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A regional study of social welfare measurements (no. 5: the Okanagan Region) : an exploration of the… Gelling, Sharon Patricia Thompson 1965

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A REGIONAL STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE MEASUREMENTS (No. 5: The Okanagan Region) An exp lorat ion of the regional assessment of demographic and soc ia l welfare s t a t i s t i c s for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951-1961 by SHARON PATRICIA THOMPSON GELLING HEINRICH NEUFELD IRIS GLORIA PREDDY LEONARD OSBORNE SOISETH Thesis Submitted in Pa r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1965 The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis for s c h olarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date - vi ABSTRACT This examination of the Okanagan Region is the f i f t h in the ser ies of regional analyses r e l a t i n g welfare measurements to comprehensive soc ia l data. Throughout the study there are comparisons made with two previous studies -the Fraser Va l ley (No. 2) and Metropol i tan Vancouver (No. 3). The Okanagan Region, in contrast to the Fraser Va l ley and Vancouver areas, which are under-going rapid population expansion plus urbanizat ion, presents the p i c ture of a l a r ge l y rural and r e l a t i v e l y s tab le area. The soc ia l data are compiled p r i n c i p a l l y from the national censes of 1951 and 1961; the welfare material was co l l e c ted from the monthly F i e l d Service Reports of the Department of Social Wei fare with some addit ions s p e c i a l l y obta ined; and both were analyzed p a r t i c u l a r l y for a bas ic ten-year per iod . This information was supplemented by data gathered from several other sources within the Okanagan area. The Okanagan cons t i tu tes Welfare Region III as administered by the De-partment of Social Welfare. The Regional boundaries were given cons iderat ion in th i s study, and i t is to be noted that common boundaries are accepted by the national census (D iv i s ion Vl) and the recent Economic At la s which has attempted to de l ineate regions for a l l of Canada. In conformity with these, i t is recommended that the Kamloops d i s t r i c t , which is neither geographic-a l l y nor economical ly a true part of the Okanagan be excluded from the present Welfare Region III, while the Grand Forks area should be inc luded. In any new standard izat ion appropriate adjustments have been made in the welfare and census s t a t i s t i c s . In the present study the soc ia l data reveals that the Okanagan is undergoing a comparatively slow rate of population growth but that in recent years, in l i n e with marked trends in B r i t i s h Columbia genera l ly , there has been increas ing urban izat ion. A large segment of the population is e l d e r l y , a f ac t which has major welfare imp l i ca t ions . Further study of needs and serv ices appropriate for th i s group is recommended. Welfare measurements c l e a r l y show the trend towards high average case-loads, coupled with an abnormally high monthly mileage ra te . A re-examination on a regional basis of the number of personnel, both profess ional and c l e r i c a l , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of tasks, and the deployment of time, is recommended. Each region is unique, requ i r ing serv ices adapted to the pa r t i cu l a r needs of the res ident populat ion. In th i s study i t is proposed that a Central Regional Reg i s t ry , much l i k e the community soc ia l serv ice index, be i n s t i t u t e d . A record of serv ices rendered as well as the serv ice requests could be maintained by the welfare organizat ions in the reg ion. Research u t i l i z i n g material from the reg i s t r y could make a cons iderable contr ibut ion to the planning of needed serv ices in the Okanagan. ( i t is to be kept in mind that general physical planning, and a l so junior co l lege planning, is proceed-ing on a regional bas is in the area.) No doubt, changes in both needs and serv ices have taken pi ace s ince 1961. The present study has aimed at provid ing a foundation from which further studies of needs in welfare serv ices and associated socio-economic f ac to r s , may be pursued in th is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sect ion of the province. A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S We wish to express our grat i tude to Dr. Leonard Marsh for extend-ing to us his in teres t and guidance throughout the course of th is p ro jec t . Further thanks go to: Miss B.W, Snider, Research Consultant, Department of Social Welfare; Mrs. M.E. Dighton, Personnel O f f i c e r , Department of Social Welfare; Mr. G.A. Reed, Regional D i rec tor , Region 3, Department of Social Welfare; Mr. A. Inch and Mr. R. Rutherglen, Municipal Welfare O f f i c e C i t y of Pent ic ton; Dr. F. McNair and Mr. I. Holmes, Okanagan Mental Health C l i n i c ; Mr. D. R i cke t t s , Burnaby Mental Health C l i n i c ; and Mr. Dennis Guest, for the'ir co=operation and ass i s tance in making th i s thes i s poss ib le TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Region Rat ionale for the Study. Topography and Climate of the Okanagan V a l l e y . H i s t o r i c a l background. Socio-economic growth 1 Chapter 2 . The People Age d i s t r i b u t i o n . Family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Households. Ethnic composit ion. Reli;gious a f f i l i a t i o n 21 Chapter 3 . The Economy Wage brackets . Occupations. Labor force 3 2 Chapter 4 . Social Welfare Services Caseloads, Categories, and Trends. Personnel and case-load Management. The Subd i s t r i c t s . Addi t iona l welfare servi ces , 4 3 Chapter 5. Regional Impl icat ions, Issues in Social Welfare Services in the Okanagan Reg i on . . . . . 65 Appendices: A. B ib l iography B. L i s t of Tables and Sources - i i i -TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Table No. l a D i s t r i bu t i on of Populat ion, 1951-1961 17a lb Urban Concentration of Populat ion, 1951-1961 17a 2a Total Populat ion and Ten-Year Change 17b 2b Urban-Rural D i s t r i bu t i on and Sex Composition 17b 3 Population by S p e c i f i c Age Groups 22a 4 Mar i ta l Status 24a 5 Comparative D i s t r i bu t i on of Households by S ize 25a 6 Factors of Family Composition 26a 7 D i s t r i bu t i on of Ethnic Groups 28a 8 D i s t r i bu t i on of Ethnic Groups 28b 9 Main Re l i g ious A f f i l i a t i o n s 30a 10 Main ..Religious A f f i l i a t i o n s 30a 11 Main Re l ig ious A f f i l i a t i o n s 3 0 b 12 Mai n Re l i g ious A f f i 1 i a t i o n s 30b 13 Percentage Change of.Male.Wage-Earners 33a 14 Percentage Change of Female Wage-Earners 34a 1 5 Male Wage-Earners by Income 35a 16 Female Wage-Earners by Income 3 5 a 17 Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners 3 5 b 18 Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners 3 5 b 19 Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners 3 5 c 20 Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners 3 5 c - i v -Table Page No. No. 21 Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners 3 5 d 22 Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners 3 5 d 23 Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners 3 5 e 24 Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners 3 5 e 25 Occupational Composition of Urban Males 3 6 a 26 Occupational Composition of Urban Females 3 7 a 27 Occupational Composition of Rural Females 38a 28 Occupational Composition of Rural Males 38a 29 Size of Labour Force 3 9 a 3 0 Labour Force in the Okanagan 39b 31 Occupied Dwellings by Tenure and Length of Occupancy kOa 32 Comparative Housing Patterns 40b 3 3 Comparative Housing Condit ions kOb 34 Population and Caseload Comparisons 43a 35 D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads in the Okanagan 4 4 a 3 6 £• 4 7 a 3 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads by Major Categories 4 7 b 3 8 Number of Workers, Total and Average Caseload 5 1 a 3 9 £• 5 2 a 40 Number of Workers, Caseloads and Mileage 53a 41 Percentage Increase of Cases and Workers 5 3 a 42 Number of Workers and Average Caseloads, Subd<i s t r i c ts . . . . . . 5 6 a 43 A Personnel Comparison 5 6 a 44 Proport ionate D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads by Category: Vernon D i s t r i c t O f f i c e 5 9 a 45 Kelowna D i s t r i c t O f f i ce 5 9 a 46 Pent icton D i s t r i c t O f f i c e 5 9 b 4 7 Grand Forks D i s t r i c t O f f i c e 5 9 b - v -(b) Chart F i g . 1 Map — Okanagan Region A REGIONAL STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE MEASUREMENTS (No. 5: The Okanagan Region) An exp lorat ion of the regional assessment of demographic and soc ia l welfare s t a t i s t i c s for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951-1961 Chapter I THE REGION We are l i v i n g in an age in which i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , automation and cyber-nation have brought tremendous changes into the l i v e s of almost every c i t i z e n of Canada. Some of the e f f ec t s have been a concentrat ion of large groups of people in urban areas, a highly mobile population and an increased supply of s tap les and luxury items. The e f f ec t s have made themselves f e l t in the average s i ze and in the t r ad i t i ona l s t ructure of the fami ly . In many ways the large extended fami l ie s of our grandparents or even our parents ' day have broken up into the more mobile and f l e x i b l e nuclear units as we know them today. Thus " the c i t y " is under s tress to adapt to the i n f l ux of i t s many new res idents while rural areas are lo s ing many of the i r people to the population centers. Problems in economic, soc ia l and business behaviour beset everyone. The gen-eral move of populat ion to urban centers is i nd i ca t i ve of the trend throughout North America which has been acce le ra t ing every year. Approximately one hal f of the populat ion of th is province now l i ve s in the Vancouver area. The o th -er ha l f l i v e s under rather strong rural inf luence in areas such as the Okana-gan. The populat ion of th is province has experienced the f u l l force of indust-r i a l changes in each of the many and var ied geographic l oca t i ons . Due to the nature of B r i t i s h Columbia's geography, i t s populat ion is d i s t r i b u t e d in pock-ets of varying s izes throughout the province. The various mountain ranges s l i c i n g through the province, the pleteaus, and the va l leys and coastal reg-ions great ly inf luence both the d i s t r i b u t i o n of populat ion and the nature of the occupations of the people the re in . A r e l a t i v e l y small part of the total land area is a c tua l l y inhabited. Each of the various geographic locat ions is unique in regard to the combined factors of c l imate, type of industry and top-- 2 -ography. Because of the specia l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each se t t l ed area, a study of soc ia l welfare measurements can best be ca r r i ed out on a regional bas i s . S imi lar studies have been ca r r i ed out in three other regions to date. They include one study of Metropol i tan Vancouver, one of the " f r o n t i e r " areas of the north and one of the Fraser Va l l ey . The Metropol i tan study might be considered to be quite d i f f e r e n t from that of the Okanagan. However i t is poss ib le to draw some r e a l i s t i c p a r a l l e l s with the examination made of the Fraser Va l ley and that of the Okanagan, the l a t t e r two being of reasonably s im i l a r soc ia l s t ruc tu re . One of the f i r s t factors to be considered in d i s -cuss ing the concept of " r e g i o n " is that of geographical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and topography. P o l i t i c a l boundaries and soc ia l communities usual ly have some re l a t i on sh ip with the physical region but the coincidence is seldom exact. The Metropol i tan area of Vancouver is uniformly urban in character a l -though va r i a t i ons within that center do e x i s t . The Okanagan Va l ley too, has d i v i s i on s within i t s e l f such as the rural and urban areas which require ser -v i ce geared toward the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the va l l e y and of the sectors with-i n the val1ey. The boundaries for the Okanagan Region as def ined in th i s study co r re s -pond with census d i v i s i o n 3, rather than the Department of Social Wel fare ' s "Region III". Thus, the Kamloops D i s t r i c t , the Salmon Arm o f f i c e of the Ver-non welfare d i s t r i c t were excluded and the Grand Forks o f f i c e , present ly ad-ministered under the Kootenay Welfare Region (IV) was inc luded. These changes were made for a number of reasons. The economic base, the soc ia l problems and welfare trends of the Kamloops D i s t r i c t are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Okanag-an Region. Unl ike the rest of the Okanagan which is famous for i t s f r u i t -growing, Kamloops 1 economy is l a rge ly based on c a t t l e - r a i s i n g and as such tends to merge with the Cariboo reg ion. Grand Forks is somewhat more c u l t u r a l l y associated with the Kootenay Region but i t was included in our study because the c l imate, economy and t e r -- 3 -ra in are quite s im i l a r to that of the Okanagan. For these reasons i t can s u i t -ably be considered to be a part of the Okanagan. The Okanagan as a Region The Okanagan is a roughly tr iangular-shaped area: the International Bound-ary separat ing Canada and the United States forms i t s base, and the apex is l o -cated some ten miles southeast of Cra'igel 1 achi e and twelve miles southwest of Revel stoke. The area comprises 10,650 square mi les , or three per cent of the prov ince ' s total area (366,255 square m i l e s ) . High mountain ranges provide the eastern and southwestern boundaries of the Okanagan area with a high plateau between, from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above sea-l e v e l , which has been so deeply d i ssected by stceams and eroded by ice in past periods that i t now presents an appearance of a ser ies of r o l l i n g f l a t - topped h i l l s . The Cascade Mountains, part of the P a c i f i c mountain backbone of North America, extend across the United States-Canadian boundary into the southwest corner of the area. The central plateau of the area is d i ssected by the "Okan-agan t rench" , a deep va l l ey thought to have or i g inated as a zone of weakness in theearth ' s crust and l a te r deepened by the erosion of ice and water, which now includes the Okanagan Lake. Between 20 and 40 miles east of the Okanagan trench, and forming the eastern boundary of the area, are the Monashee Mountains, with an average e levat ion of approximately 7,000 feet although several peaks reach 10,000 feet in the Mabel and Sugar Lakes d i s t r i c t . The resu l t s of the la s t ice age, the P le i s tocene g l a c i a t i o n , may be seen in many parts of the Okanagan area. It is be l ieved that a layer of i ce , per-haps as much as 7,000 feet in depth, carved the mountain ridges and scooped out the north-south va l l ey s , leav ing as i t disappeared a t h i ck - l a ye r of " g l a c i a l t i l l " (stone, s i l t , and c l a y ) , the bas is of most of the s o i l s in th i s area. With the volume of melt ing i ce , r i v e r s and streams must have been larger than now and in the i r passage c leared much of the debris in the v a l l e y s ; but the ice did not melt uniformly and in the Okanagan Va l l ey and the Pr inceton basin is lands THE OKANAGAN VALLEY REGION BRITISH COLUMBIA Scale'. _ _ _ _ >0 5 O IO 20 30 4 0 5 0 6 0 Scale l"*20m!lcs of ice remained and the water cut paths around them. Thus much of the g l a c i a l -f l u v i a l material lodged along the edges of the remaining areas of i ce , the pro-cess being repeated at lower leve l s as the ice lessened. The terraces so formed are c l e a r l y observable in the "benches" in the southern part of the Okanagan Va l l ey , jus t west of Pr inceton, and in other smaller va l l eys in the area. The re t rea t ing ice l e f t depressions in the plateau which are now the many large and small lakes of th i s i n t e r i o r reg ion. The chain of lakes l y ing along the narrow trough of the Okanagan Va l ley , as well as Sugar, Mabel, and Chr i s t i na Lakes, are bel ieved to have been formed in th i s way. Okanagan Lake i t s e l f is over 700 feet deep in p laces. The Okanagan Va l l ey is 160 miles long and 80 miles wide, a ltogether an area of 12,800 square mi le s . The ser ies of 1akes, moulded to the v a l l e y ' s own long narrow form, s ta r t s at the southern end with Osoyoos Lake, 9 mi les long and 1 mile wide, almost b i -sected by a curious sand-bar s p i t ; Skaha Lake (more f am i l i a r in the past as Dog Lake), 7 miles long and 1 mi le wide; Okanagan Lake, 69 miles long and width av-eraging2 mi les , i t s mythical monster, the Ogopogo, having i t s place in today's f o l k l o r e as i t d id in that of the Indian nation who were the Okanagan Val1ey 's f i r s t re s ident s . The f l o r a and fauna of th i s southernmost sect ion of the v a l -ley are s im i l a r to those of Mexico at an e levat ion of 2,000 feet with vegeta-t ion such as sagebrush, greasewood, and numerous v a r i e t i e s of c a c t i . Between the north end of Okanagan Lake and Enderby is an area considered to be the largest acreage of good farming land in the southern i n t e r i o r of the province. Ly ing north to south, p a r a l l e l with the Okanagan Va l l ey and separated from i t by low h i l l s , is another narrow va l l e y centered by Wood Lake and Kalamalka Lake. Close to the north end of the l a t t e r , angl ing to the east, is the Co ld-stream V a l l e y . To the northwest is a s im i l a r va l l ey formation enc los ing Mabel Lake, 35 miles by 2 mi les , and th i s va l l ey system ends with the Bessette Creek, 2 miles wide, through1 Pleasant Va l l e y , northeast of Vernon and towards Shuswap F a l l s . - 5 -CIimate The c l imate in th is area is dry, with warm to hot summers, and mild win-te r s . Communit'res at lower e levat ions experience the highest summer tempera-tures and the lowest p r e c i p i t a t i o n : those at higher e leva t ions , such as P r i n ce -ton, have cooler summer temperatures and higher p r e c i p i t a t i o n . A i r masses from the P a c i f i c move towards th i s i n t e r i o r region from the coastal area, meet the b a r r i e r of the Coast and Cascade Mountains and lose much of the i r moisture and the Okanagan is considered therefore to l i e in a rain-shadow. The north-south trend of the va l leys accentuate the tendency to a r id cond i t i ons . There is a lso air=mass movement from north to south of the i n t e r i o r of the province which brings co ld , dry condi t ions into th i s area in the winter months. The va l l ey formation which continues i t s southward trend through the United States does not impose any ba r r i e r to th i s flow of cold a i r , with the resu l t that prolonged periods of low temperatures are seldom experienced. The lakes a l so moderate the surrounding a i r by adding to the water-vapour content. The northern hal f of the Okanagan area, approximately, experiences temper-atures about 5 degrees cooler than the southern ha l f . January mean temperatures are t y p i c a l l y 2 5 ° to 2 8 ° F. in the south and from 2 1 ° to 2 6 ° F. for the north. The Pr inceton area and the Ke t t l e Va l l ey are s t i l l coo ler , averaging from 1 6 ° to 1 9 ° . In the summer months the southernmost end of the Okanagan Va l ley has not iceab ly higher temperatures. O l i v e r , for instance, has an average tempera-ture in Ju ly of 7 2 ° one of the highest Ju ly averages in the province. Daytime temperatures of over 9 0 ° are frequent during the summer but there is rapid coo l ing at ni ght. Annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n is at i t s lowest at the southern end of the va l l ey , with less than 1 0 inches at Osoyoos, and increas ing to 1 6 inches between Vernon and Enderby. The K e t t l e Va l ley tends to have low p r e c i p i t a t i o n with an average of 1 3 . 9 inches at Rock Creek and 1 6 . 3 inches at Grand Forks. The Pr inceton basin records only 11 to 1 3 inches. The higher va l l ey s and areas of the pi a -teau are wetter. Considered seasonal ly , winter and summer are wetter than spr ing or f a l l although indiv idual months show v a r i a t i o n . From 2 5 to 35 per cent of the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l s during the winter. June is f requent ly the wettest month of the year in some parts of the area. The f r o s t - f r e e sea-son shows cons iderable v a r i a t i o n . The Okanagan and lower Similkameen Va l leys have a f r o s t - f r e e period of 120 to 185 days but elsewhere i t is shorter . The c l i m a t i c fac tors are of great importance to the economy of the area, p a r t i c -u l a r l y to the f r u i t and vegetable growing industry. H i s t o r i c a l Background The Okanagan Va l l ey is the only area in Western Canada which was se t t l ed and developed by entry from the south. There is no wr i t ten h i s tory ava i l ab le e a r l i e r than 1811; but i t is known that the f i r s t fur traders t r a v e l l i n g north from Oregon encountered large Indian settlements in the Okanagan and Similkameen Va l leys and along the borders of the Arrow Lakes to the east . The "Okanagan Nat ion" , a f ter whom the area is now named, cons isted o r i g i n a l l y of twelve t r i bes who had organized ten permanent settlements throughout the length of the Okanagan Va l l ey . They had a legend that they were o r i g i n a l l y white-sk inned, were the descendants of the l a s t surv iv ing couple of a group of people outlawed by the i r ruiber in the i r homeland far to the east, and that the i r skin had darkened as a re su l t of exposure to the elements. C u l t u r a l l y , the Okanagan Indians were in the Stone Age when the f i r s t fur traders met them, but they were by no means lack ing in e f f e c t i v e socia l o rgan iza t ion . They had the i r es tab l i shed winter encampments, and during the summer months moved along the borders of the r i ve r s and lakes. Hunting and f i s h i n g met most of the i r surv iva l needs. They had a democratic system of hocal government, the i r ch ie f s and governing counc i l s being e l e c t e d . They had no heredi tary n o b i l i t y , and were not a r i t u a l i s t i c soc ie ty . Famil ies l i ved as separate units wi.thin the t r i b e s , polygamy was customary, and mar-r iages were at times arranged by the t r i bes for the i r c h i l d r e n . The fur - 7 -t r ader s ' impressions were that the Okanagan Indians l i ved moral and o rder l y l i v e s , and they found them more honest and hospitable than the coastal tribegi. The Okanagan nation traded hemp with the coastal Indians, who valued i t for the making of the i r f i s h i n g nets, but there were ample resources for the ir needs with in the i r own area, and the i r l i v e s seem to have been s a t i s f y i n g at the time when the white man came ear l y in the 1 9 t h century. The f i r s t party of white explorers ar r ived in November, 1811, t r a v e l -l i n g north along the west bank of Okanagan Lake. David Stuart and three com-panions in the employ of the P a c i f i c Fur Company from A s t o r i a , Oregon, had as the i r raa.in ob jec t i ve trade with the Indians for f u r s . They found the area r i c h in beaver and other fur -bear ing animals, and the Indians ready to trade in exchange p a r t i c u l a r l y for tobacco. When the Northwest Fur Company learned that th i s area promised r i c h resources they sent the i r traders in a l so , and for a per iod of t h i r t y - s i x years the Okanagan Va l l ey was a busy route for the fur br igades. In 1846 the Oregon Boundary Settlement introduced an im-portant change. Up to th i s date, passage throughout the P a c i f i c northwest was unregulated except by the t e r r a i n of the land and the p o l i c i e s of the f u r -t rad ing companies: but when the Oregon Treaty f i xed the internat iona l boundary, unres t r i c ted use of the Columbia River for the shipping of cargoes became im-, prac t i cab le for a B r i t i s h company. The Hudson's Bay Company met the s i tua t i on by developing Fort V i c t o r i a and Fort Langley as trading centres , and the Okan-agan Va l ley was no longer a mainl ine route for the br igades. For a period of ten years, from 1847 to 1857, the p r o b a b i l i t y is that the va l l ey returned to i t s e a r l i e r stage with the Indians in sole possession except for the occasional t rans ient missionary p r i e s t , unt i l sometime in 1858 a wagon t ra in car ry ing goods for sa le to the gold miners in the Caribou fol «J lowed the o ld route from Oregon north, and a new type of settlement slowly fol1 owed behi nd. The pioneers in settlement and development of the Okanagan Va l l ey Were - 8 -the Roman Catho l i c p r i e s t s who came as miss ionar ies to the Indians. This was the earl i est sect i on of B r i t i s h Columb i a to be Chr i s t i an i zed. The Jesui ts sent in the e a r l i e s t miss ionar ies to be Indian t r i b e s , although the f i r s t mis-sion es tab l i shed was by the Oblates in the person of Father Pandosy in i 8 6 0 at Okanagan Mission mid-way up Okanagan Lake, on the east bank. A few white people fol lowed Father Pandosy's example; land was taken up and c leared and the f i r s t log house was b u i l t over looking what is now the c i t y of Kelowna. In I 8 5 8 gold was discovered at Rock Creek, a few miles east across the mountains from Osoyoos Lake. The ear l y promise was good, and miners f locked in from Oregon in the United States, Hope, and Ya le . For more than a year the y i e l d was f a i r l y r i c h and Rock Creek f l our i shed as a community. Then in 1 8 6 1 a new f ind in Mission Creek in the Okanagan Va l l ey beckoned, yet another at Cherry Creek in 1 8 6 3 , and Rock Creek was gradually deserted. S i l v e r a lso was found at Cherry Creek, and a mine there was p r o f i t a b l e and famous for years. In general , mining in i t s e l f has not contr ibuted sub s t an t i a l l y to the Okanagan Va l l ey , but i n d i r e c t l y i t has provided stepping-stones to per-manent sett lement. . As the y i e l d s f a l t e r e d , many of the miners accepted the area as home, took up land, and turned to farming and c a t t l e - r a i s i n g . In th i s way, the lake borders, the bench lands, and the h i l l slopes were peopled. Under a proclamation by Governor James Douglas in January i 8 6 0 , land thought su i t ab le for a g r i cu l tu re by s e t t l e r s was made avai l abihe to them pending a government survey of the land under the system of pre-emption. This allowed a t ract of land not exceeding 1 6 0 acres to be lawfu l ly acquired on r e g i s t r a t i o n of the claim and payment of a recording fee of eight s h i l l -ings to the nearest magistrate. When the government survey was extended to the land claimed, the c la imant, i f he had been "of continuous occupat ion" , was e n t i t l e d to p r i o r i t y in purchasing the land at a p r i ce "not exceeding the sum of ten s h i l l i n g s per acreV. 