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A regional study of social welfare measurements (no. 5: the Okanagan Region) : an exploration of the… Gelling, Sharon Patricia Thompson 1965

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A REGIONAL STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE MEASUREMENTS (No. 5:  The Okanagan  Region)  An e x p l o r a t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l assessment demographic and s o c i a l w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951-1961  by  SHARON PATRICIA THOMPSON GELLING HEINRICH NEUFELD IRIS GLORIA PREDDY LEONARD OSBORNE SOISETH  T h e s i s Submitted in P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  School  of Social  Work  1965 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  of for  In presenting  this thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree t h a t  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  the L i b r a r y and study.  s h a l l make i t I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  School o f S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  Columbia,  permission.  In presenting  this thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree t h a t  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  the L i b r a r y and study.  s h a l l make i t I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  School of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  permission.  -  vi  ABSTRACT  T h i s examination of the Okanagan Region i s the f i f t h in the s e r i e s of r e g i o n a l analyses r e l a t i n g w e l f a r e measurements to comprehensive s o c i a l d a t a . Throughout the study there are comparisons made with two p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s the F r a s e r V a l l e y (No. 2) and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver (No. 3 ) . The Okanagan Region, in c o n t r a s t to the F r a s e r V a l l e y and Vancouver a r e a s , which are undergoing r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n expansion plus u r b a n i z a t i o n , p r e s e n t s the p i c t u r e of a l a r g e l y r u r a l and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a r e a . The s o c i a l d a t a are compiled p r i n c i p a l l y from the n a t i o n a l censes of 1951 and 1961; the w e l f a r e m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d from the monthly F i e l d S e r v i c e Reports o f the Department of S o c i a l Wei f a r e w i t h some a d d i t i o n s s p e c i a l l y o b t a i n e d ; and both were analyzed p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a b a s i c t e n year p e r i o d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was supplemented by d a t a gathered from s e v e r a l other sources w i t h i n the Okanagan a r e a . The Okanagan c o n s t i t u t e s W e l f a r e Region III as a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e . The Regional boundaries were given c o n s i d e r a t i o n in t h i s study, and i t i s to be noted that common boundaries are accepted by the n a t i o n a l census ( D i v i s i o n V l ) and the r e c e n t Economic A t l a s which has attempted to d e l i n e a t e r e g i o n s f o r a l l o f Canada. In c o n f o r m i t y w i t h these, i t is recommended that the Kamloops d i s t r i c t , which is n e i t h e r g e o g r a p h i c a l l y nor e c o n o m i c a l l y a t r u e p a r t o f the Okanagan be excluded from the p r e s e n t W e l f a r e Region III, w h i l e the Grand Forks area should be i n c l u d e d . In any new s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e adjustments have been made in the w e l f a r e and census s t a t i s t i c s . In the p r e s e n t study the s o c i a l data r e v e a l s that the Okanagan i s undergoing a c o m p a r a t i v e l y slow r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth but that in recent y e a r s , in l i n e w i t h marked trends in B r i t i s h Columbia g e n e r a l l y , there has been i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n . A l a r g e segment of the p o p u l a t i o n is e l d e r l y , a f a c t which has major w e l f a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s . F u r t h e r study of needs and s e r v i c e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s group is recommended. Welfare measurements c l e a r l y show the trend towards high average c a s e l o a d s , coupled w i t h an abnormally high monthly mileage r a t e . A r e - e x a m i n a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s of the number of p e r s o n n e l , both p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l e r i c a l , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a s k s , and the deployment o f time, i s recommended. Each r e g i o n i s unique, r e q u i r i n g s e r v i c e s adapted to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . In t h i s study i t is proposed that a C e n t r a l Regional R e g i s t r y , much l i k e the community s o c i a l s e r v i c e index, be i n s t i t u t e d . A r e c o r d o f s e r v i c e s rendered as well as the s e r v i c e requests c o u l d be maintained by the w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s in the r e g i o n . Research u t i l i z i n g m a t e r i a l from the r e g i s t r y c o u l d make a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p l a n n i n g o f needed s e r v i c e s in the Okanagan. ( i t is to be kept in mind that general p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , and a l s o j u n i o r c o l l e g e p l a n n i n g , i s p r o c e e d ing on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s in the a r e a . )  No doubt, changes in both needs and s e r v i c e s have taken pi ace s i n c e 1961. The p r e s e n t study has aimed at p r o v i d i n g a f o u n d a t i o n from which f u r t h e r s t u d i e s of needs in w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and a s s o c i a t e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s , may be pursued in t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e .  A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S  We wish to express our g r a t i t u d e ing to us h i s Further  thanks  of S o c i a l  i n t e r e s t and guidance throughout go t o :  Miss B.W,  W e l f a r e ; Mrs. M.E.  Dighton,  Personnel  W e l f a r e ; Mr. G.A. Reed, Regional  Social  W e l f a r e ; Mr. A.  C i t y of P e n t i c t o n ; Dr.  F. McNair  the'ir co=operation  this  and Mr.  D i r e c t o r , Region  I.  Department  3, Department of Welfare O f f i c e  Holmes, Okanagan Mental  Health C l i n i c ;  and a s s i s t a n c e  project.  O f f i c e r , Department of  Inch and Mr. R. R u t h e r g l e n , M u n i c i p a l  C l i n i c ; Mr. D. R i c k e t t s , Burnaby Mental for  the course of  S n i d e r , Research C o n s u l t a n t ,  Social  Guest,  to Dr. Leonard Marsh f o r e x t e n d -  and Mr.  in making t h i s  Health  Dennis  thesis  possible  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter  1.  The Region  R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study. Topography and C l i m a t e of the Okanagan V a l l e y . H i s t o r i c a l background. Socio-economic growth  Chapter 2 .  The People  Age d i s t r i b u t i o n . Family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Ethnic composition. Reli;gious a f f i l i a t i o n  Chapter 3 .  Households.  Occupations.  Social  Welfare  Labor  force  Issues  Regional  in S o c i a l  Appendices:  A. B.  32  Services  C a s e l o a d s , C a t e g o r i e s , and T r e n d s . Personnel and c a s e load Management. The S u b d i s t r i c t s . A d d i t i o n a l w e l f a r e s e r v i ces ,  Chapter 5.  21  The Economy  Wage b r a c k e t s .  Chapter 4 .  1  43  Implications,  Welfare S e r v i c e s  in the Okanagan R e g i o n . . . . .  Bibliography L i s t of T a b l e s and  Sources  65  -  iii  -  TABLES AND CHARTS (a)  IN THE TEXT  Tables  Table No. la  D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n , 1951-1961  17a  lb  Urban C o n c e n t r a t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n , 1951-1961  2a  Total  2b  Urban-Rural  3  P o p u l a t i o n by S p e c i f i c Age Groups  22a  4  Marital  24a  5  Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n of Households  6  F a c t o r s of Family Composition  26a  7  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c Groups  28a  8  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c Groups  28b  9  Main R e l i g i o u s  30a  P o p u l a t i o n and Ten-Year Change Distribution  17a 17b  and Sex Composition  Status by S i z e  Affiliations Affiliations  17b  25a  10  Main . . R e l i g i o u s  30a  11  Main R e l i g i o u s  Affiliations  30b  12  Mai n R e l i g i o u s  Affi1iations  30b  13  Percentage Change of.Male.Wage-Earners  33a  14  Percentage Change of Female Wage-Earners  34a  15  Male Wage-Earners  35a  16  Female Wage-Earners  17  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n o f  Wage-Earners  35b  18  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners  35b  19  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners  35c  20  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners  35c  by Income by Income  Male  35a  -  iv -  Table No.  Page No.  21  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners  35d  22  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners  35d  23  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners  35e  24  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Wage-Earners  35e  25  Occupational  Composition of Urban Males  36a  26  Occupational  Composition of Urban Females  37a  27  Occupational  Composition of Rural  Females  38a  28  Occupational  Composition of Rural  Males  38a  29  S i z e o f Labour Force  30  Labour Force in the Okanagan  31  Occupied Dwellings  32  Comparative Housing P a t t e r n s  40b  33  Comparative Housing C o n d i t i o n s  kOb  34  P o p u l a t i o n and Caseload Comparisons  43a  35  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads  36  39a  by Tenure and Length of Occupancy  in the Okanagan  44a 4 7 a  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads  38  Number of Workers, T o t a l  by Major C a t e g o r i e s  47b  and Average Caseload  51a  £•  52a  40  Number o f Workers,  41  Percentage Increase  42  Number o f Workers and Average C a s e l o a d s ,  43  A Personnel  44  Proportionate D i s t r i b u t i o n of by C a t e g o r y :  45 46 47  kOa  £•  37  39  39b  Caseloads  and Mileage  53a  of Cases and Workers  53a  Comparison  Subd<i s t r i c t s  ......  56a 56a  Caseloads  Vernon D i s t r i c t O f f i c e Kelowna D i s t r i c t O f f i c e Penticton D i s t r i c t O f f i c e Grand Forks D i s t r i c t O f f i c e  59a 59a 59b 59b  -  (b)  Fig.  1  v -  Chart  Map — Okanagan Region  A REGIONAL STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE MEASUREMENTS (No.  5:  The Okanagan  Region)  An e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l assessment demographic and s o c i a l w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951-1961  of for  Chapter  We are l i v i n g nation  have brought  of Canada. Some of people  in an age  and l u x u r y  in which i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , automation  the e f f e c t s  i n t o the l i v e s  is  while rural  items.  The e f f e c t s  Problems eral  the f a m i l y .  to adapt  are l o s i n g many of  in economic, s o c i a l  move o f p o p u l a t i o n  the p o p u l a t i o n of  er h a l f  lives  groups of  or even our p a r e n t s '  its  i n d i c a t i v e of  p r o v i n c e now l i v e s rural  average large  Thus  many new r e s i d e n t s centers.  behaviour beset e v e r y o n e . is  of  day have broken up  t h e i r people to the p o p u l a t i o n  and b u s i n e s s  under r a t h e r s t r o n g  in the  as we know them today.  to the i n f l u x o f  to urban c e n t e r s  this  felt  In many ways the  North America which has been a c c e l e r a t i n g every y e a r . of  large  have made themselves  s t r u c t u r e of  o f our grandparents  under s t r e s s  areas  of almost every c i t i z e n  have been a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  i n t o the more mobile and f l e x i b l e n u c l e a r u n i t s "the c i t y "  and c y b e r -  a h i g h l y mobile p o p u l a t i o n and an i n c r e a s e d supply  s i z e and in the t r a d i t i o n a l extended f a m i l i e s  THE REGION  tremendous changes  in urban a r e a s ,  staples  I  the trend  The genthroughout  A p p r o x i m a t e l y one  in the Vancouver a r e a .  i n f l u e n c e in areas  such as  half  The o t h the Okana-  gan. The p o p u l a t i o n o f rial  changes  this  in each o f  p r o v i n c e has e x p e r i e n c e d the f u l l  the many and v a r i e d geographic  nature o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s ets of varying slicing ions  sizes  throughout  through the p r o v i n c e ,  greatly  geography,  population  the p r o v i n c e .  the p l e t e a u s ,  locations.  Due to the  is d i s t r i b u t e d  The v a r i o u s mountain  and the v a l l e y s  indust-  in pock-  ranges  and c o a s t a l  reg-  i n f l u e n c e both the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n and the nature of  the o c c u p a t i o n s o f the people t h e r e i n . land area i s  its  force of  actually  unique in regard  inhabited.  A r e l a t i v e l y small  Each o f  the v a r i o u s  to the combined f a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e ,  p a r t of  geographic type of  the t o t a l  locations  i n d u s t r y and  is top-  - 2 ography.  Because of  of s o c i a l  w e l f a r e measurements can best be c a r r i e d out on a r e g i o n a l  Similar  studies  the s p e c i a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each s e t t l e d a r e a , a study  have been c a r r i e d out  in three o t h e r r e g i o n s  basis.  to d a t e .  They i n c l u d e one study o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, one o f the " f r o n t i e r " areas of  the n o r t h and one of the F r a s e r V a l l e y .  The M e t r o p o l i t a n study might be  c o n s i d e r e d to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from that of possible  the Okanagan.  However i t  to draw some r e a l i s t i c p a r a l l e l s with the examination made of  F r a s e r V a l l e y and that of similar  social  cussing  the concept of " r e g i o n "  topography.  structure.  the Okanagan,  Political  the l a t t e r  One o f the f i r s t is  factors  is  communities u s u a l l y  within  itself  such as  the r u r a l  dis-  have some  seldom e x a c t .  u n i f o r m l y urban in c h a r a c t e r a l -  though v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n that c e n t e r do e x i s t . divisions  reasonably  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  r e g i o n but the c o i n c i d e n c e is  The M e t r o p o l i t a n area of Vancouver  the  to be c o n s i d e r e d in  that of geographical  boundaries and s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the p h y s i c a l  two b e i n g o f  is  The Okanagan V a l l e y too,  has  and urban areas which r e q u i r e s e r -  v i c e geared toward the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f  the v a l l e y and of the s e c t o r s  with-  i n the v a l 1 e y . The boundaries  f o r the Okanagan Region as d e f i n e d in t h i s  study c o r r e s -  pond w i t h census d i v i s i o n 3, r a t h e r than the Department of S o c i a l "Region  III".  non w e l f a r e  Thus,  the Kamloops  District,  the Salmon Arm o f f i c e of the V e r -  d i s t r i c t were excluded and the Grand Forks o f f i c e ,  m i n i s t e r e d under the Kootenay W e l f a r e Region (IV) were made f o r a number of r e a s o n s .  was  District  an R e g i o n .  the Okanagan which is  growing,  Kamloops  economy i s  1  p r e s e n t l y ad-  included.  The economic base,  w e l f a r e trends o f the Kamloops U n l i k e the r e s t o f  Welfare's  These changes  the s o c i a l  are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of famous f o r  problems and the Okanag-  its  l a r g e l y based on c a t t l e - r a i s i n g and as  fruitsuch  tends to merge with the C a r i b o o r e g i o n . Grand Forks Region but  i t was  is  somewhat more c u l t u r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the Kootenay  i n c l u d e d in our study because the c l i m a t e , economy and t e r -  -  r a i n are q u i t e s i m i l a r  to that of  3 -  the Okanagan.  For these reasons  i t can  suit-  a b l y be c o n s i d e r e d to be a p a r t of the Okanagan. The Okanagan  as a Region  The Okanagan  is  a roughly  triangular-shaped  ary s e p a r a t i n g Canada and the United S t a t e s cated some ten m i l e s southeast Revel s t o k e . province's  Okanagan level,  its  and the apex is  loof  the  miles).  p r o v i d e the e a s t e r n and southwestern boundaries o f  the  area w i t h a high p l a t e a u between, from 4,000 to 5,000 f e e t above s e a -  which has been so d e e p l y d i s s e c t e d by stceams  periods  that  hills.  The Cascade Mountains,  and eroded by i c e in past  i t now p r e s e n t s an appearance of a s e r i e s of r o l l i n g  A m e r i c a , extend a c r o s s corner of the a r e a . agan t r e n c h " ,  p a r t of  the United S t a t e s - C a n a d i a n  The c e n t r a l  a deep v a l l e y  p l a t e a u of  thought  i n c l u d e s the Okanagan L a k e .  boundary  in the Mabel  in many p a r t s of  haps as much as 7,000 f e e t the n o r t h - s o u t h v a l l e y s , (stone,  i c e age,  the Okanagan  silt,  the a r e a i s d i s s e c t e d by the "Okan-  the Okanagan  f e e t although s e v e r a l  l e a v i n g as  peaks  with reach  may be seen  is b e l i e v e d t h a t a l a y e r of  the s o i l s  "glacial  in t h i s  i c e , r i v e r s and streams must have been l a r g e r the d e b r i s  ice, per-  and scooped out  i t d i s a p p e a r e d a t h i c k - l a y e r of  the b a s i s of most o f  and in t h e i r passage c l e a r e d much of  trench,  district.  the P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n , It  in  i c e and water, which now  in d e p t h , carved the mountain r i d g e s  and c l a y ) ,  the volume of m e l t i n g  area.  southwest  the a r e a , are the Monashee Mountains,  and Sugar Lakes  The r e s u l t s o f the l a s t  North  to have o r i g i n a t e d as a zone of weakness  an average e l e v a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,000 10,000 f e e t  i n t o the  Between 20 and 40 m i l e s e a s t o f  and forming the e a s t e r n boundary o f  flat-topped  the P a c i f i c mountain backbone of  t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t and l a t e r deepened by the e r o s i o n o f  till"  base,  10,650 square m i l e s , or three per cent of  area ( 3 6 6 , 2 5 5 square  High mountain ranges  forms  Bound-  of Cra'igel 1 achi e and twelve m i l e s southwest  The area comprises total  a r e a : the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  a r e a . With  than now  in the v a l l e y s ; but the i c e d i d  not melt u n i f o r m l y and in the Okanagan V a l l e y and the P r i n c e t o n b a s i n  islands  THE OKANAGAN VALLEY REGION BRITISH  COLUMBIA  Scale'.  ____ >0  5  O  IO  20  30  Scale l"*20m!lcs  40  50  60  of  i c e remained and the water cut paths  fluvial  material  lodged along  around them.  Thus much of the  the edges of the remaining areas of  cess b e i n g repeated at lower l e v e l s as the i c e l e s s e n e d . are c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e Valley,  large  and small lakes o f  Lakes,  this  interior region.  the Okanagan V a l l e y ,  over 700 f e e t deep in p l a c e s . m i l e s wide, a l t o g e t h e r  The c h a i n o f  as well  at the southern end w i t h Osoyoos L a k e , 9 m i l e s  7 miles  eraging2  f o l k l o r e as first  spit;  residents.  l e y are s i m i l a r  along  and C h r i s t i n a  160 m i l e s  this  starts  long and 1 m i l e wide, almost  miles  having  its  Dog  long and width  av-  p l a c e in  today's Val1ey's  southernmost s e c t i o n o f the v a l -  to those o f Mexico at an e l e v a t i o n o f 2,000 f e e t w i t h v e g e t a greasewood, and numerous v a r i e t i e s of c a c t i .  Between  an area c o n s i d e r e d to be the  acreage o f good farming land in the southern  i n t e r i o r of  the p r o v i n c e .  L y i n g n o r t h to s o u t h , p a r a l l e l w i t h the Okanagan V a l l e y and separated from  Lake.  is  To the northwest  L a k e , 35 m i l e s by 2 m i l e s , 2 m i l e s wide, through Falls.  it  another narrow v a l l e y c e n t e r e d by Wood Lake and Kalamalka  C l o s e to the n o r t h end o f the l a t t e r , a n g l i n g  stream V a l l e y .  bi-  in the past as  the Indian n a t i o n who were the Okanagan  the n o r t h end o f Okanagan Lake and Enderby is  by low h i l l s ,  is  long and 80  own long narrow form,  the Ogopogo,  The f l o r a and fauna o f  t i o n such as sagebrush,  largest  is  Skaha Lake (more f a m i l i a r  i t s m y t h i c a l monster,  i t d i d in that o f  lying  Okanagan Lake i t s e l f  long and 1 m i l e wide; Okanagan L a k e , 69  miles,  lakes  12,800 square m i l e s .  The s e r i e s of 1akes, moulded to the v a l l e y ' s  s e c t e d by a c u r i o u s sand-bar  in the a r e a .  as Sugar, Mabel,  The Okanagan V a l l e y  an a r e a o f  Okanagan  in the p l a t e a u which are now the many  are b e l i e v e d to have been formed in t h i s way.  Lake),  The t e r r a c e s so formed  j u s t west of P r i n c e t o n , and in o t h e r s m a l l e r v a l l e y s  the narrow trough of  i c e , the p r o -  in the " b e n c h e s " in the southern p a r t o f the  The r e t r e a t i n g i c e l e f t d e p r e s s i o n s  glacial-  1  is a s i m i l a r  and t h i s  to the e a s t ,  is  the C o l d -  v a l l e y f o r m a t i o n e n c l o s i n g Mabel  v a l l e y system ends w i t h the B e s s e t t e Creek,  P l e a s a n t V a l l e y , n o r t h e a s t o f Vernon and towards Shuswap  -  5  -  CIimate The c l i m a t e ters.  in t h i s  Communit'res at  area is d r y , w i t h warm to hot summers,  lower e l e v a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e the h i g h e s t  and m i l d w i n -  summer tempera-  tures and the lowest p r e c i p i t a t i o n : those at higher e l e v a t i o n s ,  such as P r i n c e -  ton,  A i r masses from  have c o o l e r summer temperatures and higher  the P a c i f i c move towards b a r r i e r of  the Coast  the Okanagan trend o f  this  i n t e r i o r region  and Cascade Mountains  cold,  dry c o n d i t i o n s  f o r m a t i o n which c o n t i n u e s not  impose any b a r r i e r  periods of  into this  its  the i n t e r i o r o f  a i r by adding  about 5 degrees c o o l e r  are t y p i c a l l y 2 5 °  to 2 8 ° F.  In  n o t i c e a b l y higher ture  in J u l y of  area, approximately,  than the southern h a l f .  the southernmost  temperatures.  7 2 ° one of  The l a k e s  O l i v e r , for  the h i g h e s t  that  does  prolonged  a l s o moderate  e x p e r i e n c e s temper-  January mean temperatures  in the south and from 2 1 °  the summer months  The v a l l e y  content.  The P r i n c e t o n area and the K e t t l e V a l l e y are s t i l l to 1 9 ° .  also  the p r o v i n c e which  flow of c o l d a i r , w i t h the r e s u l t  the Okanagan  There is  trend through the United S t a t e s  to the water-vapour  and  The n o r t h - s o u t h  area in the w i n t e r months.  southward  to t h i s  The n o r t h e r n h a l f o f atures  t h e i r moisture  in a rain-shadow.  low temperatures are seldom e x p e r i e n c e d .  the s u r r o u n d i n g  a r e a , meet the  a c c e n t u a t e the tendency to a r i d c o n d i t i o n s .  air=mass movement from n o r t h to south o f brings  from the c o a s t a l  and l o s e much of  is c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e f o r e to l i e  the v a l l e y s  precipitation.  to 2 6 ° F. f o r  the n o r t h .  c o o l e r , averaging  end o f  from  16°  the Okanagan V a l l e y  has  instance,  J u l y averages  has an average  tempera-  in the p r o v i n c e .  Daytime  temperatures of over 9 0 ° are f r e q u e n t d u r i n g the summer but t h e r e is  rapid  c o o l i n g at ni ght. Annual with l e s s  13.9  basin  at  its  lowest  than 1 0 inches at Osoyoos,  and Enderby. of  p r e c i p i t a t i o n is  The K e t t l e V a l l e y  inches at Rock Creek and  tends 16.3  r e c o r d s o n l y 11 to 1 3 i n c h e s .  at the southern end of  and i n c r e a s i n g  the v a l l e y ,  to 1 6 inches between Vernon  to have low p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h an inches at Grand F o r k s . The higher v a l l e y s  average  The P r i n c e t o n  and areas of  the pi a -  teau are w e t t e r . Considered s e a s o n a l l y , s p r i n g or f a l l cent of  although  the annual  individual  the year  have a f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d of  ularly  are o f  d u r i n g the w i n t e r .  in some p a r t s of  son shows c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n .  climatic factors  months show v a r i a t i o n .  precipitation falls  the w e t t e s t month of  w i n t e r and summer are wetter  Valleys  s h o r t e r . The  the a r e a ,  partic-  Background is  the o n l y area in Western Canada which was  earlier  the f i r s t  than 1811; but  it  is  known that  n o r t h from Oregon encountered l a r g e Similkameen V a l l e y s  and along  The "Okanagan N a t i o n " ,  the borders of  the Okanagan V a l l e y .  o f people outlawed by t h e i r  fur  traders  available  travelling  to the e a s t .  now named, c o n s i s t e d  ten permanent s e t t l e m e n t s  the l a s t s u r v i v i n g  originally  throughout  They had a legend that they were  ruiber in t h e i r homeland f a r  settled  in the Okanagan and  the Arrow Lakes  a f t e r whom the area is  twelve t r i b e s who had o r g a n i z e d  no w r i t t e n h i s t o r y  Indian s e t t l e m e n t s  w h i t e - s k i n n e d , were the descendants o f  the  originally  couple of a group  to the e a s t ,  and  t h e i r s k i n had darkened as a r e s u l t o f exposure to the e l e m e n t s . Culturally,  fur  is  sea-  industry.  There is  that  frequently  The f r o s t - f r e e  importance to the economy of  and developed by e n t r y from the s o u t h .  length of  June is  120 to 185 days but elsewhere i t  great  The Okanagan V a l l e y  of  From 2 5 to 35 per  The Okanagan and lower Similkameen  to the f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e growing  Historical  the a r e a .  than  the Okanagan Indians were in the Stone Age when the  t r a d e r s met them, but they were by no means  organization.  hocal  in e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l  They had t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d winter encampments,  summer months moved along fishing  lacking  met most o f  government,  the borders of  their survival  the r i v e r s  needs.  and d u r i n g  and l a k e s .  Hunting  c o u n c i l s being e l e c t e d .  and were not a r i t u a l i s t i c s o c i e t y .  times arranged by the t r i b e s  and  for t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  They  Families  l i v e d as s e p a r a t e u n i t s wi.thin the t r i b e s , polygamy was customary, r i a g e s were at  the  They had a d e m o c r a t i c system o f  t h e i r c h i e f s and governing  had no h e r e d i t a r y n o b i l i t y ,  first  and mar-  The f u r  -  traders' lives,  impressions  were that  7  -  the Okanagan Indians l i v e d moral  and they found them more honest and h o s p i t a b l e  The Okanagan n a t i o n the making of  traded hemp with the c o a s t a l  their fishing  nets,  time when the white man came e a r l y The f i r s t  panions  in the 1 9 t h  the west bank of Okanagan L a k e .  in the employ o f  in beaver and o t h e r f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s ,  that  this  a period of  the  fur brigades.  t h i r t y - s i x years  p o r t a n t change.  In  David S t u a r t  furs.  their  and three comOregon,  Fur Company l e a r n e d  their traders  1846 the Oregon Boundary Settlement  Up to t h i s d a t e , passage throughout  in a l s o ,  the Columbia R i v e r  p r a c t i c a b l e f o r a B r i t i s h company.  the P a c i f i c  northwest  the land and the p o l i c i e s of  for  the s h i p p i n g of cargoes  For  a period of  a mainline  ten y e a r s ,  the v a l l e y  r e t u r n e d to i t s  except f o r  the o c c a s i o n a l  as t r a d i n g c e n t r e s ,  route f o r  the  became i m - ,  brigades.  e a r l i e r stage w i t h the Indians  a wagon t r a i n c a r r y i n g goods f o r s a l e  situation  and the Okan-  from 1847 to 1 8 5 7 , the p r o b a b i l i t y  transient missionary  the f u r boundary,  The Hudson's Bay Company met the  by d e v e l o p i n g F o r t V i c t o r i a and F o r t L a n g l e y agan V a l l e y was no longer  and  i n t r o d u c e d an im-  t r a d i n g companies: but when the Oregon T r e a t y f i x e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l use o f  trade  the Okanagan V a l l e y was a busy route f o r  unregulated except by the t e r r a i n o f  unrestricted  had as  and the Indians ready to  they sent  at  They found the area  When the Northwest  area promised r i c h resources  for  was  tobacco.  for  1811, t r a v e l -  the P a c i f i c Fur Company f r o m A s t o r i a ,  in exchange p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r  it  century.  in November,  t h e i r raa.in o b j e c t i v e trade with the Indians f o r rich  I n d i a n s , who valued  tribegi.  