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Evaluation of a physical education programme for grade one blind and partially-sighted children in a… Williams, Carol Inge 1967

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THE EVALUATION OF A PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME FOR GRADE ONE BLIND AND PARTIALLY-SIGHTED CHILDREN IN A RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND BLIND  by  CAROL INGE WILLIAMS B.P.E. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1967  standard:  In  presenting  for  an a d v a n c e d  that  thesis  Department  the  agree  that  freely  or  representatives.  his  of  my w r i t t e n  this  thesis  for  may be g r a n t e d  for  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  Columbia  It  of  British  available  permission  purposes  by  fulfilment  University  scholarly  publication  without  at  in p a r t i a l  s h a l l make i t  I further for  thesis  degree  the- L i b r a r y  study.  or  this  for  the  Columbia,  I  reference  and  extensive by  requirements  copying  gain  this  t h e Head o f my  is understood  financial  of  agree  shall  that not  be  copying allowed  ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to evaluate the e f f e c t s of a programme of physical education f o r Grade One b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y sighted children at Jericho H i l l School, the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Residential School f o r the Deaf and B l i n d . The programme i n s t i t u t e d was devised by the author i n a problemsolving, child-centered manner where the a c t i v i t i e s were performed at the l e v e l of i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d .  The  programme included the following a c t i v i t i e s : 1.  Orientation  2.  Physical Education A c t i v i t i e s : (a (b (c (d (e (f (g (h (i (j  Body awareness Stretching, p u l l i n g , twisting Small equipment Large apparatus Creative movements to music Trampolining Water a c t i v i t i e s Outdoor running, walking V i s i t to Santa Claus A c t i v i t i e s with a sighted class  The programme extended from September, 1965 to March, 1966 with two or three sessions per week l a s t i n g from one-half hour to three-quarters of .. an hour each. Three evaluative measures were used to assess the programme: 1.  Objective scores from the pre- and post-programme tests were  given where a numerical value could be assigned to these t e s t s . 2.  Film loops"'" of the objective t e s t items were used to show pre-  and post-programme performances.  These were subjectively evaluated by  eleven experts i n the f i e l d of physical education.  Stored i n the Library of the School of Physical Education and Recreation, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  3«  The classroom teacher .reported on her personal record of  the e f f e c t of the programme on i n d i v i d u a l children and on the group as a whole. The improved objective t e s t scores, the f i l m loop evaluation by the physical education experts, and the subjective evaluation of the classroom teacher and the V i c e - P r i n c i p a l of the Blind Department showed that the programme was successful i n producing improvement i n the children, e s p e c i a l l y i n the areas of confidence and basic physical s k i l l development.  2 A film  was produced i n conjunction with the programme but not as  an actual part of the study, showing various a c t i v i t i e s performed by the children throughout the year.  This 23 minute black and white 16 mm f i l m  was produced and t i t l e d by the author.  2 "Learn to See", available from the Extension Department, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1  Purpose  1  Subjects  II  1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  1  Delimitations  2  J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Study  2  Limitations  3 5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Need f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r B l i n d and Partially-Sighted Children G e n e r a l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Methodology  . . . . . . . . .  P h y s i c a l Education f o r B l i n d Children  5 6 7  S p e c i f i c P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programmes f o r B l i n d and P a r t i a l l y - S i g h t e d Primary C h i l d r e n III  IV V  METHODS AND PROCEDURES  7 11  Introduction  11  Nature o f t h e Programme  11  Nature o f t h e Group . . . . . . . . . . .  