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Modification of the picture titles test Howard, Gail 1965

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MODIFICATION OF THE PICTURE TITLES TEST by G a i l Howard B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Montana, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of 'Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requ i rements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy, I f u r t h e r agree that p e r -m i s s i on f o r ex tens i ve copy ing of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t ; c o p y i n g or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n pe rm i s s i on * Department of Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 29, I965 Abstract The main purpose of this study was to modify Dombrose and Slobin's Picture Titles Test so that i t could be scored objectively.. The test was used for measuring impulse, ego, and superego sex differences and for comparing age group differences of both sexes, on their impulse, ego, and superego responses. The possibility of bias in the subjects 1 responses was also investigated. The modification of the Picture Titles Test involved the construction of a multiple-choice answer sheet which required the subjects simply to check off their responses. The test was; then administered as a group test to a second year psychology class at the University of British Columbia, of which ninety females and one hundred and thirty-seven males, ranging i n age from eighteen to twenty-two, remained for the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. Twelve hypotheses were set up concerning sex differences and age group differences, and both the Chi-square and It test were used for testing the hypotheses. The hypotheses had to be supported at the .05 level of confidence in order to be confirmed. The results indicated that the objectively scored Picture Titles Test is a useful instrument for differentiating males and females and between age groups as there were four significant differences found, out of a possible nine, for the male and female comparisons and three, out of a possible six, for the age group comparisons. Only one of the s i g n i f i -cant differences for the age group comparisons was i n the predicted direction, however, so the age difference hypotheses were not considered to be verified. There were three signifii- • cant differences i n the predicted direction for the male and female comparisons, but the results were so inconsistent for the different age groups of males and females compared that the hypotheses concerning the expected sex differences were also not considered to be confirmed. In addition, i t was found that subjects within each age and sex group responded to the majority of pictures i n the same way, and, consequently, It was concluded that there is bias probably both in the content of the pictures and the blocks of t i t l e s . In general, i t was f e l t that the objectively scored Picture Titles Test i s an improvement over the original subjectively scored version and that the modified Picture Titles Test has good potential as an instrument for measuring impulse, ego and superego sex and age differences. Acknowledgement The author of t h i s thesis would l i k e to take this opportunity to express her appreciation to her sponsor, Professor E. Signori, for assistance i n administering the te s t and f o r his valuable advice and guidance. She would also l i k e to thank Isabelle Sanderson and Henry Rempel for t h e i r helpful suggestions. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAG] I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM 1 I I DEFINITIONS OF TERMS... 3 I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.. 8 IV THE PICTURE TITLES TEST AND MODIFICATION 25 V SEX AND AGE DIFFERENCES 35 VI HYPOTHESES 48 V I I METHOD 54 V I I I RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 62 IX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 95 REFERENCES APPENDICES TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Age of Research Sample 55 2 A Comparison of Male and Female Responses to the Variables 6 3 3 A Comparison of Male and Female Responses to the Pictures 6 4 -k Comparison of the Expected and Obtained Rank Order of Sex Groups 6 9 5 A Comparison of Age Groups on Each Variable 75 6 A Comparison of Age Group:- Responses to Each Picture 77 7 Comparison of Expected and Obtained Rank Order of Age Groups 82 8 Obtained Rank Order f o r A l l Age Groups 83 9 CHI-SQUARE VALUES FOR IMPULSE, EGO, SUPEREGO AND DEFENSE FOR MALES AND FEMALES 88 -1-GHAPTER I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y by the a n a l y s i s of p r o j e c t e d m a t e r i a l has proven to be a productive area of p s y c h o l o g i c a l research. U t i l i z i n g the informat i o n from t h i s r esearch, Dombrose and S l o b i n (1958) developed a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t , the IES (Impulse, Ego and Superego) Test. The t e s t i s based upon psy c h o a n a l y t i c theory and i s concerned w i t h the d e s c r i p t i v e c o n s t r u c t s introduced by Freud — the i d , ego, and superego. This i s the aspect of the IES Test which d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from other well-known p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . That i s , i t i s designed to measure the r e l a t i v e strengths of the i d , ego, and superego. In the past few years, a number of studies have been conducted using t h i s t e s t both i n the i n t e r e s t of es t i m a t i n g the v a l i d i t y of the t e s t and of g a i n i n g support f o r t h e o r e t i c a l formulations p e r t a i n i n g to sex d i f f e r e n c e s and age d i f f e r e n c e s and w i t h the a b i l i t y of the t e s t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e males and females and various age groups. Golden (195*0 i n v e s t i g a t e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s while Charnes (1953) examined d i f f e r e n c e s among age groups. More r e c e n t l y Rempel and S i g n o r i (19&3) st u d i e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s on one of the subtests composing the IES Test, the Photo-analysis Test, and Sanderson (1964) i n v e s t i g a t e d both age and sex group d i f f e r e n c e s on another su b t e s t , the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test. Most of the p r e d i c t i o n s -2-made by Golden and Charnes were verified by the four subtests which are considered the most productive. On the other hand, only a modified version of the Photo-analysis Test substan-tiated Rempel and Signori's predictions, while Sanderson failed to obtain any significant results on the Picture Titles Test. Sanderson suggested that the scoring of the Picture Titles Test is the only IES subtest which is scored subjectively, requiring judgement by the examiner. It was recommended that an objective scoring technique be; employed. The main purpose of this research, then, is the modif-ication of the Picture Titles Test so that the responses can by scored objectively. The usefulness of this modified Picture Titles Test as well as the value of certain theoretical formulations w i l l be Investigated by: 1. Administrating the Picture Titles Test to males and females to determine i f there are differences between the sexes in the way in which their impulses and superego affect their ego functioning. 2. Testing for age group differences. 3- Examining the response patterns to each picture for bias. It is hoped that this research w i l l contribute inform-ation to the psychological literature concerning the impulse, ego and superego variables and sex and age differences. CHAPTER II DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCTS Impulse, ego and superego w i l l be the constructs used throughout this paper, and an attempt w i l l be made to define them f u l l y . The definitions w i l l refer to Dombrose and Slobin's usage since the present research is based upon their work. Impulse The term Impulse is used by Dombrose and Slobin (1951) in the place of the original construct of the "id" used by Freud. These authors f e l t that impulse was a more suitable term since i t s meaning is more precise, and i t does not imply the origin of the impulses as does the term " i d " . Impulse is defined as "a quanity of psychic energy pressing for discharge". The source of this energy may be the biological needs or i t may be external objects or events which stimulate the individual. Once stimulated, the immediate goal of the impulse part of the personality is the reduction of the resultant tensions by satifying the impulses. The impulses are not guided by morality, reason, or logic, but are selfish, demanding and irrational, and are always seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. It is easy to see why Freud said that the impulses were guided by the "pleasure principle" instead of by the "reality principle". Dombrose and Slobin were primarily concerned with the aggressive and sexual impulses in the construction of their -4--t e s t s since these impulses appear to be the most important i n understanding p e r s o n a l i t y . The terms sexual and aggression are d e f i n e d by these authors. "By aggression i s meant the e x e r c i s e of derogation, v i o l e n c e , or power upon some object i n an endeavor to i n j u r e or destroy i t . I t may be expressed i n a v a r i e t y of ways but u t i l i z e s p r i m a r i l y the musculature of speech. The term sexual ... r e f e r s to a wide range of p l e a s u r a b l e e x c i t a t i o n s and discharges i n a d d i t i o n to the customary r e s t r i c t i o n to g e n i t a l union. S e x u a l i t y i s conceived develop-mentally, w i t h g e n i t a l i t y as the f i n a l stage achieved." Ego. The ego i s defined by Freud as "the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the mind of the r e a l world". This means that the ggo harmonizes and i n t e g r a t e s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n n e r needs, the impulse and superego f o r c e s , w i t h e x t e r n a l circumstances. To accomplish t h i s , the ego must not only perceive the inner demands and e x t e r n a l world but must i n h i b i t the discharge of the impulses " i n accordance w i t h r e a l i t y " . This may mean that the ego p r o h i b i t s the expression of the impulses a l t o g e t h e r or i t may mean that the ego only modifies the impulses and/or delays expression u n t i l a more appropriate time. When the ego f o l l o w s t h i s course, i t i s s a i d to be operating by the " r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e " . That i s , the ego i s attempting "to b r i n g about the greatest amount of need g r a t i f i c a t i o n p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n of the superego and of e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y " (Sanderson, 1964 p.2 6 ) . This o f t e n r e s u l t s i n the postponement of g r a t i f i c a t i o n u n t i l a time when impulse expression w i l l be more b e n e f i c i a l and s a t i s f y i n g . In other words, the ego i s - 5 -functioning in a r e a l i s t i c way and, in so doing, utilizes judgement, reasoning and memory. According to Dombrose and Slobin ( 1 9 5 1 ) , there are differences of opinion regarding the origin of the ego. It i s agreed, however, that the ego i s a product of development and adaption. They briefly summarize the development. "It is around the nucleus of perception that the ego is organized. External objects are perceived under the stimulus of parital deprivation and are found to be inconsistently present, whereas inner stimulation remains constant so the self i s differentiated from external objects. The development is furthered by the process of introspection, by the perception of the surfaces of the body, and by the greater conducive-ness to manipulation of external objects. Another factor contributing is identification with others particularly the mother.." Superego The superego is a combination of Freud's original con-ceptions of the ego ideal and the conscience. The superego is defined as "that portion of the personality which is the internal representation of the moral principles of society, or more specifically, of the moral principles of the parents". The function of the superego is to 'watch over' behavior and reward by giving pleasurable feelings to that which is consistent with the internalized moral principles and punish by evoking feelings of anxiety or guilt that which is not. Although the superego functions at times on a conscious level, a large part of.Its activity i s preconscious and unconscious. The origin of the superego is traced to the Oedipus Conflict. The circumstances at this period of l i f e induce -6-the o h i l d to i n t r o j e c t the value system of the id e a l i z e d parent. "The omnipotence, power, and perfections ascribed to the parents" are now imputed to the child's superego, and the pressures once exerted by the parents to conform to t h e i r moral code are now exerted by the child' s own superego. In other words, the c h i l d w i l l " s t r i v e toward moral perfection" on his own as rewards and punishments are now metted out by the superego. Strength of Psychoanalytic Components Strength refers to the r e l a t i v e quantity of energy possessed by the ego, impulses or superego. What i s important i s the energy u t i l i z e d by any one of these personality compon-ents i n comparison to the energy u t i l i z e d by each of the other two. For example, the ego i s strong only i n r e l a t i o n to the impulse or superego or both — when the ego has a greater quantity of energy at i t s disposal than either the impulse or superego. In other words, i f the impulse and super-ego are weak, the ego does not need as much energy to control them as i t would i f they were both r e l a t i v e l y strong, and i t i s t h i s a b i l i t y to control that decides strength. There i s a question, however, concerning the p o s s i b i l i t y ^ of measuring r e l a t i v e strength, and thi s i s discussed by Dombrose and Slobin (1951). F i r s t of a l l , i t i s established that quantity of energy can be measured i n terms of the pre-scribed functioning of the impulses, ego and superego at the -7-different developmental levels. Por example, a mature ego possesses a l l the functions described by definition of a mature ego while the immature ego lacks or only has partially developed functions. Since the functioning of the ego can be discovered by observing behavior, the quantity of energy possessed by the ego can be measured. The quantity of energy of the impulse and superego, however, can only be known through the ego since both the impulse and superego express themselves only through acting upon the ego. Consequently, any changes i n the ego's functioning are a result of either an increase or decrease of impulse or superego forces or both. Thus, the measurement of the strengths of the impulses, ego, and superego is a relative as well as an indirect one. CHAPTER III REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE In the psychoanalytic l i t e r a t u r e , the personality i s described i n terms of the i n t e r a c t i o n of the ego, impulses, and superego. The ego i s regarded as the d i r e c t determiner of behavior, although affected by pressures from the impulses and superego. The popularity of t h i s theory prompted Dombrose and Slobin ( 1 9 5 1 ) to develop a test which would estimate the influence of the impulses and superego upon ego functioning. Consequently, they constructed the IES Test which measures the r e l a t i v e strengths of the Impulses, ego and superego — a test which could a i d diagnosis and therapy as well as add to the understanding of personality functioning i n general. Previous to the IES Test, the only attempt to Investigate the forces of the impulses, ego and superego i s described i n a r t i c l e s by Goitein and Kutash ( 1 9 4 4 ) , Goitein ( 1 9 4 4 ) , and Broxum and Goitein ( 1 9 4 3 ) . Dombrose and Slobin discarded t h e i r techniques f o r several reasons, which are discussed i n t h e i r thesis ( 1 9 5 1 ) , and developed th e i r own techniques of measurement. The IES Test i s composed of nine subtests, represent-ing nine d i f f e r e n t techniques of measurement. Based on the rationale that constructs can be determined through t h e i r behavioral manifestations, Dombrose and Slobin constructed a. number of standard situations " s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to e l i c i t behavior which w i l l allow the Impulses, ego, and superego to -9-manifest themselves i n a r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e and q u a n t i f i a b l e manner". In other words, the aim of the authors was to design items that were p a r t i c u l a r l y conducive to the p r o j e c t i o n of the impulses, ego and superego so the content of the items was n e c e s s a r i l y based on psych o a n a l y t i c theory and c l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Although the content of the stimulus m a t e r i a l s i s o r i g i n a l , the b a s i c methods of approach — pe r c e p t i o n , ap-p e r c e p t i o n , memory, concept formation and motor expression — are well-known and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these f u n c t i o n s and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s has been accepted. "The products of these f u n c t i o n s have been t r e a t e d as manifestations of deeper, l e s s observable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t r a i t s , needs or moti v a t i o n s " . (Dombrose and S l o b i n , ^1951). The methods u t i l i z e d , hoi\rever, vary w i t h the subtest. The fu n c t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e to the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test are discussed i n Chapter IV. A number of studi e s have used the IES Test to evaluate p r e d i c t i o n s based on the con s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the IES Test as w e l l as the v a l i d i t y of the explanatory concepts be e s t a b l i s h e d " I f i t can be demonstrated that the number of c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s made i s gr e a t e r than that to be expected by chance". The remainder of t h i s chapter w i l l be devoted to summarizing these s t u d i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , since the present study i s concerned w i t h the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test, the r e s u l t s and conclusions p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s subtest w i l l be emphasized. -10-Dombrose and Slobin ( 1 9 5 1 ) gave their battery of nine tests to thirty normals, fifteen "constricted neurotics", and twenty paranoid schizophrenics. The subjects ranged in age from twenty-one to f i f t y . The following predictions were made from analytic theory: ( 1 ) the normals would have strong egos and weak impulses and superegos; (2) the neurotics would have "weaker egos, stronger accumulated impulses, and more dominant superegos"; and ( 3 ) the paranoid-schizophrenics would possess the weakest egos and the strongest impulses and super-egos . There were 114 hypotheses set up concerning the relative impulse, ego and superego scores of the three groups, and approximately seventy-five per cent of these were substantiated by the results. Dombrose and Slobin concluded that not only do the impulse and superego forces affect ego functioning but that the strengths of these variables can be measured. They also remark that "some of the ego functions are more susceptible to direct influence by the internal economy of these forces than are other functions". Therefore, test preformance can be expected to vary from test to test so that the understanding of the significanee of the specific test situation is important. -11-Por the Picture T i t l e s Test, the predicted and obtained group rankings are summarized below. Predicted I Score E Score S Score High Middle Low Normals Neurotics Psychotics Normals .Neurotics Psychotics Psychotics Neurotics Normals Obtained I Score E Score S Score High Middle Low Normals Neurotics Psychotics Normals Psychotics Neurotics Neurotics Normals . Psychotics Examination of the Table indicates that the order of ranking on the impulse variable was as predicted. There was only one s i g n i f i c a n t difference beyond the fi v e per cent l e v e l , however, and t h i s was between the normal and psychotic groups. The difference between the means of the normal and neurotic groups and the difference between the means of the neurotic and psychotic groups were both s i g n i f i c a n t at the twenty per cent l e v e l . The hypothesis that the normals would have a higher mean impulse score than the psychotics was considered confirmed, but the hypothesis that the normals would have a higher mean impulse score than the neurotics and the neurotics higher than the psychotics only tended to be supported because of the low confidence l e v e l . I t appears that the only correct p r e d i c t i o n concerning the rankings of the groups' ego scores was that the normals -12-would have the highest ego score. The difference between the means of the normals and neurotics was significant beyond the ten per cent level. Consequently, the hypothesis stating that normals would have a higher ego score than the neurotics was considered supported. The t-test values were too low to be considered significant for the normal and psychotic group comparison and for the neurotic and psychotic group comparison. The rank order of the superego mean scores was not as predicted as the psychotics had the lowest mean score instead of the highest. A comparison of the mean scores of the neurotics and normals yielded a t-value significant beyond the five per cent level. Thus, the hypothesis that the neurotics would have a higher mean score than the normals was supported. The differences between means of the normal and psychotic groups was significant beyond the five per cent level and the difference between means of the neurotic and psychotic groups was significant at the twenty per cent level. The reverse / then of the hypothesis that the psychotics would have-a higher mean score than both the neurotics and normals seems to be true. Although Dombrose and Slobin made no definite predictions concerning the defensive score, they did find that psychotics had the highest score. Their mean score was significantly higher, at the one per cent level of confidence, than both the normals and neurotics, while there was no significant difference between the neurotic and normal means. -13-According to the results, the neurotics and normals behaved pretty much as predicted, but the psychotics did not. The mean score of the psychotics was comparatively higher than expected while their mean superego score was comparatively much lower than expected. Dombrose and Slobin f e l t that these results were due to inaccurate scoring of the responses. They pointed to the significantly higher defensive score of the psychotics and suggested that this type of response was a result of pressure from a strong superego and should be inter-preted as a derivative of the superego score. In regard to the higher than expected ego score, the authors f e l t that the ego score was not restricted enough, and, consequently, im-pulsively-toned psychotic responses were being scored as ego responses. It was concluded that: 1. The Picture Titles Test as presently scored is not able to measure adequately the relative strengths of impulse, ego and superego. 