1 The Spal1umcheen Va l l ey at the northern end of the Okanagan was the - 9 -f i r s t s e t t l ed by a small party who t r ave l l ed overland by wagon t ra in from eastern Canada. 1861 brought an ordinance by the B r i t i s h Government granting land in B r i t i s h Columbia to r e t i r ed naval and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , and one of those who obtained a grant, Captain Houghton, es tab l i shed the Coldstream Ranch near Vernon. He was fol lowed by other s e t t l e r s who s tarted c a t t l e -ranching at th i s northern end of the v a l l e y . P lant ing of the f i r s t commer-c i a l f r u i t orchard in the Okanagan Va l l ey in 1890 is c red i ted to James Gar-t re l 1 in the centra l Okanagan. In 1892 Lord Aberdeen purchased the Co ld -stream Ranch and introduced fBuit-growing in the northern Okanagan. Once the success of th i s was demonstrated, increas ing settlement fo l lowed. The demand f o r i s u i t a b l e orchard land led to the f ru i t - g rowing boom, and i t is th i s form of a g r i cu l tu ra l development which has given the area i t s most char-a c t e r i s t i c pattern today. The essent ia l i r r i g a t i o n flumes and storage dams were i n s t a l l e d over a greater and greater area. These were followed by the erect ion of packing-houses and storage f a c i l i t i e s f i r s t in the larger and in due course the smaller communities as w e l l . Land which sold for $1 per acre in 1898 brough $1,000 an acre in 1910, and by the 1940s i t was valued at $3,000 an acre.. Peaches were the f i r s t f r u i t succes s fu l l y grown, in the Trepanier Creek d i s t r i c t , north of what is now Summerland, and during the 18908 most f ru i t s su i ted to a temperate zone were p lanted. The l i g h t s o i l s and the hot, dry c l imate in the southern Okanagan p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraged the growing of the so f t f r u i t s such as peaches, ap r i co t s , and c h e r r i e s . As these proved genera l ly succes s fu l , a cons iderable acreage was developed from Osoyoos at the southern end of the va l l ey to Peachland, midway between Pen-t i c ton and Kelowna, and a l l of th i s is now in continuous product ion. This is the only region in Canada where apr icots can>be grown succes s fu l l y for the commercial market. The f ru i t - g rowing industry has seen f l uc tua t i ons s ince i t s inception due to waried causes - overproduct ion, unorganized mar-10 ket ing, inexperience and poor management among them. The boom in orchard land faded by the time World War I had commenced. In the twenties i t took on new l i f e , strengthened by a wel 1 -supported growers' co-operat ive market-ing system, and there have been further improvements in production and mar-ket ing s i nce . C a t t l e - r a i s i n g and l a te r da i ry ing dominated the ag r i cu l tu re at the north end of the v a l l e y , and areas which a f ter some t r i a l proved unsuitable for f ru i t - g rowing in the south, such as land between Vernon and Shuswap Lake and in the Similkameen Va l l ey , reverted to c a t t l e - r a n c h i n g . Since the m id - f o r t i e s the lumber industry has taken f i r s t place in the area economy by way of secondary products coming from the large number of sawmills throughout the v a l l e y . The wide va r i e ty of products, which includes sawn and planed lumber, f ru i t -boxes and more l a t t e r l y b ins , orchard props, r a i l t i e s , and poles, are produced p a r t i c u l a r l y for local consumption, but in add i t ion a f a i r volume now f inds i t s way to wider Canadian and overseas mark-e t s . A l l these developments brought a need for r a i l t r anspor ta t ion . Soon a f ter 1890 mining developments in southern B r i t i s h Columbia were the focus of the demand. At f i r s t , connections such as ex i s ted were c i r c u i t o u s and slow, suppl ies usual ly being brought in from the American s ide of the boundary (by 1892 Spokane, Washington, had two transcont inental ra i lways ) . T y p i c a l l y the U.S. rai lway l i nes at that time extended a short d is tance into Canada. The Canadian P a c i f i c took over what volume of f r e i gh t ex i s ted from Greenwood and Grand Forks to Sicamous with a branch l i n e to Okanagan Landing, by Okana-gan Lake and Skaha Lake to Okanagan F a l l s , where serv ice ended. As l a te as 1910 when the f r u i t industry was producing a s i zeab le tonnage, there was no rai lway ava i l ab le south of Okanagan Landing. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of provid ing one were r e a l i s t i c in view of the topographical nature of the country, the commensurate cost , and the l im i ted population of the area. Despite these ob-- 11 -s t ac l e s , surveys were made, and by 1913 track was l a i d through the southern end of the va l l ey and the Similkameen Va l l ey , north from Penticton to Spence's Bridge on the CPR main l i n e , and through the Coquehel1 a Pass to Copper Moun-ta in and Pr inceton and from Penticton south to the International Boundary. The former was completed ear l y in the 1920s; the l a t t e r had a chequered ca r -eer and was not f i n a l l y and f u l l y completed unt i l the la te 1930s. In 19^9 a highway l i n k between the coast and the southern Okanagan was completed, through d i f f i c u l t mountain country from Princeton to Hope from which sect ion i t takes i t s genera l ly accepted name (the Hope-Princeifcon High-way). Prov id ing easy access from the heav i ly populated Lower Mainland area, th i s highway f a c i l i t a t e d a s tead i l y increas ing f j lowof t r a f f i c and i n t r o -duced the Okanagan V a l l e y ' s most recent and cur ren t l y productive segment of i t s economy - tourism. Much l a t e r , a f ter ten years of spectacular road-b u i l d i n g , the Rogers Pass highway was completed in 19&2, l i n k i n g Revel stoke with Golden and prov id ing communication with A l b e r t a . As well as further communication with Metropol i tan Vancouver and the Fraser Va l l ey , th i s has added not iceab le s t imulat ion to the t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s of a l l k inds. The warm, dry summer c l imate , recreat iona l f a c i l i t i e s which the 1akes and beaches prov ide, and the a t t r a c t i v e lake and mountain scenery provide a bas is for the t o u r i s t trade which has shown a steady growth in recent years. As a r e su l t , there has been a cons iderable volume of bu i l d i ng of accommodation, restaurant and entertainment resources for t o u r i s t s . The three larger V a l -ley centres, and one or two of the smaller communities have recent ly been working on the development of ski resorts to a t t r a c t winter v i s i t o r s . Today the Okanagan Va l l ey is a popular re s iden t i a l area for many peo-p le other than those who f ind the i r l i v e l i h o o d in the communities within the reg ion. A high percentage of r e t i r e d people make the i r homes in the Okanagan, many of then from the p r a i r i e provinces who are a t t racted by the milder winter c l imate and the s i ze and f a c i l i t i e s of the va l l ey communi-12 -t i e s . There are a lso many residents such as commercial t r a v e l l e r s and the area representat ives for both business and government serv ices whose employ-ment involves some degree of frequent t r a v e l l i n g and who f ind the Okanagan Va l l ey both a pleasant and a convenient ly located area in which to make the i r homes. The Region's Economy The primary indust r ies of f o r e s t r y , farming and mining provide the ec -onomic base of the Okanagan iregion. Tourism, however, is a r ap id l y expand-ing t e r t i a r y industry. This region is renowned for i t s so f t f r u i t industry, but a g r i cu l tu re as a whole is second in importance to the forest operations which are mainly in the northern and eastern parts of the reg ion. Revenue from the fo res t industry is s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than returns from a g r i c u l -ture. The major i ty of the sawmills s i tuated in small scat tered communities cut less than 1 0 , 0 0 0 board feet per day; the largest one in Kelowna has the capac i ty of producing 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 board feet per day and employs over 5 0 0 men. Most of the sawmills l i e along r a i l r oad routes s ince 9 0 % is exported by r a i l . A great deal of the lumber is sent to Central and Eastern Canada and the re -mainder is sent to the United States . Wood process ing such as box and p i l e manufacturing is the secondary industry in the area but an expansion of these indust r ies has been recommended to give greater s t a b i l i t y to the f o r -est economy in the reg ion. The Okanagan .region is one of the most extens ive ly farmed areas in B r i t i s h Columbia, and has become the second most important region in farm produce in the province, standing behind the Lower Fraser Va l ley but ahead of Vancouver Island.^ Tree f r u i t production ca r r i ed out along the 1 2 0 mi le length of the Okanagan Va l l ey is the more important segment of the industry, 1 Okanagan B u l l e t i n Area. Department of Lands & Fores t s . R.G. W i l l i s t o n , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 1 , p. 3 0 . making up more than 9 2 % of the total tree f r u i t produce in B.C. There is c a t t l e , da i ry and vegetable farming as we l l ; the vegetable produce accounts for 1/3 of B.C. 's vegetables. The Okanagan is a l so a p r i n c i p l e seed-producing area. Although f r u i t is the main ag r i cu l tu ra l product of the Okanagan Region, there have been marked trends in da i ry , poultry and beef product ion. The sof t f r u i t industry s p e c i a l i z i n g in peaches, pears, apples, apr icots and cherr ies accounts for one quarter of the cu l t i v a ted farm land with the greater propor-t ion l y ing south of Vernon in the Okanagan Va l ley and south of Keremeos in the Similkimeen. Farming on a part time basis is very common in th i s area. B.C. F ru i t s L imi ted , a co -operat ive, is the marketing agency for over 9 0 % of the f r u i t produced. The vegetable crops are located p a r t i c u l a r l y north of Vernon and around Grand Forks. A growing part of the f r u i t industry is the processing of f r u i t unsuitable for consumer use but s a t i s f a c t o r y for ju ices and purees. Development of f reez ing and dehydrating f r u i t s has been recom-mended for the industry. The seasonal nature of f r u i t - f a rm ing annually a t t rac t s i t i ne ran t work-ers into the area; permanent res idents a l so take advantage of the summer em-ployment of f r u i t - p i c k i n g and cannery work. The economy of the reg i on , es -p e c i a l l y the South Okanagan, is dependent on the primary industry of f r u i t -growing. Poor weather condit ions can have d isastrous e f f ec t s on the general welfare of the reg ion. Over hal f of the " l i v e s t o c k populat ion" is found north of Kelowna in the Okanagan Va l ley , the remainder being about equal ly d i s t r i bu ted elsewhere. In the whole region there are more than 2 5 , 0 0 0 head of beef c a t t l e and 1 2 , 0 0 0 da i ry c a t t l e but in terms of revenue, da i ry farming is the more remunerative. Opportunit ies for expansion l i e in the da i ry industry where there ex i s t s f l u i d 1 An Industr ia l Survey of the Okanagan Va l ley Region. B r i t i s h Columbia, CNR Research and Development Department, Montreal, Quebec. June, 1 9 6 3 , p. 2 5 4 . - 14 -mi lk surpluses yet an annual rate of one m i l l i o n pounds of butter and cheese imports. Although mining has played an h i s t o r i c a l ro le in the development in the ag r i cu l tu re and forest i ndus t r ie s , i t has been reduced to a secondary force in the economy. Lode metals have been mined around Vernon, Osoyoos and the Sim-ilkimeen but one of low grade. Copper Mountain Mine at Princeton and the nearby Hedley Gold Mine were the most productive but have been closed since 1 9 5 7 . The warm summers, the natural beauty of the area, and i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y a l l help to a t t r ac t many tour i s t s to the Okanagan reg ion. In the Kelowna reg-ion alone for the year 1 9 6 4 , 3 9 1 , 5 1 0 v i s i t o r s spent an estimated $ 3 . 3 m i l l i o n . ' Of the v i s i t i n g groups in 1 9 6 3 , approximately two-thirds were Canadian and a l -most one-hal f were from A l b e r t a . Further, a larger number came from Saskat-chewan and Manitoba than from Washington State. With the opening of the Rogers Pass and the proposed l i n k between Edmonton and Prince George, a c i r c u l a r route w i l l be formed j o i n i n g the Western c i t i e s and the B r i t i s h Columbia coast; the Okanagan has benef i t ted tremendously so far and is bound to enjoy increased prosper i ty as a re su l t of the i n f l ux from east and west. Thus, in the future, there w i l l be a dramatic emphasis on tourism as a major industry s ince the de-mand for labour in the serv ice and construct ion trades w i l l expand. On the whole, however, primary rather than secondary industry generates the economy; changes in the economic c l imate elsewhere w i l l concomitantly a f -fec t the Okanagan economy. 1 Report. 1 9 6 4 V i s i t o r Enqu i r ie s , V i s i t o r & Convention Bureau, Kelowna Chamber of Commerce. 2 V i s i t o r s ' 6 3 . A Study of V i s i t o r s to B.C. in the Summer of 1 9 6 3 . B.C. Government Travel Bureau, Department of Recreation and Conservation, p. 6 . - 1 5 -Population Centres Pent ic ton, Kelowna and Vernon are the three major marketing and popu-l a t i on centres within the region; Pr inceton is the largest centre in the Sim-ilkimeen area and Grand Forks, the centre for the Ke t t l e V a l l e y . The Okanagan region as a whole is the most densely populated area in the In ter ior of B.C.; i t accounts for 6 per cent of the total p rov inc ia l pop-u l a t i o n . The greatest proport ion l i ve s within the Okanagan V a l l e y . As the s i x th largest c i t y in B.C. and the largest in the region, Pen-t i c ton has a population of 1 3 , 8 5 9 ^ and serves as a centre for the nearby mun-ic ipal. ! ty of Summerland and the v i l l a g e s of O l i ver and Osoyoos. S i tuated on land between the Okanagan and Skaha Lakes, th is c i t y became the southern term-inal of the trade steamers and l a te r became associated with c a t t l e ranching. Today, however, Pent icton is a major f ru i t - g rowing centre with over 90% of i t s i r r i g a ted land planted with f r u i t t rees . It is a l so a p r i n c i p l e d i s t r i -bution and transportat ion centre. Tourism is of increas ing importance to th i s c i t y . The second largest centre in the chain of three c i t i e s along the Okana-gan Lake, is Kelowna, meaning " g r i z z l y bear " . Kelowna was the f i r s t area in the Okanagan to e s t ab l i s h ag r i cu l tu re as a major industry. Within one decade Kelowna's populat ion has increased 54.8 per cent from 8,517 in 1951 to 13,188 in 1961. Kelowna is the focus of economic a c t i v i t y for a tota l population of 2 26,094 inc lud ing W in f i e ld , Okanagan Centre, Westbank and Peachland municip-a l i t y . Having the largest i r r i g a t e d d i s t r i c t in the province, the Kelowna bench lands y i e l d the largest production of apples and pears in the Okanagan. 1 Camu, P., E.P. Weeks, Z„W. Sametz, Economic Geography of Canada, Toronto, MacMil lan, 1964. 2 Camu, op. c i t . , p. 350. - 16 -In 1962 the prov inc ia l government ca r r i ed out an economic survey in the area and found that Kelowna was su i t ab le for secondary manufacturing in fo res t ry and small items. It i s , moreover, the proposed s i t e of a prov inc ia l jun ior co l lege which w i l l not only add to the economic and cu l tu ra l growth of the c i t y but to the Okanagan Va l l ey . Vernon, centre of the North Okanagan is set between three lakes - Kal -amalka, Okanagan and Swan. This c i t y is the o ldest in the Inter ior and f i f t h o ldest in the prov ince. O r i g i n a l l y a ca t t l e - r anch ing community which suppl ied the miners with beef, i t s t i l l has one of the largest c a t t l e ranches in the Okanagan - the Coldstream Ranch. As the market centre for Lumby, Enderby and Oyama, Vernon serves a total population of 28,73$!. The c i t y of Vernon i n -creased i t s populat ion 3 1 . 0 per cent in ten years to 10,250 in 1961. Forestry, vegetable and da i ry farming are important industr ies in this area. Vernon is the seat of the prov inc ia l and federal governments for the Okanagan; an army t r a i n i ng base is located near the c i t y . Pr inceton, an important centre in the Similkimeen Va l l ey has decl ined in importance economical ly s ince the mine c lo sures . Yet i t has gained import-ance as a t ransportat ion centre, being a terminus for the Hope-Princeton High-way. The small centres of Hedley, Copper Mountain and Al lenby look to P r i nce -2 ton which serves a population of 10,582. Pr inceton alone has 2,163 people. Forestry is a growing industry in th is area as well as tourism, hunting, f i s h -ing being the main a t t r a c t i o n s . Unt i l 1957 a major brewery s i tuated in P r i n ce -ton was a sources of employment for a proport ion of the labour f o r ce . In the eastern part of the region, the Ke t t l e Va l l ey area, Grand Forks is the largest centre, having a populat ion of 1,646 in 1 9 5 1 and 2,347 in 1961. P r i o r to World War I, a group of Do'ukhobours se t t l ed in the area, f i r s t in 1 Camu, op. c i t . , p. 296. 2 Camu, op. c i t . , p. 3 5 0 . - 17 -communal se t t l ements,, but now many are pr iva te land owners. The major economic pursu i t s in th i s area are farming and f o re s t r y . Populat ion Trends The Okanagan region a t t racted large numbers of people from the p r a i r i e provinces during the depression years, and many res idents of the P a c i f i c coast during World War 7M>, The population expan6SODnhas continued to the present, the a t t r a c t i on being the mild c l imate and re s ident i a l areas su i t ab le for r e -t i rement. A comparison of populat ion f igures between 1951 and 1961 w i l l ind icate the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n 6f population in the Okanagan. Since 1951 th is region has increased i t s population by 22 per cent, a f i gure s i i g h t l y over one-hal f of the p rov inc ia l growth rate of kO per cent and only two-thirds of the national rate (Table l a ) . The Okanagan, then, is expanding at a r e l a t i v e l y slow rate which is due, for the most part , to the low rate of i n d u s t r i a l i z a -t ion in the area and r e l a t i v e l y small number of job opportun i t ies for young people. When the major c i t i e s are considered i n d i v i d u a l l y , however, a l l have made substant ia l increases over the decade. For example, Kelowna's popula-t ion has increased by 55 per cent with immigration into the area accounting for 16 per cent of the increase;^ th is rate of population growth exceeds the high p rov inc ia l rate by 15 per cent. In 1962, moreover, Kelowna extended i t s boundaries to include the mun ic ipa l i t y of Glefomore. Both Pent icton and Vernon approximate the Canadian rate of populat ion growth of 30 per cent, with Pen-2 t i c ton owing 23 per cent and Vernon 21 per cent of the growth to immigration. It is i n te re s t i ng to note that Kelowna, with the highest rate of population growth has the lowest rate of immigration of the three larger Okanagan c i t i e S i 1 Camu, op. c i t . . p. 296. 2 Loc. c i t . - 17a -Table l a . D i s t r i bu t i on of Populat ion in Centres Over 5.000 in the Okanagan. B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, and Percentage Change - 1 9 5 1 - 1961 Sectors 1951 1961 per cent change Vernon 7,822 1 0,250 +31 .0 Ke1 own a 8 , 5 1 7 13 ,188 +54.8 Pent i cton 10,548 13 ,859 +31 .4 Grand Forks 1,646 2,347 +42.6 Okanagan B r i t i s h Columbi a Canada 77,686 1,165,210 14,009,429 94,646 1,629,082 18,238,247 +21.8 +39.8 +30.2 b i Urban Concentration of Okanagan Populat ion - 1951 - 1961 Sector p.c.of total pop. 1951 p.c. of total pop. 1961 Vernon 10.0 10.8 Kel owna 11 .0 1 3 . 9 Penti cton 1 3 . 6 14.6 Grand Forks 2.1 2.5 Total 36.7 40.8 - 18 -In 1961 near ly 41 per cent of the Okanagan population was concentrated in f o w urban areas, an increase of 4 per cent from the base year of 1951. (Table l b ) . Pent ic ton, being the largest c i t y in the region, has, on the one hand, the greatest concentrat ion of populat ion; but Kelowna, on the other, has experienced the highest rate of population concentrat ion over the ten years. This trend indicates that Kelowna w i l l become, in time, the largest centre in the Okanagan. The d r i f t toward the c i t i e s in th is region accounts for the populat ion growth in the c i t i e s in sp i te of the low population growth rate for the reg ion. Urban and suburban l i v i n g patterns, which are general trends across the nat ion, are l ikewise present here. A cons iderat ion of the rura l -urban d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l h i gh l i ght th is t rend. In 1 9 5 1 approximately 5 8 per cent of the Okanagan population l i ved in rura l areas whi le the remainder l ived/ in urban centres . Ten years l a ter the d i s t r i b u t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y equal with s l i g h t l y more people l i v i n g in the urban areas. A note of caution must be made, however, due to the change in the d e f i n i t i o n of rural and urban areas from 1951 to 1961 by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . In 1951 the aggregate s i ze of the populat ion, regard-less of the cen t re ' s legal s tatus, was the c r i t e r i o n for e s t ab l i sh ing urban and rural areas. A l l towns, v i l l a g e s and c i t i e s over the population of 1,000 were considered urban; the remaining areas, inc lud ing mun i c i pa l i t i e s were termed r u r a l . In the 1 9 6 1 census, however, urban areas were those with a populat ion re s id ing in c i t i e s , towns and v i l l a g e s of 1,000 or over whether incorporated or not but inc lud ing "urbanized f r i n g e s " of a l l such centres i f the populat ion exceeded 10,000. This change in d e f i n i t i o n a f fec t s the d i s -t r i b u t i o n f i gure to some degree. For the region as a whole, the urban centres have experienced a pop-u la t ion growth of 46 per cent while the rural areas have experienced only a low 4 per cent. (Table 2a) Considering the d i s t r i b u t i o n I.n the urban areas alone, the small urban areas (with populations between 1,000 - 10,000) - l g a -Table 2. P r i nc ipa l Cha rac te r i s t i c s of Urban-Rural D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 a. Total Population and Ten-Year Change, 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 Okanagan P.C. change 1951-1961 Rural-Urban Bri t i sh Areas 1951 1961 Okanagan Col umb i a Urban 32 ,806 48,021 +46.4 48J9 Smal1 towns (a) 22,258 9,669 -56.6 2.5 Larger urban 10,548 38,352 263.6 60.4 centres Rural 44,880 46,625 3.9 20.3 Farm 22,396 16,614 - 2 5 . 9 -29.5 Non-farm 22,484 30,011 33.5 22.7 Total 77,686 94,646 21.8 39.8 b. Urban-Rural D i s t r i bu t i on and Sex Composition, 1951-1961 - Rural-Urban Areas P.C. D i s t r i bu t i on Sex Rat io (b) 1951 1961 1 9 5 1 1961 Urban 42.2 50.7 Small towns (a) 28.7 10.2 ** -Larger urban 13.6 40.5 104.2 104.6 centres Rural 57.8 49.3 Farm 28.8 17.6 9 0 . 2 90.4 Non-farm 28.9 31.7 92.5 93.7 Total 100.0 100.0 9 6 . 6 98.5 (a) 1,000-10,000 populat ion (b) Number of females per 100 males - 1 9 -have lo s t one-hal f the i r population in the ten-year per iod . This f i gure is d i s to r ted somewhat in that Vernon and Kelowna were in th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in 1 9 5 1 . The inc lus ion of these two c i t i e s in the " l a r ge r urban centre " c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n in 1 9 6 1 accounts for the very high growth rate of 2 6 4 per cent; the B.C. rate for comparable towns is 6 0 per cent. Measuring the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ruF.al population is complicated because census d e f i n i t i o n s o f ' r u r a l ' include farm and non-farm. The d e f i n i -t ion of " fa rm" has changed, moreover, from the 1 9 5 1 census. A l so , " ru ra l non-farm" includes some suburbs. The Okanagan reg ion ' s increase in the rural areas is only o n e - f i f t h the rate for B r i t i s h Columbia. (Table 2 a ) The number of farm dwellers over the ten years has dec l ined in rural Okanagan and rural B .C . 