11  Programme Content  14  Evaluation  17  RESULTS  21  DISCUSSION  31  CHAPTER . VI  PAGE 33  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary  •  34  Conclusions Recommendations  33  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34  BIBLIOGRAPHY  36  APPENDIX A  39  LIST OF- TABLES TABLE I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII  PAGE Leg L i f t s  22  Standing Broad Jump  22  Bar Hang  23  Chins  23  S o f t b a l l Throw  24  Rope Jump  24  One Foot Hop  25  Forty Yard Outside Run  25  Shuttle Run (3x10  26  yds)  Balance  26  Toe Tapping  27  Dash (10 yd)  28  Means and Standard Deviations of the F i n a l Scores A f t e r Correction f o r Rater-Test Item Interaction, Halo E f f e c t s and Residual. Interactions  29  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1  Maze Tracing . . . . . . .  18  2  Balance - Lengthwise and Crosswise .  18  CHAPTER  I  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Problem The problem was t o evaluate the effects of a programme of physical education at Jericho H i l l School f o r Grade One b l i n d and partially-sighted  children.  Purpose ' The purpose of the study was t o i n i t i a t e a programme of physical education, devised by the author, f o r the Grade One b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y sighted children, and to test the physical a b i l i t i e s with which they began, and t o assess whether any change had taken place at the end of the programme. Subjects Nine Grade One children from Jericho H i l l School, four t o t a l l y b l i n d , and the remainder with varying degrees of p a r t i a l v i s i o n  were  used as subjects i n t h i s study. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms " B l i n d " - The d e f i n i t i o n of blindness accepted f o r economic and l e g a l purposes and the one often used f o r educational purposes i s 20/200 or l e s s i n the better eye with the best possible correction or r e s t r i c t i o n i n the f i e l d of v i s i o n t o an angle subtending an arc of 20 degrees or l e s s ( 1 ) , " P a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d " - The p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d are defined as those  2  who  have  b e t t e r  remaining  eye  with  " B a s i c defined  to  supporting f o r  v i s u a l  a c u i t y  best  p o s s i b l e  the  P h y s i c a l  S k i l l s "  encompass  running,  one's  weight  d i s t a n c e ,  own  jumping  f o r  " P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g method and  emphasizes  the  c h i l d  s k i l f u l n e s s  the  then  and  -  c o r r e c t i o n In  t h i s  changing  arms,  height  and  hopping  method"  f  s  -  The  i n i t i a l  together  b a s i c  d i r e c t i o n  the  20/70  and  the  movement  w h i l e  throwing, on  r e a c t i o n  one  to  running,  are  balance, jumping  f o o t . or  problem-solving  a c t i v i t y .  d i f f e r e n t  s k i l l s  w a l k i n g ,  c h i l d - c e n t e r e d  through  i n  (2).  study  with  c h i l d  work  20/200  between  The  teacher  t o  develop  a c t i v i t i e s  confidence.  D e l i m i t a t i o n s 1.  This  education  Grade  programme The  study  One  b l i n d  and  of  Although programmes  f o r  has  where  2.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n  some  study  only  the there  sighted  and  b l i n d  and  r e f e r s  are  of  c h i l d r e n  p o s s i b l y  have  approach  which  s p e c i a l has  a  p a r t i c u l a r approach  s p e c i f i c  group  p h y s i c a l  was  of  used.  c h i l d r e n ,  namely,  c h i l d r e n .  proved  the  (3,  are  e v a l u a t i o n and  4)  b l i n d  parameters no  programmes  known f o r  One  t r a i n i n g  a d u l t s  between  studies  Grade  of  ($)  and  normally-  on  the  (6-9  years)  c h i l d r e n .  only  needs  on  f i t n e s s  there  (6),  education  not  s t u d i e s  c h i l d r e n  various  p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d  These  to  several  c h i l d r e n  p h y s i c a l  one  problem-solving  n o r m a l l y - s i g h t e d  comparison  b l i n d  to  Study  the  of  the  l i m i t e d  p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d  on  e v a l u a t i o n  been  have  which  very  the  could  valuable  needs be f o r  met  of by  normal using  c h i l d r e n a  but  problem-solving  n o r m a l l y - s i g h te d  Grade  One  3 children. Limitations 1.  Film loops were not complete f o r each c h i l d f o r every  objective t e s t . difficulties, 2.  Gaps were caused by i l l n e s s of children,  technical  and equipment and f a c i l i t y u n a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The physical appearance, dress and l o c a t i o n of f i l m i n g were  features impossible to control from the pre-programme to the postprogramme t e s t . 3.  There was no control group used i n the evaluation.  