seem to have been s a t i s f y i n g  p a r t y o f white e x p l o r e r s a r r i v e d  l i n g n o r t h along  than the c o a s t a l  but t h e r e were ample r e s o u r c e s f o r  needs w i t h i n t h e i r own a r e a , and t h e i r l i v e s the  and o r d e r l y  priest,  in s o l e  until  to the gold miners  is  that  possession  sometime  in 1858  in the C a r i b o u f o l «J  lowed the o l d route from Oregon n o r t h , and a new type of s e t t l e m e n t  slowly  f o l 1 owed behi nd. The p i o n e e r s  in s e t t l e m e n t and development o f  the Okanagan V a l l e y Were  -  the  Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s  the earl i e s t sent  8 -  who came as m i s s i o n a r i e s  s e c t i on o f B r i t i s h Columb i a to be Chr i s t i an i z e d .  in the e a r l i e s t m i s s i o n a r i e s  to be Indian t r i b e s ,  s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d was by the O b l a t e s at Okanagan M i s s i o n mid-way  first In  log  I858  mountains  house was b u i l t o v e r l o o k i n g what  in from Oregon the 1861  is  bank.  y i e l d was f a i r l y a new f i n d  in  Hope, and Y a l e .  east  across  For more than a year  r i c h and Rock Creek f l o u r i s h e d as a community.  Then in  in M i s s i o n Creek in the Okanagan V a l l e y beckoned, yet  the  g e n e r a l , mining  Okanagan V a l l e y ,  but  in i t s e l f  indirectly  another  Silver  manent s e t t l e m e n t . . As the y i e l d s  also for  has not c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y it  has p r o v i d e d s t e p p i n g - s t o n e s  f a l t e r e d , many o f  the miners  the l a k e b o r d e r s ,  the bench l a n d s ,  Under a p r o c l a m a t i o n by Governor thought  suitable  This  survey o f  allowed a t r a c t of  on r e g i s t r a t i o n  accepted the  of  land c l a i m e d ,  if  the  per acreV.  The  i860,  land  was made a v a i l abihe to them  to be l a w f u l l y  a r e c o r d i n g fee of e i g h t  he had been " o f  in p u r c h a s i n g  ten s h i l l i n g s  were p e o p l e d .  acquired shill-  When the government survey was extended to  was e n t i t l e d to p r i o r i t y sum of  In  the land under the system of p r e - e m p t i o n .  the c l a i m and payment o f  the c l a i m a n t ,  slopes  in January  land not exceeding 1 6 0 acres  ings to the n e a r e s t m a g i s t r a t e . the  James Douglas  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e by s e t t l e r s  pending a government  and the h i l l  to  to p e r -  area as home, took up l a n d , and turned to farming and c a t t l e - r a i s i n g . t h i s way,  the  flocked  was found at Cherry Creek, and a mine there was p r o f i t a b l e and famous In  i860  Kelowna.  and miners  at Cherry Creek in 1 8 6 3 , and Rock Creek was gradually d e s e r t e d .  years.  mis-  A few white  now the c i t y o f  The e a r l y promise was good,  in the United S t a t e s ,  was  taken up and c l e a r e d and  gold was d i s c o v e r e d at Rock Creek, a few m i l e s  from Osoyoos L a k e .  the f i r s t  in the person of Father Pandosy  example; land was  This  The Jesui ts  although  up Okanagan Lake, on the e a s t  people f o l l o w e d Father Pandosy's the  to the I n d i a n s .  continuous  occupation",  the land at a p r i c e " n o t  exceeding  1  Spal1umcheen V a l l e y at the n o r t h e r n end of  the Okanagan was  the  - 9 -  first  s e t t l e d by a small  e a s t e r n Canada. land  p a r t y who t r a v e l l e d o v e r l a n d by wagon t r a i n  1861 brought  Ranch near Vernon. ranching at t h i s cial  an o r d i n a n c e by the B r i t i s h Government  in B r i t i s h Columbia to r e t i r e d naval  those who o b t a i n e d a g r a n t ,  t r e l 1 in the c e n t r a l  the v a l l e y .  Okanagan.  In  of  who s t a r t e d  in the n o r t h e r n Okanagan.  development which has  a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n today. The e s s e n t i a l were i n s t a l l e d over a g r e a t e r e r e c t i o n o f packing-houses in due c o u r s e the s m a l l e r acre  commer-  in 1890 is c r e d i t e d to James Gar-  t h i s was demonstrated, i n c r e a s i n g  form o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  cattle-  P l a n t i n g o f the f i r s t  given  irrigation  and g r e a t e r a r e a .  and s t o r a g e communities  Once  settlement followed.  demand f o r i s u i t a b l e o r c h a r d land l e d to the f r u i t - g r o w i n g this  the Coldstream  1892 L o r d Aberdeen purchased the C o l d -  stream Ranch and i n t r o d u c e d f B u i t - g r o w i n g the success  established  He was f o l l o w e d by other s e t t l e r s  in the Okanagan V a l l e y  granting  and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , and one of  Captain Houghton,  n o r t h e r n end of  f r u i t orchard  from  The  boom, and i t  is  the area i t s most c h a r -  flumes  and storage dams  These were f o l l o w e d by the  facilities as w e l l .  first  in the l a r g e r  Land which s o l d  in 1898 brough $1,000 an a c r e in 1910, and by the 1940s  and  f o r $1 per  i t was  valued  at $3,000 an acre.. Peaches were the f i r s t Creek d i s t r i c t , fruits suited  the s o f t  fruits  such as peaches,  successful,  the v a l l e y  t i c t o n and Kelowna, and a l l  this  the o n l y region  The l i g h t  the 18908 most  soils  and the  of  apricots,  the  and c h e r r i e s .  As  to Peachland, midway between Pen-  is now in continuous  in Canada where a p r i c o t s  the commercial market. its  and d u r i n g  a c o n s i d e r a b l e acreage was developed from  Osoyoos at the southern end o f  since  in the T r e p a n i e r  in the southern Okanagan p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraged  these proved g e n e r a l l y  is  grown,  n o r t h of what is now Summerland,  to a temperate zone were p l a n t e d .  hot, dry c l i m a t e growing o f  fruit successfully  The f r u i t - g r o w i n g  i n c e p t i o n due to waried causes  production.  can>be grown s u c c e s s f u l l y  i n d u s t r y has seen  This for  fluctuations  - o v e r p r o d u c t i o n , unorganized mar-  10  keting,  i n e x p e r i e n c e and poor management  land faded by the time World War on new l i f e , ing system, keting  among them.  I had commenced.  The boom in o r c h a r d  In  the twenties  strengthened by a wel 1 - s u p p o r t e d growers' and t h e r e have been f u r t h e r  improvements  it  took  c o - o p e r a t i v e market-  in p r o d u c t i o n and mar-  since.  Cattle-raising end of  the v a l l e y ,  fruit-growing  and l a t e r d a i r y i n g dominated the a g r i c u l t u r e at the n o r t h and areas which a f t e r  in the s o u t h ,  in the Similkameen V a l l e y , Since  the m i d - f o r t i e s  such as  some t r i a l  proved u n s u i t a b l e  for  land between Vernon and Shuswap Lake and  r e v e r t e d to c a t t l e - r a n c h i n g . the lumber  i n d u s t r y has  taken f i r s t  place  in the  area economy by way o f secondary products coming from the l a r g e number o f sawmills  throughout  the v a l l e y .  sawn and planed lumber, rail  ties,  and p o l e s ,  addition a f a i r  The wide v a r i e t y o f p r o d u c t s , which  fruit-boxes  and more l a t t e r l y b i n s ,  are produced p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r  volume now f i n d s  local  i t s way to wider Canadian  orchard  includes props,  consumption,  but  and overseas  in  mark-  ets. All after of  these developments brought  1890 mining developments  the demand.  slow,  supplies  At f i r s t ,  lines  The Canadian P a c i f i c and Grand Forks  at that  in from the American s i d e of  had two t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l  railways).  time extended a s h o r t d i s t a n c e  took over what volume o f f r e i g h t  gan Lake and Skaha Lake to Okanagan F a l l s ,  railway  focus  Typically  i n t o Canada.  e x i s t e d from Greenwood  where s e r v i c e ended.  i n d u s t r y was p r o d u c i n g a s i z e a b l e  a v a i l a b l e south of Okanagan L a n d i n g .  tonnage,  As  in view o f the t o p o g r a p h i c a l  commensurate c o s t ,  and the l i m i t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f  nature of the a r e a .  by Okanalate  as  t h e r e was no  The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f  one were r e a l i s t i c  and  the boundary  to Sicamous w i t h a branch l i n e to Okanagan L a n d i n g ,  1910 when the f r u i t  Soon  in southern B r i t i s h Columbia were the  u s u a l l y b e i n g brought  railway  transportation.  c o n n e c t i o n s such as e x i s t e d were c i r c u i t o u s  (by 1892 Spokane, Washington, the U.S.  a need f o r r a i l  providing  the c o u n t r y , Despite  the  these ob-  -  stacles, end o f  surveys  11  -  were made, and by 1913 t r a c k was l a i d  through the southern  the v a l l e y and the Similkameen V a l l e y , n o r t h from P e n t i c t o n to  B r i d g e on the CPR main l i n e ,  and through the Coquehel1 a Pass to Copper Moun-  t a i n and P r i n c e t o n and from P e n t i c t o n south to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l The former was completed e a r l y  in the 1920s;  the l a t t e r  eer and was not f i n a l l y and f u l l y completed u n t i l In  19^9 a highway l i n k between the coast  completed,  this  it  takes  its  generally  P r o v i d i n g easy access  economy -  building,  had a chequered c a r -  the l a t e  1930s.  and the southern Okanagan was  tourism.  accepted name (the Hope-Princeifcon H i g h -  from the h e a v i l y populated Lower Mainland  highway f a c i l i t a t e d a s t e a d i l y  duced the Okanagan V a l l e y ' s its  Boundary.  through d i f f i c u l t mountain c o u n t r y from P r i n c e t o n to Hope from  which s e c t i o n way).  increasing  fjlowof  t r a f f i c and  Much l a t e r ,  after  ten years o f s p e c t a c u l a r  intro-  added n o t i c e a b l e s t i m u l a t i o n  to the t o u r i s t  warm, dry summer c l i m a t e , r e c r e a t i o n a l  road-  As well  as  f a c i l i t i e s of a l l  further this  kinds.  f a c i l i t i e s which the 1akes  the t o u r i s t  trade which has shown a steady growth  in r e c e n t y e a r s .  t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e volume o f b u i l d i n g o f  restaurant  and e n t e r t a i n m e n t r e s o u r c e s  for  tourists.  and beaches  working on the development o f ski Today the Okanagan V a l l e y  is  resorts  residential  p l e o t h e r than those who f i n d t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d the r e g i o n .  accommodation, Val-  have r e c e n t l y been  to a t t r a c t winter  a popular  for  As a  The t h r e e l a r g e r  l e y c e n t r e s , and one or two o f the s m a l l e r communities  has The  and the a t t r a c t i v e l a k e and mountain scenery p r o v i d e a b a s i s  Okanagan,  of  the Rogers Pass highway was completed in 19&2, l i n k i n g Revel stoke  communication w i t h M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  result,  area,  most recent and c u r r e n t l y p r o d u c t i v e segment  with Golden and p r o v i d i n g communication with A l b e r t a .  provide,  Spence's  visitors.  area f o r many peo-  in the communities  within  A high percentage of r e t i r e d people make t h e i r homes  in the  many o f  then from the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s who are a t t r a c t e d by  the m i l d e r w i n t e r c l i m a t e and the s i z e and f a c i l i t i e s of  the v a l l e y communi-  12  ties.  -  There are a l s o many r e s i d e n t s  area r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ment i n v o l v e s  such as commercial  f o r both b u s i n e s s  and the  and government s e r v i c e s whose employ-  some degree o f f r e q u e n t t r a v e l l i n g  V a l l e y both a p l e a s a n t  travellers  and who f i n d the Okanagan  and a c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d area in which to make t h e i r  homes. The R e g i o n ' s  Economy  The primary onomic base o f ing t e r t i a r y  i n d u s t r i e s of f o r e s t r y ,  the Okanagan iregion.  industry.  This  which are mainly from the f o r e s t ture.  than  industry  10,000  c a p a c i t y of producing  is  mainder  is  sent  manufacturing these  of  second  renowned f o r  board f e e t per day;  the lumber  is  industries  the secondary  its  a r a p i d l y expand-  soft  fruit  of  the r e g i o n .  than r e t u r n s  in small  the l a r g e s t  Revenue  from a g r i c u l -  scattered  communities  one in Kelowna has  r a i l r o a d routes s i n c e 9 0 % sent  to C e n t r a l  industry  industry,  operations  board f e e t per day and employs over  to the United S t a t e s .  is  higher  the sawmills s i t u a t e d  100,000  is  in importance to the f o r e s t  significantly  Most o f the s a w m i l l s l i e along A great deal  is  in the n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n p a r t s  The m a j o r i t y of  cut l e s s  Tourism, however,  region  but a g r i c u l t u r e as a whole i s  farming and mining p r o v i d e the e c -  500  men.  i s exported by  rail.  and E a s t e r n Canada and the r e -  Wood p r o c e s s i n g  such as box and p i l e  in the area but an expansion  has been recommended to g i v e  the  greater  stability  of  to the f o r -  e s t economy in the r e g i o n . The Okanagan .region B r i t i s h Columbia,  i s one of  and has become the second most important  produce in the p r o v i n c e , s t a n d i n g o f Vancouver l e n g t h of  the most e x t e n s i v e l y farmed areas  Island.^  region  is  farm  behind the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y but ahead  Tree f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n c a r r i e d out along  the Okanagan V a l l e y  in  in  the 1 2 0 m i l e  the more important segment o f the  1 Okanagan B u l l e t i n A r e a . Department of Lands & F o r e s t s . R.G. Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 1 , p. 3 0 .  industry,  Williston,  making  up more than 9 2 % of  cattle, for  the t o t a l  d a i r y and v e g e t a b l e  farming as w e l l ;  1 / 3 of B . C . ' s v e g e t a b l e s .  area.  Although  fruit  is  the main a g r i c u l t u r a l  industry s p e c i a l i z i n g  accounts  the S i m i l k i m e e n . B.C.  in peaches,  f o r one q u a r t e r of  t i o n l y i n g south of Vernon  in d a i r y ,  and p u r e e s . mended f o r  pecially  w e l f a r e of  is  is  and c h e r r i e s propor-  very common in t h i s  in  area.  f o r over 9 0 % of  the f r u i t  industry  f o r consumer use but s a t i s f a c t o r y  for  is  the  juices  has been recom-  f r u i t - f a r m i n g annually a t t r a c t s a l s o take advantage The economy of  is dependent on the primary  Poor weather c o n d i t i o n s  can have d i s a s t r o u s  of  itinerant  work-  the summer em-  the r e g i o n ,  industry of  es-  fruit-  e f f e c t s on the general  region.  Over h a l f o f the Okanagan V a l l e y , the whole r e g i o n  d a i r y c a t t l e but Opportunities  apricots  the marketing agency  f r u i t - p i c k i n g and cannery work.  the  apples,  f r e e z i n g and d e h y d r a t i n g f r u i t s  nature of  the South Okanagan,  growing.  In  time b a s i s  i n t o the a r e a ; permanent r e s i d e n t s  ployment of  pears,  The s o f t  industry.  The seasonal ers  p o u l t r y and beef p r o d u c t i o n .  A growing p a r t of  unsuitable  Development of the  the Okanagan Region,  The v e g e t a b l e crops are l o c a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y n o r t h of  Vernon and around Grand F o r k s . fruit  seed-producing  in the Okanagan V a l l e y and south of Keremeos  Fruits Limited, a co-operative,  p r o c e s s i n g of  product of  is  accounts  the c u l t i v a t e d farm land with the greater  Farming on a p a r t  the f r u i t produced.  There  the v e g e t a b l e produce  The Okanagan is a l s o a p r i n c i p l e  there have been marked trends fruit  t r e e f r u i t produce in B.C.  the " l i v e s t o c k p o p u l a t i o n "  is  found n o r t h of Kelowna  in  the remainder b e i n g about e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d elsewhere. there are more than  in terms o f  f o r expansion  25,000  head of beef c a t t l e and  revenue, d a i r y farming lie  in the d a i r y  is  12,000  the more r e m u n e r a t i v e .  i n d u s t r y where there e x i s t s  1 An I n d u s t r i a l Survey of the Okanagan V a l l e y Region. B r i t i s h CNR Research and Development Department, M o n t r e a l , Quebec. June,  fluid  Columbia, 1 9 6 3 , p. 2 5 4 .  -  milk surpluses  yet an annual  14 -  r a t e of one m i l l i o n pounds o f b u t t e r and cheese  imports. Although mining has played an h i s t o r i c a l agriculture  and f o r e s t  the economy.  industries,  Lode metals  i l k i m e e n but one of  it  role  in the development  in the  has been reduced to a secondary f o r c e  in  have been mined around Vernon, Osoyoos and the Sim-  low grade.  Copper Mountain Mine at P r i n c e t o n and the  nearby Hedley Gold Mine were the most p r o d u c t i v e but have been c l o s e d  since  1957.  The warm summers, all  the n a t u r a l  help to a t t r a c t many t o u r i s t s  ion alone f o r  the year  Of the v i s i t i n g  groups  1964,  visitors  In  the Kelowna  two-thirds  Further, a larger  than from Washington S t a t e .  be formed j o i n i n g  the Western c i t i e s  p r o s p e r i t y as a r e s u l t of there w i l l  number came from S a s k a t -  With the opening of the Rogers  mand f o r  labour  and west.  on tourism as a major  Thus,  On the whole, however, primary r a t h e r than secondary  fect  in the economic c l i m a t e elsewhere w i l l  route the  increased  in the f u t u r e ,  industry since  in the s e r v i c e and c o n s t r u c t i o n trades w i l l  the economy; changes  a circular  and is bound to enjoy  the i n f l u x from east  be a dramatic emphasis  million.'  $3.3  and the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t ;  Okanagan has b e n e f i t t e d tremendously so f a r  reg-  were Canadian and a l -  Pass and the proposed l i n k between Edmonton and P r i n c e George, will  accessibility  spent an e s t i m a t e d  approximately  most o n e - h a l f were from A l b e r t a . chewan and Manitoba  to the Okanagan r e g i o n .  391,510  in 1 9 6 3 ,  beauty of the a r e a , and i t s  the de-  expand. industry  generates  concomitantly  af-  the Okanagan economy.  1 Report. 1 9 6 4 V i s i t o r Chamber o f Commerce.  Enquiries, Visitor  & Convention Bureau,  Kelowna  2 Visitors '63. A Study of V i s i t o r s to B.C. in the Summer o f 1 9 6 3 . B.C. Government T r a v e l Bureau, Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , p. 6 .  -  Population  15  -  Centres  P e n t i c t o n , Kelowna and Vernon are the three major marketing and popul a t i o n centres within  the r e g i o n ; P r i n c e t o n  ilkimeen area and Grand F o r k s ,  the c e n t r e f o r  The Okanagan r e g i o n as a whole is the I n t e r i o r ulation.  of B.C.;  i t accounts  The g r e a t e s t  As the s i x t h  largest  city 13,859^  in B.C.  the most d e n s e l y populated area  Today, its  however, P e n t i c t o n  irrigated  and serves  this  provincial  is  as a c e n t r e f o r  this  the nearby munS i t u a t e d on  c i t y became the southern term-  a major f r u i t - g r o w i n g  centre.  pop-  in the r e g i o n , Pen-  o f O l i v e r and Osoyoos.  trees.  in  the Okanagan V a l l e y .  and l a t e r became a s s o c i a t e d with c a t t l e  land p l a n t e d with f r u i t  b u t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the t o t a l  and the l a r g e s t  land between the Okanagan and Skaha Lakes, the trade steamers  c e n t r e in the Sim-  the K e t t l e V a l l e y .  f o r 6 per cent of  i c i p a l . ! ty o f Summerland and the v i l l a g e s  of  the l a r g e s t  proportion lives within  t i c t o n has a p o p u l a t i o n of  inal  is  It  Tourism is of  is  ranching.  c e n t r e w i t h over 90% of also a principle d i s t r i -  increasing  importance  to  city. The second l a r g e s t  gan Lake,  c e n t r e in the c h a i n of  is Kelowna, meaning " g r i z z l y b e a r " .  the Okanagan to e s t a b l i s h Kelowna's  p o p u l a t i o n has  in 1961.  Kelowna  is  agriculture  three c i t i e s  Kelowna was  as a major  along  the Okana-  the f i r s t  industry.  i n c r e a s e d 54.8 per cent from 8,517  area  in  Within one decade in 1951  the focus of economic a c t i v i t y f o r a t o t a l  to  13,188  population  of  2 26,094  i n c l u d i n g W i n f i e l d , Okanagan C e n t r e , Westbank and Peachland m u n i c i p -  ality. Having bench lands  the l a r g e s t  y i e l d the l a r g e s t  1 Camu, P., E.P. M a c M i l l a n , 1964. 2  irrigated district  p r o d u c t i o n of apples  Weeks, Z„W. Sametz,  Camu, op. c i t . , p.  350.  in the p r o v i n c e , and pears  the Kelowna in the  Okanagan.  Economic Geography of Canada,  Toronto,  -  In  1962 the p r o v i n c i a l  16 -  government c a r r i e d out an economic survey  and found t h a t Kelowna was s u i t a b l e f o r secondary manufacturing and small  items.  It  c o l l e g e which w i l l c i t y but  is,  oldest  in the p r o v i n c e .  the miners w i t h b e e f ,  the North Okanagan is This c i t y  Originally  it s t i l l  Oyama, Vernon serves its  vegetable  junior  growth of  the  the o l d e s t  As  an  the l a r g e s t  in ten years  to 10,250 in  this  and f e d e r a l  supplied in the  Enderby and  in 1961.  in-  Forestry,  area.  governments  for  the  l o c a t e d near the c i t y .  an important c e n t r e in t h e Similkimeen V a l l e y has d e c l i n e d  in importance e c o n o m i c a l l y s i n c e the mine c l o s u r e s . ance as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n The small  fifth  The c i t y of Vernon  industries  the p r o v i n c i a l is  and  c a t t l e ranches  p o p u l a t i o n of 2 8 , 7 3 $ ! .  army t r a i n i n g base  Princeton,  in the I n t e r i o r  the market c e n t r e f o r Lumby,  and d a i r y farming are important the seat of  set between t h r e e l a k e s - Kal -  a c a t t l e - r a n c h i n g community which  p o p u l a t i o n 3 1 . 0 per cent  Vernon is Okanagan;  a total  is  has one of  Okanagan - the Coldstream Ranch.  way.  forestry  to the Okanagan V a l l e y .  Okanagan and Swan.  creased  in  the proposed s i t e of a p r o v i n c i a l  not o n l y add to the economic and c u l t u r a l  Vernon, c e n t r e o f amalka,  moreover,  in the area  c e n t r e , b e i n g a terminus  c e n t r e s of Hedley,  Yet  for  Copper Mountain  it  has gained  import-  the H o p e - P r i n c e t o n  and A l l e n b y  High-  look to P r i n c e -  2 ton which serves Forestry  is  a p o p u l a t i o n of  a growing i n d u s t r y  ing b e i n g the main a t t r a c t i o n s .  10,582.  in t h i s Until  P r i n c e t o n alone has 2,163  area as well  is  the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the r e g i o n ,  the l a r g e s t  Prior  1,646  a group of Do'ukhobours s e t t l e d  1  Camu, op. c i t . ,  p. 296.  2  Camu, op. c i t . , p.  350.  hunting,  the labour  fish-  in P r i n c e -  force.  the K e t t l e V a l l e y a r e a , Grand Forks  c e n t r e , having a p o p u l a t i o n of  to World War I,  tourism,  1957 a major brewery s i t u a t e d  ton was a sources of employment f o r a p r o p o r t i o n of In  as  people.  in 1 9 5 1  and 2,347  in 1961.  in the a r e a , f i r s t  in  -  17 -  communal  s e t t l ements,, but now many are p r i v a t e land owners.  pursuits  in t h i s  area are farming and  The major economic  forestry.  Populat ion Trends The Okanagan region a t t r a c t e d l a r g e numbers of people from the p r a i r i e provinces during  the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s ,  d u r i n g World War 7M>, the  and many r e s i d e n t s  of  the P a c i f i c  coast  The p o p u l a t i o n expan6SODnhas c o n t i n u e d to the p r e s e n t ,  a t t r a c t i o n b e i n g the m i l d c l i m a t e and r e s i d e n t i a l  areas  suitable  for  re-  t i rement. A comparison of p o p u l a t i o n the  figures  between 1951 and 1961 w i l l  growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n 6f p o p u l a t i o n  region  has  half of  increased  its  the p r o v i n c i a l  national  rate  in the Okanagan.  growth r a t e o f kO per cent and o n l y  (Table l a ) .  The Okanagan,  in the area and r e l a t i v e l y small  people.  When the major c i t i e s  made s u b s t a n t i a l t i o n has for  then,  high p r o v i n c i a l boundaries  the i n c r e a s e ; ^  this  r a t e by 15 per c e n t .  individually,  of  for  the  young  however, a l l  i n t o the area  r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n  have  popula-  accounting  growth exceeds  1962, moreover, Kelowna extended  to i n c l u d e the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Glefomore.  approximate the Canadian  over one-  industrializa-  For example, Kelowna's  immigration  In  this  expanding at a r e l a t i v e l y  number of job o p p o r t u n i t i e s  are c o n s i d e r e d  i n c r e a s e d by 55 per cent w i t h  is  two-thirds  to the low r a t e of  i n c r e a s e s over the decade.  16 per cent o f  1951  p o p u l a t i o n by 22 per c e n t , a f i g u r e s i i g h t l y  slow r a t e which is due, f o r the most p a r t , tion  Since  indicate  the its  Both P e n t i c t o n and Vernon  r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth of 30 per c e n t , w i t h Pen2  t i c t o n owing 23 per cent and Vernon 21 per cent of It  is  the growth to  i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Kelowna, w i t h the h i g h e s t  growth has  the lowest  1  Camu, op. c i t . .  2  Loc.  cit.  r a t e of  p. 296.  immigration of  r a t e of  the t h r e e l a r g e r  immigration. population  Okanagan c i t i e S i  -  Table l a .  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n in Centres Over 5.000 in the Okanagan. B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, and Percentage Change - 1 9 5 1 - 1961  Sectors Vernon Ke1 own a Pent i cton Grand Forks Okanagan B r i t i s h Columbi a Canada  bi  17a -  1951 7,822  10,250  8,517  13,188  10,548 1,646  13,859  2,347  +31 .0 +54.8 + 3 1 .4 +42.6  77,686 1,165,210 14,009,429  94,646 1,629,082 18,238,247  +21.8 +39.8 +30.2  Urban C o n c e n t r a t i o n of Okanagan P o p u l a t i o n -  p.c.of Sector  per cent change  1961  total 1951  1951 -  pop. p . c . o f t o t a l 1961  Vernon Kel owna Penti cton Grand Forks  10.0 11 .0 2.1  14.6 2.5  Total  36.7  40.8  13.6  10.8 13.9  1961  pop.  -  18 -  In 1961 n e a r l y 41 per cent of in f o w  urban a r e a s ,  (Table l b ) . hand,  an i n c r e a s e o f 4 per cent from the base year of  P e n t i c t o n , b e i n g the l a r g e s t  the g r e a t e s t  This  centre for  the r e g i o n .  that Kelowna w i l l  The d r i f t  the p o p u l a t i o n growth  trends across  become,  toward the c i t i e s  in the c i t i e s  highlight  in time,  in t h i s  l i v i n g patterns,  the n a t i o n , are l i k e w i s e p r e s e n t h e r e .  In 1 9 5 1  this  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 8 per cent o f  the d i s t r i b u t i o n was  r e l a t i v e l y equal  rural  Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s .  areas.  legal  All  population  In  region  accounts growth  which are general  the Okanagan p o p u l a t i o n  status,  was  villages  census,  Ten years  to 1961 by the  in the  regardurban  the p o p u l a t i o n of 1,000  including municipalities  were  urban areas were those with a  towns and v i l l a g e s  of  1 , 0 0 0 or over whether  i n c l u d i n g " u r b a n i z e d f r i n g e s " of a l l  the p o p u l a t i o n exceeded 10,000.  in  Dominion  the p o p u l a t i o n ,  and c i t i e s over  in  later  the c r i t e r i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g  however,  the  lived  more people l i v i n g  the aggregate s i z e of  in c i t i e s ,  i n c o r p o r a t e d or not but  from 1951  the remaining a r e a s ,  the 1 9 6 1  residing  1951  towns,  were c o n s i d e r e d urban; termed r u r a l .  largest  trend.  with s l i g h t l y  and urban areas In  the c e n t r e ' s  and r u r a l  the  A note o f c a u t i o n must be made, however, due to the change  the d e f i n i t i o n of  l e s s of  on the one  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  areas w h i l e the remainder l i v e d / in urban c e n t r e s .  urban a r e a s .  has,  in s p i t e of the low p o p u l a t i o n  Urban and suburban  rural-urban d i s t r i b u t i o n will  rural  in the r e g i o n ,  r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n over the ten  trend i n d i c a t e s  in the Okanagan.  rate for  city  1951.  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n ; but Kelowna, on the o t h e r ,  has e x p e r i e n c e d the h i g h e s t years.  the Okanagan p o p u l a t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d  T h i s change  such c e n t r e s  in d e f i n i t i o n a f f e c t s  the  if  dis-  t r i b u t i o n f i g u r e t o some degree. For the r e g i o n as a whole, ulation  growth of 46 per cent w h i l e the r u r a l  a low 4 per c e n t . areas  the urban c e n t r e s have e x p e r i e n c e d a pop-  alone,  ( T a b l e 2a)  the small  Considering  urban areas  areas  have e x p e r i e n c e d o n l y  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  (with p o p u l a t i o n s  I.n  the urban  between 1,000 -  10,000)  -  2.  Table  a.  