2. The test does not measure a l l of the existing impulse forces as unacceptability of the impulses precludes overt expression. 3- The test "reflects how the subject usually deals with the Impulses, the kind of defenses he uses, when they are instituted, and how he reacts to inner and outer authority". 4. The test has potential for furnishing valuable qualitative information about behavior. - 1 4 -The r e s t of the s t u d i e s reviewed here w i l l d e a l w i t h f o u r of the IES s u b t e s t s — the P h o t o - a n a l y s i s , P i c t u r e Story Completion, Arrow Dot and P i c t u r e T i t l e s t e s t s — u n l e s s other-wise s p e c i f i e d . R i t z (1954) gave the IES Test to three groups of males — an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p s y c h o t i c group, a n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d n o n-psychotic group, and an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p s y c h o t i c group. A l l of the s u b j e c t s were over the age of s i x t y . The f o u r t e s t s t o g e t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t e d among the three groups. Considered i n d i v i d u a l l y , the Arrow Dot and the P i c t u r e S t o r y Completion t e s t s were the most s u c c e s s f u l , while the P i c t u r e T i t l e s and P h o t o - a n a l y s i s t e s t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Out of a t o t a l of t h i r t y - s i x p r e d i c t i o n s concerning the rank of eaqh group, on l y f o u r were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the f i v e per cent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . Although none of the p r e d i c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the P i c t u r e T i t l e s - T e s t , seven out of n i n e were i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . On the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s , R i t z concluded t h a t the IES S c a l e was a v a l i d instrument f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g among groups 6'f aged and t h a t the Arrow Dot Test and the P i c t u r e S t o r y Completion Test were the most u s e f u l f o r t h i s purpose. With r e f e r e n c e to the b e h a v i o r of the aged on the whole, R i t z compared the t e s t scores of the aged groups wi t h those of younger s u b j e c t s . He found t h a t there was "a c o n s i s t e n t tendency f o r the aged s u b j e c t s to show more impulsive p o t e n t i a l , - 1 5 -more superego r i g i d i t y , and l e s s rational-compromising behavior than the younger su b j e c t s " . Although the Photo-a n a l y s i s Test was the most s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between aged and younger s u b j e c t s , the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test was a l s o able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them, and R i t z concluded that the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test has good p o t e n t i a l i t y f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . Herron ( 1 9 6 2 ) explored the v a l i d i t y of the IES Test by usi n g the t e s t to evaluate the p r e d i c t i o n that adolescents who were r e j e c t e d by t h e i r parents i n e a r l y childhood would have d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e s from those of accepted adolescents. On the P i c t u r e Story Completion and the P i c t u r e T i t l e s t e s t s f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found, i n d i c a t -i n g weak egos which are r e s t r i c t e d by e i t h e r impulse demands or superego l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the r e j e c t e d group. Herron con-cluded that the IES Test i s an e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i v e instrument. Bortner ( 1 9 6 3 ) used the IES Test to compare p a t i e n t s who d i d not keep appointments w i t h p a t i e n t s who d i d . He found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance on the,Photo-analysis, P i c t u r e Story Completion and. P i c t u r e T i t l e s t e s t s but f o r d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s . I t was suggested that f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s measured by each subtest was needed. Bortner a l s o employed the IES Test i n two other s t u d i i s ( 1 9 6 4 ) . In an attempt to determine I f d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r l i e d i f f e r e n t patterns of academic achievement, Bortner administered the t e s t to 122 e l d e r l y I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d male p a t i e n t s who were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups depending on - 1 6 -t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a r i t h m e t i c , r e a d i n g , o r language and s p e l l i n g . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the P h o t o - a n a l y s i s T e s t , f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between s u b j e c t s p r e f e r r i n g a r i t h m e t i c and the o t h e r p r e f e r e n c e groups on measures o f ego s t r e n g t h and i m p u l s e e x p r e s s i o n . I n the o t h e r s t u d y , B o r t n e r i n v e s t i g a t e d the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d -u a l s p r e f e r r i n g s k i l l - d e t e r m i n e d outcomes would show g r e a t e r ego s t r e n g t h t h a n i n d i v i d u a l s p r e f e r r i n g chance-determined o u t -comes. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d on a l l but the P i c t u r e T i t l e s T e s t . I n a d d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s p r e f e r r i n g chance-determined outcomes had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r superego s c o r e s on t h e P h o t o -a n a l y s i s and P i c t u r e S t o r y C o m p l e t i o n t e s t s and a h i g h e r d e f e n s i v e s c o r e on t h e P i c t u r e T i t l e s T e s t . S i g n o r i , Smordin,Rempel and Sampson e t a l ( 1 9 6 4 ) a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e IES T e s t t o a group o f d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s r a t e d as 'high* a d j u s t e d o r 'low' a d j u s t e d . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e 'low' a d j u s t e d group would make fewer ego and superego r e s p o n s e s and more i m p u l s e r e s p o n s e s t h a n the ' h i g h ' a d j u s t e d group. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found, a l t h o u g h a l l t h r e e v a r i a b l e s on the P i c t u r e S t o r y C o m p l e t i o n T e s t and the i m p u l s e and ego r e s p o n s e s t o the P i c t u r e T i t l e s and Photo-a n a l y s i s t e s t s were i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . The hom;Ogenit.y o f the sample was r e f e r r e d t o i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r the f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . By means o f the IES T e s t , G i l b e r t and Levee ( 1 9 6 3 ) compared a group o f young m a r r i e d and a group o f middle aged - 1 7 -marrled women. It was predicted that the older women would have weaker egos, show a greater awareness of their impulse needs or a greater desire to be free to express these strivings. The largest differences between the two groups were found i n the impulse and superego scores on the Picture Titles Test and the impulse and ego scores on the Picture Story Completion Test, although none of the differences were significant. It was suggested that perhaps the hypotheses were based upon incorrect theory and/or the IES Test is insensitive to subtle changes or inappropriate for use with women. Interest in the validity of the IES Test and in psycho-analytic theory concerning three developmental periods prompted Charnes ( 1 9 6 3 ) to administer the four tests and the Photo-preference Test to thirty- nihec; latents, thirty-three adolescents, and thirty-two adults. For the four tests considered as a unit, there were seven out of a possible thirty-six differences significant at or beyond the five per cent level on both the t and X 2 tests of significance. Thirteen differences were significant by the t-test alone and eight by the 2 test alone, although by chance only 1 . 8 could be expected. In addition, there were twenty-six predictions from theory as to the direct-ions of these differences and seven of these were accurate beyond . 0 5 chance expectancy. The tests discriminated between the adolescents and adults and the adolescents and latents, but not the latents and adults, and Charnes concluded that -18-"the test behavior of the d i f f e r e n t groups indicates that the tests tap a basic personality balance which i s formed by the age of ten, which i s changed by the pressures of adolescence, and which i s restored i n adulthood to i t s early equilibrium only somewhat altered by intervening growth, education, and socio-economic status." Each i n d i v i d u a l test also discriminated beyond .05 chance expectancy between adolescents and adults and adolescents and latents, i n d i c a t i n g that adults and latents behave s i m i l a r l y . The Picture T i t l e s Test was the only test which, i n addition, discriminated s i g n i f i c a n t l y between latents and adults. The author f e l t t h i s to be a " s t r i k i n g r e s u l t " which he attributed to the high power of the Picture T i t l e s Test to d i f f e r e n t i a t e groups and to the fact that "we should not expect exact s i m i l a r i t y , even i n underlying character structure between ten year olds and adults who are so overty d i s t i n c t " . Since Charnes' results f o r the Picture T i t l e s Test are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s study, they w i l l be considered i n some d e t a i l . The expected and obtained results are given below. Predicted High Middle Low Obtained High Middle Low Adolescents or Adults Adolescents or Adults Latents Adults Adolescents Latents Latents Adolescents or Adults Adolescents or Adults Adolescents Latents Adults Adults Adolescents Latents Latents Adults Adolescents - 1 9 -The Picture T i t l e s Test d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the: 1. adolescents and adults at .03 or better i n both the Impulse and ego scores; 2. latents and adolescents at .01 and .06 i n the impulse score and at .03, t - t e s t only, i n the ego score;? ~. 3. latents and adults at .01 i n the ego score and at the .03 and .13 i n the impulse score. Three out of seven d i r e c t i o n a l predictions made for the Picture T i t l e s Test were f u l f i l l e d at .03 or better so the test was considered a predictive as well as a discriminative success. Golden ( 1 9 5 ^ ) conducted a study for the purpose of; examining the concurrent v a l i d i t y of the IES Test, examining the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the EES Test to females, and studying sex differences. The subjects were sixty-one boys and sixty-one g i r l s from the f i f t h and sixth grades. The g i r l s and the boys were each divided into three groups, corresponding to teacher ratings of impulsive, constricted and well-adjusted. Golden then compared the test preformances with the group c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r boys and for g i r l s and also compared the test preformance of the boys with that of the g i r l s . Out of a t o t a l of t h i r t y - s i x predictions regarding the high-ranking groups, tvsrenty-seven were i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n and sixteen of these were s i g n i f i c a n t . The results indicated that the tests were v a l i d f o r use with boys. For g i r l s , however, only the Picture T i t l e s Test and the Arrow Dot Test proved v a l i d , and Charnes concluded that the other two tests would have to be re-oriented and -20-re-standardized before they could be successfully used with g i r l s . With respect to sex differences, there were eight out of nine s i g n i f i c a n t predictions, a l l i n the right d i r e c t i o n , and i t was concluded that psychoanalytic theory of sex d i f f e r -ences, upon which the hypotheses were based, was supported. Of a l l the tests, the Picture T i t l e s Test proved to be the most v a l i d for use with g i r l s , It also proved to be a v a l i d instrument f o r measuring sex differences as a l l three of the folloxtfing hypotheses x^ere supported at s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s . 1. The mean Impulse score of the boys should be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that of the g i r l s . 2. There should be no s i g n i f i c a n t sex differences with regard to mean ego scores. 3. The mean superego score of the g i r l s should be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that of the boys. These hypotheses were further substantiated by a comparison of subgroup means. I t was found that even the most impulsive g i r l s have weaker impulses than the most constricted boys. Furthermore, each of the three groups of g i r l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher superego scores than the boys' groups v/ith the exception of the most constricted group of boys, i n d i c a t i n g that g i r l s are more r e s t r i c t e d than boys. In general, out of nine predictions, six were s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and out of f i f t e e n d i r e c t i o n a l predictions, fourteen were correct. Golden suggested that the Picture T i t l e s -21-Test probably has the highest v a l i d i t y of any of the tests as i t was able to distinguish between sub-groups and the sexes. The conclusions f o r the Picture T i t l e s Test are presented below. 1 . "The test i s a v a l i d measure of impulse, ego and superego functioning ... 2. The test i s most sensitive on the impulse variable with both boys and g i r l s . 3. The test i s more sensitive for g i r l s than f o r boys along the superego variable. 4. Boys are, l n general, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more impulsive than g i r l s . 5 . G i r l s , i n general, manifest greater superego strength than do boys. 6. Well-adjusted boys and g i r l s show no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n ego strength." As part of a study of the personality factors of college students, Pinckney ( 1 9 6 3 ) administered the IES Test to eight female students. He compared his results with data presented by Dombrose and Slobin ( 1 9 5 1 ) a&d Golden ( 1 9 5 4 ) and found less experienced impulse, more conformity with superego values, and more controlled behavior for the female students. The means and standard deviations for the Picture T i t l e s Test are given below. Research on the Photo-analysis Test was the main purpose of a study by Rempel and Signori ( 1 9 6 3 ) . Dombrose and Slobin's Photo-analysis Test and a comparable test constructed to correct some of the defects of the o r i g i n a l test were adminstered to eighteen and nineteen year old university students. Impulse Ego Superego M 3.42 3.42 5 . 1 5 SD 1.84 1 . 7 5 2.01 -22-Hypotheses concerning sex differences failed to be substant-iated by the Dombrose and Slobin test results. The new test, however, differentiated between the males and females i n the impulse and ego scores. It was suggested that there may have been a bias i n the responses to Dombrose and Slobin 1s photos. Investigation of the new Photo-analysis Test by Rempel, Signori, and Sampson (1963) lead to the analysis for sex differences in stimulus content. The prediction that the male photographs would e l i c i t more impulse and fewer ego responses than the female photographs from both males and females was confirmed. Further investigation of age and sex differences was carried out by Sanderson (1964). This study i s particularly relevant to the present study since i t was concerned with the Picture Titles Test. Sanderson's subjects were college students ranging in age from nineteen to twenty-two. The hypotheses were based upon psychoanalytic theory, previous related research, and particularly upon the findings of Golden (1954) and Charnes (1953) regarding sex differences and age group differences, respectively. Summary charts of the predicted and obtained results follow. Sex Dlfferences Predicted I E S High Low Males Females Females Males Females Males Obtained I E S High Females Males Females Males Males Females Low -23-Age Differences Predicted I E S High Low 19 yr. olds 22 yr. olds 22 yr. olds 19 yr. olds 22 yr. olds 19 yr. olds Obtained I E S High Low 19 yr. olds 22 yr. olds 19 yr. olds 22 yr. olds 22 yr. olds 19 yr. olds Both the Chi-square test on the three variables combined f o r each picture and the t - t e s t on each variable i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r the test as a whole yielded i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . There-fore, none of the twelve d i r e c t i o n a l hypotheses could be accepted. In addition, s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data for response bias yielded highly s i g n i f i c a n t r esults for each p i c t u r e . Sanderson concluded that the Picture T i t l e s Test i s not adequate f o r measuring impulse, ego and superego sex differences or f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among age groups. I t was also suggested that bias i n the content of the pictures may have been responsible f o r the f a i l u r e to obtain s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . In summary, Dombrose and Slobin (1951) did not f i n d the picture T i t l e s Test adequate for measuring the r e l a t i v e strengths of the impulses, ego and superego. Using the present scoring c r i t e r i a , however, Golden (195*0 found that the Picture T i t l e s Test d i f f e r e n t i a t e d quite well between latent males and females, and, s i m i l a r l y , Heron (1952) found that the test d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between rejected and accepted adolescents. In a study by Ritz (1954) the Picture T i t l e s Test succeeded i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g younger and older subjects, while Bortner (1963) and Bortner 0-964) considered the test a success i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g groups - 2 4 -i n two out of three studies. On the other hand, the test f a i l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h between 'high' and 'low' adjusted adoles-cents i n a study by Signori, Smordin, et a l ( 1 9 6 4 ) . I t also f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between young and middle aged women i n a study by G i l b e r t and Levee ( 1 9 6 3 ) and between college age males and females i n a study by Sanderson ( 1 9 6 4 ) . Pinckney ( 1 9 6 3 ) administered the test to eighty female college students and found that t h e i r preformance d i f f e r e d markedly from that of Dombrose and