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Neighbourhood analysis in Vancouver : four exploratory studies for community organization purposes Allardice, Ethel Margaret 1964

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NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS IN VANCOUVER Four Exploratory Studies for Community Organization Purposes by ETHEL MARGARET ALLARDICE CLARENCE CAMERON MacKENZIE FRANCIS ROWE HERBERT L . ZIEGLER A Thesis Submitted in Part ia l Fulfilment the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as Conforming to the Standard Required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of S o c i a l Work THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1964 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The University of Br i t ish Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The University of Br i t ish Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Canada. Date X In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The University of Br i t ish Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date May 29th, 1964 i i ABSTRACT Community organization as a basic social work method has taken on increasing emphasis during the past decade. There i s a growing awareness of the contribution this method has to make in a variety of settings in social welfare and a l l i e d f ie lds . This year, the School of Social Work, University of Bri t i sh Columbia, in i t ia ted courses and f i e ld work p]a;ements i n this specialization for students in their second year of professional training. Partly because of the absence of this type of training in the past, there has been a dearth of studies of Vancouver neighbour-hoods from a community organization point of view. Opportunity wa6 provided through student placements to examine four disparate, dynamic and changing communities. The scarcity of previous studies denied access to any defined rationale. The examinations were based upon the tentative assumption that there should be a significant involvement of both physical and social planning at a l l stages of neighbourhood development. For the present studies, a variety of methods for obtain-ing information was employed. Primary among these were:- interview-ing of key individuals in the communities and of representatives of agencies, institutions and associations knowledgable about the communities; an examination of pertinent agency records; attendance at a variety of meetings of local import; obtaining demographic s ta t i s t i ca l information. The findings of the West End study reveal i t to be an area undergoing rapid change. The fai lure to establish decisive physical planning for the area creates uncertainty among local leaders other-wise well equipped to engage in social planning. A new community i s thus evolving in haphazard response to this fact. Problems related to the behaviour of young people have given Fraserview, a veterans' housing area, a degree of notoriety which is not altogether deserved. Although the present density of teenagers was predictable seven years ago, the social planning process, at the agency as well as at the Community Chest and Councils l eve l , was unable to marshall community resources to meet adequately the speci-f i c needs of this area. The mobilization of the professionals and their subsequent incorporation as the Fraserview Youth Services Society i s designed to provide the needed local planning body. Skeena Terrace Public Housing i s a major low-rental housing project located in an o f f i c i a l l y undefined community. Tenants have come from many parts of the c i ty , but none from the area adjacent to the housing project. The findings indicate a degree of neighbour-hood feeling developing on the project but l i t t l e integration with the community of Sunrise Park. i i i Strathcona, a severely blighted area, i s presently under-going planned physical redevelopment on a comprehensive scale. Results of this study which has been conducted in the very early stages of the changing environmental conditions indicate a need for extensive preplanning on the part of the governments, private agencies, and cit izenry. Co-Ordination of a l l concerned i s required so that satisfactory social arrangements for this community can be effected and thus ease the problems of relocation and redevelopment. These studies are of an exploratory nature - a deliberate effort to look at the communities without i n i t i a l preconceptions. Although a few neighbourhood studies in Vancouver have been under-taken by students from this School, the value of this thesis may well stem from i t s community organization focus which could comple-ment and supplement those with a case work and group work emphasis. These pi lot projects may give rise to further analyses of Vancouver neighbourhoods and thus contribute to more comprehensive understand-ing of changing neighbourhoods within the c i ty . ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The preparation, of this thesis has required assistance from many sources. In particular, the writers are indebted to two members of the faculty of the School of Social Work. Mr. William Nicholls, as Faculty Advisor, suggested the i n i t i a l thesis subject, c lar i f i ed study goals, and provided thoughtful suggestions as to the evaluation of data and the f inal writing of the thesis. Dr. Leonard C. Marsh also contributed from his wealth of experience to encourage and guide the thesis during i t s formulation and subsequent progress. Messrs. Rowe and Ziegler express their gratitude respectively to Mr. Elmer J . Helm and Mr. D.R. McComb who in supervising their f i e ld placements contributed wisely and generously of their time and of their knowledge of the commun-i t i e s studied. The kind co-operation of a l l the individuals, agencies and government departments l i s ted in the Appendix is acknowledged with thanks. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 a) Rationale b) Scope of Study c) Definition d) Methods Chapter I . West End 8 a) Introduction b) Assets and L i a b i l i t i e s of the West End c) Commentary on Existing Community Problems d) Extent of Co-Operation Among Existing Welfare Agencies e) Exploration of Poss ibi l i t ies of Organizations and Resources to Deal with Community Problems Chapter II . Fraserview 54 a) Introduction b) Social Problems c) Community Disorganization d) Community Associations and Institutions e) Structures for Co-Ordinating and Planning f) Summary Chapter III . Skeena Terrace Public Housing 98 a) Characteristics of "Sunrise Park" b) The Housing Project and i t s People c) Health Welfare and Recreational Services d) Some Aspects of Social Planning Affecting "Sunrise Park" and Skeena Terrace Chapter IV. Strathcona Area 154 a) The Study Area and Its People b) Redevelopment in Strathcona c) McLean Park Public Housing Project d) Future Development - Its Implications Appendix A. Sources of Information - F. Rowe 216 Appendix B. Sources of Information - H.L. Ziegler 217 Page Appendix C. Map of Fraserview 219 Appendix D. Questionnaire re Fraserview 220 Appendix E . Sources of Information Used in the Study C.C. McKenzie 221 Appendix F . Vancouver Housing Authority Progressive Rent Scale 222 Appendix G. S ta t i s t i ca l Tables for "Sunrise Park" 224 Appendix H. "Terrace Times" March 23rd, 1964 227 Appendix I. Sources of Information Used in the Study E . Al lardice 228 Appendix J . Explanation of Lease Form - Vancouver Housing Authority 230 Appendix K . Bibliography 231 v i TABLES AND CHARTS Page Table A« Sample of Type and Incidence of Known Family Problems Among Gordon Neighbourhood House Members 3 5 Table B. Age Distributions in Vancouver, Census Tract h9 for 1 9 5 1 , I 9 5 6 , 1 9 6 1 5 9 Table C. I96I Ethnic Groupings in Vancouver, Census Tract 4 9 5 9 Table D« Education Levels for Fraserview Adults i n 1 9 6 1 . . 6 0 Table E . Number of Children Per Family in 1 9 6 1 , Fraserview and Vancouver 6 l Table F . Length of Occupancy of Fraserview Dwellings as of June 1 9 6 1 6 2 Table G. Occupational Divisions of Fraserview Males 6 2 Table H. Income Levels for Fraserview Residents, 1 9 6 1 6 3 Table I . Rates of Juvenile Delinquency in Vancouver, I 9 6 I . . . 6 7 Table J . Response by Fraserview Residents to Questions Regarding Reputation of the Community 7 5 Table K. Former Residence of Tenants in Skeena Terrace Showing Whether Normal Families, Broken Families or Senior Citizens, 1 9 & 3 H 5 Table L . Age of Tenants i n the High-rise Building Showing the Number, Sex, and Marital Status, 1 9 6 3 1 1 7 Table M. Families in Skeena Terrace Public Housing by Numbers of Children and Whether Normal or Broken Families with Percentages - 1 9 6 3 1 1 8 Table N. Distribution of Child Population Showing Whether From Normal or Broken Families, Skeena Terrace 1 9 6 3 1 1 9 Table 0 . Amount of Income Received Monthly by Tenants of Skeena Terrace - 1 9 6 3 1 2 1 Table P. Ethnic Distribution - Strathcona and Vancouver . . 1 5 6 Table Q. Educational Level - Strathcona and Vancouver . . . . 1 5 7 Table R. Source of Income in Percentage of Population McLean Park 1 9 3 v i i Page Table S. Amount of Income i n Percentage of Population McLean Park 1 9 3 Table T. Age Distribution: In Percentage of Population McLean Park, Strathcona, Vancouver 1 9 5 Table U. Percentage of Those on Social Assistance at Public Housing Projects in Vancouver 1 9 8 Figure 1. Map of West End Neighbourhood F a c i l i t i e s Following Page and Institutions 15 Figure 2 . Map of Current Zoning of West End Study Area . . 20 Figure 3» Cenus Tracts, Vancouver 5 ^ Figure 4 . Age Distributions, 1 0 - Ik years, Vancouver . . . 5 8 Figure 5» Incidence Delinquency - Vancouver 65 Figure 6 . Sketch Map of Skeena Terrace Showing Types of Living Units 9 9 Figure 7« Map of "Sunrise Park" Showing Location of Skeena Terrace, Parks, Schools, Church, Senior Citizens Housing and Government Offices 1 0 0 Figure 8 . Bar Graph Showing Population Increase in "Sunrise Park" 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 6 3 1 0 1 Figure 9. Demographic Chart Showing National Origins in "Sunrise Park" 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 1 0 3 Figure 1 0 . Comparative Distribution of the Population by Age and Sex, Vancouver City and "Sunrise Park" 1 9 6 1 1 0 3 Figure 1 1 . Religious Denominations of Persons in "Sunrise Park" by Percentages for the period 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 . . 10k Figure 1 2 . Map Showing Former Besidence of Tenants of Skeena Terrace Il4 Figure 13« Map of Vancouver Showing Redevelopment Areas (A.B.C.D.) and Added Divisions E.F .G.H Ilk Figure la Map I l lustrat ing Survey Area 1 5 3 Figure 2 a Map I l lustrat ing Distribution of Ethnic and Racial Numbers 15^-v i i i Following Page Figure 3a Map I l lustrat ing Location of Institutions and 154 Figure 4a City of Vancouver Redevelopment Project 2 -180 Figure 5a . 191 INTRODUCTION Rationale: The analysis of the four Vancouver areas was undertaken when a need was evidenced for a greater number of such studies, primarily for teaching and student use. Arthur Dunham states that, "no s o c i a l worker i s prepared to practice s o c i a l work i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n a community u n t i l he knows certain basic facts about that community".^" The f i r s t task of the community organization person i n any neighbourhood i s to gain a thorough knowledge of the neighbourhood before assessment and planning i s introduced. The information and analyses may be of some value to e f f o r t s aimed at better understanding of the changing areas i n Vancouver. In the main, th i s undertaking should be seen as a p i l o t project as few analysis of this type appear to be available either i n B r i t i s h Columbia or i n other parts of Canada. D i f f i c u l t y was experienced by the writers i n establishing a firm rationale at the outset of the project. This d i f f i c u l t y centred around the apparent lack of concepts that might have equal and v a l i d application to d i f f e r i n g areas of the c i t y selected for study. A tentative assumption was that there should be s i g n i f i c a n t involvement of both physical and s o c i a l planning at a l l stages of neighbourhood development. The f i r s t obstacle to the testing of this assumption was the lack of consensus i n the l i t e r a t u r e regarding the d e f i n i t i o n ". Arthur Dunham, Community Welfare Organization: P r i n c i p l e s and  Practice, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1958, p.16 - 2 -o f t h e s e two terms. " P r o b a b l y the one element which the many d e f i n i t i o n s o f p l a n n i n g agree upon i s t h a t o f the r a t i o n a l use o f v a r i o u s means f o r the achievement o f d e s i r a b l e g o a l s . n ^ And f u r t h e r , Perlman c o n c l u d e s t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g : 2 "has as many d e f i n i t i o n s as i t has a d v o c a t e s and opponents". Many s o u r c e s were examined where t h i s a ssumption i s d i s c u s s e d but the f o l l o w i n g was s e l e c t e d as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t : "Comprehensive planning"^ and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be undertaken on a c o n c u r r e n t b a s i s . E f f o r t s s h o u l d be made to e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e l i a i s o n among a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s -i b l e f o r each type o f lo n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g . The two typ e s of p l a n n i n g have common g o a l s and urban renewal p r o v i d e s an unprecedented o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s " . Each community was a n a l y z e d w i t h t h i s b r o a d r a t i o n a l e i n mind to c o n s i d e r the degree o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the ass u m p t i o n . R a t h e r than p r e c o n c e i v e d , the r a t i o n a l e has tended to e v o l v e d u r i n g the p r o g r e s s of the s t u d y , through p e r i o d i c meetings and d i s c u s s i o n s o f the w r i t e r s . Scope o f the Study: The s e l e c t i o n o f the neighbourhoods f o r s t u d y was based on two main f a c t o r s : 1. That a l l were u n d e r g o i n g change, and 2. The w r i t e r s were engaged i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n f i e l d placement a c t i v i t i e s i n each o f the a r e a s . H e r b e r t H e w i t t S t r o u p , Community W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n , New Yo r k H a r p e r s , 1952, p . 4 l R o b e r t Perlman, S o c i a l W e l f a r e P l a n n i n g and P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g , D o c t o r o f P h i l o s o p h y D i s s e r t a t i o n , B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y , 196l . "Working t o g e t h e r f o r Urban Renewal", N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Housing and Redevelopment O f f i c i a l s , September, 1958, - "Compre-h e n s i v e development i s the term a p p l i e d t o the lo n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g t h a t i s done by c i t y p l a n n i n g commissions o r departments", p.4. T h i d . , p.5* - 3 -The four neighbourhoods a r e : West End Community; The c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s a r e a has been ch a n g i n g w i t h the e r e c t i o n o f l a r g e h i g h - r i s e , h i g h - d e n s i t y apartment b l o c k s . P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e of o l d e r p e o ple ar e l i v i n g i n the a r e a . A p r o p o s a l t o b u i l d a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s has not been a c c e p t e d ; and a p r o p o s a l f o r h a r b o u r development p r e s e n t l y l i e s i n abeyance. F r a s e r v i e w : The presence of a l a r g e v e t e r a n s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t c o n t a i n i n g a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f t e e n a g e r s has had c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on the a r e a , and i n p a r t i c u l a r on a l l o r g a n i z e d s e r v i c e s f o r young p e o p l e . The F r a s e r v i e w Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y has been g i v e n a p a r t i c u l a r impetus a r i s i n g from concerns of p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s . Skeena T e r r a c e ; T h i s new, l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t o f 23^ u n i t s has r e s u l t e d from urban r e n e w a l p l a n s under the Twenty Year Development P l a n f o r the C i t y o f Vancouver. The r e s i d e n t s have moved i n t o i t from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c i t y . There a r e a number o f p roblems, i n d i v i d u a l , group and community, r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e due to the p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n and l a c k o f n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a (known as S u n r i s e P a r k ) . S t r a t h c o n a A r e a : T h i s s e v e r e l y b l i g h t e d a r e a i s p r e s e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g comprehensive redevelopment. Problems of r e l o c a t i o n are e v i d e n t as people ar e d i s p l a c e d from t h e i r homes. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to the p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , McLean P a r k , w hich has been completed. F u r t h e r h o u s i n g and c l e a r a n c e i s imminent. There are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y many people of Chinese e x t r a c t i o n as \ ^ e l l as a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of s i n g l e o l d e r men i n t h i s a r e a . The second c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h a t t h e s e a r e a s o f f e r e d an - k -opportunity for f i e l d work experience for Master of S o c i a l Work students whose major methods course was i n Community Organization. In both the West End and Fraserview Communities, agencies offered physical f a c i l i t i e s under supervision of senior s t a f f with experience i n t h i s f i e l d and an opportunity for the students to practice Community Organization i n neighbourhood settings. The student placements at the two public housing projects, Skeena Terrace and McLean Park, were made possible through the co-operation of the Vancouver Housing Authority. Office space was provided by the project managers. There was considerable opportunity to observe many problems, such as, those of the older persons, of the one-parent family, of the a l c o h o l i c , of tenant i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , adjustment to new accommodation and the regulations, of the families on very low-incomes, etc. Supervision i n Community Organization was provided by a faculty member of the School of S o c i a l Work. Defi n i t i o n s ; It was the decision of the writers that each should provide appropriate d e f i n i t i o n s and terminology i n r e l a t i o n to the area studied. This decision grew out of recognition that uniform agreement on many such d e f i n i t i o n s haet not been reached. Methods; The methods used have been diverse and not a l l have been employed equally by each writer. The general approach i s suggested by Pauline Young i n her book 'S c i e n t i f i c Social Surveys and Research 1, 1 Chapters XVII and XVIII. In these chapters she examines a number of Pauline Young, S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Ppssarch, An Introduction. t,c> the Background, Content, Methods, P r i n c i p l e s and Analysis of Social Studies, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1956. methods for Studying of Community Life in Urban and Rural Natural Areas. The writers have used a variety of methods because "it should be remembered that these methods are not mutually exclusive; they are closely interdependent and related to each o t h e r " S o m e are a result of the dictates of act ivity related to f i e ld work. These have been supplemented by other methods to gain information specif i -cal ly for these analyses. In the early stages of planning, to determine the focus of the studies and methods to be used, several meetings of the writers were held. In addition, meetings were arranged with individuals who could advise and direct the group in their thinking. Each writer examined previous Master of Social Work theses written by University of Bri t i sh Columbia students which were considered to be pertinent. Ideas, findings, and suggestions from these were shared. Fie ld work placement required the gathering of factual material in order to better understand the community in which each student worked. This was done in part by interviewing numerous individuals:-local leaders, professional workers, and residents. In addition, interviews were arranged with representatives of agencies, associations and institutions whose knowledge, interest or act iv i t ies would provide further information. Specific reference is made here to the method of non-controlled observation which was used by each writer. T h i d . , p. 474 - 6 -"In non-controlled observations we resort to careful scrutiny of real l i f e situations making no.attempt to use instruments of precision or to check for accuracy of the phenomena observed". 1 The limitations of such a method are recognized as "there i s the danger that non-controlled observation i s l ike ly to give us the feeling that we know more than we actually do about what we have 2 seen". Eecognized clearly was the fact that "these observations should, of course, be supplemented by other methods and devices 3 which best suit the purposes of the study". Non-participant observation method was employed to observe "community l i f e or social conditions.. .noting the physical aspects, the social atmosphere, the industrial organizations, the symbiosis ( l iv ing together) of the population, and the effects of l iv ing in such a social world". Each writer also acted as a participant observer. This occurs when he "lives or otherwise shares i n the 5 l i f e of the group which he i s studying". These methods were employed as f ie ld work experience provided the opportunity of attend-ing many meetings. It was also possible to make observations particu-lar ly of the physical characteristics as act iv i t ies demanded moving around the area by foot or by car. Because these studies were so closely related to f i e ld work placements, considerable use was made of the records kept by each student. Not only factual material was recorded, but also observations made by individuals, and the student's own impressions and interpret-ations were noted. In reviewing these, i t was frequently possible to obtain some consensus about each community. This was valuable particu-lar ly as there was often a lack of pertinent s ta t i s t i ca l information. 1 Th id . , p.157 \ L a i d . , p.157 5 Ibi c\. , p.157 k Ib id . , p.158 - 7 -V a l u a b l e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were m i n u t e s , r e p o r t s , b r i e f s , and o t h e r r e c o r d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a g e n c i e s e t c . These were examined and r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d . S t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l a t i o n t o n a t i o n a l i t y , s e x , age, income, economic l e v e l , e t c . was o b t a i n e d from census t r a c t s and f i e l d work f i l e s . C h a r t s , t a b l e s and maps were p r e p a r e d to i l l u s t r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . A comprehensive s u r v e y o f p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e was u n d e r t a k e n i n 1963.''' Use was made o f t h i s m a t e r i a l , supplemented by r e a d i n g r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s . James S. Brown, D a v i d Kogawa and Raymond E. P e t e r s , P u b l i c Housing  and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 19^3• CHAPTER I AN INQUIRY INTO THE CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS OF THE WEST END COMMUNITY Introduction As indicated in the introduction to this thesis, this study of the West End i s of an exploratory nature - an effort to look at the community without any preconceptions. The value of what emerges l ies perhaps in the information gathered and the insights gained from the use of a variety of study methods. It may be regarded as a profi le of the area compiled from the vantage point of a student placement, and a base upon which future studies might be bu i l t . I n i t i a l d i f f icul ty was experienced in the attempt to employ existing community organization terminology and definitions to the study area. Terms such as d i s t r i c t , neighbourhood, community and sub-community are either described for one specific context or used nearly synonymously. The West End can be defined as a d i s tr i c t inasmuch as i t i s served by a high school and elementary schools."'' But, as i s not usually the case, this d i s tr ic t does not lend i t s e l f to subdivision, 2 into what are usually termed disparate neighbourhoods. Due to the compact and 'locked i n ' nature of the area, i t i s a l l one neighbourhood - referred to as such, and served by one neighbourhood house. Creating further ambiguity i s the fact that the West End can 1 Sidney D i l l i c k in "The Functions of Neighbourhood Organization", Community Organization in Action, eds. E .B . Harper and A. Dunham, New York, Assoc. Press, 1959, P- 352. 2 J.nc.ci t. - 9 -simultaneously be defined as both a community and a sub-community. It i s a community in that within a given identif iable area, inhabi-tants associate and interact, become conscious of local unity and establish organizations to act in a corporate capacity in line with recognized interests and needs. 1 But the West End in a truer sense i s a sub-community. The study reveals two identif iable groupings to exist; some 70 percent form a transient, anonymous majority who 2 shun involvement. The balance amount to a sub-community whose long residence and personal stake in the area prompt them to associate and organize for community betterment. The wide variations i n definitions arise from the fact that they embrace two main characteristics - the physical or town planners context, and the sociological context, the emphasis upon either of which may vary. For puposes of c lar i ty in this study reference must be made to the context within which each term i s employed. Historical Development of Area A prerequisite to the his tor ical development of an area i s a geographic expression of that area's location. While ambiguity may exist in the minds of most Vancouverites, except long term residents, as to the boundaries of most communities, the West End proves atypical due to i t s well defined locale. It i s contained on the west by Stanley Park, north and south by the waters of Burrard Inlet and English Bay Edmund De S. Brunner, "The Nature of the Community: Selected Definitions", op. c i t . p.27* Patricia Anne Tanabe, Rehabilitation Potential in a Changing Urban  Residential Area. University of Bri t i sh Columbia, Master of Social Work Thesis, 1963, p.6. - 10 -and i t s eastern boundary i s the major traff ic artery Burrard Street. The West End has i t s origins in the earliest days of the city when i t s favourable location, adjacent to the early business and trading centres, as well as i t s topography made i t the natural choice for an exclusive residential area. Circa the early decades of this century, the expanding commerce of the growing city began to confine the area and encroach upon i t from i t s northern and eastern boundaries. A competing area of an exclusive residential nature started to usurp the West End's preferential position, namely Shaughnessy. A gradual decline enisuue,d with residences giving way to rooming and apartmat houses. The changed nature of the housing naturally gave rise to an increased density of population. Following World War II , the decade of high immigration, coupled with a native influx from other provinces and outlying areas of B.C. i t s e l f , brought about a gradual increase in the population of this one square mile area. It presently exceeds twenty-five thousand i n -habitants. The newcomers were attracted to the natural attributes of the area and the proximity to their place of employment, together with low rental i f sub-standard accommodation. This recent decade has seen a continuance of this trend upon which private developers have capital-ized. Zoning by-laws, unlikely to undergo change, 1 assure the area's future as a residential setting. Each year has seen the demolition of older housing and replacement by high rise apartments. The process i s far from complete, however, and throughout the area is evidenced this incongruity, side by side of the old and the new. Interview Mr. L . Monroe, City of Vancouver Planning Department. 11 -The foregoing aspects of the his tor ical development of the area would be incomplete i f reference were not made to the demographic changes which accompanied the change in housing. It should be noted that the historical development shows a trend from long term resident home owners, to a highly mobile transient tenant populace; and from family groups with members of a l l ages to growing concentrations of single people, couples without children and senior cit izens. In summary, the area has been, and i s now in a state of relatively rapid transit ion, one that is without known paral le l in this province though not unknown in older North American c i t i e s . As such, in terms of both physical and social planning, i t creates unique challenges, problems and poss ibi l i t ies and proves worthy of study and comparison with the three other areas of Vancouver with which this thesis i s concerned. WEST END ASSETS Physical Assets The West End occupies an unusually attractive setting. The peninsula on which i t i s situated affords a majority of residents panoramic views of Stanley Park, the North Shore mountains, the waters of Burrard Inlet and English Bay. The density of the popu-lat ion, three times that of areas of similar size in Vancouver, would seemingly testify to the inhabitants' appreciation of the setting. Views alone are rarely sufficient inducement to establish residence within an area. The West End is adjacent to renowned Stanley Park which provides a remarkable number and variety of natural and man made attractions. Admittedly the Park serves the whole metropolitan area and therefore cannot be interpreted solely as a local asset but there i s multiple evidence to presume that West Enders make much use of i t together with adjoining beaches. It cannot be ignored as a major factor in attracting growing numbers of people to this area, whether they make use of these assets or not. West End Housing Assets These numerous assets must, however, be regarded as secondary to the nature of available housing which exerts the greater influence in dictating where one w i l l reside. In the West End, 87,percent of a l l housing i s in apartments or f lats and 92.5 percent of a l l dwellings are tenant occupied. 1 This naturally i s in striking contrast to the rest of the c i ty , due to the small size of the area, one square mile, Unless otherwise indicated, the source of s tat is t ics used throughout this study i s : D.B.S. 196I Census, Census Tract Bul let in , c.t.22. (Tracts 1,2,3 & 4) THE WEST END: Viewed from Goal Harbour l o o k i n g North. Photograph: Courtesy B i l l Dennett, Vancouver Sun, September 1963. J - 13 -and the high land costs and taxes. The cost of either owning or occupying a single detached dwelling proves prohibitive to a l l but the most affluent. The median value of owner occupied dwellings i s $21,394 as compared to $13,783 for a l l of Vancouver and taxes rose between 20 to 30 percent in the past year alone. Such a one-sided housing picture as the West End presents, obviously cannot be construed as either a complete l i a b i l i t y or an asset. But assets i t has. Almost one half of a l l residences are of post war construction. The more recent of these are ultra-modern high rises incorporating every convenience and luxury to attract tenants. Some are almost wholly self-sufficient with patios, swimming pools, privately furnished recreation rooms, laundries, dry cleaners, etc. The appeal of such accommodation is primarily to adults for there i s no catering to younger children even i f these are not deliberately excluded. What larger families there are in the West End, and they are few, have resort, with rare exceptions, only to the oldest housing which has been converted to apartments. But even old housing has advantages, inasmuch as being within walking distance of downtown job locations, commuting expenses are n i l . While admittedly sub-standard housing, the poorest are at a rent residents can afford and the outer environment compensates in some degree for the home i t s e l f . Suffice to say that residents remain long enough to earn sufficient to permit them to consider more spacious accommodation elsewhere. 1 The older apartments S ta t i s t i ca l proof i s lacking for this statement, but discussions with real estate interests on the local Council and with other know-ledgeable local sources lend to i t s verisimilitude. - Ik -and rooming houses may be seen as an asset for retired pensioners, married, single, or widowed, in that many elect poorer housing in order to be within walking distance of busy downtown l i f e as well as the other amenities which are close to hand. 1 They likewise benefit in that l i v ing for the most part away from their own children, they have the companionship of their peers. An outstandingly high percent-age of West Enders - 23«5 percent -are over the age of s ixty-f ive. Proximity to the downtown area is a pronounced asset. Here are concentrated the multitude of large stores, the Art Gallery, the Library, theatres, cinemas, clubs and restaurants. While much of the downtown area i s blighted, plans are afoot for i t s early rejuvenation. The West End which adjoins i t cannot but benefit as a result . The area i s likewise seen as an asset to the concentration of the younger single men and women who work i n downtown offices and after hours make use of nearby commercial entertainment. Community Services and Fac i l i t i e s To conclude a description of what are primarily physical assets of the area, one cannot ignore such necessary f a c i l i t i e s as schools, churches, hospitals, or clubs and meeting places within the area.(Fig.1) Schools The West End is served by a junior/senior high school, plus two public and one private elementary schools. Unti l September 1963 when the new high school was opened, a l l of the schools were more than half a century old, with their architecture and f a c i l i t i e s reflecting their Interview with pensions worker for West End clients at City Social Services Department, December 5» 1963* F I G ; 1. 3, t-o«^ » -R^ B>eK-TS 15 ,CAi*Ap ( tw Le&(oH 7. picsr ?eESBiTee\Ar4 9 Fwtsr C H O ^ C H 6 f cHeist*scieKTfef &fcA*ictt i d O - e H c V A H ^ W I T N E S S '^ GAuSSy****" — — B u s -e&o-re CENSUS -reAC-r^ BouHp/vciet 1^ *3j4i n. v. V M . C A -IS, eevs-TAV-'fooU i - 15 -i n a d e q u a c i e s as c o n c e i v e d by contemporary s t a n d a r d s . The new h i g h s c h o o l and m o d e r n i z a t i o n of o t h e r s has gone f a r to r e c t i f y these c r i t i -c i s m s . The s c h o o l s g e n e r a l l y must appear a l m o s t w h o l l y on the c r e d i t s i d e o f the West End l e d g e r . S c h o o l enrolments have g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d the d e c l i n i n g number o f c h i l d r e n i n the a r e a . F o r example, the S i r W i l l i a m Dawson E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l has now o n l y 265 p u p i l s , a l m o s t a 100 p e r c e n t d e c r e a s e from t h a t o f a decade ago. A l l of t h e s e c h i l d r e n c o u l d be accommodated i n L o r d R o b e r t s S c h o o l which a l s o was d e s i g n e d to handle a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e i t s p r e s e n t enrolment. I t was p l a n n e d two y e a r s ago t o c l o s e the former s c h o o l but t h i s was g r a n t e d a new l e a s e on l i f e by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . W i t h the b e s t s t a f f / p u p i l r a t i o . \ o f any Vancouver s c h o o l , i t o f f e r s s e p a r a t e t e a c h i n g f o r a c l a s s o f 10 - 15 new Canadians, a s l o w l e a r n e r c l a s s o f 15, a h a r d o f h e a r i n g c l a s s o f 15 from the J e r i c h o S c h o o l and m a i n t a i n s a n o t h e r t e a c h e r f o r c h i l d r e n h o s p i t a l i z e d a t S t . P a u l ' s H o s p i t a l d i r e c t l y a c r o s s from the s c h o o l on B u r r a r d S t r e e t . 1 A l l West End s c h o o l s a r e seen as d e s i r a b l e placements f o r e d u c a t o r s and the p r i n c i p a l s o f a l l of them speak i n l a u d a t o r y terms of the h i g h c a l i b r e o f t h e i r s t a f f . They themselves a r e , from a l l l o c a l r e p o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c a p a b l e men. Churches A p a r t from the West End h a v i n g 7 p e r c e n t more A n g l i c a n s than has the average Vancouver community, r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s a r e o t h e r w i s e almost i d e n t i c a l . S i x churches l i e w i t h i n the West End. The denomin-a t i o n s a r e Roman C a t h o l i c , U n i t e d , A n g l i c a n , P r e s b y t e r i a n , F i r s t Church of C h r i s t S c i e n t i s t and Jehovah; 1 s W i t n e s s e s . W h i l e t h e r e a r e innumerable I n t e r v i e w Mr. A.F. C l a r k e , P r i n c i p a l , S i r W i l l i a m Dawson Elem e n t a r y S c h o o l . December 5th, 1963 - 1 6 -ways o f measuring community c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c h u r c h e s , most beyond the scope o f t h i s s t u d y , one f a c t o r d i d emerge as s t r i k i n g . T h i s was: the degree t o which the c h u r c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a community a s s e t appeared t o be r e l a t e d t o the c h u r c h ' s g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . R e c a l l i n g t h a t the West End i s o n l y t e n b l o c k s square i n a r e a , i t appears t h a t i f the c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the a r e a i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a l o c a l c h u r c h . I f , however, i t i s on the p e r i m e t e r , a d j o i n i n g the down-town a r e a , i t i s c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g a c i t y c h u r c h . W h i l e t h i s s t atement i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i g n o r i n g many o t h e r r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s , the m i n i s t e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a t t e s t to t h i s as a f a c t h a v i n g major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the growth or g r a d u a l demise o f a c h u r c h . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , C e n t r a l P r e s b y t e r i a n Church which twenty y e a r s ago had a f l o u r i s h i n g West End p a r o c h i a l c o n g r e g a t i o n , now draws o n l y 20 p e r c e n t o f i t s 200 members from t h e r e . One f a c t o r i s t h a t c o n g r e g a t i o n s a r e o l d e r , fewer of them own c a r s and, h a v i n g t o walk to c h u r c h , more are l i k e l y to do so i f a church i s w i t h i n the a r e a r a t h e r than on i t s p e r i m e t e r . Only a s c o r e o f members are young a d u l t s , and c h i l d r e n a r e y e t fewer. D e s p i t e a r e c e n t $40,000 r e n o v a t i o n of the c h u r c h and i t s a u x i l i a r y f a c i l i t i e s , t hese go almost t o t a l l y unused. The c h u r c h only i s a c t i v e l y i n use'at the Sunday morning s e r v i c e , the m i n i s t e r w i t h o u t a c u r a t e , i s d i s c o u r a g e d as h i s a t t e m p t s to b r i n g known l o c a l P r e s b y t e r i a n s i n t o the c h u r c h meet w i t h f a i l u r e , stemming from a r e l u c t a n c e of newcomers to i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s . The l i f e of a church i s o f t e n c o n s t r u e d as s p r i n g -i n g from f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n and as these become fewer i n the West End, h i s p e ssimism mounts. 1 A few y e a r s ago, c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n to s e l l i n g the c h u r c h and i t s f u t u r e i s s t i l l i n doubt. On the o t h e r hand, the A n g l i c a n Church, w h i c h i s l o c a t e d q u i t e I n t e r v i e w Reg. Edward Bragg, C e n t r a l P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h , N o v . 2 5 , 1 9 6 3 ' - 1 7 -near the c e n t r e o f the West End, i s b e t t e r s t a f f e d and b o t h more a c t i v e and o p t i m i s t i c . 1 Though a l s o e n c o u n t e r i n g the d e s i r e f o r anonymity and o b j e c t i o n t o i n v o l v e m e n t w hich many apartment d w e l l e r s p r o j e c t , the c o n g r e g a t i o n i s expanding. I t i s drawn p r e d o m i n a n t l y from w i t h i n the a r e a , and may be a t t r a c t e d , t o o , by the number o f a d u l t and youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s the c h u r c h p r o v i d e s . The A n g l i c a n , U n i t e d and Roman C a t h o l i c Churches appear t o be the s t r o n g e s t r e l i g i -ous r e s o u r c e s from a community p o i n t o f v i e w , and the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p . M i s c e l l a n e o u s F a c i l i t i e s Among f u r t h e r f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , are the f o l l o w i n g . S t . P a u l ' s H o s p i t a l , w i t h 6 0 0 beds, i s l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n boundary o f the West End. A l t h o u g h i t s e r v e s the c i t y o f Vancouver i t i s o f g r e a t e r importance to the West End. I n a d d i t i o n to the m e d i c a l s t a f f i t a l s o has a S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department w i t h two p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s . Both F i r e and P o l i c e s e r v i c e s a r e on a p a r w i t h the Test o f the c i t y and are deemed q u i t e adequate. P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s by t r o l l e y coach and i s so l o c a t e d as t o l o o p t h r o u g h t he West End never more than a t h r e e b l o c k walk from any p a r t o f the a r e a . S m a l l l o c a l s t o r e s abound throughout the a r e a but few, when judged by t h e i r appearance otf the v o i c e o f the l o c a l b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n , seem to be t h r i v i n g . The p r o x i m i t y o f downtown s t o r e s u n d o u btedly i s a f a c t o r i n swaying West End r e s i d e n t s to make major p u r c h a s e s o u t s i d e o f t h e i r community. The major m e e t i n g p l a c e f o r the g r e a t e s t numbers o f b o t h the o l d and young i s Gordon Neighbourhood House, as i t o f f e r s l a r g e and v a r i e d I n t e r v i e w Rev. J.W. E l l i s , S t . P a u l ' s A n g l i c a n Church, Nov. 2 8 , 1 9 6 3 - 1 8 -programmes f o r t h e s e groups. Young a d u l t members, however, number l e s s than one hundred. Two l o c a l R o y a l Canadian L e g i o n H a l l s a r e a l s o f a v o u r e d s p o t s , and S t a n l e y P a r k w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g beaches and o t h e r p a r k a r e a s a r e l i k e w i s e impromptu m e e t i n g p l a c e s f o r l a r g e numbers when clement weather p e r m i t s . Only one s m a l l cinema o p e r a t e s w i t h i n the a r e a , t h i s b e i n g the s i n g l e commercial e n t e r t a i n m e n t a v a i l a b l e . As many p e n s i o n e r s room i n the a r e a , c e r t a i n c o f f e e shops and c a f e t e r i a s where they purchase the o n l y d a i l y wholesome meal they can a f f o r d , a l s o s e r v e as i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g p l a c e s . The new h i g h s c h o o l o f f e r s non-academic ev e n i n g c l a s s e s which too a c t as m e e t i n g p l a c e s f o r a d u l t s . However, as t h i s i s the f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t a l y e a r of o p e r a t i o n , t h i s makes f o r l i m i t e d programmes as y e t . P e r s o n a l A s s e t s L e s s t a n g i b l e than a community's p h y s i c a l a s s e t s and t h e r e f o r e more d i f f i c u l t o f e v a l u a t i o n , a r e i t s p e r s o n a l ones. R e c a l l i n g p r i o r 1 2 s t u d i e s o f the E a s t K i t s i l a n o and Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a s o f Vancouver, l i a b i l i t i e s mentioned here were the l a c k of r e s i d e n t s ' consensus as t o the b o u n d a r i e s of community, the l a c k o f community s p i r i t , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l e a d e r s h i p and p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i n the community. I f one adjudges the p o t e n t i a l f o r community p r o g r e s s and b e t t e r m e n t to h i n g e upon t h e s e , t h e n the West End i s a s s u r e d l y i n an advantageous p o s i t i o n . Wot o v e r l o o k i n g the anonymous mass of t r a n s i e n t " c l i f f d w e l l e r s " , a community sense o f i d e n t i t y and s p i r i t n e v e r t h e l e s s e x i s t s . I t s 1 P a t r i c i a Anne Tanabe, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P o t e n t i a l i n a Changing Urban  R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a , M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1 9 6 3 , p . 7 8 Helga M. H i c k s , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Neighbourhood R e h a b i l i t a t i o n M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 & 3 i p . 7 6 f . f . - 19 -development i s promoted by the unambiguous location of the area. The West End boasts a certain sp ir i t and tolerance, a 's l ightly racy' atmosphere that approaches, but fa l l s short of, one interviewee's description of the area as a " l i t t l e Greenwich Village". There i s a mild cosmopolitan aura to it} observable in the variety of European stores, delicatessens and restaurants within the area. This spreads across a l l age groups; one elementary school boasting a United Nations Club with 36 nationalit ies among i t s members.1 The area attracts new immigrants together with foreign ships' crews from the harbour close by, ensuring that the sound of strange tongues is no longer cause for heads to be turned. Lending strength to the community i s a long resident core group which take a real pride in i t s community and works in innumerable ways for i t s betterment. Attendance at a variety of local meetings together with personal interviews and informal discussions, provided f i r s t hand evidence of the strength of local leadership. This is impressive, in i t s knowledge and sophistication; i t s voice and actions, depending upon the issues, gains a ready hearing and carries recognition and weight not merely local ly , but through and beyond the city as a whole. Citizens have at their disposal, an array of associations and organizations within the area, strengthened by this leadership, through which they may make their views known. They can, and do this , on many issues, and the West End is a most articulate community. It has, in addition to the usual c iv i c , church and school organizations, a strong Community Council which serves to draw these myriad views together and achieve i t s goals through a unified voice. A local bi-weekly newspaper, the West Ender, adds to community cohesion through i t s 3 ) 5 0 0 c irculat ion. 1 Interview Mr. J.Brooks,Principal, Lord Roberts Elementary School,Nov.28/63 - 20 -WEST END LIABILITIES Zoning and Housing The l i a b i l i t i e s of the West End are inseparable from i t s assets. The beauty and desirabi l i ty of i t s environment attracts ever growing numbers of residents and serve to compound existing problems. The present accommodations, the zoning laws as they now stand, 1 their implications for future residential construction, the 2 high value of land and the high tax assessments are a l l factors mil i tat ing against a balanced community. It has made for an area in transition but the direction of change i s not wholly clear. For long term West Enders with a real stake in the area, this makes for some anxiety and concern. More than 70 percent of the West End i s zoned for apartment construction. (Fig. 2 ) . Whole c i ty blocks of apartments have been erected, particularly during the past twenty years, and each year sees old houses wrecked to make room for more glass and concrete high rise apartments. These stand incongruously, side by side with d i lap i -dated seventy year old frame homes converted into rooming houses. Yet the lat ter pay exactly the same taxes per square foot of land as i f a thirty storey high rise was already upon i t . (A recent legis lat ive proposal seeks to qualify this state of affairs but wil l l not become effective before 1965.) The limited rents old houses may command when ^City of Vancouver, Zoning and Development By-Law, No. 3575• 2 Recent real estate advertisement show high rise lots se l l ing at between $800 to 81200 per front foot. •^Pamphlet issued at Aldermanic Election Meeting, Nov. 26, 1963* published by the West End and Downtown Ratepayers Association .CURRENT ZotftKKS- NMCST EMj? *TUJ?Y A ^ A . COMMERCIAL w OISTRICT • • • • • INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT MULTIPLE DWELLING OISTRICT INDUSTRIAL M A OISTRICT - 2 1 -new apartments ar e c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g opened, t o g e t h e r w i t h the h i g h t a x e s , p r o h i b i t s adequate maintenance. Each y e a r t h e i r s h a b b i n e s s grows more n o t i c e a b l e . W i t h r a r e e x c e p t i o n s , e n t r e p r e n e u r s have b u i l t o n l y b a c h e l o r and one bedroom a p a r t m e n t s . The most r e c e n t , s t r u c t u r e c o n t a i n e d 400 i d e n t i c a l one bedroom ' c e l l s ' the s o l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i e f b e i n g the owner's penthouse. (47.3 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n has o c c u r r e d s i n c e 1945«) T h e i r u n i t c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s a r e l o w e r and the monetary r e t u r n s g r e a t e r . L i k e - w i s e , the h i g h e s t r e t u r n s from r e n t i n g c o n v e r t e d homes comes from s i n g l e rooms or s m a l l a p a r t m e n t s . Few f a m i l i e s can a f f o r d to m a i n t a i n a home of any s i z e . Each y e a r o l d homes become fewer and no new s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s r e p l a c e them. Amid 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e , a s t o u n d i n g l y i t i s r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y f i v e f a m i l i e s have homes t o t a l l y t o t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t i s , w i t h o u t roomers or b o a r d e r s . P r e s e n t l y , o n l y 7 p e r c e n t of a l l r e s i d e n c e s a r e owner o c c u p i e d , and the s i z e o f the average f a m i l y t h r o ughout the community i s 2 . 2 8 p e r s o n s . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h G r e a t e r Vancouver where 60.7 p e r c e n t of homes ar e owner o c c u p i e d and the average f a m i l y s i z e i s 3 * 2 p e r s o n s . Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The d i c t a t e s o f a v a i l a b l e accommodation a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the community's a t y p i c a l demographic c h a r a c t e r . Embracing a l l of census t r a c t s 1 , 2 , 3 and 4, the West End has, f o r example, 8 2 . 3 p e r c e n t o f i t s people aged 25 o r o v e r ; 2 3 . 6 p e r c e n t are 65 and o v e r , and o n l y 9«6 p e r c e n t i n t he group 19 y e a r s or under. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e r e has been a d e c r e a s i n g c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n i n the West End f o r many y e a r s . A s l i g h t r e v e r s a l o c c u r r e d between censuses 1 9 5 6 and 1 9 6 l , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t t h i s as a t r e n d . The e x p l a n a t i o n a t t r a c t i n g the g r e a t e s t - 22 - / consensus among those interested i n , and conversant with, this phenomenon, i s that periodic spurts in new apartment growth leave older and roomier apartments with vacancies. To avoid loss of rents, restrictions against renting to families with children are temporarily-relaxed. It is significant that the increase was among ik - 19 year olds, an age group usually recognized as being more acceptable to landlords than younger children. Brief ly , the West End population i s made up of large numbers of ret ired people, single men and women, and couples without children. Families with children are few, and the numbers of children within families also few in comparison with the rest of Vancouver. This creates problems, particularly for families with children and also for senior citizens. Children for the most part l ive in cramped rooming houses or apartments with lack of play space in the area. Other than Stanley Park which i s not suitable, safe or always conveniently distanced for unchaperoned young children, there i s but one ' tot - lot ' outside of the inadequate school grounds. Older people of limited means, many of them long resident in the area and anxious to remain there, are forced to move due to increasing taxes or rent. However, the overall numbers of retired people of greater affluence shows a steady increase. The fact i s that expanding numbers of people, young and old, find apartment l iv ing in the West End a satisfactory way of l i f e . For a 30 storey apartment with kOO one bedroom suites opened in November 19631 there were over 700 applicants . 1 Who are these tenants? Some as stated Interview with Miss G. McCorqudale resident of Imperial Towers Apartments. - 23 -are r e t i r e d , some young, s i n g l e b u s i n e s s p e o p l e , o t h e r s a r e t h o s e who have come back t o the c i t y t o a v o i d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and expense o f k e e p i n g suburban homes. W i t h c h i l d r e n grown and out of the home, t h e r e i s no l o n g e r a need f o r 3 or k bedroomed houses, the upkeep o f wh i c h t o g e t h e r w i t h g a r d e n i n g c h o r e s o f t e n becomes an u n n e c e s s a r y burden which apartment l i v i n g r e l i e v e s . The p r o x i m i t y o f the West End t o many b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s a l s o s p a r e s them t h e r u s h hour s t r a i n and expense o f commuting. Some p r e f e r apartment l i v i n g f o r the g r e a t e r sense o f anonymity. F r i e n d s , a c q u a i n t a n c e s a r e drawn from t h e i r work o r c l u b a s s o c i a t i o n s - t h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t and o u t s i d e o f t h e s e , don't w i s h t o be known and l i k e t o be l e f t a l o n e . F o r o t h e r s w i t h i m p e d i -ments o f f i n a n c e , i l l h e a l t h o r o l d age, i t i s not a m a t t e r o f p r e f e r e n c e but one o f n e c e s s i t y . A r e s u l t a n t l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n from a community s t a n d -p o i n t i s the h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n . S i n g l e p e o p l e , c o u p l e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , and r e t i r e d people move f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n the a r e a when a y e t newer apartment o f f e r s inducements to t e n a n t s not p r o v i d e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t one. Couples o t h e r than i n the few l a r g e apartments must move to the suburbs when they s t a r t t h e i r f a m i l i e s , f o r terms o f apartment l e a s e , as w e l l as l i v i n g s p a c e , m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t t h e i r s t a y i n g . F u r t h e r , many r e s i d e n t s o f o l d e r , cheaper apartments and rooming houses a r e i m m i g r a n t s o r newcomers t o the c i t y who s e t t l e o n l y l o n g enough to e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s i n employment - save enough to make a down payment on a house and then move. O t h e r s ( a f t e r the n a t u r e o f t h e i r employment) a r e t r a n s f e r r e d here f o r a m a t t e r o f a c o u p l e o f y e a r s o r s o , and f o r such s h o r t term r e s i d e n c e see apartment l i v i n g as the most s e n s i b l e s o l u t i o n . Those w i t h m a r g i n a l incomes, o r i n r e c e i p t o f - 2k -s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , e.g. p e n s i o n e r s and d e s e r t e d w i v e s w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n , occupy the p o o r e s t d w e l l i n g s , o f t e n those s l a t e d to make room f o r new apartments which n a t u r a l l y r e n d e r s a move mandatory. Measurements o f t r a n s i e n c y come from a l l o f the s c h o o l s w i t h i n the a r e a which r e p o r t a 5 0 - 60 p e r c e n t a n n u a l t u r n o v e r o f p u p i l s . The community newspaper e d i t o r r e p o r t s , t o o , the f a i l u r e o f s u b s c r i p t i o n d r i v e s as due t o p e o p l e ' s r e l u c t a n c e to see themselves o t h e r than e n j o y i n g a b r i e f s o j o u r n i n the a r e a . M i n i s t e r s who seek t o i n t e r e s t them i n j o i n i n g t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s , s c h o o l s w h i c h would welcome them to P.T.A.s, and c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s which s o l i c i t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to community improvement, a l l r e p o r t on t h e i r a v o i d a n c e o f i n v o l v e m e n t and t h e i r p a r a l l e l d e s i r e f o r anonymity. W h i l e t h e r e i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f community t h e r e i s l i t t l e a t tachment to i t . The t o t a l p i c t u r e , however, i s not a l t o g e t h e r gloomy. Though the m a j o r i t y a r e t r a n s i e n t and i n a sense r e p r e s e n t a community l i a b i l i t y , some 30 p e r c e n t a r e l o n g term r e s i d e n t s . A l t h o u g h even t h i s group may move w i t h i n the a r e a , t h e y y e t m a i n t a i n a community i d e n t i t y w h i ch con-s t i t u t e s a c o n f i r m e d a s s e t and one which i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . P r o x i m i t y t o C i t y The g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y t o the downtown a r e a , w h i l e d e s c r i b e d as an a s s e t , i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l i a b i l i t y . The n o r t h and e a s t boundaries a d j o i n i n g Eobson and B u r r a r d S t r e e t s , see the near s o l i d r e s i d e n t i a l c o r e g i v i n g way t o a v a r i e t y of l a r g e and s m a l l commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s such as h o t e l s , m o t e l s , s t o r e s and b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s . The r e m a i n i n g houses and some s m a l l e r f a m i l y h o t e l s i n t e r s p e r s e d between new s t r u c t u r e s prove the most d i l a p i d a t e d . The C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department c o n f i r m - 2 5 -a h i g h number of t h e i r s i n g l e male r e c i p i e n t s f r e q u e n t l y moving i n and out o f these r e s i d e n c e s . An u n a s c e r t a i n a b l e but r e p o r t e d l y s i g n i f i -c a n t number of them have problems o f a l c o h o l and/or drug a d d i c t i o n , 1 w i t h a s s o c i a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s and o f t e n c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s , t o o . N u m e r i c a l l y , however, they are s m a l l compared t o numbers o f s i m i l a r c l i e n t s r e s i d i n g j u s t to the e a s t of the West End community. L i k e w i s e the i s o l a t i o n and anonymity the West End a f f o r d s , makes f o r a g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e and l a i s s e z f a i r e among the i n h a b i t a n t s . P r o s t i -t u t i o n c o n v i c t i o n s i n r e c e n t months r e v e a l t h i s a r e a to l e n d i t s e l f n a t u r a l l y t o t h i s t r a d e . S i m i l a r l y no c i t y o f any s i z e i s w i t h o u t i t s homosexual c o t e r i e and w h i l e the e x t e n t o f t h i s a b e r r a t i o n cannot be known even to the p o l i c e , and i n any event i s beyond the scope of t h i s s t u d y , p o l i c e b e l i e v e i t has a b r o a d e r i n c i d e n c e i n the West End t han e l s e w h e r e . ^ The t o t a l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s r e p o r t e d l y , but not v e r i f i a b l e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , has an u n d e s i r a b l e i n f l u e n c e upon the c h i l d r e n and y o u t h o f the community. P r i n c i p a l s , s c h o o l n u r s e s , and l o c a l m e d i c a l s o c i a l w o r k ers c l a i m t o o bserve a h i g h e r than average i n c i d e n c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s among y o u n g s t e r s . R e g r e t t a b l y , they are unable to f u r n i s h any s t a t i s t i c s i n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s and none a r e a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r s o u r c e s w h i c h c o v e r t h i s a r e a . T h e i r s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n s , however, ar e based upon many y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n b o t h the West End and o t h e r a r e a s and thus cannot l i g h t l y be d i s m i s s e d . 