Total  l g a -  P r i n c i p a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Urban-Rural  P o p u l a t i o n and Ten-Year Change,  Okanagan Rural-Urban Areas  P.C.  change  1951-1961 B r i t i sh Col umb i a  1961  Urban Smal1 towns (a) L a r g e r urban centres  32,806  48,021 9,669 38,352  +46.4 -56.6 263.6  48J9  Rural Farm Non-farm  44,880  46,625 16,614  3.9 -25.9  30,011  33.5  20.3 -29.5 22.7  Total  77,686  94,646  21.8  39.8  Urban-Rural  22,258 10,548  22,396 22,484  P.C.  Distribution  1951  1961  Urban Small towns (a) L a r g e r urban centres  42.2 28.7 13.6  50.7 10.2 40.5  Rural Farm Non-farm  57.8 28.8 28.9 100.0  Total (a) (b)  Okanagan  D i s t r i b u t i o n and Sex C o m p o s i t i o n ,  Rural-Urban Areas  2.5 60.4  1951-1961 Sex R a t i o 1951  **  (b)  1961  -  104.2  104.6  49.3 17.6 31.7  90.2  92.5  90.4 93.7  100.0  96.6  98.5  1,000-10,000  population Number o f females per 100  1951-1961  1951-1961  1951  b.  -  Distribution,  males  -  19  -  have l o s t o n e - h a l f  their population  d i s t o r t e d somewhat  in that Vernon and Kelowna were in t h i s  1951.  The i n c l u s i o n o f  ification B.C.  in 1 9 6 1  in the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d .  these two c i t i e s  accounts  for  in the " l a r g e r  is  classification  urban c e n t r e "  in  class-  the very high growth r a t e of 2 6 4 per c e n t ; the  r a t e f o r comparable towns is 6 0 per c e n t . Measuring  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  the ruF.al  because census d e f i n i t i o n s o f ' r u r a l ' i n c l u d e  population  non-farm" i n c l u d e s some suburbs.  is c o m p l i c a t e d  farm and non-farm.  t i o n of " f a r m " has changed, moreover, from the 1 9 5 1  areas  This figure  census.  The Okanagan r e g i o n ' s  The d e f i n i -  Also,  i n c r e a s e in the r u r a l  i s o n l y o n e - f i f t h the r a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. ( T a b l e 2 a )  o f farm d w e l l e r s over the ten years B.C.'despite The r u r a l  the f a c t t h a t farming  has d e c l i n e d in r u r a l is of major  non-farm p o p u l a t i o n , however,  c r e a s i n g at a r a t e ten per cent higher The r a t i o of the decade.  In  males but t h i s the r u r a l  females  to males  is  "rural  The number  Okanagan and r u r a l  importance in the Okanagan.  substantially  higher  than the p r o v i n c i a l  in 1 9 6 1 ,  in-  rate.  in the Okanagan has remained s t a b l e over  the urban c e n t r e s t h e r e have been s l i g h t l y more females  than  p r o p o r t i o n is c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by the predominance o f males  areas.  A breakdown of the age groups w i l l  The most s a l i e n t  be d i s c u s s e d  f e a t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n trend i s  in  later.  the slow r a t e o f  growth f o r the Okanagan r e g i o n , accompanied by a high r a t e o f u r b a n i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f b e t t e r r o a d s , the suburbs,  p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the a t t r a c t i o n s  p o p u l a t i o n has tended to move from the s m a l l e r  ban a r e a s ;  and, c o n c o m i t a n t l y ,  spill  over  i n t o the r u r a l .  for.  At the p r e s e n t time t h e r e are two r e g i o n a l  Okanagan Regional Canadian-U.S.  of  to the l a r g e r  ur-  the urban areas are t e n d i n g to spread and  Thus new problems w i l l  a r i s e and.should be planned  p l a n n i n g groups,  the  South  P l a n n i n g P r o j e c t which extends from Summerland south to the  border and C e n t r a l Okanagan P r o j e c t c e n t e r i n g in Kelowna. The  North Okanagan is  in the p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  a similar  p r o j e c t with a  view to o b t a i n i n g  the most p r o d u c t i v e use o f the land in s o c i a l  as well  as  20 -  economic terms. tions  The r e g i o n a l  to the l o c a l  elopment  planners  governments.  assess the areas  Problems of major concern are " r i b b o n " dev-  in which p r e c a r i o u s commercial  which lower land v a l u e s  s c e n e r y ; and another,  land f o r housing developments  the  and  speculation. An acceptance by the l o c a l  their  e n t e r p r i s e s border the major highways  and d e t r a c t from the a r e a ' s  "swal lowing up" of v a l u a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l land  and make recommenda-  areas w i l l  be a step  governments  f o r planned development o f  in overcoming these problems and b e i n g prepared  f o r meeting new ones. Inevitably,  the geography, c l i m a t e c o n d i t i o n s ,  b i n e to determine what kind of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s of  this  region.  economy, and people com-  are r e q u i r e d to meet the needs  Chapter  The age d i s t r i b u t i o n  For present purposes  uted our p o p u l a t i o n  and young a d u l t s  (15-19) tional  the school  (4)  institutions,  is  several  (20-24),  (l)  the i n f a n t s  i n s t a n c e , day c a r e s e r v i c e s group  (3-4  years)  are u s u a l l y  and t h i s tional  have been comWe have d i s t r i b -  significance  adolescents  be a t t e n d i n g e d u c a -  (44-64);  these are the  (65-69)  and  70  and  pensions.  as a group.  They r e q u i r e ,  f o r working mothers w h i l e o l d e r c h i l d r e n . o f  the a n t i c i p a t e d school  (0-4),  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p a r e n t s ,  r e q u i r e adequate p l a y a r e a s .  good i n d i c a t i o n of  ( 3 ) the  the o l d e r groups  (5)  o v e r , most o f whom are r e t i r e d and in r e c e i p t of  but they have c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l  and  people over  and p r e - s c h o o l e r s  some of whom may s t i l l  the mature ages ( 2 5 - 4 4 )  c h i l d r e n (0-4)  in f i f t e e n stages  implications.  age c h i l d r e n ( 5 - 1 4 ) ,  predominant working p o p u l a t i o n , and  Phe-school  available  of these steps  and w e l f a r e  i n t o f i v e groups:  the m a j o r i t y of  tracts  the l a s t group which i n c l u d e s a l l  bined i n t o groups which have s o c i a l  (2)  THE PEOPLE  in the census  of f i v e years each, except f o r 70 years o f age.  I I.  for  this  T h i s group a l s o can g i v e a  population  in the next f i v e  years  knowledge serves as a guide f o r the p r o v i s i o n and p l a n n i n g of e d u c a -  and v o c a t i o n a l  technological  facilities.  This  is s i g n i f i c a n t  in view of  advancement where t r a i n i n g and r e - t r a i n i n g w i l l  present  l i k e l y be e s s e n -  tial. The t o t a l  94,646  in  population  1961,  increase for a l l 1965) not as  in the Okanagan i n c r e a s e d from  an i n c r e a s e of  21.8  per cent as compared to a  o f B r i t i s h Columbia in the same p e r i o d .  p o p u l a t i o n of  the Okanagan is  77,686  in  39.8  1951  to  per cent  The present  (early  i n c r e a s i n g at a c o n s i d e r a b l e r a t e but  r a p i d l y as. the remainder of B r i t i s h Columbia or Canada as a whole.  Possibly,  w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n of the Rogers Pass highway,  which w i l l  make  -  the b e a u t i f u l will  22  -  Okanagan r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e  to p r a i r i e r e s i d e n t s ,  f l o u r i s h and grow w i t h i n the next decade.  predicting  this,  although no actual  The p r e - s c h o o l year p e r i o d ; an  age group  are  articles  area  agree  (Table 3 ) .  most f i v e times as r a p i d l y  i n c r e a s e d from 8 , 9 1 4 to 9,845 in our t e n -  Thus the p r e - s c h o o l  in B r i t i s h Columbia as  comprfsed 1 0 . 4 per cent o f  s l i g h t decrease ( l . l  per cent)  population  in the Okanagan.  the Okanagan  population  for  increased a l The p r e -  in 1 9 6 1 ,  in the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d , w h i l e in a l l  the p r o p o r t i o n of p r e - s c h o o l e r s  in  available.  i n c r e a s e of 1 0 . 4 per cent as compared to 48.4 per cent  B r i t i s h Columbia.  schoolers  figures  Newspaper  this  a  of  i n c r e a s e d in the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d (by  B.C.  less  than 1 per c e n t ) . The school  age p o p u l a t i o n  l o c a t i o n and s i z e of e d u c a t i o n a l ber o f students  ( 5 - 1 4 years) facilities  expected to use them.  In  is  significant  the Okanagan t h i s  per cent w h i l e the comparable B r i t i s h Columbia  80.6  per c e n t .  ince c o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n o f  and the next age group  the post-war  on r e g i o n a l  Most o f the a d o l e s c e n t group  would be m a r r i e d .  colleges (15  in the Okanagan from 1 9 5 1  British  Columbia in the same p e r i o d was  in  1951  to  the tremendous  - 1 9 years)  to 1 9 6 1 ,  in  1961  (2.9  1961.  in the e n t i r e p r o v -  and v o c a t i o n a l is s t i l l  i n c r e a s e in t h i s  emphasis  facilities. in s c h o o l ; and some  group's  pop-  w h i l e the per cent i n c r e a s e f o r  twice as great  increased only very s l i g h t l y  4,922  in  these would a l s o have dropped out of school  ulation  4,784  thus  There was a 3 0 . 7 per cent  "young a d u l t " group  -  "baby boom"; many of these people  are now e n t e r i n g c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t i e s ;  however, a p o r t i o n of  i n c r e a s e was h i g h e r ,  the B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n  The high per cent i n c r e a s e o f ' t h i s  the p r o v i n c e  i n c r e a s e d by  age c h i l d r e n made up 2 1 per cent of the Okanagan  p o p u l a t i o n and 1 9 . 8 per cent of  throughout  the  is p a r t l y determined by the num-  36.5  The school  in that  per cent  ( 6 0 . 4 percent).  The  in the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d ,  increase).  The comparable  B.C.  -  Table 3 .  a.  Significant  Changes  Age  Age Groups:  Okanagan  1951  Pre-school ( 0 - 4 ) age  -  and P r o v i n c i a l  Comparisons  1951-1961  group  School  22a  (5-14)  8,914  14,570  1961  9,843  P.C. i ncrease  comparable B.C. i n c r e a s e  10.4  48.4  19,899  36.5  80.6  A d o l e s c e n t s and young adul ts (15-19)  5,781  7,558  30.7  60.4  (20-24)  4,784  4,922  2.9  19.3  (25-44)  21,668  22,182  2.4  24.7  (45=64)  14,487  19,254  32.9  37.4  (65-69)  3,035  3,526  16.2  -4.1  ( 7 0 and over)  4,447  7,458  67.8  56.9  77,686  94,646  21.8  39.8  Mature ages  Older  groups  Total b. Age  Per Cent  Distribution B r i t i s h Columb i a  Okanagan  group 1951  1961  1951  1961  Pre-school ( 0 = 4 )  11.5  10.4  1 0.8  11.5  School  18.8  21  15.3  19.8  age (5=14)  .0  A d o l e s c e n t s and young a d u l t s (15-19)  7.4  8.0  6.0  6.9  (20-24)  6.2  5.2  6.9  5.8  (25-44)  27.9  23.4  30.1  26.9  (45-64)  18.6  20.3  19.3  18.9  (65-69)  3.9  3.7  4.5  3.1  ( 7 0 and over)  5.7  7.9  6.3  7.1  Mature ages  Older  Total  groups  100.  100.  100.  100.  -  per cent of  i n c r e a s e was  -  per c e n t .  19.3  T h i s would seem to i n d i c a t e  these people l e a v e the Okanagan f o l 1 owing  on to higher adults,  e d u c a t i o n or  the group  population  from 1 5 to 24 y e a r s ,  and 1 2 . 7 per cent o f  population,  2 5 to 4 4 years  c r e a s e d by o n l y  2.k per  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g per c e n t .  the B r i t i s h  (44  population  that  (20.3  per cent)  (18.9  cent  period.  of  all  of B r i t i s h  and 2 6 . 9  o f B.C.  population.  (from  21,668  to  than  22,182);  the younger  - 24.7  people l e f t  population  the  the  in 1 9 6 1 .  The o l d -  per cent in the Okanagan and  they d i d o f  the B r i t i s h  T h i s would tend to bear out  a desirable  in-  Columbia was much higher  They comprised a 1arge- p r o p o r t i o n of  in 1 9 6 1 .  "working"  The 2 5 to 4 4 age group  the B.C.  i n c r e a s e d by 3 2 . 9  per cent)  the Okanagan i s  per cent o f  go  the Okanagan  the predominant  period  to  and young  per cent o f  13.2  many  education  The a d o l e s c e n t s  two groups of  in the t e n - y e a r  that  The 2 5 to kk group made up 2 3 . 4 per cent o f  to 64 years)  in a l l  high school  Columbia  and 4 5 " t b 64 y e a r s .  increase for  Okanagan p o p u l a t i o n  per cent  comprised  Here again we can assume t h a t many of  Okanagan in t h i s  group  their  to seek work e l s e w h e r e .  The "mature ages" c o n s i s t  er  23  the Okanagan  Columbia  population  the p r e v a l e n t  area f o r o l d e r p e o p l e ' s  37.4  opinion  r e s i d e n c e and  retire-  ment. The d i s t r i b u t i o n siderable sions,  significance  adequate  of  the o l d e r  for welfare;  housing,  nursing  groups  (65  e s p e c i a l 1 y when examined  homes,  in the Okanagan i n c r e a s e d by 1 6 . 2  while  is  as  a whole  the o n l y one to r e g i s t e r  in the same p e r i o d .  in our p e r i o d , a g r e a t e r the  increase for  flect  all  increase  of B r i t i s h  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  of  The group  Columbia  7 0 and over  (56.9  the Okanagan f o r  etc.  per cent from 1 9 5 1  a decrease  than any other  is  (4.1  per c e n t ) .  retirement.  to  While  seems  in 1 9 5 1  Okanagan p r o p o r t i o n of people over 6 5 was 9 . 6 per cent as compared to  pen-  1961  in  B.C.  per cent  and g r e a t e r This  con-  The 6 5  per cent)  increased 6 7 . 8  age group  of  in terms of  chronic care h o s p i t a l s ,  to 6 9 age group the group  to 6 9 and 7 0 p l u s )  than to  re-  the 10,8  -  per cent f o r B r i t i s h Columbia,  24 -  by 1961  the p r o p o r t i o n  i n c r e a s e d to 11.6 and decreased to 10.2 f o r a l l  C i ty o f Vancouver Percentage of e l d e r l y in the p o p u l a t i o n (over 6 5 )  Family  since  ization, fare  1961.  the m a r i t a l  for  it  is  s t a t u s of  usually  Canada  10.2  .6  the p o p u l a t i o n  is  6.5  life.  highly Family  signifdisorgan-  have tremendous s o c i a l  these d i s o r g a n i z e d  families  the p o p u l a t i o n were s i n g l e  We need to remember that  i n c l u d e s c h i l d r e n ; thus  per cent)  (Table 4 ) .  this  This  is  quite similar  and B r i t i s h Columbia  that  wel-  require  (46.7 per cent)  A s l i g h t decrease  decrease In  and  the percentage  in 1961 .  From 1951  to  per cent to 48.2  in the per cent of m a r r i e d  generally  from 1 per cent to 3 per cent  in the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d .  1951  t h e r e were 3,419  i n c r e a s e d to 4,903 (5.2  ulation  in 1951  to m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  the percentage of m a r r i e d people decreased from 49.1  people can be noted in most a r e a s ;  that was widowed  tends  Okanagan.  to support Several  and the p o s s i b i l i t y  (4.4 per cent) per cent)  in 1961  than f o r a comparable a r e a , This  B r i t i sh Columb i a  the Okanagan 46.1". per cent of  per cent in the Okanagan.  this  11  i n c l u d i n g death, d i v o r c e and s e p a r a t i o n  quite high.  1961  13.8  3.)  services.  In  (44.6  (Table  Okanagan  the f a m i l y p r o v i d e s c o n t i n u i t y f o r s o c i a l  implications,  social  is  of B.C.  Characteristics  An examination o f icant  in the Okanagan  (5.2  widowed people in the  in 1961. per cent)  the F r a s e r V a l l e y  The percentage of is c o n s i d e r a b l y  (4.0 per c e n t ) .  Okanagan; the pop-  greater  (Table 4)  the c o n t e n t i o n that many widowed people s e t t l e  reasons  for  of seasonal  this  could be mentioned: d e s i r a b l e  work in the f r u i t  industry,  The 1961 percentage ,of widowed people in the Okanagan (5.2  in the  climate,  and o t h e r s . per cent)  is  very  - 24a -  T  a  b  l  e  4.  Marital  Status of  the P o p u l a t i o n ; Main C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (Two Regions and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1951  Mar i tal Status  Fraser V a l l e y  -  Compared)  1961  Okanagan Regi on  M e t r o p o l i tan Vancouver  1951  1961  1951  1961  58,255  90,566  35,834  43,585  212,855  318,591  Marr i ed  63,929  89,213  38,119  45,663  271,304  350,600  Wi dowed  5,550  7,628  3,419  4,903  32,378  43,158  587  797  304  495  4,380  6,978  Single  45.2  48.1  46.1  46.1  40.9  44.6  Marr i ed  49.8  47.4  49.1  48.2  52.1  48.7  Wi dowed  4.3  4.0  5.2  6.2  5.8  Single  persons  1951  1961  M a r r i e d (wi th or wi thout fami 1y)  Di vorced Percentage d i s t r i but i on  Di v o r c e d Total  persons  .45  128,245  .42 188,330 '  4.4  .40 77,686  .52  94,646  .84 520,993  .92  719,327  - 25 slightly appears people  higher that  than the r a t e f o r a l l  if  the trend from 1 9 5 1  in the Okanagan c o u l d  Columbia.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s  to 1 9 6 1  i n c r e a s e well  services  there were 304  1951  pared to 495 couver .7  (.52  per c e n t .  per cent) .in 1 9 6 1 . in 1 9 6 1  The i m p l i c a t i o n s  Divorce often  involves  family  t h e r e are any.  of s t r e s s ,  per cent)  (.4  that was d i v o r c e d  dren i f  the per cent of  beyond the r a t e f o r a l l  (as  discussed  earlier);  they f r e q u e n t l y have c h i l d r e n and o f t e n r e q u i r e s o c i a l  The tendency f o r d i v o r c e r a t e s In  continues,  per c e n t ) .  (5.1  especially  of  It  widowed British  f o r w e l f a r e here are s e v e r a l l ; w i d o w e d people are  o f t e n e l d e r l y and r e q u i r e s p e c i a l are younger  of B r i t i s h Columbia  was  in a l l  areas  to i n c r e a s e  d i v o r c e d people  per c e n t ;  here f o r s o c i a l tensions,  assistance. evident.  the popul a t i o n of Van-  in B r i t i s h  Columbia  w e l f a r e are a l s o  services  i n v o l v e d and f i n a n c i a l  it  was  considerable.  i n s e c u r i t y and a n x i e t y f o r  These people o f t e n r e q u i r e s o c i a l i f c h i l d r e n are  they  in the Okanagan as com-  The per cent of .92  is  if  the  chil-  in time  support  for  the  f a m i l y must o f t e n be p r o v i d e d . A household,  according  to the census  d e f i n i t i o n , c o n s i s t s of a p e r -  son or group of persons  o c c u p y i n g one d w e l l i n g .  one p e r s o n , one f a m i l y ,  or s e v e r a l  0£ w i f e l i v i n g with c h i l d r e n . the f a m i l i a l  1961  In examining  characteristics there were  households  A f a m i l y c o n s i s t s of a husband  The data on households of  the r e s i d e n t s  27,357  by s i z e ,  families.  Thus a household may have  households  in 1951  11.9  o f the  was chosen to  indicate  region.  in a p o p u l a t i o n of  per cent of  94,646.  the households  In  were  r  "one person" househol ds  (Table 5).  and i s  simir.lar  higher  than the r a t e f o r Canada  holds  in 1961.  (i960 In a l l  per cent o f  the  i n c r e a s e d to 14.0  to that of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  decreased s l i g h t l y  per cent  This  (9.3  per c e n t ) .  in the Okanagan from 45.0  and are s i m i l a r  per cent by  ( 1 3 . 5 per cent)  (1950  to the B r i t i s h Columbia r a t e  of Canada the two to t h r e e person households total.  but much  Two to t h r e e person per cent  196-1  (43.2  house-  to  43.7  per cent)  comprise  40  -  T a b l e 5.  25a  Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n  -  of Households  by S i z e : Okanagan.  r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada.  Category  Total  Population  No. o f  Households  Households 1 2-3 4-5 6+  by S i z e  person persons persons persons  Okanagan  Metropol i tan Vancouver  1961.  B r i t i sh Columbi a  Canada  1961  1961  1951  1961  77,686  94,646  790,165  1,629,082  18,238,247  22,457  27,357  228,598  459,532  4,554,493  (100)  (100)  (100)  (100)  (100) 11 .9 45.0 3 1 .2 11 .9  14.0 43.7 29.9 12.3  1961  1951 -  Met-  13.2  13.5  45.1 3 1 .0 10.7  ^3.2  9.3 40.0  30iB  31.6  12.5  19.1  - 26 The four cent of  to f i v e person households the t o t a l  and Canada.  Vancouver  f o r the Okanagan,  The households  1 1 . 9 per cent  in 1961  (1950  to  are c l o s e  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, B r i t i s h  12.3  (1961)  per cent  in the Okanagan.  they comprised o n l y 1 0 . 7 per cent o f the t o t a l ,  that f a m i l i e s  T h i s would  in B r i t i s h Columbia are p r o b a b l y s m a l l e r  in other p a r t s  of  In  from  metropolitan  in B r i t i s h  tend to  per  Columbia,  with s i x or more people i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y ,  per c e n t , and in Canada 1 9 . 1 per c e n t .  12.5  to 3 0 per cent or 31  Columbia  indicate  and more n u c l e a r  than  Canada.  Family F e a t u r e s An examination of some of Okanagan is b a s i c  to t h i s  study.  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of s o c i e t y ' s changes  the f a m i l y  is  Social  basic  undergoing  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a m i l y w e l f a r e workers  unity;  is  the f a m i l y .  3.8  some i n d i c a t i o n of  per cent of  the m a t u r i t y o f  in the Okanagan (39.9  per cent)  are  o r t i o n of  f a m i l y heads  per cent)  in the 2 5 to 44  than f o r B r i t i s h  an i d e a l  in the 45  Columbia (34.9  to 64  These l a t t e r  in 1961.  is  significant  age group  per c e n t ) .  figures  as  In  In  is  it  as compared to  in B r i t i s h In  as  the Okanagan  The m a j o r i t y of  (Table 6).  4.2  family  Columbia  (46.3  the Okanagan the p r o p -  larger  per cent)  (38.1  the Okanagan 18.2  in B r i t i s h COlumbia t h i s  bear out the c o n t e n t i o n that  per cent of  figure  is  14.6  the Okanagan  is  area f o r r e t i r e m e n t p u r p o s e s . In a s s e s s i n g the s i z e of f a m i l i e s  have no c h i l d r e n , as compared to 33.1 largest  A knowledge of what  the f a m i l y head.  as well  age group  the f a m i l y heads are over 6 5 y e a r s ; per c e n t .  are concerned with  the f a m i l y heads were under the age of 25,  per cent f o r B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole heads  in the  essential.  The age of the f a m i l y head (male or female) provides  life  number (39.9  per cent)  in the Okanagan,  per cent f o r B r i t i s h  33.7  Columbia.  have one or two c h i l d r e n in the  w h i l e the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s  w i t h one or two c h i l d r e n  per cent The  Okanagan,  in B r i t i s h  Columbia  -  Table 6 .  26a  F a c t o r s of  -  Family  Composition  Okanagan 1 tern  No.  British  Per Cent  No.  Columb i a Per  Cent  23,557  -  394,023  -  763  3.2  16,427  4.2  Fami1i es  494  2.1  9,936  2.5  Lodgi ng F a m i 1 i es  228  1 .0  5,973  1.5  901  3.8  16,706  4.2  9,388  39.9  182,380  46.3  4 5 - 6 4  8,986  38.1  137,451  34.9  65+  4,282  18.2,  0 Children  7,945  1 - 2  Total  Fami 1 i es  Families  not  maintain-  ing own household Related  Age of  Fami1y Head  Under 2 5 25  -  Size of  3 —  44  14.6  33.7  130,455  33.1  9,391  39.9  165,180  41.9  4,992  21.2  79,363  20.1  1,229  5.2  19,025  4.8  Fami1y  4  5+  Average Persons Average  57,486  per  6 h i l d r e n  per  family family  3.6  -  3.6  -  1.6  -  1.6  -  Ages of C h i l d r e n at home 0 - 6  6 - 1 4 1 5 - 24 at 1 5 - 2 4 Total  school  not at  Children  school  11,759  30.9  220,347  35.1  17,729  46.6  281,698  44.9  5,790  15.2  80,060  12.8  2,786  7.3  45,293  7.2  38,064  100.0  627,398  100.0  27  -  i s 41.9 per c e n t .  In  -  the Okanagan 2 1 . 2 per cent of f a m i l i e s  four c h i l d r e n as compared to 2 0 . 1 per cent f o r B r i t i s h  have three or  Columbia.  In  the  Okanagan 5 . 2 per cent of  families  per  in B r i t i s h Columbia have f i v e or more c h i 1 d r e n . ( T a b l e  cent of  the f a m i l i e s  Thus f a m i l i e s  6).  i s h Columbia. larger  have f i v e or more c h i l d r e n w h i l e o n l y  in the Okanagan are s l i g h t l y  Possibly  this  than urban f a m i l i e s .  indicates In  per  rural  available.  In  as  the Okanagan almost o n e - t h i r d ( 3 0 . 9  all  of B r i t i s h Columbia b e i n g s l i g h t l y  than s i x  years o l d ,  t i o n and 44.9 per cent of The  the B r i t i s h  number of a d o l e s c e n t s  fare considerations;  of  higher  (35.1  Columbia  1.6 c h i l d -  per cent of  a t t e n d i n g school  Of the c h i l d r e n , ( 1 5  home are not at s c h o o l . .(Table 6) age of c h i l d r e n ( 1 5 t o 24 years)  The c h i l d r e n  is  significant  to 24 years)  for wel-  l i k e l i h o o d of in the  Okanag-  the c h i l d r e n at  of B r i t i s h Columbia the p e r c e n t -  home and a t t e n d i n g school  than in the Okanagan.  that many c h i l d r e n in t h i s  for  the Okanagan p o p u l a -  and 7 . 3 per cent of  For a l l at  category  Columbia p o p u l a t i o n .  an at home, 1 5 . 2 per cent are at s c h o o l ,  2.4 per cent l e s s  the c h i l d r e n  per c e n t ) .  those who " d r o p o u t " e a r l y have a g r e a t e r  requiring welfare services.  This  is  Hence they are away from home and are not  is  possibly  age group are a t t e n d i n g school  1 2 . 8 per due to the  (e.g.  i n c l u d e d in t h i s  univer-  figure.  Composition An adequate examination of  Okanagan must The  per cent)  the percentage of c h i l d r e n in t h i s  in the 6 to 14 year age group comprise 46.6  Ethnic  for B r i t i s h  to the number and ages o f c h i l d r e n at home are  less  sity).  Brit-  generally  per f a m i l y and an average of  are  fact  as  of  family. Information  cent,  than f o r a l l  famili.es are  the Okanagan as well  there are an average of 3.6 persons ren  that  hanger  4.8  the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  i n c l u d e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  v a r i e t y and e x t e n t of  the e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n  these groups p o i n t  the  in the a r e a .  to the need f o r w e l f a r e  author-  -  ities  to i n c l u d e c u l t u r a l  of welfare services gan  for  in  by the f a c t during  to  1951  the a r e a .  the area years  inent  were r e l o c a t e d  were being b u i l t ;  per cent  adians 2,473  The second  7,000  and the Okanagan ( 3 . 6  in the Okanagan hast to  (1951)  stance,  largest  in 1 9 6 1 ) has o n l y a small  per cent)  r e l a t i v e l y small  3,383  (Tables  cent o f lation.  12.9  cent o f  Persons  the  increase  (4.1  Frenchf?Can-  than,for  however,  (30.3  are  from instill  8).  per cent o f  number of Europeans.  The number o f  numbers,  in the Okanagan are  increased considerably  is  in  in the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d ,  T h e i r actual  ethnic representation  it  propor-  Columbia  more than  t h e r e were more than  this,  their  there  in B r i t i s h  in number  9,000  12,000.  interesting  in the  Canadians  in  the Okanagan p o p u l a t i o n  the B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n Besides  stock,  that  representation  t h e r e were s l i g h t l y  accounted f o r  the f a c t  per cent decrease)  r a t e of  into  are the most prom-  the French  period.  1961  brought  in Canada,  who have  w h i l e by  others  gardeners. origins  in 1 9 6 1 .  for  Okanagan  group  of German o r i g i n 1951  racial  a much higher  7 and  origin  some "are now s e t t l e d  Despite  (2.2  increased notably  (1961),  The s e c o n d - l a r g e s t  origin  truck  in the B r i t i s h  per cent)  in the number of B r i t i s h .  In  as  in 1 9 6 1 ) -  in the Okanagan has decrased s l i g h t l y  per cent  in ; the  were o r i g i n a l l y  to be e x p e c t e d , , t h e people with B r i t i s h  ten-year p e r i o d .  of A s i a n  decrease can p r o b a b l y be accounted  the Okanagan v a l l e y  has been an i n c r e a s e of more than tion  planning  some have r e t u r n e d to the West Coast,  ago when the r a i l r o a d s  in the Okanagan ( 5 2 . 6  in the  except f o r persons  A few Chinese-Canadians  in the n o r t h e r n p a r t of is  to 1 9 6 1  t h a t many Japanese-Canadians  have s e t t l e d e l s e w h e r e .  considerations  e t h n i c groups r e p r e s e n t e d in the Okana-  This  1961).  the second world war;  As  All  from 1 9 5 1  in  2,190  -  and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  increased numerically  (2,713  28  1961  in 1 9 6 1  ten-year  of  German  German  stocks  as a g a i n s t 7 . 3 per  and 5 . 7 per cent of Canada's that  the Okanagan a t t r a c t s  of R u s s i a n and U k r a i n i a n o r i g i n  the Okanagan p o p u l a t i o n  Canadians  as  popua  large  formed.8.hi per  a g a i n s t 3 . 1 per cent of  the Can-  - 28a -  T  a  b  1  e  7.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c Groups: Canada.  Okanagan,. B r i t i s h Columbia, and  1951.  Okanagan  B r i t i s h Columb i a  E t h n i c Group No.  Canada  P.C.  No.  P.C.  No.  P.C.  42,592  54.8  766,189  65.8  6,709,685  47.9  French  2,473  3.2  41,919  3.6  4,319,167  30.8  Scandanavi an  3,380  4.4  65,612  5.6  283,024  2.0  1 ,008  1 .3  17,207  1.5  152,245  1.1  British  1  t a l i an  German  9,074  11.7  55,307  4.7  619,995  4.4  Dutch  2,168  2.8  33,388  2.9  264,267  1 .9  181,670  1 .3  -  Jewi sh  25  Polish  1,289  1.7  16,301  1 .4  219,845  1.6  Russ i an  4,423  5.7  22,113  1 .9  91,279  .7  Ukrai n i an  2,787  3.6  22,613  1 .9  395,093  2.8  Other European  3,632  4.6  39,738  3.4  346,354  2.5  As i at i c  2,713  3.5  25,644  2.2  72,821  .5  N a t i v e Indian and Eskimo  1,447  1.3  28,504  2.4  165,607  1 .2  Other and not stated  1,091  1.4  25,817  2.2  188,421  1.3  77,686  100.0  1,165,210  100.6  14,009,429  100.0  Total  4,858  .04  - 28b -  Table 8.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c Groups: Canada,  B r i t i s h Columbia, and  1961.  Okanagan  B r i t i sh Columbi a  E t h n i c Group No. British  Okanagan,  49,771  Canada  P.C.  No.  P.C.  No.  P.C.  52.6  966,881  59.3  7,996,669  43.8  30.3  French  3,383  3.6  66,970  4.1  5,540,346  Scandanavi an  4,470  4.7  96,792  5.9  386,534  2.1  1tal i an  1,665  1 .7  38,399  2.3  450,351  2.4  7.3  German Netherlands  1,049,599  5.7  3.6  429,679  2.3  5.113  0.3  1 73,344  0.9  1 .7  24,870  1.5  323,517  1.7  -  119,168  0.7  12,238  12.9  118,926  3,475  3.7  60,176  Jewi sh  12  -  Pol i sh  1  Russian  4,769  5.0  27,448  1  Ukrai ni an  3,204  3.4  35,640  2.2  473,337  2.6  Other European  5,645  6,0  80,378  4.9  711,320  3.9  As i at i c  2,190  2.3  40,299  2.4  121,753  0.6  Nat i ve 1nd i an and Eskimo  1  1.3  38,814  2.3  220,121  1 .2  Other and not s t a t e d  1  1.1  28,376  1.7  242,509  1 .3  Total  ,600  ,228  ,006  94,646  100.0  1,629,082  100.0  7  18,238,247  100.0  - 29 adian p o p u l a t i o n . are.still  Many of  increasing,  these are l i k e l y f a r m e r s .  While these two  groups  they are doing so at a slower pace than, f o r example,  the French and German groups.  Thus the Russian and U k r a i n i a n groups  are  gradually  p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , perhaps  because  comprising a smaller  t h e r e has not been much immigration of these groups Native  I n d i a n s , a group of concern and i n t e r e s t to w e l f a r e a u t h o r i t i e s ,  comprised a f a i r l y steady 1.3  1951  as  in  1961.  the Okanagan  Native  inhabit  timber r i g h t s . '  per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n o f  Indian p o p u l a t i o n  Indian lands  from l e a s i n g  Indians s t i l l  T h e i r major  which are more s t r o n g l y  in Canada as a whole are Scandanavian,  ian,  and o t h e r European.  and other Europeans.  ental  Decreases  constituents  Indian p r o p o r t i o n o f  Indians  in 1961.  the Okanagan;  timber r i g h t s . h u n t i n g and  r e p r e s e n t e d in the  Some  fishing.  Okanagan  German, Dutch, R u s s i a n ,  the p o p u l a t i o n  and I t a l i a n s ,  Ukrain-  and urban a r e a s ,  it  1 An I n d u s t r i a l M o n t r e a l , 1963, p.  is  The t o t a l  t h e r e was,  and U k r a i n i a n s  stock.  contin-  in the  per cent  Okanagan  however, a l a r g e r  in the Okanagan  than  should be noted that e t h n i c t a b u l a t i o n s  as a whole.  in were  Had they been made s e p a r a t e l y f o r r u r a l  l i k e l y certain additional  Survey o f 8.  French,  comparable to the n a -  in the Okanagan.  lower than in B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole;  made f o r the Okanagan  Spal-  are n o t i c e a b l e in the Jewish and A s i a n  are the Poles  It  bands.  income i s d e r i v e d from c a t t l e -  The p r o p o r t i o n of B r i t i s h s t o c k  B r i t i s h Columbia in 1961.  in  which have i n c r e a s e d most are German,  p r o p o r t i o n of Germans, R u s s i a n s ,  in  acres f o r a l l  European p r o p o r t i o n s e x c l u d i n g the B r i t i s h and Frenchwas 39.1  in the Okanagan is  1,447.  104,585  p r o p e r t i e s , and from s e l l i n g  Stocks  the Okanagan  has taken p l a c e except f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n  than  tive  was  m a i n t a i n themselves by the t r a d i t i o n a l  Ethnic stocks  The s m a l l e s t  1961  Indians are d i v i d e d i n t o four Bands;  lumcheen; P e n t i c t o n ; and Osoyoos. ranching,  in  f i f t e e n r e s e r v e s which t o t a l  L i t t l e development o f of  in r e c e n t y e a r s .  trends c o u l d be d e t e c t e d .  the Okanagan V a l l e y Region,  Can. Nat.  Railways,  30  -  For  -  i n s t a n c e , many Russians and U k r a i n i a n s might be c o n c e n t r a t e d on farms.  Religious  Affiliations  An examination of the r e l i g i o u s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  the people l i v i n g  the r e g i o n adds another dimension to the understanding s o c i a l of  those they s e r v e .  person,  Knowledge of the e t h n i c and r e l i g i o u s  a f a m i l y , or a group,  is  to know something of  workers  in  seek  background of a  the a t t i t u d e s  and l o y -  a l t i e s which may form a p a r t of those which they have made t h e i r own s t a n d ards  and e x p e c t a t i o n s . The people l i v i n g  their  religious  e t h n i c groups  in the a r e a under.study are l a r g e l y P r o t e s t a n t  affiliation  in the Okanagan.  i n c l u d e d 6k per cent of a l l British  (Table 9 ) ,  racial  origin  which may bear some r e l a t i o n to the  The f i v e l a r g e r P r o t e s t a n t  the people in 1 9 5 1  and 1 2 per cent German.  groups,  In  6 2 per cent of the t o t a l  The denomination w i t h the l a r g e s t  membership i s  r e p r e s e n t i n g 3 3 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . stands at 1 7 per c e n t ,  denominations  when 5 2 per cent were of 1961,  when 5 9 per cent  were o f B r i t i s h s t o c k and 7 per cent of German background, the two l a r g e s t  were of  to r e f e r o n l y  the P r o t e s t a n t  the United Church of  the  Roman C a t h o l i c Church has a membership almost e x a c t l y the same as l i c a n Church, and r e p r e s e n t s 1 7 per cent o f the people l i v i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout  A p p r o x i m a t e l y the same p r o p o r t i o n of not o n l y  faith.  The A n g l i c a n Church a f f i l i a t i o n  that o f the Lutheran Church 6 per c e n t ,  The u n i f o r m i t y of  to  Canada,  Baptist  Church 3 per cent and the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same.  gan.  in  the A n g -  in the Okana-  the a r e a is  striking.  the r e s i d e n t s are members o f  in the region as a whole, but  The  the t h r e e  largest  denominations,  in the t h r e e  largest  communities of Vernon, Kelowna, and P e n t i c t o n (Table 1 2 ) and in t h r e e  medium-sized communities chosen at random f o r examination - Summer l a n d , Oliver,  and Armstrong  (Table  The same s i m i l a r i t y  is  10). apparent  in comparison w i t h the m e t r o p o l i t a n  -  Table 9 .  30a  -  Main Rel i qi:ous A f f i 1 i a t i o n s . Okanagan,  Religious tion  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia,  Denomina-  M e t r o p o l i tan Vancouver  Okanagan P.C.  No.  Uni ted Church  Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n  1961  B r i t i sh Columb i a  P.C.,  P.C.  242,010  30.7  31  22.5  No.  33.4  31,583  in the  .0  Angl i can  16,751  17,7  177,251  22.4  Roman C a t h o l i c  16,727  17.7  129,120  16.3  17.5  Lutheran  6,210  6.6  52,190  6.6  6.1  Bapti st  3,431  3.6  28,063  3.5  3.0  P r e s b y t e r i an  2,817  3.0  50,010  6.3  5.5  Pentecostal  2,029  2.1  7,580  .9  1.2  7,301  .9  .4  12.4  12.5  Jewish  13  Other  denominations  15,085  Total  Population  94,646  Tabl e 1 0.  .01  100  ,  790,165  1 00  100  Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i 1 i i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the Okanagan Communities w i t h P o p u l a t i o n under 5.000. 1961  Religious Communi t i es  96,640  15.9  Uni ted Church  Denomigations A n q l i can  Roman C a t h o l i c  No.  P.C  No.  P.C.  No.  P.C.  1 ,806  41 .9  796  18.5  466  4l  .9  4,307  01i ver  592  33.4  282  15.9  322  18.2  1,774  Armstrong  564  43.8  277  21.5  129  10.0  1,288  Summer1 and  Total  2,962  1,355  917  P o p u l a t i on  7,369  -  Tablell.  30b  -  Main R e l i g i o u s  Affiliations.  Okanagan,  and 1 9 6 1  1951  Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n  19S1  1961  No.  P.C.  P.C.  No.  Un i ted Church  25,106  32.3  31,583  33.4  A n g l i can  15,004  19.3  16,751  17.7  Roman C a t h o l i c  13,154  16.9  16,727  17.7  Lutheran  4,719  6.1  6,210  6.6  Bapti s t  2,938  3.8  3,431  3.6  P r e s b y t e r i an  2,790  3.6  2,817  3.0  Pentecostal  1,836  2.4  2,029  2.1  Jewi sh  .02  17  Other  denominations  12,122  Total  Population  77,686  Table 12.  .01  13  15.6  15,085  94,646  100  15.9  100  Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n Main C e n t r e s o f P o p u l a t i o n . 1 9 6 1 .  Reli'.gious Un i ted Church Commun i t i es  No.  the  Regi on  Okanagan  R e l i gious Denomi nat i on  in  in the  Denominations A n g l i can  Roman C a t h o l i c  Population  No.  P.C.  No.  P.C.  34.0  2,023  19.7  1,295  12.6  10,250  P.C.  Vernon  3,484  Ke 1 own a  4,271  32.4  2,531  19.2  2,723  20.6  13,188  Penti cton  5,|27  37.0  2,906  21.0  1,980  14.3  13,859  Total  12,882  7,406  5,998  37,297  -  31  -  area o f Vancouver and with the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole although one marked d i f f e r e n c e is  9),  the v e r y small  number of people of  Jewish f a i t h who are Okanagan r e s i d e n t s , o n l y 1 3 pe.bple i.n a l l 7,301  in the Vancouver area as of It  is o f  of  population  the seven major denominations  n i f i c a n c e from 1 9 5 1 than was the case  in 1 9 6 1 ,  (Table 9 - ) .  in the Okanagan,  but  it  that  in one of  congregations,  15,000  this  were not members or  a r e a , or adherents  T h i s was no change o f any i s a somewhat higher and in  Some i n d i c a t i o n of  sig-  proportion British the  religious  s i z e a b l e number of people may be gained from the f a c t  the main communities most of  (Penticton)  t h e r e are  them having t h e i r own c h u r c h e s ,  seven l a r g e r denominations. people among a l a r g e  compared w i t h  people in t h i s  in m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver ( 1 2 per cent)  Columbia as a whole ( 1 2 per c e n t ) ( T a b l e 9 ) . p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  the  1961.  i n t e r e s t to n o t i c e that over  1 5 per cent of the t o t a l  (Table  group of  There is  We may perhaps see in t h i s  a somewhat s i m i l a r  which i t  is  a r e f l e c t i o n of  over  thirty  in a d d i t i o n to the  these s m a l l e r c o n g r e g a t i o n s  Vernon.  in a l l  d i s t r i b u t i o n of in Kelowna and  the i n d i v i d u a l i s m f o r  sometimes s a i d B r i t i s h Columbia as a p r o v i n c e i s noted, the  Okanagan as a region o f f e r i n g an apparent a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s  tendency.  Chapter  Ml  THE ECONOMY  Wages The modest Okanagan i s  increase  in t o t a l  numbers of male wage-earners  to be accounted f o r by the very l a r g e  b r a c k e t and the s m a l l e r  increase  in the  0-1,000  increase  bracket.  in the This  4,000+  indicates  a spread between income groups.  A growing  earners  in the i n c r e a s e d a f f l u e n c e because  all  is  e v i d e n t l y not s h a r i n g  the movement  ing numbers  is  toward  in the lowest  upon in s e v e r a l it  areas  valley  than  is  for  in the  0-1,000  higher  income b r a c k e t s  but  the top,  is  the  is  seen  in numbers  increase;  increase in wage-earners  perhaps  and unorganized  0-1,000  from  bracket  1951-1961  Apparently  the o v e r a l l  rise  in  to farm workers who i n -  per c e n t .  This  is  number of  l a b o u r e r s who p i c k f r u i t or do odd farm j o b s .  an  unusual  itinerant Being  in  involvement w i t h w e l f a r e  services,  r e s i d e n c e requirements c o u l d be an  important  At any r a t e farm wage-earners is  the  groupris  2,000-3,999  i t can be a t t r i b u t e d to a growing  in. which case problems of  scene, as  toward  in the Okanagan the most n o t -  is due mostly  by 6 1 . 9  the 1owerbrackets might mean c l o s e r  issue.  in the  shows a drop  trend.  in the urban male workers.  the Okanagan in the creased  increase  grow-  the Okanagan  The p r o v i n c e shows a more even s h i f t in that  not  has been commented  somewhat more marked f o r  more in keeping with the o v e r a l l  able  This observation  but  the p r o v i n c e as a whole, which a c t u a l l y  group.  Of the t o t a l  the male wage-  as evidenced by the smal1  bracket. it  proportion of  in the  suggested by t h e i r 3 8 . 5  as a whole seem to be l e a v i n g per cent d e c r e a s e .  Some of  the  those who  -  did stay,  33 -  however, have shared in the g r e a t e s t  i n c r e a s e of higher e a r n i n g s  in  the whole p r o v i n c e .  As can be seen, the 4,000+ group of Okanagan farm e a r n e r s  has  g r e a t e r numbers than any other group,  i n c r e a s e d in f a r  been a s i m i l a r  trend in t h i s  increases  d i r e c t i o n throughout  in urban wage-earners  although t h e r e has  the p r o v i n c e . (Table 13)  and t h e i r earnings  has been remark-  a b l y c o n s i s t e n t with the p r o v i n c e , except f o r the two top b r a c k e t s where again the s p l i t  between the h i g h e s t  e a r n e r s and the medium to low e a r n e r s  T h i s t r e n d is very e v i d e n t in a l l  rural  and urban areas but  is  growing.  i s most marked in  the Okanagan. The r a t h e r n o t a b l e percentage i n c r e a s e in both male and female urban wage-earners T h i s has  hints  at the degree of u r b a n i z a t i o n going on in the Okanagan.  further implications  for  the a d a p t a t i o n of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s  those s e r v i c e s best s u i t e d to h e l p i n g a l a r g e l y u l a t i o n to working w i t h an urban p o p u l a t i o n . transiency,  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n c e to q u a l i f y f o r a s s i s t a n c e ,  seen in t h i s  1961  ten-year p e r i o d .  One can s p e c u l a t e t h a t  there has been an even more a c c e l e r a t e d i n c r e a s e . trend as shown by s i m i l a r  bia.  p o p u l a t i o n undoubtedly accounts  Although a l a r g e r can s t i l l  be taken as e v i d e n c e that  f o r wages is c o n t i n u i n g . increase of cations  This  figures  i n c r e a s e is  the trend toward more women working  here f o r a p o s s i b l e need f o r s e r v i c e s  the percentage There are i m p l i -  such as day c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n  The f a c t  working women have no dependent c h i l d r e n , and those who do, f o r t h e i r c a r e - such as  However,  l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n are b e i n g  unattended w h i l e t h e i r mothers are at work.  arrangements  char-  f o r some of the r i s e ,  because p r o b a b l y some of these women are m a r r i e d , with f a m i l i e s .  left  since  f o r B r i t i s h Colum-  lower than that f o r males.  one must not a u t o m a t i c a l l y assume that  and so o n .  in the years  In not one r u r a l or urban area is  female wage-earners  pop-  the 1951 female wage-earners  a c t e r i s t i c o f a general  this  relatively stable,  T h i s c o u l d i n v o l v e problems of  An i n c r e a s e in the Okanagan of over h a l f is  rural,  from  is  that many  have made adequate  help from grandparents or o t h e r  rela-  - 33a -  T a b l e .1.3.  Percentage Change o f Male Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h  Area  in V a r i o u s Wage B r a c k e t s  Columbia and the Okanagan,  1951-61  - Wage earners  0-1,000  1,000-1,999  2,000-3,999  4,000+  B r i t i s h Columb i a  26.5  -8.6  654.1  34.6  994.1  Urban Rural Farm Non-farm  33.9 8.4  5.6 -30.9  -53.0 -56.2  39.2 -21.0 .9 23.2  987.9 1,020.4 1,815.6 988.1  -53 38  4.9  1,169.2  -50.0  -4.9 16.8 33.2 12.0  1,368.3 2,405.3 1,204.2  Okanagan Urban Rural Farm Non-farm  16.6  -58,8 17.1  16.0  19.3  33.0 1.0 -38.5 18.6  5.5 -33.5 61.9 4.8  -29,1  63.8  53.7  -56.3  -66.3 -48.8  1,077.0  -  tives  34  or by m o d i f y i n g working hours  -  to s u i t  the c h i l d r e n ' s  w i t h very young c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g much p h y s i c a l  hours.  Mothers  care are not prominent among  the female w a g e - e a r n e r s „ ^ Of a l l  the working women who have f a m i l i e s  many of  them must work because of  come i s  inadequate or the male head i s  cumstances their  the m o t h e r ' s  c h i l d r e n w h i l e at  financial  need.  absent  it  is  safe  Either  that  t h e i r husband's  from the home.  income must be used s p a r i n g l y  to say  in-  Under such  cir-  to pay f o r c a r e f o r  work.  The urban c e n t r e s seem to have a t t r a c t e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more female workers,  even more than the p r o v i n c e w i t h  its  large centres.  the spread between the low and the high wage b r a c k e t s for  females  in jobs  in the Okanagan than f o r males.  available  can be s a i d  in the two to four  to cover more of  b a s i s - more so,  Also,  is  It  seems  even more marked  more women are  thousand d o l l a r b r a c k e t .  sharing  This  those jobs which are on a permanent,  in any e v e n t ,  than many jobs  would be 1 a r g e l y p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s .  It  is  in the  that  0-2,000  bracket  ful1-time  brackets,  the f u l l - t i m e jobs  which  held by  women that can have the most f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  (Table  14) It  is  wage-earners  also  now s h a r i n g  mind that s i n c e small  increase All  interesting  to note the very l a r g e  in the top b r a c k e t s .  non showing o n l y a s l i g h t  all  levels  strong  female  i t must be kept  bracket  in whole numbers can make a huge percentage  the major c e n t r e s  give  However,  there were very few women in t h i s  in 1 9 5 1 ,  throughout  increase.  the four wage b r a c k e t s ,  tendency toward the bottom two b r a c k e t s .  the v a l l e y .  dis-  with V e r Such  i n d i c a t i o n of u n i f o r m i t y o f employment o p p o r t u n i t y  throughout  in  even a  in the Okanagan are r e l a t i v e l y uniform in  t r i b u t i o n of male wage-earners  figures  i n c r e a s e of  at  (Table 1 5 )  1 Department of Labour, Ottawa, " M a r r i e d Women Workers: the Home S i t u a t i o n . " B l i s h e n , Jones and Naegele, e d s . Canadian S o c i e t y . T o r o n t o , MacMillan Co. of Canada, 1 9 6 4 .  -  T a b l e 14.  34a  -  Percentage Change f o r Female Wage-Earners e t s in B r i t i s h Columbia and the Okanagan,  Area B r i t i sh Columbi a Urban Rural Farm Non-farm Okanagan Urban Rural Farm Non=farm  Wage Earners  0-1 , 0 0 0  in V a r i o u s 1951-61.  1,000- 1,999  2,000-3,999  343.5  57.3  14 . 4  - 3 6 .5  56.1  1 2 .2  -40  Wage B r a c k -  4,000+  5,179.0  .6  350.8  4,795.6  2 3 .9  .9  288.8  10,253.0  - 1 7 .9  - 1 6 .5  236.7  239.0  3 7 .2  4 .7  91.3  57.1  2 0 .6  2 .9  318.6  63.2  24 . 0  - 7 .8  330.7  13.0  47.6  1 6 .5  8 .1  291.8  187.0  65.0 12.9 78.9  21.1 63.9  -14  .3  14 . 7  334.1  3 8 .9  5 .1  275.2  8,947.1  26,200.0  -  -  A l t h o u g h a great indicated, range. ity  by f a r  Again,  rise  p r o p o r t i o n of  the major c e n t r e s of throughout  i a t i o n between c e n t r e s .  -  in female wage-earners  the g r e a t e r  in d i s t r i b u t i o n  i c e s of  35  in the higher b r a c k e t s  them are s t i l l  in the  uniform-  the wage b r a c k e t s , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e then, requirements f o r w e l f a r e  an economic nature would be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y very s i m i l a r  the v a l l e y , making  0-3,000  the Okanagan show a high degree o f  Quite possibly  the c h o i c e o f  is  var-  serv-  throughout  the Okanagan as a r e g i o n a wise one.  (Table  16) In comparing T a b l e 1 7 w i t h T a b l e 18, the o v e r a l l income can be s e e n . hand,  there seems  The  bracket  4,000+  is e s p e c i a l l y n o t a b l e .  to have been a r a t h e r l a r g e  the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d in s p i t e of  by many w o r k e r s .  the areas  i n c r e a s e d most r a p i d l y  in the  4,000+  l y equal  percentage  the t o t a l  A slight  female wage-earners  percentage a f t e r  turnabout  in t h a t  the t e n - y e a r  in the top b r a c k e t  is  seen  they have e x p e r i e n c e d approximate-  gains w i t h the urban group who are q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y ahead in the top The general  tendency  ers  2,000-3,999  b r a c k e t where they are a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t h i r d  in the  bers more than the r u r a l  for  in more of  is  again e x h i b i t e d by urban female wage-earn-  is  a f u r t h e r example of urban people b e i n g  the high income b r a c k e t s  than the r u r a l .  It  seems  the farm worker and not the non-farm worker who depresses Occupational  in num-  ( T a b l e s - 1 9 and 2 0 )  1961.  The p r o v i n c e as a whole  that  rural  it  is  earnings.  Composition^  In examining o c c u p a t i o n a l  1  has  i n c r e a s e has been seen in female  brackets.  of  in  the upward movement  c o n c e r n e d , the urban male wage-earner  bracket,  p e r i o d remains q u i t e s m a l l . w i t h the r u r a l  On the other  in the high b r a c k e t s .  A l t h o u g h a very l a r g e wage-earners  higher  number of people remaining  the lowest b r a c k e t a f t e r Of a l l  trend toward  Census figures age and o v e r .  for  1961  groups and changes  therein,  itis  interest-  p e r t a i n tb those employed who are f i f t e e n years  -  Table 1 5 .  35a  -  Male W a g e ° E a r n e r s b y  Income:  Major Centres o f  the  Okanagan,, 1 9 6 1 .  Earn i ngs  Kelowna  0=1,000 1 ,000-2,999 3,000-5,999  Total *  T a b l e 16.  (10.3)  229  0l .4)  273  (10.7)  550  (22.0)  514  (25.7)  576  (22.5)  (55.8)  1,028  (51.4)  1,388  296  2,495  (11.9)  (100.0)  230.  2,001  Okanagan,  0-1,000 1,000-2,999 3,000-5,999 6,000+ Total * *  ;  (11.5)  (100.0)  Female Wage-Earners by Income:  Earn i ngs  Pent i cton  258  1,391  6,000+  Vernon  Kelowna 412 556 173 14 1,155  (35.7) (48.1) (15.0) (1.2) (100.0)  321  2,558  (54.3) (12.5)  (100.0)  Major C e n t r e s o f the  1961.  Vernon 351 496 143 25  1,015  (34.6) (48.9) (14.1) (2.5) (100.0)  Pent i cton 361 (31.5) 569 (49.7) 203 (1 7.7) 13 (1.0 1,146  (100.0)  Includes those who r e p o r t e d e a r n i n g s by amount o f e a r n i n g s and not e a r n i n g s in k i n d . (See d e f i n i t i o n o f wage-earner.)  - 35b -  Table 1 7 .  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n  of Male Wage-Earners  in the  Okanagan  1951  0-999  Area Okanagan  1,000-1999'  2000-3999 4000+  Total*  17.4  31  J  43.3  2.9  94.7  Urban  13.6  26.5  51.3  4.3  95.7  Rural  20.8  35.2 40.0  36.4 21 .9 45.3  1.7 .6 2.4  94.1 94.0 94.3  Farm Non-farm  T a b l e 18.  31.5  14.3  32.3  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n  .  of Male Wage-Earners  in the  Okanagan  1961  2000-3999 4000+  Total*  Area  0-999  1000-1999  Okanagan  12.1  12.4  39.2  32.0  95.7  Urban  10.8  9.9  36.7  38.0  95.4  Rural  13.7 16.6 12.6  15.2 18.6 13.9  42.1 40.3 42.8  25.3 21.7 26.6  96 J2 97.2 95.9  Farm Non-farm  ^Canada Census f i g u r e s i n c l u d e o n l y those wage- e a r n e r s r e p o r t i ng e a r n i n g s by amount and not in " k i n d " . T h i s accounts f o r the t o t a l percentage b e i n g l e s s than one hundred.  -  T a b l e 19.  35c  -  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n  of Female Wage-Earners  Okanagan.  Area  0-999  Okanagan  in  the  1961..  1000-1999  2000-3999  4000+  Total  36.6  22.3  28.5  7.6  95.0  Urban  32.3  22.9  31.8  7.8  94.8  Rural  43.9  2 1 .1  22.8  7.4  95.2  43.8  22.9  22.8  8.8  98.3  4 3 . 9 -  20.3  22.7  6.8  93.7  Farm Non-farm  Table 2 0 .  income D i s t r i b u t i o n  of Female Wage-Earners  Okanagan.  Area Okanagan  0-999  1000-1999  in  the  1951.  2000-3999  4000+  Total  47.6  36.0  10.7  .04  94.3  Urban  42.5  40.6  12.1  .07  95.3  Rural  55.7  28.8  8.6  61.9  24.1  6.3  51.8  31.7  9.9  Farm Non-farm  -  93.1 92.3 93.4  -  T a b l e 21.  35d  -  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Male Wage-Earners Columbi a in  Area  N  B r i t i s h Columb i a Urban Rural Farm Non-farm  Table 2 2 .  0-999  1000-1999  4000+  Total  8.2  8.2  29.2  49.2  94.8  7.8 9.7 16.4 8.9  7.2 10.9 18.9 9.9  27.1 35.5 37.5 35.2  53d 39.3 22.4 41.6  95.2 95.4 95.2 95.6  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Wage-Earners  Area B r i t i s h Columbi a  British  2000-3999  Columb i a in 1961  Urban Rural Farm Non-farm  in  1961.  0-999  1000-1999  in  British  .  2000-3999  4000+  Total  18.9  41.4  9.0  94.2  23.1  18.7  43.5  9.1  94.4  35.0  20.5  29.2  8.6  93.3  38.8  21.1  25,1  8.1  93.1  34.4  20.5  29.9  8.7  93.5  24.9  -  Table 2 3 .  35e  -  tl-ncome D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Male Wage-Earners Columbia,  0-999  Area B r i t i s h Columb i a Urban Rural Farm Non-farm  T a b l e 24.  B r i t i s h Columb i a Urban  4000+  Total  11.3  22.5  56.5  5.8  96.1  9.7 15.3 28.2 12.4  20.6 27.2 37.0  59.6 48.6 26.4 53.5  6.6 3.8 .8 4.5  96.5 94.9 92.4 95.4  25.0  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Wage-Earners  Area  British  1951.  1000-1999 2000-3999  Columb i a.  Rural Farm Non-farm  in  0-999  1000-1999  in  British  1951.  2000-3999  4000+  Total  34.2  46.9  14.7  .03  95.8  32.2  49.1  1 5 J  .03  96.4  46.7  33.6  12.4  .01  92.7  53.4  28.5  8.4  (--)  90.3  44.9  35.0  64.4  .02  91.3  -  ing to work w i t h f a c t s greatest  changes  that  36  -  taken from the urban areas which u s u a l l y have taken p l a c e .  Occupational  positions  useful  tools  within  the many o c c u p a t i o n s vary a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own unique  but  in a s s e s s i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and e d u c a t i o n a l  the o c c u p a t i o n a l  the i n d i v i d u a l technical  level  functions  people w i l l  seek supplements  can p a r t i a l l y  in s o c i e t y .  f a m i l y or neighbourhood  ties  such that they w i l l  rather  is  than as  to with  r e s u l t of  upsetting  resources  to  fall  group o f urban males  at a l l .  numbers of men in c r a f t p o s i t i o n s at  not have  in  f r e q u e n t l y t r u e that craftsmen have l i t t l e more  are somewhat more secure than farm l a b o u r e r s ,  fare o f f i c i a l s  the  and f a m i l y  occupational  job s e c u r i t y than l a b o u r e r s w i t h no s k i l l s  the l a r g e  and  crisis.  Craftsmen comprisedthe l a r g e s t It  characteristics,  For example, most p r o f e s s i o n a l  Such persons may have more personal  (Table 2 5 )  Individuals  t h a t such f a m i l i e s make are more l i k e l y to be  back on d u r i n g such times of  1961.  levels.  very  income. . F u r t h e r , any moves or breaks  done on a planned, d e l i b e r a t e b a s i s lay-offs.  can be  i n d i c a t e the s t a b i l i t y w i t h which  have q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  to an inadequate  r e p r e s e n t the  times o f  industrial  Although  their  l o g g e r s and other  positions  labourers,  c o u l d become of concern to w e l -  layoffs  or o t h e r l o c a l  or  temporary  recessions. Although  the second l a r g e s t  glance seen to be as s t a b l e  group,  as any,  p r o p o r t i o n o f people in managerial small  it  may be in charge o f  Their positions  the u n s k i l l e d  might on  first  should be kept in mind that a  positions  one or two-person o p e r a t i o n s .  more secure than some of  the m a n a g e r i a l ,  labourers  c o u l d a l s o become of concern to w e l f a r e o f f i c i a l s  large  very  might t h e r e f o r e be no  and some c r a f t s m e n .  They  in times o f business  de-  c l i ne. The p r o p o r t i o n o f females different  from that of males.  It  in v a r i o u s is  helpful  occupational  categories  to look at the f i g u r e s  is  quite  f o r men  -  T a b l e 25.  Occupational  36a  -  Composition of Urban Males  Labour F o r c e : Okanagan Region,  Occupational  Group:  Managerial  in the  1961.  Per Cent o f Total  No.  16.8  1 ,919  P r o f e s s i onal and T e c h n i c a l  860  7.5  C I e r i cal  646  5.7  Sal es  970  8.5  S e r v i c e and Recreat i on  860  Transportation and Communication  928  8.1  Farmers and Farm L a b o u r e r s  639  5.6  Loggers, f i s h e r men, t r a p p e r s , e t c .  230  2.0  Miners,  quarrymen  68  :  :  7.5  .06  Labourers  720  6.3  Craftsmen  3,235  28.3  352  3.1  Not  reporting  Total  11,427  100.0  - 37 and women s e p a r a t e l y because the nature of o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o s i t e sexes  is not always the same.  s i o n a l " occupations men do.  and c r a f t p o s i t i o n s  T h i s would  positions  the f l u c t u a t i o n s  the f a c t  that t h e r e are no women working as  t h e r e are many fewer women o c c u p y i n g  immediately suggest that  and permanency in p o s i t i o n s  are l e s s of  seasonal  t h e r e ; is  and women,  Although  t h e r e seems to be a growing  aged people l i v i n g  better bargaining  that t h e r e are s t i l l  these o c c u p a t i o n s partial  Such t h i n k i n g groups  This  is  now cfom-  tends of  to lead  disadvant-  a primary concern  position  a woman i s  usually  than most  l o g g e r s or least  as  her in a  l a b o u r e r s who can be r e -  high e d u c a t i o n a l  qualifications.  mentioned here may t h e r e f o r e  to become o f concern to w e l f a r e o f f i c i a l s  rehabilitation  r e q u i r e d to have  secondary e d u c a t i o n , which p l a c e s  for  financial  or  reasons.  The female o c c u p a t i o n s i t u a t i o n to 1961.  that  the " b l u e - c o l l a r "  that everyone is  substantial  Women who are employed in most o f the p o s i t i o n s  occupational  than of  and e l s e w h e r e .  p l a c e d by any number o f men w i t h at  be l e s s r l i k e l y  against  today.  To q u a l i f y f o r complete or at l e a s t  that  Working women t h e r e f o r e  we must not assume  in the Okanagan  of welfare services  greater  number of p e o p l e , both men  in t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n .  