Slobin and Golden 1s male subjects. I t would appear then that the Picture T i t l e s Test i n i t s present form i s v a l i d f o r evaluating only c e r t a i n kinds of predictions and • that the results vary depending on age and sex of the subjects. In r e l a t i o n to the present study, i t i s expected that the r e s u l t s w i l l be more sim i l a r to those of Sanderson and Pinckney since the subjects are approximately the same age. It i s hoped, however, that with a modified method of scoring the Picture T i t l e s Test w i l l prove to be v a l i d f o r evaluating predictions which heretofore i t has been unable to assess. -25-CHAPTER IV THE PICTURE TITLES TEST AMD MODIFICATION The f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e P i c t u r e T i t l e s T est depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on the p r o c e s s e s o f concept f o r m a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n , a p p e r c e p t i o n ^ and p r o j e c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e p r o c e s s e s w i l l be d e f i n e d and e x p l a i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Dombrose and S l o b i n ' s usage and i n r e l a t i o n t o the P i c t u r e T i t l e s T e s t . R e i c h a r d and Rapaport (1943) d e f i n e d concept f o r m a t i o n as " t h a t f u n c t i o n w h i c h p e o p l e p e r f o r m e v e r y time they d e c i d e what a t h i n g i s t o be c a l l e d " . E v e r y time a s u b j e c t produces a t i t l e , t h e n , he i s making a d e c i s i o n o r f o r m i n g a c o n c e p t . These c o n c e p t s , however, w i l l v a r y i n t h e i r adequacy from i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i s because concept f o r m a t i o n i s an ego f u n c t i o n and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , i s dependent upon how t h e s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e s the p i c t u r e and what h i s p e r c e p t i o n means t o him. P e r c e p t i o n r e f e r s t o the s e l e c t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l o f s t i m u l i w h i c h w i l l be responded t o . P e r c e p t i o n i s a c t u a l l y t h e f i r s t s t e p i n f o r m i n g t h e concept and a most i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s f o r t h e P i c t u r e T i t l e s T e s t . I n o r d e r to a s s i g n a t i t l e t o a p i c t u r e , o r form a c o n c e p t , the s u b j e c t must o r g a n i z e o r s t r u c t u r e the p a r t s o f t h e p i c t u r e i n t o a whole. T h i s i n i t i a l l y r e q u i r e s s t i m u l u s s e l e c t i o n . I f the s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e s t h e p i c t u r e a d e q u a t e l y , a l l t h e elements i n the p i c t u r e w i l l be s e l e c t e d f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and n o t h i n g more. On the o t h e r hand, i f the s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e s the p i c t u r e i n a d e q u a t e l y , what Murray (1933) c a l l s " p r e f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n " and Murphy (1933) - 2 6 -c a l l "anchorage", i t means that the subject has cathected one activity or object in the picture around which he has organized the rest of the picture. "This one area becomes the figure, to use a Gestalt term, and the rest of the picture the ground of the organized f i e l d " (Sanderson, 1 9 6 4 p. 7 ) . Furthermore, i t has been found that this "preferential perception" w i l l be consistent with the internal needs and general behavior patterns of the individual or from a psychoanalytic viewpoint w i l l be determined by the relative strength of the impulses, the ego, and the superego. This finding is basic to the rationale of the Picture Titles Test. Apperception is defined by Murray ( 1 9 3 3 ) as the process "whereby meaning i n other than sensory terms i s assigned to the physical stimulus, and includes understanding, interpreting, classifying, subsuming, and so forth". In other words, when the subject goes beyond just "recognition of configurated sense impressions" and adds something, which is necessarily from within himself, he i s apperceiving. This "something added" is considered to be a reflection of the individual's needs, defenses and past experiences. Such i s the case, for example, in a t i t l e like "Mother Spoils It A l l " when "strong impulses lead to the selection of an authoritarian object and the superego to selection of the impulse-expressive activity". The pictures in the Picture Titles Test were designed to f a c i l i t a t e apperception in terms of the impulse, ego, and superego variables. -2?-Primary to the r a t i o n a l e of the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test i s p r o j e c t i o n . P r o j e c t i o n i s defined by Murray ( 1 9 3 3 ) as "the process whereby psychic elements — needs, f e e l i n g s , and emotions, or images and contexts of images a c t i v a t e d by such a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s — are r e f e r r e d by the experiencing subject to the e x t e r n a l world without s u f f i c i e n t o b j e c t i v e evidence ... . When t h i s process i s a c t i v e , what i s i n t r u t h mental and w i t h i n the p e r s o n a l i t y comes to appear outside the p e r s o n a l i t y . " I n the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test, impulses and the superego forces "come to appear outside the p e r s o n a l i t y " because they are p r o j e c t e d when s e l e c t i o n Is made of c e r t a i n aspects of a drawing ( perceptive p r o j e c t i o n ) and a l s o when non-sensory a d d i t i o n s are inc l u d e d i n a response ( apperceptive p r o j e c t i o n s ) . I t would appear, then, that without p r o j e c t i o n , " p r e f e r e n t i a l p erception" and "apperception" would not a f f e c t the accuracy of the concepts formed, the t i t l e s , and consequently, the impulse, ego, and superego v a r i a b l e s cou3.d not be measured. D e s c r i p t i o n The P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test c o n s i s t s of twelve drawings and the same p l a n or design i s fol l o w e d f o r each. Each p i c t u r e p o r t r a y s a s i t u a t i o n i n which a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i s present, and there are a c t i v i t i e s and objects i n each card which may be ca t e g o r i z e d as* impulse or superego. Each drawing i s arranged so that i n one area impulsive a c t i v i t y i s depicted. I n another area, there i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of " a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n t r o j e c t s from which superego has been constructed or which -28-personify or support morality" (Dombrose and Slobin, 1951)• The rest of the drawing can be c a l l e d the "ego area" as i t serves to s p a c i a l l y and temporally orient the a c t i v i t i e s and/or represent subliminated behavior. Card 5 w i l l be used to i l l u s t r a t e the drawing arrangement. At the l e f t a couple i s seen embracing i n a doorway. This area portrays impulse a c t i v i t y because of the obvious sexual and aggressive connotation of the behavior. In an upper window, a man and woman with angry expressions are pointing. They represent the authoritarian (superego) figures who i n t e r f e r e with or condemn the impulse expression. The remainder of the picture, by means of a building outline, a car, and a moon, establishes the time and place of the scene — the "ego area". For each of the pictures the subject i s instructed to give the "most f i t t i n g " t i t l e s . F i t t i n g i s used to avoid i n f e r r i n g value judgement. Scoring The t i t l e s are scored according to the c r i t e r i a given i n Dombrose and Slobin's manual (1958). In general, the scoring i s as follows: Impulse (1) a t i t l e organized around an impulse-laden a c t i v i t y or impulse-arousing area of the picture; Superego (S) a t i t l e revealing a conscience-dominated attitude towards the picture or r e f e r r i n g to an area of the picture which i s related to superego attitudes and values; -29-Ego (E) a t i t l e which integrates the emotional and orienting factors of the picture; Defense (D) a t i t l e which indicates that great psychological distance has been put between the subject and the s i g n i f i c a n t content of the picture. Usually these t i t l e s are organized around some i n -consequential object or a c t i v i t y or are of so general or abstract a quality that the s p e c i f i c picture to which they pertain i s not c l a s s i f i e d or i d e n t i f i e d . Impulse -Superego (IS) a t i t l e which refers to impulse and superego areas separately, without any integration and without either acting upon the other. Samples of t i t l e s and suggested scoring f o r each card are given i n the manual. Score Interpretation Although each of the four subtests of the IES Test measure the r e l a t i v e strengths of the impulses, ego and superego, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the scores i n each case i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t and i n accordance with the method of responding and test construction. In the Picture T i t l e s Test the responses indicate the degree of acceptance of the impulses and the superego pressures by the subject and the degree of -30-i n t e g r a t i o n of these aspects with more objective judgment. I t i s reasoned that when the subject creates a response he i s at least vaguely aware that t h i s response r e f l e c t s his own feelings, attitudes, or thoughts; consequently, the material revealed i n the t i t l e must be acceptable to the subject's ego or i t would not have been expressed. The degree of acceptance of the impulses as part of the s e l f i s indicated by the I score. A low I score indicates the subject's unawareness and denial of his impulses while a high I score s i g n i f i e s that the subject r e a l i z e s that he has considerable impulse needs. Acceptance of impulses, however, i s not equivalent to approval. The S score, according to Dombrose and Slobin ( 1 9 5 8 ) , "indicates the awareness and recognition of superego standards, with accompanying feelings of being 'good' and being 'bad'. This i s awareness of one's own conscience and i t s prickings. Thus, a high S score reveals conscious feelings of being bad, unworthy, or g u i l t y , while a low S score reveals minimal awareness of superego pressures from the s e l f , and l i t t l e moral self-evaluation." Recognition and acceptance of objective judgement as a determinant of one's functioning i s indicated by the E score. I f an i n d i v i d u a l has a high E score, i t means that he responds r e a l i s t i c a l l y because he i s able to "integrate the various aspects of the personality" and use good judgment. Caution i s recommended, however, with extremely high E scores as they - 3 1 -can be indicative of "a defensive clinging to impersonal and unemotional aspects of l i f e in an attempt to deny conflict and pain". The D score represents "an active avoidance of dis-comforting guilt or a denial of conscious guilt feeling by means of withdrawal or sterile ideation". In this casek there is a refusal to accept the impulses as this acceptance would force the individual to recognize the punitive superego. Modification Sanderson ( 1 9 6 4 ) suggested that the subjective scoring may have precluded the possibility of obtaining significant results. Subjective scoring particularly may have an influence on the results for college students since they are a selected group as far as intelligence and verbal f a c i l i t y are concerned and their responses are often complex and subtle. Consequently, scoring decisions are often d i f f i c u l t to make. In addition, a great deal of time and effort i s required to score the responses. In the interest of eliminating the influence of subjectivity and for practical reasons, i t was f e l t that a more objective scoring technique would prove of value. Procedure The purpose was to compile an answer sheet with fixed, forced-choice responses for each picture. The number of choices for each picture would necessarily be at least four — an impulse, ego, superego, and defense response. It was -32-decided, however, to use two blocks of the four responses each for each picture as this would increase the number of responses per subject and Improve the chances of "tapping" group differences i f they exist. Por a copy of the answer sheet, see Appendix A. The l i s t i n g of a l l the t i t l e s given by Sanderson's one hundred and eighty-five subjects was the f i r s t step in the construction of the answer sheet. The t i t l e s were then scored by the author of this paper, according to Dombrose and Slobin's c r i t e r i a . A l l those t i t l e s which the author questioned or which did not agree with Sanderson as to their classification were discarded. Of the remaining t i t l e s , a l l were eliminated that were: 1. based on special knowledge, psychological terms, book t i t l e s and so forth; 2. quotations, sayings, slang, or profane expressions; 3. awkward and/or ungrammatical k. reflections of uncommon attitudes, statements of individualistic opinions, or unusual interpretations of activities in a picture; 5. vague so that the meaning might not be understood or vague i n the sense that a different interpret-ation of the t i t l e would place i t in another scoring category — sarcastic t i t l e s ; 6. judged as appealing to one sex more than the other, for example, the female response "My Clean Floor" for card 10. 7. extremely popular t i t l e s . - 3 3 -Since the avoidance of sex bias in the t i t l e s was so important, the next step involved the selection for each picture of those t i t l e s that had equivalents, the same or conceptually similar, among the responses of the other sex. Furthermore, i t was required that there be a proportionately equal number of these equivalents among the t i t l e s of the males and females. From the remaining groups of t i t l e s for each picture, the f i n a l selections were made according to the following c r i t e r i a : 1. that a l l t i t l e s within a block be approximately the same length; 2. that a l l t i t l e s within a block be equally popular in Sanderson's sample; 3 . that a l l t i t l e s within a block be of the same type or approximately parallel in form, and similar in degree of abstractness and overall "catchiness". It was believed that i f the c r i t e r i a were met, t i t l e choice would be based upon other than the properties of the title.s themselves. There was also an attempt not to use a t i t l e similar to one given in a previous block. To avoid experimenter bias, the ninety-six t i t l e s with a l i s t of alternatives were inspected by two other individuals familiar with the test and scoring c r i t e r i a . Thirteen of the t i t l e s were replaced by suitable alternatives. This revised version was then distributed to six postgraduate psychology students who were asked to identify the impulse, ego, superego and defense t i t l e s In each block. Two of these -34-students were f a m i l i a r with the scoring manual while four were not. As expected, the four unfamiliar students f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y c o r r e c t l y a large number of the t i t l e s , while the other two students were i n almost complete agreement with the author as to the scoring c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the Items. These re s u l t s indicated to the author that the t i t l e c l a s s i f i c -ations were not b l a t a n t l y obvious but were c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y according to Dombrose and Slobin's c r i t e r i a . As a f i n a l step, the t i t l e s were rotated for each block to avoid r e p e t i t i o n of response pattern, and instructions were devised appropriate to the test modification. The answer sheets were then prepared f o r administration. -35-CHAPTER V SEX AND AGE DIFFERENCES Sex Differences Different sex-associated behavior might be expected purely on the basis that male and female hormones differ. Fenichel (1945) feels, however that hormones are of secondary or minor importance because of the fact that some men are more "feminine" than some women and vice versa. Freud believed that the c r i t i c a l factor responsible for sex differences was the anatomical distinction between the sexes and their psychological consequences. According to psychoanalytic theory, sex differences are linked with the castration complex which is a direct result of the discovery by boys that g i r l s lack a penis and the discovery by g i r l s that boys have what they do not. In boys, this discovery prompts the resolution of the Oedipus Complex In that i t creates a fear of punishment, castration, by the father which is enough to cause the boy to give up his l i b i d i n a l desires toward his mother. In g i r l s , on the other hand, this discovery leads to the belief that she has been castrated which results in disappointment and "penis envy". A major consequence of this disappointment and envy is the Oedipus Complex: the g i r l blaming the mother for her lack of a penis and thus, turning away from the mother to the father as a source of affection. Although Freud stated that the circum-stances of the Oedipus Complex are not well understood for -36-g i r l s , he did f e e l that the fundamental differences between the sexes could be explained by the contrasting consequences of the castration complex. — by the consequences of a "castration that has been car r i e d out" compared to the consequences of "one that has merely been threatened". According to theory, "penis-envy" gives r i s e to a number of reactions i n addition to "the loosening of the g i r l ' s r e l a t i o n with her mother". The three following reations are discussed by Golden ( 1 9 5 4 ) and are of relevance here as well: ( 1 ) recognizing the smallness of her own organ, the g i r l develops a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y (Freud, 1 9 2 4 , p. 2 7 4 ) ; ( 2 ) fearing that the state of castration may be discovered, the g i r l often l i m i t s her "sexual expressions" (Freud, 1 9 2 7 , p. 9 9 ) ; and ( 3 ) with the t r a n s f e r r a l of a f f e c t i o n from the mother to the father, there i s a s h i f t to an "attitude of p a s s i v i t y " . The significance of these reactions f o r sex differences i n impulse expression or superego p r o h i b i t i o n has been pointed out by Golden ( 1 9 5 4 ) . F i r s t , g i r l s should, i n general, obtain higher superego scores than boys as i t i s assummed that a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y w i l l be manifested i n a tendency toward conformity. Second, g i r l s should obtain lower impulse scores than boys since open and ready expression of impulses would not be i n keeping with a passive atti t u d e . Third, the impulse scores of the g i r l s should be lower and t h e i r superego scores higher than those of the boys, i f g i r l s tend to l i m i t sexual expression. - 3 7 -So far, sex differences have been discussed in terras of psychoanalytic theory or from a "biological viewpoint". In other words, the above hypotheses are based primarily on physical factors. The same hypotheses, however, can be derived from a "sociological viewpoint" which emphasizes the role that cultural expectation play In the formation of personality. This is the view held by Penichel ( 1 9 4 5 , p. 3 2 9 ) who states that "what is called masculine and feminine depends more on cultural and social factors than on biological ones". The boy in our culture Is allowed to display a certain amount of impulsive behavior while any such aggressive or sexual expression on the part of the g i r l is met with disapproval. Whether sex differences are due to "social conditioning" or to physical factors or both is of l i t t l e consequence to this study, however. What is important is whether or not g i r l s show more superego expression than boys and whether boys show a greater amount of impulse expression than g i r l s . Support for these hypothesized sex differences comes from a number of studies discussed by Golden ( 1 9 5 4 ) , Rempel and Signori ( 1 9 6 2 ) and Sanderson ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and these w i l l be briefly reviewed next. A doll play situation i s frequently the method employed to reveal the motivational systems of younger children. Yarrow ( 1 9 4 8 ) used this method with sixty preschool children to study the effects of antecedent frustrations. Among other things, he found that boys exceeded g i r l s reliably in amount -38-of aggressive play, unstereotyped and tangential aggression following failure, and tangential aggression following satiation. Por a similar age group, Pintler, Ruth, and Sears (1946) compared dol l play performances of forty boys and forty g i r l s . They found that boys exceeded the g i r l s i n amount of aggressive fantasy shown, and g i r l s showed a greater amount of stereotyped fantasies than boys. The authors pointed to £h<=se results as evidence for Swift's suggestion "that g i r l s show a greater stereotypy in behavior than do boys, adapting more readily to restrictions imposed from with out and repressing or sublimating their own goals in favor of ones which are more acceptable socially". Sears (1951) investigated the influence of sex on the doll play aggression of 150 children, aged three to seven. Clear sex differences were found in frequency, direction and kind of aggression. Boys showed more aggression than g i r l s . It was also noted that the aggressive behavior of boys was of a violent, rough type, while g i r l s expressed aggression in the form of scolding or mischief. These differences were present at age three, more evident at age four and s t i l l larger at five. These results indicated to Sears that at a very early age children behave in accordance with cultural expectations concerning sex role. Doll play studies by Caron and Gewirtz ( 1 9 5 1 ) , Bartup and Himeno(l959) and Back( l945) have also shown boys to be more aggressive than g i r l s . -39-Preadolescent sex differences were investigated by Erikson (1951)• He observed play configurations and found that motion was an outstanding feature i n the boys's construct-ions, while the gi r l s preferred more static play scenes. Golden (1954) interpreted this to mean "that boys feel freer to express their impulses actively, while g i r l s feel the need for self-imposed constriction, which is a superego manifestation'.'. According to the literature, sex differences are not restricted to just the younger age groups. Trumbull (1953) studied senior high school students and college women, and the results indicated that in comparison with gir l s boys are belligerent, dominating, and overready to fight over t r i f l e s . Similarly, ln a study by Clark (1952) male college sutdents reported more acts of deliberate destruction of property than the females. Further analysis of the reports, however, suggested that women may have an equally strong urge to destroy but are more successful in resisting i t than boys. Schoeppe (1953) in an investigation of sex differences i n adolescent socialization found: 1. "Autonomy or selP-directiveness is much more crucial to the male youth i f he is to get along well with his peers than i t is for the female. 2. Outer conformity to the external code is very important for adolescent g i r l s who achieve the task of developing a moral code, conscience, and a set of values. 3. While those adolescent boys who overtly accept their sex role seem covertly to accept i t also, the same is not true for the g i r l s . " It appears then that boys are free to behave as they feel while g i r l s are not. Schoeppe f e l t that the results suggested the importance of cultural determinants. -40 -Some of Schoeppe's findings gain support i n a study by Milnar (1949). Milnar analyzed the case studies of t h i r t y early-adolescent boys and g i r l s to determine the effects of sex role and s o c i a l status on t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Findings of i n t e r e s t for t h i s study were: "Characteristics more t y p i c a l of g i r l s than of boys; 1. I f an achievement drive i s present, i t s chief source i s the desire to conform to parental and/or general s o c i a l mores. 2. They accept t h e i r impulse-life inwardly, but do not allow i t outward expression. 3 . Paralysis of action, that i s , o v e r l y - r i g i d outer control, i s a frequent reaction to t h e i r feelings of anxiety. Characteristics more t y p i c a l of boys than of g i r l s ; 1. A source of g u i l t or of feelings of anxiety Is t h e i r concern over t h e i r lack of impulse-control. They are aware that t h e i r impulsive-ness i s not adult-approved and they f e e l either g u i l t y or anxious as a r e s u l t . 2. A major motivation i s the desire to-knoiv how to control t h e i r impulses. 3 . A major means of adjustment i s impulse-s a t i s f a c t i o n , conforming to outer demands only enough to be l e f t free to do t h i s . " The major theme f o r each — the boy's concern over impulse-control and the g i r l ' s drive to conform — suggested to Milnar the hypothesis "that more intensive s o c i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y parental, pressure i s brought to bear e a r l i e r on the g i r l -to conform, to 'be good', to suppress (aggressive) emotional expression. Conversely, the boys seen to have been allowed wider l a t i t u d e i n emotional expression for a longer l i f e period ... " - I a -i n a study by Buss and Durkee (1958) d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e v e r b a l c o n d i t i o n i n g o f h o s t i l e and n e u t r a l m a t e r i a l , men produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h o s t i l e v e r b s t h a n women. D i f f e r e n c e i n c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g was o f f e r e d as e x p l a n a t i o n ! The r e s u l t s o f Blum's s t u d y (19^9) n o t o n l y o f f e r e d s u p p o r t f o r the pro p o s e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s but a l s o f o r the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y o f p s y c h o s e x u a l development. Blum a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e B l a c k y T e s t t o 119 male and 90 female s t u d e n t s . A f t e r comparing the res p o n s e s o f t h e two s e x e s , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t f e m a l e s p r o b a b l y p o s s e s s s t r o n g e r g u i l t , whereas males a r e more concerned w i t h f e a r s of e x t e r n a l harm. I n a d d i t i o n , males more o f t e n gave a n a l - s a d i s t i c responses which would be e x p e c t e d s i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o P r e u d men more o f t e n e x p r e s s and an j o y " h o s t i l e and obscene w i t " . B e n n e t t and Cohen (1959) found sex d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h i r t e e n hundred s u b j e c t s , r a n g i n g i n age from f i f t e e n t o s i x t y - f o u r . Based upon t h e i r f i n d i n g s , the a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t he s e x e s . I n com p a r i -son w i t h men,3women f e e l gr©at©r l e e i a l empathy and warmth, u n s e l f i s h n e s s , m o r a l i t y and h o n e s t y , and a s t r o n g e r s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n . They a l s o f e e l l e s s s o c i a l c o a r s e n e s s , l e s s s o c i a l i n i q u i t y , a g r e a t e r c o n t r o l l e d rage — i n c l u d i n g ' l e s s o v e r t a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and more c o v e r t h o s t i l i t y — and f e e l the environment t o be more e n e r y a t e and c a p a b l e . On the o t h e r hand, men seem t o B e e l a g r e a t e r v a l u e i n b e i n g uncompromising, r u t h l e s s and d a r i n g and f e e l t he environment t o be more f o r c e --42-- f u l and s o c i a l l y h o s t i l e . These findings suggested the f o l -lowing p r i n c i p l e s which are relevant to t h i s study: male thinking i s sel f - o r i e n t e d , while female thinking i s environ-mentally-oriented; males value "malevolent and h o s t i l e actions against a competitive society", while females value "freedom from r e s t r a i n t i n a f r i e n d l y and pleasant environment". The results of these studies indicate that boys behave i n a more aggressive or impulsive manner than g i r l s , while g i r l s 1 behavior i s conforming and 'conscience' dominated. I t also appears that boys value impulsive behavior and f e e l free to behave i n this way. These findings are consistent even though the studies vary i n regard to the age l e v e l investigated. Consequently, i t seems f a i r to assume that these differences are stable throughout a l i f e t i m e and w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the results of the Picture T i t l e s Test. Age Differences The explanation f o r age group differences l i e s i n the psychoanalytic theory that the impulse, ego and superego strengths vary from one age l e v e l to another because they are i n t e r a c t i n g forces which s h i f t and change as the i n d i v i d u a l matures i n accordance with a developmental pattern. These flucuations continue throughout a l i f e t i m e , although the great-est changes take place during childhood, becoming gradually less as the i n d i v i d u a l gets older. According to theory, the superego and ego are deriva-t i v e s of the Id (impulses) and as the c h i l d matures the ego -43-and superego develop and g a i n i n s t r e n g t h . During the o r a l , a n a l , p h a l l i c and o e d i p a l phases of development, which are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the p a r t s of the body which provide i n s t i n c t -u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and the types o f . r e l a t i o n s to o b j e c t s , the c h i l d i s dominated by r e l a t i v e l y u n c o n t r o l l e d impulses. The p a s s i n g of the Oedipal p e r i o d , however, marks the end of i n f a n t i l e s e x u a l i t y and the establishment of the superego. I n a b s o l v i n g the Oedipal complex, the c h i l d "who i s f r u s t r a t e d i n h i s attempts to a t t a i n h i s love o b j e c t , r e s o r t s to incOrpor--a t i o n w i t h i n h i m s e l f of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i s s u c c e s s f u l competitor" (Freud, 1924). Thus, the c h i l d "borrows" ego s t r e n g t h from the l i k e - s e x e d parent as w e l l as a c t u a l l y i n t r o j e c t i n g the superego of the parent. The i n f l u e n c e of t h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s f i r s t seen during the l a t e n c y p e r i o d , and according to the l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " d o c i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y " , i n d i c a t i n g that there has been addecline i n the overt s t r e n g t h of the impulses and an increase i n ego and superego s t r e n g t h . I n adolescence, on the other hand, there i s a b i o l o g i c a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of sexual impulses. T h i s f o r c e s the superego to increase i n strength to handle the new impulse strength w h i l e the ego t r i e s "to adopt the impulse and superego trends to r e a l i t y standards". This s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the c o n f l i c t and s t r e s s that so o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e s adolescence. In adulthood, the ego triumphs as the ego i s now- able to i n t e g r a t e the impulse and superego f o r c e s , and mature s e x u a l i t y i s achieved. _44-The reaching of adulthood does not mean that the p a t t e r n of superego and impulse i n t e r a c t i o n becomes s t a t i c . I t appears t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age, the impulses tend to d e c l i n e i n st r e n g t h , f r e e i n g the superego, and the ego becomes stronger. Evidence f o r t h i s p a t t e r n i s found i n a number of studies reviewed by Rernpel ( 1 9 6 2 ) . In comparison w i t h younger age groups, the ol d e r people i n these s t u d i e s were more m o r a l i s t i c and i n h i b i t e d , l e s s concerned w i t h sexual expression, l e s s a ggressive, more consci e n t i o u s and obedient to a u t h o r i t y , more c r i t i c a l of immoral or a n t i - s o c i a l behavior, more d e f i n i t e about r i g h t and wrong, and b e t t e r able to c o n t r o l impulses. The trend then from adolescence on seems to be toward f e m i n i n i t y . T h i s i s supported by Terman and M i l e s ( 1 9 3 6 ) who found that males and females become more a l i k e as they grow o l d e r , males becoming more feminine a f t e r the eleventh grade and females becoming more feminine a f t e r the second year i n c o l l e g e . Both sexes become more masculine u n t i l they have reached these school years. Although males and females do become more s i m i l a r w i t h age, they never become even n e a r l y a l i k e a t any p e r i o d of l i f e . Proposals concerning the s p e c i f i c course of impulse, ego, and superego development were supported by Charnes r e s u l t s (1953). The t e s t as a whole was found to d i s c r i m i n a t e between a d u l t s and adolescents and l a t e n t s and adolescents. The m a j o r i t y of d i f f e r e n c e s between these groups were found to occur i n the impulse area. I t was concluded that the impulse -45-v a r i a b l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between groups the best, the a d u l t s and l a t e n t s handling t h e i r impulses s i m i l a r l y while the impulse behavior or the adolescents i s i n most cases d i f f e r e n t . Impulse expression, however, was not d l r e c t i o n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t f o r each age group from t e s t to t e s t . Por example, the s t r e n g t h of adolescent impulse expression v a r i e d higher, lower, or even equal to that of a d u l t s and l a t e n t expression, i n d i c a t -i n g that the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i s important. In c o n t r a s t to the v a r i a b l e impulse, the superego show-ed a p a t t e r n of development that was c o n s i s t e n t i n the d i f -f e r e n t t e s t s i t u a t i o n s . The p a t t e r n of development or change c o n s i s t e d of strong superego c o n t r o l In l a t e n c y , a l o s s i n adolescence, and a r e t u r n to the c o n t r o l of latency i n adulthood. The course of ego change among the three groups a l s o v a r i e d i n the d i f f e r e n t t e s t s i t u a t i o n . The P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test was the only s i t u a t i o n where a c q u i s i t i o n was l i n e a r as p r e d i c t e d . Regardless of the s i t u a t i o n , however, ego strength was found to g r e a t e s t i n adulthood perhaps because ego responses repla c e "the f r e e f l o a t i n g , unintegrated impulses that are discharged during latency and adolescence are brought under b e t t e r c o n t r o l i n adulthood". B r i e f l y , the development f o r each v a r i a b l e on the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test w i l l be summarized. According to Charnes' r e s u l t s , impulse expression increased s l i g h t l y from l a t e n c y through adolescence and then decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a d u l t -hood. On the other hand, ego strength appeared to be weak i n l a t e n c y , growing r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d l y u n t i l a peak was reached i n adulthood. Superego strength appeared to decrease w i t h age, dropping s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n adolescence and r e g a i n i n g strength i n -46-adulthood almost equivalent to that of latency. On the whole, the years from the beginning of adolescence to adulthood were characterized by significant increases in ego and superego strength and a decrease i n impulse expression. The study of Ritz (1954) of the aged is not particularly relevant here since the behavior of his subjects is considered a "result of physiological deterioration of the brain cells and not as a natural process of experience i n learning and li v i n g " (Rempel, 1962, p. 80). It is significant to note, however, that there is a major alteration in the impulse, ego, and superego pattern and that a decrease i n ego strength is accompanied by an increase in impulse and/or superego pressure, findings which support psychoanalytic theory. The preceding review of the literature on age differences w i l l be found between the youngest and oMest groups and also between the males and females in the present study. If the behavior of the age groups i n this study i s in accord with the psychoanalytic literature and Charnes' results, the eighteen and nineteen year olds should be characterized by impulsive behavior which the f a i r l y strong superego is unable to control because the ego i s relatively weak and can not integrate the impulse and superego forces. The twenty-one year olds, on the other hand, should be characterized by reality-oriented behavior as there is a decrease in impulse strength and an increase in superego and ego strength in adulthood. With a strong ego this group would be able to integrate and control both the superego and impulse forces -47-and express them r e a l i s t i c a l l y . I t i s assumed here that the eighteen and nineteen year olds of the present study w i l l behave more l i k e adolescents and the twenty-one year olds more l i k e adults. There are two implicationsconcerning differences between the sexes. The f i r s t of these has to do with the fact that females mature fas t e r both physiologic-a l l y and psychologically than males. I t i s reasonable to believe then that females i n t h i s study w i l l show r e l a t i v e l y weaker impulses than males and stronger egos "able to integrate the impulses and superego forces according to r e a l i t y standards at an e a r l i e r age". A second p r e d i c t i o n i s implied by the fin d i n g that males and females become more a l i k e with age. The o r e t i c a l l y the males and females i n the older age groups In t h i s study should be more a l i k e than those i n the younger age groups although differences w i l l be expected within a l l age groups. -48-CHAPTER VI HYPOTHESES The hypotheses are based primarily on the theory and re s u l t s reviewed i n Chapter V. In thi s chapter, the pertinent material w i l l be summarized. The hypotheses dealing with sex differences w i l l be given f i r s t , followed by hypotheses on age differences. Sex Differences Studies have consistently found that males exhibit more impulsive behavior than females. These findings are i n agreement with both psychoanalytic theory and the s o c i a l -o g l c a l view. Freud stated that as a consequence of the cas t r a t i o n complex, the g i r l l i m i t s her sexual expression and also becomes more passive. According to s o c i o l o g i s t s , i n d i v i d u a l s conform to the behavior patterns set by society, and society tends to allow the male to behave more impulsively than the female. In view of the above, the following predictions can be made with a considerable degree of confidence: 1 . The males w i l l make more impulse responses than the females of the same age. 2. The females w i l l make fewer impulse responses than the males of the same age^. In adulthood,according to the psychoanalytic l i t e r a t u r e and Charnes* results ( 1 9 5 3 ) , the ego i s stronger than during latency or adolescence. The strength of the ego i s r e f l e c t e d -49-i n the r e a l i t y - o r i e n t e d behavior of adults. Knowing that females mature fas t e r than males, females would be expected to behave i n a more "adult" fashion than males of the same age. I t may also be that since society i s quite e x p l i c i t about the kinds of behavior i t i s permissible for a g i r l to express and c r i t i c a l of deviations, the g i r l i s forced to develop .a strong' ego e a r l i e r than boys to insure "correct" behavior. Studies of adolescents have found that the behavior of g i r l s i s more controlled than that of boys. It i s predicted then that: 3. The females w i l l make more ego responses than the males of the same age. 4. • The males w i l l make fewer ego responses than the females of the same age. Apparently g i r l s behave i n accordance with society's expectation that they 'be good' ,and suppress t h e i r impulses as the studies found that females are less aggressive, more sexually i n h i b i t e d and conform more to the mores of society than boys. These differences should be p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n th i s study since the subjects are approaching adulthood. Charnes (1953) found that a f t e r adolescence, the superego returns to the greater strength of adulthood. And, since females mature more rapidly than males and, thus, w i l l have passed through adolescence at an e a r l i e r age than males, i t i s expected that females w i l l have stronger superegos than males of the same age. I t i s , therefore, hypothesized -50-again with a considerable degree of confidence that: 5. The females w i l l make more superego responses than the males of the same age. 6. The males w i l l make fewer superego responses than the females of the same age. Age Differences The predictions from theory for each age have been supported by the behavior observed at the d i f f e r e n t age lev e l s and by most of Charnes' results ( 1 9 5 3 ) . Because of the lim i t e d age range i n t h i s study, the hypotheses set up f o r age differences w i l l concern only two groups: eighteen and nineteen year olds and twenty-one year olds. Differences between the eighteen and nineteen year olds and the twenty year olds or the twenty year olds and the twenty-one year olds would not be expected because the age differences are so small. Although the twenty-two year olds are included i n the analyses, there are too few twenty-two year old females to use t h i s age group i n setting up the hypotheses. The eighteen and nineteen year olds are expected to behave more l i k e Charnes' adolescent group than the twenty-one year olds because they are nearer to adolescence. The txventy-one year olds are expected to behave more l i k e Charnes' adults than the eighteen and nineteen year olds because they are closer to adulthood. Adolescence i s known as a period of strong sexual urges due to physical maturation. Charnes f e l t that this "surge of sexual impulse" would be r e f l e c t e d i n high impulse -51-scores f o r the adolescents. His r e s u l t s f o r the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test confirmed t h i s p r e d i c t i o n as the adolescents had the highest and the a d u l t s the lowest mean impulse scores. Impulse expression has a l s o been found i n other studies to decrease w i t h age. Therefore, hypotheses seven and eigh t w i l l be: 7. The eighteen and nineteen year olds w i l l make more impulse responses than the twenty-one year o l d s . 