'desp i te the fact that farming is of major importance in the Okanagan. The rural non-farm populat ion, however, is s ub s t an t i a l l y higher in 1 9 6 1 , i n -creas ing at a rate ten per cent higher than the prov inc ia l ra te . The r a t i o of females to males in the Okanagan has remained stable over the decade. In the urban centres there have been slightly more females than males but th i s proport ion is counterbalanced by the predominance of males in the rural areas. A breakdown of the age groups w i l l be discussed l a t e r . The most s a l i en t feature of the population trend is the slow rate of growth for the Okanagan region, accompanied by a high rate of urban izat ion. As a re su l t of better roads, pub l i c t ransportat ion and the a t t r ac t i ons of the suburbs, populat ion has tended to move from the smaller to the larger ur-ban areas; and, concomitantly, the urban areas are tending to spread and s p i l l over into the r u r a l . Thus new problems w i l l a r i se and.should be planned f o r . At the present time there are two regional planning groups, the South Okanagan Regional Planning Pro ject which extends from Summerland south to the Canadian-U.S. border and Central Okanagan Project center ing in Kelowna. The North Okanagan is in the process of e s t ab l i sh ing a s im i l a r project with a view to obta in ing the most product ive use of the land in soc ia l as well as 20 -economic terms. The regional planners assess the areas and make recommenda-t ions to the loca l governments. Problems of major concern are " r i b b o n " dev-elopment in which precarious commercial enterpr i ses border the major highways which lower land values and detract from the area ' s scenery; and another, the "swal lowing up" of valuable a g r i cu l tu ra l land for housing developments and land specu la t ion . An acceptance by the local governments for planned development of the i r areas w i l l be a step in overcoming these problems and being prepared for meeting new ones. Inev i tab ly , the geography, c l imate cond i t ions , economy, and people com-bine to determine what kind of welfare serv ices are required to meet the needs of th is reg ion. Chapter I I. THE PEOPLE The age d i s t r i b u t i o n in the census t racts is ava i l ab le in f i f t e e n stages of f i v e years each, except for the l a s t group which includes a l l people over 70 years of age. For present purposes several of these steps have been com-bined into groups which have soc ia l and welfare imp l i ca t ions . We have d i s t r i b -uted our population into f i v e groups: ( l ) the infants and pre-schoolers (0-4), ( 2 ) the major i ty of the school age ch i ld ren (5 - 1 4 ) , ( 3 ) the adolescents (15 - 1 9 ) and young adults (20-24), some of whom may s t i l l be attending educa-t ional i n s t i t u t i o n s , (4) the mature ages (25 - 4 4 ) and (44-64); these are the predominant working populat ion, and ( 5 ) the o lder groups ( 6 5 - 6 9 ) and 70 and over, most of whom are r e t i r e d and in rece ipt of pensions. Phe-school ch i l d ren (0-4) are usual ly the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the parents, but they have cons iderable soc ia l s i gn i f i c ance as a group. They requ i re , for instance, day care serv ices for working mothers while older ch i l d ren .o f th is group (3-4 years) require adequate play areas. This group a l so can give a good ind ica t ion of the ant i c ipated school populat ion in the next f i v e years and th i s knowledge serves as a guide for the prov i s ion and planning of educa-t ional and vocational f a c i l i t i e s . This is s i g n i f i c a n t in view of present technological advancement where t r a in ing and r e - t r a i n i n g w i l l l i k e l y be essen-t i a l . The tota l populat ion in the Okanagan increased from 77,686 in 1951 to 94,646 in 1961, an increase of 21.8 per cent as compared to a 39.8 per cent increase for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia in the same per iod . The present (ear ly 1965) populat ion of the Okanagan is increas ing at a cons iderable rate but not as rap id ly as. the remainder of B r i t i s h Columbia or Canada as a whole. Pos s ib l y , with the completion of the Rogers Pass highway, which w i l l make - 2 2 -the beaut i fu l Okanagan read i l y access ib le to p r a i r i e res idents , th i s area w i l l f l o u r i s h and grow within the next decade. Newspaper a r t i c l e s agree in p red i c t ing th i s , although no actual f igures are ava i l ab l e . The pre-school age group increased from 8 , 9 1 4 to 9,845 in our ten-year per iod; an increase of 1 0 . 4 per cent as compared to 48.4 per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia. (Table 3 ) . Thus the pre-school population increased a l -most f i v e times as rap id ly in B r i t i s h Columbia as in the Okanagan. The pre-schoolers comprfsed 10.4 per cent of the Okanagan population in 1 9 6 1 , a s l i g h t decrease ( l . l per cent) in the ten-year per iod, whi le in a l l of B.C. the proport ion of pre-schoolers increased in the ten-year period (by less than 1 per cent ) . The school age population (5-14 years) is s i g n i f i c a n t in that the locat ion and s i ze of educational f a c i l i t i e s is pa r t l y determined by the num-ber of students expected to use them. In the Okanagan th i s increased by 3 6 . 5 per cent while the comparable B r i t i s h Columbia increase was higher, -8 0 . 6 per cent. The school age ch i l d ren made up 21 per cent of the Okanagan population and 1 9 . 8 per cent of the B r i t i s h Columbia population in 1 9 6 1 . The high per cent increase o f ' t h i s and the next age group in the e n t i r e prov-ince could be a r e f l e c t i o n of the post-war "baby boom"; many of these people are now enter ing co l lege and u n i v e r s i t i e s ; thus the tremendous emphasis throughout the province on regional co l leges and vocational f a c i l i t i e s . Most of the adolescent group ( 1 5 - 1 9 years) is s t i l l in school ; however, a port ion of these would a lso have dropped out of school and some would be marr ied. There was a 3 0 . 7 per cent increase in th i s group's pop-u la t ion in the Okanagan from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 6 1 , whi le the per cent increase for B r i t i s h Columbia in the same period was twice as great ( 6 0 . 4 percent ) . The "young adu l t " group increased only very s l i g h t l y in the ten-year per iod, 4 , 7 8 4 in 1 9 5 1 to 4 , 9 2 2 in 1 9 6 1 ( 2 . 9 per cent increase) . The comparable B.C. - 2 2 a -Table 3 . S i g n i f i c a n t Age Groups: Okanagan and Prov inc ia l Comparisons a. Changes 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 Age group 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 P.C. i ncrease comparable B.C. increase Pre-school ( 0 - 4 ) 8 , 9 1 4 9,843 1 0 . 4 48.4 School age (5-14) 14,570 1 9 , 8 9 9 3 6 . 5 8 0 . 6 Adolescents and young adul ts ( 1 5 - 1 9 ) (20 - 2 4 ) 5 , 7 8 1 4 , 7 8 4 7 , 5 5 8 4 , 9 2 2 3 0 . 7 2 . 9 6 0 . 4 1 9 . 3 Mature ages ( 2 5 - 4 4 ) (45=64) 2 1 , 6 6 8 14,487 2 2 , 1 8 2 1 9 , 2 5 4 2 . 4 3 2 . 9 24.7 3 7 . 4 Older groups ( 6 5 - 6 9 ) ( 7 0 and over) 3 , 0 3 5 4 , 4 4 7 3 , 5 2 6 7 , 4 5 8 1 6 . 2 6 7 . 8 - 4 . 1 5 6 . 9 Total 7 7 , 6 8 6 94 ,646 2 1 . 8 3 9 . 8 b. Per Cent D i s t r i b u t i o n Age group Okanagan B r i t i s h Columb i a 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 Pre-school ( 0 = 4 ) 1 1 . 5 1 0 . 4 1 0 . 8 1 1 . 5 School age (5=14) 18.8 21 .0 1 5 . 3 1 9 . 8 Adolescents and young adults ( 1 5 - 1 9 ) (20 - 2 4 ) 7 . 4 6 . 2 8 . 0 5 . 2 6 . 0 6 . 9 6 . 9 5 . 8 Mature ages ( 2 5 - 4 4 ) (45 - 6 4 ) 2 7 . 9 18.6 2 3 . 4 2 0 . 3 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 3 2 6 . 9 18.9 Older groups ( 6 5 - 6 9 ) ( 7 0 and over) 3 . 9 5 . 7 3 . 7 7 . 9 4 . 5 6 . 3 3.1 7.1 Total 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 . - 2 3 -per cent increase was 1 9 . 3 per cent. This would seem to ind icate that many of these people leave the Okanagan fol 1 owing the i r high school education to go on to higher education or to seek work elsewhere. The adolescents and young adul t s , the group from 1 5 to 24 years, comprised 1 3 . 2 per cent of the Okanagan population and 1 2 . 7 per cent of the B r i t i s h Columbia populat ion. The "mature ages" cons i s t of two groups of the predominant "working" populat ion, 2 5 to 4 4 years and 4 5 " t b 64 years. The 2 5 to 4 4 age group i n -creased by only 2.k per cent in the ten-year period (from 2 1 , 6 6 8 to 2 2 , 1 8 2 ) ; the corresponding increase for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia was much higher - 24.7 per cent. Here again we can assume that many of the younger people l e f t the Okanagan in th i s per iod . The 2 5 to kk group made up 2 3 . 4 per cent of the Okanagan populat ion and 2 6 . 9 per cent of the B.C. populat ion in 1 9 6 1 . The o l d -er group ( 4 4 to 64 years) increased by 3 2 . 9 per cent in the Okanagan and 3 7 . 4 per cent in a l l of B.C. They comprised a 1arge- proport ion of the Okanagan population ( 2 0 . 3 per cent) than they did of the B r i t i s h Columbia population ( 1 8 . 9 per cent) in 1 9 6 1 . This would tend to bear out the prevalent opinion that the Okanagan is a des i rab le area for o lder people ' s residence and r e t i r e -ment. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the o lder groups ( 6 5 to 6 9 and 7 0 plus) is of con-s iderab le s i gn i f i c ance for wel fare; e s p e c i a l1y when examined in terms of pen-s ions, adequate housing, nursing homes, chronic care hosp i ta l s , e t c . The 6 5 to 6 9 age group in the Okanagan increased by 1 6 . 2 per cent from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 6 1 while the group is the only one to reg i s ter a decrease ( 4 . 1 per cent) in B.C. as a whole in the same per iod . The group 7 0 and over increased 6 7 . 8 per cent in our per iod, a greater increase than any other age group and greater than the increase for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia ( 5 6 . 9 per cen t ) . This seems to r e -f l e c t the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the Okanagan for ret i rement. While in 1 9 5 1 the Okanagan proport ion of people over 6 5 was 9 . 6 per cent as compared to 1 0 , 8 - 24 -per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia, by 1961 the proport ion in the Okanagan increased to 11.6 and decreased to 10.2 for a l l of B.C. (Table 3.) C i ty of Bri t i sh Vancouver Okanagan Columb i a Canada Percentage of e l d e r l y in 13.8 11 .6 10.2 6 . 5 the populat ion (over 6 5 ) Family Cha rac te r i s t i c s An examination of the marital status of the population is h ighly s i g n i f -icant s ince the family provides con t inu i t y for soc ia l l i f e . Family d i sorgan-i z a t i o n , inc lud ing death, d ivorce and separation have tremendous soc ia l we l -fare imp l i ca t ions , for i t is usua l ly these disorganized fami l ie s that require soc ia l s e r v i ce s . In the Okanagan 46.1". per cent of the population were s ing le in 1951 and 1961. We need to remember that th i s includes c h i l d r e n ; thus the percentage is quite high. (Table 4 ) . This is quite s im i l a r to metropol itan Vancouver (44.6 per cent) and B r i t i s h Columbia (46.7 per cent) in 1961 . From 1951 to 1961 the percentage of married people decreased from 49.1 per cent to 48.2 per cent in the Okanagan. A s l i g h t decrease in the per cent of married people can be noted in most areas; genera l ly from 1 per cent to 3 per cent decrease in the ten-year per iod . In 1951 there were 3,419 (4.4 per cent) widowed people in the Okanagan; th i s increased to 4,903 (5.2 per cent) in 1961. The percentage of the pop-u lat ion that was widowed in 1961 (5.2 per cent) is cons iderably greater than for a comparable area, the Fraser Va l ley (4.0 per cen t ) . (Table 4) This tends to support the contention that many widowed people s e t t l e in the Okanagan. Several reasons for th is could be mentioned: des i rab le c l imate, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of seasonal work in the f r u i t industry, and others . The 1961 percentage ,of widowed people in the Okanagan (5.2 per cent) is very - 24a -T a b l e 4 . Mar ita l Status of the Populat ion; Main Cha rac te r i s t i c s (Two Regions and Metropol i tan Vancouver Compared) 1 9 5 1 - 1961 Mar i tal Fraser Metropoli tan Status Va l l ey Okanagan Regi on Vancouver 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 S ing le persons 5 8 , 2 5 5 9 0 , 5 6 6 3 5 , 8 3 4 4 3 , 5 8 5 2 1 2 , 8 5 5 3 1 8 , 5 9 1 Married (wi th or wi thout fami 1y) Marr i ed 6 3 , 9 2 9 8 9 , 2 1 3 3 8 , 1 1 9 4 5 , 6 6 3 2 7 1 , 3 0 4 3 5 0 , 6 0 0 Wi dowed 5 , 5 5 0 7 , 6 2 8 3 , 4 1 9 4 , 9 0 3 3 2 , 3 7 8 4 3 , 1 5 8 Di vorced 5 8 7 7 9 7 3 0 4 4 9 5 4 , 3 8 0 6 , 9 7 8 Percentage d i s tr i but i on S ing le 4 5 . 2 48.1 46.1 46.1 40.9 4 4 . 6 Marr i ed 4 9 . 8 4 7 . 4 4 9 . 1 48.2 5 2 . 1 48.7 Wi dowed 4 . 3 4 . 0 4 . 4 5 . 2 6 . 2 5 . 8 Di vorced . 4 5 .42 .40 .52 .84 .92 Total persons 128 , 245 188,330 ' 7 7 , 6 8 6 94 ,646 5 2 0 , 9 9 3 7 1 9 , 3 2 7 - 25 -s l i g h t l y higher than the rate for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia (5.1 per cent ) . It appears that i f the trend from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 6 1 continues, the per cent of widowed people in the Okanagan could increase well beyond the rate for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia. The impl icat ions for welfare here are severall;widowed people are often e l d e r l y and require specia l serv ices (as discussed e a r l i e r ) ; i f they are younger they f requent ly have ch i ld ren and often require soc ia l ass i s tance. The tendency for d ivorce rates in a l l areas to increase is ev ident. In 1 9 5 1 there were 304 (.4 per cent) divorced people in the Okanagan as com-pared to 495 (.52 per cent) .in 1 9 6 1 . The per cent of the popul at ion of Van-couver that was divorced in 1 9 6 1 was .92 per cent; in B r i t i s h Columbia i t was .7 per cent. The impl icat ions here for soc ia l welfare are a l so cons iderab le. Divorce often involves fami ly tensions, i n secur i ty and anxiety for the c h i l -dren i f there are any. These people often require soc ia l serv ices in time of s t res s , e s p e c i a l l y i f ch i l d ren are involved and f i nanc ia l support for the fami ly must often be provided. A household, according to the census d e f i n i t i o n , cons i s t s of a per-son or group of persons occupying one dwel l ing . Thus a household may have one person, one fami ly, or several f a m i l i e s . A family cons i s t s of a husband 0£ wife l i v i n g with c h i l d r e n . The data on households was chosen to ind icate the f a m i l i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the res idents of the reg ion. In 1961 there were 27,357 households in a populat ion of 94,646. In examining households by s i z e , in 1951 11.9 per cent of the households were r "one person" househol ds (Table 5). This increased to 14.0 per cent by 196-1 and is simir.lar to that of metropol itan Vancouver ( 1 3 . 5 per cent) but much higher than the rate for Canada (9.3 per cen t ) . Two to three person house-holds decreased s l i g h t l y in the Okanagan from 45.0 per cent (1950 to 43.7 per cent ( i960 and are s im i l a r to the B r i t i s h Columbia rate (43.2 per cent) in 1961. In a l l of Canada the two to three person households comprise 40 per cent of the t o t a l . - 2 5 a -Table 5. Comparative D i s t r i bu t i on of Households by S ize : Okanagan. Met-ropo l i tan Vancouver. B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada. 1951 - 1961. Category Okanagan Metropol i tan Vancouver Bri t i sh Columbi a Canada 1951 1961 1961 1961 1961 Total Population 77,686 94,646 790,165 1,629,082 18,238,247 No. of Households 22,457 27,357 228,598 459,532 4,554,493 Households by S ize (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) 1 person 11 .9 14.0 1 3 . 2 1 3 . 5 9.3 2-3 persons 45.0 43.7 45.1 ^3.2 40.0 4-5 persons 31 .2 29.9 31 .0 30iB 3 1 . 6 6+ persons 11 .9 12.3 10.7 12.5 19.1 - 26 -The four to f i v e person households in 1961 are c lose to 3 0 per cent or 31 per cent of the total for the Okanagan, Metropol i tan Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada. The households with s i x or more people increased s l i g h t l y , from 1 1 . 9 per cent (1950 to 12.3 per cent (1961) in the Okanagan. In metropol itan Vancouver they comprised only 1 0 . 7 per cent of the t o t a l , in B r i t i s h Columbia 12.5 per cent, and in Canada 19 . 1 per cent. This would tend to ind icate that f ami l i e s in B r i t i s h Columbia are probably smaller and more nuclear than in other parts of Canada. Family Features An examination of some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of family l i f e in the Okanagan is bas ic to th i s study. Social welfare workers are concerned with the preservat ion of s o c i e t y ' s bas ic unity; the fami ly . A knowledge of what changes the fami ly is undergoing is e s s e n t i a l . The age of the family head (male or female) is s i g n i f i c a n t as i t provides some ind ica t ion of the maturity of the family head. In the Okanagan 3.8 per cent of the family heads were under the age of 25, as compared to 4.2 per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole in 1961. The major i ty of family heads in the Okanagan (39.9 per cent) as well as in B r i t i s h Columbia (46.3 per cent) are in the 2 5 to 44 age group (Table 6) . In the Okanagan the prop-or t i on of family heads in the 45 to 64 age group is larger (38.1 per cent) than for B r i t i s h Columbia (34.9 per cent ) . In the Okanagan 18.2 per cent of the family heads are over 6 5 years; in B r i t i s h COlumbia th i s f i gure is 14.6 per cent. These l a t t e r f igures bear out the contention that the Okanagan is an ideal area for retirement purposes. In assessing the s i ze of f ami l ie s in the Okanagan, 33.7 per cent have no c h i l d r e n , as compared to 33.1 per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia. The largest number (39.9 per cent) have one or two ch i ld ren in the Okanagan, while the proport ion of f ami l ie s with one or two ch i ld ren in B r i t i s h Columbia - 2 6 a -Table 6 . Factors of Family Composition 1 tern Okanagan B r i t i s h Columb i a No. Per Cent No. Per Cent Total Fami 1 i es 2 3 , 5 5 7 - 3 9 4 , 0 2 3 -Famil ies not mainta in-7 6 3 3 . 2 1 6 , 4 2 7 4 . 2 ing own household Related Fami1 i es 4 9 4 2.1 9 , 9 3 6 2 . 5 Lodgi ng Fami1 i es 2 2 8 1 .0 5 , 9 7 3 1 . 5 Age of Fami1y Head Under 2 5 9 0 1 3 . 8 1 6 , 7 0 6 4 . 2 2 5 - 4 4 9 , 3 8 8 3 9 . 9 1 8 2 , 3 8 0 46.3 4 5 - 6 4 8 , 9 8 6 3 8 . 1 1 3 7 , 4 5 1 3 4 . 9 6 5 + 4 , 2 8 2 18.2, 57 ,486 14.6 Size of Fami1y 0 Chi ldren 7 , 9 4 5 3 3 . 7 1 3 0 , 4 5 5 3 3 . 1 1 - 2 9 , 3 9 1 3 9 . 9 165 , 1 8 0 41.9 3 — 4 4 , 9 9 2 2 1 . 2 7 9 , 3 6 3 2 0 . 1 5 + 1 , 2 2 9 5 . 2 1 9 , 0 2 5 4 . 8 Average Persons per family 3 . 6 - 3 . 6 -Average 6 h i l d r e n per family 1.6 - 1 . 6 -Ages of Chi ldren at home 0 - 6 1 1 , 7 5 9 3 0 . 9 2 2 0 , 3 4 7 3 5 . 1 6 - 1 4 1 7 , 7 2 9 46.6 2 8 1 , 6 9 8 4 4 . 9 1 5 - 24 at school 5 , 7 9 0 1 5 . 2 8 0 , 0 6 0 1 2 . 8 1 5 - 2 4 not at school 2 , 7 8 6 7 . 3 4 5 , 2 9 3 7.2 Total Chi ldren 3 8 , 0 6 4 1 0 0 . 0 6 2 7 , 3 9 8 1 0 0 . 0 - 2 7 -is 41.9 per cent. In the Okanagan 2 1 . 2 per cent of f ami l ie s have three or four ch i ld ren as compared to 2 0 . 1 per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia. In the Okanagan 5 . 2 per cent of f ami l ie s have f i v e or more ch i ld ren while only 4.8 per cent of the fami l ie s in B r i t i s h Columbia have f i v e or more ch i1dren. (Tab le 6). Thus fami l ie s in the Okanagan are s l i g h t l y hanger than for a l l of B r i t -i sh Columbia. Poss ib ly th is ind icates that rural famili.es are genera l ly larger than urban f a m i l i e s . In the Okanagan as well as for B r i t i s h Columbia there are an average of 3.6 persons per family and an average of 1.6 c h i l d -ren per fami ly . Information as to the number and ages of ch i ld ren at home are a v a i l a b l e . In the Okanagan almost one- th i rd ( 3 0 . 9 per cent) of the ch i l d ren are less than s i x years o l d , the percentage of ch i l d ren in th is category for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia being s l i g h t l y higher ( 3 5 . 1 per cent ) . The ch i ld ren in the 6 to 14 year age group comprise 46.6 per cent of the Okanagan popula-t ion and 44.9 per cent of the B r i t i s h Columbia populat ion. The number of adolescents attending school is s i g n i f i c a n t for wel-fare cons iderat ions ; those who "drop out " ea r l y have a greater l i ke l i hood of requ i r ing welfare se rv i ce s . Of the c h i l d r e n , ( 1 5 to 24 years) in the Okanag-an at home, 1 5 . 2 per cent are at school , and 7 . 3 per cent of the ch i ld ren at home are not at schoo l . .(Table 6) For a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia the percent-age of ch i l d ren ( 1 5 to 24 years) at home and attending school is 12.8 per cent, 2.4 per cent less than in the Okanagan. This is poss ib ly due to the fact that many ch i ld ren in th is age group are attending school (e.g. un iver-s i t y ) . Hence they are away from home and are not included in th i s f i g u r e . Ethnic Composition An adequate examination of the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Okanagan must include a cons iderat ion of the ethnic population in the area. The va r ie ty and extent of these groups point to the need for welfare author-- 2 8 -i t i e s to include cu l tu ra l and anthropological cons iderat ions in the planning of welfare serv ices for the area. A l l ethnic groups represented in the Okana-gan increased numerical ly from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 6 1 except for persons of Asian o r i g i n ( 2 , 7 1 3 in 1 9 5 1 to 2 , 1 9 0 in 1 9 6 1 ) . This decrease can probably be accounted for by the fact that many Japanese-Canadians were re located in ; the Okanagan during the second world war; some have returned to the West Coast, others have se t t l ed elsewhere. A few Chinese-Canadians were o r i g i n a l l y brought into the area years ago when the ra i l roads were being b u i l t ; some "are now se t t l ed in the northern part of the Okanagan va l l ey as truck gardeners. As is to be expected,,the people with B r i t i s h o r i g in s are the most prom-inent in the Okanagan ( 5 2 . 6 per cent in 1 9 6 1 ) - Despite the fact that there has been an increase of more than 7 , 0 0 0 in the B r i t i s h stock, the i r propor-t ion in the Okanagan has decrased s l i g h t l y ( 2 . 2 per cent decrease) in the ten-year per iod . The second largest rac ia l group in Canada, the French ( 3 0 . 3 per cent in 1961 ) has only a small representat ion in B r i t i s h Columbia ( 4 . 1 per cent) and the Okanagan ( 3 . 6 per cent) in 1 9 6 1 . The number of Frenchf?Can-adians in the Okanagan hast increased notably in the ten-year per iod, from 2 , 4 7 3 ( 1 9 5 1 ) to 3 , 3 8 3 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , a much higher rate of increase than,for i n -stance, in the number of B r i t i s h . Their actual numbers, however, are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y small (Tables 7 and 8 ) . The second- largest ethn ic representat ion in the Okanagan are Canadians of German o r i g i n who have increased cons iderably in number in the ten-year per i od . In 1 9 5 1 there were s l i g h t l y more than 9 , 0 0 0 Canadians of German o r i g i n while by 1 9 6 1 there were more than 1 2 , 0 0 0 . in 1 9 6 1 German stocks accounted for 1 2 . 9 per cent of the Okanagan population as against 7 . 3 per cent of the B r i t i s h Columbia populat ion and 5 . 7 per cent of Canada's popu-l a t i o n . Besides th i s , i t is i n te re s t i ng that the Okanagan a t t rac t s a large number of Europeans. Persons of Russian and Ukrainian o r i g i n formed.8.hi per cent of the Okanagan population in 1 9 6 1 as against 3.1 per cent of the Can-- 28a -T a b 1 e 7. D i s t r i bu t i on of Ethnic Groups: Okanagan,. B r i t i s h Columbia, and  Canada. 1951. Ethnic Group Okanagan B r i t i s h Columb i a Canada No. P.C. No. P.C. No. P.C. B r i t i s h 42,592 54.8 766,189 65.8 6,709,685 47.9 French 2,473 3.2 41,919 3.6 4,319 , 1 6 7 30.8 Scandanavi an 3,380 4.4 65 ,612 5.6 283,024 2.0 1 tal i an 1 ,008 1 .3 17,207 1.5 152,245 1.1 German 9,074 11.7 55,307 4.7 619,995 4.4 Dutch 2,168 2.8 33,388 2.9 264,267 1 .9 Jewi sh 25 - 4,858 .04 181,670 1 .3 Po l i sh 1,289 1.7 16,301 1 .4 219,845 1.6 Russ i an 4,423 5.7 2 2,113 1 .9 91,279 .7 Ukrai n i an 2,787 3.6 22,613 1 .9 395,093 2.8 Other European 3,632 4.6 39,738 3.4 346,354 2.5 As i at i c 2,713 3.5 25,644 2.2 72,821 .5 Native Indian and Eskimo 1,447 1.3 28,504 2.4 165,607 1 .2 Other and not stated 1,091 1.4 25,817 2.2 188,421 1.3 Total 77,686 100.0 1,165,210 100.6 14,009,429 100.0 - 28b -Table 8. D i s t r i bu t i on of Ethnic Groups: Okanagan, B r i t i s h Columbia, and  Canada, 1 9 6 1 . Ethnic Group Okanagan Bri t i sh Columbi a Canada No. P.C. No. P.C. No. P.C. B r i t i s h 4 9 , 7 7 1 5 2 . 6 966 ,881 5 9 . 3 7 , 9 9 6 , 6 6 9 4 3 . 8 French 3 , 3 8 3 3 . 6 6 6,970 4.1 5,540,346 3 0 . 3 Scandanavi an 4 , 4 7 0 4.7 9 6 , 7 9 2 5.9 3 8 6 , 5 3 4 2.1 1tal i an 1,665 1 .7 3 8 , 3 9 9 2.3 4 5 0 , 3 5 1 2.4 German 1 2 , 2 3 8 1 2 . 9 118,926 7.3 1,049,599 5.7 Netherlands 3 , 4 7 5 3.7 6 0 , 1 7 6 3.6 4 2 9 , 6 7 9 2.3 Jewi sh 12 - 5 . 