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Power, function and region : a study of three factors in regional development Perry, Percy Adolphus 1967

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POWER, FUNCTION AND REGION: THREE FACTORS IN REGIONAL  A STUDY OF DEVELOPMENT  by PERCY ADOLPHUS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  PERRY  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of COMMUNITY AND .REGIONAL PLANNING  We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  April,  1967  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the; L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. thesis  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  this  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my  Department o r by h i s  representatives.  It  i s understood t h a t  copying  o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  ABSTRACT  P l a n n i n g f o r r e g i o n a l development of  this  the as  study.  The  hypothesis, that a tool  The the  purpose of t h e study i s t o demonstrate the effectiveness  of development  make power, f u n c t i o n  f o r m s t h e m a j o r theme  of r e g i o n a l  i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e a b i l i t y  and r e g i o n o r a r e a  p r o b l e m i n a g e n e r a l way. ills  development  i n the less  first,  to discuss  Growing u r b a n i z a t i o n  i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e  to  coincide.  a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n t h e s t u d y was,  manifested  planning  and i t s  t h e need f o r r e g i o n a l  developed sector  of the world's  econonry. The g r o w t h o f t h e r e g i o n a l c o n c e p t i n t h e m a j o r related cept is  to planning i s traced,  i n the United States  examined.  Attention  r e g i o n a l development  is two  order t o t e s t  undertaken. factors.  i s drawn t o t h e s t a t e  and  of planning f o r relationship  a case study of Puerto Rico  The c h o i c e o f t h e t e r r i t o r y was In the f i r s t  a model of development  as  Puerto Rico  con-  region.  the hypothesis  be  of t h i s  and t h e n e w l y i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n t r i e s  and t h e need f o r a c l o s e r  between power, f u n c t i o n In  and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  disciplines  instance,  Puerto Rico  prompted  i s claimed to  i n t h e Western Hemisphere.  i s an i s l a n d  i t i s a clearly  i  by  delineated  Secondly, region.  The  method employed was  mental achievement the f a c t o r s 1940  that and  involved.  the  end  i n g p e r i o d was  The  development from  achievements, contributed concludes  occur  a t t h e same t i m e was  the  an e c o n o m i c  process  programme,  the i n t e r v e n -  social  point of to  indices  a series  Rico  The  t h a t would case  have  study  development.  the  analysis  are:  i s a success,  of i n c i d e n t s which  These were:  The  as G o v e r n o r ;  and  p l a c e when P u e r t o  That and  the  that  the  the  this  seemed t o  c o m i n g t o power o f  P a r t y l e d by Munoz M a r i n ;  Tugwell  changes which took  of  developmental  island  are o u t l i n e d .  i n Puerto  from  Democratic G.  and  Noting  t h e main f e a t u r e s c o n t r i b u t i n g  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn f r o m  of Rexford  island,  f a c t o r s uniqxie t o t h e  t o development  resulted  on t h e  assess  as f o l l o w s .  a d i s c u s s i o n of the  fortuitously.  Popular  and  a p l a n n i n g s t a n d p o i n t were c o n s i d e r e d .  with s p e c i f i c  development success  rule  from  1940  from  t o e m b a r k i n g on  The  Rico  procedure  of Spanish  assessed  Starting  Prior  of Puerto  develop-  marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l  I898  view.  to t r y to evaluate the  the  appointment  constitutional  Rico gained  Commonwealth  Status. Munoz M a r i n was the  I s l a n d and  a l e a d e r d e d i c a t e d t o the development  Rexford  Tugwell  a planning administration with region  i n which the  dowed w i t h t h e  was  a planner  jurisdiction  f u n c t i o n s t o be  planned  power t o implement t h e  of  seeking to create over  the  area  existed;  and  plans designed.  or en-  Al-  t h o u g h T u g w e l l was ideal  administrative  function The criteria and  not  and  region  study that  region  These are:  totally  framework, he into a close  a l s o brought t o are  successful  light  e s s e n t i a l f o r the  authorization,  of  population,  fiscal  ness of  certain triad  services  power,  subsidiary  - power,  and  for regional  rendered,  function  i n assessing  development.  function  development.  a d e q u a c y , a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and  a s u g g e s t e d model u s e f u l  organization  to bring  for regional  T h e s e , t o g e t h e r w i t h power, r e g i o n ponents of  able  his  relationship.  - t o work e f f e c t i v e l y Size  was  in creating  legal flexibility  form the the  com-  effective  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  It to  i s with great pleasure that  those  I e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n  p e o p l e who h e l p e d me t h r o u g h o u t  particularly  t h a n k D r . H. P. O b e r l a n d e r ,  this  study.  I must  Head o f t h e D e p a r t -  ment o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , f o r h i s a d v i c e on this  study  Special  and t h r o u g h o u t  o f my p l a n n i n g  studies.  acknowledgement i s p a i d t o P r o f e s s o r R. C o l l i e r o f  t h e Department of  the course  o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ,  B r i t i s h Columbia,  University  whose v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and c r i t i c i s m ,  freely  given during the writing  writer  i n completing the study.  of this  thesis,  assisted the  I want t o t h a n k D r . L e a n d r o V i l o r i a f o r t h e t i m e he devoted and  freely  and c o n s t a n t l y i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e w r i t e r ,  f o r t h e many s u g g e s t i o n s he o f f e r e d . S p e c i a l thanks  time  t o a l l t h o s e who gave f r e e l y  t o p r o o f - r e a d i n g and t y p i n g t h i s  study.  of their  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  iv  L I S T OF TABLES  v  L I S T OF CHARTS  vi  Chapter I. II.  III.  INTRODUCTION THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONAL PLANNING CONCEPT  13  DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN PUERTO RICO: A CASE STUDY  IV.  1  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  36 74 85  V  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table  Page  1.  Exports  2.  Population of Puerto Rico increase  3.  i n thousands of d o l l a r s  Education  and R a t e  Budget  of 43  L e v e l of the P o p u l a t i o n  1950-65 4.  41  Allocations  72 1940, I960  73  vi  L I S T OF CHARTS  Charts 1.  2.  Page The R a t i o n a l e f o r an A r e a l D i v i s i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t a l Powers w i t h i n t h e Modern Democratic S t a t e Puerto  Rico P l a n n i n g Board: F u n c t i o n a l  C h a r t 1956-57 3.  4.  65  Puerto R i c o P l a n n i n g Board: t i o n , 1958  Organiza-  Puerto  Organiza-  tion,  19  Rico P l a n n i n g Board:  66  I960  67  5.  The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s  80  6.  The M o d e l  83  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Rapid  Urbanization: Although  million  man's p r e s e n c e  recent o r i g i n .  has  phenomenon and  ment.  however,  During the  past  occupied  have s h e d  understanding  some l i g h t  developproblem,  eludes the researchers.  t h e meantime, however, t h e p a c e o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i s  its  b l e s s i n g the  of s o c i a l maladjustment, urban  and  inadequate  difficulties  ills  utilities.  i s through  Thomas M a l t h u s timated that food  One  regional  i n h i s Essay  bringing with i t , along with  approach  and  space,  slums  to alleviate  these  planning. on P o p u l a t i o n o f 1798  p o p u l a t i o n would double  principle  "*"T . R.  and  with  on t h e  the world  Turgot's  three  o f u r b a n i z a t i o n on  i n c r e a s i n g throughout  cient  less  a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f s t u d i e s  on t h e e f f e c t  but t o date complete  urgent  a  i s of  growth i n the  become i n c r e a s i n g l y  These u n d e r t a k i n g s  In  of urban  as a r e s u l t ,  been undertaken  agglomerations  More r e c e n t and  sector of the world.  f o u r d e c a d e s man  this has  on t h e e a r t h d a t e s b a c k o v e r  man's c o n c e r n w i t h t h e i m p a c t  industrialized or  Concern,  y e a r s , the development of urban  relatively is  A Cause f o r  naturally,  e v e r y t w e n t y - f i v e years.''"  given  essuffi-  Applying  of diminishing return to land to h i s  Malthus,  An E s s a y  Sons, L t d . , 1927). I  on P o p u l a t i o n ( L o n d o n : J . M.  Dent  2  f o r e c a s t , Malthus conjured  up  a vision  w h i c h c o u l d be c h e c k e d o n l y by war, tion.  P o p u l a t i o n growth,  creased  i n the  order  albeit  f o r e s e e n by  of population  disease, vice  pressure  and  starva-  m o v i n g more s l o w l y , i n Malthus.  Dating  from  I65O,  when t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n began t o show a marked upward climb, The 30  i t took 500  next year  from  million  time  to 1930.  1900  will  take  to  500  the  extrapolations  million,  and  proper the  reasoning,  potential The  for  but  he  About spread  another  United  1950,  added,  to  500  million.  however, t h a t b o t h ennunciated  Malthus*s  were s o u n d .  His  from a l a c k of  l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t  knowledge o f  of t e c h n o l o g i c a l development. t o i n d u s t r y , and  the  tendency  w i t h i n urban areas t r i g g e r e d dwellers t o urban  centres  production.  200 years  fairly  m i l l i o n t o be  a  growth  industries to concentrate  industrial  f o l l o w e d by  at the c u r r e n t r a t e of  an u n p r e c e d e n t e d m i g r a t i o n o f r u r a l of  population.  years,  a p p l i c a t i o n of technology  these  years,  f u t u r e s u f f e r e d not  from  to the  20  t o add  principles  i n t o the  50  p e r i o d from 1930  The  only 8 years  and  million  f o l l o w i n g 500  In r e t r o s p e c t i t i s c l e a r , reasoning  500  add  i n c r e a s e took  span f o r the  added a n o t h e r it  200 y e a r s  evenly  Nations,  ago  the b i g c i t i e s  a l l over  the globe,  of the world but  were  t h e r e were  S e m i n a r on U r b a n P l a n n i n g  (Geneva:  only  I962).  3  a s m a l l number o f c i t i e s Paris,  Rome, P e k i n g ,  witnessed  countries.  British  population  imately  seventy  time, there  percent  lives  percent  London,  The e a r l y 1800*3  Today about e i g h t y i ncities  o f over  i n t h e United  a r e many c o u n t r i e s w i t h  population  estimates  C a l c u t t a and Bombay.  size:  t h e dawn o f r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n , m a i n l y i n t h e i n -  dustrializing  of t h e i r  o f any s i g n i f i c a n t  that there  of their  Kingsley  concentrated  Davis  100,000  States. only  of the  and a p p r o x -  A t t h e same  a small  i n large c i t i e s .  a r e 57 c o u n t r i e s w i t h  population  percent  percentage One a u t h o r  l e s s than t e n  urbanized.^  i n an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f w o r l d  u r b a n i z a t i o n makes t h e p o i n t t h a t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f industrialization urban migration urban population he  maintains  i n t h e Western European c o u n t r i e s r u r a l t o  c o n s t i t u t e d one o f t h e p r i m e c a u s e s o f r a p i d growth.  However, c o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r  t h a t urban population  growth today  i s more a r e s u l t  of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e w i t h i n urban c e n t r e s than from people from t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . ^  opinion,  an i n f l u x o f  Speaking o f t h e underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s he w r i t e s : I n s p i t e o f t h e enormous g r o w t h o f t h e i r c i t i e s , t h e i r r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r more narrowly defined a g r i c u l t u r a l populations - are g r o w i n g a t a r a t e t h a t i n many c a s e s e x c e e d t h e r i s e o f even t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e now a d v a n c e d c o u n t r i e s . The  ^ K i n g s l e y D a v i s , "The U r b a n i z a t i o n S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n , V o l . . C C X X I I I , No. ^Ibid.,  p . 46.  Ibid.,  p . 50.  5  o f t h e Human P o p u l a t i o n , " ( S e p t . , 1965), p . 44.  3  4  poor c o u n t r i e s t h u s c o n f r o n t a g r a v e dilemma. I f t h e y do n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y s t e p up t h e exodus f r o m r u r a l a r e a s , t h e s e a r e a s w i l l be swamped w i t h underemployed f a r m e r s . I f they do s t e p u p t h e exodus t h e c i t i e s w i l l grow a t a d i s a s t r o u s r a t e . 6 In t h e developing  c o u n t r i e s where p o p u l a t i o n  heavily  on r e s o u r c e s ,  of  h a s b e e n b a s e d on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ,  life  t h e hope o f a c h i e v i n g  has  p r o d u c e d some u n f o r t u n a t e  the  process  are  not encouraging.  a better  quality  which t o date  consequences.  of industrialization  presses  In India,  i s taking place  where  the results  Even i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e o f i n complete i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , I n d i a has n o t e s c a p e d some o f t h e e v i l s o f t h e haphazard growth o f i n d u s t r y , o f slums i n t h e more and more o v e r c r o w d e d c i t i e s , t h e economic d e p r e s s i o n o f some g r o u p s and c l a s s e s o f t h e s o c i e t y who l o s t t h e i r i n t e g r a t e d p a r t i n t h e o l d v i l l a g e communities .7 Some a u t h o r i t i e s o b s e r v i n g urbanization way t o d e t e r  t h e consequences o f r a p i d  a d v o c a t e a p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n as t h e o n l y the t i d e of migration  and a l l e v i a t e  some o f t h e  ill-effects. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some u n d e r d e v e l o p e d areas would p r o g r e s s f u r t h e r , i n t h e l o n g r u n , i f t h e y i n v e s t e d and r e i n v e s t e d t h e i r meagre r e s o u r c e s i n a g r i c u l t u r e and r u r a l i n d u s t r y .  ^Ibid.,  p.  51.  I n d i a P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , The New I n d i a M a c m i l l a n , 1958), p . 31.  (New York:  5  Not o n l y w o u l d t h e y h e l p a c c u m u l a t e more c a p i t a l f o r t h e f u t u r e , b u t would l e s s e n the tendency f o r urban development t o g e t o u t o f s t e p w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e economy. It  appears t h a t i f t h e underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s  achieve  any marked d e v e l o p m e n t  migration The  R  of therural  i t c a n n o t be done b y w h o l e s a l e  populations  t o t h e few e x i s t i n g  momentous p r o b l e m s t h a t w o u l d be c r e a t e d  w o u l d be a u s e l e s s  sacrifice  are t o  cities.  i nthe c i t i e s  because o n l y the  f r i n g e problems  9 of r u r a l  over-population  and underemployment w o u l d b e t o u c h e d .  Most e x - c o l o n i a l and n e w l y i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n t r i e s , India,  s u f f e r from a s c a r c i t y  aggerated  primacy o f t h e i r  o f growing p o i n t s  big cities.  and an e x -  Colin Clarke,  i n g on t h e work o f N e u t z , came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t of the  100,000  to  300,000  needs o f a r e g i o n ,  sizes  greater  work o f c i t i e s larger  of  and t h a t  100,000  o r d e r . S u c h  to  a greater  of  growth i n a v e r y  buildtowns  g e n e r a l l y a r e a b l e t o s a t i s f y most o f  500,000.  than  like  to  few a d v a n t a g e s s t e m f r o m  I d e a l l y there  300,000  with  should  few r e g i o n s  be a n e t -  some c e n t r e s o f  a network would d i s t r i b u t e  degree than t h e present  city  development  fortuitous concentration  of the world.  g  E r i c Lampard, "The H i s t o r y o f C i t i e s i n t h e E c o n o m i c a l l y A d v a n c e d A r e a s , " E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t and C u l t u r a l Change I I I , No. 2 ( J a n u a r y , 1955), p . 132. o P. H. H a u s e r ( e d . ) , U r b a n i z a t i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s : E d u c a t i o n a l , S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ,  1961), pp. 76-77.  C o l i n C l a r k e , "The L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i e s and P o p u l a t i o n , " Town P l a n n i n g R e v i e w, V o l . XXXV, No. 3 ( O c t . , I964).  6'  Definitions. In  what f o l l o w s ,  countries" in  and  a precise  are  t h e terms "development," " d e v e l o p i n g  "regional  sense.  p l a n n i n g " are used  Explicit  of these  terms  therefore provided. In  W e b s t e r ' s New  definition generally  of the term  Twentieth Century D i c t i o n a r y , " t o develop" i s "to cause  i n some way."  And  "a s t e p or s t a g e i n growth, of  definitions  r e p e a t e d l y and  advancement."  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e r m .  related  social,  w h i c h human and a wider  range  to refer  political,  t o grow  " d e v e l o p m e n t " i s d e f i n e d as A  t h e above d e f i n i t i o n s w o u l d seem s u f f i c i e n t  "development" i s used  one  to provide  However, i n t h i s  study  to a process of mutually  economic  and  styles  inter-  p h y s i c a l changes i n  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s are d i r e c t e d  of choice i n l i f e  combination  towards  for individuals  creating and  groups. When a p p l i e d t o a c o u n t r y t h e t e r m defined tion  as " a s t a g e i n g r o w t h o r advancement."  i m p l i e s movement by  latter  s t a g e s from  one  This  arranged  as o u r u n i v e r s e , c o u n t r i e s c a n  i n a s e q u e n t i a l order based  criteria.  The  v e r t i c a l continuum  defini-  s t a t e t o another,  s t a t e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d an improvement o v e r t h e  Hence, u s i n g t h e w o r l d  graphic  "developing" i s best  on e c o n o m i c  and  the  former. be social  thus created provides a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the developmental  relationship  be-  tween n a t i o n s t a t e s . Along t h i s  continuum  t h e c o u n t r i e s of Western Europe  and  7  North of  America  would  c o u n t r i e s would  central  portion  gravitate be  towards  scattered  unevenly  of  the  continuum,  centration  towards  the  bottom.  countries"  in this  study  concentrated The planning there  quest  and  f o r an  culminated  i s no  Leonard  around  0.  Gertler  with The  top.  a fairly  term  i n proximity to  agreement put  the  on  idea  to  the  the  a single tersely  number the  large  con-  "developing  acceptable definition formation of  A  throughout  therefore refers  i n the  general  the  those countries bottom. of  regional  opinion  that  concept.  