us away from the f a c t  a slightly  the " w h i t e c o l l a r " jobs with the added s e c u r i t y  in these p o s i t i o n s ,  p l e t e l y comfortable  jobs.  better organized  to be more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c os such p o s i t i o n s  positions.  loggers  o c c u p i e d by women in  and p o s s i b l y  than  managerial  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  the elements and the economy.  seem to be in more of seems  As an example, women in the " p r o f e s -  and more in s e r v i c e , c l e r i c a l  amount of s t a b i l i t y women's  is  A s i d e from t h i s ,  ( T a b l e 26)  held by the  a c t u a l l y work in a more l i m i t e d number of p o s i t i o n s  Most obvious  or m i n e r s .  positions  d i d not change remarkably from 1951  The most n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e at  the e a r l i e r  time is  in the o c c u p a -  t i o n s of farmers and farm l a b o u r e r s which employed c o n s i d e r a b l y more women  - 37a -  Table 26.  Occupational  Composition of Urban Females  Labour F o r c e :  Occupational  Okanagan Region,  Group  No.  1961.  Per Cent o f Total  Manager i al  262  P r o f e s s i onal and T e c h n i c a l  722  14.7  1 ,280  26.1  CIer i cal Sal es  5.3  592  12.1  1,378  28.1  T r a n s p o r t a t ion and Communication  91  1.9  Farmers and Farm Labourers  70  1.4  Labourers  77  1.6  Craftsmen  290  5.9  Not  149  3.0  S e r v i c e and Recreat i on  reporting  TOTm  4,911  in the  100.0  38  -  in 1 9 5 1 .  (Table 2 7 )  women a l o n e .  This,  Rather,  it  however,  -  is  a s i t u a t i o n which is  is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a general  ing o c c u p a t i o n s .  There is a task here f o r s o c i a l  r e s e t t l e not o n l y  in a new geographical  i n t o a new s o c i a l  milieu.  have l o s t  s e v e r i n g of k i n s h i p urban areas  Also,  smal]  also  many oper-  It  is  not s u r p r i s i n g  at ever f i n d i n g a new p o s i t i o n  farm p o s i t i o n s positions.  Perhaps  away from h i s  des-  former home.  the number of women o c c u p y i n g e q u a l l y well  to men in  e v i d e n t and in the l a t t e r case  it  such  affects  (Table 2 8 ) rural  group,  both in percentage of  ranging  larger  to see the d i s p l a c e d farmer  between 1951 and 1961 a p p l i e s  Another l a r g e  ciprocal  Farmers, on moving to  statement made r e g a r d i n g  The same trend i s  more p e o p l e .  static,  ties.  in many cases has been a  f o r employment, a r e not used to the b u s t l e and the meeting of  The general  the c r a f t s m e n ,  total  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  from t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  changes  in the t e n - y e a r span are the r e and the " w h i t e c o l l a r "  and communication up to m a n a g e r i a l .  positions, Farmers  in  the number in 1951 and the " w h i t e c o l l a r " o c c u p a -  have been a p p r o x i m a t e l y d o u b l e d .  re-settlement  have remained r e l a t i v e l y  and in whole numbers.  changes made between farm workers  1961 weee'-about o n e - s i x t h  for  their positions.  The r e s u l t  and neighbourhood  new f a c e s every day.  tions  away from the farm, but  have had to g i v e way under the p r e s s u r e of e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n  to produce more goods more c h e a p l y .  pair  in h e l p i n g people  Due to m o d e r n i z a t i o n of farming o p e r a t i o n s ,  farm hands and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ators  to  trend away from farm-  workers  position  not unique  There are f u r t h e r  implications  here  in new p o s i t i o n s .  Labour F o r c e A f a c t o f major concern in a s s e s s i n g the labour tion of  the t o t a l  f o r c e that  is  unemployed.  unemployed (both male and female) national  averages.  In  1961  f o r c e is  the p r o p o r -  the number of  people  compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h p r o v i n c i a l  The r e d u c t i o n in percentages o f  total  and  unemployed may be  -  Table 2 7 .  Occupational  38a  -  Composition of Rural  the Labour F o r c e :  Occupational  Group  Females  Okanagan Region,  No.  1961.  Per Cent of Total  Managerial  185  5.5  P r o f e s s i onal and T e c h n i c a l  404  12.1  Clerical  609  18.2  Sal es  295  8.8  S e r v i c e and Recreat i on  705  21.1  36  1.1  Transportation and Communication  1  Farmers and Farm Labourers  692  20.7  Craftsmen  238  7.1  Labourers  94  2.8  Not  79  2.4  3,337  100.0  reporting  TOTAL  in  - 38b -  T a b l e 28.  Occupational  Composition o f Rural  Labour F o r c e ; Okanagan Region.  Occupational  Group  No.  Males  in the  1961.  Ber Cent of Total  1 ,128  9.5  538  4.5  317 367  2.7 3.1  S e r v i c e and Recreat ional  367  3.1  Transportation and Communication  716  6.0  3,604  30.4  L o g g e r s , Fishermen, Trappers, e t c .  641  5.4  Miners,  148  1.2  2,989 781 260  25.2 6.6 2.2  11,856  100.0  Manager i al Professional Techn i cal  and  CIer i cal Sal es  Farmers and Farm Labourers  Quarrymen  Craftsmen Labourers Not  reporting  TOTAL  - 39 -  an encouraging  indication  becoming more s t a b l e .  that  Conceivably  help through p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e An important f a c t o r in some c a s e s ,  the income of many f a m i l i e s then,  t h e r e may be l e s s  and i n d i v i d u a l s need f o r  is  financial  programs.  to remember, however,  is  the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e ,  and  growing, number of people in the lowest wage b r a c k e t s who do  not earn enough to p r o v i d e themselves  and t h e i r f a m i l i e s with the  necessities  of  be made of what c o n s t i t u t e s  the n e c e s -  life.  sities is  A f u r t h e r examination might  of  life  "basic".  least  in view of our r a p i d l y changing  Unless  reasonably  alienating function  the lowest  close  income groups  to the r e s t o f  them in such a manner  that  in the same communities.  standards  can a f f o r d a " s t y l e of  the community,  there is  of equal  opportunity for a l l  not o n l y f i n a n c i a l  limitations  A superficial well  glance  Careful  (Table 29)  below what  is  changes  in f a c t ,  that men s t i l l less  less  to face  Okanagan  Although  p o i n t e d out  in the  per c e n t .  However,  occupy many more p o s i t i o n s (Table  force  in-  in number, by f a r The p r o p o r t i o n of  the whole numbers  than do women,  earning  living.  labour  smaller  the r a t i o  show  being  30)  Hous i ng Residential  mobility  influences  inter-personal  is  gainfully  which shows that many people are s t i l l  o c c u r r e d among the female workers.  than one to f o u r .  The democratic  r e l a t i v e l y few people are not  than o n e - f i f t h .  decreased by 6.9  then be-  would cause one to b e l i e v e that a l l  the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d the t o t a l  c r e a s e d by s l i g h t l y  slightly  III  of  as w e l l .  g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be a decent standard o f  Throughout  the g r e a t e s t  limitations  r e f e r e n c e should be made to the f a c t s  "wages" s e c t i o n of Chapter  men,  but s o c i a l  at  them to  becomes more vague when one has  in the employment f i e l d and that  employed.  life"  The spread between income groups life.  what  a danger  i t may become d i f f i c u l t f o r  comes a matter not o n l y of money but of a whole way of ideal  and ideas of  relationships  by 1im™  - 39:a -  Table 29.  S i z e of Labour F o r c e : Okanagan Region,  1951  - 1961.  1961  1951 Category Active force  labour  Male  P.C.of total  20,752  96.2  4,866  814  3.8  120  21,566  100.0  4,986  Unemployed Total force  1abour  Table 30.  P.C.of Femal e t o t a l  -  97.6  22,671  97.4  8,200  99.4  2.4  612  2.6  48  0.6  23,283  100.0  8,248  Composition and  1961.  Group Rural  P.C.of total  1 00.0  Labour Force in the Okanagan: 1951  Male  1951  1961  P.C. change  12,733 2,025  11,856 3,337  -6.9 64.8  8,833 2,961  11,427 4,911  29.4 65.9  26,552  31,531  18.8  Areas  Mai es Females Urban Areas Mai es Females Total  Labor Force  P.C.of Female t o t a l  Changes,  100.Oi  - ko i t i n g continuous affiliations rupts  social  (e.g.  action.  church, club, e t c . )  these a c t i v i t i e s .  ing on m o b i l i t y married c o u p l e s ,  Most people e s t a b l i s h  it  indicates  social  but a high degree of m o b i l i t y  The number of  in that  f r i e n d s h i p and  tenant-occupied dwellings  temporariness  for  inter-  has a b e a r -  some r e s i d e n t s ;  f o r example, o f t e n rent f o r a time p r i o r  young  to p u r c h a s i n g  their  own home. In examining 17.4 per cent of This  the o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s  them the l e n g t h of occupancy has been l e s s  is very s i m i l a r  to m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver,  dwellings  have been o c c u p i e d f o r  dwellings  occupied for  is  Since  the percentages  area as a whole, ial  less  per c e n t , 21.3  18.0  mobility  less  per c e n t , for  is  higher, 38.3  16.3  and 18.5  than the l a r g e r  as  the r e s i d e n t s  slightly  (38.1  in Vernon  This  the three main c e n t r e s (21.7 In  per c e n t ) ;  housing  the r u r a l  for  than f o r  have l e s s  W)  the  resident-  the three main c e n t r e s  is  almost  27.9  identical  per cent of  are lower: Kelowna  are  urban p e o p l e .  for but  dwellings Kelowna  drops  the d w e l l i n g s  the homes  per cent f o r  In a d d i t i o n (Tabde 32)  (25 per c e n t ) ;  in the For Pen-  cent).  over Jk per cent of  p i e d homes r e p o r t e d a mortgage,  m o b i l i t y of  per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y )  and Vernon.(2k.k per  per cent f o r Canada.  (Table  ten years or more by the r e s i d e n t s .  these r a t e s  patterns  areas  the g r e a t e r  percentage  are owner-occupied as compared to 71 and 66  per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . are higher  of  and Vernon  the Okanagan have o c c u p i e d t h e i r  per c e n t ) .  Okanagan have been o c c u p i e d f o r  ticton  of  per cent and 38.5 (36.5  Penticton  the  in the Okanagan o c c u p i e d f o r one to two  implied e a r l i e r ,  from three to ten y e a r s .  per cent of  centres.  per c e n t ; again the r a t e s  per cent o f  and P e n t i c t o n  that  for  than one y e a r .  The percentage  f o r Kelowna,  the three major c e n t r e s  i t can be assumed  reflecting,  where 17.3  than one y e a r .  than one year  The percentage of d w e l l i n g s years  in the Okanagan as a whole,  32.9  all  in the Okanagan  of B r i t i s h  per cent of  Columbia  the o w n e r - o c c u -  Judging by average  rents  (orig-  - 40a  Table  31.  Occupied D w e l l i n g s by Tenure and Length of Occupancy: and Major  Centres.  Owned  Rented  Okanagan  1961.  TENURE Area  -  Length o f l e s s thar 1 - 2 Pile yeaf y e a n 17.4 16.3  Occupancy  "FT  year^ 21 .8  years  1U+ years  Total  16.5  27.9  100.0  Okanagan  74.7  25.3  Ke1 own a  72.5  27.5  18.0  19.0  22.6  1 5.5  25.0  1 00.0  Penti cton  71  29.0  21  .3  18.4  25.2  13.3  21  1 00.0  Vernon  66^7  33.3  18.5  20.5  23.0  13.5  24.4  .0  .7  = 40b  T a b l e 32.  "  Comparative Housing P a t t e r n s : couver, B r i t i s h  Columbia,  Okanagan, M e t r o p o l i t a n  and Canada,  1961.  Metropoli tan Van- B r i t i s h Columbi a Okanagan couver  I tern  Canada  Owner =occup.i ed dwel l i n g  74.7  69.7  71 . 0  66.0  Owner-occupied a mortgage  32.9  35.5  28.6  21.5  13,932  11,744  11,021  reporting  Or i gi nal v a l u e of occupi ed dwel l i n g  9*546  Tenant-occupied  25.3  30.3  29.0  34.0  Or i gi nal c o n t r a c t monthly rent  49.00  75.00  65.00  65.00  Households biles  74.5  71 . 3  71.8  68.4  6.6  20.8  14.9  25.3  with  Per cent l i v i n g ment o f f1 at  dwellings'  automoin  apart-  Van-  I  Table 3 3 .  Comparative Housing C o n d i t i o n s : couver,  British  need o f major  Without  Columbia and Canada,  1961.  Metropoli tan V a n - B r i t i sh Columb i a Okanagan couver  1 tern In  Okanagan, M e t r o p o l i t a n  repair  running water  Canada  7.7  3.7  5.5  5.6  5.9  .5  5.0  10.9  Without e x c l u s i v e f1ush t o i 1 e t  11 . 9  8.5  13.9  21  Wi thout e x c l u s i ve bath or shower  6.6  5.8  11 . 5  22.9  6.5  3.8  7.2  8.1  65.9  9.8  20.7  23.5  44.4  16.1  30.1  32.6  Without  refrigeration  faci1i ties Coal  and wood heated  Wi thout f u r n a c e ( c e n t r a l heated)  .0  Van-  inal  c o n t r a c t monthly rent)  p o l i t a n Vancouver ada  ($75.00)  the Okanagan ($4-9.00) i s much lower than metroand lower than B r i t i s h Columbia  and Can-  ($65.00)  Only 6 . 6 , p e r cent of the people in the Okanagan l i v e  ($65.00).  ments as compared to 2 0 . 8 per cent in m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 14.9  in a p a r t per cent  in B r i t i s h Columbia, and 2 5 . 3 per cent in Canada.  I n the Okanagan 7 4 . 5 per  cent of households  than B r i t i s h  have a u t o m o b i l e s ,  a r a t e higher  ( 7 1 . 8 per cent)  and Canada ( 6 8 . 4 per c e n t ) .  agars, p o s s i b l y ,  because o f s p a r s e r  This  r a t e is  Columbia  higher  in the Okan-  p o p u l a t i o n and the g r e a t e r need f o r  trav-  el . In s t u d y i n g of  the houses  the housing c o n d i t i o n s  is  surprising  agan 5 . 9 per cent o f  as compared to  Columbia and 5 . 6 per cent f o r Canada.  the houses  per cent  t h a t 7 . 7  in the Okanagan are in need of major r e p a i r s ,  5 . 5 per cent f o r B r i t i s h  the  it  In  the Okan-  l a c k running water, which is comparable to  5 per cent f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  (Table 3 3 )  The i n c i d e n c e  of the  of e x c l u s i v e use of a f l u s h t o i l e t , bath or shower,  and r e f r i g e r a t i o n  ities  Of c o n s i d e r a b l e  is  is  smaller  than f o r a l l  the high percentage ( 6 5 . 9  heated.  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  per cent) of homes that are coal  facil-  interest  and wood  The comparable r a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia is 2 0 . 7 per cent and f o r  Canada i s 2 3 . 5 per c e n t . t i v e p r o x i m i t y to o i l  One would expect that with the Okanagan's  and n a t u r a l  t r i c i t y would be used f o r  gas  heating.  fields,  rela-  these sources or even e l e c -  However these newer f u e l s c o u l d be the  trend in the newer houses being b u i l t ,  and p o s s i b l y c o n v e r s i o n of  the heat=  ing systems from wood and cfcal would prove too c o s t l y f o r o l d e r type many of which l i e on the f r i n g e s moreover,  of  the c i t i e s .  tend to be heated by wood and c o a l .  r e l a t e d to h e a t i n g central  lack  heating.  is  that almost  Homes owned by  (44.4  T h i s p r o p o r t i o n is c o n s i d e r a b l y higher  umbia ( 3 0 . 1 per cent)  and Canada ( 3 2 . 6  Indians,  Another s u r p r i s i n g  h a l f of the houses  per c e n t ) .  houses,  feature  per cent) than B r i t i s h  lack Col-  One would expect that  - 42  central  -  h e a t i n g would be more e s s e n t i a l  er m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver,  for  instance.  in the c o l d e r Okanagan than However,  too the newer house might be equipped with c e n t r a l greater  frequency than the o l d e r  homes.  the r e v e r s e heating  is  in m i l d -  true.  facilities  Here  with  IV  CHAPTER  Social  Welfare S e r v i c e s :  Caseloads,  The purpose, o r g a n i z a t i o n , incial  Department of S o c i a l  studies out  in t h i s  series.^  study,-  however,  this  Categories  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f u n c t i o n i n g of  Welfare have been set out  This material trends  will  in d e t a i l  the P r o v -  in  previous  not be repeated h e r e .  in w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s  couver a n d F r a s e r V a l l e y Region w i l l  and Trends  Through-  in the m e t r o p o l i t a n Van-  be compared w i t h those found in the  Okanagan R e g i o n . ! si the Okanagan Region the Department of S o c i a l vices  from f i v e p r o v i n c i a l  Welfare p r o v i d e s  o f f i c e s - Vernon, Kelowna, P e n t i c t o n , O l i v e r  Grand Forks and t h r e e amalgamated municipal  offices  serand  l o c a t e d at P e n t i c t o n ,  Ke 1 ow?ta a n d Vernon. From 1 9 5 1 cent.  to 1 9 6 1  I n comparison  the p o p u l a t i o n  the r e g i o n a l  in the Okanagan had r i s e n by 2 2 per  caseload  had i n c r e a s e d by k~l per c e n t ,  more than double the p o p u l a t i o n  increase.  c a s e l o a d and p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s  showed a s i m i l a r  Vancouver's  p o p u l a t i o n and c a s e l o a d  Over the t e n - y e a r span, el  of  however,  (Table 3 4 )  The F r a s e r  t r e n d , w h i l e frtetropolitan  i n c r e a s e s were r e l a t i v e l y the same.  the Okanagan maintained  the 8 per cent  the B r i t i s h Columbia c a s e l o a d w h i l e the F r a s e r V a l l e y ' s  the p r o v i n c i a l  caseload  rose from 9 per cent  The P e n t i c t o n D i s t r i c t perienced a population per c e n t ,  a figure  O f f i c e serves  in 1 9 5 1  lev-  proportion of  to 1 6 per cent  in  1961.  a widely scattered area;  it  ex-  i n c r e a s e of 46 per cent and a c a s e l o a d  three tines  Valley's  the p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e .  r i s e of 1 3 5  (Table 3 4 )  1 B l e d s o e , Margaret Y. and S t b l a r , Grace E. A Regional Study of S o c i a l Wei f a r e _Measurement_s_,(No. 2 : The F r a s e r Valj,ey) . Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 3 , pp. 5 1 - 6 6 .  - 43a-  Table  34.  Districts  P o p u l a t i o n and Caseload Comparisons:  and  Main O f f i c e s VERNON Armstrong Coldstream Enderby Spal1umcheen KELOWNA Glenmore PENTICTON Keremeos 0 1 i ver Osoyoos Peachland Pr i nceton Summer 1 and  Pop.  in Thousands  Per Cent 1ncrease 1951-61  Okanagan R e g i o n .  Caseload  1951-1961.  Totals 1961  Per Cent 1ncrease  1951  1961  13,163  17,739  34.76  1,336  2,114  58.9  9,636  13,188  36.84  1,127  1,488  32.0  16,628  24,327  46.3  1,389  2,274  135.7  2,455  3,279  GRAND FORKS Unorganized T e r r i t o r ies 1ndi an Reserves  30,135  1,046  1,127  TOTAL  73,063  89,641  29v98l  33.5  1951  546  601  1951-61  9.2  .005 .07  22.7  4,398  6,477  47.2  -  44  -  Both Kelowna and Grand Forks have p o p u l a t i o n fare services  increase.  i n c r e a s e s which exceed the w e l -  A l t h o u g h Grand Forks f i g u r e s  numbers,  the c a s e l o a d  Further,  the Kelowna D i s t r i c t  are small  in  absolute  i n c r e a s e is o n l y one q u a r t e r o f the p o p u l a t i o n is  r e l a t i v e l y smaller  than e i t h e r ,  its  increase. Pentic-  ton or Vernon c o u n t e r p a r t s . When the 1 9 5 6 totals, latter  i t can be seen t h a t five years.  greatest doubled  its  the major c a s e l o a d  (Table 3 5 a )  Between 1 9 5 1  increases  ienced by f a r  caseload  an i n c r e a s e of 48 per c e n t .  l a c k of work,  t h e r e is  c o m p e l l i n g the r e s i d e n t s  took p l a c e in the  from 1 9 5 6 on P e n t i c t o n  increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y  the worst e f f e c t s o f  and 1 9 6 1  and 1 9 5 6 Kelowna showed the  c a s e l o a d w h i l e Kelowna showed the lowest  2 , 1 1 4 in 1 9 6 1 ,  is  are viewed along with the 1 9 5 1  i n c r e a s e ( 1 9 per cent) of c a s e s ;  Vernon D i s t r i c t  there  caseload figures  rise  almost  in c a s e l o a d s .  from 1 , 4 2 9 cases  in 1 9 5 6  The P e n t i c t o n D i s t r i c t  exper-  the economic r e c e s s i o n of 1 9 5 8 .  Where  to  l a c k of unemployment insurance coverage,  to turn to p u b l i c f u n d s .  T h i s f a c t o r can be seen  more c l e a r l y when the p e n s i o n e r s are excluded from the c a s e l o a d s . work w i t h t h i s  The  Since  group does not r e q u i r e the continuous p l a n n i n g and assessment  demands of o t h e r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s ,  a more a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of  the  caseloads  can be s e e n . In  1951  the number of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s given  needs e x c l u d i n g the p e n s i o n e r s was  1,721;  dropped to 1 , 3 7 7 c a s e s .  (Table 3 5 b )  by the f a c t  l e g i s l a t i o n of  that f e d e r a l  made Canadians  in  to people with d i f f e r e n t  1956,  this  regional  T h i s decrease, however,  is  the Old Age S e c u r i t y Act  figure qualified in  1952  over 7 0 years of age a u t o m a t i c a l l y e l i g i b l e f o r t h e f e d e r a l  pension without a means t e s t . receiving social  Residents  aged from 6 5 to 6 9 years who were  allowances became e l i g i b l e f o r Old Age A s s i s t a n c e  s e q u e n t l y became c l a s s i f i e d as " p e n s i o n c a s e s " .  Moreover,  a small  and c o n number  of d e s t i t u t e d i s a b l e d persons became e l i g i b l e f o r the D i s a b l e d Persons  Allow-  - 44a -  Table 35.  a.  Distribution of Caseloads in the Okanagan, 1951-1961.  Total Caseload Number of Cases (a)  Office  Percentage increase  Change  1951 546  1956 513  1961 601  1951-56 94.6  1956-61 114.6  1951-61  Kelowna  1,127  1,345  1,488  119.3  110.6  132.0  Pent i cton  1,389  1,699  3,274  112.2  192.7  235.7  Vernon  1,336  1,429  2,114  109.3  147.9  158.9  4,398  4,986  6,477  113.4  133.9  147.2  Grand Forks  TOTALS!.  1  109.2  (a) Note: 1951-Base year-100.  b.  Cases Excluding Pensions Office  Number of Casies  Percentage Increase  1951 208  1956 119  1961 191  1951-56 57.2  1956-61 160.5  1951-61  Kelowna  364  448  547  123.0  122.0  150.2  Penti cton  620  373  1,198  60.0  321 .1  193.2  Vernon  529  437  82.6  170.0  140.4  80.0  ;195.0  Grand Forks  T0TALS  1,721  1,377  743 ' 2,679  91.8  155.7  - 45 -  ance which is  a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d under the pension  For the f i r s t  f i v e years  under s t u d y ,  scheme.  the r e g i o n a l  when the p e n s i o n e r s : w e r e  i n c l u d e d but decreased without  1961,  the expected i n c r e a s e  however,  t h e r e was  r e c e i v i n g pensions were e x c l u d e d .  Indeed,  whole t e n - y e a r p e r i o d was 47 per c e n t , e x c l u d i n g them.  These f i g u r e s  the degree o f d i s t o r t i o n fare service  in cases over  including pension,, rOugh as  to those  the  but 56 Per  cent  they a r e , reveal  :  e f f e c t on the o t h e r w e l -  (minus p e n s i o n e r s )  decrease without be the r e a s o n .  in d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s ,  in c a s e l o a d when p e n s i o n e r s  them.  The i n f l u x of o l d e r  Kelowna,  Rapid p o p u l a t i o n  growth  in c o n t r a s t , in t h i s  c e r t a i n l y a part of  the Grand  r e d u c t i o n in w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s  The trend in P e n t i c t o n and Vernon d u r i n g  toward an i n c r e a s e  is  From 1956  statistics.  and 1956.  dustries  the i n c r e a s e  on the c a s e l o a d s ,  Forks area experienced an even g r e a t e r  was  them.  increased  in w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s when  the number of p e n s i o n e r s  Judging by c a s e l o a d s  1951  caseload  are  residents  between  the same p e r i o d  i n c l u d e d but a marked i n t o these areas may  experienced a r i s e  in c a s e l o a d  area as a r e s u l t of d e v e l o p i n g l i g h t  size. in-  the e x p l a n a t i o n but a d e t a i l e d study would  be v a l u a b l e . The Okanagan Region has m a n i f e s t e d some trends which a r e s s i m i 1ar those Valley  in M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n . had a steady  increase  of p e n s i o n e r s between 1951 All  three regions  in requests  and 1956.  displayed  sharp  for service despite  to  The F r a s e r the e x c l u s i o n  As noted, the Okanagan had a d e c r e a s e .  increases  in c a s e l o a d s  between 1956 and  1961. Fluctuations stood Social  in terms o f  in the c a s e l o a d the v a r i o u s  Welfare d i v i d e s  Allowance; Pensions,  totals  have 1 i t t l e r m e a n i n g  kinds of s e r v i c e s  these s e r v i c e s  given.  B l i n d and D i s a b l e d  under-  The Department  i n t o f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s :  which i n c l u d e Old Age S e c u r i t y ,  Supplementary A s s i s t a n c e ,  unless  Social  Old Age A s s i s t a n c e  pensions;  of  Family S e r v i c e ; :  and  - 46 -  un-  C h i l d W e l f a r e , which is comprised of adoption and Foster home s e r v i c e s , m a r r i e d parents and Pensions  p r o t e c t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , H e a l t h and  are p r i m a r i l y made up o f  Institutional.  income maintenance programmes,  v i d i n g the aged and the i n f i r m the c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - s u p p o r t . i t y o f cases s o c i a l initial  assessment.  workers' Planning  c o n t a c t w i t h the pensioners for b o a r d i n g and n u r s i n g  a l s o p a r t o f the s e r v i c e which can become Social  allowance,  beyond the i n d i v i d u a l ' s or seasonal  unemployment, s i c k n e s s  vices  assistance  a r i s e s out of  and o l d age,  to the i n d i v i d u a l  When an i n d i v i d u a l  r e q u i r i n g the s o c i a l  members ot the  is  need,  in-  rehabili-  circumstances technological  to mention a few b a s i c or a f a m i l y  independence, problems which would o t h e r w i s e be  o f t e n become overwhelming,  the  time-consuming.  c o n t r o l : d e s e r t i o n by the husband,  causes of people in need of h e l p . financial  home placement  f o r the purpose o f "economic and s o c i a l  T h i s need f o r f i n a n c i a l  the major-  is b r i e f a f t e r  granted where there is proven f i n a n c i a l  c l u d e s casework s e r v i c e s tation".^  In  pro-  loses  insignificant  worker to o f f e r casework  ser-  family. 2  Problems which a r i s e out o f "human r e l a t i o n s h i p or b e h a v i o u r " d e a l t w i t h under Family S e r v i c e .  P r o b a t i o n r e p o r t s and casework w i t h p a r -  ents of problem c h i l d r e n are examples o f the s e r v i c e s service  is,  in e f f e c t ,  are  given.  This  indirect  a p r e v e n t i v e one.  C h i l d Welfare i s concerned w i t h the needs of c h i l d r e n where the n a t u r a l parents are u n w i l l i n g or unable to plan f o r t h e i r dependents.  These s e r -  v i c e s are many and v a r i e d , demanding much time and a high degree of on the p a r t of the s o c i a l applicants  2  Ibid,  worker. . Home s t u d i e s on adoption and f o s t e r home  are a much needed and rewarding s e r v i c e .  1 P o l i cy Manual. p. 310. p.293.  skill  Department of S o c i a l  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of fam-  Wei f a r e , V i c t o r i a , B.C.,  1962,  - hi -  ilies  charged w i t h c h i l d n e g l e c t are a small  social  but  important s e r v i c e .  workers, moreover, s u p e r v i s e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g  in f o s t e r  The  homes and  work w i t h unmarried p a r e n t s . The H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l t i o n s where standards institutions patients  for  about  must be m a i n t a i n e d ,  r e p o r t s , and to s e r v i c e s  to be d i s c h a r g e d  When a person a p p l i e s worker  services  interviews  refer  to i n s p e c t i o n of  to the requests to f a m i l i e s  of  institu-  from p r o v i n c i a l  institutionalized  to the community.  to" the Department f o r a s e r v i c e , an " i n t a k e "  him in order to determine the p e r s o n ' s  and the Department' s r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y  towards  financial  a s s e t s and r e s i d e n c e are reviewed and  if  need,  financial  Later,  for  instance,  eligibility  his  him.  is proven, then s o c i a l  e i t h e r by home v i s i t s  or o f f i c e  to p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s or to f e d e r a l  h a l f of  the c l i e n t .  the s o c i a l  worker,  worker's  caseload  is  provide r e on b e -  the D e p a r t organ-  help.  composed o f many people with a  v a r i e t y o f complex needs.  In  ized c a s e l o a d s  people w i t h a s i m i l a r  whereby a l l  drawing  r e t r a i n i n g programmes  or f i n a n c i a l  in  discusses  worker at times draws on p r i v a t e  the community f o r m a t e r i a l  Thus the s o c i a l  the caseworker  The s o c i a l  is  granted.  Where need is e s p e c i a l l y acute yet o u t s i d e  responsibility,  izations within  is  p r o v i s i o n s , may apply f o r r e n t a l overages,  ferrals  ment's  the a p p l i c a n t  allowance  interviews,  tenth the c l i e n t other r e l a t e d areas of need. upon the Department's  If  p a r t i c u l a r need  some i n s t a n c e s ,  however,  these are s p e c i a l -  need such as  pensioners  are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of one worker. For the Okanagan Region over the t e n - y e a r span persons sions,  social  ( T a b l e 3^a)  allowance and c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s A comparison of  f i c u l t because of  l e s s Family S e r v i c e " c a s e s "  increased numerically.  the H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l  the changed d e f i n i t i o n of in 1961  than  r e c e i v i n g pen-  the c a t e g o r y .  services  is  dif-  There were f i v e  in 1951 d e s p i t e the i n c r e a s e  in  -  Table  a.  Distribution  36.  Absolute  Pensions Soci al Al1owance Child  Service Welfare  H e a l t h $• Welfare  Institutions  of Caseloads  Categories:  Okanagan.  1951-61.  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  2,671  3,188  3,351  3,328  3,469  4,141  853  833  820  720  1,287  1,806  172  169  150  142  731  598  659  676  105  40  14  -  7  27  35  50  147  156  644  670  82  86  1  2  as at December 31 f o r a l t e r n a t e  Percentage  years  distribution  Categor i es PENSIONS  1951  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  61.7  65.8  64.0  67.8  63.4  58.2  OAA OAAS B & DPA SOCIAL ALLOWANCE FAMILY SERVICE CHILD WELFARE Adoption Services F o s t e r Home S e r v i c e s P r o t e c t i o n and UPA 1 HEALTH & INSTITUTIONAL TOTAL  by Major  1951  Institutions  Statistics  b.  -  numbers  Category  Fami1y  4 7 a  1  17.0  16.7  14.2  13.7  13.3  47.7  43„2  49.0  44.8  40.7  1.1  4.1  4.6  4.9  4.2  19.6  15.3  16.7  14.8  22.9  29.7  3.3  3.2  3.3  3.4  2.7  2.2  14.7  13.8  14.0  12.6  10.8  9.8  3.6  4.2  4.1  3.3  2.7  2.3  8.5  8.3  8.5  8.9  7.4  7.4  2.6  1.3  1.4  .4  .2  .1  1.6  1.9  2.0  1.4  .2  .1  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  -  Table  37.  Distribution  47b  -  o f Caseloads  by Major  Okangan  Number of Cases Category 1951  Soci al  Allowance  Pens i ons  2,671  OAA OASB B & DPA . Fami1y S e r v i ce Child  Health &  (a) (b)  147  753  1951-61,  Dec..  1961 1 ,806  3,307  3,798  795  852  2,321  2,648  191  298  166  142  Percentage  Increase  (b)  951-56  1956-61  1951-61  92.0  239.8  220.8  123.8  114.8  142.2  „  107.2  112.9  114.1 156.0  85.5  96.6  Welfare Adoption Services F o s t e r Home ServTee Unmarried P a r e n t s Protection  TOTAL  818  and Changes,  Region.  (as at  1956  Categories,  Institutional  156(a)  194(a)  148(a) 124.4  376  411  478  59  31  47  76.3  94.9  109.3  116.3  127.1  36  52.5  116.1  61.0  9  40.4  47.4  19.1  86.1  91.9  79.2  129.9  147.2  72  62  57  4,398  4,986  6,477  113.4  i n c l u d i n g a d o p t i o n homes, pending and approved, and c h i l d r e n p l a c e d on adoption p r o b a t i o n . 1 9 5 1 - Base 1 0 0  - 48 -  population.  Assessment of  ever, provides  the p r o p o r t i o n a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e r v i c e s ,  a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of  the trends  in the c a s e l o a d  The p r o p o r t i o n of p e n s i o n e r s changed from 62 in 1 9 5 1 ( T a b l e 36b) pecially  a high of 68  to  per cent in 1957  The r e d u c t i o n of  "cases"  per cent of  that o l d age  suggests  savings,  help from f a m i l i e s ,  the  caseload 1961.  assistance,(es-  that g r e a t e r numbers of  these o l d e r people have t h e i r own means of f i n a n c i a l personal  components.  then down to 5 8 per cent in  suggests  the supplementary a s s i s t a n c e )  how-  support,  either  or from t h e i r own p r i v a t e  from  pension  pians. Social  assistance  d a t a showed a r e v e r s a l  the numbers o f people r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l (19.6  per cent o f  load).  was  1957  the caseload) the low y e a r ,  than  in 1961  i n c r e a s e d the numbers o f unemployed.  taxation.  The t o t a l in 1 9 5 1  social  Sawmills employing  in  such as  the use of  fruit-pickers  two to s i x men increased forcing  assistance.  f o r allowance s w e l l e d as t h e y d i d  number o f C h i l d Welfare s e r v i c e s in I 9 6 I .  When the number o f adopting c h i l d r e n in c a r e w i l l  in the p e r i o d under study but w i l l s u l t of  increase  in  the p r o v i n c e .  to 9 . 8 per cent  the number of  the c a s e -  f o r fewer numbers of  the post World War  d e c l i n e d from 14.7  per cent  The number of adoption s e r v i c e s  went a 2 per cent r e d u c t i o n whereas f o s t e r stable.  per cent of  e i t h e r to l e a v e the area or seek f i n a n c i a l  throughout  that  1961  area the mines and the brewery c l o s e d ,  Thus the numbers of people a p p l y i n g other regions  in  revenues were f u r t h e r reduced to number by  In the Similkameen  many r e s i d e n t s  (29.7  trend in  were l e s s  Mechanized f a r m i n g ,  systems and machinery a l l o w i n g  e a r n i n g o n l y marginal  assistance  a f t e r which a sharp  allowance r e c i p i e n t s was e v i d e n c e d . sprinkler  o f the pension  home s e r v i c e s . were r e l a t i v e l y  couples d e c r e a s e , increase.  This  it  is  likely  that  trend cannot be seen  no doubt appear a f t e r  1961.  As a r e -  1 ! high b i r t h r a t e , t h e r e are n u m e r i c a l l y more  under-  -  young people than ever b e f o r e .  49  -  Thus there w i l l  be and are today,  a greater  number o f c h i l d r e n born out o f wedlock, many r e q u i r i n g a d o p t i v e homes. the adoption homes are not found f o s t e r  home s e r v i c e s w i l l  and expanded or e l s e new a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l When comparing distribution, ing a l a r g e r  number of p e n s i o n e r s .  Category o f  have to be used  have to be f o u n d .  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f cases w i t h the o v e r a l l  and w i t h the F r a s e r V a l l e y , In  the Okanagan,  1961  British Columb i a  Service  the f i g u r e s  Okanagan  it  were as  Fraser  58.2  51  Social  34.5  29.7  36.0  Fami1y S e r v i c e  1.6  2.2  Child  8.9  9.8  __0._9  0.1  H e a l t h and  Institutional  -  100.0  The Okanagan Region, ceiving  social  allowance  is  carry-  follows:  Val1ey  54.1  Welfare  provincial  appears,  Pens i ons Allowance  If  J  1 .5 10.4 1 .0  100.0  100.0  moreover, has a lower p r o p o r t i o n of people r e -  than e i t h e r  the F r a s e r V a l l e y or  the p r o v i n c e as a  whole. Social years 1951  later  allowance cases t h e r e were  and 1 9 5 6  allowance  on the o t h e r cipients. ulation agan,  a  1,806,  t h e r e was  in t h i s  in 1 9 5 1 120  per cent  r e g i o n and  attracts  in c o n t r a s t ,  is  large  numbers of marginal  undergoing  (Table  allowance  ten Between  36a)  social  The F r a s e r  in s o c i a l  Valley,  allowance  is experiencing rapid wage-earners.  a slow r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n  in the M e t r o p o l i t a n  they t r e b l e d .  increase  an area which  people who r e c e i v e d s o c i a l  by 1 2 0 per c e n t ;  increase.  in M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.  hand, underwent a 3 1 per cent  growth,  Fraser V a l l e y  the Okanagan numbered 8 5 3 ;  a r e d u c t i o n in numbers of people r e c e i v i n g  The Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  the ten years  for  pop-  The Okan-  growth.  in the Okanagan  re-  Over increased  area the numbers d o u b l e d , and in the  Both the M e t r o p o l i t a n  and F r a s e r V a l l e y  regions  - 50 -  had r e d u c t i o n s have s t e a d i l y  in p e n s i o n e r s whereas risen.  Adoption s e r v i c e s  sed in the o t h e r two areas cent  in the I n t e r i o r  geared  population to t h i s  studied.  region but  the Vancouver a r e a . aged  decreased in the Okanagan but  and p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l s  c o n f i r m the f a c t  be i n c r e a s i n g l y  As the p r e s s u r e of work i n c r e a s e s there  is  a natural  that  in other  regions.  Services  in the d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e  P r o t e c t i o n and F a m i l y S e r v i c e are c a t e g o r i e s  in p o i n t .  to the s e l f - d e f e a t i n g nature of  f a m i l y can a v o i d breakdown  through c o u n s e l l i n g  housekeeper s e r v i c e t h e r e w i l l community over a p e r i o d of  homes  needed. categories  tendency to f o r e g o the i n d i r e c t or p r e v e n t i v e  however, w i t h regard  in  the Okanagan R e g i o n ' s  in the form o f r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s , n u r s i n g  will  increa-  F o s t e r home s e r v i c e s were up by 27 per  i n c r e a s i n g beyond the r a t e  age group  the aged  i n c r e a s e d by a phenomenal 460 per cent  These f i g u r e s  is  in the Okanagan the numbers of  be l e s s s o c i a l  services.  The q u e s t i o n  this  policy.  and p o s s i b l y  arises,  Where a  through a i d of  and economic c o s t s  to the  time.  In both the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and F r a s e r V a l l e y s t u d i e s  recom-  mendations were made to the e f f e c t of e x t e n d i n g the w e l f a r e measurements to i n c l u d e more s o c i a l  i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e c i p i e n t s .  which can i n c l u d e age, m a r i t a l housing,  and so on is  status,  f o r example,  i n i t i a l 1 y col 1 ected and kept on f i l e ,  t h e r e were 1,806  the d i s t r i c t  social  "cases".  additional  If  worker,  little  is  known about  is  not  tab-  the year  allowance.  Other  the makeup o f  these  than  a clearer p i c -  t h e i r needs and the needs  of  At the same time, w e l f a r e needs and s e r -  c o u l d more or l e s s be p r e d i c t e d from these trends  r e g i o n as a wi o l e .  but  the Okanagan f o r  in the measurements  the c l i e n t s ,  the community would be r e v e a l e d .  In  cases of s o c i a l  data were p r e s e n t  t u r e o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  vices  information,  o c c u p a t i o n , f a m i l y s i z e and s t r u c t u r e ,  u l a t e d in the monthly f i e l d s e r v i c e r e p o r t s . 1961,  This  f o r the Okanagan  - 51 -  A  further  in the previowb s t u d i e s  recomiTiendation  be r e p l a c e d by the measurement " u n i t o f s e r v i c e " . support to t h i s if  worker's caseloads  to the c l i e n t s  the term " c a s e "  T h i s study g i v e s f u r t h e r  is  Indeed,  or t e n , or  the amount or q u a l i t y o f  in no way r e v e a l e d .  By measuring  ser-  the s o c i a l  time by u n i t s of s e r v i c e , a more manageable d i s t r i b u t i o n . o f cases may r e s u l t .  may be a step  Introduction  of  the " w e i g h t i n g  system" o f  in  caseloads  in t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  Personnel ivand Caseload  Management  In December 1951 Okanagan r e g i o n . for  that  recommendation; o n e ' t a s e " can mean, one i n d i v i d u a l  can r e q u i r e one i n t e r v i e w or many.  v i c e given  is  there were t h i r t e e n s o c i a l  Three of  workers employed in the  these were employed by the l o c a l  Vernon, Kelowna,. and P e n t i c t o n , t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l  in each case by the c i t y l i m i t s .  Ten s o c i a l  Municipal  Councils  areas of work bounded  workers were P r o v i n c i a l  ment employees who shared  in the p r o v i s i o n of some o f  vices  c e n t r e s , and were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r v i c e made a v a i l -  in the three l a r g e r  a b l e for a l l  the v a r i e t y of s o c i a l  needs presented in the s m a l l e r  and^ther s e t t l e d a r e a s . . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d by a D i s t r i c t and a Regional  Supervisor  Administrator  In December 1951 cases, 1961 ers  for  the r e g i o n was  based at Vernon.  the t o t a l  caseload  for  the Okanagan r e g i o n was 4,398  worker o f 338 c a s e s .  c a s e l o a d had r i s e n to 6,477 cases  (Table 38)  was e v i d e n t  This  is  ser-  communities  In December  and the number of s o c i a l  i n c r e a s e d to 18, the average c a s e l o a d per worker having now r i s e n  cases  of  in both the Vernon and P e n t i c t o n o f f i c e s ,  or an average c a s e l o a d per s o c i a l  the t o t a l  the c a t e g o r i e s  Govern-  an o v e r a l l  in v a r y i n g degrees  in a l l  i n c r e a s e of 2,079 c a s e s ,  work-  to 360  The r i s i n g  trend  types o f need, but p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e -  -  Table 3 8 .  51a  Number o f Workers, T o t a l  -  a n d Average C a s e l o a d s :  pol i tan Vancouver,, and F r a s e r V a l 1 e y ,  OKANAGAN YEAR  Workers  REG!ON^  Case1 oad  Average Caseload  1951  METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER Workers  Case1 oad  Average Caseload  Okanagan,  Metro-  " 1961.  FRASER VALLEY REGION Workers  Case1 oad  Average Gaseload  1951  13  4,398  338.3  90  24,647  273.9  18  4,966  275.9  1953  15  4,849  323.3  82  26,468  322.8  23  6,094  265.0  1955  15  5,198  346.5  81  26,420  326.2  23  6,778  295.1  1957  14  4,933  352.4  81  26,127  322.6  28  8,160  291  1959  14  5,616  401.2  76  28,986  381  20  9,528  328.6  1961  18  6,477  359.8  32,985  325.0  34  11,155  328.1  .4  .4  0 101.5  (a)  F i g u r e s f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver are not comparable w i t h other years because they i n c l u d e workers and cases in t h e , S i n g l e Men's U n i t , Medical and Intake " S e c t i o n s " o f C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. These s e c t i o n s d i d not e x i s t p r i o r to I960.  (b)  The Okanagan and F r a s e r V a l l e y Regions workers and c a s e s .  i n c l u d e Old Age A s s i s t a n c e  Board,  - 52 -  able  in pensions  and S o c i a l  to o f f e r s e r v i c e to t h i s all.  larger  Additional  one r e s u l t . i t was  It  an o v e r a l l  seems as apparent  in the M e t r o p o l i t a n  adequate f o r  those  in need o f  in t h i s  and municipal  initial  area (Vancouver)^ them -  f i v e social  available workers  study o f  that  if  per worker was the Okanagan  services  are to be casework  social  are g r e a t l y needed at both p r o v i n c -  levels.  time i n v o l v e d in t r a v e l l i n g  December 1957, month,  eighteen s o c i a l  to 1957 are not a v a i l a b l e .  per c a s e l o a d . It  should  workers Mileage  month of the year when c o n s i d e r i n g  the w i n t r y c o n d i t i o n s  the Of  c a s e l o a d of 4,933 cases in  in  that  t r a v e l l e d 6,477 miles,, or figures  for  the years  prior  be borne in mind t h a t December may be  to the r e d u c t i o n of working days  rrras h o l i d a y s ,  is  (Table 39)  f o r example, each t r a v e l l e d an average 352.35 m i l e s  an average of 511.38 m i l e s  in a d d i t i o n  in a region such as the Okanagan.  workers engaged in the t o t a l  in December 1961  a less typical  prob-  workers and the concomitant  Another c u r t a i l i n g f a c t o r which would appear to be o p e r a t i n g  the f o u r t e e n s o c i a l  region  and the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of s o c i a l  implies - additional  the mileage  travelled,  this  as  in the month caused by the C h r i s t -  a f f e c t i n g the roads  in some years make  a c e r t a i n degree o f r e s t r i c t i o n u n a v o i d a b l e . . By comparison we f i n d that June 1961  in  intended to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e  to say n o t h i n g of s u p p o r t i v e  r e d u c t i o n and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a s e l o a d s ial  was  was made  i n c r e a s e of 21.5 cases  in p r e v e n t i o n of f a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n lems such breakdown  staff  volume of a p p l i c a n t s ,  While the i n c r e a s e d number of personnel  to the added 2,079 c a s e s ,  as  Assistance.  the average mileage per worker was 604 m i l e s , which  in  illustrates  point. It  is of  i n t e r e s t to note that a s o c i a l  worker  in the M e t r o p o l i t a n  area of Vancouver, w i t h a c a s e l o a d average o f 322 cases  in December  1957,  1 Regional Study of S o c i a l W e l f a r e Measurements, No. 3, The M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964.  -  Table 3 9 .  Number o f Workers, and B r i t i s h  a.  Regions  Year  I960  1961  Mi 1eage  14  4,933  6,052  81  26,127  11,759  14  5,446  6,275  80  28,224  10,906  14  5,616  6,486  76  28,986  10,946  !!'  79.5  15  18  ! 1 1  British  Caseload  !!'  1 1  b.  in Regions  1957-1961.  Wo r ke r s  II'  1959  and Mileage  I I I and I I  !!'  1958  -  Caseloads  Columbia,  Regi on  1957  52a  101.5  5,954  7,488  32,401  11,742  6,477  9,205  32,985  10,329  ColUmb i a  1957  199  61,384  61,321  1958  198.5  67,139  60,983  1959  198.5  71,336  64,651  I960  213.5  79,074  72,640  1961  257  80,266  79,542  Note:  A l l f i g u r e s r e l a t e to the month o f December in the year s t a t e d .  III,  11  -  t r a v e l l e d an average o f \kk m i l e s  53 -  and in December 1961  in the average c a s e l o a d of 325 cases was 102 m i l e s . t r a v e l l i n g distances as  which an u r b a n - r u r a l  the Okanagan means t h r e e times  age  in 1961, compared w i t h that  a higher  r a t i o of  residential  r e l a t i v e convenience f o r many c l i e n t s appointments.  The mileage  the s i z e and topography of It  involved  to be p r o v i d e d .  It  the w e l f a r e d i s t r i c t s  minimum of c a s e s . uation of tion  T h i s seems  individuals  or f a m i l i e s Welfare,  reflect a rising  lines  this  need.  affect  it  is  and f o r c a s e l o a d  workers.  the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e  is  evalua-  workers employed, the num-  need f o r and i n c r e a s i n g use of those  s e r v i c e to the people  At the end of  requires  possible,  and the mileage, t r a v e l l e d in making  providing  and 18 s o c i a l  m i l e s monthly  359  i f adequate s e r v i c e  The l e v e l  of  in t h i s  social  region  workers. the under-  regional  &0 p u b l i c  t r a i n i n g must  in some r e s p e c t s .  services  in three of  the decade reviewed in t h i s  the Okanagan area was b e i n g served by 91 p h y s i c i a n s , nurses,  averaging  needing the help made a v a i l a b l e by the De-  A b r i e f examination of the comparative numbers o f helping professions  (Table kO)  region.  trend in the number of s o c i a l  available,  i n e v i t a b l y r e l a t e d to  i n d i c a t i o n of need f o r a r e - e v a l -  The o v e r a l l  partment of S o c i a l  and  casework can be o f f e r e d in any but a  the most a p p r o p r i a t e number o f personnel this  area which has  in any r e g i o n .  and judgement  to be a c l e a r  in p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e f o r  bers o f  is  be questioned to what extent  a n y t h i n g o t h e r than s u p e r f i c i a l  the m i l e -  public transportation,  t r a v e l l i n g on an average of 5 1 1  may well  times  such  served in being a b l e to have o f f i c e  in a c a s e l o a d  a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  if  in 1957 and f i v e  available  the  in a region  i s e v i d e n t t h a t e f f i c i e n t management of a c a s e l o a d  eases which i n v o l v e s  or  involves  i n c u r r e d in the M e t r o p o l i t a n  proximity,  involved  In other words,  caseload  the mileage  the mileage  study  health  inevitably  The f o l l o w i n g  figures  that d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1951-1961 there was a p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e d u c t i o n  show  in the  *  Table 40.  53a  -  Number of Workers, Average Caseloads, and Mileage: the Okanagan. Three Other Regions, and the Provincial Averages. December, 1961.  Number of Workers  Area Region 1 (Vancouver Island)  Average Caseload  Average Mi 1eage  36.5  327.0  364.6  101.5  325.0  102.0  Region III (Okanagan)  18.0  359.8  511.38  Region IV (Fraser Val1ey)  34.0  328.1  386.5  257.0  312.7  309.5  Region 11 (Metropolitan Vancouver)  Bri t i sh Columbi a  Table 41.  Percentage Increase of Cases and Workers. Okanagan Region, 1961-1961.  Year  Percentage Increase of Cases  Percentage Increase of Workers  (1951=100)  (1951-100)  1951  100  1952  102.3  100  1953  110.3  115.4  100  1954  115.1  115.4  1955  118.2  115.4  1956  113.4  123.1  1957  112.2  107.7  1958  123.8  107.7  1959  127.7  107.7  I960  135.4  115.4  1961  14(7.3  138.5  - 5 4  number of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  -  trained social  workers employed in the r e g i o n .  1961  1951  Professional Trained  Di s t r i c t s Vernon Kelowna Pent i cton Grand Forks  2  an i n c r e a s e of  ers,  from 1 3 in 1 9 5 1  to  cent.  The i n c r e a s e miles  9,205  rates varying  47.3  in December  workers  q u i r e d or  r i s e of  in s t a f f  In  6,052  in s t a f f  miles  caseload  in 1 9 6 1  the t o t a l  is  that  are reduced standards  of  per  increased y e a r l y  c a s e l o a d was 4 7 . 3 ( T a b i e 41.)  has not been commensurate with the r i s i n g  38.5  in December  aod  1951  year a  The t h r e e f o l l o w i n g  the i n c r e a s e  work-  of  1 9 5 8 , a year of economic  had been ten years p r e v i o u s l y .  recesyears  per cent  A conclusion in the s t a f f  of  volume o f work r e -  R e s u l t s which seem unavoidable s e r v i c e , and u n r e a l i s t i c  in such  expectations  performance.  An important component of  regional  1 1 . 5 per c e n t .  the t r a v e l l i n g n e c e s s a r y .  a situation  and in December  r e p r e s e n t s an i n c r e a s e of 48.7  1 . 2 per c e n t .  drawn from these comparative f i g u r e s social  4,398  an i n c r e a s e  t r a v e l l e d from  1961  was  The a d d i t i o n of f i v e s o c i a l  represents  in the t o t a l  each showed an i n c r e a s e u n t i l it  1951  12  a decrease of 4 . 8 per cent and the f o l l o w i n g  t h e r e was a sharp  than  6  per c e n t .  in mileage  s l i g h t decrease o f  greater  4 2  from 2 . 3 per cent to 8 per cent between the years  1 9 5 6 brought  further  2  in December  to 18 in 1 9 6 1 ,  The number o f cases  1955.  2 4  8  number of cases  6,477,  per c e n t .  In-Service Trained  4  3  5  1961  sion,  2  1  Professional Trained  1  The t o t a l  at  2  2  Totals  1957  In-Service Trained-  the c l e r i c a l  staff,  in the management of a c a s e l o a d  both q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e .  is  the work  There is  a realistic  - 5 5 -  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount o f c l e r i c a l s o c i a l , workers  and the number of workers.  regard can be gained  from the f o l l o w i n g  staff  time a v a i l a b l e  An i n d i c a t i o n o f  Vernon Kelowna Penticton Grand Forks Totals  Soci al Workers  Cler i cal -Staff  Soci al Workers  2  k  3  1  2  2  2  k  3  k 3  1  1  1  2  11  9  \h  to the P r o v i n c i a l  o f f i c e s only,  the c l e r i c a l  relates  and s t e n o g r a p h i c  there would be the c l e r i c a l q u i r e d by the Regional  Sub-Districts  and in a d d i t i o n  work needed in p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s  to  work i n v o l v e d at the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Administrator  and the two D i s t r i c t  i n t o four s u b - s e c t i o n s  The d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s  together w i t h the c l e r i c a l p r o v i d e d throughout are  staff  supervision  work necessary  service  urban  in f a c i l i t a t i n g  the region by the s o c i a l  Social  and c o n s u l t a t i o n ,  workers.  in Vernon, Keldwna, P e n t i c t o n , and Grand F o r k s .  being smaller.  the  The  first  in the r e g i o n , Grand Forks  They are communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Vernon, Kelowna,  and a " M u n i c i p a l V s o c i a l  the l o c a l  governing  council  ser-  The d i s t r i c t  c e n t r e s and  a v a r i e t y o f c o l l e c t i v e h e a l t h and wel f a r e r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e i r  rounding a r e a s . cial"  re-  Supervisors.  l o c a t e d in the main  t h r e e named are the l a r g e s t urban communities  offer  clients  level,  to enable i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y of  c e n t r e s p r o v i d e a f o c u s i n g of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  offices  to  in the Okanagan Region  by d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n .  vices  this  5  The Okanagan r e g i o n has been d i v i d e d by the Department of Welfare  in  1961  6  T h i s comparison  the r a t i o  compilation:  1953  Provi nci al C l e r i cal District Offices Staff  to the  sur-  and P e n t i c t o n each have both a " P r o v i n -  welfare o f f i c e .  For the l a t t e r  has assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  in each case  f o r p r o v i s i o n of a  -  56  -  Municipal Welfare Services A d m i n i s t r a t o r , c l e r i c a l  assistance,  and equipment, on a c o s t - s h a r i n g b a s i s with the p r o v i n c i a l d e s c r i b e d in the 1963 The M u n i c i p a l by one s o c i a l by Kelowna.  offices  Study of Region  During t h i s  VI.^  to 1961  when a second worker was  shortages  w h i l e a replacement was awaited, r a t h e r  than to any change in personnel p o l i c y . . By 1961 workers than in  there were i n c r e a s e s , with  1959.  Welfare s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the M u n i c i p a l the cases  Assistance  in the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f pensions  s o c i al'.workers comprise and the grants of  to those persons r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the M u n i c i p a l  with p e r i o d i c assessment of p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s  sed on the b a s i s o f meeting p r e s c r i b e d s t a n d a r d s . in r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l  Assistance,  Social  1 i m i t s , together  such as b o a r d i n g and n u r s -  ing homes which are r e q u i r e d under the Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n  ilies  The D e p a r t -  show some f l u c t u a t i o n (Table 42) but t h i s would seem to  be due to temporary s t a f f  all  engaged  t e n - y e a r p e r i o d there has been l i t t l e change in the  workers employed in the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s .  statistics  four more s o c i a l  government as  in Vernon, Kelowna and P e n t i c t o n were s t a f f e d  worker each from 1951  number of s o c i a l mental  Regional  accommodation  Act to be  licen-  A p r o p o r t i o n o f the fam-  not i n f r e q u e n t l y c o n s i s t i n g of a  d e s e r t e d w i f e and c h i l d r e n , need c o n s i s t e n t casework o f a s u p p o r t i v e and p r e v e n t i v e n a t u r e which i s demanding o f time and s k i l l s . workers have r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y  for a l l  Provincial  social  cases c a t e g o r i z e d under C h i l d W e l f a r e ,  such as P r o t e c t i o n , C h i l d r e n in C a r e , F o s t e r Homes, Adoption Homes, and C h i l d r e n on A d o p t i o n P r o b a t i o n . all  c a t e g o r i e s of cases  They p r o v i d e the a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e in  throughout the region o u t s i d e the three l a r g e r  centres. Several  o f the s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have an i n t e r m e d i a t e c o s t -  s h a r i n g plan agreed w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Government whereby the s e r v i c e s of a P r o v i n c i a l  social  worker are shared wi th the adjacent r u r a l  and un-  1 B a r t l e t t , E j D . et a l . A Regional Study of S o c i a l Welfare Measurements, No. 3, The M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1964.  -  Table 4 2 .  56a -  Number o f Workers and Average Caseloads 1951°196l.  year  Number of Workers  (All figures  in Main  Subdistricts.  r e l a t e t o month o f December in the  stated.)  1951  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  SUBSECTION VERNON Ci t y Di s t r i c t  1  1  1  1  1  1  3  4  4  3  3  4  KELOWNA Ci t y District  1  1  1  1  1  2  2  2  2  2  2  3  • PENTICTON Ci ty District GRAND FORKS  AVERAGE  CASELOAD  1  1  1  1  1  1  3  4  k*  4  4  5  2  2  2  2  2  2  1951  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  439.0  VERNON Ci ty D i str i ct  439.0  484.0  5H.0  581.0  628.0  299.0  272.7  312.0  321.0  355.0  372.0  433.0  507.0  540.0  511.0  570.O  376.0  347.0  393.0  390.0  366.0  4ip.O  246.0  409.0  447.0  468.0  479.0  580.0  658.0  326.7  267.0  292.7  306.0  372.0  279.5  273.0  275.5  253.5  259.0  288.0  300.5  KELOWNA Ci t y District PENTICTON Ci t y District GRAND FORKS *  0 1 i ver  i ncl uded  - 56b -  T a b l e 4:3.  A Personnel  Social Vernon  Comparison: Okanagan,  Workers(a)  5  1961.  Physi c i ans  Publ i c Heal th Nurses  18  5  -  Enderby  -  2  11  Ke1 own a  5  3k  9  Armstrong  1  1  -  Summer1 and  -  k  2  Penti cton  6  22  5  Wi n f i e l d  Osoyoos  -  Grand Forks  2  Greenwood  -  Keremeos Pr i nceton  01i ver  Totals  (a)  18  1 2  1  k  2  2  -  2  2 1  91  30  S o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s in communities which appear to be without a s o c i a l worker are p r o v i d e d from the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e in the nearest l a r g e community ( e . g . in the p e r i o d 1951-1961 one s o c i a l worker was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r O l i v e r and Osoyoos, working out from the P e n t i c t o n o f f i c e ) .  -  organized areas, tion available The Vernon  in some cases  for  the s o c i a l  57 -  these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s make o f f i c e accommoda-  worker on a r e g u l a r weekly or b i - w e e k l y  District  The d i s t r i c t of Vernon extends n o r t h to G r i n r o d , east south to Oyama, and west  to F a l k l a n d .  It  i t i e s o f Coldstream and Spal1umcheen;  includes  1,2,3,4, and 6 of  the Okanagan Band;  the d i s t r i c t  Indian Reserves  The trend in the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l  ( T a b l e 42)  1 and 2 o f  caseload  the c i t y and 918 cases  load was 2,114 c a s e s , rounding a r e a s .  social  Reserves  the Spal1um-  unorganized.  services  i n d i c a t e d in the  workers  f o r the d i s t r i c t was 1,429  within  The c a s e l o a d  I96I  increase  in t h i s  511  in the  In  cases casesur-  unchecked i n -  northern  t o 27.2 per c e n t .  of  areas.  the t o t a l  cases  the  amounted  the C i t y  cases,  is one of an almost  per hod amounts  f o r the d i s t r i c t was  In  the c i t y and 1,486  The p a t t e r n which emerges  over the 1951"1961  caseload  in the s u r r o u n d i n g  in the a d j a c e n t a r e a s .  628 cases  slow but s t e a d y .  the t o t a l  represented residents within  r e p r e s e n t e d people l i v i n g  December 1956 the t o t a l  district  social  In December 1951  cases, of which 439 cases  Vernon and 897 cases  crease,  Armstrong,  region as a whole was e x p e r i e n c e d in the Vernon d i s t r i c t d u r i n g  decade under s t u d y .  within  municipal-  of Lumby; and Indian  cheen Band; and remaining areas which are p o l i t i c a l l y  to 1,336  to C h e r r y v i 1 1 e ,  the i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s o f  Enderby, and Vernon; the i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e  Okanagan  basis.  Okanagan  The number of  i n c r e a s e d fronv:4 in December 1951  to.6  by December 1961. The Kelowna  District  T h i s d i s t r i c t , which is but does not C i t y , west  Okanagan  a r e a , extends n o r t h t o ,  i n c l u d e , Oyama, south to the Okanagan Lake boundary of  to the I n t e r i o r  Plateau,  the e x c e p t i o n of Kelowna C i t y , unorganized.  the c e n t r a l  and e a s t - s o u t h e a s t  the l a r g e r  part of  to M c C u l l o c h .  the area is  Kelowna With  politically  - 58 -  In December 1951 1,127  cases,  the t o t a l  of which 433 cases  C i t y and 694 cases  c a s e l o a d was 1,345  cases  in the adjacent a r e a s . 752 cases  in t h i s d i s t r i c t amounted to  r e p r e s e n t e d people l i v i n g w i t h i n Kelowna  people in the s u r r o u n d i n g  total  cases,  caseload  cases,  areas.  In December 1956 the  511 cases w i t h i n Kelowna c i t y and 834  In December 1961  the t o t a l  r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the c i t y and 736 cases  c a s e l o a d was  1,488  in the s u r r o u n d i n g  areas. The P e n t i c t o n  District  T h i s south Okanagan d i s t r i c t , in t h i s  regional  study  includes  t  south to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  The area extends east  to the K e t t l e  boundary, west to P r i n c e t o n , and n o r t h  to W i l s o n ' s Landing on Okanagan L a k e . i t y of Summerlandj  o f the four being c o n s i d e r e d  the southern end of the Okanagan V a l l e y and  the Similkameen V a l l e y to the west. Divide,  the l a r g e s t  It  inxludes  the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l -  the c i t y of P e n t i c t o n , the i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s  Peachland, O l i v e r ^ Osoyoos^  of  Keremeosj and Pni n c e t o n , the Indian r e s e r v e s of  the P e n t i c t o n , Osoyoos  and Similkameen bands,  for example, Westbank,  are well  and l a r g e areas some of which,  s e t t l e d but as yet p o l i t i c a l l y  unorganized  and are t h e r e f o r e a d m i n i s t e r e d by the p r o v i n c e . In December 1951 to 1,389 980 cases total  cases,  the t o t a l  caseload  in the P e n t i c t o n d i s t r i c t  of which 409 cases were r e s i d e n t  In  amounted  the c i t y o f P e n t i c t o n and  r e p r e s e n t people from the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s .  In December 1956 the  number o f cases Was 1 699« of Which 529 cases Were people l i v i n g F  the c i t y and 1,170  cases were people from the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s .  ber 1961  c a s e l o a d was 3*274 c a s e s ,  the t o t a l  with 658 cases  in  In Decem-  resident  in Pen-  t i c t o n c i t y and the balance o f 2 6 1 6 cases were people from the remainder o f #  the d i s t r i c t . The Grand Forks  District  Grand F o r k s ,  the s m a l l e s t o f the four a r e a s ,  has no M u n i c i p a l  office  - 59 -  and the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s total  caseload  in that d i s t r i c t  creased to 513 cases to 601  are p r o v i d e d by a p r o v i n c i a l  worker.  as of December 1951 was 546 c a s e s ,  in December 1956,. and by December 1961  The  had d e -  had r i s e n  again  cases.  Caseload  Distribution  There is c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m i l a r i t y by case c a t e g o r y i e s of Pensions  in the four d i s t r i c t s r e p r e s e n t the l a r g e s t  proportionately,  and t h i s  Pension cases Grand Forks d i s t r i c t  and w h i l e t h i s  i t stood at 68.2  The v a r i o u s  the c a s e s ,  the ten years  the t o t a l  category  per c e n t .  The c a t e g o r y o f S o c i a l  caseload  These cases  Grand Forks  in December, 1951;  rose to 78 per cent  caseload  in  per  shows a somewhat s i m i l a r  in the P e n t i c t o n d i s t r i c t  per c e n t .  in  at the same p e r i o d , the  The p r o p o r t i o n remained  i,n each d i s t r i c t d u r i n g the ensuing s i x y e a r s , d r o p p i n g Each area e x p e r i e n c e d a sharp  1959 when the e f f e c t s of r e c e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s were s t i l l p r o p o r t i o n had l e s s e n e d by December 1961  trend  caseload  in the Kelowna d i s t r i c t 21.7 per cent of  whole; and in the Vernon d i s t r i c t 22.1  what between 1955 and 1957.  in  district,  in 1957 at 61.1  r e p r e s e n t e d 17.2 per cent of the t o t a l  the t o t a l ;  in the  per c e n t .  Allowance cases  generally.  under  47)  In the l a r g e r  proportion  categor-  numerical1y and  r e p r e s e n t e d 55.4 per cent o f the t o t a l  cent and in December 1961 were 47.3  f a i r l y stable  distribution  (Tables 44,45,46 and  they were at t h e i r h i g h e s t  15.8 per cent o f  region.  s e c t i o n of  fluctuation.  in 1951  pension cases  December 1951;  in t h i s  r e p r e s e n t e d 62 per cent of  in December 1961  Penticton,  in the p r o p o r t i o n a t e  has been the trend throughout  study, w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t  1957,  social  some-  r i s e by December  being f e l t , but the  in each d i s t r i c t , with the e x c e p t -  ion of Vernon. Social  Assistance  is  the c a t e g o r y which perhaps more than any o t h e r  may i n c l u d e g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n s skills.  of c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h need o f s e r v i c e s  F r e q u e n t l y encountered is  and  the p e n s i o n e r ' s w i f e , who has not reached  -  T a b l e 44.  5  9  a -  P r o p o r t i o n a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Caseloads trict Office,  by Category,  VERNON D i s -  1951-1961.  1951  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  Pens i ons  59.9  67.2  64.8  67.0  64.6  64.8  Soc i al  22.1  15.35  16.1  15.3  21.5  23  1.5  2.6  2.2  .9  1.1  15.3  14.5  14.2  14.5  12.4  10.3  .4  1.2  2.0  .5  .3  .2  .5  Category  Al1owance  1 .3  Fami1y Servi ce C h i l d Wei f a r e Health & Welfare  Institutional  I  Institutions  1 00  100  Total  T a b l e 45.  100  P r o p o r t i o n a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads District  Off i c e .  100  .1 .6 100  100  by Category.  .7  KELOWNA  1951-1961.  1951  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  Pens i ons  67.7  67.7  66.3  72.3  67.2  63.2  Social  21.7  18.7  18.5  13.1  18.2  25.5  Fami1y S e r v i c e  2.4  2.6  2.1  3.2  2.8  2.4  C h i l d Welfare  8.0  9.2  11.6  10.5  10.8  7.8  .3  1.3  1.0  0.4  0.3  0.1  0.5  0.5  0.5  0.7  1.0  Category  Allowance  H e a l t h £Welfare  Total  Institutional Institutions  100  100  100  100  1 00  1 00  - 59b -  T a b l e 46.  Proportionate Distribution District  Office,  Category  of Caseloads  by Category,  PENTICTON  1951-1961.  1951  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  Pens i ons  55.4  60.3  59.7  61.1  53.0  47.3  Soci al  15.8  12.5  14.2  15.8  27.5  34.5  4.8  5.6  5.6  4.6  4.6  3.6  20.2  19.0  17.9  16.3  13-X7  13.7 ,  3.5  2.4  2.2  1.6  .5  .1  .3  .3  .5  .6  .7  .8  Al1owance  Fami1y S e r v i c e C h i l d Wei f a r e Health & Welfare  Institutional Institutions  100  Total  T a b l e hi.  100  100  100  P r o p o r t i o n a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads District  1 00  100  by Category,  GRAND FORKS  O f f i c e , 1951-1961 .  Category  1951  .  1953  1955  1957  1959  1961  Pensions  62.0  70.2  76.6  78.0  70.8  68.2  Soc i al  17.2  14.5  13.6  12.2  22.6  26.0  6.6  3.6  1.2  3.5  1.0  .5  12.9  10.0  7.9  5.8  5.2  4.8  1 .3  1.3  .7  .0  -  .2  .0  ..4  .5  .4  .3  Allowance  Fami1y Servi ce C h i l d Wei f a r e Health & Welfare  Total  Institutional Institutions  100  100  100  100  100  100  - 60 the age r e q u i r e d f o r pension e l i g i b i l i t y , b i r t h o f her c h i l d , ental  the c h i l d who is  breakdown or bereavement,  hospitalization up to p o s s i b l y tional  the unmarried mother a w a i t i n g  in the c a r e o f r e l a t i v e s because of  the former mental  yet not ready f o r employment,  p a t i e n t no longer  the f a m i l i e s  w i t h young c h i l d r e n needs some f i n a n c i a l his  f a m i l y and home.  one s t a t i s t i c a l  from one or  Each S o c i a l  Assistance  case,  Social  Assistance  need in the Okanagan region  is  employment  and v e g e t a b l e  farms.  The l a r g e s t  e r s were n e g l i g i b l e  probably because  a network o f highways and l o c a l  l a r g e c e n t r e to the c o a s t a l  area.  In  roads,  the needs o f  1951  and were met e n t i r e l y from l o c a l  W e l f a r e Committee, a v o l u n t a r y  Legion,  and the S a l v a t i o n Army.  is  it  for is  usually  able from 1959, was  granted  Assistance  Assistance  a junction  and the n e a r e s t  the t r a n s i e n t  resources -  grants f o r  work-  the C e n t r a l  the P e n t i c t o n Branch of  By 1958  and 1959  the Canadian  the needs of  the  transients funds.  grants amounting to kO per cent were made a v a i l -  and d u r i n g 1961,  to 1,165  orch-  temporary  had reached p r o p o r t i o n s which were beyond the r e s o u r c e s of community Social  the  l a y group supported f i n a n c i a l l y and o t h e r w i s e  the community s e r v i c e groups,  Increased  to  that of  in the f r u i t  number o f such appeals  in the P e n t i c t o n d i s t r i c t ,  three railways,  by a l l  left  r e p r e s e n t e d by  from the lower mainland and hopes f o r seasonal  of  two  a voca-  help in p r o v i d i n g a housekeeper  the p r o v i n c e but  is  takes  the f a t h e r  t r a n s i e n t worker who may come from any p a r t of  assistance  needing  f i g u r e , may stand f o r one human b e i n g or a dozen.  A special  ards  par-  new employment, or may have been d e s e r t e d  by the breadwinner, or o c c a s i o n a l l y by the mother so that  care for  of  twelve c h i l d r e n who need support w h i l e the f a t h e r  r e - t r a i n i n g course towards  the  transient  which proved to be a peak y e a r , applicants.  The t o t a l  the c i t y of P e n t i c t o n d u r i n g  disbursement  the year  A downward trend has been n o t i c e a b l e each year to date s i n c e t i o n presumably o f a g e n e r a l l y more buoyant economy.  assistance  1961  in  was  Social  $319,788.  then, an i n d i c a -  - 61 -  During  the years  1951-1961 a d e c r e a s i n g  c a t e g o r y was e x p e r i e n c e d throughout trict 1951  its  proportion of  to 10.3  the Okanagan r e g i o n .  In  the Vernon  dis  the c a s e l o a d dropped from 15.3 per cent in December  per cent in December 1961 .  Penticton d i s t r i c t  trend in the C h i l d Welfare  showed s i m i l a r  The Grand Forks d i s t r i c t and the  or l a r g e r  d e c l i n e s , although  the Kelowna  district  showed o n l y a v e r y s l i g h t d e c r e a s e , from 8 per cent of the whole  caseload  to 7.8  per c e n t .  Other Welfare S e r v i c e s  and Resources  in the Okanagan Region  There are no p r i v a t e agencies o f f e r i n g s o c i a l Okanagan r e g i o n .  In  this  respect  it  ince o f B r i t i s h Columbia, o u t s i d e Victoria.  P r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l  responsibility social  in t h i s  services  is  typical  welfare services  and these o t h e r s e r v i c e s  nursing  The l i a i s o n social  relationships district  in the enhance  in the communities.  the Department of H e a l t h S e r v i c e s  for services  provincial  welfare  are to some e x t e n t a f a c t o r  two c e n t r a l i z e d u n i t s  staff,  and municipal  the  government  branches of  the s e r v i c e s b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e  The H e a l t h Branch o f  public health staff  by o t h e r  or l o c a l  groups formed w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t s .  Insurance has  i s w h o l l y a governmental  as a whole p r o v i d e d in some cases  ment or o t h e r w i s e o f  the p r o v -  r e g i o n , but t h e r e are many other segments of  which e x i s t between the p r o v i n c i a l offices  the b a l a n c e o f  in the  the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas o f Vancouver and  departments or by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s or n a t i o n a l  of  work s e r v i c e s  and H o s p i t a l  in the Okanagan region which p r o v i d e :  throughout  the a r e a .  The p u b l i c h e a l t h  p r o v i d i n g p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h s e r v i c e s p r i m a r i l y to the c h i l d -  ren in each community, f r e q u e n t l y become aware of some of the s i g n s of difficulties  in f a m i l i e s  v a l u a b l e to b o t h . group s t a f f social  This  meetings  and a good l i a i s o n is  soci  between the two p r o f e s s i o n s  achieved in thas region  in some d i s t r i c t s  is  by  f o r case c o n s u l t a t i o n , or more i n f o r m a l l y between the  worker and the p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse f o r a s u b d i s t r i c t .  - 62 -  The l a r g e r  communities  in the Okanagan r e g i o n have general  operated by v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s  but f i n a n c e d under the B r i t i s h  H e a l t h Insurance Scheme (B..C.H. I .S.) . beds and 25 b a s s i n e t s . The Kelowna General  Hospital  served by 33 d o c t o r s and 32 b a s s i n e t s . are s m a l l e r awareness ities, tions  The c i t y  is  hospitals  o f need f o r  The Vernon J u b i l e e H o s p i t a l  served by ten d o c t o r s  The P e n t i c t o n H o s p i t a l  vision.  Working  medicine cannot  has  The c i t y  is  has 121  beds There  in Summerland, O l i v e r and P r i n c e t o n .  increased hospital  facilities  are at v a r i o u s relationships  in each o f  There  organiza-  in making a d d i t i o n a l  between the p r o f e s s i o n s  in any sense be g e n e r a l i z e d upon.  is  these commun-  and the v o l u n t e e r  p l a n n i n g stages  109  dentists.  served by 20 d o c t o r s and 8 d e n t i s t s .  and f o r p s y c h i a t r i c treatment f a c i l i t i e s , responsible  Columbia  and seven  has 171 beds and 20 b a s s i n e t s .  and .9 d e n t i s t s .  The c i t y  general  is  hospitals  of s o c i a l  pro-  work and  Thesee depend upon the  development of m u t u a l l y c o - o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s which in turn are a f f e c t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l  o r i e n t a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l  As an a i d vices of region  personalities.  in work w i t h e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n ,  the Burnaby Mental  throughout  H e a l t h Centre were made a v a i l a b l e  the ten years  under s t u d y .  During  d i v i d e d between the Vernon, Kelowna,  these cases  in 1961  assessments were made by the c o n s u l t i n g  a psychiatric social  The c o n s u l t i n g  d u r i n g the years  the T r a v e l 1ing C l i n i c o f f e r e d seventeen d a y s '  sul t a t i v e s ,  team.  in f o r t y - t w o cases  Welfare  (occasionally  1951-1961, and  s e r v i c e in the Okana-  and p r o v i d i n g s e v e n t y - f o u r  many o f the l a t t e r b e i n g f o l l o w - u p s  Of  team c o n s i s t e d  worker,, a p s y c h o l o g i s t  T h i s s e r v i c e was extended g r a d u a l l y  gan, making assessments  days,  and P e n t i c t o n o f f i c e s , d u r i n g which time  and f o u r by the Department o f P u b l i c H e a l t h .  two).  the C h i l d  of e i g h t  t w e n t y - e i g h t were r e f e r r e d by the Department o f S o c i a l  of a p s y c h i a t r i s t ,  ser-  in the Okanagan  the year 1951  Guidance T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c worked in the region f o r a t o t a l  thirty-seven diagnostic  diagnostic  in cases  previously  con-  assessed.  - 63 -  In  this  year f o r t y - f i v e o f  Welfare,  the r e f e r r a l s were from the Department of  f:i:fty-two from the Department o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , four were j o i n t  referrals  from these two Departments,  and two by p r i v a t e p h y s i c i a n s . its  Social  t h r e e from the P r o b a t i o n  By 1961  the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c had broadened  f i e l d to i n c l u d e some a d u l t cases whereas  thereafter  Probation services gan r e g i o n ,  as throughout  With the opening of  the  have been t e r m i n a t e d .  f o r j u v e n i l e s and a d u l t s  is a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  are p r o v i d e d  government.  The p r o v i s i o n of J u v e n i l e Courts  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  were two p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  serving  During  the p e r i o d 1951-1958  the Okanagan r e g i o n .  appointed as a r e s u l t o f community awareness  A t h i r d was  o f growing need f o r  p a r t i c u l a r l y on the p a r t o f Kelowna C i t y C o u n c i l . to be due in p a r t  a f f e c t e d a l s o by s o c i a l  in the Okana-  the p r o v i n c e , except in Vancouver, New Westminster,  and V i c t o r i a , by the p r o v i n c i a l  need was f e l t  years  Health Centre in Kelowna to serve the Okanagan r e g i o n ,  the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s e r v i c e s  service,  in 1951 and f o r s e v e r a l  the focus was e x c l u s i v e l y on c h i l d r e n .  South Okanagan Mental  Department,  to the n a t u r a l  conditions  The  then  additional increasing  increase of population,  c r e a t e d by the r e c e s s i o n o f  there  but  1958. The i n -  c i d e n c e of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y in the Okanagan r e g i o n as a whole d u r i n g period of ions o f  this  study  is  in no way d i s s i m i l a r  to that of o t h e r  Vernon,and some o f  the s m a l l e r  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  services  communities,  available  up in P e n t i c t o n , . Kelowna,  to draw together  to m i n o r s .  There i s  the  resources  some  variation  in s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g , but the c o r e membership c o n s i s t s al  reg-  the p r o v i n c e . Youth Guidance Committees have been set  of  interior  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of The l a r g e r  social  work,  profession-  p r o b a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and p u b l i c  communities o r g a n i z e an annual  t h e i r areas which have been know v a r i o u s l y Fund A p p e a l , or Community C h e s t .  of  fund-raising  health.  campaign  in  as a United A p p e a l , a Red Feather  While the Canadian Red Cross S o c i e t y  is  6k  the l a r g e s t  -  b e n e f i c i a r y , a group of n a t i o n a l  s e a r c h in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c d i s e a s e s Canadian Cancer S o c i e t y  p r o p o r t i o n s of  w e l f a r e p r o j e c t s or s e r v i c e s ,  f o r a i d and r e -  and d i s a b i l i t i e s  and the Canadian National  r e c e i v e r e l a t i v e l y generous  are i n c l u d e d .  organizations  Institute  (such as CARS, for  the  the f u n d s , Some l o c a l  such as a Boys'  Club or a Homemaker  Blind)  social Service  CHAPTER V  Some I m p l i c a t i o n s of P u b l i c W e l f a r e  The h i s t o r y o f  the Okanagan Region i n d i c a t e s  made t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from f a r m i n g . settlement p e r i o d , i t s  communities  needs w i t h c h u r c h e s , s c h o o l s ,  lumber  in f i r s t  industry  p l a c e as  early  a rural  throughout  area in  the b a s i s o f  of  its  this  It  is  services, still  study,  with  largethe  economy, and the f r u i t -  amount of wages per c a p i t a has  and 19&1, there is  in the lower wage b r a c k e t s .  accounted f o r by the f a c t  that  of modernization of  Many o f  a growing pocket o f  these r e s i d e n t s may be  they have not been in a p o s i t i o n industry  in-  in the Okanagan.  In  to take  addition,  there  are some people of semi-permanent r e s i d e n c e who may hold temporary jobs then move o n .  The growing numbers  i n c r e a s i n g concern to those  in the low b r a c k e t s w i l l  in the s o c i a l  services,  in the low b r a c k e t s  term s e r v i c e . basis.  itinerant  and the i n c r e a s i n g number o f urban  residents  is d i f f i c u l t  Canada  is  of s e r v i c e throughout  r e q u i r e d to help p r o v i d e f o r  r e q u i r e d by r u r a l  problems of  short-  to work w i t h these people on a c o n t i n u i n g  A wel1 - i n t e g r a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  and across services  It  numbers  Both the  who c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y are r a t h e r mobi1e pose s p e c i a l  and  become o f e v e r -  both as t h e i r  i n c r e a s e and as the scope o f s e r v i c e becomes w i d e r . people  its  people's  a v a r i e t y of  the r e g i o n .  settlers  in second p l a c e .  c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y between 1951 wage-earners  its  growing as a means of meeting  A l t h o u g h on the whole the t o t a l  advantage  was e s s e n t i a l l y  a r e a , as was shown in e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s  industry  growing  It  that  marketing f a c i l i t i e s ,  and development o f communications l y a rural  Statistics  t h e i r needs.  the p r o v i n c e Of c o u r s e ,  and urban people cannot be c o n s i d e r e d to be  -  e x a c t l y the same.  66  -  Those in the c i t y seem to have shared  in more of  creased wages; t h e r e f o r e , there would seem to be l e s s emphasis for  income maintenance programs.  nature o f employment, e s p e c i a l l y for services  t h e r e wi11  to r e t r a i n people f o r new p o s i t i o n s  wages a v a i l a b l e There is  on t h e need  On the o t h e r hand, due to the in the c i t y ,  in order  the i n -  changing  be a growing need to make these  to them. general  who are employed.  concern over the i n c r e a s i n g number of married women  However,  t h e r e is evidence to the e f f e c t that  this  does  not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that t h e r e are more c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g inadequate ental  c a r e . . On the whole, proper p r o v i s i o n  children.  There seems  because the changing  to be no s p e c i a l  As  to the man in the f a m i l y emancipation will  is  is  concern as such in the Okanagan  the s t a t u s of  than.for  the woman in  undoubtedly being a f f e c t e d by women's  in the world of b u s i n e s s .  concerning f i n a n c i a l  t u r e throughout tres  in o t h e r a r e a s ,  need to c o n t i n u e to adapt  Services  is b e i n g made f o r dependent  r a t e of females employed is no g r e a t e r  p r o v i n c e as a whole.  Welfare s e r v i c e s  to the changing assistance  par-  the relation  increasing  in the Okanagan  s t r u c t u r e of the  family.  c o u l d p r o b a b l y be o f a uniform na-  the v a l l e y as the wage s t r u c t u r e  in each of  the major  cen-  quite uniform. The l a r g e number o f persons  in u n s k i l l e d o r l o w - s k i l l e d  c o u l d p o t e n t i a l 1 y be r e c i p i e n t s o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e : in view of tuations education  to which many such p o s i t i o n s is  are s u b j e c t .  r e q u i r e d f o r the more s t a b l e p o s i t i o n s ,  o p p o r t u n i t y to a c q u i r e the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s  is  the f a c t  that  their  may become more and more d e -  tional  a necessary  to the ups and downs o f  and  those who missed  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f v o c a t i o n a l  may become s u b j e c t  the f l u c -  As more t r a i n i n g  pendent upon w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . r e h a b i l i t a t i o n resources  positions  safeguard  the l o c a l  and e d u c a -  f o r those who  economy.  t h e r e are more women in " w h i t e c o l l a r " p o s i t i o n s ,  Because  of  those women  - 67 -  who are working have r e l a t i v e l y more s e c u r i t y male  in t h e i r p o s i t i o n  than t h e i r  counterparts. The unemployment p i c t u r e per se has been r e a s o n a b l y  lation  to the r e s t o f Canada.  In  fact,  favorable  a s l i g h t d e c l i n e in unemployment  been noted over the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d with which we are c o n c e r n e d . o f major concern to w e l f a r e o f f i c i a l s pational  this  study o f  the s o c i a l  the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h  ized f a c t s .  However,  are the many people in i n s e c u r e o c c u -  pilations December  of  for  the P r o v i n c i a l  in each year o f  the p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l  w e l f a r e measurements  in a f o u r t h  Columbia, we have sought f i r s t  From the b a s i s o f  in the Census B u l l e t i n s  the s t a t i s t i c a l  the years  1951  and 1961,  Department of S o c i a l  the Okanagan V a l l e y area ,, a l l 1  organ-  available  and the month-end com-  W e l f a r e f o r the month of  s e r v i c e s which l i e w i t h i n figures.  region  to e x t r a c t  i n f o r m a t i o n made  that decade, we have looked f o r  f a r more than s t a t i s t i c a l  the meanings f o r  these f i g u r e s .  They are  They r e p r e s e n t the people who l i v e  with s i m i l a r i t i e s  and yet unique,  in  variant  in degree o f need and independence and the uses which they have made o f available  services  and  The purpose o f dicated  has  p o s i t i o n s , in the lower wage b r a c k e t s .  In of  in r e -  the  resources. the Department of S o c i a l  in the Annual Report  W e l f a r e may be seen as  to the L e g i s l a t u r e  for  in-  the year 1951 by the  then D i r e c t o r of W e l f a r e , Mr. C.W. Lundy: " . . . t h e cause of b e t t e r i n g the lot of  those of our c i t i z e n s who s u f f e r  or mental  infirmity.  theme of t h i s  document."  for  At that  time the s o c i a l  the P r o v i n c i a l  as the Department of S o c i a l  the year 1961  or  physical to be the  w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s were a d -  Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e .  1957 the two s e r v i c e s became autonomous  established  disorganization  P r e v e n t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n might be s a i d  m i n i s t e r e d by a Branch of In  social  and the S o c i a l  Welfare.  the D i r e c t o r of W e l f a r e , Mr.  In  Welfare Branch was  the Departmental  Report  J . A . S a d l e r , wrote: " . . . . i t  is^  - 68 -  apparent  that  of a b i l i t i e s  t h e r e is  an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number o f people who,  and s k i l l s  through  in the f i e l d o f employment, must turn to t h i s  ment f o r h e l p . . . . . E c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e s  have r e s u l t e d  w i t h i n f a m i l y groups which have made i t n e c e s s a r y  in s t r e s s e s  and  lack  Depart-  strains  to i n c r e a s e most w e l f a r e  services." The i n c r e a s e  in most w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s  r e l a t e d to the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h of  trends  as f o r tion  In  i n c r e a s e d by 22  cent.  The years  p a r t presumably, As d i s c u s s e d  of  one s e c t i o n  the ten year p e r i o d s t u d i e d we noted that  the p o p u l a -  to 1961  showed the g r e a t e r  in Chapter Four,  regions,  the i n c r e a s i n g  to t h a t  the economic backgrounds  of  services,  ural  the r e s u l t  in t h i s  the t h r e e a r e a s .  Regarded  and the F r a s e r  in terms o f  dependency.  financial  (which d e r i v e s much o f  industries,  and these s u b j e c t  and marketing c o n d i t i o n s )  years.  in the Okan-  the Okanagan region cannot be seen as  region  in  that t h e r e are c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s  people who turned to t h e i r government f o r  l i m i t e d number of  increase,  trend in c a s e l o a d s  peopled by those w i t h n o t a b l e t e n d e n c i e s towards  a t e l y greater  had grown by k~l per  in M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  d e s p i t e the f a c t  v i s i o n of social  totals  the economic r e c e s s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g those  agan r e g i o n was s i m i l a r Valley  exploration  to be true t n a t h i s  per cent w h i l e the c a s e l o a d  1956  referred  Columbia as a whole,, and in bur  in the Okanagan r e g i o n we found i t  the whole.  