1 I n t e r v i e w s on J a n u a r y 6, 1 9 6 4 , r e v e a l e d t h a t the A l c o h o l i s m F o u n d a t i o n o f B.C. and the N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n F o u n d a t i o n do not m a i n t a i n s t a t i s t i c s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s s t a t e m e n t . Workers n o t e , however, t h a t some o f t h e i r c l i e n t s move i n and out o f t h i s s e c t o r o f the West End as o f t e n as e v e r y month o r two. 2 I n t e r v i e w w i t h S t a f f I n s p e c t o r Brown, Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e , M a r c h 5 i 1 9 6 4 . - 26 -Teenagers, a c c o r d i n g to the High S c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , are much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than t h e i r suburban p e e r s , l e s s b o i s t e r o u s and j u v e n i l e but w i t h o n l y a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n average i n c i d e n c e of d e l i n q u e n c y . 1 T h e i r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and h i g h e r r a t i o of e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e he a t t r i b u t e s l a r g e l y t o t h e i r environment. S i m i l a r l y , among p r i m a r y grade y o u n g s t e r s , t h e s e a r e d e s c r i b e d by the Dawson S c h o o l p r i n c i p a l as a l s o b e i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d - i n a ' s t r e e t w i s e ' sense but as f o r the most p a r t t h e y come from p o o r e r f a m i l i e s and broken homes, t h e i r I.Q. r e f l e c t s t he d e a r t h of s t i m u l i i t o which they a r e exposed. B o t h p r i n c i p a l s s t r e s s the l i a b i l i t y a r i s i n g out of the t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' e x i s t e n c e . Moving c o n s t a n t l y , even w i t h i n the a r e a , they c l i n g t o s c h o o l as the one symbol o f permanency i n an o t h e r w i s e ' f o o t l o o s e * e x i s t e n c e . A l t h o u g h the numbers of c h i l d r e n a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n com-p a r i s o n w i t h s u b u r b i a , the a r e a does not c a t e r a d e q u a t e l y to t h e i r w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs. W h i l e t h e s e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h as a s e p a r a t e i s s u e , s u f f i c e h e r e t o t o say t h a t i t i s p r e s e n t l y a l i a b i l i t y w i t h i n the a r e a f o r which no immediate remedy i s a t hand. I t has been s t a t e d t h a t the West End has an u n b a l a n c e d p o p u l a t i o n and t h a t t h i s may be deemed a l i a b i l i t y . To p o s i t t h i s i s to i n t r o d u c e a s e t o f v a l u e s w h i c h would not l i k e l y be a c c e p t e d u n c h a l l e n g e d . I t i s not the aim of t h i s s t u d y to argue th e s e but t o c o n t i n u e on the premise t h a t p l a n n e r s o f new towns, i n B r i t a i n f o r example, see a b a l a n c e d community as e s s e n t i a l t o i t s h e a l t h y c o n t i n u a n c e . One can draw the p a r a l l e l t h a t the West End, though unplanned i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l sense, i s n e v e r t h e l e s s e v o l v i n g as a new community. P r e l i m i n a r y Report on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y S t a t i s t i c s , Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver J u v e n i l e and F a m i l y C o u r t , e t a l . May, 1962 - 27 -T h i s l i a b i l i t y a lmost c e r t a i n l y w i l l be p e r p e t u a t e d . No f a m i l y homes, or f a m i l y s i z e d apartments a r e l i k e l y t o be b u i l t by p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . One might w e l l ask i f t h e r e i s a need, t h e n , f o r sub-s i d i z e d low r e n t a l p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r f a m i l i e s and o l d e r p e ople o f l i m i t e d means and argue c o n v i n c i n g l y t h e r e i s . Indeed, i n the case o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s t h i s has a l r e a d y been done. 1 However, i n the case o f f a m i l i e s o f l i m i t e d means, r e g a r d l e s s o f the s t r e n g t h of the argument, the l i k e l i h o o d o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d i n the West End i s remote due t o h i g h l a n d v a l u e s . P r e s e n t l y t o o , Vancouver's l o n g term 2 re-development scheme does not i n c l u d e the West End. Under the p r e s e n t o r d e r o f p r i o r i t i e s i n b u i l d i n g , p l u s the f a c t 3 t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g has p r o v e d p e r e n i a l l y slow o f r e a l i z a t i o n , the West End w i l l l o n g , i f not p e r m a n e n t l y , c o n t i n u e u n a f f e c t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d . P h y s i c a l L i a b i l i t i e s , R e a l and P o t e n t i a l A m o b i l e p o p u l a t i o n has a major concern w i t h a c c e s s to and from the a r e a i n w h ich i t r e s i d e s and a need f o r p a r k i n g space w i t h i n t h a t a r e a . The West End has d i s t i n c t l i a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g a r d . S t r e e t p a t t e r n s were d e s i g n e d and l a i d down a h a l f c e n t u r y or more ago. As a consequence, s t r e e t s a r e narrow, and many of them p o o r l y l i t f o r t o d a y ' s vollume o f t r a f f i c . The i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y a l s o makes f o r a p a r k i n g problem w h i c h l o n g ago r e a c h e d the s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t . U n t i l r e c e n t y e a r s apartments c o u l d be b u i l t w i t h o u t n e c e s s i t y f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r new t e n a n t s . B u i l d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , 1 West End Community C o u n c i l b r i e f on S e n i o r C i t i z e n H ousing, J a n . 21 I 9 6 0 . 2 Redevelopment i n the C i t y o f Vancouver, Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , August I 9 6 0 . 3 L e o n a r d C. Marsh, R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Research P u b l i c a t i o n s No. 1, 1950, p. i v . - 28 -s i n c e imposed, p r o v i d e f o r adequate basement p a r k i n g space, but t h e s e came too l a t e and slow moving t r a f f i c on c o n g e s t e d s t r e e t s c o n t i n u e . t o cause e x a s p e r a t i o n . Even back l a n e s between s t r e e t s have, as i n few o t h e r a r e a s of the c i t y , o f n e c e s s i t y been p r e s s e d i n t o use f o r p a r k i n g space. The p e d e s t r i a n p o p u l a t i o n f a r e s l i t t l e b e t t e r . S i d e w a l k s , t o o , bear c o n s t r u c t i o n d a t e s c i r c a 1900. They are c r a c k e d , b r o k e n and un-even. S u c c e s s i v e r e p a i r s s e r v e but t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e i r i n a d e q u a c y . However, amid green b o u l e v a r d s o l d shade t r e e s whose growth has heaved up the a d j a c e n t s i d e w a l k s , may a e s t h e t i c a l l y be viewed as some compens-a t i o n f o r t h i s l i a b i l i t y . Poor s t r e e t l i g h t i n g l i k e w i s e encourages those w i t h c r i m i n a l i n t e n t . P r e s s a r t i c l e s s t r e s s e d t h i s as one f a c t o r i n p e d e s t r i a n a t t a c k s , p u r s e s n a t c h i n g and t h e f t s from p a r k e d c a r s as w e l l as numerous a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m and b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g i n t o a p a r t m e n t s . 1 The l a t t e r c r i m e , however, i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the degree o f anonymity w i t h i n a community. S t r a n g e r s roaming the West End do not a t t r a c t t he same c u r i o s i t y t h e y would i n a s e t t l e d suburban d i s t r i c t . A s p e c i a l rooming house p o l i c e d e t a i l o f f o u r c o n s t a b l e s has l o n g been formed to combat t h i s c r i m e . The T r a f f i c L i a b i l i t y A l o o k back t o the map of the West End i n r e l a t i o n t o the r e s t o f Vancouver p o i n t s up i t s s t r a t e g i c c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n between the major b u s i n e s s c o r e s of b o t h downtown and Broadway and the mushrooming bedroom suburbs o f N o r t h and West Vancouver. The West End i s e n c i r c l e d and n e a r l y s t r a n g l e d d u r i n g morning and e v e n i n g r u s h hours by major t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s h a n d l i n g a d a n g e r o u s l y heavy l o a d of t r a f f i c . Vancouver P r o v i n c e , December 18, 1963. - 29 -Each y e a r , w i t h the c o n t i n u i n g growth o f the c i t y , the problem worsens. Numerous p r o p o s a l s t o b r i n g about a m e l i o r a t i o n have s p a r k e d c o n t i n u a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s f o r o v e r a d e c a d e 1 and a s t u d y i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g conducted by the S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e . One i n t e r i m s o l u t i o n w h i ch reached f r u i t i o n was the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new Second Narrows B r i d g e . T h i s s e r v e d to i n c r e a s e the f l o w o f t r a v e l to and from N o r t h Vancouver a t the e a s t e r n boundary o f the c i t y but d i d l i t t l e t o r e l i e v e the t r a f f i c volume on the L i o n s Gate B r i d g e w h i c h f u n n e l s a l l t r a f f i c t h r o u g h S t a n l e y P a r k and the West End. Two proposed s o l u t i o n s to t h i s problem, i f a c t e d upon, would prove d e c i d e d p h y s i c a l l i a b i l i t i e s f o r West End r e s i d e n t s . F i r s t i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a freeway s t a r t i n g a t the n o r t h s i d e o f F a l s e Creek nea r the B u r r a r d B r i d g e , r u n n i n g n o r t h - w e s t t h r o u g h the West End a r e a , then p a r a l l e l i n g G e o r g i a S t r e e t to c u t a n o t h e r swath t h r o u g h S t a n l e y P a r k p r i o r t o j o i n i n g a new b r i d g e , p a r a l l e l i n g L i o n s Gate B r i d g e to N o r t h Vancouver. The second p r o p o s a l v i s u a l i z e s a s i m i l a r new b r i d g e but w i t h a c c e s s r o a d s r u n n i n g w e s t e r l y through S t a n l e y P a r k , then a c r o s s a causeway ov e r E n g l i s h Bay to the K i t s i l a n o a r e a . B o t h p r o p o s a l s have c r e a t e d more a n x i e t y and c o n c e r n among West Enders than any o t h e r l o c a l i s s u e i n the h i s t o r y o f the community. The d e s p o l i a t i o n o f S t a n l e y P a r k , the n o x i o u s c o n c o m i t a n t s o f freeways t h r o u g h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and the consequent e f f e c t upon p r o p e r t y v a l u e s a r e viewed by r e s i d e n t s as near c a t a s t r o p h i c . I l l u s t r a t i v e o f the a l l i e d n a t u r e o f b o t h a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s p o t e n t i a l l i a b i l i t y , t h i s t h r e a t , has done more to c r e a t e a community s p i r i t and c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n under s t r o n g l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p than any o t h e r West End Community C o u n c i l Scrapbook. - 30 -concern. This has directly contributed to the building and strengthen-ing of an important asset - the West End Community Council. Of more recent origin, yet running a close second to the Burrard Inlet Crossing concern, i s the potential threat known as the Coal Harbour Development Plan 1 Depending upon which side i s discussing the issue, i t i s either a "blessing and a mark of real progress", or, to West Enders, "a l i a b i l i t y of incalculable proportions". The plan cal ls for comprehensive development of 22.3 acres of waterfrontage on Coal Harbour. It would be composed of luxury high rise apartments, marinas and stores. If proceeded with, i t threatens to destroy views, compound traff ic problems and to usurp potential new apartment dwellers for some years to come. Existing West End apartments may be expected to lose tenants to i t , and future development of apartments on West End property, long zoned and taxed for this purpose, w i l l be delayed at great cost to West End property owners. The strength of this concern may be gauged from the fact that seven hundred people turned out to hear and voice their opinions at a public meeting on this subject, in June 1963. In summary, i t i s these, together with less dramatic issues and the lack of firm plans for the West End's future, which make for an overall uncertainty. For the many who have a personal or monetary stake in the area, i t i s a distinct l i a b i l i t y . The concerns prove more wide-spread, however, for West End briefs opposing both suggestions have received a high degree of approval from many organizations and individuals 2 throughout the metropolis. In truth, however, i t must be said that perhaps a majority of West Enders, by the dual nature of their transiency 1 Coal Harbour Investments L t d . , Eezoning Application, City Planning Departnmt, June 21, 1963 2 Press Clippings, Letters to Editor of Vancouver Sun, Vancouver Province May and June 1963, West End Community Council, Historians Scrapbook and d e s i r e f o r anonymity, are i l l i n f o r m e d and a p a t h e t i c on these i s s u e s . They a r e s e e m i n g l y i n c a p a b l e of b e i n g aroused to f a c e r e a l c o n c e r n s , and as i s f r e q u e n t l y the c a s e , c o n t e n t to l e a v e the f i g h t to the e n e r g e t i c few. - 32 -COMMENTARY ON EXISTING COMMUNITY  PROBLEMS B e f o r e embarking upon a d i s c u s s i o n o f the West End community's proble m s , a word o f c a u t i o n i s i n o r d e r i f t h e y a r e to be viewed i n p e r s p e c t i v e . An i n t e r v i e w w i t h the s o c i a l p l a n n e r s of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s r e v e a l e d a r e l a t i v e l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r the West E n d . 1 S o c i a l problems the a r e a u n d o u b t e d l y has, but none, by n a t u r e or d i m e n s i o n , a r e such as t o be 'viewed w i t h a l a r m ' when compared w i t h o t h e r l e s s f o r t u n a t e a r e a s o f Vancouver. The p l a n n e r s s t a t e t h e i r e q u a n i m i t y a r i s e s from the o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n the a r e a o f Gordon Neighbourhood House, whose e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f a s s u r e s a s u p e r i o r p r e v e n t -a t i v e j o b t h r o u g h the many programmes o f f e r e d . I n r e c o u n t i n g West End problems and a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s t h e i r i n c i d e n c e , r e s o r t must a l l too o f t e n be made to i m p r e s s i o n s , i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n s and educated guesses r a t h e r than s t a t i s t i c s . T h i s problem i s 2 i d e n t i c a l to the d i f f i c u l t i e s r e v e a l e d by the Wheeler R e p o r t . However, d e s p i t e the d e a r t h o f s t a t i s t i c s , i m p r e s s i o n s w i l l not be quoted e x c e p t when no more s c i e n t i f i c c r i t e r i a i s a v a i l a b l e , and o n l y when such i m p r e s s i o n s o r i g i n a t e w i t h , and a c h i e v e consensus among those whose s p e c i f i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e a r e such as to l e n d v a l i d i t y t o them. Problems o f the Aged To c o n s i d e r problems by age groups, among the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , income d e f i c i e n c y and h o u s i n g must t a k e top p r i o r i t y . L i m i t e d income 1 I n t e r v i e w Mr. B.A. R o b i n s o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , November 28, 1963 2 M i c h a e l Wheeler, A R e p o r t on Needed Research i n W e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h  C olumbia, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, August 1961. - 33 -i s a u n i v e r s a l problem but one w h i c h i s more a c u t e i n the West End where h i g h e r than average r e n t s f o r what i s o f t e n s u b - s t a n d a r d accommo-d a t i o n , p r o v e s an u n d u l y heavy burden. W h i l e the h a r s h r e a l i t i e s o f the market p l a c e would d i c t a t e t h a t t h o s e t h u s a f f e c t e d s h o u l d move e l s e w h e r e , they c o u l d do so i n many cases o n l y t o e x p e r i e n c e a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f h a r d s h i p . Numerous among them have been l o n g r e s i d e n t i n the West End, have a s t r o n g attachment to i t and have formed many c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s they a r e l o a t h to sunder. The C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 1 2 Department, s o c i a l w o r kers a t the l o c a l h o s p i t a l and the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s worker a t Gordon House, a l l r e p o r t o f aged persons o c c u p y i n g one d i l a p i d a t e d room p a y i n g an average r e n t of tk^.OO p e r month who can m e r e l y s u b s i s t on the meagre b a l a n c e of t h e i r income. Yet f o r many to move, as they p a t h e t i c a l l y remark to t h e s e w o r k e r s , would be t o d e p r i v e t h e i r l i v e s o f meaning. The h o s p i t a l r e p o t t s t h a t o l d e r p a t i e n t s , though d i s c h a r g e d as c u r e d , e x p r e s s the d e s i r e to l i n g e r i n the h o s p i t a l f o r the s u p e r i o r d i e t and a t t e n t i o n d e n i e d them a t 'home'. The needs of t h i s group i s f o r some c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u b s i d i z e d n u r s i n g and/or b o a r d i n g homes w i t h i n the a r e a , and/or an i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of homemakers a v a i l a b l e to them. F o r the aged as a whole t h e r e i s a g r e a t demand f o r low r e n t a l p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n the a r e a . T h i s l a t t e r need i s a l o n g r e c o g n i z e d one and much thought and e f f o r t has a l r e a d y been expended towards the r e a l i z a t i o n o f such a g o a l . ^ The need t o combat s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and promote n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r , though n o t 1 I n t e r v i e w M i s s B. S t a n l e y , D i r e c t o r West End U n i t o f C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, December 5» 19&3 2 I n t e r v i e w M i s s M. M i l l e r , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, S t . P a u l ' s H o s p i t a l , December 12, 1963 ^ B r i e f p r e s e n t e d January 21, i960 to Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l by S e n i o r C i t i z e n s Housing Committee o f the West End Community C o u n c i l on the need f o r , and f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s e n i o r c i t i z e n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w i t h i n the West End. - 34 -c o n f i n e d t o , the aged. To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s and y e t a v o i d any i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y i s a problem i n t h e West End as e l s e w h e r e , and one which c o n t i n u e s to g i v e c o n c e r n t o o t h e r s as w e l l as s o c i a l w o r k e r s . Gordon House p r e s e n t l y o f f e r s a comprehensive a r r a y o f programmes and f a c i l i t i e s to o v e r t h r e e hundred s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s e r v i c e i t p e r f o r m s i s r e l a t e d i n no s m a l l measure to the feet t h a t the worker f o r t h i s group has t w e l v e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s j o b . The House seeks always t o r e a c h out t o t h i s group and e x t e n d and improve upon what i t a l r e a d y o f f e r s . T h i s w i l l become more onerous w i t h t h e passage o f time as the p e r c e n t a g e o f the aged who r e t i r e to t h i s a r e a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e s . T h e i r problems ar e not s o l e l y economic but a r e y e t such as to s t r a i n the l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to d e a l w i t h them. Problems Among F a m i l i e s The f o l l o w i n g d a t a on problems o f f a m i l i e s w i t h i n the a r e a i s drawn p r i m a r i l y from a s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y c o m p i l e d i n November 19&3 by Gordon House worker M a r g a r e t M. M i t c h e l l on 440 f a m i l i e s s e r v e d by Gordon House. The c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e f a m i l i e s numbered 1,036 and 612 o f these were e n r o l l e d i n Gordon House. I t i s t r u e to say t h a t perhaps a m a j o r i t y o f these c h i l d r e n come from the l e s s a f f l u e n t homes w i t h i n the West End, but an o v e r a l l view o f f a m i l y problems w i t h i n the a r e a i s n ot g r o s s l y d i s t o r t e d by t h i s f a c t . F i n a n c i a l problems do not loom l a r g e i n comparison w i t h o t h e r s and s t a t i s t i c s on incomes show no major d i f f e r e n c e s from the average incomes of a l l V a n c o u v e r i t e s . R e p r e s e n t i n g some 60 p e r c e n t of a l l West End f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , the 440 f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d showed o n l y 257 w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s i n the home. Of the b a l a n c e , seventeen homes had f a t h e r s o n l y , twenty-- 35 -s i x were f o s t e r / a n d the b a l a n c e o f ikO f a m i l i e s were m a i n t a i n e d by the mother a l o n e . T h i s h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f broken f a m i l i e s n a t u r a l l y i n d i c a t e s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f a v a r i e t y o f problems. An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s may be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e w h i ch was drawn up from 98 f a m i l i e s t o t a l l i n g some kOO members found to be i n need o f s p e c i a l h e l p ; the e s t i m a t e s e r r on the c o n s e r v a t i v e s i d e . Of the 98 f a m i l i e s , i t may be seen t h a t they average almosb t h r e e problems each o f those l i s t e d i n the t a b l e . T a ble A. Sample o f Type and I n c i d e n c e o f Known F a m i l y Problems Among Gordon Neighbourhood House Members ^ . , Number of F a m i l i e s P r o b l e m A f f e c t e d D i s t u r b e d C h i l d 31 D i s t u r b e d A d o l e s c e n t 27 D i s t u r b e d F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s • 25 M u l t i - p r o b l e m F a m i l i e s 15 One P a r e n t F a m i l i e s 61 F i n a n c i a l Problems 2k D e l i n q u e n t B e h a v i o u r 18 Unmarried Mothers 5 M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n 13 P h y s i c a l H e a l t h Problems 8 P s y c h i a t r i c Problems 13 C h i l d N e g l e c t 15 C h i l d Care Problems 8 A l c o h o l i s m k C u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t s 7 Source: Gordon Neighbourhood House. J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e S t u d y , 1963. Problems Among Teenagers Problems among t e e n a g e r s i n the West End, i n n a t u r e and i n c i d e n c e , r e v e a l no g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h i s a r e a and Vancouver as a whole. The High S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l was u n a b l e to p r o v i d e s t a t i s t i c s on the 'dropout' r a t e but h i s 'educated guess' p l a c e d t h i s - 36 -a t about 50 p e r c e n t ; h i g h e r than the average f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver but average f o r the P r o v i n c e . A 60 p e r c e n t t u r n o v e r each y e a r i n s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t i s a major f a c t o r i n p r o h i b i t i n g a c c u r a t e measurement o f s c h o o l r e t e n t i o n r a t e s . The Chant Re p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h e s e r a t e s i n any event as b e i n g s u b j e c t to numerous d e f i n i t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 1 A measure o f d e l i n q u e n c y i n the a r e a r e v e a l e d t h a t 21 j u v e n i l e s appeared b e f o r e the c o u r t s i n 1961 on o t h e r t h a n t r a f f i c o f f e n s e s . I t i s t r u e t h a t an unknown number of d e l i n q u e n t s a r e not b r o ught b e f o r e the c o u r t s and t h a t an a c c u r a t e assessment of the problem i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t . However, the h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , the C i t y P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r f o r the a r e a and the P o l i c e Youth D e t a i l do not c o n s i d e r t h i s t o be a problem of s e r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n . The P r i n c i p a l r e f e r r e d t o h i s h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s as b e i n g "more a d u l t , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d and l e s s b o i s t e r o u s than t h e i r suburban c o u n t e r p a r t s - presumably a b e h a v i o u r a l b i - p r o d u c t ofapartment l i v i n g " . The r e l a t i v e l y low d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e i s even more s i g n i f i c a n t when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t of the 133 Gordon House s e n i o r teenage members (age 15 - 18), o n l y 70 o f them have b o t h p a r e n t s i n the home. As t h i s number r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l West End c h i l d r e n i n t h i s age group, one c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y assume t h a t some c r e d i t must go t o the p r e v e n t i v e j o b o f Gordon House. R e g r e t t a b l y i t has had r e c e n t l y t o c u t down on the volume of s e r v i c e s i t can o f f e r to c h i l c r e n o f a l l gjes. H a v i n g to reduce s e r v i c e s d u r i n g the summer months, the problem o f i n s u f f i c i e n t summer camps i s a f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t i o n . Problems Among C h i l d r e n The problems o f younger c h i l d r e n stem from the f a c t t h a t they 1 R e p o r t o f the R o y a l Commission on E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, I 9 6 0 , p.43 ~ p P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y S t a t i s t i c s , Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver J u v e n i l e and F a m i l y C o u r t , et a l . May 1962. - 37 -r e s i d e i n an a r e a w h i c h becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s adapted t o t h e i r needs. I n c o n f i n e d r e n t e d q u a r t e r s , t h e i r i n n a t e b o i s t e r o u s n e s s must be c o n t r o l l e d t o o b v i a t e annoyance t o a d j a c e n t t e n a n t s . O u t s i d e o f the home, t h e r e i s but one l o c a l p a r k i n which to p l a y , and w i t h b o t h back l a n e s and s t r e e t s crowded w i t h parked c a r s and moving t r a f f i c , they prove too hazardous f o r the younger c h i l d r e n . S c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s a r e not adequate though the new Hi g h S c h o o l w i l l soon a c q u i r e an e x t r a h a l f o f a c i t y b l o c k f o r p l a y i n g f i e l d s . W h i l e S t a n l e y P a r k i s an o b v i o u s boon, i t i s not c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d and i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by the f a c t t h a t younger c h i l d r e n cannot s a f e l y make use o f i t u n l e s s accompanied by p a r e n t s o r e l d e r s . Problems of P a r e n t s A problem f o r p a r e n t s i s the inadequacy of day care f a c i l i t i e s . Of the kkO f a m i l i e s i n the Gordon House s t u d y , 73 f a m i l i e s have b o t h p a r e n t s w o r k i n g , and 90 of the ikO f a m i l i e s w i t h the mother o n l y i n the home a l s o work. Gordon House can o f f e r day c a r e f o r but k^> to 50 c h i l d r e n , which l e a v e s a l a r g e unmet need. Some mothers n o t now w o r k i n g , but dependent on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , would p r e f e r to work i f t h i s was p o s s i b l e . A check o f C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department f i l e c a r d s i n March 196k, r e v e a l e d some 15 p e r c e n t o f a l l West End r e c i p i e n t s w i t h f a m i l i e s b o t h c a p a b l e of and a n x i o u s to work i f day care were made a v a i l a b l e . Two t h i r d s of the West End's p o p u l a t i o n a r e between the ages o f 20 and 65. Some e i g h t hundred o f t h i s group a r e S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s w i t h t h e f u l l range o f problems such dependent s t a t u s t y p i c a l l y r e v e a l s . The f a c t t h a t t h i s department has o n l y one p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d 'A' worker w i t h a case l o a d s m a l l enough to p e r m i t any sound casework, poses a r e a l d i f f i c u l t y . P r e s e n t l y t h i s worker c o v e r i n g a wide g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , - 38 -can serve only six West End families and this l imitation places a heavier burden upon other•agencies operative within the area. Unfortunately, however, this is not a problem unique to the West End. The problem of unemployment among West Enders i s not significantly different from the rest of Vancouver. In 196l , 7 percent of West Enders were registered as unemployed when 6 percent of Vancouverites were in the same category. - 39 -THE EXTENT OF CO-OPERATION AMONG  EXISTING WELFARE AGENCIES The C e n t r a l Community O r g a n i z a t i o n F a c i l i t a t i n g  R o le o f Gordon Neighbourhood House En any commentary upon w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s w i t h i n the West End one must i n e v i t a b l y b e g i n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f Gordon Neighbour-hood House. I n numerous c o n t a c t s w i t h s o c i a l w o r k e r s , p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , n u r s e s , s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , p o l i c e e t . a l . on the s u b j e c t o f w e l f a r e g e n e r a l l y , i t i s a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t h a t t h i s t o p i c and the r o l e o f Gordon House emerge as synonymous. C e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e West End, o c c u p y i n g the s e v e n t y y e a r o l d b u i l d i n g s o f the former C r o f t o n House S c h o o l f o r G i r l s , i t has s e r v e d the a r e a f o r twenty-one y e a r s . O p e r a t i n g under the a u s p i c e s of A l e x a n d r a Community A c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h owns and a d m i n i s t e r s i t s p r o p e r t i e s , Gordon House from modest b e g i n n i n g s has s t e a d i l y expanded i t s s e r v i c e s . P r e s e n t l y i t s u p p l i e s l e i s u r e time r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . Supplemented by v o l u n t e e r s , i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f p r o v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p f o r a v a r i e t y o f programmes f o r a l l age groups from p r e - s c h o o l e r s t o s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The programmes run the gamut o f i n f o r m a l p l a y and c l u b g r o u p s , team games and i n t e r e s t g roups, a r t s , c r a f t s and h o b b i e s and i n d e e d , any a c t i v i t y deemed h e l p f u l i n e n a b l i n g i t s members to a c h i e v e the b e s t p o s s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y and neighbourhood l i f e . I n terms o f i t s membership, the House s e r v e s 45 - 50 c h i l d r e n aged 3 - 6 y e a r s , i n i t s N u r s e r y S c h o o l and day care s e r v i c e . I t s c h i l d r e n and teenage programmes s e r v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 700 and i t s s e n i o r c i t i z e n membership i s o v e r 300. A d u l t membership i s under 100, but g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d f o r s p e c i a l e v e n t s . A noteworthy - 40 -act iv i ty receiving growing emphasis i s Joint Family Services which serves to integrate both casework and groupwork s k i l l s . In the process i t finds i t s e l f involved quite extensively in community organization too. Far from being agency centred, the House wins professional acclaim for i t s widespread co-operation and co-ordination with a host of agencies and resources both in and outside of i t s immediate neighbourhood. Particu-lar ly fortunate in the qualifications and ab i l i ty of i t s staff which has a minimum of turnover, i t has been a prime factor in i n i t i a t i n g and furthering the goals of family focussed neighbourhood services. From information obtained on members at intake, from noting behaviour during programme and outside of i t as well as from referrals , Gordon House staff are able to ascertain those who need individual help. Regular case conferences are held involving caseworkers, groupworkers and the nursery school director. Also invited for consultation and joint planning, where appropriate, are school principals , counsellors, school nurses, probation off icers. A Family Service Association worker is another team member employed two days per week at Gordon House and manages a small case load. Gordon House has further taken an active role in i n i t i a t i n g and maintaining l ia ison with the City Social Service Department, the Child Care Centre, the Metropolitan Health Unit and many other agencies. It refers some clients to specialized resources when case conferences indicate this course of action, and because i t i s associated with the West End in the minds of many social workers and operates widespread programmes, receives referrals from other agencies too. Each year i t carries out an active recruiting programme among the four schools in the area with the f u l l co-operation of school principals . - 41 -On i t s agency board and i t s a d v i s o r y committees ar e l a y p e r s o n s prominent i n a l l the major o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the community. For example, i t s J u n i o r A d v i s o r y Committee i n c l u d e s f o u r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , two p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s , a s p e c i a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and l o c a l m i n i s t e r s , a P a r k s Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and l o c a l s e r v i c e c l u b members. I t s community r o l e i s f u r t h e r advanced t h r o u g h the f a c t t h a t many l o c a l o r g a n i z -a t i o n s h o l d t h e i r m e etings w i t h i n Gordon House. S t a f f members may b e l o n g to these groups o r more f r e q u e n t l y , a t t e n d t h e i r meetings and thus c r e a t e f o r t h e m s e l v e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to p r e s e n t house concer n s and r e c e i v e the s u p p o r t of t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Perhaps i t s most a c t i v e community o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t i v i t y d e r i v e s from i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the West End Community C o u n c i l i n t h a t b o t h have the same avowed g o a l " t o develop a b e t t e r neighbourhood i n w h ich to l i v e " . The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o r h i s a s s i s t a n t a t t e n d a l l C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s , s t a f f some C o u n c i l committees, p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l e r i c a l h e l p and g e n e r a l l y work i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n t o a c h i e v e t h e i r common g o a l . The l o c a l newspaper a l s o g i v e s g e n e r o u s l y of p u b l i c i t y f o r many Gordon House programmes and s p e c i a l community e v e n t s such as C h r i s t m a s and Hallowe'en p a r t i e s and dances, rummage s a l e s and the A n n u a l F a i r . O r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h w h i ch Gordon House has the minimum l i a i s o n a r e the c h u r c h e s , the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A.. The l a t t e r two a r e l o c a t e d on B u r r a r d S t r e e t i n the downtown a r e a , the West End's e a s t e r n boundary. They are l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n r a t h e r t han neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s , d r a w i n g t h e i r membership from Vancouver c i t y and a l l o f the a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Few members r e s i d e i n the West End. The Y.M.C.A. approaches t h a t of a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e - k2 -w i t h n e g l i g i b l e w e l f a r e emphasis. W h i l e i t i s p r e p a r e d t o o b t a i n s u b s i d i e s f o r a h a n d f u l o f West End y o u t h who c o u l d not o t h e r w i s e a f f o r d membership f e e s , i t does not 'reach o u t ' to t h i s community. I t a c c e p t s r e f e r r a l s b u t i t s p r i m a r y r o l e i s a r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e and i t i s not s t a f f e d to p r o v i d e o t h e r than t h i s . The Y.W.C.A. s t a f f has a s t r o n g s o c i a l work emphasis and i t s w i d e r a r r a y o f programmes r e f l e c t t h i s f a c t . C a r r y i n g a l l the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i t s s t a f f can p r e s e n t l y cope w i t h , i t does n o t of i t s own v o l i t i o n r e a c h out to communities but w a i t s f o r the i n i t i a t i v e t o come from l o c a l a g e n c i e s . The Y.W.C.A. i s p r e p a r e d to o f f e r c o n s u l t -a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the c r e a t i o n of. new programmes w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f i t s s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s . I t s H i 'Y' group i s a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s may be one r e s o u r c e n ot y e t f u l l y e x p l o i t e d by Gordon House. Churches a r e aware o f the r e s o u r c e s o f Gordon House, a p p r e c i a t i v e o f i t s community r o l e w h i ch t h e y see as s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e i r own. They have p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s which they a r e p r e p a r e d to a l l o w Gordon House to use i f the y a r e needed and i f the House can a f f o r d to d i s p e r s e i t s s t a f f . T h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y e l d e r l y and numerous o f t h e i r i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s a r e a l s o i n v o l v e d w i t h Gordon House c o n c e r n s . Because o f t h i s , m i n i s t e r s f e e l l e s s n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t i n u o u s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h Gordon House, though they sometimes s e r v e on committees. What few l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o p e r a t i v e w i t h i n t h e i r p a r i s h e s a r e seen as supplementary to and not c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h those o f the House. I n summary, Gordon House per f o r m s the c e n t r a l community o r g a n i -z a t i o n f a c i l i t a t i n g a c t i v i t y f o r the West End. I t must be s t a t e d , however, t h a t i n common w i t h a l l a g e n c i e s , the q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e s i t o f f e r s i s - 4 3 -l imited by i t s budget. While i t has the framework and the experienced staff to serve as the nucleus for a ful ly comprehensive programme, i t has had to l imit i t s ac t iv i t i e s . Funds from the Community Chest which comprise some 70 percent of i t s budget have decreased in the past few years. Only sound community organization work by the Executive Director and his Board enabled them to replace the lost dollars by grants from the c i ty . In brief , having to struggle to maintain the status quo i t i s unable to consider any needed expansion. But the prime factor in l imiting services to West Enders i s the absence in the area of a community centre. The Board of Parks and Public Recreation's community centre plan divides the city into twenty social areas and plans to i n s t a l l community centre f a c i l i t i e s in each. The West End i s one such area. A centre i s constructed when an area's Community Association in i t iates a plebiscite and sixty percent of householders vote to pay for i t as a local improvement, on a front footage tax basis over a twenty year period. The Parks Board, on completion of constructions, pays a l l costs amounting to some $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 per year for recreational and administrative staffing together with building maintenance.1 The present poll ing area for the West End extends eastwards to Main Street. This brings about an inclusion of many downtown stores and business offices whose owners cannot visualize a community centre as being other than a financial burden. Within the West End too are many absentee landlords and corporation owned apartments who also would 2 -actively oppose having their already high taxes raised yet further. 1 Profile for Planning, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, July, 1 9 5 9 -2 These statements represent a consensus of membership views expressed at meetings of the West End Community Council and the West End and Downtown Ratepayers Association during the period November, 1963» to March 1 9 6 4 . - kk -W h i l e a l t e r n a t e methods of o b t a i n i n g community c e n t r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e p r e s e n t l y b e i n g e x p l o r e d and a c t e d upon, Gordon House has f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o 'spread i t s e l f t h i n ' and s u f f e r s reduced e f f e c t i v e n e s s by a t t e m p t i n g t o s e r v e the d u a l needs o f w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n i n an outmoded p h y s i -c a l s t r u c t u r e . - 4 5 -EXPLORATION OF POSSIBILITIES OF ORGANIZATION  AND RESOURCES TO DEAL WITH PROBLEMS As has been documented, the West End i s an area i n t r a n s i t i o n but the temps and d i r e c t i o n o f change i s n o t w h o l l y c l e a r . T h i s means t h a t w h i l e the e x i s t i n g problems may be seen c l e a r l y , those o f the f u t u r e , even o f the n e x t decade cannot w i t h c e r t a i n t y be p i n p o i n t e d . I n t u r n , t h i s f a c t engenders a g r e a t d e a l of ambivalence i n the minds of t h o s e who w i l l l i k e l y be c h a r g e d w i t h the s o l u t i o n o f community problems as t o what forms such s o l u t i o n s s h o u l d t a k e . The West End Community C o u n c i l W h i l e p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e w i l l p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s - and these w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon f u r t h e r - t h e r e i s no problem i n terms o f who w i l l be c h a rged w i t h the p l a n n i n g . I n d i s c u s s i n g the p e r s o n a l a s s e t s of the West End, b r i e f mention was made of the Community C o u n c i l and i t s s t r o n g c o r e of i n d i g e n o u s e x p e r i e n c e d l e a d e r s h i p . I f t h i s neighbourhood's problems a r e to be s o l v e d i t i s t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n which w i l l assume the c e n t r a l r o l e , w i t h the c l o s e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f Gordon Neighbourhood House. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t s make-up, i t s p a s t a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s t r u t h . The West End Community C o u n c i l , though not o f f i c i a l l y founded u n t i l 1950, had i t s o r i g i n s d u r i n g the y e a r s o f W o r l d War I I . The n u c l e u s of the C o u n c i l , West Enders w i t h a c l o s e and l o n g term a f f i n i t y w i t h the a r e a , d e v e l o p e d confidence::and e x p e r i e n c e i n w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n C i v i l Defence p o s t s , the Red C r o s s and the Community C h e s t . T h i s n u c l e u s , much e n l a r g e d , p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n the West End today. The C o u n c i l c o m p r i s e s i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s from the community as w e l l as from a h o s t of l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . Most - 46 -prominent among these are Gordon Neighbourhood House, the Apartment and Rooming House Owners Association, the West End Downtown Ratepayers Association, and the West End Business Association. But there i s a great overlapping of membership and representation from among Legion member-ship, service clubs, P.T.A.s and church groups. In countless meetings one sees some of the same familiar faces. This is not to infer that the Council i s dominated by any one clique, for annual elections of new officers by these organizations sees a corresponding turnover in the leadership of the Counc i l . 1 The Council meets monthly at Gordon Neighbourhood House with an average attendance of about twenty. However, on certain issues i t can command a turn-out in excess of one hundred, for example before 2 civic elections, or on zoning or tax issues. On the Coal Harbour Development issue i t played a major role in forcing a public hearing -before an audience of seven hundred at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre on Monday, June 24, 1963. By any yardstick the Council proves a real power in the community. A spot review of Council minutes and the historian's scrapbook between the years i960 to 1963 revealed involvement in some twelve greater or lesser concerns a l l having relevance to the betterment of the West End. It would prove fruit less to speculate as to members' motivations. F irs t hand evidences of real estate concerns have been noticed during attendance at meetings, but these appear to be balanced by elements of seemingly pure altruism. Certainly the breadth of issues with which Council concerns i t s e l f , many unconnected with personal prof i t , prohibits one from assuming a cynical outlook. From writer's review of Council's Executive Officers, 1955 to 1964. Personal attendance at Alderinanic Election Meeting, Nov. 26,1963 at Lord Roberts School, convened by West End Community Council. - 4? -Two r e l a t e d and r e l a t i v e l y minor C o u n c i l c o n c e r n s w i t h i n a w e l f a r e c o n t e x t , were e f f o r t s t o keep Gordon House programmes o p e r a t i v e d e s p i t e a 1962 c u t i n Chest f u n d s , and an a t t e m p t , d e l a y e d b u t not abandoned, to a t t a i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . Committees o f C o u n c i l , w i t h s t a f f a d v i s o r s from Gordon House, sought s u p p o r t t h r o u g h F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Sound r e s e a r c h , s o p h i s t i c a t e d awareness o f power s t r u c t u r e s , s u p e r i o r know-le d g e and p l a n n i n g r e s u l t e d i n r a t i o n a l , w e l l f o r m u l a t e d b r i e f s , w h i c h , supplemented by p e r s o n a l appearance i n v e r b a l s u p p o r t o f them, brought s u c c e s s on the f i r s t i s s u e . The second i s s u e on s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g l i e s i n abeyance w h i l e s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s from o t h e r a r e a s o f the c i t y c l a i m e a r l i e r p r i o r i t y . The p r o g n o s i s f o r i t s e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s appears to be good. Two major and l o n g c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e r n s which c u r r e n t l y consume the b u l k o f C o u n c i l ' s time a r e o f a p r e v e n t a t i v e n a t u r e . These a r e , as mentioned e a r l i e r i n a d i s c u s s i o n of West End l i a b i l i t i e s , the proposed a d d i t i o n a l B u r r a r d I n l e t C r o s s i n g and the C o a l Harbour Development P l a n . Not c o n t e n t w i t h m e r e l y f i g h t i n g a r e a r g u a r d a c t i o n o r assuming an o b s t r u c t i o n i s t r o l e , C o u n c i l p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p r o p o s a l s . These con-s t r a i n e d s o u n d l y . e n g i n e e r e d p l a n s have been p u b l i c i z e d l o c a l l y and a t the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . " 3 ' The volume o f p u b l i c i t y a f f o r d e d t h i s and o t h e r i s s u e s o f C o u n c i l by a l l the news media, i n c i d e n t a l l y , r e v e a l s 2 t h e i r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n from a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s s t a n d p o i n t . They r e p r e s e n t f o r c e f u l , i n t e l l i g e n t and 'grass r o o t s ' e v i d e n c e s o f demogracy a t work. Working i n C o u n c i l ' s f a v o u r i s t h a t i t has been f o r c e d to t a c k l e i s s u e s o f major, immediate and p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n , and c o n t i n u i t y has been 1 B r i e f s i n c l u d e d i n West End Community C o u n c i l M i n u t e s o f Jan.22,1964 C o u n c i l scrapbook c i r c a May and June 1963 r e w e a l s e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s on t h i s i s s u e t h r o u g h p u b l i c speeches,newspaper, r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n . - 48 -possible through there being no dearth of lesser but yet important issues. Further, i t has had a number of real successes which engender confidence that one can 'fight city h a l l ' - and win. The foregoing has attempted to i l lus trate that within the West End there exists the leadership, ab i l i ty and interest to deal with the area's problems. But these as stated are undergoing change. Future needs and resources are directly related to the people of the area and i t i s by no means certain what classes of people w i l l reside here a few years hence. To c lar i fy this at the cost of some repetition, the biggest drawback to intel l igent planning i s uncertainty as to the rate and rapidity of high rise apartment construction. This we have noted i s at the expense of older homes, forcing the occupants of these families and individuals with lower income - out of the area. And i t i s these groups which are the predominant consumer of private welfare and recreational services. The prime uncertainty relates to the Coal Harbour Development. While a choice area adjacent to Stanley Park was rezoned for this development, the local ratepayers publicly claim that the developing company's financial backing is not such as to allow i t to proceed with i t s plans. A recent meeting they persuaded Aldermen to attend revealed uncertainty among them as to whether the project w i l l proceed, or i f i t does, whether i t w i l l be completed. 1 Meanwhile ratepayers have proposed an alternative Centennial complex of buildings for this same location on the unconfirmed assumption that the Coal Harbour Develop-ment w i l l not materialize. West End and Downtown Ratepayers Meeting. March 24, 1964 at Gordon House. - 49 -A t t h i s p o i n t i n time the f a c t s a r e o b s c u r e d . But the i s s u e i s v i t a l . I f the complex of apartments i s completed as p l a n n e d , i t w i l l a b sorb some t w e l v e thousand p e o p l e . T h i s w i l l b r i n g the popu-l a t i o n d e n s i t y o f the West End n e a r to 45,000 t o t a l which c i t y 1 p l a n n e r s s t a t e i s the d e s i r a b l e maximum f o r the neighbourhood. I f t h i s i s r e a l i z e d the f u t u r e o f the West End w i l l be an unknown quantity. One can o n l y s p e c u l a t e on whether p l a n n e r s w i l l be o v e r - r u l e d and the d e n s i t y r e v i s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y upward, o r whether a r e z o n i n g of the a r e a f o r o t h e r than h i g h r i s e s w i l l o c c u r . R e c e n t l y , to compound the i s s u e y e t f u r t h e r , a l t e r n a t e p l a n s f o r the r e j u v e n a t i o n of the down-2 town c o r e a r e a have been p u b l i c i z e d . One such p l a n v i s u a l i z e s h i g h r i s e apartments t h e r e t o o , s e e m i n g l y a d d i n g to the s i t u a t i o n o f z o n i n g too f a r ahead o f demand. A l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s r e n d e r any sound prognos-t i c a t i o n s as to the West End's f u t u r e e x t r e m e l y hazardous. U n t i l C i t y C o u n c i l can r e a c h and a b i d e by some f i r m d e c i s i o n s , and they a r e q u i t e w i d e l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r not h a v i n g done t h i s , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r the West End i s as f r a u g h t w i t h f r u s t r a t i o n as i s p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r example, how weakened i s a b r i e f f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g i n the a r e a , when the o l d s t e r s w i t h low income decrease by 4 - 5 p e r c e n t each y e a r ? ^ How many w i l l remain a f t e r the y e a r s w h i c h w i l l i n e v i t a b l y e l a p s e b e f o r e such a p r o j e c t c o u l d be r e a l i z e d ? S i m i l a r l y t h e r e i s an e s t a b l i s h e d need f o r e x t e n s i o n o f day c a r e s e r v i c e s and ' t o t - l o t s ' f o r younger c h i l d r e n . The l a t t e r i n p a r t i c u l a r would prove a most e x p e n s i v e p r o p o s i t i o n w i t h l a n d i n the 1 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. L. Monroe o f C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, March 16,1964 A r t i c l e s i n Vancouver Sun, March 17, 1964 e t . seq. ^ F i g u r e s d e r i v e d from C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department s t a t i s t i c s S e p t . 1959 and March 1964, f o r West Enders on Supplementary S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . - 50 © West End the high price i t i s . Can even the most experienced leader-ship embark upon social action to achieve these resources, competing as they must with equal or greater pr ior i t ies of needs of other areas, while the present uncertainties abound? Nowhere are the planning d i f f icu l t ies more discernible than in the efforts of the Welfare and Recreation Committee of the West End Community Council.''" This committee has explored several alternatives to f inal ly settle upon a need for the establishment of a joint publ ic / private recreation and welfare centre. It would attempt to integrate the recreation services which are normally provided by a community centre with the multitude of resources Gordon House presently offers. This plan represents a considerable departure from the traditional provision of services and particularly in the financing of them. A formidable task in i t s e l f , i t i s made more d i f f i cu l t by uncertainty as to whether to direct i t s briefs to secure resources to meet the needs of a population similar in composition to that which Gordon House now serves, or to a population with the differing needs which might be expected of residents of high rise apartments. To summarize these planning d i f f i cu l t i e s , i t emerges that there i s , not unnaturally, ambivalence and indecision among committee members. The leadership i s both sound, experienced and sophisticated, yet social action i s impeded due to the uncertainties with which i t i s faced. Planning must be based on reasonably accurate knowledge of what the next ten to fifteen years portends for an area. This being unknown, none of the participating parties to such a proposed centre w i l l be prepared to make any commitments other than in principle . Opinions expressed here derive from personal experience as Gordon House staff member on this committee and from consultations with Executive Director of Gordon House and committee chairman. - 51 -SUMMARY The general assumption that there should be significant involvement of social planning and physical planning at a l l stages of neighbourhood development needs to be c lar i f i ed in i t s application to the West End. Within Vancouver, as indeed in most of Canada, those who do the planning may pay l i p service to such an assumption but have not acknowledged i t in practice. In ignoring this need they do so at considerable cost to the public by whom they are elected, or employed, to serve. That in ignoring the necessity for involvement of social and physical planning they engender anxiety, uncertainty and host i l i ty may be observed from the emotionally charged meetings of West Enders when they have an opportunity to face their representatives on planning issues. Some of this host i l i ty aris ing out of anxiety, admittedly stems from those whose concerns are primarily f inancial . They may be those who have invested in the area ohly in recent years for financial rather than social gains. Pol it ic ians and others may be tempted to dismiss their concerns l ight ly as a r isk which entrepreneurs have tradit ionally had to run in a free enterprise society. While even the legitimacy of this dismissal may be questioned there are other groups, with more powerful and personal concerns for whom the failure to consider in planning i s inexcusable. The latter group include those long resident in the area who are being painfully uprooted against their w i l l . Their protests at public meetings observedly receive the least consideration; they are i ron ica l ly deemed to be the 'victims' of 'progress'. It may prove - 52 -t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n may a m e l i o r a t e the c o n d i t i o n of some o f t h i s group but t h i s i s by no means c e r t a i n . 1 T h e i r good f o r t u n e , i f r e a l i z e d , i s due i n no s m a l l p a r t to t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r c o n c e r n s . A f i n a l group t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s one which does not have even t h i s c o n s o l a t i o n . T h i s group embraces those w i t h o u t a f i n a n c i a l s t a k e i n the community. Those whose income a l l o w them t o r e n t decent accommo-d a t i o n e x p r e s s apathy about the dynamics o f t h e i r neighbourhood. For the most p a r t t h e y a r e w e l l c a p a b l e of managing t h e i r own a f f a i r s and p r e f e r to do so w i t h o u t any community i n v o l v e m e n t whatsoever. W h i l e they may have problems, from the c u r r e n t w e l f a r e , but not r e c r e a t i o n p o i n t o f view, th e s e a r e of the l o w e s t p r i o r i t y . The o t h e r , l e s s a f f l u e n t segment of t h i s group, ar e the h e a v i e s t consumers of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the a r e a and those who s u f f e r the g r e a t e s t impact from the f a i l u r e to i n v o l v e both s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e i r neighbourhood's development. N u m e r i c a l l y t h e y a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . I f one c o n s i d e r s as a bare minimum those who p o t e n t i a l l y w i l l s u f f e r most, as b e i n g c h i l d r e n , s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s w i t h o n l y p e n s i o n s to l i v e on, t h e s e t o t a l i n e x c e s s of f o u r thousand. P r e s e n t l y almost e v e r y r e s o u r c e i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e i r needs. P e r e n n i a l l y i t i s t h i s group w h i c h i s the l e a s t a r t i c u l a t e i n making i t s demands known, which e x e r t s the l e a s t i n f l u e n c e and f o r whom o t h e r s must do the p l a n n i n g . They a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y s e r v e d i n the average neighbourhood 1 An amendment to the P r o v i n c i a l Assessment E q u a l i z a t i o n A c t was passed on Monday, March 9,196k. I t p r o v i d e s t h a t ' r e s i d e n c e s used f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , f o r f i v e y e a r s p r i o r to January 1,1964, s h a l l be a s s e s s e d on t h a t b a s i s r e g a r d l e s s of z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s . Not y e t i n t e r p r e t e d by the C i t y A s s e s s o r , i t w i l l n ot become e f f e c t i v e b e f o r e 1965. - 53 -where social planning merely follows upon the heals of physical planning. In the West End, while the present sine qua non - physical planning - i s so indecisive, this group seems destined to be over-looked, or more l ike ly , to be eventually forced out of i t s neighbour-hood altogether. CHAPTER I I  FRASERVIEW I n t r o d u c t i o n The concept o f community has a t l e a s t two r e l a t e d a s p e c t s , the g e o g r a p h i c a l and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l . E l l i o t t and M e r r i l l s t a t e t h a t " s i n c e b o t h o f thes e elements a r e i m p o r t a n t , we may c o n s i d e r the community t o be a complex s o c i a l u n i t y t h a t has b o t h a p h y s i c a l l o c u s and a p s y c h o l o g i c a l consensus".