when  he  However,  wrote:  Regional planning i s a process, based on law and u n d e r t a k e n by a f o r m o f r e s p o n s i b l e government, d i r e c t e d towards i n f l u e n c i n g development, p r i v a t e or p u b l i c i n a manner t h a t r e s u l t s , i n t h e a r e a s where p e o p l e s e t t l e a n d e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l commun i t i e s , i n the best environment and t h e soundest use o f r e s o u r c e s t h a t our c i v i l i zation i s capable of e f f e e t i n g . H The  concept  as  expressed  above  i s adopted  f o r use  in  this  study.  The  Regional To  meet  Approach: the  from  natural  from  depressed  the  need  to  Variations  enormous  pressure  i n c r e a s e s i n urban rural  attain  areas,  the  a  of  urbanization resulting  areas  while  over-all  on  Theme.  and  at the  economic  from  mass m i g r a t i o n  same t i m e  considering  growth  the  of  country,  11 L e o n a r d 0. G e r t l e r , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e B a c k g r o u n d P a p e r s , V o l . I (Ottawa, C a n a d a : Queen's P r i n t e r s , 1961).  8  most n a t i o n s i n the d e v e l o p i n g s e c t o r of the world's economy have r e s o r t e d t o the r e g i o n a l approach. p r i m a r i l y d i c t a t e d by economic  T h i s approach i s  considerations.  I t involves  t h r e e p r i n c i p a l p a t t e r n s of a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c investments: d i s p e r s a l , c o n c e n t r a t i o n on growing areas, and promotion of 12 the development  of backward a r e a s .  Hirschman and Myrdal b e l i e v e t h a t i n the long-run the most e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y i s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the growth  points.  They base t h e i r argument i n terms of an a n a l y t i c a l framework where the " t r i c k l i n g - d o w n " or "spread" e f f e c t s c o u l d be a t t a i n e d where t h i s s t r a t e g y would be adopted."^  A more c u r r e n t  approach i s through the combination of c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g , government guidance and r e g i o n a l and l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e .  Assuming  t h a t e i t h e r of these approaches i s c o r r e c t , t h e r e s t i l l  remains  the problem of d e s i g n i n g a r e s p o n s i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e governmental machinery f o r r e g i o n a l development. deal with t h i s  The study s h a l l  problem.  Assumptions. S i n c e World War  I I , the f o r m u l a t i o n of broad  development  concepts and a v a r y i n g degree of developmental p l a n n i n g have become f u n c t i o n s of government i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l  countries.  12 (New  A l b e r t 0. Hirschman, The S t r a t e g y of Economic Development Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958). 11  Gunnar Myrdal, Economic (London: Duckworth, 1957).  Theory and Under-developed  Regions  9  The  establishment  Nations  o f a Decade o f Development, by t h e  i s the coalescence  of t h i s  scattered  approach.^  In developing c o u n t r i e s , the m a j o r i t y of which newly independent, t h e and  programmes l i e s  tion,  growing out  responsibility  for planning  at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  Such  of h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n ,  thefestablishment of n a t i o n a l planning tended  to concentrate  cities  whereas t h e  on t h e  United  has  are policies  centraliza-  resulted  a g e n c i e s , w h i c h have  p h y s i c a l improvements t o  p l a n n i n g problems of s m a l l e r  i n which the m a j o r i t y of the  in  population lives,  capital  municipalities, tend  to  be  neglected. The and  s u s t a i n e d by t h e U n i t e d  closing It  Decade o f D e v e l o p m e n t  o f t h e gap  (1960-1970), an i d e a  Nations,  between t h e  has  " h a v e " and  as  required to a t t a i n the growth.^ portance  resources  necessary  i t s objective a  "have-not" n a t i o n s .  i s a c o m b i n e d e f f o r t where t h e d e v e l o p e d  member s t a t e s m o b i l i z e t h e i r  launched  and  developing  to support  a c c e l e r a t i o n of  the  measures  economic  This a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s the r e c o g n i t i o n of the of r a p i d  development i n the  less  im-  industrialized  countries. Although probable  the  application  of r e g i o n a l planning  s o l u t i o n t o developmental  as  a  problems i s of r e c e n t  origin  14 The U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t a l Decade a t M i d p o i n t : An A p p r a i s a l by t h e S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s O f f i c e of P u b l i c Information, I965). 1 5  Ibid.  10  it  has caught t h e i m a g i n a t i o n  developing countries.  o f many o f t h e l e a d e r s i n  Speaking  of Asia,  Koenigsberger  writes: The i d e a o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h g r o u p e f f o r t and a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e g i o n a l plans i s not u n f a m i l i a r t o Asian t h i n k i n g . I t may become a t r u l y A s i a n way o f h a n d l i n g d e v e l o p ment, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and s o c i a l c h a n g e . 1 " Francis Violich in  i t s broadest  Latin  sense,  t o p o i n t o u t t h a t "much r e g i o n a l single-  S e m i n a r s on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g h e l d  of t h e United Nations  knowledge o f t h e s u b j e c t . its  extent i n  p l a n n i n g i s b e i n g done on a p a r t i a l  f u n c t i o n basis."17 auspices  that r e g i o n a l planning,  i s practised to a limited  America, but hastens  developmental  the  laments t h e f a c t  have done much t o d i s s e m i n a t e  Each country,  own a p p r o a c h i n t h e l i g h t  under  however, must  of i t s h i s t o r i c a l  evolve  s i t u a t i o n and  traditions. From t h e above, two a s s u m p t i o n s have b e e n d e d u c e d on w h i c h the hypothesis  of t h i s  r e s e a r c h i s based.  Firstly,  most  gov-  e r n m e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have a d o p t e d n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Secondly,  t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s and a c c e p t a n c e  regional  a p p r o a c h as a u s e f u l t o o l t o a c h i e v e  national  development.  of the  the goal of  "^0. Koenigsberger, "Regional Planning i n A s i a , " United N a t i o n s , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g Nos. 12 &• 13 (New Y o r k : D e p a r t m e n t o f Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 116. 17 F. V i o l i c h , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n L a t i n A m e r i c a : S e l e c t e d Examples o f P r o b l e m s and P o t e n t i a l s , " U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g N o s . 12 & 13 (New Y o r k : D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 141.  11  Hypothesis. Regional planning employed the  i n various  and  o f development has been  forms by n a t i o n a l  purpose o f t h i s  power t o g o v e r n ;  as a t o o l  governments.  study i s t o demonstrate t h a t :  the services  provided  economic It  provide  into a close  a m i l i e u conducive t o e f f e c t i v e  relation-  s o c i a l and  development. i s the hypothesis of t h i s  of the r e g i o n a l ability  When t h e  and a d m i n i s t e r e d ;  t h e area o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a r e brought  ship they  However,  study that  the effectiveness  a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e  t o make power, f u n c t i o n  and r e g i o n  coincide.  Overview. The  hypothesis w i l l  pertinent regional traces cept  literature planning.  on t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s  t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f t h e r e g i o n a l  and p u b l i c  on  o f geography, economics,  administration,  concepts i n the United In t h i s  o f development  Chapter I I i s devoted t o t h i s  i n the disciplines  science  be examined b y a r e v i e w o f t h e  States  of region,  review. planning  the  Island  parameters  since  and t h e d e v e l o p i n g  countries.  development  based  power and f u n c t i o n .  the rate  1940 r e s u l t e d  - region,  con-  political  Chapter I I I i s devoted t o a case study o f Puerto i n w h i c h i t i s shown t h a t  It  and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e  p r o c e s s a c a s e i s made f o r r e g i o n a l  a coincidence  through  o f development  from t h e f a c t  power and f u n c t i o n  l a r g e measure o f c o a l e s c a n c e .  that  Rico,  a c h i e v e d on the three  - had a c h i e v e d a  12  The f i n a l c h a p t e r i s devoted t o a summary o f t h e main findings  a r r i v e d a t i n t h e above d i s c u s s i o n s .  Conclusions  are drawn and f o r m u l a t e d i n t o a t h e o r e t i c a l model. c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s by i n d i c a t i n g areas f o r f u r t h e r  The research.  CHAPTER I I  THE  DEVELOPMENT  OF THE REGIONAL PLANNING  CONCEPT  R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as a c o n c e p t h a s d e e p r o o t s i n geography,  economics,  political  science  tration.  However, w h i l e b o t h d e v e l o p e d and u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  c o u n t r i e s have a d o p t e d t h e r e g i o n a l h a v e done s o f r o m different  The  quite different  perspectives  they  and f o r  i n Geography.  regions.  to the ancient  c o n t r a r y t o h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s who d i v i d e d  known w o r l d i n t o t h r e e c o n t i n e n t s , Ptolemy  area studies  used t h e term  preferred to divide  Greeks. the then i t into  "corography" f o r r e g i o n a l or  and c o n s i d e r e d g e o g r a p h y  t h e w o r l d as a w h o l e . one  p l a n n i n g approach,  c o n c e p t o f r e g i o n s d a t e s back  Herodotus,  small  adminis-  purposes.  R e g i o n a l Concept The  and p u b l i c  Furthermore,  as d e a l i n g w i t h  i n Aristotle's  De Mundo  reads: Men who have l a b o r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d t o us e i t h e r t h e n a t u r e o f a s i n g l e r e g i o n or t h e p l a n o f a s i n g l e c i t y - as some now e r e h a v e done - s u c h men one s h o u l d p i t y f o r t h e i r smallmindedness . They a r e a f f e c t e d , b e c a u s e t h e y have n e v e r c o n t e m p l a t e d what i s n o b l e r - t h e universe.- 1  R. B. H a l l , "The G e o g r a p h i c R e g i o n : A Resume," A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , V o l . XXXV ( S e p t . , 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 1 2 4 .  13  14  Starting geography These  at such  has  proceeded  through  period the r e g i o n a l concept i n a number o f d i s t i n c t  s t a g e s c a n be r o u g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e  o f k n o w l e d g e as man phenomena e x i s t i n g Prior generally the  an e a r l y  sought  to describe  of p o l i t i c a l  Regions  and  when g e o g r a p h i c t h o u g h t  was  dominated  vironmental determinisin, the concept This  entities  thus based  sometimes c u l t u r a l  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and  being.  the  on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .  s e r v e d as r e g i o n s .  During the l a t e  expansion  explain  to the twentieth century p o l i t i c a l  advantage  came i n t o  and  offered homogeneity.  early twentieth century by t h e s c h o o l o f  of the " n a t u r a l  en-  region"  phase o f t h e r e g i o n a l c o n c e p t i s  marked by w o r k s o f s u c h men  as H e t t n e r , H e b e r t s o n  These  a s y s t e m a t i c scheme "were  s t u d i e s w h i c h were on  towards  stages.  and  Towers. struggling  t h e g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e  natural  environment."^ Running region J.  p a r a l e l l t o t h e development  c o n c e p t was  F. U n s t e a d ,  wrote  "we  caught  that  of the  natural  o f t h e human o r c u l t u r a l  between t h e two  must c o n s i d e r n a t u r a l  region.  schools of r e g i o n a l  and c u l t u r a l  thought  factors equally."3  In the natural region i t i s necessary to consider only those outstanding d i f f e r e n c e s r e l i e f , c l i m a t e and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h h a v e t h e most marked i n f l u e n c e upon t h e d e v e l o p and a c t i v i t i e s o f man - b u t s t i l l m e r e l y t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f man i s c o n s i d e r e d . 4  Ibid3 J . F. U n s t e a d , "A S y s t e m a t i c Method o f D e t e r m i n i n g Geog r a p h i c a l Regions," G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . X L V I I I (1961), p . 230. 2  4  Ibid.  15  But  although  environmental determinism  and t h e t e l e o l o g i c a l  a p p r o a c h had b e e n i n t h e main d i s c a r d e d , however, t h r o u g h o u t t h i s region  and c u l t u r a l  stage,  patterns  proved  The by  would  prove t o c o i n c i d e .  the  geographic  to the ensuing The  on man t o i n c l u d e  seems t o be t h e u n d e r l y i n g  idea which l e d  of the r e g i o n a l concept.  o f r e g i o n a l t h o u g h t was com-  i d e a s t h a t were n o t d i s t i n c t l y  separate.  d e c l i n i n g n a t u r a l r e g i o n c o n c e p t was p l a c e d  of the region  features  as a s y n t h e s i s  of the earth's  idea that regions  surface  of the cultural  - the cultural  were g e n u i n e e n t i t i e s  of h i s t o r y .  of h i e r a r c h i c a l  connections,  Regions  systems, with  a  and n a t u r a l  landscape  perceived  T o d a y most o f t h e e a r l y c o n c e p t s o f r e g i o n s  to the h a l l s basis  t h e emphasis o f environmen-  developmental stage  p o s e d o f two c o r e  isms.  shifted  of P o s s i b i l i s m , i n s t i t u t e d  next d i s c e r n i b l e s c h o o l  Over t h e f a s t  that  by man ''of", as w e l l as " t o " h i s n a t u r a l e n -  vironment.This  the  philosophy  from t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e environment  adaptation  theory  of the fact  This  otherwise.  V i d a l e de l a B l a n c ,  talism  remained  t h e hope t h a t t h e n a t u r a l  hope p e r s i s t e d f o r a l o n g t i m e i n s p i t e evidence  there  - and  as o r g a n -  are relegated  a r e now c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  on t h e  v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e r -  each d e f i n e d by a d i s t i n c t  criterion  or s e t of  criteria.  R. H a r t s h o r n e , P e r s p e c t i v e on t h e N a t u r e o f G e o g r a p h y ( C h i c a g o : Rand Mc N a l l y and Company, 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 5 6 - 5 7 .  16  The R e g i o n a l Concept i n Economics. The development  economists, e n t e r i n g the f i e l d  of r e g i o n a l  thought subsequent t o the l o c a t i o n geographers, took up at the p o i n t where the geographers had a r r i v e d . added by the f i e l d  T h i s new  dimension  of economics has l e d t o c e r t a i n t h e o r i e s  which have broadened the understanding of r e g i o n a l  development.  Meier and Baldwin, working on a g l o b a l s c a l e , have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the e x i s t e n c e of a c o r e - p e r i p h e r y s t r u c t u r e . They c l a i m t o have d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e an important c l u e f o r understanding some of the key developmental processes d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 6  The authors i d e n t i f y the c e n t r e  i n i t i a l l y w i t h England whence, s p r e a d i n g l a t e r a l l y t o p a r t s of Western  Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t came t o form what an  American h i s t o r i a n , w r i t i n g f o r an e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n , had the  World  called  Metropolis.  Moving from a g l o b a l t o a c o n t i n e n t a l s c a l e , a study c a r r i e d out  by the U n i t e d Nations Economic  Commission f o r Europe  t h a t " i n a l l c o u n t r i e s of Europe the l e v e l s of economic  finds develop-  ment tends t o be lowest i n the r e g i o n s f u r t h e r e s t removed from the  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l areas which developed as the main European -  G. M. Meier and R. E. Baldwin, Economic Development: Theory H i s t o r y , P o l i c y (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1 9 5 7 ) , P a r t I I I .  7 N.S. Gras, "The Development of M e t r o p o l i t a n Economy i n Europe and America," The American H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XVII, No. 4 ( J u l y , 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. 6 9 5 - 7 0 8 .  17  centres valley  of i n d u s t r i a l and o u t l e t  activity,  of the R h i n e . "  A c c o r d i n g t o T. W. in  a specific  industrial that  e m b r a c i n g E n g l a n d and t h e 0  Schultz,  economic  economic  I t i s at or near t h i s  organization,  stressed the possible sector  Recently,  Dissenting  factor  arguments  p r i m a c y o f economic d e v e l o p m e n t  have  on t h e  emerging independently of the urban  focus. ® x  some a t t e m p t s have b e e n made by G. M y r d a l and  A. H i r s c h m a n , t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s t h e s i s growth.  periphery structure  Gunnar  leads to greater  c o n c e r n e d w i t h development  into  M y r d a l shows how  o p e r a t i o n o f u n r e s t r a i n e d market  that  matrix  e s p e c i a l l y commodity and  m a r k e t s , work most e f f i c i e n t l y . ^  o f economic  occurs  l o c a t i o n a l m a t r i x w h i c h i s p r i m a r i l y u r b a n and  i n composition.  agricultural  development  a general  theory  the centre-  d i s p a r a t i e s through the  forces ,  strategies,  x x  takes  Hirschman,  primarily  i t " f o r granted  economic  p r o g r e s s d o e s n o t a p p e a r e v e r y w h e r e a t t h e same  t i m e and t h a t  o n c e i t has a p p e a r e d p o w e r f u l f o r c e s make f o r a  s p a t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f economic starting  points."  12  From t h i s  growth around t h e  initial  a s s u m p t i o n , he t h e n b u i l d s  up  g  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic S u r v e y o f E u r o p e f o r 1954 E c o n o m i c C o m m i s s i o n f o r E u r o p e , 1955), P~* 138. (New  (Geneva:  . W. S c h u l t z , The Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e Y o r k : Mc G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1953), p. 147.  •*-°D. C. N o r t h , " A g r i c u l t u r e i n R e g i o n a l Economic Growth," J o u r n a l o f Farm E c o n o m i c s , V o l . X L I (1959), PP« 143-151. 11  Gunnar M y r d a l , Economic ( L o n d o n : D u c k w o r t h , 1957).  T h e o r y and U n d e r d e v e l o p e d A r e a s  12 (New  A l b e r t 0. H i r s c h m a n , The S t r a t e g y o f Economic D e v e l o p m e n t Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p . 183.  18  his  concept  this  concept,  their will  of  the i f  process  economic  become  to  grow  poorer.  unbalanced  forces  own n a t u r a l c o u r s e , continue  of  the  were t o  richer  richer while  Thus  he  growth. be  left  regions  the  poorer  of  Under to the  follow country  regions  will  recommends:  A nation attempting to develop i t s own b a c k w a r d r e g i o n s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e c e r t a i n " e q u i v a l e n t s of sovereignty" for these regions. The most i m p o r t a n t of such e q u i v a l e n t s i s a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e f e e l i n g s o f despondency and s e l f - d e n i g r a t i o n so o f t e n encountered i n t h e South and t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f i t s e n e r g i e s t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and programmes.  The R e g i o n a l C o n c e p t  in Political  The c r u c i a l i s s u e powers  lies  i n the  i n the  i n a democratic  to  this  portray  next  page.  whereby be  realized  powers.  basic  noted,  values  of  Ylvisaker  t h e n goes  share  on t o  states the  a responsible  chart the  power  which i s  equality  through  to  government and  responsive  Paul Ylvisaker  problem i s  liberty,  that:  and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  d i v i s i o n of  society.  on an optimum b a s i s  among w h i c h t o He  of  problem i n the  A s may b e  the  areal  achievement  government  Science  "The  ^  attempts  reproduced to  devise  the  and w e l f a r e  an a r e a l  division  optimum, number  g o v e r n w o u l d seem t o  on  of be  the means  could of levels three.''"  4  say:  I f I have any d o u b t , i t i s about t h e " m i d d l e T i e r " w h i c h c h r o n i c a l l y seem t o s u f f e r i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h l o c a l and c e n t r a l  1  3  Ibid.,  p. 199.  """ Paul Y l v i s a k e r , " A r e a l D i v i s i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t a l P o w e r s , " R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g , e d . , J . F r i e d m a n n and W. A l o n s o ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The M . I . T . P r e s s , I 9 6 4 ) , p . 5 2 8 . 4  1  The Rationale for an Areal Division of Governmental Powers within the Modern Democratic State INSTRUMENTAL VALUES OF THE AREAL DIVISION OF POWERS BASIC VALUES  —i.e.. The means by which adp is presumed to realize the given basic values; expressed in terms of the: Individual  LIBERTY (Constitutionalism, with a goodly admixture of laissezfaire)  Governmental Process  Gives further assurance of protection against arbitraryornastygovernmenta/ action —by providing additional and more readily —by providing a system of countervailing power available points of access, pressure, and control; among governmental levels, assuring friction and —by making it possible for minorities to avail debate; themselves of governmental position and power; —by creating a network of compartment,, to lo—by serving to keep governmental power close calize ills which may beset the body politic to its origins, and governmental officials within reach of their masters.  EQUALITY (Especially as embodied in its On the negative side, provides a further barrier to corollary of democracy and the the concentration of social, economic, and political axiom of wide-scale participa- power. tion) On the positive side, provides additional and moreGives further assurance of: readily available opportunities for participation —responsiveness and flexibility; as.a means of contributing'to the development both —energy and "collective wisdom"; of the individual (in the Aristotelian tradition of —consent and loyalty. citizenship) and of public policy. WELFARE Gives further assurance that governmental action Additional assurance that demands will be heard will be effective (granted the claims listed immedi(service) and that needs will be served. ately above), and that performance will be moro efficient, in accord with the administrative principles of: —scale; —delegation; —decentralization; —specialization; —the availability and yardstick effect of comparative cost*.  Source: Paul Y l v i s a k e r , "Areal D i v i s i o n of Governmental P o w e r s , " R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t and P l a n n i n g , e d . , J . F r i e d m a n n a n d W. A l o n s o ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : T h e M . I . T . P r e s s ,  1 9 6 4 ) , p . 524.  20  governments, h a v i n g n e i t h e r the attachment o f t h e one n o r t h e p r e p o s s e s s i n g q u a l i t i e s o f t h e other.^-5 Elsewhere, Y l v i s a k e r discusses considerations is  that  four  in regional planning.^  i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o gear the  in  i t s ultimate  and  o r d i n a t i o n becomes t h e integral As concept to  part of will  be  t o meet t h e But  as  t h e n he  administra-  individual p o i n t s out  a matter of n e g o t i a t e d  legislative  process,  and,  as  such  that co-  an  politics."17 discussed  in political  i n greater  science  have b e e n i n s p i r e d by  of t r a d i t i o n a l  region.  form, " p l a n n i n g  H i s main t h e s i s  development of  t i v e machinery f o r r e g i o n a l planning needs of each c o u n t r y  administrative  division  and  below, t h e  public administration  a greater of  detail  awareness o f t h e  powers between t h e  government t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h  three  p e r s i s t e n t and  regional appears  inability levels  of  complex  18 problems i n m e t r o p o l i t a n "^Ylvisaker,  areas  as  i n the  United  States.  Or  loc. c i t .  16 Paul Ylvisaker, "Administrative Consideration i n Regional P l a n n i n g , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , Nos. 12 & 13 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c s and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 8 0 - 8 2 .  17  Ylvisaker,  loc. c i t .  18 V i n c e n t O s t r o m , e t a l . , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Government i n M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s : A T h e o r e t i c a l I n q u i r y " i n J o h n F r i e d m a n n and W i l l i a m A l o n s o ( e d . , ) R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t and P l a n n i n g (Cambridge M a s s a c h u s e t t s : M. I . T P r e s s , I 9 6 4 ) , pp. 542.  21. i n the case nition  o f t h e newly independent c o u n t r i e s , a  of the  limits  o f t h e C e n t r a l Government t o  everything f o r the country with governments.19 o f government  j —  short, the  n  little  t h e needs o f r e s p o n s i v e n e s s  —  do  h e l p f r o m weak  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of  the r e g i o n a l l e v e l  recog-  local  a new  level  i s d i c t a t e d more  by  o f g o v e r n m e n t s t o demands o f  more or newer g o v e r n m e n t a l s e r v i c e s . Regional  Planning  In t h i s  i n the United  s e c t i o n , the  an  approach t o r e a l i z e  be  examined. It  Great  crying The  Depression  of the  1930*s p r o d u c e d t h e a planning t o o l  however, t h e r e had  o f a r e g i o n as d e v e l o p e d  f o r the  early  L o u i s J . Walinsky, D e v e l o p m e n t (New Y o r k : v  127-131.  the  atmosphere which i n North  been i s o l a t e d  i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s , t h e b e s t known b e i n g  concept  as  developmental g o a l s or o b j e c t i v e s w i l l  t o t h e r e g i o n as  to t h i s time,  guideline  pp.  a p p l i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l planning  i s t h e c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n among w r i t e r s t h a t  gave r i s e Prior  States.  America. voices  Benton MacKaye.  i n geography p r o v i d e d  2  a  proponents of the r e s p e c t i v e schools  of  The P l a n n i n g and E x e c u t i o n o f Economic M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., I n c . , I 9 6 3 ) ,  B e n t o n MacKaye, The New E x p l o r a t i o n s : A P h i l o s o p h y o f R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Co., 1928).  22. thought  on  r e g i o n a l planning i n America.  In the southern "as  an  U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was  opportunity to halt  a c h i e v e what came t o be ance, w h i l e  the  d e c l i n e of i t s resources  vaguely  yet maintaining  referred  to  seen and  as r e g i o n a l b a l -  i t s unique a g r a r i a n c u l t u r e  and  21 tradition." The  exponents of t h i s  geographic/concept  of the  concept  based t h e i r  natural region.  arguments on  They c l a i m e d  t h e r e e x i s t e d a pervasive f o l k c u l t u r e w i t h i n the They a l s o v i s u a l i z e d possessed by t h e  "the  largest  largest  trative  and  the  area  of o b j e c t i v e s . " ^ ^  as b e i n g d i s t i n c t i v e  i n d i c e s f o r the  up  largest nature  with  and  of the  on t h i s The field  minor  t o t h e commencement o f W o r l d War  t h e N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e Committee,  authors  adminis-  p o s s i b l e number  C o n t r i b u t i o n by the  because i t  p o s s i b l e d e g r e e o f h o m o g e n e i t y measured  D i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s  v a r i a t i o n s continued  that  region.  p o s s i b l e number o f e c o n o m i c , c u l t u r a l ,  functional  Yale  Report  II.  L e w i s Mumford,  contributed to the  dialogue  p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . p o s t war  period heralded  a new  of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g thought.  Christaller's  model, p r e s e n t e d  group of d i s c i p l e s  Donald  the theory  Bogue, b u i l d i n g  of the  J o h n F r i e d m a n n , "The F r i e d m a n n and A l o n s o , op. Friedmann,  loc.c i t .  i n the on  metropolitan  21  22  the  Concept of P l a n n i n g Regions," c i t . , p. 505.  in  23. dominated r e g i o n . 3 2  line  of thought  theory,  proposed the  connected in  continuing along  once more d r a w i n g h e a v i l y on view o f t h e  system of c e n t r a l  human l a n d s c a p e  places."^  this  Christaller s f  as  an  "inter-  T h i s approach r e s u l t e d  4  a novel c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n a l  concept. an  and  Rutledge Vinning,  I t p i c t u r e d a system of i n t e r r e l a t e d  overall  the  sense of s t a b i l i t y while  cities  having  individual units within  system might s h i f t c o n t i n u a l l y . The  c i t y - c e n t e r e d r e g i o n as  bifurcation  i n r e g i o n a l planning concern.  natural resource conceded  d e v e l o p m e n t , on  some g r o u n d t o t h e  metropolitan the  resources.  metropolitan  resource  a broad  above c r e a t e d The  emphasis  territorial  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  However, o n c e c o n c e r n  r e g i o n i t was  p l a n n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f two for  propounded  discovered  distinct  that  aspects.  development, the t r a d i t i o n a l  a  on  base,  development  was  focused  of  on  metropolitan  Firstly,  the  r e g i o n a l outlook,  concern and  21 secondly, The that  the  need f o r c o n t r o l s , as  history  practised in city  of r e g i o n a l planning  i t v a r i e s over  time with  i n the  reference to  United  activity  planning.  States and  shows  area.  •^Donald Bogue, The S t r u c t u r e o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Community (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : H o r a c e H. Rachman S c h o o l o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1950). R, V i n n i n g , " D e l i m i t a t i o n o f Economic A r e a s : Statistical C o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e S p a t i a l o f an Economic S y s t e m , " J o u r n a l o f t h e American A s s o c i a t i o n , March, 1953. 24  2  ^Friedmann,  op.  c i t . , p.  512.  3  24. Prior  t o W o r l d War  water resource basin. est  The  development  a r e a was  p o s s i b l e use  living River  I I , regional planning  related projects within  the water-shed;  of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s  standards of the Valley Authority  regional  and  planning.  referred primarily to  the  best  river  o b j e c t i v e , the  full-  f o r the  people w i t h i n the i s the  a  improvement  area.  The  Tennessee  known example o f t h i s  However, a number o f o t h e r  river  type  The  Columbia,  C e n t r a l V a l l e y of C a l i f o r n i a ,  and  Arkansas  the  Red  post-war p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d the  development t o the  metropolitan  T h i s c o n c e r n came about  created  by  the  sudden i n f l u x  which caused c i t y tion  limits  inundated the  politan  planning  stresses The  on  the  to  cities'  and  as  from r i v e r  a dominant  i n response t o the population  lose t h e i r  to the  of the  effort  planning  problem urban  s i g n i f i c a n c e as  peripheral regions.  The  centres, popula-  many m e t r o -  nation  through planning  are  to  r u r a l t o u r b a n movement a s s i s t e d i n f o c u s i n g  uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n I t was  of the  recognized  a t t r a c t i n g modern i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h were a t t h e problems.  basin  relieve  created.  within states.  cal  of  region  shift  agencies found throughout the  physical testimonies the  the  Rivers.  The  area.  Missouri,  of  basin  d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s have been u n d e r t a k e n : the  of  growth o f economic  on t h e  a d v a n c e s and  other  activity  that those s t a t e s that  same t i m e e x p e r i e n c i n g  While,  attention  accelerated  economic  severe s o c i a l  hand, t h e  older  were  and  physi-  industrial  25. s e c t i o n s w i s h e d t o s h a r e i n t h e new economic e x p a n s i o n o f t h e post  war boom.  known as a r e a  This  gave r i s e  development.  t o a type of r e g i o n a l  Many s t a t e s  planning  established  development  a g e n c i e s whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was t o u n d e r t a k e r e s e a r c h resource  possibilities  The States,  concept  It  of regional planning  as i t grew up i n t h e U n i t e d recent  origin,  i n i t s own r i g h t i n r a t i o n a l i z i n g  given  be d e f i n e d  unambiguously.  activities. a region  This  way t o t h e c o n c e p t o f ' s p a c e ' and f o s t e r e d  work on s p a t i a l t h e o r y .  body o f t h e o r y  as  concept extensive  A l t h o u g h t h e work done i n t h e l a s t  d e c a d e o r s o on s p a t i a l t h e o r y solid  h a s made some  human  h a s a s s i s t e d i n b r i n g i n g t o an end t h e i d e a t h a t  a natural unit could has  of the area.  although i t i s of r e l a t i v e l y  contribution  into the  some b r o a d  John Friedmann summarizes t h e s e  has n o t been c o m p i l e d  into a  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c a n be d e d u c e d . as f o l l o w s :  1.  The s t r u c t u r e o f human s e t t l e m e n t c a n be d e f i n e d as a s y s t e m o f f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s .  2.  Nodes a r e a r r a n g e d i n a l o o s e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e which i s i n t e r n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by f u n c t i o n .  3.  S u r r o u n d i n g e a c h node i s a " d e n s i t y f i e l d " of f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e d e n s i t i e s d e c l i n i n g w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e from the c e n t r e .  4.  The c o s t o f o v e r c o m i n g d i s t a n c e e x e r t s a p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n s p a c e as w e l l as on t h e l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y a t any g i v e n l o c a t i o n . " 2  ^°J. F r i e d m a n n , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g as a F i e l d F r i e d m a n n and A l o n s o , o p . c i t . , p . 6 4 .  o f Study", i n  The but  above p r o p o s i t i o n s lend themselves t o q u a n t i f i c a t i o n ,  i t should  space.  be noted t h a t they are f u n c t i o n s of both time  They a l s o vary w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, economic  s o c i a l development, c u l t u r a l values  and  American experience i s the a d a p t a t i o n  The  the view t h a t p l a n n i n g  i s not  usefulness  s o l v i n g s p e c i f i c problems.  an end  solutions.  The  i n i t s e l f but  a means towards predicated  i d e n t i f y i n g o b j e c t i v e s t h a t c o u l d be achieved  upon  a search  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the problems  countered were not of a s t a t i c but dynamic nature  for  en-  necessitated  over t i m e .  helped t o lend import t o the need  for f l e x i b i l i t y i n planning. geographic and  in  of t h i s approach r e q u i r e s  Such an approach was  process approach has  and  challenges  the n e c e s s i t y f o r e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n s t o problems and acceptable  the  of concepts, methods  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e processes t o meet the changes and the best p o s s i b l e way.  and  geography.  Another c o n t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t i n g as a by-product of  The  and  Development occurs i n d i f f e r e n t  s p a t i a l arrangements.  At every stage of develop-  ment, d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n a l d e l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be most convenient and  e f f i c i e n t f o r the purpose of p l a n n i n g .  In l i k e manner e f f i -  c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s w i l l vary from r e g i o n t o Consequently, i t becomes evident  t h a t no one  region.  set of r e g i o n s  is  ever completely s a t i s f a c t o r y , but t h a t s e l e c t i o n must be based the o b j e c t i v e s t o be  achieved.  A statememt t h a t expresses one was  made t h i r t y - s e v e n years ago  of the ideas evolved  by the l a t e W e l l i n g t o n  above  Jones.  on  27. When a s k e d  about t h e optimum p l a n n i n g r e g i o n he r e p l i e d :  I have no r e a s o n e d o r e v e r t e n t a t i v e l y f i n a l o p i n i o n on t h i s m a t t e r . In discussing t h e s u b j e c t w i t h o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e l a s t few y e a r s , I have h e a r d s e v e r a l i d e a s e x p r e s s e d w i t h w h i c h f o r t h e moment I a g r e e : ( l ) Subd i v i s i o n i n t o r e g i o n s f o r t h e purpose o f p l a n n i n g m i g h t w e l l be made i n one way ( o r i n s e v e r a l ways) f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n a n o t h e r way ( o r ways) f o r p u t t i n g i n t o e f f e c t the r e s u l t s o f such i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (2) R e g i o n s and t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s a r e r e c o g n i z e d by g e o g r a p h e r s , w h i l e n o t t o be i g n o r e d , may n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i s i o n s ... f o r t h e purpose a t hand. (3) S t a t e ( i . e . , administ r a t i v e ) b o u n d a r i e s a r e n o t t o be i g n o r e d . (4-) I t may be t h a t no one s e t o f r e g i o n s c a n be d i v i s e d w h i c h w i l l s e r v e e i t h e r f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n or f o r subsequent e f f e c t u a t i o n of plans.27  Developmental Planning  i n Other  Countries.  In t h e S o v i e t Union, developmental planning from t h e r u l i n g  party's  nation's  isolation  the  1920 s  late  create  T  and was s t r e n g t h e n e d  from t h e world  establishment  itself  against  however, t h a t t h i s w o u l d p r o v i d e provision the  During  d e v e l o p m e n t was g e a r e d t o capable  of allowing the  i t s many e n e m i e s . t h e Communist  o f goods t o e a c h p e r s o n ' s n e e d s .  c r e a t i o n o f a l a r g e planned  by t h e  community o f n a t i o n s .  and 1930's r e s o u r c e  an i n d u s t r i a l  n a t i o n t o defend  policy  emanated  and p u b l i c l y  The hope was,  ideal  - the  The r e s u l t was owned s e c t o r  •^'Cited i n N o r t o n S. G i n s b e r g , "The R e g i o n a l C o n c e p t and P l a n n i n g R e g i o n s , " i n R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , o p . c i t . , p. 3 2 .  28. o f t h e economy w i t h o n l y a m i n o r f r e e m a r k e t . an  immense and  complex  In the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sj^stem was  process  created for  28 management  purposes.  A f t e r W o r l d War influence  - Poland,  established biased  I I t h e c o u n t r i e s w h i c h came u n d e r Rumania, C z e c h o s l o v a k i a  a similar  system.  and  Hungary  -  D e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g was  t o w a r d s h e a v y i n d u s t r i a l c o m p l e x e s and  Y u g o s l a v i a s t a r t e d w i t h t h e S o v i e t model b u t of the  Russian  strongly  self-sufficiency. deviated.  planning, rather than being c e n t r a l i z e d ,  was  Much  trans-  29 ferred  t o t h e r e g i o n a l and  In Great p l a n n i n g was was  with  Britain  and  from  reform t o reform,  was  social  British  procedures  and  and  of t h i s  c o u n t r i e s where  Great  s y s t e m was  were i n f l i c t e d  with  gradual,  attractive  manner  The moving than  I n t h i s manner a body was  developed.  been adopted  independence.  concern  Depression.  p l a n n i n g was  f o r implementation  after  t h e main  i n a less t o t a l i t a r i a n  s y s t e m o f p l a n n i n g has  colonial territories tion  justice,  of the  previously considered countries.  laws and  The  the Scandinavian  eradicating the e v i l s  here,  of  levels.  being simultaneously developed,  aim,  i n the  provincial  The  by many o f  welfare  s i n c e many o f t h e  p r o b l e m s o f unemployment  and  the  orientaterritories  underemploy-  ment . 3 °  °R.L. Book Co.,  Meier, 1965),  2 9  Ibid.,  3 0  ibid.  p.  Developmental Planning p. 3 2 .  33.  (New  York:  McGraw-Hill  29. Planning  f o r Development 1945?  Since  independence. bonded t h e d e n c e was of these  approximately  the  together  world  and  had  Countries.  n a t i o n s have cohesive  development.  along the  gained  f o r c e which  struggle for  road  indepen-  However, i n many  n a t i o n s t h e man-power r e q u i r e m e n t  for guiding  of development  a d v i s o r s f r o m t h e more a d v a n c e d n a t i o n s o f  t o be  brought t o  forty  in their  promise of r a p i d  the transformation process lacking,  Developing  I n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e  populace  new  i n the  brought  light  developmental  two  i n to f i l l  the  breach.  interesting characteristics  process  This of  the  situation the  of newly independent t e r r i t o r i e s ;  the character of t h e i r  e c o n o m i e s and  second, the  was  first,  inapplicability  31 of westernized The  models, per  economy was  organized  t h e mother c o u n t r y , T h i s had  nature.  and  while  sector with  vast r u r a l  resulted  inherited  sector of  the  o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s m e e t i n g t h e needs the  other  itself  little  in policies The  and  of  traditional  physical  i n a s m a l l developed  areas with  economic development.  followed along  in a dualistic  commitment t o d e v e l o p m e n t  'have' n a t i o n s of r a p i d  G e n e r a l l y , one  i t s counterpart  p a t t e r n , which manifested  The  areas.  governments of newly independent t e r r i t o r i e s  economies of a d u a l i s t i c  lines.  se, t o underdeveloped  urban  development.  the  desire to join  h e a v i l y weighted result  of t h i s  the  i n favour  point  of  30. view was all  to consider  economic development  problems. This  approach t o t h e development  originated  f r o m two  e c o n o m i s t s who  sources.  development  First,  from the t h e o r i e s of  evolved  and s e c o n d , f r o m t h e p a t t e r n o f  i n t h e more e c o n o m i c a l l y  t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d , and t r a n s f e r r e d  countries.  p r o c e s s seems t o have  have c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h p r o b l e m s o f  developing countries;  of  as t h e p a n a c e a f o r  advanced  societies  to the developing  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e e c o n o m i s t s weire a p t l y  p r e s e n t e d by H o s e l i t z when he w r o t e : Some o f t h e most m e r i t o r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s l i t e r a t u r e d e a l w i t h s u c h t y p i c a l economic p r o b l e m s , as c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r f o r c e , m o n e t a r y and f i s c a l a s p e c t s o f economic d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e i m p a c t o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h on l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s and c o n s u m p t i o n l e v e l s , and t h e p r o b l e m s o f b a l a n c e o f payments d i f f i c u l t i e s , as w e l l as t h e need f o r and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of development p l a n n i n g . 3 2 L l o y d Rodwin s t a t e s  further:  The l e a d i n g p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s whose a c t i v i t i e s b e a r on d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y have been t h e economic p l a n n e r s and t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s . . . . The e c o n o m i c p l a n n e r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e p r o c e s s o f n a t i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g , t h e key f e a t u r e s of w h i c h a r e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f economic o b j e c t i v e s , the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e budget f o r t h e p u b l i c i n v e s t ment s e c t o r and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p p r o p r i a t e m o n e t a r y c r e d i t , f i s c a l and exchange p o l i c i e s and controls.33  ment  B e r t H o s e l i t z , S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f Economic D e v e l o p (Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The F r e e P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 2.  ^ ^ L l o y d Rodwin, " C u r r e n t D e v e l o p m e n t s i n R e g i o n a l U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , o p . c i t . , p. 4 6 .  Planning,"  Richard states that about  Meier  i n his prefact  "economists  what c o n s t i t u t e s  propose In  t o Developmental  have a r r i v e d  at q u i t e  e c o n o m i c g r o w t h and  procedures  for i t s estimation."34  an  to construct  attempt  ences  g a i n e d by t h e more a d v a n c e d  Here,  i t was  to  technological  continued  that  c h a n g e and  looked at t h e  countries  d e v e l o p m e n t was  m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g depended  experiwest.  closely and  linked  that  on s u s t a i n e d t e c h n o -  western  a d v i s o r s t o the developing c o u n t r i e s  T h e r e f o r e , t h e models proposed  by  found  a  early fertile  f o r propagation. The  application  limited  review  of t h e s e models, n e e d l e s s t o say,  success.  Kendelberger  the  and  Spengler  approach  met  in their  o f a number o f r e p o r t s o f m i s s i o n s by t h e  Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and of  of the  industrialization  progress.  with  ideas  are able t o  logical  field  explicit  o p e r a t i o n a l models f o r t h e i r  development, the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s  observed,  Planning  International  D e v e l o p m e n t have b e e n  critical  t a k e n by t h e s e e x p e r t s t o t h e p r o b l e m  of  development.3 5 Practical of led  development  e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p l a n n i n g and programmes i n t h e  t o a more c o m p l e t e  34Meier,  op.  implementation  l e s s developed  countries  understanding of the nature of  c i t . , p.  has  this  5.  3 5 . P . K e n d e l b e r g e r , "Review o f IRBD R e p o r t s , " Review o f E c o n o m i c s and S t a t i s t i c s 3 4 , No. 4 (Nov., 1 9 5 2 ) p . 3 9 1 . J o s e p h S p e n g l e r , "IRBD M i s s i o n E c o n o m i c Growth T h e o r y , " A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c Review 4 4 , No.2 (May, 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 5 8 6 - 8 7 . C  32. process.  I t h a s become q u i t e  evident  that  there  a r e many  n o n - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s w h i c h b e a r upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and  which,  i f t h e p r o c e s s i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l , must  adequate a t t e n t i o n . administrative important  S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s  institutions  constituents  process receive as w e l l as  o f a community were r e c o g n i z e d  o f any d e v e l o p m e n t  programme.  as  One  a u t h o r e v e n goes f a r t h e r w h i l e s p e a k i n g o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l planning  and s u g g e s t s  that:  The p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , however, must d i f f u s e f a r beyond t h e s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s t o which planning i s entrusted. P l a n n i n g must s p i l l o v e r i n t o n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f i r m s and h o u s e h o l d s , where i t i n t r o d u c e s g o a l s and c o n s t r a i n t s r e g a r d i n g p r o d u c t i o n , c o n s u m p t i o n and programme c h o i c e . 3 6 The has  recognition that  development  i s a many f a c e t e d  problem  l e d t o t h e d e r i v a t i o n a n d ^ a d o p t i o n o f new s t r a t e g i e s .  However, t h e s e  approaches s t i l l  economic f a c t o r s . developing  retained  strong  e m p h a s i s on  T h r e e t y p e s o f s t r a t e g i e s have e v o l v e d i n  countries  which p o r t r a y  this bias.  These s t r a t e g i e s  are: 1.  E m p h a s i s on t h e need t o i n c r e a s e c a p i t a l o r s a v i n g s , and t h e r e f o r e on a s t r a t e g y t h a t increases savings;  2.  e m p h a s i s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r human s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s , and t h e r e f o r e , a s t r a t e g y that produces, t r a i n s or encourages s u c h g r o u p s as e n t r e p r e n u e r s , i n v e s t o r s , decision-makers, technicians;  3.  e m p h a s i s on p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y as a w h o l e , and t h e r e f o r e , a s t r a t e g y t h a t  36Meier, op. c i t . , p . 104.  33. i n f l u e n c e s v a l u e s , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s or p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l groups.37 It  i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n I960 t h e  process the  was  other  still  emphasis i n the  h e a v i l y p l a c e d on  hand t h e  social,  cultural  development  economic f a c t o r s . and  On  physical factors  were r e l e g a t e d t o a m i n o r p o s i t i o n o o r s e l d o m c o n s i d e r e d b e i n g of equal  as  importance.  Summary •• The  proponents of the r e g i o n a l concept  t h e hope o f d e l i m i t i n g times  and  proved  a l l purposes.  t h i s t o be  selected  a r e g i o n t h a t may  so by r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e  depends upon t h e  d o m i n a t e d by  developing  The  centralized  economies,  process  Great  pressures  and  industrialization.  of  B r i t a i n was  c o u n t r i e s were a t t r a c t i v e evolved  the which plagued  i n response  as  of the world,  as e v o l v e d  i n response The to the  planning  in  to  Scandinavian  social  s y s t e m s employed, i n developing  countries  t o problems s i m i l a r  these  g a i n e d i n the 5  to  those  underdeveloped  n a t i o n s t a t e s adopted  a means o f p r o p e l l i n g them r a p i d l y  along the  planning path  G . F . Papenek, " F r a m i n g a Development Programme," I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n c i l i a t i o n (March, i960), p. 312. J /  be  them.  Once i n d e p e n d e n c e was sector  has  altogether e x i s t e n t i n the  and  because they  region to  served.  countries  these  States  p u r p o s e t o be  a f o r c e not  countries.  used f o r a l l  Planning i n the United  In the c o u n t r i e s with was  be  have d i s c a r d e d  to  economic development countries.  already  by t h e i n d u s t r i a l  I n t h i s endeavour t h e y accepted  m o d e l s and a d v i s o r s  only  t o discover  unique problems r e q u i r i n g or  traversed  adaptation  that  westernized  they  possessed  o f t h e e x i s t i n g models  t h e w o r k i n g o u t o f new o n e s . The  e m p h a s i s on e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t f r a m e d  western  l i n e s and e x e c u t e d  evident  t h e weaknessess o f t h i s approach.  the  need f o r an i n t e g r a t e d  development  from t h e n a t i o n a l  l e v e l made  I t illuminated  approach t o t h e problems o f  - an i n t e g r a t e d  approach t h a t  s p e c t r u m o f man's a c t i v i t i e s .  covers the t o t a l  Comprehensive p l a n n i n g  t o be t h e s o l u t i o n , b u t c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g from t h e n a t i o n a l and  solutions.  level  along  executed  presupposes a homogeneity o f problems  A l l countries,  however, e v i n c e  regional  d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m s t o be s o l v e d , requiring  a different strategy.  seems a l o g i c a l As  The r e g i o n ,  should  each  therefore,  u n i t t o use f o r developmental  argued, t h e r e g i o n a l u n i t  planning.  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be s t a t i c .  I t s d e l i m i t a t i o n s s h o u l d depend on p o l i c y r e q u i r e m e n t s fully  worked o u t a t t h e n a t i o n a l  However, i f t h e r e g i o n planning  f o r development  governmental h e i r a r c h y with given  power t o f u l f i l sharpely  care-  level.  i n t h e u n i t t o be employed i n  p r o v i s i o n must be made w i t h i n t h e  t o provide the regional  i t s duties  and w i t h  seems  a rare  adequately.  authority  The i d e a i s  economy o f words by  Charles  35 Abram - "Power i s t h e r o c k on w h i c h sound p l a n n i n g be  safely  moored o r upon w h i c h i t may  may  flounder."3$  38c. Abrams, " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g L e g i s l a t i o n i n U n d e r d e v e l o p e d A r e a s " , i n R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , op. c i t . , p. 96.  CHAPTER I I I  DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING IN PUERTO RICO  Of t h e many a t t e m p t s ing  c o u n t r i e s , i t i s accepted  stands as:  "The s u c c e s s  "Puerto  o f t h e Puerto  stricken, world.  has  what d a t a  R i c o twenty years  among them.  opportunity. achieved  today  Such  Rican developmental i s used  ago was one o f t h e most  foremost  venture i s  poverty  as a p r o s p e r o u s ,  o f economic  statements  countries i n the  L a r g e l y b y i t s own i n t e n s i v e a level  Rico  t o measure i t , " l and  d i s e a s e - r i d d e n , underdeveloped Today i t s t a n d s  p l a n n i n g by d e v e l o p -  b y most o b s e r v e r s t h a t P u e r t o  a t t h e apex o f a c h i e v e m e n t  i m p r e s s i v e no m a t t e r  of  a t developmental  healthy land  effort  and s o c i a l  Puerto  Rico  development  o  little  short of miraculous,"  T h i s measure o f s u c c e s s Puerto  Rico  successful.  In  has f o s t e r e d t h e b e l i e f  a r e a , power and f u n c t i o n have a c h i e v e d ,  extent t h e merging necessary  careful  substantiates the claim.  Forthis  t o make t h e p l a n n i n g  reason,  Puerto  that i n t o a large  process  Rico i s selected f o r  study. o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e p a r t p l a y e d by p l a n n i n g i n t h e  development o f t h e t e r r i t o r y  u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and, a t t h e  "'"Werner B a e r , The P u e r t o R i c a n Economy and U n i t e d S t a t e s Economic F l u c t u a t i o n s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Puerto R i c o : S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , 1962), p . 15.  2  R a l p h Hancock, P u e r t o R i c o A S u c c e s s S t o r y D. V a n N o s t r a n d Company I n c . , i 9 6 0 ) , p . 1 . 36  ,  (New Y o r k :  37  same t i m e , the  to provide  reasons  f o r the  to describe the Puerto  Rico  a frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r a s s e s s i n g  success  of the  endeavour, i t i s  necessary  background c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t e d i n  prior  to the  inauguration of the  developmental  programme.  Physical  Facts.  Puerto about  Rico  about  1,000 miles  1 , 4 0 0 m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f New  of Caracas, island  Venezuela.  i s about  bounded on t h e by  lies  the  The  island  Y o r k and  l o n g and  island.  i s extremely  beautiful,  certain  interior  and  i s too  varies 2 to  But  p a r a d o x i c a l elements, f o r decked mountain almost  ranges  three  terrain  high f e r t i l i t y ,  quarters  sea t h e r e i s only  south.  The  i n the  north  island's total  and  with  largest pro-  From t h e  a narrow c o a s t a l p l a i n  from 8 t o 13 m i l e s i n width i n the  the  rough f o r a g r i c u l t u r e while  great compensating mineral wealth.  8 miles  with  While the ranges are broken i n formation,  part  t a i n s to the  south  s u b - t r o p i c a l and  extends over  of r e l a t i v e l y  v i d i n g no  on t h e  perpetual spring.  rugged green  intervening valleys of the  Ocean and  the  Sea.  much o f i t stems f r o m t h e  of the  south  It i s  1  n o r t h by t h e A t l a n t i c  even i t s beauty p r e s e n t s  the  Miami,  500 miles  35 m i l e s wide.  a c l i m a t e w h i c h comes c l o s e t o b e i n g  which cover  of  Roughly r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape,  100 miles  Caribbean  southeast  moun-  which  from  land area i s  38  about 2,191,000 acres and over 70 percent of t h i s area i s hilly  and mountainous.^ Puerto Rico l i e s i n the path of the t r a d e winds which  blow almost c o n s t a n t l y from the n o r t h e a s t .  Its prevailing  winds, i t s moderate s i z e and i t s oceanic i n f l u e n c e g i v e s i t a warm e q u i t a b l e and comfortable c l i m a t e .  The average  tem-  p e r a t u r e of the c o l d e s t month i s 73 degrees with an i n c r e a s e of  o n l y 6 degrees  f o r the warmest month.  With the e x c e p t i o n of the dry n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of the island, r a i n f a l l  i s heavy throughout  the y e a r .  The  average  annual r a i n f a l l f o r the e n t i r e i s l a n d i s about 71 i n c h e s , w i t h a range, depending on season, year, and geographic t r i b u t i o n , of about 21 inches t o 170  inches.^  dis-  Although  the  r a i n s are sometimes heavy, they are normally of s h o r t durat i o n , and t h e r e are few days when the sun does not s h i n e . In  g e n e r a l , the c l i m a t e a f f o r d s an i d e a l year round  growing  season f o r t r o p i c a l c r o p s . H i s t o r i c a l Background. The development problems of Puerto Rico are bound up w i t h the i s l a n d ' s h i s t o r y . the i s l a n d i n 1493  intricately  From the d i s c o v e r y of  by Columbus, Puerto Rico remained under  3  Harvey S. P e r l o f f , Puerto R i c o ' s Economic F u t u r e : A Study i n Planned Development (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1950), p. 8.  4  I b i d . , p.  9.  39  Spanish the  rule with the exception  port c i t y ,  by t h e E a r l  of a short  S a n J u a n , was c a p t u r e d  o f Cumberland, u n t i l  I898 b y t h e U n i t e d  i n t e r l u d e when  and h e l d f o r f i v e  i t was w r e s t e d  American o c c u p a t i o n ,  Puerto  Rico  C e n t r a l and S o u t h A m e r i c a .  the  experienced  The main a c t i v i t y o f H i s p a n i c  World tended t o bypass Puerto of  eighteenth  from Spain i n  States.  Throughout t h e f o u r c e n t u r i e s o f Spanish  ment.  months  Rico  conquest t o t h e little  develop-  c o l o n i z a t i o n i n t h e New  for the wealthier  I t was n o t u n t i l  countries  t h e middle o f  c e n t u r y w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f commerce and t h e e x -  p a n d i n g s l a v e t r a d e t h a t some a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o t h e i s l a n d . T h i s came i n t h e f o r m o f f o r t i f i c a t i o n . sidered the island the  as a l i n k  The Crown t h u s  i n the chain of ports  defending  p a s s a g e o f t r e a s u r e f l e e t s between t h e New W o r l d  I n t h e i n t e r i m , however, t h e i s l a n d share  con-  and S p a i n .  r e c e i v e d more t h a n i t s  of misfortune: I n 1515j a s u c c e s s i o n o f h u r r i c a n e s of d e v a s t a t i n g c h a r a c t e r v i s i t e d t h e c o l o n y and l e f t b u t few h o u s e s s t a n d i n g . I n 1520, t h e i n h a b i t a n t s were a t t a c k e d by an e p i d e m i c o f s m a l l p o x and 1536 b y a p l a g u e o f a n t s . ^  1898-1940: T h e Economy. As lost  a result  o f t h e S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n War o f I898, P u e r t o  whatever l i t t l e  commerce i t had d e v e l o p e d .  worsened when t h e i s l a n d  Rico  The s i t u a t i o n  was s t r u c k i n 1899 b y one o f t h e w o r s t  ^ R a l p h Hancock, P u e r t o R i c o A S u c c e s s S t o r y D. Van N o s t r a n d C o m p a n y , I n c . , i 9 6 0 ) , p . 3 8 .  (New Y o r k :  40  hurricanes was  recorded  to that date.  t h e n w i t h i n t h e m o n e t a r y and  States, voted  However, s i n c e t h e tariff.structure  t h e F e d e r a l Government, i n r e s p o n s e  200,000 d o l l a r s  inflow of c a p i t a l economy t h a t was  for r e l i e f T h i s  from  the mainland,  a t a low  played  the of  first  sugar  p r o d u c t i o n from  building  a railroad  the main o u t l e t  the sugar  had  entered the  60,000 t o n s  a year  to transport i t . " 7  f o r employment  120  and  "During  million island  t o 780,000 t o n s Not  investment,  but  i t gave  power, b a n k i n g  A number o f o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l  the  fruit,  s t i m u l a t i o n of mainland  more t h a n the  tropical  experienced  capital,  and  industries,  but  a m i n o r p l a c e i n t h e economy.  primary  6  also  and  only d i d i t provide  transportation,  communication,  dollars  raising  a network o f s e r v i c i n g  and  island's  regime,  economy.  impetus f o r the development of  tobacco  the  industry,  r o l e during the Spanish  t h r e e decades of American r u l e capital  situation,  together with  i t dominated the e n t i r e  American p r i v a t e  to the  United  ebb.  a secondary  grew r a p i d l y u n t i l  of the  s e r v e d t o mold t h e  Under t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e t a r i f f , w h i c h had  island  industries  others.  especially  some g r o w t h  these  the  never  through  achieved  C o f f e e , w h i c h had  c r o p d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i d not  been  enjoy  the  Ibid.  7 W. P. S t r a s s m a n , " I s P u e r t o R i c o E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t S p e c i a l C a s e , " I n t e r American Economic A f f a i r s , V o l . X I I I , No. I (Summer, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 36.  A  -  41  protection  of the United  hurricanes  and t h e l o s s  bankrupt i n d u s t r y .  States t a r i f f ,  and a f t e r  o f t h e E u r o p e a n m a r k e t s , i t became a  Manufacturing  d i d not a t t r a c t  volume o f e i t h e r  external or internal c a p i t a l  ment was l i m i t e d  t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f sugar  of  a series of  a s m a l l number o f i t e m s  chiefly  n e e d l e w o r k , however, e x p e r i e n c e d  a large  and i t s d e v e l o p -  and t h e p r o d u c t i o n  f o r t h e home m a r k e t .  Home  some i n c r e a s e .  TABLE I EXPORTS I N THOUSANDS OF  1901  DOLLARS  3  1911  1921  1931  4,716  24,497  72,441  54,367  596  554  1,394  1,370  1,679  4,993  5,353  547  Tobacco  684  6,944  21,690  17,196  Fruit  102  1,816  3,154  4,370  Needlework  7  12  2,333  13,951  Total  8,583  39,917  112,279  98,401  Sugar Molasses Coffee  Thomas H i b b e n and R a f a e l P i c o , I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f P u e r t o R i c o and t h e V i r g i n I s l a n d s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( C a r i b b e a n C o m m i s s i o n , 1948), p~. 78 . In s p i t e resource  base, t o g e t h e r  States t a r i f f , industry  of the fact  with  had t u r n e d  economy, t o t a l  that thelimitation  of thenatural  the d i r e c t i n g force of the United  Puerto  Rico  into  a o n e - c r o p , one  income grew a t a f a i r l y  rapid rate  42  during the tunately,  first  t h e economic e x p a n s i o n  (953,243  of population gain  t h r e e decades o f American r u l e .  i n total  i n 1899 and  income was l a r g e l y  t h e number o f c o n s u m e r s . at t h a t date  The  1,869,255  absorbed  Consequently,  was one h u n d r e d  or f o r t y cents  was o u t - p a c e d  Unfor-  by the  growth  i n 1940) and t h e  by the  increase i n  t h eper c a p i t a  and t w e n t y one d o l l a r s  income  per year  p e r day.^  Human E l e m e n t . The  factor  i n t h e development p r o c e s s ,  even t h e areas  human e l e m e n t i s u n d o u b t e d l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t  availability  like  Puerto  of natural resources.  are not w e l l s u i t e d  conditions  i n the  long run  Underdeveloped  Rico entered the twentieth century with a  heavy burden o f c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n  Furthermore,  outweighing  single  to industrial  population pressure, together  presented  and f a m i l y p a t t e r n s t h a t living  and p r o d u c t i o n .  illiteracy  and p o o r  health  a gloomy f u t u r e f o r t h e i s l a n d  at t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . Looking spective for  at Puerto  i t c a n n o t be d e n i e d  sometime.  h a b i t a n t s on t h e persons  Rico's  In  1952  island  p e r square  mile.  population i na h i s t o r i c a l that theisland  h a s b e e n crowded  t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  2,258,000  o r , p u t i n more m e a n i n g f u l  terms,  in668  T h i s p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y a t t h e time  e x c e e d e d t h a t o f J a p a n o r t h e U n i t e d Kingdom. crowded c o n d i t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t  Cited  per-  o f extremely  b y Hancock, o p . c i t . ,  p . 53-  Puerto rapid  Rico's  growth.  43  Under t h e S p a n i s h  r e g i m e t h e r e was a f a s t  had  o f f towards t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  begun t o t a p e r  century. rate ing  A f t e r t h e United S t a t e s took  increase, but i t  over  o f i n c r e a s e a g a i n went up a s i n d i c a t e d  i n 1898, t h e  by t h e f o l l o w -  table. TABLE 2  POPULATION OF PUERTO RICO AND RATE OF INCREASE  Census Year  in  Population  13  Rate o f Increase  1800  155,426  3.20  1846  447,914  2.17  1899  953,243  1.50  1910  1,118,012  1.54  1920  1,299,809  1.56  1930  1,543,913  1.69  1935  1,723,534  1.96  1940  1,869,255  1.89  H a r v e y S. P e r l o f f , P u e r t o R i c o ' s Economic F u t u r e : A S t u d y Planned Development ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ,  1950), p . 199. It  i s clear  that the Puerto every  was d o u b l i n g  is  a l l t h e more r e m a r k a b l e when i t i s r e a l i z e d g e n e r a l l y been a c o u n t r y  forty  g r o w t h was s o f a s t  it  has  itself  Rican  years.  of emigration.  that  T h i s r a t e o f growth that Puerto  Rico  44  The extent  d e v e l o p m e n t o f any s o c i e t y depends t o a v e r y l a r g e  on t h e h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n o f i t s p e o p l e .  respects, I898  Puerto  and 1 9 4 0 .  R i c o had made i m p r e s s i v e  progress  I n many between  T h i s had been e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n e d u c a t i o n :  F o r example, l i t e r a c y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t e n y e a r s o f age and o v e r has i n c r e a s e d f r o m 2 0 . 4 percent i n I 8 9 9 t o 4 5 percent i n 1 9 2 0 and  t o 6 8 . 8 percent  However, t h e r e was s t i l l  some 30  1940.9  percent  as compared t o 6 p e r c e n t  illiterate States  in  at t h a t  of the population  i n t h e whole o f t h e U n i t e d  time.  During the period 1 9 0 0 t o 1 9 4 0 , Puerto its  education f a c i l i t i e s  R i c o had expanded  many t i m e s , y e t :  ... h a l f o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age were not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l ; a t h i r d of the children l e a v e s c h o o l between t h e f i r s t and t h i r d g r a d e s ; o n l y 36 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( t e n y e a r s o f age and o v e r ) has an e d u c a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o f o u r grades or better.10 1 9 0 0 great e f f o r t s  Since death  rate,  and t h e s e  efforts  have b e e n made t o r e d u c e t h e have been r e m a r k a b l y  successful:  The c r u d e r a t e o f 9 . 9 p e r ; t h o u s a n d i n 1 9 5 0 and 1 9 5 1 was o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f what i t was p r i o r t o 1 9 0 0 and l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e average r a t e f o r t h e decade o f 1910-20.  The  l e a d i n g causes  Perloff,  1  1  o f death  op. c i t . ,  p.  - diarrhea, enteritis,  tuberculosis,  52.  Ibid. K i n g s l e y D a v i s , " P u e r t o R i c o : A Crowded I s l a n d , " A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l . CCLXXXV ( J a n u a r y , 1953), p . 117.  45  pneumonia and m a l a r i a were c a u s i n g  significant  although  h e a l t h programmes were i n s t i t u t e d .  diarrhea  and e n t e r i t i s were c a u s i n g  population;  100,000; troyed  t u b e r c u l o s i s accounted  pneumonia k i l l e d  l o t o f t h e average Puerto  John Gunther, situation  1940,  deaths per  f o r over  260  100,000  deaths per  12  o f t h e s i z e a b l e development which  p l a c e , underdevelopment, poverty the  In  96.8 p e r 100,000 and m a l a r i a d e s -  96.8 p e r s o n s p e r 100,000.  However, i n s p i t e  405  loss of l i f e  a prominent  and d i s e a s e c o n t i n u e d  Rican  during the entire  American h i s t o r i a n ,  on t h e i s l a n d w r o t e  "I plodded through t h e s t r e e t s o f S a n J u a n , and I t o o k a b r i e f t r i p o r two i n t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . What I f o u n d a p p a l l e d me." " I saw r i c k e t y s q u a t t e r h o u s e s p e r c h e d i n g a r b a g e - d r e n c h e d mud w i t h i n a few m i l e s o f t h e new U n i t e d S t a t e s naval base." " I saw n a t i v e v i l l a g e s s t e a m i n g w i t h f i l t h - v i l l a g e s d i r t i e r t h a n any I e v e r saw i n t h e most s q u a l i d p a r t s o f China." " I saw c h i l d r e n b i t t e n b y d i s e a s e and o n t h e v e r g e o f s t a r v a t i o n , i n s l u m d w e l l i n g s - i f y o u c a n c a l l them d w e l l i n g s - t h a t make t h e h o v e l s o f C a l c u t t a l o o k h e a l t h y by comparison." " I saw, i n s h o r t , m i s e r y , d i s e a s e , squaller, f i l t h . I t w o u l d be l a m e n t a b l e enough t o s e e t h i s anywhere. I t would be s h o c k i n g enough i n t h e r e m o t e u p l a n d s "^Hancock, o p . c i t . , p . I 5 8 .  t o be period.  viewing t h e  thus:  took  46  of Peru o r t h e s t i n k i n g v a l l e y s o f t h e Ganges. But t o s e e i t on American t e r r i t o r y , among p e o p l e whom t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d g o v e r n e d s i n c e I898, i n a r e g i o n f o r which our f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h a d been c o m p l e t e f o r 43 y e a r s i s a p a r a l y z i n g j o l t t o anyone who b e l i e v e s i n American standards o f p r o g r e s s and c i v i l i z a t i o n . 1 3  Other  Factors• The P u e r t o R i c a n e c o n o m i c  y e a r s o f American mainland's  1931-41  apathy towards t h e i s l a n d ,  a l r e a d y shakey  1932,  i t suffered  Most o f t h e b e s t  had i t s m i s f o r t u n e .  t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w e a k e n i n g an  14S t r a s s m a n ,  state.  i m b a l a n c e and  The s u g a r i n d u s t r y h a d s t o p p e d growl a n d was under  i m p o s i t i o n o f the sugar quota  p.  depression,  i n a s e r i o u s l y depressed  from a dangerous  p o t e n t i a l f o r growth  >  230  when most o t h e r a r e a s h a d a l r e a d y  structural difficulties.  •  period  a d r o u g h t i n 1930-31 and t h e  i s l a n d ' s economy was s t i l l  13I b i d  of the  some  s u b s t a n t i a l r e c o v e r y from t h e depth o f t h e  More s e r i o u s l y  forty  economy.  By t h e e n d o f 1940  whatever  f o r during the  However, t h e i s l a n d  world depression a l l coincided  ing.  as a r e s u l t  t h e F e d e r a l Government h a d s p e n t and l e n t  H u r r i c a n e s i n 1928 and  the  during the f i r s t  r u l e d i d n o t come a b o u t  m i l l i o n dollars.^4  achieved  plight  remained system.  52. op. c i t  p.  64 .  s u g a r c u l t i v a t i o n and was r e s t r i c t e d  by t h e  47  Other for  agricultural  i n d u s t r i e s were a l s o p a s t t h e i r  a number o f r e a s o n s ;  from  a long-term  organized  shift  state;  t h etobacco  to cigarette  and f r u i t  had l o s t  peak  i n d u s t r y was s u f f e r i n g  s m o k i n g and was i n a d i s out t o mainland  and o f f -  shore c o m p e t i t i o n . ^ The to  import  sector  of agriculture,  l a n d m o n o p o l y and a b s e n t e e  1940  census,  about  tained  one-third  little  effort  was  limited,  the period ployment  sugarcane,  ownership.  was s u b j e c t  According t o the  o n e - h a l f o f one p e r c e n t o f t h e f a r m s  of thet o t a l  a r a b l e farm  at d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n much o f t h e l a n d  land.  con-  T h e r e was  and when s u g a r p r o d u c t i o n  remained  idle.  With  o f growth o f t h e major a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n a g r i c u l t u r e had l e v e l l e d  t h e end o f  industries,  o f f , so t h a t  em-  n o t many more  p e r s o n s were employed  i n f a r m i n g i n 1940 t h a n were i n 19?0 as  the table  page  on t h e next  illustrates.  I n t h e meantime t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d a t a y e a r l y of  1.6  p e r c e n t from  950,000  growth o f manufacturing from  32,000  i n 1910 t o  in  1899  employment,  53,000  to  1,540,000  in  o t h e r t h a n home  1930.  rate The  needlework,  i n 1930, was n o t enough t o r e l i e v e  t h e p r e s s u r e f o r employment. °  As a r e s u l t  of the divergent  S. P e r l o f f , " T r a n s f o r m i n g t h e Economy," The A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . V o l . CCLXXXV ( J a n u a r y , 1953), p . 49. 16 in  H.S. P e r l o f f , P u e r t o R i c o ' s E c o n o m i c F u t u r e : A S t u d y Planned Development ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s ,  1950), p. 63.  48  population  and employment t r e n d s , some 11 p e r c e n t  o f t h e labour  17  f o r c e was unemployed  i n 1940. ' TABLE 3  EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRIES  Industry  1920  1940 1940 ( i n t h o u s a n d s )  M a n u f a c t u r i n g and handicraft  62  101  Sugar  85  124  Tobacco  30  18  Coffee  48  26  farms  81  61  Agriculture  244  229  Other  in  Group  1920-1940°  cane  H a r v e y S. P e r l o f f , P u e r t o R i c o ' s Economic F u t u r e : A S t u d y Planned Development ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s ,  1950), p . 64. P o s t 1940-  The t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f P u e r t o R i c o may be t h o u g h t t o o c c u r i n 1940 f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons. T h e r e a p p e a r t o be c o n v e r g i n g o f p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r c e s d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e o f t h e 40*s w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e t o make t h e s h a r p break w i t h t h e s t a g n a t i o n o f t h e past.18 17 Puerto R i c o P l a n n i n g Board, "Comprehensive R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n P u e r t o R i c o , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , Nos. 12 & 13 ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s : D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1958), p . 168. A. Mayne alnd E . Ramos, P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t i n P u e r t o R i c o ( S a n J u a n : 1958), p . 8-9. "  49  The  Popular  D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y headed by Munoz  came t o power i n 1940 b e t t e r t h e economic  with  " a new g o a l i n mind, m a i n l y t o  and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f P u e r t o  T h i s was v i r t u a l l y t h e s t a r t i n g process.  The i m a g i n a t i v e  P a r t y brought t o t h e i s l a n d clear  Marin  i n t h e subsequent  Rico.""'"  9  p o i n t o f t h e development  l e a d e r s h i p which t h e Popular and i t s d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t i s  comment:  I t i s c l e a r t h a t one o f t h e s o u r c e s o f s t r e n g t h h a s b e e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e on t h e s c e n e o f a dynamic l e a d e r s h i p , w i t h a p o l i t i c a l party organization dedicated t o the achievement o f c e r t a i n s o c i a l and economic g o a l s through the democratic process. In addit i o n , l e a d e r s h i p was n o t s t r a p p e d t o a r i g i d f o r m u l a w h i c h t e n d e d t o g e n e r a t e an e x c e s s of n a t i o n a l s i m . The l e a d e r s h i p was s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e s o t h a t when a p a r t i c u l a r method f a i l e d , o t h e r s were t r i e d u n t i l t h e r i g h t c o m b i n a t i o n was found.20 The  c o m i n g t o power o f t h e P o p u l a r  u n d e r Munoz M a r i n Tugwell  i n 1940,  as g o v e r n o r  Democratic  and t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f R e x f o r d  of the island  i n 1941  provided  bination of administrators favourable f o r effective of t h e development Rexford  G.  Rexford with  Party  a complanning  process.  Tugwell. G. T u g w e l l  was a p l a n n e r .  p l a n n i n g was t h e o r e t i c a l  His f i r s t association  and i n t h e r e a l m  o f economics.  19 Social  T. C a r r e r o , The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g t o and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g ( S a n J u a n : i960), p . 31.  * Mayne and Ramos, o p . c i t . ,  p . 7-8.  50  As  Professor  conditions required  o f E c o n o m i c s a t C o l u m b i a , he a r g u e d t h a t t h e  o f modern t e c h n o l o g y  a renunciation  p l a n n e d economy. c o n c e p t s o f F . W.  of laissez  Taylor  be  joint  with  t o be p l a c e d In  I n a book p u b l i s h e d  a "United  States  t o become i n 1938, t h e f i r s t  con-  Board"  structure.  administrative and l a t e r  and f o r e s t management.  been d e s c r i b e d  associations"  p r i c e s , wages and w o r k i n g  c u l t u r e where he p r o m o t e d s u c h p o l i c i e s  has  Tugwell  h i s a c a d e m i c s e t t i n g t o become a  of Assistant Secretary  c o m m i s s i o n o f New  i n 1933,  Industrial Integration  a t t h e apex o f t h i s  1933, he l e f t  servation  management"  and t h e G o v e r n m e n t a l A r t s ,  investment,  t i m e member o f R o o s e v e l t ' s posts  of a  government-industry " i n t e g r a t e d  formed t o r e g u l a t e  ditions,  i n favour  h a d t o be e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e f a c t o r y  Industrial Discipline  proposed t h a t  faire  organization  In h i s opinion the " s c i e n t i f i c  t o t h e economy as a w h o l e . The  and i n d u s t r i a l  staff.  full  He h e l d t h e  Under S e c r e t a r y as s c i e n t i f i c  I n 1936, he l e f t  of A g r i soil  con-  Washington  permanent c h a i r m a n o f t h e p l a n n i n g  York C i t y .  The New  York P l a n n i n g  Commission  as f o l l o w s :  The u n i q u e f e a t u r e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n was i t s c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . I t was, i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , empowered t o g u i d e b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t .  R e x f o r d G. T u g w e l l , The I n d u s t r i a l D i s c i p l i n e and t h e G o v e r n m e n t a l A r t s (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933),  pp. 211-16.  51  I t s z o n i n g a u t h o r i t y and a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e c r e a t i o n o f new s u b d i v i s i o n s gave i t j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , and i t s c u s t o d y o f t h e " o f f i c i a l map" w h i c h d e s i g n a t e d p r e s e n t and f u t u r e s t r e e t l o c a t i o n s , c o n c e r n e d p u b l i c g r o w t h as w e l l as p r i v a t e . The It  commission operated  not o n l y handled  layout,  development  and  the spatial,  but a l s o t h e temporal  Munoz M a r i n ,  Rexford  i n more t h a n  new c o n c e p t s  ment, p r o v i d e d  and f i n a n c i a l  a man o f w i d e e x p e r i e n c e  and s t r e e t  as w e l l . and e c o n o m i c  i n government  and c o n v i c t i o n s i n e c o n o m i c  and p h y s i c a l  a s t r o n g base from which t o launch  was l a r g e l y  drafting of the f i r s t drafting substantial  he was a c t i v e l y  affairs develop-  an a t t a c k on  Rico..  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and  P l a n n i n g A c t i n 1942 ( t o t h e e x t e n t o f p o r t i o n s o f t h e A c t h i m s e l f ) , and was  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g t h e Act passed this  dimension.  t o e x p e r i m e n t , when j o i n e d by  t h e momentous p r o b l e m s o f P u e r t o Tugwell  i . e . , zoning,  a man d e d i c a t e d t o s o c i a l  and n o t a f r a i d  Tugwell,  one  supported  purpose of p l a n n i n g i n Puerto  by t h e L e g i s l a t u r e .  b y Munoz M a r i n . Rico  In  The g e n e r a l  i s given i n the Planning Act  as f o l l o w s : The power g r a n t e d i n t h i s A c t s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d f o r t h e general purpose of g u i d i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d , a d j u s t e d and economic d e v e l o p ment o f P u e r t o R i c o w h i c h i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h • p r e s e n t and f u t u r e n e e d s and human, p h y s i c a l C h a r l e s T. G o o d s e l l , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a R e v o l u t i o n (Cambridge, M a s s o c h u s e t t s : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965)j p. 141.  52  and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l b e s t promote t h e h e a l t h , s a f e t y , m o r a l o r d e r and c o n v e n i e n c e , , p r o s p e r i t y , d e f e n s e and c u l t u r e , e c o n o m i c s o u n d n e s s and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e o f t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e i n h a b i t a n t s , and s u c h e f f i c i e n c y and economy i n t h e p r o c e s s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e u s e o f l a n d and o f p u b l i c improvement as w i l l t e n d t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e thereto.23 However, i t was t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and the  powers g i v e n t o i t t h a t p a r t i a l l y  Tugwell's after  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts.  years of experience  brought  to fruition  He had come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n  that "the planning function of society  s h o u l d be e n t r u s t e d t o an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t i s s e p a r a t e legislative,  e x e c u t i v e , and j u d i c i a l  He r e f e r r e d t o t h i s power.  branches o f government."  power as t h e " d i r e c t i v e "  In p u t t i n g forward  this  deny t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d e m o c r a t i c  from t h e  concept principle  2 4  power o r " f o u r t h "  he was c a r e f u l  not t o  by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t  t h e f o u r t h power s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e p o l i branches o f government. 5  tical  2  In t h i s major  endeavour, Tugwell  was s t r i v i n g t o b r i n g two o f t h e  parameters under d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s  study,  i . e . , power and  A. Mayne, " D e s i g n i n g and A d m i n i s t e r i n g A R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c P l a n w i t h S p e c i f i c R e f e r e n c e t o P u e r t o R i c o , " R e g i o n a l Economic P l a n n i n g Techniques o f A n a l y s i s f o r Less Developed Areas, ed., W. I s a r d and J . C u m b e r l a n d ( P a r i s : The E u r o p e a n P r o d u c t i v i t y Agency o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e European Economic C o - o p e r a t i o n , I960),  p.  174.  24 Goodsell,  op. c i t . ,  p.  142.  2K  1-13  R. T u g w e l l , (April-June,  "The F o u r t h Power," P l a n n i n g  1939).  and C i v i c  Comment  5,  53  area  i n t o harmony, w i t h  functions f a l l i n g  i n t o place n a t u r a l l y .  His  appointment  as g o v e r n o r o f P u e r t o R i c o  the  opportunity  t o experiment with  these  provided  him w i t h  ideas.  I had j u s t come f r o m b e i n g C h a i r m a n o f t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n i n New Y o r k C i t y ; and I t h o u g h t I knew j u s t what k i n d o f a d e v i c e w o u l d meet t h e u p c o m i n g n e e d . That was a p l a n n i n g a g e n c y o f t h e k i n d I had s a i d t o m y s e l f , as a r e s u l t o f t h e New Y o r k e x p e r i e n c e , I w o u l d t r y some d a y t o s e e s e t u p somewhere. T h i s was my o p p o r t u n i t y . 2 ° The the  bill  d r a f t e d by T u g w e l l  1942 P l a n n i n g  planning  Act,  agency w i t h  "called  and B a r t l e t t ,  o u t o f w h i c h came  f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f one c e n t r a l  island-wide  jurisdiction."^  This i n -  s t i t u t i o n was t o have a u t h o r i t y t o p l a n f o r and r e g u l a t e t h e use  of a l l land, both i n c i t i e s  have a f i s c a l  role  also, that  and r u r a l  being  current  expenses;  c o m p u l s o r y was made a d v i s o r y . " ^ ^  governor submit t h e budget. tion the  expenditure  and t h e f i r s t  name o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y ,  year's  only  ahead.  i t in-  budget, i n s t e a d o f  T h i s was done i n t h e  f o r t h e Jones A c t r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e The b i l l  of, i n addition to the planning Budget w h i c h was p l a c e d  I t was t o  i s , t o budget f o r s i x y e a r s  However, " i n s t e a d o f c o v e r i n g c a p i t a l cluded  areas.  also c a l l e d  f o r the crea-  o r g a n i z a t i o n , a Bureau o f  i n t h e O f f i c e of t h e Governor.  26  (San  R e x f o r d G. T u g w e l l , The P l a c e o f P l a n n i n g i n S o c i e t y J u a n : P u e r t o R i c o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1954), P. 7 . ' 27 'Goodsell, 2  ^Ibid.,  p.  o p . c i t . , p. 145.  145.  54  They, t h e d r a f t e r s  of the b i l l ,  wanted above a l l t h a t t h e  p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n be a s autonomous a s p o s s i b l e and c o n sequently  they  d i d not place the planning  organizationally.  "They s i m p l y  created  agency  anywhere  a t h r e e man  board  29 wxthout mention o f t h e branches o f government." was t a k e n ,  however, t o p r o t e c t t h e B o a r d f r o m t h e c h i e f  c u t i v e b y p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e B o a r d members s e r v e six  year  the  draft  Care  terms.  exe-  staggered  For independence from t h e l e g i s l a t i v e  provided  that a fixed  percentage  control,  o f t h e budget  would  a u t o m a t i c a l l y be a p p r o p r i a t e d t o t h e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . The the  d r a f t e d by T u g w e l l  legislature  process  - necessary  achieve  and B a r t l e t t  v a r i a b l e s - power, a r e a and  w i t h i n any p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n o r d e r  some measure o f s u c c e s s ,  particularly  c o u n t r i e s where t h e p r o b l e m s t o be s o l v e d seem and  had t o be h a n d l e d  with  When S.181 was e n a c t e d changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . Urbanizing the  and s u b m i t t e d t o  a s S.181 s t r o v e t o l o c k i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g  t h e t h r e e most c r i t i c a l  function to  bill  and Z o n i n g  i n developing insurmountable  expedience. i n t o A c t 213, i t s o r i g i n a l  The t h r e e man " P u e r t o B o a r d " was p r o v i d e d  f o r , with  same r e g u l a t o r y powers, b u t t h e B o a r d s f  however, was s h a r p l y r e d u c e d .  A l l rural  Rico  Planning, substantially  jurisdiction,  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  were e x p r e s s l y exempted f r o m c o m p u l s o r y f u n c t i o n s s u c h and  subdivision control. Ibid.,  p . 146.  f o r m had  areas  as z o n i n g  55  The  legislature  a l s o authorized the c r e a t i o n of  individual municipal C e n t r a l Board, Board's  p l a n n i n g commissions t o supplement  although  their  a c t i o n s were s u b j e c t t o  the  the  review.  The  third  a r e a o f c h a n g e had  independence.  They s t r u c k out  t o do  the  percentage a p p r o p r i a t i o n , although  with the  Board's  p r o v i s i o n f o r a budget i t was  allowed  a permanent  30 a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f 100,000 d o l l a r s . concept  was  removed e n t i r e l y ,  and  The the  legislative  Board's r e g u l a t i o n s  maps, i n s t e a d o f a u t o m a t i c a l l y b e c o m i n g v a l i d by t h e vote  legislature,  approval,  not  as w e l l .  Board's  proposals.  curtailed planning Design the  the  law  l e g i s l a t u r e but  Moreover, e i t h e r -51  body c o u l d  Board's j u r i s d i c t i o n  drastically at t h e  unless  made t o depend upon p o s i t i v e  o n l y by t h e  Council  Although  was  i t was  time.  recognized  and  by  the  amend-  ° I b i d . , p.  3 1  Ibid.  148.  disapproved majority Executive the  as an advancement i n  Brandon H o w e l l ,  Lecturer  in Civic  a n a l y s i s of  s y s t e m o f P u e r t o R i c o had t h i s t o s a y : Three e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s d i s t i n g u i s h the p l a n n i n g system of Puerto Rico from E n g l a n d and W a l e s on t h e one hand and t h o s e o f t h e S t a t e s and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on t h e o t h e r . The f i r s t o f  3  and  i n d e p e n d e n c e were  at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of L i v e r p o o l , i n a b r i e f  planning  veto  56  t h e s e f e a t u r e s i s t h a t b o t h p h y s i c a l and economic p l a n n i n g have b e e n a c c e p t e d f r o m t h e s t a r t as an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t o f t h e same a c t i v i t y f o r w h i c h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s given t o a s i n g l e c e n t r a l authority, the Puerto Rico Planning Board. The second i s t h a t t h i s P l a n n i n g Board has t h e power t o a c t as a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r e a c h c i t y and town. Effective regional and m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g h a s t h u s b e e n made p o s s i b l e t o a degree seldom achieved e l s e where. F i n a l l y t h e P l a n n i n g Board occupies a strong p o s i t i o n within the administrative s t r u c t u r e o f t h e I n s u l a r Government. It a c t s as s t a f f a d v i s o r t o t h e G o v e r n o r and t h e L e g i s l a t u r e on m a t t e r s o f economic and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and f i s c a l p o l i c y and i t c o - o r d i n a t e s t h e development a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e government d e p a r t m e n t s and p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e framework o f p o l i c y s e t b y t h e G o v e r n o r and L e g i s l a t u r e . 3 2 The Planning did  h i s t o r y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e Board i s m o t t l e d  not prevent  successess  difficulties.  I n 1945 t h e B o a r d ' s a p p r o p r i a t i o n was and a g a i n  o f T u g w e l l s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n J u n e 1946, f o u r p l a n s T  adopted by t h e Board:  a rural  road  plan,  airport  plan.34  a district Several  By t h e end had b e e n  A San Juan t h o r o u g h f a r e  h o s p i t a l plan,  other  increased  i n 1946, i t  a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e o f 227,000 d o l l a r s . 3 3  officially  these  i n d i c a t e d b y p o i n t i n g o u t some o f i t s  f r o m 100,000 d o l l a r s t o 170,000 d o l l a r s received  However,  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m f o r g i n g ahead and i t s  are best  achievements.  with  plan,  and an i n s u l a r  segments o f t h e m a s t e r p l a n had  12 The  B r a n d o n H o w e l l , "The P l a n n i n g S y s t e m o f P u e r t o R i c o , " Town P l a n n i n g Review, V o l . X X I I I , No. 3 ( O c t . , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 212  33 Goodsell, Ibid.,  p.  op• c i t . , p . 159' 154.  57  been d r a f t e d  but not f o r m a l l y  The D e v e l o p m e n t  adopted.35  Agencies.  Over and above t h e P l a n n i n g B o a r d and t h e B u r e a u o f t h e Budget w h i c h were c r e a t e d  i n 1942  and d i s c u s s e d  a s e r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s were consisted  o f t h e Government  previously,  a l s o formed.  Development Bank, t h e P u e r t o  I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Company, t h e Land A u t h o r i t y A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t Company. Agricultural  power,  government In created  and t h e  With the exception of the  a f t e r t h e war.  companies which took over  trical  Rican  D e v e l o p m e n t Company, t h e o t h e r s have r e m a i n e d i n  operation with additions of  They  T h e s e were made up  and o p e r a t e d u t i l i t i e s .  Elec-  w a t e r and sewerage s y s t e m s were b r o u g h t u n d e r  control.  1950 t h e Economic D e v e l o p m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e t a s k o f programming  was  and p r o m o t i n g i n d u s t r i a l  development. I n o r d e r t o make s u r e t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s and programming o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t were i n t e g r a t e d with the r e s t of the governmental a c t i v i t i e s , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n became a r e g u l a r d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e government s u b j e c t d i r e c t l y t o t h e G o v e r n o r and t h e L e g i s l a t u r e f o r a l l budgetary appropriations.3° The P u e r t o R i c o I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Company i s a p u b l i c  35 The M a s t e r P l a n t o o k t h e f o r m o f a s e r i e s o f p l a n s different subjects. ^ A l v i n Mayne, L o c . c i t . , p . 174. 3  on  58  c o r p o r a t i o n engaged i n t h e p u r c h a s e , l e a s e and s a l e o f l a n d . It  also constructs, s e l l s  cial  establishments  t o new  industries  or l e a s e s f a c t o r i e s ,  and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s . 3 7  and i f n e c e s s a r y  other establishments  h o t e l s , commeri t makes  i t can operate  f a c t o r i e s or  o r own them.  The Government D e v e l o p m e n t  Bank has t h r e e p r i n c i p a l  t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t programme. as f i s c a l to  agent f o r t h e government.  private  industries  and b u s i n e s s  engages i n n e g o t i a t i n g d i r e c t b a n k s and f i n a n c i a l vides  loans  I t serves  I t makes l o n g - t e r m establishments.  loans  And i t  f i n a n c i n g o f i n d u s t r y by  institutions.  func-  private  The b a s i s on w h i c h i t p r o -  l o a n s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y depend on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  credit  r a t i n g b u t on t h e judgement  undertaking  of anticipated  success  and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  of the  programme.3$  The Land A u t h o r i t y as a s u b s i d i a r y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Agriculture  i s engaged i n t a k i n g o v e r  500 a c r e l i m i t a t i o n  law."39  71 p r o p o r t i o n a l p r o f i t It  i  n  this  farms, operated  l a n d s "under t h e F e d e r a l r e s p e c t i t has c r e a t e d on a c o - o p e r a t i v e  basis.  has a l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n programme, r e c l a i m i n g some 4,000 a c r e s  each year;  a p i n e a p p l e d e v e l o p m e n t programme;  3 7  Ibid.,  p . 175.  3 8  Ibid.,  pp. 176-77.  3 9  Ibid.,  p. 179.  a programme t o  59  improve the  q u a l i t y of d a i r y c a t t l e .  between the  A g r i c u l t u r a l Department  the of  Because of and  the  Land  conflicts Authority,  p o l i c y i s f o r government t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e agricultural  facilities  by  selling  or  operation  l e a s i n g the  land  s  now  held It  by can  agencies the  the be  (and  seen from the not  Puerto Rico  a l l were c o v e r e d ) i n v o l v e d  place  administration.  The  development  are  also  are,  devices.  The  first  i s the  physical  point  discussed  and  Board p r o v i d e s  of  of  planning  the  frame-  various  However, t h e  a s e r i e s of  budgetary operations.  o f v i e w p r o j e c t s must go  finally,  for  development  through a combination  fortunately,  There i s the  administering  studies various  i n making s p e c i a l i z e d analyses  There  review.  the  process through the  involved  in  various  p r e c i s e method  instead,  Planning  projections.  The  no  p r o j e c t i o n s which i t undertakes.  agencies  for  that  b e e n worked o u t ,  i s taking  work f o r t h e and  above d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e  development of Puerto R i c o  d e v e l o p m e n t has  and  Authority.^  to the  C a b i n e t where m a j o r  there  i s the  Chief  and  co-ordinating From  Planning  the Board  programmes  Executive  are  himself.  Constitution. It  i s impossible  Puerto Rico  from the  to  Ibid.  the  planning  endeavour  machinery o f government, t h e r e f o r e  changes which t a k e s p l a c e  4 0  abstract  i n the  governmental s t r u c t u r e  in the is  of  60  vital  importance For  to this  more t h a n f i f t y  study. years p r i o r  t o b e c o m i n g a Commonwealth,  P u e r t o R i c o had b e e n an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d t e r r i t o r y States.  As s u c h ,  instead of  received  Organic  i t had no c o n s t i t u t i o n o f i t s own, b u t had  i t s fundamental S i n c e 1950,  Acts.  c o l o n i a l i s m have d i s a p p e a r e d . 600  of the E i g h t y - f i r s t  law f r o m C o n g r e s s  i n t h e form  however, t h e s e v e s t i g e s o f "Under t h e t e r m s o f P u b l i c  Congress,  adopted  P u e r t o R i c o s s t a t u s has c h a n g e d f r o m T  dependency t o t h a t  of the United  July  that  1950,  3,  of involuntary  of voluntary association."41  t h e p e o p l e o f P u e r t o R i c o had e s t a b l i s h e d  Law  Consequently,  a "compact" w i t h t h e  United States. The of  C o n s t i t u t i o n d e r i v e d from t h i s  the basic  democratic  principles  but w i t h c e r t a i n changes s u i t e d and  broad  on t h e f a m i l i a r  Constitution  t o t h e Puerto Rican  outline  o f t h e governmental  tripartite  system  o f checks  the Constitution of the United States.  tional  tradition  structure  i s based  and b a l a n c e s Within this  found tradi-  framework, however, t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e Commonwealth  i n t r o d u c e s some new f e a t u r e s t h a t continuity the l e g i s l a t i v e for  o f t h e American  needs. The  in  compact embodied most  i t s f o u r year term  deserve mention.  To p r o v i d e  body was d e c l a r e d a c o n t i n u o u s  body  and was r e q u i r e d t o h o l d r e g u l a r s e s s i o n s  V. G u t i e r r e z - F r a n q u i and H e n r y W e l l s , "The Commonwealth C o n s t i t u t i o n , " A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l . CCLXXXV ( J a n u a r y . 1953), P. 34.  61  annually regular  and  to determine f o r i t s e l f  session.  legislatures are  of the  when t h e latter the  In the embodied t h e executive,  in this  the  through the  session  providing  branch of the  case the  bility ture  i n one  from the  a vacancy i n t h a t  before  member o f t h e  Governor t o s e l e c t pathy with  4 2  the  Ibid.,  method has  the  the  an  of  becomes  effect  of  was  chief  differed has  executive  responsi-  important  appointed  Secretary  the  This  event  four  of State,  of  year  4 2  the  a p e r s o n i n sym-  elected to carry  than  a rank-  Governor." allowing  depar-  rather  i n the  e x p i r a t i o n of the  as h i s p o s s i b l e s u c c e s s o r  39.  elected.  governorship  session.  changes  innovation  Another  i s that  programme w h i c h he p.  of each  administrative  Governor's c a b i n e t ,  appointive  length  are  the  Constitution that  This  Governor.  succeeds t o the  office  legislature  co-ordination  of  "In such a circumstance the  The  the  Governor.  American t r a d i t i o n  elected o f f i c i a l  term.  the  The  heads o f d e p a r t m e n t s by  concentration  official,  sessions  government t h e  advantage of making p o s s i b l e the the  State  i s approaching i n  i n the  C o n s t i t u t i o n where t h e s e  d e p a r t m e n t s and  ing  by  bills  appointment of the  State  where r e g u l a r  determines f o r i t s e l f  executive  of i t s  have a p r e d e t e r m i n e d d u r a t i o n .  to rush  avoided  duration  improvement o v e r t h e  States  d a t e f o r c l o s i n g up  legislature  the  and  of having  c a s e was  from the  i s an  United  held biannually  difficulty  an  This  the  out.  62  That  person  as a d e p a r t m e n t head w o u l d have d u t i e s i n t h e  executive branch policies  and w o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o v e r - a l l  of administration.  This adaptation also  allowed  f o r t h e c a r r y i n g on o f government w i t h t h e maximum o f c o n tinuity  and e f f i c i e n c y  Governor should  i f a vacancy i n t h e o f f i c e  of the  occur.  These b a s i c changes from t h e American C o n s t i t u t i o n which were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e P u e r t o immeasureably  R i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n have  i n t h e development o f t h e i s l a n d .  powers g r a n t e d  aided  The many  t o t h e Governor under t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n have  been d e s c r i b e d thus  b y one o b s e r v e r :  In l i n e with a l l t h i s the executive a r t i c l e s of the l o c a l Constitution places a p l e n t i t u d e o f e x e c u t i v e powers i n t o t h e hands o f t h e g o v e r n o r ... The G o v e r n o r i s g r a n t e d t h e power - n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e American c h i e f e x e c u t i v e - t o veto items of appropriation b i l l s . He p o s s e s s e s ( s i n c e 1949) a w i d e d i s c r e t i o n a r y power, s u c h as t h a t g r a n t e d t o t h e P r e s i d e n t i n 1939 and 1945, bo p r o p o s e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a n s and t h e r e b y h a s a f F e e hand w i t h i n l i m i t s t o a r r a n g e t h e d i v i s i o n o f work t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h as he s e e s f i t , and t h u s a l t o g e t h e r t o make h i m s e l f m a s t e r i n h i s own house.43 T h e s e powers have a l l o w e d tives,  technical  been a tendency economist  to  him t o a p p o i n t  as h i s c h i e f  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s . t o appoint  head  execu-  " T h e r e has  ( a s i s c u r r e n t l y t h e c a s e ) an  the  ^ G o r d o n K. L e w i s , P u e r t o R i c o Freedom and Power i n t h e C a r i b b e a n (New Y o r k : R.M. P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 322. J  63  D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, a d o c t o r , t h e an e n g i n e e r ,  t h e Department o f P u b l i c W o r k s . "  Many c h a n g e s have b e e n made and are t w o f o l d . requires in  In the  first  the  p l a c e , economic  the  Health,  4 4  reasons  administrative transformation.  nature  form.  Department o f  for  these  transformation  I n government  form f o l l o w s f u n c t i o n , not  as  the f u n c t i o n the  I t i s hardly conceivable t h a t Puerto  Rico's  economic  d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d h a v e gone f o r w a r d  so r a p i d l y  i f government  s t r u c t u r e was  one  puts  temptation  not  of the  reorganized.  island  as one  island  i t "the  are  l e g i o n ) has  been t o  view  i n Puerto  R i c o by  the  favourable.  W.  large m u n i c i p a l i t y . " ^  Reaction to planning fessional  author  professional public administration analyst  (whose r e p o r t s on t h e the  As  activity  p l a n n i n g f r a t e r n i t y was  of the American S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s  had  H.  pro-  Blucher  t h i s to  say:  I would be h a r d p u t t o name any p l a n n i n g agency i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h i s d o i n g a more e f f e c t i v e j o b t h a n the Puerto R i c o P l a n n i n g Board ... I know o f no o t h e r p l a n n i n g b o a r d w h i c h p l a y s as i m p o r t a n t a p a r t as does t h e P u e r t o R i c o P l a n n i n g Board i n t h e e v e r y d a y and l o n g t e r m g o v e r n m e n t a l and d e v e l o p m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s of your area.4" The  planning  activity  by many, s u f f e r e d a g r a v e  44 4 5  Ibid.,  Ibid.,  p.  i n Puerto  Rico  s e t back i n t h e  although  highly praised  eyes of the  originators  323  p. 3 2 8  C i t e d by C. g o o d s e l l , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a R e v o l u t i o n ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p.  160.  64  when i n 1950  t h e P l a n n i n g Board  of  t h e Governor.  to  t h e P l a n n i n g Boards*  This transfer  Through Tugwell's from  1942  was t r a n s f e r r e d  t o 1950,  represented the f i n a l  influence, planning i n Puerto  had o p e r a t e d  power came t o an end i n 1950, 2 t o (4 p r e s e n t  z a t i o n o f t h e P l a n n i n g Board w h i c h have t a k e n  blow  autonomy.  with  Rico  a measure o f autonomy  unknown t o o t h e r p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s b e f o r e ,  Figures  to the Office  and a l t h o u g h  this  i t s i n f l u e n c e c a r r i e d on. a graphic picture of the organii n Puerto  p l a c e over time  Rico  and t h e c h a n g e s  t o meet c h a n g i n g  demand.  T h e s e c h a n g e s i n d i c a t e t h e f l e x i b i l i t y and t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of  t h e Board  Liabilities The cannot  i n t h e development or Assets.  success  o f t h e developmental  be c r e d i t e d  Fortuitously, War  yearly  1942-46  programme i n P u e r t o  s o l e l y t o p l a n n i n g measures  Rico  employed.  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t programme c o i n c i d e d w i t h W o r l d  I I which " r a i s e d  activities  situation.  from  average o r from  net island  income o r i g i n a t i n g  twenty-one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s  to  24  percent  Federal  i n 1939-40 t o a  o f one h u n d r e d and f i f t e e n m i l l i o n  9  from  of the total  dollars  during  net income."  4 7  W. A. S t r a s s m a n , " I s P u e r t o R i c a n Economic D e v e l o p m e n t A S p e c i a l Case," I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Economic A f f a i r s , V o l . XVII,  No.  1 (Summer,  I964),p.65•  COMMONWEALTH  O f P U E R T O RtCO  OFFICE O F THC GOVERNOR  PUERTO RICO PLANNING BOARD FUNCTIONAL C H A R T FISCAL YEAR  1906-97  THC  •  O f F l C t O f THE S t C » t T * F Y  LXGAL WVISJOM n i K C KtLATKMft •I W i **KXA,nt mim MO Mat***. I C C l l  CNGMCEJtWG  l£6ltl»TIOB  OH IT tW W M C M L f l V k  l«4UBCT|DBt  CWTSDH  51C1IL ST UOC S 0* ' MCA.* H m l at «OCJO-  •waui. m n  lltBLATKM St.ua CulOiTKMt tl  »(  r>J4*_iC  M -ff * flUAl  M T i i M l» TO D«1 14.i* »>ID 1»C M O M t t S Or  M H W  OE [0»  N U U 1 M  MtU*UMIT  t*L COMSTMUCTO IB  • » T.«  PIMLJC "CMS  l"L»v C s o n s I t U U M CMUOT19 AM M * k m S xarffVUr  H-C  PMMC r u Dt»a,tUMl c c c * s »a*  n m T c s a>  FUSKCATO IWS  PIMLC *o*«».  •UffEAU OF CTTY njWtMNG  • U H E A U O F Ptfmrrs  ntMQi »KJ MvfU3»MC«lT« or T«c COam»«t ICO*i0an niOti.i'Oi'3a:i»»« [ C M M C  V U *t»t»ir»  HMltt  to* COMCWa. ao-1 •? BtJC«T» • HO t«arf  •CuitOn <X ON CO" " ST«JC'">« *l««rTt P«tC' n/tnaiilataOB or  WMSTBX-  MVISTIMTIOW Or  smKw^O* M*1 j  r*o»*sa**i o» wT*_/t f•  nto«!  COST riCU> •aSflttiOMS  tOSl IlTUTf • Mi^isiiMTOa or i  novation  ICM"(  *U»0f L.MES '3« £CO-3»'C  1  1  *WTnO*<<I(0 » » 0 UMI/THO«IIXO H U M O* C O . M » ' l " C t W T  J  ^  rm.o 1TU0H1 TQ  VJWTCT •«»  Orrtciai. * a « or  OUSLIC »C-OJ  T-O»0uC  M*W%  *«(.!* L I O U K SI  I M  •aSTtai r: tm i i n t a La MO U5I CTUOtTS Formal to* ituoatl soc<o-tcc—oaic • < KOMI siiarm » PUIUC S l f i C t * MO  majors  ]  ex »(. o * - { » *  1  • » < • [ « n » * t »C« f.CO*Oa*C aCTivHCS Statistics 0* 6»CSS raoOuCT.MT MtcO*t.aai.*>>C{ c I nfu? ""C • t. CC*»t«C*l, N C I t , •«K^X U*CLS *•© CCOMO»"C INOIIft  t*itaaT>o«,  j ua§aa a t o c v i u N(raaano* or  •1  0*f raaatioa CH vl ID * n t Pia. •Tuons <J> •  SOU£c£  .PUERTO  RICO  CHGANUATtON PUERTO  RICO  OF T H E  PLANNING  BOARD  OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN  OF THE OFFICE EXECUTIVE VICE- PRESDCHT  orriQC or rvti'c »U»Tion*  V-cx or LOCAL r-i.*hi.-»c  on •« mt  LCtAL DivrHOW  • *; *i o r MTtiOATCB H_*n»  -  D>v>»OR or  avi»<DM or '•li'XH'lll  1 o* Of finance  DtvtfiOM or mrr. «MO " t M R U MftfT(> •  . • i . * or  DIVISION  4LW mTTtOATtD rLUmiK v  «r  KXHi *n*iTtr»  »j»t«u o r rroXCTi ncvit'ON  Ount'O* ©»  IDkiM "CIO.  OIVIKOM  MCT  3T * C*4  MT  lie T  I SO  on tui0'»ii'O* on  Division or ruOk'C rNovfCTt  oiv.iio* or Ml V ATI r-ftCWCCTO  or  *n0  KCTiOM  **J0»  luODiviS'On iic non  MOJICTI  rcvuo  SCCTiO*  HCtlQO  tlCTH  Ov*(*w * !UMO»<t  •uMftri or rtM'Tt  M C nr'MPMU  t>*it>on or »)*mi.f  SOURCE: PUERTO A ICO PLANNING BOARD. /SSS  JUNTA OE P l » N I F I C » C I O N O E P U E R T O •»»nc« ruNCii  RICO  4  • • • • •  •  •t.AcfioilV'uti'CAl  •  1 ni.Ti.lriii  li •  •saw  ..'.'.V.Vc.'U..  •  SOURCE••PUERTO R/Co  HnAses.%.  PLANNING BO Rib I960  •  68  Richard Meier development b a l a n c e to  i d e n t i f i e s the f o l l o w i n g sheet which e x i s t e d  as a s s e t s on  i n Puerto Rico  the  prior  1948. 1.  A c c u m u l a t e d government r e v e n u e s w h i c h c o u l d be s p e n t d u r i n g t h e war ( r o u g h l y $300 m i l l i o n ) o f w h i c h an i m p o r t a n t p a r t had t o be c o m m i t t e d t o s p e c i f i c i m p r o v e m e n t s d e l a y e d by w a r t i m e shortages.  2.  A sugar cane quota f o r t h e American market w h i c h was o n l y a f o u r t h t h e s i z e o f Cuba's b u t was s t i l l a s o u r c e o f d o l l a r s t h a t were n o t t i e d t o any s p e c i f i c programme o f e x penditure .  3.  A c c e s s t o New Y o r k s o f a v o u r a b l e t h a t t h e t r i p c o u l d be e a s i l y n e g o t i a t e d by d i r e c t a i r t r a n s p o r t , more r e a s o n a b l e i n c o s t t h a n any a l t e r n a t i v e mode o f t r a n s p o r t .  4.  A balmy and c o m f o r t a b l e c l i m a t e , e x c e l l e n t f o r t o u r i s t a t l e a s t e i g h t months a y e a r i n t h e l o w l a n d s and t w e l v e months a y e a r i n t h e mountains.  5.  A high standard of p u b l i c h e a l t h to the extent that the f a m i l i a r t r o p i c a l diseases, s u c h as m a l a r i a , t y p h o i d and d y s e n t r y , had v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d o v e r most p a r t s o f t h e island.  6.  Being part of the United S t a t e s , i n s i d e i t s t a r i f f b a r r i e r , yet r e t a i n i n g independence o f a c t i o n , t h i s meant t h a t t h e l a r g e s t m a r k e t i n t h e w o r l d was open t o P u e r t o R i c a n manuf a c t u r e r s (though t h e o u t p u t w o u l d have t o be p r o d u c e d more c h e a p l y t h a n was b e i n g done a t t h e t i m e by t h e most e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n system i n t h e w o r l d ) .  7.  Immediate and unimpeded a c c e s s t o p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , so t h a t i f a demand f o r l a b o u r e x i s t e d t h e r e , P u e r t o R i c a n s c o u l d move i n u n r e s t r i c t e d numbers t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and vic<e v e r s a , s k i l l e d p e r s o n s o f one t y p e o r a n o t h e r ( e . g . , managers, e n g i n e e r s , c o n s u l t a n t s , and s p e c i a l i s t s ) c o u l d come t o Puerto Rico without passports.  69  8.  An a p p a r e n t l y l i m i t l e s s p o o l o f unemployed and u n d e r e m p l o y e d w o r k e r s a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l work.  9.  E x i s t e n c e of a s m a l l group of d e d i c a t e d y o u n g men w i l l i n g t o commit t h e i r c a r e e r s t o p u b l i c s e r v i c e and t o t h e improvement of w e l f a r e i n t h e i r homeland.  10.  No e v i d e n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t d e s p i t e the impoverishment which e x i s t e d , the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e or no d a n g e r o f a b r u p t c h a n g e s i n p o l i c y , d e s t r u c t i o n f r o m r i o t i n g or p o l i t i c a l l y inspired strikes.48  It  can  be  d e b a t e d w h e t h e r most o f t h e s e  advantages at a l l .  points  With the exception of the  p o i n t s e n u m e r a t e d c o u l d be r e s t a t e d , t o g e t h e r their  i m p l i c a t i o n s , t o make them appear  are  first, with  a l l the  some o f  as d e t e r r e n t s t o  development. The had  Puerto  Rican  planners,  t o make do w i t h what t h e y  should  be  i n t e r p r e t e d as  however, r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  had.  They saw  assets rather than  they  t h a t what t h e y  liabilities  had,  and  proceeded. The Report  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Puerto  of the  Rico's  N a t i o n a l Resource Planning  economy, w h i c h Board  (1942)  w o u l d have t o c o n t i n u e  t o r e l y upon an a g r i c u l t u r a l  since  i n mineral resources,  i t was  deficient  n e o - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s now retold.  Hill  into  a  The  concluded  economy burgeoning  a well-known s t o r y f r e q u e n t l y  4 9  Richard Meier, Developmental Planning Book Company, 1965), pp. 143-44. Lewis,  op.  c i t . , p.  169.  (New  Y o r k : McGraw-  70  Achievements. A b r i e f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n at t h i s juncture ments i s n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r t i n e n t . attempt t o i n c r e a s e  the local  encouragement o f p r i v a t e i n the early enterprises  1940's,  After  an a l m o s t  c a p i t a l i n i n d u s t r i a l development  and r e a l i z i n g t h e r e l u c t a n c e fields,  t h e I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Company  t h e p u r p o s e o f o p e n i n g up new m a n u f a c t u r i n g  and  pointing  t h e way f o r p r i v a t e  earlier  on the  in  II.  i s l a n d through t a x exemption, of f a c t o r y  buildings,  and o p e r a t e d  approach, which  industries  plants centered  and c a p i t a l t o  i n d u s t r i a l services, the  loans  and s p e c i a l  assistance  f o r m s were u n d e r t a k e n .  T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t the  Another  t h e attempt t o a t t r a c t mainland  various  opportunities  enterprise.  of government-built  a f t e r W o r l d War  provision  i n 1942  phase o f p r o m o t i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t  through the a c t i v i t i e s g a v e way  of private  the island's  for  The  futile  s o u r c e s o f income t h r o u g h t h e  t o take r i s k s i n untried  government c r e a t e d  of the achieve-  t h i s p o l i c y was e f f e c t i v e .  b e g i n n i n g o f t h e programme, p o p u l a r l y  Bootstrap, the following  has b e e n  known  Since  as O p e r a t i o n  achieved:  By 1953 t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l programme o f a i d s and i n c e n t i v e s ... had b r o u g h t o v e r 300 m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s t o t h e i s l a n d , more t h a n 2 5 , 0 0 0 new j o b s had been added t o t h e i s l a n d ' s p a y r o l l , and t h e a n n u a l n e t income p e r c a p i t a had r i s e n $122 i n 1940 t o some $426 t h i r t e e n y e a r s l a t e r . By 1957 i n d u s t r y had s u p p l a n t e d a g r i c u l t u r e as t h e m a j o r i n c o m e - e a r n i n g i n g r e d i e n t o f t h e economy; by 1958 t h e t o t a l o f new f a c t o r i e s  71  e s t a b l i s h e d had r e a c h e d 500, and o v e r 660 two y e a r s l a t e r , p r o v i d i n g a l t o g e t h e r 45,900 new j o b s ; w h i l e b y 1959 t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f two o i l r e f i n e r i e s , a l o n g w i t h t h e U n i o n C a r b i d e Company d e c i s i o n t o manufacture ethylene g l y c o l i n t h e i s l a n d had l a i d t h e b a s i s f o r an i n d u s t r i a l p e t r o - c h e m i c a l complex w h i c h p r o m i s e d t o r e l i e v e t h e economy o f a d a n g e r o u s r e l i a n c e upon t a n t a l i z i n g m o b i l e light industry. The l a t e s t s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t p e r c a p i t a income h a s r i s e n t o t h e l e v e l ( i n i960) o f $677 i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h $341 i n 1950 and $122 i n 1940.50 I n no a r e a h a s more d r a m a t i c in  thefield  dropped  from  of health. a level  p r o g r e s s been r e g i s t e r e d  S i n c e 1940 t h e c r u d e d e a t h r a t e h a s  o f 18.4 p e r t h o u s a n d  A number o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c a u s e s brought  under c o n t r o l  from d i a r r h e a per  or v i r t u a l l y  reduced  t o l e s s than  pical  33 p e r 100,000.  been  I n I960  t o less than  death  60 d e a t h s  b y t u b e r c u l o s i s was  Pneumonia a v e r a g e d  less  and m a l a r i a , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t r o -  s c o u r g e , was c o m p l e t e l y w i p e d o u t . The  table  eliminated.  while those caused  t h a n 45 p e r 100,000 i n I960,  t o 7.0 i n 1958 .^"^  of death has  and e n t e r i t i s was r e d u c e d  100,000 p e r s o n s ;  than  e d u c a t i o n a l achievement  on t h e f o l l o w i n g  Ibid.,  pp.  page.  169-70.  Mayne, o p . c i t . , p .  192.  Hancock, op. c i t . , p.  154.  i sc l e a r l y  indicated  i n the  72  TABLE 4 EDUCATION LEVEL OF THE POPULATION  1950-1965  ( i n thousands)  1950  1955  I960  1965  1,249  1,294  1,374  1,438  College  17  21  25  34  Senior High School  68  101  161  212  Junior High School  103  105  145  150  Elementary School  282  290  300  335  Five years or less  779  777  743  707  Education Population  Level (15  & over)  R. M e i e r , D e v e l o p m e n t a l Book Company, 1965), p . 283.  P l a n n i n g (New Y o r k :  McGraw-Hill  73  The t o t a l with t y p i c a l  budget f o r t h e f i s c a l  allotments, t e l l  yearSl940  and  I960,  the story.  TABLE 5 BUDGET ALLOCATIONS 1940-1960  Total  Budget  e  1940  I960  27,948,805  276,942,238  Department  of Education  6,196,332  63,880,828  University  o f Puerto  Rico  1,438,514  18,134,000  R e c r e a t i o n & Parks  10,270  1,635,640  290,978  5,000,000  27,200  5,749,800  Public  Department Economic  o f Labour  Development  Administration Puerto  Rico  Planning  Board  -  Department Payments  of Health  on P u b l i c  Debt  2,207,800  3,682,586  47,101,915  1,600,415  13,205,537  R. Hancock, P u e r t o R i c o A S u c c e s s S t o r y D . Van N o s t r a n d Company I n c . , I960) , p~7 8 .  (New Y o r k :  CHAPTER  SUMMARY AND  I n C h a p t e r I , i t has challenge rapid  population years 500 20  to  eight  not  add  and  years The  just  Dating  500  that the  developing  f r o m 1650,  m i l l i o n t o the  increase took j u s t at the to  add  current another  countries i s  when t h e  population. 50  years,  world's i t took  But  then  30  the  increase.  influx  t o the urban c e n t r e s .  In the  States,  the  period  growth i n the  metropolitan  r e g i s t e r e d an  in central  to the  is  the  maintains,  largest  percent  With respect  Davis  countries,  growth i n suburban areas 11  Rather,  highly industrialized  i n the  only  p o i n t s out,  g r o w t h t o d a y i s more a r e s u l t  instance, took place  compared t o  an  then  million.  of people from  of  next  take  the  old pattern  200  years,  r a t e of growth i t w i l l 500  greatest  Davis  that urban population  for  and  out  rapid urbanization, Kingsley  countryside  United  been p o i n t e d  b e g a n t o show a marked upward c l i m b ,  million years  CONCLUSIONS  f a c i n g both developed  urbanization.  IV  of  natural  like  the  to  I960,  1950  areas.  i n c r e a s e o f 49  And percent  cities."^  developing  c o u n t r i e s , Davis  observes  I n s p i t e o f t h e enormous g r o w t h o f t h e i r c i t i e s , t h e i r r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s - are g r o w i n g a t a r a t e t h a t i n many c a s e s e x c e e d t h e  W i l f r e d Owen, The M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r o b l e m , r e v i s e d e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y & CoT, 1 9 6 6 ) , p~. 8~.  74  75  r i s e of even the urban p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e now advanced c o u n t r i e s . The p o o r c o u n t r i e s t h u s c o n f r o n t a g r a v e dilemma. I f t h e y do n o t substantially s t e p up t h e e x o d u s f r o m r u r a l a r e a s , these a r e a s w i l l b e swamped w i t h u n d e r e m p l o y e d farmers. I f t h e y do s t e p u p t h e e x o d u s ^ t h e c i t i e s w i l l grow a t a d i s a s t r o u s r a t e . The  response  of  phenomenon  seems t o  ment.  the  of  In  the  focus  developed  development  developed  sector  influence  of  involves  most  of  of  investments:  on  planning  metropolitan  the  to  this  world's  principal dispersal,  world-wide  for regional  countries, this  development  three  countries  i s expressed  governments.  economy, the  patterns  allocation  concentration  In  largely  economists, of  developterms  the  less  through  regional  on  in  approach  of  growing  the  public areas,  and  3 promotion It has  has  been  the  of  development  been  under  branches cussing  of  the  shown  study  They  substantiate  regions  environment abandoned as  sciences.  and  have  cultural  generally,  hierarchical  as  and  systems  the  length  Geographers  in diverse  sought,  areas.  II, that  a considerable  i t intermittently  Aristotle.  backward  i n Chapter  for  social  of  forms  from  regional of  as  dis-  the  time  of  define  criteria  These  geographers  conceptualize  with  varying  degrees  of  various  been  determinants. now  by  have  unsuccessfully, to  natural units using  time  concept  ideas  and the  have  been  regions  interconnections,  2 K i n g s l e y D a v i s , "The U r b a n i z a t i o n S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n , V o l . C C X X I I I , No. ^Supra,  p.  5.  o f t h e Human P o p u l a t i o n , " 3 ( S e p t . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 5 1 .  76  e a c h d e f i n e d by  a distinct  Economists, spective  criterion  or s e t of  v i e w i n g t h e r e g i o n from  criteria.  a different  per-  - as t h e m a t r i x w i t h i n w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s  presented  -  c e r t a i n t h e o r i e s amongst w h i c h t h e c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y  s t r u c t u r e was  claimed  t o be  an  s t a n d i n g of the developmental  important  c l u e t o the  process during the  under-  nineteenth  century. H i r s c h m a n and the  Myrdal,  both  economists,  i d e a t h a t g i v e n r e g i o n a l economic  market  f o r c e s are  allowed  t o operate  p a r i t i e s would o c c u r ,  or put  w o u l d grow r i c h e r  the  In the tion  and  fields  the c r u c i a l  unhindered,  p o o r e r w o u l d grow s c i e n c e and  been t h e  while maintaining a responsive However, i t has  imbalances,  forward  i f the  free  greater  dis-  i n other terms, the r i c h e r  of p o l i t i c a l  i s s u e has  have put  and  regions  poorer. public  areal division  administraof  power,  r e s p o n s i b l e government.  been emphasised t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o  gear  t h e development of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t o meet t h e  individual  This study In t h i s  context  needs of each c o u n t r y  i s focused two  and  on t h e needs o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  assumptions  a r e made.  Firstly,  g o v e r n m e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have a d o p t e d planning. tance  And  secondly,  region.  most  national  t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s and  o f t h e r e g i o n a l a p p r o a c h i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s as  u s e f u l t o o l t o achieve the  goals of n a t i o n a l  planning.  t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s are making p l a n s at t h e n a t i o n a l  accepa  However, level  77  based  on w e s t e r n i z e d  have met w i t h  limited  models.  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  success.  Based on t h e above a s s u m p t i o n s ; of developmental the  the limited  That  planning i n the developing countries;  and  tion  i n v o l v e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s was d e d u c e d :  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o  development  i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e a b i l i t } ' t o make power,  was u n d e r t a k e n . two  factors.  this  hypothesis  a case  study  of Puerto  Rico  The c h o i c e o f t h e t e r r i t o r y was e n c o u r a g e d b y In the f i r s t  instance, Puerto  acclaimed  as a m o d e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t  Secondly,  Puerto  R i c o i s an i s l a n d  a l s o has t h e s i z e  seen  func-  and r e g i o n o r a r e a c o i n c i d e . In order t o t e s t  R i c o has been  i n t h e Western Hemisphere. and as s u c h  i s a region.  t h a t i t c a n be c o n s i d e r e d as a r e g i o n when  i n c o n t i n e n t a l terms. In order t o evaluate t h e developmental  Puerto the  success  l a c k o f a c a r e f u l l y w o r k e d - o u t body o f t h e o r y b y a l l t h e  disciplines  It  of these  Rico  and a t t h e same t i m e  f o l l o w i n g method was  t o assess t h e f a c t o r s involved  employed.  N o t i n g t h a t 1940 marked t h e b e g i n n i n g programme and 1898 t h e end o f S p a n i s h i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s were a s s e s s e d viewpoint.  Then, s t a r t i n g  b u t i n g t o development from Before  from  from  developmental  on t h e i s l a n d , t h e  an e c o n o m i c  and s o c i a l contri-  a p l a n n i n g s t a n d p o i n t were c o n s i d e r e d .  i s l a n d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t were o u t l i n e d . indices  rule  of the  1940 t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s  i n d i c a t i n g t h e achievements,  specific  achievement o f  o f development.  t h e f a c t o r s unique  to the  The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s  with  78  It  must be c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e s t o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  of Puerto  Rico  i s a success  unique r e l a t i o n s h i p with it  received therefrom  be  denied  that this  story.  Some may a r g u e t h a t i t s  the United  States  and t h e c o n c e s s i o n s  have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y .  r e l a t i o n s h i p has p l a y e d  I t i s nott o  a part.  must  a l s o be p o i n t e d  out t h a t Puerto  R i c o was u n d e r  rule  f o r almost h a l f  a century  t o 1940.  the  prior  factors that contributed to this  But i t American  What t h e n a r e  r a p i d development  since  1940? Some f a c t o r s a r e e v i d e n t . Munoz M a r i n  and t h e P o p u l a r  appointment  of Rexford  the  latter  t o designing  Democratic  Tugwell  fortunate coincidence.  The c o m i n g t o power o f Party  as g o v e r n o r seemed t o be a  The f o r m e r was d e d i c a t e d a planning  over  existed  and t h e power t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p l a n s  t h e r e g i o n i n which t h e f u n c t i o n s i t planned f o r  t h o u g h t h i s was n o t a c h i e v e d  The island's  is  i t devised.  Al-  i t s e t i n motion  i n fortifying  development.  g a i n i n g o f Commonwealth s t a t u s and t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n which accompanied i t p r o v i d e d i n this  case  Governor Marin,  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l programme. a well integrated planning  approach with and  i n its totality  o f thought which has aided  executive, out  t o development;  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t had j u r i s -  diction  a train  f o l l o w e d by t h e  regard  interrelated  t h e power t o c a r r y  What h a s emerged s i n c e  then,  s y s t e m b a s e d on a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  t o a l l aspects  factors,  with  the chief  o f development  t h a t must be combined  as  into  necessary  a whole i f  79  the  desired  Puerto for  goals  Rico  the  the  the  evident  an  ment  to The  the  employed  which  point  the  suggested  of  provides then  criterion  or  task  to  that  the  the  determine  process  next  page,  coincidence climate  to  do  to  be  performed  with  i s no  performed  became the  endeavour.  has  region  to  for  and  the  embodies  the  and  from  of  that  power,  regional  following criteria  If there  be  planning  criteria  seeking  the  ideal  the  functions place.  view  out  of  planning on  a l l , in  exists.  a number  the  an  carry  island  when  chart  Above  to  planning  that  i n the  effective  first  study  a regional  accepted  i t takes  between be  of  region  function  entire  be  outlined  be  the  will  could  i t is  and  of  the  the  administrative  tions  and  achieved.  of  effectiveness  as  be  course  that  If  to  power  development  In  steps  are  are  compatability  and  the  region,  i s inadequate  develop-  applicable.  region  geographical  the  func-  to  within  congruity  then  the  of  i t  task  may  assigned  to i t . The is  second  criterion,  a consideration  Size  of  population  consumer  of  the  one  c l o s e l y related to  factor  i s important  adequacy  with  regard  demand  and  need  services,  vigor  and  variety in citizen  provision  of  A  entreprenuership  companion  be  rendered.  of  action  for  of  there  criterion  For  any  must  be  a  to  and  to  such  nature  significant  to  matters  as  support  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  civic  find  first,  population.  services, capacity  i s the  region  in  the  the  leadership. of  the  services  justification programme,  one  in  to  terms  that  makes  GOAL  SPECIFICATION STAGE  PROGRAM SPECIFICATION STAGE  IMPLEMENTATION STAGE  81  a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e to the t o be  accomplished.  popular  inhabitants  I t must be  i n t e r e s t and  such that  participation.  t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n must be  of that i t can  s c o p e and  attract  t e c h n i c a l l y competent p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d  factory  discharge  The tion  fourth criterion  functions  regional  with the  task  goes the  standard  as t h e of  of  a sound l e g a l  Still  can  be  can  may  be  be  the  authorizato In  disshort,  commensurate  legal  one  authority  i s as  important  a c t i o n i n the-absence  there  for evaluating  stated  i n terms of  f r o m two  such things  political  of  be  an  as  will  are,  of the  external control exercised  the  energetic  of  view.  accountability;  I t can  over the  how  The  financial  a l s o be  Here the  d i r e c t i o n and  w e l l does t h e  p e o p l e and  of  i t takes  internal control,  accountability.  how  adequacy  accountability,  points  policy formulation,  p r i n c i p a l questions  g r amme ?  can  administrative  i n terms of  sued r e f l e c t  The  personnel administration.  primarily that  legal  authority  vigorous  neither  considered  into consideration  sidered  satis-  adequate f i n a n c i a l r e s o t i r c e s .  called  management and  have l e g a l  c a n n o t be and  to  f o r the  administration  adequacy.  another c r i t e r i o n  aspect  first  The  i n the  Concomitant w i t h the  fiscal  base,  regional planning this  should  for there  programme w i t h o u t  is  i s inherent  assigned.  other,  depth  f o r w h i c h i t came i n t o b e i n g .  authority  func-  involved.  or base f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l  charge the the  duties  compel  Furthermore, the  of s u f f i c i e n t  of the  region,  issue  control.  programme  effective is  e n t i r e development  con-  purthe  pro-  82  An  a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h t o a p p r a i s e  r e g i o n a l developmental in  the  face of changing  clusively to of  a single  needs growing out  ibility  fronting  stant  needs.  in i t s adaptability  A r e g i o n which i s t i e d  programme i s h i n d e r e d of r e l a t e d  developmental  power and  the  i s found  f u n c t i o n seems t o be p o l i c y makers.  fact  The  t h a t the three  flux.  ment has  purposes,  flexibility  flex-  importance. of  area,  o f t h e major i s s u e s c o n -  issue i s vastly  complicated  p r i n c i p a l components are. i n c o n -  Nevertheless,  the  Therefore,  the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  one  ex-  from c o n s i d e r a t i o n  development.  i n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o f the utmost  For  by  process  the  what i s i m p o r t a n t  which allows  i s that  govern-  i t t o make t h e  necessary  adaptations. The criteria  c h a r t on t h e identified  f o l l o w i n g page b r i n g s t o g e t h e r  during the course  w o r k i n g model, u s e f u l f o r a i d i n g of  study  into  development.  ascertain i t s validity  i s com-  However, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s and  a  i n assessing the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n whose m a i n c o n c e r n  prehensive to  of t h i s  some  applicability  or t o  necessary  introduce  refinements. Research i n t h i s case  area should  s t u d i e s of c o u n t r i e s i n the  proceed  by  developing  f i r s t making f u r t h e r s e c t o r of the  economy where p l a n n i n g f o r r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t has force  f o r two  seem t o be  or t h r e e decades.  sufficient  evidence  been i n  I f i n t h i s undertaking t o bear  out t h e  fact  world's  that  there the  PARAMETERS  REG ION  ^  FUNCTIONS  6 POWER  CRITERIA  POPULATION BASE  CAPACITY TO SUPPORT SERVICES  PROGRAM SCOPE AND DEPTH  SIGNIFICANCE TO PEOPLE  LEGAL AUTHORIZATION ACCOUNTABILITY FINANCIAL RESOURCES AREAL JURISDICTION POWER TO DISCHARGE FUNCTIONS POLITICL RESPONSIBILITY METHOD OF FINANCING JURISDICTION ADEQUATE TO TASK  84  c l o s e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between power, f u n c t i o n and area t h e more e f f e c t i v e i s t h e developmental  process, then a  s y s t e m a t i c s e a r c h f o r t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g elements i n each o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s c a n be  undertaken.  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