Originally,  a Grade Two b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d class of s i m i l a r age range was to be the control group but on t e s t i n g they proved to be more p h y s i c a l l y s k i l f u l and experienced than the Grade One c l a s s .  They were also an  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y brighter group, and i t was f e l t that a f i n a l  comparison  could not be made. 4»  On the f i r s t t e s t there were communication problems introduced  by the children's i n a b i l i t y to understand the required performance. Better post-programme performances might have been due to t h e i r increased capacity t o appreciate the t e s t requirements. 5.  Although objective t e s t items were used i n the evaluation,  the actual numerical scores were not considered as important as the q u a l i t a t i v e improvement i n the performance of these t e s t s , as seen i n the f i l m loops.  4 REFERENCES"  1.  Dunn, Lloyd M., Exceptional Children i n the Schools. New Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1964,  p.  York,  414•  2.  Dunn, l o c . c i t .  3.  Cureton, T.K., "Improving the Physical Fitness of Youth", Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Develpm.. 1964, V o l . 29, No. 4, ( S e r i a l #95), p. 221. Jokl, Ernst, "Physical A c t i v i t y and Body Composition: Fatness and Fitness", In Body Composition Part I I . Ed., J . Brozek, Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. September 1963, pp. 778-794*  4.  5.  Cratty, Bryant, and Williams, Harriet, "Perceptual Thresholds of Non-Visual Locomotion Part I I " , Department of Physical Education, Monograph 1966, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles: NIH Grant No. NB05577-0251.  6.  B u e l l , Charles, Motor Performance of V i s u a l l y Handicapped Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edwards Brothers Inc.,  1950.  Children,  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  In the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, a general attempt has been made t o d i r e c t the reader's attention to the general purposes of physical education f o r normal children and t o apply these concepts to the physical needs of b l i n d children.  F i n a l l y , the s p e c i f i c content of e x i s t i n g  programmes of physical education f o r b l i n d primary children has been discussed and t h e i r inadequacies  revealed.  The Need f o r Physical Education f o r Blind and P a r t i a l l y - S i g h t e d Children "What does i t do to a c h i l d never t o have had the opportunity t o chase a b u t t e r f l y ? or never t o have been able t o read "The Three L i t t l e Pigs"....?"  (1).  In other words, what difference t o the child's t o t a l  personality does an imbalance i n "input" from the senses r e a l l y make? A very clear picture of b l i n d children exploring i s given by Lucy Lunt i n " I f You Make a Noise I Can't See" (2), "Fingers, f i n g e r s , fingers.  Soft prying f i n g e r s .  relentless fingers.  Searching f i n g e r s .  Squeezing, picking,  These are the fingers of l i t t l e b l i n d children.  The  ears and noses and hands and feet and tongues of the b l i n d "see" f o r them i n that they perceive and comprehend much that sighted children sweep up i n one nonchalant look". Dr. Howe (3), i n the Perkins Report of 1841, further emphasizes the nature of a c t i v i t y i n which b l i n d children should p a r t i c i p a t e : "Never check the actions of the c h i l d ; follow him, and watch him t o prevent any serious accidents, but do not i n t e r f e r e unnecessarily, do not even remove obstacles which he would l e a r n t o avoid by tumbling over them a few  6  times. Teach him to. jump rope, to swing weights, to r a i s e h i s body by his arms and to mingle, as f a r as possible, i n the rough sports of the older boys, and do not be apprehensive of h i s safety... Do not too much regard bumps upon the forehead, rough scratches or bloody noses, even these-may have t h e i r good influences. At the worst, they a f f e c t only the bark, and do not i n j u r e the system l i k e the rust of i n a c t i o n " . Joan Toomer ( 4 ) , i n "Learning Through Play" explains that blindness prevents children from reaching out and seizing objects a t t r a c t i v e to them, which i s how normal seeing children experience color, shape, texture and "movability".  A b l i n d c h i l d needs to have  scope to play and be shown the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of objects and above a l l , be allowed to manipulate objects himself. his imagination and widen his f i e l d of  His play needs to stimulate  experience.  General Physical Education Methodology The purposes and methods of modern physical education are rooted i n general education.  "The aim i s the same:  the maximum development  of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a democratic society i n accordance with his f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s " . ( 5 )  Physical education i s education  through movement but mere physical a c t i v i t y i s not the aim of physical education. ( 6 )  A c t i v i t y i s only the medium used by the physical  education teacher to a s s i s t i n the development of well-integrated personalities.  Thus, a c t i v i t i e s form the basis of the subject and are  not i t s essence. The problem solving child-centered approach to a c t i v i t y has proved to be the most useful and successful with young children, e s p e c i a l l y with those showing a wide v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  7 "Movement Education f o r Infants" (7)  explains that children must f i r s t  be allowed to explore, then they must be guided to discover ways to use t h e i r bodies and to f i n d out what they can do with various pieces of apparatus.  The teacher helps the children develop t h e i r p l a y - l i k e  a c t i v i t i e s i n t o more purposeful and s k i l f u l ones.  (8)  Mauldon and Layson  state, "In education the concept of the c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l i s now of prime importance....This i s a long process i n which exploring, experimenting, discovering, repeating, selecting and perfecting have t h e i r place".  They believe that teachers are working with children who  think, f e e l and do, so the term "physical" i s not concerned only with the body.  Physical Education f o r B l i n d Children A l l of the l i t e r a t u r e on blindness and b l i n d children states that a c t i v i t y and physical education d e f i n i t e l y have a place i n the education of a b l i n d c h i l d  ( 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 ) .  S p e c i f i c Physical Education Programmes f o r Blind and Partially-Sighted Primary Children Martha Speakman ( 1 5 ) provides some i n t e r e s t i n g , useful but l i m i t e d ideas f o r physical education programmes f o r b l i n d children.  She  suggests play-acting and make-believe a c t i v i t i e s , some simple dances and modified games.  She emphasizes the development of a sense of rhythm and  a wide use of music.  Some suggestions are given as to equipment f o r  playgrounds, playrooms and gymnasia.  Her aims and i d e a l s are most  valuable f o r programming, but she does not endeavor to suggest a s p e c i f i c programme.  8  Other  sources o f programmes f o r b l i n d c h i l d r e n m a i n t a i n a v e r y  f o r m a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , games approach t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n which, a c c o r d i n g t o p r e v i o u s a u t h o r s , does n o t f u l f i l t h e c r e a t i v e , e x p l o r a t o r y a s p e c t n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e r i c h e s t and f u l l e s t e x p e r i e n c e s p o s s i b l e f o r primary b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d  children.  C a t h r y n P o l l o c k (16) i n "A Study o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programs f o r t h e B l i n d * proposes 1  games, f o l k and modern dance, f o r m a l apparatus and  t u m b l i n g e v e n t s , s t o r y p l a y s , swimming, s i n g i n g games, b a l l s k i l l s , t r a c k and f i e l d , t r i c y c l i n g and r o l l e r s k a t i n g f o r lower l e v e l s - w i t h no further discussion.  C h a r l e s B u e l l (17) i n "Motor Performances o f  V i s u a l l y Handicapped C h i l d r e n " o u t l i n e s t h e elementary  p h y s i c a l education  programme content o f n i n e d i f f e r e n t U n i t e d S t a t e s s c h o o l s f o r t h e b l i n d . G i r l s a r e o f f e r e d r e l a y s and games, t u m b l i n g and apparatus, f o l k dances, c a l i s t h e n i c s , marching, t r a c k and f i e l d ,  swimming and S o f t b a l l .  The  boys r e c e i v e f o o t b a l l and w r e s t l i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above programme. Mr. W i l e y W. T a y l o r (18) found i n h i s s t u d y o f s e l e c t e d b l i n d  schools  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t most o f t h e s c h o o l s had a f o r m a l programme o f games and c a l i s t h e n i c s . important  He q u e s t i o n s whether c a l i s t h e n i c s s h o u l d be so  f o r v i s u a l l y handicapped  c h i l d r e n as t h e r e i s not much mental  and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n r o u t i n e and i n d i v i d u a l e x e r c i s e s .  9  REFERENCES  1.  Lemkau, P a u l V., "The I n f l u e n c e o f Handicapping C o n d i t i o n s on C h i l d Development", C h i l d r e n , M a r c h - A p r i l , 1961, V o l , 8, No. 2,  pp. 43-47. 2.  Lunt, Lucy, I f You Make a Noise  I Can't See, London, E n g l a n d ,  V i c t o r G o l l a n c z L t d . , 1965,  113.  p.  3.  Howe, Samuel G.,  4.  Toomer, Joan, " L e a r n i n g Through P l a y " , New January,  P e r k i n s Report of 1841,  1965,  pp.  p.  7« Outlook f o r t h e  Blind,  24-26.  5.  D a n i e l s , A.S., and D a v i e s , E.A., Adapted P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Harper and Row, 1965, p. 18.  6.  Department of E d u c a t i o n , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Primary New  South Wales, A u s t r a l i a ,  I960,  Schools,  10.  p.  7.  London County C o u n c i l , Movement E d u c a t i o n f o r I n f a n t s ,  8.  Mauldon, E . , and Layson, J . , Teaching  9.  Macdonald and Evans L t d . , 1965, p . X I . Frampton, M e r l e E., E d u c a t i o n of t h e B l i n d , New and World I n c . , 1940, p. 175.  10.  p.  1964.  Gymnastics, London, England,  O b e r t e u f f e r , D e l b e r t , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New  1956,  York,  York, H a r c o u r t ,  York, Harper  Brace  Brothers,  30.  11.  Speakman, Martha T., R e c r e a t i o n f o r B l i n d C h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n s (No. 172). U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f Labor, Washington Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1927, p. 67.  12.  Pearson, K a t h l e e n , " T a k i n g a New Look a t P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n " , New Outlook f o r t h e B l i n d , November, 1965, pp. 315-317.  13.  T a y l o r , W.W., "Those Who Can't See Need P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Most", J.O.H.P.E.R., May, 1952, V o l . 23, No. 5, p. 20.  14.  Sherman, A l a n , "Winter S p o r t s and R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s a t P e r k i n s " , New  Outlook f o r t h e B l i n d , V o l . 39,  1945,  p.  7.  15.  Speakman, l o c . c i t .  16.  P o l l o c k , Cathryn, "A Study o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programs f o r t h e B l i n d " , Boston U n i v e r s i t y , Sargent C o l l e g e , May 15, 1962, an u n p u b l i s h e d E d u c a t i o n 496 p a p e r .  10  17*  B u e l l , Charles, Motor Performances of V i s u a l l y Handicapped Children, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edwards Brothers Inc., 1950.  18.  Taylor, W.W., "Physical Education f o r the Blind and Partially-Sighted", Master of Arts Thesis (Unpublished), Ohio State University, 1951»  CHAPTER  III  J  METHODS  AND  PROCEDURES  I n t r o d u c t i o n The e f f e c t s  i n t e n t i o n  of  a  p h y s i c a l  p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d consisted or  three  of  e f f i c a c y  was of  a  the  c h i l d r e n  week  was  to  introduce  programme  f o r  at  Jericho  hour  to  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  from  September,  evaluated  the  study  education  one-half  times  programme  of  using  programme  i n  three  H i l l  nine  of  to  c r i t e r i a  an  evaluate One  The  to  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  b l i n d  and  s e s s i o n s ,  two  This  1966.  order  the  programme  hour  March, i n  to  Grade  S c h o o l .  1965  improving  and  determine  and  b a s i c  the p h y s i c a l  s k i l f u l n e s s .  Nature  of  the  The  problem-solving  considered such  Programme  to  v a r i a b l e  be  the  most  degrees  of  method, s u i t a b l e  blindness  o r i g i n a l l y approach and  conceived  f o r  other  i n  t e a c h i n g  p h y s i c a l ,  England,  c h i l d r e n  emotional  was w i t h  and  s o c i a l  handicaps.  Nature  of  the  The at  Jericho  to  a  group H i l l "B»  1. y e a r s ) .  Group  He  f o s t e r  His  home  i s  His  teacher  "cry-baby"  was  School was  has  and  him  of  are  March  at  the The  18,  c h i l d r e n  b l i n d  medical a  l o t  of  since  they  the  Grade  September  b i r t h .  are  team of  i n  One  c l a s s  below:  (as  1958  moment  demanding  f r e q u e n t l y .  nine  described  p a r t i a l l y  A l b e r t a .  found very  who  born  been  home i n  composed  At  him  a t t e n t i o n  he  -  and  p l a y i n g  7-5  was  adopting  a l e r t and  1965  b i r t h  considering  found  1,  given  him.  f r i e n d l y . the  12 2. years).  "C" was bom  August 2d, 1959  (as of September 1, 1965  -  6-0  She i s t o t a l l y b l i n d , having had r e t i n a blastoma that required  eye removal at ten months of age. distant B r i t i s h Columbia town.  "C" comes from a broken home i n a  Her teacher found her lazy but quite  intelligent. 3.  "D" was born January 7, 1958  (as of September 1, 1965 -  7-8  years) with congenital cataracts caused by maternal r u b e l l a i n the t h i r d month of pregnancy.  This i s her second year i n Grade One.  f o r her age and underweight.  She i s small  "D" has been i n several f o s t e r homes with  her present home s i t u a t i o n being very insecure.  Her teacher found her  very i n t e l l e c t u a l l y slow with a severe communication problem that does not allow her to follow i n s t r u c t i o n s . 4.  "E" was born February 8, 1959  (as of September I , 1965  -  6-7  years) p a r t i a l l y b l i n d i n h i s right eye and completely b l i n d i n h i s l e f t eye.  The medical examination found him to be somewhat mentally retarded  with some lack of co-ordination. He i s one of seven children who i n very d i f f i c u l t f i n a n c i a l circumstances i n Alberta. and loved by h i s parents i n a r e l a t i v e l y happy home.  live  He i s respected He was  completely  lacking i n any outside experiences, e.g. no experience with e l e c t r i c l i g h t s or running water, cars or buses, and had some unusual personal habits, e.g. smoked cigarettes, pipes and chewed tobacco when he a r r i v e d . 5.  "H" was born December 11, 1958  (as of September 1, 1965  years) p a r t i a l l y b l i n d because of damage to v i s u a l nerves.  6-11  His sight i s  completely peripheral and he has made good use of what he has. above average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e .  -  He i s  He has been i n numerous foster homes  where he was completely r e s t r i c t e d as to movement, e.g. t i e d to h i s chair.  13 The present family i s of the Jehovah Witness f a i t h and attend l a t e evening church services frequently and so "H" i s often p h y s i c a l l y exhausted i n school. 6.  "L" was born February 3, 1957  years) and weighed three pounds. syndrome.  (as of September 1 , 1965 - 8-7  He i s a t y p i c a l example of the r u b e l l a  This f r a i l c h i l d has a very lengthy and involved medical  history because of open heart surgery, several eye operations and psychological and p s y c h i a t r i c sessions.  He i s defined as a c h i l d with  multiple physical handicaps with emotional overlay possibly caused by an overly-protective foreign grandmother and no experiences with a mother or father or other children before the school s i t u a t i o n .  This c h i l d has  been allowed only l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y . 7« 1965).  "M" i s approximately seven years of age (as of September 1 ,  He i s completely b l i n d with one p l a s t i c eye since three years.  "M'^s blindness has upset the parents very much and he was sent back t o t h e i r native European country.  Not long before September, 1 9 6 5 he was  brought back and presented at Jericho H i l l , a frightened, timid and non-English speaking boy.  He i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y bright c h i l d lacking  any confidence i n himself. 8.  " R i " was born August  23,  1958  (as of September  years) and weighed three pounds twelve ounces.  1,  I965  -  7-0  He i s a ward of the  Province of Alberta and has had numerous f o s t e r homes - the l a s t one a cruel and s a d i s t i c family from which he and four others were removed. At present he i s with an excellent family and appears quite happy. Psychological examinations showed that he was s l i g h t l y below normal i n intelligence.  He appeared very frightened. His teacher found him very  14  e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d and immature i n personal and s o c i a l behaviour.  The  medical examination reported only l i g h t perception but the teacher f e e l s he sees quite w e l l . 9.  "Ro" was born March 23, 1958  years) and has been b l i n d since b i r t h .  (as of September 1, 1965 -  7-5  This i s h i s second year i n  Grade One, and he i s s t i l l not t o i l e t t r a i n e d .  The medical report found  him slow i n independent action and requiring more physical a c t i v i t y .  The  teacher f i n d s him retarded i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , s o c i a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y . Programme Content 1.  Orientation - a "getting-to-know-you" session with fun and  games i n t h e i r own surroundings. (2 sessions) 2.  Physical Education A c t i v i t i e s : (a)  Body awareness, body management: basic physical s k i l l s of walking, s i t t i n g , running; the r e l a t i o n s h i p of body parts; the p r i n c i p l e s of space, weight, time and f o r c e . (5  (b)  sessions)  Stretching, p u l l i n g , t w i s t i n g : with the aim of body awareness and shape, alternate relaxation and tension. (3  (c)  sessions)  Small apparatus: bean bags, b a l l s , hoops, skipping ropes, s k i t t l e s , ribbons; t o extend the basic body movements and t o practise the basic s k i l l s of catching, throwing, kicking, hopping, jumping, skipping, etc. with equipment.  To f a c i l i t a t e  catching, throwing and kicking by the b l i n d  15  c h i l d r e n , l a r g e , b r i g h t colored woollen  balls  were made. (8 (d)  sessions)  Large equipment: p o l e s , mats, l a d d e r s , c h a i r s , boxes, Cave-Southampton c l i m b i n g apparatus, v a r i a t i o n s o f a l l apparatus;  t o gain  and  experience  i n e x p l o r a t i o n ; t o c r e a t e i n d i v i d u a l ways o f moving and b u i l d i n g on t o t h e s e more complex ways, t o d e v e l o p t o t a l body s t r e n g t h and a g i l i t y by hanging, c l i m b i n g , p u s h i n g , p u l l i n g , (8 (e)  lifting.  sessions)  C r e a t i v e movement t o music: w i t h t h e emphasis on freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n ; u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f "homemade" p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s ; s m a l l ; f a s t , slow; t a l l ,  developing  i n (big,  s h o r t ; round, sharp)  movement and awareness o f body e x p r e s s i o n i n movement. (5 (f)  sessions)  Water a c t i v i t i e s : as an i n i t i a t i v e t o a new dimension i n which one c a n move; t o use b a l l s and v a r i o u s f l o a t s t o maneuver i n t h e water; t o have f u n and move f r e e l y . (8  (g)  sessions)  Trampoline: as another medium i n which t o move, experience,  p r a c t i s e and g a i n  confidence;  i n d i v i d u a l l y g e t t i n g on and o f f and t h e n  16 presenting  a social  co-operating  situation  i n producing  of  three  A c t i v i t i e s with a normal seeing activities  sessions)  c r e a t i v e dance in  sighted  class:  integration  children i n a variety  (small -  apparatus, individually  with  physical  apparatus,  and t h e n  performed  groups).  A visit  to  involving  Santa a large  escalator, Santa  hordes  Claus and h i s  reindeer:  of p e o p l e ,  a  a large  C l a u s , f e e l i n g and d i s c o v e r i n g for  Running and w a l k i n g f r e e l y lesson,  if  at  experimenting hanging, sitting  on,  w i t h one l e g ,  and f i n d  visit  ride,  stairs  -  "reindeer",  session) included i n  walking  curbs,  hydrants;  i.e.  "skin-the-cat",  " u p s i d e down",  and gardens;  backwards,  a new way d o w n ,  an  store,  climbing along a l l i n different  e x p l o r i n g f l o w e r beds outside  and f i r e  with guard r a i l s ,  balances  car  out-of-doors;  a l l possible;  climbing retaining walls  a  themselves. (1  every  session)  shopping center,  buying refreshments  (j)  of  large  (1 (i)  four  movement. (7  (h)  or  games w i t h  two-by-two,  etc.  ways;  to  the  top  17  Evaluation 1.  Objective Tests - Representative t e s t s of b a s i c  physical  s k i l l s were chosen from t h o s e o f F l e i s h m a n (1) and O s e r e t s k y (2), as shown below: i. ii. iii,  iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii.  xiii.  2.  leg l i f t s  - number performed i n one minute,  s t a n d i n g broad jump - b e s t one of t h r e e  trials,  b a r hang - number o f seconds h e l d i n a bent-arm hang p o s i t i o n . c h i n s - number performed. S o f t b a l l throw - d i s t a n c e i n f e e t . rope jump - 9"  o f f ground.  one f o o t hop - time t a k e n t o hop  15'.  40 y a r d o u t s i d e r u n - time i n seconds. s h u t t l e r u n (3x10  y d s ) - time i n seconds.  dash (10 yd) - time i n seconds. maze t r a c i n g - f i l m e d o n l y .  (See F i g u r e  1).  b a l a n c e - time i n seconds o f l e n g t h w i s e and t i m e of c r o s s w i s e b a l a n c e s h e l d w i t h b o t h f e e t on one beam. (See F i g u r e 2). t o e t a p p i n g - number o f complete s e r i e s performed i n one minute w i t h a s e l e c t e d f o o t ( w i t h t h e same apparatus as above, t u r n e d sideways and t h e s u b j e c t s were s e a t e d ) .  F i l m Loops - F i l m l o o p s o f t h e above o b j e c t i v e t e s t  performances  were made f o r e v a l u a t i o n by e l e v e n e x p e r t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . An Improvement Check L i s t objective test item.  (Appendix A) was  c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each  These were e v a l u a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e w i t h  each t e s t i t e m c o n t a i n i n g from two t o seven c a t e g o r i e s , depending upon  18  Figure  side view  Figure  2.  1.  