8. The twenty-one year olds w i l l make fewer impulse responses than the eighteen and nineteen year, o l d s . Charnes has quoted Spiegel's statement that "the ego, subjected to the increased i n s t i n c t u a l d r i v e of adolescence, ;knows only one wish: To r e g a i n the e q u i l i b r i u m of the l a t e n c y p e r i o d " . The IES Test as a s i n g l e s c a l e supported t h i s statement as the l a t e n t s and a d u l t s behaved s i m i l a r l y and had comparatively high ego scores. The r e s u l t s f o r the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test c o n t r a d i c t e d these o v e r a l l r e s u l t s as w e l l as the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The l a t e n t s had the lowest score, the adolescents the second lowest and the a d u l t s the h i g h e s t . Regardless of the t e s t s i t u a t i o n , however, the •adults c o n s i s t e n t l y had higher mean ego scores than the adolescents. Therefore, the f o l l o w i n g p r e d i c t i o n s , can be made: -52-9. The twenty-one y e a r o l d s w i l l make more ego responses t h a n the e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d s . 10. The e i g h t e e n and -nineteen year, o l d s w i l l make fewer ego responses t h a n the twenty-one year ' ". o l d s . On the IES T e s t as a whole, Charnes found t h a t t h e r e was a l o s s o f superego c o n t r o l i n a d o l e s c e n c e and a r e t u r n I n a d u l t h o o d t o . t h e superego c o n t r o l o f l a t e n c y . S i m i l a r l y , on the P i c t u r e T i t l e s T e s t the a d o l e s c e n t s had the l o w e s t mean superego s c o r e w h i l e the a d u l t s ' superego mean s c o r e was j u s t s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n the l a t e n t s ' s c o r e . I t has a l s o been found t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age, a f t e r a d o l e s c e n c e , p e o p l e become more m o r a l i s t i c . Hypotheses e l e v e n and t w e l v e t h e n w i l l be: 11. The twenty-one y e a r o l d s w i l l make more superego responses t h a n the e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d s . 12. The e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d s w i l l make fewer superego r e s p o n s e s t h a n the twenty-one y e a r o l d s . The above hypotheses a r e f o r b o t h male and female age gr o u p s . Charnes (1953) r e s u l t s were based on a male sample o n l y b u t i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e y a r e a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o females s i n c e s u p p o r t comes from o t h e r s o u r c e s as w e l l . - 5 3 -A good deal of support i s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r the hypothesized sex d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as f o r the s t a b i l i t y of these d i f f e r e n c e s throughout a l i f e t i m e . Consequently, these hypotheses should be confirmed by the P i c t u r e . T i t l e s Test r e s u l t s . The author i s not as confident about the c o n f i r m a t i o n of the age differences-hypotheses. There i s only one year d i f f e r e n c e I n age between the groups compared which may not be a long enough p e r i o d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t changes to take place i n impulse, ego and superego f u n c t i o n -i n g . A l s o , there i s a shortage of l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to age group d i f f e r e n c e s . -54-CHAPTER V I I METHOD S u b j e c t s Male and female u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n a second y e a r p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s s e r v e d as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r group was chosen because t h e y were r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and because l i m i t e d knowledge about p s y c h o l o g y was c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . I t was assumed t h a t second y e a r p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s would s t i l l be n a i v e enough about p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y and i n p a r t i c u l a r about p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t r a t i o n a l e so t h a t the r e s u l t s would n o t be c o n t a m i n a t e d by t h i s f a c t o r . The f i n a l sample c o n s i s t e d o f one-hundred and f o r t y -n i n e males and n i n e t y f e m a l e s , r a n g i n g i n age from e i g h t e e n t o twenty-two. These s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y a p o r t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l l a r g e r sample because the broad age range made i t n e c e s s a r y to e l i m i n a t e a number of s u b j e c t s , age b e i n g a v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y . The sample chosen f o r s t a t i s t i -c a l a n a l y s e s was composed of t w e n t y - n i n e e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d males, f o r t y twenty y e a r o l d males, f o r t y twenty-one y e a r o l d males, t w e n t y - e i g h t twenty-two y e a r o l d males, f o r t y - f o u r e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d f e m a l e s , t w e n t y - t h r e e twenty y e a r o l d f e m a l e s , e i g h t e e n twenty-one y e a r o l d f e m a l e s , and f i v e twenty-two y e a r o l d f e m a l e s . S i n c e the number of s u b j e c t s i n the e i g h t e e n y e a r o l d male group and i n the e i g h t e e n y e a r o l d female group was so s m a l l and s i n c e the m a j o r i t y o f e i g h t e e n y e a r o l d s - 5 5 -were at least eighteen and a h a l f , this age group was combined with the nineteen year olds for s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. Actually l i t t l e was known about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample, I t can probably be assumed that they were f a i r l y heterogeneous inma-n.iy respects such as s o c i a l class, n a t i o n a l i t y and so f o r t h , but i s also seems plausible that as college students they were i n some ways si m i l a r . In other words, i t i s very l i k e l y that i n cer t a i n areas — attitudes, educational interests and so fort h — college students can be distinguished from non-college students. I f t h i s i s the case, conclusions based on these data w i l l not necessarily hold f o r the t o t a l population of this age group. TABLE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Age of Research Sample Age Male Female Total 18 & 19 29 44 73 20 40 23 63 21 40 18 58 22 28 5 33 137 90 227 Materials Materials necessary for administration of the test included mineographed answer sheets, slides of the twelve te s t pictures and a projector and screen. The o r i g i n a l pictures of Dombrose and Slobin's i n d i v i d u a l l y administered Picture T i t l e s Test had been previously made into s l i d e s f o r group administration. - 5 6 -Administration Once seated the subjects were t o l d to turn over the answer sheets which had been placed face down on t h e i r desks beforehand which hopefully eliminated discussion of the t i t l e s . The experimenter then read aloud the i n s t r u c t -ions printed on the answer sheet (see Appendix A). To avoid misunderstanding, the instructions were repeated, and the fact that there were two sets of t i t l e s for each s l i d e was emphasized. Each s l i d e was then projected onto a screen at the front of the class for one minute and each subject checked o f f his responses on the mineographed sheet. S t a t i s t i c a l Procedure The Chi-square test w i l l be used to compare the pattern of response of males and females on each s l i d e , to compare the four age groups within each sex on each s l i d e and to investigate the pattern of response to each s l i d e f o r each age group within each sex. The t-t e s t w i l l be used to compare males and females on the impulse, ego, superego and defense variables i n d i v i d u a l l y on the test as a whole and to compare each age group with every other age group within sex on each variable for the test as a whole. The Chi-square i s a v e r s a t i l e test and most appropriate one for t h i s data. In contrast to measurement data, th i s data i s recorded In terms of the number of subjects who f a l l into each of the four categories. In other words, -57-the data i s expressed i n terms of c l a s s i f i e d frequencies, and the s t a t i s t i c commonly used i n this case i s the Chi-square. In addition, the variables measured are not con-sidered to be normally d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the population and the sample was not randomly drawn. Since these assumptions are not required f o r the use of the Chi-square, i t seems to be the l o g i c a l test to apply. Like any s t a t i s t i c a l method, there are c e r t a i n l i m i t -a t i o n s on the use of the Chi-square. An advantage of the Chi-square i s that i t i s not biased by the order of the variables. This i s an advantage, however, based on the assumption that the i n d i v i d u a l measures are independent of each other — that any one response i s not influenced or dependent upon another. This holds true f o r t h i s data since each observation was independent and choice of any one response automatically eliminated the other three. Secondly, there must be some basis for the way the data are categorized. In this case, the categories were previously established by Dombrose and Slobin (1951) on the basis of t h e i r test reationale and no further grouping was necessary. The requirement that not more than twenty aper cent of the expected frequencies should be less than f i v e did present a problem, however. Combining groups to increase the expected frequency was not possible because of age group differences. I t i s s t i l l f e l t that the Chi-square i s useful here since not a l l of the frequencies for the i n d i v i d u a l -58-pictures f a i l e d to f u l f i l t h i s requirement and also since none of the conclusions concerning the hypotheses w i l l be d i r e c t l y based upon the Chi-square r e s u l t s . The formula used for c a l c u l a t i n g the Chi-square was taken from Underwood, Duncan, Taylor, and Cotton (1954, P.204). ( 0 - E ) 2 E observed frequency the corresponding expected frequency. When test i n g for significance between groups, the expected frequency i s computed by multiplying the marginal t o t a l f or any column by the marginal t o t a l f o r any row and d i v i d i n g the product by the t o t a l N. I t i s reasoned that i f the true frequencies are the same fo r both samples, then combining the two samples should give a better estimate of the true frequencies. Computation of the expected frequencies i s d i f f e r e n t , however, when used to determine s i g n i f i c a n t differences between categories for one group such as the tests for response bias. Here the expected frequencies are calculated by summing up the frequencies f o r ego, impulse, superego and defense and di v i d i n g by four. I t i s expected that the r e l a t i v e frequencies w i l l be due to chance and roughly one fourth of the sum of a l l four variables unless some factor i s operating to cause bias. where: 0 = E = -59-A correction f o r continuity i s often made to improve the approximation of the true p r o b a b i l i t i e s . Edxvards (1958, p 155), however, does not recommend i t s use when the degree of freedom i s larger than one. On his authority, the correct-ion for continuity was not used i n the present study because the degree of freedom f o r each of the s t a t i s t i c a l tests i s larger than one. Although the Chi-square was considered appropriate to use with the data, the t - t e s t was also used because the Chi-square just deals with differences among the four varia b l e s . On the other hand, the t- t e s t can be applied to the i n d i v i d u a l variables and i s d i r e c t l y applicable to the hypotheses. The question does aris e concerning the propriety of using the t - t e s t when the variables measured are not normally d i s t r i b u t e d i n the population. But Hays (1963, p. 321) states " i n p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n t h i s assumption i s sometimes vio l a t e d with rather small effect on the conclusions... So long as the sample size i s even moderate for each group quite severe departures from normality seem to make l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l difference i n conclusions reached." Regardless of the reservations, the t- t e s t w i l l be used, and i t i s f e l t that conclusions based on the t- t e s t i n conjunction with the Chi-square test can be considered v a l i d . -60-Dixon and Massey's formula (195^, p. 119) was used f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of the t - t e s t . X = the mean of Sample 1 % = the mean of Sample 2 a-^ - the estimate of the population variance ' of the N observations i n Sample 1 £r\ - the estimate of the population variance of the N observations i n Sample 2. For a l l s t a t i s t i c a l t ests, one-tailed tests were used. Having predicted the d i r e c t i o n of the difference, the hypotheses s p e c i f i e d the t a i l of the d i s t r i b u t i o n , discounting the chance p r o b a b i l i t y of the other end. This means that the p r o b a b i l i t i e s are one-half the tabled values. For example, i f .05 i s the accepted l e v e l of confidence f o r the acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of a hypothesis, we look under the .10 column i n the table. A l l Chi-square and t-te s t r e s u l t s were considered s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e per cent l e v e l of confidence or beyond. Both s t a t i s t i c a l tests are expected to y i e l d at least some s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . As previously pointed out, Charnes (1953) and Golden (195*0 found the Picture T i t l e s Test p a r t i c u l a r l y sensitive to age and sex differences. On the t - (%1 - X2) Where: - 6 1 -other hand, the sample used i n t h i s study i s comparatively more homogeneous at l e a s t i n regard to age l e v e l and probably i n other respects, and the number of possible responses has been reduced from an i n f i n i t e number to four. Consequently, great differences between groups p a r t i c u l a r l y age groups w i l l not be expected. The s t a t i s t i c a l tables used i n t h i s study are from Fisher and Yates ( 1 9 5 3 ) and Underwood, Duncan, et a l ( 1 9 5 4 ) . CHAPTER V I I I RESULTS AND DISCUSSION T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l "be concerned w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the h y p o t h e s e s . The f i r s t p a r t o f the c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n response t o th e P i c t u r e T i t l e s T e s t . S e c o n d l y , age d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . Sanderson ( 1 9 6 4 ) found t h a t the responses o f h e r s u b j e c t s were b i a s e d . The q u e s t i o n o f response b i a s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r . A l t h o u g h no p r e d i c t i o n s w e r e made f o r the defense s c o r e s , t h e s e r e s u l t s w i l l be I n c l u d e d . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Response t o the P i c t u r e s S i n c e the s t r e n g t h s o f t h e i m p u l s e , ego and superego ar e e x p e c t e d t o v a r y w i t h age and s i n c e males a r e e x p e c t e d t o become more f e m i n i n e w i t h age, the males and females were compared by age group. The e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d males were compared w i t h the e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d f e m a l e s ; the twenty year o l d males were compared w i t h t h e twenty year o l d f e m a l e s ; t h e twenty-one y e a r o l d males were compared w i t h t h e twenty-one y e a r o l d f e m a l e s . These comparisons were made on each v a r i a b l e f o r the t e s t as a whole by means o f the t t e s t and f o r the p a t t e r n o f res p o n s e s f o r each b l o c k by means o f the C h i - s q u a r e t e s t . The t t e s t r e s u l t s a r e shown I n T a b l e 2, and t h e C h i - s q u a r e t e s t r e s u l t s a r e shown I n Table 3. - 6 3 -TABLE 2 A COMPARISON OP MALE AND FEMALE RESPONSES TO THE VARIABLES Eighteen and Nineteen Year Olds V a r i a b l e s Impulse Ego Superego Defense Females Mean 7. oo 7 . 9 1 7 . 0 0 2 . 0 9 Standard D e v i a t i o n 2 . 5 1 2 . 7 9 2 . 2 9 1 . 5 6 Males Mean Standard ,.t D e v i a t i o n Test 7 1 6 6 7 . 7 6 5 . 7 6 2 . 8 3 2 . 6 2 2 . 9 9 2 . 3 6 1 .^6 1 . 0 7 . 2 2 2 . 2 2 . 2 0 .14 .41 .01 .42 Twenty Year Olds Females Males V a r i a b l e s Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n t Test P Impulse 6 . 6 1 1 . 8 8 7 . 6 2 2.46 1 . 8 3 . 0 3 Ego 8 . 7 4 2 . 6 7 7 . 1 0 2 . 8 0 2 . 3 1 . 0 1 Superego 5 . 5 6 2 . 2 6 6 . 5 0 2.14 1 . 6 2 . 0 5 2 Defense 3 . 0 9 1 . 7 9 2 . 7 8 1 . 9 5 .64 . 2 6 Twenty-one Year Olds Females Males V a r i a b l e s • Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n t Test p Impulse 7 . 9 4 2 . 7 8 7 . 3 2 2 . 8 6 . 7 8 . 2 2 Ego 7 . 1 7 2 . 1 6 6 . 3 0 2.40 1 . 3 6 . 0 9 Superego 5 . 6 1 2 . 2 6 7 . 6 5 3 . 3 0 2 . 7 4 . 0 0 3 Defense 3.28 2.64 2 . 7 2 2.14 . 7 9 . 2 1 - 6 4 TABLE -3' A COMPARISON OF THE MALE AND FEMALE RESPONSES TO THE PICTURES Eighteen and Nineteen Year Olds  P i c t u r e Subjects Block A Block B  I E S D P I E S D P 1 Male Female 6 9 12 7 4 9 7 19 6.56 .05 19 22 8 17 1 4 1 1 2.29 .35 2 Male Female 16 23 0 2 8 17 5 2 4.91 .10 4 16 10 7 14 19 1 2 5.99 .10 3 Male Female 18 23 6 10 5 10 0 1 1.38 .40 6 3 9 21 2 5 12 15 8.77 .025 4 Male Female 1 1 14 29 9 14 5 0 8.58 .025 2 2 13 23 11 18 3 l 2.43 .25 5 Male Female 5 18 14 15 10 10 0 1 5.68 .10 0 0 17 22 8 18 4 4 1.47 .35 6 Male Female 19 28 1 5 4 6 5 5 1.78 .35 0 0 11 21 4 16 14 7 10.00 .01 7 Male Female 5 10 1 5 22 28 l l 1.89 .35 14 16 1 9 7 16 7 3 8.94 .025 8 Male Female 14 13 10 25 4 6 i 0 4.97 .10 8 18 15 21 1 3 5 2 4.22 .15 9 Male Female 8 7 11 21 7 11 3 5 1.56 .35 27 38 2 5 0 1 0 0 1.12 .40 10 Male Female 11 9 8 6 6 22 4 7 7.69 .05 6 6 12 16 10 18 1 4 1.63 .35 11 Male Female 7 10 7 10 13 23 2 1 1.15 .40 5 4 19 25 5 15 0 0 2.96 .25 - 6 . 5 -T A B L E 3 (Continued) Picture Subjects Block A Block B  X 2 " P I E S D TC^ P 7 17 4 1 16 20 4 4 5 . 0 0 . 10 2 . 3 0 . 3 5 I E S D 12 Male 15 6 7 1 Female 15 7 14 8 TWENTY Y E A R OLDS Picture Subjects Block A Block B I E S D P I E S D 1 Males 8 9 6 17 22 12 6 0 Females 3 8 2 10 17 4 1 1 1 . 6 9 . 3 5 4 . 9 8 2 Males 22 1 12 5 6 9 23 2 Females 13 0 8 2 6 4 12 1 . 9 0 .45 1 .22 3 Males 15 9 12 4 7 16 2 15 Female 10 8 3 2 2 11 2 8 2 . 7 5 . 2 5 1 .35 4 Males 1 16 17 6 4 13 21 2 Females 0 9 10 4 0 11 11 1 . 6 5 . 4 5 2 . 8 7 5 Males 11 12 17 0 3 18 15 4 Females 3 11 7 2 0 10 10 3 6 . 6 6 . 0 5 2 . 2 1 6 Males 28 4 7 1 1 20 10 9 Females 18 0 1 4 0 13 4 6 8 . 4 9 .025 1.17 7 Males 15 2 21 2 18 1 15 6 Females 5, 5 10 3 10 1 9 3 6 . 2 2 .10 . 2 0 8 Males 10? 18 8 4 14 16 2 8 Females 6 15 a. 1 8 13 1 1 4 . 2 6 .15 ' 3.40 .25 -66-TABLE 3 (Continued) Picture Subjects Block A Block B I E s D X" P I E S D 9 Males Females 7 6 20 4 1 1 8 2 5 8 . 5 1 . 0 2 5 36 20 2 3 1 0 1 0 2 . 3 9 1 0 Males Females 1 8 8 7 6 9 7 6 2 1 . 7 0 . 3 5 7 3 20 14 12 3 1 3 4 . 8 3 1 1 Males Female s 1 1 5 7 9 18 8 1 5 . 0 5 . 1 0 10 2 26 17 2 2 2 2 2 . 8 3 12 Males Females 17 4 6 10 11 5 6 4 7 . 6 7 . 0 5 15 6 19 13 2 3 4 1 2 . 5 8 TWENTY-•ONE YEAR OLDS Picture Subjects . X E S D X" p I E s D 1 Males Females 7 3 1 1 6 13 2 9 7 3 . 5 4 . 2 5 2 3 13 6 1 9 3 2 1 1 . 5 4 2 Males Females 16 10 2 0 15 5 7 3 1 . 9 2 . 3 5 4 5 7 6 26 6 3 l 6 . 2 5 3 Males F e m a l e s 2 3 " 12 8 3 6 0 3 3 3 . 9 4 . 1 5 6 3 15 8 3 0 16 7 1 . 5 3 4 Males Females 3 0 11 9 20 6 6 3 3 . 9 6 . 1 5 4 1 1 1 4 22 10 3 3 1 . 4 3 5 Males Females 6 2 16 8 17 8 1 0 . 6 5 . 4 5 0 0 16 8 22 8 2 2 1 . 0 0 - 6 7 -TABLE 3 (Continued) Picture Subjects Block A Block B I E s D X" P I E S D 6 Males Females 2 0 12 7 2 9 2 4 2 1 . 7 9 . 3 5 l 0 16 9 8 3 15 6 . 8 7 7 Males Females 13 8 5 0 20 8 2 2 3 . 4 9 . 2 5 20 8 1 3 14 5 5 2 7 . 3 9 8 Males Females 1 1 4 18 8 9 5 2 1 . 2 7 . 4 9 17 7 13 8 4 0 6 3 2 . 3 6 9 Males Females 9 4 18 5 l l 8 2 1 2 . 0 2 . 3 5 3 9 17 0 0 0 0 1 1 . 3 4 1 0 Males Females 15 7 7 5 15 3 3 3 3 . 3 9 . 