1 1 3 0.3 1 7 3 , 3 4 4 0.9 Pol i sh 1 , 6 0 0 1 .7 2 4,870 1.5 3 2 3 , 5 1 7 1.7 Russian 4 , 7 6 9 5.0 27 , 448 1 - 7 1 1 9 , 1 6 8 0.7 Ukrai ni an 3,204 3.4 35 , 640 2.2 4 7 3 , 3 3 7 2.6 Other European 5,645 6,0 8 0 , 3 7 8 4.9 7 1 1 , 3 2 0 3.9 As i at i c 2 , 1 9 0 2.3 4 0,299 2.4 1 2 1 , 7 5 3 0.6 Nat i ve 1nd i an and Eskimo 1 , 2 2 8 1.3 3 8 , 8 1 4 2.3 2 2 0 , 1 2 1 1 .2 Other and not stated 1 , 0 0 6 1.1 2 8 , 3 7 6 1.7 242,509 1 .3 Total 94 , 6 4 6 1 0 0 . 0 1 , 6 2 9 , 0 8 2 1 0 0 . 0 1 8 , 2 3 8 , 2 4 7 1 0 0 . 0 - 29 -adian populat ion. Many of these are l i k e l y farmers. While these two groups a r e . s t i l l increas ing, they are doing so at a slower pace than, for example, the French and German groups. Thus the Russian and Ukrainian groups are gradual ly comprising a smaller proport ion of the populat ion, perhaps because there has not been much immigration of these groups in recent years. Native Indians, a group of concern and in teres t to welfare au tho r i t i e s , comprised a f a i r l y steady 1.3 per cent of the population of the Okanagan in 1951 as in 1961. Native Indian population in 1961 was 1,447. Indians in the Okanagan inhabit f i f t e e n reserves which tota l 104,585 acres for a l l bands. L i t t l e development of Indian lands has taken place except for the exp lorat ion of timber r i g h t s . ' Indians are d iv ided into four Bands; the Okanagan; Spa l -lumcheen; Pent ic ton; and Osoyoos. Their major income is der ived from c a t t l e -ranching, from leas ing p roper t ie s , and from s e l l i n g timber r i g h t s . Some Indians s t i l l maintain themselves by the t r a d i t i o n a l hunting and f i s h i n g . Ethnic stocks which are more strongly represented in the Okanagan than in Canada as a whole are Scandanavian, German, Dutch, Russian, Ukrain-ian, and other European. Stocks which have increased most are German, French, and other Europeans. Decreases are not iceable in the Jewish and Asian stock. The smal lest const i tuents are the Poles and I t a l i ans , comparable to the na-t i ve Indian proport ion of the population in the Okanagan. The total c o n t i n -ental European proport ions excluding the B r i t i s h and Frenchwas 39.1 per cent in the Okanagan in 1961. The proport ion of B r i t i s h stock in the Okanagan is lower than in B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole; there was, however, a larger proport ion of Germans, Russians, and Ukrainians in the Okanagan than in B r i t i s h Columbia in 1961. It should be noted that ethnic tabulat ions were made for the Okanagan as a whole. Had they been made separately for rural and urban areas, i t is l i k e l y ce r ta in addi t iona l trends could be detected. 1 An Industr ia l Survey of the Okanagan Va l l ey Region, Can. Nat. Railways, Montreal, 1963, p. 8. - 3 0 -For instance, many Russians and Ukrainians might be concentrated on farms. Re l i g ious A f f i l i a t i o n s An examination of the r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the people l i v i n g in the region adds another dimension to the understanding soc ia l workers seek of those they serve. Knowledge of the ethnic and re l i g i ou s background of a person, a fami ly, or a group, is to know something of the a t t i tudes and loy-a l t i e s which may form a part of those which they have made their own stand-ards and expectat ions. The people l i v i n g in the area under.study are l a rge ly Protestant in the i r r e l i g i ou s a f f i l i a t i o n (Table 9 ) , which may bear some r e l a t i o n to the ethnic groups in the Okanagan. The f i v e larger Protestant denominations included 6k per cent of a l l the people in 1 9 5 1 when 5 2 per cent were of B r i t i s h rac i a l o r i g i n and 12 per cent German. In 1 9 6 1 , when 5 9 per cent were of B r i t i s h stock and 7 per cent of German background, to re fer only to the two largest groups, 6 2 per cent of the total were of the Protestant f a i t h . The denomination with the largest membership is the United Church of Canada, represent ing 3 3 per cent of the populat ion. The Angl ican Church a f f i l i a t i o n stands at 1 7 per cent, that of the Lutheran Church 6 per cent, the Bapt i s t Church 3 per cent and the Presbyter ian Church approximately the same. The Roman Catho l i c Church has a membership almost exact ly the same as the Ang-l i c a n Church, and represents 1 7 per cent of the people l i v i n g in the Okana-gan. The uniformity of the d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the area is s t r i k i n g . Approximately the same proport ion of the res idents are members of the three l a rges t denominations, not only in the region as a whole, but in the three largest communities of Vernon, Kelowna, and Penticton (Table 1 2 ) and in three medium-sized communities chosen at random for examination - Summer land, O l i v e r , and Armstrong (Table 1 0 ) . The same s i m i l a r i t y is apparent in comparison with the metropol itan - 3 0 a -Table 9 . Main Rel i qi:ous A f f i 1 i a t ions . Comparative D i s t r i bu t i on in the  Okanagan, Metropol i tan Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 1 Rel ig ious Denomina-t i o n Okanagan Metropoli tan Vancouver Bri t i sh Columb i a No. P.C. No. P.C., P.C. Uni ted Church Angl i can Roman Cathol i c Lutheran Bapti st Presbyter i an Pentecostal Jewish Other denominations 3 1 , 5 8 3 1 6 , 7 5 1 1 6 , 7 2 7 6 , 2 1 0 3 , 4 3 1 2 , 8 1 7 2 , 0 2 9 1 3 1 5 , 0 8 5 3 3 . 4 1 7 , 7 1 7 . 7 6 . 6 3 . 6 3 . 0 2.1 .01 1 5 . 9 242,010 1 7 7 , 2 5 1 1 2 9 , 1 2 0 5 2 , 1 9 0 2 8 , 0 6 3 5 0 , 0 1 0 7 , 5 8 0 7 , 3 0 1 96 , 6 4 0 3 0 . 7 2 2 . 4 1 6 . 3 6 . 6 3 . 5 6 . 3 .9 .9 1 2 . 4 31 .0 2 2 . 5 17.5 6.1 3 . 0 5 . 5 1.2 .4 1 2 . 5 Total Populat ion 94 , 646 1 0 0 , 7 9 0 , 1 6 5 1 0 0 1 0 0 Tabl e 1 0. Main Re l i g ious A f f i 1 i iations. Comparative D i s t r i bu t i on in the  Okanagan Communities with Population under 5.000. 1961 Communi t i es Re l ig ious Denomigations Populat i on Uni ted Church Anql i can Roman Cathol i c No. P . C No. P.C. No. P.C. Summer1 and 1 ,806 41 .9 796 18.5 466 4 l .9 4,307 01i ver 592 33.4 282 15.9 3 2 2 18.2 1,774 Armstrong 564 43.8 277 21.5 129 10.0 1,288 Total 2,962 1,355 917 7,369 - 3 0 b -T a b l e l l . Main Re l ig ious A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the  Okanagan, 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 6 1 Rel i gious Denomi nat i on Okanagan Regi on 19S1 1 9 6 1 No. P.C. No. P.C. Un i ted Church 2 5 , 1 0 6 3 2 . 3 3 1 , 5 8 3 3 3 . 4 Angli can 15 ,004 1 9 . 3 1 6 , 7 5 1 17.7 Roman Cathol i c 1 3 , 1 5 4 1 6 . 9 1 6 , 7 2 7 1 7 . 7 Lutheran 4 , 7 1 9 6.1 6 , 2 1 0 6 . 6 Bapti st 2 , 9 3 8 3 . 8 3 , 4 3 1 3 . 6 Presbyter i an 2 , 7 9 0 3 . 6 2 , 8 1 7 3 . 0 Pentecostal 1 , 8 3 6 2 . 4 2 , 0 2 9 2.1 Jewi sh 1 7 .02 1 3 .01 Other denominations 1 2 , 1 2 2 1 5 . 6 1 5 , 0 8 5 1 5 . 9 Total Populat ion 7 7 , 6 8 6 1 0 0 94 , 646 1 0 0 Table 12. Main Re l i g ious A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i bu t i on in the  Main Centres of Populat ion. 1 9 6 1 . Reli'.gious Denominations Population Commun i t i es Un i ted Church Angl i can Roman Cathol i c No. P.C. No. P.C. No. P.C. Vernon Ke 1 own a Penti cton 3 ,484 3 4 . 0 4 , 2 7 1 3 2 . 4 5 , | 2 7 3 7 . 0 2 , 0 2 3 1 9 . 7 2 , 5 3 1 1 9 . 2 2 , 9 0 6 2 1 . 0 1 , 2 9 5 1 2 . 6 2 , 7 2 3 2 0 . 6 1 , 9 8 0 14.3 1 0 , 2 5 0 1 3 , 1 8 8 1 3 , 8 5 9 Total 1 2 , 8 8 2 7 , 4 0 6 5 , 9 9 8 3 7 , 2 9 7 - 31 -area of Vancouver and with the province of B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole (Table 9 ) , although one marked d i f f e rence is the very small number of people of the Jewish f a i t h who are Okanagan res idents , only 1 3 pe.bple i.n a l l compared with 7 , 3 0 1 in the Vancouver area as of 1 9 6 1 . It is of in teres t to not ice that over 1 5 , 0 0 0 people in th i s area, or 1 5 per cent of the total populat ion in 1 9 6 1 , were not members or adherents of the seven major denominations (Table 9 - ) . This was no change of any s i g -n i f i c ance from 1 9 5 1 in the Okanagan, but i t is a somewhat higher proport ion than was the case in metropol itan Vancouver ( 1 2 per cent) and in B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole ( 1 2 per cent) (Table 9 ) . Some ind ica t ion of the re l i g i ou s p a r t i c i p a t i o n of th is s i zeab le number of people may be gained from the fact that in one of the main communities (Penticton) there are in a l l over t h i r t y congregations, most of them having the i r own churches, in addi t ion to the seven larger denominations. There is a somewhat s im i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of people among a large group of these smaller congregations in Kelowna and Vernon. We may perhaps see in th i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the ind iv idua l i sm for which i t is sometimes said B r i t i s h Columbia as a province is noted, the Okanagan as a region o f f e r i n g an apparent a f f i rmat ion of th i s tendency. Chapter M l THE ECONOMY Wages The modest increase in total numbers of male wage-earners in the Okanagan is to be accounted for by the very large increase in the 4 , 0 0 0 + bracket and the smaller increase in the 0 - 1 , 0 0 0 bracket. This ind icates a spread between income groups. A growing proport ion of the male wage-earners is ev ident ly not sharing in the increased a f f luence because not a l l the movement is toward the top, as evidenced by the smal1 but grow-ing numbers in the lowest bracket. This observat ion has been commented upon in several areas but i t is somewhat more marked for the Okanagan va l l e y than i t is for the province as a whole, which ac tua l l y shows a drop in the 0 - 1 , 0 0 0 group. The province shows a more even s h i f t toward the higher income brackets in that the increase in the 2 , 0 0 0 - 3 , 9 9 9 groupris more in keeping with the overa l l t rend. Of the tota l increase in wage-earners in the Okanagan the most not-able is seen in the urban male workers. Apparently the overa l l r i s e in the Okanagan in the 0 - 1 , 0 0 0 bracket is due mostly to farm workers who i n -creased in numbers from 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 by 61.9 per cent. This is an unusual increase; perhaps i t can be a t t r i bu ted to a growing number of i t i ne ran t and unorganized labourers who pick f r u i t or do odd farm jobs . Being in the 1owerbrackets might mean c loser involvement with welfare serv i ces , in. which case problems of residence requirements could be an important issue. At any rate farm wage-earners as a whole seem to be leaving the scene, as is suggested by the i r 3 8 . 5 per cent decrease. Some of those who - 33 -did stay, however, have shared in the greatest increase of higher earnings in the whole province. As can be seen, the 4,000+ group of Okanagan farm earners has increased in far greater numbers than any other group, although there has been a s im i l a r trend in th i s d i r e c t i o n throughout the province. (Table 13) increases in urban wage-earners and the i r earnings has been remark-ably cons i s tent with the province, except for the two top brackets where again the s p l i t between the highest earners and the medium to low earners is growing. This trend is very evident in a l l rural and urban areas but is most marked in the Okanagan. The rather notable percentage increase in both male and female urban wage-earners hints at the degree of urbanizat ion going on in the Okanagan. This has fur ther impl icat ions for the adaptation of welfare serv ices from those serv ices best su i ted to helping a l a r ge ly r u r a l , r e l a t i v e l y s tab le , pop-u la t ion to working with an urban populat ion. This could involve problems of trans iency, establishment of residence to qua l i f y for ass i s tance, and so on. An increase in the Okanagan of over ha l f the 1951 female wage-earners is seen in th i s ten-year per iod . One can speculate that in the years s ince 1961 there has been an even more accelerated increase. This increase is char-a c t e r i s t i c of a general trend as shown by s im i l a r f i gures for B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . Although a larger population undoubtedly accounts for some of the r i s e , th is can s t i l l be taken as evidence that the trend toward more women working for wages is cont inu ing. In not one rural or urban area is the percentage increase of female wage-earners lower than that for males. There are i m p l i -cat ions here for a poss ib le need for serv ices such as day care for ch i ld ren because probably some of these women are married, with f a m i l i e s . However, one must not automat ica l ly assume that large numbers of ch i l d ren are being l e f t unattended while the i r mothers are at work. The fact is that many working women have no dependent c h i l d r e n , and those who do, have made adequate arrangements for the i r care - such as help from grandparents or other r e l a -- 33a -Table .1.3. Percentage Change of Male Wage-Earners in Various Wage Brackets in B r i t i s h Columbia and the Okanagan, 1951-61 Area - Wage 0-1,000 earners 1,000-1,999 2,000-3,999 4,000+ B r i t i s h Columb i a 26.5 -8.6 654.1 34.6 994.1 Urban 33.9 5.6 -53.0 39.2 987.9 Rural 8.4 - 3 0 . 9 -56.2 -21.0 1,020.4 Farm -29 , 1 -58,8 6 3 . 8 .9 1,815.6 Non-farm 16.6 17.1 53.7 2 3 . 2 988.1 Okanagan 16.0 19.3 -53 38 4.9 1,169.2 Urban 33.0 5.5 - 5 0 . 0 -4.9 1,077 . 0 Rural 1.0 -33.5 - 5 6 . 3 16.8 1,368.3 Farm -38.5 61.9 -66.3 33.2 2,405.3 Non-farm 18.6 4.8 -48.8 12.0 1,204.2 - 3 4 -t ives or by modifying working hours to su i t the c h i l d r e n ' s hours. Mothers with very young ch i ld ren requ i r ing much physical care are not prominent among the female wage-earners„^ Of a l l the working women who have fami l ie s i t is safe to say that many of them must work because of f i nanc ia l need. E i ther the i r husband's i n -come is inadequate or the male head is absent from the home. Under such c i r -cumstances the mother's income must be used spar ing ly to pay for care for the i r ch i ld ren while at work. The urban centres seem to have at t racted proport ionate ly more female workers, even more than the province with i t s large centres . It seems that the spread between the low and the high wage brackets is even more marked for females in the Okanagan than for males. A l so , more women are sharing in jobs ava i l ab le in the two to four thousand do l l a r bracket. This bracket can be sa id to cover more of those jobs which are on a permanent, f u l1 - t i m e basis - more so, in any event, than many jobs in the 0 - 2 , 0 0 0 brackets, which would be 1arge ly part - t ime po s i t i on s . It is the f u l l - t i m e jobs held by women that can have the most f a r - reach ing e f f ec t s on the i r f a m i l i e s . (Table 14) It is a l so i n te res t ing to note the very large increase of female wage-earners now sharing in the top brackets . However, i t must be kept in mind that s ince there were very few women in th is bracket in 1 9 5 1 , even a small increase in whole numbers can make a huge percentage increase. A l l the major centres in the Okanagan are r e l a t i v e l y uniform in d i s -t r i b u t i o n of male wage-earners throughout the four wage brackets, with Ver -non showing only a s l i g h t tendency toward the bottom two brackets. Such f igures give strong ind ica t ion of uni formity of employment opportunity at a l l l eve l s throughout the v a l l e y . (Table 1 5 ) 1 Department of Labour, Ottawa, "Marr ied Women Workers: the Home S i t u a t i o n . " B l i shen, Jones and Naegele, eds. Canadian Soc ie ty . Toronto, MacMillan Co. of Canada, 1 9 6 4 . - 3 4 a -Table 14. Percentage Change for Female Wage-Earners in Various Wage Brack-ets in B r i t i s h Columbia and the Okanagan, 1951-61. Area Wage Earners 0-1 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 - 1 , 9 9 9 2 , 0 0 0 - 3 , 9 9 9 4 , 0 0 0 + Bri t i sh Columbi a 5 7 . 3 14 .4 - 3 6 .5 3 4 3 . 5 5 , 1 7 9 . 0 Urban 5 6 . 1 12 .2 -40 .6 3 5 0 . 8 4 , 7 9 5 . 6 Rural 6 5 . 0 2 3 .9 .9 2 8 8 . 8 1 0 , 2 5 3 . 0 Farm 1 2 . 9 - 1 7 .9 - 1 6 .5 2 3 6 . 7 2 3 9 . 0 Non-farm 7 8 . 9 3 7 .2 4 .7 9 1 . 3 8 , 9 4 7 . 1 Okanagan 5 7 . 1 2 0 .6 2 .9 3 1 8 . 6 2 6 , 2 0 0 . 0 Urban 6 3 . 2 24 .0 - 7 .8 3 3 0 . 7 1 3 . 0 Rural 4 7 . 6 1 6 .5 8 .1 2 9 1 . 8 1 8 7 . 0 Farm 21 . 1 -14 .3 14 .7 3 3 4 . 1 -Non=farm 6 3 . 9 3 8 .9 5 .1 2 7 5 . 2 -- 3 5 -Although a great r i s e in female wage-earners in the higher brackets is ind icated, by far the greater proport ion of them are s t i l l in the 0 - 3 , 0 0 0 range. Again, the major centres of the Okanagan show a high degree of uniform-i ty in d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the wage brackets, with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e var-i a t ion between centres . Quite poss ib ly then, requirements for welfare serv -ices of an economic nature would be admin i s t ra t i ve ly very s im i l a r throughout the v a l l e y , making the choice of the Okanagan as a region a wise one. (Table 16) In comparing Table 1 7 with Table 18, the overa l l trend toward higher income can be seen. The 4 , 0 0 0 + bracket is e s p e c i a l l y notable. On the other hand, there seems to have been a rather large number of people remaining in the lowest bracket a f ter the ten-year period in sp i te of the upward movement by many workers. Of a l l the areas concerned, the urban male wage-earner has increased most r ap id l y in the high brackets. Although a very large percentage increase has been seen in female wage-earners in the 4 , 0 0 0 + bracket, the total percentage a f ter the ten-year period remains quite smal l . A s l i g h t turnabout in the top bracket is seen with the rural female wage-earners in that they have experienced approximate-ly equal gains with the urban group who are quite f requent ly ahead in the top brackets. The general tendency is again exhib i ted by urban female wage-earn-ers in the 2 , 0 0 0 - 3 , 9 9 9 bracket where they are approximately a th i rd in num-bers more than the rural for 1 9 6 1 . ( T a b l e s -19 and 2 0 ) The province as a whole is a further example of urban people being in more of the high income brackets than the r u r a l . It seems that i t is the farm worker and not the non-farm worker who depresses rural earnings. Occupational Composition^ In examining occupational groups and changes there in , i t i s i n t e r e s t -1 Census f i gures for 1 9 6 1 perta in tb those employed who are f i f t e e n years of age and over. - 3 5 a -Table 1 5 . Male W a g e ° E a r n e r s b y Income: Major Centres of the Okanagan,, 1 9 6 1 . Earn i ngs Kelowna Vernon Pent i cton 0 = 1 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 - 2 , 9 9 9 3 , 0 0 0 - 5 , 9 9 9 6 , 0 0 0 + 2 5 8 ( 1 0 . 3 ) 5 5 0 ( 2 2 . 0 ) 1 , 3 9 1 ( 5 5 . 8 ) 2 9 6 ( 1 1 . 9 ) 2 2 9 0l ;.4) 5 1 4 ( 2 5 . 7 ) 1 , 0 2 8 ( 5 1 . 4 ) 2 3 0 . ( 1 1 . 5 ) 2 7 3 ( 1 0 . 7 ) 5 7 6 ( 2 2 . 5 ) 1 , 3 8 8 ( 5 4 . 3 ) 3 2 1 ( 1 2 . 5 ) Total * 2 , 4 9 5 ( 1 0 0 . 0 ) 2 , 0 0 1 ( 1 0 0 . 0 ) 2 , 5 5 8 ( 1 0 0 . 0 ) Table 16. Female Wage-Earners by Income: Major Centres of the Okanagan, 1961. Earn i ngs Kelowna Vernon Pent i cton 0-1,000 1,000-2,999 3,000-5,999 6,000+ 412 (35.7) 5 5 6 (48.1) 173 (15.0) 14 (1.2) 3 5 1 (34.6) 496 (48.9) 143 (14.1) 2 5 (2.5) 361 (31.5) 569 (49.7) 203 (1 7.7) 13 (1.0 Total * 1,155 (100.0) 1,015 (100.0) 1,146 (100.0) * Includes those who reported earnings by amount of earnings and not earnings in k ind. (See d e f i n i t i o n of wage-earner.) - 35b -Table 1 7 . Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners in the Okanagan 1 9 5 1 Area 0-999 1,000-1999' 2000-3999 4000+ T o t a l * Okanagan 17.4 31 J 43.3 2.9 94.7 Urban 13.6 2 6 . 5 5 1 . 3 4.3 95.7 Rural 20.8 35.2 36.4 1.7 94.1 Farm 3 1 . 5 40.0 21 .9 . .6 94.0 Non-farm 14.3 3 2 . 3 45.3 2.4 94.3 Table 18. Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners in the Okanagan 1961 Area 0-999 1000-1999 2000-3999 4000+ T o t a l * Okanagan 12.1 12.4 39.2 32.0 95.7 Urban 10.8 9.9 36.7 38.0 95.4 Rural 13.7 15.2 42.1 25.3 96 J2 Farm 16.6 18.6 40.3 21.7 97.2 Non-farm 12.6 13.9 42.8 26.6 95.9 ^Canada Census f i gures include only those wage-earners report i ng earnings by amount and not in " k i n d " . This accounts for the tota l percentage being less than one hundred. - 3 5 c -Table 19. Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners in the Okanagan. 1 9 6 1 . . Area 0 - 9 9 9 1 0 0 0 - 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 0 - 3 9 9 9 4000+ Total Okanagan 3 6 . 6 2 2 . 3 2 8 . 5 7 . 6 9 5 . 0 Urban 3 2 . 3 2 2 . 9 3 1 . 8 7 . 8 9 4 . 8 Rural 4 3 . 9 21 .1 2 2 . 8 7 . 4 9 5 . 2 Farm 4 3 . 8 2 2 . 9 2 2 . 8 8 . 8 9 8 . 3 Non-farm 4 3 . 9 - 2 0 . 3 2 2 . 7 6 . 8 9 3 . 7 Table 2 0 . income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners in the Okanagan. 1 9 5 1 . Area 0 - 9 9 9 1 0 0 0 - 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 0 - 3 9 9 9 4000+ Total Okanagan 4 7 . 6 3 6 . 0 1 0 . 7 .04 9 4 . 3 Urban 42.5 40.6 1 2 . 1 . 0 7 9 5 . 3 Rural 5 5 . 7 28.8 8.6 - 9 3 . 1 Farm 6 1 . 9 24.1 6 . 3 - 9 2 . 3 Non-farm 5 1 . 8 3 1 . 7 9 . 9 - 9 3 . 4 - 3 5 d -Table 21. Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columbi a in 1 9 6 1 . Area N 0-999 1000-1999 2000-3999 4000+ Total B r i t i s h Columb i a 8.2 8.2 29.2 49.2 94.8 Urban 7.8 7.2 27.1 53d 95.2 Rural 9.7 10.9 35.5 39.3 95.4 Farm 16.4 18.9 37.5 22.4 95.2 Non-farm 8.9 9.9 35.2 41.6 95.6 Table 2 2 . Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columb i a in 1961 . Area 0 - 9 9 9 1 0 0 0 - 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 0 - 3 9 9 9 4000+ Total B r i t i s h Columbi a 24.9 18.9 41.4 9 . 0 9 4 . 2 Urban 2 3 . 1 1 8 . 7 4 3 . 5 9.1 9 4 . 4 Rural 3 5 . 0 2 0 . 5 2 9 . 2 8 . 6 9 3 . 3 Farm 3 8 . 8 2 1 . 1 2 5 , 1 8.1 9 3 . 1 Non-farm 3 4 . 4 2 0 . 5 2 9 . 9 8 . 7 9 3 . 5 - 3 5 e -Table 2 3 . tl-ncome D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 1 . Area 0-999 1000-1999 2000-3999 4000+ Total B r i t i s h Columb i a 11.3 22.5 56.5 5.8 96.1 Urban 9.7 20.6 59.6 6.6 96.5 Rural 15.3 27.2 48.6 3.8 94.9 Farm 28.2 37.0 26.4 .8 92.4 Non-farm 12.4 2 5 . 0 53.5 4.5 95.4 Table 24. Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columb i a. 1 9 5 1 . Area 0 - 9 9 9 1 0 0 0 - 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 0 - 3 9 9 9 4000+ Total B r i t i s h Columb i a 3 4 . 2 46.9 14.7 . 0 3 9 5 . 8 Urban 3 2 . 2 4 9 . 1 1 5 J . 0 3 9 6 . 4 Rural 46.7 3 3 . 6 1 2 . 4 .01 9 2 . 7 Farm 5 3 . 4 2 8 . 5 8 . 4 (--) 9 0 . 3 Non-farm 4 4 . 9 3 5 . 0 64.4 . 0 2 9 1 . 3 - 3 6 -ing to work with facts taken from the urban areas which usual ly represent the greatest changes that have taken p lace. Occupational pos i t ions can be very useful tools in assessing socio-economic and educational l e v e l s . Individuals within the many occupations vary according to the i r own unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but the occupational level can p a r t i a l l y ind icate the s t a b i l i t y with which the ind iv idua l funct ions in soc ie ty . For example, most profess ional and technical people w i l l have q u a l i f i c a t i o n s such that they w i l l not have to seek supplements to an inadequate income. . Further, any moves or breaks with family or neighbourhood t i e s that such f ami l i e s make are more l i k e l y to be done on a planned, de l i bera te basis rather than as the resu l t of upsett ing l a y - o f f s . Such persons may have more personal and family resources to f a l l back on during such times of c r i s i s . Craftsmen comprisedthe largest occupational group of urban males in 1 9 6 1 . (Table 2 5 ) It is f requent ly true that craftsmen have l i t t l e more job secur i t y than labourers with no s k i l l s at a l l . Although the i r pos i t ions are somewhat more secure than farm labourers, loggers and other labourers, the large numbers of men in c r a f t pos i t ions could become of concern to wel-fare o f f i c i a l s at times of indus t r i a l l ayo f f s or other local or temporary recess ions. Although the second largest group, the managerial, might on f i r s t glance seen to be as s table as any, i t should be kept in mind that a large proport ion of people in managerial pos i t ions may be in charge of very small one or two-person operat ions. Their pos i t ions might therefore be no more secure than some of the unsk i l l ed labourers and some craftsmen. They could a l so become of concern to welfare o f f i c i a l s in times of business de-c l i ne. The proport ion of females in various occupational categor ies is quite d i f f e r e n t from that of males. It is helpful to look at the f igures for men - 3 6 a -Table 25. Occupational Composition of Urban Males in the  Labour Force: Okanagan Region, 1 9 6 1 . Occupational Group: No. Per Cent of Total Managerial 1 , 9 1 9 1 6 . 8 Profess i onal 8 6 0 7 . 5 and Technical CIeri cal 646 5 . 7 Sal es 9 7 0 8 . 5 Serv ice and Recreat i on 8 6 0 : : 7 . 5 Transportat ion and Communication 9 2 8 8.1 Farmers and Farm Labourers 6 3 9 5 . 6 Loggers, f i s h e r -men, trappers, e t c . 2 3 0 2 . 0 Miners, quarrymen 6 8 . 0 6 Labourers 7 2 0 6 . 3 Craftsmen 3 , 2 3 5 2 8 . 3 Not report ing 3 5 2 3.1 Total 1 1 , 4 2 7 1 0 0 . 