to which Mr, S a d l e r  than  in regions  in  the p r o -  being  The number of  a i d were not p r o p o r t i o n its  income from a very  to the double hazard o f where the means o f  nat-  livelihood  are much more v a r i e d . Social and weaknesses istical  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to both  strengths  in the Okanagan r e g i o n may be s p e l l e d out between the  figures.  ably a s t a b i l i t y  In  the p r o p o r t i o n of home and land owners  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y and a l e s s e r  t h e r e is  statprob-  l e s s marked in an area where t h e r e  degree o f personal  and f i n a n c i a l  is  investment.  - 69 A r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of some of earlier  (Chapter Two)  is e s s e n t i a l .  i n c r e a s i n g at approximately a whole.  The r a t e o f  categories  Thus  The t o t a l  two-thirds  of  is c o n s i d e r a b l y  i t appears  a d u l t " group  increase  p o p u l a t i o n of  likely  (twenty  Okanagan f o r middle-aged  for  i n t e n s i v e study o f  This  to twenty-four years)  is  the aged, n u r s i n g  ren;  activities,  social  t h e r e appear  The d e s i r a b i l i t y of  this  for  T h i s needs to be the e l d e r l y  tical  v e r i f i c a t i o n as  has been found in t h i s  study,  r o p o l i t a n A r e a o f Vancouver, services  for  higher  this  e t c . f o r adul ts .Although no f i g u r e s  as  in those of  that  it  are  for  this  of  the Okanagan r e g i o n ,  the p r o v i n c e ,  incial  living statis-  group.  is d i f f i c u l t  to assess  to what e x t e n t  of  in by f a r  the l a r g e r  is  responsible  for a l l  social  welfare  Much  social  geographic  there is no d i r e c t s e r v i c e by p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s .  government Department  With c a s e l o a d s  as  It  the F r a s e r V a l l e y and the Met-  p r o v i d e d are meeting the needs o f the people in the r e g i o n .  In  child-  available,  (often with c h i l d r e n )  services  in  are  small  has been w r i t t e n on the d i f f e r i n g f u n c t i o n s of public;.and p r i v a t e agencies.  An  than  group  should be c a r r i e d out to p r o v i d e  the b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g  in  etc.  s e r v i c e s may be needed: day c a r e c e n t r e s f o r  Further studies  the  group would be v a l u a b l e .  Welfare c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  to be a number of d e s e r t e d wives  in the Okanagan.  Columbia  where the p r o p o r t i o n a t e  The number o f widowed people in the Okanagan is c o n s i d e r a b l y  Special  school-age  homes, c h r o n i c h o s p i t a l s ,  the p a r t i c u l a r needs of  essential.  as  a l s o evidenced in the  and e l d e r l y people is e v i d e n t .  the comparable F r a s e r V a l l e y .  and  is  that many younger couples are away from  in the p l a n n i n g o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s  terms of housing  the Okanagan  lower than f o r B r i t i s h  in the Okanagan has been v e r y s l i g h t .  a consideration  trends mentioned  the r a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia  the Okanagan w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d r e n are young. "young  social  i n c r e a s e of c h i l d r e n in the p r e - s c h o o l  over ten years  as a whole.  the s i g n i f i c a n t  area  The p r o v services.  the s i z e and content as have been i n d i c a t e d , a q u e s t i o n  -  inevitably arises  70  -  as to whether more than q u a n t i t a t i v e and s p e c i f i c  is b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e ,  and f u r t h e r , whether t h i s  appropriate function for public welfare.  In  is  in f a c t seen as t h e  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  couver t h i s would appear to be so, with casework s e r v i c e s individuals  w i t h personal  ren and a d o l e s c e n t s of  the f a m i l i e s  and other  to f a m i l i e s ,  b e i n g p r o v i d e d f o r by the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s .  responsibility,  but  qualitative  is obvious  that  the P r o v i n c i a l  the s t a t i s t i c s  s e r v i c e the s o c i a l  P r i v a t e agencies,  T h e i r primary cpncern i s  work s t a f f  is  a great  deal o f  s e r v i c e , without  in the M e t r o p o l i t a n  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r regard  the r e c o r d s p r o v i d e  the number of eation of vided,  individuals  the v a r i o u s  s e r v e d , sex,  aspects  and the time i n v o l v e d .  of  are this the  reporting of  age group,  Study,  services.  to income maintenance,  available  some c a s e s ,  live  able or unable to p r o v i d e .  fuller  In  resources  us very l i t t l e of  and, as might be e x p e c t e d , there is and used.  But what  Department accepts  are able to t e l l  as has been p o i n t e d out  are able to make a v a i l a b l e  to  d i f f i c u l t i e s who do not  in a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , and f o r whom these a p p a r e n t l y wider It  area of Van-  r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s , and to c h i l d -  and c h i l d r e n with v e r y s i m i l a r  not a v a i l a b l e ?  service  the s e r v i c e s made i n f o r m a t i o n on  educational  level,  delin-  the problems p r e s e n t e d , the s e r v i c e p r o -  A s e r v i c e measurement s c a l e  is  thus made  a v a i l a b l e with which the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d may be gauged and unmet needs  identified.  A f u l l e r p i c t u r e of  v i c e s b e i n g o f f e r e d in a r e g i o n such as p r i v a t e agencies  in a more meaningful  statistics  worker on an average  c o u l d be p o s s i b l e  evaluation.  r e c o r d i n g when, as we have seen,  the  is working with the number of people r e p r e s e n t e d  by a c a s e l o a d of 3&0 cases and t r a v e l l i n g an average 511 m i l e s It  ser-  sense,, who would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the keeping o f  more d e t a i l e d c a s e l o a d social  welfare  the Okanagan where there are no  would seem to be of v a l u e  In a p r a c t i c a l  the s o c i a l  that employment of c a s e - a i d e s  per month?  would make f e a s i b l e a  - 71 -  broader system of  r e c o r d - k e e p i n g and thus p r o v i d e  more p r o d u c t i v e weighing of s e r v i c e s . lieving social  some agencies  responsibility  such as the placement s l i p s  ing of c l o t h i n g accounts,, a u t h o r i t y forms and the s t a t i s t i c a l  duties,  for  are r e such as  p r o v i d i n g e s c o r t s when, r e q u i r e d in a v a r i e t y of  and b e i n g given  keeping d e t a i l s  for  the many e s s e n t i a l  f o r c h i l d r e n in c a r e ,  f o r medical  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the month's work.  d i s t r i c t o f f i c e such as Vernon, Kelowna, social  case-aides  workers o f many r o u t i n e but time-consuming  the making of appointments, circumstances,  In  i n f o r m a t i o n adequate  and dental  record-  the checktreatment,  One c a s e - a i d e  in each  and P e n t i c t o n , might p r o v i d e the  workers w i t h time which c o u l d be put to more v a l u a b l e  and e f f e c t i v e  use. Throughout  this  study s e r v i c e s  to the c l i e n t have been d e s c r i b e d  and c a l c u l a t e d to some degree but one unknown f a c t o r the c a s e w o r k e r ' s  time.given  ence?  In  view o f  Okanagan,  How much time does the caseworker  such as r e c o r d i n g , p r e p a r i n g r e p o r t s ,  i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know how much time t h i s feel  their services  to them in the coverage of a l a r g e a r e a .  a factual  b a s i s on which to gauge the amount o f  Moreover,  the s o c i a l pects o f  the e v a l u a t i v e nature o f  in the  the time  A time study c o u l d  give  time spent on p a r t i c u l a r  work t a s k or with other  as-  As a f u r t h e r use, such a time study might p r o v i d e a  b a s i s on which c a s e - a i d e s ers  to  the study c o u l d determine whether  worker was d e a l i n g w i t h the s o c i a l  the work.  give  involves,, and  are under p r e s s u r e of  available  inter-  and c o r r e s p o n d -  the high average mileage t r a v e l l e d by the workers  to what e x t e n t workers  tasks.  the p r o p o r t i o n o f  to d i r e c t s e r v i c e to p e o p l e , whether by  v i e w i n g or through c o l l a t e r a l s . administrative details  is  were d e l e g a t e d d u t i e s ,  for s e r v i c e r e q u i r i n g professional  in view o f  releasing social  work-  skills.  The development o f s p e c i a l i z e d c a s e l o a d s to o f f e r some d i f f i c u l t i e s  thus  in the Okanagan r e g i o n  the v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s  in the a r e a .  seems  -  Where the s u b d i s t r i c t o f f i c e as,  for  is  72 -  a considerable distance  from the main o f f i c e  i n s t a n c e , P r i n c e t o n from P e n t i c t o n , the d i s t r i c t  weekly two-day s t a y ,  remaining o v e r n i g h t ,  f i c e and home i n t e r v i e w s adopting  and f o s t e r  to a p p l i c a n t s  parents,  is  a b l e to make a v a i l a b l e both  for f i n a n c i a l  provide supervision  in the d i s t r i c t , o f f e r f a m i l y s e r v i c e  caseworker on a  assistance,  such as  f i e l d s e r v i c e assessments f o r this obviously  in a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s ,  the Old Age A s s i s t a n c e  reduces mileage and t r a v e l l i n g  On the o t h e r hand, more dense, and d i s t a n c e s  Board.  in urban and suburban areas where p o p u l a t i o n t r a v e l l e d are c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t ,  worker d e a l i n g s o l e l y w i t h people in r e c e i p t o f p e n s i o n s ,  a b l e to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e to a l a r g e  It  has been found that a  number because o f  group o f f a m i l i e s  towards  receiving social  t r o u b l e d on so many f r o n t s  the f a m i l y s e e k i n g h e l p ,  the management of such a c a s e l o a d  beneath these comments  public welfare - generalists demand g r e a t e r imaginative it  give  is what is  or s p e c i a l i s t s ?  child-  where f a m i l y  In c a s e l o a d skill,  tends  specialization  and e x p e r i e n c e of Some workers  itself  to a higher  A broader q u e s t i o n ,  however,  the trend f o r s o c i a l  workers  Does a g e n e r a l i s e d  caseload  in  f l e x i b i l i t y o f the worker,, and develop a more c r e a t i v e and  response toward p e o p l e ' s  the s o c i a l  t i n u e d growth  to  at the same time that they have  into consideration.  degree o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . which l i e s  assistance  the t r a i n i n g ,  the caseworker can be taken more f u l l y would f i n d that  - services  inactiv-  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may be waihted, or a small  come to be t y p i f i e d as " m u l t i - p r o b l e m " f a m i l i e s . the needs of  f o r example,  the r e l a t i v e  i t y of such a group. . Other groupings suggest themselves to i r i d i v i d u a l s or f a m i l i e s  is  t h e r e would  social  c o u n s e l l i n g or p l a n n i n g  Planning  time.  to be a b a s i s f o r s p e c i a l i z e d c a s e l o a d s .  ren,  and attend  and the r e q u i r e d  appear  is  prospective  to c h i l d r e n p l a c e d in homes  to the r e q u e s t s o f pension r e c i p i e n t s f o r a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s annual  of-  needs, and i n t e g r a t i o n o f s k i l l s ?  worker a s a t i s f a c t i o n  in p r o f e s s i o n a l  that s u s t a i n s  competence and r e s u l t  his reach for  in more e f f e c t i v e  Does  conser-  73  -  -  vi ce? The r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n  increase  over the t e n - y e a r . - p e r i o d s t u d i e d rate.  However,  is  low,  in the Okanagan region as a whole less  than h a l f  the p r o v i n c i a l  the urban c e n t r e s , n o t a b l y Vernon, Kelowna, and P e n t i c t o n ,  have e x p e r i e n c e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e  increase  in p o p u l a t i o n , which i n d i c a t e s  marked trend towards  urbanisation.  Department o f S o c i a l  Welfare to i n d i c a t e whether the people whom t h i s  ment serves there i s , urban  in f a c t ,  l i t t l e significant  ised or g e n e r a l i s e d  ied economic b a s e . ipally  in the r u r a l  the s o c i a l  closely  Depart-  The trend  for  such as  Changes produced by automation  the Okanagan as they are r e g i o n s  Lumbering and f r u i t - g r o w i n g ,  special-  but  are  also in p r o -  affecting  w i t h a more v a r -  sources of employment p r i n c in recent y e a r s .  region  is  The  found in the  The p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e - t r a i n i n g o f workers  serand  in any r e g i o n  are  r e l a t e d to the e x i s t i n g economy and r e s o u r c e s , both f o r e d u c a t i o n and  f o r employment. v i s i o n e d en relatedness.  This  is  the r e g i o n a l  an aspect o f s o c i a l b a s i s and s e r v i c e s  A s e p a r a t e study examining  w e l f a r e which needs should be planned  The Okanagan r e g i o n p r e s e n t s  to be e n -  in  realistic  these f a c t o r s would be v a l u a b l e  a c o n t r i b u t i o n toward the most p r o d u c t i v e forms o f  itations  the r e g i o n .  welfare caseloads  i n d u s t r i e s , many d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t o u r i s m . for  the  p o p u l a t i o n and the  the p o p u l a t i o n of any a r e a , would be i n v a l u a b l e  segment o f employment f o r women in t h i s  prospects  of  i n t o the urban c e n t r e s , or whether  f o r men, both have seen d e v e l o p i n g automation  largest vice  not o n l y of  f l e x i b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s . areas  a  caseloads.  the c o m p o s i t i o n of  agricultural  change  in the s t a t i s t i c s  is one aspect f o r assessment in p l a n n i n g  Wider knowledge,  viding  areas  nothing  is due to movement from people o u t s i d e  o f p o p u l a t i o n movement  of  There i s  are moving from the r u r a l  increase  growth  planning.  administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s  p l a c e d upon s e r v i c e s by a c c e s s i b i l i t y  as  in the  and communications.  lim-  Although  - Ik -  the major n o r t h - s o u t h  highway along  and f a s t route under almost the d i s t a n c e s  all  the f l o o r of  is  a necessity  since public transportation  is  a dependable  weather c o n d i t i o n s between the d i s t r i c t  to be covered in the s u b d i s t r i c t s  transportation  the V a l l e y  if a client  facilities  between d i s t r i c t o f f i c e personnel  is  is  are h a n d i c a p s .  to have an o f f i c e  Automobile appointment,  are d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d .  limited also.  offices,  Communication  F u r t h e r , the  Similkameen  p l a t e a u to the west and the K e t t l e V a l l e y to the east o f the Okanagan V a l l e y are,  in e f f e c t ,  ion.  isolated  from the p o p u l a t i o n and s e r v i c e c e n t r e s of  By way of c o n t r a s t ,  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  d e n s e l y populated a r e a , has a l a r g e facilities.  Administration  d i f f e r i n g problems istics  and t h e r e f o r e i t s  ning for  these needs  locations.  Since  region, a sprawling  network of communication and  and the p r o v i s i o n , of s o c i a l  in the two a r e a s . own s p e c i a l  Each region has needs.  the r e g -  services  its  transportation present w i d e l y  own unique c h a r a c t e r -  We would suggest that f u t u r e p l a n -  in the Okanagan r e g i o n may n e c e s s i t a t e some boundary r e -  the Kamloops  district  onomic c o n t e x t , we would recommend that drawn from Wei f a r e Region III.  does not l i e w i t h i n administration  of  the Okanagan e c -  this  area be w i t h -  The Grand Forks a r e a , on the o t h e r hand,  a comparable economic b a s i s and has e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r i t y of w e l f a r e We suggest that region.  it  should l o g i c a l l y  These changes  be i n c l u d e d in the Okanagan s o c i a l  at p r o v i n c i a l  a c c e p t i n g a p r i n c i p l e of  and n a t i o n a l  regional  s e r v i c e s , more f a c t u a l  knowledge of  essential.  welfare s t a t i s t i c s  The s o c i a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i on o f s o c i a l  welfare  which have been used in t h i s We suggest that  i n f o r m a t i o n might be the e s t a b l i s h m e n t requests  welfare  levels.  f o r e x t e n s i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t s t a t i s t i c a l  w i t h which a l l  trends.  the v a r y i n g needs o f people in a region  are l i m i t e d in the i n f o r m a t i o n they p r o v i d e .  g a t h e r i n g wider  has  would a d d i t i o n a l l y p r o v i d e a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s t a n d -  a r d i z a t i o n o f boundaries In  and  data.  there i s  study a need  One means o f  o f a Regional  f o r s e r v i c e , whether rendered or not,  is  Registry  are t a b u l a t e d .  - 75 A central  index such as this,  available  an abundance o f  needs.  Resulting  isting  r e s e a r c h data f o r  information could point  t i o n of s e r v i c e s . apparent.  used in many l a r g e r  communities, would make  the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of  up gaps, d i s c r e p a n c i e s ,  The p a r t i c u l a r needs of s u b d i s t r i c t s  Additional  and d u p l i c a  would be more c l e a r l y  data c o u l d be c h a n n e l l e d through such a R e g i s t r y  service organizations  and P a r o l e agencies  regional  such as  the Department of H e a l t h ,  and law enforcement b o d i e s ,  by ex-  the P r o b a t i o n  thus encompassing  a broader  area of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and p r o t e c t i o n needs. We would  recommend f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n  s c r i p t i v e survey s i m i l a r  to the P r i o r i t i e s Study  couver a r e a , prepared by a committee o f Council.  Existing  evaluated, for  and t h e i r p r i o r i t y r a t i n g assessed  c o u n t e r a c t the e x i s t i n g  t h i s would be of v a l u e This  is  "crisis  initial  in o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h  in each region of  the p r o v i n c e .  welfare services  in the Okanagan  re-examination of  provision.  to  A study  the needs of  a r e a , as a c o n t r i b u t i o n towards e v a l u a t i o n of e x i s t i n g  vices,, and the p l a n n i n g o f f u t u r e  and  a basis  and as an attempt  and d r i f t p l a n n i n g " o f s e r v i c e s .  study o f s o c i a l  Van-  and s e r v i c e s were c l a s s i f i e d ,  welfare services  intended as a b a s i s f o r c o n t i n u i n g  people in t h i s  in the M e t r o p o l i t a n  the Vancouver Community Chest  h e a l t h and w e l f a r e agencies  long range p l a n n i n g o f s o c i a l  such as  in the Okanagan r e g i o n a de-  region the ser-  -  76-  B1BLIOGRAPHY  B a r t l e t t , E.D., B l i g h , H.N., Bombardier!, G.A., Noak, G.R., and Specken, A . G . , A Regional Study of S o c i a l Welfare Measuremerits (No. 3 The M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a ) , Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964.  Bledsoe,. M.Y. and G.A. S t o l a r , A Regional Study of S o c i a l Welfare Measurements (No. 2 The F r a s e r V a l l e y ) , , Master o f S o c i a l ~ Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963.  B l i s h e n , B., Jones, E , , Naegele,, K., P o r t e r , J . , e d . , Canadi an Society. T o r o n t o , The MacMillan Company, 1961.  Boundary H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , T h i r d Annual R e p o r t , 1961, and F o u r t h Report, 1964, Grand F o r k s , B r i t i s h Columbia, Gazette P r i n t i n g Company L i m i t e d , 1961 and 1964.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Reports o f the Department of S o c i a l Welf a r e , 1951 ° 1961, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1952-1962.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of H e a l t h S e r v i c e s and H o s p i t a l I n s u r ance. Annual Reports o f the North Okanagan H e a l t h U n i t and the South Okanagan H e a l t h U n i t , 1951-1961, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1952-1962.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , Area. V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961.  Okanagan Bui 1 e t i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , Government T r a v e l Bureau, V i s i t o r s 1963; A Study of V i s i t o r s to B r i t i s h Columbia in the Summer of I963, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a ,  1964.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f S o c i a l V i c t o r i a , 1962.  W e l f a r e , Pol i c y Manual ,  Camu, P., Weeks, E . P . , Sametz, T.W... Economic Geography of T o r o n t o , The MacMillan Company, 1964.  Canada,  Canada, Department o f L a b o u r . . Canadian S o c i e t y . M a c M i l l a n Company of Canada, 1 9 6 4 .  Ottawa,  Ferente,  Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f Canada, 1 9 5 1 , V o l . 1, V o l . 3, V o l . 4 , V o l . 5, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953.  Canada, Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , V o l . 1, V o l . 2, V o l . 3 , B u l l e t i n  Census of Canada, 1 9 6 1 ,  Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s , Research and Development Department, An I n d u s t r i a l Survey o f the Okanagan V a l l e y Region, B r i t i s h Columbia, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 .  Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , Twenty-second R e p o r f , 1 9 5 8 , E d . F . T . M a r r i a g e , The Vernon News L t d . , Vernon, B r i t i s h Columbia.  Welsh, R u t h . The Growth and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n in B r i t i s h Columbi a. 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 , Master o f A r t s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 4 .  78  T a b l e s and Sources  Table No. la.  b.  2a b  3.  k.  Source D i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n in Centres Over 5,000 in the Okanagan, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, and Per Cent Change, 1951-1961  B u l l e t i n SP-1 , p.  Urban C o n c e n t r a t i o n of Okanagan P o p u l a t i o n ,  B u l l e t i n SP-1, p.  1951-1961  132, 1961.  Total  P o p u l a t i o n and Ten-year Change,  Urban-Rural  Distribution  1951-61  and Sex C o m p o s i t i o n ,  132, 1961.  B u l l e t i n 1.1-7  131-  131-  (Table  13) 1961.  1951-1961  As Above  P o p u l a t i o n by S p e c i f i c Age Groups and Per Cent I n c r e a s e , B r i t i s h Columbia and the Okanagan, 1951-1961 M a r i t a l S t a t u s , F r a s e r V a l l e y , Okanagan, and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 1951-1961  Bui l e t i n SP-1  (p.  132) 1961. Bui 1etin 1.2-k  131-  (Table  30) 1961.  B u l l e t i n 2. 1-1  (Table  5.  Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n of Households by S i z e : the Okanagan, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, 1951-1961.  k) 1961.  6.  F a c t o r s o f Family  Bui l e t i n 2.1-5  (Table  B u i l e t i n 2.1-6  (Table  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  12.  13.  Composition.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of E t h n i c Groups, Okanagan, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canada, 1951 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c Groups in the Okanagan, B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada,1961 Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the O k a n a g a n M e t r o p o l i tan Vancouver, and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the Okanagan Centres With P o p u l a t i o n Under 5,000, 1961 Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the Okanagan, 1951  50) 1961.'  55) 1961. 1951  B u i l e t i n Sp-2,  1961  B u l l e t i n SP-3,  1961  As  abboe  As  above  Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s , Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n in the Okanagan Main Centres o f P o p u l a t i o n , 1961  As  above  Percentage Change o f Male Wage-Earners in V a r i o u s Wage B r a c k e t s in B r i t i s h Columbia and the Okanagan, 1951-1961  B u l l e t i n 3. 3-3,  1961  -  79 -  Table _ No. ]k.  15.  16.  Source Percentage Change f o r Female Wage-Earners in V a r i o u s Wage B r a c k e t s in B r i t i s h Columb i a and the Okanagan, 1951-1961. Male Wage-Earners by Income: in the Okanagan, 1961  Major  Female Wage-Earners by Income: Major of the Okanagan, 1961.  Centres  18.  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners the Okanagan, 1961  in  22.  23  2k  25  26  B u l l e t i n 3.3-2  B u l l e t i n 3.3-3,  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners in the Okanagan, 1961 Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners the Okanagan, 1951. Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961  As  above  As  above  As  above  1961  in As above.  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961  As  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Male in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951.  1951  above  Wage-Earners  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Female Wage-Earners in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 Occupational Composition of Urban Males the Labor F o r c e , Okanagan, 1961  in  Census  As aboye B u l l e t i n 3.1-8  above  Occupational Composition of Rural Females in the Labour F o r c e , Okanagan, 1961  As  above  Occupational Composition of Rural Males in the Labour F o r c e , Okanagan, 1961  As  above  29  S i z e of Labour F o r c e ,  B u l l e t i n 3.3-3,  30  Labour Force in the Okanagan: and Changes, 1951-1961  Okanagan,  1951-1961  Composition  (Table  15) 1961  As  28  (Table  in  O c c u p a t i o n a l Composition of Urban Females in the Labour F o r c e , Okanagan, 1961  27  (Table  13) 1961. in  21  1961  13) 1961  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male Wage-Earners the Okanagan, 1951  20.  Bui 1 e t i n 3.3-2  Centres  17.  19.  B u l l e t i n 3. 3-3,  B u l l e t i n 3.3-1  \k) 1961.  1961 (Table  - 80 -  Table No.  31  Source  Occupied D w e l l i n g s by Tenure and Length o f Occupancy: Okanagan and Major C e n t r e s ,  B u l l e t i n 2.2-1  Comparative Housing P a t t e r n s ; Okanagan, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, 1961  B u l l e t i n 2.2-1 6) (Table 11) B u l l e t i n 2.2-5  1961  32  (Table  11) 1961. (Table (Table  56) B u l l e t i n 2.2-6 61) (Table 66)  71)  33  Comparative Housing C o n d i t i o n s : M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, B r i t i s h and Canada, 1961  34  P o p u l a t i o n and Caseload Comparisons, Okanagan R e g i o n , 1951-1961  Okanagan, Columbia,  above  As  above  As  above  As  above  As  above  As  above  As  above  Percentage Increase of Cases and Workers, Okanagan, 1951-1961  As  above  Number of Workers, Average Caseloads Main S u b d i s t r i c t s , 1951-1961  As  above  As  above  As  above  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Caseloads  36  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Caseloads by Major Okanagan, 1951-1961 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Caseloads by Major and Changes, Okanagan, 1951-1961  37 38  39  1951-1961  in the  Okanagan  Categories: Categories:  Number of Workers, T o t a l and Average C a s e l o a d , Okanagan, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, F r a s e r V a l l e y , 1951-1961 Number o f Workers, C a s e l o a d s , and M i l e a g e , Regions III, II, and B r i t i s h Columbia,  1957-1961  40  41 42  B u l l e t i n 2.2-1 (Table 16) B u l l e t i n 2.2-3 (Table 36) Builetin 2.2-4 ( T a b l e 46) ( T a b l e 5.0 B u l l e t i n 2.2-5 (Table 56) 1961  As  35  Number of Workers, Average C a s e l o a d s , and M i l e a g e , the Okanagan and Three Regions, and P r o v i n c i a l A v e r a g e s , 1961  in  43  A Personnel  44  P r o p o r t i o n a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Caseloads by Category, Vernon D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-  1961  Comparison, Okanagan,  1961  (Table (Table  -  81  T a b l e No. 45  P r o p o r t i o n a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of by C a t e g o r y , Kelowna D i s t r i c t  Source Caseloads Office,,  As  above  As  above  As  above  1951-1961  46  P r o p o r t i o n a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Caseloads by Category, P e n t i c t o n D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-1961  47  P r o p o r t i o n a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Caseloads by C a t e g o r y , Grand Forks D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , 1951-1961  

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