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The Integration of lake transportation with road and railway systems: the case of the Volta Basin in… Akwele, Virginia Emelia Engmann 1965

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THE INTEGRATION OF LAKE TRANSPORTATION WITH ROAD AND RAILWAY SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF THE VOLTA BASIN IN GHANA by VIRGINIA EMELIA AKWELE ENGMANN B.A., University of Ghana, 1963. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required, standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requ i rements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy, I f u r t h e r agree that p e r -m i s s i o n f o r ex tens i ve copy ing of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that, copy ing or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n ® Department of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 1 9 6 5 .  i i ABSTRACT The slow rate of development i n some of the regions of Ghana, and i n fact of the developing countries, i s partly-due to the lack of adequate and e f f i c i e n t transportation ser-vices. The provision of such services i s greatly hindered by the excessive competition between transportation modes and the inexpedient a l l o c a t i o n of cap i t a l resources f o r transport development. The u t i l i z a t i o n of the Volta Lake f o r the pur-poses of transportation w i l l probably constitute a source of competition to ex i s t i n g modes of transportation, p a r t i c u l a r l y roads. In order to make possible the use of t h i s economical means of transport, ways must be found to integrate lake t r a -nsport with e x i s t i n g systems, since water transport cannot function e f f i c i e n t l y as a separate system. I t i s hypothesized that an integrated system of road, r a i l and lake transport can be used as a means of achieving the economic, physical and so c i a l objectives f o r the balanced regional development of the Volta Basin. In order to evaluate the potential development of transport integration and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of u t i l i z i n g i n -tegrated transport f a c i l i t i e s as a t o o l f o r achieving regional development, the concepts of transport integration and transport coordination are defined and reviewed. I t i s demonstrated that transport integration i s concerned with the i i i employment of each mode of transportation i n the economic circumstances best suited to i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The con-cept of the region and the process of regional planning and development are also reviewed. The regional unit appropriate to planning i n the developing countries i s the 'uniform region', which i s described i n terms of i t s s i m i l a r problem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Regional planning and development have evolved as a means of solving these problems and of ordering the natural and human resources i n order to ensure balanced growth. The Volta Basin regional planning unit i s determined to be viable f o r the purposes of development; however, f o r t h i s study, the region i s extended to include the Tamale Area i n the north and the Accra-Tema Area i n the southeast, because of the tremendous flow of t r a f f i c between the two areas. In order to investigate how Volta Lake transport could be integrated with road and railway systems, the case study approach i s used. The pr i n c i p l e s of integrated trans-port development u t i l i z e d i n the U.S.S.R., and i n the Tennes-see Valley Region and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area of the U.S.A. are reviewed. I t i s observed that an e f f i c i e n t transportation system i s considered to be a means of achieving economic, physical and s o c i a l development i n these countries. The princ i p l e s of transport integration i n the U.S.S.R. include j o i n t t r a f f i c scheduling, d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c among the various modes of transportation, rate i v s tructuring and a centralized system of control. A major l i m i t a t i o n i s the high-cost of transshipment. In the Ten-nessee Valley Region and i n the New York-New Jersey Metro-politan Area of the U.S.A., transport integration i s based on the pri n c i p l e s of j o i n t rate structuring and containership operations respectively. The use of containers eliminates the problem of transshipment; however, the basence of a co-ordinating body i s a major drawback to transport integration i n the Tennessee Valley Region. On the basis of these p r i n c i p l e s , a method f o r i n -tegrating Volta Lake transport with road and railway systems i s proposed. The sources of potential t r a f f i c f o r Volta Lake transport are examined and i t i s concluded that there i s a demand f o r a Volta Lake transportation system. The princ i p l e s of integrated transport development employed i n the U.S.S.R., the Tennessee Valley Region and the New York-New Jersey Metro-po l i t a n Area of the U.S.A. are considered to be relevant f o r application i n the Volta Basin. The establishment of a Lake Transport Authority to implement integrated transport p o l i c i e s i s recommended. I t i s concluded that an integrated transportation system w i l l contribute both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y to the regional objectives of economic development, the provision of better employment opportunities, a higher l e v e l of l i v i n g , provision of community f a c i l i t i e s and services and the ra t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of settlements. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have provided t h e i r assistance i n the development of t h i s study. With p a r t i c u l a r gratitude, I wish to acknowledge the contributions made by Dr. H. P. Oberlander, Head of the Community and Regional Planning Programme, f o r his guidance i n the i n i t i a l stages of t h i s study. Many thanks go to Dr. K. J . Cross, of the Programme, f o r his patience and diligence i n going over the f i r s t draft and f o r his constructive suggestions. I also wish to thank Mr. E. Gibson, part-time l e c t u r e r i n the Programme, f o r h i s seminars on Regional Planning which provided an insi g h t into the process of regional planning and development, and i t s importance to developing countries, including Ghana. The assistance given by Mr. P. L. Evans, Director of Information, Tennessee Valley Authority, i n providing publications on Tennessee River navigation i s greatly appre-ciated. My sincere thanks go to the Town and Country Plan-ning Department of Ghana f o r t h e i r help i n contributing written material and maps on the Volta Basin. F i n a l l y , I wish to thank the United Nations f o r sponsoring my two-year planning programme at' the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i CHAPTER: I. THE PROBLEM OF TRANSPORT INTEGRATION IN GHANA 1 A Statement of the Problem and i t s Importance i n Ghana 2 Statement of the problem 2 The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the problem to Ghana 7 The Concept of Transport Integration 14 Defining the p r i n c i p l e of transport integration 1$ The need f o r transport integration 17 The Need f o r Planning f o r Balanced Regional Development i n Ghana 21 Dual economy and d i f f e r e n t i a l rates of growth 21 Balanced regional development 24 The Hypothesis 27 Summary 27 I I . THE VOLTA BASIN AS A REGION FOR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT The Regional Concept 30 31 v i CHAPTER PAGE The region as viewed by social scientists 31 Planning regions 33 The regions of Ghana 37 The Process of Regional Planning and Development 43 The concept of regional planning and development 43 Regional planning in Ghana 46 The Background of the Volta Basin 51 The geography of the Volta Basin 52 The economic base 54 The resources . 57 Transportation f a c i l i t i e s 58 Population and settlement 6 l Evaluation of the Region of the Volta Basin as a unit for Planning and Development 64 Summary .68 III THE PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATED TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT IN SELECTED COUNTRIES . 71 The U.S.S.R. 1 72 Soviet transportation policy 72 Basic types of transport in the Soviet Union 76 Principles of integrated transport development • 82 Administrative framework for integrated transport operation 89 CHAPTER The implications of integration for application in Ghana Summary THE U.S.A. The transportation policy of the U.S.A. Elements of transportation in the U.S.A. Principles of integrated transport development in the Tennessee Valley Region Principles of integrated transport development in the New .York-New Jersey Metropolitan Region Administrative framework for inte-grated transport operation Implications of integration for appli-cation in Ghana Summary IV APPLICABILITY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRA-TION TO THE VOLTA BASIN Regional Planning Objectives for the Integrated Development of the Volta Basin The Demand for Integrated Transport F a c i l i t i e s Potential t r a f f i c for the Volta Lake transportation system Transport integration in the Volta Basin Administrative Machinery for Integrated Transport Operation v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Integrated Transport and Volta Basin Development 151 Summary 158 V. SUMMARY MD CONCLUSIONS 162 Summary 162 Evaluation of the Concept of Transport Integration and i t s Use as a Means of Achieving Balanced Regional Develop-ment in the Volta Basin 172 Conclusion 175 BIBLIOGRAPHY 177 ix LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE Percentage of Population by Size of Settlement, Volta Basin 6 3 II Percentage Distribution of Traffic in the Soviet Union 7 9 III Composition of River Traffic ( 1 9 5 6 ) in the Soviet Union SO IV V Estimated Annual Tonnage of Freight Through Lake Volta Ports, 1 9 7 0 Estimated Total Freight at Major Cross-ings ( 1 9 6 2 ) , Volta Basin 1 3 3 1 3 4 VI Location of Planned Agricultural Development, 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 7 0 , Ghana 1 3 7 VII Lake and Road Distribution of North-South Freight Transport Requirements Resulting from Increased Agricul-tural Production in 1 9 7 0 , Volta Basin 1 3 9 VIII New Local Traffic Generated by Lake Volta Community Development, 1 9 7 0 1 4 0 IX Summary of Total Capital and Annual Costs for Alternative Systems, Volta Basin 1 4 3 LIST OF FIGURES Railway and Road Network in Ghana Extent of Volta Lake and Planning Region Administrative Regions of Ghana Geographical Regions of Ghana Transportation F a c i l i t i e s and Ports in the Volta Basin Principal Phases of the Unified Trans-portation System The General Method of Distribution of Traffic and of Equipment among Various Forms of Transportation The Scheme of Joint Traffic Schedules Tennessee River Navigation - Annual Costs and Benefits Physical Integration of Volta Lake Transportation with Road and Railway Systems Schematic Presentation of Types of Regions that can Exhibit Different Growth Potentials CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM OF TRANSPORT INTEGRATION IN GHANA Transportation i s the movement of persons, property, and goods, from one place to the other. I t i s the l i n k be-tween people and t h e i r s o c i a l and economic organization and i t s main function i s to relate population to land use. Throughout h i s t o r y , man has often s e t t l e d along a r t e r i e s of transportation and there the growth of communities has occurred. Although advances i n technology have made a v a i l -able a wider choice of transportation media, the function of transportation has been equally v i t a l to both primitive and c i v i l i z e d man. Transportation has been and i s today considered an essential factor of l i f e . Much of the history of c i v i l i z a -t i o n has been shaped by transportation since i t has permitted the potential values of natural resources to be r e a l i z e d . Transportation f a c i l i t i e s have u n i f i e d many nations s o c i a l l y , economically, and p o l i t i c a l l y and have contributed to broaden the c u l t u r a l and other aspects of these nations. So v i t a l i s the r o l e of transportation i n the development process that no scheme of national or regional development i s complete unless due regard i s given to the significance of transportation. 2 I t i s doubtful i f the anticipated growth of the economy of a nation can be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y achieved without due attention being given to the eff e c t i v e development and better u t i l i z a t i o n of the nation's transportation resources. E f f i c i e n t production and d i s t r i b u t i o n , e f f e c t i v e use of resources and other measures contributing to economic and s o c i a l development depend s i g n i f i c a n t l y on how well the transportation system performs i t s supporting function. Transportation's role i n contributing to vigorous economic growth or more desirable l i v i n g arrangements i s a positive one. 1. A STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO GHANA Statement of the problem. The need f o r transpor-t a t i o n has arisen from the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of physical, economic and s o c i a l resources on the earth's surface. The unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of physical and economic resources i s expressed i n differences i n the physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o i l and sub-soil and i t s mineral content, differences i n topography and differences i n the kind, q u a l i t y and quan-t i t y of commodities produced i n the differ e n t regions of a country. This has greatly influenced the d i s t r i b u t i o n of population. With people s e t t l i n g i n areas where they can best s a t i s f y t h e i r material needs, both developing and 3 i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries are faced with the problems of areas of population congestion, areas of declining popula-t i o n and also problems of areas of economic and s o c i a l backwardness. The natural resources of a nation have l i t t l e value unless developed f o r human use. Goods must be trans-ported from areas of production to places where they are needed; and people must be carried from one a c t i v i t y to the other. Transportation has therefore been used as a means of overcoming physical space. In economic terms, each space f o r production and l i v i n g has one or more other locations to which i t i s related. Such locations have become f o c a l points f o r diverging and converging movements. Although each l o c a -t i o n has distinguishable functions, i t i s generally joined with the others to provide f o r a larger s p a t i a l range of economic a c t i v i t i e s . In most countries, there i s also the objective of using transportation as a means of evening out and r a i s i n g the standards of economic and s o c i a l prosperity. Transportation has therefore come into existence not only as a means of overcoming the distance between two l o c a l i t i e s but also as an instrument f o r achieving other objectives. In the developing countries, transportation i s rarely desired f o r simple convenience. I t i s often developed with other objectives i n view. These objectives may include the exploitation of natural resources, the increase of a g r i -4 c u l t u r a l production, the increase of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , the improvement of urban,amenities and r a i s i n g of l i v i n g standards. The degree to which these developmental aims can be achieved i s generally determined by the e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation system. This, i n turn, depends on how well transportation f a c i l i t i e s are integrated to provide a fast and improved service, lower transportation costs, and maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of transportation resources. The regional planner i s inescapably concerned with transportation planning. Transportation f a c i l i t i e s are a l -ways related to the land and have a setting i n s p a t i a l r e l a -tionships. About 30 per cent of the developed land of an area i s devoted to transportation. I t therefore competes with other a c t i v i t i e s f o r land. In addition, transportation to a large extent, determines the use of land and the density of development. Transportation f a c i l i t i e s have a direct im-pact on adjacent land uses and on the ways i n which s e t t l e -ments develop i n regional patterns. At the same time, the kind and amount of t r a f f i c generated and the types of trans-portation f a c i l i t i e s required are dictated by the land uses. The role of the regional planner i n transportation planning i s dictated by the above considerations. The pro-v i s i o n of e f f i c i e n t , safe and economical transportation f a c i l i t i e s and services must be one of his primary aims. The planner must be able to v i s u a l i z e the transportation 5 industry as a whole and i n a comprehensive manner. Due regard must be given to both passenger and f r e i g h t transport, to i n t e r - r e g i o n a l and intra - r e g i o n a l transport, to r a i l , road, water, and a i r transport. Above a l l , transportation planning needs to be coordinated with land use planning because of t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Each mode of transportation plays an important ro l e i n the transportation industry. The services offered vary from one system to another. Competition among the dif f e r e n t modes of transportation hinders the r e a l i z a t i o n of these services and the e f f i c i e n t functioning of the transportation system. In order to achieve an optimum u t i l i z a t i o n and a maximum e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation f a c i l i t i e s of a country, i t i s necessary to integrate these f a c i l i t i e s . Integration assumes the usage of two or more modes of transport i n the movement of a shipment or a person from point of o r i g i n to point of destination. I t may be argued that developing countries do not have the pressing need f o r transport i n t e g r a t i o n since there i s no over-supply of transport services. This does not, however, mean the absence of. competition between d i f f e r e n t means of transportation f o r t r a f f i c . On the contrary, competition has been and i t s t i l l i s acute i n the developing countries despite the ove r a l l deficiency of f a c i l i t i e s . Developing countries are not only faced with the problem of how to make the best use of existing transportation 6 services; they are also faced with the problem of planning f o r expanded transportation services. The rate of physical, economic, and s o c i a l development of these countries can be summed up i n the following phrase: . " a v a i l a b i l i t y of an e f f i c i e n t transportation system.!' In i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries, l i k e the United States of America and Russia, integration of transportation has been given much attention. I t has been the national policy of these countries to integrate transportation services, that i s to f i t them together i n a systematic way i n order to make use of the respective function of each i n the transportation sys-tem. The need f o r transport integration i s not a new propo-s i t i o n . I t has, however, attained greater priminence i n recent years because of the development of a variety and competing modes of transport. The means of implementing t h i s policy vary from country to country, depending on such factors as the p o l i t i c a l system, transportation objectives and p o l i -c i e s , and transportation administration. The importance of the p r i n c i p l e of transport i n t e -gration has been accepted by many countries, such as B r i t a i n , Hungary, Russia, the United States of America, and Burma. I t has been r e a l i z e d that i n a complex society, "no single system of transportation can provide f o r a l l the movements involved."^ Integration of transport systems i s therefore Steering Group and Working Group. T r a f f i c i n Towns, (London: H. M. Stationery O f f i c e , 1963), p. 31. 7 required. The significance of the problem f o r Ghana. In order to put into perspective the problem of transport integration i n Ghana, a b r i e f analysis of the development of transportation, as i t relates to t h i s problem i s neces-sary. Many factors have influenced transportation develop-ment i n Ghana. Some of these factors have proved more s i g n i f i c a n t than others. The result has been a concentra-t i o n of transportation f a c i l i t i e s i n the southwestern and southeastern sections of the country, around Kumasi i n the Ashanti Region and a r e l a t i v e lack of transportation f a c i -l i t i e s i n the Northern Region and parts of the Volta Region, as shown i n Figure 1, on page S. "Head porterage" was the e a r l i e s t means of trans-port i n Ghana. Before the advent of railways and l a t e r , motor transport, there was no alternative means of convey-ance except f o r the l i m i t e d use of the Ankobra and Volta Rivers. The beginning of the twentieth century, saw the construction of a railway l i n e to Kumasi. "This and the subsequent r a i l development came from the need to l i n k i n -ternal areas of potential a g r i c u l t u r a l and mineral produc-tio n to world markets, and potential Ghanaian markets to external areas of production."2 Internal trade grew i n ^Gould, P. R. Transportation i n Ghana (Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Northwestern University, Department of Geography, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 159. F I G U R E 1 R A I L A N D R O A D N E T W O R K IN G H A N A 9 foodstuffs to supply the mines and the growing urban centres. The importance of railways i n the development of the country was not apparent, u n t i l the introduction of the motor car, which extended the hinterland of the railways to include the remote areas. Road access to towns and l i t t l e v i l l a g e s meant more r a i l shipments. R a i l and road r e l a t i o n -ship changed a f t e r the second world war, when roads assumed the capacity of a primary transportation f a c i l i t y . Competi-t i o n between r a i l and road was i n i t i a t e d at t h i s period. The continuation of t h i s c o n f l i c t i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the persistence of the functions of railways and roads as inde-pendent d i s t r i b u t i o n systems. Roads were b u i l t i n certain areas p a r a l l e l i n g railways, which consequently l o s t t r a f f i c to road transport. Railways were forced to become the c a r r i e r s of bulk ores and timber only. The absence of control and regulations which might curb t h i s "wasteful" competition, or which might ensure a healthier competition between the diff e r e n t modes of transportation, made i t impossible f o r the early r e a l i z a -t i o n of the importance of r a i l transport. Today, only a small section of Ghana i s served by railways, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1 on page 8. The whole of the Volta Region as w e l l as parts of Ashanti and the Western Region are s t i l l e n t i r e l y dependent on road transport. Although road transport has contributed 10 greatly to the opening up of the country, i t cannot alone s a t i s f y transportation requirements of the areas mentioned. More transportation f a c i l i t i e s need to be provided, however t h i s may aggravate the "transportation problem". Planning must envisage the problems mentioned above and attempts should be made to eliminate them. Water transport has suffered a worse fate than r a i l transport. In contrast with the growing significance of r a i l and road transport today, water transport has greatly declined. Early water transportation followed the h i s t o r i c a l north-south alignment and t r a f f i c along the Volta River con-sisted mainly of s a l t carried by canoe to the v i c i n i t y of Salaga, i n the Northern Region. At the beginning of the century the high costs of road transportation increased the need to develop water transport. Attempts were made to develop the Volta as a trade artery. The transportation of foodstuffs from Ada to Longoro, was one of the major attempts made; but the prolon-gation of the journey due to the presence of rapids led to the abandonment of t h i s policy. The rapid development of road transport as a re s u l t of the cocoa industry, perpetuated the decline of water transport. At present, there i s l i t t l e movement of passengers and commodities on the Volta above Akosombo. Many factors account f o r the decline of commerce along the Volta. 11 "The f i r s t i s the existence of natural impedi-ments i n the water; f o r example sand bars and rapids and also stage fluctuations i n the l e v e l of water i n the Volta. Secondly, no re a l e f f o r t has been made so f a r to provide navigable chan-nels along the courses of the r i v e r . L a s t l y , the population, i n d u s t r i a l and commercial a c t i v i -t i e s have been scattered and t h e i r needs f o r out-side goods have been served by trucks at a few points."3 The r e v i v a l of water transport i s , however, a n t i -cipated with the completion of the Volta River Project. The project i s a multi-faceted scheme involving the mining of bauxite; i t s reduction to alluminum using power from the H. E. P. development on the Volta River; the i r r i g a t i o n of a part of the Accra P l a i n s ; the improvement of transportation; and the provision of power for urban and i n d u s t r i a l uses. The Volta Lake which w i l l be formed as a r e s u l t of the Volta River Project w i l l cover an area of 3275 square miles; i t w i l l have a length of 250 miles and a width of 25 miles. Figure 2 on page 12 shows the extent of the Volta Lake. The creation of the Volta Lake w i l l open up large areas of the Northern and Eastern Sections of Ghana, which were formerly inaccessible. These areas w i l l be developed i n the near future f o r the purposes of human settlement and f o r the purposes of a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The u t i l i z a t i o n of the Volta Lake f o r the purposes of trans-portation " w i l l be necessary to handle passengers, the export 3Department of Town Planning. The Volta Basin.  Regional Plan - Lake Transportation (Accra: Department of Town and Country Planning, n.d.), p. 2. F I G U R E 2 E X T E N T O F T H E V O L T A L A K E A N D P L A N N I N G R E G I O N of products from the region, the import of raw materials to serve the l o c a l industries i n the region and to serve as a l i n k i n cross-country shipping;".^ The use of the Volta Lake f o r transportation pur-poses i s l i k e l y to pose problems of competition with e x i s t -ing highways and railway systems, which have been the domi-nant means of inland transportation. The greatest impact and eff e c t of t h i s problem w i l l be f e l t i n the Volta Basin -the l o g i c a l sphere of influence of the Volta River Project. The need to improve the economic, s o c i a l , and physical aspects of the region, c a l l s f o r ways and means of ensuring an optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of the o v e r a l l transportation resour-ces of the region. The lack of good transportation f a c i l i -t i e s has been a major f a c t o r i n hindering the development of the Basin. The scope of the thesis embraces an investigation into the p o s s i b i l i t y of employing an integrated transporta-t i o n system as a means of promoting the regional development of the Volta Basin. The investigation includes a review of the p r i n c i p l e of integration, a description of the concept of a region, the concept of regional planning and develop-ment and an evaluation of the v i a b i l i t y of the 'region' of the Volta Basin as a unit f o r planning and development and f o r transport integration. Because integration has been ^ I b i d . , p. 3. 14 achieved i n di f f e r e n t ways by di f f e r e n t countries, case studies have been chosen from Russia and the United States of America, to i l l u s t r a t e the pr i n c i p l e s of integration; these p r i n c i p l e s are then applied to the Volta Basin; and f i n a l l y the type of growth that might occur i n the Volta Basin with the introduction of integrated transportation f a c i l i t i e s i s described. The study i s based on the assumptions that: 1. Inter- and i n t r a - regional t r a f f i c w i l l increase to the extent of warranting the use of the Volta Lake as well as the provision of r a i l and more road f a c i l i -t i e s i n the Basin. 2. Volta Lake transportation, when i t i s provided, w i l l be u t i l i z e d f o r the transportation of both goods and persons. I I . THE CONCEPT OF TRANSPORT INTEGRATION I t i s d i f f i c u l t to define i n concrete terms the p r i n c i p l e of transport integration. Transport integration and transport coordination have been used interchangeably by some authors while others t r y to distinguish the d i f f e r -ences between them. While these differences are not clear-cut, they are important i n comprehending the process of integration. An attempt I s made i n t h i s section to i d e n t i f y 15 and define the several meanings of the terms "transport co-ordination" and'transport i n t e g r a t i o n " and what they imply. Defining the pr i n c i p l e s of transport coordination  and transport integration. The International Labour Con-gress at i t s fourth session i n 1951, defined transport co-ordination as the "harmonious combination of agents of functions towards the production of a result,"5 i n other words, "to organize transport - - - - - i n such a way as to provide the required services, as economically, e f f i c i e n t l y and uniformly as possible, to f a c i l i t a t e trade and reduce the cost of goods carried."6 I t further defined coordina-t i o n as: The regulation and ordering of transportation safeguarding and encouraging the development of the same i n conformity with technical and econo-mic p o t e n t i a l i t i e s without allowing the free expansion of one at the expense of the other. 7 M. ¥. F a i r and E. W. Williams i n t h e i r book en-t i t l e d "Economics of Transportation", defined coordination as "the placing of separate units i n such a position as to permit the establishment of a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p among them."8 5 I n t ernational Labour Organization. Coordination  of Transport Labour Problems (Genoa: International Labour Organization, 195D, p. 14. • ^I b i d . , p. 14. 7 I b i d . , p. 13. ^ F a i r , M. L., and Williams, E. W. ( J r . ) . Economics  of Transportation (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1959), p. 650. The above d e f i n i t i o n s presuppose a m u l t i p l i c i t y of unit s . Emphasis i s on the organizational rather than on the functional aspects of t h i s relationship. Coordination may be achieved within the same system of transportation. R a i l -roads i n the United States of America were the f i r s t to r e a l i z e the need to coordinate; because as t h e i r numbers increased and as they attempted c o l l e c t i v e l y to provide service to an extended market, they were compelled to f i n d means of coordinating t h e i r operations. Integration, as distinguished from coordination, "refers to the systematic arrangement of the modes of transportation i n a given area i n accord with the economic f i t n e s s of each mode - - - - -integration may be a goal of a public agency or a private c a r r i e r system i n a program of developing each mode i n i t s l o g i c a l place. Integration i s thus employing the pr i n c i p l e of e f f i c i e n c y i n transportation planning and adjustment."9 Integration,' as defined, involves the d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n of the functions of each mode of transportation and i t s employment where i t can best serve the public i n t e r e s t . This means that each mode of transportation i s used i n the economic circumstances best suited to i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Integration therefore embraces more than one system of trans-portation. I t cannot take place within a single system of transportation; the existence of more than one system of 9 l b i d . , p. 659. 17 transportation i s a prerequisite to the successful implemen-t a t i o n of a policy of integration. Although the objectives and purposes of integration and coordination may be i d e n t i c a l , there i s a difference i n emphasis and the scope involved. The need f o r transportation integration. The f a c t that various means of transportation possess certain advan-tages and l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the movement of p a r t i c u l a r types of t r a f f i c , provide the basis f o r integration. Today com-plementary f a c i l i t i e s f i n d themselves i n competition with each other. The growth of competition within the transpor-t a t i o n industry has destroyed the functional relationships that could have existed between c a r r i e r s . Competition has been the core of the "transporta-t i o n problem" facing many countries today; i t means the duplication of administration, and operation at high cost, the duplication of f a c i l i t i e s and the u t i l i z a t i o n of costly services. Transport integration has been posed as the solu-t i o n to t h i s problem. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a c a r r i e r affect the type of commodity which can most suitably be moved by i t . Water transport has been characterized by i t s low cost and i t s a b i l i t y f o r long distance bulk transportation. Inherent i n water transport are numerous handicaps; these are often overshadowed by i t s great advantage of economy. Among these handicaps i s i t s slowness and general dependence on r a i l and road transport to complete a haul. Steamships can only load and unload at ports. Transport to and from inland points can be served only by other modes of transportation. Water transport i s thus mutually linked with land transportation; the encouragement of competition between these destroys t h i s interdependence. Railways, l i k e water c a r r i e r s , require a large c a p i t a l outlay f o r terminal f a c i l i t i e s ; most of t h i s c a p i t a l outlay i s f i x e d and i n v a r i a b l e , whatever the amount of t r a f -f i c carried. Consequently, costs per unit of t r a f f i c decrease with increasing t r a f f i c volume. The economic and e f f i c i e n t functioning of r a i l transport necessitates the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s capacity. The advantages of r a i l transport as opposed to road transport, f o r instance, l i e i n i t s a b i l i t y to consoli-date a number of carrying units into one t r a i n ; and i n i t s a b i l i t y to handle raw materials of industry and bulky or heavy a r t i c l e s which pass i n quantity. On the other hand, r a i l transport i s handicapped by the fact that i t can pro-vide services only at p a r t i c u l a r points and has to depend on motor transport f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods and persons from terminal to destination. Road transport presents a d i f f e r e n t picture to that of r a i l and water transport. The adaptability and 19 f l e x i b i l i t y of motor transport sets i t apart from other modes of transportation. Road transport i s not fixed to one route, and a c c e s s i b i l i t y can be obtained where there i s a road of some sort , improved or unimproved, over which to operate. The operations of motor c a r r i e r s are f l e x i b l e and adjustable because they use the public highways i n which they have no investment. Operations can thus be shi f t e d from one route to another without any loss of funds invested i n f i x e d f a c i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , road transportation ser-vices can be started with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c a p i t a l and can be successfully operated, where t r a f f i c volume would not be s u f f i c i e n t to support a railway. This broad adaptability applies i n s t i l l another way. The motor vehicle, both i n f r e i g h t and passenger ser-vice, lends i t s e l f to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of an unlimited variety of needs. I t provides door-to-door service and fa s t transportation i s obtained to the exact destination required. The shipper, who uses commercial motor f r e i g h t , enjoys frequency of scheduling because of the f l e x i b i l i t y of i t s timetables. Terminal handling and operations are avoided. Owing to t h i s reduced handling, f r a g i l e a r t i c l e s are less l i k e l y to be damaged when senit by road, and packing costs are greatly reduced. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of dif f e r e n t types of c a r r i e r reveal the fact that the services they provide are comple-mentary. The provision of r a i l or water transport f a c i l i t i e s i s not complete without a connecting highway system. The provision of j o i n t services by complementary c a r r i e r s i s the beginning of transport integration. I t i s exemplified i n a l l transport arrangements f o r the through movement of t r a f f i c by road and r a i l , by r a i l and water, and by water and road. The minimum requirement f o r integration, i n t h i s respect, i s the location of f a c i l i t i e s f o r the transfer of people and commodities. The better provided i t i s with cost reducing and expediting f a c i l i t i e s , the higher the degree of integration. Technological advancement has placed before man a variety of transportation media. This has created the need f o r f i t t i n g them together into a systematic arrangement, and of forming a coherent whole from the constituent parts. Under t h i s arrangement, i t w i l l be possible to assign each f a c i l i t y to those transport tasks f o r which i t i s best suited. A compromise w i l l then be attained between monopoly and competition; such as w i l l provide an optimum service at low cost. Since transport integration involves a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s and p o l i c i e s , certain compromises may be required. However, the public interest should guide integrated trans-portation p o l i c i e s and not the maximization of p r o f i t . 21 I I I . THE NEED FOR PLANNING FOR BALANCED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA The origins of the problems that developing coun-t r i e s have to contend with are f a r from recent. These problems have, however, gained a wider recognition, import-ance and urgency and are by no means r e s t r i c t e d to the "transportation problem". The trend of growth i n these countries has been considerably influenced by former colo-n i a l p o l i c i e s . The outcome has been an emphasis on the development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l sector to the exclusion of the secondary sector of the economy. As a r e s u l t of t h i s type of development p o l i c y , the income and standard of l i v i n g of the people i s low. In order to solve t h i s problem, most developing countries have embarked on a p o l i c y of indus-t r i a l i z a t i o n and a policy of d i v e r s i f y i n g t h e i r economic base as a means of achieving s o c i a l objectives. Dual economy and d i f f e r e n t i a l rates of growth. A system of "dual economy", which i s the co-existence of two types of economic systems - an exchange economy and a sub-sistence economy has developed i n Ghana. The exchange sec-t o r forms an i n t e g r a l part of the world economy, and has been r e l a t i v e l y well developed. In sharp contrast, i s the subsis-tence sector, which produces f o r family and l o c a l consumption and sometimes i t remains completely i s o l a t e d from the market economy. The two sectors are marked by unequal l e v e l s of l i v i n g . The gap between these two sectors w i l l increase gradually i f the imbalance i s not redressed. Dualism implies a divergent pattern of economic growth among the various sections of the country, with the les s developed areas depending on the developed areas. This means an overconcentration of economic and other a c t i v i t i e s i n a few large c i t i e s , and the neglect of other areas. These large c i t i e s receive most of the investment fo r development. Ultimately, a s i t u a t i o n of substantial diseconomies w i l l develop as the c i t i e s become too congested and rents and the costs of urban services greatly increase. Dualism has resulted i n the l i m i t a t i o n of the available market because of the absence of a high purchasing power i n a larger section of the country and the f l i g h t of c a p i t a l to the already developed areas. Phy s i c a l l y , there i s an apparent d i s p a r i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c i t i e s , towns and v i l l a g e s and i n the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of transportation and other f a c i l i t i e s . Urbaniza-t i o n has progressed more i n the south than i n other areas i n Ghana. C i t i e s and towns of 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 and 5 0 , 0 0 0 population and over, respectively are a l l located i n the southern sec-t i o n of the country. The Northern and Volta Regions contain settlements of 5 , 0 0 0 population or l e s s . This pattern i s closely related to the pattern of transportation development, to the provision of urban and s o c i a l amenities, and to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of employment opportunities. The concentration of urban development has led to the domination of the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of Ghana by Accra and to a l e s s e r extent by Kumasi. These "primate" c i t i e s , which are larger i n size than any other settlement i n the country have func-tioned to r e s t r a i n the development of the country as a whole, as well as to hinder the development of other areas. These c i t i e s have thus contributed to the existence of poverty i n areas such as the Volta and Northern Regions. Owing to poor economic conditions as w e l l as poor s o c i a l conditions i n the Northern and Volta Regions, there has been a g r a v i t a t i o n of population to the south. Here they are able to obtain employment mostly as labourers on cocoa farms, i n mines or on road works. Consequent upon a l l t h i s , have been the congestion of population i n the southern sec-t i o n , the further development of t h i s section at the expense of other sections, and the widening of the gap between the developed and the less developed sections. One of the means of bridging t h i s gap and of coun-teracting t h i s unequal rate of growth i s through a program of balanced development of the economic, physical, and s o c i a l aspects of a l l the regions of Ghana. Although planning can be done on the national l e v e l , the national s p a t i a l unit i s usually too large, too d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t e r n a l l y , and too f a r 2 4 removed from the l o c a l scene to provide f o r an effective framework f o r l o c a l planning and development. On the other hand, the urban area i s too small a u n i t f o r the e f f e c t i v e planning of development. The region has therefore evolved as an intermediate l e v e l employed i n planning f o r develop-ment. Balanced regional development. The purpose of regional development may be defined as the achievement of "progress toward the goal of higher economic standards of l i v i n g by putting the resources of an area to work to pro-vide a better l i f e f o r the inhabitants; The concept of regional development i s a l l -i n c l u s i v e i n that i t embraces a l l the aspects of the economy of an area. E s s e n t i a l l y , i t implies the making of decisions i n the l i g h t of an understanding of the future of the area concerned. This means an understanding of the d i r e c t i o n of economic trends and a knowledge of the impact and ramifica-tions of these decisions on the progress of the area as a whole. Thus regional development can ensure that communi-t i e s develop along certain sound l i n e s ; and can prevent mistakes i n l o c a t i o n or development, which because of t h e i r uneconomic nature, may prove costly both to industry and to the community. 10Hamman, G. "The Concept of Regional Development", Appraisal Journal (October, 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 4 9 9 . 25 The development of the physical, s o c i a l , and economic aspects of a community cannot be done on an ad hoc basis. I t must proceed simultaneously and i n r e l a t i o n to each other, since development of one aspect of a community has i t s repercussions on other aspects. The concept of balanced development, as used i n t h i s paper, means an appro-priate r e l a t i o n between economic, s o c i a l and physical fac-t o r s . In t h i s r e l a t i o n , each factor i s given due attention i n the t o t a l complex. In the process of balanced regional growth, economic development often receives a greater emphasis than other f a c t o r s , because i t determines to a considerable extent the s o c i a l well-being and the physical growth of an area. The l o c a t i o n of industries within a region has contributed to the improvement of the standard of l i v i n g of the l o c a l inhabitants, to the provision of more employment opportuni-t i e s , and to the location of urban settlements. The balanced regional development of the Volta Basin i s a desirable step toward an integrated economic, s o c i a l and physical system f o r Ghana. Not only w i l l i t be a means of easing the population pressure i n the south and of disseminating economic and urban a c t i v i t i e s , but i t would also be a means of implementing the p o l i c y of providing a better l i f e f o r the people of Ghana. The development of the various regions of Ghana cannot be divorced from the notion of specialization and the division of labour. Each region should be developed with reference to i t s natural and potential resources and as part of an overall national system. The degree of interdependence between the regions and the degree of development within regions w i l l depend largely on the efficiency of the transportation system. Transportation thus makes regional specialization possible; and the planning of f a c i l i t i e s for movement within and be-tween regions has become important to regional planning. The provision of adequate transportation f a c i l i t i e s has often provided the framework for detailed regional planning and development. One of the steps toward the achievement of balanced regional growth and toward the spatial integration of a c t i v i -ties i s therefore the creation of inter- and intra- regional systems of transportation. The overall development of the Volta Basin w i l l be greatly retarded i f adequate and economi-cal transportation f a c i l i t i e s are not provided. Location theory points out that for the optimal choice of a site for economic development, total transportation costs must be minimized. The reduction of transportation costs would provide a means of creating a favourable climate for invest-ment and development in the Volta Basin. Since the use of the Volta Lake would offer a cheaper means of transportation than existing means of transport, and since water transport 27 cannot function as a separate system, i t i s necessary to integrate the Volta Lake transportation system with other systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y railways and highways. The achievement of t h i s objective would ensure the mobilization of the re-sources of the Volta Basin - including the remote areas not served by transportation f a c i l i t i e s , better employment oppor-t u n i t i e s , a higher standard of l i v i n g and a better d i s t r i b u -t i o n of settlements. IV. THE HYPOTHESIS The hypothesis of t h i s paper i s that an Integrated System of Railway, Road and Lake Transportation would c o n t r i -bute towards the achievement of the Balanced Physical, Economic and Social Objectives f o r Development of the Volta Basin; Ghana. Summary. Transportation has been defined as the movement of persons, property, and goods, from one place to another. I t s main function i s to r e l a t e population to land use. The need f o r transportation has arisen because of the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources on the earth's surface. These resources have l i t t l e value unless'they are developed f o r human use. Goods must therefore be moved from the areas of production to the areas of consumption; people must also be carried from one a c t i v i t y to the other. Transportation has thus developed as a means of overcoming p h y s i c a l space, although d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have used i t as a means of a c h i e v i n g o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s . The degree t o which these o b j e c t i v e s a re achieved depends on how w e l l the t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have been i n t e g r a t e d . Transport i n t e g r a t i o n , as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t r a n s -port c o o r d i n a t i o n , i s concerned w i t h the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n s of each mode of t r a n s p o r t and i t s employment where i t can best serve the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . I t i s c o n s i d e r -ed a s o l u t i o n t o such problems as e x c e s s i v e competition and d u p l i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s , which f a c e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y today. In Ghana, competition between the d i f f e r e n t modes o f t r a n s p o r t l e d t o the e a r l y d e c l i n e of water t r a n s -port and the u t i l i z a t i o n o f r a i l t r a n s p o r t i n the southern s e c t i o n o f the country o n l y . The r e v i v a l o f water t r a n s p o r t as a r e s u l t o f the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the V o l t a Lake f o r t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n purposes, i s l i k e l y to pose f u r t h e r problems of competition w i t h e x i s t i n g r a i l and road systems, which have been the major means of i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The need f o r economical means of t r a n s p o r t i n the development of the V o l t a Basin and the mutual interdependence between these modes c a l l f o r ways and means of i n t e g r a t i n g the V o l t a Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System w i t h road and r a i l w a y systems. The development of a "dual economy" i n Ghana has r e s u l t e d i n a d i v e r g e n t p a t t e r n o f economic growth among the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f the country, with the l e s s developed areas depending on the more developed areas. Consequently, economic and other a c t i v i t i e s have been concentrated i n a few large c i t i e s to the neglect of other areas. The pro-v i s i o n of integrated transport f a c i l i t i e s would help to bridge t h i s gap and to counteract t h i s unequal rate of growth. The process of development i n such backward regions as the Volta Basin and the Northern Region should be a balanced one, i n that the physical, s o c i a l , and economic aspects of the regions should be given due consideration; since development i n one aspect has i t s repercussions on other aspects. CHAPTER I I THE VOLTA BASIN AS A REGION FOR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t h e problem o f t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e need f o r i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s as a means o f a c h i e v i n g r e g i o n a l development i n Ghana have been examined. A p o l i c y o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p -ment must be implemented w i t h i n a s p a t i a l framework and w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f economic r e s o u r c e s and p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y . Both r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment have been connected w i t h the r e g i o n a l c oncept, which has been d e f i n e d v a r i o u s l y by t h e d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s , such as geography and s o c i o l o g y . However, the r e g i o n has been a c c e p t e d as a t o o l f o r a n a l y s i s and f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s ; i n p l a n n i n g , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d as a l o g i c a l and p r a c t i c a l u n i t f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g c e r t a i n d e s i r e d n a t i o n a l programs. On t h i s p r e m i s e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine and d e f i n e c a r e f u l l y t h e r e g i o n a l concept and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o Ghana; t o a n a l y s e t h e p r o c e s s o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and development i n Ghana and t o e v a l u a t e the v i a b i l i t y o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n as a ' r e g i o n ' f o r p l a n n i n g and development. I. THE REGIONAL CONCEPT The word •region' has often been used synony-mously with the word 'area'. Thus employed, i t s meaning becomes i n d e f i n i t e and can be applied to a community, c i t y , d i s t r i c t or any other s p a t i a l unit of a country. A vague-ness of meaning has developed which regional s c i e n t i s t s have t r i e d to remedy. Despite t h e i r e f f o r t s , a number of d e f i n i -tions have been derived, depending on the functions f o r which the region i s defined. To some, the region has been considered as an area having certain c u l t u r a l and physical att r i b u t e s which set i t apart from other regions. To some, the concept of the region has been developed as a means to an end. The region as viewed by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . The available d e f i n i t i o n s of the region can be grouped under two main categories. The f i r s t category i d e n t i f i e s a region as a grouping of a number of unique elements. These elements may be physical or human elements or both. I t i s e s s e n t i a l , however, that they exhibit considerable homogeneity and unity. Under t h i s category a 'region' may be defined as: Any one part of a national domain s u f f i c i e n t l y u n i f i e d physiographically and s o c i a l l y , to have a true consciousness of i t s own customs and ideals and to possess a sense of d i s t i n c t i o n from other parts of the country.H -^U.S. National Resources Committee. Regional  Factors i n National Planning (Washington, D.C: U.S. Govern-ment Pr i n t i n g Department, 1935), p. 14. 32 In p r a c t i c a l terms, such a r e g i o n f a c i l i t a t e s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f data f o r a n a l y t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e pur-poses. Out o f t h i s concept have emerged a number of r e g i o n s , such as the a g r i c u l t u r a l , c l i m a t i c , c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l and o t h e r types of r e g i o n s . A m u l t i t u d e of r e g i o n s may be d e f i n e d depending on the f a c t o r s used to measure thern. I t may be added t h a t such ' s i n g l e - f a c t o r ' or p r o t o - r e g i o n s cease to e x i s t once o t h e r f a c t o r s come i n t o p l a y . They a r e on l y v a l u a b l e where s p e c i a l i z e d data are being c o n s i d e r e d . The second category d e a l s w i t h r e g i o n s , a s dynamic u n i t s . Geographers and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s o f t e n see the r e g i o n as an area of i n t e r a c t i o n and constant change, r e s u l t -i n g from attempts to s o l v e environmental and human problems. Thus the r e g i o n i s "an area w i t h i n which the combination o f environmental and demographic f a c t o r s have c r e a t e d a homoge-n e i t y of economic and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . ' A 2 Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t , the r e g i o n i s a ' m u l t i - f a c t o r ' area measured i n terms of s e v e r a l phenomena. I t always e x h i b i t s ' a c o r r e l a t i o n be-tween p h y s i c a l and human f a c t o r s and expresses both n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from other r e g i o n s . Other r e g i o n s i n c l u d e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s which have been developed f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes. They have come i n t o b e i n g because o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience r a t h e r than because o f any i n n a t e q u a l i t i e s they might possess. I b i d . , p. 142. 33 T h e i r b o u n d a r i e s a r e u s u a l l y a r b i t r a r y a n d a r t i f i c i a l s i n c e t h e y a r e d r a w n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f e x i s t i n g human a n d s o m e t i m e s p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s . T h e y o f t e n c u t a c r o s s t r a d e r o u t e s a n d d i v i d e e t h n i c g r o u p s i n s u c h a way t h a t o n e e t h n i c g r o u p f i n d s i t s e l f u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t w o d i f f e r e n t c o u n -t r i e s . P l a n n i n g r e g i o n s . T h e r e h a v e b e e n d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p i n i o n a s t o m e t h o d s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n a n d m e a s u r e m e n t o f f u n c t i o n s o f r e g i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . I t h a s , h o w e v e r , b e e n r e a l i z e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e t y p e s o f r e g i o n i d e n t i f i e d a b o v e s h o u l d n o t be i g n o r e d , t h e y may n o t be t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a l d i v i s i o n s f o r t h e p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s a t h a n d . The d i f f i c u l t y o f d e f i n i n g a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n w h i c h may s u i t a l l p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s h a s l o n g b e e n r e a l i z e d . G i n s b u r g , i n h i s a r t i c l e o n " T h e R e g i o n a l P l a n -n i n g C o n c e p t a n d P l a n n i n g R e g i o n s ? - * - 3 p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g r e g i o n s m u s t be b a s e d o n a c o n s i -d e r a t i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e , s c a l e a n d p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g . The p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h p l a n n i n g i s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n may d i c t a t e t h e u s e o f d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s o r a s y s t e m o f r e g i o n s a t t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n -t a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s c a l e o f p l a n n i n g l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t p l a n n i n g c a n b e d o n e i n a r e a s v a r y i n g i n s i z e f r o m a s m a l l v i l l a g e t o a n a t i o n s t a t e a n d b e y o n d . - ^ G i n s b u r g , N . S . " T h e R e g i o n a l C o n c e p t a n d P l a n -n i n g R e g i o n s . " H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g a n d P l a n n i n g N o s . 12 a n d 1 3 . (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1959) 34 Since economic development has been the goal of many develop-ing countries, the need has arisen of implementing these national goals throughout the country. Since the national unit i s generally too large f o r p r a c t i c a l reasons and f o r the purposes of f u l f i l l i n g the above need, and since the urban area i s too small a unit f o r e f f e c t i v e planning, the planning region has been used as a means of implementing national and l o c a l planning objectives. The process of plan-ning also has considerable influence on the size and type of region employed f o r planning purposes. Regions are not s t a t i c u n i t s , they are subject to i n t e r n a l and external forces such as p o l i t i c a l decisions and market forces which may cause changes within the regions themselves. The impro-vement of transportation and communication linkages between two areas w i l l provide opportunity f o r such close i n t e r a c t i o n that they cannot be considered separately f o r planning pur-poses. A broader region must therefore be defined. There are no hard and fast rules about the determination of plan-ning regions. The concept of the planning region demands a f l e x i b l e attitude towards i t s d e f i n i t i o n . I t i s necessary, however, to e s t a b l i s h : regions of maximum distinctiveness - - - - to set up the largest v a l i d regions f o r s p e c i f i c purposes which do not average out s i g n i f i c a n t differences . 1 4 •^Ullman, E. L., "Regional Structure and Arrangement", i n Report No.10 to Office of Naval Research (Washington, -D.C, 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 1 . The regional planner i s often l e f t with a choice between nodal and uniform regions. The nodal region has been defined as the area influenced by a center or f o c a l point; i t i s the f o c a l point and i t s hinterland that con-s t i t u t e the nodal region. The growth of c i t i e s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y , i n western countries, has l e d to the development of urban hierarchies, which range i n siz e from the metropolis to the small urban settlement. The metropolitan region i s thus usually comprised of a large urban agglomeration serv-ing a vast nodal region, which includes a hierarchy of settlements and smaller nodal regions. To t h i s region the metropolitan area provides services and acts as a market f o r the products grown i n the region. The linkage between the metropolis and i t s surrounding area i s provided through a regional transportation system. The extent to which the metropolitan region has been adapted f o r planning and development has been n e g l i -g i b l e . Metropolitan planning often tends to focus attention on the metropolitan or urbanized area of the metropolitan region, i n the attempt to solve such problems as t r a f f i c congestion which are associated with the concentration of people. Although i t i s the urbanized area which gives the metropolitan region i t s v i t a l i t y , i t i s necessary, f o r com-prehensive planning and development, that metropolitan plan-ning takes account of the t o t a l metropolitan region. In the United States of America: 36 i t has been proposed that planning regions should be based upon metropolitan regions and that within each metropolitan region, sub-regional plans should be formulated i n keeping with the nature of the regional hierarchies.^ - 5 The u t i l i z a t i o n of metropolitan regions f o r plan-ning and development i n the developing countries does not have a favourable p o t e n t i a l . Planning within such a narrowly conceived framework r e s u l t s i n the lack of attention to p e r i -pheral areas, where resource development i s most needed. Since developing countries are t r y i n g to develop t h e i r natural resources, which have so f a r been l y i n g i d l e , there i s the need f o r u t i l i z a t i o n of a regional planning unit which would make possible the development of these resources. Planning regions f o r resource development have been delimited i n terms of t h e i r uniform problem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This i s what has been referred to as the uniform region. Such regions vary i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from the dominance of a single f a c t o r to the presence of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of fac-t o r s . In the second type of uniform region, regional development within a national framework i s the objective, and increased e f f i c i e n c y i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of the resource forms part, though not necessarily the most important part, of the developmental problem.1° The drainage basins of r i v e r s have come to be accepted as units f o r regional resource development. This idea o r i g i -nated i n the United States of America, where the f i r s t •^Ginsburg, N. S. op. c i t . , p. 35. l 6 I b i d . . p. 38. 37 attempt at developing natural resources was i n the f i e l d of water resource development. I t was hoped that through the development of water resources f o r a variety of uses, s o c i a l and economic advance i n the watershed would be furthered. The watershed therefore became rapidly i d e n t i f i e d as the 'proper' region f o r planning. The Tennessee Valley Authority program has become a prototype f o r r i v e r basin development, especially f o r the developing countries. The Damodar Basin (in India), the Lower Mekong Basin ( i n Burma) and the Volta Basin develop-ment programs, to mention a few, have a l l been prepared along the l i n e s of the Tennessee Valley development program; i n fact the respective countries sought technical assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (T.V.A.). The progress achieved so f a r by T.V.A. i n developing the Tennessee Valley Region, has provided a l i v i n g monument f o r the ef f e c t i v e use of r i v e r basins f o r regional planning and development. The concept of integrated r i v e r basin development has therefore come to be considered as a technique f o r achieving s o c i a l , economic and physical changes. I I . THE REGIONS OF GHANA With the basic notions and concepts described above i n mind, Ghana can be divided into a number of d i f f e r -ent systems of regions. P o l i t i c a l and geographical factors have been the important c r i t e r i a often used i n dividing the country into regions. For the purposes of administration, the country has been divided i n t o s i x regions, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 3 on page 39, each of which i s further subdivided into administrative d i s t r i c t s . The boundaries of these regions, l i k e other p o l i t i c a l boundaries, have been drawn a r b i t r a r i l y with no reference to the physical features of the country. Most of these regions embody a major s e t t l e -ment uni t , which give them t h e i r character and v i t a l i t y . The settlement units are the seats of regional government and also the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l centers of the regions i n which they are located. The use of such administrative di v i s i o n s f o r regional planning and development purposes poses a number of questions. The problems facing these regions are not con-fined within the p o l i t i c a l boundaries i n which they occur; they transcend these boundaries and affect other p o l i t i c a l units as w e l l . For the purposes of e f f e c t i v e and comprehen-sive regional development, new regions w i l l have to be defined, but at the same time they must be big enough to make possible the solution of problems through regional planning and development. Since Ghana i s a predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l country, climate, s o i l s and vegetation, which are the major influences on a g r i c u l t u r a l production, have provided a s a t i s f a c t o r y framework f o r dividing the country i n t o three broad geogra-phical regions. On the basis of a variety of factors ranging F I G U R E 3 A D M I N I S T R A T I V E R E G I O N S O F G H A N A mil es 40 from physical to economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s , these broad regions have been subdivided to give the geographical reg-ions, shown i n Figure 4 on page 41* Geographical units cannot be regarded as 'proper' regions f o r planning pur-poses, f o r the same reasons that were advanced to explain the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of administrative regions f o r planning. The Krachi and Northern Ashanti Region and the Afram P l a i n s , fo r example, are characterized by such problems as low popu-l a t i o n density, low a g r i c u l t u r a l productivity, and poor transportation f a c i l i t i e s . An approach to the solution of these problems on the basis of geographical regions would resu l t i n a piece-meal approach to planning. I t i s important i n the creation of regional units f o r planning and development to take into account the mutual relationships between the scattered population and the con-centrated population; the mutual exchange of products; and of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between people and land use a c t i v i -t i e s . Often within the region, the r u r a l population provides food and raw materials, while services and i n d u s t r i a l a r t i -cles are provided by the concentrated urban population, which also serves as the place of exchange f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l products and the focus of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and influence. This idea of a region does not imply i s o l a -tionism. A region i s not conceived by planners as an i s o -l a ted and completely s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t u n i t , but as a c e l l i n a larger organism. To a varying degree FIGURE 4 GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS OF GHANA HIGH P L A I N S O F WA A N D M A M P R U S I G O N J A A - N D D A G O M B A S A V A N N A H S v. • « s K R A C H I A N D N O R T H E R N f i v / s A S H A N T I S O U T H E R N A S H A N T I N N % \ U P L A N D S V N S \ \ P L A I N S , ^ ^ C C R A ^ „ V / ' , " V O L T A A K A N L O W L A N D S / ' / P L A I N S , D E L T A '0 IB JO SO 40 50 m i les S o u r c e : B o a t e n g ' E . A . A G e o g r a p h y o' G h a n a i 9 6 0 . 42 i t depends on exchange with neighbouring regions and with the bigger super-region, which might be a country, state or continent. The region i s a basic u n i t , f a c i l i t a t i n g by i t s quality the existence of well functioning larger units.- 1-' Few attempts have been made i n Ghana, i n the f i e l d of regional planning and development and thus i n the estab-lishment of planning regions f o r comprehensive development. The f i r s t regional plan of i t s kind was the Doxiadis plan f o r the Accra-Tema-Akosombo Region i n 1961 which was based on the assumption that the population growth which would re s u l t from the anticipated economic development at Accra and Tema, and the construction of the Volta River Project at Akosombo would influence to a great extent the future of the region. The Volta Basin regional development plan i s another example of coordinated regional development. The Volta Basin planning unit has been defined as the area of direct impact of the Volta River Project. Vague though t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may be, i t has been delimited as an area i n which problems of resource development as well as problems re s u l t i n g from the Volta River Project may be solved. I t i s important to note that each of the above two regions includes a number of physical, s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s , which need to be ordered i n a systematic way to ensure t h e i r proper and balanced development. Glikson, A. Regional Planning and Development (Leiden: Netherlands U n i v e r s i t i e s foundation f o r Internat-i o n a l Cooperation, 1955), pp. 23-24. 43 I I I . THE PROCESS OF REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT The complexity of regions, both i n t h e i r human and physical factors, demands some form of planning that w i l l make possible the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i r human and natural resources as well as f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r proper func-t i o n i n g . Regional planning and development have been asso-ciated with t h i s type of planning. In recent years there has been a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n regional planning. In developed countries, i t has been r e a l i z e d that the existence of l o c a l i z e d poverty within a country c a l l s f o r regional solutions. In developing countries, the r e s u l t i n g l o c a t i o n a l s h i f t s stemming from the process of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has created the need f o r selecting "growth poles and f o r develop-ing new resource bases f o r further economic expansion^-'. 18 The growing need f o r regional planning has also been i n -fluenced by the phenomenal growth of c i t i e s . I t has been rea l i z e d that i n order to solve the problems of urbanization, such as unemployment and overcrowding, a regional approach, i s necessary since most of these problems are generated outside the c i t y l i m i t s . The concept of regional planning and development. The term 'regional planning' has been used by geographers, regional s c i e n t i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , et cetera, to describe a "Friedman, J.(ed.). "Introduction to Special Issue on Regional Development and Planning", Journal of American  I n s t i t u t e of "Planners, XXX (May, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 82. 44 systematic and functional ordering of theinatural and human resources of an area. There have, however, been tremendous changes i n the concept and process of regional planning and development. I t was formerly accepted as a means of combat-t i n g the threat of the breakdown of communities. The main focus then was a strategy f o r growth and f o r working out the di r e c t i o n , sequence and extent of development within and around the major urban centre of the region. The metropoli-tan area was therefore considered as the l o g i c a l unit f o r regional planning since the problems that regional planning t r i e d to solve emanated from the metropolitan area. As the concept of regional planning developed, more emphasis was placed on the regulation and d i s t r i b u t i o n of land uses within the region. Because of the growing need f o r land f o r deve-lopment, i t became the task of regional planning to impart a t o t a l view of the rela t i o n s h i p between resources and popula-t i o n . Today, regional planning has received a d i f f e r e n t emphasis, and has become more positive i n i t s approach: Thus the regional planning process has moved from overcoming the waste and misuse of resources to providing a guide f o r the optimum use and deve-lopment of the region's resources and l o c a t i o n a l advantages; and from a preoccupation with h a l t i n g the deterioration of environment to the creation of the best possible physical setting f o r the com-munity's l i f e . x 9 r t l e r , L.O. "Regional Planning and Develop-ment", Resources f o r tomorrow Conference Vol. I (Ottawa: Que en's P r i n t e r , July 1961), p. 398. 45 Regional planning has been defined as: - - - - - - - - a comprehensive ordering of the natural resources of a community, i t s material equipment and i t s population f o r the purpose of laying a sound physical basis f o r the "good l i f e " Regional planning of industries and natural resources, as part of a regional whole.20 Regional planning, wrote the National Resources Committee i n 1935, "should i n the main, confine i t s e l f to dealing with the physical resources and equipment."21 At the United Nations seminar on Regional Planning held i n Tokyo i n 1958, the basic policy of regional planning was established, "to help to develop, assemble and allocate national resources to provide maximum s o c i a l and economic returnsiV22 On the basis of the above d e f i n i t i o n s , i t can be said that regional planning i s a continuing process mainly concerned with a systematic consideration of the functional organization of the resources of an area; and the r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l purposes and s p a t i a l arrangements i n a regional context. Planning on a regional basis does not, however, i s o l a t e the region from i t s national context. Regional planning often provides a framework within which the resources of an area can be u t i l i z e d f o r development 20Mumford? L. and McKaye, B. "Regional Planning", i n Encyclopeadia Britannica, p. 72A. 21 U.S. National Resources Committee, op. c i t . , p. 150. 22ibid., p. 150. 46 projects of national significance. I t i s the task of the regional planner to take into account t h i s l a r g er unit and to establish h i s goals f o r development to f i t i n t o the national goals. Regional planning as pointed out by Friedman, has three main features i n common, no matter where i t i s prac-t i s e d , I t s main purpose i s economic development and the physical and s o c i a l implications r e s u l t i n g from t h i s . Secondly, regional planning seeks to integrate f u n c t i o n a l l y the various regions of a country into the national economy. F i n a l l y , since many regional economic problems affect na-t i o n a l planning and policy, i t i s important to bring regional economic growth within the scope of national as well as l o c a l p o l i c y determination. The economic goal of regional planning i s usually approached by developing the p o s s i b i l i t i e s inher-ent i n the resources, l o c a t i o n and the labour force of a region. In an underdeveloped area, l i k e the Volta Basin, i t i s important f o r regional planning to v i s u a l i z e the regional economic complexes that could materialize and to stimulate a healthy, well-balanced economic as well as s o c i a l and physi-cal growth. .Regional planning i n Ghana. In developing coun-t r i e s , l i k e Ghana, planning f o r development has ofteen been approached from the national l e v e l ; i t tends to concentrate on the economic aspects of development and to ignore the 47 s o c i a l and physical aspects, which are only considered i n so f a r as they have a direct bearing on the economic aspects of the plan. The supposition, upon which t h i s approach has been based, has been that economic growth by i t s e l f can bring bene-f i t s to the l o c a l people. As a r e s u l t , development has been viewed i n terms' of economic and technological output. Usual-l y , national planning p o l i c i e s are applied to the whole country, regardless of the differences that exist between regions. In order to achieve balanced national development, i t i s important that national p o l i c i e s be tested against regional requirements. In the l a s t few decades, developing countries have re a l i z e d the significance of regional planning as a t o o l f o r development. Although regional planning was formerly con-cerned with community development projects, today i t provides the setting within which multi-purpose r i v e r basin develop-ment schemes have been undertaken. Attempts have been made i n these schemes to integrate the physical, economic and s o c i a l aspects of development. However, despite the effects these schemes have on the development of the respective regions within which they are executed, not a l l of them are planned as regional development projects. Otto Koenigsberger states that many (of the r i v e r basin schemes) are l i m i t e d to i r r i g a t i o n , flood control, and power production. Other consequential developments are l e f t to 48 chance, i n f a c t , the planning which has preceded the majority of the projects has been f o r public works and engineering and not regional planning - - - - - - but t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s as a means of economic and s o c i a l reform remain unexploited. 2 j> The engineering aspects of these river-basin deve-lopment projects have often received too much emphasis with l i t t l e or no attention being paid to other aspects. Since regional planning takes a bird's eye view of problems, as i t t r i e s to relate settlement structure to the natural environ-ment, i t gives due consideration to a l l factors involved i n the development process although these may not be acted upon simultaneously. River basin development projects should em-phasize the regional planning function i n order to achieve the balanced development of the regions which come within t h e i r influence. The only regional plans which have so f a r been prepared f o r Ghana, are the Accra-Tema-Akosombo Regional Program and Plan and the Volta Basin Regional Development Plan. The Accra-Tema-Akosombo Regional Plan was considered i n a comprehensive manner i n the survey and analysis stages, i n that i t considered the physical, economic, and s o c i a l forces operating within the region. At the plan stage, how-ever, more emphasis was given to physical and economic oenigsberger, O.H. "Regional Planning i n Asia", i n Housing ? Building and Planning, Nos. 1 2 & 1 3 (New York:-United Nations Department of Economic and Social A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 1 1 9 . 4 9 factors to the exclusion of s o c i a l f a c t o r s . To achieve an ove r a l l development of the region, due consideration should be given to a l l fa c t o r s . Although the Volta River Project was conceived as a means of producing power f o r the smelting of the bauxite i n Ghana, consideration was given at the survey, analysis, and plan stages to physical, economic, and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . The resettlement of people, who w i l l be displaced by the creation of the Volta Lake, labour, agriculture and industry, health and sanitation were some of the problem areas which were examined i n great depth. In order to achieve the deve-lopmental objectives f o r the Volta Basin, a l l aspects of the development process should be carried through to the imple-mentation stage. In the other regions of Ghana, planning i s being done on a l o c a l basis. Although development plans have been prepared f o r the i n d i v i d u a l towns within the regions, there has been no correlation between towns and the greater region of which they form part. The r u r a l areas surrounding these towns have been l e f t to develop by chance and the intimate r e l a t i o n which should e x i s t between town and country has been ignored. A more comprehensive approach to planning i s re-quired, whereby both town and country w i l l be developed simultaneously. Regional planning offers a great deal of scope to t h i s type of development; the u t i l i z a t i o n of 50 regional planning as a means of achieving comprehensive regional development would contribute to the solution of the problems facing the regions of Ghana today. The Physical Planning Act of Ghana, makes provi-sion f o r the establishment of regional planning committees i n each region, comprising the regional commissioner, the secretary to the regional commissioner, the regional heads of mini s t r i e s responsible f o r communications and works, a g r i c u l -ture and s o c i a l welfare, the regional head of the lands sec-r e t a r i a t , and the regional physical planning o f f i c e r f o r the region. The functions of the committee include the carrying out of surveys of the population and employment structure, ex i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l resources, location and capacity of u t i l i t i e s , services, amenities, et cetera. Secondly, the regional committee i s responsible f o r preparing a regional physical planning scheme for the region concerned. Local schemes are required to conform with the regional planning scheme. The r e s t r i c t i o n of the powers of these committees to physical matters, makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r them to achieve a comprehensive and balanced development of the respective regions i n which they operate. The establishment of regional planning agencies vested with such planning powers as would enable them to engage i n a l l aspects of the planning and development process, would be desirable. The establishment of the Volta River Authority (V.R.A.) was a move i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n ; the Volta River Act 51 of 1961, which created the V.R.A. gave i t powers f o r the f u l l development of the Volta Basin. These powers include the planning, execution and the management of the generation of e l e c t r i c a l power, and provision f o r the development of the Volta Lake as a source of f i s h i n g , as a route f o r trans-portation, and the development of the lakeside area f o r the health and well-being of the i n h a b i t a n t s I t i s imposs-i b l e f o r the V.R.A. with such l i m i t e d powers, to achieve a balanced regional development of the Volta Basin and most important of a l l to develop regional planning as the norm fo r development throughout the country. Regional planning agencies, l i k e the V.R.A., should be given wide planning powers i n order to be able to promote the ove r a l l develop-ment of the respective regions f o r which they have been established. IV. THE BACKGROUND OF THE VOLTA BASIN The foregoing sections have defined and analysed the concept of the region and the process of regional plan-ning and development and how these apply to Ghana. The following sections examine the s u i t a b i l i t y of the Volta 24Volta River Authority, Volta Lake Basin-Area Development Plan. (Accra, Ghana: 1963) mimeographed, pp.6-7. Basin as a unit f o r regional planning and development. To provide a basis for evaluation, the geographic, population, economic and transportation background of the Volta Basin i s analysed. The Volta Basin regional planning unit occupies about 2 0 per cent of the t o t a l surface area of Ghana. I t covers parts of the northern, central, eastern, and south-eastern sections of the country. I t forms a d i s t i n c t geo-graphic area, and has a character of i t s own. The extent of the planning region i s shown on Figure 2 on page 1 2 . Within the Volta Basin are found many elements of resource endowment, link e d by natural and ecological processes. I t s major re-source i s water, which i s one of the main sources of elec-t r i c a l energy. Since power i s essential to the manufacturing process, i t has often provided a l i n k between the resource complex of the "natural" region and the economic regional complex. Although the idea of the drainage basin as a desirable area f o r regional planning and development has been widely accepted, i t i s doubtful i f the r i v e r basin i s well suited to the planned development of natural resources other than water. The geography of the Volta Basin. The drainage pattern of Ghana i s dominated by the Volta system. The Volta River has i t s source i n a low range of h i l l s i n the Republic of Upper Volta. As i t flows through Ghana i t i s joined by 53 the Black Volta, White Volta, Afram and O t t i Rivers. A l -though i t exhibits some of the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with West African r i v e r s , such as the occurrence of rapids, the Volta River has a very gentle gradient varying between one and two feet per mile. The flow of the Volta depends on the r a i n f a l l cycle of the Basin. At the peak of the dry season, the Volta River dries up i n most of i t s sections leaving most of the r i p a r i a n communities without water. In the rainy season, on the other hand, the Volta River overflows i t s banks, thus flooding farms and r u r a l settlements. During t h i s season, the transportation of a g r i c u l t u r a l and animal products from the northern region to other parts of the coun-t r y becomes a d i f f i c u l t undertaking, owing to the closing down of f e r r i e s operating at Y e j i and other points along the r i v e r . The geology of the Volta Basin i s comprised of a series of sandstone with shale conglomerates and a few lime-stones. The vo l t a i a n rocks, as these are c a l l e d , are more extensive than any other single system of rocks i n the coun-t r y and they cover some 40 per cent of the t o t a l surface area of Ghana. The voltaian series occur as horizontal folded strata and often give r i s e to flat-topped h i l l s averaging 500 feet, i n height; except at the northern and southern sections of the basin where they form high plateaux ranging to 1,750 feet above sea l e v e l . The climate, and to some extent the geology, of the Volta Basin have given r i s e to a savanna type of vegetation. 54 This i s comprised of scattered short trees with a continuous carpet of grass about twelve'feet i n height. Although the r a i n f a l l exceeds 40 inches per year, the dry season imposes a l i m i t a t i o n on the vegetation. Because of the i n t e n s i t y of the dry season, the f i r s t rains run off the hard-baked s o i l before they are absorbed by the vegetation. Consequently, the trees show a marked adaptation to the dry season, by having hairy leaves which help them withstand the long drought and the dessicating winds. On the eastern and south-western sections of the Volta Basin are forest reserves, where c u l t i v a t i o n and indiscriminate extraction of timber are forbidden by the government. The Volta Basin, therefore, possesses valuable reserves of timber which should form the basis of a timber industry i n the Basin. Along the coast, around the delta of the Volta River, i s found what i s known as a strand and savanna type of vegetation. I t i s comprised of succulent plants and mangroves, which grow mainly near lagoons. . The economic base. The geography of the Volta Basin has determined, to a great extent, i t s economic a c t i -v i t i e s . Since agriculture i s the l i f e b l o o d of Ghana's economy, the regions of which i t i s composed have concentrat-ed on the development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l sector of t h e i r economy. The Volta Basin i s no exception to t h i s r u l e . Except f o r a few manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s established i n the southern section, the Northern and Volta Regions have emerged as predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l areas. I t i s hoped that Ghana's pol i c y of economic development w i l l help i n the transformation of these regions to i n d u s t r i a l areas or i n the improvement of t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l output. The a g r i c u l t u r a l problems which face the Volta Basin are enormous. The voltaian rocks found i n the Basin generally produce t h i n and r e l a t i v e l y i n f e r t i l e s o i l s , which are d i f f i c u l t to c u l t i v a t e . Large sections of the region, therefore l i e i d l e and uncultivated f o r the greater part of the year. In the southern section of the Volta Basin, the prevalence of the tsetse f l y makes both human and animal habitation p r a c t i c a l l y impossible. The rearing of c a t t l e and other livestock i s therefore confined to the northern section, where the r e l a t i v e absence of the tsetse f l y allows c a t t l e farming on a f a i r l y large scale. However, t h i s area suffers an acute water shortage i n the dry season when i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to grow crops. The l o c a l people have to depend on food reserves from the previous harvest. Although famine used to be a common feature at t h i s time, improved transportation f a c i l i t i e s and the spread of trade have almost completely eliminated t h i s threat. Despite the problems enumerated above, farming has become the leading occupation throughout the Basin, apart from some f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the upstream areas of the Volta River and downstream between Akosombo and Ada and some hunting i n the Afram P l a i n s . The Ada-Keta area exports large quantities of dried, salted f i s h to other parts of Ghana; i t also exports s a l t which i s obtained from the lagoons i n the dry season. The food crops grown i n the Basin include yams, maize, r i c e , onions, m i l l e t , and ground-nuts. Except f o r cocoa c u l t i v a t i o n i n parts of the Afram Plai n s , the c u l t i v a t i o n of cash crops f o r export has been i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The average c u l t i v a t o r i n the Volta Basin i s a small farmer who t i l l s one or two acres of land with primi-t i v e instruments. He i s exposed to the v i c i s s i t u d e s of the weather and annual yi e l d s are low. The Volta River Project promises a bright future f o r agriculture i n the Basin. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of water for i r r i g a t i o n from the Volta Lake would bring under c u l t i v a t i o n those areas which have not yet been farmed because of t h e i r a r i d i t y , e s p e c i a l l y during the dry season. The introduction of more e f f i c i e n t farming methods and the introduction of commercial crops would make the Volta Basin an important exporting region. Large scale manufacturing industries are non-existent i n the Volta Basin. This i s due to the lack of some of the essential bases of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , such as coal, power and s k i l l e d labour. The generation of hydro-e l e c t r i c power i n the Basin would stimulate i n d u s t r i a l deve-lopment. There are a number of small scale manufacturing industries which cater to l o c a l and national needs. These 57 i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s include mining, quarrying, building and construction, processing of food s t u f f s , d i s t i l l a t i o n of alcohol, and weaving of t r a d i t i o n a l cloths from l o c a l and imported yarn. For the most part, these industries take place i n small establishments employing 30 or more people. Keta and Ho have developed as important centres f o r the manu-facturing industry and they serve large areas of the Volta Basin. Other settlements usually contain one or two estab-lishments serving l o c a l needs. Resources. The major resource of the Volta Basin, as has been mentioned, i s water. The conservation of the water resources of the Volta Basin prompted the Ghana govern-ment to launch the Volta River Project. In addition to water, the region possesses some potential resources which must be u t i l i z e d to broaden the economic base of the Basin. At Sheini, to the north of the Volta Basin, about 100 m i l l i o n tons of iron ore have been discovered; these would form the basis of a s t e e l or ferro-manganese industry i n the region. The limestone reserves of Morno are believed to be more than 100 m i l l i o n tons and to be suitable f o r the manufacture of cement and f e r t i l i z e r s ; while the bauxite deposits at Yenahin, t o t a l l i n g 400 m i l l i o n tons w i l l be used i n the manufacturing of alluminium products. The nearness of these mineral depo-s i t s to the Volta Lake increases the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of deve-loping a lake, transportation system on Lake Volta. 5a In addition to these mineral resources, the Volta Basin has substantial reserves of forests i n which develop-ment of any kind i s prohibited; since they are valuable re-sources of timber and they also act as shelter belts against the wind and as protection against s o i l erosion. The future of the Volta Basin depends p a r t l y on the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of these resources. Transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The low l e v e l of deve-lopment i n the Volta Basin has been attributed to the lack of e f f i c i e n t and adequate transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The whole Volta Basin i s served only by roads, most of which are i n the second and t h i r d class categories. The only e x i s t i n g f i r s t class or trunk roads j o i n Ada to Accra, Ada to Aflao, and Tema to Kadjebi, as shown i n Figure 5 on page 5 9 . Climatic conditions make road construction and maintenance d i f f i c u l t and expensive; most of the roads become muddy and sometimes impassable i n the rainy season, while they become dusty i n the dry season. The general condition of roads has deterio-rated since the inception of the Volta River Project because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r being flooded by the Volta Lake. In the Afram Plains, as stated by E. A. Boateng, there are p r a c t i c a l l y no roads - - - - - - and the chief means of communications are a few waterways, rough tracks and foot paths. The lack of communication has seriously impeded economic development.25 "^Boateng, E. A. A Geography of Ghana. (London: Cambridge University Press, I960), p. 186. F I G U R E 5 T R A N S P O R T A T I O N F A C I L I T I E S A N D P O R T S m i l e s L e g e n d •i Trunk Roads — S e c o n d C l a s s R o a d s P r o j e c t e d R o a d s © Terminal Ports (D Intermediate Ports Rail Source : Volta Basin Regional Plan 1962 60 The only road that gives access to the area from other parts of Ghana, i s the northward extension of the Nkawkaw-Mpraeso road. The Krachi area to the north, i n spite of i t s vast-ness, i s crossed by only three main roads running northwards through Wenchi, Atebubu and Kete-Krachi. Because of the s c a r c i t y of transportation f a c i l i t i e s , population and farm-ing have both been attracted to the few l i n e s of transporta-t i o n that e x i s t . The creation of the Volta Lake would interrupt the continuity of the national road system. To re-establish t h i s continuity, trunk roads have been proposed to connect o r i g i n and destination points within the Volta Basin and to l i n k the Volta Basin with the rest of the country. A railway l i n e has also been proposed to l i n k Tema and Akosombo. There have been investigations into the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of establish-ing a Volta Lake transportation system, which would connect the northern and southern sections of the country. The fact that the Volta Lake l i e s i n the main d i r e c t i o n of commodity and passenger flow makes i t an important artery of transpor-t a t i o n and an important addition to the transportation re-sources of Ghana. The use of water transport demands the construction of terminal f a c i l i t i e s f o r the movement of goods and people. Two types of lake ports have been recommended: terminal ports, which would provide and f a c i l i t a t e economical cross-country transportation and would serve the communities and 61 the l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s i n the area; and intermediate ports, which would make possible economical transportation and t r a v e l within the region and would provide the transporta-t i o n requirements of people res e t t l e d i n the nearby areas. The provision of an economical and e f f i c i e n t transportation system in the Basin would greatly enhance i t s development which has so f a r been hindered by inadequate transportation f a c i l i t i e s . Population and settlement. Transportation, econo-mic a c t i v i t i e s , climate and vegetation have influenced the density of population and settlement patterns i n the Basin. Although the Volta Basin covers 20 per cent of the t o t a l surface area of the country, i t accounts f o r only 11 per cent ( i e . 725,000 people) of the t o t a l population of Ghana. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of population i n the Basin shows a d i s t i n c t pattern. There i s a concentration of population i n the Lower Volta, East Volta and Krachi area i n the north. In each of these areas, gross population densities range between 54 and 105 persons per square mile. In contrast to these areas i s a r e l a t i v e l y empty middle belt with population densities of ten persons per square mile and l e s s . The low density of population has been ascribed to such factors as poor trans-portation f a c i l i t i e s and the prevalence of the tsetse f l y . Water and transportation have exerted a strong influence on population d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Volta Basin. In the south 62 Volta area, a large number of the settlements are found along the Accra-Keta road. In the west Volta area, population den-s i t i e s increase from nine persons per square mile between Atebubu and Kete-Krachi to over 40 persons per square mile as the rainy sections to the west of the Basin are approached. The sizes of settlements i n the Volta Basin vary from 17,000 people i n Keta to about 90 inhabitants at Alorgui. Of the t o t a l population of the Volta Basin, only 13.1 per cent l i v e i n towns of 5,000 population and over. The rest of the population i s concentrated i n r u r a l settlements with less than 5,000 inhabitants. Table 1, on page 63, i l l u s t r a t e s the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of persons by the size of the s e t t l e -ment. The Volta Basin therefore has a large r u r a l population which earns i t s l i v i n g from a g r i c u l t u r a l pursuits. Keta, the largest town i n the Basin, i s the administrative and commer-c i a l centre of the delta area. I t grew up as a small "surf" port at the ocean terminus of the road network from the Accra region and the Volta Basin. With the building of Takoradi and Tema harbours, the importance of Keta as a port has declined. Other urban settlements with 10,000 people are Denu, Ho and Anloga, a l l of which are located i n the southern section of the Volta Basin. Apart from these urban centres, the region contains a large number of smaller scattered settlements. Most of these settlements w i l l be flooded by the Volta Lake. About 78,000 people w i l l be displaced and w i l l 63 have to be resettled i n areas already inhabited by some 100,000 people. The resettlement of these floodzone r e s i -dents has been a major concern of the V.R.A. and the plan-ners. Potential area densities and the growth of urban centres have been calculated and a resettlement program has been developed, involving a r a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e t t l e -ments which would take advantage of the potential resources of the Volta Basin. TABLE l 2 6 PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION BY SIZE OF SETTLEMENT, VOLTA REGION A l l sizes 100 Percentage Under 100 people 10.9 100 - 199 tt 10.2 200 - 499 tt 18.9 500 - 999 tt 16.7 1,000-1,999 tt 16.3 2,000-4,999 tt 13.9 5,000-9,999 tt 7.7 10,000-19,999 tt 5.4 20,000-49,999 tf -50,000 & over tf -2 oGhana Census Office, I960 Population Census of Ghana, Advance Reports of Volumes I I I and IV (Accra: Census Office, I960), p. 1. 64 IV. EVALUATION OF THE REGION OF THE VOLTA BASIN AS A UNIT FOR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT The analysis of the geography, economy, transpor-t a t i o n and population and settlement patterns i n the Volta Basin reveal the fact that the Volta Basin i s by no means a homogeneous region. I t exhibits differences as well as simi-l a r i t i e s i n i t s i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t embraces a number of geographical regions; at the same time i t cuts across administrative boundaries. In s t r i c t l y geographical terms, the Volta Basin covers an area bigger than the region defined i n the previous section; i t includes a l l areas drained by the Volta Basin. The Volta Basin regional plan-ning u n i t has been carved out of the broader area f o r the purposes of regional planning and development. I t i s impor-tant at t h i s point to evaluate the s u i t a b i l i t y of t h i s region f o r the purposes f o r which i t has been created. The problems found i n the Volta Basin are by no means confined within i t s boundaries. Problems, such as low population density, lack of transportation f a c i l i t i e s and flooding are experienced i n parts of northern Brong-Ahafo and Accra regions as w e l l . One unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Volta Basin i s the fact that i t i s drained by the largest r i v e r i n Ghana, and has a d i s t i n c t i v e geological structure. The most evident need f o r comprehensive planning and balanced growth has arisen i n the Volta Basin, where a 65 3,200 square mile lake w i l l form within the next two years; and i n which the impact of new water transportation and power would affect some 26,000 square miles of Ghana. In some cases t h i s impact w i l l be f e l t throughout the country. The lake, which would reach halfway across the country, would j o i n together with cheap transportation forest and savanna lands, many crop regions and mineral deposits. Below the dam at Akosombo, l i e s a 70 mile stretch of i r r i g a b l e grass lands, which have not yet been cultivated but which might be i r r i g a t e d by pumping water from the lake. The pressing soc-i a l problem associated with the multi-purpose development f o r the Volta Basin, i s the resettlement of the displaced population i n such areas as would f a c i l i t a t e the u t i l i z a t i o n of natural resources and would ensure a better l i f e f o r the people. As was pointed out i n the f i r s t section of t h i s chapter, the purpose, scale and process of planning should provide the bases f o r the determination of regions f o r plan-ning and development. In terms of the purpose of the deve-lopment program f o r the Volta Basin, the Volta Basin regional planning unit has been created as an area i n which problems related to the Volta River Project could be solved effec-t i v e l y . These problems do not concern flooding and r e s e t t l e -ment of people alone; they concern as well the development of natural resources, the u t i l i z a t i o n of the lake f o r transpor-66 t a t i o n purposes, the development of modern agriculture and industry i n the Basin so that the area would benefit from the project. These are the problems f o r which regional planning i s attempting to f i n d solutions. Although areas to the north of the Volta Basin may be said to have problems b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r to those of the Volta region, such as low standard of l i v i n g and low a g r i c u l -t u r a l productivity, these areas are oriented toward Tamale, the administrative and commercial centre of the Northern Region. To include these areas i n the planning region of the Volta Basin would create administrative and s o c i a l pro-blems. To the west of the Volta Basin, the cocoa industry and the rapid growth of c i t i e s have given r i s e to problems, such as forest depletion and overcrowding, which are d i f f e -rent from problems encountered i n the Volta Basin. In Ghana's drive f o r economic, s o c i a l and physical development, i t has been necessary to establish regions i n which national goals can be implemented. For reasons, a l -ready mentioned, neither the national unit nor the l o c a l area has been considered suitable for these purposes. Plan-ning regions, l i k e the Volta Basin planning u n i t , have had to be created. The Volta Basin i s undergoing a process of rapid change; since planning and development are centred around resettlement problems, and the u t i l i z a t i o n of pre-viously unused or under-used natural resources, i t i s appro-priate that the early stages of t h i s developmental process 67 take place within the regional framework. The emphasis may s h i f t toward the needs of c i t i e s and of industry, once the resource endowment has reached a high stage of development and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has changed the character of the region. In terms of the purpose, scale and process of regional planning and development, the Volta Basin regional planning unit can be considered a suitable u n i t . I t i s important to point out, however, that the d e f i n i t i o n of the Volta Basin regional planning unit as the area of direct impact of the Volta River Project i s mislead-ing. The main product of the project i s e l e c t r i c i t y which w i l l be dis t r i b u t e d over the whole country both f o r indus-t r i a l and domestic use. To regard the region f o r planning and development as the area of direct impact of the project, would mean taking into consideration a l l areas to be affected by the e l e c t r i c i t y produced from the project. Planning i s problem-oriented, as such, i t i s more concerned with find i n g solutions to problems facing areas than with the areas per se. I t i s therefore necessary i n the delimitation of regions f o r planning to emphasize the problems to be i d e n t i f i e d and solved and the purposes f o r which the area has been created. Although the Volta Basin planning region has been accepted as a suitable region f o r planning and development, the problem of transport development needs to be examined i n a broader region. Since considerable quantities of food s t u f f , c a t t l e and poultry move from the Tamale area i n the 68 north to the Accra-Tema areas i n the south and since large quantities of petroleum, chemicals and consumer goods move from the southern to the northern areas, i t has been found essential to include these areas i n the planning region. The problem of transport integration w i l l therefore be examined within t h i s broader s p a t i a l u n i t , which extends from the Tamale area to the Accra-Tema area i n the southeast. The following chapters describe the pr i n c i p l e s of transport integration i n selected countries, how these p r i n c i p l e s could be applied to the Volta Basin and how transport integration could contribute to the planning and development objectives and p o l i c i e s of the Volta Basin. Summary. The regional concept has been defined d i f f e r e n t l y by the various d i s c i p l i n e s , such as geography, sociology and planning. To some of these d i s c i p l i n e s , the region i s considered as an area having certain c u l t u r a l and physical a t t r i b u t e s which distinguish i t from other regions; to some, the concept of the region has been developed as a means to an end. In spite of these differences, two major categories have been i d e n t i f i e d by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , f o r a n a l y t i c a l and descriptive purposes. These are "single-f a c t o r " regions which are defined on the basis of the homo-geneity of t h e i r physical or human elements; and "multi-f a c t o r " regions, which are measured i n terms of several phenomena, both physical and human. These regions do not provide the most appropriate units f o r regional planning and development. 69 The planner i s l e f t with a choice between a nodal and a uniform region. The nodal or metropolitan region i s unsuitable f o r planning f o r development i n the developing countries because of the tendency to concentrate planning ef f o r t s i n the urban core, to the neglect of the surround-ing areas. The uniform region has been more acceptable f o r planning purposes i n the developing countries and the River Basin has evolved as the 'proper' uniform region f o r plan-ning and development. The ex i s t i n g regions of Ghana, based on p o l i t i c a l and geographical factors, need to be revised f o r planning purposes, since the problems facing these reg-ions transcend t h e i r boundaries. Because of the complexity of regions, planning and development have evolved as a means of ordering physical and human factors to ensure balanced growth. Regional plan-ning i s mainly concerned with economic development and the physical and s o c i a l implications. The analysis of the geography, economy, transpor-t a t i o n and population and settlement pattern of the Volta Basin reveal the fact that the Volta Basin i s by no means a homogeneous region. Although the problems found i n the Volta Basin are not confined within i t s boundaries, i t i s consi-dered suitable f o r the purposes of regional planning and development f o r which i t has been created. However, i t i s important that the Volta Basin regional planning unit be defined i n terms of the problems to be i d e n t i f i e d and solved and not i n terms of i t s area of influence, since t h i s i n -volves the inclusion of p r a c t i c a l l y the whole country; f o r the purposes of transport integration, the Volta Basin regional planning unit has been extended to include the Tamale area i n the north and the Accra-Tema area i n the southeast because of the tremendous flow of t r a f f i c between these areas. CHAPTER I I I THE PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATED TRANSPORTATION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES Integration of transportation f a c i l i t i e s has been approached i n d i f f e r e n t ways by d i f f e r e n t countries depend-ing on the p o l i t i c a l framework and the organization of the transport industry. In the U.S.S.R., where transport i n t e -gration has been achieved from the s o c i a l i s t point of view and with reference to the whole country, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to examine the p r i n c i p l e of integration without a consideration of the entire country. As distinguished from the c a p i t a l i s t countries, a l l transportation media i n the Soviet Union belong to one 'master,' the s o c i a l i s t government; they are the possession of the government and the property of a l l the people. This i s the basis of the unity that exists among carr i e r s i n the Soviet Union. In a free-enterprise country, l i k e the United States of America (U.S.A.), transport i n t e -gration has been approached from a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . The various regions of the U.S.A. have been given the opportunity to organize the transport industry as would best s u i t t h e i r economic requirements. However, transport integration has been a more d i f f i c u l t proposition i n the U.S.A. than i n the U.S.S.R., since any progress i n integration must be the j o i n t product of private c a r r i e r i n i t i a t i v e and public p o l i c y . The p r i n c i p l e s of integrated transportation, as manifested i n the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A., and also the administrative framework f o r integrated transport operation and the i m p l i -cations of integration are reviewed i n the present chapter. This provides the basis f o r an integrated transportation system for the Volta Basin, which i s proposed i n Chapter IV. 1. THE U.S.S.R. Soviet Transportation Policy: Many forces have generated the need f o r transportation i n the Soviet Union. The large t e r r i t o r i a l dimensions of the Soviet Union, the uneven d i s -t r i b u t i o n of natural resources and the differences i n the cu l t u r a l and economic development of the regions of the Soviet Union have created an awareness f o r the improvement of transportation media, and the betterment of transport organization. Clearly, the need f o r transportation depends i n part on certain f i x e d features of the geographic environ-ment which cannot be altered by government p o l i c y . Yet the p o s s i b i l i t y of an enormous variety of l o c a t i o n a l patterns of economic a c t i v i t y , suggest a range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the t e r r i t o r i a l organization of a growing economy, each with d i f f e r e n t transportation requirements. In order to draw the scattered resources of the Soviet Union into productive a c t i v i t y , there i s the need f o r providing transportation f a c i l i t i e s which would enable raw materials to be carried to 73 processing plants and finished goods to be d i s t r i b u t e d to markets. Soviet l o c a t i o n a l objectives have determined to a large extent the location of transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The Soviet goal of "building socialism" has been interpreted to mean, i n the economic sphere at l e a s t , a determined drive to speed up the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Russia. The unevenness of growth which was associated with capitalism influenced Soviet location theory and policy i n the post re-volutionary period. I t became Soviet policy to locate econo-mic a c t i v i t y more evenly, to raise the l e v e l of l i v i n g of the backward regions and to move production closer to the sources of raw material and f u e l , since these l i e i n r e l a t i v e l y un-productive areas, and to obtain benefits of the economies of scale i n production. This l a s t p o l i c y did not only defeat the purpose of an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic a c t i v i t y but i t resulted i n the over-use of transportation f a c i l i t i e s within certain regions and the abandonment of f a c i l i t i e s i n other regions. The need f o r i n t e n s i f y i n g the u t i l i z a t i o n of Soviet transportation f a c i l i t i e s has been f e l t by Soviet planners; and a large volume of resources and attention has been channelled to overcoming the transportation "problem". The above p o l i c i e s were revised i n the t h i r d , fourth, f i f t h and s i x t h five-year plans. New p o l i c i e s ex-pressed i n these plans included: an expansion of a l l branches of the national economy, advancement of a g r i c u l t u r a l produc-74 t i o n , the comprehensive development of each of the main eco-nomic regions, the improvement of the material and c u l t u r a l standards of Soviet people and the elimination of i r r a t i o n a l shipments, crosshauls and excessively long hauls. Uneconomic f r e i g h t consignments had been considered as the basis of transport d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the Soviet Union, and not the lack or weakness of transportation f a c i l i t i e s . I r r a t i o n a l ship-ments have been described as those which use 'unnecessary* amounts of transportation. Writers on Soviet transportation have, f o r example, often pointed out the convenience of locating sawmills at or near timber stands, or at least at transshipment point, since 25 per cent to 30 per cent of a log's weight i s l o s t i n the manufacturing process, and the capacity of the f r e i g h t car used i n transporting logs i s being wasted. The phenomenon of crosshauling, involving the simultaneous movement of goods i n opposite directions between two points, of i d e n t i c a l products, has arisen i n the Soviet Union through ignorance, scheduling d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n e f f e c -t i v e transport operation. The Soviet Union has re a l i z e d the importance of transportation i n the loc a t i o n and development of productive forces. She has also r e a l i z e d that without improving the l e v e l of transportation operation and the l e v e l of services offered by the transportation network, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to achieve her economic, s o c i a l and physical objectives ex-pressed i n her five-year plans. A substantial increase i n goods as well as passenger t r a f f i c i s envisaged at the end of the s i x t h five-year period (1956-1960); and i n order to cope with the large volume of t r a f f i c the carrying capacity of a l l media of transportation has been expanded. Since r a i l transport has played a major role i n fr e i g h t transpor-t a t i o n i n the Soviet Union, the s i x t h five-year plan made provision f o r the building of new railways as well as the e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g ones. River-borne f r e i g h t has increased considerably i n recent years although r i v e r trans-port accounts f o r only a small proportion of t o t a l f r e i g h t and passenger movement i n the Soviet Union. I t has been the pol i c y of the U.S.S.R. to i n t e n s i f y the use of inland water-ways wherever possible. Road transport i s developing f a i r l y rapidly and i t has been of tremendous importance i n the indus-t r i a l i z a t i o n of the country and i n the s o c i a l i s t transforma-t i o n of agricu l t u r e . The greatest advance i n Soviet transportation policy has been the planned integration of the various • systems of transportation. This i s intimately bound up with the planned development of productive forces i n the Soviet Union. As pointed out i n the United Nations Report on Inland Water Transport i n the U.S.S.R. and Hungary: Transport i n the Soviet Union i s planned i n a co-ordinated manner. The plan i s based on normal t r a f f i c flows, taking into account the trend of development of regional industries and consumption of goods. I t provides f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 76 t r a f f i c among a l l forms of transport i n the best interest of the national economy and resources. 2' In order to understand what transport f a c i l i t i e s the Soviet Union i s attempting to integrate, and the r e l a t i v e importance of each transportation f a c i l i t y i n the integrated system, a br i e f review i s given i n the following section of the trans-portation composition and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Soviet Union. The basic types of transport i n the Soviet Union. Transportation i n the Soviet Union has played a tremendous role i n the h i s t o r i c advances of s o c i a l i s t construction. I t has provided f o r the development of new i n d u s t r i a l construc-t i o n , the creation of new i n d u s t r i a l centres and the elimina-t i o n of the economic and c u l t u r a l backwardness of the various regions. I t has also strengthened the l i n k between industry and agriculture and has promoted the elimination of the an-tagonism between town and country. With the improvement of the l e v e l of transport operation, there has been a consequent improvement i n the transportation services of the vast •oblasts* and republics of Russia. The Soviet transportation network comprises railways, inland waterways, highways, ocean transportation routes and a i r l i n e s . For the purposes of t h i s paper only r a i l , inland water and highway transport are reviewed. *'United Nations. Inland Water Transport i n the U.S.S.R. and Hungary (New York: United Nations, 1961), p.17. The chief mode of transport i n the U.S.S.R. and the one having the greatest influence on the l i f e of the whole country i s the r a i l r o a d . In the vast continuous t e r -r i t o r y of the U.S.S.R., i t i s the r a i l r o a d that has provided the most r e l i a b l e form of transport and the most essential and v i t a l connection between d i f f e r e n t parts of the country. Railroad transport has many advantages i n the Soviet Union. The fact that the surface of the country offers no serious physical obstacles to construction f a c i l i t a t e s the laying out of railway l i n e s . Moreover railroads provide the trans-f e r of goods on a mass scale at low cost and can operate without any interruption even i n unfavourable climatic con-di t i o n s . Railway transport i n the U.S.S.R. has undergone tremendous development. Because of the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the country, t r a f f i c i n i n d u s t r i a l f r e i g h t has greatly increased. This increase i n t r a f f i c i s mainly concentrated on the routes serving European Russia, such as the Donbas to Volga Region, Donbas to Krivoy Rog, and the Donbas and North Caucasus to Moscow and Leningrad routes. Despite the growth of r a i l t r a f f i c , there are s t i l l numerous i n e f f i c i e n t hauls and excessively long hauls. For the purpose of mini-mizing long railway hauls and of eliminating crosshauls, railway f r e i g h t movement has been brought under regulation. In order to do t h i s , industries have been moved closer to the sources of raw materials and to the regions of construe-t i o n , the production of bulky goods has been expanded i n a number of regions, and part of the r a i l f r e i g h t has been transferred to water transport. In spite of the importance of r a i l transport i n the U.S.S.R. and i n spite of i t s rapid development, the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of railway l i n e s i s very uneven. Railway l i n e s are concentrated i n the European section of Russia, p a r t i -c u l a r l y i n the Donetz Basin and i n the Moscow Region. Of the outlying regions of the U.S.S.R., only the Caucasus i s as adequately provided with r a i l r o a d communications as the European part of the country. The railway transport system of S i b e r i a and Central Asia, i n proportion to t h e i r t e r r i -t o r i e s , i s much less developed. However, an increase i n r a i l communication between the eastern and western sections of the country i s envisaged with the opening of new railway l i n e s , such as the Moscow-Kazan-Sverdlovsk and the Gorky-Kotelnich l i n e s . Railways i n the Soviet Union do not only function as trunk l i n e s connecting producing with consuming centres but they also function as feeder l i n e s to inland water transportation routes. This second function i s well exem-p l i f i e d i n the Volga Region where r a i l r o a d transport i s closely l i n k e d with Volga River t r a f f i c . The railroads bring f r e i g h t from such areas as Moscow, Leningrad, the Donbas, the Caucasus, the Urals and Siberia f o r transship-ment along the Volga River to other r i v e r ports; the 79 railroads also transport cargo brought by r i v e r c a r r i e r s to other inland points. Although the Soviet Union i s endowed with a vast network of waterways, inland water transport plays a less s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the o v e r a l l transportation economy of the country; i t however constitutes a large proportion of the f r e i g h t and passenger movement of areas served by water-ways. Table I I i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i v e importance of inland water transport i n the national transportation system. TABLE PERCENTAGE DIVISION OF TRAFFIC IN THE SOVIET UNION Mode of Transport 1955 1958 1965 (Planned) Inland Waterways 5.8 5.4 5.6 Railways S3.4 81.7 73.2 Highways 3.7 4.0 4.6 The t o t a l length of waterways i n the U.S.S.R. amounts to approximately 250,000 miles of which about 68,750 miles are u t i l i z e d f o r transportation purposes. Thus the network of navigable r i v e r s i s almost equal to the country's railway network. United Nations, Inland Water Transport i n the  U.S.S.R. and Hungary (New York: United Nations, 1961), p.23. 80 River transport i n the U.S.S.R. i s handicapped by the fact that the period of navigation i s interrupted f o r four to f i v e months each year by freezing. This has not ruled out the p o s s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g the waterways f o r the movement of goods. The economic significance of r i v e r trans-port compared to r a i l transport l i e s i n the f a c t that the equipment and maintenance of water carriers require r e l a t i v e -l y small expenditures; secondly, water vessels have a greater capacity; t h i r d l y , the means of t r a c t i o n used are l e s s costly. Such reduced transportation costs make r i v e r f r e i g h t t r a f f i c cheaper than that of railways, i n spite of the long winter i n t e r v a l s i n navigation which raise the overhead expenses of r i v e r transport. However, because of the slowness of r i v e r transport, only such bulky goods as timber, grain, s a l t , o i l , et cetera are handled by the r i v e r s , as shown i n Table I I I . TABLE III29 COMPOSITION OF RIVER TRAFFIC (1956) Percentage of tons carried Timber and wood f u e l 49 Sand and gravel 23 O i l and o i l products 10 Coal 6 Food grains 4 Salt 1 Others 7 29uni ted Nations, Ibid, p. 24. 81 Almost half of the r i v e r f r e i g h t turnover f a l l s to the Volga and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . The exceptional role played by the Volga i n the t o t a l f r e i g h t t r a f f i c of the inland water transport system i s due to the fact that i t i s the largest r i v e r i n European U.S.S.R. and that i t s basin i s densely populated and economically developed. The Volga River a t t r a c t s f r e i g h t from distances of more than 125 miles and the tremendous flows of bulky raw materials transported by way of the Volga River attract industry into the region. A l l the big towns of the Volga region from Gorky up to the mouth of the r i v e r are located d i r e c t l y on the banks of the Volga at points where railway l i n e s cross the r i v e r or closely approach i t . Thus the Volga region, a t t r a c t i n g f r e i g h t , labour, industry and towns, represents an 'axis' around which economic d i s t r i c t s have developed. A variety of transporta-t i o n services and the extent of integration between these systems have been the mark of success of the towns and i n -dustries i n the Volga Region. Both water and railway transport must be served by inter-connecting highways which would d i s t r i b u t e people i n the U.S.S.R. and goods from terminals to other destinations. Highway transport has not gained the significance and impor-tance that railway and water transport have acquired. I t s role i s , however, increasing and t h i s has created the need f o r the construction of good roads and the improvement of exi s t i n g ones. Highway transport handles i n t r a - d i s t r i c t 82 f r e i g h t haulage over short distances and serves the approa-ches to railway l i n e s and waterways, by carrying goods to and from railway stations and r i v e r wharves. In regions lacking i n railway and r i v e r transportation systems, i n t e r -d i s t r i c t f r e i g h t haulage over long distances i s effected by highway transport. The s i x t h five-year plan anticipates a 100 per cent increase i n highway transport i n the Soviet Union. P r i n c i p l e s of integrated transport development: The analysis of the elements of Soviet transport has revealed the fact that the transportation of goods and persons from one place to another c a l l s f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of more than one mode of transport. There i s also an interdependence between such transportation systems as water, r a i l and road. The u t i l i z a t i o n of these f a c i l i t i e s as a means of achieving the objectives of s o c i a l i s t planning has been the major rea-son f o r integrating transportation systems i n the Soviet Union. The objective of transportation planning has been the provision of sw i f t , safe and economical movement of both goods and people. This must be done within l i m i t e d money resources and with respect f o r the requirements of the a c t i -v i t i e s which use urban land. Since there are different ranges of conditions f o r which transportation f a c i l i t i e s must be planned, more than one type of transportation service i s often needed. Such different types of service must be plan-ned to supplement one another so that, i n t o t a l , they provide 83 an integrated system. In the Soviet Union, therefore: ... a l l types of fr e i g h t c a r r i e r s are linked i n t o one integrated transport system working l i k e a giant conveyor. The movement of major commodities • i s rarely l i m i t e d to one type of c a r r i e r . Since, i n most cases, the shipment of commodities from place of production to place of consumption e n t a i l s j o i n t transportation by two or more types of car-r i e r , organization of j o i n t rail-water-highway transport acquires a considerable significance.30 The attainment of a u n i f i e d transportation system i n the Soviet Union has been based on a number of p r i n c i p l e s . One of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of transport integration i n the Soviet Union has been the fact that transportation has been regarded as a u n i f i e d process f o r the transfer of commodities from the sphere of production to the sphere of consumption; and not merely that part of the process per-ta i n i n g to the or i g i n a t i o n and termination of goods on a single system of transportation, such as from one r a i l terminal to another. Planning f o r an integrated transport system therefore requires the consideration of a l l trans-portation f a c i l i t i e s involved i n the movement of goods and also people from o r i g i n to destination. This u n i f i e d trans-portation system involves the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l the i n t e r - r e l a t e d transport media, personnel and organiza-tions p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the movement of commodities; and i t includes a l l the components of a p a r t i c u l a r service, such as the types of equipment, transshipment terminals and 3°V. V. Zvonkov, P r i n c i p l e s of Integrated Transport  Development i n the U.S.S.R. (University of Chicago: Department of Geography, 1957), p. 14. 84 storage bases. In the Soviet Union, the greater part of the u n i f i e d transportation system, especially f o r bulk trans-portation, can be divided into three main stages, as shown i n Figure 6 on page 84 .• As i l l u s t r a t e d by t h i s diagram, the f i r s t stage comprises the c o l l e c t i o n of the commodities from the producing centres and i t s presentation by the ship-per f o r transportation on the general transportation network. Here, a l l the elements of transportation serving the produc-ing areas are involved. The second stage accounts f o r the movement of the commodity within the general transportation network and i t implies the u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l the elements of transport operations while the commodity i s on the general transportation network. The f i n a l stage involves the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of the commodity from the point of destination to the consumer; and i t includes a l l the elements of transporta-t i o n from the moment the commodity i s shipped from the point of destination on the general transportation network to the place of consumption. The success of these phases of the integrated transportation process has been dependent upon a number of f a c t o r s . The Soviet Union has devised methods of coordinat-ing the a c t i v i t i e s of various systems of transportation by d i s t r i b u t i n g t r a f f i c among the d i f f e r e n t modes of transpor-t a t i o n , by a system of j o i n t t r a f f i c scheduling and by a FIGURE 6 PRINCIPAL PHASES OF THE UNIFIED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Initial p h a s e of the transporta-tion p r o c e s s (in the production zone.) P h a s e o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n process ( w i t h i n the g e n e r a l transport system) i Final phase of the transportation process (in the consumption zone) Collection of commodities From their points of origin. Concentration of commodities in consignor's warehouses. Movement of commodities to the points of departure of the general transportation system. Loading into warehouses or rolling SIOCK. Movement of commodities within the general transportation system. Unloading into warehouses or rolling sto Movement of commodities to the consumer's basic warehouses Storing in the consumers basic warehouses. Movement of commodities directly to the consumer. Sou r ce : Zvonkov, V.V. principles of integrated Transport Development in the US.S.R^ 3957. rate structure that would take advantage of the economic significance of each form of transport. Figure 7 on page 8 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the method employed i n the Soviet Union i n determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c and f a c i l i t i e s among dif f e r e n t media of transportation and routes. As i s evident from the diagram, t h i s method of d i s t r i b u t i n g t r a f f i c i n v o l -ves an examination of the balances of production, processing, storage and consumption of commodities i n each region and i n each branch of agriculture and industry. Secondly, a choice i s made of the most advantageous route between the. centres of production and consumption. This i s determined by a con-sideration of the carrying capacity of the various routes, the operational and technological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the transportation service, including the length of haul, the speed of shipment, seasonal trends and the safety of the goods, and the indices of economic e f f i c i e n c y such as the volume of required c a p i t a l outlay, the cost of transporta-t i o n and transshipment, f r e i g h t rates, et cetera. In order f o r the coordination of transportation a c t i v i t i e s to be e f f e c t i v e , the times of departure and a r r i -v a l at terminal f a c i l i t i e s have been worked out f o r each mode of transportation. The scheme of j o i n t t r a f f i c sche-dules provides such information as the distances between f r e i g h t stations, the time consumed by a fr e i g h t c a r r i e r i n t r a v e l l i n g between terminals, and the time i n t e r v a l s between the departure of fr e i g h t c a r r i e r s . An example of such a FIGURE 7 THE GENERAL METHOD OF DISTRIBUTION OF TRAFFIC AND OF EQUIPMENT AMONG VARIOUS FORMS OF TRANSPORTATION A. Computation stages. Evaluation of volume of traffic Distribution of traffic flows by principal forms of transportation and directions. C o m p u t a t i o n s of reequipment a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of facilities of t tevait forjnsoftr2nsporijl1.ee Organisation of traffic. B. Elements of Computation. I Existing | | Prospective | Regional balances of production, manufacturing, basic storing ana consumption. Re. int quired volume of regional and erregional traffic by commodities •o«> u. >J tr t-A Indices of traffic capactty o( facilities ant equipment of various forns of transportation National, political and defence require ments. Indices of operating and enjineerinjtranswrtation cqnaltlotw(Klncu«crcj»«lty, length othaul , treed - 1 5 M p m e n t . r e a s o n s ! v a r i a t i o n s . ) Indices ol economic efficiency of service (caHtil Investment, costs, rates labour and fuel consumption etc)  Schepes of the, distribution of traffic f l o w s £y forms of transportation and directions Reserves a n d shortages of the traff ic capactty of facilities and equipment. Character ist ics ot the nost e x p e d i e n t t ransportat ion fac i l i t i es and equipment Tr&cK W i l y itotx- Te rm m i l 5 jReHlr&tllitfo Means o( cmnuxlutita fteoulred. anount of transportation facilities > and e q u l p n t n t . T r a c K WlingStocK T«rm m i l s KiNirlacilitr 1 Means of ctnnumuticn /Vattonal traffic plan. Techntcal traffic plan. Traffic schecfules.centralized traffic control. Source : ' Zvonkov ; V. V- Principles of integrated Transport Development in the U S S R , 1957. 87 scheme i s shown in Figure 8 on page 88. Transport charging has been used as an important means of bringing about the integration of transportation systems. It has, therefore, been the policy of the U.S.S.R. to design the rate structures so that t r a f f i c is channelled in such a manner that would ensure the economical u t i l i z a t i o n of the transportation resources of the country. Transport charging in the Soviet Union i s based on the principle of cost and not on the value of the commodity. This i s parti-cularly true for inland water transport, for which rates are fixed at 15 per cent to 20 per cent below railway rates, in order to reflect the inherent low-cost advantage of water transport and to ensure that f u l l advantage i s made of this. Where river distance i s so much, such as at river bends, that rate differential i s rendered ineffective, the rates are cal-culated on the railway distance. The minimum distance charge for railway and waterways i s 50 kilometers. Distances less than 50 kilometers f a l l s within the sphere of road transport. In the U.S.S.R. roads offer l i t t l e competition to waterways and railways since they act mainly as feeders. Integration of transportation in the Soviet Union is not without problems. The most fundamental problem i s the cost of transshipment operations. Although the mass movement of freight, by railways and by water carriers i s very cheap, terminal costs of loading and handling are com-paratively large. Where rivers are frozen during part of the F I G U R E 8 T H E S C H E M E O F J O I N T T R A F F I C S C H E D U L E S Source : Zvonkov, V. V. Principles of Integrated Transport Development in the U-S-S. R , 1957 . year, storage f a c i l i t i e s raise the cost of j o i n t rail-water or highway-water shipments s t i l l further. Soviet r a i l r o a d s have been experimenting with the use of large "containers" f o r handling less than carload shipments and t h i s program of "kontainerizatsia" may provide a solution to the problems of high terminal costs. Another problem presenting d i f f i c u l -t i e s to the j o i n t use of transportation f a c i l i t i e s has been the slow speed of water c a r r i e r s . This has, however, been compensated f o r i n the rate structure f o r integrated trans-portation. In spite of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , the Soviet Union has made considerable progress i n integrating i t s transpor-t a t i o n systems. The Soviet Union i s more advanced i n t h i s aspect of transportation planning than countries l i k e Burma and India which have also made some attempts at integrating t h e i r transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The p o l i t i c a l system and the administrative set-up f o r the operation of the un i f i e d transportation system, have been important contributing factors. Administrative framework f o r integrated transport  operation. The successful functioning of an integrated transportation system does not depend only on such p r i n -c i p l e s as t r a f f i c d i s t r i b u t i o n and j o i n t scheduling; i t depends as well on an eff e c t i v e administrative framework by which the a c t i v i t i e s of the various transport organiza-tions can be coordinated. S o c i a l i s t planning i n the U.S.S.R. 90 allows f o r the state ownership of transportation enter-prises, compared to the c a p i t a l i s t countries where private enterprises are encouraged. The t o t a l transportation net-work i n the Soviet Union i s owned by the Russian government and the various m i n i s t r i e s are responsible f o r the operation of the transportation industry. The development of trans-port and i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n are determined by the correspond-ing m i n i s t r i e s and the Gosplan or the State Plan Organiza-t i o n and these are then submitted f o r approval by the government. Owing to the recent policy decision of the Soviet government to vest the republics with more powers f o r regio-nal economic development, i t has been found necessary to decentralize the administrative functions f o r transport operations. As a r e s u l t , inland navigation and road trans-port are now administered independently by each republic. This i s to ensure a healthy relationship between industry and transportation. For the purposes of integrated transport adminis-t r a t i o n , however, a centralized system of control has been found necessary, to ensure the e f f i c i e n t operation of equip-ment and transshipment terminals, to promote the coordina-t i o n and fu l f i l m e n t of the transportation plans and j o i n t transportation schedules. This centralized system concerns i t s e l f mainly with the orderly organization of information dealing with shipment orders, condition and d i s t r i b u t i o n of 91 equipment, the productivity of transshipment f a c i l i t i e s ; the centralized management and regulation of operations of equipment and transshipment and the a l l o c a t i o n of c a p i t a l resources. The integration of transportation f a c i l i t i e s would have been a d i f f i c u l t undertaking, i f i t had not been f o r the centralized system of control u t i l i z e d by the Soviet Union. The implications of Soviet Transport integration  f o r application i n Ghana. I t i s important to note that integration has been achieved only f o r the movement of f r e i g h t . Passenger transport i n the Soviet Union has not been given the same attention that f r e i g h t transport has been given and t h i s aspect of transportation i s seldom re-viewed i n the Soviet transportation l i t e r a t i o n . Any lessons that may be learnt from the Soviet experience of transport integration can be applied mainly to fre i g h t transportation. Although there are geographic, economic and p o l i t i c a l d i f -ferences between the Soviet Union and Ghana, the p r i n c i p l e s of integrated transportation i n the U.S.S.R. may provide a guide f o r the integration of transportation systems i n Ghana. Ghana i s a small country of approximately 92,000 square miles. Distances between diffe r e n t geographic areas are therefore not as extensive as distances between similar areas i n Russia. Moreover, the extensive use of water transport i s at i t s i n i t i a l stages i n Ghana; i t i s the creation of the Volta Lake that has aroused i n t e r e s t i n water transport as an economical 92 means of moving people and goods. Railway transport, which i s the dominant mode of transport i n the U.S.S.R., i s im-portant only i n the southern section of Ghana. Since the other areas are devoid of r a i l transport, roads have assumed a dominant role i n the o v e r a l l transportation system. I t i s hoped that water transport w i l l be developed on an extensive scale to aid the areas f a r removed from the developed south. Soviet transportation policy demonstrates the i n -t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between transportation policy and lo c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and objectives. Physical, economic and s o c i a l de-velopment cannot be divorced from the development of trans-portation f a c i l i t i e s . The development of the backward areas of the Soviet Union has been brought about by the provision of transportation f a c i l i t i e s and a better l e v e l of transpor-t a t i o n service. The concentration of developmental a c t i v i -t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n d u s t r i a l section without a timely enlargement of transportation f a c i l i t i e s would lead to a serious c r i s i s i n the functioning of the economic system. Economic, s o c i a l and physical p o l i c i e s must always be cor-related with transportation p o l i c i e s , since the l a t t e r deter-mine the concentration and dispersion of economic a c t i v i t i e s , the degree of s o c i a l contact between areas and the settlement patterns of regions. The type of development conceived f o r an area w i l l therefore influence to a great extent the trans-portation policy f o r the area concerned. In most cases the transportation policy includes e f f i c i e n c y and a higher l e v e l 93 of service. I t i s evident from the Soviet experience that integration of transportation modes i s a means of achieving t h i s p o l i c y . The p r i n c i p l e s of transport integration i n the Soviet Union bring to l i g h t some of the factors which must be taken into consideration i n integrating transportation f a c i l i t i e s . A l l transportation systems must be considered as a u n i f i e d whole i n an integrated system. The movement of people or goods i s not considered complete u n t i l the f i n a l destination i s reached. During t h i s process the ov e r a l l transportation resources of the region must be u t i l i z e d . In order to eliminate delays at terminal points, a j o i n t sche-duling of the a r r i v a l and departure of c a r r i e r s i s of prime importance. Secondly, the di f f e r e n t modes of transportation should be allowed to perform such functions as best s u i t t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and since there e x i s t s an interdepen-dence between the various systems of transport, these func-tions should be performed as part of an integrated whole. This would involve the r a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c among transportation systems. Thirdly, the rate structure of the transportation systems should be so designed as to make possible the u t i l i z a t i o n of water transport and i t s integration with other means of land transport. Fourthly, there i s the need f o r a transportation agency to coordinate the a c t i v i t i e s and functions of the transportation modes involved i n the un i f i e d system. 94 The application of the p r i n c i p l e s of transport integration i n Ghana must take cognizance of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the Soviet system, the most important of which i s trans-shipment. Since transshipment or rehandling, involves addi-t i o n a l expense, loss of time and increases the p o s s i b i l i t y of loss or damage, the design of the operations of i n t e -grated transport f a c i l i t i e s should be based on a minimum amount of rehandling. The current Soviet experiments with 'containers' provide a means of avoiding rehandling. Summary. Transportation has been considered an indispensable t o o l f o r achieving socialism i n the Soviet Union. The o v e r a l l development of the country and the deve-lopment of the backward regions of the U.S.S.R. have been found to depend l a r g e l y on an e f f i c i e n t system of transpor-t a t i o n . In order to provide the needs of the Soviet people, i t has been necessary to transport goods from producing to market areas. In performing t h i s function, the transporta-t i o n resources of the country have been u t i l i z e d . R a i l , water and highway transport are the major elements of the Soviet transportation industry. Railways have developed as the chief means of transportation i n the country. This has been made possible by physical and clima-t i c f a c t o r s . Water transport, although the most economical means of transportation, has not acquired the importance that railways have acquired. I t i s the policy of the Soviet Union 95 to i n t e n s i f y the use of water transport f o r the movement of goods and people, i n spite of i t s handicaps. Highv/ay trans-port i s gradually becoming a s i g n i f i c a n t means of transpor-t a t i o n . Because of the anticipated increase i n road t r a f f i c , the Soviet Union has embarked on an extensive program of road construction. The review of r a i l , water and highway transportation systems revealed the in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s be-tween them. Railways and highways have not only been con-structed as trunk l i n e s serving the various regions but they also act as feeder l i n e s to water transportation routes. In order to curb any competition that might exist between these modes of transportation, the Soviet Union has integrated t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and functions within a u n i f i e d system. This has contributed considerably i n r a i s i n g the l e v e l of transportation services offered to the public. Integration has been based on a number of pr i n c i p l e s such as j o i n t t r a f f i c scheduling, d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c among the various modes of transportation, a r a t i o n a l rate struc-turing and a centralized system of c o n t r o l l i n g the integrated system. In spite of the successful operation of the u n i f i e d system of transportation, i t i s l i m i t e d by the increase i n costs due to transshipment. Solutions have however been found to t h i s problem. The application of the pri n c i p l e s of integrated transport to Ghana w i l l be dictated by p o l i t i c a l , economic 96 and physical factors and the transportation and development goals of the country. These prin c i p l e s should therefore be adapted to the conditions of the country; and e f f o r t s should be made to eliminate the problems of the Soviet system. 2. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA The Transportation policy of the U.S. In contrast to the U.S.S.R., where a l l modes of transportation are owned and operated by the Soviet Government, the transportation industry i s both a public and a private concern i n the United States. As a matter of h i s t o r i c a l accident, the various modes of transport have generally been separately owned and operated. This type of development has given r i s e to most of the problems which the transportation industry face today. These problems include the duplication of transportation f a c i l i t i e s and the presence of a destructive competition which i s often expressed i n damaging rate-cutting which dimi-nishes the c a r r i e r ' s revenue to the point where i t becomes uneconomical to provide the necessary public service. In order to solve these problems, the federal government has assumed a c o n t r o l l i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y both f o r the regulation of the transport industry and f o r the program-ming and financing of a i r p o r t s , airways, waterways, highways and ocean shipping. In fact the federal role has grown i n scope and magnitude to a point where national policy exerts 97 a dominant influence on the future of transportation. The importance of transportation as an essential element i n the successful operation of the economic system and as a means of s a t i s f y i n g the needs of society has been re a l i z e d by the U.S. as w e l l . Transportation has developed as a means of s t a b i l i z i n g prices by making commodities available from more distant production areas i n a shorter period of time, and i n developing the backward regions of the U.S. The role of transportation i n aiding regional growth i s exemplified i n the Tennessee Valley. The primary consideration of the Tennessee Valley Project was not the production of hydro-electric power but the improvement of navigation along the Tennessee River. This has greatly con-tributed to the development of the Valley as a whole, since the provision of cheap water transport and connecting land transportation routes has attracted not only industry but also people i n t o the River Basin. Transportation has made i t possible f o r the entire country to enjoy the advantages of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and the benefits of the d i v i s i o n of labour by making i t possible f o r products to be brought great d i s -tances, thus avoiding the necessity f o r the l o c a l production of a l l needs. In spite of the size of the United States and the varied nature of i t s geographic and economic characteri-s t i c s , provincialism has been kept to a minimum, because of the development of a transportation system which allowed the exchange of ideas and c u l t u r a l backgrounds. In addition to 93 these economic and s o c i a l influences of transportation, the increase of urbanization and the creation of the megalopolis are attributable to the development of transportation. I t has, however, been recognized that the people of the U.S. can enjoy the advantages and benefits offered by transporta-t i o n only i f the transportation industry i s brought under control. In order to ensure an e f f i c i e n t and economical transportation service to the public, national transporta-t i o n p o l i c i e s have had to be revised on many occasions. Be-tween 1 9 2 0 and 1 9 3 5 , federal regulatory attention was centred on the consolidation of railroads and the control of r a i l r o a d operation. With the rapid development of other modes of transportation, regulatory measures were extended to the whole transportation industry. The following p r i n c i p l e s guided the formulation of national transportation p o l i c i e s : 1 . The national i n t e r e s t requires at a l l times an adequate supply of transportation f a c i l i t i e s provided without discrimination among in d i v i d u a l s and communities and priced as low and as consis-tent with f i n a n c i a l health of the c a r r i e r s . 2 . Unrestrained competition among transport en-terp r i s e s tends to become 'destructive' leading to i n s t a b i l i t y of transport supply and d i s c r i m i -nation with respect to rates and service ... 3 . In order to achieve maximum e f f i c i e n c y and economy the several i n d i v i d u a l forms of trans-portation must be coordinated or integrated with a view to serving the national interest rather than the f i n a n c i a l advantage of any one agency.31 3 1 D e aring, C. L. and Owen, W., National Transporta-t i o n P o l i c y , Washington, D.C, The Bookings I n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 5 0 , p. 1 7 5 . Governed by these p r i n c i p l e s , Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act of 1940, and the transportation policy was defined as follows: ... to provide f o r f a i r and impa r t i a l regulation of a l l modes of transportation subject to the provisions of t h i s Act, so administered as to recognize and preserve the inherent advantages of each; to promote safe, adequate, economical and e f f i c i e n t service and foster sound economic con-di t i o n s i n transportation and among the several c a r r i e r s ; to encourage the establishment and maintenance of reasonable changes f o r transportation services, without unjust discriminations, undue pre-ferences or advantages, or unfair or destructive competitive practices . . . a l l to the end of deve-loping, coordinating, and preserving a national transportation system by water, highway, and r a i l , as well as other means, adequate to meet the needs of the commerce of the United States ... 32 I t i s apparent from the above declaration that Congress has directed the Interstate Commerce Commission to maintain f a i r standards of competition among r a i l , highway and waterway agencies; to coordinate these agencies with a view to achiev ing e f f i c i e n c y i n transportation; to foster sound economic conditions i n transportation; and to protect transport users against rate and service discrimination. Congress pursued the above po l i c y further f o r that period by appointing a Com mission which was equipped with substantive powers to enable i t to control discrimination; to set the standards of and to preserve e f f e c t i v e competition; to determine how f a c i l i t i e s and services should be integrated to maintain s a t i s f a c t o r y Dearing, C. L. and Owen, W., I b i d . , p. 176. 100 standards of safety and service i n transportation; and to set the general l e v e l of rates. The transportation p o l i -cies of the U.S. have been conceived i n terms of the public interest i n a u n i f i e d national transportation system within which the inherent advantages of each mode of transportation are r e a l i z e d . The basic elements of transport i n the United  States. Since i t i s the declared policy of the United States to integrate a l l transportation f a c i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y r a i l , water and highway f a c i l i t i e s , i t i s important to examine the importance of each of these modes i n the ov e r a l l transportation system and how i t i s organized. This would help understand some of the problems the U.S. has to cope with i n i t s drive to integrate the functions of the transportation industry. The transportation service of the U.S. i s performed by various modes; namely, r a i l r o a d s , water c a r r i e r s , motor c a r r i e r s , a i r l i n e s and pipelines. Shippers may use these either independently or i n coopera-t i o n with each other. Railroads, up to the middle of the twentieth cen-tury, were the most important agency of inland transport i n the United States. Even within c i t i e s , r a i l l i n e s were the p r i n c i p a l means of transport except f o r short distances. In 1920, r a i l r o a d s accounted f o r about Sl+ per cent of the t o t a l volume of i n t e r c i t y f r e i g h t t r a f f i c and 35 per cent of the t o t a l i n t e r c i t y passenger-miles. The r a i l share of ton-mile 101 and passenger-mile services has declined s u b s t a n t i a l l y due to inroads by competing forms of transportation. In i 9 6 0 , only about 45 per cent of the i n t e r c i t y ton-miles of f r e i g h t and three per cent of the i n t e r c i t y passenger-miles were' transported by r a i l r o a d s . Despite t h i s decline i n importance r e l a t i v e to other modes of transportation, railroads s t i l l maintain t h e i r primacy as the haulers of long distance f r e i g h t t r a f f i c ; Railroad transportation i n the United States i s provided primarily by private companies, operating on an i n t e r c i t y basis and u t i l i z i n g t h e i r own road, terminal and equipment f a c i l i t i e s . The r a i l r o a d industry i s dominated by large "trunk l i n e " systems which are designated by the Inter-state Commerce Commission as Class I r a i l r o a d s . These con-s t i t u t e the most important portion of the industry i n terms of earnings, investment and transportation service, perform-ing more than ninety-nine per cent of the t o t a l r a i l service. In addition to the Class I r a i l r o a d s , there are smaller r a i l -road's ( i . e . , i n terms of operation and c a p i t a l investment) often owned or controlled and operated by the major systems. Many of the smaller r a i l r o a d s are regional c a r r i e r s or l i n e s feeding t r a f f i c into the larger systems. There are also a number of i n d u s t r i a l r a ilroads which serve primarily i n d i v i -dual enterprises. The r a i l r o a d transport system of the United States, with the exception of f a c i l i t i e s provided by contract 102 c a r r i e r s , i s made up e n t i r e l y by common c a r r i e r s . That i s , the railroads stand ready to serve a l l those who seek trans-portation on pu b l i c l y announced terms at reasonable prices. In t h i s respect they d i f f e r from the other modes of transport i n which the various enterprises may be common ca r r i e r s or private c a r r i e r s . The service offered by r a i l f r e i g h t can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o carload service, less-than-carload ser-vice and the forwarding service. The shipper, therefore has available to him, a f u l l range of services, ranging from the movement of one or more carloads i n bulk to the pickup and delivery of a single package. Furthermore, railroads o f f e r a wide variety i n quality of services ranging from the move-ment of bulk products, such as coal and iron ore, to the transportation of high value merchandise requiring rapid and careful handling. R a i l passenger t r a f f i c f a l l s i n t o the cate-gories of long distance and commuter t r a f f i c . The increasing use of the private automobile has led to the decline of both types of t r a f f i c , while the a i r l i n e s and the i n t e r c i t y bus companies have taken considerable amounts of the long d i s -tance t r a f f i c . Railroad d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the United States i s very uneven. The New England, Middle A t l a n t i c and Midwest areas are in t e n s i v e l y served with r a i l network, while i n the south-west and f a r west, the network i s less dense. The r a i l r o a d network acts not only as trunk routes connecting the various regions but i t also serves as a l i n k between r i v e r ports and producing centres. 103 In comparison with r a i l r o a d transport, water transport has not been developed i n t e n s i v e l y , since i t suffers from certain d i s t i n c t disadvantages which l i m i t i t s scope. F i r s t l y , the waterways of the United States are sub-ject to the severe l i m i t a t i o n s of weather conditions. Secondly, water transport, as i s always the case, i s l i m i t e d to the places located on the waterways, and cannot be ex-tended beyond these areas. In spite of these handicaps, water transport provides an important mode of transportation i n the United States. The range of products which move on the domestic waterways of the country i s f a i r l y narrow. Because of the slow speed of water transport, only those products i n which rapid movement i s unimportant can move i n any volume by water. Petroleum, ore, sand, gravel, steel products, chemicals and other heavy products moving i n bulk make up the predominant share of waterway t r a f f i c . The great significance of a few products i n water t r a f f i c has made private carriage very s i g n i f i c a n t . Companies which can use water service to advantage f i n d i t f e a s i b l e to acquire equipment f o r t h e i r own use. This i s especially true of shippers who require some specialized f a c i l i t y to move material i n bulk. Private ownership dominates the water transport industry. Private and contract c a r r i e r s carry a large amount of the t r a f f i c moving on waterways i n the U.S.A. Since the acq u i s i t i o n of water equipment requires a large investment, the industry i s 1 0 4 usually organized on a corporate basis, although there are also a number of small scale operators. Because the com-merce on inland waterways i s concentrated on a limited num-ber of commodities other modes which have the ab i l i t y to compete for this t r a f f i c make the l o t of the water carrier a d i f f i c u l t one. Competition for water carriers comes from railroads and pipelines. It i s however hoped that such competition w i l l be eliminated with the integration of transportation systems. The United States has an extensive waterway system. This i s the result of geographic phenomena which have given rise to the Great Lakes which penetrate nearly to the middle of the continent and the vast river systems. The Great Lakes system provides via the St. Lawrence Seaway inland access for ocean going vessels. The Mississippi, Ohio and Tennessee Rivers and their tributaries, form the heart of the inland waterway system. In combination, these rivers tap some twenty-five states in the mid-section of the United States. On the Pacific coast, the Columbia and Sacramento Rivers are the only inland waterways of importance for com-mercial shipping. In order to increase the use of her inland waterways, the U.S. has embarked on a program of moderniza-tion which involves the deepening and straightening of channels and the provision of larger lock chambers to permit the passage of larger tows. Water transport has greatly 1 0 5 contributed to the development of some of the backward regions of the United States. The Tennessee Valley Region indicates the importance of water transport i n the develop-ment of a region; t h i s i s reviewed i n d e t a i l i n the follow-ing section. L o c a l i t i e s which cannot be reached by waterway or railroads are served by highways which have developed as the major mode of transportation i n the United States. I t i s the largest conveyor of passengers at a l l l e v e l s and an important conveyor of f r e i g h t . At the same time, motor transport i s primarily l o c a l and r e l a t i v e l y short distance. I t serves as a substitute f o r r a i l , a feeder to r a i l and waterways and also as an independent means supplying services not provided by the other modes. The s o c i a l and economic importance of a road to the people i t serves, cannot be measured by costs or tax payments alone. The road or street that carries less than a score of vehicles a day i s neverthe-l e s s essential to v i t a l services such as the doctor, f i r e -f i g h t e r , the school bus, et cetera. Supplies must be moved i n and crops shipped to markets. Thus every road and street, whether heavily or l i g h t l y t r a v e l l e d , provides f o r the neces-s i t i e s and convenience of the people. The highway system of the U.S. consists of some 3 . 5 m i l l i o n miles of road, of which 4 6 , 0 0 0 miles consist of muni-c i p a l roads and c i t y streets, the remainder being made up of r u r a l highways. The main structure of the highway system of the country i s comprised of the State highway systems and the national system of i n t e r s t a t e highways. The highways are financed by both the state and federal governments and fo r t h i s purpose they can be divided into four groups: (1) The federal-aid primary system which includes the most important highways i n each state. (2) The urban extensions of system (1) which are financed by l o c a l governments. (3) The federal-aid secondary system consisting of the p r i n c i p a l secondary and feeder roads. (4) The national system of in t e r s t a t e highways. Freight movement on these highways ranges from the int e r s t a t e line-haul transport of volume shipments to l o c a l r e t a i l delivery of single purchases. Line-haul f r e i g h t ser-vice includes 'over-the-road' transport of products of farms forests and mines i n volume shipments from place of o r i g i n t' processing plants, warehouses or markets; i n t e r c i t y carriage of volume shipments of finished goods from producer or manu-facturer to warehouse or user and i n t e r c i t y carriage of less than-truckload shipments of finished goods. Other types of fre i g h t trucking services can be grouped under c i t y pickup and delivery services. These include l o c a l r e t a i l delivery service, such as food and other commodities to dwellings; c i t y pickup and delivery of f r e i g h t shipments which are a continuing part of a line-haul movement; l o c a l delivery of bulk shipments of commodities such as petroleum products, coal, building materials, et cetera, and the l o c a l movement of raw materials and semi-finished goods between producers, f a c t o r i e s , warehouses, and consumers. In these-highway . frei g h t transport services, line-haul f r e i g h t transport tends to concentrate on volume shipments from producer or manufacturer to warehouses or d i s t r i b u t i o n centres, while the pickup and delivery service which forms the l a s t stages of the transport movement i s characterized by less-than-truck-load shipments. The most important development i n highway trans-portation i s the t r a i l e r - o n - f l a t - c a r r a i l r o a d service often referred to as the 'piggy-back'. I t i s expected that t h i s combination of r a i l r o a d and truck service w i l l reduce the amount of t r a v e l on some r u r a l highways. However, i t has been observed that f o r hauls of 1 0 0 miles or l e s s , i t i s cheaper and f a s t e r to haul a t r a i l e r over the road rather than load i t on a ' f l a t car'. About 3 0 0 miles has been found to be the average breakpoint above which there may be economies i n 'piggy-back' service. The organization of highway transport i n the U.S. i s a complex one, since i t involves a large number of agen-cies, some of which act i n a private capacity and some i n a public capacity. The increasing use of the automobile has 108 even complicated the transportation scene i n the U.S. National transportation p o l i c i e s therefore have to take account of both these public and private i n t e r e s t s . I t i s a d i f f i c u l t proposition i n the United States to provide a plan f o r integrated transportation development which can be applied to the whole country. The p o l i c y of the U.S. to u t i l i z e her o v e r a l l transportation resources and to i n t e -grate the various transportation modes, has made i t neces-sary f o r the regions i n the U.S. to f i n d ways and means of achieving t h i s p o l i c y . A system of rate structuring and containerization have been two of the most important methods widely used i n the U.S. to bring about integration. These methods are reviewed below with reference to the Tennessee Valley and the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area. P r i n c i p l e s of transport integration i n the Tennes-see Valley. The Tennessee Valley was one of the most depressed regions of the United States before the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority. In 1933, the region faced problems which were p a r t i c u l a r l y serious even i n a land of general depression. I t s people were l i v i n g on incomes averag-ing $>168. per person f o r the year, which was l e s s than half the national average. I n d u s t r i a l growth had lagged and many of the assets needed f o r industry were absent. Two-thirds of the Valley's people depended on the s o i l f o r a l i v i n g , most of them i n a kind of a g r i c u l t u r e , poorly suited to survive 109 the changes taking place in farming methods. Rivers were undeveloped and uncontrolled, soils were drained of plant food, forests suffered from overcutting and lack of f i r e protection. Today, the Tennessee Valley i s an area of grow-ing strength attracting people and industries from other parts of the U.S. Since 1933, there has been a net increase of 5,000 manufacturing and processing plants in the Valley. While the U.S. as a whole has achieved a spectacular rate of economic growth in the past thirty years, the Tennessee Valley region has more than matched i t . The average income per person for instance has multiplied six times for the nation, but nearly nine times in the Valley region, where i t has increased from forty-five per cent to sixty-six per cent of the national average. To the United States as a whole, this means a region which i s less dependent and more productive for i t s own resources and a larger market for American industry in serving this region's higher l i v i n g standards. Numerous factors have contributed to the rapid growth in the Tennessee. These include T.V.A.'s efforts at a unified development of the Valley and most important of a l l the improvement of the Tennessee River for the purposes of navigation. T.V.A. came into existence in 1933 as part of the 'New Deal' in the United States to attack the econo-mic, social and physical problems facing the Tennessee Valley Region. T.V.A. acting in the capacity of a private 110 corporation was to promote navigation and flood control and to market e l e c t r i c power. Because of the importance of transportation i n the development of the region, consider-able emphasis was placed on navigation which became the primary purpose of the Tennessee Valley Project. The development of the nine-foot navigable channel throughout the length of the Tennessee River from i t s mouth at Paducah (Kentucky) to Knoxville (Tennessee), a r i v e r d i s -tance of 640 miles, has been achieved by a series of dams with navigation locks. These have converted the r i v e r into a chain of lakes varying i n length from 185 miles to 15 miles. The navigation locks i n each dam permit the passage of vessels from one reservoir to another. Before the im-provement of the Tennessee River, forest products, sand and gravel comprised nearly a l l the frei g h t t r a f f i c on the Ten-nessee. The provision of a deeper channel and the gradual extension of the r i v e r upstream have made possible longer hauls with larger vessels. The extension of the channel has opened up vast areas, and goods t r a f f i c i n the Tennessee Valley include coal and grain products from the midwest, pig iron from Birmingham (Alabama), cotton goods, soap, canned goods, et cetera, mainly from the Ohio River area. The u t i l i z a t i o n of water transport has resulted i n considerable savings on investment i n navigation. Transportation savings on the 14.4 m i l l i o n tons of 1963 t r a f f i c were estimated to t o t a l about $21.4 m i l l i o n . This gave a net transportation benefit of about $15.9 m i l l i o n , which represented about 8.7 per cent return on the net investment i n transportation. Figure 9 on page 112 shows the annual costs and benefits of the navigation project i n the Tennessee Valley. Since most of the t r a f f i c using the Tennessee River f o r transportation purposes originates outside the basin, Tennessee River transport has had to depend l a r g e l y on other transportation modes connecting Tennessee River ports with the producing as well as consuming regions. A l l the. p r i n c i p a l port c i t i e s and also other c i t i e s are reasonab-l y well served by r a i l r o a d services. Highway construction i n the region has undergone an extensive program of expansion i n recent years. There i s a system of paved state highways and a network of improved sand-clay roads to supplement the major routes. The use of trucks and t r a i l e r s has made possible a f l e x i b l e system of rapid transportation f o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l types of commodities. Although motor trucks are a source of competition f o r water ca r r i e r s on l o c a l short haul f r e i g h t business, i n many instances the truck acts as a feeder f o r barge l i n e s . In order to f u l f i l the national transportation policy of preserving the inherent advantages of each mode of transport - water, highway and r a i l - and to maintain reason-able charges f o r transportation without unjust discrimination F I G U R E 9 T E N N E S S E E R I V E R N A V I G A T I O N - A N N U A L C O S T S A N D B E N E F I T S C A L E N D E R Y E A R S FOR S H I P P E R S A V I N G S F I S C A L Y E A R S FOR F E D E R A L C O S T S T E N N E S S E E V A L L E Y A U T H O R I T Y N A V I G A T I O N E N G I N E E R I N G B R A N C H REVISED MARCH 196-4 ^ _ a _ * a r u r . . . . _ . 1 1 3 T.V.A. has attempted to control transportation rates within the region. T.V.A. has re a l i z e d that i n order to provide e f f e c t i v e transportation services for the public and i n order to take advantage of low-cost water transportation, a varied but integrated transportation industry i s e s s e n t i a l . Since i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assign t r a f f i c volumes to the d i f -ferent modes of transportation, as has been done i n the U.S.S.R. because of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of agencies involved, i n the transportation industry, the p r i n c i p l e of j o i n t rates has been employed. Common c a r r i e r barge l i n e s j o i n with railroads and common c a r r i e r truck l i n e s i n the establish-ment of through routes and j o i n t rates. Where a through route and j o i n t rate i s i n e f f e c t , the shipper deals with the c a r r i e r which accepts the fre i g h t i n the f i r s t instance and pays that c a r r i e r the single rate covering a l l services from o r i g i n to f i n a l destination. In t h i s system, land and water c a r r i e r s deal with one another i n transporting and interchanging the f r e i g h t and then divide the revenue pro-portionately, with the barge l i n e s taking care of r i v e r terminal service out of t h e i r share. The p r i n c i p l e of j o i n t rates and through routes f a c i l i t a t e s the process of transporting goods by means of various modes and also i t makes i t possible f o r the shipper to take advantage of the inherent characteristics of each mode. The shipper does not have to deal with a number of separate land and r i v e r c a r r i e r s and r i v e r terminals. He 114 i s also able to ship his goods at lower charges because the j o i n t barge-rail or barge-truck rate i s up to twenty per cent lower than the corresponding through rate e n t i r e l y by land. Joint rates are necessary f o r the economic operation of r i v e r transport. The T.V.A. has recently encountered d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the application of the p r i n c i p l e of j o i n t rates to r a i l -road operations outside the Tennessee Valley region. The southern grain rate case i s a well-known example. The cen-t r a l issue i n t h i s case i s the drastic reduction of r a i l rates by southern railways i n order to attract the heavy grain t r a f f i c moving by barge. This would mean a serious economic blow to the Tennessee Valley Region and p a r t i c u l a r l y the port c i t i e s with m i l l i n g i n d u s t r i e s , which would result from a weakening of these industries and a c r i p p l i n g or des-tru c t i o n of common c a r r i e r transportation on the Tennessee Valley. Although T.V.A. does not object to r a i l f r e i g h t reductions, i t does object to cut-throat rates through which the r a i l r o a d s use t h e i r greater economic power against the weaker competitors, the barge l i n e s . Any reductions i n rates that might occur should be applied to a l l commodities and not grain alone. I t i s important to note that a large number of industries which have located i n the Tennessee Valley region have done so to take advantage of the low transportation costs. Grain elevators which have located on the Tennessee waterway because of low barge grain costs 115 would see the effect of t h e i r savings evaporate because of the high r a i l rates they have to pay to transport grain from the Tennessee regions to other parts of the U.S. These industries would no longer be able to compete with other grain industries located at the M i s s i s s i p p i and Ohio River ports. This would result i n the destruction of the present investment i n elevators and m i l l s at Tennessee River ports. The southern grain rate case i l l u s t r a t e s some of the consequences of the lack of coordination between the different transportation agencies and between the various modes. I t i s important i n integrating transportation f a c i -l i t i e s to establish an agency whose duty would be to co-ordinate the functions of the transportation agencies and to ensure that maximum transportation services are offered to the public. The public i n t e r e s t therefore should guide the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s agency. There has been no l i t e r a t u r e published on how t r a f f i c scheduling has been achieved i n the Tennessee Valley. P r i n c i p l e s of integration i n the New York-New  Jersey Metropolitan Region. In contrast to the Tennessee Valley Region where j o i n t rates have been the major means of integrating transportation systems, the Port of New York Authority has succeeded i n u t i l i z i n g other means which would eliminate the problem of transshipment which i s the main l i m i t a t i o n of transport integration both i n the U.S.S.R. and i n the Tennessee Valley. The fact that ocean-borne commodity 116 movement i s the means of water t r a n s p o r t used i n t h e New York-New J e r s e y M e t r o p o l i t a n Region does not i n v a l i d a t e the u s e f u l n e s s of the p r i n c i p l e s of i n t e g r a t i o n f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n the V o l t a B a s i n . The Port o f New York has been t h e l e a d i n g p o r t of the United S t a t e s w i t h r e g a r d t o the volume o r value o f ocean-borne cargo o r by the number o f a r r i v a l s and depar-t u r e s o f s h i p passengers. I t i s estimated t h a t ocean-borne g e n e r a l cargo through the p o r t , f o r e i g n t r a d e and domestic coastwise t r a d e combined, w i l l i n c r e a s e about 37 per cent by 1980. Commodity movements are c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r bulk o r ge n e r a l cargo. Bulk cargo i s handled i n l o o s e , r a t h e r than i n packaged form; while g e n e r a l cargo i s t y p i c a l l y packaged or bundled. The Port o f New York, l i k e any o t h e r port - whether r i v e r , l a k e o r ocean, has t o depend on l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes f o r the movement of commodities t o and from the p o r t . Between a t h i r d and a h a l f of the cargo shipped through the Port o f New York comes to or l e a v e s the Port D i s t r i c t by r a i l r o a d . T h i s f r e i g h t i s c l a s s i f i e d as " l i g h t e r a g e " cargo which i s comprised of the f o l l o w i n g components: (1) Cargo which moves between r a i l r o a d t e r m i n a l and steamship t e r m i n a l by marine equipment, i . e . , by l i g h t e r s and c a r f l o a t s operated by or f o r the r a i l r o a d s . 117 (2) Cargo which moves over connecting tracks be-tween the r a i l r o a d f r e i g h t stations and the steamship terminals. (3) Cargo which i s transported between the r a i l -road stations and the steamship terminals by-truck . When a shipment originates or terminates with a r a i l haul, the delivering r a i l c a r r i e r i s responsible f o r determining the method of terminal movement, i . e . , whether to use car-flo a t s or l i g h t e r s . S i m i l a r l y the ra i l r o a d w i l l determine whether to u t i l i z e trucking i n l i e u of lighterage, owing to l i g h t volumes of t r a f f i c or f o r operational rea-sons. Another large segment of t o t a l general cargo tonnage moves to and from the marine terminals of the port also by motor truck. The movement of cargo over more than one mode of transportation presents a special terminal problem. The Port of New York Authority has obviated t h i s problem by making use of piggyback f o r land movement and container-ships f o r ocean transport. These have been the most s i g n i -f i c a n t developments i n f r e i g h t transportation i n recent years, i n the attempt to integrate the different modes of transportation. In both methods the key fac t o r has been the use of the highway t r a i l e r as a shipping container. In piggyback, highway and r a i l transport are integrated by placing the t r a i l e r on a f l a t c a r f o r r a i l movement and sub-sequent highway transport to destination; i n the container-ship operation, the t r a i l e r i s placed aboard the ship f o r ocean transport. Attention i s focused i n t h i s section on containership operation, since the Port of New York i s the only port on the North A t l a n t i c Coast providing such service I t should be noted that i n integrating transportation f a c i -l i t i e s i n the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area, the Port of New York Authority has been guided by the p r i n c i p l e s of increasing e f f i c i e n c y , of considering the movement of goods from o r i g i n to destination as one single process and of reducing cargo handling to a minimum. In order to put these p r i n c i p l e s into effect i t has also been necessary to integrate terminal f a c i l i t i e s and to standardize equipment. The size of containers varies considerably, re-f l e c t i n g variations i n the size of highway units and the requirements of p a r t i c u l a r trade routes. There are contai-ners of less than highway-trailer siae which have often been used f o r cargo which i s susceptible to damage. These have been handled at conventional terminals. I t has, however, been recommended by the American Standards Association that the lengths of shipping containers be standardized. The containership may be of the " r o l l - o n - r o l l - o f f " or of the " l i f t - o n - l i f t - o f f " type. The former requires the towing of the t r a i l e r aboard or the carrying of the t r a i l e r aboard with f o r k - l i f t trucks. In the l a t t e r type, the t r a i l e r i s detached from i t s chassis and l i f t e d i n t o the ship by cranes 119 For containership operations, terminal areas must s a t i s f y the following requirements - water-depths capable of accom-modating deep-draft vessels, s u f f i c i e n t open land and good highway access. I f the operation i s to provide f o r piggy-back transport, the terminal areas must have r a i l connec-tions that permit the containers to be transferred to and from the r a i l cars quickly and economically. Containership offers a number of advantages both to the ship operator and shipper and consignee. From the ship operator's point of view the p r i n c i p a l advantages are the reduction i n the cost of cargo handling and the reduc-ti o n i n port time. From the point of view of the shipper and consignee, the advantages are: delivery i n shorter time, delivery i n better condition, and delivery at low cost. The reduction of the number of handlings, reduces the t o t a l time i n t r a n s i t and there i s less l i k e l i h o o d of damage to cargo. However, against the savings i n operation costs must be o f f -set the higher c a p i t a l costs required. No s p e c i f i c attempts have been made at integrating transportation f a c i l i t i e s f o r the movement of people. The Tennessee Valley, f o r instance i s r a r e l y used for the trans-portation of people. Integration has therefore been designed to serve the movement of commodities. Likewise, the Port of New York Authority has concentrated i t s e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d of f r e i g h t movement and nothing has been done so f a r to 120 integrate transportation f a c i l i t i e s i n order to ensure the e f f i c i e n t movement of people from one area to the other. The administrative framework f o r integrated  transport operation. I t has proved d i f f i c u l t i n the United States to integrate transportation f a c i l i t i e s at the national - l e v e l because of the large number of both private and public agencies which must be taken into consideration. National transportation p o l i c i e s , as has been discussed, guide l o c a l governments i n the development of t h e i r transportation re-sources. Local governments working towards the national policy of integrating transportation f a c i l i t i e s have en-countered many d i f f i c u l t i e s . The major d i f f i c u l t y i s that of c o n t r o l l i n g private transportation development. There i s the absence of an agency which i s charged with the duty of coordinating the transportation functions of r a i l , water and highway. The success of such an agency i n promoting i n t e -gration has been demonstrated i n the U.S.S.R. The Tennessee Valley furnishes examples of some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which might arise because of the absence of a coordinating agency. T.V.A. i s mainly concerned with r i v e r navigation and i t has l i t t l e or no influence on r a i l r o a d or highway transportation. This was the root cause of the southern grain rate case. The d i f f i c u l t y of establishing a centralized agency, as has been done i n the U.S.S.R., can be appreciated i f consideration i s given to the fact that the objectives of the agency might d i f f e r from those of private 121 enterprise, whose main objective would be the maximization of p r o f i t s . The Port of New York Authority on the other hand has been able to integrate the transportation systems serving the metropolitan area, because of the cooperation of the various transportation agencies and because of the co-ordination of t h e i r functions. This i s of v i t a l s i g n i f i -cance since containership operations are highly specialized and they demand a high degree of cooperation. There i s a missing l i n k i n the ov e r a l l transporta-t i o n administration of the U.S. The national transportation policy of the U.S. has some flaws. Since i t i s the policy to integrate a l l systems of transportation - p a r t i c u l a r l y , r a i l , water, and highway, provision should have been made i n the Interstate Commerce Act f o r an administrative machinery to implement t h i s p o l i c y . The implications of transport integration i n the  Tennessee Valley and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan . Area f o r application i n Ghana. Like the U.S.S.R., transport integration has been achieved only f o r f r e i g h t movement and not f o r passenger movement. Although transport integration i n the New York Metropolitan Area has been between ocean transport and r a i l and highway transport, i t provides many lessons which could be adapted to the Ghanaian scene. Trans-port administration i n Ghana does not present the type of problems that the U.S. has to contend with. Since the trans-portation systems i n Ghana are mainly owned and operated by 122 public agencies, i t would be less d i f f i c u l t to es t a b l i s h a centralized form of control to coordinate transportation functions. Due attention w i l l , however, have to be given to 'mammy1 truck transportation, which i s an in d i v i d u a l res-p o n s i b i l i t y and plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the movement of both people and goods. The p r i n c i p l e s of integration i n the Tennessee Valley and the New York Metropolitan Area, reveal the fact that the process of transportation should be considered as a u n i f i e d system although more than one mode may be involved. This i s necessary because of the great degree of interdepen-dence between modes. An integrated transportation system can function properly only i f there i s an e f f e c t i v e method of rate structuring. Rates should be designed irrespective of the modes of transportation and f o r a l l types of commodity, to avoid cut-throat rates by certain transportation modes. Gontainerization, which i s the method used by the Port of New York Authority to integrate ocean, r a i l and high-way transport, presents a solution to the problem of trans-shipment which i s one of the biggest drawbacks of transport integration. The use of containers depends on such factors as the depth of the navigation channel or ocean, the e f f i -ciency of the highway system, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l , terminal f a c i l i t i e s and the types of goods to be transported. The size of t r a i l e r s permitted on the highways would depend 123 to a large extent on transportation regulations and t h i s would determine the size of water c a r r i e r s to be used. For the integration of transportation f a c i l i t i e s i n Ghana, due consideration must be given to the high l e v e l of integration achieved by the Port of New York Authority. The high cost involved i n containerization must however be weighed against the benefits which would accrue from i t . Summary. The problems which face the transporta-t i o n industry i n the U.S. are enormous. The fa c t that trans-portation has developed as a public as well as a private concern has given r i s e to administrative as well as technical problems. In order to bring these problems under control, the federal government has assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of regulating the transportation industry. Because of the need fo r an e f f i c i e n t system of transportation as a means of s a t i s f y i n g s o c i e t a l needs and as a means of stimulating economic growth, i t has been the policy of the U.S. to i n t e -grate her transportation f a c i l i t i e s and to u t i l i z e the over-a l l transportation resources of the country. The movement of persons and goods i n the U.S. i s performed by such transportation media as railways, highways and waterways. The importance of r a i l r o a d s as the p r i n c i p a l means of transportation has declined owing to competition from the other modes of transport. The railroads i n the U.S. comprise mainly trunk l i n e systems and feeder l i n e s which serve as connecting l i n k s between trunk l i n e s and producing 124 or consuming regions. Railroad transport i n the U.S. i s a private enterprise, and i s made up almost e n t i r e l y by common ca r r i e r s . Water transport development i n the U.S. lags behind r a i l transport development because of i t s severe l i m i t a t i o n s . Despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s , v/ater transport s t i l l provides an important means of transporting goods and people. Highway transport has today emerged as the most important means of transportation i n the U.S. I t provides a large range of services, some of which cannot be provided by the other modes. The most important development i n highway transport i s the "piggy-back" service. I t i s hoped that t h i s would reduce truck t r a v e l on r u r a l highways. Because of the vastness of the U.S. and because of the large number of agencies involved i n the transportation industry i t has not been possible to achieve integration at the national l e v e l . Some of the p r i n c i p l e s of integrated transport development i n the U.S. are c l e a r l y manifested i n the Tennessee Valley region and i n the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area. Rate structuring and containerization have been the two methods employed i n these areas to i n t e -grate and coordinate transportation functions. These areas have, however, not developed a system of t r a f f i c scheduling which i s one of the tools used i n the U.S.S.R. to achieve int e g r a t i o n . The successful operation of integrated trans-port development i n the U.S. i s dependent upon the establish-ment of a centralized control either at the national or l o c a l l e v e l to organize i n a r a t i o n a l manner the transportation resources of the country. The application of the p r i n c i p l of integration to Ghana must take cognizance of the d i f f e r ences between the two countries. CHAPTER IV APPLICABILITY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPORT INTEGRATION TO THE VOLTA BASIN The comprehensive development of a country cannot be divorced from the provision of an efficient and adequate transportation system. Transportation has been considered as one of the major pre-requisites for industrial location; i t has had great impact on the social and physical develop-ment of countries and i t has been used as an instrument for encouraging development in under-developed or depressed areas. Efficiency in the transportation industry.has been achieved in the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. through integration. The principles upon which transport integration have been based have been discussed in Chapter III. The application of these principles to the Volta Basin and the contribution of an integrated system of transportation towards the phy-sic a l , economic and social objectives for the balanced regional growth of the Volta Basin are examined in the following sections. It i s necessary at this point, to des-cribe the regional objectives for development of the Volta Basin. I. REGIONAL PLANNING OBJECTIVES FOR THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF THE VOLTA BASIN It i s d i f f i c u l t to separate regional planning objectives from national planning goals and objectives, since the latter have also provided a guide for regional planning and development throughout the country. National planning goals and objectives have been formulated with re-ference to the over-riding goal of developing a socialist society in which each individual w i l l be able to enjoy a modern standard of l i v i n g . It i s believed that a socialist form of society w i l l ensure Ghana of rapid economic develop ment without destroying the traditional way of l i f e . Ghana socialist policy i s based on certain fundamentals which i n -clude the rapid and efficient development of the economy to ensure, within the shortest possible time, a high rate of productivity and a high standard of l i v i n g for each citizen based on gainful employment; and the provision of adequate employment opportunities, and the equitable distribution of the nation's output. Like any other developing country, therefore, i t i s the main goal of Ghana to stimulate indus-t r i a l development so as to alter the colonial structure of production, based on the export of primary products, which largely accounts for the low level of income in large sec-tions of the country. This i s closely associated with the national goal of providing assured f u l l employment for the 128 c i t i z e n s of Ghana. Social goals include the eradication of i l l i t e r a c y throughout the country and the improvement of the f a c i l i t i e s and practices of health and n u t r i t i o n . National physical goals are mainly concerned with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of growth i n an optimum pattern, balancing resources, i n f r a s t r u c -ture and labour l o c a t i o n ; the tr a n s l a t i o n of economic and so c i a l objectives into geographic patterns of industry, s e t t -lement and supporting f a c i l i t i e s ; the provision of adequate housing f o r the working force and the resettlement of com-munities from the Volta Lake inundation zone into larger com-munities with adequate s o c i a l and physical f a c i l i t i e s . The attainment of these goals and objectives depends to a large extent on the transportation structure of the country. The objectives of the government i n the f i e l d of transportation as outlined i n the Ghana Seven Year Develop-ment Plan include the elimination of bottlenecks and the promotion of maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; the fostering of close coordination among transportation and com-munication projects i n order to avoid uneconomic duplication and competition - road, r a i l and water to be complementary; and to provide a new network of roads and railways which would feed goods into the lake transportation system. Simi-l a r to the transportation p o l i c i e s of the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A., i t i s evident that i t i s the policy of the Ghana Government to integrate the future Volta Lake Transportation System with road and railway systems. 129 The building of highways, railways and ports which would make possible the u t i l i z a t i o n of cheap water transport along the Volta Lake i s , therefore, one of the major regional goals f o r the Volta Basin. As part of the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n process of the country, i t i s the policy of the government to introduce commercial agriculture and new i r r i g a t i o n systems; to s t a r t modern industries f o r the processing of farm and forest products, t e x t i l e s and minerals by 1970. The indus-t r i e s and commercial farms w i l l be established i n the re-settlement areas i n the Volta Basin. They would provide an important source of income and employment to the resident population i n these areas and would thus a s s i s t the f u l f i l -ment of the goal of expanding employment and occupational d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the Volta Basin. The achievement of the above goals would result i n a higher standard of l i v i n g and a better l i f e f o r the people of the Volta Basin. The r e a l i -zation of the s o c i a l , economic and physical goals f o r the Volta Basin could be hastened by the achievement of the transportation goals f o r the area. Although the provision of transportation f a c i l i t i e s i s an important step towards the r e a l i z a t i o n of the growth potential of the region, these f a c i l i t i e s must be adequate and e f f i c i e n t and must provide transportation services at low cost. 130 2. THE DEMAND FOR INTEGRATED TRANSPORT FACILITIES The absence of adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n , as r e v i e w e d i n Chapter I I , has been t h e major f a c t o r h i n d e r i n g i t s growth. S i m i l a r l y , the s l o w development o f Ghana's N o r t h e r n Region and t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s t o t h e n o r t h has been a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and the h i g h c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n where i t e x i s t s . The immense a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s e a r e a s has t h e r e f o r e not y e t been r e a l i z e d . Because o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e f l o w o f t r a f f i c between t h e n o r t h e r n and s o u t h -er n s e c t i o n s o f the c o u n t r y and between Ghana and such c o u n t r i e s a s t h e R e p u b l i c o f Upper V o l t a , p a r t s o f t h e N i g e r and M a l i , i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e n a v i g a b l e w a t e r s o f Lake V o l t a would f o r m an i m p o r t a n t t r a d e r o u t e t o t h e n o r t h . Given cheap water t r a n s p o r t , t h e s e a r e a s w i l l , i n e f f e c t , be brought s u b s t a n t i a l l y c l o s e r t o A c c r a and t h e modern s e a -p o r t o f Tema, t h a n they are t o d a y . The major n o r t h - s o u t h l i n k has been a road from Tamale v i a Kumasi t o A c c r a s i n c e t h e r a i l w a y system does n o t e x t e n d beyond Kumasi. T h i s r o u t e i s i n d i r e c t and t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t i s h i g h and u n r e l i -a b l e o v e r such l o n g h a u l s . B o l g a t a n g a , i n t h e N o r t h e r n R e g i o n , f o r example, i s 506 m i l e s by r o a d from A c c r a , but would be o n l y 427 m i l e s v i a the Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. The V o l t a Lake would not o n l y s e r v e t h e V o l t a R e g i o n , t h e N o r t h e r n Region and t h e S o u t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y , 131 but i t would a l s o p r o v i d e e c o n o m i c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s t o n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e Lake T r a n s p o r -t a t i o n System, i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a cheap, d i r e c t and r e l i a b l e t r a n s p o r t l i n k between the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s o f Ghana and t h u s e n c o u r a g i n g th e e f f e c t i v e i n t e -g r a t i o n o f t h e economy o f t h e c o u n t r y , would a l s o make pos-s i b l e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a f f i c . The V o l t a B a s i n s h o u l d t a k e advantage o f t h e t r a f f i c f l o w a l o n g t h e l a k e . P o t e n t i a l T r a f f i c f o r t h e V o l t a Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  System. T r a f f i c s u r v e y s and p r o j e c t i o n s by K a i s e r E n g i n e e r s i n d i c a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l t r a f f i c t h a t w i l l be t a p p e d by t h e V o l t a Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. As p o i n t e d out by t h e G e n e r a l Manager o f Ghana R a i l w a y s and Harbours A u t h o r i t y , t h e V o l t a Lake w i l l o f f e r l i t t l e c o m p e t i t i o n t o t h e e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y systems of t h e c o u n t r y s i n c e commodities which a r e a t p r e s e n t h a u l e d by r a i l o r i g i n a t e from p l a c e s q u i t e remote f r o m t h e V o l t a Lake. However, the V o l t a Lake w i l l be a major s o u r c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n t o r o a d s , which have been the p r i n c i p a l mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e V o l t a Region and between N o r t h -e r n and S o u t h e r n Ghana. I n s p i t e o f t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n , w h i c h an i n t e g r a t e d system of r o a d and l a k e t r a n s p o r t would e l i m i -n a t e , t h e V o l t a Lake w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y h a n d l e a l a r g e p r o p o r -t i o n of t h e f r e i g h t and passenger movement i n t h e s e a r e a s . E a s t - w e s t movement a l o n g t h e l a k e w i l l be of l i t t l e s i g n i f i -cance. 132 The K a i s e r E n g i n e e r s i n t h e i r r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "Lake V o l t a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System - O u t l i n e D e s i g n , Volume I , " d i v i d e s t h e a n t i c i p a t e d f r e i g h t t r a f f i c a l o n g t h e V o l t a Lake i n t o f i v e main s o u r c e s . These i n c l u d e t r a f f i c d e r i v e d from e x i s t i n g n o r t h - s o u t h movement and d e f i n e d as "the p r o -p o r t i o n o f e x i s t i n g n o r t h - s o u t h t r a f f i c w h i c h would use t h e l a k e system p l u s t h e i n c r e m e n t o f growth o f t h a t t r a f f i c by 1970;"33 n e w a g r i c u l t u r a l development t r a f f i c , which i s d e f i n e d as " t r a f f i c a r i s i n g f r o m th e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s o f t h e Seven Year Development Plan, " 3 4 i . e . , t h o s e p r o j e c t s w hich would g e n e r a t e l o n g - h a u l n o r t h - s o u t h t r a f f i c ; new i n -d u s t r i a l development t r a f f i c which i s d e s c r i b e d as t r a f f i c d e r i v e d from th e new i n d u s t r i e s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d as d e f i n e d i n t h e Seven Year P l a n ; new lake-community t r a f f i c , w h i c h i n c l u d e s "the t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d by the impact o f t h e new communities o f Lake V o l t a ; " 3 5 and f i n a l l y new n o r t h e r n ex-p o r t - i m p o r t t r a f f i c w h ich i s e x p e c t e d t o a r i s e from i n c r e a s e d t r a d e w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s t o the n o r t h o f Ghana. Ta b l e I V on page 133 shows t h e e s t i m a t e d tonnage o f f r e i g h t t r a f f i c t h r o u g h the p r i n c i p a l Lake V o l t a p o r t s f o r the above s o u r c e s o f t r a f f i c f o r t h e y e a r 1970. 33Kaiser E n g i n e e r s and C o n s t r u c t o r s , I n c . Lake V o l t a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System - O u t l i n e D e s ign Volume I . (Re-p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y ) ( A c c r a ; Government o f Ghana, August, 1964), p. V - 3 . 3 / + I b i d . , p. V - 3 . I b i d . , p. V - 3 . TABLE I V 3 6 ESTIMATED ANNUAL TONNAGE OF FREIGHT THROUGH LAKE VOLTA PORTS, 1970. (IN TONS) Source of T r a f f i c Akosombo/ Apimso Kpandu Amanfram Kete-Krachi Tamale Port Growth of existing t r a f f i c 420,500 41,400 21,400 58,500 299,800 New a g r i c u l t u r a l development t r a f f i c 223,700 9,500 10,500 6,100 235,500 T r a f f i c from indus-t r i a l projects 65,100 2,000 2,000 5,000 56,100 New Lake Community t r a f f i c 58,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 29,000 New export-import t r a f f i c with neighbouring coun-t r i e s to the north 125,000 125,000 TOTAL 892,300 61,900 42,900 78,600 745,400 36K a i s e r Engineers and Constructors Inc. I b i d . , p. V-6 E x i s t i n g north-south and east-west f r e i g h t t r a f -f i c at the p r i n c i p a l f e r r y crossings i s estimated at 5 8 0 , 0 0 0 tons as shown i n Table V, below. TABLE V 3 7 ESTIMATED TOTAL FREIGHT TRAFFIC AT MAJOR CROSSINGS ( 1 9 6 2 ) Crossing Estimated Annual Freight Tons T r a f f i c North-South Bamboi 7 0 , 0 0 0 Buipe 25 , 0 0 0 X e j i 1 3 5 , 0 0 0 Otiso 9 0 , 0 0 0 East-West Adomi 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 Total 5 8 0 , 0 0 0 Based on these estimates, the volume of north-south t r a f f i c was projected f o r 1 9 7 0 . Although these estimates were found •^Kaiser Engineers and Constructors, Inc. Lake Volta Transportation System - Outline Design Volume I. -Report prepared f o r the Volta River Authority (Accra; Govern-ment of Ghana, August, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. V - 1 2 . 1 3 5 to be incomplete, they provided a good i n d i c a t i o n of the steady growth i n north-south t r a f f i c , Between 1 9 5 8 and 1 9 6 2 , the t r a f f i c count data i n -dicates that t o t a l private truck capacity cross-ing Y e j i f e r r y , i n both directions rose from 1 0 4 , 0 0 0 tons to 178 , 0 0 0 tons. This represents a gain of about 72 per cent, or nearly 15 per cent per year. The t o t a l capacity crossing Otiso fe r r y i n both directions grew from 4 7 , 0 0 0 tons to about 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 tons during the same period, an increase of 130 per cent.3 ° There i s a tendency f o r the consumption of certain commodi-t i e s to expand more rapi d l y than others i n Ghana's growing economy. These commodities include petroleum products, meat, Portland cement and cocoa. In 1 9 6 2 a t o t a l volume of 2 2 , 6 0 0 tons of petroleum products were exported to the north over a l l f e r r i e s . There was 1 1 0 per cent increase i n petroleum product shipments between 1 9 5 7 and 1 9 6 3 . A further increase of 71 per cent i s anticipated f o r 1 9 7 0 . Petroleum-product shipments may be greater than projected i f trade negotiations with Ghana's northern neighbours could be undertaken. Meat consumption f o r the 'design year' of 1 9 7 0 , incorporating the targets of the Seven Year Development Plan for increased domestic production, involves a 5 0 per cent increase i n the production of beef and mutton, from 1 2 , 0 0 0 tons to 1 8 , 0 0 0 tons and 1 0 0 per cent increase i n pork and poultry production from a t o t a l of 8 , 8 0 0 tons to about 19,300 tons. In accord-ance with Ghana's program of encouraging and expanding trade 3 % b i d . , p. V - 1 2 . 1 3 6 between A f r i c a n s t a t e s , t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e o f i m p o r t s o f c a t t l e , sheep and g o a t s . The V o l t a Lake would be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y . P r e s e n t l y , most o f t h e l i v e s t o c k i s t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e s o u t h e r n markets on hoof and t h u s a r r i v e s i n t h e markets i n poor c o n d i t i o n . However, owing t o the c o s t i n -v o l v e d i n s h i p p i n g l i v e s t o c k , i t would be more econo m i c a l t o t r a n s p o r t t h e meat i n p r o c e s s e d f o r m - e i t h e r r e f r i g e r -a t e d o r t i n n e d - t o t h e s e m a r k e t s . The shipments o f s a c k e d cement t o P o r t Tamale f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o o t h e r a r e a s i n t h e N o r t h e r n Region i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e by about 1 2 per cent o v e r t h e 1 9 6 2 e s t i m a t e . S i m i l a r l y , cocoa p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n - w o u l d w i t n e s s a t o t a l i n c r e a s e o f 4 5 , 0 0 0 t o n s i n 1 9 7 0 compared t o t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n o f 3 0 , 3 0 0 t o n s i n 1 9 6 0 / 6 1 p e r i o d . New a g r i c u l t u r a l developments i n t h e c o u n t r y a re l i k e l y t o g e n e r a t e t r a f f i c f o r t h e V o l t a Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. These developments a re m a i n l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e savannah zone w h i c h comprises t h e N o r t h e r n R e g i o n , t h e n o r t h -ern s e c t i o n o f t h e Brong-Ahafo and V o l t a R e g i o n s , and t h e A c c r a P l a i n s . T a b l e VI on page 1 3 7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e l o c a t i o n of p l a n n e d a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n Ghana, as o u t l i n e d i n the Ghana Seven Year P l a n . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the achievement o f Ghana's Seven Ye a r P l a n would r e s u l t i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e savannah a r e a s , s i n c e i t i s TABLE V I 3 9 LOCATION OF PLANNED AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, 1 9 6 3 - 7 0 Crops and Livestock Savannah Zone Forest Zone Arable Crops Cereals Rice, Maize, M i l l e t , Sorghum -Legumes and O i l Seeds Groundnuts, Bambarra Nuts, Cowpeas, Beans, Peas, etc. -Roots Cassawa, lams, Sweet Potatoes Cocoyams F r u i t s Pawpaws, Pineapples Bananas Fibres Cotton, Urena Lobata, S i s a l -Others Tobacco, Sugarcane Grasses, Pastures -Tree Crops O i l Seeds Shea Butter Coconut, o i l Palm F r u i t s Mangoes Citrus, Avocado Pears Others Cashew, Timber Cocoa, Coffee, Rubber, Timber Livestock Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Pigs, Poultry- -Vegetables Tomatoes, Onions, Shallots --^Government of Ghana. Ghana Seven-Year Develop-ment Plan 1963/1964 - 1 9 6 9 / 1 9 7 0 . Accra, Office of the Planning Commission, March 1 9 6 4 , p. 6 4 . 138 the p o l i c y of the Government of Ghana to i n t e n s i f y a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n these areas. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p o l i c y can be r e l a t e d t o the growing r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n , the r i s i n g standards of l i v i n g and the need to produce s u f -f i c i e n t f o o d s t u f f s with which t o f e e d the urban p o p u l a t i o n . Although the main markets f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l produce are i n the southern s e c t i o n of Ghana, not a l l o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n c r e a s e s from the Seven Year Plan w i l l generate t r a f f i c f o r the Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System. Table VII on page 139 i l l u s -t r a t e s tonnage by commodity and shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n between t r a n s p o r t by road and t r a n s p o r t by water. In conformity w i t h the Seven Year Development Plan which encourages the p r o c e s s i n g and manufacturing of indus-t r i a l raw m a t e r i a l s , a l a r g e number of i n d u s t r i a l p r o j e c t s are planned both f o r the V o l t a Basin and f o r ot h e r p a r t s o f the country. Of these p r o j e c t s , the f o l l o w i n g w i l l make the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o V o l t a Lake t r a f f i c ; the meat-packing p l a n t s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d at Bolgatanga and Tamale, an o i l -seed c r u s h i n g m i l l at Bawku, a chemical f e r t i l i z e r p l a n t i n the Accra-Tema area, a 500,000 ton m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r y at K e t e - K r a c h i , metal and machine i n d u s t r i e s at Akosombo, chemi-c a l i n d u s t r i e s at Ada and Adawso and a pulp and paper i n d u s t r y t e n t a t i v e l y l o c a t e d at Akuse. The ot h e r major source of t r a f f i c f o r the Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System i s the r e s e t t l e m e n t program, which i n v o l v e s the r e s e t t l e m e n t of f l o o d zone r e s i d e n t s and the 139 TABLE VII^° LAKE AND ROAD DISTRIBUTION OF NORTH-SOUTH FREIGHT TRANSPORT REQUIREMENTS RESULTING FROM INCREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN 1970 Commodity 1970 Production Increase requiring transport (tons) Northern Origin Rice 16,000 Guinea Corn and M i l l e t 45,000 Yams 117,070 Groundnuts 80,000 Beans and Peas 20,000 Onions 5,010 Tomatoes 12,000 Livestone (meat weight) 10,000 Sub-Total 305,090 Southern Origin Fish 220,000 Palm O i l 15,010 F r u i t 20,000 Maize 60,000 Cassava 40,000 Sub-Total 335,010 Road Transport Total 447,290 Lake Transport Total 212,810 ^ K a i s e r Engineers and Constructors Inc. Loc. op.cit. p.V-31 140 provision of f i n a n c i a l and technical assistance to allow them to undertake new a g r i c u l t u r a l and economic developments, leading to higher l e v e l s of l i v i n g . The a g r i c u l t u r a l produce grown i n the hinterlands of these new ports and settlement areas would be marketed through the eight landings along the shores of Lake Volta and also Port Akosombo and Port Tamale. The estimates of new l o c a l t r a f f i c generated by Lake Volta community as shown i n Table VIII below. TABLE V I I I ^ 1 NEW LOCAL TRAFFIC GENERATED BY LAKE VOLTA COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, 1970 Lake Volta Ports Freight Annual Tonnage Passengers Annual Totals In Out In Out Port Akosombo 30,000 28,000 60,000 60,000 Adawso Landing 4,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 Kpeve Landing 4,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 Kpandu Landing 4,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 Amanfrom Landing 4,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 Dumbai Landing 4,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 Kete Krachi Landing 4,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 Y e j i Landings 6,000 8,000 12,000 12,000 Monno Landings 4,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 Port Tamale 13,000 6,000 12,000 12,000 4lKaiser Engineers and Constructors, Inc. Lake Volta Transportation System - Outline Design Volume I - Re-port prepared f o r the Volta River Authority (Accra; Govern-ment of Ghana, August, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. V - 3 3 . 141 Of the major sources of f u t u r e V o l t a Lake t r a f f i c i d e n t i f i e d more than h a l f of the p r o j e c t e d lake t r a f f i c f o r 1970 w i l l r e s u l t from t r a f f i c a r i s i n g from e x i s t i n g commodity move-ments. 42 Lake V o l t a , i n a d d i t i o n to o f f e r i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s to f r e i g h t movement w i l l a l s o provide s e r v i c e s f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of people between the northern and south-ern s e c t i o n s of Ghana. Of the four p r i n c i p a l f e r r y crossings already mentioned, the Y e j i f e r r y c a r r i e d the greatest per-centage of passenger t r a f f i c . In 1962, 395,000 south-bound passengers and 363,000 north-bound passengers were recorded at the Y e j i f e r r y . Although only a small percentage of the passengers c r o s s i n g Y e j i f e r r y today are going d i r e c t l y to Southeastern Ghana, i t i s expected t h a t a f a s t and cheap passenger s e r v i c e between Port Tamale and Akosombo might draw 30,000 passengers annually i n each d i r e c t i o n . Furthermore, another 40,000 pas-sengers each" way might t r a v e l between Kete-Krachi and Akosombo i f good s e r v i c e were a v a i l a b l e between these two ports.43 S u b s t a n t i a l passenger t r a f f i c w i l l a l s o o r i g i n a t e from the east-west flow between settlements l o c a t e d on the shores of the l a k e . The volume of passenger t r a f f i c which w i l l o r i g i n a t e from the various ports i s shown i n Table V I I I on page 132. p. V-26. p. V-41. ^ K a i s e r Engineers and Constructors, Inc. Loc. o p c i t . ^ % a i s e r Engineers and Constructors, Inc. I b i d . , 142 Transport integration i n the Volta Basin. The p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the Volta Lake as a means of f r e i g h t and passenger transport are enormous. Moreover, the use of the Volta Lake f o r transportation purposes would effect consi-derable savings i n transportation investments; "for a t o t a l investment of $27.9 m i l l i o n an annual reduction of |15.6 m i l l i o n can be effected under the present cost of road transportation from and to the northern and lake r e g i o n s . " ^ The optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s system by Ghana and by other African states w i l l depend on the quality of service offered and on the cost of transportation services. Soviet and American experiences indicate the necessity of l i n k i n g lake, r i v e r or ocean ports by overland transportation routes. These can be either roads or railways and they must form an integrated part of the national system. Alternative combina-tions of water and land transport between Accra - Tema and Tamale, v i a Lake Volta have been considered by Kaiser En-gineers and Constructors. Road - Lake -Road, R a i l - Lake -R a i l and Road - Lake - Piggyback combinations were analysed on the basis of c a p i t a l and annual costs. The road transport plan v i a Port Akosombo was based on t r a i l e r s carried to Port Tamale by two-deck t r a i l e r barges on Lake Volta. The r a i l transport was based on Ghana's Railways from Tema/Accra to Koforidua with a new railway to ^*Kaiser Engineers and Constructors, Inc. Ibid., p. 1-11. 1 4 3 Port Apimso ... and from Port Tamale to Tamale. In the l a t t e r plan, loaded r a i l cars were to be carried on deck barges along Lake Volta. A t h i r d plan, ... was also considered, using road transport i n the north with t r a i l e r barges across the lake and t r a i l e r s carted "piggyback" on bogie f l a t r a i l wagons from Port Apimso to Accra/Tema.^5 A summary of t o t a l c a p i t a l and annual costs of the three systems i s presented i n Table IX below. TABLE IX^ 6 SUMMARY OF TOTAL CAPITAL AND ANNUAL COSTS System Capital Costs i n thousand $ (approximate) Annual Costs i n thousand $ (approximately) Road/Lake/Road 17,799 5,697 Rail/Lake/Rail 34,116 6,609 Road/Lake/Piggy-back 27,693 6,177 On the basis of the c a p i t a l and annual cost analy-sis,' the Road/Lake/Road combination has been recommended as the most fea s i b l e system. I t i s important to note that capi-t a l costs alone do not provide the most l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r judging between alternative systems. Since transportation f a c i l i t i e s are designed to render service to the public and to a i d the proper functioning of the economic system, a l t e r -native transportation plans must be evaluated with reference to the net benefits on the economy and the benefits that are l i k e l y to accrue to the public, from the implementation of 46' * I b i d . , p. 1-14 1 4 4 the plans. Cost-Benefit analysis offers a l o g i c a l means for decision-making and for selecting one or more courses of action, since i t takes into account factors which can and factors which cannot be measured i n dollars and cents. The application of Cost-Benefit analysis to the a l t e r n a t i v e schemes would indicate the scheme with the largest r a t i o of benefits to costs, and hence, the most f e a s i b l e . Physical integration which involves an e f f e c t i v e l i n k i n g up of the transportation network, as shown i n Figure 1 0 on page 1 4 5 , does not provide a complete answer to the problem of integration. Transport integration aims primarily at the elimination of physical impediments to the movement of vehicles, goods and people, at the provision of a high l e v e l of service at low cost. In the planning of j o i n t transport, the transportation process must be regarded as a u n i f i e d means of moving commodities from sphere of production to sphere of consumption or as a means of moving people from o r i g i n to destination, i . e . from the southern to northern sections or from northern to southern sections of Ghana. This process should be effected i n the shortest possible time with no or few transshipments. Since physical integration per se does not lead to the f u l f i l m e n t of these purposes, i t must be supplemented by other methods. The p r i n c i p l e s of transport integration i n the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A., as reviewed i n Chapter I I I , indicate the methods by which a u n i f i e d transportation system could be achieved. F I G U R E 1 0 P H Y S I C A L I N T E G R A T I O N O F V O L T A L A K E T R A N S P O R T A T I O N S Y S T E M W I T H R O A D A N D R A I L W A Y S Y S T E M S NORTHERN REGION SOUTHERN REGION TRUCK TERMINAL ^ l l l H t l l l t l l RAIL TERMINAL NORTHERN LAKE PORT ~X ± SOUTHERN LAKE PORT 7V TRUCK TERMINAL » ROAD TRANSPORT LEGEND RAIL TRANSPORT -> WATER TRANSPORT 146 Because d e l a y s a t t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s and t r a n s -shipment p o i n t s a r e one of t h e major l i m i t a t i o n s o f p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y where each t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n mode performs a s e p a r a t e f u n c t i o n , a scheme o f j o i n t t r a f f i c s c h e d u l e s i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Such a scheme s h o u l d p r o v i d e i n -f o r m a t i o n on t h e d i s t a n c e s between t h e f r e i g h t s t a t i o n s a l o n g Lake V o l t a , and highway and r a i l t e r m i n a l s , on t h e t i m e consumed by a f r e i g h t c a r r i e r i n t r a v e l l i n g between a highway o r r a i l t e r m i n a l and a p o r t on t h e l a k e , t h e t u r n a r o u n d time o f t h e f r e i g h t c a r r i e r w i t h i n a t e r m i n a l , and on t h e t ime i n t e r v a l between t h e d e p a r t u r e and a r r i v a l o f f r e i g h t c a r -r i e r s . A s i m i l a r scheme s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d f o r passenger t r a n s p o r t w i t h emphasis on t h e a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e o f c a r r i e r s . A l t h o u g h j o i n t s c h e d u l i n g ensures e f f i c i e n c y i n t i m e , i t does not e l i m i n a t e the f o r c e s o f u n h e a l t h y compe-t i t i o n w h i c h might j e o p a r d i z e t h e purposes of i n t e g r a t i o n . The Tennessee V a l l e y Region p r o v i d e s an example o f t h e con-sequences e n s u i n g f r o m th e absence o f an e f f e c t i v e r a t e s p o l i c y . These d i f f i c u l t i e s can be overcome by a p o l i c y o f j o i n t r a t e s which t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t the economic and t e c h -n i c a l advantages o f each means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e r e b y i n d u c e s u s e r s t o a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e branches o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y which are most u s e f u l i n the o v e r a l l 147 i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l economy. Lake V o l t a t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n , must t h e r e f o r e be p r i c e d l o w e r t h a n highway o r r a i l t r a n s p o r t i n o r d e r t o b r i n g out t h e economy o f w a t e r t r a n s -p o r t . However, i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e j o i n t r a t e p o l i c y t o be a p p l i e d t o a l l modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whether t h e y are p u b l i c l y o r p r i v a t e l y owned and o p e r a t e d . A s h i p p e r t r a n s p o r t i n g goods o v e r t h e Highway and Lake T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n Systems w i l l have t o pay o n l y a s i n g l e r a t e c o v e r -i n g a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s from o r i g i n t o d e s t i n a t i o n . The s h i p p e r t h e r e f o r e d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h e c a r r i e r a t t h e p l a c e o f o r i g i n and does n o t have t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h a number o f s e p a r a t e l a n d and w a t e r c a r r i e r s . J o i n t r a t e s a l s o s i m p l i f y t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t t h e problem of a c c o u n t i n g . The revenue which a c c r u e s from th e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e j o i n t t r a n s -p o r t s e r v i c e s o f Lake V o l t a and t h e highway o r r a i l w a y s y s -tems w i l l be s h a r e d between c a r r i e r s , based on t h e o v e r a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each i n t h e movement of goods and p e r s o n s . The s u c c e s s f u l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e u n i f i e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system c a l l s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f t h e Government w i t h p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . D i f f i c u l t i e s might be e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s due t o t h e l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l owners o f "mammy t r u c k s " . I t might be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e p r e s e n t system, whereby t h e s h i p p e r makes payments d i r e c t l y t o the owner o f the " t r u c k " . The r a t e s charged s h o u l d however be c o n t r o l l e d . I n t h e case o f p a s s enger 148 t r a n s p o r t , j o i n t r a t e s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d by arrangements between t h e Ghana R a i l w a y s and Harbours A u t h o r i t y , Ghana N a t i o n a l C o n s t r u c t i o n Company (G.N.C.C.) which i s r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r r o a d t r a n s p o r t and t h e V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y o r a new Lake T r a n s p o r t A u t h o r i t y t h a t might be c r e a t e d t o o p e r a t e t h e V o l t a Lake T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System, which would e n a b l e p a s s e n g e r s t o t r a v e l o v e r more th a n one system by means of a t i c k e t c o v e r i n g t h e whole j o u r n e y . A l t h o u g h p h y s i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , j o i n t t r a f f i c s che-d u l e s and j o i n t r a t e s p r o v i d e a l o g i c a l and e f f e c t i v e b a s i s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g V o l t a Lake t r a n s p o r t w i t h highway and r a i l -way systems, t h e y do not overcome the problem o f t r a n s s h i p -ment o r r e h a n d l i n g w h i c h i n v o l v e s a d d i t i o n a l expense and l o s s o f t ime and i n c r e a s e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o s s o r damage. C o n t a i n e r s h i p o p e r a t i o n s as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e New York-New J e r s e y M e t r o p o l i t a n Area p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem. The t y p e o f barges and the t y p e of t r a i l e r s w h i c h w i l l be used i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n w i l l be d i c t a t e d by t h e l a k e c o n d i -t i o n s and r o a d and r a i l w a y r e g u l a t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n cannot be based upon one o r two p r i n c i p l e s . The s u c c e s s o f t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n would depend upon t h e e x t e n t t o which c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o a l l t h e p r i n c i p l e s mentioned above. T r a n s p o r t i n t e -g r a t i o n would e l i m i n a t e t h e d u p l i c a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i -t i e s , t h e wastage o f t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y , u n h e a l t h y c o m p e t i -1 4 9 tion; and would ensure the rational allocation of capital investment and freight between the various transportation modes, and a low cost of transportation services. 3. ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY FOR INTEGRATED TRANSPORT OPERATION One of the major factors underlying the success of transport integration in the U.S.S.R. and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area has been the establishment of an agency which acts as a coordinating body for railway, highway and waterway systems. This body does not only co-ordinate the activities of the various systems but i t i s also concerned with the proper functioning of the unified system. The absence of such a body in the Tennessee Valley Region has greatly endangered the successful operation of an integrated system of transportation. It i s d i f f i c u l t to realize the advantages of an integrated transportation sys-tem in the absence of a body to undertake the implementation of policies for transport integration. Due to the specialized nature of inland waterway, road t r a i l e r and piggy-back transport operations and due to the fact that Lake Volta Transportation System would combine several cargo and passenger services, a separate department under the Volta River Authority or a new Lake Transport Authority should be constituted to administer the integrated system. Administratively, the Volta River Authority has been 150 associated with present investigations into passenger and fr e i g h t transport on the lake and has taken steps i n pro-moting the development of lake transport. In addition, i t i s concerned, to a great extent, with the o v e r a l l develop-ment of the Volta Basin which cannot be separated from transport development. This makes i t l o g i c a l f o r the Volta River Authority to continue with t h i s i n i t i a t i v e and to undertake to implement the proposals f o r transport i n t e -gration. This could be achieved by the creation of a Lake Transport Department under the Volta River Authority and responsible to i t . Although such an organization would f a c i l i t a t e the coordination of a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to the development of the Volta Basin, at the same time, i t l i m i t s the decision-making powers of the Lake Transport Department. Since transportation on Lake Volta would require the building up of a f l e e t of passenger and fre i g h t c a r r i e r s , the establishment of workshops to do repairs, the r e g i s t r a -t i o n of vessels, owners and operators et cetera, an autono-mous Lake Transport Authority with adequate government status i s needed. The Lake Transport Authority should be given l e g a l powers which would allow i t to make r a t i o n a l decisions r e l a t i n g to the e f f i c i e n t operation of the Lake Transporta-t i o n System. Since Volta Lake transport cannot function i n -dependent of land transportation systems, Ghana Railways and Harbours and Ghana National Construction Company (G.N.C.C), 151 and also the Volta River Authority should be represented on the Lake Transport Authority in order that activities of these bodies could be effectively coordinated. This i s of v i t a l importance since decisions taken by the Ghana Rail-ways and Harbours and G.N.C.C. are bound to have repercussions on lake transport. The Lake Transport Authority would be responsible for devising a rates policy for the integrated system in consultation with Ghana Railways and Harbours and G.N.C.C. and for implementing i t . The Lake Transport Author-i t y i s envisaged as a public corporation headed by a director who would be responsible to the President of Ghana. 4. INTEGRATED TRANSPORT AND VOLTA BASIN DEVELOPMENT The regional objectives for Volta Basin develop-ment and the demand for integrated transport f a c i l i t i e s have been examined in the previous sections. It i s the purpose of this section to analyse the contribution of an integrated transport system towards the fulfilment of the developmental objectives of the Volta Basin. As was pointed out in Chapter I, transportation f a c i l i t i e s in developing countries are provided not only for convenience, but they are also used as tools for achieving other objectives. The reason for the backwardness of large, areas in developing countries has been due to the fact that rapid growth has located in the more "attractive" areas. Opportunities in these areas draw off certain resources, including capital and labour from the 152 backward regions; and the relative inaccessibility of the latter prevents their being integrated effectively with the focal points of growth. The improvement of the accessibi-l i t y of the backward regions would greatly enhance their growth potentials. The achievement of Ghana's major goal of economic reconstruction, which entails the equitable distribution of economic output and the processing of her raw materials depends on a number of factors of which transportation i s an important one. The backward nature of the Volta Basin and also the Northern Region has been due to the lack of efficient and low-cost transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The Volta Lake would provide an important means of movement and would open up large areas of the Volta Basin for development. Since Volta Lake transport cannot function as a separate system, i t must be integrated with land transportation modes in order to provide jointly the low-cost transportation re-quired for the development of the Volta Basin. Regional planning which i s primarily concerned with the optimum util i z a t i o n of natural resources i s being employed as a means of stimulating development in the Volta Basin and of achieving both national and regional social, economic and physical goals and objectives. In order to f a c i l i t a t e and expedite such development, the accessibility of the Volta Basin needs to be greatly improved. The proposed principles 1 5 3 of integrating Lake Volta transport with highway and railway systems would provide the Volta Basin with an e f f i c i e n t and low-cost transportation service. The at t r a c t i o n of economic a c t i v i t y into the Volta Region i s c l e a r l y a competitive one. There are many things that the Volta Region can do to enhance i t s l o c a t i o n a l advan-tages, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to f a c i l i t i e s , as i n improv-ing transportation. Since i t s location within the country cannot be alt e r e d , an appraisal of i t s r e l a t i v e advantages and disadvantages with regard to 'input-output access' i s an essential s t a r t i n g point f o r understanding the Volta Basin's growth p o t e n t i a l . The question of "access" as the sum of the r e l a t i v e advantages and disadvantages f o r the production of a p a r t i c u l a r commodity at a given place implies more than just the resistance and hence costs, imposed by distance on the assembly of inputs and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of outputs. The question of r e l a t i v e costs i s very c r i t i c a l since a favour-able opportunity at a given place might not be exploited because of the existence of a better opportunity elsewhere. Therefore " r i v a l r y " and "opportunity" costs are important i n the concept of "access" as i n the concept of investment. The provision of integrated and therefore economical transporta-t i o n f a c i l i t i e s would make i t possible f o r the assembling of raw materials within the Volta Basin and from other parts of the country to feed i n d u s t r i a l establishments i n the region. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of good access would also bring the Volta 1 5 4 Basin i n close proximity to the Southern Region where the population i s concentrated. An examination of regions i n terms of "input-output access", with regard to the requirements of economic a c t i v i t i e s would indicate the extent to which they vary i n t h e i r prospects f o r growth. Figure 1 1 on page 1 5 5 i l l u s t -rates the range of possible growth i n a number of conceptual regions. Although t h i s diagram may appear to be oversimpli-f i e d , i t provides a good index of the extent to which a region's general access c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may influence i t s growth p o t e n t i a l . Region 4 i n the diagram would have l i t t l e prospect for growth, while Region 1 3 would have an unsurpassed growth p o t e n t i a l . In the cases of Regions 1 , 2 , 3> 8 , 1 2 and 1 6 , reasonable access to inputs i s offset by lack of market.; access. Since the Volta Basin transportation network would be linked up with the national network the problem of poor access to home markets does not a r i s e . S i m i l a r l y the i n c l u -sion of Tema Harbour i n the area under, consideration f o r the integration of transportation systems would f a c i l i t a t e the export of commodities to other countries and the import of goods to the Volta Basin. In developing countries, transportation has been an important consideration i n selecting a location f o r i n -dustry. Assuming that a l l costs to an industry, except those of transportation, are constant and the same at any Figure 11 A Schematic Presentation of Types of Regions That Can Exhibit Different Growth Potentials 155 •a c 5 S S-J§ 8 ' a. •a c c a CD •5 •a a 1 a 8 § s £ E a S o o a A V s a o 3 5 o a «. u 3 E o |3 £ a a . o - ° "o -a S 5 o a Good access to basic inputs* from external regional and national sources Good access to basic inputs in home region #1 #5 m #9 ra #13 IV Poor access to basic inputs in home region #2 #6 n #10 n #14 m Poor access to basic inputs* from external regional and national sources Good access to basic inputs in home region #3 - #7 n #ii n #15 in Poor access to basic inputs in home region #4 #8 #12 #16 '. • N o t only basic resources but important intermediate sources need to be considered. NOTE: Roman numerals indicate number of "good" access dimensions, and suggest relative over-all locational advantages or disadvantages. Source Perloff, H . S . and Dodds, V. W. Region Grows. 1963. How a 156 l o c a t i o n , the choice of location i s determined by ascertain-ing the s i t e with the lowest transportation cost. Economical transportation v i a the Volta Lake and the improvement of transportation services by means of integration would greatly a s s i s t the planned regional development of the Volta Basin. However, since transportation i s not the only c r i t e r i o n determining economic development, other factors such as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s k i l l e d labour, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n t e r n a l as well as external markets must be taken into account. The economic development of the Volta Basin would not only contribute to the implementation of Ghana's po l i c y of economic reconstruction which encompasses the development of the underdeveloped regions of the country, but i t would also contribute to the provision of gainful employment as well as a variety of employment opportunities for the people i n the Volta Basin. As was pointed out i n Chapter II, the resident population of the Volta Basin i s comprised mainly of farmers who depend on the meagre revenues obtained from t h e i r farming a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . Since agriculture i s exposed to the v i c i s s i t u d e s of the climate and conditions i n both home and world markets, i t does not provide a source f o r substantial employment. The encouragement of manufactur-ing i n d u s t r i e s to locate i n the Volta Basin, thus d i v e r s i f y -ing the economic base of the area i s a means "of solving t h i s problem, and of ensuring s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y within the area by lessening the pr o b a b i l i t y of emigration. 157 I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has been e n v i s a g e d i n Ghana as a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e n a t i o n a l income and t h e revenues of t h e S t a t e i n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f l i v i n g of e v e r y Ghanaian. As p a r t o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a -t i o n p r o c e s s , a number o f economic a c t i v i t i e s are e x p e c t e d t o l o c a t e i n the V o l t a B a s i n u t i l i z i n g power from t h e Hydro-e l e c t r i c power p r o j e c t i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f raw m a t e r i a l s . These i n d u s t r i e s would make s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the n a t i o n a l income which i s t i e d up w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n the p e r c a p i t a income o f b o t h t h e r u r a l and urban p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n and o f t h e c o u n t r y as a whole. The key t o economic development, w h i c h i s needed f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t of l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n , as has been p o i n t e d o u t , i s an e c o n o m i c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. I n t e g r a t e d t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make towards t h e e r a d i c a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y o r b e t t e r h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s . However, t h e growth o f p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h might r e s u l t from t h e i n d u s t r i a l development of t h e V o l t a B a s i n would make i t p o s s i b l e t o s u p p o r t e d u c a t i o n a l and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e a r e a . The V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l Development P l a n proposes t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e 70,000 f l o o d z o n e r e s i d e n t s i n t o a h i e r a r c h y o f s e t t l e m e n t s r a n g i n g f rom t h e ' C e n t r a l Town' t o c l u s t e r s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s m a l l v i l l a g e s around a s c h o o l , market o r park. The ' C e n t r a l Town' would c o n t a i n f u n c t i o n s 1 5 8 such as i n d u s t r y , t r a d e , s e r v i c e and government and would be l o c a t e d i n a r e a s where economic r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be e a s i l y assembled. S i n c e t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes p r o v i d e s an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r such towns, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e Lake P o r t s would d e v e l o p as ' C e n t r a l Towns'. S i n c e t h e s e towns would s e r v e as r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s , they s h o u l d be c o n n e c t e d t o the o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s by e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n can be u sed as an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n i m p l e m e n t i n g th e r e s e t t l e m e n t scheme s i n c e t h e l e v e l o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e and modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l -a b l e w i t h i n an a r e a i n f l u e n c e t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t t h e p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t . The p r o v i s i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n would make bo t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t con-t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r i n t e g r a t e d development of t h e V o l t a B a s i n . However, the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n would be made towards the achievement of economic o b j e c t i v e s which have both s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t i n g b a l a n c e d development o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n would be a d e s i r a b l e s t e p towards a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and a b e t t e r i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . Summary. N a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s have g u i d e d the development o f b oth the c o u n t r y and t h e r e g i o n s o f which i t i s composed. Where s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l 159 planning objectives e x i s t , they have been formulated with reference to the national goals and objectives. Conse-quently, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between national goals and objectives and regional objectives. The overriding national goal of developing a s o c i a l i s t society has been based on economic development, provision of employ-ment opportunities and the r a i s i n g of the l e v e l of l i v i n g of Ghanaians. Social and physical goals include better educa-t i o n a l and medical f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l Ghanaians, r e s e t t l e -ment, provision of adequate housing f o r the working force and the integration of water transport with highway and railway systems. The underdeveloped nature of the Volta Basin has been mainly attributed to the lack of e f f i c i e n t and low-cost transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The development of Volta Lake Transportation System would open up the Volta Basin f o r de-velopment. This would, however, depend on the demand f o r water transport both within and outside Ghana. Investiga-tions by Kaiser Engineers indicate the range and vastness of future potential t r a f f i c f or Volta Lake transport. Five major sources of t r a f f i c have been i d e n t i f i e d . These i n -clude t r a f f i c from e x i s t i n g north-south movement, t r a f f i c from new a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l development and f i n a l l y t r a f f i c from the new lake communities. The u t i l i z a t i o n of the Volta Lake f o r the movement of commodities derived from these sources and f o r the movement of people from the 160 n o r t h e r n t o t h e s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y and v i c e -v e r s a would c r e a t e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r r o a d t r a n s p o r t w h i c h has been t h e o n l y means o f t r a n s p o r t w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . Com-p e t i t i o n can be e l i m i n a t e d by t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f V o l t a Lake t r a n s p o r t w i t h highway and r a i l w a y systems. I n t e g r a t i o n must be based on p h y s i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , t r a f f i c s c h e d u l i n g , j o i n t r a t e s t r u c t u r i n g and c o n t a i n e r s h i p o p e r a t i o n s . A l l t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a ccount i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n e f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n t h e i n t e g r a t e d system. To implement t h e p o l i c i e s o f t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n and t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s o f the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n systems, a new Lake T r a n s p o r t A u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . I t s h o u l d be g i v e n adequate l e g a l pov/ers t o enable i t t o make r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . S i n c e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e Ghana R a i l w a y s and Harbour A u t h o r i t y , t h e G.N.C.C. and th e V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y would a f f e c t l a k e t r a n s p o r t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e s e b o d i e s be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e Lake T r a n s -p o r t A u t h o r i t y . I n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t , and hence l o w - c o s t and e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would g r e a t l y enhance t h e growth p o t e n t i a l o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n . A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n would i n c r e a s e and i n d u s t r i e s would be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e r e g i o n . Economic development i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n would mean a h i g h l e v e l o f income and a h i g h l e v e l o f l i v i n g f o r t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m i n d u s -t r i a l development and b e t t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s would 161 make i t p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l , m e d i c a l and o t h e r community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a . The p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n would be g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network and n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t would c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n a l t h o u g h t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n would be more towards t h e achievement o f economic and p h y s i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l , o b j e c t i v e s . C o n t r i b u t i o n s towards t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e m a i n l y i n d i r e c t . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This concluding chapter serves two main purposes. F i r s t l y , a review and .summary of the arguments presented i n the previous chapters, substantiating the need f o r i n t e -grating transportation f a c i l i t i e s , are presented, with p a r t i c u l a r reference to Ghana. Secondly, the potential contribution of integrated transport f a c i l i t i e s towards the achievement of the economic, physical and s o c i a l objectives f o r the balanced development of the Volta Basin i s evaluated. I . SUMMARY The major purpose of t h i s study i s to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g an integrated transportation system as a means of promoting regional planning and deve-lopment i n the Volta Basin. With t h i s objective i n view, i t i s contended that the material and economic well-being of the underdeveloped regions of Ghana and, i n f a c t , of de-veloping countries, would be greatly improved by the provi-sion of low-cost and e f f i c i e n t transportation services. The investigation was undertaken on the basis that the competi-t i o n between transportation modes, the expansion of trans-portation f a c i l i t i e s and the optimum a l l o c a t i o n of ca p i t a l resources within the transportation industry are some of the 163 problems f a c i n g d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Moreover, t h e low-l e v e l o f development o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s has been a r e s u l t o f t h e l a c k o f adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . I t i s em-p h a s i z e d t h a t o f t h e problems mentioned above, t h e most p r e s s i n g i s t h e development of r i v a l r y between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes, a l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e m u t u a l l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and p e r f o r m complementary f u n c t i o n s . A r e v i e w o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r a i l , w a ter and highway c a r r i e r s , r e v e a l e d t h i s f a c t . Water t r a n s p o r t was f o u n d t o be t h e v i c t i m i n t h i s c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n . S i n c e water t r a n s p o r t i s l o c a l i z e d and s i n c e many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have embarked on H.E.P. p r o j e c t s w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e t h e improvement o f r i v e r c h a n n els f o r purposes o f n a v i g a t i o n , a r e g i o n a l approach t o t r a n s p o r t i n -t e g r a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y . I t i s f e l t t h a t t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e V o l t a L a k e , which w i l l be c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t , f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p u r p o s e s , w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e a s o u r c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n t o e x i s t i n g modes of t r a n s p o r t , p a r -t i c u l a r l y r o a d , I n o r d e r t o make p o s s i b l e the use o f t h i s e c o n o m i c a l means o f t r a n s p o r t , ways and means s h o u l d be f o u n d t o i n t e g r a t e l a k e t r a n s p o r t w i t h r o a d and r a i l w a y systems. T h i s would n o t o n l y r e s u l t i n an optimum u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s o u r c e s of Ghana, but i t would a l s o r e s u l t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a b e t t e r c l i m a t e f o r development and i n -vestment i n the V o l t a B a s i n . In order to f i n d solutions to t h i s problem of integrating transportation f a c i l i t i e s , i t was necessary to review the concept of transport integration. This p r e l i -minary consideration was made i n Chapter I . I t i s observed that transport integration, i n contrast to transport co-ordination, takes place where more than one mode of trans-portation exist and i t i s concerned with the employment of each mode of transport i n the economic circumstances best suited to i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Transport integration, therefore, implies the use of the pr i n c i p l e of e f f i c i e n c y i n transportation planning and adjustment. Since an integrated transportation system i s pro-posed as a too l f o r achieving regional planning and develop-ment, the process of regional planning and development and the v i a b i l i t y of the Volta Basin as a unit f o r planning and development was analyzed i n Chapter I I . In order to do t h i s the discussion was preceded by a review of the regional con-cept. I t was noted that the v a r i e t y of functions for which regions can be defined has created d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the de-li n e a t i o n of regions. Two main categories of regions which are employed by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , f o r a n a l y t i c a l and des-c r i p t i v e purposes, are i d e n t i f i a b l e . These are 'single-factor' regions which are defined on the basis of the homo-geneity of t h e i r physical or human elements; and "multi-f a c t o r " regions, which are measured i n terms of several 1 6 5 phenomena, b o t h p h y s i c a l and human, wh i c h g i v e t h e r e g i o n s t h e i r c h a r a c t e r . These r e g i o n s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a l d i v i s i o n s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and development. I n h i s s e a r c h f o r an optimum u n i t f o r p l a n n i n g and development, t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r i s l e f t w i t h a c h o i c e be-tween a n o d a l and a u n i f o r m r e g i o n . The n o d a l r e g i o n i s synonymous w i t h t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n w h i c h can be d i s -c a r d e d as u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e comprehensive development o f r e s o u r c e s which d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s seek. The u n i f o r m r e g i o n , w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f i t s u n i f o r m problem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s more a c c e p t a b l e f o r p l a n n i n g purposes i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s i n c e i t makes p o s s i b l e t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n a n a t i o n a l framework. F o l l o w i n g t h e example o f the Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y , t h e R i v e r B a s i n i s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s as t h e •proper' u n i f o r m r e g i o n f o r p l a n n i n g and development. With t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n mind, th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s o f Ghana were a n a l y z e d . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the p r o -blems f a c i n g t h e r e g i o n s o f Ghana t r a n s c e n d t h e a r b i t r a r y b o u n d a r i e s w h i c h s e p a r a t e them. New r e g i o n s must t h e r e f o r e be d e f i n e d f o r t h e p urposes o f p l a n n i n g . The o n l y a t t e m p t s t h a t have been made t o d e f i n e r e g i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g and de-velopment are i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e Accra-Tema-Akosombo p l a n and t h e V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l Development p l a n . 1 6 6 S i n c e r e g i o n s comprise a range o f p h y s i c a l and human f a c t o r s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d ways of o r d e r i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s t o ensure b a l a n c e d growth. R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and development has come t o be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e means o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s . A r e v i e w of t h e concept of r e g i o n a l p l a n -n i n g and development, w h i c h i s found n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , r e v e a l s t h e f a c t t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , by b e i n g concerned w i t h the s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l and human r e s o u r c e s o f a r e g i o n , has as i t s main purpose econo-mic development and t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t p l a n n i n g i s b e i n g done on a l o c a l b a s i s i n Ghana, means d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h s h o u l d e x i s t between town and c o u n t r y . A more comprehensive approach i s needed. I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e concept o f t h e r e g i o n and t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p -ment, the v i a b i l i t y o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n as a u n i t f o r p l a n -n i n g and development was e v a l u a t e d . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e geo-graphy, economy, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t r e v e a l t h e heterogeneous c h a r a c t e r o f the V o l t a B a s i n . The problems encountered w i t h i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n e x t e n d beyond i t s b o u n d a r i e s . However, t h e V o l t a B a s i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g u n i t was c r e a t e d because of t h e u r g e n t need f o r the s o l u t i o n o f problems which would a r i s e from th e V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t . U s i n g t h e c r i t e r i a o f t h e purpose, s c a l e and p r o c e s s o f 167 p l a n n i n g as t h e b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n , t h e V o l t a B a s i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g u n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d as a s u i t a b l e u n i t f o r th e purposes f o r which i t had been d e s i g n e d . The d e f i n i t i o n of t h e r e g i o n s h o u l d be based on t h e problems t o be s o l v e d , however, and n o t based on t h e a r e a o f impact o f t h e V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t , s i n c e t h i s means t h e i n c l u s i o n o f p r a c t i c a l l y t h e whole c o u n t r y . F o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e problem of t r a n s -p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h which the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s m a i n l y con-c e r n e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x t e n d t h e r e g i o n t o i n c l u d e Tamale i n t h e N o r t h and t h e Accra-Tema a r e a i n t h e s o u t h e a s t because o f the tremendous f l o w o f t r a f f i c between t h e s e two a r e a s . C h a p t e r s I and I I , t h e r e f o r e , a r e a means of o r i e n t -i n g t he r e a d e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e problem b e i n g t a c k l e d e s p e c i a l l y as i t a p p l i e s t o Ghana and t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d . H a ving e s t a b l i s h e d t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s and h a v i n g d e f i n e d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e r e g i o n w i t h i n which t r a n s p o r t i n -t e g r a t i o n c o u l d be a c h i e v e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o propose methods o f i n t e g r a t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n . I n o r d e r t o suggest t h e s e methods, t h e c a s e -s t u d y approach was employed and t h e p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n have been based i n t h e U.S.S.R.; t h e Tennessee V a l l e y Region and t h e New York-New J e r s e y M e t r o -p o l i t a n Area i n t h e U.S.A., were p r e s e n t e d i n Ch a p t e r I I I . I n s p i t e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e U.S.S.R. and t h e U.S.A., t r a n s p o r t 168 i n t e g r a t i o n has been a major problem. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t has been t h e p o l i c y o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s t o f i n d a means o f i n t e -g r a t i n g t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems, s i n c e an e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i s r e g a r d e d as a means of a c h i e v i n g economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l development. R a i l , r o a d and w a t e r t r a n s p o r t were r e v i e w e d f o r t h e U.S.S.R. and t h e U.S.A. t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r o l e p l a y e d by each of t h e s e modes i n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y . I n t h e U.S.S.R., r a i l w a y s have emerged as t h e c h i e f means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n m a i n l y because o f p h y s i c a l and c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . Water and r o a d t r a n s p o r t have n o t a c q u i r e d t h e same i m p o r t a n c e as r a i l t r a n s p o r t a l t h o u g h t h e Government o f t h e U.S.S.R. i s i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e use o f water t r a n s p o r t and i m p r o v i n g t h e ro a d network. I n t h e U.S.A., t h e r o l e o f r a i l r o a d s has d e c l i n e d t r e m e n d o u s l y and highways have become t h e major means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w h i l e w a t e r t r a n s p o r t has l a g g e d b e h i n d both r a i l and highway t r a n s p o r t . U n l i k e t h e U.S.S.R., where t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e , t h e U.S.A. has t o depend on both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e f o r t h e development of i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s has c r e a t e d some problems w i t h r e s p e c t t o the o p e r a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . I n both c o u n t r i e s , r a i l w a y s and highways serve n ot o n l y as. t r u n k l i n e s but t h e y a l s o a c t as f e e d e r l i n e s t o wa t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s ; and a t t e m p t s a t i n t e g r a t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have been concerned w i t h i n t e g r a t i n g water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 169 f a c i l i t i e s w i t h r a i l and highway systems. The p r o c e s s o f t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n has been a c h i e v e d i n t h e U.S.S.R. t h r o u g h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r i n c i -p l e s . These i n c l u d e j o i n t t r a f f i c s c h e d u l i n g , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r a f f i c among t h e v a r i o u s modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r a t e s t r u c t u r i n g and a c e n t r a l i z e d system o f c o n t r o l . The major l i m i t a t i o n o f the u n i f i e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i s t h e h i g h c o s t o f t r a n s s h i p m e n t . I n the Tennessee V a l l e y Region and t h e New York-New J e r s e y M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a of t h e U.S.A., t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n has been a c h i e v e d by t h e use o f j o i n t r a t e s t r u c t u r i n g and con-t a i n e r s h i p o p e r a t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The use o f j o i n t r a t e s i n t h e Tennessee V a l l e y Region does n ot p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem of t r a n s s h i p m e n t ; t h i s i s , however, e l i m i n a t e d i n t h e New York-New J e r s e y M e t r o p o l i t a n Region t h r o u g h t h e use o f ' c o n t a i n e r s ' . However, t h e major problem f a c i n g t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e Tennessee V a l l e y Region i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e one, because o f the l a c k o f a c e n t r a l i z e d f o r m o f c o n t r o l t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a g e n c i e s . These p r i n c i p l e s p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r t h e proposed method o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h e V o l t a Lake t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system w i t h r a i l w a y and highway systems, as p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r IV. The f r e i g h t t r a f f i c p o t e n t i a l o f t h e V o l t a Lake i s enormous. F i v e main s o u r c e s o f p o t e n t i a l t r a f f i c a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e . 170 These i n c l u d e t r a f f i c f r o m e x i s t i n g n o r t h - s o u t h movement, t r a f f i c d e r i v e d f r o m new a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l de-velopment and t h e new l a k e communities t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e a r e a , and new n o r t h e r n e x p o r t - i m p o r t t r a f f i c . Passenger t r a f f i c w i l l be g e n e r a t e d from b o t h n o r t h - s o u t h and e a s t -west movement. The V o l t a L a k e , w i l l t h e r e f o r e s e r v e not o n l y Ghana but w i l l a l s o be an i m p o r t a n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r t e r y f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s w i l l be p o s s i b l e w i l l depend on t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d and t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t . I n t e g r a t i o n i s recom-mended as a means of a c h i e v i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f s e r v i c e and a low c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as w e l l as a means o f u t i l i z -i n g more th a n one mode of t r a n s p o r t . I n t e g r a t i o n o f V o l t a Lake t r a n s p o r t w i t h r a i l and r o a d systems i s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n o r d e r f o r t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n t o be e f f e c t i v e i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n , due c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o a l l t h e p r i n c i p l e s employed i n the U.S.S.R., t h e Tennessee V a l l e y Region and t h e New York-New J e r s e y M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , and a Lake T r a n s p o r t A u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t o i m p l e -ment i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s . S i n c e i t i s con-t e n d e d t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would c o n t r i b u t e t o th e economic, p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e b a l -anced development o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n , t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s were r e v i e w e d . These a r e found t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h i n c l u d e 171 t h e development o f a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y by means o f r a p i d economic development, t h e p r o v i s i o n o f adequate employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e improvement o f t h e l e v e l o f l i v i n g o f e v e r y Ghanaian c i t i z e n . Other g o a l s a re the i n t e g r a t i o n o f r a i l , r o a d and w a t e r t r a n s p o r t , the e r a d i c a t i o n o f i l l i -t e r a c y , t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f l o o d zone r e s i d e n t s i n t o l a r g e r communities, the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s and commercial f a r m i n g i n t o t h e V o l t a B a s i n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s towards t h e achievement o f t h e above o b j e c t i v e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f a r e g i o n f o r growth c o u l d be g r e a t l y enhanced by good a c c e s s t o b o t h l o c a l and n a t i o n a l m a r k e t s . A u n i f i e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system would ensure t h e p r o v i s i o n o f an e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n system b o t h t o l o c a l markets w i t h i n the V o l t a B a s i n and t o t h e l a r g e u r b an c e n t r e s i n t h e s o u t h e r n - e a s t e r n s e c -t i o n o f the c o u n t r y . Low t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s would a t t r a c t i n d u s t r i e s i n t o t h e V o l t a B a s i n . T h i s would mean t h e d i v e r -s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e economic base o f t h e r e g i o n , and t h e r e f o r e , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f b e t t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A l l t h i s would l e a d t o a h i g h e r l e v e l o f l i v i n g , l a r g e r communities and a r a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t s . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t would have both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on t h e b a l a n c e d development o f the V o l t a B a s i n . As i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f 172 r e g i o n a l planning o b j e c t i v e s , i t i s a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g to the process of r e g i o n a l planning and development i n the V o l t a Basin. 2. EVALUATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSPORT INTEGRATION AND ITS USE AS A MEANS OF ACHIEVING BALANCED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE VOLTA BASIN In the process of p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i -t i e s as a means of overcoming the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources on the earth's s u r f a c e , a number of problems have emerged. Technological advancement has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r man t o choose between a v a r i e t y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes. The l a c k of an e f f e c t i v e means of r e g u l a t i n g the f u n c t i o n s performed by the various t r a n s p o r t a t i o n media has o f t e n r e -s u l t e d i n e i t h e r monopoly or excessive competition. Com-p e t i t i o n between road, r a i l and water t r a n s p o r t has become the most press i n g problem f a c i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y i n both developing and developed c o u n t r i e s . I t has meant the destroying of the interdependence and mutual i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the various modes, the d u p l i c a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s , and operation at high c o s t . The problem of competition between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes has e x i s t e d i n Ghana since the beginning of the twen-t i e t h century. With the d e c l i n e of water t r a n s p o r t i n the country, t h i s problem was confined to road and r a i l t r a n s p o r t . 173 The absence o f any r e g u l a t i o n s which might e l i m i n a t e t h i s c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e e a r l y r e a -l i z a t i o n o f the economics o f r a i l t r a n s p o r t . The r e v i v a l o f water t r a n s p o r t , w i t h the use o f the V o l t a Lake, i n Ghana would add t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems a l r e a d y i n e x i s t -ence. I n o r d e r t o t a k e advantage o f l o w - c o s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v i a the V o l t a Lake, s o l u t i o n s must be f o u n d t o t h e ' t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n problem', e s p e c i a l l y because w a t e r t r a n s p o r t has t o depend on r o a d and r a i l w a y s to complete a h a u l . P r o p o s a l s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g V o l t a Lake t r a n s p o r t w i t h r a i l and r o a d t r a n s p o r t a r e based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f u t u r e i n c r e a s e i n t r a f f i c would w a r r a n t t h e u t i l i z a -t i o n o f t h e V o l t a Lake f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r a i l and more r o a d f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n . The second assumption i s t h a t when t h e V o l t a Lake t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i s p r o v i d e d , i t w i l l be u t i l i z e d f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of b o t h goods and p e r s o n s . I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n C h apter IV t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a l a r g e p o t e n -t i a l o f f r e i g h t and passenger t r a f f i c w h i c h would a l l o w t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e l a k e f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p u r p o s e s . The p r o v i s i o n o f more r o a d f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n i s i n e v i t a b l e s i n c e most of t h e r o a d s i n t h e r e g i o n w i l l be i n u n d a t e d by t h e V o l t a Lake and t h e r e i s a need f o r e s t a b -l i s h i n g c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e n a t i o n a l r o a d network. The p r o v i -s i o n o f r a i l f a c i l i t i e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s dependent on 174 the choice made between the alternative combinations men-tioned i n Chapter IV. The integration of transportation f a c i l i t i e s i n the Volta Basin, based on the prin c i p l e s of j o i n t rates, t r a f f i c scheduling, the r a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e i g h t among the various modes, containership operations, and a centralized form of control would contribute to a great extent, towards the solution of the "transportation pro-blem". I t would ensure an economical and e f f i c i e n t trans-portation service and the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of transpor-t a t i o n resources of the country, with each transportation system performing the function best suited to i t s charac-t e r i s t i c s . The lack of adequate transportation f a c i l i t i e s has hindered the development of the Volta Basin. A u n i f i e d transportation system f o r the region would constitute not only a means of solving the "transportation problem" but i t would also be a means of stimulating development i n the region. I t has been substantiated that an integrated trans-portation system would have considerable influence on the objective of encouraging i n d u s t r i a l and economic develop-ment i n the Volta Basin. This would mean a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of i t s economic base and the provision of more employment opportunities and a better l e v e l of l i v i n g . The increase i n population, which would result from the location industries 175 w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n , would make i t p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h l a r g e r communities and t h e r e f o r e t o p r o v i d e more community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . An i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system f o r t h e V o l t a B a s i n would make s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e b a l a n c e d growth o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n , i . e . t h e development o f i t s economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s . These c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , s i n c e economic development towards w h i c h i t makes t h e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n has b o t h p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t i s not t h e o n l y f a c t o r w h i c h must be t a k e n i n t o account i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p -mental o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e V o l t a B a s i n ; o t h e r f a c t o r s such as t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l and m a r k e t s , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , s e r v i c e s , e t c e t e r a , must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . But s i n c e i t i s not the c o n t e n t i o n i n t h i s paper t h a t a u n i f i e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system would be t h e o n l y means of a c h i e v i n g b a l a n c e d development i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t an i n t e g r a t e d , system o f r a i l w a y , r o a d and l a k e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would c o n t r i b u t e towards t h e achievement of t h e b a l a n c e d economic, p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r development o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d . 3. CONCLUSION I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e development o f an i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t system would a s s i s t Ghana and 1 7 6 o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t o s o l v e t h e problems f a c i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y t o d a y , by making i t p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e r v e the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes, t o employ each t r a n s p o r t a t i o n medium i n t h e economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r which i t i s b e s t s u i t e d and t o a l l o c a t e c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s i n a r a t i o n a l manner. Moreover, i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r a l o g i c a l t o o l by which d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s c o u l d a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l o f economic development; s i n c e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f such f a c i l i t i e s would s t i m u l a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and would a t t r a c t i n d u s t r i e s i n t o t h e backward r e g i o n s o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . S e c o n d l y , t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n would i n d i r e c t l y l e a d t o t h e r a i s i n g o f l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f more employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i r d l y , a r a t i o n a l d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t s c o u l d be e f f e c t e d and t h e need f o r movement c o u l d thus be reduced t o a minimum. F o u r t h l y , the i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h would r e s u l t from a d i v e r s i -f i e d economic base would make i t p o s s i b l e t o s u p p o r t com-munity f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s which a r e , a t p r e s e n t , a t a low l e v e l o f development i n some o f t h e r e g i o n s o f t h e de-v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t can be s a i d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n i s n o t an end i n i t s e l f but a means of a t t a i n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s . 1 7 7 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Balzak, V.F., and others, (eds.). Economic Geography of the  U.S.S.R. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1961. 620 pp. Bergson, A. (ed.). Soviet Economic Growth. Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Row, Peterson and Company, 1963. 376 pp. Boateng, E.A. A Geography of Ghana. London: Cambridge University Press, I960. 196 pp. Daggett, S. Principles of Inland Transportation. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1955. 7 7 6 pp. Dearing, C.L., and Owen, W. National Transportation Policy. Washington, D.C: The Bookings Institution, 1950. 410 pp. Dickinson, R.E. City, Region and Regionalism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Limited, 1952. 319 pp. Fair, E.L., and Williams, E.W. (Jr.). Economics of Trans- portation. New York: Harper and Brothers Publi-shers, 1959. 6 8 4 pp. Fenelon, K.G. Transport Coordination. London: P.S. King and Sons Limited, 1929. 137 pp. Glikson, A. Regional Planning and Development. The Hague: Netherlands Universities Foundation for Interna-tional Cooperation, 1955* 117 pp. Gould, P.R. Transportation in Ghana. Evanston, I l l i n o i s : North Western University - Department of Geography, April I960, 163 pp. Hay, W.W. An Introduction to Transportation Engineering. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1961. 505 pp. Hunter, H. Soviet Transportation Policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957. 416 pp. Jensen, M. (ed.). Regionalism in America. Madison: Univer-sity of Wisconsin Press, 1951. 425 pp. 178 Krueger, R.R., Sargent, F.O., and others. Regional and  Resource Planning in Canada. Toronto: Holt Rinehart and Winston of Canada Limited, 1963. 218 pp. Martin, R.C. (ed.). T.V.A. - The F i r s t Twenty Years. A Staff Report. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Alabama Press, 1956. 286 pp. Meyer, J.R. Economics of Competition i n the Transportation  Industries. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1 9 5 9 . 359 pp. Norton, H.S. Modern Transportation Economics. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Meritt Books, Inc., 1963. 447 pp. Pegrum, D.F. Transportation - Economics and Public Pol i c y . Homewood, I l l i n o i s : Richard D. Irwin Inc., 1 9 6 3 . 582 pp. Pe r l o f f , H.S. and Dodds, V.V/. How a Region Grows. New York: Committee f o r Economic Development, 1 9 6 3 . 1 4 7 pp. Schumer, L.A. Elements of Transport. Sydney: Butterworth and Company (Australia) Limited, 1 9 5 4 . 1 9 6 pp. Walker, G. Road and Rail - An Enquiry into the Economics of Competition and State Control. London: George Allen and Unwin Limited, 1 9 4 7 . 2 6 5 pp. Westmeyer, R.E. Economics of Transportation. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1 9 5 2 . 7 3 0 pp. Zvonkov, V.V. Pri n c i p l e s of Integrated Transport Development  i n the U.S.S.R. Chicago: University of Chicago, I957T 61 pp. B. PUBLICATIONS OF GOVERNMENTS, LEARNED SOCIETIES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Department of Town and Country Planning. The Volta Basin Regional Plan - Lake Transport. Accra: Department of Town and Country Planning, n.d. 6 pp. . The Location of New Industries i n the Volta Basin. Accra: Department of Town and Country Planning, n.d. pp. 2-8. 179 Doxiadis Associates. Accra - Tema - Akosombo Regional Pro-gramme and Plan. Vols. I and II, Athens: 1961, 398 pp. Ghana Census Office. I960 Population Census of Ghana. Advance Reports of Vols. I l l and IV. Accra: Census Office, I960. 112 pp. Government of Ghana. Ghana Seven-Year Plan 1963/64 - 1969/70. Accra: Office of the Planning Commission, March 1964. 303 pp. International Labour Organization. Coordination of Transport - Labour Problems. Genoa: Inland Transport Commis-sion, 1951. International Transport Workers' Federation. Transport Policy  Problems at National and International Level. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited, 1959. 166 pp. Kaiser Engineers and Constructors Inc. Lake Volta Transpor- tation System - Outline Design Vol. I. Accra: Government of Ghana, August 1964• pp. I - 1 to I - 15, IV - 1 to IV - 20, V - 1 to V - 45. National Academy of Sciences. U.S. Transportation Resources, Performance and Problems. Washington, D.C: National Research Council, 1961. 291 pp. Port of New York Authority. Metropolitan Transportation -1980. New York: Comprehensive Planning Office, 1953. 340 pp. Steering Group and Working Group. Traffic in Towns - A Study of the Long-term problems in urban areas. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1963. 219 pp. Tennessee Valley Authority. Cheaper Transportation via the  Tennessee River. Knoxville, Tennessee: Commerce Department, 1946. 45 pp. Tennessee River Navigation. Knoxville, Tennessee: Tennessee Valley Authority June 1953. 23 pp. . Navigation in the Development of the Tennessee Valley. Knoxville, Tennessee: Division of Regional Studies. May 1949. 14 pp. Tennessee Valley Authority. Prospective Commerce on the Tennessee River. Knoxville, Tennessee: Commerce Department, 1 9 4 1 . PP» 7 - 3 0 . _. River Traffic and Industrial Growth. Knoxville, Tennessee: Tennessee Valley Authority, 1 9 6 4 . 2 1 pp. . Southern Grain Rate Case. - Back-ground Paper, (mimeographed) Knoxville, Tennessee: Valley Authority, 1 9 6 3 . 1 0 pp. . Valley of Light 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 6 3 . Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1 9 6 4 . 81 pp.. United Nations. Inland Water Transport in the U.S.S.R. and  Hungary" New York: United Nations, 1 9 6 1 . . Report on the World Social Situation with special reference to the problem of balanced social and economic development. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1 9 6 1 . pp. 2 3 - 3 7 . . Transport Problems in relation to Economic Development in West Africa. New York: United Nations, July 1 9 6 2 . United States National Resources Committee. Regional Factors  in National Planning and Development. Washington, D.C: U.S.Government Printing Department, 1 9 3 5 * 2 0 1 pp. C. PERIODICALS Friedman, J. (ed.). "Introduction" to Special Issue on Regional Development and Planning, Journal of the  American Institute of Planners, XXX (May, 1 9 6 4 ) , 82-83. . "The Concept of a Planning Region", Land Economics, XXXII (February, 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 - 1 3 . Futa, A.B. "The Volta River Project", The Economic Bulletin, V (May, 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 - 1 5 . Hamman, C. "The Concept of Regional Development", Appraisal  Journal, XXV (October, 1 9 5 1 ) , 4 9 9 - 5 0 4 . . . 181 Peterson, G.S. "Transport Coordination. Meaning and Purpose", Journal of P o l i t i c a l Economy. XXXVIII (February - -December, 1930), 660-681. D. ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS Browning, C E . "Primate C i t i e s and Related Concepts", Confer- ence on Urban Systems Research i n Underdeveloped and  Advanced Economies - Papers and Proceedings, Eugene: University of Oregon, 1962. pp. 16-27. Gertler, L.O. "Regional Planning and Development", Resources  f o r Tomorrow Vol. I. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 19ET. pp. 393-416. Ginsburg, N.S. "The Regional Concept and Planning Regions," Housing, Building and Planning Nos. 12 and 13. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 9 . pp. 45-51. Hunter H. "Resources, Transportation and Economic Development," Natural Resources and Economic Growth - Papers Presented at a Conference held at Ann Arbor, Michigan. Washington, D.C: Resources f o r the Future Inc., 1961. pp. 126-144. Koenigsberger, O.H. "Regional Planning i n Asia", Housing, Building and Planning Nos. 12 and 1 3 .- New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 9 . pp. 116-122. E. ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE Mumford, L. and McKaye, B. "Regional Planning", Encyclopedia  Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1963. p. 72A. F. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Kudiabor, C.D.K. Planning f o r Balanced So c i a l , Economic and  Physical Development: Ghana Volta Basin. Unpub-. l i s h e d Master's Thesis, 1963. 172 pp. 

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