0 - 37 -and women separately because the nature of occupational pos i t ions held by the opposite sexes is not always the same. As an example, women in the " p r o f e s -s i o n a l " occupations a c tua l l y work in a more l im i ted number of pos i t ions than men do. Most obvious is the fac t that there are no women working as loggers or miners. Aside from t h i s , there are many fewer women occupying managerial and c r a f t pos i t ions and more in se rv i ce , c l e r i c a l and profess ional jobs. (Table 26) This would immediately suggest that there; is a s l i g h t l y greater amount of s t a b i l i t y and permanency in pos i t ions occupied by women in that women's pos i t ions are less seasonal and poss ib ly better organized against the f luc tua t ions of the elements and the economy. Working women therefore seem to be in more of the "white c o l l a r " jobs with the added secur i t y that seems to be more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c os such pos i t ions than of the " b l u e - c o l l a r " po s i t i on s . Although there seems to be a growing number of people, both men and women, in these pos i t i ons , we must not assume that everyone is now cfom-p l e t e l y comfortable in the i r economic p o s i t i o n . Such th inking tends to lead us away from the fact that there are s t i l l substant ia l groups of d isadvant-aged people l i v i n g in the Okanagan and elsewhere. This is a primary concern of welfare serv ices today. To qua l i f y for these occupations a woman is usua l ly required to have complete or at least pa r t i a l secondary education, which places her in a better bargaining pos i t i on than most loggers or labourers who can be r e -placed by any number of men with at least as high educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Women who are employed in most of the pos i t ions mentioned here may therefore be l e s s r l i k e l y to become of concern to welfare o f f i c i a l s for f i nanc i a l or occupational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n reasons. The female occupation s i t ua t i on did not change remarkably from 1951 to 1961. The most notable d i f f e rence at the e a r l i e r time is in the occupa-t ions of farmers and farm labourers which employed cons iderably more women - 37a -Table 26. Occupational Composition of Urban Females in the  Labour Force: Okanagan Region, 1961. Occupational Group No. Per Cent of Total Manager i al 2 6 2 5 . 3 Profess i onal and Technical 722 14.7 CIer i cal 1 ,280 26.1 Sal es 5 9 2 12.1 Serv ice and Recreat i on 1,378 28.1 Transportat ion and Communication 91 1.9 Farmers and Farm Labourers 70 1.4 Labourers 77 1.6 Craftsmen 290 5 . 9 Not report ing 149 3.0 TOTm 4,911 100.0 - 3 8 -in 1 9 5 1 . (Table 2 7 ) Th i s , however, is a s i t ua t i on which is not unique to women alone. Rather, i t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a general trend away from farm-ing occupat ions. There is a task here for soc ia l workers in helping people r e s e t t l e not only in a new geographical pos i t ion away from the farm, but a lso into a new soc ia l m i l i e u . Due to modernization of farming operat ions, many farm hands and the i r f ami l i e s have l o s t the i r po s i t i on s . A l so , smal] oper-ators have had to give way under the pressure of ever - inc reas ing competit ion to produce more goods more cheaply. The re su l t in many cases has been a sever ing of k inship and neighbourhood t i e s . Farmers, on moving to larger urban areas for employment, are not used to the bust le and the meeting of new faces every day. It is not su rp r i s i ng to see the d i sp laced farmer des-pair at ever f i nd ing a new pos i t i on away from his former home. The general statement made regarding the number of women occupying farm pos i t ions between 1951 and 1961 appl ies equal ly well to men in such po s i t i on s . The same trend is evident and in the l a t t e r case i t a f fec t s more people. (Table 2 8 ) Another large rural group, the craftsmen, have remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c , both in percentage of tota l and in whole numbers. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t changes in the ten-year span are the r e -c iproca l changes made between farm workers and the "white c o l l a r " pos i t i ons , ranging from transportat ion and communication up to managerial. Farmers in 1961 weee'-about one-s ix th the number in 1951 and the "white c o l l a r " occupa-t ions have been approximately doubled. There are further impl icat ions here for re-sett lement in new po s i t i on s . Labour Force A fact of major concern in assess ing the labour force is the propor-t ion of the total force that is unemployed. In 1961 the number of people unemployed (both male and female) compared favourably with prov inc ia l and national averages. The reduction in percentages of tota l unemployed may be - 3 8 a -Table 2 7 . Occupational Composition of Rural Females in  the Labour Force: Okanagan Region, 1 9 6 1 . Per Cent Occupational Group No. of Total Managerial 1 8 5 5 . 5 Profess i onal 404 1 2 . 1 and Technical C l e r i c a l 6 0 9 1 8 . 2 Sal es 2 9 5 8.8 1 Service and Recreat i on 7 0 5 2 1 . 1 Transportat ion and Communication 3 6 1.1 Farmers and Farm Labourers 6 9 2 2 0 . 7 Craftsmen 2 3 8 7.1 Labourers 9 4 2 . 8 Not report ing 7 9 2 . 4 TOTAL 3 , 3 3 7 1 0 0 . 0 - 38b -Table 28. Occupational Composition of Rural Males in the  Labour Force; Okanagan Region. 1961. Occupational Group No. Ber Cent of Total Manager i al 1 ,128 9.5 Profess ional and Techn i cal 538 4.5 CIer i cal 317 2.7 Sal es 367 3.1 Serv ice and Recreat ional 367 3.1 Transportat ion and Communication 716 6.0 Farmers and Farm Labourers 3,604 30.4 Loggers, Fishermen, Trappers, e t c . 641 5.4 Miners, Quarrymen 148 1.2 Craftsmen 2,989 25.2 Labourers 781 6.6 Not report ing 260 2.2 TOTAL 11,856 100.0 - 39 -an encouraging ind ica t ion that the income of many fami l ie s and ind iv idua l s is becoming more s tab le . Conceivably then, there may be less need for f i nanc ia l help through pub l i c ass i s tance programs. An important factor to remember, however, is the r e l a t i v e l y large, and in some cases, growing, number of people in the lowest wage brackets who do not earn enough to provide themselves and the i r f ami l ie s with the neces s i t i e s of l i f e . A further examination might be made of what const i tutes the neces-s i t i e s of l i f e in view of our r ap id l y changing standards and ideas of what is " b a s i c " . Unless the lowest income groups can a f ford a " s t y l e of l i f e " at least reasonably c lose to the rest of the community, there is a danger of a l i e n a t i n g them in such a manner that i t may become d i f f i c u l t for them to funct ion in the same communities. The spread between income groups then be-comes a matter not only of money but of a whole way of l i f e . The democratic ideal of equal opportunity for a l l becomes more vague when one has to face not only f i nanc i a l l im i t a t i on s but soc ia l l im i t a t i on s as w e l l . A s u p e r f i c i a l glance (Table 29) would cause one to be l ieve that a l l is well in the employment f i e l d and that r e l a t i v e l y few people are not g a i n fu l l y employed. Careful reference should be made to the facts pointed out in the "wages" sect ion of Chapter III which shows that many people are s t i l l earning below what is genera l ly considered to be a decent standard of l i v i n g . Throughout the ten-year period the total Okanagan labour force i n -creased by s l i g h t l y less than o n e - f i f t h . Although smaller in number, by far the greatest changes occurred among the female workers. The proport ion of men, in f a c t , decreased by 6.9 per cent. However, the whole numbers show that men s t i l l occupy many more pos i t ions than do women, the r a t i o being s l i g h t l y less than one to four . (Table 30) Hous i ng Res ident ia l mob i l i t y inf luences inter-personal re l a t ionsh ips by 1im™ - 39:a -Table 29. S ize of Labour Force: Okanagan Region, 1951 - 1961. 1951 1961 Category Male P.C.of tota l Femal e P.C.of tota l Male P.C.of tota l Female P.C.of total Ac t i ve labour force 20,752 96.2 4,866 97.6 22,671 97.4 8,200 99.4 Unemployed 814 3.8 120 2.4 612 2.6 48 0.6 Total 1abour force 21,566 100.0 4,986 1 00.0 23,283 100.0 8,248 100.Oi Table 30. Labour Force in the Okanagan: Composition and Changes, 1951 - 1961. Group 1951 1961 P.C. change Rural Areas Mai es Females 12,733 2,025 11,856 3,337 -6.9 64.8 Urban Areas Mai es Females 8,833 2,961 11,427 4,911 29.4 65.9 Total Labor Force 26,552 31,531 18.8 - ko -i t i n g continuous soc ia l a c t i on . Most people e s t ab l i s h f r iendsh ip and soc ia l a f f i l i a t i o n s (e.g. church, c lub, e tc . ) but a high degree of mob i l i t y i n t e r -rupts these a c t i v i t i e s . The number of tenant-occupied dwell ings has a bear-ing on mob i l i t y in that i t indicates temporariness for some res idents ; young married couples, for example, often rent for a time pr ior to purchasing the ir own home. In examining the occupied dwell ings in the Okanagan as a whole, for 17.4 per cent of them the length of occupancy has been less than one year. This is very s im i l a r to metropol itan Vancouver, where 17.3 per cent of the dwell ings have been occupied for less than one year. The percentage of dwell ings occupied for less than one year for Kelowna, Penticton and Vernon is 18.0 per cent, 21.3 per cent, and 18.5 per cent re spec t i ve l y . (Table W) Since the percentages for the three major centres are higher than for the area as a whole, i t can be assumed that the rural areas have less re s ident -ial mob i l i t y than the larger centres . The percentage of dwell ings in the Okanagan occupied for one to two years is 16.3 per cent; again the rates for the three main centres are higher, r e f l e c t i n g , as implied e a r l i e r , the greater mob i l i t y of urban people. 38.3 per cent of the res idents of the Okanagan have occupied the i r dwell ings from three to ten years. This percentage is almost ident i ca l for Kelowna and Penticton (38.1 per cent and 38.5 per cent respect ive ly ) but drops s l i g h t l y in Vernon (36.5 per cent ) . 27.9 per cent of the dwell ings in the Okanagan have been occupied for ten years or more by the res ident s . For the three main centres these rates are lower: Kelowna (25 per cent ) ; Pen-t i c ton (21.7 per cent ) ; and Vernon.(2k.k per cent ) . In housing patterns over Jk per cent of the homes in the Okanagan are owner-occupied as compared to 71 per cent for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia and 66 per cent for Canada. In add i t ion 32.9 per cent of the owner-occu-pied homes reported a mortgage, (Tabde 32) Judging by average rents ( o r i g -- 40a -Table 3 1 . Occupied Dwellings by Tenure and Length of Occupancy: Okanagan  and Major Centres. 1961. Area TENURE Owned Rented Length of Occupancy less thar Pile yeaf 1-2 yean " F T year^ years 1U+ years Total Okanagan Ke1 own a Penti cton Vernon 7 4 . 7 7 2 . 5 71 .0 6 6 ^ 7 2 5 . 3 2 7 . 5 2 9 . 0 3 3 . 3 1 7 . 4 18.0 21 .3 18.5 16.3 19.0 18.4 20.5 21 .8 22.6 25.2 23.0 1 6 . 5 1 5.5 1 3 . 3 1 3 . 5 2 7 . 9 2 5 . 0 21 .7 24.4 100.0 1 00.0 1 00.0 = 40b " Table 32. Comparative Housing Patterns: Okanagan, Metropol i tan Van-couver, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, 1961. I tern Metropol-i tan Van- B r i t i s h Okanagan couver Columbi a Canada Owner =occup.i ed dwel l i n g 7 4 . 7 6 9 . 7 71 .0 6 6 . 0 Owner-occupied report ing a mortgage 3 2 . 9 3 5 . 5 2 8 . 6 2 1 . 5 Or i gi nal value of occupi ed dwel l i n g 9 * 5 4 6 1 3 , 9 3 2 1 1 , 7 4 4 1 1 , 0 2 1 Tenant-occupied dwel l ings ' 2 5 . 3 3 0 . 3 2 9 . 0 3 4 . 0 Or i gi nal contract monthly rent 4 9 . 0 0 7 5 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 Households with automo-b i l e s 7 4 . 5 71 .3 7 1 . 8 6 8 . 4 Per cent l i v i n g in apart -ment of f1 at 6 . 6 2 0 . 8 14.9 2 5 . 3 I Table 3 3 . Comparative Housing Condit ions: Okanagan, Metropol i tan Van-couver, B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, 1 9 6 1 . 1 tern Okanagan Metropol-i tan Van-couver Bri t i sh Columb i a Canada In need of major repa ir 7 . 7 3 . 7 5 . 5 5 . 6 Without running water 5 . 9 .5 5 . 0 1 0 . 9 Without exc lus ive f1ush t o i1e t 11 .9 8 . 5 1 3 . 9 21 .0 Wi thout exclus i ve bath or shower 6 . 6 5 . 8 11 .5 2 2 . 9 Without r e f r i g e r a t i o n f a c i 1 i t i e s 6 . 5 3 . 8 7.2 8.1 Coal and wood heated 6 5 . 9 9 . 8 2 0 . 7 2 3 . 5 Wi thout furnace (central heated) 4 4 . 4 1 6 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 2 . 6 inal contract monthly rent) the Okanagan ($4-9.00) is much lower than metro-po l i t an Vancouver ( $ 7 5 . 0 0 ) and lower than B r i t i s h Columbia ( $ 6 5 . 0 0 ) and Can-ada ( $ 6 5 . 0 0 ) . Only 6.6,per cent of the people in the Okanagan l i v e in apart -ments as compared to 2 0 . 8 per cent in metropol itan Vancouver, 14.9 per cent in B r i t i s h Columbia, and 2 5 . 3 per cent in Canada. In the Okanagan 7 4 . 5 per cent of households have automobiles, a rate higher than B r i t i s h Columbia ( 7 1 .8 per cent) and Canada ( 6 8 . 4 per cent ) . This rate is higher in the Okan-agars, poss ib ly , because of sparser population and the greater need for t rav -el . In studying the housing condi t ions i t is su rp r i s i ng t h a t 7 . 7 per cent of the houses in the Okanagan are in need of major repa i r s , as compared to 5 . 5 per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia and 5 . 6 per cent for Canada. In the Okan-agan 5 . 9 per cent of the houses lack running water, which is comparable to the 5 per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia. (Table 3 3 ) The incidence of the lack of exc lus ive use of a f lu sh t o i l e t , bath or shower, and r e f r i g e r a t i o n f a c i l -i t i e s is smaller than for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia. Of cons iderable in teres t is the high percentage ( 6 5 . 9 per cent) of homes that are coal and wood heated. The comparable rate for B r i t i s h Columbia is 2 0 . 7 per cent and for Canada is 2 3 . 5 per cent. One would expect that with the Okanagan's r e l a -t i ve proximity to o i l and natural gas f i e l d s , these sources or even e l e c -t r i c i t y would be used for heating. However these newer fue l s could be the trend in the newer houses being b u i l t , and poss ib ly conversion of the heat= ing systems from wood and cfcal would prove too co s t l y for o lder type houses, many of which l i e on the f r inges of the c i t i e s . Homes owned by Indians, moreover, tend to be heated by wood and c o a l . Another su rp r i s i ng feature re la ted to heating is that almost ha l f of the houses (44.4 per cent) lack central heating. This proport ion is cons iderably higher than B r i t i s h C o l -umbia ( 3 0 . 1 per cent) and Canada ( 3 2 . 6 per cen t ) . One would expect that - 42 -centra l heating would be more essent ia l in the colder Okanagan than in m i l d -er metropol itan Vancouver, for instance. However, the reverse is t rue. Here too the newer house might be equipped with central heating f a c i l i t i e s with greater frequency than the older homes. CHAPTER IV Social Welfare Serv ices: Caseloads, Categories and Trends The purpose, organ izat ion, and admin i s t rat ive funct ion ing of the Prov-inc i a l Department of Social Welfare have been set out in deta i l in previous studies in th is ser ies .^ This material w i l l not be repeated here. Through-out th is study,- however, trends in welfare serv ices in the metropol itan Van-couver and Fraser Va l l ey Region w i l l be compared with those found in the Okanagan Region. ! si the Okanagan Region the Department of Social Welfare provides se r -v ices from f i v e prov inc ia l o f f i c e s - Vernon, Kelowna, Pent ic ton, O l i ver and Grand Forks and three amalgamated municipal o f f i c e s located at Pent ic ton, Ke 1 ow?ta and Vernon. From 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 6 1 the population in the Okanagan had r i sen by 2 2 per cent. In comparison the regional caseload had increased by k~l per cent, more than double the population increase. (Table 3 4 ) The Fraser V a l l e y ' s caseload and populat ion f i gures showed a s im i l a r trend, whi le frtetropolitan Vancouver's populat ion and caseload increases were r e l a t i v e l y the same. Over the ten-year span, however, the Okanagan maintained the 8 per cent l ev -el of the B r i t i s h Columbia caseload while the Fraser V a l l e y ' s proport ion of the prov inc ia l caseload rose from 9 per cent in 1 9 5 1 to 1 6 per cent in 1 9 6 1 . The Pent icton D i s t r i c t O f f i c e serves a widely scattered area; i t ex-perienced a populat ion increase of 46 per cent and a caseload r i s e of 1 3 5 per cent, a f i gure three t ines the population growth ra te . (Table 3 4 ) 1 Bledsoe, Margaret Y. and S tb la r , Grace E. A Regional Study of Social  Wei fare _Measurement_s_,(No. 2 : The Fraser Valj,ey) . Master of Social Work Thes is , Un iver s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 3 , pp. 5 1 - 6 6 . - 4 3 a -Table 3 4 . Population and Caseload Comparisons: Okanagan Region. 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 . D i s t r i c t s and Pop. in Thousands Per Cent 1ncrease Caseload Tota l s Per Cent 1ncrease Main O f f i ces 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 1951-61 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 1951 - 6 1 VERNON Armstrong Coldstream Enderby Spal1umcheen 1 3 , 1 6 3 1 7 , 7 3 9 3 4 . 7 6 1 , 3 3 6 2,114 5 8 . 9 KELOWNA Glenmore 9 , 6 3 6 13 ,188 36 . 8 4 1 , 1 2 7 1,488 3 2 . 0 PENTICTON Keremeos 0 1 i ver Osoyoos Peachland Pr i nceton Summer 1 and 1 6 , 6 2 8 24,327 46.3 1 , 3 8 9 2 , 2 7 4 1 3 5 . 7 GRAND FORKS Unorganized Terr i tor ies 1ndi an Reserves 2 , 4 5 5 3 0 , 1 3 5 1,046 3 , 2 7 9 2 9 v 9 8 l 1 , 1 2 7 3 3 . 5 . 0 0 5 . 0 7 546 6 0 1 9 . 2 TOTAL 7 3 , 0 6 3 89,641 2 2 . 7 4 , 3 9 8 6 , 4 7 7 4 7 . 2 - 4 4 -Both Kelowna and Grand Forks have population increases which exceed the wel-fare serv ices increase. Although Grand Forks f i gures are small in absolute numbers, the caseload increase is only one quarter of the population increase. Further, the Kelowna D i s t r i c t is r e l a t i v e l y smaller than e i ther , i t s Pen t i c -ton or Vernon counterparts . When the 1 9 5 6 caseload f igures are viewed along with the 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 6 1 t o t a l s , i t can be seen that the major caseload increases took place in the l a t t e r f i v e years . (Table 3 5 a ) Between 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 5 6 Kelowna showed the greatest increase ( 1 9 per cent) of cases; from 1 9 5 6 on Pent icton almost doubled i t s caseload while Kelowna showed the lowest r i s e in caseloads. The Vernon D i s t r i c t caseload increased sub s t an t i a l l y from 1 , 4 2 9 cases in 1 9 5 6 to 2 ,114 in 1 9 6 1 , an increase of 48 per cent. The Penticton D i s t r i c t exper-ienced by far the worst e f f e c t s of the economic recess ion of 1 9 5 8 . Where there is lack of work, there is lack of unemployment insurance coverage, compell ing the res idents to turn to pub l i c funds. This factor can be seen more c l e a r l y when the pensioners are excluded from the caseloads. Since work with th i s group does not require the continuous planning and assessment demands of other welfare se rv i ces , a more accurate p i c tu re of the caseloads can be seen. In 1 9 5 1 the number of welfare serv ices given to people with d i f f e r e n t needs excluding the pensioners was 1 , 7 2 1 ; in 1 9 5 6 , th i s regional f i gure dropped to 1 , 3 7 7 cases. (Table 3 5 b ) This decrease, however, is q u a l i f i e d by the fact that federal l e g i s l a t i o n of the Old Age Secur i ty Act in 1 9 5 2 made Canadians over 7 0 years of age automat ica l ly e l i g i b l e for the federal pension without a means te s t . Residents aged from 6 5 to 6 9 years who were rece i v ing soc ia l allowances became e l i g i b l e for Old Age Ass i s tance and con-sequently became c l a s s i f i e d as "pension cases " . Moreover, a small number of de s t i tu te d isabled persons became e l i g i b l e for the Disabled Persons A l low-- 44a -Table 35. Distribution of Caseloads in the Okanagan, 1951-1961. a. Total Caseload Number of Cases (a) Percentage increase Change Office 1951 1956 1961 1951-56 1956-61 1951-61 Grand Forks 546 513 601 94.6 114.6 109.2 Kelowna 1,127 1,345 1,488 119.3 110.6 132.0 Pent i cton 1,389 1,699 3,274 112.2 192.7 235.7 Vernon 1,336 1,429 2,114 109.3 147.9 158.9 TOTALS!. 1 4,398 4,986 6,477 113.4 133.9 147.2 (a) Note: 1951-Base year-100. b. Cases Excluding Pensions Office Number of Casies Percentage Increase 1951 1956 1961 1951-56 1956-61 1951-61 Grand Forks 208 119 191 57.2 160.5 91.8 Kelowna 364 448 547 123.0 122.0 150.2 Penti cton 620 373 1,198 60.0 321 .1 193.2 Vernon 529 437 743 ' 82.6 170.0 140.4 T0TALS 1,721 1,377 2,679 80.0 ;195.0 155.7 - 45 -ance which is a l so administered under the pension scheme. For the f i r s t f i v e years under study, the regional caseload increased when the pensioners:were included but decreased without them. From 1956 to 1961, however, there was the expected increase in welfare serv ices when those rece iv ing pensions were excluded. Indeed, the increase in cases over the whole ten-year period was 47 per cent, inc lud ing pension,, but 56 Per cent excluding them. These f igures on the caseloads, rOugh as they are, reveal : the degree of d i s t o r t i o n the number of pensioners e f f e c t on the other wel -fare serv ice s t a t i s t i c s . Judging by caseloads (minus pensioners) in d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s , the Grand Forks area experienced an even greater reduction in welfare serv ices between 1951 and 1956. The trend in Penticton and Vernon during the same period was toward an increase in caseload when pensioners are included but a marked decrease without them. The in f l ux of older res idents into these areas may be the reason. Kelowna, in contras t , experienced a r i s e in caseload s i z e . Rapid populat ion growth in th i s area as a resu l t of developing l i gh t i n -dus t r ies is c e r t a i n l y a part of the explanation but a de ta i l ed study would be va luab le. The Okanagan Region has manifested some trends which aressimi 1ar to those in Metropol i tan Vancouver and the Fraser Va l l ey Region. The Fraser Va l ley had a steady increase in requests for serv ice despite the exc lus ion of pensioners between 1951 and 1956. As noted, the Okanagan had a decrease. A l l three regions d isplayed sharp increases in caseloads between 1956 and 1961. Fluctuat ions in the caseload to ta l s have 1itt lermeaning unless under-stood in terms of the various kinds of serv ices given. The Department of Social Welfare d iv ides these serv ices into f i v e major categor ies : Social Allowance; Pensions, which include Old Age Secur i ty , Old Age Ass i s tance and Supplementary Ass i s tance, B l i nd and Disabled pensions; Family Service;: - 46 -Chi ld Welfare, which is comprised of adoption and Foster home serv i ces , un-married parents and p ro tec t i on ; and f i n a l l y , Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l . Pensions are p r imar i l y made up of income maintenance programmes, pro-v id ing the aged and the in f i rm the capac i ty for se l f - suppor t . In the major-i t y of cases soc ia l workers' contact with the pensioners is b r i e f a f te r the i n i t i a l assessment. Planning for boarding and nursing home placement is a l so part of the serv ice which can become time-consuming. Social allowance, granted where there is proven f i nanc i a l need, i n -cludes casework serv ices for the purpose of "economic and soc ia l r e h a b i l i -t a t i on " .^ This need for f i nanc i a l ass istance a r i s e s out of circumstances beyond the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r o l : desert ion by the husband, technological or seasonal unemployment, s ickness and o ld age, to mention a few bas ic causes of people in need of help. When an ind iv idua l or a family loses f i nanc i a l independence, problems which would otherwise be i n s i g n i f i c a n t often become overwhelming, requ i r ing the soc ia l worker to o f fe r casework se r -v ices to the indiv idual members ot the fami ly . 2 Problems which a r i se out of "human re l a t i on sh ip or behaviour" are dealt with under Family Se rv i ce . Probation reports and casework with par-ents of problem ch i ld ren are examples of the serv ices g iven. This i nd i rec t serv ice i s , in e f f e c t , a prevent ive one. Ch i ld Welfare is concerned with the needs of ch i l d ren where the natural parents are unwi l l ing or unable to plan for the i r dependents. These se r -v ices are many and va r ied , demanding much time and a high degree of s k i l l on the part of the soc ia l worker. . Home studies on adoption and fos ter home appl icants are a much needed and rewarding se rv i ce . Invest igat ions of fam-1 Pol i cy Manual. Department of Social Wei fa re , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1962, p. 310. 2 Ibid, p.293. - hi -i l i e s charged with c h i l d neglect are a small but important s e r v i c e . The soc ia l workers, moreover, supervise ch i ld ren l i v i n g in foster homes and work with unmarried parents. The Health and Ins t i tu t iona l serv ices refer to inspect ion of i n s t i t u -t ions where standards must be maintained, to the requests from prov inc ia l i n s t i t u t i o n s for reports, and to serv ices to fami l ie s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d pat ients about to be discharged to the community. When a person appl ies to" the Department for a se rv i ce , an " i n t a k e " worker interviews him in order to determine the person's pa r t i cu l a r need and the Department' s re spons ib i1 i t y towards him. If the appl icant is in f i nanc i a l need, for instance, his assets and residence are reviewed and i f f i nanc i a l e l i g i b i l i t y is proven, then soc ia l allowance is granted. La te r , e i ther by home v i s i t s or o f f i c e interviews, the caseworker discusses tenth the c l i e n t other re la ted areas of need. The soc ia l worker, drawing upon the Department's provis ions, may apply for rental overages, provide re -f e r r a l s to p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s or to federal r e t r a i n i n g programmes on be-hal f of the c l i e n t . Where need is e s p e c i a l l y acute yet outs ide the Depart-ment's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the soc ia l worker at times draws on pr i va te organ-izat ions with in the community for material or f i nanc i a l help. Thus the soc ia l worker's caseload is composed of many people with a va r i e ty of complex needs. In some instances, however, these are s p e c i a l -ized caseloads whereby a l l people with a s im i l a r need such as pensioners are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of one worker. For the Okanagan Region over the ten-year span persons rece iv ing pen-s ions, soc ia l allowance and c h i l d welfare serv ices increased numer ica l ly . (Table 3^a) A comparison of the Health and In s t i tu t iona l serv ices is d i f -f i c u l t because of the changed d e f i n i t i o n of the category. There were f i v e less Family Serv ice " ca ses " in 1961 than in 1951 despi te the increase in - 4 7 a -Table 3 6 . D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads by Major Categories: Okanagan. 1 9 5 1 - 6 1 . a. Absolute numbers Category 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 1 Pensions 2 , 6 7 1 3 , 1 8 8 3 , 3 5 1 3 , 3 2 8 3 , 4 6 9 4 ,141 Soci al Al1owance 8 5 3 8 3 3 8 2 0 7 2 0 1 , 2 8 7 1 , 8 0 6 Fami1y Service 147 1 5 6 1 7 2 1 6 9 1 5 0 142 Chi ld Welfare 644 6 7 0 731 5 9 8 6 5 9 6 7 6 Health $• In s t i tu t ions 8 2 8 6 1 0 5 40 14 7 Welfare In s t i tu t ions 1 2 - 2 7 3 5 5 0 S t a t i s t i c s as at December 31 for a l te rnate years b. Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n Categor i es 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 1 PENSIONS 6 1 . 7 6 5 . 8 6 4.0 6 7 . 8 6 3 . 4 5 8 . 2 OAA 1 7 . 0 1 6 . 7 14.2 1 3 . 7 1 3 . 3 OAAS 4 7 . 7 4 3 „ 2 4 9 . 0 4 4 . 8 40.7 B & DPA 1.1 4.1 4 . 6 4 . 9 4 . 2 SOCIAL ALLOWANCE 1 9 . 6 1 5 . 3 1 6 . 7 14.8 2 2 . 9 2 9 . 7 FAMILY SERVICE 3 . 3 3 . 2 3 . 3 3 . 4 2 . 7 2 . 2 CHILD WELFARE 14.7 1 3 . 8 14.0 1 2 . 6 1 0 . 8 9 . 8 Adoption Services 3 . 6 4 . 2 4.1 3 . 3 2 . 7 2 . 3 Foster Home Services 8 . 5 8 . 3 8 . 5 8 . 9 7 . 4 7 . 4 Protect ion and UPA 1 2 . 6 1.3 1 . 4 .4 .2 .1 HEALTH & INSTITUTIONAL 1 1.6 1 . 9 2 . 0 1 . 4 .2 .1 TOTAL 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 - 47b -Table 3 7 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads by Major Categories, and Changes, 1 9 5 1 - 6 1 , Okangan Region. Category Number of Cases (as at Dec.. Percentage Increase (b) 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 6 1 9 6 1 9 5 1 - 5 6 1 9 5 6 - 6 1 1 9 5 1 - 6 1 Soci al Allowance 818 7 5 3 1 , 8 0 6 9 2 . 0 2 3 9 . 8 2 2 0 . 8 Pens i ons 2 , 6 7 1 3 , 3 0 7 3 , 7 9 8 1 2 3 . 8 114.8 142.2 OAA 7 9 5 8 5 2 „ 1 0 7 . 2 OASB 2 , 3 2 1 2,648 114.1 B & DPA - 191 2 9 8 - 1 5 6 . 0 . Fami1y Servi ce 147 1 6 6 142 1 1 2 . 9 8 5 . 5 9 6 . 6 Ch i ld Welfare Adoption Services 156 ( a ) 194 ( a ) 148(a) 124.4 7 6 . 3 9 4 . 9 Foster Home 3 7 6 411 4 7 8 1 0 9 . 3 1 1 6 . 3 1 2 7 . 1 ServTee Unmarried Parents 5 9 31 3 6 5 2 . 5 1 1 6 . 1 6 1 . 0 Protect ion 4 7 9 40.4 4 7 . 4 1 9 . 1 Health & In s t i tu t iona l 7 2 6 2 5 7 8 6 . 1 9 1 . 9 7 9 . 2 TOTAL 4 , 3 9 8 4 , 9 8 6 6 , 4 7 7 1 1 3 . 4 1 2 9 . 9 147.2 (a) inc lud ing adoption homes, pending and approved, and ch i ld ren placed on adoption probat ion. (b) 1 9 5 1 - Base 1 0 0 - 48 -populat ion. Assessment of the proport ionate d i s t r i b u t i o n of se rv i ces , how-ever, provides a c learer p i c tu re of the trends in the caseload components. The proport ion of pensioners changed from 62 per cent of the caseload in 1 9 5 1 to a high of 68 per cent in 1957 then down to 5 8 per cent in 1961. (Table 36b) The reduction of " cases " suggests that o ld age a s s i s tance , (e s -p e c i a l l y the supplementary ass istance) suggests that greater numbers of these o lder people have their own means of f i nanc i a l support, e i ther from personal savings, help from f am i l i e s , or from the i r own pr iva te pension p ians. Social ass i s tance data showed a reversal of the pension trend in that the numbers of people rece iv ing f i nanc i a l ass i s tance were less in 1961 (19.6 per cent of the caseload) than in 1961 (29.7 per cent of the case-load) . 1957 was the low year, a f ter which a sharp increase in soc ia l allowance rec ip ien t s was evidenced. Mechanized farming, such as the use of sp r ink le r systems and machinery a l lowing for fewer numbers of f r u i t - p i c k e r s increased the numbers of unemployed. Sawmills employing two to s ix men earning only marginal revenues were further reduced to number by increased taxat ion. In the Similkameen area the mines and the brewery c lo sed, fo rc ing many res idents e i ther to leave the area or seek f i nanc i a l a s s i s tance. Thus the numbers of people applying for allowance swelled as they did in other regions throughout the prov ince. The total number of Ch i ld Welfare serv ices dec l ined from 14.7 per cent in 1 9 5 1 to 9 . 8 per cent in I 9 6 I . The number of adoption serv ices under-went a 2 per cent reduction whereas foster home services. were r e l a t i v e l y s t ab le . When the number of adopting couples decrease, i t is l i k e l y that the number of ch i l d ren in care w i l l increase. This trend cannot be seen in the period under study but w i l l no doubt appear a f ter 1961. As a r e -su l t of the post World War 1 ! high b i r t h ra te , there are numerical ly more - 4 9 -young people than ever before. Thus there w i l l be and are today, a greater number of ch i l d ren born out of wedlock, many requ i r ing adoptive homes. If the adoption homes are not found fos ter home serv ices w i l l have to be used and expanded or e l se new a l te rna t i ve s w i l l have to be found. When comparing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of cases with the overa l l p rov inc ia l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and with the Fraser Va l l e y , the Okanagan, i t appears, is c a r r y -ing a larger number of pensioners. In 1 9 6 1 the f i gures were as fo l lows: Category of Serv ice B r i t i s h Columb i a Okanagan Fraser Va l1ey Pens i ons 5 4 . 1 5 8 . 2 51 J Social Allowance 3 4 . 5 2 9 . 7 3 6 . 0 Fami1y Serv ice 1 . 6 2 . 2 1 .5 Ch i ld Welfare 8 . 9 9 . 8 1 0 . 4 Health and In s t i tu t iona l __0._9 0.1 1 .0 - 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 The Okanagan Region, moreover, has a lower proport ion of people r e -ce i v ing soc ia l allowance than e i ther the Fraser Va l l ey or the province as a whole. Social allowance cases in 1 9 5 1 for the Okanagan numbered 8 5 3 ; ten years l a te r there were 1 , 8 0 6 , a 1 2 0 per cent increase. (Table 3 6 a ) Between 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 5 6 there was a reduction in numbers of people rece iv ing soc ia l allowance in th i s region and in Metropol i tan Vancouver. The Fraser Va l l ey , on the other hand, underwent a 31 per cent increase in soc ia l allowance r e -c i p i e n t s . The Lower Fraser Va l l ey , an area which is experiencing rapid pop-u la t ion growth, a t t rac t s large numbers of marginal wage-earners. The Okan-agan, in contras t , is undergoing a slow rate of population growth. Over the ten years people who received soc ia l allowance in the Okanagan increased by 1 2 0 per cent; in the Metropol i tan area the numbers doubled, and in the Fraser Va l l ey they t reb led . Both the Metropol i tan and Fraser Va l ley regions - 50 -had reductions in pensioners whereas in the Okanagan the numbers of the aged have s t ead i l y r i s e n . Adoption serv ices decreased in the Okanagan but i nc rea -sed in the other two areas studied. Foster home serv ices were up by 27 per cent in the Inter ior region but increased by a phenomenal 460 per cent in the Vancouver area. These f igures confirm the fact that the Okanagan Region's aged populat ion is increas ing beyond the rate in other regions. Services geared to th i s age group in the form of recreat ion centres, nursing homes and pr iva te hosp i ta l s w i l l be increas ing ly needed. As the pressure of work increases in the d i r e c t ass i s tance categor ies there is a natural tendency to forego the i nd i rec t or prevent ive se rv i ce s . Protect ion and Family Serv ice are categor ies in po int . The question a r i s e s , however, with regard to the s e l f - d e f e a t i n g nature of th is p o l i c y . Where a family can avoid breakdown through counse l l ing and poss ib ly through aid of housekeeper serv ice there w i l l be less soc ia l and economic costs to the community over a period of time. In both the Metropol i tan Vancouver and Fraser Va l l ey studies recom-mendations were made to the e f f e c t of extending the welfare measurements to include more soc ia l information on the r e c i p i e n t s . This information, which can include age, marital s tatus , occupation, family s i ze and s t ruc ture , housing, and so on is i n i t i a l 1 y col 1 ected and kept on f i l e , but is not tab-ulated in the monthly f i e l d serv ice reports . In the Okanagan for the year 1961, for example, there were 1,806 cases of soc ia l al lowance. Other than the d i s t r i c t soc ia l worker, l i t t l e is known about the makeup of these " ca se s " . If addit ional data were present in the measurements a c learer p i c -ture of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t s , the i r needs and the needs of the community would be revea led. At the same time, welfare needs and se r -v ices could more or less be predicted from these trends for the Okanagan region as a wi o l e . - 51 -A further r e c o m i T i e n d a t i o n in the previowb studies is that the term "case " be replaced by the measurement "un i t of s e r v i c e " . This study gives further support to th i s recommendation; one ' t a se " can mean, one indiv idual or ten, or i f can require one interview or many. Indeed, the amount or qua l i t y of s e r -v i ce given to the c l i e n t s is in no way revealed. By measuring the soc ia l worker's time by units of s e rv i ce , a more manageable d i s t r ibu t ion . of cases in caseloads may r e s u l t . Introduction of the "weighting system" of caseloads may be a step in th is d i r e c t i o n . Personnel ivand Caseload Management In December 1951 there were th i r teen soc ia l workers employed in the Okanagan reg ion. Three of these were employed by the loca l Municipal Councils for Vernon, Kelowna,. and Pent icton, the i r t e r r i t o r i a l areas of work bounded in each case by the c i t y l i m i t s . Ten soc ia l workers were Prov inc ia l Govern-ment employees who shared in the prov i s ion of some of the categor ies of s e r -v ices in the three larger centres , and were respons ib le for serv ice made a v a i l -able for a l l the va r i e ty of soc ia l needs presented in the smaller communities and^ther se t t l ed a reas . . Admin i s t ra t ive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the region was ca r r i ed by a D i s t r i c t Supervisor in both the Vernon and Penticton o f f i c e s , and a Regional Administrator based at Vernon. In December 1951 the total caseload for the Okanagan region was 4,398 cases, or an average caseload per soc ia l worker of 338 cases. In December 1961 the total caseload had r i sen to 6,477 cases and the number of soc ia l work-ers increased to 18, the average caseload per worker having now r isen to 360 cases (Table 38) This is an overa l l increase of 2,079 cases, The r i s i n g trend was evident in varying degrees in a l l types of need, but p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e -- 5 1 a -Table 3 8 . Number of Workers, Total and Average Caseloads: Okanagan, Metro-pol i tan Vancouver,, and Fraser Va l1ey, 1 9 5 1 " 1 9 6 1 . OKANAGAN R E G ! O N ^ METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER FRASER VALLEY REGION YEAR Work-ers Case-1 oad Average Caseload Work-ers Case-1 oad Average Caseload Work-ers Case-1 oad Average Gaseload 1 9 5 1 1 3 4 , 3 9 8 3 3 8 . 3 9 0 24,647 2 7 3 . 9 18 4 , 9 6 6 2 7 5 . 9 1 9 5 3 1 5 4 ,849 3 2 3 . 3 8 2 26 ,468 3 2 2 . 8 2 3 6 , 0 9 4 2 6 5 . 0 1 9 5 5 1 5 5 , 1 9 8 346.5 81 26 , 420 3 2 6 . 2 2 3 6 , 7 7 8 2 9 5 . 1 1 9 5 7 14 4 , 9 3 3 3 5 2 . 4 81 2 6 , 1 2 7 3 2 2 . 6 2 8 8 , 1 6 0 2 9 1 .4 1 9 5 9 14 5 , 6 1 6 401.2 7 6 0 1 0 1 . 5 2 8 , 9 8 6 3 2 , 9 8 5 381 .4 20 9 , 5 2 8 3 2 8 . 6 1 9 6 1 1 8 6 , 4 7 7 3 5 9 . 8 3 2 5 . 0 3 4 1 1 , 1 5 5 3 2 8 . 1 (a) Figures for Metropol i tan Vancouver are not comparable with other years because they include workers and cases in the,S ing le Men's Unit, Medical and Intake " Sec t i on s " of C i t y Social Service Department. These sect ions did not ex i s t p r io r to I960. (b) The Okanagan and Fraser Va l ley Regions include Old Age Ass i s tance Board, workers and cases. - 52 -able in pensions and Social Ass i s tance. Addit iona l s t a f f was made ava i l ab le to o f fe r serv ice to this larger volume of app l i cants , f i v e soc ia l workers in a l l . While the increased number of personnel was intended to provide serv ice to the added 2,079 cases, an overa l l increase of 21.5 cases per worker was one r e s u l t . It seems as apparent in th is i n i t i a l study of the Okanagan region as i t was in the Metropol i tan area (Vancouver)^ that i f serv ices are to be adequate for those in need of them - to say nothing of supportive casework in prevention of fami ly d i sorgan izat ion and the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of soc ia l prob-lems such breakdown implies - addi t iona l soc ia l workers and the concomitant reduction and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of caseloads are great ly needed at both prov inc-ial and municipal l e v e l s . Another c u r t a i l i n g factor which would appear to be operat ing is the time involved in t r a v e l l i n g in a region such as the Okanagan. (Table 39) Of the fourteen soc ia l workers engaged in the total caseload of 4,933 cases in December 1957, for example, each t r ave l l ed an average 352.35 miles in that month, in December 1961 eighteen soc ia l workers t r ave l l ed 6,477 miles,, or an average of 511.38 miles per case load. Mileage f igures for the years pr ior to 1957 are not a v a i l a b l e . It should be borne in mind that December may be a less typ ica l month of the year when cons ider ing the mileage t r a v e l l e d , as in add i t ion to the reduction of working days in the month caused by the C h r i s t -rrras ho l idays , the wintry condi t ions a f f e c t i n g the roads in some years make a ce r t a in degree of r e s t r i c t i o n unavoidable. . By comparison we f ind that in June 1961 the average mileage per worker was 604 miles, which i l l u s t r a t e s th i s po in t . It is of i n teres t to note that a soc ia l worker in the Metropol i tan area of Vancouver, with a caseload average of 322 cases in December 1957, 1 Regional Study of Social Welfare Measurements, No. 3, The Metropol i tan  Area. Master of Social Work Thes is , Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. - 5 2 a -Table 39. Number of Workers, Caseloads and Mileage in Regions III, 11 and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957-1961. a. Regions I I I and I  I Year Regi on Wo r ke r s Caseload Mi 1eage 1 9 5 7 !!' 14 81 4 , 9 3 3 2 6 , 1 2 7 6,052 1 1 , 7 5 9 1 9 5 8 I I ' 14 80 5,446 28 ,224 6 , 2 7 5 1 0 , 9 0 6 1 9 5 9 !!' 14 7 6 5,616 28,986 6,486 1 0 , 9 4 6 I 9 6 0 !!' 1 5 7 9 . 5 5 , 9 5 4 32,401 7 , 4 8 8 1 1 , 7 4 2 1961 ! 1 1 1 1 18 1 0 1 . 5 6 , 4 7 7 3 2 , 9 8 5 9 , 2 0 5 1 0 , 3 2 9 b. B r i t i s h ColUmb i a 1957 199 61 ,384 6 1,321 1958 198.5 6 7 , 1 3 9 60,983 1959 198.5 7 1 , 3 3 6 64,651 I960 2 1 3 . 5 79,074 72,640 1961 257 80,266 79,542 Note: A l l f i gures re l a te to the month of December in the year s ta ted . - 53 -t r ave l l ed an average of \kk miles and in December 1961 the mileage involved in the average caseload of 325 cases was 102 mi les . In other words, the t r a v e l l i n g distances which an urban-rural caseload involves in a region such as the Okanagan means three times the mileage in 1957 and f i v e times the m i le -age in 1961, compared with that incurred in the Metropol i tan area which has a higher r a t i o of re s iden t i a l proximity, ava i l ab le pub l i c t ransportat ion, and r e l a t i v e convenience for many c l i e n t s served in being able to have o f f i c e appointments. The mileage involved in a caseload is i nev i tab ly re la ted to the s i ze and topography of the welfare d i s t r i c t s in any reg ion. (Table kO) It is evident that e f f i c i e n t management of a caseload averaging 359 eases which involves t r a v e l l i n g on an average of 5 1 1 miles monthly requires a cons iderable degree of organ izat ion and judgement i f adequate serv ice is to be provided. It may well be questioned to what extent i t is pos s ib le , or i f anything other than s u p e r f i c i a l casework can be o f fered in any but a minimum of cases. This seems to be a c lear ind i ca t ion of need for a r e - e v a l -uation of the most appropriate number of personnel and for caseload eva lua-t ion in prov i s ion of serv ice for th is region. The overa l l trend in the number of soc ia l workers employed, the num-bers of ind iv idua l s or f ami l ie s needing the help made ava i l ab le by the De-partment of Socia l Welfare, and the mileage, t r ave l l ed in making serv ices a va i l ab l e , r e f l e c t a r i s i n g need for and increas ing use of soc ia l workers. A b r i e f examination of the comparative numbers of those in three of the helping profess ions prov id ing serv ice to the people in th is region under-l i ne s th i s need. At the end of the decade reviewed in th i s regional study the Okanagan area was being served by 91 phys ic ians , &0 pub l i c health nurses, and 18 soc ia l workers. The level of t r a i n i ng must i nev i t ab l y a f f ec t the qua l i t y of serv ice in some respects . The fo l lowing f igures show that during the period 1951-1961 there was a proport ionate reduction in the * 53a -Table 40. Number of Workers, Average Caseloads, and Mileage: the Okanagan. Three Other Regions, and the Provincial  Averages. December, 1961. Area Number of Workers Average Caseload Average Mi 1eage Region 1 (Vancouver Island) 3 6 . 5 3 2 7 . 0 3 6 4 . 6 Region 11 (Metropolitan Vancouver) 1 0 1 . 5 3 2 5 . 0 1 0 2 . 0 Region III (Okanagan) 18.0 3 5 9 . 8 5 1 1 . 3 8 Region IV (Fraser Val1ey) 3 4 . 0 3 2 8 . 1 3 8 6 . 5 Bri t i sh Columbi a 2 5 7 . 0 3 1 2 . 7 3 0 9 . 5 Table 41. Percentage Increase of Cases and Workers. Okanagan  Region, 1961-1961. Percentage Percentage Increase of Increase of Year Cases Workers ( 1 9 5 1 = 1 0 0 ) ( 1 9 5 1 - 1 0 0 ) 1 9 5 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 9 5 2 1 0 2 . 3 1 0 0 1 9 5 3 1 1 0 . 3 1 1 5 . 4 1 9 5 4 1 1 5 . 1 1 1 5 . 4 1 9 5 5 1 1 8 . 2 1 1 5 . 4 1 9 5 6 1 1 3 . 4 1 2 3 . 1 1 9 5 7 1 1 2 . 2 1 0 7 . 7 1 9 5 8 1 2 3 . 8 1 0 7 . 7 1 9 5 9 1 2 7 . 7 1 0 7 . 7 I 9 6 0 1 3 5 . 4 1 1 5 . 4 1 9 6 1 14(7.3 1 3 8 . 5 - 5 4 -number of p ro fe s s i ona l l y tra ined soc ia l workers employed in the reg ion. Di s tr i cts 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 1 Profess ional In-Service Trained Trained-Profess ional In-Service Trained Trained Vernon Kelowna Pent i cton Grand Forks 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 Tota l s 5 8 6 12 The total number of cases in December 1 9 5 1 was 4 , 3 9 8 and in December 1 9 6 1 6 , 4 7 7 , an increase of 4 7 . 3 per cent. The addi t ion of f i v e soc ia l work-ers , from 1 3 in 1 9 5 1 to 18 in 1 9 6 1 , represents an increase in s t a f f of 3 8 . 5 per cent. The increase in mileage t r ave l l ed from 6 , 0 5 2 miles in December 1 9 5 7 to 9 , 2 0 5 miles in December 1 9 6 1 represents an increase of 48.7 per cent. The number of cases in the tota l regional caseload increased year ly at rates varying from 2 . 3 per cent to 8 per cent between the years 1 9 5 1 aod 1 9 5 5 . 1 9 5 6 brought a decrease of 4 . 8 per cent and the fo l lowing year a further s l i g h t decrease of 1.2 per cent. In 1 9 5 8 , a year of economic reces-s ion, there was a sharp r i s e of 1 1 . 5 per cent. The three fo l lowing years each showed an increase unt i l in 1 9 6 1 the total caseload was 4 7 . 3 per cent greater than i t had been ten years p rev ious l y . (Tabie 41.) A conclus ion drawn from these comparative f i gures is that the increase in the s t a f f of soc ia l workers has not been commensurate with the r i s i n g volume of work r e -quired or the t r a v e l l i n g necessary. Results which seem unavoidable in such a s i t ua t i on are reduced standards of se rv i ce , and u n r e a l i s t i c expectations in s t a f f performance. An important component in the management of a caseload is the work of the c l e r i c a l s t a f f , both q u a l i t a t i v e and quan t i t a t i ve . There is a r e a l i s t i c - 5 5 -re l a t i on sh ip between the amount of c l e r i c a l s t a f f time ava i l ab le to the social, workers and the number of workers. An ind ica t ion of the r a t i o in this regard can be gained from the fo l lowing compi lat ion: 1 9 5 3 1 9 6 1 Provi nci al Cler i cal Soci al Cler i cal Soci al D i s t r i c t O f f i ce s S ta f f Workers - S ta f f Workers Vernon 2 k 3 k Kelowna 1 2 2 3 Penticton 2 k 3 5 Grand Forks 1 1 1 2 Tota ls 6 11 9 \h This comparison re la tes to the Prov inc ia l o f f i c e s on ly, and in add i t ion to the c l e r i c a l and stenographic work needed in prov id ing serv ices to c l i e n t s there would be the c l e r i c a l work involved at the admin i s t rat ive l e v e l , re -quired by the Regional Administrator and the two D i s t r i c t Superv isors . Sub -D i s t r i c t s in the Okanagan Region The Okanagan region has been d iv ided by the Department of Social Welfare into four sub-sect ions to enable increased e f f i c i e n c y of serv ice by d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . The d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s located in the main urban centres provide a focusing of admin i s t rat ive supervis ion and consu l ta t ion , together with the c l e r i c a l s t a f f work necessary in f a c i l i t a t i n g the ser -v ices provided throughout the region by the soc ia l workers. The d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s are in Vernon, Keldwna, Pent ic ton, and Grand Forks. The f i r s t three named are the largest urban communities in the reg ion, Grand Forks being smal ler . They are communication and transportat ion centres and o f f e r a va r i e ty of c o l l e c t i v e health and wel fare resources for the i r sur -rounding areas. Vernon, Kelowna, and Penticton each have both a " P r o v i n -c i a l " and a "Municipal V soc ia l welfare o f f i c e . For the l a t t e r in each case the local governing counci l has assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for prov i s ion of a - 5 6 -Municipal Welfare Services Admin is t rator , c l e r i c a l ass i s tance, accommodation and equipment, on a cos t - shar ing basis with the prov inc ia l government as descr ibed in the 1963 Regional Study of Region VI.^ The Municipal o f f i c e s in Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton were s ta f fed by one soc ia l worker each from 1951 to 1961 when a second worker was engaged by Kelowna. During th i s ten-year period there has been l i t t l e change in the number of soc ia l workers employed in the prov inc ia l o f f i c e s . The Depart-mental s t a t i s t i c s show some f l uc tua t i on (Table 42) but th i s would seem to be due to temporary s t a f f shortages while a replacement was awaited, rather than to any change in personnel p o l i c y . . By 1961 there were increases, with four more soc ia l workers than in 1959. Welfare serv ices provided by the Municipal soci al'.workers comprise a l l the cases in the various categor ies of pensions and the grants of Social Ass i s tance to those persons res ident within the Municipal 1 imits, together with per iod i c assessment of p r i va te i n s t i t u t i o n s such as boarding and nurs-ing homes which are required under the Welfare I n s t i tu t i on Act to be l i c e n -sed on the basis of meeting prescr ibed standards. A proport ion of the fam-i l i e s in rece ip t of Social Ass i s tance, not in f requent ly cons i s t i ng of a deserted wife and c h i l d r e n , need cons i s tent casework of a support ive and prevent ive nature which is demanding of time and s k i l l s . P rov inc ia l soc ia l workers have respons ib i1 i t y for a l l cases categor ized under Ch i ld Welfare, such as Pro tec t ion , Chi ldren in Care, Foster Homes, Adoption Homes, and Chi ldren on Adoption Probat ion. They provide the appropriate serv ice in a l l categor ies of cases throughout the region outs ide the three larger centres . Several of the smaller mun i c i pa l i t i e s have an intermediate co s t -sharing plan agreed with the Prov inc ia l Government whereby the serv ices of a P rov inc ia l soc ia l worker are shared wi th the adjacent rural and un-1 B a r t l e t t , EjD. et a l . A Regional Study of Social Welfare Measurements, No. 3, The Metropol i tan Area, Master of Social Work Thes i s , U.B.C., 1964. - 56a -Table 4 2 . Number of Workers and Average Caseloads in Main S u b d i s t r i c t s . 1 9 5 1 ° 1 9 6 l . (Al l f i gures re l a te to month of December in the year stated.) Number of Workers 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 1 SUBSECTION VERNON Ci ty Di s t r i ct 1 3 1 4 1 4 1 3 1 3 1 4 KELOWNA Ci ty D i s t r i c t 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 • PENTICTON Ci ty D i s t r i c t 1 3 1 4 1 k* 1 4 1 4 1 5 GRAND FORKS 2 2 2 2 2 2 AVERAGE CASELOAD 1951 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 1 VERNON Ci ty D i s t r i c t 4 3 9 . 0 2 9 9 . 0 4 3 9 . 0 2 7 2 . 7 484.0 3 1 2 . 0 5 H . 0 3 2 1 . 0 5 8 1 . 0 355.0 6 2 8 . 0 3 7 2 . 0 KELOWNA Ci ty D i s t r i c t 4 3 3 . 0 3 4 7 . 0 5 0 7 . 0 3 9 3 . 0 540.0 3 9 0 . 0 5 1 1 . 0 366.0 5 7 0 . O 4 i p . O 3 7 6 . 0 246.0 PENTICTON Ci ty D i s t r i c t 4 0 9 . 0 3 2 6 . 7 4 4 7 . 0 267.0 468.0 292.7 4 7 9 . 0 3 0 6 . 0 5 8 0 . 0 3 7 2 . 0 6 5 8 . 0 2 7 9 . 5 GRAND FORKS 2 7 3 . 0 2 7 5 . 5 2 5 3 . 5 2 5 9 . 0 2 8 8 . 0 300.5 * 0 1 i ver i ncl uded - 56b -Table 4:3. A Personnel Comparison: Okanagan, 1961. Social Workers(a) Physi c i ans Publ i c Heal th Nurses Vernon 5 18 5 Armstrong - - 1 Enderby - 2 1 1 Ke1 own a 5 3k 9 Wi nf i e ld - 1 -Summer1 and - k 2 Penti cton 6 22 5 Keremeos - 1 Pr i nceton - 2 1 01i ver - k 2 Osoyoos - 2 -Grand Forks 2 2 2 Greenwood - 1 Tota l s 18 91 30 (a) Social welfare serv ices in communities which appear to be without a soc ia l worker are provided from the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e in the nearest large community (e.g. in the period 1951-1961 one soc ia l worker was responsib le for O l iver and Osoyoos, work-ing out from the Penticton o f f i c e ) . - 57 -organized areas, in some cases these mun i c i pa l i t i e s make o f f i c e accommoda-t ion ava i l ab le for the soc ia l worker on a regular weekly or bi-weekly bas i s . The Vernon D i s t r i c t The d i s t r i c t of Vernon extends north to Gr inrod, east to Cherryvi11e, south to Oyama, and west to Fa lk land. It includes the d i s t r i c t mun ic ipa l -i t i e s of Coldstream and Spal1umcheen; the incorporated c i t i e s of Armstrong, Enderby, and Vernon; the incorporated v i l l a g e of Lumby; and Indian Reserves 1,2,3,4, and 6 of the Okanagan Band; Indian Reserves 1 and 2 of the Spal1um-cheen Band; and remaining areas which are p o l i t i c a l l y unorganized. The trend in the need for addi t iona l soc ia l serv ices ind icated in the Okanagan region as a whole was experienced in the Vernon d i s t r i c t during the decade under study. (Table 42) In December 1951 the tota l caseload amounted to 1,336 cases, of which 439 cases represented res idents within the C i ty of Vernon and 897 cases represented people l i v i n g in the surrounding areas. In December 1956 the total caseload for the d i s t r i c t was 1,429 cases, 511 cases with in the c i t y and 918 cases in the adjacent areas. In I 9 6 I the tota l case-load was 2,114 cases, 628 cases within the c i t y and 1,486 cases in the sur-rounding areas. The pattern which emerges is one of an almost unchecked i n -crease, slow but steady. The caseload increase in this northern Okanagan d i s t r i c t over the 1951"1961 per hod amounts to 27.2 per cent. The number of soc ia l workers for the d i s t r i c t was increased fronv:4 in December 1951 to.6 by December 1961. The Kelowna D i s t r i c t This d i s t r i c t , which is the centra l Okanagan area, extends north to, but does not inc lude, Oyama, south to the Okanagan Lake boundary of Kelowna C i t y , west to the Inter ior P lateau, and east-southeast to McCulloch. With the exception of Kelowna C i t y , the larger part of the area is p o l i t i c a l l y unorganized. - 58 -In December 1951 the tota l caseload in th is d i s t r i c t amounted to 1,127 cases, of which 433 cases represented people l i v i n g within Kelowna C i ty and 694 cases people in the surrounding areas. In December 1956 the total caseload was 1,345 cases, 511 cases within Kelowna c i t y and 834 cases in the adjacent areas. In December 1961 the tota l caseload was 1,488 cases, 752 cases res ident with in the c i t y and 736 cases in the surrounding areas. The Penticton D i s t r i c t This south Okanagan d i s t r i c t , the largest of the four being considered in th i s regional study t includes the southern end of the Okanagan Va l ley and the Similkameen Va l l ey to the west. The area extends east to the Ket t le D iv ide, south to the internat iona l boundary, west to Pr inceton, and north to Wi lson 's Landing on Okanagan Lake. It inxludes the d i s t r i c t mun ic ipa l -i t y of Summerlandj the c i t y of Pent icton, the incorporated v i l l a g e s of Peachland, Ol iver^ Osoyoos^ Keremeosj and Pni nceton, the Indian reserves of the Pent ic ton, Osoyoos and Similkameen bands, and large areas some of which, for example, Westbank, are well s e t t l ed but as yet p o l i t i c a l l y unorganized and are therefore administered by the prov ince. In December 1951 the tota l caseload in the Pent icton d i s t r i c t amounted to 1,389 cases, of which 409 cases were res ident In the c i t y of Pent icton and 980 cases represent people from the surrounding areas. In December 1956 the tota l number of cases Was 1F699« of Which 529 cases Were people l i v i n g in the c i t y and 1,170 cases were people from the surrounding areas. In Decem-ber 1961 the tota l caseload was 3*274 cases, with 658 cases res ident in Pen-t i c ton c i t y and the balance of 2 # 6 1 6 cases were people from the remainder of the d i s t r i c t . The Grand Forks D i s t r i c t Grand Forks, the smal lest of the four areas, has no Municipal o f f i c e - 59 -and the welfare serv ices are provided by a prov inc ia l soc ia l worker. The tota l caseload in that d i s t r i c t as of December 1951 was 546 cases, had de-creased to 513 cases in December 1956,. and by December 1961 had r i sen again to 601 cases. Caseload D i s t r i bu t i on There is cons iderable s i m i l a r i t y in the proport ionate d i s t r i b u t i o n by case category in the four d i s t r i c t s in th i s reg ion. The various categor-ies of Pensions represent the largest sect ion of the cases, numerical1y and propor t ionate ly , and th i s has been the trend throughout the ten years under study, with no s i g n i f i c a n t f l u c t u a t i o n . (Tables 44,45,46 and 47) Pension cases represented 62 per cent of the total caseload in the Grand Forks d i s t r i c t in 1951 and while th i s category rose to 78 per cent in 1957, in December 1961 i t stood at 68.2 per cent. In the larger d i s t r i c t , Pent ic ton, pension cases represented 55.4 per cent of the total caseload in December 1951; they were at the i r highest proport ion in 1957 at 61.1 per cent and in December 1961 were 47.3 per cent. The category of Social Allowance cases shows a somewhat s im i l a r trend genera l l y . These cases represented 17.2 per cent of the total caseload in Grand Forks in December, 1951; in the Penticton d i s t r i c t at the same per iod, 15.8 per cent of the t o t a l ; in the Kelowna d i s t r i c t 21.7 per cent of the whole; and in the Vernon d i s t r i c t 22.1 per cent. The proport ion remained f a i r l y s tab le i,n each d i s t r i c t during the ensuing s i x years, dropping some-what between 1955 and 1957. Each area experienced a sharp r i s e by December 1959 when the e f f e c t s of recess ion condit ions were s t i l l being f e l t , but the proport ion had lessened by December 1961 in each d i s t r i c t , with the except-ion of Vernon. Social Ass i s tance is the category which perhaps more than any other may include greater va r i a t i ons of circumstances with need of serv ices and s k i l l s . Frequently encountered is the pens ioner ' s wi fe, who has not reached - 5 9 a -Table 44. Proport ionate D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads by Category, VERNON Dis-t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-1961. Category 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 Pens i ons 59.9 67.2 64.8 67.0 64.6 64.8 Soc i al Al1owance 22.1 15.35 16.1 15.3 21.5 23 Fami1y Servi ce 1 .3 1.5 2.6 2.2 .9 1.1 Chi ld Wei fare 15.3 14.5 14.2 14.5 12.4 10.3 Health & In s t i tu t iona l I .4 1.2 2.0 .5 .1 Welfare In s t i tu t ions .3 .2 .5 .6 .7 Total 100 1 00 100 100 100 100 Table 45. Proport ionate D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads by Category. KELOWNA  D i s t r i c t Off i ce . 1951-1961. Category 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 Pens i ons 67.7 67.7 66.3 72.3 67.2 63.2 Social Allowance 21.7 18.7 18.5 13.1 18.2 25.5 Fami1y Serv ice 2.4 2.6 2.1 3.2 2.8 2.4 Ch i ld Welfare 8.0 9.2 11.6 10.5 10.8 7.8 Health £- I n s t i tu t iona l .3 1.3 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.1 Welfare In s t i tu t ions - 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 Total 100 100 100 100 1 00 1 00 - 59b -Table 46. Proport ionate D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads by Category, PENTICTON  D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-1961. Category 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 Pens i ons 55.4 60.3 59.7 61.1 53.0 47.3 Soci al Al1owance 15.8 12.5 14.2 15.8 27.5 34.5 Fami1y Serv ice 4.8 5.6 5.6 4.6 4.6 3.6 Chi ld Wei fare 20.2 19.0 17.9 16.3 13-X7 13.7 , Health & In s t i tu t i ona l 3.5 2.4 2.2 1.6 .5 .1 Welfare In s t i tu t ions .3 .3 .5 .6 .7 .8 Total 100 100 100 100 100 1 00 Table hi. Proport ionate D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads by Category, GRAND FORKS  D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-1961 . Category 1951 . 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 Pensions 62.0 70.2 76.6 78.0 70.8 68.2 Soc i al Allowance 17.2 14.5 13.6 12.2 22.6 26.0 Fami1y Servi ce 6.6 3.6 1.2 3.5 1.0 .5 Ch i ld Wei fare 12.9 10.0 7.9 5.8 5.2 4.8 Health & In s t i tu t iona l 1 .3 1.3 .7 .0 - .2 Welfare In s t i tu t ions .0 ..4 .5 .4 .3 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 - 60 -the age required for pension e l i g i b i l i t y , the unmarried mother awaiting the b i r t h of her c h i l d , the c h i l d who is in the care of r e l a t i v e s because of par-ental breakdown or bereavement, the former mental pat ient no longer needing h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n yet not ready for employment, the fami l ie s of from one or two up to poss ib ly twelve ch i ld ren who need support while the father takes a voca-t ional r e - t r a i n i n g course towards new employment, or may have been deserted by the breadwinner, or occa s iona l l y by the mother so that the father l e f t with young ch i l d ren needs some f i nanc i a l help in prov id ing a housekeeper to care for his fami ly and home. Each Social Ass i s tance case, represented by one s t a t i s t i c a l f i gu re , may stand for one human being or a dozen. A specia l Social Ass i s tance need in the Okanagan region is that of the t rans ient worker who may come from any part of the province but is usual ly from the lower mainland and hopes for seasonal employment in the f r u i t o r ch -ards and vegetable farms. The largest number of such appeals for temporary ass i s tance is in the Penticton d i s t r i c t , probably because i t is a junct ion of three ra i lways, a network of highways and local roads, and the nearest large centre to the coastal area. In 1951 the needs of the t rans ient work-ers were n e g l i g i b l e and were met e n t i r e l y from loca l resources - the Central Welfare Committee, a voluntary lay group supported f i n a n c i a l l y and otherwise by a l l the community serv ice groups, the Penticton Branch of the Canadian Legion, and the Sa lvat ion Army. By 1958 and 1959 the needs of the t rans ients had reached proport ions which were beyond the resources of community funds. Increased Social Ass i s tance grants amounting to kO per cent were made a v a i l -able from 1959, and during 1961, which proved to be a peak year, ass istance was granted to 1,165 t rans ient app l i can t s . The tota l disbursement in Socia l Ass i s tance grants for the c i t y of Pent icton during the year 1961 was $319,788. A downward trend has been not iceab le each year to date s ince then, an i n d i c a -t ion presumably of a genera l ly more buoyant economy. - 61 -During the years 1951-1961 a decreasing trend in the Ch i ld Welfare category was experienced throughout the Okanagan reg ion. In the Vernon dis t r i c t i t s proport ion of the caseload dropped from 15.3 per cent in December 1951 to 10.3 per cent in December 1961 . The Grand Forks d i s t r i c t and the Penticton d i s t r i c t showed s im i l a r or larger dec l i nes , although the Kelowna d i s t r i c t showed only a very s l i g h t decrease, from 8 per cent of the whole caseload to 7.8 per cent. Other Welfare Services and Resources in the Okanagan Region There are no pr iva te agencies o f f e r i n g soc ia l work serv ices in the Okanagan reg ion. In th is respect i t is typ ica l of the balance of the prov-ince of B r i t i s h Columbia, outs ide the metropol itan areas of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . Prov i s ion of soc ia l welfare serv ices is wholly a governmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in th i s region, but there are many other segments of the soc ia l serv ices as a whole provided in some cases by other government departments or by voluntary organizat ions or local branches of p rov inc ia l or national groups formed with in the d i s t r i c t s . The l i a i s o n re la t ionsh ips which ex i s t between the prov inc ia l and municipal soc ia l welfare d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s and these other serv ices are to some extent a factor in the enhance ment or otherwise of the serv ices being made ava i l ab le in the communities. The Health Branch of the Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance has two cen t r a l i zed units in the Okanagan region which provide: pub l i c health s t a f f for serv ices throughout the area. The pub l i c health nursing s t a f f , prov id ing preventive health serv ices p r imar i l y to the c h i l d -ren in each community, f requent ly become aware of some of the signs of soci d i f f i c u l t i e s in f ami l i e s and a good l i a i s o n between the two profess ions is va luable to both. This is achieved in thas region in some d i s t r i c t s by group s t a f f meetings for case consu l t a t i on , or more informal ly between the soc ia l worker and the pub l i c health nurse for a s u b d i s t r i c t . - 62 -The larger communities in the Okanagan region have general hosp i ta l s operated by volunteer organizat ions but f inanced under the B r i t i s h Columbia Health Insurance Scheme (B..C.H. I .S.) . The Vernon Jub i lee Hospital has 109 beds and 25 bass inets . The c i t y is served by ten doctors and seven den t i s t s . The Kelowna General Hospital has 171 beds and 20 bass inets . The c i t y is served by 33 doctors and .9 den t i s t s . The Penticton Hospital has 121 beds and 32 bass inets . The c i t y is served by 20 doctors and 8 d e n t i s t s . There are smaller general hosp i ta l s in Summerland, O l i ve r and Pr inceton . There is awareness of need for increased hospital f a c i l i t i e s in each of these commun-i t i e s , and for p s y c h i a t r i c treatment f a c i l i t i e s , and the volunteer organ iza-t ions respons ib le are at various planning stages in making addi t iona l pro-v i s i o n . Working re l a t ionsh ips between the profess ions of soc ia l work and medicine cannot in any sense be general ized upon. Thesee depend upon the development of mutually co-operat ive a t t i tudes which in turn are a f fected by profess ional o r i en ta t i on and ind iv idua l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . As an a id in work with emotional ly d isturbed c h i l d r e n , d iagnost ic ser -v ices of the Burnaby Mental Health Centre were made ava i l ab le in the Okanagan region throughout the ten years under study. During the year 1951 the Ch i ld Guidance T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c worked in the region for a total of eight days, d iv ided between the Vernon, Kelowna, and Pent icton o f f i c e s , during which time th i r ty - seven d iagnost ic assessments were made by the consu l t ing team. Of these cases twenty-eight were re fer red by the Department of Social Welfare and four by the Department of Publ ic Health. The consu l t ing team consisted of a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a p s y c h i a t r i c soc ia l worker,, a psychologist (occas iona l l y two). This se rv i ce was extended gradual ly during the years 1951-1961, and in 1961 the Travel 1ing C l i n i c o f fered seventeen days ' se rv ice in the Okana-gan, making assessments in forty-two cases and prov id ing seventy-four con-sul t a t i ve s , many of the l a t t e r being fol low-ups in cases prev ious ly assessed. - 63 -In th i s year f o r t y - f i v e of the r e f e r r a l s were from the Department of Social Welfare, f:i:fty-two from the Department of Pub l i c Health, four were j o i n t r e f e r r a l s from these two Departments, three from the Probation Department, and two by p r i va te phys ic ians . By 1961 the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c had broadened i t s f i e l d to include some adult cases whereas in 1951 and for several years thereaf ter the focus was exc lu s i ve l y on c h i l d r e n . With the opening of the South Okanagan Mental Health Centre in Kelowna to serve the Okanagan region, the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c serv ices have been terminated. Probation serv ices for juven i le s and adults are provided in the Okana-gan region, as throughout the province, except in Vancouver, New Westminster, and V i c t o r i a , by the prov inc ia l government. The prov i s ion of Juven i le Courts is a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . During the period 1951-1958 there were two probation o f f i c e r s serv ing the Okanagan reg ion. A th i rd was then appointed as a resu l t of community awareness of growing need for addit ional s e r v i ce , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the part of Kelowna C i ty Counc i l . The increas ing need was f e l t to be due in part to the natural increase of populat ion, but a f fected a l so by soc ia l condi t ions created by the recession of 1958. The i n -cidence of j uven i l e delinquency in the Okanagan region as a whole during the period of th i s study is in no way d i s s i m i l a r to that of other i n t e r i o r reg-ions of the prov ince. Youth Guidance Committees have been set up in Penticton,. Kelowna, Vernon,and some of the smaller communities, to draw together the resources of the profess ional serv ices ava i l ab le to minors. There is some va r i a t i on in s t ruc ture and funct ion ing , but the core membership cons i s t s of p ro fes s ion -al representat ives of soc ia l work, probat ion, educat ion, and pub l i c hea l th . The larger communities organize an annual fund - ra i s ing campaign in the i r areas which have been know var ious ly as a United Appeal, a Red Feather Fund Appeal, or Community Chest. While the Canadian Red Cross Society is 6k -the largest bene f i c i a r y , a group of national organizat ions for aid and re -search in connection with s p e c i f i c diseases and d i s a b i l i t i e s (such as CARS, Canadian Cancer Society and the Canadian National I n s t i tu te for the Bl ind) receive r e l a t i v e l y generous proport ions of the funds, Some local soc ia l welfare projects or se rv i ces , such as a Boys' Club or a Homemaker Service are inc luded. CHAPTER V Some Implicat ions of Publ ic Welfare S t a t i s t i c s The h i s tory of the Okanagan Region ind icates that i t s ea r l y s e t t l e r s made the i r l i v e l i h o o d from farming. It was e s s e n t i a l l y a rural area in i t s settlement per iod, i t s communities growing as a means of meeting people 's needs with churches, schools, marketing f a c i l i t i e s , a va r i e ty of se rv i ces , and development of communications throughout the reg ion. It is s t i l l l a rge-l y a rural area, as was shown in e a r l i e r sect ions of th i s study, with the lumber industry in f i r s t place as the basis of i t s economy, and the f r u i t -growing industry in second p lace. Although on the whole the tota l amount of wages per cap i ta has i n -creased cons iderably between 1951 and 19&1, there is a growing pocket of wage-earners in the lower wage brackets . Many of these res idents may be accounted for by the fact that they have not been in a pos i t i on to take advantage of modernization of industry in the Okanagan. In add i t ion , there are some people of semi-permanent residence who may hold temporary jobs and then move on. The growing numbers in the low brackets w i l l become of ever-increas ing concern to those in the soc ia l se rv i ces , both as the i r numbers increase and as the scope of serv ice becomes wider. Both the i t i ne ran t people in the low brackets and the increas ing number of urban res idents who c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y are rather mobi1e pose specia l problems of shor t -term s e r v i c e . It is d i f f i c u l t to work with these people on a cont inuing ba s i s . A wel1 - in tegra ted administrat ion of serv ice throughout the province and across Canada is required to help provide for the i r needs. Of course, serv ices required by rural and urban people cannot be considered to be - 66 -exact ly the same. Those in the c i t y seem to have shared in more of the i n -creased wages; therefore , there would seem to be less emphasis on the need for income maintenance programs. On the other hand, due to the changing nature of employment, e s p e c i a l l y in the c i t y , there wi11 be a growing need for serv ices to r e t r a i n people for new pos i t ions in order to make these wages ava i l ab le to them. There is general concern over the increas ing number of married women who are employed. However, there is evidence to the e f f e c t that th is does not neces sa r i l y mean that there are more ch i ld ren rece iv ing inadequate par-ental care . . On the whole, proper prov i s ion is being made for dependent c h i l d r e n . There seems to be no specia l concern as such in the Okanagan because the changing rate of females employed is no greater than.for the province as a whole. As in other areas, the status of the woman in re la t ion to the man in the family is undoubtedly being a f fected by women's increas ing emancipation in the world of business. Welfare serv ices in the Okanagan w i l l need to continue to adapt to the changing s t ructure of the fami ly . Serv ices concerning f i nanc i a l ass i s tance could probably be of a uniform na-ture throughout the va l l e y as the wage s t ructure in each of the major cen-tres is qu i te uniform. The large number of persons in unsk i l l ed or l ow - sk i l l ed pos i t ions could potent ia l1y be rec ip ien t s of pub l i c assistance: in view of the f l u c -tuations to which many such pos i t ions are subject . As more t r a in ing and education is required for the more stable pos i t i ons , those who missed their opportunity to acquire the necessary s k i l l s may become more and more de-pendent upon welfare se rv i ce s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of vocational and educa-t ional r e h a b i l i t a t i o n resources is a necessary safeguard for those who may become subject to the ups and downs of the local economy. Because of the fact that there are more women in "white c o l l a r " pos i t i ons , those women - 67 -who are working have r e l a t i v e l y more secur i t y in the i r pos i t i on than the i r male counterparts . The unemployment p i c tu re per se has been reasonably favorable in re -l a t i on to the rest of Canada. In f ac t , a s l i gh t dec l ine in unemployment has been noted over the ten-year period with which we are concerned. However, of major concern to welfare o f f i c i a l s are the many people in insecure occu-pational posit ions, in the lower wage brackets . In th is study of the soc ia l welfare measurements in a fourth region of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, we have sought f i r s t to extract organ-ized f a c t s . From the bas is of the s t a t i s t i c a l information made ava i l ab le in the Census B u l l e t i n s for the years 1951 and 1961, and the month-end com-p i l a t i o n s of the Prov inc ia l Department of Social Welfare for the month of December in each year of that decade, we have looked for the meanings for the prov i s ion of soc ia l serv ices which l i e within these f i gu re s . They are far more than s t a t i s t i c a l f i gu re s . They represent the people who l i v e in the Okanagan Va l l ey area1,, a l l with s i m i l a r i t i e s and yet unique, var iant in degree of need and independence and the uses which they have made of the ava i l ab le serv ices and resources. The purpose of the Department of Social Welfare may be seen as i n -d icated in the Annual Report to the Leg i s l a tu re for the year 1951 by the then D i rector of Welfare, Mr. C.W. Lundy: " . . . t h e cause of bet ter ing the lo t of those of our c i t i z e n s who su f fer soc ia l d i so rgan iza t ion or physical or mental i n f i r m i t y . Prevention and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n might be said to be the theme of t h i s document." At that time the soc ia l welfare serv ices were ad-ministered by a Branch of the Prov inc ia l Department of Health and Welfare. In 1957 the two serv ices became autonomous and the Social Welfare Branch was es tab l i shed as the Department of Social Welfare. In the Departmental Report for the year 1961 the D i rector of Welfare, Mr. J .A. Sadler, wrote: " . . . . i t is^ - 68 -apparent that there is an ever - inc reas ing number of people who, through lack of a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s in the f i e l d of employment, must turn to th is Depart-ment for he lp. . . . .Economic pressures have resu l ted in stresses and s t ra in s with in family groups which have made i t necessary to increase most welfare s e r v i c e s . " The increase in most welfare serv ices to which Mr, Sadler referred re la ted to the province of B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole,, and in bur explorat ion of trends in the Okanagan region we found i t to be true tnathis one sect ion as for the whole. In the ten year period studied we noted that the popula-t ion increased by 22 per cent while the caseload to ta l s had grown by k~l per cent. The years 1956 to 1961 showed the greater increase, the resu l t in part presumably, of the economic recess ion