2 5 10 5 12 10 16 2 2 1 5 . 4 6 1 1 Males Females 9 3 3 5 24 7 4 3 5 . 4 0 . 1 0 5 4 26 10 7 4 2 0 1 . 9 8 1 2 Males Females 16 4 6 4 1 1 6 7 4 1 . 8 0 . 3 5 15 10 18 8 5 0 2 0 4 . 0 9 -68-Examination of the t - t e s t r e s u l t s i n Table 2 i n d i c a t e s t h a t hypotheses one and two s t a t i n g t h a t males w i l l make more impulse responses than females have been supported f o r the twenty year o l d groups but not f o r the eighteen and nineteen and twenty-one year o l d groups. Hie eighteen and nineteen year o l d males d i d give more impulse responses than the eighteen and nineteen year o l d females, but the d i f f e r e n c e i n mean scores i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . The d i f f e r e n c e i n mean scores f o r the twenty-one year olds i s n e i t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t nor i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . According to the t - t e s t r e s u l t s , hypotheses three and four s t a t i n g that females w i l l make more ego responses than males have been supported again f o r the twenty year o l d groups but not f o r the eighteen and nineteen and twenty-one year o l d groups. A l l the r e s u l t s are i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , however, and the t-value f o r the twenty-one year olds comes clo s e to being s i g n i f i c a n t . Hypotheses f i v e and s i x s t a t i n g that females w i l l make more superego responses have been supported by the r e s u l t s f o r the eighteen and nineteen year olds but not f o r the twenty and the twenty-one year o l d groups. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of the twenty-one year o l d males and females but the d i r e c t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e i s contrary to p r e d i c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n means f o r the twenty year olds i s almost s i g n i f i c a n t , P-.052, but again i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n . -69-There are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the defense score s . A summary t a b l e of the p r e d i c t e d and obtained r e s u l t s i s presented below. TABLE k COMPARISON OP EXPECTED AND OBTAINED RANK ORDER OP SEX GROUP Expected E High Low Males Females Females Males Females Males Eighteen and Nineteen Year Olds Obtained I E High Low Males Females Females Males Females Males Obtained Tx\renty Year Olds I E High Low-Males Females Females Males Males Females Obtained Twenty-One Year Olds I E High Low Females Males Females Males Males Females - 7 0 -According to the t - t e s t r e s u l t s which were s i g n i f i c a n t : 1. The twenty year o l d females make fewer impulse responses than the twenty year o l d males. 2. The eighteen and nineteen year o l d females make more superego responses than the eighteen and nineteen year o l d males. 3. The twenty-one year o l d females make fewer superego responses than the txventy-cne year o l d males. 4. The twenty year o l d females make more ego responses than the twenty year o l d males. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found by means of the t - t e s t are supported by the Chi-square r e s u l t s . Por the eighteen and nineteen year o l d s , there i s one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e beyond the .01 l e v e l and there are f i v e s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e s beyond the .05 l e v e l . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are on Block 1-A, Block 3-B, Block 4-A, Block 6-B, Block 7-B and Block 10-A. For the twenty year o l d s , there are four s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s beyond the .05 l e v e l on Block 5-A, Block 6-A, Block 9-A, and Block 12-A. There are two Chi-squares s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l f o r the twenty-one year o l d s . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are on Block 2-B, and Block 7-B. Furthermore, as no one s l i d e or block has c o n s i s t e n t l y high Chi-square values or c o n s i s t e n t l y low Chi-square values f o r the three age groups, i t i s con-cluded that no one s l i d e or block d i s t i n g u i s h e s the sexes any b e t t e r than any other. - 7 1 -Discussion The Picture T i t l e s Test discriminated f a i r l y well between the males and females p a r t i c u l a r l y between the twenty year old male and females. On the whole, out of a t o t a l of nine possible d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s on the impulse, ego and superego variables there were four s i g n i f i c a n t differences and two which came close to significance at the . 0 5 l e v e l . There were twelve s i g n i f i c a n t Chi-squares which were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the . 1 0 l e v e l . Considering that the males and females compared i n t h i s study were the same age and were probably f a i r l y homogeneous i n regard to education and perhaps i n regard to attitudes, future goals and so f o r t h , i t i s f e l t that the results are as good as could be expected. In addition, the implication that males and females become more a l i k e as they get older (Terman and Miles, 1 9 3 & ) precludes the p o s s i b i l i t y of obtaining large sex differences with these older groups. Therefore, i t i s concluded that the Picture T i t l e s Test obje c t i v e l y scored i s an adequate discriminator. In regard to the predictions, out of nine for the three age groups on the impulse, ego and superego variables, three mean differences are i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n . And, one of these three i s s i g n i f i c a n t . These results indicate that either the test i s not measuring e n t i r e l y adequately what i t i s supposed to measure or else the l i t e r a t u r e upon which the predictions are based i s incorrect or both. . -72-P i r s t of a l l , examination of the sex group rankings f o r each of the three age groups indicates that the eighteen and nineteen year olds behave In accordance with the predictions, the twenty year olds behave i n accordance with the predictions with exception of the superego scores, while the twenty-one year olds behave only i n accordance with expectation on the ego v a r i a b l e . In other words, i t appears that from eighteen and nineteen to twenty-one there i s a major a l t e r a t i o n i n the functioning of the impulses and superego, and the twenty year olds seem to be 'caught i n the middle' of t h i s change. A noticeable feature of the results i s the s i g n i f i -cantly higher superego score for the twenty-one year old females. Rempel, Signori, et a l (1964) suggested that females may not i n fact have stronger superegos than males but may just appear to have since t h e i r strong egos control t h e i r behavior so well that the impression i s one of superego contr o l . This explanation does not f u l l y hold here as the eighteen and nineteen year old females have stronger superegos than the eighteen and nineteen year old males. I t may be, however, that as the ego gains strength the superego strength i s reduced and the superego function-ing taken over by the ego. Since g i r l s mature faster than boys, these changes would occur e a r l i e r for g i r l s than boys. Consequently, g i r l s would have a stronger superego than boys u n t i l the female ego gained s u f f i c i e n t strength to 'usurp' -73-the superego which according to these results would occur about the age of twenty. It i s proposed that the finding that the twenty-one year old females have a. higher impulse score and a s i g n i f i -cantly lower superego score i s due rather to the attempt by females "on the edge of womanhood" to appear : Tsophisticated'. In the previous discussion of sex differences, i t was con-cluded by Bennet and Cohen (1959) that females are more environmentally-oriented, and i n a number of studies i t has been found that females conform more to society's expect-ations. These findings can perhaps be interpreted to mean that females are more concerned with the impression they make on others and with conforming to t h e i r peer group. Prom observation i t has been personally concluded that 'sophistication' i s a t r a i t valued among college g i r l s and that the r e s u l t i s acceptance of the more primitive s e l f , outwardly anyway, and almost an anti-moral attitude. I f t h i s theory i s true, i t i s not surprising that the females r e a d i l y express impulses on the Picture T i t l e s Test even more so than boys and shun the superego responses. This does not contradict the l i t e r a t u r e on sex differences as i t was never concluded that females are covertly less impulsive than males. Age Differences i n Response to the Pictures In order to test for age differences, every age group was compared with every other age group for both the -74-raales and the females. Since the age range i s so limited, hypotheses were set up predicting differences only between the eighteen and nineteen year old group and the twenty-one year old group. The results f o r a l l the age group compar-isons w i l l be included, however, since the inv e s t i g a t i o n of age trends i s considered important. The comparisons were made by means of the Chi-square test and the t - t e s t . The Chi-square test shows differences among the three variables, and the t-t e s t shows age differences on each variable i n d i v i d u a l l y . The t test results are given i n Table 5, and the Chi-square results are shown i n Table 6. - 7 5 -' TABLE 5 A COMPARISON OP AGE GROUPS ON EACH VARIABLE Female Age Groups Means and Standard Deviations Age Groups Impulse Ego- Superego Defense M SD M SD M SD M SD 18 & 19 7 . 0 0 2 . 5 1 7.91 2 . 7 9 7 . 0 0 2 . 2 9 2 . 0 9 1 . 5 6 20 6 . 6 1 1.88 8 . 7 4 2 . 6 7 5 . 5 6 2.26 3 . 0 9 1 . 7 9 2 1 7.94 2.78 7.17 2 . 1 6 5 . 6 1 2 . 2 6 3 . 2 8 2.64 2 2 7 . 0 0 2.97 5.80 1.94 8.80 3 . 7 6 2.40 1.02 t and P Values Age Groups Impulse Ego Superego Defense 18 & 19 - 20 t P t P t P t P . 7 2 . 2 4 1 . 1 9 .12 2.46 .007 2 . 2 7 .01 18 & 19 - 21 1.24 . 1 7 1.12 . 1 3 2 . 1 9 .01 1.79 .04 18 & 19 - 22 0 . 5 0 2 . 1 9 .01 3 . 3 1 .001 . 6 0 .28 20 - 21 1.74 .04 2.08 .02 .07 .47 . 2 6 .40 20 - 22 .28 .39 2.85 .002 5.87 . 0 0 1 . 1 7 .12 21 - 22 .63 . 2 6 4 . 3 1 . 0 0 0 5 . 7 2 . 0 0 1.14 . 1 3 - 7 6 -TABLE 5 (Continued) Age Groups Impulse Ego M SD M SD 18 & 19 7.66 2 . 6 2 7.76 2 . 9 9 20 7.62 2.46 7.10 2.80 21 7 . 3 2 2.86 6 . 3 0 2.40 22 7.14 1.86 7.14 2.84 Male Age Groups Means and Standard Deviations Superego - Defense M 5 . 7 6 6 . 5 0 7 . 6 5 6 . 8 6 SD •. • M SD 2 . 3 6 2 . 8 3 1 . 5 6 2.14 2 . 7 8 1 . 9 5 3 . 3 0 2 . 7 2 2.14 2 . 2 5 2 . 8 6 2.12 t and P Values Age Groups Impulse Ego Superego Defense t P t P t P t P 1 8 & 1 9 - 20 . 0 6 . 4 7 . 9 3 . 1 8 1 . 3 4 . 0 9 . 1 2 . 4 5 18 & 1 9 - 2 1 . 0 5 .48 2 . 1 6 . 0 2 2 . 7 8 . 0 0 3 . 2 5 .40 1 8 & 1 9 - 22 . 8 7 . 1 9 .80 . 2 1 1 . 8 0 .04 . 0 6 .48 2 0 - 2 1 . 5 0 .41 1 . 3 7 . 0 8 1.85 . 0 3 . 1 3 • . 4 5 2 0 - 22 • 92 .18 . 0 6 .48 . 6 6 .24 . 1 6 .44 2 1 - 20 . 3 1 . 3 8 1.28 . 1 0 1 . 1 7 . 1 2 . 2 7 . 3 9 -77-TABLE 6 A COMPARISON OP AGE GROUP RESPONSES TO EACH PICTURE Female Age Groups  Block A Block B Picture Age I E S D t I E s D t . 12 18&19 15 7 14 8 16 20 4 4 20 4 10 5 4 7.71 6 13 3 1 9.27 21 4 4 6 4 P=.35 10 8 0 0 P=.25 22 2 1 1 1 1 4 0 0 11 18&19 10 10 23 1 4 25 15 0 20 5 9 8 1 8.43 2 17 2 2 13.85 21 3 5 7 3 P=.l5 4' 10 4 0 p=.10 22 1 1 3 0 0 4 1 0 10 18&19 9 6 22 7 6 16 18 3 20 8. 6 7 2 12.39 3 14 3 3 . 14.78 21 7 5 3 3 p=.10 5 10 2 1 P=.05 22 3 0 2 0 0 1 3 1 9 18&19 7 21 11 5 38 5 1 0 20 6 4 8 5 11.82 20 3 0 0 7.78 21 4 5 8 i P=.15 17 0 0 1 P=.35 22 1 l 1 2 4 1 0 0 8 I8&19 13 25 6 0 18 21 3 2 20 6 15 1 1 7.56 8 13 1 1 21 4 8 1 P=.35 7 8 0 3 22 1 3 i 0 3 1 0 1 7 18&19 10 5 28 1 16 9 16 2 20 5 5 10 3 14.11 10 1 9 . 3 21 8 0 8 2 P=.10 8 3 5 2 22 3 0 2 0 2 1 2 0 6 18&19 28 5 6 5 0 21 16 7 20 18 0 1 4 6.71 0 13 4 21 12 2 2 2 p=.35 0 9 3 22 4 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 5 18&19 18 15 10 1 0 22 18 4 20 3 11 7 2 13.01 0 10 10 3 21 2 8 8 0 P=.10 0 8 8 2 22 2 1 2 0 0 1 3 1 4 18&19 1 29 14 0 2 23 18 1 20 0 9 10 4 13.39 0 11 11 1 21 0 9 6 3 P=.10 1 4 10 3 22 0 1 3 1 0 1 4 0 7.18 P=.35 4.54 P=.45 P^ T^ O 1.89 P=.50 H.7? P=.i5 -78-TABLE 6 (Continued) Female Age Groups B l o c k A B l o c k B P i c t u r e Age I •E s D 18&19 23 10 10 1 20 10 8 3 2 21 12 3 0 3 22 2 1 2 0 2 18&19 23 2 17 2 20 13 0 8 2 21 10 0 5 3 22 3 0 2 0 1 18&19 9 7 9 19 20 3 8 2 10 21 3 6 2 7 22 0 0 3 2 12.98 p=.10 5.46 p=.40 12.4? I E S D 13 21 5 15 2 11 2 8 3 8 0 7 0 2 1 2 16 7 19 2 6 4 12 1 5 6 6 1 0 0 5 0 22 17 4 1 17 4 1 1 13 1 3 1 3 1 1 0 t 4.69 P^745 2Al P=.25 11.02 P=.15 TABLE 6 (Continued) Male Age Groups Block A Block B Picture Age I E S D t E S D 1 18&19 6 12 4 7 19 8 1 1 20 8 9 6 17 14.71 22 12 6 0 21 7 11 13 9 P=.05 23 6 9 2 22 4 8 2 14 13 9 3 3 2 18&19 16 0 8 5 4 10 14' 1 20 22 1 12 5 9.45 6 9 23 2 21 16 2 15 7 P=.25 4 7 26 3 22 11 1 15 1 4 6 16 2 3 18&19 18 6 5 0 6 9 2 12 20 15 9 12 4 8.56 7 16 2 15 21 23 o 6 3 P=.25 6 15 3 16 22 17 4 5 2 8 9 1 10 4 18&19 1 14 9 5 2 13 11 3 20 1 16 17 1 9.37 ; 4 13 21 2 21 3 11 20 6 P=.25 4 11 22 3 22 0 13 14 1 2 9 15 2 5 18&19 5 14 10 0 0 17 8 4 20 l l 12 17 0 9.62 3 18 15 4 21 6 16 17 1 P=.25 0 16 22 2 22 3 12 11 2 1 14 10 3 6 18&19 19 1 4 5 0 11 4 14 20 28 4 7 l 10.80 1 20 10 9 21 20 7 9 4 P=.i5 1 16 8 15 22 16 5 3 4 1 8 10 9 7 18&19 5 l 22 1 14 1 7 7 20 15 2 21 2 13.22 18 1 15 6 21 13 5 20 2 p=.10 20 1 14 5 22 12 4 9 3 13 1 10 4 8 18&19 14 10 4 1 8 15 1 5 20 10 18 8 4 14.67 14 16 2 8 21 11 18 9 2 P=.05 17 13 4 6 22 3 20 4 1 8 15 3 2 9 18&19 8 11 7 3 27 2 0 0 20 7 20 11 2 5.26 26 2 1 1 21 9 18 11 2 P=.^5 39 0 0 1 22 5 13 10 0 23 2 1 2 12.58 p=.10 2.87 P=.49 1*2° PT47 11.26 P-.15 10.71 P=.15 4.88 1*11 P=.35 1^1 P=.25 - 8 0 -TABLE 6 (Continued) Male Age Groups Block A Block B Picture Age I E s D 1 0 18& 1 9 11 8 6 4 20 1 8 7 9 6 2 1 15 7 15 3 22 15 2 8 3 1 1 18& 1 9 7 7 13 2 20 11 7 1 8 4 2 1 9 3 2 4 4 22 6 13 5 1 2 18&19 15 6 7 1 20 17 6 1 1 6 2 1 16 6 1 1 7 22 9 5 1 1 3 P= . 3 5 6 . 1 0 I E S D t 6 12 10 1 17 20 12 1 4 . 4 8 10 12 16 2 p=.45 4 1 4 9 1 5 1 9 5 0 10 26 2 2 8 . 3 8 5 26 7 2 P= . 2 5 4 16 7 1 7 17 4 1 15 19 2 1 2 . 2 0 15 1 8 5 2 P= . 1 5 17 7 3 1 -81-H y p o t h e s e s s e v e n a n d e i g h t , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e e i g h t e e n a n d n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d s w i l l make more i m p u l s e r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e t w e n t y - o n e y e a r o l d s , a r e n o t s u p p o r t e d by t h e t - t e s t r e s u l t s . T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e m a l e s o r t h e f e m a l e s , a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e mean d i f -f e r e n c e i s n o t a s p r e d i c t e d f o r t h e f e m a l e s . H y p o t h e s e s n i n e a n d t e n , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e t w e n t y - o n e y e a r o l d s w i l l make more ego r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e e i g h t e e n a n d n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d s , a r e a l s o n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s . T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e i g h t e e n a n d n i n e t e e n a n d t w e n t y - o n e y e a r o l d m a l e g r o u p s , b u t i t i s i n t h e w r o n g d i r e c t i o n . 'The d i r e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e i s a l s o c o n t r a r y t o p r e d i c t i o n f o r t h e f e m a l e s . H y p o t h e s e s e l e v e n a n d t w e l v e , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e t w e n t y -one y e a r o l d s w i l l make more s u p e r e g o r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e e i g h t e a n d n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d s , a r e s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e m a l e s b u t n o t f o r t h e f e m a l e s . T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e e i g h t e e n a n d n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d a n d t w e n t y - o n e y e a r o l d f e m a l e s , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e w r o n g d i r e c t i o n . On t h e d e f e n s e v a r i a b l e , t h e r e i s a' s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e i g h t e e n a n d n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d f e m a l e s a n d t h e tx-jenty-one y e a r o l d f e m a l e s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean d e f e n s e s c o r e s o f t h e m a l e age g r o u p s i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . . -82-A sumary table of the predicted, and obtained results for age group comparisons i s given below. TABLE 7 COMPARISON OP EXPECTED AND OBTAINED RANK ORDER OP AGE GROUPS Expected I E S High- 18 & 1 9 yr. olds 2 1 yr. olds 2 1 yr. olds Low 2 1 yr. olds 18 & 19 yr. olds 18 & 19 yr. olds Males Obtained I E S High 18 & 19 yr. olds 18 & 19 yr. olds 2 1 yr. olds • Low 2 1 yr. olds 2 1 yr. olds 18 & 19 yr. olds Females Obtained I E S High 2 1 yr. olds 1 8 & 19 yr. olds 18 & 19 yr. olds Low 18 & 1 9 yr. olds 2 1 yr. olds 2 1 yr. olds The results that are s i g n i f l e a n t ' i n d i c a t e that: 1. The male eighteen and nineteen year olds make more ego responses than the male twenty-one year olds. 2 . The male twenty-one year olds make more superego responses than the male eighteen and nineteen year olds. 3. The female eighteen and nineteen year olds make more superego responses than the female twenty-one year olds. 4. The female twenty-one year olds make more defense responses than the female eighteen and nineteen year olds. -83-Corisidering the t - t e s t r e s u l t s for a l l the i n d i v i d u a l age group comparisons, there are four s i g n i f i c a n t differences f o r the males and twelve f o r the females. The majority of the s i g n i f i c a n t differences for the males are found on the superego variable, while the majority of the differences f o r females are found on the superego and ego variable. The rank order of the male age groups and the female age groups i s shown below. TABLE 8 OBTAINED RANK ORDER FOR ALL AGE GROUPS Male Age Groups I E S D High 18 & 1 9 18 & 1 9 21 22 20 22 22 18 & 19 21 20 20 20 Low 22 21 18 & 1 9 21 Female Age Groups I E S D High 21 20 22 21 18 & 19 & 22 18 & 19 18 & 1 9 20 21 21 22 Low 20 22 20 18 & 1 9 -84-Inspection of the Chi-square results shows that two blocks -- Block 1-A and Block 8-A — d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the male age groups i n t h e i r pattern of responses. Por the females, there i s only one s i g n i f i c a n t Chi-square, Block 10-A. Three s i g n i f i c a n t results out of a possible forty-eight could be expected by chance alone so apparently the i n d i v i d u a l blocks are not able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the four age groups. Discussion There were eight p o s s i b i l i t i e s for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the eighteen and nineteen year old and twenty-one year old groups of males and females on the four variables, and there were four s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Considering that was only one year difference i n age between the groups compared, the results tend to support the conclusion that the Picture T i t l e s Test i s a good discriminator. As f a r as the predictions are concerned, the test was not so successful. There were six p o s s i b i l i t i e s and four were i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n , and two of the three s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n . Examination of the eighteen and nineteen and twenty-one year old male comparisons reveals that the males behave as expected with the exception of the s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower twenty-one year old mean ego score. This i s d i f f i c u l t to explain as i t i s quite contrary to theory. It may be, however that the younger subjects are s t i l l unsure of themselves and tend to be more suspicious and guarded i n t h e i r responses -85-and a c t u a l l y hesitate to censure the values and behavior of others. With strong impulses, there should be a f a i r l y strong superego, but the superego scores of the eighteen and nine-teen year olds i s r e l a t i v e l y low so evidently ego responses are replacing superego responses. A rather s t r i k i n g feature of the results for the females i s the complete contradiction of the predictions. The eighteen and hiMeteen year olds have a lower mean impulse score, a higher mean ego score and a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean superego score than the twenty-one year olds. As i n the previous section, the results might be explained i n terms of the attempt by the twenty-one year olds to be 'sophisticated' so that they tend to choose impulse responses. Although the eighteen and nine-teen year olds do have a higher mean ego score than the twenty-one year olds, i t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher. It i s suggested here that although the younger females may also be unsure of themselves, unlike the boys, they are more cl o s e l y t i e d to the home and are influenced more by the moral standards of the home. Consequently,' t h e i r uncertainty i s manifested i n condemn-ati o n of behavior that i s opposed to the moral code of t h e i r parents. In contrast to the eighteen and nineteen year old females, the twenty-one year old females have been away from home longer and are possibly more independent and confident so that they 'exercise' t h e i r 'sophistocation' with a minimum of influence from the s o c i e t a l and/or parental moral code. -86-It i s also relevant that the female twenty-one year olds made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more defense responses than the eight-een and nineteen year old females. The defense response i s considered to be a derivative of the superego pressures. Perhaps many of the twenty-one year old g i r l s wishing to respond impulsively (to be 'sophisticated') were not quite able to overcome the superego pressures and, hence, gave a defensive response. The t- t e s t results for the comparisons of every age group with every other age group f o r each variable pose a d i f f i c u l t problem of int e r p r e t a t i o n . There are no d e f i n i t e trends apparent with the exception of the progressive decrease v/ith age of the impulse strength f o r males. The flucuations with age of the impulse, ego, and superego strength are p a r t i c -u l a r l y inconsistent for the females. Perhaps the explanation l i e s i n the varying i n d i v i d u a l rates of maturing and a f a i r l y rapid t r a n s i t i o n from adolescent to adult behavior at thi s age l e v e l . Por example, a r e l a t i v e l y fast maturing nineteen year old may be behaving i n an adult fashion while a r e l a t i v e l y slow maturing twenty year old may be behaving i n an adolescent manner. At any rate, i t appears that the major changes at t h i s age l e v e l take place i n the functioning of the superego i n males and i n the functioning of the ego and superego In females. -87-Response Bias Sanderson ( 1 9 6 4 ) found that the p i c t u r e s i n the P i c t u r e T i t l e s Test were biased. That i s , the p a t t e r n of response given by the subjects f o r each s l i d e , d i f f e r e d from what could be expected by chance, i n d i c a t i n g that the m a j o r i t y of the subjects were responding s i m i l a r l y . This problem was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the present study by a p p l y i n g the Chi-square t e s t to each block f o r each age group w i t h i n each sex. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 9. -88-TABLE 9 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR IMPULSE, EGO, SUPEREGO, AND DEFENSE .VARIABLES FOR MALES AND FEMALES Eighteen and Nineteen Year Olds Picture Block Males Females X 2 P x 2 P 1 A 4 . 8 0 .NS 7 . 9 9 .NS B 2 9 . 9 0 . 0 1 2 7 . 8 1 . 0 1 2 ' A 18 . 5 9 . 0 1 31.08 . 0 1 B 14 . 17 . 0 1 1 6 . 9 0 . 0 1 3 A 24 . 1 1 . 0 1 2 2 . 3 6 . 0 1 B 7 . 5 5 NS 1 9 . 6 3 . 0 1 4 A 1 2 . 7 9 . 0 1 5 0 . 3 6 . 0 1 B 1 2 . 7 9 . 0 1 3 3 . 9 9 . 0 1 5 A 1 5 . 2 7 . 0 1 1 5 . 0 8 . 0 1 3 2 1 . 9 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 9 0 . 0 1 6 A 2 6 . 5 9 . 0 1 3 5 . 0 8 . 0 1 B 1 6 . 9 3 .01 2 3 . 8 1 . 0 1 7 A 18 . 7 3 . 0 1 3 8 . 7 2 . 0 1 B I I . 6 9 . 0 1 1 0 . 7 2 . 0 5 8 A 14 . 17 . 0 1 3 1 . 4 5 - . 0 1 B 14 . 4 5 . 0 1 2 6 . 7 2 . 0 1 9 A 4 . 5 2 NS 1 3 . 8 1 . 0 1 B 7 2 . 1 0 . 0 1 8 9 . 6 3 . 0 1 1 0 A 3 . 7 0 NS 1 5 . 0 8 . 0 1 B 9 . 7 6 . 0 5 1 3 . 4 4 . 0 1 l l A 8 . 3 8 . 0 5 2 2 . 3 6 • . 0 1 B 2 7 . 6 9 . 0 1 3 4 . 7 2 . 0 1 1 2 A 1 3 . 9 0 . 0 1 4 . 5 4 NS B 1 9 . 9 7 . 0 1 1 8 . S3 . 0 1 - 8 9 -TABLE 9 (Continued) Twenty Year Olds cture Block Males Females X 2 P X 2 P 1 A 7 . 0 0 NS 7 . 7 8 NS B 26.40 . 0 1 3 0 . 3 8 . 0 1 2 A 25.40 . 0 1 1 8 . 2 1 . 0 1 B 2 5 . 0 0 . 0 1 1 1 . 2 5 . 0 5 3 A 6 . 6 0 NS 7 . 7 8 NS B 13.40 . 0 1 1 0 . 5 5 . 0 5 4 A 1 8 . 2 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 3 0 . 0 5 B 2 3 . 0 0 . 0 1 1 9 . 2 5 . 0 1 5 A 15.40 . 0 1 9 . 4 3 . 0 5 B 17.40 . 0 1 1 3 . 3 5 . 0 1 6 A 4 5 . 0 0 . 0 1 3 6 . 3 0 . 0 1 B • 18.20 . 0 1 1 5 . 4 3 . 0 1 7 A 27.40 . 0 1 4 . 6 6 NS B 1 8 . 6 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 2 2 . 0 5 8 A 10.40 . 0 5 2 2 . 7 3 . 0 1 B 1 2 . 0 0 . 0 1 1 7 . 8 6 - . 0 1 9 A 17.40 . 0 1 1 . 5 2 NS B 9 0 . 2 0 . 0 1 48.14 .01 1 0 A 9 . 0 0 . 0 5 4 . 2 1 NS B 19.40 . 0 1 1 5 . 8 0 . 0 1 1 1 A 1 1 . 0 0 . 0 5 6 . 7 4 NS B 38.40 . 0 1 2 9 . 3 3 . 0 1 1 2 A 8 . 2 0 . 0 5 4 . 3 0 NS B 2 0 . 6 0 . 0 1 14 . 3 9 . 0 1 - 9 0 -TABLE 9 (Continued) Twenty-One Year Olds Picture Block Males Females K2 P X 2 P 1 A 2 . 0 0 3 . 7 8 ,^NS B 2 5 . 0 0 . 0 1 2 2 . 0 0 . 0 1 2 A 1 3 . 4 0 . 0 1 1 1 . 7 8 . 0 1 B 3 5 . 0 0 . 0 1 3 . 7 8 .NS 3 A 2 3 . 8 0 . 0 1 1 8 . 0 0 . 0 1 B 1 2 . 6 0 . 0 1 9 . 1 1 . 0 5 4 A 1 6 . 6 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 B 2 3 . 0 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 5 A 18 .20 . 0 1 1 1 . 3 3 . 0 5 B 34.40 . 0 1 1 1 . 3 3 . 0 5 6 A 14.60 . 0 1 1 6 . 6 7 . 0 1 B 14 .60 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 7 A 19.80 . 0 1 1 1 . 3 3 . 0 5 B 2 2 . 2 0 . 0 1 4 . 6 7 NS 8 • A 1 0 . 2 0 . 0 5 5 . 5 6 NS B 1 1 . 0 0 . 0 5 9 . 1 1 . 0 5 9 A 1 3 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 . 5 6 NS B 1 1 2 . 2 0 . 0 1 46 .44 • . 0 1 1 0 A 1 0 . 8 0 . 0 5 2 . 4 5 NS B 1 0 . 4 0 . 0 5 1 0 . 8 9 . 0 5 1 1 A 28 .20 . 0 1 2 . 4 5 NS B 35.40 . 0 1 1 1 . 3 4 . 0 1 1 2 A 6 . 2 0 NS . 6 8 NS B 1 7 . 8 0 . 0 1 18 .44 . 0 1 - 9 1 -Persual of Table 9 reveals that subjects within each age and sex group respond to the majority of the pictures i n the same way. A .surprising feature of the results i s that there i s only one block, Block 1-A, which proved to be free from bias for a l l the age and sex groups while the other unbiased blocks vary from age group to age group and between sexes. This suggests that a picture may be useful for measuring the r e l a t i v e strengths of the variables f o r one group but not for another and that perhaps the s e l e c t i o n of only c e r t a i n pictures — pictures found to be unbiased — for analysis may be of value. An important question i s whether the bias i s i n the pict u r e or the response choices. Comparing the two blocks f o r each picture, i t i s noted that i n a l l cases where there i s a non-significant Chi-square the Chi-square f o r the block corresponding to the same picture i s s i g n i f i c a n t . This tends to suggest that the bias i s i n the response choices rather than i n the pictures. It i s also noted that the non-significant Chi-squares with the exception of one are a l l found on Block A. This perhaps implies that the second choice f o r each picture was influenced by the four pre-vious choices. The p o s s i b i l i t y of bias i n the content of the pictures has not been eliminated, however, Sanderson ( 1 9 6 4 $ found a l l the pictures to be biased, and i t i s very l i k e l y - 9 2 that both the design of the pictures and the response choices contributed to the bias found i n the present study. The d i r e c t i o n of bias may be ascertained by r e f e r r i n g to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the variables by age and by sex i n appendix C. General Discussion The results i n thi s study would be expected to resemble very c l o s e l y those of Sanderson ( 1 9 6 4 ) who also gave the Picture T i t l e s Test to approximately the same age groups. This i s not the case, however, Her male and female groups a l l had strong superegos, s l i g h t l y lower impulse scores and r e l a t i v e l y lower ego scores and preformed s i m i l a r l y to Charnes' adults ( 1 9 5 3 ) and Pinckney 1s.females ( 1 9 6 3 ) . In the present study, the only groups that behaved i n thi s way were the twenty-one year old males and twenty-two year old females. The eighteen and nineteen year old males and females and the twenty year old females behave more l i k e Rempel and Signori's ( 1 9 6 3 ) eighteen and nineteen year olds on the Photo-analysis Test and G i l b e r t and Levee's ( 1 9 6 3 ) young women on the Photo-analysis and Picture Story Completion t e s t s . The results for the twenty and twenty-two year old males and twenty-one year old females resemble those of Gi l b e r t and Levee's young women for the Picture T i t l e s Test. There are at least two p l a u s i b l e explanations for the inconsistency of the results i n comparison to other studies using the same test and a s i m i l a r sample. F i r s t of a l l , with the exception of the research done by Sanderson and Rempel and Signori the tests have been administered i n d i v i d u a l l y instead of i n a group. This administrative modification may have introduced some i n f l u e n t i a l factors. For instance, there i s probably a f e e l i n g of anonymity i n a group s i t u a t i o n not present i n the i n d i v i d u a l situation, and t h i s , i n turn, might r e s u l t i n freer expression of impulses p a r t i c u l a r l y on the part of the female. Secondly, the forced choice of responding has never been used before f o r the Picture T i t l e s Test. The effect of t h i s modification i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. The f i n d i n g that some age groups behave more l i k e s i m i l a r groups behave on the Photo-analysis and Picture Story Completion test implys that the modification might have altered the test to be more i n accord with the other two multiple choice t e s t s . That i s , instead of the scores r e f l e c t i n g the acceptance by the subject of his impulse and superego pressures, the score may now r e f l e c t either "the subjects' conception of the outside world" or •how the subject would l i k e (consciously or unconsciously) to function i f he were free to behave i n a manner of his own choosing" (Dombrose and Slobin, 1958). This i s an area worth investigating. _94-Suggestions for Additional Research In view of the above discussion, i t would be Interest-i n g to compare the objective version with the o r i g i n a l subjective version of the Picture T i t l e s Test. This could be done by either administering the test to two groups of f a i r l y homogeneous subjects and comparing the scores for the two groups of by d i v i d i n g the test into two parts so that the two scoring techniques could be compared for the same i n d i v i d u a l . I f large differences were obtained, i t would suggest that the modified scoring technique has a l t e r e d the function of the t e s t . Further comparison of the results with the Photo-analysis and Picture Story Completion test results might also prove of value. - 9 5 -GHAPTER IX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The main objective of thi s study was to modify the Picture Titles. Test so that the responses could be scored o b j e c t i v e l y . This involved the selection of t i t l e s from data which had been e l i c i t e d i n a previous study of the Picture T i t l e s Test. Only those t i t l e s were chosen which succeeded i n meeting the c r i t e r i a established to avoid experimenter and response bias. An answer sheet was then constructed which required the subjects simply to check o f f t h e i r responses; thus, eliminating the scorer's task of c l a s s i f y i n g each response and the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the • scoring. The modified version of the Picture T i t l e s Test was administered as a group test to a second year psychology class at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i n a l sample consisted of one hundred and thirty-seven male and ninety female students, ranging i n age from eighteen to twenty-two. I t was assumed that by means of the processes of perception, apperception, and concept formation the subjects would project i n t e r n a l personality variables i n t h e i r choice of response to the pictures, and that, consequently, the r e l a t i v e strengths of the impulses, ego and superego could be measured. The accuracy of this assumption and the usefulness of the objective scoring technique were investigated by comparing the responses of the males and females, comparing various age groups, - 9 6 -and examining the p o s s i b i l i t y of b i a s i n the responses. Twelve d i r e c t i o n a l hypotheses were set up based on the l i t e r a t u r e of sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s and on the r e s u l t s of previous experiments. The hypotheses d e a l i n g w i t h sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n general, s t a t e d that the females would make more superego and ego responses and fewer impulse responses than males. The hypotheses concerning age d i f f e r e n c e s i n general s t a t e d that the twenty-one year o l d would make more superego and ego responses and fewer impulse responses than the eighteen and nineteen year o l d s . The Chi-square t e s t and the t - t e s t were used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and the hypotheses were considered confirmed i f the obtained d i f f e r e n c e s were i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n and at the .0.5 l e v e l of confidence or beyond. Males and females were compared by age group so that there were nine p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s f o r a l l age groups on the three v a r i a b l e s . There were four s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes, and these r e s u l t s were supported by the Chi-square r e s u l t s . I t was concluded t h a t the modified t e s t i s a good d i s c r i m i n a t o r . I n regard to the hypotheses, there were s i x c o n f i r m a t i o n out of a p o s s i b l e eighteen f o r a l l age groups. For the eighteen and nineteen year o l d s , the hypotheses concerning impulse expre s s i o n were confirmed. For the twenty year olds the hypotheses concerning impulse and ego strength were confirmed. -97-Por the twenty-one year olds none of the hypotheses were confirmed and the reverse held true for the hypotheses concerning superego strength. I t was suggested that the r e s u l t s that were contrary to p r e d i c t i o n may have been due to the attempt by older college g i r l s to be 'sophisticated 1. Out of a possible six d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s on the impulse, ego, and superego variables f o r eighteen and nineteen and twenty year old males and females, there were three s i g -n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . There was also one s i g n i f i c a n t difference out of two possible i n the defense scores. These results indicated that the test discriminated adequately between age groups p a r t i c u l a r l y considering the small age differences. This conclusion was supported by the large number of s i g -n i f i c a n t differences obtained when each of the four age groups within each sex were compared. There were six hypotheses concerning the d i r e c t i o n of difference expected between the eighteen and nineteen and twenty-one year old groups. Por both sexes, there were twelve p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r confirmation. Por the males, the hypotheses concerning the superego strength were substantiated but the contrary of the predictions concerning the ego scores seemed to be true. Por the females, none of the hypotheses were substant-iated and the reverse of the hypotheses concerning superego strength was true. The s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the defense scores supported Dombrose and Slobin's statement that the defensive response i s a derivative of the superego score. -98-The Picture T i t l e s Test only p a r t i a l l y confirmed the l i t e r a t u r e on sex and age differences. The test did prove, however, to he able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e , as well as could be expected, between the sexes and among age groups. The Chi-square test was applied to the responses to each block f o r the three age groups within each sex. A majority of the results were highly s i g n i f i c a n t , and i t was concluded that the modified Picture T i t l e s Test i s not free from bias. The following conclusions can be formulated on the basis of the r e s u l t s : 1. The objectively scored Picture T i t l e s Test has proven able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the sexes and among age groups. 2. The res u l t s are not consistent enough to f u l l y support the psychological theory that females are less impulsive and more ego and superego controlled than males. 3. Too many of the results are i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n to substantiate the predictions concerning age group differences. 4. There i s bias which probably i n t e r f e r e s with the effectiveness of the test i n both the content of the pictures and the blocks of t i t l e s . 5. The objectively scored Picture T i t l e s Test at the very least has p o s s i b i l i t i e s as an instrument for measuring impulse, ego and superego sex and age differences. BIBLIOGRAPHY Back, G.R. Bennett, E.M., and Cohen, L.R. Blum, G.S. Bortner, Rv-W. Bortner, R.W. Bortner, R.W. Brown, E.A., and Goiten, P.L. Buss, A.H., and Durkee, Ann Caron, A.J.,, and Gewitz, J.L. Young children's play fantasies. Psychol. Monogr., 1945, 59, No. 2, I -69. Charnes, G. Clark, W.H. Men and women: and contrasts. personality patterns Genet. Psychol. Monogr., A study of the psychoanalytic theory of psychosexual development. Genet. Psychol. Monogr.. 1949, 39, 3-99. Personality differences in preferences for s k i l l - or chance- determined outcomes. Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1964, 18, 765-772. Research cooperation i n older Institutlon-lized males. Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1963, 16, 611-612. School subject preference and the structure of value systems. Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1964, 18, 741-747. The significance of body image for personality assay. J. Mervement. Pis., 1943, 97, 401-408. Conditioning of hostile verbalizations i n a situation resembling a c l i n i c a l interview. J. Consult. Psychol.. 1958, 22, 415-418. Ah Investigation of the effects of the sex category of the interacting adult, chronological age (6, 8, and 10), and sex of child, on aggressive (hostile) behavior i n doll play. Amer. Psychologist. 1951, 6, 307. The relative strengths of impulse, ego and superego i n latency, adolescence, and adulthood. Doctor's Dissertation, Western Reserve Univer., 1953. Sex differences and motivation In the urge to destroy. J. Soc. Psychol.. 1953, 36, 167-177. Dixon, W.J., and Massey, R.J. Dombrose, L.A., and Slobin, M.S. Dombrose, L.A., and' Slobin, M.S. Edwards, A.L. Erikson, E.H. Fenichel, 0. Freud, S. Freud, S. Goitein, P.L. Golden, D. Hays, W.L. Hartue, W.W., and Himeno, Y. Herron, W.G. Introduction to Sta t i s t i c a l Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1957. An approach to the measurement of relative strengths of impulse, ego and superego, and the determination of the effects of impulse and superego upon ego functions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Western Reserve Univer., 1951. The IES Test. Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1958, 8, 347-389^ (Monogr. Suppl. 3) S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis. (Rev. ed.) New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1958. Sex differences in the play configurations of pre-adolescents. Amer. J. Orthopsychlat.. 1951, 21, 667-692. The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. New York: W.W. Norton, 1943. The passing of the Oedipus Complex. Collected Papers. I and II, London: Hogarth Press, 1924. Some psychological consequences of the anatomical distinction between the sexes. Int. J. Psychoanal.. 1927, 8, 99 and 133-1^2. The Symbolic Identification Test: A projective technique for the measure-ment of i d forces within the personality. J. Nervement. Pis.. 1944, 99, 279-284. Manifestations of impulse, ego and super-ego in elementary school boys and g i r l s . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Western Reserve Univ., 1954. Statistics for Psychologists. New Yorfij: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963, 321-323. Social isolation vs. interaction with adults in relation to aggression i n preschool children. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.. 1959, 59, 17-22. IES test patterns of accepted and rejected adolescents. Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1962, 15, 435-438. Milnar, Esther. Moroney, M.J. Murray, H.A. Murphy, G. Pinckney, G.A. Pintler, Margaret H. Ph i l l i p s , Ruth, and Sears, R.R. Reichard, S., and Rapaport, D. Effects of sex role and social status on the early adolescent personality. Genet. Psychol. Monogr., 1949, 40, 231-235. Facts from Figures. Books, 1954. Baltimore: Penguin The effect of fear upon estimates of the maliciousness of other personalities. J . Soc Psychol.., 1933, k, 310-329. Personality.. New York: Brothers, 1947. Harper and Rempel, H. Rempel, H., and Signori, E.I. Rempel, H., Signori, E.I., and Sampson, D.L. Ritz, G.H. Sanderson, Isabelle, Schoeppe, Aileen. Relative strengths of impulse, ego and superego i n female college students. Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1963, 17, 340. Sex differences In the projective doll play of preschool children. J . Psychol., 1946, 21, 73-80. The role of testing concept formation i n c l i n i c a l work. Bull. Menn. Clin... 1943, 7, 99-105. Photo-analysis test and sex differences. Unpublished masters thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1962. Further research on the IES Photo-analysis subtest with special reference to sex differences., Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . I963, 17, 295-298. Differences in attribution of impulse (id), ego, and superego functions to male and female photographs. Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1963, 17, 773-665. The relative strength of impulsek ego, and superego i n three groups of aged males. Doctoral dissertation, Western Reserve Univ., 1954. Research on the Picture Titles Test. Unpublished masters thesis. University of British Columbia," Vancouver, 1964. Sex differences i n adolescent socializ-ation. J . Soc. Psychol.. 1953, 38, 175-185. Signori, E.I.,, Smordln, M.M., Rempel, H.., and Sampson, D,jL. Terman, L.M., and Miles, Catharine C. Trumbull, R. Underwood, B.J., Duncan, C.P., Taylor, J.A., and Cotton, J.W. Yarrow, L..J. Comparison of Impulse, ego, and superego functions in better adjusted and more poorly adjusted delinquent adolescent g i r l s . Percept. Mot. S k i l l s . 1964, 18, 485-488. Sex and Personality. New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, Inc., 1936. A study of relationships between factons of personality and intelligence. J. Soc. Psychol.. 1953, 38, 161-173. Elementary Statistics. New York: Apple-ton-Century-Crofts, Inc.., 195^ • The effect of antecedent frustration on projection play. Psychol. Monogr.. 1948, 62, No. 6, 1-42.. A P P E N D I X A T H E P I C T U R E T I T L E S T E S T ANSWER S H E E T Sex: M F ; Age years; Year I II III IV Other no. INSTRUCTIONS: Look at the s l ide presented on the screen by the experimenter. Then check the most appropriate t i t l e (one t i t l e only) from each group of four. There are two groups of t i t l e s for each s l i d e . SLIDE I SLIDE IV 1. The Wandering Mind 2. Gu i l t and Fantasy 3. Visions Of Sex 4. Phases Of L i f e 1. Main Street Rumble 2. A Chi ld ' s Cur ios i ty 3. Skid Row Drama 4. The Sick Society B 1. Premonitions Of Retribution 2. Woman As Seen By a Man 3. The Comprehensive Family 4. The Many Thoughts Of a Man B 1. Ambulance and Doctor 2. The Scene Of a Crime 3. Capture Of a Criminal 4. Violence In the Street SLIDE II 1. A Fight In the Family 2. Af ter the Ba l l Was Over 3. An Unhappy Home L i f e 4. Remorse After a Quarrel SLIDE V 1. A Chi ld Saying Goodnight 2'. A Mother Spoi l ing Her Son 3. A Son Kiss ing His Mother 4. Co l lect ing For the Paper B 1. The Broken Chair 2. Af ter the Quarrel 3. The Neglected Chi ld 4. The Temper Tantrum B 1. Father 's Untimely Entrance 2. Mother-Son Love 3. The Strange Family 4. A Ch i ld ' s Bedtime SLIDE III A 1. Memories Of Childhood 2. Here Comes Mother 3. Raiding the Cupboard 4. Home Sweet Home SLIDE VI A 1. Out Of Town On Business 2. An Untidy Hotel Room 3« Getting Up In the Morning 4. The Way Of Morals Today B 1. Discovery Of the Culpr i t 2. Junior ' s Happy Moments 3. The Watchful Children 4. Part Of Growing Up B 1. Nature In a Modern Society 2. The Unfortunate Side Of L i fe 3. Horrible Real ity In the Morning 4. Sexual Drive and Prost i tut ion (2) SLIDE VII SLIDE X 1. Where To Go On Sunday Morning 2. Those Who Do Right, Turn Right 3. Choice Of Wine, Women, or Song 4. The Church Without a Steeple 1. Two Drunks On a Corner 2. Dreams Are the Stuff Of L i f e 3. The Sights In a Large City 4- Examples Of the I l l s Of Alcohol B B 1. Competitors Of Religion 2. The Pleasures Of Drink 3. Friday, Saturday, Sunday 4. Three Possible Solutions 1. L i f e Goes On 2. Two Ways Of Li f e 3. Punishment Of Vice 4. A Wild Evening SLIDE VIII SLIDE XI 1. Stealing Some Kisses 2. A V i s i t o r Arriving 3. The Hasty Goodnight 4. Love Disturbs Others 1. 2. 3-4. The Workday Of the Laborer The Unproductivity Of Laziness Unscheduled Coffee Break Modern Industrial Workers B B 1. S i s t e r 's Got a Boy Friend 2. Home From a Late Date 3. Parents See Youth In Action 4. The Effects Of. Mistletoe 1. Last Day On the Job 2. A Welcomed Rest 3. Back To Work This Summer 4. Lif e Of the Laborer SLIDE IX SLIDE XII A 1. A Playground Scene 2. The Naughty Child 3. Childhood Enjoyment 4. Children At Play 1. Fun In the Pool 2. Mothers and Children 3. A Day Spent Outdoors 4. The Scolding Mother B B 1. Misbehaviour On the Playground 2. Fun At the Playground 3. Children With One Adult 4. A Playground In the Afternoon 1. A Tree Mirrored In a Summer Pool 2. A Sunday Afternoon At the Park "3. Proper Supervision Of Children 4. The Simple Pleasures Of Childhood ft . APPENDIX B THE SUBJECTS SCORED RESPONSES TO THE PICTURES F e m a l e s Pictures Age: 12 11 10 9 8 7 ' 6 5 4 3 2 1 A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B 1-18 E I S E S S E I I D S E I S S E E E E D S I D E 2-18 I. I E S E E S I I I S- E I E E S E E E D s D E I 3-18 D I E I S I S I I I s S S S I S S S S B I S "B 4-18 S E i : E S S E I E E. E S I S E s E E I D I I S E 5-18 S D s S i : D S I I I E s D D E s S S E E I S E E 6-18 E E s E i S s I E E X s E E E s E E E E s S- I E 7-18 I E E S E s E I E I s s E S E D S S S S I S S E 8-19 I E s E I s I s I D I I E D I S S s I E I I I S 9-19 I E E S S D E r E E s I I E S S E E I D s I E S 10-19 S S S S D r S i r S i : E I E S S E E D E I I D s 11-19 s I S E S i . S i E I s I I S D E S S S E s s D s 12-19 I E S E s E s E S I E E I S I D E s s D D E I I 13-19 I E S E s. E E i E E S I S E E E S s I E s S I I. 14-19 I I s S i : s s i I I. D I I S S E E s E E s I E I 15-19 s E s E E E D i E I S E I E s E E E S E I E E I 16-19 s S I S s D D i E S S S I D I E S E I I I S S I 17-19 D D s I s S E i S I S I I E s E S s i : E s s S I 18-19 I I s E I S E i . E E E s s E I S E s s E I 1 s I 19-19 I E E S E E S i : I I S s s E E s S D s E I I s I 20-19 I" E I E s S E I I I I I D S I s S S i E I I s I 21-19 E E I E s E E I E E S I. s S E s E I s S s I s I 22-19 I I I I s S E I E E s I E s I E E s I S r s I I 23.-19 E E S E S- S E i E E s D I s E D S E I E i s I I 24-19 E I I E D E i : I E E s s I s S E E E I D s s I. I 25-19 S S I S D E E E I I s I I E I S S S I E s s I I 26-19 E E E E E E E I E E S' E S s I s E S I E s s E I 27-19 D E E S D I E I S I. I D I. E I E E E I S I D D I 28-19 D E E E D, E E I E E s E i : E E E E S s D I E D I 29-19 S E E S s E D I S I s S I D S E E S E E s I D I 30-19 s E S s I I S I E E s I i E E E I E E E I I D I 31-19 D, I E E s S E I E E I. s D S E E S S I. S s s D I 32-19 I. I S E s s D I S E I E i D E S E I I E I s D I 33-19 S i : S E s E E E E I I D E I E E s I D I. I I. E 34-19 I i . i : E i : s I I I I I I I. E ' I E E E I I I s E E 35-19 s E E E E E D I. E. E s S r E I E E E E D E E D E 36-19 D D S I. I E I I I. E s D E S E E S S I I I. E. D E 37-19 E E D S s E I, I E I s S I D S S E E E E D E D E 38-19 I I S E s S E I E S s I. I E I S E E S D S I D E 3.9-19 S S I S D E E E E E s s I E I s E E I D I I D E 40-19 I E s E I I r I I I s I I E I E E E I D s S D E. 41-19 s I s E s S E I S E I s I E I E E E I D s S D E 42^ -19 D I s S D D S I E E E s D D s D E E E D I S D E 43-19 I I s E S S E I E E s E I E E E E E I D I S D E 44-19 S D I E s E I E E I s I I S I E S E I E E E D D 45-20 I I I I D D I I D D D s D E D S E E E I I I E E 46-20 D I E E S E S I E E S I I S D D E E E D I E E E 47-20 E E E S E E S I E E S D I S S E E E I E I S D S 48-20 I E I E r E s I I I I I I E S E S S D S s D E D 49-20 S I E E i D s I. E E E D I D E E E E I I I S D I Females Pictures 12 l l 10 9 8 7 6 ' 5 4 3 2: l Age A R, A B A B A B, A. B A. B. A. B A B A B A B. A B A B 5 0 - 2 0 I E S E <s I" D 1: E E E s 1 E S s s S I E S s D I 5 1 - 2 0 S S s E I s E 1 I I S s i " S I s D S E E S s D I 5 2 - 2 0 I S s D D D D 1 S S E s D D E E s S E D s 1 D I 5 3 - 2 0 D E s E E E S 1 E I S s I E E S D E E E D E D I 5 4 - 2 0 E E E E E E S 1 E I S I I D S S S E S D D E E I 5 5 - 2 0 E. E S. E I E E r E E I" s I. E E S s S I E S S E I 5 6 - 2 0 E I. S E S S D r r I I I S E S s E E D D S S E I 5 7 - 2 0 E E s E r r D 1 1 I S S" 1; E E E S S I n s. s E I 5 8 - 2 0 S E E .1 I E I E 1: E E s 1 E E E S s I E I. I E I 5 9 - 2 0 S 1 D D E E I 1: E E D I 1: D E D. S s I E I I E I 6 0 - 2 0 E E I S s D E 1 E E S I D E S S E E I D 1: s S I 6 1 - 2 0 D r E E I E I 1: E I. D. s I E E E S s I S s s 1: I. 6 2 - 2 0 D E E E E E S E E E S D I E S E D E E D 1. I 1 I 6 3 - 2 0 E E S E E E S E E E E E I E I E D S S D- 1 E 1 I 64-20 S D E E S E I 1 I I I I I D E S E E E E 1 I D I 65-20. E E E E I S E 1 E E S I I D E E E E E E 1 s D E 66.-20 E S I E s E I" I E. E S I D S- I S E D E E s s D E 6 7 - 2 0 E E I E s E D I E E I I. I E E D S S S E 1 D: D I 6 8 - 2 1 s. E E S I. I S I S D I D D S E D S E I D s E D I 6 9 - 2 1 1: 1: S E s S E I E I s S S E E E s. S I D I s D I 7 0 - 2 1 D E D. I s I E I E E. s 1: I E S S E s E D I s D I 7 1 - 2 1 D E I E E 1: I 1: I r s r r S S S S s I E s s D I 7 2 - 2 1 S E. D, E. E E S r S D I I: 1 E S S E D I E D D D I 7 3 - 2 1 S E S S E E S 1 S I s E 1 D S S D E I E S S' S I. 7 4 - 2 1 D E; S E I E E r E E I S E E E S S" S 1: I. 1: i s I 7 5 - 2 1 1: 1 E I I D S 1 D E D E E D S S D D D D D E D I 7 6 - 2 1 I 1 I S I E r r E E s S r S r D E E 1 I 1 I I I 7 7 - 2 1 s 1 S E I E r i ' S" E I D r D E E E I 1 I s S I I 7 8 - 2 1 s E E E E I s 1 I I r S 1 D I S S S i E D I E I 7 9 - 2 1 E I I E I r s 1 I D s I 1 E E S E s E E r I E I 80-21 E I D S E E s i ' T I s I. 1 E S E S s D D s E E I 81-21 E r E E D S D D E E r r D D S E E D D D 1 S E D 8 2 - 2 1 D 1 1: E D E I' r S r 1 1 I" E E E E E I D 1 = 1 I E 8 3 - 2 1 E 1 s I S E E 1 E E D s I E E E E S I E 1 E D S 84-21 S E s E I E S 1. E E S E r D E E E S E E 1 E E S 8 5 - 2 1 I I s r D E E i " E i : I r s E S E D S I E i E E S 8 6 - 2 2 : E E s E S S I r E E I r E S S D S S S E s S S S 87-2-2. S E s E r D D. 1 E I I r I D- E E E E I E 1: S D E 8.8-22: I E s E 1 S D E I D S" E I E I S D S s S 1 s S I 89-22 I 1: 1 E r S E I E I I s I E I S S S I D 1 s D I. 9 0 - 2 2 D E E S s E' S r S I s s I S S s D S E D- s s S I Males- Pictures Age 1 2 11 10 ' 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2. 1 A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B 1-18 I E S E I S E I D I. S I I D S E E S I I I S I E 2 - 1 8 E E- I E I S I I E E S D I S" E E S s E D S S D I 3-18 S S I E I s E I I I s I I E I E S s I E I 3 D E 4-18 S S S E S s S I D D I I S D S E E E I S I S S I 5 - 1 8 I I s I E E I I I E s I I .E E S E s I D I S E E 6 - 1 9 I I I E I E I I S E s I I E I D E s I E S S D I 7 - 1 9 E E s E E E 3 I s I s I 'D E E D E E S E I s D I 8 - 1 9 S I s S S i S I E E I S E E E 'E E E I E S I D I 9 - 1 9 S I 1: E D I E I I I s D I E S S D E E E I S I I-1 0 - 1 9 E E D I I S I I I D I I D D E E S S S D I S I I 1 1 - 1 9 I E s I D E S I I I s S I S E E S s I I I E I I 1 2 - 1 9 S E E I S E S I I I s D I D S S S s E D D E I I 1 3 - 1 9 . D D ' E E I E s r E E s I I S S E D E E D I S E I 14-19 I E I E I S E 1 I E s S I s I D S s I I I S E I 1 5 - 1 9 I ,1 S E I I I 1 E E s D- I D E E E E I D 3 s E I 1 6 - 1 9 I S s I I E E 1 I D D I I D S E I I I D I I E I 1 7 - 1 9 I E E S S E E 1 E I I S S D E S S E I E I E E I 1 8 - 1 9 I I S S I S D 1 S S s I s E E E E E I I I E E I 1 9 - 1 9 I E E s E E I 1 E E s S D D E S D E I I S E E I 2 0 - 1 9 I I S E S S E 1 I E s s I D S E S D 3 S S D S I 2 1 - 1 9 E E I E E I E 1 I E s D I E s D E S I E I E S S 2 2 - 1 9 S S S S E E D E I I s S D E s S E D E E S E S I 2 3 - 1 9 I E D E E S I I S E s I . I D I E D E E I S I E D 24-19 I E E E D I S I E E s D S D E S D D I D D S D E 2 5 - 1 9 I E S E E I E I E E s D I E I S E I S D I E I E 2 6 - 1 9 s E I E D E E I E E E I I D E E E E II D IwS E E 2 7 - 1 9 I E E E I S D I I D I I I D E E E E I E D I E E 28-19 E E S E .E E I E E E s E I E E E E E E D D E E E 2 9 - 1 9 E E E E S E E I I D s I I D S E S S S D D E D S 3 0 - 2 0 E E I I: I S I I E E s I I S I S E I S D I S I S 3 1 - 2 0 D I S E I S I I E E s I I E I E E s S- I I D E I 3 2 - 2 0 I E I E I E I I E I s I S E I E S s s D I S E I 3 3 - 2 0 S E s E I E E I S I s E s E s S S E s E S S E I 3 4 - 2 0 I E D S D E E I E E I I I E I E E S I E I I E I 3 5 - 2 0 I D D E S D E E D D I D s E I E S D E E D I E I 3 6 - 2 0 I I S E I S E I D E I I I D s D s D r E I E D I 3 7 - 2 0 S E E E S E S I S E s S I E s S D. E s D S E D I 3 8 - 2 0 I I I E I E S I E E s S I D I E E E 1 E S E D I. 3 9 - 2 0 E I I E I E I I E D s D I E s S E S 1 I I S D I 40-20 I E S I D E S S I I s D I D E S S S 1 D I S D I 41-20 I E E I S E E I E D s S I S s I E I 1 S S s D I 42-20 I I I E D I D I E E s I I E s s D E E D s s D I 4 3 - 2 0 I D S E I S E I E E I I I S s E D E I E S S D I 4 4 - 2 0 I I s E I S E I E I I I I E I E E E I D S 3 • I I 4 5 - 2 0 S E s E I E S I I S s s I D s D S S E D D S S I 46-20 E E E I S E E I E I I s s D E D S s S D I D S I 4 7 - 2 0 I E s I E S S I S I s I I D I S E E S E S E S I. 48-20 I I E E I E E E I E s I E E s D E S S E I E S I 4 9 - 2 0 S S S I E I E I s I I s I S s E S s D E I I I I 5 0 - 2 0 S E s E I S E I E I s I I E E E s s I I I I I I Males Pictures 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Age AB AB. AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB 5 1 - 2 0 D I s E D I S I E I I D I S S s D I D D D s I I 5 2 - 2 0 I I s I D I E I S D I I D S S s S S D D I I s I 5 3 - 2 0 s E s E I E E I E E I s I S s E D S E I I E E E 5 4 - 2 0 I E s E E E S I E I S D I D s s D E E D I E E E 5 5 - 2 0 D E I I S S E D I E D I S S I E E S I E S E E E 5 6 - 2 0 D D s E S E E I E E E S E S E E S S I E S S E E 5 7 - 2 0 E E I E I E E I E D S I I E s S S s I I I S D E 5 8 - 2 0 S I s E E E S I I I S D E E I E E s E D I s D E 5 9 - 2 0 I I I S I I I I I I s I S E. E S S s S D I s D E 6 0 - 2 0 I D I E E E D I I I I S I E E E E E E E S s D E 6 1 - 20 6 2 - 20 s E I E S S E' 1: I I I. S I E E I I E I D I s I E \E E E I E E S 1 E D E s I E E E S E D D S s I E 6 3 - 2 0 b S D D S S I 1 D D I s E I I I E I I S D s I E 64 - 2 0 s I E E D E S 1 I E I s I E S S E E S T> I I S E 6 5 - 2 0 s I S I I I E 1 S E S I S S E E S S S E E E D S 6 6 - 2 0 I I s E E I S 1 S E s I I E E E E E E I , I S D S 6 7 - 2 0 E E E E S s E 1 s S D s I E S E E S I \ E N I S D s 6 8 - 2 0 D E I E I E E 1 E E S I I D. E S S S E E I S D, £ 6 9 - 2 0 S I D D I S I 1 D D I s I D E s S s S E D S D s 7 0 - 2 1 S S S S s s D 1 I I S s I E S s s s I E S s S s 7 1 - 2 1 E E S E I s I 1 E E I I I E E E s s S E I. s s s 7 2 - 2 1 I S I E s s E 1 E E S s E E E S s s I E S s D I 7 3 - 2 1 I I E E E E I 1 E I I s S S E E s s I D s s D I 7 4 - 2 1 I I S E I s I 1 I E S s I D S E s s I E I s D I 7 5 - 2 1 S I S E E s I 1 I I I I I D S E I s E D I s D I 7 6 - 2 1 s I D D D D S 1 S D E s E D D E E E D I D E E I 7 7 - 2 1 D E S E E I E 1 I I I I S D E E E E I E S s E I 7 8 - 2 1 D I S I I S S r E E S I D E S S D D E D D s. E I 7 9 - 2 1 I E s I E E E 1 E I s I S E E E S S I D I s E I 8 0 - 2 1 I I I E I S I 1 E I D I I S I S S S I I I I Ei:l 8 1 - 2 1 S E s E I E E 1 S I S I S S E S S s I I S E I I 8 2 - 2 1 I E s I I E E 1 E E E D I s I S D I I E I E I I 8 3 - 2 1 I I I E E I E 1 E E S s I E I E D E I D I I. I I 84 - 2 1 I I s D S I D 1 S I E D I E E S S D E E D S .1 1 8 5 - 2 1 S E I E I I E 1 E E I I s E E E S S I I D S I I 8 6 - 2 1 s I s E s S E 1 E E I I s S E D s s E D I E I I 8 7 - 2 1 E S s E s S S 1 I D D s D E E S E E I D E E S I 8 8 - 2 1 E I I E I' s S 1 S I S I I S E S S s I E S S S I 8 9 - 2 1 I I D E s I E 1 E S E s E D E S s I I E S s s I 9 0 - 2 1 E I s S I E E 1 S I S I D D S S D E E E D s s I 9 1 - 2 1 S E s S s E E 1 I I S s I E E S S S S E D s s I 92^21 s I s S I S S 1 s I s I S E S S s S S S S s s I 9 3 - 2 1 D E D S s s S 1 E S I I E E s E E S I D I s s I 9 4 - 2 1 D D s S I s E 1 E I s s E S E E E E I E I s s I 9 5 - 2 1 S S I E I I I D E E s D S I I S E D I D s I D D 9 6 - 2 1 s E D I s s E I I S E S D D S E D S I D I s E D 9 7 - 2 1 I E I E D I I I E I s I I D s E S S E D s E E E 9 8 - 2 1 s E S E I s E I I E s D I E s D S E I S s S E E 19# - 2 l D E E S I E E I E E s S I E E E S S I D s s E E 1 0 0 - 2 1 I. :E S E I E E I I I s I I E S S E S E D I s E E Males Pictures 12..-.. 1 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 I B A B - A B A B A B A B A B A B A B AB A B A B 1 0 1 - 2 1 I E S E S I E I I E I I E D E s E E I D S D I E 1 0 2 - 2 1 D I s E s E I I I I I S I D I s E E I E I I s E 1 0 3 - 2 1 I S s E D D S I S D s D E S S s S S E D D E D S 104-21 D I E I S E s I s E I S I D S s E E I E I s D S 1 0 5 - 2 1 I E I E s I I I D D I r I D s s I I D I I D D S 1 0 6 - 2 1 I E I E s I I r D D I 1 I D s s I I. D I I D D- S 1 0 7 - 2 1 D E s E E. E s 1 E E I E S D I E D S S D E S E S 1 0 9 - 2 1 I D s E s S s 1 E I s I I D s E . E s S E S s S S. 1 1 0 - 2 2 E E s E E E s 1 S S s I I D s S S E S S s s S S 1 1 1 - 2 2 E I s E S S E E E E I 1: I E E E E E I D I s I I 1 1 2 - 2 2 E I. D I I E E I S I I s D E s E E E s E E E I I 1 1 3 - 2 2 . I I S E I E S I E D I E D S s S E E s D S E D I 114-22 S S E S . E E E I E I s I S S s S S S I I s E D I 1 1 5 - 2 2 D D I E I E S I S S s I I E r. S S S s E s S D I 1 1 6 - 2 2 I I S E I I S I E E E I I D 1 D D s I E s S D I 1 1 7 - 2 2 I I S E S I I 1: S S I I E D s S E E D D I s D I 1 1 8 - 2 2 D E S I D E S 1 E D I S I D s s E E s D I s E I 1 1 9 - 2 2 i I D E I S s 1 S I s s I S s s S S E D I s E I 1 2 0 - 2 2 I I S S I I E 1 E E E s I E E E E I I I I s E I 1 2 1 - 2 2 E I S E S E E 1 I I S s I D E E S E E E s E S I 1 2 2 - 2 2 S E E S D I S 1 E E D I I D E E s S I D I I E I 123 -22 E I I E I E s 1 E E I I D D S E E s I E I s I E 124-22 I I S E I S E 1 E E S s I D E D E E E E D s D E 1 2 5 - 2 2 I I I E I E I 1 E E S I I E I S S S I I s s D E 1 2 7 - 2 2 . S E I S S S E 1 E E I I I S E D E E I D I E E E 128-22 s E D S I E E 1 E E I I E s E E E E E E s I E E 1 2 9 - 2 2 I I E s I E E 1 E E s I S s E E S S I D s I El JE 1 3 0 - 2 2 E E S E I E I 1 E E E D E s E E s S I D s D E E 1 3 1 - 2 2 S E s I'' s E E 1 E I I I I s E E s s I D s S D E 1 3 2 - 2 2 - s I s E s S S E I I D S I s D D s D I I s E D D 1 3 3 - 2 2 s S D D E E E I D I I D I D S E E D D I s S D D 1 3 4 - 2 2 D I D, E D S S D E I E D D I S I s I I S s D S D 1 3 5 - 2 2 S I I E S D E S E E I S I E s S s S I E I I I S 1 3 6 - 2 2 I I E I I S I I E E I I S s E S s S I I s S D S 1 3 7 - 2 2 s s E S I S S I E E S D E E S s D s I I I s D S 1 2 6 - 2 2 s E I E s s E I I S D S E E I E s s I I I s D E APPENDIX C DISTRIBUTION OP RESPONSES BY AGE AND SEX Females Males P i c t u r e 1-A I E S D P i c t u r e 1-B I E S D P i c t u r e 2-A I E S D P i c t u r e 2-B I. E S D P i c t u r e 3-A I E S D P i c t u r e 3-B I E S D P i c t u r e 4-A I E S D P i c t u r e 4-B I E S D P i c t u r e 5-A I E S D 18&19 2 0 2 1 2 2 18&19 20 2 1 22 9 3 3 0 6 7 8 6 0 12 9 2 2 3 4 1 9 . 10 7 2 7 8 I 17 7 11 13 9 4 8 2 14 2 2 17 13 3 19 22 2 3 13 17 4 1 1 8 12 6 9 4 1 3 1 1 6 9 3 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 13 10 3 16 22 16 11 2 0 0 0 0 1 9 1 17 • 8 5 2 8 12 15 15 2 • 2 3 0 5 5 7 l 16 6 5 0 4 6 4 4 7 4 6 5 10 9 7 6 1 9 12 6 5 14 2 3 26 16 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 2 2 3 10 12 2 18 15 2 3 17 10 8 3 1 6 9 8 4 10 3 0 2 5 12 6 5 1 2 3 0 0 4 3 2 3 2 0 1 6 7 6 8 2 1 11 8 2 9 16 15 9 5 2 0 1 2 2 2 1 15 8 7 2 12 15 16 10 1 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 2 9 9 9 1 14 16 1 1 x? 14 10 6 3 9 17 20 14 0 4 3 l 9 5 6 1 2 0 1 0 2 4 4 2 23 11 4 l 13 10 1 1 9 18 11 10 4 1 1 2 1 22 15 1 1 3 0 3 2 3 2 18 3 2 2 5 1 1 6 3 15 1 1 8 1 14 12 16 12 10 7 8 2 10 17 17 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 •I Females Males 18&19 2 0 2 1 2 2 18&19 20 2 1 2 2 P i c t u r e I 0* 10 0 0 0 3 0 1 E 22 10 8 1 17 18 16 14 5 1 8 io;. 8 3 8 15 2 2 10 D 4 3 2 1 4 4 2 3 P i c t u r e 6-A I 28 18 12 1 9 28 20 16 E 0 2 1 1 4 7 5 S 6 1 2 0 4 7 9 3 D 5 4 ' 2 0 5 1 4 4 P i c t u r e 6-B I 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 E 2 1 13 9 2 n 20 16 8 S 16 4 3 2 4 10 8 10 D 7 6 6 1 14 9 15 9 P i c t u r e 7-A I 10 5 8 3 5 15 13 12 E 5 5 0 0 1 2 5 4 S 28 10 8 2 22 2 1 20 9 D 1 3 2 0 1 2 2 3 P i c t u r e 7-B I 16 10 8 2 14 18 20 13 E 9 l 3 1 1 1 1 1 S 16 9 5 2 7 15 14 10 D 3 3 2 0 7 6 5 4 P i c t u r e 8-A I 13 6 1 14 10 1 1 3 E z> 15 8 3 10 18 18 20 S 6 1 5 1 4 8 9 2 4 D 0 1 2 0 1 4 1 P i c t u r e 8-B I 18 8 7 3 8 14 17 8 E 2 1 13 8 l 15 16 13 15 S 3 1 0 0 1 2 4 3 D 2 1 3 2 5 8 6 2 P i c t u r e 9-A I 7 6 1 8 7 9 5 E 2 1 4 5 1 1 1 20 18 1 3 S 11 8 8 1 7 11 1 1 10 D 5 5 1 2 3 2 2 0 P i c t u r e 9-B I 3 8 20 17 27 36 3 9 23 E 5 3 0 1 2 2 0 2 S 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 D 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 Females Males I8& 1 9 20 2 1 22 18&19 2 0 2 1 . 22 P i c t u r e 10-A I 9 8 7 3 11 18 15 15 E 6 6 5 0 8 7 7 2 S 22 7 3 2 6 9 15 8 D 7 2 3 0 4 6 3 3 P i c t u r e 10-B I 6 3 5 0 6 7 10 4 E 16 14 10 1 12 20 12 14 S 3 2 3 10 12 16 © V D k 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 P i c t u r e 11-A I 10 5 3 1 7 1 1 9 6 E 10 9 5 1 7 7 3 4 S 2 3 8 7 3 13 18 24 13 D 1 1 3 . 0 2 4 4 5 P i c t u r e 11-B I 4 2 4 0 5 10 5 4 E 2 5 17 10 4 1 9 26 26 16 S 15 2 4 l 5 2 7 7 D 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 1 P i c t u r e 12-A I 15 4 4 2 15 17 16 9 E 7 10 4 1 6 6 6 5 S 14 5 6 1 7 11 1 1 11 D 8 4 4 1 1 6 7 3 P i c t u r e 12-B I 16 6 10 1 7 15 15 17 E 2 0 13 8 4 17 1 9 1 8 7 S 4 3 0 0 4 2 5 3 D 4 1 0 0 1 4 2 1 

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