^ I t i s f a i r l y easy to d e f i n e the g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a w h i ch i s r e f e r r e d t o as F r a s e r v i e w but the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of such a community a r e much more d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e . Some of the psycho-l o g i c a l components w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the s e c t i o n s on S o c i a l Problems and Community D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The name F r a s e r v i e w s h a l l r e f e r to the s l i g h t l y l e s s than one square m i l e o f l a n d i n the extreme s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f Vancouver w h e r e i n a v d t e r a n s * h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s l o c a t e d (see F i g u r e 3)> A l t h o u g h census t r a c t 49 i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y much l a r g e r than the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t t h e r e a r e v e r y few houses i n i t apart from v e t e r a n s ' houses s i n c e much of the l a n d a r e a i s used as a c i t y garbage dump and a p u b l i c g o l f c o u r s e . The 1961 s t a t i s t i c s f o r t r a c t 49 r e f l e c t the v e t e r a n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . L a t e i n 1963 the C i t y o f Vancouver opened a new h o u s i n g sub-d i v i s i o n n o r t h o f the g o l f c o u r s e and a few new horn© were completed by the end of the year and many a r e p r e s e n t l y under c o n s t r u c t i o n . F r a s e r v i e w i s not an a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y d e f i n e d a r e a s i n c e the C i t y o f Vancouver has never d e v e l o p e d an o f f i c i a l c i t y - w i d e a n a l y s i s Mabel A. E l l i o t t and F r a n c i s E. M e r r i l l , S o c i a l D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , New York, Harper and B r o t h e r s , 3rd ed., 1950, p.473. Figure "3 Census T7-ac*f5- Vavcoauer t The only changes In 1961 were the division o f eight of the 1956 tracts. These divisions are shown with dotted bound-aries and their 1961 numbers. Fra*,er \t 1 e UJ - 55 -o f i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l sub-communities. The b o u n d a r i e s of the v e t e r a n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t are 54th Avenue i n the N o r t h , A r g y l e S t r e e t on the West, S o u t h e a s t M a r i n e D r i v e i n the South, and r o u g h l y , the F r a s e r -view G o l f Course on the E a s t . V i c t o r i a D r i v e , a major n o r t h - s o u t h r o a d , d i v i d e s the a r e a i n t o two u nequal p a r t s . A t l e a s t t h r e e d i s t i n c t n eighbourhoods ar e e v i d e n t w i t h i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . I f we t h i n k of neighbourhoods as g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s s e r v e d by an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , F r a s e r v i e w would have t h r e e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . 1 The w e s t e r n h a l f , s e r v e d by S i r James Douglas S c h o o l , would be one neighbourhood. The s o u t h e r n t w o - t h i r d s of the r e m a i n i n g h a l f would be a neighbourhood s e r v i c e d by D a v i d Oppenheimer S c h o o l . The c h i l d r e n i n the upper t h i r d o f the e a s t e r n h a l f o f F r a s e r v i e w a t t e n d S i r C h a r l e s K i n g s f o r d - S m i t h S c h o o l , w h ich i s l o c a t e d o n e - h a l f b l o c k n o r t h o f the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , F r a s e r v i e w w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o c o n s i s t e n t l y as a sub-community w i t h i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h of F r a s e r v i e w U n t i l 19^ -5 the s o u t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f Vancouver was h e a v i l y wooded and s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d . Most of the i n h a b i t a n t s were poor and k e p t a few c h i c k e n s and cows. Many of the houses were c r u d e l y f i n i s h e d and w i t h o u t sewer and w a t er s e r v i c e s . There were t r a i l s r a t h e r than roads and the t e r r a i n was e x t r e m e l y uneven as i t s l o p e d toward the F r a s e r R i v e r . The s t r e e t c a r r o u t e on V i c t o r i a D r i v e went as f a r as 54th Avenue d u r i n g r u s h h o u r s , the r e s t o f the time i t s t o p p e d a t 45th Avenue. The F r a s e r v i e w a r e a had one e i g h t room s c h o o l ( S i r James Douglas 1 S i d n e y D i l l i c k , "The F u n c t i o n s of Neighbourhood Organization',' Community  O r g a n i z a t i o n i n A c t i o n , ed. E r n e s t B. Harper and A r t h u r Dunham, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1959» p. 332. - 56 -S c h o o l ) w i t h an e n r o l l m e n t o f about t h r e e hundred p u p i l s . Second U n i t e d Church was the o n l y c h u r c h l o c a t e d i n the a r e a . B o t h of these i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e d as m e e t i n g p l a c e s f o r the c i t i z e n r y . There was a P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n a t S i r James Douglas S c h o o l w h i c h was s t a r t e d i n the 1920's and i t p l a y e d an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e community, except f o r f o u r y e a r s d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n , u n t i l i n t e r e s t waned d u r i n g the l a t e 1950's. The d e c i s i o n , i n 19^5, t o b u i l d a v e t e r a n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n from the l o c a l p e o p l e . S i n c e v e r y few r e s i d e n t s would be a l l o w e d to remain where they were due t o the p roposed s t r e e t l a y o u t , t h e y were g i v e n an o p t i o n o f k e e p i n g a l o t i n the a r e a . Most of the r e s i d e n t s d e c i d e d to move as F r a s e r v i e w would no l o n g e r be the s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d s e m i - r u r a l community w i t h low t a x e s w h i c h the y p r e f e r r e d . The New F r a s e r v i e w The end o f W o r l d War I I r e s u l t e d i n the r e t u r n to Vancouver o f thousands o f s e r v i c e m e n . There was so l i t t l e h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e i n the c i t y t h a t i t became n e c e s s a r y f o r the F e d e r a l Governmat to p r o v i d e low c o s t h o u s i n g f o r the v e t e r a n s . The C i t y o f Vancouver made l a n d a v a i l -a b l e t o the F e d e r a l Government and C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g Corpor-a t i o n , a crown c o r p o r a t i o n , became the owner of the houses b u i l t upon t h i s l a n d . The b l o c k of l a n d i n F r a s e r v i e w became the l a r g e s t f e d e r a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n Canada. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the houses s t a r t e d i n 19^6 and was completed i n 1952. A t o t a l o f 1137 houses were owned by C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing a t the c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s p r o j e c t . The houses were b u i l t by f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o n t r a c t o r s , each w i t h many s u b - c o n t r a c t o r s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s , many people b e l i e v e t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the q u a l i t y o f the houses. Many o f the l o t s have e x c e l l e n t views o f - 57 -Mount Baker or the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a ( L u l u I s l a n d ) . The s t r e e t s a r e l a i d out i n the form of c r e s c e n t s and c u l - d e - s a c s (see Appendix C ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o n l y 5 b a s i c house p l a n s , t h e y are a l t e r n a t e d t h r o u ghout the a r e a . E l i g i b i l i t y f o r a house was based upon a p o i n t system f o r war s e r v i c e , ( y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , o v e r s e a s s e r v i c e , e t c . ) and t h e r e had to.be two o r more c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y . The r e n t s c a l e has been r a i s e d s e v e r a l times o v e r the p a s t t e n y e a r s but even now i s e x t r e m e l y low. I t v a r i e s from 1150.00 p e r month f o r a two bedroom house w i t h o u t basement to $64.00 p e r month f o r a f o u r bedroom house w i t h basement. Occupants must pay f o r t h e i r u t i l i t i e s and d e p o s i t a s m a l l f e e to c o v e r damages wh i c h may be i n c u r r e d by the o c c u p a n t s . B e g i n n i n g i n August 1955 the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r -a t i o n has been s e l l i n g the houses t o those v e t e r a n s who wished to p u r c h a s e . D u r i n g the p a s t y e a r i t became p o l i c y to s e l l e v e r y house t h a t becomes v a c a n t . A t the p r e s e n t time 51 p e r c e n t of the houses a r e owned by the o c c u p a n t s . There i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n w i s h e s t o remove i t s e l f from the r e n t a l b u s i n e s s i n F r a s e r v i e w . Demographic P a t t e r n s of Change"1" The p o p u l a t i o n o f F r a s e r v i e w (census t r a c t 4-9) d e c l i n e d by t h r e e between the y e a r s 1956 to 196l . T h i s was the s m a l l e s t f l u c t u a t i o n i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. The p o p u l a t i o n of F r a s e r v i e w a t the time o f the 1 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s e c t i o n has been d e r i v e d from the f o l l o w i n g b u l l e t i n s o f the Government o f Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ; 1961 B u l l e t i n CT - 22 1956 B u l l e t i n 4 - 14 1951 B u l l e t i n CT - 11 - 58 -l a s t t h r e e censuses was as f o l l o w s : -1951 — 4,187 1956 — 7,398 1961 — 7,395 T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the number o f p e o p l e i n F r a s e r v i e w became c o n s t a n t a f t e r the p e r i o d o f r a p i d growth a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the p r o j e c t . I n 196l t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the number of males and the number o f fe m a l e s . The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f the age d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s community i s the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of p e r s o n s found i n two o f the age r a n g e s , namely, 10 - 14 y e a r s , and 35 - 44 y e a r s . The e f f e c t on the community o f the l a r g e number o f perso n s i n the e a r l y t e e n s has not been u n l i k e t h a t o f a t i d a l wave i n i t s i m p act upon the community and subsequent d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s . The e f f e c t s o f the o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n peak a t ages 35 - 44 have not been n e a r l y as n o t i c e a b l e s i n c e t h i s age range r e p r e s e n t s a d u l t s a t the prime o f l i f e . I f the p r e s e n t t r e n d s c o n t i n u e d u r i n g the n e x t f i f t e e n t o ^ e n t y y e a r s , the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s community w i l l be the l a r g e number of r e t i r e d p e r s o n s and the s m a l l number of c h i l d r e n . F i g u r e 4? shows the d e n s i t y o f the 10-14 age group f o r a l l census t r a c t s . T a b l e ©indicates a s u b s t a n t i a l drop, i n 1961, o f c h i l d r e n under age 5« T h i s i s l i k e l y a n a t u r a l phenomenon r e s u l t i n g from the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f husbands and w i v e s who are i n t h e i r f o r t i e s and no l o n g e r w i s h to have young c h i l d r e n . I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from a p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e i n d i c a t e d t h a t s l i g h t l y l t s s s than one hundred c h i l d r e n were born i n F r a s e r v i e w i n b o t h 1963 a n d 1962, t h e r e f o r e i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a f u r t h e r drop i n the f i r s t age b r a c k e t by the n e x t p a r t i a l census i n 1966. - 59 -Table B. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n s i n Vancouver - Cenus  T r a c t 49 f o r 1951,1956, 1961 Age Range ( I n Y e a r s ) 1951 1956 1961 0 - 4 1023 1133 609 5 - 9 569 1779 1138 10 - 14 267 767 1587 15 - 19 134 331 666 20 - 24 140 137 171 25 -34 1068 1216 496 3 5 - 4 4 463 1284 1687 45 - 54 162 315 616 55 - 64 147 151 170 65 - 69 93 108 57 70 + 121 177 198 T o t a l s 4187 7398 7395 Of the 7,395 people i n F r a s e r v i e w , 4,209 a r e s i n g l e , 2,985 a r e m a r r i e d and 159 a r e widowed. E t h n i c o r i g i n s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s a r e 10 p e r c e n t h i g h e r i n F r a s e r v i e w then i n the C i t y as a whole. No o t h e r c o u n t r y i s r e p r e s e n t e d t o any s i g n i f i c a n t degree. Table C. 196l E t h n i c Groupings i n Vancouver  Census T r a c t 49 E t h n i c P e r c e n t o f O r i g i n P o p u l a t i o n B r i t i s h I s l e s 70 F r e n c h 5 German 5 S c a n d i n a v i a n 5 A l l O thers 15 - 60 -The religious af f i l ia t ions of Fraserview residents reveal that the percentage of persons who are Anglican, Roman Catholic and Presbyterian i s almost the same as the percentages for these faiths on a city-wide basis. The United Church a f f i l i a t i on for Fraserview in 196l was 35 percent of the total population as contrasted with a city-wide a f f i l i a t i on of 26 percent. In the City of Vancouver the percentage of adult population which had some university training ranged from 1.1 percent in the heart of the Skid Road area to 36 percent in the Shaughnessy d i s t r i c t . There are more adults in Fraserview with no formal education than there are with university education. While only 4 percent of Fraserview adults have attended university, a large majority of the adults have attended high school (see Table D. ) . Table D. Education Levels for Fraserview Adults in 1961 Amount of Percentage of Education Total Adult Population No education 6 Some elementary 26 Some high school 64 Some university k Fraserview has the largest number of persons per household (4.6), the largest number of persons per family (4.6), and the largest number of children per family (2.6) in the City of Vancouver. Population over 15 years of age not attending school. - 6 1 Table E Number o f C h i l d r e n P e r F a m i l y i n 1 9 6 1 F r a s e r v i e w and Vancouver Number of C h i l d r e n P e r c e n t o f F a m i l i e s i n F r a s e r v i e w P e r c e n t o f F a m i l i e s i n Vancouver 0 1 3 42 1 - 2 36 42 3 - 4 40 14 5 11 2 As shown i n Ta b l e E, F r a s e r v i e w has the l a r g e s t r a t i o o f f a m i l i e s w i t h t h r e e o r f o u r c h i l d r e n i n the- c i t y . T h i s f e a t u r e o f F r a s e r v i e w has c o n t r i b u t e d to the h i g h e s t r a t i o o f p e r s o n s p e r room i n Vancouver (1.0 p e r s o n p e r room). 30 p e r c e n t of the d w e l l i n g s i n F r a s e r v i e w a r e r a t e d as crowded by the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . ' The l e n g t h o f occupancy o f d w e l l i n g s i n F r a s e r v i e w , as shown i n T a b l e F, r e f l e c t s a f a i r l y h i g h degree o f r e s i d e n c e s t a b i l i t y . N e a r l y 65 p e r c e n t o f the r e s i d e n t s o f F r a s e r v i e w have l i v e d t h e r e f o r o v e r s i x y e a r s . The low r e n t a l p o l i c y o f C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n u n d o u b t e d l y has c o n t r i b u t e d to the r e l a t i v e permanency o f F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f i g u r e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e to show what e f f e c t the i n c r e a s i n g home ownership i s h a v i n g on the m o b i l i t y f a c t o r . We do not know whether o r not the houses are b e i n g s o l d p r i m a r i l y t o occupants of them. The amount o f unemployment a t the time o f the 1 9 6 1 census was 4 . 7 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . The Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s d e f i n e s "crowded" d w e l l i n g s as thos e i n which the number of p e r s o n s exceeds the number of rooms o c c u p i e d . - 62 -Table F L e n g t h o f Occupancy o f F r a s e r v i e w  D w e l l i n g s as of June 196l L e n g t h o f P e r c e n t o f Occupancy Oc c u p i e d D w e l l i n g s Up to 2 y e a r s 20 3 - 5 y e a r s 16 6 - 1 0 y e a r s 4 5 Over 10 y e a r s 19 A l o n g w i t h t h e a d j a c e n t census t r a c t ( 4 8 ) F r a s e r v i e w had the s m a l l e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f s e l f - e m p l o y e d males i n the c i t y . 7 » 3 p e r c e n t o f the male l a b o u r f o r c e i n F r a s e r v i e w was s e l f - e m p l o y e d whereas the c i t y ' s r a t e was 1 3 * 4 p e r c e n t . The b u l k of the employed males i n F r a s e r v i e w c l a s s e d themselves as c r a f t s m e n , as shown i n Ta b l e S. Tab l e G O c c u p a t i o n a l D i v i s i o n s of F r a s e r v i e w Males O c c u p a t i o n P e r c e n t a g e o f male Labour F o r c e Craftsmen 4 3 M a n a g e r i a l 11 C l e r i c a l 11 S a l e s 11 S e r v i c e Workers 11 P r o f e s s i o n a l o r T e c h n i c a l 7 L a b o u r e r s 6 Many members of the F r a s e r v i e w C o u n c i l on Youth, a body o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e ople d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h F r a s e r v i e w problems were - 63 -o f the o p i n i o n t h a t an u n u s u a l l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f mothers i n the community were employed. The f a c t s do not bea r out t h i s i m p r e s s i o n . Of a t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e of' 2,288 i n 196l , 30 p e r c e n t were female. T h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s a l m o i i d e n t i c a l to the average o f the twelve census t r a c t s w h i ch a r e l o c a t e d s o u t h o f h i s t Avenue as w e l l as w i t h the c i t y as a whole. I n d i v i d u a l male and f a m i l y e a r n i n g s were v e r y c l o s e t o the c i t y - w i d e average. T a b l e H a l l o w s a q u i c k comparison o f these census c a t e g o r i e s . Table H Income L e v e l s f o r F r a s e r v i e w Residents, 1 9 6 1 A n n u a l Wage F r a s e r v i e w Vancouver A n n u a l wage per wage-earner head o f house-h o l d $kk51.00 $Vf08.00 Annual income p e r f a m i l y $5301.00 $5366.00 I n many r e s p e c t s the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F r a s e r v i e w a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r to many o t h e r a r e a s o f Vancouver. The most u n u s u a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s community are the l a r g e number of pe o p l e w i t h i n two r e l a t i v e l y narrow age rang e s . I n a d d i t i o n , the f a m i l i e s a r e l a r g e and, as a r e s u l t , many of the homes a r e crowded. F a m i l y income i s v e r y c l o s e to the average f o r the C i t y of Vancouver. When compared to o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f the C i t y , F r a s e r v i e w a d u l t s a r e not w e l l educated nor a r e many of them employed i n v o c a t i o n s which r e q u i r e much f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . The remai n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r t o the impact w h i c h the above f a c t o r s have had upon the community. - 64 -SOCIAL PROBLEMS To obtain information about social problems i t proved necessary to rely mainly on the informal opinions of persons representing ins t i tu -tions and associations which regularly deal with social problems in Fraserview. Three reports by the Community Chest and Councils were of assistance and w i l l be referred to speci f ical ly . It would appear that most agencies are not in a position, due to the cost, to keep s tat is t ics on a census tract basis yet this would be necessary to under-stand social problems in relation to sub-communities. Juvenile Delinquency . Since i960 Juvenile Delinquencyhas been the social problem most often attributed to the Fraserview area. The emphasis put on this area by the police and social agencies has led to a considerable amount of publicity in the news media. The residents of Fraserview were aware of delinquency as a result of thefts and vandalism. The social agencies were genuinely concerned about their seeming inab i l i ty to cope with the delinquency problem. Many Vancouver residents were aware of the problem as a result of the publ ic i ty . The role of the news media in "glamourizing" the problems in Fraserview has been debated by many psple. At least six major newspaper art ic les during the past four years were focussed upon the Fraserview area and none of them could be described as favourable toward the area. While the art ic les featured the problems of the community, they did not attempt to put them into a perspective which allowed comparison on the basis of population. The last feature art ic le on Fraserview appeared in the Vancouver Sun on November 6, 1963. The caption was of 3/8 inch bold type and read as follows: "TOUGH NUTS ARE CRACKED, AND FRASERVIEW STILLED". - 6 5 -Agency s t a f f s r e p o r t w i d e - s c a l e resentment i n F r a s e r v i e w o v e r the p u b l i c i t y r e c e i v e d and t h i s seemed to be b orn out i n a q u e s t i o n and answer p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g a speech by the w r i t e r to the Oppenheimer P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n on March 1 7 , 1 9 6 4 . I n May 1 9 6 2 the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t on 1 9 6 1 J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y s t a t i s t i c s . 1 I n s p i t e of two s t a t e m e n t s t o the e f f e c t t h a t the R e p o r t does not r e f l e c t d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s s i n c e the 1 9 6 1 census s t a t i s t i c s were not a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e seems to have been c o n s i d e r a b l e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n amongst agency s t a f f and p u b l i c . The r e p o r t showed t h a t the second l a r g e s t number o f d e l i n q u e n t s l i v e d i n F r a s e r v i e w and t h i s g r a d u a l l y l e d to an a s s u m p t i o n , on the p a r t o f many i n d i v i d u a l s , t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y was v e r y w i d e - s p r e a d amongst the young p e o p l e of t h i s community. E n q u i r i e s t o the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s and the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Court i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 4 , i n d i -c a t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h the I 9 6 I census f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e , n e i t h e r had y e t c a l c u l a t e d the r a t e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y . The w r i t e r s u b s e q u e n t l y c a l c u l a t e d d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s on a census t r a c t b a s i s . S i n c e the c l o s e s t census age g r o u p i n g t o t h a t which i n v o l v e s d e l i q n e n c y was the 1 0 y e a r to 1 9 y e a r g r o u p i n g , i t became n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e the 1 9 y e a r o l d p o p u l a t i o n even though t h i s age i s l e g a l l y t h a t of an a d u l t as f a r as our j u d i c i a l system i s concerned. F i g u r e 5 i s a comparison o f d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s i n the census t r a c t s of the C i t y o f Vancouver. I t w i l l be n o t e d from Table E t h a t F r a s e r v i e w & s r a t e o f d e l i n q u e n c y i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y low (see t r a c t 4 9 ) . A l t h o u g h the r a t e o f d e l i n q u e n c y i s not e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h , t h e r e were s t i l l t h i r t y - f o u r adjudged d e l i n q u e n t s i n l e s s than one square R e s e a r c h Department, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y S t a t i s t i c s  Vancouver, B.C. 1 9 6 1 , May 1 9 6 2 - 66 -m i l e i n 1961. Both t h e p o l i c e and the C h i l d r e n ' s Court a r e a l l o w e d broad d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers as to whether o r not a c h i l d i s charged w i t h a d e l i n q u e n c y . D u r i n g 1961 and 1962 t h e r e were i n e x i s t e n c e s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r e d gangs w h i c h caused c o n s i d e r a b l e concern t o the p o l i c e and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g the a r e a . These were gangs w i t h i d e n t i f i a b l e l e a d e r s and membership. D u r i n g 1963 the gangs were no l o n g e r n o t i c e a b l e but i t was not u n u s u a l t o f i n d up to one hundred and f i f t y t e e n a g e r s l o i t e r i n g on V i c t o r i a D r i v e i n the v i c i n i t y o f the Boys' C l u b . S e n i o r o f f i c i a l s o f the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e have i n d i c a t e d to the w r i t e r t h a t d u r i n g the p a s t t w e l v e months an average o f 25 p e r c e n t o f a l l c o m p l a i n t s r e c e i v e d a t the p o l i c e s t a t i o n were from the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t . The same o f f i c i a l s s t a t e t h a t a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the c o m p l a i n t s were r e l a t e d to the b e h a v i o u r o f j u v e n i l e s o r the commission o f o f f e n c e s e i t h e r b e l i e v e d o r proven t o be j u v e n i l e s . C o n s t a b l e s w o r k i n g i n F r a s e r v i e w have a d v i s e d the w r i t e r t h a t t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h r e s i d e n t s o f the a r e a have con-v i n c e d them t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l v a n d a l i s m and m a l i c i o u s damage i s r e p o r t e d to the p o l i c e . Many f a m i l i e s have a d v i s e d the p o l i c e t h a t t h e y would f e a r r e p r i s a l s i f they were to r e p o r t any but the most s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t s to the p o l i c e . A l t h o u g h the r a t i o of d e l i n q u e n c y i n F r a s e r v i e w i s not h i g h , the a r e a c o n t i n u e s to l e a d a l l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s of the C i t y as a f o c a l p o i n t o f concern f o r the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e . E v i d e n c e o f Other S o c i a l Problems I n i960 the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s conducted a c h e c k - l i s t s u r v e y o f m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver. F o r purposes o f t h i s - 67 -T a b l e I R a t e s o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n Vancouver, 1961-*-Census t r a c t number P e r c e n t o f P o p u l a t i o n which was d e l i n q u e n t Census t r a c t number P e r c e n t o f p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h was d e l i n q u e n t Census t r a c t number P e r c e n t o f p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h was d e l i n q u e n t 1 3-3% 17 2.0% 33 1.6% 2 2.4% 18 0.58% 34 0.60% 3 1.0% 19 1.2% 35 1.5% 4 0% 20 2.0% 36 0.61% 5 3.9% 21 2.3% 37 0.51% 6 2.5% 22 3.4% 39 0.68% 7 2.8% 23 2.0% 40 0.31% 8 2.1% 24 1.6% 41 1.2% 9 0.74% 25 1.1% 42 0.56% . 1 0 1.0% 26 0.81% 43 1.1% 11 1.1% 27 1.4% • 44 0.29% 12 0.61% 28 2.0% 45 0.58% 13 3-7% 29 1.9% 46 1.6% 1 14 5.7% 30 1.5% 47 1.3% 15 3.3% 31 2.5% 48 1.3% 16 1.4% 32 1.4% 49 1.5% Study a m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y i s d e f i n e d as "a f a m i l y i n iirhich t h e r e i s a t l e a s t one p a r e n t a t home and one or more c h i l d r e n 18 o r under, and where t h e r e i s one o r more b e h a v i o u r d i s o r d e r s ( c h i l d n e g l e c t , d e l i n q u e n c y , o r o t h e r s e r i o u s b e h a v i o u r problem) p l u s a 2 s e r i o u s problem i n e i t h e r o r . b o t h the h e a l t h and economic a r e a . " S i n c e the Report o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s was based on 1956 census t r a c t b o u n d a r i e s a d j u s t m e n t s were made so t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o f pe r s o n s ages 10 - 19 y e a r s i n the 196l census were a p p l i e d t o the 1956 b o u n d a r i e s . Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of G r e a t e r Vancouver, C h e c k l i s t Survey  o f M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l i e s , I960, Vancouver, i960, p . l . - 68 -The incidence of multi-problem families in Fraserview was in the lowest category, 0.0 - 1.4 percent of families with children. While there may be many families with specific problems, the check-list survey would indicate a scarcity of socially debilitated families. Factual material i s not available with regard to alcoholism in Fraserview. Many of the f i e ld staff of agencies working in Fraserview have indicated some concern about the amount of problem drinking. These persons are of the opinion that many Fraserview adults have continued drinking patterns typical of military l i f e . Apparently the pay day party and the celebration of various military battles are well entrenched as the things to do. The Pyramid Group of Alcoholics Anonymous meets regularly in the Fraserview United Church, however, only thirty of the members l ive in the Veterans' Housing Project. - 69 -COMMUNITY DISORGANIZATION Community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f e r s to a community's i n a b i l i t y t o a c t c o l l e c t i v e l y toward the problems w h i c h i t f a c e s . 1 James S. Coleman b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e a r e two elements which may o r may not o p e r a t e t o g e t h e r t o b r i n g about a s t a t e o f community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n : the absence o f any c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t 2 and/or the e x i s t e n c e o f c o n f l i c t i n g c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s . A l a n F. K l e i n r e f e r s t o danger s i g n s i n a community which would i n d i c a t e much the same p r o c e s s which Coleman r e f e r s to as community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The n i n e p o i n t s a r e as f o l l o w s : -1. There i s no l e a d e r s h i p o r b a s i s f o r l e a d e r s h i p . 2. There i s t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t ; an atmosphere of s u s p i c i o n ; d i s t r u s t and j e a l o u s y marks p e r s o n a l and group r e l a t i o n s . 3. P r e s s u r e groups a r e a c t i v e . k. The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n e f f i c i e n t . 5. There i s a l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n among o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; s t u p i d i s o l a t i o n and p r i d e . 6. Community problems a r e approached e m o t i o n a l l y i n s t e a d o f r a t i o n a l l y . 7. There i s c o n f l i c t among the c h u r c h e s . 8. The a t t i t u d e toward p o l i t i c s i s l e t h a r g i c . 9. There i s no community p l a n n i n g o r what t h e r e i s i s poor.3 A l t h o u g h these p o i n t s c o u l d be r e p h r a s e d and put i n t o more t e c h n i c a l t erms, t h e y s t i l l p r o v i d e a u s e f u l base from which community d i s -1 James S. Coleman, "Community D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n " , Contemporary S o c i a l  P r oblems, ed. R o b e r t K. Merten and R o b e r t A. N i s b e t , H a r c o u r t , Brace and W o r l d , I n c . , New York, 196l, p. 556. 2 _ l o c . c i t . ^ A l a n F. K l e i n , "X-Ray Your Community", p.2. Mimeographed m a t e r i a l , f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s unknown. - 70 -organization may be studied. The present study could in no way pretend to be an exhaustive and penetrating analysis of Fraserview, however, i t i s hoped that even a limited study may be of some value to those who must continue to work with social problems in the city and in Fraserview. Much of the information collected from inter-views i s subjective and therefore there i s always the poss ibi l i ty of distorted information. Those who daily work in the midst of social problems may very easily, though inadvertently, develop concepts and attitudes which are not always objective. During the course of field-work this has been shown to be true on a number of very important issues. Eleven of the persons interviewed are directly involved in programmes which require c i t izen participation and which attempt to recruit their lay leadership from the community. Of the eleven, eight reported considerable d i f f icul ty in maintaining a satisfactory level of membership and nine reported di f f icul ty in obtaining people with ab i l i ty to serve as leaders. It was the opinion of these persons that they have had to provide f a i r l y firm direction to their groups and remain in fa ir ly close contact with the programmes offered. Of the persons with direct knowledge of the character of many Fraserview residents, the majority freely commented on what they saw as a high degree of inter-personal confl ict , suspicion and resentnmt of those individuals who were "progressing" (improving their station in l i f e ) , jealousies over accumulation of material goods, and a basic distrust of well educated persons. In such a homogeneous community apparently very small things can take on great importance. 1 The writer's f ie ld work was a community organization placement with the Fraserview Youth Services Society. The supervisor was Mr.D.E.McComb Executive Director of the Boys' Clubs of Vancouver. Two days per week, for the entire academic year, were allotted to field-work. - 71 -T h i s community has a v e r y v o c a l p r e s s u r e group, known as the F r a s e r v i e w Homeown.e r s ' and Tenants' A s s o c i a t i o n , whose s o l e purpose seems to be " t o get a b e t t e r d e a l from the F e d e r a l Govern-ment". T h i s group has c a r r i e d on i t s a c t i v i t i e s t hrough an e x e c u t i v e which meets r e g u l a r l y and g e n e r a l meetings which a r e c a l l e d a t t i m e s of c r i s i s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e s t h a t the r e n t s and s a l e p r i c e s o f the v e t e r a n s ' houses a r e too h i g h . The i n c r e a s i n g number of homes which are b e i n g p u r c h a s e d must be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f r e s i d e n t s do not s e r i o u s l y s u p p o r t the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Those who do a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a r e p r i m a r i l y those who a r e so c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the government's •benign p a t e r n a l i s m ' o f the l a s t decade t h a t t h e y now r e s e n t any change i n r e n t s o r p o l i c y . Many of the people who have p u r c h a s e d t h e i r homes have e x p r e s s e d resentment toward those who remain depend-ent and to the adverse p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to the l o b b y i n g . R e c e n t l y the F r a s e r v i e w Homeowners' and Tenants' A s s o c i a t i o n p i c k e t e d the L i b e r a l P a r t y h e a d q u a r t e r s i n Vancouver and t h i s a c t i o n a l o n g w i t h a t e l e v i s i o n i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. A l e x Watson, p r e s i d e n t o f the a s s o c i a t i o n , may have caused the b r e a c h between r e s i d e n t s t o widen. Mr. V/atson has s t a t e d , i n a p u b l i c m e e t i ng, t h a t he i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Hou s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n has d e l i b e r a t e l y g i v e n the w r i t e r f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n about the number o f houses s o l d , he i s c e r t a i n t h a t h i s f i g u r e s a r e more a c c u r a t e . The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n F r a s e r v i e w i s r a t h e r d i f f u s e . The F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a t i o n , which a t one time was v e r y a c t i v e , no l o n g e r h o l d s membership m e e t i n g s . Many of the a d u l t s b e l o n g t o v e t e r a n s ' c l u b s but t h e r e i s a s p l i t between the L e g i o n and the Army - 72 -Navy and A i r F o r c e V e t e r a n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . C e r t a i n s p o r t s a r e w e l l o r g a n i z e d but t h e r e has been l i t t l e s u c c e s s i n amalgamating them i n t o one major o r g a n i z a t i o n . The w r i t e r i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n to comment on two of K l e i n ' s danger s p o t s , namely, c o n f l i c t among the churches and i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s . There i s no apparent c o n f l i c t between the c h u r c h e s , i n f a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the m i n i s t e r s o f the t h r e e dominant churches seem t o be v e r y good. V o t i n g s t a t i s t i c s were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has come to l i g h t r e g a r d i n g t h i s f a c t o r . A number of p e r s o n s have t o l d the w r i t e r t h a t the p e ople i n t h i s community were a b l e to work t o g e t h e r f a r more h a r m o n i o u s l y d u r i n g the f i r s t few y e a r s of the p r o j e c t than they do now. I t i s known t h a t many community groups worked t o g e t h e r i n the m i d - f i f t i e s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Boys' C l u b . I t was d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o these p e r s o n s t o f i n d out t h a t i t took n e a r l y e i g h t y e a r s from the community's o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t to the c o m p l e t i o n o f a b u i l d i n g . G r a d u a l l y the v a r i o u s groups s t a r t e d b i c k e r i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r and by 1957 a Community Chest r e p o r t s t a t e d , "the e f f o r t s o f the groups to o b t a i n s e r v i c e s a r e u n c o - o r d i n a t e d and t h e r e i s a l a c k o f o v e r -a l l p l a n n i n g f o r the good o f the community. A t t h i s time t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e of c o m p e t i t i o n and c o n f l i c t which c o u l d a f f e c t the morale o f the community"."'" Many o f the persons i n t e r v i e w e d by the w r i t e r r e p o r t e d t h a t 1 Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of G r e a t e r Vancouver, R e p o r t on the  Need f o r R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s i n the F r a s e r v i e w A r e a , Vancouver, March 29, 1957, p . l . - 73 -during the f i r s t few years of the housing project a large number of the men were attending university but, as they "got on their feet" f inancial ly , many of them moved into other areas of the c i ty . A school principal said he s t i l l expects to lose two of his best families each month. It i s evident that there i s considerable community or social disorganization in Fraserview. To the writer's knowledge there i s no rating scale or measurement device whereby we could say that this community i s worse than others or that i t i s at a danger point leading to disintegration. We do know that this community was faced with one very serious social problem - delinquency, and that the residents of the community have not been able to mobilize their resources to combat the problem. The section to follow wi l l discuss the role of the institutions and associations, as well as the planning bodies, in controlling the problem of delinquency. Opinion Testing Questionnaire On March 17, 1964, the writer addressed a meeting at the Oppenheimer Parent-Teacher Association. Before starting the speech a questionnaire was circulated amongst the audience. Forty seven completed questionnaires were returned. Although the sample was small and from an area served by only one school i t i s contended that some of the responses may be significant and useful in under-standing the community. The questionnaire was a modified version of a t r i a l one presented one month earlier to a group of six persons on the executive of this Parent-Teacher Association. The questionnaire may be found in Appendix D. The purpose of the questionnaire was to determine response - 74' -t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h ich may be r e l a t e d to a pe r s o n ' s f e e l i n g s toward the community he l i v e s i n . Q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d to determine the re s p o n d e n t ' s i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as whether o r not he o r she h e l d p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p i n them, v i e w p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g community r e p u t a t i o n , and e x t e n t t o w h i c h they would p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a n o t h e r community. Q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e and home ownership were i n c l u d e d to t e s t whether o r not t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s e f a c t o rs and the re s p o n s e s t o the o t h e r q u e s t i o n s . Twenty seven o f the r e p l i e s were from p e o p l e who a r e p u r c h a s i n g t h e i r homes, 20 were from r e n t e r s . L e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e ranged from 1 to 15 y e a r s and every y e a r i n the range was r e p r e s e n t e d , a l t h o u g h 77 p e r c e n t had l i v e d i n F r a s e r v i e w f o r 6 o r more y e a r s . Seventy p e r c e n t o f the r e s i d e n t s i m p l i e d t h a t they p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e i n F r a s e r v i e w r a t h e r t h a n some o t h e r neighbourhood. Many o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d were o f the o p i n i o n t h a t common e x p e r i e n c e s and demographic s i m i l a r i t i e s has l e d t o a s o c i a l l y ingrown community. Seventy-seven p e r c e n t o f the re s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s l i v e d o u t s i d e of the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t . I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t a c i t y - w i d e s u r v e y o f Kalamazoo, M i c h i g a n , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 75 p e r c e n t of the people p o l l e d had most o f t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s o u t s i d e o f the a r e a where they l i v e d . 1 Most o f the re s p o n d e n t s were of the o p i n i o n t h a t V a n c o u v e r i t e s thought F r a s e r v i e w had a poor r e p u t a t i o n as a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a but 1 C e n t e r f o r S o c i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h o f Western M i c h i g a n U n i v e r s i t y , R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s on I n t e g r a t e d Housing i n Kalamazoo, W.E. Upjohn I n s t i t u t e f o r Community R e s e a r c h , Kalamazoo, J u l y , 1959» p.10. - 75 -the group was a l m o s t e v e n l y s p l i t r e g a r d i n g whether o r not t h e r e were grounds f o r such a r e p u t a t i o n . I t became e v i d e n t to the w r i t e r d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d r e l a t e d to the speech and q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e d e f e n s i v e n e s s about the poor r e p u t a t i o n . Many p e r s o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f e l t much of the t r o u b l e w h i c h l e a d t o the r e p u t a t i o n was r e l a t e d to the l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n , the l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s and t h a t the e n t i r e i s s u e was e x a g g e r a t e d i n the p r e s s . There seemed to be l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n of the apparent i n c a p a -b i l i t y o f the l o c a l c i t i z e n s to m o b i l i z e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s to h e l p d e a l w i t h the d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r of some o f the young p e r s o n s . Table J . Response By F r a s e r v i e w R e s i d e n t s to Q u e s t i o n s  R e g a r d i n g R e p u t a t i o n of the Community j Content of Q u e s t i o n R e p l y C i t y Wide R e p u t a t i o n i s poor i s not poor 81% 19% P e r s o n a l l y f e l t t h e r e were grounds f o r poor r e p u t a t i o n . P e r s o n a l l y f e l t t h e r e were i n s u f f i c i e n t grounds f o r a poor r e p u t a t i o n 55% Most o f the r e s p o n d e n t s b e l o n g to t h r e e or f o u r c l u b s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e t c . , and f o u r out of t e n have h e l d e l e c t e d o f f i c e a t one time or a n o t h e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these f a c t o r s bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the e n t i r e community as they may be common to most p e r s o n s who a t t e n d P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e n g t h o f - 76 -r e s i d e n c e or home ownership and where the r espondents p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e o r how they saw the r e p u t a t i o n of F r a s e r v i e w . I n t h i s s e c t i o n q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to e v i d e n c e o f community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d . While i t can be seen t h e r e a r e some s i g n s o f problems i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e them on a comparable b a s i s w i t h o t h e r a r e a s i n Vancouver. The dominant p r o b l e m i s t h a t o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . Awareness of problems as seen by r e s i d e n t s has been t e s t e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w i n g and an o p i n i o n - q u e s t i o n n a i r e . - 7 7 COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS "To u n d e r s t a n d a community one must a l s o know i t s a s s o c i -a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s " 1 These elements a r e a b a s i c p a r t o f a community's s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I t i s believed t h a t s o c i a l problems 2 have t h e i r r o o t s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f a community. R.M. M a c l v e r s t a t e s t h a t " i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e forms o f o r d e r e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n s o c i a l l i f e by some common w i l l " . He d e f i n e s an a s s o c i a t i o n as "a body o f s o c i a l b e i n g s o r g a n i z e d f o r the p u r s u i t 3 o f some common i n t e r e s t o r i n t e r e s t s . " I n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s s e r v i n g F r a s e r v i e w w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s : those w i t h p u r e l y l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p and no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r groups-, t h o s e w i t h l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p and d i r e c t a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a c e n t r a l and/or n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and those i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i ch p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to the community w i t h o u t the use o f l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p . The w r i t e r w i l l a ttempt t o determine t o what e x t e n t the i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s have sought to de v e l o p l o c a l l e a d e r -s h i p , and endeavoured t o promote a sense o f community. T h i s may be i m p l i e d i n p a r t t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f the l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e o f s e l e c t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . S i n c e problems r e l a t e d to y o u t h have been a f o c a l p o i n t o f co n c e r n i n F r a s e r v i e w , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be a t t a c h e d to the 1 Ray Johns and D a v i d F. DeMarche, Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and Agency  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ? p . 2 1 . 2 H a r o l d L. W i l e n s k y and C h a r l e s N. Lebeaux, I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and  S o c i a l W e l f a r e , New York, R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 5 8 , p. 2 1 7 •5 R.M. M a c l v e r , Community - A S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d y , New Y o r k , M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 1 7 » PP 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 » c i t e d by Johns and DeMarche, o p . c i t . p . 2 1 . - 78 -s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s t o y o u t h w h i c h a r e o f f e r e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a t i o n The F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a t i o n i s one of a c i t y - w i d e network o f community a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i ch are o p e r a t e d by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s w i t h programme a s s i s t a n c e from the Vancouver Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was formed i n 1 9 5 0 to p r o v i d e s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the community. A l a r g e c o n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d -house was donated the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r i t s use as a community meeting p l a c e . Between 1 9 5 0 and 1956 the A s s o c i a t i o n had a l a r g e membership and o f f e r e d a programme geared to the needs of a l l ages. T h i s b u i l d i n g burned down i n 1 9 5 6 . F o r the next few y e a r s a l i m i t e d programme was s p o n s o r e d , a l l meetings were h e l d i n p r i v a t e homes and c h u r c h basements. A new b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d i n I 9 6 0 . The p r e s e n t e x e c u t i v e and board o f d i r e c t o r s c o n s i s t o f seventeen p e r s o n s , a l l o f whom l i v e i n F r a s e r v i e w . Membership a t t e n d a n c e , a t the monthly meetings h e l d s i n c e 1 9 6 2 , was so low t h a t a l l r e g u l a r meetings were c a n c e l l e d i n November 1 9 6 3 . A t the p r e s e n t time the e x e c u t i v e and boar d meet once a month. The p r e s -i d e n t o f the a s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e s t h a t the o f f i c e r s have done a l l t h a t they can do t o make the a s s o c i a t i o n e f f e c t i v e . P l a n s f o r the f u t u r e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n are s t i l l e x t r e m e l y vague and u n c e r t a i n . I n s p i t e o f the problems o f the F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i -a t i o n , a l i m i t e d programme i s s t i l l b e i n g c a r r i e d on. Baton l e s s o n s , d a n c i n g l e s s o n s , one Cub Pack and one Scout Troop, square d a n c i n g , g i r l s ' s o f t b a l l , and a L i t t l e League b a s e b a l l team a r e y o u t h - 79 -a c t i v i t i e s s t i l l s p onsored by the a s s o c i a t i o n . F r a s e r v i e w Homeowners' and Tenants' A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n arose i n response t o the need f o r a group to r e p r e s e n t i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n and the Department o f V e t e r a n s ' A f f a i r s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n appears to e x i s t s o l e l y f o r t h e purpose o f p r o t e c t i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f tho s e v e t e r a n s who are s t i l l r e n t i n g houses. There was b i t t e r o p p o s i t i o n to a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n r e n t i n 1963 and t h e r e i s o p p o s i t i o n to the purchase o f homes as the a s s o c i -a t i o n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e purchase p r i c e o f the houses i s f a r too h i g h . The v e r y n a t u r e of the purpose o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n meetings i n which a g r e a t d e a l o f emotion, p a r t i c u l a r l y h o s t i l i t y , has been d i s p l a y e d . The p r e s i d e n t i n d i c a t e d to the w r i t e r t h a t he i n t e n d s to broaden the purpose o f the a s s o c i a t i o n t o i n c l u d e a c t i o n on a l l i s s u e s w h i ch a f f e c t r e s i d e n t s of F r a s e r v i e w . A t h l e t i c I n t e r e s t Groups F r a s e r v i e w has demonstrated a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n team s p o r t s . Many a d u l t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n c o a c h i n g teams f o r b o t h s e x e s . . There appears to be c o n s i d e r a b l e f r i c t i o n between some o f the g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y around i s s u e s of who i s q u a l i f i e d t o coach s p e c i f i c s p o r t s . The programme d i r e c t o r of the F r a s e r v i e w Boys' Club has been e n c o u r a g i n g o t h e r coaches to u n i t e and form a u n i t a r y c o - o r d i n a t i n g and p l a n n i n g body which would, amongst o t h e r t h i n g s , a s s i g n a common team name to the b e s t team i n each s p o r t . Some p e r s o n s b e l i e v e t h a t a s i n g l e name f o r the b e s t team i n each s p o r t would h e l p d e v e l o p community i n t e r e s t i n the s p o r t s as w e l l as more community i d e n t i t y . - 80 -The Churches The U n i t e d Church o f Canada has a c h u r c h l o c a t e d w i t h i n the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t . The b u i l d i n g i s q u i t e p l a i n and much o f the f i n i s h e d work has been done by p a r i s h i o n e r s . The U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r , Rev. H a r r y P a r k e r , has been i n F r a s e r v i e w f o r e i g h t y e a r s and was chosen by the c o n g r e g a t i o n because o f h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h v e t e r a n s . Rev. P a r k e r was a L e g i o n C h a p l a i n b e f o r e World War I I , a m i l i t a r y padre d u r i n g the war and s i n c e then has been a padre f o r an army r e s e r v e u n i t . The m i n i s t e r ' s concern about the community and i t s r e s o u r c e s to d e a l w i t h the l a r g e number of y o u t h has extended beyond the c h u r c h ' s programme to a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the development of a Boys' Club and the K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e . The F r a s e r v i e w U n i t e d Church has a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred a d u l t s i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s w h ich v a r y from the c h u r c h board to programmes f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Rev. P a r k e r s t a t e d t h a t he encourages each o f h i s a d u l t l e a d e r s to r e s t r i c t themselves to one r o l e i n the c h u r c h and to c o n t r i b u t e some of t h e i r time and energy t o o t h e r community a c t i v i t i e s . S l i g h t l y o v e r 400 young p e o p l e , ages 6 to 25 y e a r s , p a r t i c i p a t e i n c h u r c h sponsored a c t i v i t i e s a p a r t from Sunday S c h o o l . B o t h sexes have s e p a r a t e as w e l l as mixed group a c t i v i t i e s . S t . Timothy's A n g l i c a n Church i s a l s o l o c a t e d i n the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t . The c h u r c h b u i l d i n g i s v e r y p l a i n and f u n c t i o n a l . The basement s e r v e s as a k i n d e r g a r t e n on week days. The p r e s e n t m i n i s t e r has been w i t h t h i s c h u r c h f o r f o u r y e a r s - 81 -a l t h o u g h he i s a l s o f a i r l y a c t i v e w i t h d u t i e s w h i ch t a k e him o u t s i d e of F r a s e r v i e w . Over f i f t y a d u l t s c o n t r i b u t e to c h u r c h sponsored a c t i v i t i e s by some form o f l e a d e r s h i p . The m i n i s t e r s t a t e d t h a t he does have some d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g p e r s o n s w i l l i n g t o unde r t a k e the p o s i t i o n s w h i ch c a r r y the most r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The y o u t h programme does not appear t o be w e l l d e v e l o p e d . F o r t e e n a g e r s t h e r e i s o n l y one young p e o p l e s ' c l u b and a S e r v e r ' s G u i l d ( w h i c h i s r e s t r i c t e d to b o y s ) . The m i n i s t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e p r i m a r i l y a s u p e r i o r c l a s s o f young p e r s o n . Corpus C h r i s t i Roman C a t h o l i c Church i s l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x b l o c k s from the n o r t h e a s t p o r t i o n of F r a s e r v i e w . The c h u r c h i s v e r y o r n a t e and of s t r i k i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e . A l o n g w i t h t h e c h u r c h i s a complex o f b u i l d i n g s w h i ch house a gymnasium, elementary and secondary s c h o o l , o f f i c e space and r e s i d e n c e s f o r the p a r i s h p r i e s t and t e a c h i n g s t a f f . The p a r i s h P r i e s t has been a t t a c h e d to t h i s a r e a f o r ov e r t w e l v e y e a r s and has seen the b u i l d i n g s d e v e l o p on an acreage which was o n l y b r u s h when he a r r i v e d . The c o n c e n t r a t e d b u i l d i n g programme has t a k e n much of the church's energy and o n l y i n r e c e n t months has the m i n i s t e r been a b l e t o devote e x t r a time t o p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the p a r i s h i o n e r s . The P r i e s t i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e r n about h i s i n a b i l i t y to r e c r u i t a d u l t l e a d e r s from the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a . The y o u t h programme, o u t s i d e of c h u r c h f u n c t i o n s , i s now i n the p r o c e s s of b e i n g d eveloped. P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s There are o n l y two P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s w h i ch i n v o l v e 8 2 f a m i l i e s from the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t . S i r James Douglas s c h o o l , which s e r v e s F r a s e r v i e w e x c l u s i v e l y , does not have a p a r e n t -t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n . The S i r James Douglas P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n was d i s b a n d e d i n 1 9 6 2 f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h seem t o be r e l a t e d to apathy on the p a r t o f the p a r e n t s and the s c h o o l . The D a v i d Oppenheimer P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n had been e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n a t t e n d a n c e a t meetings u n t i l the p r e s e n t s c h o o l y e a r . I n September 1 9 & 3 the e x e c u t i v e d e c i d e d to h o l d o n l y f o u r meetings p e r s c h o o l y e a r . So f a r , t h r e e meetings have been h e l d and a t t e n d a n c e a t each m e e t i n g has been around s e v e n t y p e r s o n s , which the p r i n c i p a l c o n s i d e r s to be e x c e p t i o n a l l y good. There a r e twelve p e r s o n s on i t s e x e c u t i v e and a l l are F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n r e c e n t l y o r g a n i z e d an area-wide door to door canvass f o r O p e r a t i o n D o o r s t e p , a T u b e r c u l o s i s c o n t r o l campaign. The p r i n c i p l e o f Oppenheimer S c h o o l , who i s new to the a r e a , has encouraged the a s s o c i a t i o n to a t t e m p t a more a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d programme. The P.T.A. a t Kingsford-Smitbh S c h o o l i s v e r y a c t i v e and a t t e n d a n c e i s u s u a l l y v e r y good. I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h i s group o p e r a t e s one of the b e s t s c h o o l l u n c h programmes i n the c i t y . Only o n e - t h i r d of the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n come from the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a t h e r e -f o r e the i n v o l v e m e n t of p a r e n t s i s a l s o not g r e a t . A l t h o u g h t h r e e out o f the p a s t f i v e p r e s i d e n t s o f the P.T.A. were F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s o n l y t h r e e out o f the p r e s e n t e x e c u t i v e of t h i r t y a r e from F r a s e r v i e w . The p r i n c i p a l has o b s e r v e d t h a t the p a r e n t s from F r a s e r v i e w do not a t t e n d i n p r o p o r t i o n , t o the number of s t u d e n t s . L e i s u r e Time S e r v i c e s The Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n conducts a d e c e n t r a l i z e d - 83 -programme i n South Vancouver. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s a re l o c a t e d i n a s m a l l c o t t a g e l o c a t e d n e a r K i l l a r n e y Secondary S c h o o l , about one m i l e from the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f F r a s e r v i e w . The v a r i o u s programmes take p l a c e i n homes, s c h o o l s , o r wherever s u i t a b l e f a c i l i t i e s can be found. The South Vancouver Y.M.C.A. i s an autonomous b r a n c h which i s d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Y.M.C.A. A f u l l - t i m e E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y i s employed except f o r the summer months when he i s needed a t Camp Howdy, a camp f o r boys and g i r l s o p e r a t e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Y.M.C.A. F i v e out of f o u r t e e n South Vancouver Y.M.C.A. board members ar e F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s . The E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y s t a t e s t h a t he has had no d i f f i c u l t y e n l i s t i n g l e a d e r s h i p and o t h e r forms o f a s s i s t a n c e from F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a Men's K e e p - F i t c l a s s and young a d u l t gym a c t i v i t y the programme i s d e s i g n e d t o meet the needs o f young pe o p l e o f b o t h s e x e s , ages e i g h t t o n i n e t e e n . Swimming, gym c l a s s e s s k i l e s s o n s , and horseback r i d i n g , a r e o f f e r e d t o b o t h s e x e s . A c a r c l u b and w i l d e r n e s s c l u b a r e e x c l u s i v e to boys. B o t h g i r l s and boys have a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l - r e c r e a t i o n a l s m a l l - g r o u p c l u b programme. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 480 c h i l d r e n are e n r o l l e d i n the Y.M.C.A. programmes and, of them, about 50 p e r c e n t come from F r a s e r v i e w . The Y.M.C.A. has a s p e c i a l programme o f l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g from w h i c h i t r e c r u i t s many o f the a c t i v i t y l e a d e r s . The F r a s e r v i e w Boys' C l u b i s l o c a t e d n e a r the c e n t r e o f the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t . T h i s c l u b i s owned and o p e r a t e d by Boys' - 84 -C l u b s o f Vancouver. The b u i l d i n g was d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the a n t i c i p a t e d programme needs of F r a s e r v i e w and was opened i n October 1962. The Boys" C l u b has a f u l l - t i m e D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t . A Board o f Management, c o n s i s t i n g of e i g h t r e s i d e n t s o f F r a s e r v i e w and two non r e s i d e n t s , s e r v e s i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to the D i r e c t o r and the c e n t r a l o f f i c e . A v a r y i n g number o f a d u l t v o l u n t e e r s super-v i s e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g the month o f F e b r u a r y 1964, 120 a d u l t v o l u n t e e r s a s s i s t e d i n c l u b programmes. There a r e p l a n s to add a t r a i n e d group worker t o the p r e s e n t s t a f f . I f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s approved, i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h e p e r s o n w i l l work w i t h s m a l l g roups, i n c l u d i n g some f a m i l y u n i t s i n the community. The s t a f f o f t h i s c l u b i n p a r t i c u l a r have spearheaded e f f o r t s t o improve i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y good r e l a t i o n -s h i p e x i s t s between the B o y s 1 Club and the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e . The programme of the Boys* Club i s r e s t r i c t e d t o boys, u s u a l l y between the ages o f 8 and 19 y e a r s . A t o t a l o f 550 boys b e l o n g to t h i s c l u b . A c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e s p o r t s of a l l t y p e s , c r a f t s , c a r c l u b , woodworking, c e r a m i c s , a study programme, stamp c l u b . Boys a r e a l s o a l l o w e d to come to the c l u b a f t e r s c h o o l and take p a r t i n u n o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s such as p i n g pong and s h u f f l e b o a r d . Many o f the c l u b s sponsor mixed dances on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s . The b u i l d i n g i s not i n f u l l use on weekends or d u r i n g the summer. The K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e was o f f i c i a l l y opened i n O c t o ber 1963« I t i s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t to. the K i l l a r n e y S c h o o l . The b u i l d i n g i n c l u d e s c l u b rooms of v a r i o u s s i z e s as w e l l as an i n d o o r - 85 -swimming p o o l and a r t i f i c i a l i c e a r e n a . The K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e i s p a r t of the Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n p l a n f o r a t o t a l of f i f t e e n c e n t r e s c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e c i t y . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Community C e n t r e s i s f i n a n c e d by a p p r o v a l o f a money by-law by a m a j o r i t y o f p r o p e r t y owners. To a c c o m p l i s h the n e c e s s a r y community o r g a n i z a t i o n a new community a s s o c i a t i o n was formed by amalgamating the e x i s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i n F r a s e r v i e w , C o l l i n g w o o d - K i l l a r n e y and V i c t o r i a D r i v e . The Park Board s u p p l i e s b a s i c s t a f f , maintenance and equipment f o r the c e n t r e . Each c e n t r e has a b o a r d of d i r e c t o r s , c o n s i s t i n g o f l o c a l c i t i z e n s , w hich d e t e r m i n e s the t y p e o f programme to be o f f e r e d and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e n t a l s and the income from r e n t a l s and programmes. S i n c e the C e n t r e s e r v e s a l a r g e a r e a t h e r e i s no attempt t o determine how many pe r s o n s come from p a r t i c u l a r sub-communities o r neighbourhoods. The D i r e c t o r o f the K i l l a r n e y C e n t r e b e l i e v e s t h a t the r e s i d e n t s o f F r a s e r v i e w have not used the f a c i l i t i e s as much as she had expec t e d they would. I n a d d i t i o n to the newness o f the f a c i l i t i e s , the D i r e c t o r s u s p e c t s t h a t the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e from F r a s e r v i e w and a name which i d e n t i f i e s the Cen t r e w i t h a n o t h e r community, have c o n t r i b u t e d to the i n i t i a l r e l u c t a n c e o f F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s t o take advantage o f the C e n t r e . Programming a t the Cent r e i s de s i g n e d to s e r v e as many people as p o s s i b l e . I n o r d e r to s e r v e as many pe o p l e as p o s s i b l e i t becomes r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to programme f o r groups which have s p e c i a l needs. I n s p i t e o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , the K i l l a r n e y C e n t r e and the Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad o f the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e have worked t o g e t h e r to b r i n g many o f the i d l e young p e o p l e o f the a r e a i n t o s p e c i a l programmes f o r them a t the C e n t r e . R e c e n t l y h e l d dances have a t t r a c t e d over s i x hundred - 86 -t e e n a g e r s . A l a r g e a r e a i n the basement of the C e n t r e i s b e i n g f i n i s h e d and d e c o r a t e d t o s e r v e as a lounge a r e a f o r t e e n a g e r s . Other programmes f o r young people i n c l u d e p o p u l a r s p o r t s , gym c l a s s e s and hobby work. S e r v i c e s P r o v i d e d by M u n i c i p a l Government A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e two s c h o o l s w i t h i n the V e t e r a n s ' Housing P r o j e c t , the r e s i d e n t s a r e a b l e t o make v e r y l i t t l e use of them f o r s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s due m a i n l y to S c h o o l Board p o l i c y which p r o v i d e s f o r a c e n t r a l i z e d R e n t a l s Department t o handle a l l use o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s a p a r t from s c h o o l a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y . The e x t e n s i v e e v e n i n g use of s c h o o l s by o r g a n i z a t i o n s not i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the sub-community does not h e l p t o b r i n g about sub-community i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the s c h o o l s . The neighbourhood s c h o o l i s a p l a c e to send c h i l d r e n f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes and o u t s i d e of t h i s t h e r e i s l i t t l e encourage-ment to have r e s i d e n t s i d e n t i f y w i t h the s c h o o l system. Throughout Vancouver one w i l l f i n d t he e x t r e m e l y w a s t e f u l s i t u a t i o n o f Community C e n t r e s and l a r g e s c h o o l s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o one a n o t h e r and r e q u i r i n g s e p a r a t e maintenance s t a f f , s e p a r a t e gymnasiums and s e p a r a t e meeting rooms. High s c h o o l s t u d e n t s from F r a s e r v i e w l o s e t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h F r a s e r v i e w by b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the D a v i d Thompson and K i l l a r n e y H i gh S c h o o l s which s e r v e s t u d e n t s from a much l a r g e r a r e a . As a r e s u l t s t a t i s t i c s on s t u d e n t s from F r a s e r v i e w who l e a v e s c h o o l b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n o f a c o u r s e a r e not a v a i l a b l e . The s c h o o l s i n F r a s e r v i e w have e x p e r i e n c e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of v a n d a l i s m as w e l l as a r s o n and b r e a k - i n s . F o r reasons as y e t unknown t h i s s i t u a t i o n has improved d u r i n g the p a s t f o u r months. - 87 -The M e t r o p o l i t a n Board o f H e a l t h has a U n i t on K n i g h t Road and 49th Avenue which i s r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o F r a s e r v i e w i f one has an a u t o m o b i l e . X-ray s e r v i c e s , c h i l d r e n ' s d e n t a l work, a d u l t i m m u n i z a t i o n s , m e d i c a l s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s and l i m i t e d p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e a t the U n i t b u i l d i n g . Two p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s work a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n F r a s e r v i e w . T h e i r d u t i e s take them to the s c h o o l s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , and i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s they c o n t a c t many of the homes where c o n t a g i o u s s i c k n e s s and e m o t i o n a l problems a r e e v i d e n t i n the c h i l d r e n . P r e -n a t a l and p o s t - n a t a l p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o F r a s e r v i e w women. A l t h o u g h l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i s n o t a f a c t o r i n most o f the p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s the Board of H e a l t h does encourage n u r s e s to become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h neighbourhoods. I n a d d i t i o n the Board o p e r a t e s on a d e c e n t r a l i z e d b a s i s w h i ch encourages f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n w i t h g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . The C i t y o f Vancouver S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, a l s o on a d e c e n t r a l i z e d b a s i s , s h a r e s the b u i l d i n g on K n i g h t Road w i t h the H e a l t h U n i t . The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to a l l persons who a r e e l i g i b l e by lav;. The F r a s e r v i e w a r e a a t t h i s time does not p r e s e n t s p e c i a l problems to t h i s department. D u r i n g the b u s i n e s s r e c e s s i o n o f 1957 to 1959 t h e r e was a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the number of p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t employment o f F r a s e r v i e w males i s very s e n s i t i v e t o f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the w o r l d - 88 -market. The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h F r a s e r v i e w through i t s d e c e n t r a l i z e d o p e r a t i o n s . I n t i m e s o f s p e c i a l need s e r v i c e s may be o b t a i n e d i n South Vancouver. The Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n to i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to Community C e n t r e s and A s s o c i a t i o n s , o p e r a t e s a s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s e r v i c e d u r i n g the summer months and a l s o a d m i n i s t e r s the use o f a t h l e t i c p a r k s . L a s t summer the Boys' Club and P a r k s Board worked out an arrangement whereby two Boys' Club s t a f f members, who would n o r m a l l y have a v e r y l i g h t programme d u r i n g the summer, vere employed as p a r k s s u p e r v i s o r s and p a i d the r e g u l a r s a l a r y by the P a r k s Board and the Boys' Club made up the d i f f e r e n c e . I n t h i s manner the Boys' Club s t a f f remained employed a l l summer to t h e i r advantage as w e l l as the P a r k s Board's. F r a s e r v i e w has one major p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d a r e a , B o b o l i n k P a r k , as w e l l as numerous s m a l l e r ones. The h i s t o r y o f the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department does not i n c l u d e much r e f e r e n c e t o community i n v o l v e m e n t o u t s i d e of the u s u a l d u t i e s . D u r i n g the p a s t y e a r t h i s Department has demonstrated t h a t t r a d i t i o n need not d e t e r change. A t a time when the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s were unable to cope a d e q u a t e l y w i t h s p e c i a l needs o f F r a s e r v i e w , the P o l i c e Department a s s i g n e d two c o n s t a b l e s to the development o f a programme of " d e t a c h e d " group work. The c o n s t a b l e s worked on the - 89 -s t r e e t s o f F r a s e r v i e w w i t h the young p e o p l e , g ot to know them and many of t h e i r p a r e n t s , i n t e r v i e w e d a l l key p e r s o n s connected w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s and as a r e s u l t were p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g a degree of c o n t r o l over the d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r o f the young p e o p l e . T h i s c o n t r o l then e n a b l e d the e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s t o " c a t c h t h e i r b r e a t h " and to develop more e f f e c t i v e programmes of t h e i r own. The s u c c e s s o f t h e i r e f f o r t s l e d the p o l i c e to s e t up what i s now a n i n e man Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e f o r s p e c i a l y o u t h s i t u a t i o n s on a c i t y - w i d e b a s i s . The P o l i c e Department does not c o n s i d e r group work t o be one o f i t s f u n c t i o n s and as a r e s u l t p r i m a r y emphasis i s p l a c e d on w o r k i n g w i t h young p e o p l e o n l y to the p o i n t o f g e t t i n g them to p a r t i -c i p a t e i n e x i s t i n g programmes p r o v i d e d by the a g e n c i e s i n an a r e a . The c o - o p e r a t i o n between the P o l i c e Department and c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s has a l r e a d y been commented upon. The o f f i c e r i n charge o f the Oakridge p r e c i n c t and the Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad has worked ha r d t o c o - o r d i n a t e the s e r v i c e s o f h i s department w i t h t h o s e o f c e r t a i n a g e n c i e s . T h i s o f f i c e r b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s Department's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the F r a s e r v i e w Y o u t h S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , an agency c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, has been p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l to h i s men and the community. He hopes to see a c i t y - w i d e c o - o r d i n a t i o n of y o u t h s e r v i c e s and, to d i s c u s s t h i s , a m e e t i n g o f a l l i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s has been c a l l e d f o r A p r i l 6, 1964. I t i s the o p i n i o n o f a l l p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t F r a s e r v i e w does not have a s e r i o u s l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s o r s e r v i c e s f o r young p e o p l e . Most of the a g e n c i e s r e f e r r e d t o have programmes which a r e f l e x i b l e and can a d j u s t to v a r y i n g demands. A few people have s u g g e s t e d t h a t - 90 -t h e r e i s a l a c k of o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y f o r g i r l s . There a r e fewer a c t i v i t i e s f o r g i r l s than boys, however, e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s seem w i l l i n g t o develop new programmes i f they c o u l d be c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t need to j u s t i f y the expense, time and e f f o r t . P r o b a b l y the g r e a t e s t l a c k i s t h a t of o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y on weekends and l a t e e v e n i n g h o u r s . To the p r e s e n t time t h i s problem has not been overcome due m a i n l y t o the e x t r a c o s t of such programming. The months o f F e b r u a r y and March, 1964, a r e r e p o r t e d to have had more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s f o r young people than e v e r b e f o r e . The o n set of s p r i n g w i l l h e l p e v a l u a t e the e x t e n t to w h ich the t e e n -a g e r s a r e w i l l i n g to remain i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s . S t r u c t u r e s f o r C o - O r d i n a t i n g and P l a n n i n g S e r v i c e s As communities dev e l o p i n s i z e and c h a r a c t e r , s o c i a l problems a r i s e w h i c h u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n the development of s e r v i c e s to cope w i t h the problems. The m u l t i p l i c i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s which come i n t o b e i n g t o meet problems and needs e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a need to c o - o r d i n a t e the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . 1 C o - O r d i n a t i o n u s u a l l y l e a d s to p l a n n i n g , which can be thought o f as "the i n t r o d u c t i o n of o r d e r l y t h i n k i n g i n t o a r e a s f o r m e r l y 2 r u l e d by u n c o n s i d e r e d d e c i s i o n s ' J The major i n s t r u m e n t of our s o c i e t y f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g and p l a n n i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i s the community w e l f a r e c o u n c i l . C o u n c i l s a r e u s u a l l y o f two t y p e s ; c e n t r a l o r neighbourhood. The Ray Johns and D a v i d F. DeMarche, Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and Agency  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1951, P«75 l o c . c i t . - 91 -c e n t r a l c o u n c i l may or may not be r e l a t e d to a c e n t r a l f u n d -r a i s i n g body such as a Community Chest. The C i t y o f Vancouver has a Community Chest and C o u n c i l s as the c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one i n the West End o f Vancouver, neighbourhood c o u n c i l s have not e x i s t e d u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y i n t h i s c i t y . A p p a r e n t l y t h i s n e g l e c t o f the neighbourhood has been q u i t e w i d e s p r e a d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as w e l l . ' ' , There would appear t o be t h r e e types o f d i s t r i c t community c o u n c i l s : 1) membership r e s t r i c t e d to persons from the a g e n c i e s ; 2) c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ; 3) member-s h i p r e s t r i c t e d t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . A b r i e f commentary on Vancouver's c o - o r d i n a t i n g and p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e s w i l l h e l p t o u n d e r s t a n d F r a s e r v i e w as i t p r e s e n t l y i s . S i x months from now t h e r e may be new elements i n the p i c t u r e , so r a p i d a r e the changes which can o c c u r , not o n l y i n our communities but a l s o our community s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e . The Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a The r e s u l t s of the 1956 census c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t F r a s e r v i e w , d u r i n g the 1960s, would be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h an overwhelming number o f teenage c h i l d r e n . A 1957 Community Chest r e p o r t on F r a s e r -view i n d i c a t e d t h a t the " s c h o o l s , c h urch and law enforcement r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s a l l i n d i c a t e d concern about the l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n . " 1 V i o l e t M. S i e d e r , "The Role o f D i s t r i c t Community C o u n c i l s , " Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n A c t i o n , ed. E r n e s t B. Harper and A r t h u r Dunham, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1959> P«335« Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, R e p o r t on the  Need f o r R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s i n the F r a s e r v i e w A r e a , Vancouver, March 29, 1957, p.6. - 92 -I n s p i t e of the f o r e w a r n i n g the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s appeared unable t o g i v e the dynamic l e a d e r s h i p t h a t such a s i t u a t i o n c a l l e d f o r . Mr. H i l l , D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , a d v i s e d the w r i t e r t h a t , u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , h i s department was unable to p r o v i d e a n y t h i n g more than a stop-gap p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e . Two r e a s o n s f o r t h i s handicap were seen as the l a c k of b a s i c t o o l s such as a d e t a i l e d knowledge o f s e r v i c e s and a g e n c i e s and the c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s w i t h o u t the c o u n t e r b a l a n c e of d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l s . Mr. H i l l b e l i e v e s t h a t the r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d p r i o r i t y s t u d y w i l l h e l p to overcome the f i r s t l a c k . S t e p s have been taken by the p r o f e s s i o n a l people i n s e v e r a l d i s t r i c t s w h i c h may l e a d t o c o u n c i l - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s . These developments ar e b e i n g watched v e r y c l o s e l y by Mr. H i l l . An A s s o c i a t e P l a n n e r has p a r t i -c i p a t e d i n the development i n t h e s e a r e a s w h i c h i n c l u d e F r a s e r v i e w , S t r a t h c o n a , and S u n r i s e P a r k . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n t a k e n by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s w h ich a f f e c t s F r a s e r v i e w i s the temporary d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r o j e c t known as the A r e a Development P r o j e c t . T h i s i s a r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d p r o j e c t to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of amalga-mated s e r v i c e s t o m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . S e l e c t e d m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s i n South Vancouver w i l l r e c e i v e s e r v i c e s from one s o c i a l worker r e p r e s e n t i n g f i v e a g e n c i e s (2 C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s , F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, C h i l d r e n ' s And F a m i l y C o u r t , and S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department). P r e s e n t p l a n s i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h r e e community workers t o s e r v e t h r e e f a i r l y s m a l l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n South Vancouver. I t seems l o g i c a l , i n view of the p r e p a r a t o r y work done by the w r i t e r i n F r a s e r v i e w and the e x i s t e n c e o f a d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l i n t h a t a r e a , t h a t - 93 -one o f the community workers s h o u l d work i n F r a s e r v i e w . F r a s e r v i e w Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y L a t e i n 1962 Mr. Don Capon, then p r i n c i p a l o f Oppenheimer S c h o o l , met i n f o a i m a l l y w i t h Mr. L a r r y Goble, E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f the South Vancouver Y.M.C.A., John B a l l a m , D i r e c t o r o f the F r a s e r v i e w Boys' C l u b , and Mr. Donald McComb, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the Vancouver Boys' C l u b s . The purpose was to d i s c u s s some o f the problems they were f a c i n g i n F r a s e r v i e w . The d i s c u s s i o n was h e l p f u l to a l l and a d e c i s i o n was made to determine whether or not o t h e r p e r s o n s would be i n t e r e s t e d i n j o i n i n g them a t some f u t u r e d a t e . The response was overwhelming and a m e e t i n g was c a l l e d i n November, 1962 a t w h ich time Mr. Capon was a p p o i n t e d Chairman. A l t h o u g h known i n f o r m a l l y as the F r a s e r v i e w C o u n c i l on Y outh, p l a n s a r e underway to i n c o r p o r a t e as a s o c i e t y under the above name. The o b j e c t s of the S o c i e t y a r e : a) To s e r v e i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to v o l u n t a r y and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the s o c i a l problems of y o u t h i n the F r a s e r v i e w D i s t r i c t o f Vancouver. b) To enhance such s e r v i c e s by e f f o r t s to i n c r e a s e the amount and q u a l i t y o f such s e r v i c e s i n d i r e c t l y t h rough o t h e r s and/or by d i r e c t l y engaging i n the same where thought f i t . c) To p r o v i d e such o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e and s e r v i c e s t o the y o u t h of the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a as the S o c i e t y may from time to time see f i t t o undertake.-'-Membership i n the c o u n c i l has been open to p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n y o u t h problems i n F r a s e r v i e w . D u r i n g the p a s t y e a r membership has s t o o d a t t h i r t y - n i n e p e r s o n s From the proposed C o n s t i t u t i o n of the F r a s e r v i e w Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y . - 9k -r e p r e s e n t i n g t w e n t y - s i x d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . Many of the members h o l d s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a g e n c i e s . The w r i t e r ' s f i e l d placement has been w i t h the F r a s e r v i e w C o u n c i l . D u t i e s have i n c l u d e d s e r v i n g as s e c r e t a r y to g e n e r a l m e e t i n g s , r e s o u r c e p e r s o n t o a committee s t u d y i n g the need f o r new s e r v i c e s and the development o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about F r a s e r v i e w . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e to what e x t e n t the C o u n c i l has f u l f i l l e d the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . O u t s i d e of a l e t t e r t o the P o l i c e Commission commending the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad, no s p e c i f i c f o r m a l a c t i o n has been t a k e n by the C o u n c i l . I n June 1963 the C o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d a committee to s t u d y ways and means of o b t a i n i n g a " d e t a c h e d " group worker f o r F r a s e r v i e w . 1 f o r m a l r e p o r t has not y e t been p r e p a r e d , however, committee members s t a t e t h a t t h e y now b e l i e v e t h a t a s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e such as a-community worker would be d e s i r a b l e and t h a t such a worker c o u l d be a t t a c h e d t o an e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . A l l o f the C o u n c i l members have s t a t e d t h a t they now know agency p e r s o n n e l whom they d i d n ' t know b e f o r e the e x i s t e n c e of the C o u n c i l . These persons a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t knowledge o f one a n o t h e r ' s work has l e d to g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s and a tendency t o work more h a r m o n i o u s l y on i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s . Johns and DeMarche s t a t e t h a t "No m a t t e r how i m p e r f e c t the p r e s e n t c o u n c i l s may be, they r e p r e s e n t a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r co-o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t and worthy a t t e m p t s t o p l a n and promote more adequate w e l f a r e s e r v i c e . " 1 Ray Johns and D a v i d F. DeMarche, o p . c i t . , p. 117 - 95 -The r o l e o f the F r a s e r v i e w Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y i s s t i l l i n the p r o c e s s o f b e i n g d e f i n e d . The chairman w i s h e s to have the membership j o i n i n an e v a l u a t i o n of the S o c i e t y a t some f u t u r e m e e t i n g . One i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n which f a c e s the C o u n c i l i s t h a t o f c i t i z e n o r l a y i n v o l v e m e n t . S i d n e y D i l l i c k a p t l y d e s c r i b e s why t h i s m a t t e r s h o u l d be i m p o r t a n t : " V i g o r o u s e f f o r t s a r e needed today i n neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n t o make s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e , t o o f f e r i n t e g r a t e d p a t t e r n s of s e r v i c e s to met the v a r y i n g needs o f neighbourhoods and d i s t r i c t s , t o c o - o r d i n a t e s e r v i c e s t o p r e v e n t o v e r l a p p i n g and o v e r l o o k i n g , t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t the neighborhood and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s f o r people to form groups t h r o u g h which t h e y can a c t t o g e t h e r and t o p r o v i d e c h a n n e l s f o r groups to a c t t o g e t h e r , to change s o c i a l g o a l s and c r e a t e new ones. I n c a r r y i n g out these f u n c t i o n s the key-note must be the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n thes e p r o c e s s e s of p e o p l e i n t h e i r neighborhoods — where f a m i l i e s l i v e , shop, go to s c h o o l and c h u r c h , and where the y v o t e . " 1 Some members of the C o u n c i l w i s h t o see the C o u n c i l attempt to improve r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c e r t a i n a g e n c i e s w h i c h a t the p r e s e n t time have w e l l known disharmony between them. A d e c i s i o n t o u n d e r t a k e such a r o l e must have the consent n ot o n l y o f the member-s h i p but a l s o the a g e n c i e s concerned i f t h e r e i s to be much chance o f s u c c e s s . The chairman i s aware o f the need to a c t c a u t i o u s l y and j u d i c i a l l y s i n c e the development of t h i s C o u n c i l i s b e i n g watched w i t h i n t e r e s t by many l e v e l s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l community. S i d n e y D i l l i c k , " F u n c t i o n s of Neighbourhood O r g a n i z a t i o n " Community  O r g a n i z a t i o n i n A c t i o n , ed. E r n e s t B. Harper and A r t h u r Dunham, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n Press., 1959» p. 330. - 96 -SUMMARY Fraserview i s a sub-community w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver which experienced a phenomenal rate of growth during a f i v e year peri o d as a r e s u l t of the establishment of a l a r g e housing p r o j e c t f o r veterans. The a d u l t s who moved i n t o the houses were very s i m i l a r i n age and had a common background of m i l i t a r y experience. V i r t u a l l y a l l of them received what schooling' they had during the depression years. Many of them were married i n Canada and then separated due to overseas s e r v i c e , others married g i r l s they net w h i l Most of the veterans had young c h i l d r e n most of whom were born during the f i r s t f i v e years a f t e r the war. As the l a r g e group of c h i l d r e n approached t h e i r teens, there was l i m i t e d awareness, on the part of r e s i d e n t s of the community and the agencies s e r v i n g i t , of the need to act q u i c k l y to obtain increased f a c i l i t i e s f o r these c h i l d r e n as they became teenagers. Since i960 there has been a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of crime and delinquent behaviour i n t h i s community. I n a b i l i t y of the r e s i d e n t s to cope wi t h the behaviour of the teenagers has undoubtedly contributed to what appears to be a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Many of the agencies s e r v i n g Fraserview were overwhelmed by the demands upon them. This l e d to a r e a l i z a t i o n that there was a need to get together and attempt to co-ordinate a c t i v i t i e s , get to know one another and the s e r v i c e s they \ere o f f e r i n g and to encourage the development of hew s e r v i c e s f o r the young people. Out of t h i s recog-n i t i o n arose the Fraserview Youth Services S o c i e t y . A l l of t h i s i s very much i n keeping w i t h the observation of Johns and DeMarche that - 97 -"The n e c e s s i t y f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n , to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree grows out of the e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . " 1 The F r a s e r v i e w Youth S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y a r o s e out of the r e c o g n i t i o n by the p r o f e s s i o n a l community s e r v i n g thb a r e a t h a t they must attempt to work t o g e t h e r more c l o s e l y on a sub-community b a s i s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s a c t i o n may become an h i s t o r i c p o i n t a l o n g the way to d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n Vancouver. J . Ray Johns and D a v i d F. DeMarche, op c i t . , p . 7^. CHAPTER I I I SKEENA TERRACE PUBLIC HOUSING - SUNRISE PARK A. CHARACTERISTICS OF "SUNRISE PARK" I n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d Skeena T e r r a c e and i t s needs i t i s n e c e s s a r y to know some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l o c a l community i n w h i ch i t i s l o c a t e d . I n t h i s c h a p t e r i t i s p l a n n e d to p r e s e n t a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the l o c a l community i n i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n growth, p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a o f o r i g i n o f the p e o p l e , churches and r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n s , s c h o o l s , p a r k s , s h o p p i n g a r e a , and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . To o b t a i n the p r o f i l e o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Skeena T e r r a c e the f o l l o w i n g methods o f i n q u i r y were used: 1) e x a m i n a t i o n of census t r a c t s 2) p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h r o u g h f i e l d v i s i t s on a b l o c k by b l o c k b a s i s and p r e s e n c e i n the P r o j e c t Manager's o f f i c e . 3) i n t e r v i e w s b o t h w i t h r e s i d e n t s of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and w i t h community l e a d e r s . k) r e v i e w o f f i l e s r e l a t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l t e n a n t s main-t a i n e d by the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . 5) r e v i e w of m i n u t e s , r e p o r t s , and f i l e s o f a g e n c i e s . 6) a t t e n d a n c e a t committee m e e t i n g s . L o c a t i o n o f Skeena T e r r a c e P u b l i c H o u s i n g The Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y i s a c o r p o r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d by an O r d e r - i n - C b u n c i l under the Housing A c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia o p e r a t i n g F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l P u b l i c Housing i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. The A u t h o r i t y p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t e s f o u r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s o f w h i ch Skeena T e r r a c e was the t h i r d to be c o n s t r u c t e d . F u r t h e r p r o j e c t s a r e p l a n n e d f o r the f u t u r e and the p l a n n e d p r o j e c t on Raymur Avenue w i l l be l a r g e r - 99 -than any o f those now o p e r a t i n g . The p l a n s f o r Skeena T e r r a c e were commenced i n I960 a f t e r an a n a l y s i s of the need i n the Vancouver redevelopment programme. The redevelopment programme covers a p e r i o d of twenty y e a r s i n which the C i t y i s p l a n n i n g to r i d i t s e l f of i t s most extreme " b l i g h t e d " or "sub-standard" a r e a s . Skeena Terrace was n e a r i n g completion i n l a t e 1962 and the f i r s t tenants moved i n t o t h e i r new homes on October 1, 1962. The b u i l d i n g s were turned over to Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y as they were completed and the l a s t o r i g i n a l tenants moved i n d u r i n g the month of January, 1963. Among the p r o j e c t s now operated by the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , Skeena T e r r a c e i s the l a r g e s t . I t has 23^ - u n i t s and s erves both s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and younger f a m i l i e s . F i g u r e 6- shows the l o c a t i o n of the s i x s t o r e y h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g , the seven a p a r t -ment b u i l d i n g s , and the n i n e t y - f i v e row houses. The h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g has sixt:y.-nine b a c h e l o r and one bedroom s u i t e s f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s while the o t h e r apartment b l o c k s have ten s u i t e s each f o r the s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s . The l a r g e r f a m i l i e s are accommodated i n the row houses s i n c e each has from two to f i v e bedrooms. Skeena T e r r a c e i s l o c a t e d i n the most extreme e a s t e r l y p o r t i o n o f Vancouver b o r d e r i n g on Lougheed Highway, which i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of Broadway Avenue, one of the p r i n c i p a l cross-town thoroughfares i n the c i t y . T h i s p r i n c i p a l highway i s i n t e r s e c t e d by the new d i v i d e d highway c r e a t i n g man-made b a r r i e r s to the south and east of the community. V i r t u a l l y a l l a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f tenants are d i r e c t e d toward the n o r t h and west of the l o c a t i o n . From many s t a n d p o i n t s the d i s t r i c t does not seem to be a C A S 3 I A R 3 * < SKEENA S T-Figure b: Sketch Map of Skeena Terrace P u b l i c Housing showing L o c a t i o n and Types of Housing ! l ^ H i g h .Rise B u i l d i n g Apartment Blocks Row Houses - 1 0 0 -d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , I t i s removed by-d i s t a n c e from major h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , h o s p i t a l s , s h o p p i n g , and employment. I t was p o i n t e d out i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a s e n i o r o f f i c i a l i n the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department t h a t s i x p o s s i b l e s i t e s f o r the l o c a t i o n o f the p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t had been con-s i d e r e d . T h i s one was chosen because the p r o p e r t y was a l r e a d y owned by the c i t y and i t was f r e e of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s . A f u r t h e r i n f l u -e n c i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t the a r e a was a l r e a d y s e r v i c e d by e x i s t i n g w a t e r and sewerage f a c i l i t i e s . The c o n t o u r o f the l a n d i s t h a t of a s l o p i n g h i l l p e r m i t t i n g the row houses and apartments to be b u i l t a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s w i t h the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g l o c a t e d n e x t to the h i g h e s t l e v e l . The D i f f i c u l t y i n D e t e r m i n i n g the Community "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , as a b a s i c p r o c e s s of s o c i a l work, c o n c e n t r a t e s not so much on the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s needs or on the groups and i t s growth as upon the l a r g e r and more i n c l u s i v e w e l f a r e problems o f the whole community."''' I n t h i s a r e a o f the c i t y the community has never been d e f i n e d e i t h e r f o r o f f i c i a l p urposes or common usage. Many p e o p l e r e f e r to i t as p a r t o f Vancouver E a s t , but the same term i s used when r e f e r r i n g to any a r e a e a s t of Cambie S t r e e t . F o r purposes of t h i s s t u d y the g e o g r a p h i c a l community w i l l be d e s c r i b e d t e n t a t i v e l y by u s i n g the b o u n d a r i e s o f T r a c t # 1 0 o f the 2 O f f i c i a l Census T r a c t s . The b o u n d a r i e s o f the a r e a would t h e r e f o r e be: N o r t h - Adanac S t r e e t ; South - Broadway Avenue (Lougheed Highway); E a s t - Boundary Road; and West - Renfrew S t r e e t . F i g u r e „7 i s a map 1 H e r b e r t S t r o u p , S o c i a l Work An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the F i e l d , American Book Company, New York, 1 9 ^ 8 , page 1 8 . p The b o u n d a r i e s f o r census t r a c t # 1 0 has remained c o n s i s t e n t s i n c e 1 9 ^ 1 . •a 1 Oo fJoor ULLOC- TT sraeer c •a 5 r ^ £ G r =5: 111 n 1111 llllliltl <: % cn *VV v5 s <3; a: ui i— <v I. V) u Figure 7. Map of "Sunrise Park" Showing Location of Skeena Terrace, Parks, Schools, Church, Senior Cit izens' Housing, and Government Offices. J I I I I Le fig sr*-£cr V o c •5. O 1-t •a 5 Tnylcf. - 101 -showing the b o u n d a r i e s of the a r e a . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s a r e the same b o u n d a r i e s used by the elementary s c h o o l i n the a r e a . Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and departments have e s t a b l i s h e d b o u n d a r i e s f o r the a r e a which a r e much l a r g e r and do not c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the census t r a c t s . F o r purposes of t h i s s t u d y the community whose b o u n d a r i e s are shown w i l l be known as " S u n r i s e P a r k " s i n c e the park l o c a t e d n e a r e s t the c e n t r e of the a r e a i s known by t h a t name. D e s c r i p t i o n o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " In t h i s s e c t i o n some of the d e s c r i p t i v e f e a t u r e s w i l l be g i v e n as they r e l a t e to p o p u l a t i o n growth, n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s , r e l i g i o u s f a c i l i t i e s , s c h o o l s , p a r k s , shops, and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . The source o f i n f o r m a t i o n has been i n t e r v i e w s w i t h community l e a d e r s and i n f o r m a t i o n from the census t r a c t s . P o p u l a t i o n : " S u n r i s e Park"has been a r a p i d l y g r o w i n g a r e a w i t h o u t any c e n t r a l l y d eveloped f o c a l a r e a . The p o p u l a t i o n was 3,578 i n 194l and i n c r e a s e d to 7,846 i n 196l . ( F i g u r e Bi) The a d d i t i o n of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n 1962 i n c r e a s e d the p o p u l a t i o n by a f u r t h e r 922 p e r s o n s . There was c o n s i d e r a b l e growth i n the p e r i o d 194l - 1951 but i t had t a p e r e d o f f u n t i l the t e n a n t s moved i n t o the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . Most of the homes i n the a r e a a r e p r i v a t e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s o c c u p i e d by the owner. Of the 2,290 households i n the a r e a a c c o r d i n g to the 196l census 2,005 were owner o c c u p i e d w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s 87.55 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l number of h o u s e h o l d s . On the o t h e r hand o n l y 12.45 p e r c e n t were r e n t i n g accommodation. There were no b u i l d i n g s l i s t e d as apartments o r f l a t s . The owner occupancy i n Vancouver C i t y 19U1 1951 1956 1961 1963 Figure & : Bar Graph Showing Population Increase i n "Sunrise Park" 19U1 - 1963 Source: Census, 1951, CT 11 , (D.B.S.) Census, 1956, (D.B.S.) Census, 19$1, CT 22 , (D.B.S.) \ - 102 -as a whole i s much l o w e r than i n the " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a . The Vancouver a r e a shows o n l y 6O.83 p e r c e n t as owner o c c u p i e d . " S u n r i s e P a r k " a l s o has a l o w e r p er pe r s o n occupancy p e r room than the c i t y as 3. whole. " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a has .6 p e r s o n s p e r room w h i l e the c i t y average i s .7 p e r s o n s . Of the 8,544 households l i s t e d as "Crowded D w e l l i n g s " i n the 1961 census o n l y 196 o f them a r e i n the " S u n r i s e P a r k " community. The y e a r s of occupancy of t h e i r d w e l l i n g a l s o showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r a s t . 77 p e r c e n t o f the households i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " o c c u p i e d t h e i r d w e l l i n g s f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s o r more w h i l e the Vancouver average f o r the same p e r i o d was o n l y 45.18 p e r c e n t . N a t i o n a l O r i g i n s : The n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s o f the people i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " has been p r e d o m i n a t e l y from the B r i t i s h I s l e s but the s i t u a t i o n has changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the p a s t t e n y e a r s . Table I i n Appendix (F w i l l show t h a t a l t h o u g h the number o f person s i n c r e a s e d to 4,589 from 4,413 the pe r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n has d e c r e a s e d from 69.01 p e r c e n t to 58.48 p e r c e n t . S m a l l i n c r e a s e s a r e n o t e d i n most a r e a s o f n a t i o n a l o r i g i n but the g r e a t e s t change has taken p l a c e i n those o f b o t h I t a l i a n and A s i a t i c o r i g i n s . The i n c r e a s e i n I t a l i a n s i n t h i s a r e a has been g r e a t e r than i n the C i t y o f Vancouver as a whole. The i n c r e a s e o f I t a l i a n s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " has been from 2.37 p e r c e n t to 5.78 p e r c e n t o r an i n c r e a s e o f 3«4l p e r c e n t w h i l e i n Vancouver the d i s t r i b u t i o n has been from 1.47 p e r c e n t to 3«36 p e r c e n t or an o v e r -a l l i n c r e a s e o f o n l y I . 8 9 p e r c e n t . A l t h o u g h the i n c r e a s e i n person s o f A s i a t i c o r i g i n s , 2.36 p e r c e n t , i s g r e a t e r than the c i t y i n c r e a s e , 2.21 p e r c e n t , " S u n r i s e P a r k " i s s t i l l much lo w e r than the c i t y p e r c e n t a g e o f 5«l8 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . Only 3«89 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " i s of A s i a t i c o r i g i n . - 103 -F i g u r e 9 shows the changes i n n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s f o r the p e r i o d 1951 and 1961. P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n : The p e r c e n t a g e o f o l d e r p e r s o n s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " i s much l e s s than i n Vancouver C i t y even though t h e r e a r e two s p e c i a l l o c a t i o n s f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " : B e u l a h Gardens and T a y l o r Manor. B e u l a h Gardens i s a low r e n t a l s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and T a y l o r Manor i s a b o a r d i n g home f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s o p e r a t e d by the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. 36.71 p e r c e n t o f the male p o p u l a t i o n and 37.11 p e r c e n t o f the female p o p u l a t i o n i n Vancouver a r e ov e r 4-5 y e a r s o l d w h i l e i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s : male 31.05 p e r c e n t and female 29-53 p e r c e n t . As a r e s u l t o f the younger p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e i s a l s o a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t e e n a g e r s and younger people i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " than i n Vancouver as a whole. 36.11 p e r c e n t of the male p o p u l a t i o n and 34.44 p e r c e n t o f the female p o p u l a t i o n i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e under age 20 w h i l e the co m p a r a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e f o r Vancouver C i t y a r e 30.57 p e r c e n t male and 28.82 p e r c e n t female. The p e r c e n t a g e s shown above a r e d e r i v e d from the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the 196l census t r a c t s and do n o t i n c l u d e any o f the s t a t i s t i c s o f the p e r s o n s r e s i d i n g i n Skeena T e r r a c e . Of the 922 per s o n s r e s i d i n g on the p r o j e c t 48.37 p e r c e n t a r e under the age o f twenty and o n l y 14.74 p e r c e n t a r e ov e r age f o r t y - f i v e . The d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f y o u t h t h e r e f o r e i s much g r e a t e r i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " when the young p e o p l e from Skeena T e r r a c e a r e i n c l u d e d and c o n v e r s e l y the p e r c e n t a g e of p e r s o n s over age f o r t y - f i v e would be s t i l l l o w e r . F i g u r e 10 shows the comparison o f the p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n by age and sex f o r " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Vancouver C i t y . Figure ?: Demographic Chart showing National Origins in " "Sunrise Park"for 1951 and 1961 1951 Others and Not Stated Netherlands French Ukranian 1961 Other European British Isles Source: Census, 1951, CT 11, (D.B.S.) Census, 1961, CT 22, (D.B.S.) Figure »8 : Comparative Distribution of the Population by Age and Sex, Vancouver City and "Sunrise Park" 1961 MALE FEMALE 70 / 65 -55 -US -35 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 -0 -69 Sh 5k Uh 3U 2h 19 1U 9 h 16 12 li 8 12 16 PERCENT Indicates higher proportion of age group in Vancouver City Indicates higher proportion of age group in "Sunrise Park" Source: Census, l ° 6 l , CT 22, (D.B.S.) \ - 104 -Churches and R e l i g i o u s P e r s u a s i o n s : I n t h i s p r e d o m i n a t e l y P r o t e s t a n t a r e a 1 none of the major r e l i g i o u s denominations have a c h u r c h a l t h o u g h some of them do have churches i n the immediate v i c i n i t y . The o n l y c h u r c h l o c a t e d i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " i s the Four Square Gos p e l Church l o c a t e d a t the c o r n e r o f Rupert S t r e e t and 4 t h Avenue. The C o n v e n t i o n o f the B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia o p e r a t e a low r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , B e u l a h Gardens i n the b l o c k between Rupert and C a s s i a r S t r e e t s and between 4 t h and 5 t h Avenues, h o l d c h u r c h s e r v i c e s i n the basement o f one o f the b u i l d i n g s . The s e r v i c e s a r e f o r the t e n a n t s of B e u l a h Gardens and f o r the community as w e l l . A Sunday S c h o o l was o r g a n i z e d i n November, and t h e r e a r e o v e r one hundred c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d , o f w h i ch e i g h t y c h i l d r e n a r e from Skeena T e r r a c e . I n r e c e n t months a Cub Pack and an E x p l o r e r s Group have been formed. S c h o o l s : There a r e two s c h o o l s i n the " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a , S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l l o c a t e d a t L i l l o e t t and K i t c h e n e r S t r e e t s , and S i r Matthew Begbie Annex on the c o r n e r of C a s s i a r S t r e e t and 7 t h Avenue, a c r o s s from the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . Both s c h o o l s a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d by the P r i n c i p a l of S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l w i t h a Head Teacher i n S i r Matthew Begbie Annex. In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the P r i n c i p a l i t was l e a r n e d t h a t a h i s t o r y o f the s c h o o l s i n the a r e a had been p r e p a r e d and was made F i g u r e 11 shows the R e l i g i o u s Denominations of P e r s o n s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " by p e r c e n t a g e s f o r the p e r i o d 1951 - 1961. Figure fj: Religious Denominations of Persons in"Sunrise Park'by Percentages for the Period 1951 - 19°1 Percent 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 United Church Roman Catholic Church of England Presbyterian Baptist Greek Orthodox Ukranian Catholic Mennonite Percent og 29.16 30. Sh 11.88 20.18 26.26 18.91 7.71A 11.10 6.U3 7.00 12.58 6.U1 3.39 2.77 1.01 1.81 1.26 1.25 •2o6 1951 1961 Source: Census, 1951, Bulletin 11 (D.B.S.) Census, 1961, Bulletin 22 (D.B.S.) - 105 -a v a i l a b l e to the s t u d e n t f o r the study o f t h i s a s p e c t o f community development. The problems o f growth have always been e v i d e n t i n t h i s a r e a . The p r e s e n t S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t as an e i g h t room s c h o o l i n 1930. A t t h a t time t h e r e were 369 p u p i l s and 10 t e a c h e r s . E a r l i e r we had n o t e d the r a p i d growth i n p o p u l a t i o n i n the p e r i o d between 194-1 and 1951 and t h i s growth c r e a t e d a d d i t i o n a l problems to the s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t S i r Matthew Begbie Annex was c o n s t r u c t e d and a new wing was added to S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l . The Annex was used f o r the f i r s t time d u r i n g the 194-5-1946 term and c o n t a i n e d f i v e c l a s s r o o m s . The new w ing i n c r e a s e d the accommodation i n S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l to 20 c l a s s r o o m s , l i b r a r y , a r t room, and gymnasium-auditorium. I n 1959 f o u r a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s and a gymnasium were added t o the Annex. The o n l y change s i n c e t h a t time has been the a d d i t i o n o f two p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s on the grounds of the Annex and t h r e e p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s on the grounds of S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l . These c l a s s r o o m s a r e used f o r the f i r s t time d u r i n g the p r e s e n t s c h o o l y e a r . Grades I t o V I a r e taught i n the main s c h o o l and f o r t h i s y e a r o n l y Grades I to IV a r e t a u g h t i n the annex. The P r i n c i p a l r e p o r t s tha.t the annex w i l l r e v e r t to the u s u a l Grades I t o I I I f o r the n e x t term. I n a d d i t i o n , b o t h the s c h o o l and the annex have a k i n d e r g a r t e n . The e n r o l l m e n t a t S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l was 63O s t u d e n t s p r i o r to c o n s t r u c t i o n of Skeena T e r r a c e and now i s 804 s t u d e n t s . The - 106 -number a t t e n d i n g the annex i s 365 s t u d e n t s , an i n c r e a s e o f 165 s i n c e the f a m i l i e s moved i n t o the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . F o r Grades V I I and above, the c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e i t h e r Vancouver T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l o r Templeton J u n i o r High S c h o o l depending on the p a r t o f the a r e a i n which the y l i v e . The c h i l d r e n from the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t a t t e n d Vancouver T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l . From the 196l census i t would seem t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " than i n the c i t y of Vancouver g e n e r a l l y . I n " S u n r i s e P a r k " 21.55 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n are a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l o r u n i v e r s i t y w h i l e i n Vancouver o n l y 18.77 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n are i n s c h o o l o r u n i v e r s i t y . The s i t u a t i o n i s q u i t e r e v e r s e d when comparing the p e r c e n t a g e s o f those a t t e n d i n g h i g h s c h o o l o r u n i v e r s i t y . I n " S u n r i s e P a r k " o n l y 21.55 p e r c e n t o f those a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l a r e i n h i g h s c h o o l and 2.72 p e r c e n t a r e i n u n i v e r s i t y . I n Vancouver C i t y as a whole the comparable p e r c e n t a g e s would be 26.62 p e r c e n t and 7«03 p e r c e n t . The f a m i l y i n -come does not seem t o be a f a c t o r i n these reduced p e r c e n t a g e s . I n " S u n r i s e P a r k " 56.38 p e r c e n t of the male l a b o u r f o r c e a r e r e c e i v i n g incomes i n excess o f $4,000 w h i l e i n the c i t y as a whole o n l y 54.58 p e r c e n t o f the male l a b o u r f o r c e f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Of the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e , b o t h male and female, 4 l . l 4 p e r c e n t of them i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " earn o v e r $4,000 as opposed to the c i t y p e r c e n t a g e o f 38.46 p e r c e n t . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e the s i z e o f the f a m i l y w i t h t h e total f a m i l y income b u t i t i s note d t h a t the r e s u l t s might have some b e a r i n g on why more p e o p l e do not go on f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . P a r k s : There a r e two pa r k s s e r v i n g the community, S u n r i s e P a r k , - 107 -from whose name we have named the community f o r our s t u d y , and Adanac P a r k . B o t h are a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n and the d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n below was r e c e i v e d from a s e n i o r member of the s t a f f . S u n r i s e P a r k c o v e r s a two b l o c k a r e a r u n n i n g n o r t h and s o u t h between 3 r d Avenue and 5th Avenue. I t i s bounded on the e a s t by Rupert S t r e e t and on the west by Windermere S t r e e t . The f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e p l a y i n g f i e l d s , a wading p o o l , and a s m a l l f i e l d - h o u s e . The f i e l d - h o u s e c o n s i s t s o f a room, 60 f e e t by 40 f e e t , complete w i t h s t a g e , a k i t c h e n , washroom f a c i l i t i e s and c a r e t a k e r s ' q u a r t e r s . A l l of the a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i e l d - h o u s e are under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the S u n r i s e P a r k Community A s s o c i a t i o n . They have r e g u l a r monthly m e e t i n g s , w h i s t d r i v e s , b i n g o , and s p o nsor b o t h cubs and s c o u t s . Adanac P a r k i s on the n o r t h w e s t c o r n e r o f the a r e a w i t h a f i e l d - h o u s e f a c i n g on Boundary Road. The f i e l d - h o u s e c o n t a i n s c a r e t a k e r s ' q u a r t e r s , d r e s s i n g rooms and showers and washroom f a c i l i t i e s . The p a r k i s used p r i m a r i l y f o r team s p o r t s and has p l a y i n g f i e l d s f o r f o o t b a l l , s o c c e r , b a s e b a l l and s o f t b a l l . The p a r k has much a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the summer months and most o f the prime p l a y i n g time i s a l r e a d y r e s e r v e d f o r the coming summer. Shopping F a c i l i t i e s The s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the a r d a a r e v e r y i n a d e q u a t e . Other than s m a l l c o r n e r g r o c e r y s t o r e s most of the s h o p p i n g i s done e l s e w h e r e . There a r e about 12 s t o r e s l o c a t e d on Renfrew - 108 -Street between 1 s t and 2nd Avenue. None of the larger grocery-chain stores are located i n the immediate v i c i n i t y . Many people from "Sunrise Park" and espe c i a l l y Skeena Terrace take advantage of the free bus service from Boundary Road to Brentwood Shopping Centre i n nearby Burnaby. Brentwood Shopping Centre i s one of the larger shopping plazas i n Greater Vancouver. Library F a c i l i t i e s : The nearest branch of the c i t y l i b r a r y i s some distance from "Sunrise Park". For those i n the southern portion of the d i s t r i c t the nearest branch would be at the corner of Rupert Street and Kingsway. The Hastings Branch located at 267^ East Hastings Street would be the branch most frequently used by that portion of the d i s t r i c t north of 1 s t Avenue. Because of the distance from either branch of the l i b r a r y the area does have the services of the Mobile Branch which makes stops i n the area on a weekly basis. In summary, "Sunrise Park" has been an undefined community i n the extreme easterly portion of Vancouver. It has experienced considerable growth, more than doubling the population i n the past twenty years. There i s an extremely high proportion of owner-occupied single family dwellings. The majority of the people are of B r i t i s h Isles o r i g i n and the majority of the people claim allegiance to the Protestant f a i t h . There i s a large percentage of young people necessitating additions to the school f a c i l i t i e s . The young people do not continue for higher education as a rule, but they are able to earn an average rate of income. The services, - 1 0 9 -s c h o o l s and p a r k s , appear t o be adequate, but i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a v e l some d i s t a n c e f o r l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . The shopping f a c i l i t i e s i n the a r e a a r e v e r y i n a d e q u a t e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those p e r s o n s w i t h o u t t h e i r own t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and who p r e f e r to do t h e i r s h o p p i n g i n the l a r g e r s upermarkets. The d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of " S u n r i s e P a r k " was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r to p o r t r a y the community which was chosen f o r t h i s l a r g e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . The community, as we have seen, has few a s s e t s and many l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The p r i n c i p a l l i a b i l i t y i s the d i s t a n c e from the major h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , h o s p i t a l s , s h o p p i n g , and employment. An o t h e r l i a b i l i t y would be the placement of many t e n a n t s i n an a r e a of h i g h home ownership. The s c h o o l s were not p r e p a r e d f o r the l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n who l i v e d on the p r o j e c t and t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r - c r o w d i n g u n t i l the p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s were c o n s t r u c t e d . The average r a t e o f income i n the community i s much h i g h e r than the income r e c e i v e d by the t e n a n t s o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . The d e t a i l s o f the income f o r t e n a n t s w i l l be shown i n the ne x t s e c t i o n . - n o -B. THE HOUSING PROJECT AND ITS PEOPLE Adequate h o u s i n g i s one of the b a s i c needs o f people and i n t h i s c h a p t e r we w i l l attempt to p r o v i d e a background o f the need f o r a l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , the a r e a of o r i g i n o f the t e n a n t s , the c o m p o s i t i o n of the f a m i l i e s , the f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and m o b i l i t y o f the people on the p r o j e c t , and some o b s e r v a t i o n s of t e n a n t problems. The methods of study f o r t h i s c h a p t e r were a r e v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e , a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l t e nant f i l e s , and o b s e r v a t i o n of t e n a n t problems as p r e s e n t e d to the P r o j e c t Manager. Background of Need f o r Low-Rental Housing i n Vancouver "Urban renewal i s the term used t o d e s c r i b e the d i v e r s i -f i e d e f f o r t s of l o c a l i t i e s w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the F e d e r a l Govern-ment ( i n Canada, the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments) f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n o f slums and b l i g h t , whether r e s i d e n t i a l o r n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l , and the removal of the f a c t o r s t h a t c r e a t e slums and b l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . ...Urban Renewal i s a l o c a l programme -l o c a l l y c o n c e i v e d , p l a n n e d and e x e c u t e d . I t i s a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t by a community t h r o u g h i t s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s to p r e v e n t and c o r r e c t urban b l i g h t and decay and t o s e t i n motion l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n e d development." 1 Vancouver C i t y i s u n d e r t a k i n g i t s redevelopment as a twenty y e a r p l a n r e l a t i n g i t to the C i t y ' s twenty y e a r o v e r a l l development F e r n M. C o l b u r n , The Neighbourhood and Urban Renewal, The N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and Neighborhood Houses, New Y o r k , 1963 page 8. ( B r a c k e t s added) - I l l -p l a n . Because redevelopment, to be e f f e c t i v e ] s h o u l d p r o c e e d a c c o r d i n g to a d e f i n e d and comprehensive p l a n . "Comprehensive p l a n n i n g means l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g w h ich i s e v e r c h a n g i n g t o meet s o c i a l and economic need of the community. I t d e t e r m i n e s f u t u r e l a n d use, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , s t a n d a r d s f o r p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and community f a c i l i t i e s , i n d i c a t e s the k i n d o f urban renewal t r e a t m e n t needed and e s t a b l i s h e s p r i o r i t y o f g o a l s . " 1 The w r i t e r a l s o s u g g e s t s the need f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g w h ich w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n S e c t i o n D. I n 19^7 the f i r s t major s u r v e y of an a r e a i n Vancouver to determine the degree of b l i g h t and the need f o r urban renewal was 2 conducted by L.C. Marsh. He chose about f o r t y b l o c k s e a s t of Main S t r e e t , bounded by H a s t i n g s E a s t , Gore S t r e e t , Glen D r i v e and the F a l s e Creek F l a t s . The r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y were p u b l i s h e d i n 1950 and c o n t a i n e d f i f t e e n p r o p o s a l s f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a whole neighbourhood. "The p o s i t i v e reasons f o r the d e c i s i o n are 1) the advanced d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the a r e a 2) the i n e f f i c i e n c y o f the g r i d system o f s t r e e t s , and the need f o r r e p l a c i n g t h i s by a more f l e x -i b l e p l a n , 3) the wisdom of b u i l d i n g a community r a t h e r than houses a l o n e , 4) the economy o f a m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g and l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t , w h i c h a l o n e w i l l reduce c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , as w e l l as meet the p o p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h more ample open space. There i s no case f o r patchwork r e p l a c e m e n t , nor f o r p i e c e m e a l and d o u b t f u l r e n o v a t i o n . 5) A f u r t h e r h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n i s t h a t the a r e a ±0 1 Working Together f o r Urban Renewal, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Housing and Redevelopment O f f i c i a l s , (N.A.H.R.O.) C h i c a g o , September, 1958. N.A.H.R.O. P u b l i c a t i o n N-407 page (L.. p L.C. Marsh, R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia R e s e a r c h P u b l i c a t i o n s , Vancouver 1950* - 112 -the n o r t h cannot be c l e a r e d o f i t s slums and put t o e f f e c i e n t i n d u s t r i a l use u n l e s s decent h o u s i n g i s p r o v i d e d elsewhere." 1' Other s t u d i e s such as the one completed by M i c h a e l Wheeler E v a l u a t i n g the Need f o r Low-Rental Housing, h e l p e d t o keep the need f o r redevelopment and p u b l i c h o u s i n g a l i v e , and were no doubt p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o m p l e t i o n and p a s s i n g i n 1957 of the "Vancouver Redevelopment Study" i n which o v e r 1,000 a c r e s were 2 d e l i n e a t e d as comprehensive redevelopment a r e a s . The b l i g h t o r s u b - s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s e comprehensive redevelopment a r e a s were so p r e v a l e n t t h a t l a r g e - s c a l e c l e a r a n c e was c o n s i d e r e d to be the o n l y remedy. The a r e a s s o ' d e l i n e a t e d a r e to the e a s t and s o u t h of F a l s e Creek and a r e r e f e r r e d t o as "AM, "B", "C" and "D". "The N a t i o n a l Housing A c t s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no c o n t r i b u t i o n from the F e d e r a l Government toward c o s t of a c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t u n l e s s c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e met, i n c l u d i n g - 'the f a m i l i e s to be d i s p o s s e s s e d by the a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r a n c e of t h e a r e a a r e o f f e r e d a t the time of the d i s p o s i t i o n , h o u s i n g accommodation i n a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t e d under S e c t i o n l 6 , 19 o r J>6 a t r e n t a l s t h a t ... a r e f a i r and r e a s o n a b l e ; o r i t can be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t such r e n t a l h o u s i n g i s a v a i l a b l e i n the open market."^ The Wheeler s t u d y i n 1955 proved c o n c l u s i v e l y the need f o r low r e n t a l h o u s i n g . T h i s study was d i r e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y to the h o u s i n g and income c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the f a m i l i e s who a p p l i e d f o r 1 I b i d . , page "x" 2 Redevelopment i n the C i t y o f Vancouver, C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Augu s t , I960. 3 I b i d . , page 3 k M i c h a e l Wheeler, E v a l u a t i n g the Need f o r Low-Rental H o u s i n g , Master 6f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955 - 113 -e n t r a n c e t o L i t t l e M o u n t a i n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . Mr. Wheeler found t h a t the g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n of the f a m i l i e s on the w a i t i n g l i s t f o r accommo-d a t i o n "were o c c u p y i n g accommodation u n s u i t e d t o t h e i r needs. A h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f o v e r c r o w d i n g , and of g e n e r a l inadequacy and accomo-d a t i o n were r e p o r t e d . A l t h o u g h me.ny f a m i l i e s were p a y i n g moderate r e n t s , the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r accommodations was v e r y low: the f a c t t h a t some of the f a m i l i e s were p a y i n g h i g h e r r e n t s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t adequate s h e l t e r was a s s u r e d . " 1 The s h o r t a g e of s u i t a b l e accommodation n e c e s s i t a t e d p l a n n i n g f o r l o w - r e n t a l p u b l i c h o u s i n g b e f o r e any major p r o g r e s s i n the r e -development p r o j e c t c o u l d take p l a c e or any of the e x i s t i n g i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g accommodation c o u l d be d e s t r o y e d . To b e g i n the programme two h o u s i n g programmes were p l a n n e d t o rehouse those people who needed and r e q u e s t e d accommodation. There were some who were a b l e to make t h e i r own housing-arrangement. The f i r s t p r o j e c t completed was the a r e a o f our s t u d y , Skeena T e r r a c e , and the second one, Maclean Park f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y a f t e r . Skeena T e r r a c e was opened i n O c t o b e r , 1962 and MacLean Park i n A p r i l , 1963. The r e n t s i n the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a r e geared t o f a m i l y income and s i z e so t h a t a f a m i l y o f low income w i l l pay a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21 p e r c e n t of i t s income i n r e n t . The s u i t e s are chosen f o r the s i z e o f the f a m i l y and no adjustment i s made f o r i n c r e a s e d r e n t a l s f o r the l a r g e r s i z e apartments o r row houses. F or purpose o f c a l c u l a t i n g income f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e s a r e exempt as i s income i n excess o f $75 f o r c h i l d r e n under the age of 25 who c o n t i n u e J.S. Brown, D. Kogawa, R.E. P a t e r s , P u b l i c Housing and W e l f a r e  S e r v i c e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1963, page 5. - 114 -to r e s i d e w i t h t h e i r " p a r e n t s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g . F o r t e n a n t s i n r e c e i p t of Old Age A s s i s t a n c e , O l d Age S e c u r i t y , D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s A l l o w a n c e or B l i n d P e r s o n s A l l o w a n c e the most r e c e n t i n c r e a s e o f $10 (1963) i s a l s o exempted. Areas of O r i g i n of the Tenants L i v i n g a t Skeena T e r r a c e There a r e 234 f a m i l i e s or i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p y i n g accommo-d a t i o n i n Skeena T e r r a c e p u b l i c h o u s i n g , 69 of which a r e e i t h e r s i n g l e p e n s i o n e r s o r p e n s i o n c o u p l e s . I n r e v i e w i n g the f i l e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t e n a n t s t h e r e were 10 p e n s i o n e r s i n which the former a d d r e s s was not shown. T h i s s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s when a t e n a n t i n the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g d i e s o r moves out and the spouse c o n t i n u e s to occupy the s u i t e . The o r i g i n a l f i l e , w i t h the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , i s f o r warded t o the Head O f f i c e and a new i n c o m p l e t e f i l e i s made up. F o r purposes of c a l c u l a t i o n on fommer l o c a t i o n s t h e r e f o r e , the d e t a i l s w i l l be based on 224 f a m i l i e s . A l t h o u g h the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t was b u i l t to accommodate p r i m a r i l y f a m i l i e s from the redevelopment a r e a o n l y 44.19 p e r c e n t of the p r e s e n t t e n a n t s o r i g i n a t e d from A r e a s A, B, C and D. ( F i g u r e 12) Even i f the former a d d r e s s of the m i s s i n g f i l e s were a l l from the redevelopment a r e a o n l y 48.66 p e r c e n t would have o r i g i n a t e d from t h a t a r e a . There were many o t h e r s , however, on the f r i n g e of the redevelopment a r e a . I n the accompanying map the C i t y ( F i g u r e 13) has been broken down i n t o 8 a r e a s to show the p l a c e of o r i g i n f o r the t e n a n t s . S e c t i o n s A, B, C, and D c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of the a r e a s i n the Redevelopment Study. E, F. G and H a r e a r e a s of v a r y i n g s i z e but were chosen because of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t e n a n t s from those a r e a s . Figure 13' Map of Vancouver Showing Redevelopment Areas (A.B.C.D.) and Added Divisions, E . F . G . H . Figure 12: Map Showing Former Residence of Tenants of Skeena Terrace X Normal Families ABroken Families • Pensioners - 115 -E i s t h a t a r e a west o f Cambie S t r e e t e x c l u d i n g those p o r t i o n s t h a t a r e p a r t of t h e redevelopment a r e a and i n c l u d i n g the downtown a r e a west o f Main S t r e e t . F i s the a r e a s o u t h o f Broadway Avenue bounded i n the e a s t by F r a s e r S t r e e t and on the west by Cambie S t r e e t . G i s the a r e a s o u t h o f Broadway Avenue and e a s t o f F r a s e r S t r e e t . H i s t h a t a r e a n o r t h of Broadway Avenue and i n c l u d i n g the a r e a e a s t o f Main S t r e e t but e x c l u d i n g the redevelopment a r e a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t none o f the t e n a n t s of Skeena T e r r a c e l i v e d i n the a r e a o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " p r i o r to moving i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g . T a b l e K. Former R e s i d e n c e of Tenants i n Skeena T e r r a c e Showing Whether Normal F a m i l i e s , Broken F a m i l i e s , or S e n i o r C i t i z e n s , 1963 * * * AREA Normal Broken S e n i o r T o t a l P e r c e n t F a m i l i e s F a m i l i e s C i t i z e n s A 10 14 23 47 20 .98 B 7 8 6 21 9.37 C 3 1 3 7 3.12 D 10 7 7 24 10.71 E 6 7 5 18 8 .05 F 18 7 6 31 13.84 G 21 17 5 43 19.19 H 16 13 4 33 14.73 T o t a l : 91 74 59 224 100.00 * C o n s i s t s o f b o t h p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ** C o n s i s t s o f one p a r e n t o n l y and dependent c h i l d r e n - 116 -C o m p o s i t i o n of the F a m i l i e s H i g h - R i s e B u i l d i n g : I n the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g t h e r e a r e 69 s u i t e s , 21 o f which are b a c h e l o r s u i t e s o c c u p i e d by one p e r s o n o n l y , and 48 one bedroom s u i t e s o c c u p i e d e i t h e r by c o u p l e s or two s i n g l e p e r s o n s l i v i n g as a f a m i l y u n i t . There ar e t h r e e s u i t e s o c c u p i e d i n t h i s l a t t e r c a t e g o r y . There ar e t h e r e f o r e 117 p e o p l e l i v i n g i n the b u i l d i n g . The manager o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and h i s w i f e occupy a s u i t e on the top f l o o r . The 21 b a c h e l o r s u i t e s a r e o c c u p i e d by 11 men and 12 women. The b u i l d i n g i s meant p r i m a r i l y f o r those p e r s o n s over 65 y e a r s o l d but i n some i n s t a n c e s the spouse i s younger. There a r e 4 men and 19 women below the minimum age i n the b u i l d i n g . 4-2.97 p e r c e n t of a l l the r e s i d e n t s i n the b u i l d i n g a r e i n the 60 -69 age range. The h i g h e s t r e n t p a i d by any tenant i s $99*20 per month and the l o w e s t r e n t i s $22.00 p e r month. There are 12 t e n a n t s who a r e p a y i n g t h i s low amount. The average r e n t f o r each s u i t e i n the b u i l d i n g i s $34.90. For the b a c h e l o r s u i t e s the average monthly r e n t a l i s $25«4l, and $39.05 i s the average monthly r e n t a l f o r the one bedroom s u i t e s . Heat, s t o v e , r e f r i g e r a t o r , l o c k e r room, use of washers and d r y e r s and the use of the lounge a r e i n c l u d e d i n the r e n t , but the t e n a n t s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own l i g h t and 'phone. D u r i n g the p a s t few months i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t the t e n a n t s a r e v e r y p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r accommodations and no one o f them had any d e s i r e to move els e w h e r e . None o f those i n t e r viewed e x p r e s s e d any c o m p l a i n t s about the n o i s e of the c h i l d r e n on - 117 -Table L. Age o f Tenants i n the H i g h - R i s e B u i l d i n g  Showing the Number, Sex, and M a r i t a l . S t a t u s 1963 Age Range Male Female T o t a l P e r c e n t COUPLES Under 40 0 1 1 .88 40 - 49 1 3 4 3.51 50 - 59 3 15 18 15.78 60 - 69 22 17 39 34.20 70 - 79 14 11 25 21.93 80 - 89 5 1 6 5.26 SINGLE 60 - 69 2 8 10 8.78 70 - 79 9 l 10 8.78 80 - 89 0 1 l .88 J TOTAL 56 58 114 100.00 p r o j e c t . The only- e x p r e s s i o n of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was the d i s t a n c e they must t r a v e l f o r s h o p p i n g . Apartments and Row Houses: The 70 apartments and 95 row houses p r o v i d e accommodation f o r 256 a d u l t s and 550 c h i l d r e n . Of the 165 f a m i l i e s , 55«l6 p e r c e n t are c o n s i d e r e d as "normal" f a m i l i e s , t h a t i s , w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s and one o r more c h i l d r e n . Only 16.59 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e 91 f a m i l i e s have f i v e or more c h i l d r e n . The most common f a m i l y would be t h r e e c h i l d r e n . 25.27 p e r c e n t of the "normal" f a m i l i e s f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . "Broken" f a m i l i e s p r e s e n t s p e c i a l problems s i n c e i n most, i f n o t a l l , o f the f a m i l i e s s u f f e r from low income because of the l o s s o f the breadwinner t h r o u g h d e a t h , d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n . There - 118 -a r e 74 f a m i l i e s i n Skeena T e r r a c e w i t h one p a r e n t m i s s i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y these f a m i l i e s i n c l u d e 242 c h i l d r e n or 44.00percent o f a l l the c h i l d r e n on the p r o j e c t . 78.36 p e r c e n t o f these broken m a r r i a g e s are caused by s e p a r a t i o n . Only 9 and 7 of these m a r r i a g e s a r e broken by death o r d i v o r c e r e s p e c t i v e l y . Table M. F a m i l i e s i n Skeena T e r r a c e P u b l i c H o u s i n g  by Numbers o f C h i l d r e n and Whether Normal  o r Broken F a m i l i e s w i t h P e r c e n t a g e s - 1963 Number o f C h i l d r e n Number o f F a m i l i e s P e r c e n t Normal F a m i l i e s P e r c e n t Broken F a m i l i e s P e r c e n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 48 42 24 16 11 5 4 0 1 9.09 29.70 25.45 14.55 8.48 6.67 3.03 2.42 0.00 0.61 12 21 23 12 8 9 2 3 0 1 13.18 23.08 25-27 13.19 8.79 9.89 2.20 3.30 0.00 1.10 2 27 19 12 8 2 3 1 0 0 2.70 36.49 25.68 I 16.22 10.81 2.70 4.05 1.35 J 0.00 I 0.00 T o t a l 165 100.00 91 10000 74 100.00 P e r c e n t o f T o t a l 100 55.16 44.84 The l a r g e s t s i n g l e p e r c e n t a g e o f p a r e n t s i n the p r o j e c t , b o t h male and female, i s i n the 25 to 29 age range. 26.73 p e r c e n t o f a l l the male p a r e n t s a r e i n t h i s range and f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g age group, 22.43 p e r c e n t of a l l female p a r e n t s . There are no male p a r e n t s under the age of 20 but t h e r e a r e f i v e female p a r e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . - 119 -There a r e o n l y 26 male p a r e n t s and 33 female p a r e n t s o v e r the age o f 40. These numbers r e p r e s e n t 28.33 £nd 21.75 p e r c e n t of t h e i r groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c h i l d r e n i n the 12-14 a c r e s o f Skeena T e r r a c e i s v e r y heavy i n a l l age groups but e s p e c i a l l y i n the p r e - s c h o o l c a t e g o r y . There a r e 117 male c h i l d r e n and 106 female c h i l d r e n between b i r t h and s i x y e a r s . A l s o t h e r e a r e 123 c h i l d r e n between the ages o f t w e l v e and twenty-one. Because o f the age breakdown i n c o l l e c t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s not now p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n the a c t u a l number o f t e e n a g e r s on the p r o j e c t . Table N. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d P o p u l a t i o n Showing  Whether From Normal or Broken F a m i l i e s , Skeena T e r r a c e 1963 Normal Broken T o t a l Age Range Male Female Male Female T o t a l Male Female B i r t h to 5 8o 69 37 37 223 117 106 6 - 7 18 28 22 18 86. X4o 46 8 - 9 16 12 19 13 60 35 25 10 - 11 9 16 15 16 56 24 32 12 - 13 14 9 9 13 45 23 22 14 - 15 6 13 12 9 40 18 22 16 - 17 7 3 4 13 27 11 16 18 - 21 4 3 1 3 11 5 6 Over 21 l 0 l 0 2 2 0 j T o t a l 155 153 120 122 550 275 275 The P r o j e c t as a Whole Income; The s o u r c e o f income on the p r o j e c t i n d i c a t e s a h i g h dependence on the v a r i o u s forms o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e . Of the - 120 -t o t a l o f 234 u n i t s o n l y 86 f a m i l i e s a r e t o t a l l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , 75 from e a r n i n g s and 11 from o t h e r s o u r c e s which i n c l u d e s payments on mortgages, a s s i s t a n c e from r e l a t i v e s , e t c . There a r e 102 f a m i l i e s on e i t h e r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a l o n e o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n p a r t t o supplement o t h e r s o u r c e s o f income. I n any c a s e , the t o t a l income would be based on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s . The o t h e r s o u r c e s o f income s u p p l e m e n t i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance a r e : p e n s i o n s - 3 f a m i l i e s ; unemployment i n s u r a n c e - 7 f a m i l i e s ; and p a r t i a l e a r n i n g s - 6 f a m i l i e s . The s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance r a t e s a r e : 1 p e r s o n - $66 per month; 2 p e r s o n s - $103«80 p e r month; 3 p e r s o n s - $125.^0 p e r month; k p e r s o n s - $1^7.00 per month; 5 p e r s o n s - $168.60; 6 p e r s o n s - $190.20; and 7 p e r s o n s - $211.80. I f the f a m i l y i s g r e a t e r than seven t h e r e i s no i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e except i n extreme c i r c u m s t a n c e s , but i n no case can i t exceed $233»40 per month. I n the case of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e s u p p l e m e n t i n g p a r t i a l e a r n i n g s o f a s e p a r a t e d o r widowed mother, the expenses f o r the employment o f a b a b y s i t t e r a r e exempted. Twenty-four of the t e n a n t s a r e on p e n s i o n s a l o n e and an a d d i t i o n a l f o u r f a m i l i e s have p e n s i o n s and e a r n i n g s . The r e m a i n i n g e i g h t e e n f a m i l i e s a r e i n r e c e i p t of War V e t e r a n s A l l o w a n c e o r Unemployment I n s u r a n c e , w i t h t w e l v e and s i x cases r e s p e c t i v e l y . M o b i l i t y : C o n t r a r y t o the o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d by many p e o p l e , t h e r e i s not a h i g h degree o f m o b i l i t y among the t e n a n t s of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . One hundred and seventy-two of the o r i g i n a l t e n a n t s c o n t i n u e to r e s i d e on the p r o j e c t . D u r i n g the f i r s t t h r e e months o f occupancy on the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t t h e r e were - 121 -Table 0. Amount o f Income R e c e i v e d M o n t h l y by  Tenants o f Skeena T e r r a c e - 19&3 Amount o f Number o f Pe r c e n t Income F a m i l i e s Under $200 144 61.54 $201 - $300 62 26.50 $301 - $377-50 17 7.26 Over $377-50* 9 3.85 Unknown 2 .85 T o t a l 234 10000 Maximum Income p e r m i t t e d f o r a d m i s s i o n to p u b l i c h o u s i n g to December, 1963« I n c r e a s e d to $412.50 f o r 1964. n i n e t e e n changes o f t e n a n t s . S i n c e t h a t time the r a t e o f m o b i l i t y would seem normal and would p r o b a b l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the m o b i l i t y i n any p a r t o f the c i t y . I n r e v i e w i n g the d e t a i l s o f the t e n a n t s and t h e i r s p e c i a l problems s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e not e d : 1. The t e n a n t s have come from most a r e a s of the c i t y w i t h h e a v i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n o r near the r e d e v e l o p -ment a r e a s where the h o u s i n g was e x t r e m e l y p o o r . 2. 44.84 p e r c e n t of the f a m i l i e s a r e "br o k e n " f a m i l i e s , t h a t i s , f a m i l i e s w i t h one p a r e n t , i n which t h e r e a r e 242 c h i l d r e n . Because o f the l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n , employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e l i m i t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n low income. 3« There i s a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n on the ho u s i n g p r o j e c t , 275 boys and 275 g i r l s , w i t h 223 o f - 122 -them under the age of s i x . 4. The g e n e r a l l e v e l o f income i s v e r y low, w i t h 6l.54 p e r c e n t r e c e i v i n g l e s s than $200 p e r month. 5. There i s a l a r g e number of s e n i o r c i t i z e n s who have l i m i t e d income. O b s e r v a t i o n o f Tenant Problems F o r the p e r i o d from O c t o b e r , 1963 to A p r i l , 1964, t h i s s t u d e n t spent two days p e r week on the p r o j e c t . Most of the time was spent i n the P r o j e c t Manager's o f f i c e , and he was a b l e to o b s e r v e , and i n some i n s t a n c e s p a r t i c i p a t e , i n the d i s c u s s i o n s o f the t e n a n t s ' problems. There were some problems c e n t r e d around d e f e c t s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g s , l e a k i n g around the doors and windows d u r i n g r a i n s t o r m s , f a u l t y o p e r a t i o n o f the h e a t i n g system, and dampness i n some of the basements. The Manager has been v e r y co-o p e r a t i v e i n h a v i n g the problems corrected as soon as p o s s i b l e . The p r i n c i p a l s o c i a l problems c e n t r e d around the i n a d e q u a t e income to meet the f a m i l y needs. These would seem to be l e g i t i m a t e problems s i n c e such a l a r g e number of t e n a n t s a r e dependent upon s o c i a l w e l f a r e measures f o r t h e i r maintenance. I n some cases the s m a l l membership dues t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the groups on the p r o j e c t c r e a t e d a f i n a n c i a l problem and d e l a y e d the p r o s p e c t i v e member's a d m i s s i o n f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . There were some cases where a s e p a r a t e d husband r e t u r n e d , u s u a l l y i n a drunken c o n d i t i o n , and hoped t o be p e r m i t t e d t o r e j o i n the f a m i l y . R e f u s a l o f t e n l e d to n o i s y b e h a v i o u r and the need to have the p o l i c e c a l l e d . The case o f Mrs. "C" i s t y p i c a l o f t h i s type o f problem. She s e p a r a t e d from her husband a f t e r many y e a r s - 123 -o f i l l t r e a t m e n t and abuse t a k i n g her two s m a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h h e r . She was a b l e t o o b t a i n accommodation i n one of the t e n - s u i t e apartQ ment b l o c k s . F o r t u n a t e l y , she had a n i g h t l o c k a t t a c h e d to the door o f her s u i t e and when her husband attempted to g a i n a d m i s s i o n she r e f u s e d to admit him. He commenced to c r e a t e a d i s t u r b a n c e o u t s i d e the s u i t e and c o n t i n u e d to do so u n t i l the n e i g h b o u r s . t e l e p h o n e d the p o l i c e who a r r i v e d and took him away. A l c o h o l i s m and low s t a n d a r d s o f m o r a l s on the p a r t of the t e n a n t s a r e not common problems. There were o n l y two i n s t a n c e s when any o f the t e n a n t s were r e p u t e d to be p r o s t i t u t e s and the m a t t e r was i n v e s t i g a t e d . I n one case the r e p o r t was b e l i e v e d to have been un-founded and i n the o t h e r case the tenant was g i v e n an e v i c t i o n n o t i c e ; not f o r t h i s r eason a l o n e , but was a poor t e n a n t i n o t h e r a s p e c t s as w e l l . The p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s of the t e n a n t s ' b e h a v i o u r do not appear to be w i d e l y known. On a t leeast two d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g the p a s t few months adverse comments on the t e n a n t s and t h e i r b e h a v i o u r were made p u b l i c l y . A c i t y alderman i s r e p o r t e d to have made s t a t e -ments about c o n d i t i o n s on the p r o j e c t and l a t e r found i t n e c e s s a r y to w i t h d r a w h i s remarks s i n c e the source of h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was proved t o be u n r e l i a b l e . I n the o t h e r i n s t a n c e a p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n r e -p o r t e d i n a m e e t i n g t h a t he h eard p r o s t i t u t i o n , b o o t l e g g i n g , and a l c o h o l i s m were common problems. The w r i t e r was p r e s e n t and attempted to c o r r e c t t h i s m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p among the t e n a n t s appears t o be v e r y good. There a r e few o c c a s i o n s when a t e n a n t w i l l come to the o f f i c e and l o d g e a c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t a n e i g h b o u r o r a n e i g h b o u r ' s c h i l d . On a few o c c a s i o n s t h i s l o y a l t y has caused expense s i n c e the t e n a n t i s - 124 -r e s p o n s i b l e f o r breakages i n h i s own apartment. They would p r e f e r , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , to pay the expense r a t h e r than r e p o r t i n g the name of the c h i l d r e s p o n s i b l e . From the management s t a n d p o i n t the g r e a t e s t problem seems to be the improper d i s p o s a l of garbage. There a r e r e c e p t a c l e s f o r garbage on many l o c a t i o n s throughout the p r o j e c t but they a r e not p r o p e r l y used. I n v e s t i g a t i o n u s u a l l y r e v e a l s t h a t the t e n a n t s have the c h i l d r e n " t a k e the garbage o u t " and i n many i n s t a n c e s they are not t a l l enough t o r e a c h the o p e n i n g and i n some o t h e r i n s t a n c e s to not seem t o c a r e . Rent c o l l e c t i o n i s not a problem a t Skeena T e r r a c e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , most of the t e n a n t s pay t h e i r r e n t on the l a s t few days o f the p r e c e d i n g month or the f i r s t days a f t e r the r e n t i s due. I n most months a l l of the t e n a n t s have t h e i r r e n t p a i d b e f o r e i X/ the t e n t h of the month, and i n few i n s t a n c e s i s / n e c e s s a r y to remind them t h a t t h e i r r e n t i s overdue. I n summary, the r e s i d e n t s of Skeena T e r r a c e have come from v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of Vancouver, but p r i n c i p a l l y from the redevelopment a r e a . There i s a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s vvith a l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n . The p r i n c i p a l problem f o r a l l of the t e n a n t s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and f a m i l i e s a l i k e , appears t o be the inadequacy o f t h e i r income t o meet t h e i r needs. Even w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d income they a r e v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to pay t h e i r r e n t on s c h e d u l e . - 125 -C. HEALTH, WELFARE AND RECREATIONAL SERVICES Having examined the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l o c a l community o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Skeena T e r r a c e , we may now t u r n t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of the h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the a r e a , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , to the r e s i d e n t s o f Skeena T e r r a c e . In each o f these s e r v i c e s we w i l l r e v i e w f i r s t t hose under the a u s p i c e s of p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , f o l l o w e d by the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by v o l u n t a r y or p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s e c t i o n was s e c u r e d from i n t e r v i e w s , a t t e n d a n c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n committee m e e t i n g s , and from the p r o j e c t newspaper. H e a l t h S e r v i c e s The p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r the a r e a a r e on the same s t a n d a r d as i s p r o v i d e d i n a l l of the a r e a s of Vancouver. The M e t r o -p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e s of G r e a t e r Vancouver o p e r a t e e i g h t h e a l t h u n i t s , one of w h i c h i s l o c a t e d a t 2610 V i c t o r i a D r i v e . T h i s U n i t s e r v e s the a r e a of " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Skeena T e r r a c e . The s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d i n c l u d e : s c h o o l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , w e l l - b a b y c l i n i c s , p r e -n a t a l c l a s s e s , t u b e r c u l o s i s c o n t r o l , m e n t a l h e a l t h c l i n i c i s , and p u b l i c h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d and the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a seems i n d i c a t e d . E v e r y s c h o o l has a p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e i n a t t e n d a n c e f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s o f time depending on the s i z e . I n S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l t h e r e i s a nurse i n a t t e n d a n c e f o u r mornings p e r week w h i l e i n the Annex the n u r s e i s p r e s e n t t h r e e mornings p e r week. Her d u t i e s w h i l e t h e r e i s t o a s s i s t the m e d i c a l o f f i c e r i n the p e r i o d i c p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s , a r r a n g e f o r and a s s i s t w i t h - 126 -i m m u n i z a t i o n c l i n i c s , p r o v i d e emergency f i r s t - a i d t r e a t m e n t , carry out r o u t i n e assessment o f the c h i l d r e n ' s h e a l t h s t a t u s i n c l u d i n g v i s i o n t e s t i n g , a r r a n g e w i t h p a r e n t s f o r r e f e r r a l o f c h i l d r e n to p r i v a t e d o c t o r s and h e a l t h c l i n i c s , and c o n f e r w i t h t e a c h e r s about e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h o f s t u d e n t s . Home v i s i t s a r e the u s u a l f o l l o w -up p r o c e d u r e s when p h y s i c a l or e m o t i o n a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s a r e d e t e c t e d . The p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e i n t e r p r e t s agency s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the community and o f t e n a r r a n g e s r e f e r r a l to thes e r e s o u r c e s such a s , O u t - P a t i e n t s Department of the H e a l t h C e n t r e f o r C h i l d r e n . The s e r v i c e s o f the M e n t a l Hygiene S t a f f o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Board o f H e a l t h are a v a i l a b l e t o any c h i l d w i t h e m o t i o n a l problems. The M e n t a l Hygiene team i s composed of a p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h o l o g i s t , p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker, and the p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse w i t h h e r s u p e r v i s o r . When a r e f e r r a l i s made to the M e n t a l Hygiene C l i n i c a s t u d y i s completed by the p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e . A f t e r the c l i n i c appointment w i t h t h e c h i l d and p a r e n t s , a c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d and a f o l l o w - u p p l a n o f t r e a t m e n t e v o l v e s based on the f i n d i n g s and d i a g n o s i s of the s i t u a t i o n . I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the two p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s s e r v i n g the s c h o o l s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " i t was l e a r n e d t h a t the number o f c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o the M e n t a l Hygiene C l i n i c from Skeena T e r r a c e i s on an average w i t h most o t h e r a r e a s of the c i t y . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the programme o f p r e - n a t a l c l a s s e s was t a k e n over by the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e s from the V i c t o r i a n Order o f Nurses i n i960 and c l a s s e s are h e l d r e g u l a r l y i n each u n i t . I n the p e r i o d s i n c e Skeena T e r r a c e was o c c u p i e d none o f the p a r e n t s a v a i l e d themselves o f t h i s s e r v i c e and i n the same p e r i o d o n l y e i g h t - 127 -p a r e n t s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " a t t e n d e d the c o u r s e s . I n q u i r i e s about a t t e n d a n c e a t the w e l l - b a b y c l i n i c s i n d i c a t e d none o f the p a r e n t s from Skeena T e r r a c e took t h e i r c h i l d r e n to the c l i n i c s h e l d i n S i r Matthew Begbie S c h o o l and o n l y a v e r y few of them a t t e n d e d the c l i n i c a t the h e a l t h u n i t . The u n i t s t a f f b e l i e v e d t h a t p o s s i b l y the mothers found the d i s t a n c e to t h e s c h o o l was too f a r , e s p e c i a l l y i n view o f the h i l l s i n the a r e a . The d i s t a n c e from the p r o j e c t t o the s c h o o l i s one m i l e . In view o f the f i n d i n g s i t was d e c i d e d a f u r t h e r c l i n i c s h o u l d be s e t up i n S i r Matthew Begbie Annex t o encourage the mothers to b r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t c l i n i c was h e l d i n December, 1963. I n the new c l i n i c ~ the y found the appointment s c h e d u l e was f i l l e d each time and v e r y few o f the appointments were b r o k e n . B o t h the t e n a n t s and o t h e r s i n the nearby homes a t t e n d e d i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s e r v i c e s a r e used when they a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The s t a f f o f the h e a l t h u n i t use v a r i o u s means f o r p u b l i h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , one of which i s a s e r i e s o f movies f o l l o w e d by d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d s . I n Octo b e r , 1963, a s e r i e s of f o u r movjes, F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s , Shyness, C h i l d r e n ' s F a n t a s i e s , and C h i l d r e n P l a y , was h e l d . The at t e n d a n c e was v e r y poor and of the f i f t e e n p e r s o n s who a t t e n d e d f o r the complete s e r i e s o n l y f o u r o f them were from Skeena T e r r a c e . The P r o v i n c i a l Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, j o i n t l y , p r o v i d e a H e a l t h S e r v i c e s I d e n t i t y Card to most r e c i p i e n t s of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , O l d Age - 1 2 8 -A s s i s t a n c e , D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s A l l o w a n c e , and B l i n d P e r s o n s A l l o w a n c e . The c a r d e n t i t l e s the r e g i s t e r e d h o l d e r and h i s dependents t o complete m e d i c a l coverage i n c l u d i n g drugs and h o s p i t a l c o - i n s u r a n c e payments. The c a r d i s not i s s u e d t o employable r e c i p i e n t s o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e o r p e n s i o n e r s who have not l i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r one y e a r p r i o r t o a p p l y i n g f o r the p e n s i o n . The M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e do not p r o v i d e b e d s i d e c a r e under p u b l i c a u s p i c e s . I n Vancouver t h i s s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d by the V i c t o r i a n Order o f Nu r s e s , F o r s e r v i c e i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Skeena T e r r a c e the V.O.N, has an o f f i c e i n the H e a l t h and W e l f a r e B u i l d i n g on V i c t o r i a Avenue. S i n c e the main s e r v i c e r e q u e s t e d o f the V.O.N, i s b e d s i d e c a r e o f the aged, the nurse f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t s i n the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g . The fee f o r s e r v i c e i s on a s l i d i n g s c a l e depending on income and s i n c e most o f the t e n a n t s , as we have seen, a r e on a v e r y l i m i t e d income much of the s e r v i c e i s f r e e . The V.O.N, a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t o t h e r homes e s p e c i a l l y where t h e r e are new b a b i e s . W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s As we have observed i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , many of the t e n a n t s i n Skeena T e r r a c e are r e c e i v i n g some form o f p u b l i c a s s i s t -ance a d m i n i s t e r e d by the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. T h i s s e r v i c e o p e r a t e s from the H e a l t h and W e l f a r e B u i l d i n g on V i c t o r i a D r i v e . Three o f the s o c i a l w o r k e r s from t h i s u n i t have p a r t s o f t h e i r c a s e l o a d s i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , The c a s e s are d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to the c a t e g o r y of s e r v i c e r e q u e s t e d : a) those i n r e c e i p t o f O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e , B l i n d Persons A l l o w a n c e , and D i s a b l e d Persons A l l o w a n c e ; b) those i n r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e where r e h a b i l i -- 129 -tation seems indicated i f the person i s in receipt of casework services; and c) others in receipt of Social Allowance. The "pension worker" has a l l her cases on the housing project located on the high-rise building. Services other than the pension and medical care are very l imited. The only legal require-ment i s a home v i s i t once a year to determine continued e l i g i b i l i t y . Other than this v i s i t , any request for service i s in i t ia ted by, or on behalf of the cl ient and i t might include anci l l iary services, nursing and bc-arding home care, etc. Occasionally, when a tenant becomes incapable of caring for himself i t i s necessary for the Project Manager to make a referral to this worker. The "A" worker in East Unit is a ful ly qualified social worker who renders casework services on an intensive basis with a view to rehabilitation and financial independence. Her caseload i s not permitted to exceed f i f ty cases. Although i t would seem from personal observation that many persons on the project should receive this casework service, there are only fifteen cases on her caseload l i v ing on the housing project."*" The regular worker who v is i t s Skeena Terrace for Social Assistance cases other than those described above has a total caseload of approximately 200 cases, 85 of which are l i v i n g on the housing project. In an interview with this worker i t was learned that because of the large size of her caseload and because of her lack of formal social work training, most of her work is confined to determining continued e l i g i b i l i t y for Social Allowance. The family counselling which the family might ireed and want i s not available to i t because of a policy arrangement between the City 1 The writer has been administrator of a local public welfare office for six years. - 130 -S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the Family S e r v i c e Agency. The Family S e r v i c e Agency c l o s e s any case that has been a c t i v e w i t h i t when the c l i e n t f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y to a p p l y f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance. T h i s would seem to be an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement because of the l a r g e number of s o c i a l workers on the s t a f f of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department who l a c k formal t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work. There are no v o l u n t a r y w e l f a r e agencies l o c a t e d i n or near " S u n r i s e Park", alt h o u g h the v o l u n t a r y agencies i n the c i t y have as t h e i r f u n c t i o n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p r o v i d e adequate s e r v i c e throughout the whole Vancouver a r e a . In February, 19Sk, the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s c a l l e d t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the C i t y ' s h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , to determine the a c t i v i t y by the agencies i n the " S u n r i s e Park" area and f u r t h e r to determine whether there should be a thorough study completed i n order to determine the needs and r e s o u r c e s of " S u n r i s e Park" and e s p e c i a l l y Skeena T e r r a c e . I t was s u r p r i s i n g to l e a r n t h a t among the v c r i o u s s o c i a l w elfare a g e n c i e s , the Family S e r v i c e Agency, the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of the A r c h d i o c e s e of Vancouver, C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s , and the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , the only agency w i t h any a c t i v e cases a t the p r e s e n t time was the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . This agency r e p o r t e d o n l y seven a c t i v e cases. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e i s being l i m i t e d because of a l o n g " w a i t i n g l i s t " and i n -s u f f i c i e n t funds to employ a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f . R e c r e a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s We have noted i n the s e c t i o n on " S u n r i s e Park" t h a t the - 131 -Board of Parks and Public Recreation operate two parks i n the area, Sunrise Park and Adanac Park. Due to the location of Adanac Park i t i s rarely used by the tenants of Skeena Terrace Public Housing. In Sunrise Park a playground supervisor i s employed each year for the period June 1st to August 31st to conduct outdoor group a c t i v i t i e s . The hours of supervision are from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. on two weekdays and from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. on weekend a f t e r -noons. The supervisors employed are usually from the area, and preference i s given to university students studying physical educa-tio n , s o c i a l work and related f i e l d s . Records are kept during the period of supervision and from these records members of the Parks Board s t a f f are able to deter-mine the approximate number of persons who are enjoying the benefits of the park supervisor. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n count 1 i n Sunrise Park during the summer of 19&3 was: June - 3.955; July - 7,376; and August - 5,093* Since most of the children take part i n at least two a c t i v i t i e s each day, the number i s divided by two and the result .is then divided by the number of days of supervision during the month. The result i s the average number of persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g d a i l y . Using this formula the d a i l y average for each month was: June - 109; July - 205; and August - l 4 l . The da i l y average was considered low by the Parks Board o f f i c i a l who was interviewed, especially i n r e l a t i o n to other parks with a playground supervisor. The o f f i c i a l also pointed out even though t h i s park i s i n close proximity to Skeena Terrace there was l i t t l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n park a c t i v i t i e s by the children of the project. He was not able to present any reason for the lack of 1 Details secured from the f i l e s of the Board of Parks and Public Recreation. - 132 -p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He not e d f u r t h e r , t h a t the damage of the grounds and f a c i l i t i e s i s about the same as o t h e r p a r k s w i t h a p a r k c a r e -t a k e r and t h a t t h e r e was no i n c r e a s e i n damage a f t e r the t e n a n t s moved i n t o Skeena T e r r a c e . The Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n o p e r a t e n i n e . Community C e n t r e s i n Vancouver. Skeena T e r r a c e i s p o o r l y l o c a t e d to use the s e r v i c e s of any o f them. The c e n t r e n e a r e s t the p r o j e c t i s H a s t i n g s Community C e n t r e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two m i l e s n o r t h o f the h o u s i n g development. R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s and O r g a n i z a t i o n s on the P r o j e c t There was alm o s t no p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n f o r any o f the age groups. F o r the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s t h e r e was a s m a l l lounge on the main f l o o r and t h r e e t a b l e s o u t s i d e the b u i l d i n g s u i t a b l e f o r c h e c k e r s , c a r d s , A c . The o n l y o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y was to r e s e r v e t h r e e s m a l l areas near the row houses i n which c o n c r e t e a n i m a l s and a sandbox were p r o v i d e d . I n i t i a l l y , t h e r e was n o t h i n g r e s e r v e d f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n and t e e n a g e r s . S i n c e t h a t t i m e , a smal l a r e a w a s equipped w i t h a hoop s u i t a b l e f o r b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e . There i s no a r e a on the whole p r o j e c t Hsrge enough f o r the c h i l d r e n to p l a y b a s e b a l l . A t times when one of the t h r e e p a r k i n g l o t s i s f r e e o f caps the c h i l d r e n can be seen p l a y i n g b a l l . The t e n a n t s themselves r e c o g n i z e d the l a c k o f adequate p l a n n i n g on the p a r t o f the h o u s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e i r own e f f o r t s have a t t e m p t e d to overcome the in a d e q u a t e p l a n n i n g by o r g a n i z i n g themselves through l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s b o t h on and o f f the p r o j e c t . The M o t h e r s ' C l u b : The Mothers* Club was the f i r s t group to be o r g a n i z e d . I t was s t a r t e d by t h r e e mothers on the - 133 -p r o j e c t who had been l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y o f A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House p r i o r t o moving i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g . They had been a c t i v e i n the programmes of the Neighbourhood House and f e l t t h a t some of the a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be undertaken i n the new a r e a . They c a l l e d t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g i n A p r i l , 19^31 and through a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r i n v i t e d a l l o f the mothers on the p r o j e c t to a t t e n d . A l t h o u g h o n l y e i g h t mothers responded they d e c i d e d t h a t they would go ahead w i t h o r g a n i z -a t i o n p l a n s . The f u n c t i o n o f the group was t w o - f o l d : a) to p r o v i d e a s o c i a l o u t l e t f o r the members a t the r e g u l a r weekly m e e t i n g s , and b) to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to themselves and o t h e r s on the p r o j e c t . Membership i n c r e a s e d i n the group d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r and the average a t t e n d a n c e has been a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty. The p r e s e n t membership i s 32 and i s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g . They are a b l e t o r e p o r t one o r more new members each m e e t i n g f o r the p a s t t e n weeks. The meetings c o n s i s t o f a s h o r t b u s i n e s s s e s s i o n f o l l o w e d by s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and r e f r e s h m e n t s . The l a d i e s have had v a r i e d programmes t o date i n c l u d i n g b i n g o , movieB and s l i d e s w i t h commentary. On a few o c c a s i o n s they were a b l e to a r r a n g e programmes o f f the p r o j e c t , swimming p a r t i e s , r o l l e r s k a t i n g and b o w l i n g . At every m e e t i n g t h e r e i s a s m a l l r a f f l e w i t h the proceeds g o i n g toward the a c t i v i t i e s . Some of the a c t i v i t i e s of the group d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r i n c l u d e : a) a h a l l o w e ' e n p a r t y ; b) C h r i s t m a s p a r t y ; c) p r o v i s i o n o f t w e l v e C h r i s t m a s hampers; d) two c l o t h i n g exchanges; e) o r g a n i z e d and s u p e r v i s e d two o t h e r groups, the G i r l s C l u b and the Tot Spot; f ) the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r o j e c t newspaper. The " T e r r a c e Times", the p r o j e c t newspaper was f i r s t i s s u e d - 1 3 4 -on F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 6 4 . I t i s d i s t r i b u t e d to e v e r y tenant on the p r o j e c t . S i n c e the f i r s t i s s u e , membership has i n c r e a s e d i n almost every group on the p r o j e c t w i t h many of the new members s t a t i n g t h a t they were unaware o f the group's e x i s t e n c e u n t i l they read the a c t i v i t i e s i n the paper. A copy of the i s s u e of March 2 3 , 1 9 6 4 , i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix H to show the q u a l i t y of the r e p o r t -i n g and t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r d e t a i l s of the a c t i v i t i e s on the p r o j e c t . The T e r r a c e Teens: D u r i n g the summer of 1 9 6 3 the M others' Club r e a l i z e d the i n a dequacy of o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y f o r the t e e n -a g e r s on the p r o j e c t . They o r g a n i z e d weekly dances on one of the p r o j e c t ' s p a r k i n g l o t s . The dances met w i t h l i m i t e d s u c c e s s f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time but due to unwelcome v i s i t s o f t e e n a g e r s from o t h e r p a r t s of the c i t y t h e y became v e r y d i s o r g a n i z e d . The members of the Youth P r e v e n t i v e D e t a i l of the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e v i s i t e d the P r o j e c t i n a r o u t i n e v i s i t and, s e e i n g the dances, r e a l i z e d the need f o r a more f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n to meet the s o c i a l and r e c -r e a t i o n a l needs o f the t e e n a g e r s on the p r o j e c t . The P r o j e c t Manager r e p o r t s t h a t ^ a m e e t i n g was h e l d w i t h h i m s e l f , the S e c r e t a r y Manager o f Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , and members of the Youth P r e v e n t i v e D e t a i l , i n a t t e n d a n c e . I t was a r r a n g e d t h a t one o f the two l a r g e l o c k e r rooms i n the basement of the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g would be r e l e a s e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes on the p r o j e c t . The Youth P r e v e n t i v e D e t a i l , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f two men on the p r o j e c t , were a b l e to a r r a n g e to have about 3 0 t e e n a g e r s d i s m a n t l e the l o c k e r s i n o r d e r t h a t the l a r g e 6 0 f e e t by 40 f e e t room would be a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . The a c t i v i t y was c o m p l i e d i n two e v e n i n g s . The Youth P r e v e n t i v e D e t a i l were a b l e to have one of the - 135 -l a r g e department s t o r e s f u r n i s h a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the room as a l o u n g e . The remainder of the room was equipped w i t h ping-pong t a b l e s , w e i g h t - l i f t i n g equipment and mats, d a r t b o a r d , e t c . l o a n e d by the Y.M.C.A., Broadway E a s t Branch. There was an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g