experienced during those years. As discussed in Chapter Four, the increas ing trend in caseloads in the Okan-agan region was s im i l a r to that in Metropol i tan Vancouver and the Fraser Va l ley regions, despi te the fact that there are cons iderable d i f fe rences in the economic backgrounds of the three areas. Regarded in terms of the pro-v i s i on of soc ia l se rv i ces , the Okanagan region cannot be seen as being peopled by those with notable tendencies towards dependency. The number of people who turned to the i r government for f i nanc i a l a id were not propor t ion -a te ly greater in th i s region (which derives much of i t s income from a very l im i ted number of i ndus t r i e s , and these subject to the double hazard of nat -ural and marketing condit ions) than in regions where the means of l i v e l i h o o d are much more va r i ed . Social and psychological factors which contr ibute to both strengths and weaknesses in the Okanagan region may be spe l led out between the s t a t -i s t i c a l f i gu re s . In the proport ion of home and land owners there is prob-ably a s t a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y less marked in an area where there is greater mob i l i t y and a lesser degree of personal and f i nanc i a l investment. - 69 -A r ecap i tu l a t i on of some of the s i g n i f i c a n t soc ia l trends mentioned e a r l i e r (Chapter Two) is e s s e n t i a l . The total population of the Okanagan is increas ing at approximately two-thirds of the rate for B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. The rate of increase of ch i ld ren in the pre-school and school-age categor ies over ten years is cons iderably lower than for B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. Thus i t appears l i k e l y that many younger couples are away from the Okanagan while the i r ch i ld ren are young. This is a l so evidenced in the "young adu l t " group (twenty to twenty-four years) where the proport ionate increase in the Okanagan has been very s l i g h t . The d e s i r a b i l i t y of the Okanagan for middle-aged and e l d e r l y people is ev ident. This needs to be a cons iderat ion in the planning of welfare serv ices for the e l d e r l y in terms of housing for the aged, nursing homes, chronic hosp i ta l s , e t c . An intens ive study of the p a r t i c u l a r needs of th i s group would be va luab le. The number of widowed people in the Okanagan is cons iderably higher than in the comparable Fraser V a l l e y . Welfare cons iderat ions for th is group are e s s e n t i a l . Special serv ices may be needed: day care centres for small c h i l d -ren; soc ia l a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . for adul ts .Although no f igures are ava i l ab le , there appear to be a number of deserted wives (often with ch i ldren) l i v i n g in the Okanagan. Further studies should be ca r r i ed out to provide s t a t i s -t i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n as the basis for planning serv ices for th is group. It has been found in th i s study, as in those of the Fraser Va l l ey and the Met-ropo l i tan Area of Vancouver, that i t is d i f f i c u l t to assess to what extent serv ices provided are meeting the needs of the people in the reg ion. Much has been wr i t ten on the d i f f e r i n g funct ions of public;.and pr iva te soc ia l agencies. In the Okanagan region, as in by far the larger geographic area of the province, there is no d i r e c t serv ice by pr iva te agencies. The prov-inc ia l government Department is responsible for a l l soc ia l welfare se rv i ce s . With caseloads of the s i ze and content as have been i nd i ca ted , a question - 7 0 -i nev i t ab ly ar i ses as to whether more than quant i ta t i ve and s p e c i f i c serv ice is being made ava i l ab le , and fu r ther , whether th i s is in fact seen as the appropriate funct ion for pub l i c wel fare. In the Metropol i tan area of Van-couver th i s would appear to be so, with casework serv ices to f am i l i e s , to ind iv idua l s with personal and other re l a t i onsh ip d i f f i c u l t i e s , and to c h i l d -ren and adolescents being provided for by the pr i va te agencies. But what of the fami l ie s and ch i ld ren with very s im i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s who do not l i v e in a metropol itan area, and for whom these apparently wider resources are not ava i lab le? It is obvious that the Prov inc ia l Department accepts th is r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but the s t a t i s t i c s are able to t e l l us very l i t t l e of the q u a l i t a t i v e serv ice the soc ia l work s t a f f is able or unable to provide. P r i va te agencies, as has been pointed out in the Metropol i tan Study, are able to make ava i l ab le a great deal of information on the i r se rv i ce s . Their primary cpncern is se rv i ce , without regard to income maintenance, and, as might be expected, there is f u l l e r report ing of the serv ices made ava i l ab l e and used. In some cases, the records provide information on the number of ind iv idua l s served, sex, age group, educational l e v e l , d e l i n -eat ion of the various aspects of the problems presented, the serv ice pro-vided, and the time involved. A serv ice measurement sca le is thus made ava i l ab le with which the e f fec t i venes s of serv ices o f fe red may be gauged and unmet needs i d e n t i f i e d . A f u l l e r p i c ture of the soc ia l welfare se r -v ices being o f fe red in a region such as the Okanagan where there are no pr iva te agencies would seem to be of value in a more meaningful eva luat ion . In a p rac t i ca l sense,, who would be respons ib le for the keeping of more de ta i l ed caseload s t a t i s t i c s recording when, as we have seen, the soc ia l worker on an average is working with the number of people represented by a caseload of 3&0 cases and t r a v e l l i n g an average 511 miles per month? It could be poss ib le that employment of case-aides would make fea s i b l e a - 71 -broader system of record-keeping and thus provide information adequate for more productive weighing of se rv i ce s . In some agencies case-aides are re -l i e v i n g soc ia l workers of many rout ine but time-consuming dut ies , such as the making of appointments, provid ing escorts when, required in a va r ie ty of circumstances, and being given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the many essent ia l record-keeping d e t a i l s such as the placement s l i p s for ch i l d ren in care, the check-ing of c l o th ing accounts,, author i ty forms for medical and dental treatment, and the s t a t i s t i c a l desc r ip t ion of the month's work. One case-a ide in each d i s t r i c t o f f i c e such as Vernon, Kelowna, and Pent ic ton, might provide the soc ia l workers with time which could be put to more valuable and e f f e c t i v e use. Throughout th i s study serv ices to the c l i e n t have been described and ca l cu la ted to some degree but one unknown factor is the proport ion of the caseworker's t ime.given to d i r e c t serv ice to people, whether by i n t e r -viewing or through c o l l a t e r a l s . How much time does the caseworker give to admin i s t ra t ive d e t a i l s such as recording, preparing reports , and correspond-ence? In view of the high average mileage t r ave l l ed by the workers in the Okanagan, i t would be i n te re s t i ng to know how much time th i s involves,, and to what extent workers feel the i r serv ices are under pressure of the time ava i l ab le to them in the coverage of a large area. A time study could give a factual basis on which to gauge the amount of time spent on p a r t i c u l a r tasks. Moreover, the eva luat ive nature of the study could determine whether the soc ia l worker was deal ing with the soc ia l work task or with other as-pects of the work. As a further use, such a time study might provide a basis on which case-aides were delegated dut ies , thus re leas ing soc ia l work-ers for serv ice requ i r ing profess ional s k i l l s . The development of s pec i a l i zed caseloads in the Okanagan region seems to o f f e r some d i f f i c u l t i e s in view of the va r i ab le fac tors in the area. - 72 -Where the s u b d i s t r i c t o f f i c e is a cons iderable d istance from the main o f f i c e as, for instance, Pr inceton from Pent ic ton, the d i s t r i c t caseworker on a weekly two-day stay, remaining overnight, is able to make ava i l ab le both o f -f i c e and home interviews to appl icants for f i nanc i a l as s i s tance, prospect ive adopting and fos ter parents, provide supervis ion to ch i ld ren placed in homes in the d i s t r i c t , o f f e r family serv ice in a va r i e ty of s i t ua t i on s , and attend to the requests of pension rec ip ien t s for a n c i l l a r y serv ices and the required annual f i e l d serv ice assessments for the Old Age Ass i s tance Board. Planning such as th i s obvious ly reduces mileage and t r a v e l l i n g time. On the other hand, in urban and suburban areas where population is more dense, and distances t r ave l l ed are comparatively short , there would appear to be a bas is for spec i a l i zed caseloads. It has been found that a soc ia l worker deal ing s o l e l y with people in rece ipt of pensions, for example, is able to provide serv ice to a large number because of the r e l a t i v e i n a c t i v -i t y of such a group. . Other groupings suggest themselves - serv ices to c h i l d -ren, to i r id iv iduals or f ami l i e s rece iv ing soc ia l ass i s tance where family counse l l i ng or planning towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may be waihted, or a small group of f ami l i e s troubled on so many f ronts at the same time that they have come to be t y p i f i e d as "mul t i -prob lem" f a m i l i e s . In caseload s p e c i a l i z a t i o n the needs of the family seeking help, the t r a i n ing , s k i l l , and experience of the caseworker can be taken more f u l l y into cons idera t ion . Some workers would f i nd that the management of such a caseload tends i t s e l f to a higher degree of co -ord inat ion and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A broader quest ion, however, which l i e s beneath these comments is what is the trend for soc ia l workers in pub l i c welfare - genera l i s t s or s p e c i a l i s t s ? Does a general i sed caseload demand greater f l e x i b i l i t y of the worker,, and develop a more c rea t i ve and imaginative response toward people ' s needs, and integrat ion of s k i l l s ? Does i t give the soc ia l worker a s a t i s f a c t i o n that sustains his reach for con-tinued growth in profess ional competence and re su l t in more e f f e c t i v e se r -- 73 -vi ce? The rate of population increase in the Okanagan region as a whole over the ten-year.-period studied is low, less than ha l f the prov inc ia l growth ra te . However, the urban centres , notably Vernon, Kelowna, and Pent ic ton, have experienced a cons iderable increase in populat ion, which indicates a marked trend towards urbanisat ion. There is nothing in the s t a t i s t i c s of the Department of Social Welfare to ind icate whether the people whom th i s Depart-ment serves are moving from the rural areas into the urban centres, or whether there i s , in f a c t , l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t change in the rural population and the urban increase is due to movement from people outs ide the reg ion. The trend of populat ion movement is one aspect for assessment in planning for s p e c i a l -ised or general i sed caseloads. Wider knowledge, not only of the soc ia l welfare caseloads but a lso of the composition of the populat ion of any area, would be invaluable in pro-v id ing f l e x i b i l i t y of s e r v i ce s . Changes produced by automation are a f f ec t i n g a g r i cu l tu ra l areas such as the Okanagan as they are regions with a more var -ied economic base. Lumbering and f ru i t - g rowing , sources of employment p r i n c -i p a l l y for men, both have seen developing automation in recent years. The largest segment of employment for women in th i s region is found in the se r -v i ce i n d u s t r i e s , many d i r e c t l y re la ted to tourism. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s and prospects for the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e - t r a i n i n g of workers in any region are c l o s e l y re la ted to the e x i s t i n g economy and resources, both for education and for employment. This is an aspect of soc ia l welfare which needs to be en-v i s ioned en the regional bas is and serv ices should be planned in r e a l i s t i c re latedness. A separate study examining these factors would be valuable as a contr ibut ion toward the most productive forms of p lanning. The Okanagan region presents admin i s t rat ive d i f f i c u l t i e s in the l im-i t a t i ons placed upon serv ices by a c c e s s i b i l i t y and communications. Although - Ik -the major north-south highway along the f l oor of the Va l l ey is a dependable and fas t route under almost a l l weather condit ions between the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s , the distances to be covered in the subd i s t r i c t s are handicaps. Automobile t ransportat ion is a necess i ty i f a c l i e n t is to have an o f f i c e appointment, s ince pub l i c t ransportat ion f a c i l i t i e s are d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d . Communication between d i s t r i c t o f f i c e personnel is l im i ted a l so . Further, the Similkameen plateau to the west and the Ket t le Va l ley to the east of the Okanagan Va l ley are, in e f f e c t , i so lated from the population and serv ice centres of the reg-ion. By way of cont ras t , the Metropol i tan Vancouver region, a sprawling and densely populated area, has a large network of communication and transportat ion f a c i l i t i e s . Adminis trat ion and the provis ion, of soc ia l serv ices present widely d i f f e r i n g problems in the two areas. Each region has i t s own unique character -i s t i c s and therefore i t s own specia l needs. We would suggest that future p lan -ning for these needs in the Okanagan region may necess i ta te some boundary re -l oca t i ons . Since the Kamloops d i s t r i c t does not l i e within the Okanagan ec -onomic context, we would recommend that administrat ion of th i s area be with-drawn from Wei fare Region III. The Grand Forks area, on the other hand, has a comparable economic basis and has experienced a s i m i l a r i t y of welfare trends. We suggest that i t should l o g i c a l l y be included in the Okanagan soc ia l welfare reg ion. These changes would a d d i t i o n a l l y provide a cont r ibut ion to the stand-a rd i za t ion of boundaries at p rov inc ia l and national l e v e l s . In accepting a p r i n c i p l e of regional administrat i on of soc ia l welfare se rv i ce s , more factual knowledge of the varying needs of people in a region is e s s e n t i a l . The soc ia l welfare s t a t i s t i c s which have been used in th i s study are l im i ted in the information they prov ide. We suggest that there i s a need for extension and e laborat ion of the present s t a t i s t i c a l data. One means of gathering wider information might be the establishment of a Regional Reg is try with which a l l requests for s e rv i ce , whether rendered or not, are tabulated. - 75 -A central index such as this, used in many larger communities, would make ava i l ab le an abundance of research data for the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of regional needs. Resu l t ing information could point up gaps, d i sc repanc ies , and dup l i ca t ion of s e r v i ce s . The pa r t i cu l a r needs of s u b d i s t r i c t s would be more c l e a r l y apparent. Addi t iona l data could be channelled through such a Registry by ex-i s t i n g serv ice organizat ions such as the Department of Health, the Probation and Parole agencies and law enforcement bodies, thus encompassing a broader area of hea l th, welfare, and protect ion needs. We would recommend for cons iderat ion in the Okanagan region a de-s c r i p t i v e survey s im i l a r to the P r i o r i t i e s Study in the Metropol i tan Van-couver area, prepared by a committee of the Vancouver Community Chest and Counc i l . E x i s t i n g health and welfare agencies and serv ices were c l a s s i f i e d , evaluated, and the i r p r i o r i t y ra t ing assessed in order to e s t a b l i s h a basis for long range planning of soc ia l welfare serv ices and as an attempt to counteract the ex i s t i n g " c r i s i s and d r i f t p lanning" of s e rv i ce s . A study such as th i s would be of value in each region of the prov ince. This i n i t i a l study of soc ia l welfare serv ices in the Okanagan region is intended as a bas is for cont inuing re-examination of the needs of the people in th i s area, as a cont r ibut ion towards eva luat ion of ex i s t i n g ser -vices,, and the planning of future p rov i s i on . - 76-B1BLIOGRAPHY B a r t l e t t , E.D., B l i gh , H.N., Bombardier!, G.A., Noak, G.R., and Specken, A .G. , A Regional Study of Social Welfare Measure-merits (No. 3 The Metropol i tan Area), Master of Social Work Thes i s , Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Bledsoe,. M.Y. and G.A. S to l a r , A Regional Study of Social Welfare  Measurements (No. 2 The Fraser Va l ley) , , Master of Social ~ Work Thes is , Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. B l i shen, B., Jones, E,, Naegele,, K., Porter , J . , ed . , Canadi an  Soc iety . Toronto, The MacMillan Company, 1961. Boundary H i s t o r i c a l Soc iety, Third Annual Report, 1961, and Fourth Report, 1964, Grand Forks, B r i t i s h Columbia, Gazette P r i n t i n g Company L imi ted , 1961 and 1964. B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Reports of the Department of Social Wel-f a re , 1951 ° 1961, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n te r , 1952-1962. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Health Services and Hospital Insur-ance. Annual Reports of the North Okanagan Health Unit and the South Okanagan Health Unit , 1951-1961, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1952-1962. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests , Okanagan Bui 1etin  Area. V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Recreation and Conservation, Govern-ment Travel Bureau, V i s i t o r s 1963; A Study of V i s i t o r s to B r i t -ish Columbia in the Summer of I963, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1964. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Social Welfare, Pol icy Manual , V i c t o r i a , 1962. Camu, P., Weeks, E.P., Sametz, T.W... Economic Geography of Canada, Toronto, The MacMillan Company, 1964. Canada, Department of Labour. . Canadian Soc iety. Ottawa, Ferente, MacMillan Company of Canada, 1964. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada, 1951, V o l . 1, V o l . 3, V o l . 4, V o l . 5, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada, 1961, V o l . 1, V o l . 2, V o l . 3 , B u l l e t i n Canadian National Railways, Research and Development Department, An Industr ia l Survey of the Okanagan Va l l ey Region, B r i t i s h  Columbia, Montreal, 1963. Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l Soc iety, Twenty-second Reporf, 1958, Ed. F.T. Marriage, The Vernon News L t d . , Vernon, B r i t i s h Columbia. Welsh, Ruth. The Growth and D i s t r i bu t i on of Population in B r i t i s h  Columbi a. 1951-1961, Master of Arts Thes i s , Un iver s i ty of Bri t i s h Columbia, 1964. 78 Tables and Sources Table No. l a . D i s t r i b u t i o n of populat ion in Centres Over 5,000 in the Okanagan, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, and Per Cent Change, 1951-1961 b. Urban Concentration of Okanagan Populat ion, 1951-1961 2a Total Population and Ten-year Change, 1951-61 b Urban-Rural D i s t r i bu t i on and Sex Composition, 1951-1961 3. Populat ion by S p e c i f i c Age Groups and Per Cent Increase, B r i t i s h Columbia and the Okanagan, 1951-1961 k. Mar ita l Status, Fraser Va l l ey , Okanagan, and Metropol i tan Vancouver, 1951-1961 5. Comparative D i s t r i bu t i on of Households by S i ze : the Okanagan, Metropol i tan Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, 1951-1961. 6. Factors of Family Composition. 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Ethnic Groups, Okanagan, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, 1951 8. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Ethnic Groups in the Okanagan, B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada,1961 9. Main Re l i g ious A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the OkanaganMetropol i tan Vancouver, and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 10. Main Re l ig ious A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the Okanagan Centres With Populat ion Under 5,000, 1961 11. Main Re l i g ious A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the Okanagan, 1951 12. Main Re l i g ious A f f i l i a t i o n s , Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the Okanagan Main Centres of Populat ion, 1961 13. Percentage Change of Male Wage-Earners in Various Wage Brackets in B r i t i s h Columbia and the Okanagan, 1951-1961 Source B u l l e t i n SP-1 , p. 131-132, 1961. B u l l e t i n SP-1, p. 131-132, 1961. B u l l e t i n 1.1-7 (Table 13) 1961. As Above Bui l e t i n SP-1 (p. 131-132) 1961. Bui 1etin 1.2-k (Table 30) 1961. B u l l e t i n 2. 1-1 (Table k) 1961. Bui l e t i n 2.1-5 (Table 50) 1961.' B u i l e t i n 2.1-6 (Table 55) 1961. 1951 B u i l e t i n Sp-2, 1961 B u l l e t i n SP-3, 1961 As abboe As above As above B u l l e t i n 3. 3-3, 1961 - 79 -Table _ No. ]k. Percentage Change for Female Wage-Earners in Various Wage Brackets in B r i t i s h Colum-b ia and the Okanagan, 1951-1961. 15. Male Wage-Earners by Income: Major Centres in the Okanagan, 1961 16. Female Wage-Earners by Income: Major Centres of the Okanagan, 1961. 17. Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners in the Okanagan, 1951 18. Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners in the Okanagan, 1961 19. Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners in the Okanagan, 1961 20. Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners in the Okanagan, 1951. 21 Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 22. Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners in Bri t i sh Columbia, 1961 23 Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Male Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951. 2k Income D i s t r i bu t i on of Female Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 25 Occupational Composition of Urban Males in the Labor Force, Okanagan, 1961 26 Occupational Composition of Urban Females in the Labour Force, Okanagan, 1961 27 Occupational Composition of Rural Females in the Labour Force, Okanagan, 1961 28 Occupational Composition of Rural Males in the Labour Force, Okanagan, 1961 29 S ize of Labour Force, Okanagan, 1951-1961 30 Labour Force in the Okanagan: Composition and Changes, 1951-1961 Source B u l l e t i n 3. 3-3, 1961 Bui 1etin 3.3-2 (Table 13) 1961 B u l l e t i n 3.3-2 (Table 13) 1961. B u l l e t i n 3.3-3, 1961 As above As above As above As above. As above 1951 Census As aboye B u l l e t i n 3.1-8 (Table 15) 1961 As above As above As above B u l l e t i n 3.3-3, 1961 B u l l e t i n 3.3-1 (Table \k) 1961. - 80 -Table No. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Occupied Dwellings by Tenure and Length of Occupancy: Okanagan and Major Centres, 1961 Comparative Housing Patterns; Okanagan, Metropol i tan Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, 1961 Comparative Housing Condit ions: Okanagan, Metropol i tan Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, 1961 Population and Caseload Comparisons, Okanagan Region, 1951-1961 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads in the Okanagan 1951-1961 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads by Major Categor ies: Okanagan, 1951-1961 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads by Major Categor ies: and Changes, Okanagan, 1951-1961 Number of Workers, Total and Average Caseload, Okanagan, Metropol i tan Vancouver, Fraser Va l l ey , 1951-1961 Number of Workers, Caseloads, and Mileage, Regions III, II, and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957-1961 Number of Workers, Average Caseloads, and Mi leage, the Okanagan and Three Regions, and Prov inc ia l Averages, 1961 Percentage Increase of Cases and Workers, Okanagan, 1951-1961 Number of Workers, Average Caseloads in Main S u b d i s t r i c t s , 1951-1961 A Personnel Comparison, Okanagan, 1961 Proport ionate D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads by Category, Vernon D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-1961 Source B u l l e t i n 2.2-1 (Table 11) 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.2-1 (Table 6) (Table 11) B u l l e t i n 2.2-5 (Table 56) B u l l e t i n 2.2-6 (Table 61) (Table 66) (Table 71) B u l l e t i n 2.2-1 (Table 16) B u l l e t i n 2.2-3 (Table 36) B u i l e t i n 2.2-4 (Table 46) (Table 5.0 Bul l eti n 2.2-5 (Table 56) 1961 As above As above As above As above As above As above As above As above As above As above As above - 81 Table No. Source 45 Proport ionate D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads by Category, Kelowna D i s t r i c t Off ice,, 1951-1961 As above 46 Proport ionate D i s t r i bu t i on of Caseloads by Category, Pent icton District O f f i c e , 1951-1961 As above 47 Proport ionate D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads by Category, Grand Forks D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-1961 As above 

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