted f o r P r o j e c t 2,"*"  areas a f f e c t S t r a t h c o n a .  Proposed  two  i s c l e a r i n g around McLean Park:  the s e c t i o n bordered by Pender to Jackson, west on K e e f e r to Dunlevy, south to Union, west to Gore and n o r t h to Pender (Fig.&$).  A l s o the  square b l o c k bordered by Pender S t r e e t , H e a t l e y , Keefer and P r i n c e s s is  to be razed and as i t s p o s i t i o n i s adjacent to S t r a t h c o n a S c h o o l ,  is  to serve as a park and p l a y a r e a to r e p l a c e McLean Park.  w i l l be used both by the s c h o o l and  the Park and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n  Board. Op c i t .  This  C i t y of Vancouver Redevelopment, P r o j e c t  2.  - 209 The Need f o r S o c i a l P l a n n i n g ; We know of the proposed p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , but what o f the s o c i a l planning?  What i s being done f o r the people who  will  be r e l o c a t e d , f o r the community to «ccept the impact t h i s housing w i l l have on i t ?  What are the p r e p a r a t i o n s , i f any,  approximately 1,000 housing p r o j e c t ? be?  people who  f o r the  w i l l be housed i n the Raymur  Where w i l l they come from?  What ages w i l l  What w i l l be t h e i r e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l background?  these f a c t o r s mean i n terms of t h e i r problems, w i l l these needs be met,  i f at a l l ?  they  What w i l l  t h e i r needs?  How  For t h i s , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g must  be e f f e c t e d i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment  i s to be r e a l i z e d by the  i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and by the community.  Mr. Wheeler sums up  some of the problems and i n d i c a t e s the need f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g : "Current concern with problems of urban renewal and p r o p o s a l s f o r slum-clearance p r o j e c t s have helped to focus a t t e n t i o n on the welfare i m p l i c a t i o n s of housing i n a very d i r e c t and urgent way. Slumclearance means u s u a l l y the displacement of a l a r g e number o f low-income f a m i l i e s , e l d e r l y people and s i n g l e persons who are g e n e r a l l y i n an economically p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n , as w e l l as members of m i n o r i t y e t h n i c groups. For these people, the l o s s of accommod a t i o n which, i f perhaps substandard, i s at l e a s t cheap and w i t h i n t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means, and the s e p a r a t i o n from t h e i r customary surroundings, pose a very r e a l economic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h r e a t . " 1 I f i t i s agreed that there i s a need f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g to accompany such p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , then i t i s necessary to d e t e r mine more c l o s e l y those t h i n g s that need to be planned f o r and t h i s w i l l be done.  how  We must have a c l e a r understanding of what i s  M i c h a e l Wheeler, A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia; A Survey undertaken f o r the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouv