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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of changes in functioning of multi-problem families Crane, Stephanie Enid 1967

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STUDY OF CHANGES I N FUNCTIONING OF MULTI-PROBLEM  FAMILIES  by  Stephanie Enid Janet Carole Doreen  Crane  Haddock  Elizabeth  Rhoda J e a n  Harrison  Jarvis  Shahnaz Zoya K i d w a l Norma J o a n  Thesis Submitted I n P a r t i a l for  t h e Degree the  Accepted  White  Fulfillment  o f the Requirements  o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n  School of Social  Work  as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d degree o f Master o f S o c i a l  School of S o c i a l  Work  Work  1967 The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  f o rthe  ii  ABSTRACT  In recent the  subject  of  years a considerable  the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y .  were u t i l i z i n g most o f showing l i t t l e ways o f  amount o f r e s e a r c h  the  realization  communities s e r v i c e s ,  change l e a d  serving  The  social  these f a m i l i e s .  agencies I n 1959  t i m e and  city  to demonstrate c o - o r d i n a t i o n  the  multi-problem  family.  V a n c o u v e r was  established.  and  project  i s concerned with  part  the  provide  service  to  the  p r o j e c t has  to f a m i l i e s w i t h  100  out  service  functions  the  focus of  service.  provided  the  project,  there  in  two  of  of  families with  welfare  the of  welfare  One  on  welfare  by  two  basis  of  services  several  chronic to the  agencies.  s o c i a l w o r k e r s and  I n a d d i t i o n to  f a m i l i e s i n the  project  the  Five  to t e s t the  the  research  part  of  assumption that  a r e more e f f e c t i v e i n i m p r o v i n g  complex problems t h a n the  and  "usual.services"  the the  this  multiple  family The  as  a  second the  demonstration  t r e a t m e n t g r o u p , and  the  caseworkers  views  component.  of  neigh-  services  The  experi-  200  families  demonstrafunctioning  of h e a l t h  and  agencies. The  present study  i n g between the and  f o r 100  the  area  to  health,  complex problems.  i s a strong  c o n t r o l groups, i n order  tion services  i n one  A r e a Development P r o j e c t co-ordinated  d e l e g a t e d by  i s c a r r i e d out  mental design c a l l s  new  Councils  services  Family. Services.  families selected  b o u r h o o d as by  still  d i r e c t t r e a t m e n t o f m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s and  Each worker provides b a s i c  whole a n d . c a r r i e s of  the  program.is c a l l e d Integrated  agency use.  part  This  money and  developed  on  some f a m i l i e s  Community C h e s t and  i n t e g r a t i o n of  From t h i s p r o p o s a l  recreational services  of  and  that  b e e n done  to study.and experiment w i t h  o f V a n c o u v e r recommended t h a t a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t be the  has  t r e a t m e n t and  to measure the  in.social  i s intended  e f f e c t s of  functioning.  to study changes i n s o c i a l  c o n t r o l group of selected  family  function-  the A r e a Development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on  Although d e f i n i t e conclusions  c a n n o t be  the  Project changes  r e a c h e d , as  i i i  the w r i t e r s touched  on only a l i m i t e d  t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s and p r o p o s a l s  deserve  The i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r community e n c o u n t e r s  multi-problem the  local  taken  toward  p r o j e c t s designed  i n this  i n greater d e t a i l  are c l a s s i f i e d lysis  these  a means o f c o m p a r i s o n t o  t h e v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t h a t c a n be "multi-  study. i t s scope,  i n Chapter  and p r e s e n t e d  o f the data  III.  and t h e m e t h o d s  I n Chapter  i s also presented.  utilized.are  IV, the research  i n t a b l e form where a p p r o p r i a t e .  A brief  The c h a p t e r , a l s o c o n t a i n s  o n t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and i t s f i n d i n g s a s a w h o l e . by.presenting  families.  t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h complex problems and d e f i n e s t h e term  The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , outlined  to study  f a m i l y and t h e r a t i o -  I I a summary o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s a n d p r o j e c t s o n t h e  I t also illustrates  p r o b l e m " as u t i l i z e d  that  g i v e s a b r i e f , summary, o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h e  f a m i l y i n the United States o f f e r s  scene.  p r o j e c t we f e e l  closer consideration.  i n d e a l i n g with the multi-problem  n a l e behind- e x p e r i m e n t a l I n Chapter  area of the t o t a l  some i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d o u t l i n i n g  The t h e s i s  f u r t h e r areas  da.ta ana-  observations concludes  o f study  based  on the f i n d i n g s o f t h e t h e s i s . T h i s a r e a o f s t u d y was s u g g e s t e d  by t h e s t a f f o f t h e A r e a  ment; P r o j e c t a n d i t - w a s h o p e d t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e t h e s i s w o u l d a d d e d i m p l i c a t i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n s  for their project.  Developprovide  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I :  Introduction  The s o c i a l w o r k p r o b l e m c r e a t i n g a n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h . Summary, s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m . P e r s o n s and groups c o n n e c t e d w i t h the problem. The r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m and a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f dealing with i t . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h , r e p o r t . .,  Chapter I I :  Literature  P.  Review  Purposes o f the s t u d i e s reviewed. Various d e f i n i t i o n s of m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . Major concepts employed i n a n a l y s i s of family f u n c t i o n i n g . Measures of. f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g d e v e l o p e d . How d a t a i s o b t a i n e d i n t h e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s . •A summary o f r e search f i n d i n g s that a r e p e r t i n e n t to this study  Chapter  III:  The S t u d y  IV:  8  .. .  P. 20  Study F i n d i n g s  D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on study sample.  F i n d i n g s on  hypotheses  P.. 33  C h a p t e r V:  ings.  P.  Design  The t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k . H y p o t h e s i s a n d a s s u m p t i o n s of the study w i t h s u p p o r t i n g r a t i o n a l e . Operationally defined dependent and i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . D e s c r i p t i o n of f i e l d experiment design. Plan o f data a n a l y s i s . Sampling procedures used. S o u r c e s and methods o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a . S t a n d a r d i z e d t e x t used  Chapter  1  Summary, C o n c l u s i o n s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  I m p l i c a t i o n s and p r o p o s a l s based on t h e study Suggested areas o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  Bibliography  ;  findP. 40  P. 45  Appendix: Schedule  f o r Data C o l l e c t i o n  P. 47  V  L I S T OF  Table  Table  I  II  Table I I I  TABLES  The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f T r e a t m e n t t o C h a n g e s i n Family Functioning.  P.  34  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n ^ D e g r e e and Type o f Movement i n F a m i l y , F u n c t i o n i n g .  P.  36  The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S e l e c t e d F a m i l y H i s t o r y F a c t o r s t o Change i n F u n c t i o n i n g D u r i n g a P e r i o d o f 12 t o 18 M o n t h s ( T r e a t m e n t a n d C o n t r o l G r o u p s C o m b i n e d )  P.  38  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  We w o u l d  like  to express our sincere  t h o s e who h e l p e d u s c o m p l e t e staff for  study.  Sincere  o f t h e A r e a Development P r o j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  their  co-operation We w o u l d  and v a l u a b l e  also like  Crane, o u r t h e s i s a d v i s o r , the  this  appreciation  project.  to a l l  t h a n k s go t o t h e Mrs. E f f i e  Keay  assistance.  t o express our thanks t o Doctor  f o r h i s guidance i n helping  John  us complete  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  THE S O C I A L WORK PROBLEM CREATING A NEED FOR RESEARCH Summary S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m The many y e a r s , involved  " M u l t i - p r o b l e m " f a m i l y has been a t o p i c o f c o n c e r n f o r  and t h e r e  i s much t o be l e a r n e d  i n the concept.  about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  These f a m i l i e s have a l s o been d e s c r i b e d  "hard-core", " c h r o n i c a l l y disturbed"  or " r e s i s t a n t " f a m i l i e s .  u s u a l l y have m u l t i p l e p r o b l e m s , and i n t h e i r  search f o r help  contact  services  with  provided and  numerous a g e n c i e s .  by, a g e n c i e s  therefore,  to deal  The s o c i a l  with  because s e r v i c e s  than.to seeing  functioning  o f the f a m i l y , problems have been d e a l t w i t h  as and  using  the problem i n r e l a t i o n  stop-gap measures.  functioning  of the family  then p o s s i b l y  study  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  flexibility  c a n be  treated  structure  p r o b l e m s c a n be  identified  and h e l p  will  treatment approaches allows f o r  d i f f e r e n t methods o f t r e a t m e n t i n  reaching  f a m i l i e s because t h e p r o j e c t does n o t have t o work  specific  agency p o l i c y o r s t r u c t u r e . The  crisis-  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p r o j e c t t o  of the various  i n experimenting with  on a  to the t o t a l  they r e s u l t i n the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the f a m i l y ;  more e f f e c t i v e when e x t e n d e d .  basis,  to the t o t a l  I f the family  a w h o l e and t h e p r o b l e m s s e e n i n r e l a t i o n  before be  basis  come i n  to a problem p o i n t o f  view rather  oriented  They  have been  problems on a c a t e g o r i c a l  are oriented  as  within  main c o n d i t i o n which l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the  A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t o f V a n c o u v e r was t h e p r e s e n c e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y o f a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f f a m i l i e s w i t h and  multiple  contact  with  social  service  agencies.  a history of I n order  chronic  t o cope  with one so  the  p r o b l e m i t was  decided  worker i n c o r p o r a t i n g that  the  services  d i d not  required.  functioning may  family  can  facilitate  the  t o f o c u s on  functions  be  expected  the  early  from an  aware of  i s i o n of usual ineffective  the  the  agency s e r v i c e s  i n r e l a t i o n to the  the  appears  project  a concern to  the  community, i t i s presumed  interested  i n the  of  the  study.  to help  The  that  In.addition,  the  to  the  literature describing  f r o m a t r e a t m e n t and being  the work of  institutions within the  e t i o l o g i c a l point  that of prevention, As  r e s u l t s of  the  the  the  analysing  providing  the  a basis  be  of  as  providing  i s of  of  an  f a m i l i e s both  the u l t i m a t e  public health  multi-problem families.  project  existence  aim  identification.  s o c i a l workers i n the  the  a whole  with  and  social  education,  i n t e r e s t to o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s  f o r the m o d i f i c a t i o n  are  to a l l communities,  i s c l o s e l y coordinated  p r e s e n t p r o v i s i o n and  In general  prov-  largely  'multi-problem'  c o m m u n i t y s u c h as  community i n t h e i r work w i t h  in  project  large  of view with  through e a r l y  study w i l l  view of p r o f e s s i o n a l  the  service  present  because the  be  i n t e r e s t to society, at  social  c o m m u n i t y as  this  addition  which  f a m i l i e s i n t r o u b l e who  f a m i l i e s i s a s o c i a l problem r e l a t e d of  family  family.  'multi-problem' study, w i l l  for  approach,  various  c o s t l y and  "multi-problem"  i s designed  agencies,  problems.  t o be  the  be  improved  problem.  As  will  form of  with  Problem  administrators  enormity of  a whole,  social  integrated, services  Persons or Groups Concerned With  agencies are  as  a number o f a g e n c i e s  i n the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  P o l i c y m a k e r s and  family  o f a number o f  have to c o n t a c t  Greater returns  the  field,  From the  i t will  effectiveness  of  be  of  in  the  point  of  interest  s e r v i c e and  as  or change i n e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s . i n t e r e s t to s o c i a l work i n  that  it  adds t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e ,  as  against  in  terms o f which, f u n c t i o n i n g  the  bridging  the s o c i o l o g i c a l approach.  s o c i a l work g o a l As  effectiveness  interest of  of ' t r e a t i n g the family  the aim of research of providing  services,  i s not only  integrated  the  i t i s hoped  that  meaning t o  the assessment o f the  service but also  to gain  an  of implementing  the present study, w i l l  be o f  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i n the analysing  f a m i l i e s provide  roles  as a whole'.  and f e a s i b i l i t y  t o t h e A.D.P. i n p r o v i d i n g  s e r v i c e and a l s o  The c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l  of f a m i l i e s i s analysed gives  understanding of the a p p l i c a b i l i t y integrated  t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  of background m a t e r i a l  r e l a t e d to  some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  services. The  Research It  treatment  Problem  m i g h t be s u g g e s t e d  through a family  t h a t as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o p r o v i d i n g  centered worker,  t h a t what i s needed i s  merely an improvement o f the e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s . could  be a c h i e v e d  financial the  through reducing  assistance  focus might s t i l l  seeking  and o t h e r  This  However,  The a g e n c y i s s t i l l  to deal.  been t o i n i t i a t e means t h a t  service  centered worker  approach  i n terms o f t h e community as a w h o l e .  t h e needs o f t h e community a r e a s s e s s e d and a t t e m p t s  made t o m e e t t h e s e n e e d s ,  through p r o v i d i n g  Woodland Park has been an example o f t h i s . community  increasing  the s o r t o f problem w i t h which they a r e  Another a l t e r n a t i v e to the family has  and by  improvements  forms o f r e s o u r c e p r o v i s i o n .  be o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  t h e t e r m s by d e f i n i n g  prepared  caseloads  Such  i t has been f e l t  that  conditions  services. By f o c u s i n g  I n Vancouver on the  w h i c h have l e a d  to the  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n a n d d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l i e s c a n be a l l e v i a t e d  thus a t t a c k i n g that  i n order  the  i n d i v i d u a l problems i n d i r e c t l y .  to d e a l  with  to o r g a n i s e i n terms of t h a t an  an  I t i s also  felt  fundamental s o c i a l problems i t i s necessary o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making  framework, so; >  a t t e m p t i s made t o e s t a b l i s h a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n n e e d s  and  resources. The the  functioning  leading of  approach o f f e r e d  to  the  attacking  seeing  the  of  p r o b l e m i n terms o f  at  the  to r e s e a r c h  of  and  ways o f  to p r e v e n t i n g  f a m i l i e s does not  of  the  c o m m u n i t y as  t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e by  present  t i m e w i t h , an  a whole.  comparing  integrated  these f a m i l i e s , i t would not  were a c t u a l l y r e l a t e d However, i f the t h e way  family  movement i n b o t h t h e on  the  results,  factors  also  lead  approach.  to  improved  to which  form of  so  availability  factors  changing  for a l l treat-  through a comparison be  assessed.  i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s , and  determined.  services  This  t o and  which  would have  t h a t not  only  to measure the  comparing maintain  implications  the  type  of resources could  criteria  e f f e c t s of  from the of  the  be  of taken  treatment v a r i a b l e ,  caseloads of major agencies  s e l e c t i o n of  the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  of By  planning.  f a m i l i e s were s e l e c t e d The  the  type of  functioning.  c o n t r o l groups can  d e l i v e r y of resources  In order  Vancouver.  functioning  through ADP  service  worker r e s p o n s i b l e  community w h i c h have l e a d  p e r h a p s be  r e s o u r c e s needed but  300  family  t r e a t m e n t and  i n the  for provision.and  in  on  one  p a r t i c u l a r problems of  a p o v e r t y group can  into.account  validity  The  the  c l e a r as  t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e i s i s o l a t e d i n the  e f f e c t t h i s has  focusing  be  to subsequent improvement i n  service i s delivered, with  ment, the  conditions  negate the  Although improving e x i s t i n g resources might apparently functioning  improving  problem through improving e x i s t i n g resources or  however, i s o l a t e s the offered  ADP  the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y  disorganization  the  by  in  families  was o n t h e b a s i s on  the basis  child  of multiplicity  and c h r o n i c i t y o f agency c o n t a c t s  o f w o r k e r j u d g e m e n t , w h i c h was b a s e d o n f a i l u r e  rearing  function.  selected  i nthe  However m i n o r c h a n g e s w e r e l a t e r made i n t h e  s e l e c t i o n o f f a m i l i e s when i t was f o u n d initially  and  were, a c c o r d i n g  that  some o f t h e f a m i l i e s  t o a s s e s s m e n t by ADP w o r k e r s , n o t  functioning  at a level  to warrant t h e i r being c l a s s i f i e d  problem'.  O f t h e 300 f a m i l i e s a s s e s s e d a s b e i n g m u l t i - p r o b l e m ,  each were randomly a s s i g n e d  as.'multi-  t o t h e two c o n t r o l a n d one t r e a t m e n t  100 groups  M o v e m e n t s w e r e t o b e measured, a f t e r t w e l v e a n d e i g h t e e n month H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h some t i m e was a l l o w e d workers allotted  to their roles  as i n t e g r a t e d  was n o t f o u n d  provision of service, tation of service  family  research  treatment i n i t i a l l y  t h e p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d  the service before entering  design's  orientation period  service workers,  t o be s u f f i c i e n t , , a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s  s u g g e s t e d , as a r e s u l t , t h a t a p r e t e s t demonstrate  f o r o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e A.D.P.  treatment v a r i a b l e .  arose i n the  t a k i n g o n some o f t h e f r a g m e n to e l i m i n a t e .  period  be i n i t i a t e d  into a period  I t has been designed to  of t e s t i n g the  Due t o t h e e x t e n s i o n  i n t o the time i n i t i a l l y  the time  determined  of the  for testing  the v a r i a b l e , measurements a f t e r t w e l v e and e i g h t e e n months a c t u a l l y cover a period  of eight  months r e s p e c t i v e l y . initial  t o f i f t e e n months and s i x t e e n  I n a d d i t i o n , as i n f o r m a t i o n , a p p l i c a b l e  assessment o f the family  course of treatment, tentative until For  t o twenty-one  c a n be l e a r n e d  a t any p o i n t  to the i n the  t h e c o m p a r i s o n s a f t e r t w e l v e months a r e o n l y  the conclusion  of the P r o j e c t .  the purposes of the present study,  was l i m i t e d t o t h o s e f o r whom f a m i l y p r o f i l e  s e l e c t i o n of cases  s c o r e s were a v a i l a b l e .  Due t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s a m p l e s i z e t h e c o n c l u s i o n s  reached are  only  tentative  and  indicate  trends perhaps  more t h a n  definite  conelusions. I n a d d i t i o n to t e s t i n g the study i s a l s o designed ment.  Due  the e f f i c a c y  t o a s s e s s and  to the f l e x i b i l i t y  of the t r e a t m e n t  c o m p a r e new  o f t h e P r o j e c t and  variable,  methods o f  the s m a l l c a s e l o a d s ,  t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g i n d i v i d u a l  : methods o f  related  With r e l a t i o n  to the p a r t i c u l a r  some a t t e m p t w i l l  needs o f the c l i e n t s .  treat-  treatment to  this,  be made t o a n a l y z e t r e a t m e n t m e t h o d s i n i n d i v i d u a l  cases,  i n g r o u p s o f c a s e s , and  system  so t h a t o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s c a n be made o f t h e d a t a r e l a t i n g  both problem•areas workers  i n response  of family  i n the t o t a l ,  functioning  to these problems.  S e r v i c e s have been i n i t i a t e d  and  which  t h e y v i e w as The  w i t h a number o f f a m i l i e s  responses  their  of  for  to develop  to develop  to.attempt to i d e n t i f y  of these multi-problem f a m i l i e s  t o the t r e a t m e n t component.  o f whom w e r e a s s e s s e d  both in  resources  background  i n c l u s i o n i n the P r o j e c t .  A t R i s k " c a n be d e v e l o p e d  w i t h one  t o be more a d e q u a t e l y  s t u d y on hundred  functioning  Both groups are from a  and b o t h met  a number o f  i n a d d i t i o n to  A comparative  been conducted  the most p o o r l y f u n c t i o n i n g .  socio-economic  the  Neighborhood  to m o b i l i z e those l i v i n g  p r o g r a m s and  to  necessary.  o f e l e v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has fifty  own  study i s also designed  characteristics  treatment techniques of  In addition,  p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y and the community t o i n i t i a t e  through a preceded r e c o r d i n g  the o r i g i n a l  the  basis  families, and  fifty  similar  selection  criteria  I t i s hoped t h a t an " I n d e x Of  Families  s o t h a t k n o w i n g some o f t h e f a c t o r s  to d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of f a m i l i e s  their  can  lead  p r e v e n t i o n of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y .  to e a r l y  identification  leading and  I n a t t e m p t i n g to d i s c o v e r  something  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e f a c t o r s and f u n c t i o n i n g o f  families,  this  study has r e l a t e d  ment f o r b o t h t h e c o n t r o l  and t r e a t m e n t  O r g a n i z a t i o n O f The R e s e a r c h Chapter problem  Two w i l l  the eleven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  including  Chapter  review the l i t e r a t u r e  and  implications  the data.  and C h a p t e r F i v e w i l l  o f the f i n d i n g s ,  to the/multi-  solutions  a  to this  d e s c r i b e the r e s e a r c h . d e s i g n ,  the c o n c e p t u a l framework, hypotheses,  the study f i n d i n g s  related  investigating  Three w i l l  p r o c e d u r e s and methods o f c o l l e c t i n g line  groups.  Report  f a m i l y and t o o t h e r s t u d i e s  chronic problem.  t o move-  l e v e l of design,. sampling Chapter Four w i l l  out-  g i v e a summary o f t h e s t u d y  along with proposals f o r future research  8.  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF  SELECTED LITERATURE OF  "THE  MULTI-PROBLEM F A M I L Y "  V a r i o u s approaches to the dilemma of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d o v e r many y e a r s . undertaken  Numerous r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s h a v e b e e n  w i t h the s e r i o u s l y d i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l y to determine  framework f o r use  i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  early  identification  of a program f o r working w i t h these f a m i l i e s . t h e l i t e r a t u r e p u b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t read.  The  following  to the present  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples  s e l e c t e d f o r study covered  to  development of knowledge which  of caseloads  carried  by  may  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  the-multi-problem  social  o r g a n i z a t i o n designed  to help  are of concern  community.  a reliable  to the  technique  those  f o r measuring  f u n c t i o n i n g of multi-problem  workers.  l e a d t o an  early  family.  d e v e l o p m e n t o f m e t h o d s o f c a s e w o r k and  processes  families  of  community  in trouble  changes i n the  obtained from  a r e c o r d of d i r e c t  families.  available  f a m i l y centered  service  for critical  development programs.  who  social  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the method of r e s e a r c h t o e v a l u a t e results  in  are:  (b)  (f)  of  research undertaken  of s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s extended  an a n a l y s i s  (e)  formation  t h e s e p r o j e c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d and  (a)  (d)  and  Studies  These areas  (c)  conceptual  i s a summary o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e  literature  the v a r i o u s aspects family.  of  a  study.  Purpose of the The  family  the  treatment.  i n a f a m i l y centered p r o j e c t  scrutiny  as w e l l  as  f o r use  in staff  (g)  an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and k n o w l e d g e and s t u d y and  a clarification  from and  i n Vancouver were chosen,  c h r o n i c i t y of agency c o n t a c t s .  families.  first  1  The  A  This  control  of f u t u r e  form  s t u d y shows t h a t t h e " a v e r a g e " (1 p . 4 )  b a s e d on  h i s t o r y was  families  "average"  multiplicity  obtained  total  group  of  of  only a small portion  f a m i l y i s more  From t h i s  group were chosen f o r the A r e a  of  family caseload",  f o r the  1  c h r o n i c a l l y dependent t h a n assumed. i m e n t a l and  complete  contacts w i t h t h e agencies  so-called multi-problem  of the group.  present  A n a l y s i s (1) c a s e l o a d s  as o p p o s e d t o a " m u l t i - p r o b l e m  eleven major agencies  the' f a m i l i e s  of the l i n e s  of  practice.  In the study of the Caseload or " o r d i n a r y " f a m i l i e s  nature  study  the  exper-  Development P r o j e c t o f  Vancouver. An present  analysis  of background  factors  f u n c t i o n i n g p a t t e r n s determined  are r e l e v a n t to a b e t t e r understanding ization, early  and  t h u s may  identification  conducted  are not rooted  living  inadequate  association  with  i n the f a m i l y h i s t o r y  of t h e i r present  s t a t e of d i s o r g a n -  was  a comparison  i n poverty;  intra-familial  family.  Haven,  was  Connecticut  of d i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l i e s  the c o m p l e x i t y o f such i t also discloses  relationships  for  Such a n . a n a l y s i s  i n a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n New  I t p o i n t e d up  solely  what f a c t o r s  of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  with families  families.  their  l e a d to the development of knowledge necessary  U.S.A., ( 1 0 , p p . 9 4 - 1 7 1 ) and stable  and  as o p p o s e d  situations,  the magnitude to s o c i a l  with  which  of  role perfor-  mances . The dual  Family Centered  P r o j e c t o f S t . P a u l was  f o c u s o f d e v e l o p i n g m e t h o d s o f c a s e w o r k and  the p r o j e c t h a v i n g  processes  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e f f o r t on h a r d - t o - r e a c h ,  community seriously  the  10.  deprived  f a m i l i e s who  were b e s e t by n u m e r o u s j p r o b l e m s . ( 7 )  s e r i o u s l y deviant behaviour problem.  i n each f a m i l y , p l u s a h e a l t h or  I n most i n s t a n c e s the c h i l d r e n were i n . " c l e a r  danger," that i s , t h e i r p h y s i c a l  through search  to help  c a s e w o r k and  o f t h e P r o j e c t as o f 1948  Vancouver Area  support  s t r u c t u r e and  a whole.  posed  The  to both,  process  Development P r o j e c t .  to devise a r e l i a b l e  and  ill  technique  The  o f F u n c t i o n i n g Scheme, t h e S c h e d u l e o f F a m i l y F u n c t i o n i n g and  the S t . P a u l P r o j e c t .  families  the  recreation.  P r o j e c t of S t . P a u l , a f o r measuring This  areas  study  changes i n the involved devel-  as e x p r e s s e d  i n the  concept  techniques  developed  were the L e v e l s  o f F a m i l y F u n c t i o n i n g , and  Profiles  o f Movement. Families"  I t s p u r p o s e was  question with regard  in multi-problem  Report  an a c c o u n t i n g i n  h e a l t h and  (9) i s a n o t h e r  study  to study f o r the main p a r t  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the method o f r e s e a r c h r a t h e r t h a n central  t o t h e work  of the F a m i l y U n i t  families.(8)  " P a t t e r n s o f Change i n P r o b l e m  The  our  f i n d i n g ways o f a p p r a i s i n g c h a n g e s i n  f u n c t i o n i n g known as movement.  from  t a s k of r e -  to c o n t r i b u t e to  i t is related  o p i n g a method of e v a l u a t i n g f a m i l y b e h a v i o u r functioning;  The  s e r v i c e s on a. c o m m u n i t y w i d e b a s i s i n t h e  f u n c t i o n i n g of m u l t i - p r o b l e m  of s o c i a l  expression mainly  T h i s s t u d y was  As p a r t o f t h e F a m i l y C e n t e r e d  social  as  threat-  to intervene.  l e d to the c r e a t i o n of  of economic need, s o c i a l maladjustment,  s e t up  and  implications  the problems which  S t . P a u l o f p r o b l e m s and  was  found  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  i s to give e f f e c t i v e  knowledge of s o c i a l  Study  t h e f a m i l y i n t r o u b l e has  present  being  a responsibility  was  economic  and  o r e m o t i o n a l w e l f a r e was  ened t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y had This e f f o r t  There  the development of method.  t o t h i s b e i n g what a r e t h e o b s e r v e d  receiving  treatment  and  the  specifically  how  changes  11.  modifications affect  in social  the w e l f a r e  of  a p p l i c a t i o n of method family centered The  f u n c t i o n i n g a f f e c t the  the  t h e n was  to record  through the  of  as b e i n g  use  as  a useful the  to proceed w i t h  their  t h e i r w o r k by  r a t i o n a l e of questions  f a m i l i e s , and  i s contained  Annotated Bibliography"  by  i s concerned w i t h  their relationship with proposed  A r e a Development P r o j e c t (16)  shows i t as  program of  o f how  record  the  from  the  the the  or  of  study  i n Vancouver.  The  u n d e r one  families  i n one  administration  geographic area of  the  changes i n f a m i l y  as  how  multi-  I t also  present  practice. and  program of  literature presently an  community  group of  the  available  integrated organization  multi-problem  Four areas of r e s e a r c h  functioning.  The  live.  research  and  An  includes  these f a m i l i e s  outlined: study of  the  Family,  aimed a t p r o v i d i n g  city.  well  a brief  n a t u r e of our  total  for a selected  as  families;  a r e a of  f u t u r e s t u d y and  of the  opportunity  I t gives  e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h we  is part  an  taught.  Spencer.(14)  i n t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r of social  field  involved  Multi-problem  d e v e l o p m e n t and  lines  Paul  " a g g r e s s i v e " ^casework,  o f w o r k done i n t h e  &  St.  provided  seven agencies  i n t e n s i v e casework, group work, h e a l t h  (a)  they  i n the p r a c t i c e  w h a t t h e p r o j e c t has  the  the  t o s t a r t work w i t h  a demonstration project  services  broadly  the  "reaching-out"  Schlesinger  aimed a t a s s e s s i n g  This  This  i n t h e b o o k , "The  knowledge and.at c l a r i f y i n g report  d e v e l o p e d by  common e x p e r i e n c e  complete b i b l i o g r a p h y  problem family  the r e p o r t  r e s u l t s obtained  t o o l i n s t a f f development programs.  answering the  A  the  was  case i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  s c r u t i n y of  examination of well  how  main purpose f o r s t u d y i n g  to evaluate  "Casework N o t e b o o k " (13)  critical  The  f a m i l y and  treatment.  P r o j e c t workers  for  community.  total  were  (b)  s t u d y of t r e a t m e n t methods  (c)  study of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  (d)  study of depth  employed.  change.  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of problem  families.  D e f i n i t i o n of M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l i e s In examining  the l i t e r a t u r e  chosen f o r study  t h e s i s p r o j e c t the d e f i n i t i o n of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  f a m i l y i s not  cut statement,  but v a r i e d w i t h the s p e c i f i c purposes  by  and  the concept  definition  selected.  under the f o l l o w i n g headings: (b) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (1  (c) d i a g n o s i s  which  purposes  (a) u n d e r s t a n d i n g  may  a  clear  m i g h t be be  this  served  summarized  of f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g  (d) t r e a t m e n t  (e) e v a l u a t i o n o f  change.  P-21) Most of the d e f i n i t i o n s  t o the c h i l d r e n by community. 1.  their parents  F o l l o w i n g a r e a few  at l e a s t  danger" whether through to a behaviour  problem  one  public  which  The concern  multi-problem  explosive behaviour  3.  the behaviour  t o meet t h e s e  or v e r i f i e d  a negative  in either families  impact  social  on  and  children,  social  (b)  present  the  area.  economic c o s t to the family  they  (b) i n a d d i t i o n  f a m i l i e s which  (c) p e r s i s t e n t  are  dependent  failure  to  whether  of  community or  respond  services.  " s e r i o u s l y d i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l y " , which  t o a s i t u a t i o n where a f a m i l y ' s s o c i a l more t h a n one m a j o r p r o b l e m ,  i n the  (a) and  the h e a l t h or economic  (a) a p a t h o l o g i c a l  term  conditions:  neglect.  denote those  t o t h e community  alternate  of the c h i l d r e n  under e i g h t e e n i n " c l e a r  ( d ) a s t a t e o f c h r o n i c d e p e n d e n c y on The  extended  examples:  child  has  because of t h e i r  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  to help  and  delinquency  f a m i l i e s must have a problem 2.  used were b a s e d upon t h e c a r e  T h e - f a m i l i e s s e l e c t e d had  m u s t h a v e a l l had  and  The  i n developing  pertains  performance i s adversely a f f e c t e d  i n the area of  income p r o d u c t i o n ,  by  13.  health,  family relationships,  functioning.  child  c a r e o r some o t h e r a r e a o f s o c i a l  (8 p . 1 0 )  These few examples o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s problem  family The  g i v e some i d e a o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s A r e a Development P r o j e c t  "a f a m i l y w i t h immediate threatened service;-  used  children  physical  i n "clear  and/or  to describe the m u l t i -  encountered.  of Vancouver  chose  and p r e s e n t d a n g e r , "  the d e f i n i t i o n  that  emotional welfare of the children  i s , where t h e i s being  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e community has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a family with  clear  evidence of f a i l u r e  f u n c t i o n , where c h i l d r e n under  --  to initiate  i n the c h i l d - r e a r i n g  s i x t e e n a r e a d v e r s e l y i n f l u e n c e d by n e g l e c t  or d e l i n q u e n c y . Before o f f e r i n g a c r i t i c i s m view  of these d e f i n i t i o n s ,  i s g i v e n i n summary.(1 p p . 2 4 - 3 1 )  I n Great B r i t a i n  f a m i l y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e i n a b i l i t y the standards of family l i f e C h a r l e s Booth problem  spoke  i n a welfare state.  be found  i n this  criminologists  and s o c i a l  certain  c l a s s e s and l a b e l e d  there  i s no r e l i a b l e  characteristics The inability Britain Early  group.  i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e s e g r o u p s  crime i n However,  were s i m i l a r i n  "multi-problem" families.  i n h i s environment..  r e p o r t e d t h a t sub-normal  out of the f a m i l i e s  I n t h e e a r l y days rather  than s p e c i f i c  intelligence  i n Great families.  and '•mental d e f e c t s i w e r e :  i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the multi-problem family.  civilizations  some m u l t i -  During the 19th Century  them^"classes dangereuses".  t h e s e p e o p l e w e r e s e e n as a g r o u p  than t h i s ,  At the turn of the century  concept o f m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y developed  the main f a c t o r s  t o l i v e up t o  r e f o r m e r s were s t r u c k by widespread  t o today's  to function  studies  the multi-problem  o f t h e "submerged t e n t h " , and u n d o u b t e d l y  f a m i l i e s would  social  o f some f a m i l i e s  an h i s t o r i c a l  saw. s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s a t w o r k .  Even  earlier  Following the  14.  Protestant  Reformation, a formulation  of  t h e o r y o f poverty  the  r e l a t e d phenomena i n t e r m s o f  "predestination"  e m p h a s i s has  f a c t o r of  s h i f t e d from the  the main f a c t o r  influence  of h e r e d i t y  The developments point and  was  United  and  States  and  enough t o  i n g " of  i n recent  the  y e a r s has  characterize  studies  The  The  seven-point scale.  family  In the  San  of  two  i s rated  given  t r e a t m e n t was  term i n t h a t  determined  i t i s not  of d e f i n i t i o n s are  a very useful  " p r o b l e m " i s i t s e l f v a g u e and troubling a family And used  i n the  which the  what o f  studies  welfare  the  service. i s not  the  the  the  level  to t h i s  to describe  the  been e x p l a i n e d  c o m m u n i t y has  function-  of  a  family  The the  as  their  define,  word symptoms  frequently  situations in  the  children is  a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  However, j u s t what c o n s t i t u t e s p h y s i c a l  made c l e a r .  Paul  It is a faulty  p r e s e n t d a n g e r " so  that  of  than to  term."clear  extent  St.  of  descriptions.  and/or emotional w e l f a r e  problems  level.  diagnosis.  I t has  number  i t s a d e q u a c y on  term d i a g n o s t i c a l l y .  and  on  three  to " l e v e l  i s u s u a l l y used to d e s c r i b e  undertaken?  to the  focused  than a p r e c i s e  immediate p h y s i c a l  being threatened initiate  rather  according  is easier  From.the  emphasisviwas on  p a t h o l o g y and  i n f a c t , the m a j o r i t y  assess  important  In  i n terms of  Mateo s t u d i e s  multi-problem family  of  way  f a m i l i e s were c l a s s i f i e d , i n terms of  and  as  economic dependency,  as m u l t i - p r o b l e m .  p a t h o l o g y and  The  us  chronic  existence  a family  given  were done t h a t  c h r o n i c i t y o f p r o b l e m s has  family.  been done t o  the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y .  i n c e r t a i n areas:  maladjustment.  s t u d y number and  w o r k has  i s seen  and  biology.  family diagnosis  c h r o n i c i t y of problems  Lately,  i n t e l l i g e n c e to p e r s o n a l i t y ,  Little  i n f o r m i n g a concept of  of view of  ill-health  ground.  i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y  "immature e m o t i o n a l development". the  gained  and  and  emotional  In s p i t e of these d i f f i c u l t i e s of the l i m i t a t i o n s main s o c i a l  of d e f i n i t i o n ,  characteristics  d i s e a s e , p o v e r t y and prostitution, i n numerous Major  child  t h e r e i s g e n e r a l agreement over  of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  n e g l e c t , t r u a n c y , and  concepts  employed  take.  diagnosis.  u s e d t o s t u d y and  treat  The  such  as  family pathology  and  and  S t a t e s t h e r e has  from  Casework has  p.6)  inadequate  functioning.  social  have used the  term  the concept  social  utilized  Social  functioning in their  f u n c t i o n i n g i s looked  s e e n as an o p e n s y s t e m  i n s i d e and In  i s enough t o c h a r a c t e r -  i n terms of the  level  level.  of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  Ayres  the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  analysis  a t i n terms of r o l e s .  of interdependent  roles  and  family  of family  of behavior,  i n the S t . P a u l  i n t h e r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e o f one member has  r o l e s both  in  maladjust-  faced w i t h the consequences  M o s t s t u d i e s on  b y G e i s m a r and  and  according to this  g i v e n much t o t h e c o n c e p t  have been c o n t i n u a l l y  of f a m i l y  I n t h e San M a t e o s t u d i e s e m p h a s i s  determined  as s o c i a l w o r k e r s  been  c h r o n i c i t y of problems  f a m i l i e s were c l a s s i f i e d was  that  recently  the p o i n t of view  of the t h r e e problems  treatment  family.  there are s e v e r a l p o i n t s of view  c h r o n i c economic dependency, i l l - h e a l t h  e x i s t e n c e o f two  of t h e i r p a t h o l o g y  conceptual  the m u l t i - p r o b l e m  T h e s e s t u d i e s f o c u s on number and  i z e a f a m i l y as m u l t i - p r o b l e m . ( 1 4  stress  -  d e s e r t i o n have a l l been mentioned  For example, i n the U n i t e d  c e r t a i n areas  is  squalor,  crime, a l c o h o l i s m ,  h a v e b e e n made t o f o r m u l a t e a. c l e a r  some w o r k d o n e i n d e v e l o p i n g a c o n c e p t  i s on  Dirt,  the  i n A n a l y s i s of Family F u n c t i o n i n g  I n d e v e l o p i n g an a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t  ment.  and  family.  and  studies.  f r a m e w o r k t h a t c a n be  can  d i f f e r e n c e s i n approach,  dependency, d e l i n q u e n c y  Many a t t e m p t s  one  and  and  study. The  relationships  family is  i n which  consequences f o r r e l a t e d  o u t s i d e the f a m i l y group.  t h e S t . P a u l P r o j e c t f a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was  d e f i n e d i n terms  16.  of  type an i n t e n s i t y of multi-problem s o c i a l  malfunctioning  was j u d g e d  members p e r f o r m e d as  the s o c i a l l y  conducive or harmful  nine major categories  This one  i n nine basic  of s o c i a l  i n l i n e with  behavior  family seen  o f t h e f a m i l y and c o m m u n i t y .  The  functioning are:  1.  F a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y u n i t y  2.  Individual  3.  C a r e and t r a i n i n g o f c h i l d r e n  4.  Social  5.  Economic  6.  Household  7.  Health  8.  Relationship  9.  Use  b e h a v i o r and a d j u s t m e n t  activities practices practices  conditions  and p r a c t i c e s  to family  o f community  concept looks  centered worker  resources  at functioning  h a n d t o t h e way c e r t a i n f a m i l y  other  The d e g r e e o f  areas by the extent t o which  expected r o l e s  to the welfare  functioning.  as a t w o - f o l d tasks  m a t t e r r e f e r r i n g on t h e  a r e b e i n g p e r f o r m e d and o n t h e  t o t h e o v e r a l l a d j u s t m e n t o f e a c h f a m i l y member as j u d g e d b y h i s  p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e sum t o t a l A basic families  of the s o c i a l  assumption i s that  s o c i a l w o r k e r s were a b l e  functions  or r o l e expectations,  r o l e s he i s p l a y i n g .  i n dealing with  seriously  t o equate the concept of s o c i a l l y  with  the idea  that  mean i n a g e n e r a l These i n c l u d e a basis  t o a s minimum s t a n d a r d s o f s o c i a l  way b e h a v i o r w h i c h  the preservation  assigned  t h e c o m m u n i t y h a s s e t up  c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s b e l o w w h i c h f a m i l y p e r f o r m a n c e c a n be termed T h e s e may b e r e f e r r e d  disorganized  as i n a d e q u a t e .  functioning,  and t h e y  i s n o t a c o n c e r n t o t h e community.  of a degree of f a m i l y u n i t y which w i l l  provide  f o r t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e m e e t i n g o f p h y s i c a l and  e m o t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e y o u n g , t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f l a w and t h e p r e v e n t i o n  of  the  family  o t h e r w i s e b e c o m i n g an. undue b u r d e n u p o n o r  community. patterns for  the  I n a d e q u a t e p e r f o r m a n c e can  of behavior which f a l l  short  To  measure s o c i a l  extremes of  central point functioning for  functioning,  inadequate f u n c t i o n i n g  of m a r g i n a l  implies  the p r o t e c t i o n  because laws are  of  functioning.  the  f a m i l y and  being violated,  categories  of F a m i l y F u n c t i o n i n g ,  t h e minimum s t a n d a r d s  a c o n t i n u i m has and  Generally  the  the  family  and  the  the  entitles  the w e l f a r e  the of  three  seven p o i n t  anchor p o s i t i o n s plus  positions. Inadeq.  levels  The  1  2 This one  How.  s c a l e was  that  of  s c a l e u s e d was Below Margin -  of  i s most o f t e n  requirements functionintervene threatened, each of  i n the  made up  the  levels  utilizing  close  of  schedule adequate  Function-  these three  descriptively  t o one  of  the  the  main defined  anchor  follows:  Marginal  social  For used  a  i n a d e q u a t e , m a r g i n a l and  functioning as  3 c o n c e p t of  community  other s c a l e p o s i t i o n s not  indicate levels  Near Inadeq. -  X  four  the  and  marginal  community t o  twenty s i x subcategories  d r a w n up  meant t o  devised,  Inadequate  seriously jeopardized.  i n g Scheme.  A  been  speaking,  community.  This  the  to  defined  adequate f u n c t i o n i n g  f u n c t i o n i n g were c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d .  is  in relation  b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h minimum  the w e l l b e i n g of  nine basic  but  the  Developed  ing r e f e r s to behavior which c l e a r l y  and  defined  to  group.  Measures of F a m i l y F u n c t i o n i n g  with  of  b e s t be  a threat  X  Above Marginal -  4  5  functioning  and  cited  i n the  . Near Adeq. -  Adequate X  6 the  7  above m e a s u r i n g  scale  literature.  Data i s Obtained One  frequently  u s e d way  of o b t a i n i n g  data, i s t h a t  the  caseworkers  18.  on  the  the  of  their recording,  nine main categories  ing. of  basis  This  U s i n g the  their families level  subcategories  r e s u l t i n g numerical  and  subcategory to y i e l d Reliability  functioning, to is,  t e s t the  functioning  the  a profile  i n each of the  St. Paul  reliability  of  of  be  Work d o n e b y  ing"  t h a t when t h e  similar and  r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d  that  t h i s method of  Research Findings Several useful  to  this  of  that  thesis.  G e i s m a r and  are  and  families and as  overall social  poor p a r e n t - c h i l d useful  three of  by  family  d i f f e r e n t persons  functioning. the  amount  functioning  this  (10  overall family  of  c a r e of  Function-  and  movement  p.108)  Study  of  several  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p , incidence  functioning.  That  d i f f eren,t. : p e o p l e  reliable.  following is a l i s t  t o be  category  i n "Measuring Family  social  to  of  children, health  that w i l l these  be  findings;  behavior practices  the most u s e f u l  indices  of  Inadequate emotional  care of  children  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were too  i n d i c a t o r s of  of  have a r r i v e d at s t u d y f i n d i n g s  h o u s e k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s were found  score.  l e v e l s at w h i c h f a m i l i e s were  Ayres  Pertinent  money management, p h y s i c a l  The  With  assessment of  the  i n r a t i n g the  studies The  level  s c h e d u l e s were r a t e d  Family s o l i d a r i t y , marital disorders,  i d e a of  s c h e d u l e w r i t i n g was  the  after situation.  the  e s s e n t i a l l y an  and  functioning.  the to  time  numerically  categories  judgements or r a t i n g s  t h e s e f a m i l i e s as  functioning.  at the  p l o t t e d v e r t i c a l l y by  family  study u t i l i z e d  t e s t was  can  of  function-  s i t u a t i o n g a v e a movement  agreement of d i f f e r e n t judges c o n c e r n i n g  indicates  the  family later  the workers  V a l i d i t y Problems were Dealt  reliability  independently rate the  scale  judgements could  and  of  b e g i n n i n g s i t u a t i o n and  before and.after  The  To  sub-categories  seven p o i n t of  f a m i l y behavior, under each  f o r t h e b e f o r e s i t u a t i o n and  d i f f e r e n c e between the  How  twenty-six  i s done b o t h f o r t h e  evaluation.  rate  and  describe  common i n t h e  functioning.  (7  f a m i l i e s to  p.20)  the  serve  A d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a c k c o h e s i v e n e s s ) and the p a r t  of  high  incidence  of v a r i o u s  f a m i l y members i n g e n e r a l ,  and  development of  children.  Areas showing the disorganized  and  B e h a v i o r and  A d j u s t m e n t , and  Unity. in  the  the  area of (11  p.  wives placed  family i n the  problems  relationships.  information  i n the  (11  least problematic  areas of  be  are  i n the  i n the  in  category of  the  Individual  of s o c i a l m a l f u n c t i o n i n g , be  found  i n the  and chiefly  multi-problem  family  and  planning  were found  care,  a hierarchy  as w e l l  f o r the  spaced,  future  t o e n c o u n t e r t h e i r most  i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r and  to Caseworker). i n the  and  way  f a m i l y members a d j u s t  ren  tends to c a r r y w i t h  said and  Low  areas at  family  of  the more l i k e l y  that  family  Adjustment) to  the bottom of  the  that  C o n v e r s e l y , the the  family  a n o t h e r and  performance of other f a m i l y  Prac-  higher will  Adjustment.  regard  b r i n g up  more  hier-  functions  Individual  adequate f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h  i t successful  the  score f a m i l i e s are  C h i l d C a r e and  r e l a t e t o one  functioning  to Caseworker, Economic  Household P r a c t i c e s .  areas of F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s , be  categories  i.e. Relationship  functioning  I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t can  of  ( I n d i v i d u a l B e h a v i o r and  (Relationship  functioning,  score of  expectation  that  pp.168-170)  Social Activities,  total  cohesion  category of F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s  child  l i k e l y , to show.adequate f u n c t i o n i n g  the  family  power o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between  Families  from the most p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a  tices,  importance of  on m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e s  families.  T h e r e t e n d s t o be  archy of  on  c h i l d r e n i n p a r t i c u l a r , served  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , can  absense of r e a l i s t i c  disorganized  serious  behavior  a l o w e r v a l u e on h a v i n g c h i l d r e n ; b i r t h s w e r e n o t  i n d i c a t i n g an  (or  114)  Background  the  greatest  intrafamilial  solidarity  p.20)  That i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n  family.  in  stable  (7  family  types of deviant  to s t r e n g t h e n e x i s t i n g h y p o t h e s i s about the the  of  to  their  the child-  functions.  20.  CHAPTER I I I  The  Theoretical A major  Framework  c o n c e p t e m p l o y e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t was t h a t  a t o t a l u n i t and t h e w o r k e r whole r a t h e r viewed  t h a n segments o f i t .  as a s o c i a l  "perform s o c i a l the  functions  functions members. actual  should address himself  to the family.as  I n keeping with  this,  the family i s  s y s t e m , a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h i s  o f the family  (this  includes  as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  b e h a v i o r , a t t i t u d e s , and f e e l i n g s ) s i t u a t i o n s . ( 7 p. 1 4 3 ) .  concept o f r o l e a l s o connects the i n d i v i d u a l to the broader and d e f i n e s  family  h i s r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l  systems  within  the family  group  requiring outside the  group.  focus has t a k e n . i n t o  the t o t a l  account  (a)  " I n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r and a d j u s t m e n t , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f f a m i l y members s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g a s j u d g e d b y t h e i r t o t a l r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e . (7 p . 1 4 5 ) "  (b)  " F a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y u n i t y , w h i c h m i g h t be v i e w e d a s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f a m i l y members i n t e r m s o f t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e a b i l i t y , t o m a i n t a i n a c o h e s i v e s o c i a l s y s t e m . (7 p . 1 4 9 ) "  (c)  " E v a l u a t i o n o f c a s e w o r k e r s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n terms o f the s p e c i f i c treatment focus which puts the worker i n . a primary helping p o s i t i o n . "  The with  social  and r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e  I n o r d e r to round o u t the c o n c e p t u a l framework, family  The  o f w h i c h he  T h i s study, h a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n f u n c t i o n s  r o l e performance  The  a r e s e e n i n t h e r o l e s p e r f o r m e d by t h e f a m i l y  "The c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l r o l e i s d e f i n e d  a part.  system  a s s i g n e d t o t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n . f a m i l y " , ( 7 , p. 1 4 3 ) .  w i t h i n the context of c e r t a i n s o c i a l  is  a  r o l e s w h i c h may be s e e n a s t h e i n s t r u m e n t f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g  functioning  structure  the family i s  the idea  p r o j e c t equated that  the concept of s o c i a l l y  assigned  functions  t h e c o m m u n i t y h a s s e t up c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s b e l o w  which  21.  p e r f o r m a n c e c a n be t e r m e d i n a d e q u a t e .  A family's  social  functioning  was m e a s u r e d b y t h e G e i s m a r - A y r e s ; s c a l e .  HYPOTHESIS I If multi-problem families receive there ing  will  Integrated  be more i m p r o v e m e n t a n d / o r l e s s r e g r e s s i o n  than i fmulti-problem f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e  ordinary  Family  Services  i n family  function-  services. *  Rationale The was t o s t u d y coordinates As  primary research  was p r e v i o u s l y  numerous c o n t a c t s  and w e l f a r e pointed with  improvement being  evident.  benefit  to this  (a)  agencies i n Vancouver, w i t h  no  Thus t h e a s s u m p t i o n was made  c h r o n i c a l l y dependent group o f f a m i l i e s .  components o f the t r e a t m e n t program d e v e l o p e d c e n t e r e d  through contact  Family, S e r v i c e  complex problems.  u n d e r a d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m w o u l d p r o v e t o be o f  the concept of p r o v i d i n g basic  of a family  to f a m i l i e s with  o u t , many m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s h a v e h a d services  The around  services  social  that services provided greater  Project  t h e e f f e c t o f . a t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m w h i c h i n t e g r a t e s and health  appreciable  purpose o f the A r e a Development  approach  with  social  services  one s o c i a l w o r k e r .  •  t o a l l members This  Integrated  includes:  P l a c i n g w o r k e r s f r o m s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s u n d e r one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d i n one l o c a t i o n .  (b)  Channelling  functions  of several. agencies  t h r o u g h one  worker.  *  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d a r e o n e - t a i l o r d i r e c t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f .10.  22.  (c)  Coordination of s k i l l s  t h a t cannot  be s u p p l i e d b y  this  worker. (d)  Providing continuity  (e)  Using  of s e r v i c e .  the neighborhood  and i t s f a c i l i t i e s  i n serving  families. Definition  o f Terms  For purposes  of this  f a m i l y employed by t h e A r e a (17,  thesis,  the d e f i n i t i o n of multi-problem  D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t s t a f f was f o l l o w e d .  i v , p. 1 1 ) . Family:  consists of at least  one p a r e n t  or parent  figure  w i t h one o r more c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e age o f 1 4 i n t h e home. Multi-problem: (a)  c u r r e n t problem: the caseloads  members o f t h e f a m i l y m u s t be on  o f one o r more o f t h e s e v e n m a j o r  agencies.* (b)  multiplicity  of problems:  members o f t h e f a m i l y  m u s t h a v e b e e n on t h e c a s e l o a d s  (c)  additional  agencies  additional  four agencies  of at l e a s t  two  o f the seven and/or o f the  c h r o n i c i t y of problems:  i n the past seven y e a r s . * * members o f t h e f a m i l y m u s t  h a v e b e e n on t h e c a s e l o a d o f one o f t h e s p e c i f i e d agencies of  at least  3 years p r i o r  to the beginning  the study p e r i o d and/or the p a r e n t s  of either  man.or woman l e a d i n g t h e f a m i l y m u s t h a v e b e e n known to *  Catholic  three of the s p e c i f i e d  Childrens  1  Aid Society.  City Social  i n the past.  S e r v i c e Dept.;  F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n s C o u r t ; F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency; M e t r o p o l i t a n Board o f H e a l t h . Crease C l i n i c : Mental Health Centre: P r o v i n c i a l Mental Health; Vancouver General H o s p i t a l , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. 1  **  agencies  23.  The following  c a s e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e t o be d e t a i l e d  subsection. The  ment g i v e n  m a i n i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e e x a m i n e d was t h e t y p e o f t r e a t -  to the multi-problem  modes o f t r e a t m e n t a r e d e f i n e d (a)  Integrated  f a m i l i e s under study.  services  of  evaluate family  d e l e g a t e d by s e v e r a l  specific  traditionally  functions  social welfare  structure.  m a i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e e x a m i n e d was t h e d e g r e e o f c h a n g e i n during  the period  t h e movement o b t a i n e d . f u n c t i o n i n g was s t u d i e d  of study.  Analysis  o v e r a l l movement was d e f i n e d No Movement:  The G e i s m a r - A y r e s  described,  scale  was e m p l o y e d t o  o f the change i n the l e v e l o f  and c o m p a r e d a f t e r t w e l v e o r e i g h t e e n  months f o r o u r s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n .  For research.purposes i n this  for evaluation the l e v e l  unchanged d u r i n g (b)  the  o u t l i n e d under the  agency  f u n c t i o n i n g , w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y  (a)  agencies.  • Each worker p r o v i d e s s e p a r a t e l y  functioning  family  as a whole-and  Ordinary Services:  established The  possible  Each worker p r o v i d e s the  to the family  c a r r i e s out the functions (b)  The two  as:  Family Services:  basic welfare  family  in.the  the  N e g a t i v e Movement:  i n t o four  of family  thesis,  categories:  functioning  remains  study,period.  Behavior of the family  members  r e g r e s s e s o n e o r more u n i t s down t h e s c a l e o f f a m i l y functioning.from (c)  Limited one, level  (d)  the l e v e l  Movement:  two, o r t h r e e of family  situation.  B e h a v i o r o f t h e f a m i l y members u n i t s up t h e s c a l e  advances  from the o r i g i n a l  functioning.  S i g n i f i c a n t Movement: advances four  i n the beginning  Behavior of the family  o r more u n i t s up t h e s c a l e  members  from the  24.  original  level of family  functioning.  HYPOTHESES I I Both  those m u l t i - p r o b l e m  families receiving Integrated Family  S e r v i c e s and those r e c e i v i n g o r d i n a r y s e r v i c e s w i l l  show more  ment a n d / o r l e s s r e g r e s s i o n . i n i n s t r u m e n t a l a s o p p o s e d areas  of family  improve-  to expressive  functioning.  Rationale One o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e w o r k e r s P r o j e c t was t h a t f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e b e g i n n i n g their  "utility  problem feelings  situation  they had to. prove  v a l u e " ( 1 3 , p . 50) i n c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e s t o t h e s e  f a m i l i e s b e f o r e any m e a n i n g f u l and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  instrumental areas tasks  i n the S t . Paul  attempt  c o u l d b e made t o d e a l w i t h  This trend of progress  from  the outward or  of f u n c t i o n i n g to the f e e l i n g or expressive b e h a v i o r a l  seems t o b e p a r t i c u l a r l y  e v i d e n t w i t h these d i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l i e s  because o f t h e i r d e f e n s i v e a t t i t u d e o f apathy.and d i s t r u s t . l i n e w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s b y L . L . G e i s m a r a n d M. L a S o r t e that  the areas  of behavior  showing  b e t w e e n . t h e d i s o r g a n i z e d and s t a b l e functioning  i s more l i k e l y  assumed t h a t e f f o r t s  the g r e a t e s t a b i l i t y families  ( 1 1 , p. 114)  to d i s c r i m i n a t e  a r e e m o t i o n a l , where mal-  t o be a p e r v a s i v e l i f e  to reach  This i s i n  these m u l t i - p r o b l e m  style.  H e n c e , i t was  f a m i l i e s would have  the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g phase o f t r e a t m e n t b e h a v i o r o f f a m i l y members i n t h e i r responsibility  multi-  i n s t r u m e n t a l or manifest areas of  before improvement.could  area of family cohesiveness  or  on the  be e x p e c t e d  i n the i n t e r r e l a t e d  solidarity.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms I n examining L.L.  t h i s hypothesis, the d e s c r i p t i o n developed  G e i s m a r a n d M. L a S o r t e o f f e r s  a valid  by  d e f i n i t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n  25.  between e x p r e s s i v e d i s t i n c t i o n has the  internal  ships  and  t o do  affairs  f a m i l y and  are  with of  which s a t i s f i e s  whether a c t i o n s  instrumental  existence  the  They s t a t e ;  are  "This  aimed p r i m a r i l y a t  maintaining  e m o t i o n a l needs of  situations outside  biophysical  a pattern  i t s members  of  relation-  (expressive),  or  t o t h e problem.- o f r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n family  system  (instrumental).  The  geared to m e e t i n g f a m i l y needs r e l a t i v e  s u c h as  regulating  the h e a l t h  and  economic w e l f a r e  of  the  latter  to i t s i t s members."  pp.42-43) U s i n g the  which are  Geismar-Ayres s c a l e  i n d i c a t i v e of expressive  include  Family  (b)  Individual  (c)  Care a n d - T r a i n i n g of  the  areas of  the  are  those  the  categories  of:  Children  f a m i l y ' s mode o f  instrumental  functioning,  of:  Social  (b)  Economic  (c)  Household  (d)  Health  (e)  Community R e s o u r c e s *  Relationships Practices Practices  P r o b l e m s and  time range f o r t h i s  f u n c t i o n i n g was control  functioning,  Behavior  (a)  t r e a t m e n t and  family  Relationships  five categories  The  of  functioning  (a)  Those areas which r e f l e c t  *  f a m i l y and  geared c h i e f l y  f u n c t i o n s , moreover, are  (12  whether a c t i o n s  the  the  functions.  the  total  Practices  analysis of  of  instrumental  t w e l v e and  versus  expressive  e i g h t e e n months f o r  both  groups.  The c a t e g o r y o f t h e f a m i l y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e w o r k e r w i l l as i t i s t h e m a i n v a r i a b l e u s e d i n a s s e s s i n g movement.  be  excluded  26.  HYPOTHESIS I I I Those f a c t o r s found f u n c t i o n i n g a t one p o i n t  t o be d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between l e v e l s o f  i n time,  will  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  movement i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g when I n t e g r a t e d but  n o t when o r d i n a r y  Family  s e r v i c e s a r e t h e method o f  associated, with  Services  are provided  treatment.  Rationale As out  was p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ,  certain definable  long-range goal  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the multi-problem  of these research  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l l y assessing  the extent  with  v i p.22) could a high  supported  social  diagnosis  be d e v e l o p e d w h i c h w o u l d be a b l e  "risk potential" early i n their  c o u l d be b e s t  contact  with  a g e n c i e s and  Furthermore,  I t was assumed  i n the family's present  i t was f e l t  by an I n t e g r a t e d  reached out to these p o o r l y motivated  attained  social  that  and  which were i n d i c a t i v e o f i t s c a p a c i t y t o b e n e f i t  utilized  under the t r a d i t i o n a l  was  families  be i d e n t i f i e d  experiences  This  to identify  c e r t a i n p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s could  treatment e f f o r t s .  as an a i d t o  t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a n " I n d e x o f F a m i l i e s At. R i s k "  t h e mode o f t r e a t m e n t .  life  The  e f f o r t s has been t o d e v e l o p a more  hence would a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g  past  to factor  family.  of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n these f a m i l i e s .  d o n e ( b y t h e A.D.P.) w i t h (17  many s t u d i e s h a v e a t t e m p t e d  Family  strengths  S e r v i c e w o r k e r who  families,  agency s t r u c t u r e ; thus,  i n the treatment  that these f a m i l y  from  actively  t h a n by a worker, o p e r a t i n g  g r e a t e r movement w o u l d b e  group.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The  A r e a Development P r o j e c t  i n t h e i r Progress  have o u t l i n e d eleven  v a r i a b l e which they f e l t  nificant  t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between l e v e l s of " p o o r l y  i n relation  appeared  R e p o r t for. 1966,  t o be t h e most  i n g " a n d "more a d e q u a t e l y f u n c t i o n i n g " f a m i l i e s . ( 1 7 , v i , p . 2 7 ) parative factors utilized  f o r ..our  study  were:  sig-  function-  T h e com-  27 .  (a)  E d u c a t i o n of the p a r e n t s :  (b)  Additional  (c)  Father's occupation:  o r g r e a t e r t h a n 5%  Mother under twenty  (f)  Total  (g)  Children  (h)  Source  or  pair:  Less  a t age  of f i r s t marriage:  o f more t h a n one  union  o f income i n the l a s t  i n t h e home: y e s  12 m o n t h s ;  social  or  no. 3 or  or  no.  assistance  or o t h e r .  child  the l a s t  (k)  M o t h e r u n d e r 20 a t t h e b i r t h o f t h e f i r s t time range  born p r i o r to marriage:  for this analysis  the treatment  Methods o f G a t h e r i n g d a t a used  and  control  t w e l v e months:  or more.  First  a v a i l a b l e at the Area  yes  i n t h e home:  (j)  The  b\  f i v e or more.  R e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y o r moves w i t h i n  months f o r b o t h  than  years.  no moves; one move; o r two  The  no.  or u n s k i l l e d .  number o f c h i l d r e n 19 a n d , u n d e r  . l e s s , four;  (i)  skilled  or l e s s .  yes  i n ages o f m a r i t a l  (e)  only,  eight  t r a i n i n g of the f a t h e r :  (d) . M a i n d i f f e r e n c e years  grade  was  yes  a total  or  no. child:  yes  o f t w e l v e and  or  no.  eighteen  groups.  Data.  i n t h i s t h e s i s were c o l l e c t e d from  Development P r o j e c t .  The  the  A.D.P. d a t a was  material obtained i n  t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: (a)  A s i n g l e i n t e r v i e w was h e l d w i t h c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d f o r t h e p r o f i l e . Family L i f e H i s t o r i e s and. P a r e n t A t t i t u d e R a t i n g I n s t r u m e n t s w e r e administered.  (b)  A t t w e l v e o r e i g h t e e n m o n t h s a r e v i e w r a t i n g was d o n e on some o f t h e c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s . B e c a u s e o f t i m e and s t a f f a v a i l a b i l i t y n o t a l l o f t h e c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s had a r e v i e w rating.  28.  (c)  We  W i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t f a m i l i e s , t h e P . A . R . I . was a d m i n i s t e r e d by a case a i d . The f a m i l y l i f e h i s t o r y and p r o f i l e i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d b y t h e f a m i l y c e n t e r e d w o r k e r . A r e v i e w was done o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s a t t w e l v e o r e i g h t e e n months. have drawn s e l e c t i v e l y  t h e c o n t r o l , and was  a twelve  treatment  s a m p l e s we  Standardized The  Tests  have s e l e c t e d t o  rating  this  s c a l e was  s c a l e w h i c h has developed  t h e r e was  both  on whom t h e r e  i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  study.  a need  thesis  i s the  i n a previous  to t e s t  Geismar-  section.  the r e l i a b i l i t y  Once of  t h e d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t among j u d g e s  at which f a m i l i e s  t h r e e independent judges  in this  been d e s c r i b e d  that i s , to assess  the l e v e l s  In  Used  o n l y s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t used  Ayres  ing  have chosen f a m i l i e s  o r e i g h t e e n month r e v i e w r a t i n g , p l u s  e l e v e n f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we  technique,  from the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l .  functioned.  were n e c e s s a r y  I t was  felt  the  concern-  that at  least  t o e s t a b l i s h minimum c r i t e r i a  of  reliability. With to  regard  to the c r i t e r i o n  of r e l i a b i l i t y  the q u e s t i o n arose  w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s an a c c e p t a b l e d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t .  able to expect  c o m p l e t e a g r e e m e n t on  functioning continuim. judges  on  identical  criterion. higher  A g r e e m e n t on  than  on  A  of s c a t t e r  standard  the main c a t e g o r y  which r e s u l t e d  d e v i a t i o n o f 1.30  a limited  of s o c i a l and  t h a t agreement by  s u b c a t e g o r i e s because the  indicated  continuim  felt  scatter  functioning.  reliability  f u n c t i o n o f the l i m i t e d  scatter  three  former  represents a  in a leveling  rigorous  o f f of  composite disagreements.  the  independent  seven p o i n t  p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the  t h a t the agreement a c h i e v e d  of r a t i n g s .  social  o f f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g was  f o r the average of three  The  reason-  independent  a sufficiently  of judgments over  indicated  not  p o s i t i o n of the seven p o i n t  o r a d j a c e n t p o s i t i o n s w o u l d be  judgment of the l a t t e r ,  ratings  I t was  one  I t was  as  The  reliability  was  relation  was  not  judged  a to  be  adequate. The  has of  (10, p.107) i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of categories  been examined by s c a l e a n a l y s i s . social  f u n c t i o n i n g , when o r g a n i z e d  functioning, supported family  i n the pattern of functioning  Results  suggested  i n t o nine  categories  showed-; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a n - . u ^ i m e r i s i o n a l  the.hypothesis  that the concept of family  scale.  This  o f an i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n t h e  g r o u p and o u t s i d e  o f i t . (10, p.108)  - S c h e d u l e s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . d e v e l o p e d " The  s c h e d u l e used  i n t h e t h e s i s was c o l l e c t e d w i t h  i n g i n mind, w i t h  respect  to the organization of data  schedule included  the f o l l o w i n g  l.B.M.  collection.  processThe  data;  (a)  Identifying information  (b)  Profile  (c)  The e l e v e n  -- name, c a s e number e t c .  scores c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found  t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n two  groups a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of f u n c t i o n i n g . (see Appendix A f o r example) Level  of Research Since  Design  the Area Development Project's.basic -  t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h e r e was a c a s u a l Family control  Services  group t y p e o f r e s e a r c h  (17,, A p p e n d i x p . 5 )  The f i e l d  Family. S e r v i c e s  agency s e r v i c e s . were l o c a t e d  design-was developed  might have occurred  c o n t r o l groups, each w i t h  Integrated  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p u r p o s e was Integrated  and movement i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , a . " c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d  which the r e s u l t s obtained  two  research  involved  one t r e a t m e n t and  t h e treatment groups  and b o t h c o n t r o l g r o u p s r e c e i v e d  The t r e a t m e n t g r o u p and one c o n t r o l g r o u p  i n South Vancouver.  the extend t o  i n the absence o f the p r o j e c t  experiment design 100 f a m i l i e s ;  t o assess  received  the usual: m u l t i population  Because of p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h  "contamin-  a t i o n " o f t h e South V a n c o u v e r c o n t r o l group by v i r t u e o f i t s w o r k e r s  being  30.  located  i n t h e same b u i l d i n g as  g r o u p was  workers,  a second  chosen i n East Vancouver, a p a r t of the c i t y which  characteristics In utilized  the treatment  on  similar  the  t e s t i n g of the  fifty  i n South  hundred  families  from both  treatment South  (measurement o f the l e v e l  has  demographic  Vancouver.  three hypotheses  o f t h e one  forty-nine control profile ratings  to those  control  proposed families  and  above,  data*was  and. on a t o t a l  East Vancouver.  There were  o f f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g on  the  Geismar-Ayres s c a l e ) a t a t w e l v e month r e v i e w p e r i o d f o r t h i r t y - t w o ment and period small  thirty  control  f o r another  eighteen  s a m p l e s i z e was  the remaining  fifty  There, has h a v e a b e a r i n g on  families  due  and r a t i n g s  treatment  and  a t an e i g h t e e n m o n t h nineteen control  the presence  treatment  and  one  h u n d r e d and  b e e n a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s  fifty-one  the s p e c i f i c  trying  Services.)  due  have access  to factor  families  The  to worker s t y l e  out  the  important  In thetoriginal  and  control  of these r e l a t e s  The  l a c k of a  Services.  and  aspects  limitation  and  of Integrated Family  r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t w e n t y - f i v e of control  f a m i l i e s were  Because of the absence of  d u r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t and  the d i f f i c u l t y  mode o f t r e a t m e n t S e r v i c e s may in  utilized has  not been c o n s i d e r e d .  h a v e a b e a r i n g on  the area d e s i g n a t e d  i n a s s e s s i n g the e x t e n t to  the Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s , the e f f e c t  "Use  However, t h e  the f a m i l y ' s s o c i a l  of  the which  this  Neighbourhood  functioning,  o f Community R e s o u r c e s " .  to  sufficient  r e c e i v i n g Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s throughout  families  to  careful  numbers o f p r o j e c t f a m i l i e s  project  which  lead to confusion regarding  t w e n t y - f i v e of the South  to Neighbourhood  on  families.  One  (The A.D.P. i s a w a r e o f t h i s  A l s o of note:  the treatment  families.  ingredients of Integrated Family Services  of v a r i a b i l i t y  currently  review  o f t h e A.D.P. ••s' s t u d y  the present r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t .  the v a r i a b l e b e i n g t e s t e d . is  treat-  to the n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y of d a t a , at t h a t time,  t h e phenomenon o f . " I n t e g r a t e d F a m i l y S e r v i c e s " . delineation.of  of  Under the  particularly present  31.  study, d e s i g n , Family  this  e f f e c t would e r r o n e o u s l y  be  a t t r i b u t e d to the  Integrated  Services. Another l i m i t a t i o n  from the  fact that  w e r e b a s e d on families. agencies  d i f f e r e n t amounts o f  file  written using w o r k e r s , and conceivable control  the A r e a Development P r o j e c t ' s  the b e g i n n i n g r a t i n g s  Control  1 ,  of  the  information  p r o f i l e s w e r e w r i t t e n on  information information  f r o m two that  of  the  groups could  plus  one  level  the b a s i s  of  contact  various  with  l i m i t e d amount o f d e s c r i p t i v e and hinder  the  stems  functioning control  referring  Treatment p r o f i l e s were  discussion with  months ' i n t e r v i e w i n g  family  f o r t r e a t m e n t and  interview.  from f i l e s ,  of  study  the  agency  family.  It is  f a c t u a l d a t a on  a t t a i n m e n t of a t r u e assessment of  the  family  functioning. I t m i g h t a l s o be covers a period sixteen  of eight  noted  because of  the P r o j e c t . "  t h e way  (17,.vi,  the  "poorly  not  on  i n which the  into  basis  ment a t one this  time using  functioning Plan  and  of  the v a l i d i t y  c h i s q u a r e and  i n time.  better  groups were s c r e e n e d  of  t h e A.D.P.'s  findings  previously,  discriminate  between  functioning"  f a m i l i e s were a s s i g n e d  profile  of Data The  "better  of p r o f i l e  point  two  p.18)  f u n c t i o n i n g " and  the  eighteen.month i n t e r v a l period  eleven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l i s t e d  a r i s e s because the  t w e l v e month i n t e r v a l a c t u a l l y  Treatment f a m i l i e s averaged a s h o r t e r  T h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n that  "the  t o f i f t e e n m o n t h s , arid t h e  to twenty-one months.  than Control  that  scores,  but  to the  according  (A.D.P. e x p e c t s  s c o r e s as functioning  the  families.  t o do  criteria  The  categories  of  to worker's the  question functioning global  comparison  f o r s e l e c t i o n of  judg-  again, the  poorly  families.)  Analysis  data related  to  the  three  h y p o t h e s e s w e r e a n a l y s e d by means  the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff t e s t , ( 1 6 )  using  the  107c, l e v e l  of  of  32.  confidence*. the  .Hypothesis I I I involved  t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e was h e l d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was e x a m i n e d Sampling The all  currently  residing  constant while  i n relation  project  analysis,  so that  each o f t h e e l e v e n  family  t o change i n f u n c t i o n i n g .  Procedures seven major s o c i a l w e l f a r e agencies active  cases o f f a m i l i e s w i t h  by t h e A r e a Development P r o j e c t .  i f t h e y met t h e o p e r a t i o n a l  problem, m u l t i p l i c i t y the c r i t e r i o n  i n Vancouver  research  The g e o g r a p h i c  criteria  and  boundaries  Cases were s e l e c t e d  and c h r o n i c i t y o f a g e n c y c o n t a c t  of the-"worker check"  identified  c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n  i n the South or East Vancouver Areas.  were d e f i n e d  and  a three-variable  of a family, (defined  f o r the current  earlier)  i . e . t h e w o r k e r ' s j u d g m e n t as t o ( 1 7 , i v , p.15) using  a definition  b a s e d o n " c l e a r a n d p r e s e n t d a n g e r t o c h i l d r e n " and " f a i l u r e  i n the child  whether  t h e f a m i l y was " m u l t i - p r o b l e m " .  rearing  function".  (17, iv, p.10)  Since another families either of  of  were needed  i n e a c h o f t h e two c o n t r o l  the c r i t e r i o n  of current  with  the f i r s t  to ensure a t o t a l  of  cases  300  g r o u p s and t h e one t r e a t m e n t  a c t i v i t y with  " d o u b l e c h r o n i c i t y " was a p p l i e d .  having registered the  257o  (100  group),  two o r more a g e n c i e s o r t h a t  Double c h r o n i c i t y r e f e r s  to families  a g e n c y a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s p r e v i o u s and  p a r e n t s o f t h e man o r woman h e a d i n g t h e p r e s e n t f a m i l y h a v i n g a h i s t o r y a t l e a s t t h r e e agency c o n t a c t s .  assigned  (17, iv, p.15)  Cases were randomly  t o t h e S o u t h V a n c o u v e r T r e a t m e n t and C o n t r o l  groups.  volume IV pages 1 5 - 1 8 ( 1 7 ) f o r problems i n r e t a i n i n g a l a r g e population disregard  and t h e n e c e s s i t y multiplicity  of modifying the c r i t e r i a  See A.D.P. enough T r e a t m e n t  f o r case s e l e c t i o n t o  and c h r o n i c i t y and c o n c e n t r a t e on " p r o b l e m  function-  ing". *  A n a r t i c l e b y J . K . S k i p p e r , A . L . G u e n t h e r and G. Waas ( t h e A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i s t , Feb. 1 9 6 7 , p p . 1 6 - 1 8 ) r e j e c t s the "sacredness of .05". level of significance. We h a v e u t i l i z e d t h e 1 0 % l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d Type I I e r r o r i n o u r a n a l y s i s .  33.  CHAPTER I V  STUDY F I N D I N G S  D E S C R I P T I V E DATA.ON.STUDY FINDINGS The the  adequacy o f  the d a t a  relating  l a r g e number o f n o n - r e s p o n s e s .  characteristics categories  of Father's  to Hypothesis  T h i s was  Education  and  particularly  t h e r e w e r e 387, n o n - r e s p o n s e s .  each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; For  these  factors  numerical  13 b e i n g  On  and  possessing  i t .  On  possessing  t h e w h o l e t h i s was  However, i n the m a j o r i t y . o f f a m i l i e s marriage  (77.57.),  (647,), and  whether  movement i t i s n e c e s s a r y  d i v i s i o n between those  f a m i l i e s had  so r e g a r d i n g  t h e w h o l e t h e r e was number o f  t h e m e d i a n . a n d 17.45  purposes of determining  limited  non-responses  t h e mean.  t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  t r u e o f most o f the  n o t moved r e s i d e n c e  the f a t h e r d i d not have a d d i t i o n a l  was  between  a fairly and  even  those  not  characteristics. not born  i n the  training  these  a 17.357,  there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p  the f i r s t . c h i l d  by  the  A d d i t i o n a l T r a i n i n g - i n both  non-response r a t e , w i t h a range of between 8 - 3 7 for  I I I was  last  (667,).  prior  12  to  months  In-addition,  j u d g i n g f r o m t h e l a r g e number o f n o n - r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s  on  and  one-parent  t r a i n i n g o f f a t h e r , most o f the  f a m i l i e s would appear  t o be  education  families. F I N D I N G S ON  THE  Hypothesis  HYPOTHESES I:  I f multirrproblem f a m i l i e s will  be more i m p r o v e m e n t a n d / o r l e s s r e g r e s s i o n i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g t h a n i f  multi-problem  families  Statistical ment and be  receive integrated family s e r v i c e s there  receive ordinary a n a l y s i s of  services.  the d a t a on  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  changes i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g i n d i c a t e d  accepted  using  the  107,.level of c o n f i d e n c e .  that Hypothesis See  Table  I.  treat-  I could  not  34.  TABLET.  -  The  Relationship  Treatment ' Period 12  months  months  Probability  .619  .80>p>.70  18 19 N  =  37  N  =  99  3.62  .20>  p>.10  1.88  .50>p>.30  freedom = 2 i n a l l cases.  12 m o n t h s t h e r e  groups w i t h  Square*  Functioning  62  Treatment Control  Degrees of  Chi  32 30 N• =  Total 12 m o n t h s plus 18 m o n t h s  At  (N)  .Treatment Control  Total:  *  Treatment to Changes i n F a m i l y  Sample S i z e  Total: 18  of  respect  was  no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n T r e a t m e n t and  t o movement.  The  Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test,  which  Control utilizes  t h e maximum d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n 2 c u m u l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n c a l c u l a t i n g c h i s q u a r e , w o u l d i n d i c a t e s l i g h t l y more t r e a t m e n t f a m i l i e s t h a n c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s manifested  "regression" After  family level  services  o r "no  change".  18 m o n t h s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h o s e r e c e i v i n g and  of confidence  t h o s e n o t was could  i t be  much g r e a t e r . stated  that  However, o n l y  treatment  s e r v i c e s ) p r o d u c e s more c h a n g e t h a n o r d i n a r y  services.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test,  which picks  greatest  a regression  o r more o n  the  step  Treatment group tended  Relatively of  o f one  so  that  the  the  also occurred there  (integrated On  the  at  i s a trend  the  t h a n the level  toward the  t h e 207> family  basis  difference  7-point s c a l e , i t can  t o show l e s s r e g r e s s i o n  large differences  2 o r more s t e p s ,  out  at  integrated  be  of  the  to occur stated  Control  at  that  group.  o f p o s i t i v e movement Treatment group  show-  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov t e s t c i t e d h e r e are s o l e l y desc r i p t i v e i . e . c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e no c h i s q u a r e met t h e 107, l e v e l o f confidence  ing  more i m p r o v e m e n t t h a n t h e  C o n t r o l Group.  f a m i l i e s measured, r e g a r d l e s s of s t a t i s t i c a l tegrated was  out  between t h a t f o r the  one  o f w h e t h e r a t 12  or  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the h y p o t h e s i z e d  f a m i l y s e r v i c e s and  p e c t e d by, t h e  Examination of  simple  another.  process of  The  the  the  scale)  Control  18 m o n t h g r o u p , as m i g h t be  t h e r e s u l t s a t 12  and  f i d e n c e b u t . t h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  "less  regression" As  ceived  t h a n the C o n t r o l  noted  12 m o n t h s o f  Treatment  amount ( 4 o r more  r e j e c t e d ,at the  a trend,  107 . l e v e l  steps  o  of  con-  e s p e c i a l l y , a f t e r 18 m o n t h s , i n and  group.  i n C h a p t e r I I I , many f a m i l i e s i n t h e f u l l . 1 2 or  Treatment group  18 m o n t h s s e r v i c e , so  to compare A r e a Development P r o j e c t r e s u l t s w i t h  Paul Family  balancing  T r e a t m e n t g r o u p s h o w i n g b o t h "more i m p r o v e m e n t "  c o n s i d e r a b l y , l e s s than the  is difficult St.  the  a t 18 m o n t h s  ex-  group.  I n summary, H y p o t h e s i s I m u s t be  the d i r e c t i o n of  lack  The p r o b a b i l i t y  Kolmogorov-Smirnov t e s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  t h a n the  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n -  g r o u p shows, more p o s i t i v e c h a n g e o f . a c o n s i d e r a b l e up  for a l l  18 m o n t h s , r e v e a l e d  changes i n ' f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g .  12 month and  the data  C e n t r e d P r o j e c t , where most o f  re-  that i t  those of  t h e movement o c c u r r e d  the  after  Treatment.  Hypothesis I I : Both services  and  those multi-problem  families receiving integrated  those r e c e i v i n g o r d i n a r y  less regression  i n "instrumental"  services w i l l  as o p p o s e d  family  show more movement a n d / o r  to,"expressive"  areas of  family  functioning. A modified  c h i square  (16,  p.  63)  was  used  to t e s t the  relation-  s h i p b e t w e e n - d e g r e e o f movement.as m e a s u r e d by, t h e G e i s m a r - A y r e s s c a l e  The m o d i f i e d c h i s q u a r e t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e of independence o f the 2 measures.  and  assumed c o r r e l a t i o n . o r l a c k  36.  " t y p e " o f movement (movement i n e i t h e r " i n s t r u m e n t a l " o.dr of  family  "expressive"  areas  functioning).  TABLE I I .  -  The R e l a t i o n s h i p  Research Groups  Sample N  b e t w e e n D e g r e e a n d Type o f Movement i n Family Functioning  Size  Chi  Square  Probability  Treatment  50  1.60  .30> p > .20  Control  49  2.94  ..10>p>.05  Treatment & Control  99  4.38  .05>p^.02  It  was f o u n d  Control tical  that Hypothesis I I could  be p a r t i a l l y  g r o u p and t h e T r e a t m e n t and C o n t r o l  accepted  since both the  g r o u p s c o m b i n e d met t h e s t a t i s -  t e s t a t the .10%.level o f confidence.  -  Hypothesis I I I : Those f a c t o r s ing  a t one p o i n t  family  services The  jected. of  t o be d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n -  i n time, w i l l  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  f u n c t i o n i n g when i n t e g r a t e d  ordinary  family  found  hypothesis,  history factors  istics,  family  are provided  movement i n b u t n o t when  which proposed a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  and c h a n g e a s s o c i a t e d  suggested  there  services.  set against  with  selected  t r e a t m e n t , was t o t a l l y r e -  was no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p o s s e s s i o n  t h e s e f a c t o r s - a n d movement i n f a m i l y  integrated  services  with  a r e t h e method o f t r e a t m e n t .  third  Findings  family  associated  functioning,  The c h i s q u a r e s  either with  f o r e a c h o f t h e 11  or without character-  e a c h o f t h e 4 t y p e s o f movement ( s e e C h a p t e r I I I ) f o r  The f a c t o r o f c h i l d r e n o f more t h a n one u n i o n i n t h e home was omitted from the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  inadvertently  both Treatment.and cant. ing  Control  g r o u p s w e r e s e e n by i n s p e c t i o n  H o w e v e r t h e r e w e r e two e x c e p t i o n s :  a relationship  =. 3 . 9 4 ,  (a) x  f o r the Treatment group between  t o be  nonsignifi-  .10^ p^.05  show-  fewer than 4 c h i l d r e n  in  2 the  home and no c h a n g e  showing a r e l a t i o n s h i p ren  (more  i n family  functioning  f o r the C o n t r o l  (less  In order m e n t and C o n t r o l  than 4)  and p o s i t i v e  to u t i l i z e  i n analysis  as o p p o s e d  felt  then the people that  that fell  a larger  to " p o s i t i v e  s h o u l d be d i f f e r e n t  2.93,  a large  .  10^"p^.05  number o f  a relationship  child-  between  the median  sample, d a t a on the T r e a t dichotomized into  change"  "no  and a n a l y s e s w e r e  family, h i s t o r y , f a c t o r s .  i f the seven f a c t o r s above  =  change.  d o n e r e l a t i n g t h i s movement t o t h e s e l e c t e d  change)  and a l s o  g r o u p s w e r e c o m b i n e d , movement was  change" or " r e g r e s s i o n "  I t was  (b) x  group between  t h a n 3 ) . and n e g a t i v e o r no c h a n g e  few c h i l d r e n  and  were a l l s e n s i t i v e  ( i . e . those showing  i n these f a c t o r s .  to change,  positive  As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e I I I ,  no c h i s q u a r e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 107o. l e v e l .  TABLE I I I .  -  The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S e l e c t e d F a m i l y H i s t o r y F a c t o r s t o Change i n F u n c t i o n i n g D u r i n g a P e r i o d . o f 12 t o 18 M o n t h s ( T r e a t m e n t and C o n t r o l Groups Combined)  Family - History Factors  **  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  * df  T  Sample S i z e (N) C Total  Chi  Square  Probability  Mother s Education  43  . 36  79  Father's Education  37  25  62  34  .28  62  .133  .80>p^.70  47  40  87  .45  .70>p;>.50  48  .38  86  .03  .90>pp>.80  47  38  85  .563  . 5 0 > p >.30  T o t a l Number o f C h i l d r e n under 19 i n Home  50  42  92  . .783  • 50>p>.30  Source o f i n come p a s t 12 mo.  49  41  90  2.5  ,.20>p >.10  R e s i d e n t i a l Mobil i t y . - moves i n l a s t 12 mo.  50  . 37  87  2.40  . 20 > p >. 10  1st Child prior to Marriage  46  34  80  .0088  . 9 8 > p >.95  49  39  88  .79  .50>p  1  Father's Additional Training (Educational or Vocational) Father's Occupation Difference i n age b e t w e e n parents M o t h e r ' s age at Marriage  1.56  . 7 0 > p > .50  • 3 0 > p >.20  Born  M o t h e r u n d e r . 20 at B i r t h 1st Child =  .194  1 in.all  cases  ** C o u n t e d a s 1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  b y t h e A.D.P.  >.30  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between l e v e l s of expected  that  functioning  f a c t o r s might not  and  therefore  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c a p a c i t i e s f o r change.  Chapter I I I that functioning  the  l a c k of p r e c i s e  groups between which  e n t i a t e poses a s e r i o u s the  actual categorizing  skilled"  or  " i n c o m e S.A."  m i g h t be  questioned e s p e c i a l l y since  and  only  u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e and  the  the  reliability  i n t o s u c h , a r e a s as  "income i n a d d i t i o n to or  the  the  S.A.  the  noted and to  in  differThe  and  than  b a b y s i t t i n g money o r  for only  a few  months out  be  "better"  data.  "skilled" other  not  UunS.A."  l a s t mentioned category could  occasional  t h o s e on  I t was "poorly"  of  reliably  they c o u l d  " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " were s a i d  l i m i t a t i o n on  of  clude both those earning  d e f i n i t i o n s of  the  validity  past  t h e s e 11  in-  receiving of  the  year. Complete d a t a w i l l  University  of B r i t i s h  be  Columbia.  a v a i l a b l e at  the  S c h o o l o f - S o c i a l Work,  the  40.  CHAPTER V  In  this  have a r i s e n from be  done b o t h  thesis  and  ing  out  as s u c h ,  the  a t the Area  tegrated Family  l e n g t h of the  and  outlined.  this  touched  o n l y on  gained  time.  limited  i s from p o i n t -  I t has  recently  the p e r i o d o f I n -  f o r a y e a r beyond the o r i g i n a l  closing  i s a t the i n t e r i m p e r i o d i n the  overall  Project. i s o n l y when t h e b a s i c d a t a h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e l y assessed  that concrete proposals  collected,  f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h can  suggestions  for further  areas  be  of r e -  here.  was  examined i n Chapter  families  e i g h t e e n months.  proved  to approach  In.comparison,  g r e a t e s t movement o c c u r r e d w i t h i n This  time  factor  Four,  the a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t  statistical  the f i r s t  experiences  and  The  an e x t r e m e l y  not c o n t r o l l e d  change o f r a t e r s ,  orientations,  and  observed  only  that  t w e l v e months o f t h e  hypo-  after  the treat-  important v a r i a b l e  sufficiently  v e l o p m e n t . P r o j e c t ' s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . a pretest period.  significance  the S t . P a u l Study  seems t o be  as p o i n t e d o u t p r e v i o u s l y , was  for  will  community.  Development P r o j e c t to extend  study  This  S e r v i c e focus of  the  at this  which  t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be more i m p r o v e m e n t a n d / o r l e s s r e g r e s s i o n i n t h e  treatment  ment.  explored.  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o be  Therefore, only tentative  As  be  involving  observed  Service treatment  search are given  thesis  c a n be  T h i s means t h a t o u r  analyzed  study w i l l  t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h has  the most v a l i d  trends which  It  of our  issues of i n t e r e s t  i s emphasized  been decided  date.  the r e s u l t s  to the  and,  a summary o f some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n r e f e r e n c e to the I n t e g r a t e d F a m i l y  It areas  section,  which,  i n the.Area  De-  T h i s a f f i r m s the n e c e s s i t y  the workers  with  different  a f r e q u e n t l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  *Norma J e a n M u n r o , " F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d W i t h S t r e n g t h s o f . S e r v i c e To F a m i l i e s I n The S t . P a u l P r o j e c t . " U n p u b l i s h e d M.S.W. T h e s i s , M i n n e s o t a , 1964.  control  families, a l l contributed  Thus t h e d i s c r e p a n c y Paul so  to this  of  time.  i n the S t .  t h e s i s s t u d y , may i n f a c t ,  n o t be  great. should  a l s o be n o t e d  that  more " s i g n i f i c a n t " movement ( d e f i n e d the s c a l e o f family, f u n c t i o n i n g )  existence  of a preliminary  t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p showed  as improvement o f f o u r and l e s s r e g r e s s i o n  g r o u p i n o v e r a l l movement a t e i g h t e e n  months.  This  " s t a b i l i z a t i o n period"  provided  the necessary b a s i s It  theoretical  i s felt  f o r greater  that a restudy  approach a t a l a t e r  whether o r not there  i s this  could  be a v a l i d The  ings  " s t a b i l i z a t i o n period"  foregoing  i n the instrumental  that:the  seems c o n g r u e n t w i t h  of assistance.  I t was f o u n d  a r e a s was g r e a t e r  phases o f treatment.  worker-client It.is  which the r e l a t -  developed.  t h e same  t o examine  i n the treatment  of other  This  the trends that  confirms  relationship i s initially f u r t h e r suggested  succeeding  prostages.  indicated i n find-  improvement i n f u n c t i o n -  that  this  areas i n  the t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e built  around concrete  forms  accounts f o r the e x i s t '  l a c k o f any. a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . w h e n  o f the sample s i z e .  this hypothesis  date.  than i n the expressive  c o n t r o l groups were compared i n t h e s e a r e a s , ations  then  o f the time o f t r e a t -  ence o f t h e proposed " s t a b i l i z a t i o n p e r i o d " . The  This  a r e a of. s t u d y b e c a u s e o f i t s t r e a t m e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s .  o f the second h y p o t h e s i s .  the b e g i n n i n g  the p o s s i b l e  T h i s w o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e  c e s s as w e l l a s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s This  suggests  be u n d e r t a k e n , w i t h  t i m e when t h e l i m i t s  ment c a n be more c l e a r l y . d e f i n e d .  o r more u n i t s  movement a t - a l a t e r  should  both  than the c o n t r o l  during  i o n s h i p b e t w e e n . t h e w o r k e r a n d t h e f a m i l y was b e i n g  ing  length  b e t w e e n t h e e a r l i e r movement o b s e r v e d  s t u d y and t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  It  on  ill-defined  t h e t r e a t m e n t and  seems t o be due t o t h e l i m i t -  A l t h o u g h i t w o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t t o r e - e x a m i n e  when da.ta o n a l a r g e r s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n  could  be a v a i l a b l e ,  restudy  i s not considered  t o be v a l i d .  a l a t e r d a t e , improvement c o u l d to  t h e same e x t e n t o r g r e a t e r  ment i n i n s t r u m e n t a l in  a i s o be e x p e c t e d  functioning  third hypothesis  tween l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n i n g proved  t o be n e g a t i v e .  i s considered  one  point  that  a t one p o i n t  areas.  t o be o n l y  not f e l t  to< l o o k  training will  will  at Risk"  s h o u l d be  the labor  respond  force or nearing  to treatment.  in  family  retirement  as t o w h e t h e r o r n o t e d u c a t i o n a l  e r n s o f agency c o n t a c t s suggested  discarded  I t i s suggested  functioning within  that  around m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t , child-rearing.  which, are  these patterns  development.  Further  that i t  the l a r g e r  F o r example, the  some f o r m o f  occupational  s i g n i f i c a n c e d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r o r n o t he i s  a s was m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r  is  that.fo-  t h i s d o e s n o t seem t o be c o n d u c i v e t o p r e -  a t such l e v e l s o f f a m i l y  have v a r y i n g  be h e l d  addition,  the f i r s t . a r e a  that an approach  f a c t o r o f Whether o r n o t t h e f a t h e r has r e c e i v e d  could  Improve-  i n t i m e a r e r e l a t e d t o movement,  context o f the stage o f the f a m i l y developmental c y c l e . *  entering  areas  A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n i n g a t  i n t i m e c a n be made,  necessary  expressive  those f a c t o r s which d i s c r i m i n a t e be-  However, i t . i s  d i c t i n g how t h e f a m i l y is  in:the  i s that at  functioning.  cuses on d e v e l o p i n g an "Index o f F a m i l i e s completely.  this  than i n the i n s t r u m e n t a l  the o v e r a l l continuum o f f a m i l y The  The r e a s o n . f o r  age. T h e  same  upgrading i s f e a s i b l e .  i n the Caseload A n a l y s i s , evident  with  there  In  are patt-  multi^-problem f a m i l i e s .  m i g h t be r e l a t e d  F o r example, o f t e n  implications  I t  to stages or " c r i s e s "  the f i r s t  agency c o n t a c t i s  and l a t e r , a r o u n d e c o n o m i c n e e d s and p r o b l e m s i n study could  c l e a r l y , these stages of f a m i l y  be u n d e r t a k e n t o a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e  more  d e v e l o p m e n t and t o examine whether o r n o t  * D u v a 1 1 , E v e l y n M i l l i s , F a m i l y • D e v e l o p m e n t . J . B. L i p p i n c o t t Co., New 1957, p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t a g e s i n t h e f a m i l y l i f e and t h e p r o b l e m s t o b e f a c e d a t e a c h s t a g e .  York, cycle  these  stages are r e l a t e d  to the type of improvement and/or r e g r e s s i o n  observed. In providing  broad  terms,  the h y p o t h e s i s of the treatment program i s t h a t  the b a s i c s o c i a l  ureable impact  services  on i n c r e a s i n g  ever, od  this  mental  c a n n o t be c a r r i e d  variable.  ining  The  these d i f f i c u l t  plications  from  Area  which  has  been  i t i s beyond  concenHow-  this  staff,  important  t o e v a l u a t e , by  research,  m u s t be  meth at  experi-  to d e f i n e the p r o c e s s  of  worker  g i v e n some c o n s i d e r -  c a n o n l y e m p h a s i z e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f exam  the scope o f t h i s  thesis  to examine the  the p o i n t o f v i e w o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f community i t is felt  t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d be  as a means b o t h  of  functioning.  Development P r o j e c t  v a r i a b l e s which  thesis  mate consumer o f the s e r v i c e . jects  functioning  areas.  overall welfare policy,  c u s s how  The  t h e i s s u e s o f how  of this  w o u l d h a v e a meas-  i n a vaccuum b u t r a t h e r the t r e a t m e n t  examined.  personality  results  While  and  on  I t i s recognized that attempts  s k i l l s , , and  ation.  aspect of t h i s ,  are a t t e m p t i n g to d e f i n e the components o f  t r e a t m e n t b r i n g s up style,  One  i s the measurement o f change i n f a m i l y  i t s e l f m u s t a l s o be  present,  worker  the adequacy o f the s o c i a l  these m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . t r a t e d on h e r e ,  t h r o u g h one  that i t i s necessary  r e c e i v e d by  services  to b r i e f l y  the community.which i s the  Communities tend  to use  t o a d v a n c e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e and  ulti-  demonstration  pro-  understanding  of  change.  exist-  ing  a g e n c i e s h a v e b e e n a w a r e o f unmet n e e d s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y b u t h a v e b e e n to document the problems w i t h s u p p o r t i n g d a t a i n o r d e r  p l a n n i n g may  data."  be u n d e r t a k e n .  as a s o c i a l ( 1 7 , i v , p.  "Research  cannot  need, however i t can c l a r i f y 48)  Many  soc-  p r o b l e m s and  nized  about s o c i a l  dis-  ial  unable  as a means o f b r i n g i n g  im-  that  d e f i n e w h a t s h o u l d be i s s u e s and  rational recog-  assemble r e l e v a n t  44.  From t h e movement c a n see in  as  be  observed,  justifying  the p r o j e c t  r e s u l t s of  no  the  the  f a m i l y may  its  expenditure  are  due  involved.  not  to lack  For  I n the  eyes of  i n c r e a s i n g l y u r g e n t p r o b l e m and  as w e l l  as  "school  drop-outs".  the  services  Also  of  need f o r v o c a t i o n a l As  extended  can  be  to  the  by  areas which r e f l e c t  l a c k of  the  The can  concern are  be  community  f a c t o r out  Integrated  mental  adequate resources.  requirements  in  the with  the  illnesses,  have been  outside  of  suggested  the that  functioning  as  opposed to  "A  demonstration  individual  g i v e more s e l f - r e s p e c t t o w e l f a r e  mean much i f t h e w e l f a r e  and  in  of  adequate  a major f a c t o r  those areas of  Family Services  though  incomes,  s h o r t a g e of  I t is therefore  this  o f t e n many Workers  seen, these problems are client.  time  However, even  physical  t e s t i n g w h e t h e r more s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f f e r i n g g r e a t e r r e h a b i l i t a t e and  to t h i s  t r a i n i n g f o r a d o l e s c e n t s who  a t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o  w h i c h are most a f f e c t e d  will  the  of adequate r e s o u r c e s .  debts.  although  community would  e x a m p l e , up  been s u c c e s s f u l .  o f b u d g e t i n g and  f a m i l i e s poor f u n c t i o n i n g .  research  degree which the  t h e i r c o n c e r n about the p r o b l e m of low  attendant stresses  direct  the  been c l o s e d .  t r e a t m e n t has  have e x p r e s s e d  h o u s i n g i s an  to  trends suggest that  show i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e i r o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n i n g  the problems faced project  s t u d y the  i t i s not  c a s e has  might s i g n i f y that  this  those  services  recipients will  themselves h u m i l i a t e  and  not  degrade  recipients..."(*)  (*) An e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a s s e t s o f a d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t may f o u n d i n R e i n , M a r t i n and M i l l e r , S.M. " S o c i a l A c t i o n On The Installment P l a n " , T r a n s a c t i o n S o c i a l S c i e n c e and M o d e r n S o c i e t y J a n . / F e b . 1966 V o l . 3/No. 2 pp. 31-38.  be  45.  B I B L . I O G R  1.  A y r e s , B.,  LaSorte,  2.  B e l l , N.W.,  Vogel,  3.  Blalock  4.  Bjerring, J., H o g a n , R.,  Dr.,  C a s e l o a d A n a l y s i s ^ ..An- A n a l y s i s o f the H i s t o r y of Agency C o n t a c t s i n the F a m i l y Caseloads o f Seven Major H e a l t h and W e l f a r e A g e n c i e s . Community C h e s t 3nd C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouvef A r e a , September, 1965. A M o d e r n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o The F a m i l y . The M a c m i l l a n Conipany o f C a n a d a , L t d . T o r o n t o . , 1960. Social S t a t i s t i c s . McGraw-Hill Co. L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1 9 6 0 .  Book  GI UBC M V T A B . . . M u l t i v a r i a t e Contingency T a b u l a t i o n s . Bjerring & H o g a n , U.B.C. C o m p u t i n g C e n t e r , R e v i s e d 1966.  A R e p o r t o f R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on Coo r d i n a t i o n o f S e r v i c e s i n t h e Van-. . couver Area. Social Planning S e c t i o n , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , June, 1959.  6.  8.  E.F.,  Y  C o o r d i n a t i o n of Services...The C h a l l e n g e o f our Community. Coo r d i n a t i o n o f S e r v i c e s Committee of t h e F a m i l y and C h i l d W e l f a r e D i v i s i o n , C o m m u n i t y C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , May, 1957.  5.  7.  H.M.,  M.A.,  A P H  Geismar, L.L., A y r e s , B. ,  Families i n Trouble...An A n a l y s i s of B a s i c S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 100 F a m i l i e s S e r v e d b y The F a m i l y Centered. P r o j e c t . Greater St. Paul Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s , I n c . , S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , 1960. Measuring Family Functioning...A M a n u a l on a M e t h o d f o r E v a l u a t i n g The S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g o f D i s o r g a n ized Families. Family Centered P r o j e c t , S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , 1960. P a t t e r n s , o f Change i n P r o b l e m : Famil ies. F a m i l y Centered.. P r o j e c t G r e a t e r S t . P a u l Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s I n c . , S t . P a u l ,•. M i n n e s o t a , J u l y , 1959.  46.  "A M e t h o d F o r E v a l u a t i n g t h e S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g o f F a m i l i e s Under T r e a t m e n t " , S o c i a l Work. V o l . 4, No. 1, 1 9 5 9 . Geismar, L.L., L a S o r t e , M.,  U n d e r s t a n d i n g The M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l y . . . A C o n c e p t u a l A n a l y s i s and E x p l o r a t i o n in> E a r l y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s * New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 .  Nye, I . , B e r a r d o , F.M.,  Emerging C o n c e p t u a l Frameworks i n Family Analysis. M a c M i l l a n & Co., L t d . , New Y o r k , . 1 9 6 6 .  O v e r t o n , A., T i n k e r , K.H., E t A l ,  Casework Notebook. Family Centered P r o j e c t , G r e a t e r S t . P a u l Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , I n c . , S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , 1957.  S c h l e s i n g e r , B.,  The- M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l y . ...A R e v i e w and-Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y . The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , Second E d i t i o n , T o r o n t o , 1965.  S e l l t i z , C , Jahoda,M., D e u t s c h , M., Cook, S.W.,  Research Methods I n . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Revised. H e n r y H o l t &.Co., I n c . , T o r o n t o , 1959.  Siegel,  N o n p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s F o r The Behavioral Sciences. McGraw-Hill Book Co. L t d . , New Y o r k , 1 9 5 6 .  S.,  :  A r e a Development P r o j e c t , V a n c o u v e r . . . Research. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Demonstration. S t a f f .  &  ( i ) , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Organization. The A r e a D e v e l o p ment P r o j e c t , P r o g r e s s R e p o r t , 1 9 6 5 , V o l . 1. (ii)  (iii)  I n t e g r a t e d Family, S e r v i c e s . The A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , P r o g r e s s R e p o r t , 1965, V o l . I I . Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s. The Area Development P r o j e c t , P r o g r e s s Report, 1965, V o l . I I I .  ( i v ) R e s e a r c h . The A r e a D e v e l o p ment P r o j e c t , P r o g r e s s R e p o r t , 1965, V o l . I V . ( v ) Summary. The A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , P r o g r e s s Report, 1965. ( v i ) P r o g r e s s R e p o r t , 1966.• The A r e a Development P r o j e c t .  APPENDIX A  SCHEDULE FOR DATA COLLECTION  The  following  schedule  puter p r o c e s s i n g i n mind. the a p p r o p r i a t e row n o t e d  f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was p r e p a r e d  F o r each  ease,  o p p o s i t e each  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c o r d e d and  c o l u m n number.  Information  Column  Row  C a s e number  1,2,3  n/ a  Group: Treatment o r C o n t r o l  4  (1) T r e a t m e n t (2) C o n t r o l  Treatment p e r i o d  5  ( 1 ) 12 m o n t h s ( 2 ) 18 m o n t h s  Score Score Score  6 7 8  * See b e l o w **HSee b e l o w ** S e e b e l o w  f o r o v e r a l l movement f o r " e x p r e s s i v e " movement f o r " i n s t r u m e n t a l " movement  w i t h com-  Mother's  education  9  Father's  education  . 10  (1) grade (2) grade (3) g r a d e  8 or less 9 10 o r more  Same as a b o v e  11  ( 1 ) some  12  (1) U n s k i l l e d (2) O t h e r  Age d i f f e r e n c e o f p a r e n t s  13  ( 1 ) l e s s t h a n 5% y e a r s ( 2 ) 5% y e a r s o r more  M o t h e r ' s age a t m a r r i a g e  14  ( 1 ) m o t h e r u n d e r 20 y e a r s ( 2 ) m o t h e r 20 o r more  T o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n 19 y e a r s a n d u n d e r i n t h e home  15  (1) 3 o r l e s s (2) 4 ( 3 ) 5 o r more  C h i l d r e n o f more t h a n one u n i o n i n t h e home  16  (1) y e s  Source o f income i n the l a s t months  17  (1) s o c i a l (2) o t h e r  Father's additional Father's  training  occupation  12  R e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y : number o f moves l a s t 12 m o n t h s  18  ( 2 ) none labor  ( 2 ) no assistance only  (1) none ( 2 ) one ( 3 ) 2 o r more  F i r s t c h i l d born prior marriage  to  M o t h e r u n d e r 20. a t b i r t h • first child  * Overall Score  Movement  19  (1) Yes  ( 2 ) No  20  (1) Yes  ( 2 ) No  of  ** " E x p r e s s i v e " and " I n s t r u m e n t a l "  Row  Score  Row  -7  1  -1.1  to  -0.9  1  - 6  2  -0.8  to  -0.6  ,2  -5  3  -0.5  to  -0.3  3  - 4  4  -0.2  to  -0.0  4  -3  5  +0.1  to  +0.3  5  - 2  6  +0.4  to  +0.6  6  - 1  7  +0.7  to  +0.9  7  - 0  8  +1.0  to  +1.2  8  9  +1.3  to  +1.5  9  2  A  +1.6  to  +1.8  A  + 3  B  +. 4  C  + 5  D  +  6  E  + 7  .F  + .8  G  + 9  H  +10  I  +  Movement  

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