o f the T e r r a c e Teens i n November, 1963, a t which time the e x e c u t i v e was e l e c t e d . Member-s h i p i s open to any teenager l i v i n g on the p r o j e c t . There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r membership i n the group to those t e e n a g e r s l i v i n g i n the a r e a whose r e q u e s t f o r membership i s approved by 70 p e r c e n t of the members. The p r e s i d e n t of the T e r r a c e Teens does not l i v e on the p r o j e c t . The p r e s e n t membership i s 75> F o r money r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s the group has had two s u c c e s s f u l c a r washes and a "cake walk". The room i s a v a i l a b l e to the T e r r a c e Teens f o r a few hours each e v e n i n g p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s a d u l t s u p e r v i s i o n . The group had been a b l e to s e c u r e the c a p a b l e l e a d e r s h i p o f one of the t e n a n t s to a c t as an a d u l t a d v i s o r . He a r r a n g e d f o r a meeting o f a l l p a r e n t s on the p r o j e c t to which 35 responded. From t h i s group of p a r e n t s he was a b l e to o b t a i n the names of enough p a r e n t s to p r o v i d e s u p e r v i s i o n f o r arery p e r i o d the room i s a v a i l a b l e t o the T e r r a c e Teens. The a c t i v i t i e s of the group i n c l u d e ping-pong, c h e c k e r s , c h e s s , d a r t s , c r i b b a g e , weight l i f t i n g , d a n c i n g and l i s t e n i n g to r e c o r d s . They hope t o h o l d monthly bingo games i n the near f u t u r e w i t h the t w o - f o l d purpose o f p r o v i d i n g e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r the t e n a n t s and t o r a i s e money f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . - 136 -The Hi-Tower S o c i a l C l u b ; The Hi-Tower S o c i a l C l u b i s open to a l l s e n i o r c i t i z e n s l i v i n g on the p r o j e c t . Most of the r e s i d e n t s o f the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g members and t a k e advantage of the f e l l o w s h i p o f f e r e d . B u s i n e s s meetings a r e h e l d once a month a t which time the convenors of the v a r i o u s committees make t h e i r r e p o r t s . The committees are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v i s i t i n g s i c k t e n a n t s i n h o s p i t a l , h e l p i n g w i t h the s h o p p i n g f o r those unable t o do t h e i r own because of i l l n e s s o r age, and f o r a r r a n g i n g programmes. Programmes a r e a r r a n g e d so t h a t t h e r e i s one o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y i n the lounge each week. I t may be a c a r d game, b i n g o , dance, s l i d e s o r movies. Refreshments are s e r v e d a f t e r each of the programmes. are On a number of o c c a s i o n s s p e c i a l d i n n e r s / a r r a n g e d i n the lounge w i t h the members p r e p a r i n g the f o o d . The C h r i s t m a s P a r t y took the form o f a c a t e r e d d i n n e r and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 members were i n a t t e n d a n c e . The dues f o r membership i s $2.00 p e r p e r s o n per y e a r and the funds a r e used to p r o v i d e r e f r e s h m e n t s a f t e r the a c t i v i t i e s . The group i s n o t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h any o t h e r o l d age p e n s i o n group i n the c i t y . Some f e l l o w s h i p has been a r r a n g e d w i t h the s o c i a l c l u b i n nearby B e u l a h Gardens. Y.M.C.A. Boys Clubs The Y.M.C.A., Broadway E a s t Branch i s the o n l y v o l u n t a r y r e c r e a t i o n a l agency l o c a t e d near " S u n r i s e P a r k " and whose programme extends to the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . The Y.M.C.A. has a p a r t - t i m e s t a f f member to work w i t h the boys on the p r o j e c t . H i s d u t i e s are to i n s t i l l the Y.M.C.A. v a l u e s o f - 137 -c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g through a s s o c i a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n . They began t h e i r programme on the p r o j e c t i n March, 1963, and formed two groups w i t h a membership o f t h i r t y boys between the age o f 8 and l 4 . The numbers i n c r e a s e d to f i f t y w i t h the opening of the f a l l programme so t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y to form f o u r groups. The a t t e n d a n c e a g a i n dropped t o f o r t y members t h e r e f o r e one of the groups was e l i m i n a t e d . The programme c o n s i s t s o f a one hour m e e t i n g and a one hour gymnasium s e s s i o n each week. The h i g h l i g h t o f the w i n t e r programme was a t h r e e day camping t r i p d u r i n g the C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s to the Y.M.C.A. Camp H o l l y b u r n . There were twenty boys who a t t e n d e d . G i r l G u i d e s : The l e a d e r s of the G i r l Guides have been some-what d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h a t the group began i t s a c t i v i t i e s on the p r o j e c t l a s t f a l l and they were o n l y a b l e t o r e c r u i t e l e v e n members. The P a t r o l L e a d e r s f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n but f e e l the l a c k of membership i s because o f the l a c k of i n t e r e s t on the p a r t o f the p a r e n t s . The G i r l s C l u b : The G i r l s C l u b , under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Mothers C l u b , was formed i n J a n u a r y , 1964, and has a membership o f 4-3 g i r l s . The membership age i s from 6 to 12 y e a r s . They meet weekly and t h e i r programmes i n c l u d e games, making d o l l s ' c l o t h i n g , l e a r n i n g to k n i t , e t c . R e c e n t l y they have begun w o r k i n g w i t h c l a y . Through the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House they a r e a b l e t o have t h e i r work f i r e d i n the neighbourhood house's k i l n . Tot S p ot: The Tot Spot i s the newest group to be formed on the p r o j e c t . I t i s a p l a y group f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and meets one morning p e r week. Though the Mothers Club o n l y formed the group - 138 -i n the f i r s t week of March, th e y have f o r t y - t h r e e c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d w i t h an average a t t e n d a n c e of t h i r t y . The Mothers Club ar e i n need o f a d d i t i o n a l equipment which t h e y hope to o b t a i n from p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o j e c t . I n t h i s s e c t i o n we have been a t t e m p t i n g to p r o v i d e d e t a i l s o f the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s and to show, through the d e t a i l s of the programmes o f f e r e d , the l o c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s , the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of the s t a f f s , the inadequacy of the s e r v i c e s t o meet the needs of the a r e a . I n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n we have seen t h a t the t e n a n t s of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t have s p e c i a l needs w h i c h a r e not overcome by the p r o v i s i o n o f good h o u s i n g a l o n e . The h e a l t h needs seem to be c a r e d f o r a d e q u a t e l y i n the wid s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e s of G r e a t e r Vancouver, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of W e l f a r e , the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the V i c t o r i a n Order o f Nurses. The s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s i n the a r e a ar e v e r y l i m i t e d and, as we have seen, the needs a r e v e r y g r e a t . From our knowledge o f the a r e a i t would appear t h a t many, i f not a l l , o f the f a m i l i e s would b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from casework h e l p , y e t o n l y f i f t e e n cases on the whole p r o j e c t a r e r e c e i v i n g t h i s form of a s s i s t a n c e . The r e g u l a r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e worker w i t h the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, by her own a d m i s s i o n , f e e l s t h a t she cannot g i v e any c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e o t h e r than a t a v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l because o her l a r g e c a s e l o a d and her i n a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h e r p o s i t i o n . The p e n s i o n worker i s not e x p e c t e d to g i v e any h e l p u n l e s s i t i s r e q u e s t e d by the r e c i p i e n t , and even then i t i s o n l y - 139 -the p r o v i s i o n of a n c i l l i a r y s e r v i c e s or e n v i r o n m e n t a l change because of needed c a r e . The s e r v i c e s o f the v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s seem t o be e q u a l l y i n a d e q u a t e . I n the F e b r u a r y , 1964, meeting of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g the " S u n r i s e P a r k " a r e a i t was e v i d e n t i n the d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t many of a g e n c i e s were not aware of the needs i n the a r e a and some of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d t h a t because of l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and s t a f f they were unable to p r o v i d e 1 the n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e . The r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s would appear to • l e a v e more u n f i l l e d needs than e i t h e r of the o t h e r types of s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . Other than the f a c i l i t i e s o f the nearby park and the programme o f f e r e d by the Broadway E a s t Branch of the Y.M.C.A. i t would seem t h a t no c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n to the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the t e n a n t s e i t h e r on the p r o j e c t or i n the a r e a . S i n c e the p r o j e c t has been o c c u p i e d two community c e n t r e s have e i t h e r been b u i l t o r are under c o n s t r u c t i o n t o s e r v e the a r e a i n c l u d i n g most of " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Skeena T e r r a c e . E i t h e r of them i s f u r t h e r from the p r o j e c t than the H a s t i n g s Community C e n t r e . On the p r o j e c t i t s e l f , we have seen t h e r e was almost.no p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n u n t i l the t e n a n t s themselves t o o k a c t i o n to p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n a l o u t l e t s through the f o r m a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s groups. The members of the Mothers Club seem t o be p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s a r y " s p a r k " . They have been a t t e m p t i n g to get more of the men on the p r o j e c t i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s i s t i n g w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h e y w i l l respond i n t h a t many of them have v o l u n t e e r e d The w r i t e r a t t e n d e d the m e e t i n g and these a r e p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . The minutes of the m e e t i n g have not y e t been d i s t r i b u t e d . 1*4-0 -t o a c t as s u p e r v i s o r s so t h a t the T e r r a c e Teens might take f u l l advantage o f the time a l l o c a t e d to them i n the R e c r e a t i o n Room. The R e c r e a t i o n Room i t s e l f , though i n a d e q u a t e i n many-r e s p e c t s , i s f u l f i l l i n g a g r e a t need. R e c e n t l y i t was n e c e s s a r y to form a House Committee w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l groups to c o - o r d i n a t e i t s use. Though the a t t a i n i n g o f the room f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes c r e a t e d some d i s a d v a n t a g e to the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , they c o - o p e r a t e d f u l l y and, i n f a c t , seem to en j o y h a v i n g the young people i n the b u i l d i n g . There has been no c o m p l a i n t s by them r e g a r d i n g n o i s e . - Ikl -D. SOME ASPECTS OF PLANNING AFFECTING  "SUNRISE PARK" AND SKEENA TERRACE I n S e c t i o n "A" we l o c a t e d the community of " S u n r i s e P a r k " and a t t e m p t e d to p o r t r a y some of the main p h y s i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such a s : the l o c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , s c h o o l s , p a r k s , c h u r c h e s , l i b r a r y and s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s . S e c t i o n "B" was a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the people who moved i n t o the p u b l i c h o u s i n g development w i t h some emphasis on t h e i r former p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. A r e v i e w o f the e x i s t i n g h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a was made i n S e c t i o n "C", w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on new r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the t e n a n t s t h e m s e l v e s . We s h o u l d now l o o k b r i e f l y a t the a s p e c t s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r i o r t o the a r r i v a l o f the t e n a n t s on the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . S o c i a l p l a n n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y i s an a t t e m p t , t h r o u g h d e l i b e r a t e p l a n n i n g , to meet the s o c i a l and w e l f a r e needs o f the community through the p r o v i s i o n o f adequate h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . I n d e v e l o p i n g a programme of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i t i s n e c e s s a r y " t h a t i n the e a r l y p l a n n i n g s t a g e s o f any development, p u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s s h o u l d e n l i s t the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e community s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the adequacy of e x i s t i n g community f a c i l i t i e s ( s c h o o l s , p l a y g r o u n d s , l i b r a r i e s , h e a l t h c l i n i c s , e t c . ) a v a i l a b l e to the p r o j e c t and the k i n d of o n - s i t e f a c i l i t i e s t h a t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d on the development. These f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e b o t h to the p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s and o t h e r people i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . 1 , 1 I n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s e n i o r p e r s o n n e l i n b o t h the 1 Working Together f o r Urban Renewal, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Housing and Redevelopment O f f i c i a l s , (N.A.H.R.O.) Chicago,September , 1958, N.A.H.R.O. P u b l i c a t i o n N-40?, page 19. - 142 -p u b l i c and voluntary agencies i t would appear the p h y s i c a l planners f o r the housing development gave l i t t l e , i f any, c o n s i d e r a t i o n . t o a review of the adequacy of the e s s e n t i a l h e a l t h , welfare and r e c r e a t i o n -a l s e r v i c e s i n the area. None of the persons interviewed were con-tacted p r i o r to the announcement that the housing p r o j e c t would be b u i l t on the p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . In the view of the w r i t e r , a f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of good s o c i a l planning should be a review of the a t t i t u d e s of the community i n which the housing p r o j e c t i s to be l o c a t e d , about p u b l i c housing g e n e r a l l y , and s p e c i f i c a l l y about p u b l i c housing i n t h e i r area. In "Sunrise Park" t h i s was not done, and i n i n t e r v i e w s with p r o f e s s i o n a l persons i n the community t h i s f a c t o r was mentioned as a p o s s i b l e "stumbling block" i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of the housing p r o j e c t i n t o the community. I t was pointed out that "Sunrise Park" was a com-munity with a high incidence of owner-occupied s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s . In our review of s t a t i s t i c s i n S e c t i o n "A" t h i s statement was borne out. The informants f e l t there was a degree of resentmat about having a l a r g e number of low income f a m i l i e s "dumped" i n t o t h i s area. There are some who have adopted the a t t i t u d e of "wait and see" i n regard to the people occupying p u b l i c housing. There are s t i l l others who seem to have accepted the housing p r o j e c t and have attempted to e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the tenants. No formal review of the a t t i t u d e s of the people l i v i n g i n "Sunrise Park" was considered f o r t h i s study. In an i n t e r v i e w with the school p r i n c i p a l , i t was learned that the f e e l i n g of resentment i s often expressed i n the meetings of - lif-3 -the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n . The P.T.A. group i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " has been v e r y a c t i v e , w i t h an average a t t e n d a n c e o f 100. To date o n l y about e i g h t p a r e n t s from Skeena T e r r a c e have a t t e n d e d t h e meetings o r ta k e n p a r t i n any of the a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s not known whether t h i s s m a l l number of t e n a n t members i s because o f t h e i r l a c k of i n t e r e s t , or the e x p r e s s i o n s o f r e s e n t -ment on the p a r t of the o t h e r p a r e n t s . I t would seem t h a t these e x p r e s s i o n s of resentment might have been reduced had t h e i r been adequate p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the a r r i v a l o f the l a r g e number o f tenan i n t h i s a r e a o f h i g h home ownership. There a r e t e c h n i q u e s whereby adequate s o c i a l p l a n n i n g may t a k e p l a c e as a c o - o p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n between the p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s and the s o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . T h i s type o f p l a n n i n g would c u r t a i l some o f the resentment we have e v i d e n c e d above. The t e c h n i q u e s l i s t e d a r e : "1. S o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s can become f u l l y i n -formed on the p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s ; p u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s can become f u l l y i n f o r m e d about t he s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s of the community. 2. S o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s can p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c y on p l a n n i n g new developments and on management. 3. P u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s can see to i t t h a t adequate w e l f a r e programmes s e r v e p r o j e c t r e s i -d e n t s . These a g e n c i e s can h i r e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a f f , they can c o n t r a c t w i t h p r i v a t e o r g a n i -z a t i o n s , o r they can get o t h e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s t o c a r r y out such programmes. h. P u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s can have s o c i a l w e l f a r e w o r k e r s on t h e i r s t a f f s to a s s u r e f u l l use o f community w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . 5. S o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s can work t o g e t h e r t o a s s i s t t r o u b l e d and troublesome f a m i l i e s i n s o l v i n g t h e i r p roblems. - Ikk -6. P u b l i c h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s can help a l l e v i a t e some of the s p e c i a l problems o f the e l d e r l y and m i n o r i t y groups. Of the s i x t e c h n i q u e s l i s t e d above, o n l y the l a s t one seems to have been g i v e n any amount of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n the o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n Vancouver, and e s p e c i a l l y O rchard P a r k , the h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s was p l a c e d v e r y c l o s e to the hou s i n g f o r f a m i l i e s . T h i s p h y s i c a l arrangement o f h o u s i n g u n i t s c r e a t e d many problems. "The u n i t s f o r the aged and handicapped a r e s i t u a t e d a d j a c e n t t o the row houses and apartment b l o c k s h o u s i n g l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n , and 2 many c o m p l a i n t s a r e v o i c e d c o n c e r n i n g t h i s arrangement." I n Skeena T e r r a c e t h i s problem seems to have been s o l v e d w i t h the e r e c t i o n o f the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g w i t h e l e v a t o r s e r v i c e f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The s e n i o r c i t i z e n s a r e v e r y p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r accommodation and, i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h many of them, have not e x p r e s s e d any f e e l i n g s o f i n c o n v e n i e n c e l i v i n g on the upper f l o o r s . L i m i t e d use of t e c h n i q u e #4 above has been made i n t h a t the Sec r e t a r y - M a n a g e r o f Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y has p e r m i t t e d the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work t o use two of the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , McLean P a r k and Skeena T e r r a c e , as f i e l d work placements f o r s t u d e n t s i n s o c i a l work. S o c i a l w e l f a r e agem c i e s have been concerned w i t h t h e l a c k o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and i n a l e t t e r d a t e d October 17, 196l, t h i s concern was e x p r e s s e d t o the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver by 1 I b i d . , page 19 - 23 2 E l l a Mary E e i d , O r c h a r d P a r k , M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962, page 20 - l 4 5 -the Board of Alexandra Neighbourhood House. Sin c e a s i g n i f i c a n t number of people served by Alexandra Neighbourhood House l i v e d i n the redevelopment area the Board was aware of the need f o r a s i m i l a r type of s e r v i c e i n the neighbourhood around the housing p r o j e c t . There were many of the people who were c o n s i d e r e d " m u l t i -problem,',1- f a m i l i e s . "A 'multi-problem' f a m i l y i s d e f i n e d as one where two or more 'problems' are c u r r e n t out of the three p o s s i b l e - 1) economic dependency, 2) h e a l t h problems, and 3) behaviour maladjustment i n a d u l t s or c h i l d r e n or both'.'"'" U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t of l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n between the Board of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , and members of the C o u n c i l of the C i t y of Vancouver, a study of the needs of the area was never undertaken. "There i s evidence of some c o n t r o v e r s y and misunderstanding i n l o c a l programmes of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l i n both p l a n n i n g and c o n t i n u i n g management of p u b l i c housing developments. The q u e s t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e matters i n p u b l i c housing admini-s t r a t i o n and the proper p o s i t i o n of t h i s f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to housing a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s marred i n l o c a l d i s c u s s i o n by u n c e r t a i n t i e s about a u s p i c e s and mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Fear of i d e n t i f y i n g p u b l i c housing as a 'welfare i n s t i t u t i o n " , c r i t i c i s m of proposed s o c i a l s e r v i c e programmes, and h e s i t a n c y i n d e v e l o p i n g c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s between housing and w e l f a r e o f f i c i a l s at a l l l e v e l s , are symptomatic of the need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and perhaps some con-2 s i d e r a t i o n of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . " I nterviews were h e l d with s e n i o r p e r s o n n e l of both Alexandra 1 James S. Brown, David Kowaga, and Raymond E. P e t e r s , P u b l i c Housing  and Welfare S e r v i c e s , Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963, pages 49-50. I b i d . , page 196. - 146 -Neighbourhood House and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s and i t was l e a r n e d t h a t , p r o v i d i n g funds were a v a i l a b l e , the Board o f A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House was p r e p a r e d to o f f e r s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a and a t the same time complete a survey o f the needs b o t h f o r " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Skeena T e r r a c e . I n o r d e r t o undertake t h i s p r o j e c t the Board o f A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House r e q u i r e d the a p p r o v a l o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . Member a g e n c i e s of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s have an agreement w i t h the C o u n c i l s t h a t a p p r o v a l must be g i v e n by the C o u n c i l s b e f o r e any new programme i s u n d e r t a k e n . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s was r e l u c t a n t to have A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House become i n v o l v e d . Reasons g i v e n were: 1) the source of f i n a n c e f o r the o p e r a t i o n and 2) the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e of a v o l u n t a r y agency i n a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . The Board o f Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y was r e l u c t a n t to have a s t u d y completed on Skeena T e r r a c e a l o n e but was a g r e e a b l e to have a study completed on " S u n r i s e P a r k " . N a t u r a l l y , t h i s s t u d y would i n c l u d e the needs of the t e n a n t s on the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . The Board f e l t t h a t Skeena .Terrace s h o u l d become i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the community o f w h i c h i t i s a p a r t . D u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d t h e r e was m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w i s h e s of the C o u n c i l of the C i t y o f Vancouver. The Board o f A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House had a r e q u e s t from the Chaiman of the W e l f a r e Committee to e s t a b l i s h s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a . I t was on the b a s i s of t h i s r e q u e s t t h a t the Board o f A l e x a n d r a Neighbour-hood House c o n t i n u e d t o attempt to have the a p p r o v a l of the S o c i a l - 14? -. P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s to p r o v i d e t h i s e x t e n s i o n of s e r v i c e . I t was l e a r n e d l a t e r t h a t the r e q u e s t was i n f o r m a l and d i d not r e p r e s e n t the wishes of the whole C o u n c i l . The whole m a t t e r of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r Skeena T e r r a c e and/or " S u n r i s e P a r k " was d i s c u s s e d by v a r i o u s groups from the time o f the i n i t i a l l e t t e r to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s on October 17, 1 9 6 l , to the p r e s e n t t i m e , and even now, t h e r e i s no d e f i n i t e a s s u r a n c e t h a t a s t u d y w i l l be com-p l e t e d . In r e c e n t months the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n has r e c e i v e d r e q u e s t s from p r o f e s s i o n a l people s e r v i n g i n the a r e a o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " to have a s t u d y completed on the r e s o u r c e s of the a r e a . F o l l o w i n g up t h e s e r e q u e s t s a m e e t i n g of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e -a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g the a r e a was c a l l e d i n F e b r u a r y , 1964, and p l a n s are e v o l v i n g t o have a complete s u r v e y o f the needs and s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a . 1 I n the i n i t i a l m e e t i n g those r e p r e s e n t i n g the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s and s e r v i c e s , b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , gave some e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r s e r v i c e s and t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Skeena T e r r a c e . The d i s c u s s i o n w h ich f o l l o w e d concen-t r a t e d on the l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . The need f o r co-o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t was s t r e s s e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the r a t e o f d e l i n q u e n c y was not h i g h i n the a r e a even though the p o t e n t i a l f o r problems was g r e a t w i t h the l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y t e e n a g e r s , and the l a c k of o r g a n i z e d programmes f o r them. The D e v e l o p i n g Neighbourhood F e e l i n g -I f we were to c o n s i d e r Skeena T e r r a c e as a neighbourhood 1 A l t h o u g h the m e e t i n g was h e l d i n F e b r u a r y , 1964, the m i nutes are not y e t a v a i l a b l e . The w r i t e r was p e r m i t t e d to read the t r a n s c r i p t o f the d i s c u s s i o n t o r e f r e s h h i s memory of the d e t a i l s . - 148 -i n the community o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " t h e r e would seem to be a n eighbourhood f e e l i n g e v o l v i n g a t a r a p i d r a t e ; but i f we were to c o n s i d e r " S u n r i s e P a r k " as a neighbourhood w i t h Skeena T e r r a c e as a sub-neighbourhood the response would be i n r e v e r s e . Other than the a c t i v i t i e s o f the T e r r a c e Teens who are a c c e p t i n g members from o u t s i d e the p r o j e c t t h e r e does n o t appear to be a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h " S u n r i s e P a r k " . On the p r o j e c t i t s e l f the f o r m a t i o n of.-the l a r g e number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r i s e v i d e n c e o f the d e v e l o p -i n g neighbourhood. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p r o j e c t newspaper i s h e l p i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . I n the most r e c e n t i s s u e o f the p a p e r , a copy o f which i s a t t a c h e d as Appendix H t h e r e i s a p r o p o s a l f o r the f o r m a t i o n of a Tenant A s s o c i a t i o n and i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t enough i n t e r e s t i s b e i n g shown i n the p r o p o s a l t h a t i t w i l l become a r e a l i t y i n the near f u t u r e . I f the Tenant A s s o c i a t i o n does become o r g a n i z e d i t w i l l be the second A s s o c i a t i o n i n the f o u r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s o p e r a t e d by the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . A l t h o u g h O r c h a r d P a r k became o c c u p i e d i n December, 1958, t h e r e i s no Tenant A s s o c i a t i o n formed as y e t . L i k e w i s e , L i t t l e M ountain Housing P r o j e c t was i n o p e r a t i o n f o r a number of y e a r s b e f o r e an a s s o c i a t i o n was formed. The Manual of Guidance f o r Housing A u t h o r i t i e s encourages the development o f Tenant A s s o c i a t i o n s . " I n some p r o j e c t s Tenants' A s s o c i a t i o n s have been formed. These are to a l a r g e e x t e n t r e c -r e a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which h e l p t o promote a h e a l t h y community s p i r i t w i t h i n the p r o j e c t . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , A u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d encourage the growth of such a s s o c i a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e which - 149 -ta k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n s p o n s o r i n g community a c t i v i t i e s . Such a s s o c i a t i o n s can p e r f o r m a v a l u a b l e f u n c t i o n p r o v i d i n g they do not t a k e on the c h a r a c t e r of g r i e v a n c e committees." 1 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s much a c t i v i t y and neighbourhood development on the p r o j e c t t h r o u g h the i n t e r e s t groups, the t e n a n t s have not made f u l l use o f the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s . T h i s f a c t o r i s e v i d e n c e d by the l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S u n r i s e P a r k a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e the s u p e r v i s o r i s p r e s e n t , and i n the p u b l i c h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n a l movies shown i n the H e a l t h U n i t . A p o s s i b l e reason f o r the l a t t e r c o u l d be the n e c e s s i t y o f u s i n g p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o t r a v e l to the u n i t . I t has not been e s t a b l i s h e d why the c h i l d r e n from Skeena T e r r a c e have not t a k e n a more a c t i v e p a r t i n the p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Neighbourhood Development In o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e t h i s p r o c e s s of neighbourhood development, t h r e e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d : a) i n -c r e a s e d r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; b) encouragement; and c) l e a d e r -s h i p . The e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n room i n the h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g of the Skeena T e r r a c e Housing P r o j e c t i s f i l l i n g a need but a l r e a d y t h e r e i s some i l l f e e l i n g about the time a l l o c a t i o n o f the room. I n a r e c e n t i n t e r v i e w w i t h a Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i t was l e a r n e d t h e t some i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n has taken p l a c e w i t h a view t o h a v i n g a r e c r e a t i o n h a l l c o n s t r u c t e d on one of the p a r k i n g 1 Manual f o r Guidance o f Housing A u t h o r i t i e s - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , Ottawa, 19^0, P a r t i , A r t i c l e 1.8, page 5. - 1 5 0 -l o t s n e a r the c e n t r e o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . I n v iew of the s h o r t a g e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n " S u n r i s e P a r k " and the f e e l i n g o f resentment r e p o r t e d to e x i s t i t would seem more p r o p e r t o have a b u i l d i n g and programme of the "neighbourhood house" type l o c a t e d near the p r o j e c t but a c c e s s i b l e to the whole community. A programme of t h i s n a t u r e might a s s i s t i n the i n t e g r a t i o n o f " S u n r i s e P a r k " and Skeena T e r r a c e as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a much needed r e s o u r c e f o r the t e n a n t s o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . I n a l e t t e r e x p r e s s i n g the need f o r neighbourhood s e r v i c e s the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s were made: " I n f o r m a t i o n based on the b e s t a u t h o r i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to u s, and e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d from n e a r l y every h o u s i n g development of t h i s k i n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a (Skeena T e r r a c e P u b l i c Housing) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r o v i s i o n o f new h o u s i n g t o r e p l a c e slums i s not enough. F a m i l i e s i n some p u b l i c h o u s i n g developments f i n d t hemselves b e r e f t o f some or a l l of the community r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i r former neighbourhoods. D e s p i t e the g a i n s i n l i g h t , a i r , and c l e a n l i n e s s , the s e p a r a t e n e s s of some p r o j e c t s s e t s t h e i r o c cupants a p a r t from the normal l i f e o f the community, s t i g -m a t i z i n g them and f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t i n g the s o c i a l problems w i t h i n the group. Neighbourhood houses have had s u c c e s s i n w o r k i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and e n t i r e neighbourhoods i n the a t t a i n m e n t of h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s of n e i g h b o u r -hood l i f e and g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the problems o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . " ! The second f a c t o r , t h a t of encouragement, i s needed i n any c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e . T h i s encouragement has been coming from the f e e l i n g o f w e l l - b e i n g i n t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s have been a From a l e t t e r i n the Skeena T e r r a c e f i l e of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , Vancouver, (dated September 2 5 , 1 9 6 2 . - 151 -s u c c e s s , from the S e c r e t a r y - M a n a g e r o f the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , and the P r o j e c t Manager. Both of t h e s e men have on o c c a s i o n a t t e n d e d group meetings and f u n c t i o n s , have g i v e n a p p r o v a l f o r a c t i v i t i e s , and s u p p l i e d equipment and s u p p l i e s . L e a d e r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l to any programme development. There i s a c e r t a i n amount of n a t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s on the p r o j e c t , but t h e y need o u t s i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c t i o n i n o r d e r to s u s t a i n the i n t e r e s t and a r r a n g e new and i n t e r e s t i n g programmes. The need f o r the s e r v i c e s of a f u l l time s o c i a l worker i s v e r y e v i d e n t . The worker s h o u l d be a b l e t o p e r f o r m i n any of the methods o f s o c i a l work, s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work and community o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a s o c i a l caseworker he s h o u l d be a b l e to g i v e emergency casework s e r v i c e and make e f f e c t i v e r e f e r r a l s t o the community h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies; as a s o c i a l group worker to work w i t h the e x i s t i n g groups on the p r o j e c t and h e l p w i t h the development of new programmes; as a community o r g a n i z a t i o n worker to h e l p w i t h the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n t o the community and t o attempt to develop new r e s o u r c e s to meet the needs of the t e n a n t s . I n view of the needs i n the a r e a g e n e r a l l y , and i n Skeena T e r r a c e s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s hoped t h a t the proposed s t u d y by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s w i l l p r o c e e d w i t h o u t d e l a y . I n the meantime a s t u d e n t from the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work can p e r f o r m a " l i m i t e d r o l e " on the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n a s s i s t i n g the p r o j e c t manager t o u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t s o c i a l work v a l u e s and t o make e f f e c t i v e r e f e r r a l s ; to work w i t h the groups on the - 152 -p r o j e c t s , and t h r o u g h the groups h e l p the community t o d e v e l o p and a c c e p t the t e n a n t s of the p r o j e c t as an a s s e t and not a l i a b i l i t y . By " l i m i t e d r o l e " i s the f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t i s o n l y a b l e to g i v e s e r v i c e on h i s days of f i e l d work w h i l e an employed s o c i a l worker would be a b l e to devote more time to the needs of the t e n a n t s . I n t h i s s t u d y we have a t t e m p t e d t o p o r t r a y a l a r g e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t b u i l t i n a community which was l a c k i n g i n many r e s o u r c e s . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e are many a s p e c t s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t have not been c o v e r e d and would g i v e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y , such a s , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a neighbourhood house type o f programme i n a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , the means of o b t a i n i n g a b e t t e r co-o r d i n a t i o n of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , o r the e f f e c t i v e ways o f a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e g r a t e a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n t o an e x i s t i n g community. CHAPTER IV STRATHCONA AREA THE STUDY AREA AND ITS PEOPLE Fo r purposes of t h i s s t u d y , the a r e a to be c o n s i d e r e d w i l l be c a l l e d " S t r a t h c o n a " . T h i s name has been commonly used ov e r the y e a r s and i s t a k e n from the name o f the l a r g e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , L o r d S t r a t h c o n a . 1 The a r e a i s bounded on the west by Main S t r e e t , n o r t h a l o n g H a s t i n g s S t r e e t , on the e a s t by C l a r k D r i v e , and on the s o u t h by T e r m i n a l Avenue ( F i g u r e l iV). These b o u n d a r i e s were drawn to c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e of the Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i n o r d e r to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from the 196i census f i g u r e s . S t r a t h -cona i s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o the downtown a r e a . Some r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made to the a r e a j u s t n o r t h of S t r a t h c o n a as a few a g e n c i e s which s e r v e S t r a t h c o n a are l o c a t e d t h e r e . The a r e a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n i t i a l l y i n terms o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n , r e s o u r c e s , p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l problems and community a c t i v i t y . However, a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be the e f f e c t s of programmes o f redevelopment on the community. Redevelopment i s d e f i n e d here as "the p r o c e s s of a c q u i r i n g b l i g h t e d l a n d , d e m o l i s h i n g e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , and making 2 the c l e a r e d l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r new development." Redevelopment has been p l a n n e d t o take p l a c e o v e r the p e r i o d o f a number of y e a r s , the f i r s t p r o j e c t a l r e a d y h a v i n g been completed and a s t a r t i s to be made 1 S t a n l e y D. M c L a r t y , The S t r a t h c o n a S t o r y , 1873-1961; The S t o r y of  S t r a t h c o n a S c h o o l , Vancouver S c h o o l Board, Vancouver, B.C . , 1 9 6 l . T h i s s c h o o l was f i r s t named E a s t S c h o o l but , A L 9 0 0 was renamed L o r d S t r a t h -cona, a f t e r one o f Canada's o u t s t a n d i n g f i n a n c i e r s and p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s . 2 Working t o g e t h e r f o r Urban Renewal, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Housing and Redevelopment O f f i c i a l s , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , September 1958;p.'2.-REPRODUCTIONS OF THIS MAP OR PARTS THEREOF MAY NOT BE MADE WITHOUT PERMISSION OF OWNERS ., V A N C O U V E R A N D V I C I N I T Y . D O M I N I O N M A P L IM ITED V A N C O U V E R , B. C. - 154 -on the second s t a g e soon. S t r a t h c o n a i s one of Vancouver's e a r l i e s t r e s i d e n t i a l communities. I t developed q u i c k l y i n i t s l o c a t i o n a d j a c e n t to the w a t e r f r o n t a r e a , w i t h t h e e a r l y l o g g i n g and l u m b e r i n g i n d u s t r y . However, as i n d u s t r y e v o l v e d and the c i t y grew l a r g e r , many o f the o r i g i n a l r e s i d e n t s moved t o newer a r e a s . T h i s l e f t the r e s i -dences to be t a k e n up by a number of groups o f a v a r i e t y of r a c i a l and n a t i o n a l backgrounds. Immigrant p o p u l a t i o n s have tended to g r a v i a t e towards t h e i r kinsmen and toward t h o s e who speak the same language. A consequence o f t h i s i s t h a t c u l t u r a l " i s l a n d s " were e s t a b l i s h e d w h i ch c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t to a marked e x t e n t today. Some of the e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s , n o t e a b l y the Chinese and I t a l i a n s t i l l l i v e t h e r e i n s u b s t a n t i a l numbers. Indeed, the Chine s e are i n c r e a s i n g i n number and a r e moving f u r t h e r e a s t i n S t r a t h c o n a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s ( F i g u r e 3l#). The Japanese, who were e v i c t e d d u r i n g World War 11, have r e t u r n e d but i n v e r y l i m i t e d numbers. Other e t h n i c groups a t one time l o c a t e d t h e r e have moved elsewhere i n the c i t y . Today t h e r e i s a t r e n d f o r i m m i g r a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y of Chinese and I t a l i a n backgrounds, to s e t t l e , a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , i n the S t r a t h c o n a a r e a w h i l e Canadian-born o f these groups t e n d to move to o t h e r a r e a s i n Vancouver. One of the e f f e c t s of n a t i o n a l groups s e t t l i n g i n S t r a t h -cona has been the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a number of t h e i r own churches and n a t i o n a l h a l l s ( F i g u r e 3./i). These have f u l f i l l e d s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n s . The churches c o n t i n u e to a t t r a c t a t t e n d a n c e from members of the e t h n i c group they s e r v e even though the members may now be r e s i d i n g o u t s i d e S t r a t h c o n a . LEG END C H I N E S E _ I T A L I A N _ J A P A N E S E N E G R O _ • • • • • • • • c FIGURE 2A — M A P I L L U S T R A T I N G DISTRIBUTION OF ETHNIC a RACIAL GROUPS L —jap*-' ^1,100/ 1200 SACRED HEAJT SCHOOL • • • • • * ct < CC SEYMOUR SCHOOL V E N A B L E S ST. FALSE :': CREEK PARK P A R K E R S T . N A P I E R S T . W I L L I A M ST. r* u A o i rr r* 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 © ® 200 I I N C H = 4 0 0 F E E T S S S S q o <3 1 r CHITRCHSS . A L E X A N D E R t I t 2 POWELL STREET GROUNDS 300 400 J L S T . P O W E L L ST t 3 C O R D O V A 500 +4 CD 6 0 0 H A S T I N G S STRATHCONA ^SCHOOC-% w P E N D E R CO UJ o K E E F E R S7: FRANCIS XAVIER^^, SCHOOL t 7 G E O R G I A +9 U N I O N P R I O R L E 6 E N D COMMUNITY SERVICES n r o ® S T 7 0 0 S T . S T . S T . ST . S T . S T 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 St. James Anglican 1 t St. Paul's Cathedral 2 : Vancouver Buddhist Church 3 J First United (temporary location) k x Chinese Pentecostal 5 * Chinese United 6 * Chinese Anglican 7 * The Christ Church of China 8 i Chinese Catholic« St. Francis Xavier 9 t Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox 10 « St. Mary's Ukrainian Catholic 11 * Sacred Heart 1*2 i 13 » Police Station Fire Hall Pender Y.W.C.A. Oibbs Boys Club Kivassa Girls Club Museum Salvation Army Child Care Centre Second Mile Society St. Vincent's Home Russian People's Hall Yugoslavian Educational Home Association of United Ukrainian McLean Park Public Housing Projeot Schools Parks Canadians FIGURE 3 A — M A P I L L U S T R A T I N G LOCATION OF INSTITUTIONS a COMMUNITY SERVICES L 800 9 0 0 + 12 SACRED HEA<?7 SCHOOL SEYMOURx . . . .  : ^ J | SCHOOL + 10 ' ® V E N A B L E S ST. • FA L SE CREEK P A R K E R S T . - 155 When i n t e r v i e w e d , most o f the ministers?*: p r i e s t s and church w o r k e r s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l a r g e number o f t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s were not r e s i -dent i n the a r e a . These c h u r c h l e a d e r s have found i t n e c e s s a r y to c o n s i d e r the needs o f two main elements i n t h e i r membership: t h a t i s , f o r those f r e q u e n t l y o f m i d d l e c l a s s s t a t u s , h i g h e r Income, o f t e n b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n from o u t s i d e the a r e a , and those from w i t h i n S t r a t h c o n a i t s e l f . Many o f the once s u b s t a n t i a l homes have been c o n v e r t e d to b o a r d i n g and rooming houses. Most o f t e n , t h i s has been done w i t h -out adequate p l a n n i n g . T h i s has been n e c e s s a r y to accommodate immigrant p e o p l e , as w e l l as thos e m i g r a t o r y workers o f l u m b e r i n g , l o g g i n g , m i n i n g and f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s who have t a k e n up the l e s s e x p e n s i v e accommodation near the downtown c e n t r e . D e t e r i o r a t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e because of o v e r c r o w d i n g and by 1958 i t was r e c o g -n i z e d o f f i c i a l l y t h a t redevelopment on a comprehensive s c a l e was n e c e s s a r y f o r S t r a t h c o n a a r e a . 1 I n 1961 the p o p u l a t i o n i n S t r a t h c o n a t o t a l l e d 8,493 of which 5i5l8 were male, and 2,975 female. Many n a t i o n a l i t i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the a r e a but p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e a b l e i s t h a t 4,832 o r 56.9 p e r c e n t a r e A s i a t i c ( T a b l e P.) and t h i s i s double t h a t o f 3 1950 when the p e r c e n t a g e was 28 of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . S i x t y -t h r e e p e r c e n t of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was born o u t s i d e Canada and 19 p e r c e n t speak l i t t l e or no E n g l i s h . 1 Vancouver Redevelopment Study, P r e p a r e d by the C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department f o r the Housing P.esearch Committee, December 1957. T h i s r e p o r t was adopted i n Feb.1958 by the C i t y o fVancouver. A l l s t a t i s t i c s a r e from the 1961 Census of Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e acknowledged. 3 Leonard C. Marsh, R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Canada, 1950, p. v i i i . - 156 -Table P. E t h n i c D i s t r i b u t i o n S t r a t h c o n a Vancouver Number P e r c e n t Number P e r c e n t B r i t i s h I s l e s 1104 13 230,234 60 F r e n c h 215 2.5 12,113 3 German 118 1.5 16,561 7 I t a l i a n 783 9 12,941 3 N e t h e r l a n d s 35 .5 9,311 2.5 P o l i s h 142 1.5 7,117 2 R u s s i a n 113 1.5 4,840 1 S c a n d i n a v i a n 225 2.5 18,782 5 U k r a i n i a n 268 3 9,247 2.5 Other European 489 6 26,769 7 A s i a t i c 4832 57 19,915 5 Other 169 2 6,692 2 100% 100% There a r e 1,550 f a m i l i e s i n S t r a t h c o n a and c h i l d r e n up to the age of f o u r t e e n make up 22 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n , and those o v e r the age of 55 r e p r e s e n t 34.4 p e r c e n t ( o f which 82 p e r c e n t are m a l e s ) . I n p l a n n i n g h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s t o meet the needs o f the pe o p l e o f S t r a t h c o n a , t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s seem to s t a n d out and r e q u i r e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . One i s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n of A s i a t i c s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds. A second f a c t o r i s t h a t r e l a t e d to the problem o f communication w i t h a l m o s t one i n f i v e h a v i n g a language o t h e r than E n g l i s h . S t i l l a n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the age d i s t r i -- 157 -b u t i o n , w i t h one h a l f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d i n the v e r y young and the o l d e r segments. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y s a i d t h a t i n S t r a t h c o n a , owners do not occupy t h e i r d w e l l i n g s but r a t h e r , tend t o have them r e n t e d w h i l e t h e y l i v e e l s e w h e r e . A check o f the census f i g u r e s showed t h a t a lmost a t h i r d (30 p e r c e n t ) o f the d w e l l i n g s a r e owner-occupied w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i t i s l o w when compared to Vancouver owner-occupied d w e l l i n g p e r c e n t a g e of 60 p e r c e n t , i s s t i l l q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l tends t o be low, w i t h some i l l i t e r a c y ( T a b l e Q). P o s s i b l y t h i s i s one cause of the low income l e v e l , w i t h an average p e r f a m i l y head o f $2,478 compared to Vancouver's average of $4,408. Almost 60 p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n o v e r the age o f s i x has v e r y l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n . Table Q. E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l S t r a t h c o n a Vancouver Those over 6 y e a r s w i t h no s c h o o l i n g 9% 1% Those o v e r 6 y e a r s w i t h some el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g o n l y h9% 22% R e l i g i o u s I n s t i t u t i o n s : I n S t r a t h c o n a the Churches c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s e r v e d e f i n i t e e t h n i c o r r a c i a l g r oups. They a r e : S a c r e d H e a r t ( C a t h o l i c , I t a l i a n ) , Chinese U n i t e d , S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r ( C a t h o l i c , C h i n e s e ) , Chinese A n g l i c a n , Chinese P e n t e c o s t a l , Chinese C h r i s t Church, S t . - 1 5 8 -Mary's ( C a t h o l i c , U k r a i n i a n ) , Russian Orthodox, S t . V i n c e n t s S h e l t e r . There are a l s o a number of " m i s s i o n s " , with emphasis on " s o u l - s a v i n g " but a l s o some with q u i t e a s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s f o r young people. J u s t n o r t h of Hastings S t r e e t are S t . James A n g l i c a n Church (the o l d e s t church i n Vancouver), the S a l v a t i o n Army Temple, S t . Paul's C a t h o l i c Church, Vancouver Buddhist Church. F i r s t U n i t e d Church (the second o l d e s t church i n Vancouver) has temporary q u a r t e r s i n t h i s a r e a , i n the h a l l o r i g i n a l l y o c cupied by the F e d e r a t i o n of Canadian U k r a i n i a n s . In a few months' time, t h i s church w i l l move back to i t s new b u i l d i n g , now under c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n S t r a t h c o n a . Apart from the u s u a l church a c t i v i t i e s , S t . James A n g l i c a n a l s o has a programme f o r p e n s i o n e r s (36 p a i d up members) when t h e i r clubroom i s open f i v e days a week, through the day. Tea i s served each a f t e r n o o n . A c t i v i t i e s such as cards , checkers, and c r a f t s are planned. P e r s o n a l v i s i t i n g i s done when members are i l l . Welfare work i n the d i s t r i c t i s another phase of emphasis, i n l a r g e p a r t through a s s i s t a n c e i n c l o t h i n g and food. A l s o on r e f e r r a l from C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, or as there i s an i n d i v i d u a l need observed by a church worker or member, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and pension cheques i s undertaken. F i r s t U n i t e d Church programmes f o r o l d e r persons are i n the form of a Saturday n i g h t " f e l l o w s h i p " hour when about 200 people a t t e n d and at which there are programmes, a short d e v o t i o n a l , and refreshments. Cn Wednesday a f t e r n o o n s there i s a l s o a g a t h e r i n g f o r d e v o t i o n a l and f o r s o c i a l purposes, with an average attendance of about 70. There are a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g cub and scout packs f o r the younger people. - 159 -S o c i a l s e r v i c e work i s c a r r i e d out by s t a f f and a l t h o u g h no money i s g i v e n , t h e r e i s p r o v i s i o n o f c l o t h i n g and f o o d . T h i s i s con-s i d e r e d to be a " m i s s i o n a r y " c h u r c h w i t h emphasis on work w i t h low income groups. F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s work comes from a l l U n i t e d Churches i n Vancouver. S o c i a l S e r v i c e expenses i n 19&3 f o r i t e m s i n c l u d i n g meal t i c k e t s , g r o c e r i e s , beds and rooms, c l o t h i n g , f u r n i t u r e , t r a n p o r t a t i o n , t o t a l l e d $5,931•93* 1  E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s A number o f p r i v a t e p r e - s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n the a r e a o r j u s t to the n o r t h of i t . The C h i l d Care Centre i s l i c e n s e d f o r 60 c h i l d r e n from the ages o f t h r e e y e a r s t o s i x , but has o n l y f o u r c h i l d r e n from the .area ( t h e b a l a n c e from a l l p a r t s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r ) . S t . P a u l ' s Day N u r s e r y o p e r a t e d by the F r a n c i s c a n S i s t e r s of Atonement, has an e n r o l l m e n t o f kO. Some o f the Churches have k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e are. two c l a s s e s ( t o t a l l i n g 113 c h i l d r e n ) o f k i n d e r g a r t e n - a g e d c h i l d r e n i n S t r a t h c o n a S c h o o l , and two c l a s s e s i n Seymour w i t h a t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t o f 60. The p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n the a r e a a r e S t r a t h c o n a and Seymour Eleme n t a r y S c h o o l s . S t r a t h c o n a has a r e g i s t r a t i o n of 9^0 p u p i l s , o f w h ich 89 p e r c e n t are A s i a t i c ( t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y b e i n g C h i n e s e ) , the b a l a n c e i s a m i x t u r e o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Seymour S c h o o l , w h i c h i s l o c a t e d i n the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n of S t r a t h c o n a a r e a , has 500 s t u d e n t s , some of which come from beyond the e a s t e r n boundary of S t r a t h c o n a a r e a , C l a r k D r i v e , o v e r as f a r as Commercial D r i v e . There A n n u a l R e p o r t , 19&3> F i r r s t U n i t e d Church, Gore and H a s t i n g s , V a n c o u v e r B.C. p. kl. - 160 -a r e about one t h i r d A s i a t i c c h i l d r e n , o n e - t h i r d I t a l i a n , k p e r c e n t n egro, and the b a l a n c e i s made up o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . 1 P r i n c -i p l e s and n u r s e s s t a t e t h a t a t t e n d a n c e i n bo t h s c h o o l s i s h i g h compared to o t h e r a r e a s , p a r t l y t h e y b e l i e v e because h e a l t h i s g e n e r a l l y good, and p a r t l y because these c h i l d r e n seem to welcome the warm, c l e a n atmosphere and r e a l l y want to come to s c h o o l . Two p r i v a t e s c h o o l s a l s o l i e w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t : - S a c r e d H e a r t w i t h 130 s t u d e n t s (69 p e r c e n t I t a l i a n , 5 p e r c e n t P o r t u g u e s e , the ba l a n c e xtfhite and a m i x t u r e ) ; and S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r w h i c h i s l a r g e l y f o r Chinese c h i l d r e n . There i s no h i g h s c h o o l l o c a t e d w i t h i n the a r e a . T'here a r e language s c h o o l s f o r the Japanese and Chinese c h i l d r e n . E n g l i s h c l a s s e s are o f f e r e d f o r im m i g r a n t s o r o t h e r s who need i t , by the Pender Y.W.C.A. and by some o f the ch u r c h e s . No a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes are sponsored i n the a.rea by the Vancouver S c h o o l Board. T h i s has been e x p l a i n e d on the b a s i s t h a t t h e r e have been no r e q u e s t s f o r them. The Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e i s i n downtown Vancouver, a few b l o c k s beyond the wes t e r n boundary of S t r a t h c o n a , Main S t r e e t . R e c r e a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s : The t h r e e main r e c r e a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s l o c a t e d i n S t r a t h c o n a a r e the K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b , Gibbs Boys' C l u b , and the Pender Y.W.C.A. There a r e a l s o some n a t i o n a l h a l l s which have l i m i t e d programmes f o r t h e i r own n a t i o n a l groups and whose membership i s not c o n f i n e d to the immediate community. There are r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes p r o v i d e d by some o f the Churches ( S a c r e d H e a r t , f o r example has a g r e a t emphasis p l a c e d on t h e i r s p o r t s programmes f o r t h e i r young p e o p l e ) . These f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d from the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and c o r r o b e r a t e d by the s c h o o l n u r s e s . - 161 -Programmes a r e a l s o a r r a n g e d and sponsored by the Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n . The o n l y agency t h a t o f f e r s a s o c i a l work approach i s Pender Y.W.C.A. I n the p a s t i t has o f f e r e d some group p l a n n i n g f o r boys, but now, w i t h s t a f f s h o r t a g e , i s r e s t r i c t e d t o programmes f o r g i r l s and women. There a r e c r a f t and hobby c l a s s e s , c l u b s , one teenage group on Wednesday n i g h t s . F a i r l y e l a b o r a t e p l a n s a r e made f o r summer a c t i v i t i e s f o r g i r l s d u r i n g the month o f J u l y , such as r e s i d e n t and day camping. The agency c l o s e s d u r i n g August. The K i w a s s a G i r l s ' Club' has r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes f o r g i r l s from f i v e to f i f t e e n y e a r s . I t would l i k e to p r o v i d e a c t i v i -t i e s f o r o l d e r g i r l s but a f t e r some e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n found t h a t t h i s age group was not i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g . Programmes are i n the n a t u r e o f sewing, c r a f t , k n i t t i n g , c o o k i n g c l a s s e s , g y m n a s t i c s e t c . The g i r l s come a f t e r s c h o o l and an average a t t e n d a n c e i s between 30 and kO per day. The Club i s not open i n the e v e n i n g s . There i s a l s o a summer programme when day t r i p s a r e a r r a n g e d every second day throughout J u l y . A g a i n t h i s c l u b c l o s e s d u r i n g August. There i s a l s o an o r g a n i z e d mothers' c l u b meeting t w i c e a month and which p l a c e s emphasis on the s o c i a l c o n t a c t . T w e n t y - f i v e mothers are r e g i s t e r e d and an average a t t e n d a n c e i s 12 t o 15• They h o l d b a z a a r s and c o n t r i b u t e to s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s f o r the g i r l s by p r o v i d -i n g r e f r e s h m e n t s and s u p e r v i s i o n . A l t h o u g h a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c l u b , I t a l i a n i s predominant. Gibbs Boys' Club o p e r a t e s i n what was once a J e w i s h synagogue - a l a r g e , w e l l k e p t b u i l d i n g w i t h p l e n t y o f accommodation. There a r e a c t i v i t y rooms, a l a r g e gymnasium and a l a r g e d o w n s t a i r s lounge f o r dances. There are about 100 boys from e i g h t to e i g h t e e n - 162 -y e a r s who use the c l u b each day, a f t e r n o o n and e v e n i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n , some young men up to the age of 25 come once a week f o r f l o o r hockey. The d i r e c t o r must p l a c e emphasis o n l y on h e a l t h y r e c r e a t i o n because of v e r y l i m i t e d s t a f f and l a r g e numbers o f boys, but he does f e e l t h e r e i s a g r e a t need f o r i n d i v i d u a l and group work f o r those who have p e r s o n a l e m o t i o n a l problems. For the o l d e r p e r s o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o the c h u r c h programmes, t h e r e i s a s o c i a l c l u b , the Second M i l e S o c i e t y , l o c a t e d on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t . 1 The clubrooms are f u r n i s h e d w i t h c o m f o r t a b l e , o l d e r f u r n i t u r e and a r e open s i x days a week from 11 u n t i l 5« Emphasis i s on a s o c i a l atmosphere. A c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e c a r d games, r u g b o w l i n g , and a l i b r a r y which i s used i n a l i m i t e d way. Tea i s s e r v e d e v e r y day by v o l u n t e e r s from c h u r c h e s , s e r v i c e c l u b s , and o r g a n i z a t i o n s from a l l p a r t s o f Vancouver. Membership, which i s open to any p e r s o n 65 y e a r s and o v e r , s t a n d s a t 198 w i t h an average d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f about 4-5. There i s no p a r k or p l a y a r e a i n the w e s t e r n p a r t o f the S t r a t h c o n a Community except f o r the s c h o o l grounds, and t h i s i s 2 l i m i t e d i n s i z e . A square b l o c k t o r e p l a c e McLean P a r k which has been used f o r the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , has been s e t a s i d e a d j a c e n t to the s c h o o l , but has not y e t been de v e l o p e d . N o r t h o f S t r a t h c o n a , i n 1 The Second M i l e S o c i e t y , was s t a r t e d a t the i n s t i g a t i o n m a i n l y o f the l a t e Alderman Anna S p r o t t . She was concerned w i t h the l o s s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l m e e t i n g p l a c e for- o l d e r men a t the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y when i t was moved from i t s o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n a t Main and H a s t i n g s . 2 There has been c o n f u s i o n around the s p e l l i n g o f McLean P a r k . O f f i c i a l l y , the C i t y of Vancouver r e c o g n i z e s McLean P a r k (named a f t e r one o f Vancouver's f i r s t mayors). However, when the Housing P r o j e c t was c o n s t r u c t e d , due to an e r r o r , the s p e l l i n g became MacLean P a r k , and i s so r e c o g n i z e d by the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r -i t y i n i t s l e g a l documents w i t h C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corp-o r a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y , the o r i g i n a l s p e l l i n g o f McLean P a r k w i l l be used. - 163 -the heavy i n d u s t r i a l i z e d a r e a i s Oppenheimer P a r k . I t i s not used to any e x t e n t as an i n f o r m a l p l a y i n g f i e l d by the c h i l d r e n but has o r g a n i z e d b a s e b a l l , s o f t b a l l and s o c c e r games. These games te n d to a t t r a c t the ' d r i f t e r s ' , unemployed and o l d e r p e o p l e . I n the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f S t r a t h c o n a t h e r e i s a temporary p l a y i n g f i e l d w i t h some equipment. I t i s g r a s s e d and has a s m a l l wading p o o l . I n the s o u t h - e a s t e r n c o r n e r of the a r e a , on the F a l s e Creek f l a t s t h e r e i s a l a r g e p a r k of about 20 a c r e s , known as the F a l s e Creek Park , and which i s h e a v i l y used. The Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i v e programming under super-v i s i o n d u r i n g the summer months on these l o c a t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t -i n g t h a t i n t h i s a r e a w i t h so l i t t l e c i t i z e n a c t i v i t y the P a r k s Board has found i t p o s s i b l e to work c l o s e l y w i t h community groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p l a n n i n g and u s i n g the F a l s e Creek Par k . H e a l t h and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s : A l t h o u g h i n the p a s t , h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n S t r a t h c o n a , as r e p o r t e d over the y e a r s by the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee, were c o n s i d e r e d to be v e r y bad, i n the p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s t h e r e has been a n o t i c e a b l e improvement. T h i s i s i n l a r g e p a r t a t t r i b u t e d to the i n f l u e n c e of S t r a t h c o n a and Seymour s c h o o l s and the p u b l i c h e a l t h programme conducted t h r o u g h . t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , as w e l l as t h r o u g h p r i v a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s . G e n e r a l h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s appear to compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h o t h e r a r e a s i n the c i t y w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s . W i t h o u t an a c c u r a t e comparison, the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h p e r s o n n e l a r e o f the o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e may be a somewhat h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f d e f e c t i v e v i s i o n than i n o t h e r a r e a s . They - 164 -q u e s t i o n how much o f t h i s i s due to poor l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the homes o r perhaps because low incomes p r o h i b i t the p u r c h a s i n g o f g l a s s e s . A l s o , t h e r e i s a r e c o g n i z e d h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f a c t i v e t u b e r c u l o s i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among the C h i n e s e , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the Chinese s i n g l e men l i v i n g i n communal arrangements w i t h common k i t c h e n s . There i s a l s o h i g h i n c i d e n c e of t u b e r c u l o s i s i n an "advanced" s t a g e among the ' d r i f t e r s ' ( a l t h o u g h these a r e cases l o c a t e d more i n the downtown a r e a , west of Main S t r e e t ) . Programmes o f f e r e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee are those o f f e r e d . i n o t h e r a r e a s of the c i t y , such as m a t e r n a l and c h i l d care c l i n i c s . ( I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t few i f any Chinese a t t e n d the p r e - n a t a l c l a s s e s a l t h o u g h many take t h e i r b a b i e s to the w e l l - b a b y c l i n i c s ) . The programme i n the s c h o o l s i s p l a n n e d on a p r e v e n t i v e b a s i s and emphasizes work w i t h f a m i l i e s . I t e n t a i l s home v i s i t i n g where n u r s e s a r e g e n e r a l l y w e l l r e c e i v e d , a l t h o u g h a d v i c e i s not always f o l l o w e d . I f e m o t i o n a l o r s o c i a l problems are d e t e c t e d , r e f e r r a l i s made to an a p p r o p r i a t e agency. M e n t a l hygiene s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Agency f o r such problems as r e q u i r e them. The n u r s e s have o b s e r v e d t h a t Chinese c h i l d r e n tend to i n t e r n a l i z e t h e i r e m o t i o n a l problems but symptoms show up i n s t e a l i n g , p s ychosomatic a i l m e n t s (psychosomatic a i l m e n t s a r e a l s o common to t h e i r p a r e n t s ) ; whereas, the I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n l a c k i n t e r n a l i z e d s e l f - c o n t r o l s and w i l l a c t out i n a h o s t i l e , b e l l i g e r a n t way. Absentee r a t e s i n b o t h s c h o o l s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y low, a l t h o u g h i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n r e a l l y p r e f e r to a t t e n d s c h o o l r a t h e r than n o t . S c h o o l n u r s e s have i n d i c a t e d they f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to work - 165 -w i t h the p a r e n t s o f b o t h I t a l i a n and Chinese c h i l d r e n . The former are o p e n l y h o s t i l e and d i s t r u s t i n g , and the l a t t e r t e n d to be p a s s i v e l y r e s i s t a n t . On the o t h e r hand, they f i n d the Japanese, p a r t i c u l a r l y the newly a r r i v e d i m m i g r a n t s , a r e v e r y a n x i o u s to u n d e r s t a n d and l e a r n w e s t e r n c u l t u r e , as e v i d e n c e d i n the d i l i g e n c e w i t h w h i c h they pursue the l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h , the q u e s t i o n i n g of how t h i n g s are done here i n Canada. Among a g e n c i e s a c t i v e i n S t r a t h c o n a , p r o v i d i n g the s e r v i c e s t h e y have i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the c i t y a re the V i c t o r i a n Order o f Nur s e s , the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d , C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , C a t h o l i c F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y and P e n s i o n Board. Chinese P o p u l a t i o n : The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of Chinese people i n the a r e a r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t must be made by those p l a n n i n g to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to u n d e r s t a n d them, t h e i r c u l t u r a l backgrounds, b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s , r e s i s t a n c e s , and l e a d e r s h i p . The a n a l y s i s f o l l o w i n g i s based o n l y on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a few i n d i v i d u a l s and s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as i m p r e s s i o n s . So g r e a t a r e the c o m p l e x i t i e s and i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t to be comprehensive and a c c u r a t e would r e q u i r e a s e p a r a t e s t u d y . There a r e about 65 C h i n e s e s o c i e t i e s , t o n g s 1 , and o r g a n i -z a t i o n s . Some of t h e s e have developed as a r e s u l t o f f a m i l y t i e s , F a t h e r P e t e r Chow e x p l a i n e d a tong as an a s s o c i a t i o n whose members are o f a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y , o r who c a r r y the f a m i l y name. - 166 -o r from g e o g r a p h i c p l a c e s of o r i g i n i n C h i n a . The purposes o f these a l t h o u g h m a i n l y s o c i a l a l s o a r e based on mutual a i d , benev-o l e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n a l elements and r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s . Some have sprung up from mutual o r common b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n the area and/or a r e dependent on patronage from the r e s i d e n t s t h e r e . The Chinese Chamber o f Commerce, the Chinese L i o n s C l u b , and the Chinese P r o p e r t y Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n would be examples. R e l a t i o n -s h i p s a r e m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the Chinese community and i t s s o c i e t i e s . However, these o r g a n i z a t i o n s appear to be c a r e f u l not to take stands on c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s , such as p u b l i c h o u s i n g and redevelopment ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Chinese P r o p e r t y Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n ) f o r f e a r of a n t a g o n i z i n g those on whom they a r e dependent f i n a n c i a l l y . I t i s suggested, however, by tho s e who were i n t e r v i e w e d , t h a t many of the members have d e f i n i t e i n d i v i d u a l o p i n i o n s . The tongs and s o c i e t i e s b e f o r e the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y f e d e r a t e d i n t o the Chinese B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n , which was once r e g a r d e d as the spokesman f o r the e n t i r e Chinese community and i n d e e d , from what has been r e p o r t e d , c a r r i e d tremendous i n f l u e n c e and was a r e a l power. Today, some i n f o r m e d p e o p l e s u g g e s t , i t c o n t i n u e s to be v e r y v o c a l on i s s u e s even a l t h o u g h i t s membership i s no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e n t i r e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n and i t has no l o n g e r the same tremendous i n f l u e n c e . When they a t t a i n e a r l y a d u l t h o o d , those Chinese b o r n i n Canada tend to l e a v e S t r a t h c o n a t o r e s i d e i n o t h e r p a r t s of the c i t y , w h i l e those o f a p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n remain where they f i r s t s e t t l e d . New i m m i g r a n t s f i r s t r e s i d e i n the a r e a to be w i t h those - 16? -who speak the same language and have a s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l - background. As they become more secure f i n a n c i a l l y , and more knowledgable about w e s t e r n ways and the E n g l i s h language, t h e y too tend to move out of the a r e a . Those Chinese who c o n t i n u e r e s i d e n c y i n S t r a t h c o n a appear to seek t o p r e s e r v e much of t h e i r own c u l t u r e , such as the strong extended f a m i l y u n i t y and l o y a l t y . T h i s f a c t o r needs t o be r e c o g -n i z e d as i t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g needs. As an example, a r e c e n t study was u n d e r t a k e n by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , 1 t o determine the need f o r day c a r e s e r v i c e s f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f w o r k i n g p a r e n t s i n S t r a t h c o n a community. T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of people d i d not see a need f o r such s e r v i c e s , a t l e a s t a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , because of the Chinese p a t t e r n o f u s i n g the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , g r a n d p a r e n t s , a u n t s , o l d f r i e n d s , to c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; and the acceptance of t h i s r o l e by a l l g e n e r a t i o n s . There was c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt, tha.t even i f s e r v i c e s were p r o v i d e d , they would be used. C i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t and E f f o r t s towards C o - O r d i n a t i o n A c t i v i t y on the p a r t of c i t i z e n s i n the neighbourhood appears to be v e r y l i m i t e d when compared w i t h most o t h e r communities. There are no P a r e n t Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n s ; o n l y a 30 p e r c e n t t u r n o u t a t S t r a t h c o n a S c h o o l f o r a p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e , and about 60-70 Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , Committee S t u d y i n g the Need f o r Day Care S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n i n the S t r a t h -cona ( E a s t End) A r e a , 1 9 6 4 . - 168 -p e r c e n t a t Seymour S c h o o l would r e p r e s e n t an a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e . One s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l q u e s t i o n s how much t h i s i s due to f e a r o f the unknown, n o t i n g t h a t p a r e n t a l t u r n o u t i s e x c e l l e n t on a s p o r t s day o r f o r a c o n c e r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f music and d a n c i n g a r e i n -v o l v e d . There i s a M o t h e r s ' Club a t K i w a s s a whidh shows some a c t i v i t y . A s m a l l group o f o l d e r women at F i r s t U n i t e d Church meets r e g u l a r l y . L e a d e r s h i p of e t h n i c groups seems t o be g e n e r a l l y from o u t s i d e S t r a t h c o n a a l t h o u g h the a s s o c i a t i o n s msset i n the a r e a . There i s no attempt made, no r any avenue a p p a r e n t l y open a t t h i s time f o r these groups to work t o g e t h e r around any mutual concerns on a community l e v e l . "Of more than one hundred s t a f f p e r s o n n e l and v o l u n t e e r s of the G i b b s ' Boys' C l u b , K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b , Pender Y.W.C.A., S t r a t h c o n a and Seymour S c h o o l s , o n l y t h r e e l i v e i n the a r e a . Of a l l o t h e r s o n l y the S i s t e r s and P r i e s t s o f the p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s and k i n d e r g a r t e n s r e s i d e t h e r e . T h i s s t a t e m e n t , made t e n y e a r s ago by Mr. B o r i s Steiman i s t r u e today. There i s l i t t l e change i n t h i s a s p e c t of S t r a t h -cona: l e a d e r s h i p from p r o f e s s i o n a l and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l r e s i d e s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y e l s e w h e r e . One m i n i s t e r who does l i v e i n the community q u e s t i o n s t h i s phenomenon, b e l i e v i n g t h e r e cannot be the same u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowledge of the people and the community under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s . B o r i s Steiman, Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e : An A n a l y t i c a l Study of a Low-Income T r a n s i t i o n a l D i s t r i c t (Vancouver 1952-54) w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o Problems o f I n t e r - C u l t u r a l • P a r t i c i p a t i o n , M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955, PP 53 and 5^ - 169 -I n h i s s t u d y Mr. Steiman brought f o r w a r d a number o f problem s , such as the l a c k o f communication between the v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s , the l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between these groups and the community, the number of s m a l l a g e n c i e s p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e i n the a r e a but w i t h l i t t l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n , the need to have concern about h o u s i n g m a t t e r s , the needs of the o l d e r p e o p l e . He p o i n t e d out s t r o n g l y the need f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n under p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p to enable members o f the community to l e a r n g r a d u a l l y t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o l u t i o n s to t h e i r own problems. I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s shown i n Mr. Steiman's s t u d y and w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y o f them, a g e n c i e s made 2 a r e a l attempt t o i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s on a p a r t i c i p a t i n g b a s i s . As a b e g i n n i n g , a g e n c i e s sought out a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n u s i n g as a n u c l e u s the mothers o f the K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b . Other a g e n c i e s a l s o found i n t e r e s t e d p a r e n t s t h r o u g h t h e i r memberships. T h i s i n t e r e s t was s t i m u l a t e d i n l a t e 1953 and e a r l y 195^. A g r e a t d e a l o f work was done i n the way o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s . As a r e s u l t , i n January o f 195^, f i f t e e n a c t i v e p a r e n t s had banded t o g e t h e r and formed the E a s t End R e c r e a t i o n Committee. The i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e was to work w i t h a n o t h e r newly o r g a n i z e d group, a teenage c o u n c i l , i n s p o n s o r i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r a s e r i e s of dances f o r the young p e o p l e . The te e n a g e r s conducted t h e i r own meetings and d i v i d e d i n t o committees I b i d : pp 6 l and 62 2 The account o f t h i s agency e f f o r t , c i t i z e n a c t i v i t y , and r e s u l t s , a r e based on minutes and r e p o r t s o f the E a s t End I n t e r - A g e n c y A d v i s o r y Committee from January 195^ to November 1957• - 170 -to assist the adults i n operating the f i r s t dance in February, 1954. Staff members of agencies acted as an advisory body to both the teenage and adult groups, and in this capacity, became the East End Inter-Agency Advisory Committee. Although the experience of working with their children was valuable to the parents, and considered to be effective, also recognized was a lack of experience on the part of these people i n terms of taking responsibility or leadership. Development was slower than normally expected. Moreover the high rate of transiency and overall lack of community organization, as well as the d i f f i -culty in recruiting representatives from ethnic groups, indicated that much time and patience, was needed to develop a strong com-munity committee and to maintain membership in i t . From an agency point of view i t was observable that their programmes and general operation improved with this community interest. In the process of contacting the individuals, i t had been noted that some individuals were not interested in working on dance programmes but expressed enthusiasm for other community projects. A need to expand and broaden the concerns of the committee seemed in order. Apathy, which formerly was seen to be the cause of lack of cit izen participation no longer seemed so much a problem. A need for direction and help in the development of leadership and prov-is ion of the opportunity for further community experience was i n d i -cated. The Community Chest and Councils was approached in June of 1954 with a request, made by the East End Infeer-Agency Advisory Committee on behalf of their agencies, and also on behalf of the East End Recreation Committee, to supply a staff person to work - 171 -in the neighbourhood. It was recommended this person could work not only with the Red Feather agencies, but also strive to stimu-late involvement on the part of other agencies, associations, and schools. The Community Chest and Councils turned down this request, mainly because of lack of funds. It did, however, make arrange-ments for a student from the School of Social Work in October to assist . From June, 1954, however, and for the next few months the East End Recreation Committee worked only to arrange a few dances. By October, 1955 > although i t was l i s ted as one of the sponsoring groups for the annual Hallowe'en dance, the committee did not appear to be active. Its function seemed to have been taken over by the staff members of the agencies of the East End Inter-Agency Advisory Committee. There appears to be no further mention of the act iv i ty of the Teenage Council although deliberate efforts seem to have been made by the agencies to involve this age group in the planning for the Hallowe'en dances. This pattern has continued to this date with the East End Inter-Agency Advisory Committee (later known as the East End Inter-Agency Committee, one presumes because i t s advisory role was no longer necessary) continuing to meet annually to arrange Hallowe'en dances. It had been many years, combined with a comprehensive study and i t s recommendations, and sincere effort by agencies to lead up to creating this nucleus of cit izen act iv i ty . It seems unfortunate that Community Chest and Councils was unable to be active in i t s requested assistance to help to foster and maintain - 172 -t h i s movement when the time was r i p e . Ten years have now elapsed since t h i s occurred and there appears to have been l i t t l e further done to recreate the climate. Concern on the part of the East End Inter-Agency Committee i n connection with problems of redevelopment w i l l be discussed l a t e r . Apart from the Hallowe'en dances and e f f o r t s around problems of redevelopment, t h i s council has become active i n few other matters. An attempt was made a year ago to broaden i t s scope to co-ordinate around other concerns, but this did not meet with success. This spring, the committee has met again to discuss the need for co-ordinated planning of summer a c t i v i t i e s for young people, to determine overlapping and gaps i n services, and to attempt to meet these problems. I t i s to be hoped that i t w i l l concern i t s e l f with other matters as well, broaden i t s representation, even i f on a gradual basis, and so become a stronger co-ordinating force i n the community. In December, 1954, concern was expressed by the East End Inter-Agency Advisory Committee as to the a d v i s a b i l i t y of establishing a Community Council. Questionnaires were c i r c u l a t e d to ethnic s o c i e t i e s , churches, agencies, associations and i n d i v i -duals, but the r e s u l t s generally indicated that the community was not yet ready to establish a council. I t needed to b u i l d up stronger community c i t i z e n involvement before t h i s could be e f f e c t -i v e . Mr. Steiman, i n his thesis mentioned a body c a l l e d the Strathcona Case Committee, made up of representatives of nineteen agencies. Its purpose was to meet " p e r i o d i c a l l y to discuss and - 173 -if* 1 h a n d l e s p e c i f i c s o c i a l w e l f a r e cases w i t h the l o c a l i t y " . But he added , t h a t i t s work had not been v e r y e f f e c t i v e as i t seldom 2 met and seldom had any concerns about the ne ighbourhood g e n e r a l l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h agency p e r s o n n e l , and i n t e r -views w i t h peop le who were w o r k i n g i n the a r e a a t t h a t t i m e , i t has been i m p o s s i b l e to determine the course o f t h i s commit tee . O n l y one p e r s o n had the vaguest r e c o l l e c t i o n o f i t . C e r t a i n l y , i t does not e x i s t today a l t h o u g h a somewhat m o d i f i e d case s tudy committee does . One can o n l y assume t h a t i t had never managed to be r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e and j u s t dropped out o f e x i s t e n c e . One ment ion i s made i n a r e p o r t i n 1955 p r e p a r e d by the Pender Y . W . C . A : the f a c t t h a t i t had not been convened f o r some t ime and e f f o r t s s h o u l d be put f o r t h to a t tempt to r e v i v e i t . The case c o n f e r e n c e p a t t e r n t h a t e x i s t s today i s an i n f o r m -a l one . On o c c a s i o n , w h e n a problem i s d i s c e r n e d , a g e n c i e s which are, o r s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d , may meet t o g e t h e r to d i s c u s s a c o - o r d i n a t e d a p p r o a c h i n the i n t e r e s t s o f a f a m i l y or i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s may take p l a c e through an a r r a n g e d m e e t i n g or may be done by t e l ephone c o n -v e r s a t i o n . S i n c e the t ime o f M r . Ste iman*s s t u d y when he was q u i t e c r i t i c a l o f a l a c k o f a genuine at tempt on the p a r t o f the s c h o o l s to i n t e r e s t p a r e n t s , 3 no f u r t h e r e f f o r t s have been made to form a P a r e n t Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n i n e i t h e r o f the two s c h o o l s . An o f f i c i a l of the Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n r e p o r t e d a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i s e v i d e n t i n the S t r a t h c o n a a r e a i n ^ Op c i t B o r i s S t e i m a n , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e , page 46 2 I b i d , p.46 3 I b i d pp 55-58 - 174 -the sphere of sports. There are well-organized groups to promote baseball, softbal l , and soccer. These groups are represented on a Council of the entire area east of Main Street. As a result of this organized cit izen involvement, a f u l l schedule of games i s arranged for both Oppenheimer and False Creek Parks in co-operation with the Board of Parks and Public Recreation. The Board notes the primary interest in sports in Strathcona and compares this with the primary interest in cultural act iv i t ies in Vancouver's West End a r e a . 1 One must ask the question whether this involvement with i t s leadership might be broadened to interest in other areas of act iv i ty . 2 Some Opinions about Strathcona: The need for greater co-ordination of agency act iv i t ies i s repeatedly mentioned by those who were interviewed. It seems unclear, however, who should take responsibility for efforts towards effecting this . Some opinions expressed about this are? there are too many agencies providing similar services, and yet gaps exist in the over-al l programming; agencies tend to be focussed on their own programmes rather than on the needs of the community as a whole; the existing limited co-ordinating body, East End Inter-Agency Committee, i s "dying" but not dead and could be revived to serve a better purpose; there are many jealousies and r iva lr ies between agencies, and between churches; need exists for agencies to reassess their programmes in order to "move with the times" and develop more "give and take" between them; and more optimistical ly, 1 These observations were made by the Recreation Director, Board of Parks and Public Recreation in an interview. 2 For a complete l i s t of those who were interviewed, see Appendix. - 1 7 5 -that the community i s almost ready for tSo-ordination which might be promoted through some successful experiences around specific mutual community problems and perhaps to lead to the formation of some kind of community or neighbourhood council . Lacks in services are mentioned as: insufficient park or playground area at this moment in the western part of Strath-cona (since McLean Park i s no longer available); inadequate group work services for boys; need for a study and evaluation of the problems and services for the type of older people in the area; lack of recreational resources for adult males; need for more organized act iv i t ies for teenagers, particularly during the summer need for a community centre . . . . to name some. From only one source was there any mention made of juvenile delinquency in the area as being a problem and that was of a minor rather than major concern. School principals have been impressed with the lack of delinquency, noting that the school buildings are rarely damaged or defaced in any way; and also that compara-tively few cases are brought to their attention by the police. One explanation offered was the schools have taken an increasing interest in and have supervised any delinquents known to them. Another reason given was that Chinese parents are firm d i sc ip l in -arians. Generally, the area i s thought to be quite stable, in spite of the trend on the part of some individuals and families to stay for a year o r two and then move out. There are sufficient old-time established families, inst i tut ions, churches, and agencies which appear to act as a bond to maintain s tab i l i ty . One evidence - 176 -of this i s the comparatively low turnover in school population. We have looked at Strathcona and i t s people. It i s an older, run-down area, overcrowded, somewhat apathetic, and a loc-ation in which many social problems exist. It has unusual character-i s t i c s in i t s population make-up. But i t has definite character-i s t i c s of being an identif iable community with i t s s tab i l i ty , mult ipl ic i ty of services, associations and churches. Let UB turn now to examine i n the next section how this community reacted to a cr i s i s situation . . . that of planned redevelop-ment with social implications that inevitably accompany wide-scale changes in environmental circumstances. - 177 -REDEVELOPMENT IN STRATHCONA As mentioned, Vancouver's Strathcona area i s one of the oldest residential areas. For many reasons: overcrowding, i n -adequate conversion, closeness to the downtown area, and indeed, the very nature of the construction of the buildings combined with the neighbourhood's age, this area was considered to be one of the most deteriorated of any in the city."'' Land and property values had reached such a low level that there was l i t t l e attraction for private investment to move in and do any redeveloping as i t has in other areas of the Ci ty , ( th i s may be seen occurring in the West End today). History of Redevelopment Planning for Strathcona In 1950, Dr. Marsh recognized the need for a thorough examination of the entire city to determine blighted areas in need of renewal in one form or another. However, he limited his study to the Strathcona area and saw i t as a location where not just new housing was needed, but more specif ical ly , low-rental subsidized 2 housing to serve the low-income area:- that i s , public housing. Public housing i s defined as "rental housing owned and managed by local governmental agencies and subsidized by federal and local 3 contributions". Its purpose i s described as follows: "to make good housing available to low-income families who are l i v ing in substandard dwellings or who have been displaced from their quarters k by public action." Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study, p. 29 2 Op c i t : Leonard Marsh, p. i i i 3 Op c i t : Work±ng Together for Urban Renewal, p. 18 4 Ibid: p. 18 - 178 -In 1954, due to persistent pressure on the part of Vancouver Housing Association which dated back to 1938, and on the part of a number of other groups, the real i ty of the fact that low rental housing was required in Vancouver because of a shortage of appropriate accommodation, was recognized by the City. The public housing project of L i t t l e Mountain was constructed. This was not designed for any specific groups, other than low-income, nor was i t linked with any planning for long-term re-development, but rather merely to alleviate a housing shortage. The property was available and the need was recognized. After L i t t l e Mountain was occupied and there was s t i l l a waiting l i s t of people for such accommodation, Orchard Park Public Housing Project was also constructed. "No matter how well planned and economically fortunate a city i s , some d is tr ic t s w i l l depreciate and normal renewal by private investment w i l l not take place. The principle . . . i s that urban renewal i s not a once-and-for-all r i s ing to an emergency but a con-tinuing, normal aspect of a c i ty 's growth, some part of which w i l l always be a public responsibility ."•*• However, i t was not unt i l 1955, after the Technical Planning Board proposed to the city of Vancouver that a redevelopment study be made, that a technical committee known as the "Housing Research Committee" was established. This committee was represent-ative of Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the Provincial and City Governments. It was "to guide the City Planning Department 2 in carrying out the study which began in July 1956". ^ Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study, p . l 2 Correspondence from Director of Planning, G. Sutton Brown, to His Worship the Mayor and Members of the City Council. This appears in Vancouver Redevelopment Study - 179 -Its broad terms of reference were recognized as being "to select those areas of predominatly residential use which might require redevelopment during the next twenty years, and to produce a programme of redevelopment, integrated with the City's Twenty-year Development Plan. The study was also to determine areas vulnerable to bl ight, and to recommend rehabil itation procedures for thos areas"."'" Strathcona was selected as one area which required Comprehensive Redevelopment. Comprehensive redevelopment i s applied to an area where "complete clearance of residential structures should be progressively achieved over the planned 2 twenty-year period". It was selected because i t had been a good residential d i s t r i c t many years ago and s t i l l had the character-i s t i c s of being a neighbourhood with an abundant supply of churches, social centres, substantial schools, but there was wide-spread deterioration in housing. Also, the encroachment of heavy indust-ries into residential sections was limited in spite of the fact that the area had been zoned for industrial purposes. Industries have been mainly contained on the fringes of Strathcona. The Redevelopment Study, completed in December 1957, was approved in principle by the City Council in February, 1958. The Technical Planning Board was then asked to proceed to make suggest-ions for the f i r s t project in the twenty-year scheme. These prop-osals were that the start be i n the nature of building projects Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study: p .2. 2 Ibid, p.h. - 180 -at Skeena Street and the Lougheed Highway, and at M<£Lean Park in Strathcona. This was to be followed by certain sections of the city being completely cleared (Fig.4=A«)» The National Housing Act, under which redevelopment projects are undertaken, requires that responsibility must be assumed for rehousing families who are displaced in accommodation with a rental that i s fa ir and reasonable."'" To proceed with clearance of houses, these two projects would have to be con-structed to accommodate those whose homes were to be demolished. The report with i t s proposals was approved in March I960 by the City Council and a l i t t l e later by the Provincial and Federal Governments. Skeena Terrace opened in October of 1962 and McLean Park in A p r i l of 1963* The individuals whose homes were to be demolished were given pr ior i ty and the f i r s t opportunity of moving into these housing projects. Comparatively few chose to move so far out as Skeena Terrace, but the majority of residents in McLean Park came from the adjacent areas. Demolishment has been pract ical ly completed in the areas designated in the Project 1 recommendations. Social Implications of Poor Housing; Other effects than the physical disfigurement to a city which result from deterioration are well recognized. The Redevelop-ment Study states: "While not so much an index of blight as a consequence of i t , certain undesirable social conditions are associated . . . with substandard Housing. . . The physical symptoms of blight may be more obvious; the human consequences, in loss of well-being and self-respect, may be more disastrous and in the long run more expensive."^ Section 2 3 , National Housing Act: Urban Redevelopment, as i t appears in City of Vancouver Redevelopment, Project 2 , Prepared by The Technical Planning Board, July, 1 9 6 3 . Op c i t : Vancouver Redevelopment Study, 1 9 5 7 , p«7« FIGURE CITY OF VANCOUVER REDEVELOPM PROJECT 2 AREA IDENTIFICATION PLAN BOUNDARIES OF REDEVELOPMENT ARE/IS C O M P R E H E N S I V E . . L I M I T E D AREAS INCLUDED IN PROJECT I AREAS RECOMMENDED FOR INCLUSION IN PROJECT 2 (REVISED SEPTEMBER 1963) IIOO 1700 1800 1900 2000 J 2000 2400 . (REVISED SEPTEMBER 1963) 359O - C - 181 -9 Dr. Marsh adds to this that: "the costs of wretched housing and demoralizing neighbourhoods are not escaped - there should be no mistake about this . They are borne, day after day, by the men, women and children who l ive i n the run-down dis tr icts of our own c i t i es ; but they are borne also in some part by every property owner and every taxpayer. Public low-rent housing, in the last analysis, i s the choice of spending money constructively instead of wasting i t on pal l ia t ive; using i t to subsidize decent l i v ing and the opportunity of healthy citizenship, instead .. of subsidizing demoralization, apathy and delinquency'^ It i s impossible to overlook the social implications of poor housing and blighted areas, as well as the costs of i t . Certainly, over the years, an examination of the caseloads of the Welfare and Health agencies serving this d i s t r i c t , would indicate the high proportion of social problems concentrated in Strathcona. These tend to be associated with poor housing conditions. Although primarily redevelopment i s not promoted to take care of social problems, i t i s reasonable to believe that i f there i s an improved environment there i s more hope of somewhat healthier individuals and families. Strathcona Reaction to Redevelopment: "Relocation involves human problems and i t s success depends on how these are handled. The task of finding alternative accommodation for the displaced, informing people of their legal rights, ensuring that no unwarranted distress i s caused, and main-taining good public relations for the whole project needs to be assumed by some responsible agency in co-operation with representatives of the various ^ ethnic and religious groups among the residents". Let us examine the way in which Strathcona cit izens, groups, Op c i t . Leonard C. Marsh, Rebuilding a Neighbourhood, p . iv Op c i t . Vancouver Redevelopment Study, 1957, P«9« - 182 -agencies, and institutions reacted to the intervention of redevelop-ment on their l ives . Also, we need to note who took responsibil ity for disseminating information, for attempting to make the process of relocation smoother. Already discussed are the factors of the proportionately great number of agencies; the ethnic distributions, with the large number of Chinese organized into their tongs and societies; the degree of apathy and lack of communication on the part of citizens to meet together to attempt to solve their own problems; the lack of co-ordination between agencies. One can only imagine the fears and questions i n the minds of the people in Strathcona when they f i r s t heard mooted the plans for redevelopment. "Where redevelopment entails complete clearance, a l l the strengths and weaknesses of neighbourhood in terms of family and community l iv ing are la id open to change: small family businesses may be closed for ever; old people may be separated from the familiar churches, clubs, park benches, and corner stores; hidden family tragedies may be la id bare; the plans of young families to save toward some future goal may be destroyed."! Feelings of distress would accompany the knowledge that the homes i n which they had l ived , crude as they might be, were to be torn down. They would have l i t t l e , i f any, understanding of the alternative arrangements to be made for them in terms of provision of accommodation. For those who owned their homes would be many questions, not only of relocation but also of financial arrangements. It seems rea l i s t i c to assume that fears, even i f unwarranted, caused through ignorance Op c i t : Working Together for Urban Renewal, p.13 - 183 -would create a situation i f not actually, at least bordering on, a state of panic. One leader in the Italian groups found there was comparatively l i t t l e he could do to allay these fears, to prevent panic-sell ing of properties and to correct misinterpret-ations once his people had reached this point. Chinese Reaction The Chinese people, according to one informant, have tended to regard the western portion of Strathcona as belonging to them. They fel t their rights infringed on, and mobilized to protest. It was mainly through the Chinese Benevolent Association and the Chinese Property Owners' Association that they vehemently expressed their disapproval. Some of their reasons were expressed in a brief to the Municipal Council and summarized were as follows: 1. There would be a disruption to the Chinese businesses. 2. There would be a breakdown, because of dislocation, of the fabric of the social structure of the Chinese Community. 3. There were concerns about the financial compens-ation for the expropriated properties. 4. There seemed to be no opportunity to own their own^  home; rather, they would be restricted to renting. Whether their fears were justifiaHe need not be debated in this paper. They were made clear publicly, not only by their o f f i c i a l brief but also through public meetings, and the news media. Agency Reaction and Attempts to Co-ordinate around this Cr i s i s Ethnic societies were not alone to mobilize around this Submission of the Chinese Community to the Mayor and Council of the City of Vancouver regarding the Vancouver Re-Development Scheme; prepared by Charles C. Locke, Counsel, Vancouver, B . C . , September 30, i960. - 184 -"crisis". Agencies and institutions were recognizing the fact that this could have a tremendous impact on the community which they served. Some fe l t a responsibility to take action. This was particularly true of the Pender Y.W.C.A. which, after a series of discussions with a number of persons both professional and lay, called a meeting, a 'Redevelopment Meeting', on November 3 0 , I960."'" Representatives of several of the agencies, churches, and the Strathcona School were present. Some of the questions brought by the professional people to the meeting indicated a lack of knowledge and considerable confusion about redevelopment plans. Because they felt others must be just as unclear about the facts of redevelopment, i t was proposed to have a larger meeting, rep-resentative of many more groups and to include ethnic groups. Invitations would be extended to the City Planning Department, Vancouver Housing Authority, etc. so questions could be brought up and accurate information supplied at that moment. To prepare for this meeting, a working committee was appointed to make arrangements. When this small group met, they came to the conclusion that i t would be advisable to put forth a recommendation that a Strathcona Council be formed to assist people in the Strathcona area with their problems in connection with the City Redevelopment problem. Such a council would also be designed to obtain information, to make representations on behalf of individuals or groups. It would not be used to raise money, nor would i t infringe on the rights or operations of any The account of the following meetings and results i s summarized from minutes and reports on f i l e at the Pender Y.WC.A. - 185 -of i t s member groups. This proposal was placed on the agenda for the meeting. At the meeting, held January 1 1 , 1 9 6 l , forty-five persons were present. Unfortunately, few residents of the area attended, and there was a heavy proportion of non-resident workers. Speakers were the Director of Planning for the City of Vancouver; the Secretary of the Redevelopment Committee for the City; the Regional Director of the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation; the Executive Secretary of the Vancouver Housing Authority. Valuable information was given in relation to prepared questions. But questions from the floor indicated that conflicts and feelings were running high and the atmosphere was described as "electric with tension". In spite of some opposition, a motion was accepted to form a Strathcona Community Council. However, i t s function was restricted to that of obtaining information only. A temporary slate of officers was appointed to make arrangements for a further meeting, at which time permanent officers would be elected. So far as can be ascertained, this further meeting was never held. One reason for this would appear to be a lack of enthusiasm on the part of the temporary officers for the restricted function. Also contributing was the fact that the appointment was made by the City of Vancouver at the same time, of a "City of Vancouver Redevelopment Consultative Committee." This was representative of some of the interests in Strathcona and was to act as an advisory body to the City . It seemed evident that there probably would be a duplication of membership on the Consultative Committee and on the Strathcona Council, as well as a duplication of - 186 -function. The City of Vancouver Redevelopment Consultative Committee has been meeting on a monthly basis since the time of i t s appoint-ment in 196l . It reflects the interest and thinking of the groups which the individual members represent. The opinions of one of the members may be s ignif icant:- that the efforts to have represent-ation from ethnic groups from the area was well met, but there is question of how fru i t fu l discussions are when so many conflicting interests are presented; that i t i s regrettable that only one member of the Committee i s actually resident in the area. The writer's experience i s that seldom does one hear of any of the concerns, considerations or deliberations of this committee as one works in the community. There seems to be a vagueness about the Committee's actions and purposes. It does not appear to make a noticeable impact in Strathcona. Other d i f f i cu l t i e s seen for this committee are in the area of communication - that people do not confide in the committee about their anxieties, and also that they tend to l is ten to stories from other sources and get distorted views on the redevelopment plans. When no co-ordinated effort was forthcoming around the Strathcona Community Council, some groups, and most noteably the Pender Y.W.C.A., held a series of small meetings to attempt to interpret principles and policies of the redevelopment plans and to bring forward accurate information. However, the results of these meetings, i t was fe l t , reached comparatively few people. ( i t must be recognized that the Pender Y.W.C.A. was caught i n the dilemma of seeing a need for the preparation for change but also the need to - 187 -hold and continue to serve i t s Chinese membership. There was considerable r i s k invo lved , as the s t a f f saw i t , i n taking too strong a pos i t i on around the cont rovers ia l issue of redevelopment.) Vancouver Housing Author i t y : I t must be stated here, that from every person interviewed came commendation of the f u l l co-operation of the Vancouver Housing Author i ty through i t s executive-secretary, i n terms of h is attendance at meetings whenver i t was requested, h is patience and understanding as he answered questions d i r e c t l y and f a c tua l l y . Act ion by the C i ty of Vancouver The Vancouver Redevelopment study notes that : "The common b e l i e f that substandard housing condit ions are created by people may ra ise doubts as to the value of rehousing former res idents of b l i gh t areas. In th is connection two points need to be mentioned . . . . f i r s t , redevelopment i s not proposed pr imar i l y i n order to r ehab i l i t a t e people by improving the i r housing condit ions and, second, the areas proposed for redevelopment are not occupied general ly by s o c i a l m i s f i t s . " And fur ther , "That there w i l l be a carry-over of some s o c i a l problems into the reconstructed area i s i nev i t ab le and i t i s most important, therefore that the ac tua l re loca t ion programme and the management of the housing projects receive ca re fu l and s k i l l e d d i r e c t i o n . " ! Although not stated s p e c i f i c a l l y i n th i s report , ce r ta in l y i t i s general ly advocated that there i s the need for p ro fess iona l ass istance i n a community where redevelopment i s planned. This i s required to make smoother the job of r e loca t i on , to a l l a y fears and misunderstandings, to give accurate in te rp re ta t ion and informat ion; Op c i t . Vancouver Redevelopment Study: p. 52 - 188 -to help the people recognize their problem areas, and work co-operatively to solve them. "As in the broad sweep of comprehensive planning, so also in the detailed strokes of redevelopment planning should the physical planners and the social planners work closely together. Community organization work should commence when planning begins."1 The appointment of the City of Vancouver Redevelopment Consultative Committee was one means of l inking the physical planning with the social needs of Strathcona. In addition, the City employed a social worker at a later date to help individuals and families make their adjustment to relocation. A number of those interviewed expressed the opinion that this worker had too brief a time to meet with the people in the area, that she was employed belatedly. As a result i t was d i f f i cu l t to establish relationships and build up a sense of trust - and this particularly with the Chinese people. It appears that the work done was not too effective, because i t was not timely nor sufficiently well planned in advance. Protests, con-fusions and misunderstandings seem to have continued (particularly around further redevelopment plans). So far as the social aspects are concerned there i s a noticeable lack of an integrated plan for effecting redevelopment. Summary; There had been sound study and planning done preceding the approval of redevelopment for the Strathcona area. A comprehensive study was made of the social factors involved. Some efforts to co-ordinate the social and physical planning were made through the appointment of a consultative committee, through meetings by the City Op c i t : Working Together for Urban Renewal, p.13 - 189 -with those who had objections, and through the appointment of a social worker. Also efforts were made'to bring the community to-gether around this problem, but they were not effective. Quite the contrary, the efforts appeared only to sp l i t the community into two definite sides. One questions whether or not, i f there had been fu l ler recognition at an earl ier date of the strong feelings, misunderstand-ings and confusions of the Chinese part of the population and these had been worked with much ear l ier , i t might have been possible to effect a better acceptance of redevelopment plans and community co-ordination to meet this c r i s i s . It i s now proposed to look at the housing project that i s completed and occupied and attempt to assess i t s place in the Strathcona community. - 1 9 0 -MCLEAN PARK With the decision to proceed with redevelopment i n the Strathcona area, also came the decision to build the f i r s t project to accommodate those whose homes were to be demolished. This unit, Skeena Terrace, located on Skeena Street and Lougheed Highway was completed i n October, 1 9 6 2 . The second unit, McLean Park was completed in A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 , a n < * i s located i n one square black bounded on the north by Georgia Street, east by Jackson Avenue, south by Union Street and west by Dunlevy Avenue. It i s situated on what formerly was a public park and play area. ( F i g .SH)• Physical Characteristics of McLean Park: McLean Park consists of a High Rise apartment building in which are 1 2 1 suites: 5 2 are one bedroom for married couples, and 6 9 are bachelor apartments for single people. There are 3 8 family units in row housing, consisting of 1 8 two bedroom, 1 3 three bedroom, 6 four bedroom, and 1 five bedroom homes. Offices for the manager are located on the main floor of the apartment building. In addition a large lounge for the use of the tenants in the apartment i s on the main floor. There i s a room approximately 2 0 feet by 30 feet, situated in the row housing for use by the families for children's groups, parties etc. Laundry f a c i l i t i e s for the families are located at strategic points in the row housing and those for the tenants in the apartment are in the basement. These include coin-operated washers and dryers. Tokens are given to tenants, the numbers de-- 1 9 1 -pending on the size of the household, to cover approximately one half of the laundering, and residents must use their own money for the balance. In the centre of the block i s a large open area (Fig. blacktopped and cement play space for children, in the middle of which i s a recessed grassed circular area. Landscaping has been completed in and around the project with appropriate shrubbery, grass. There i s a parking area off Jackson Avenue to accommodate 38 cars. Generally, the appearance of this project i s clean and pleasant. The People in McLean Park: Total population in McLean Park i s 3 5 5 persons; of which 1 7 5 are resident in the apartment and l 8 0 in the family units. Of the 3 5 5 , 2 3 8 are adults and 1 1 7 are children. There are 29 Asiat ic families ( 2 8 Chinese and one Japanese) which count for 1 3 0 persons or 72 percent of the family population. In the apartment there are 35 suites occupied by Chinese tota l l ing 6 5 persons or 3 7 percent of the total apartment population. Of the total population of 3 5 5 in McLean Park, 55 percent are As ia t i c . If this i s compared to the Strathcona community i t might be observed that the percentage of Asiatics i s nearly the same... that i s , 5 7 percent in Strathcona and 5 5 percent in McLean Park. Thirty-two of the families formerly resided in the Strath-cona area, four from the Mount Pleasant or East Kitsilano area, and two from other areas in the city (one of which is the project manager). The stat is t ics used here are taken from records kept on f i l e in McLean Park Public Housing Project. G £OZR G/A S T. \ 0 k "1 An SA H/GH A f>T. 2 S 7-o>«? y to * C/A//OA/ sr. f i . O T ft. A AS MC Z £~AA/ SIM r/GURE SA - 192 -Eighty-two percent of the apartment tenants are from the immediate or just adjacent areas, ten percent from Mount Pleasant or East Kits i lano, and eight percent from other areas. So the great majority of a l l tenants moved in from the immediate area. Throughout the past six months, October 1963 unt i l A p r i l 1964, discussions have been held with many of the tenants to determine their feelings, Efctitudes about l i v ing in the project, and to ascertain something of the problem areas for them and for the manager and agencies serving them, as well . It i s clear the majority of tenants are very well contented with the physical surroundings, the location, and their accommodation. When compared to their previous accommodation, i t i s a very great improvement. Particularly when they f i r s t moved into the apartment, many of the older people had some fears. They worried about f ires; some were fearful of heights (so far as possible they were located on lower floors); some did not understand operation of the elevators. Once they were reassured or became accustomed to these, complaints decreased. Most criticisms are of a minor nature, such as:- there should be more grassed play area, the sand in the play area i s a nuisance and i s d ir ty . But, on the whole, tenants appear to be very sat isf ied. Some of the single older men moving into their apartments have had problems in providing themselves with furniture. If they are on very low income, and most are (tables R and S) there i s l i t t l e money to purchase even the simplest furnishings. When the manager became aware of this , he established a "furniture exchange", and was able to get donations and provide the essential pieces for these men. - 193 -Table K. Source of Income in Percentage of  Population Social Assistance Earnings Pensions Other Families Apartments 16% 18% 74 14 2 53 8 15 Table S. Amount of Income i n Percentage of  Population Families Apartment under $150 18% 84% 151-200 48 10 201-250 13 3 250-300 13 2 Over 301 8 1 Each apartment has large windows, 4 feet by 14 feet, and a further problem i s presented for those on low income to attempt to cover these. Although not so noticeable after a year of oper-ation of the project, i n i t i a l l y a l l types of coverings were used:-newspaper, pieces of p last ic , cotton sheets etc. The question must arise as to whether or not in the interests of these people, as well as appearance of the units from the exterior, drapes should be provided by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, when the projects are bu i l t . The s l iding rent scale"*" which i s used to calculate the See appendix for rental scale. - 19*+ -amount to be paid by each tenant based on income i s accepted as f a i r . The only criticisms come from those whose income places them in such a category that their rent reaches a high leve l . However, as there are few whose incomes reach this level such cri t ic ism is not widespread. Some of the older Chinese people who have previously been l iv ing in poor accommodation at lower rentals, tend to object to paying even the minimum rentals in McLean Park when they f i r s t move i n . However, as few move out, and as there are fewer verbal objections, i t would appear that they adjust to the l i t t l e greater financial sacrif ice in the interests of the better accommodation. Manager-tenant relationships are very good in this project. The manager has been able to convey to tenants a very f a i r , understanding attitude and has combined this with a marked firmness in enforcing the regulations which have been established by the Vancouver Housing Authority. He i s respected and admired by the tenants, who understand his role there and yet feel quite free to discuss matters with him which w i l l require his under-standing. Shopping seems to present no problems to these tenants except for the very old and f r a i l persons, or'those who have a physical d i sabi l i ty , or some other health problem. This can be explained by the proximity to the downtown area, to the Chinese markets and the ava i lab i l i ty of corner grocery stores. Those problems common to a l l older people are exaggerated See appendix for Vancouver Housing Authority: Explanation of Lease. - 1 9 5 -i n McLean Park because of the high number of older men, (Table T.) and the high percentage of those who are sin g l e : 6 7 percent. Health problems are noticeable and are of concern to the manager, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the persons are sin g l e . Services, such as the Vic t o r i a n Order of Nurses are available but of greater concern i s sudden i l l n e s s and care of s e l f . The manager has taken i t upon himself, to make investigations i f he has not seen certain i n d i -viduals for a period of time, In his opinion, however, this could and should be done i n some more organized and e f f e c t i v e way. Table T. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n : In Percentage of Population Age i n years McLean Park Strathcona Vancouver 0-4 years Male 1 0 5 4 Female 7 5 4 5 - 9 years Male 2 5 4 Female 3 3 4 1 5 - 1 9 years Male 1 2 3 Female 1 1 3 55-64 years Male 6 9 5 Female 5 3 - 5 5 6 5 years and over 2 1 1 9 7 Male Female 6 3 7 One of the requirements of the Vancouver Housing Authority i s that suites and houses w i l l be kept clean. Problems a r i s e , not with the families i n McLean Park but with the older people. There - 196 -are some who are lazy, slovenly, or not accustomed to l i v i n g i n clean accommodation and who need to be spoken to by the manager. There are others who do not understand what i s meant by the expected standards of cleanliness, or who are unable to p h y s i c a l l y look a f t e r t h e i r apartments. Other than cases where the manager makes specia l arrangements on his own, based on compassion, to have t h i s done, there seems to be no resource i n the way of a consultant, or actual provision of necessary housecleaning services available to meet t h i s problem. Many tenants, p a r t i c u l a r l y the single male ones, have l i t t l e knowledge about n u t r i t i o n a l matters, meal planning, budgetting. Obesity i s observable i n some in d i v i d u a l s , and one questions whether i n addition there i s malnutrition. (There seems to be no professional person available to advise on these matters,Other than a chance v i s i t by a s o c i a l worker, or nurse, or some advice from the manager.) The most frequent complaint from the tenants i n the apartment building i s that of boredom and of loneliness. There are programmes operated through agencies i n Strathcona area that are seek-ing to meet needs of older people. These include the Second Mile Society, F i r s t United Church, St. James Anglican Church. They are not used to any extent by the senior people i n McLean Park. A few persons go occasionally to F i r s t United Church, ten are members of the Second Mile Society, and two are active i n the Salvation Army. Some people i n the community feel these resources are not well known, and yet t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t to explain when 82 percent of the tenants previously have l i v e d i n the community. A very r e a l reason,for many, - 197 -i s the distance to walk to these places. This can be p r o h i b i t i v e for some. Another opinion i s that many are hesitant about going somewhere they are not known, and indeed, are not knowledgable about what i s offered, whether they w i l l be accepted, and whether they w i l l l i k e i t . In t h i s connection except for v i s i t s to i n d i -viduals made by a worker from F i r s t United Church when McLean Park f i r s t opened and an i n v i t a t i o n was issued to pa r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r senior c i t i z e n s 1 programme, no other s p e c i f i c e f f o r t has been made to make these people aware of services, programmes, a c t i v i t i e s , nor i n v i t a t i o n s issued to attend. Neither has there been any e f f o r t made to bring programmes or services to the project. A question seems to be whether or not such services as do exist s a t i s f y the needs of these older people, and i f not, what i s necessary. It i s not within the scope of t h i s paper to investigate t h i s further, but a study directed s o l e l y with t h i s focus might prove i n t e r e s t i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g . The large, bright, and a t t r a c t i v e lounge i n the apartment block, designed by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation to be a meeting place for s o c i a l purposes has been without furniture and so has not been used except for spec i a l functions. Some furniture has recently been acquired and the room i s now quite comfortable. The monotony of the tenants s i t t i n g i n t h e i r rooms may now be broken and more s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n take place. In addition, the manager hopes to arrange for a small woodworking shop i n the basement i n the near future. The need for these people to recognize t h i s problem and mobilize themselves to help overcome i t seems an important a.spect. Many personal problems exist and come to the attention of - 198 -the manager i n one way or another. Already mentioned are health problems, physical problems, but i n addition are personality d i f f i -c u l t i e s , behavioural problems, etc. One very obvious one i s that related to excessive drinking which i s only noticeable with the tenants i n the apartment, not with the fa m i l i e s . When the drinking i s e s p e c i a l l y heavy, f i g h t s , bravrling, noisiness, rowdiness ensue and can be disturbing to the peace of other residents, not to mention i t being troublesome to the manager. I t i s important to note that no disturbance or touble has been caused through the over-indulgence i n alcohol on the part of the Chinese population. Many problems exist f o r the families, such as, economic dependency. The factor of economic dependency i s lower than one might expect and considerably lower than the other housing projects. (Table U.) Table U. Percentage of Those on S o c i a l Assistance  at Public Housing Projects i n Vancouver Skeena Terrace 36.3% L i t t l e Mountain 29.9 Orchard Park 39.3 McLean Park 18.2 This type of dependency exists throughout the population, including the A s i a t i c . To meet t h i s problem, the services of the City S o c i a l Service Department are involved, as well as Family Court (where separation of parents has been a cause of dependency). Some churches o f f e r assistance i n hampers and clothing for these f a m i l i e s . - 199 -Although other agencies are not serving the Chinese families because no c a l l has been made for them, among the white families many problem areas require attention. There are problems of m a r i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , of emotionally disturbed children, poor parent-child rela t i o n s h i p s , c h i l d management d i f f i c u l t i e s , health problems. These c a l l for services from such agencies as the Children's Aid Society, Catholic Children's Aid Society, and Family Service Agency. Managers of housing projects are caught i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . They must administer a business, c o l l e c t rents, deal with delinquents, enforce regulations, and at the same time they become aware of and cannot help, to varying degrees, being enmeshed i n tenants' i n d i v i d u a l problems. Possibly t h i s i s aggravated here i n Vancouver with the requirement that managers l i v e on the project. As a result they are exposed to areas of d i f f i c u l t y twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Each must work out his own way of r etaining a degree of o b j e c t i v i t y . Admitted i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of community resources for purposes of r e f e r r a l or consultation makes th i s even more precarious. A sense of f r u s t r a t i o n and a f e e l i n g ti.fi inadequacy can be a result of not being sure of the best way to help people with t h e i r problems. Because of the heavy proportion of very young children and the small percentage of teenaged children (Table T.), recreation does not pose a large problem. Also many resources exist i n the Strathcona community for recreation of those children who need i t : Pender Y.W.C.A., Gibbs Boys' club and churches. For the pre-school - 200 -children, play areas i n McLean Park would seem quite adequate, although better designed equipment would be of benefit. There i s , however, plenty of protected space for them. Outdoor a c t i v i t y area.for the children 6 to 16 years i s inadequate, but this should be remedied with the development of the park adjacent to the school. Although incomes are low for the families i n McLean Park, no family with pre-school children has the only parent or both parents working and care of the children i s not necessary by other than a parent ( t h i s excludes the manager's family). Tenant A c t i v i t y ; In the f i r s t s ix months, there was no organized a c t i v i t y on the part of tenants i n McLean Park towards working together on a community project. The f i r s t evidence of int e r e s t i n this was in early October when one woman, with very l i t t l e help, organized a Hallowe'en party for the children. This party, although lacking i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the planning and preparatory stages, was well attended and enjoyed. At about the same time another tenant, experienced i n organizational work, f e l t a need to esta b l i s h a cub pack. Three packs do exist i n the Strathcona area but one i s r e s t r i c t e d to Chinese boys, one i s f u l l , and one with f u l l r e g i s t r a t i o n lacks a leader. In a r e l a t i v e l y short time, the pack was started with membership from not only tenant families but also from the Strath-cona area. I t met i n McLean Park but under the sponsorship of St. James Anglican Church. The necessary adult group committee was formed, members being residents i n the project. The woman herself - 201 -acted as leader and took the t r a i n i n g course for t h i s purpose, and an assistant was provided by St. James' Anglican Church. Membership i n the pack started with nine boys but i n three months had increased to 15. It represents eleven n a t i o n a l i t i e s . The room i n the family units i n which the meetings were held was no longer large enough and the lounge i n the high r i s e apartment was not an appropriate place because i t i s to be used by the senior people. Meetings are now held at the church. This has been a very successful undertaking. Following the int e r e s t i n the Hallowe'en party, the woman who had arranged i t , f e l t there should be a Christmas party for both children and adulifc. This a c t i v i t y , however, d i f f e r e d from the other i n that there were about 75 p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i r e c t l y or i n -d i r e c t l y i n the planning and implementing of the party."*" Two Chinese gentlemen, one as an interpreter, attended meetings; and four Chinese women also attended the committee meetings, although took no active r o l e . In addition, about f i f t e e n Chinese women, few i f any of whom could speak English, worked on a sub-committee chaired by a white woman. A l l communication had to be done through an i n t e r -preter. Having heard of the plans, F i r s t United Church contributed by donating a box of Christmas decorations and a box of toys for presents for the chil d r e n . About 250 children, parents and senior "'* The student placed i n McLean Park Public Housing Project for her f i e l d work, had recognized a need for greater tenant p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In her role of working with the tenants, she had encouraged involve-ment of as many people as possible i n t h i s as well as other projects. - 202 -Chinese and white, attended the evening programme and s o c i a l hour and the evening was considered to be successful. For several weeks, a number of the tenants, and the manager, had been expressing concern about the lack of furniture f o r the lounge. An open meeting i n February, 196*+, was c a l l e d to discuss t h i s and 16 people attended representative of both family groups and senior c i t i z e n s i n the high r i s e apartment. They have been able to obtain through donations from stores quite a l o t of appro-priate furniture: c h e s t e r f i e l d s , chairs, tables, dishes etc. The lounge i s now open for the tenants to use as a substitute for their rooms. It provides a place for meeting each other on a s o c i a l basis. A sense of pride i n McLean Park as a community i s developing. When the idea of having a f i r s t anniversary party was mooted, i t met with immediate enthusiasm on the part of both Chinese and white people. Many people were involved i n decorating, preparing refresh-ments, serving etc. Donations to defray expenses were placed i n a box i n the manger's o f f i c e and amounted to twice the sum necessary for expenses. An appropriate short programme was arranged with a representative from the City Council, Vancouver Housing Authority attending. Over 100 adults attended this s o c i a l evening, including a few workers i n the community who had a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the project. One could not help but be impressed with the warm atmos-phere which existed i n spite of age or ethnic differences, or a language b a r r i e r . There i s emphasis i n planning for these a f f a i r s on having them of such quality that tenants can be proud of t h e i r own e f f o r t s - 203 -and the resul t s of these. There i s a growing concern from the white part of the population, not only of the need for greater involvement on the part of more of the residents but also about the l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the part of the Chinese. In a l l a c t i v i t i e s , leadership has come from the white population. As an i n d i c a t i o n of the emphasis on involving the Chinese, one woman was assigned to the task, i n the planning for the Anniversary party, of doing everything she could to in t e r e s t the Chinese people not just i n attending (which they seem to do anyway) but also i n the e a r l i e r stages of planning. Integration into Strathcona Community Tenants i n McLean Park generally use the recreational agencies i n Strathcona only to a li m i t e d degree. I t must be recognized that there are comparatively few programmes available and of in t e r e s t to the adult section of the community, and further that there are a small number of children who are of an age to be e l i g i b l e . A few of the g i r l s attend Pender Y.W.C.A. programmes, and there may be a few younger boys who take advantage of a c t i v i -t i e s at Gibbs Boys' Club. A l i t t l e a c t i v i t y i n Church a f f a i r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Catholic, i s noticeable on the part of a few parents and t h e i r children. In this b r i e f time for study, i t has been impossible to examine to what extent the Chinese are involved i n t h e i r own s o c i e t i e s , tongs and associations. For the f i r s t eight or nine months a f t e r the project was occupied, l i t t l e e f f o r t was made on the part of agencies, and i n s t i t u t i o n s to make known t h e i r programmes to the residents i n McLean Park. A very few notices were placed on the b u l l e t i n boards - 204 -and no personal contact made, other than the previously mentioned one of the F i r s t United Church. One agency had never checked and had no idea at a l l whether or not any of i t s members were residents of the project. In the past two months, however, there seems to be a growing awareness of the significance of a 355 population con-centrated i n one square black. There have been contacts made with the student worker to bring new programmes to the notice of tenants who might be interested. In addition, recently, meetings of the East End Inter-Agency Committee have been held i n the lounge of the apartment, which might indicate a growing acceptance of the project as an established part of the community. This also has served to stimulate i n t e r e s t on the part of agency representatives (some of whom had never been on the project before) i n the physical layout, the population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some problem areas. Summary: In spite of l i m i t e d s o c i a l planning at a preparatory stage, McLean Park Housing Project now seems to be an accepted part of the community. Indeed, there are many evidences that i t con-siders i t s e l f as having a place i n , and belonging to, Strathcona Community. Many factors contribute to t h i s successful integration. F i r s t l y , the tenants themselves are largely from the area and problems of adjustment to a new, unknown community have not been i n existence. The population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n terms of ethnic d i s t r i b u t i o n and ages very c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l that of Strathcona i t s e l f . Many recreational, health and welfare services exist and - 205 -are already available and f a m i l i a r to the majority of the tenants. The selection of the manager has been fortunate as he has encouraged tenant a c t i v i t y , and also has sought to develop a relationship with professional workers from health and welfare agencies coming to the project. He has further been co-operative with s t a f f members from agencies located i n Strathcona. Perhaps one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t elements i s that of the size of the project. This i s a comparatively small development and there are fewer people to be absorbed by the surrounding community and no major planning has been necessary by agencies, i n s t i t u t i o n s , etc. to effect t h i s .... i t i s just happening. Perhaps a look at the implications of future development for Strathcona could now be pursued, and we turn our attention to that i n the next section. 206 -FUTURE REDEVELOPMENT IN STRATHCONA; ITS IMPLICATIONS We have looked at Strathcona and some of the c h a r a c e r t i s t i c s which make i t unique. We have examined the way i n which t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area has responded to the c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n of undergoing comprehensive redevelopment. We have seen the building of the f i r s t housing project, the people i n i t and some of th e i r problems. I t may be well, i n looking ahead to further stages of redevelopment to analyze some of the assets and l i a b i l i t i e s of the Strathcona community to attempt to predict possible future reactions. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that many of the assets and l i a b i l i t i e s found i n the area today correspond closely to those l i s t e d by Mr. Steiman i n his study of the community ten years ago.^" L i a b i l i t i e s : 1. There are a number of ethnic groups and a pa r t i c u -l a r l y heavy proportion of A s i a t i c s . There i s a substantial percentage not able to speak English. 2. A lack of communication exists between the ethnic groups, through formal or informal channels. 3. The lack of co-ordination among even the few c i t i z e n groups r e s u l t s i n the area having no repre-sentative voice. 4. Duplication and gaps i n services are pa r t l y caused by the l i m i t e d co-ordination among the agencies. 5« There i s no community centre or neighbourhood house. 6. There i s a tendency towards too much focus by some agencies on their own programmes rather than on community needs. Also a lack of inte r e s t i n each other or i n community problems i s evident on the part of the churches. 7. There i s lack of leadership (with a few exceptions) from within the community; or conversely, that almost a l l leadership comes from those re s i d i n g outside the area. ^ Op c i t . Boris Steiman pp 61-64 - 207 -8. There are a great number of s o c i a l problems e x i s t i n g i n the area. 9. A low income and a low educational l e v e l ace c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 10. There i s l i t t l e evidence of c i t i z e n s taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r own d'fairs. 11. Poor housing continues to be predominant. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to be hopeful about the future of this community i n the face of what appears to be an overwhelming l i s t of l i a b i l i t i e s . Too frequently, however, there i s undue emphasis on the negative factors without consideration of the p o s i t i v e . A better balance may be forthcoming i f we turn now to look at the assets of Strathcona. These remarks are made on the basis of s t a t i s t i c a l materials, previous studies of the area, statements made by a number of i n d i v i d u a l s knowledgeable about the community, and observations by the writer. Assets: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Strathcona i s a d e f i n i t e , recognizable community, with a good degree of s t a b i l i t y , two good elementary schools, a m u l t i p l i c i t y of agencies and churches, and a f a i r percentage of home-owners. It i s located so that i t i s convenient for the majority of workers to t h e i r place of employment. Plans are l a i d out for a vast improvement i n the housing, and a p h y s i c a l l y more a t t r a c t i v e place i n which to l i v e . There i s a l i t t l e industry i n f r i n g i n g on the r e s i -d e n t i a l sections of Strathcona. What does exist i s l a r g e l y confined to the fringes. There are many health, welfare, and recreational agencies, either located i n the area or providing services to i t . There i s some co-ordination of agencies through the East End Inter-Agency Committee, through the informal 208 -channels of telephone communication, and occasional meetings about special cases. A few agencies show some concern around community problems. 7. Although apathy on the part of the c i t i z e n s has been voiced, there are evidences that underneath there may be more potential for involvement than was formerly recognized. Examples of this have been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y , such a s , the a c t i v i t y of ten years ago i n the East End Recreation-a l Committee, and present a c t i v i t y on the part of the tenants i n McLean Park. 8. Positive attitudes are noticeable as expressed by those who work i n the area: concerning i t s s t a b i -l i t y , the lack of juvenile delinquency, a v i s i o n of a happier future for the community with improved housing. Future Redevelopment Plans: Project 1, with i t s proposals which a f f e c t Strathcona has been p r a c t i c a l l y completed. The housing units at Skeena Terrace and McLean Park have been constructed which allowed f o r the relocation of people i n the areas to be demolished. These areas are almost completely razed at the present time (Fig. The building of further public housing on these cleared locations w i l l l i k e l y s t a r t i n the near future. In the recommendations submitted for Project 2,"*" two areas a f f e c t Strathcona. Proposed i s clearing around McLean Park: the section bordered by Pender to Jackson, west on Keefer to Dunlevy, south to Union, west to Gore and north to Pender (Fig.&$). Also the square block bordered by Pender Street, Heatley, Keefer and Princess i s to be razed and as i t s position i s adjacent to Strathcona School, i s to serve as a park and play area to replace McLean Park. This w i l l be used both by the school and the Park and Public Recreation Board. Op c i t . City of Vancouver Redevelopment, Project 2. - 209 -The Need for So c i a l Planning; We know of the proposed physical planning, but what of the s o c i a l planning? What i s being done for the people who w i l l be relocated, f o r the community to «ccept the impact this housing w i l l have on i t ? What are the preparations, i f any, for the approximately 1,000 people who w i l l be housed i n the Raymur housing project? Where w i l l they come from? What ages w i l l they be? What w i l l be t h e i r ethnic and c u l t u r a l background? What w i l l these factors mean i n terms of t h e i r problems, t h e i r needs? How w i l l these needs be met, i f at a l l ? For t h i s , s o c i a l planning must be effected i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment i s to be r e a l i z e d by the i n d i v i d u a l s , families and by the community. Mr. Wheeler sums up some of the problems and indicates the need for s o c i a l planning:-"Current concern with problems of urban renewal and proposals f o r slum-clearance projects have helped to focus attention on the welfare implications of housing i n a very d i r e c t and urgent way. Slum-clearance means usually the displacement of a large number of low-income families, e l d e r l y people and single persons who are generally i n an economically precarious position, as well as members of minority ethnic groups. For these people, the loss of accommo-dation which, i f perhaps substandard, i s at least cheap and within t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means, and the separation from their customary surroundings, pose a very r e a l economic and psychological threat. " 1 I f i t i s agreed that there i s a need for s o c i a l planning to accompany such physical planning, then i t i s necessary to deter-mine more closely those things that need to be planned for and how t h i s w i l l be done. We must have a clear understanding of what i s Michael Wheeler, A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h  Columbia; A Survey undertaken f o r the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Vancouver, B.C. March,196l, p.187 - 210 -being undertaken i n s o c i a l planning at the present time, and what i s l e f t undone, and then determine whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s . Community Responsibility One school p r i n c i p a l remarked that although McLean Park housing project was comparatively small, and although few children were there who would not have been i n the area anyway, there s t i l l was a noticeable ef f e c t on the school. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true as the new children presented c e r t a i n emotional and behavioural problems, and i t was necessary to deal with t h e i r often equally disturbed parents. The p r i n c i p a l indicated that the problem had been manageable only because so few children were involved. In his opinion there would be d i f f i c u l t i e s , much more severe, i f i t was necessary to cope with great numbers. He found these children had not adjusted well at f i r s t , p a r t l y because they \ere not f a m i l i a r with the area, community, i t s benefits and expectations. Consider-ation, he believes, should be given by schools to the i n f l u x of many new students, and to how they w i l l adjust and how they w i l l be accepted by the others. There appears to be a strong case for a l l agencies providing services, recreational and other, for these children to examine t h e i r programmes, s t a f f i n g , budgets, to be prepared so far as possible to meet the eventual increased demands for services. S i m i l a r l y , thought must be given by agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s to the needs of adults, older people, and pre-school children. Collaboration i s required to plan so that most e f f e c t i v e use can be made of the resources. Through a co-ordinating body, ideas and concerns can be shared, d i s t r i b u t i o n of spheres of - 211 -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y evolved. An integrated approach seems advisable i n order to recognise, define and work towards the solutions of the problems of the community i n an e f f e c t i v e manner. "The s o c i a l gains to be r e a l i z e d through housing and urban renewal programmes w i l l be achieved to the degree that these programmes are developed as part of the t o t a l community pattern of services to meet the needs of people!' At the time of t h i s study, there i s l i t t l e evidence of such planning. The writer has heard no discussion, formally or informally, about future changes i n the physical environment, nor of the s o c i a l implications t h i s w i l l have. It i s t h i s writer's opinion that the role of i n s t i g a t i n g euch s o c i a l planning quite l o g i c a l l y f a l l s on the Community Chest and Councils. I t i s , with i t s established s o c i a l planning section, the only body i n Vancouver able to accomplish such a purpose e f f e c t i v e l y . It seems reasonable to expect that Community Chest and Councils, with an organized s o c i a l planning section and with q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , should accept the challenge of s o c i a l planning for t h i s as well as other neighbourhoods. "Another type of planning undertaken i n c i t i e s i s s o c i a l planning, usually carried out by a community welfare council. S o c i a l planning seeks to establish s u f f i c i e n t services, p a r t i c u l a r l y those related to health, welfare, and recreation, to meet the human needs of c i t y residents. The goals of comprehensive (physical) planning and s o c i a l planning are i n t r i c -ately intertwined, meeting i n the desire of both for a c i t y that i s the best possible place i n which to l i v e " . 2 Community Services and Public Housing; Seven Recommendations for Local Housing Authority Action, National Association of Housing and Redevelopment O f f i c i a l s , October, 196l , p.13 Op c i t . Working Together for Urban Renewal. - 212 -C i t i z e n involvement needs to be'encouraged. An example i n Strathcona of a problem, which i s frequently commented on, i s that there i s a need for a community centre. As t h i s i s something which requires approval by a p l e b i s c i t e , and twice now has been defeated, c i t i z e n s should be involved i n discussions about i t . A f u l l e r expression of opinions as to the actual need, and i f i t i s a need, then how to gain wider support, would be advantageous. Those resident i n the community at the present time should face t h i s and many other problems of the moment, as well as those which may well.be created with new housing and new people. It would be u n r e a l i s t i c to believe that t h i s would be an easy matter to executes From the past experience, i t i s quite evident there i s considerable lack of experience on the part of these people i n working together. Leadership has not been developed. It would seem l o g i c a l to assume some considerable assistance should be given by a professional person q u a l i f i e d i n the area of community organization to provide the d i r e c t i o n , encouragement, and advise over the period of considerable time, to see this effected. Governmental Responsibility: We must turn to the role and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the le v e l s of government i n s o c i a l planning. Once a housing project has been completed, and as much preparatory planning as i s possible has been done, there s t i l l remains s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l problems for those who move i n . There w i l l be d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjusting to a new community, new people, a di f f e r e n t environment. There are confusing and strange regulations with which to become f a m i l i a r . - 213 -A s a t i s f a c tory relationship with a manager must be established and an understanding of his expectations worked out. Many w i l l bring with them t h e i r own personal d i f f i c u l t i e s with which they may have been receiving help (or should receive help) from various s o c i a l welfare agencies. (These s o c i a l welfare agencies must plan on how best to use the healthier accommodation i n a constructive way as they work with t h e i r c l i e n t s . ) A l l three l e v e l s of government, but p a r t i c u l a r l y the municipal and federal have a central r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , indeed, to examine the basic philosophy toward such public housing projects. It i s recognized increasingly today that society has a responsi-b i l i t y to provide a decent standard of accommodation for the less priveleged of our population. But the question, remains whether or not the planning f o r the physical environment i s s u f f i c i e n t . One opinion i s : "Public housing i s , and should be, more than a r e a l estate and f i n a n c i a l operation. I t i s the responsi-b i l i t y of public housing to provide shelter and an environment for low-income families that i s s a t i s -factory both physically and s o c i a l l y . Thus, as i t seeks, i n a "shelter-plus" programme to improve the well-being of i t s tenants, to combat delinquency, promote family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and a better standard of l i v i n g and personal well-being, the housing authority becomes a s o c i a l agency of f i r s t - l i n e importance."^ Administrative Implications In 1950 Dr. Marsh suggested when he discussed the administration of housing projects that the selection of a q u a l i -f i e d manager was an important aspect. He stated that "the notion Op c i t . Community Services and Public Housing p.'4-, - 214 -i s not to be encouraged, however, that 'any common sense person can run a housing project'. The right t r a i n i n g and personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are equally rare and equally important."''" When philosophy, p o l i c y , and attitudes have been s e t t l e d , then i t w i l l be possible to evolve the nature of the expectations of a manager. When t h i s i s answered, i t should be possible to think i n terms of the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for such a p o s i t i o n . Dr. Marsh also advocates the need for a professionally q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l worker to be on the s t a f f of management to con-tribute through casework or groupwork s k i l l s (and the writer would 2 also suggest community organization s k i l l s ) to a smoother operation. "Since experience has shown that inattention to s o c i a l problems i n housing and urban renewal fosters the creation of more such problems, the s o c i a l work s p e c i a l i s t i s es s e n t i a l i n the proper planning, admini-s t r a t i o n , and operation of these programmes. The s o c i a l worker should be on the executive s t a f f of the agency, to insure adequate consideration of the s o c i a l aspects of the housing and urban renewal programme i n a l l i t s phases."^ Conclusions: Redevelopment i n the physical planning sense, i s a certainty for Strathcona. S o c i a l planning s t i l l seems to need considerable attention. Responsibility for this f a l l s not only on agencies, churches and other community bodies within Strathcona, i t also rests with the Community Chest and Councils, with i t s appropriate s o c i a l planning d i v i s i o n . S o c i a l welfare agencies, public and private Op c i t . Leonard C. Marsh. |». 54-2 Ibid. p.54. 3 Op c i t . Community Services and Public Housing, p.13. - 215 -also must face the fact that they should examine not only how they w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y use public housing i n the i n t e r e s t s of the c l i e n t s but also how best they can co-operate with the housing administration. Government l e v e l s may be remiss i f t h e i r own planning does not exceed the bounds merely of changing the physical environment. Throughout, the need for increased understanding, one of the other, i s evident. Co-ordination and co-operation of a l l those responsible appears to be the only answer to e f f e c t i n g s o c i a l planning for the Strathcona area i n i t s period of redevelopment. - 216 -APPENDIX A SOURCES OF INFORMATION USED IN THE STUDY - F. ROWE a) Agencies and Departments Alcoholism Foundation of B.C. Board of Parks and Public Recreation C h i l d Care Centre/Camp Alexandra City S o c i a l Services Department The Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area Gordon Neighbourhood House Narcotic Addiction Foundation of B.C. Planning Department of the City of Vancouver Young Men's Chr i s t i a n Association Metropolitan O f f i c e Young Women's Chri s t i a n Association S o c i a l Services Department, St. Paul's Hospital Vancouver City Police Department b) Individuals Rev. Edward Bragg, Central Presbyterian Church Mr. Brooks, P r i n c i p a l , Lord Roberts Elementary School Mr. 0. Brown, P r i n c i p a l , King George High School Mr. P. Brown, West End Business Association Mr. A.F. Clark, P r i n c i p a l , S i r William Dawson Elementary School Mr. J. Clayton, F i r s t Vice-President, Apartment and Lodging House Association Rev. J.W. E l l i s , St. Paul's Anglican Church Mr. H. Haggart, President, West End Community Council Mr. A.W. Lyle, Publisher and Editor, The West Ender Mr. W. Mclntyre, Vice-President, West End and Downtown Ratepayers Association Mrs. L. May, Historian, West End Community Council S i s t e r Superior, P r i n c i p a l , Guardian Angels Roman Catholic Elementary School - 217 -APPENDIX B SOURCES OF INFORMATION USED IN THE STUDY1- H.L. ZIEGLER Name of Agency Boys' Clubs of Vancouver Fraserview Boys• Club South Vancouver Y.M.C.A. St. Timothy's Anglican Church St. Matthew's Presbyterian Church Corpus C h r i s t i Church Fraserview United Church City of Vancouver Metropolitan Board of Health Unit #k Board of Parks and Public Recreation City of Vancouver K i l l a r n e y Community Centre Vancouver City Police Department City S o c i a l Service Department Family and Children's Court Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area Representative Mr. D. McComb Mr. K. Hansom Mr. J . Ballam Mr. R. Kolbus Mr. L. Goble Rev. J . Snowden Miss L. Reay Rev. J . Carney Rev. H.E. Parker Mr. A. B e l l - I r v i n g Dr. S. McMaster Miss Small Mrs. Hodgson Mr. L.F. Ryan Mrs. J . Bohanec Superintendent B.Jelley S t a f f Inspector D.Brown Sgt. D. Bellamy Mr. A.V. Davis Mr. J.E. Mackie Mr. Pickering Mrs. M. Puusepp Mr. McDonnell Mr. G.C. Stevens Mr. M. Audain Mr. B.A. Robinson Miss A. Selander Mr. E. H i l l This l i s t does not include group discussions, meetings attended or speeches given by the writer 218 -Name of Agency Family Service Agency of Greater Vancouver K i l l a r n e y School David Thompson Secondary School S i r James Douglas School S i r Charles Kingsford-Smith School David Oppenheimer School Bayview School John Howard Society Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation Fraserview Community Association Fraserview Homeowners' and Tenants' Association Seattle A t l a n t i c Street Project Representative Miss M. Zada Mr. A. White Mr. L.A. Wrinch Mr. H.S. Johnson Mr. W.M. Robson Mr. G.G. Harris Mr. E.G. Hunt Mr. K e l l y Mr. D. Kapon Mr. M. Davis Mr. Broder Mr. Bonnett Mr. A. Watson Mr. T. Ikeda s o n w (D Si CD P -H * X O H V O - 220 -Appendix D F R A S E R V I E W NEIGHBORHOOD S U R V E Y M a r c h , 1964 lo How l o n g h a v e y o u l i v e d i n t h e V e t e r a n ' s H o u s i n g P r o j e c t ? n _____ y e a r s „ 2 0 W o u l d y o u r a t h e r l i v e i n a n o t h e r n e i g h b o r h o o d ? Y e s No _ 3o A r e y o u p u r c h a s i n g y o u r home? Y e s m m m m i_m l o _ Do m o s t o f y o u r c l o s e f r i e n d s l i v e i n t h e V e t e r a n ' s H o u s i n g P r o j e c t ? Y e s ________ Kb 5» I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t F r a s e r v i e w h a s a p o o r r e p u t a t i o n a s f a r a s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e c o n c e r n e d a Do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t many V a n c o u v e r i t e s t h i n k t h i s w a y ? Y e s Ho Do y o u p e r s o n a l l y t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a r e g r o u n d s f o r s u c h a s u g g e s t i o n ? Y e s i No •Why? 6 0 To w h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s , c l u b s , a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d o t h e r g r o u p s do y o u b e l o n g ? P l a c e a s t a r (*) b e s i d e t h o s e i n w h i c h y o u h a v e h e l d e l e c t e d o f f i c e „ - 221 -APPENDIX E SOURCES OF INFORMATION USED IN THE STUDY - C.C. MacKENZIE Name of Agency Metropolitan Health Services of Greater Vancouver City S o c i a l Service Department Board of Parks and Public Recreation Vancouver City Police Department Vancouver City Planning Department S i r Matthew Begbie School Vancouver Housing Authority Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area Alexandra Neighbourhood House Broadway East Branch, Y.M.C.A. Redevelopment Consultative Committee Vancouver Association of Neighbourhood Services Beulah Gardens Baptist Church Representative Dr. A.Weston,Director, Unit #5 Miss H. Shore,Public Health Nurse Miss J . Frost, Public Health Nurse Miss M. Gourlay, Director of Welfare Mr. M. Colclough, Director East Unit Miss G. Daley,Social Worker Mr. L.F. Ryan Sgt. D. Bellamy,Youth Preventive D e t a i l Mr. Geach Mr. R. Muir, P r i n c i p a l Mr. C. Sutherland, Sec/Manager Mr. R. Stephenson, Project Manager Mr. B.A. Robinson, Planning Associate Mr. G. Whiten, Executive Director Mr. A. Cook, Executive Secretary Mr.A. Knox,Skeena Terrace Worker Mr. G. Whiten, Member Mrs. M. M i t c h e l l , President Rev. J . Pacette, Minister Interviews with Leaders of Groups on the Project Informal Interviews with many Tenants Attendance on Community Chest and Councils Committee to Review "Sunrise Park" Area. - 222 -APPENDIX F THE VANCOUVER HOUSING AUTHORITY PROGRESSIVE RENT SCALE Monthly-Net Family Income Shelter Rent by Number of Persons i n Family 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Service Charges $4L2.50 410 405 400 395 390 385 380 375 370 365 360 355 350 345 340 335 330 325 320 315 310 305 300 295 290 285 280 275 270 265 260 255 250 223 240 235 230 225 220 215 210 205 200 88 86 85 84 83 82 80 79 78 77 76 74 73 72 71 70 68 67 66 65 -£ 61 60 59 55 54 53 52 50 49 48 47 JA. 87 86 84 83 82 81 80 78 77 76 75 74 72 71 70 69 68 66 65 64 63 62 60 59 58 57 __6_ 54 53 52 51 50 48 47 46 45 -44-87 86 85 84 82 81 80 79 78 76 75 74 73 72 70 69 68 67 66 64 63 62 61 _6XL 58 57 56 55 -51u 52 51 55 49 -40-46 45 44 43 -42-88 86 & 84 83 82 80 79 78 77 76 74 73 72 71 70 68 67 66 65 64 62 61 60 59 _5_L 56 55 54 53 52 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 ML 87 86 84 83 82 81 80 78 77 76 75 74 72 71 70 69 68 66 65 64 63 62 60 59 58 57 ___L 54 53 52 51 __£L 48 47 46 45 42 41 40 39 -38-87 86 85 84 82 81 80 79 78 76 75 74 73 72 70 69 68 67 66 64 63 62 61 60 58 57 56 55 ____ 52 51 50 49 ___L 46 45 44 43 -42-40 39 38 37 _3iL $13 13 13 13 13 33 13 33 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 » 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 ---10-- 223 -PROGRESSIVE RENT SCALE (Continued) Monthly Net Shelter Rent by Number of Persons i n Family Family Income 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Service Charges $195 44 42 40 38 36 34 9 190 43 41 39 37 35 33 9 185 42 40 38 36 34 32 9 180 41 39 37 35 33 31 9 175 40 38 36 34 32 30 ^ 170 38 36 32 30 28 8 165 37 35 33 31 29 27 6 160 36 34 32 30 28 26 6 155 35 33 31 29 27 25 5 150 34 32 ?9 28 26 ? 145 32 30 28 26 24 4 140 31 29 27 25 23 4 135 30 28 26 24 3 130 29 27 2? 23 27 2« 26 24 22 2 120 27 26 24 22 20 2 115 26 25 23 21 2 110 25 24 22 20 2 105 24 23 21 20 2 100 23 22 20 2 95 22 21 20 2 90 21 20 20 2 85 20 20 2 80 20 20 2 75 20 20 2 65 20 2 50 20 2 - 224 -APPENDIX G Table 1. NATIONAL ORIGINS OF PERSONS IN "SUNRISE PARK" SHOWING BOTH NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGE FOR THE PERIODS 1951 AND I 9 6 I WITH INCREASE OR DECREASE Origin 1951 1961 Percent + or -Number Percent Number Percent B r i t i s h I s l e s 4,413 69.01 4,589 58.48 -10.53 French 197 3.08 260 3.31 + .23 German 242 3.79 399 5.08 + 1.29 I t a l i a n 152 2.37 454 5.78 + 3.41 Jewish 2 .03 - - .03 Netherlands 87 1.36 180 2.29 + .93 Polish 74 1-15 137 1.75 + .60 Russian 89 1.43 102 1.32 - .11 Scandinavian 361 5.66 452 5.76 + .10 Ukranian 186 2.90 270 3.44 + .54 Other European 312 4.86 535 , 6.82 + 1.96 A s i a t i c 98 1.53 305 3.89 + 2.36 Others and 181 2.83 163 2.08 - .75 Not Stated Total 6,394 100.00 7,846 100.00 Source: Census, 1951, C . T . l l (D.B.S.) Census, 1962, C.T.22 (D.B.S.) - 225 -Table 2. RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS OF PERSONS IN "SUNRISE PARK" SHOWING BOTH NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGE FOR THE PERIODS 1951 AND 1961 WITH INCREASE OR DECREASE Religious 1951 1961 Percent Denomination or -Number Percent Number Percent + Baptist 21? 3.39 218 2.77 — .62 Greek Orthodox 65 1.01 142 1.81 + .80 Church of England 1,679 26.26 1,484 18.91 - 7.35 Jewish 2 .03 3 .03 -Lutheran 4io 6.43 544 7.00 + .57 Mennonite 17 .26 - - - .26 Presbyterian 803 12.58 505 6.41 - 6.17 Roman Catholic 760 11.88 1,584 20.18 + 8.30 Ukranian (Greek) 80 1.26 98 1.25 — .01 Catholic United Church 1 , OOH- 29.16 2,397 30.54 + 1.38 Other *+97 7.74 871 11.10 + 3.36 TOTAL 6,394 100.00 7,846 100.00 Source: Census, 1951, C.T. 11 (D.B.S.) Census, 1961, C.T. 22 (D.B.S.) - 226 -Table 5- PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX FOR VANCOUVER CITY AND "SUNRISE PARK" 196l AGE GROUP VANCOUVER CITY "SUNRISE PARK" MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE Population % Population % Population % Population % 0 - 4 16,192 8.42 15,523 8.30 417 10.62 397 10.02 5 - 9 14,835 7.89 14,314 7.18 400 10.44 361 9.20 10 - 14 14,857 7.89 14,148 7.17 340 8.66 348 8.80 15 - 19 11,780 6.37 12,514 6.17 251 6.39 252 6.42 20 - 24 11,213 5.79 12,943 6.66 196 4.95 248 6.42 25 - 34 25,763 13.69 24,170 12.46 559 14.44 511 13.35 35 - 44 25,101 13.16 28,760 14.87 524 13.35 638 16.26 45 - 54 24,940 13.15 26,896 13.84 534 13.35 481 12.16 55 - 64 18,876 10.10 18,455 9.23 342 8.79 291 7.42 S5 - 69 7,573 3.26 8,312 4.30 98 2.52 124 3.15 70+ 18,374 10.20 18,983 9.74 263 6.39 271 6.80 TOTAL 189,504 100.00 195,018 100.00 3,924 100.00 3,922 100.00 Source: Census, 1961, C.T.22, (D.B.S.) ^ C\ /T* ^ M A R C H 23rd. 1 9 6 4 Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , S . D. Crisp the people who would have to work, to carry Assistant E d i t o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . D . Knight this through. There are many pros and cons. P r i n t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C . Stephenson Anyone interested in this or any aspect of News Personnel:- • this programme, kindly sign your name on the J . Cameron M. Lockyer sheet that wil l be posted on the bulletin E. Cutler R.A. Stephenson board in the Project Manager's Office. If J . Harcourt J . Taylor there is sufficient interest plans wi l l be M. Hunt made to meet and work out a constitution. COMING EVENTS Vancouver College Mother's Auxiliary are having a carnival on Wednesday, April 15th, from 2:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m.. For the coming Easter egg hunt help f*om the parents would be greatly appreciated as there wil l be far more children than parents. We wi l l be canvassing the project for any kind of donations to make this day successful. If the Seniors wish to donate we would be more than glad to receive the donations, but please do no feel as though you are obligated to do so, Thursday April 23rd, grades 3 to 6 wi l l have a special treat. The Holiday Theatre wi l l present "Son of the Dragon" after school, in the auditorium from 3:00 p,m, to 4:30 p.m. Admission 35$,. Begbie Main School. Begbie P.T.A. Spring Tea and sale of home cooking wil l be held on April 29th; we wi l l be depending on you Mothers to supply our home cooking booth with a l l kinds of goodies. More information about these events in our next P.T.A. bulletin. A clothing exchange wi l l be held on April 20th. Please start now to gather up a l l clothing and white elephants that are not of use to you. As vouchers to the value of your clothes wi l l be given and they can be spent like money at the sale. For information get in touch with Mrs. E. Cutler, Notice:- The idea has been brough forward in the Mother's Club general meeting to form a Tenants' Association. We are interested in the possibil it ies but want to know the general feeling of the tenants as you are EDITOR'S OUTLINE TO READERS This month's edition of the newspaper should prove to be of great interest to the women of the project, as we have a Women's Page, The articles wil l vary from time to time so that there wil l not be a repeat of old news and fashions. The Terrace Times wi l l no longer be delivered to the home but wi l l be available in the office of the Hi Rise building, this way we can te l l now many of the neighbours are interested in the paper. We are in great need of new members and wi l l welcome ideas as well as improvements, those of you who have the talent to aid in the project newspaper would be more than appreciated at our next meeting on Monday night, March 30th, in the recreation room. The staff of the Terrace Times sincerely hope that you enjoy your project newspaper. OUTSIDE ACTIVITIES Sir Matthew Begbie P.T.A. has asked the parents of the project to attend the regular meetings in order to be kept up to date on our children's schooling. It 's a shame that so few parents turn out for the meetings. We send our children to the school and yet we have no interest in the progress that can be made to help and support a worth vhile organization. The parents outside of the project have had to carry the whole load themselves and feel as though we should help out. And why not? Our children have crowded the school, and the very least that we can do is show that we can co-operate with the rest of the parents. So, for the next meeting everyone please support the P.T.A. and our project. - 2 -W O M E N ' S P A G E HEALTH. AND, BEAUTY Authorities estimate that, because of climate conditions ? and the fact that women are out of doors so much, 70$ or more of the skins i a this coxintry are dry. That however, is fortunate because dry skin, i f kept properly lubricated and protected, is the most easily cared for. Where to begin............ Before you use a single product or do anything about your scalp, you should know it's present condition. Often people are plagued by an unattractive skin and will try anything•>' This is exactly what you should not doc You should use only products designed to work for your individual skin type. There;s no reason why you should bear the burden of a cloudy, dull complexion, excessive oiliness, blackheads, enlarged pores, or damaging, uncomfortable dryness. Very few humans retain normal skin through-out their l i f e time. Normal Skin A smooth, fine textured skin is considered normal; i t has a clean look with the possible exception of minor periodic disturbances. It will look clewy-;, nerrer "ihily, but i t will only remain normal with consistant care. Dry skin lacks glow, reacts quickly to any kind of weather, wrinkles easily, ages rapidly, feels taut, particularly after washing. Extremely dry skin feels rough and flaky,, uncomfortable. Dermatologists estimate that 70fo of women in the world have dry skin or dry areas on the skin. Human bodies tend to dry out with age and so demand regular care to offset premature aging. Oily skin is very often course looking, bumpy, with enlarged pores and blackheads. Make-up dees not stay on, and often changes colour due to oxidation of o i l on the surface of the skin. Seldom wrinkles early. Oil skin condition can usually be corrected by a careful diet and meticulous cleansing routine. Next month there will be a follow up on how to treat these conditions. SPONGES CAN WORK FOR YOU Use^them: As a pin cushion in the sewing room or nursery. 2. As a soap dish and as a cleanser can "coaster" to keep sinks and tubs clean and neat„ 3t- Cut in small squares and glue to corners on the back of pictures frames and mirrors to prevent dust outlines. 4. As a paint brush for stippling painted surfaces and for sponge painting. 5, As a base for floral centerpieces. 6 e Moistened slightly to remove l i n t from clothing at home or while travelling. R3CIPES OF THE MONTH LOUISIANA PANCAKES 1_- cups sifted flour 3-j tsps. baking powder 1 tsp. salt ^ tsp. nutmeg 1-J: cups mashed, cooked sweet potatoes 2 eggs beaten 1^ cups of milk \ cup of melted butter Sift dry ingredients into bowl. Combine remaining ingredients and add to flour, mix only until blended. Drop by spoonfuls onto hot greased griddle and fry until brown. Makes 24. MOM'S COOKIES 1 cup of white sugar 1 cup of margerine 1 tsp. of soda ^ tsp. of salt \ cup of cocoanut 1 tsp. vanilla 1 cup of brown sugar 1 cup of flour 1 tsp. of baking powder 1 egg 2\ cups of rolled oaA Cream margerine and sugar together and beat well. Si f t flour, soda, baking powder and salt. Add vanilla. Add cocoanut and rolled oats. Drop by teaspoonful on cookie sheet. Bake in moderate over, 10 to 12 minutes. HOUSEHOLD HINTS 1. To remove burned foods from aluminum utensils, f i l l with cold water, add a small quantity of vinegar, and boil for five to ten minutes. For other utensils, use one tablespoon of washing soda instead of vinegar. 2. To remove kitchen odors while cooking.t place an orange skin on top of the range, 3. Water lef t after cooking vegetables may be used to thin condensed soup. Chuckle..... Said one Mama kangaroo to another-kangaroo, "I hope i t doesn't rain today, I can't stand having the kids playing inside. - 3 -P R O J E C T C L U B S THE GIRL'S CLUB To date the G i r l ' s Club boasts a membership of 43 g i r l s . These g i r l s , ages 6 to 12 years meet on Tuesdays, 3:30 to 5:0O p.m. in the Recreation Room. In addition to playing games, drawing and making dol l 's clothes, the gir ls have recently displayed their talents for working with clay, by producing many unusual pieces. Mr. G. Whiten of the Alexandra Neighbourhood House has aided this program by picking up these articles and f i r ing them in the Neighbourhood k i ln . We appreciate this help and are plan-ning to hold a tea for a l l interested adults where the work wi l l be on display. Leaders for this group are Mrs, Cutler, Knight, Harcourt and Taylor. There is a yearly membership fee which helps to buy supplies. GIRL GUIDES We are happy to report an increase in our group since last month. We now have eleven gir ls attending. S t i l l we are looking for more gir ls between the ages of 11 and 16 years who are interested. Our patrol leaders attended a meeting on March 7th under the direction of Mrs. Pauline Smith, I'm sure that our group wi l l benefit from the ideas brough forth. Anyone interested in joining us please ca l l . Mrs. Holvick CI THE HI TOWER SOCIAL CLUB Congratulations to the Editor and Staff of the Terrace Times on their f i r s t edition We wish them every success, Mrs, H.S, Cole tends her sincere thanks to a l l her friends for their thoughtfulness when Mr. Cole was in hospital. We are happy that Mr. Cole is home, and trust his health wi l l continue to improve. We are glad to welcome Mr, and Mrs, Whitney home from their holidays. We have been handicapped by the absence of Mrs. Whitney, president of our club. Mrs. Robbins gave a birthday party on March 4th for Mrs. A. Large. The refreshments were delicious, and the guest of honour cut the birthday cake. It was a delightful evening of music and games. On Friday evening, through the efforts of Mr. Hutchinson, on behalf of the Hi Tower Social Club, and courtesy of B.C. Hydro and Power, three very interesting coloured films were shown in the lounge to an appreciative audience of thirty or so members, after which refreshments were served to conclude another fine social evening. * Correction - By mistake last month Mrs, Robinson was named convenor, when i t should have read Mrs. Robbins. THE MOTHERS CLUB We are happy to report that as announced Bingo was held March 16th, and i t was a very successful venture. The turn out was good and everyone agreed that i t was a lot of fun. Due to the response in favour of this, the Mother's Club has decided to make the third Monday of each month regular Bingo night. Refreshments wil l be on sale and a collection taken for the paper. We are also happy to report an increase in our membership of seven, and we urge a l l the mothers in the project to come out and join in the fun and help to get things done for the project and for your children. We give a special thanks to the Senior Citizens who have always co-operated with us and whose company we really do enjoy. Our next project is an Easter Egg Hunt for the children, ages 1 to 12 to be held Easter Sunday Afternoon (March 29th) at 2:30 p.m. Children ages 1-3 years wi l l meet in the basement . Ages 4-6 wi l l meet at and ages 7-12 wi l l meet ' in the recreation room. We wi l l be call ing on you for donations of eggs or funds to purchase eggs. We also hope to furnish refreshments for a Teener's Bunny Hop to be held Sat., March 28th. Announcements about this wi l l be made at the regular teen-night gathering. TERRACE TEENS The Terrace Teen Club has become quite active in the past month. Turnouts have been fa i r ly good on club nights and the teens are showing a great interest. Two car washes have been held with a total of $35.00 made. This was quite poor due to bad weather. A record cabinet has been acquired from a father of one of the members and we are now looking for record donations. Also we are looking for a juke—box or record player so that we can hold dances in the near future. The gir ls are now receiving outside help from an Art teacher, Maralyne White, who has taken an interest in our club. She is planning a programme for the girls which wi l l include sewing, hair dressing, modelling, etc. As usual, the teens are looking for more support from the parents and any other adult who could assist in chaperoning on club nights. Anyone wishing to assist, can get in touch with Les Richards TOT SPOT The Tot Spot group i s going on as usual i n the Recr<?ai.ior* room ovory Thursday from 9:30 to 11:45 a.m. At present we have 43 kiddies on our r e g i s t e r , and we would l i k a to see some new l i t t l e faces i n attendance. The fee i s 50 per c h i l d per week which pays f o r t h e i r milk and cookies, We do not f e e l that t h i s i s too much to ask, but we have quite a few delinquent dues, so i f i t i s possible would you please t r y to send the money with the c h i l d r e n each week or f o r the month. Thank you. ¥e also ask that you please send a p l a s t i c glass c l e a r l y marked f o r your c h i l d , A duty roster w i l l be made up and put i n next month's paper f o r your convenience, but we s t i l l need more mothers to p a r t i c i p a t e . Anyone having c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group i s asked to please co-operate. I f you have any odd toys or p l a s t i c tablecloths and curtains that you don't need, we would appreciate them very much. Phone AL NEWiTENANTS We wish to welcome: Mr, and Mrs, A. H a l l Mrs. G. M, Buchanan Mrs. A. B. Teal Mrs. E. M. Diwel l Mr, J , Connors ( A r r i v i n g A p r i l 1st) CHURCH NEWS The Oakridge Church of C h r i s t held a very successful B i b l e Teacher^s Conference, February 15th. Teachers from Canada and the United States met f o r a day of f e l l o w s h i p and study. Eightee