Maze Tracing  top view  Balance - Lengthwise and Crosswise  19 the  nature of the t e s t . The e x p e r t s were g i v e n a f o l d e r w i t h an Improvement Check L i s t  f o r each c h i l d and f o r each o b j e c t i v e  test item.  were shown t o t h e e x p e r t s a t one s e s s i o n .  A l l the f i l m loops  They were n o t t o l d which  performance was t h e pre-programme t e s t o r which performance was t h e post-programme t e s t .  They were t h e n asked t o e v a l u a t e t h e b e t t e r  performance and t o check t h e degree o f improvement on t h e check  list.  The degrees o f improvement were as f o l l o w s : Worse, None, M a r g i n a l , Obvious and Great - s c o r i n g f o u r and f i v e p o i n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  one, two, t h r e e ,  An improvement s c o r e was t h e n  c a l c u l a t e d f o r each c h i l d on each t e s t f o r each r a t e r a f t e r  correction  f o r r a t e r - t e s t i t e m i n t e r a c t i o n and h a l o e f f e c t s o f t h e r a t e r - r a t e e i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as r e s i d u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . c a l c u l a t e d a f t e r t h e manner o f G u i l f o r d (3),  These c o r r e c t i o n s and t h e f i n a l  were  corrected  mean r a t e r s c o r e f o r each c h i l d on each t e s t i s shown i n T a b l e X I I I . 3. the  Classroom Teacher's Report - The p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r made throughout t h e y e a r i n d i c a t e d what she  believed  t o be t h e i n f l u e n c e  and on t h e group as a whole.  o f t h e programme on p a r t i c u l a r  children  20 REFERENCES 1.  Fleishman, E.A., The Structure and Measurement of Physical Fitness. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964,  pp. 76-91.  2.  3.  Costa, M.I.L., Fosa, E.J., D o l l , E.A., "The Oseretsky Tests", Training School B u l l e t i n . Vineland, N.J., July 29, pp. 1-48. G u i l f o r d , J.P., Psychometric Methods. Second E d i t i o n , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1954, Chapter XI.  1946,  CHAPTER  IV  RESULTS  The r e s u l t s are presented under the three evaluative aspects of the programme: 1.  Objective physical t e s t items given before and a f t e r the  programme are shown i n Tables I to XII.  I t must be remembered that these  data represent only raw scores, since no r e l i a b i l i t y measurements were obtained and some children made poor scores on the o r i g i n a l t e s t s , thus making the significance of any improvement impossible to be  determined.  Some improvements may be due to better i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the children of test i n s t r u c t i o n s . It may be seen from the tables that a l l children showed improvement i n many of the t e s t s and only i n r e l a t i v e l y few of the tests d i d performances remain the same.  In no item was there a decrement i n  performance i n the second t e s t . The Chins (Table IV) and Rope Jump (Table VI)Items seem to be unsuitable as discriminatory t e s t s f o r t h i s type of c h i l d , since t h e i r scoring i s only pass or f a i l and f o r most children no i n i t i a l score could be obtained. 2.  Film loops of objective test items f o r each c h i l d were produced,  including pre-programme and post-programme performances.  These loops were  evaluated subjectively f o r improvement by eleven experts i n the f i e l d of physical education.  The f i n a l corrected mean rater score f o r each c h i l d  on each t e s t i s shown i n Table X I I I .  Since a rater score of three  represents marginal improvement i n the test items, t h i s table shows that a i l the children made marginal improvement on the majority of the t e s t s .  TABLE, i :  LEG LIFTS - NUMBER PERFORMED IN ONE MINUTE Before  After  Comment  "B"  14  17  Improvement  "C"  13  16  Improvement  "D"  13  15  Improvement  "E"  13  18  Improvement  "H"  10  11  Improvement  "L"  Absent  Absent  12  12  Same  "Ri"  14  16  Improvement  "Ro"  8  12  Improvement  TABLE  II.  STANDING BROAD JUMP - DISTANCE IN INCHES Before  After  Comment  "B"  29"  36"  Improvement  "C"  26"  30"  Improvement  »D"  9"  20"  Improvement  »E"  34"  36"  Improvement  "H"  27"  35"  Improvement  »L"  Absent  Absent  4i"  15"  Improvement  "Ri"  34"  35"  Improvement  "Ro"  17"  18"  Improvement  ifj/[«t  TABLE I I I  BAR HANG - NUMBER OF SECONDS Before "B" "C"  5  After  7  sec  0  sec  Comment Improvement  1 sec  Improvement  »»D"  1 sec  8 sec  Improvement  "E"  1 sec  3  sec  Improvement  3  sec  Improvement  "H"  0  "L"  0  0  Same  0  0  Same  "Ri" "Ro"  2  3  sec  sec  1 sec  0  TABLE  Improvement Improvement  IV  CHINS - NUMBER PERFORMED Before  After  Comment  "B"  0  1  Improvement  "C"  0  0  Same  «»D"  0  0  Same  «E"  0  0  Same  »H"  0  0  Same  »L"  0  0  Same  «M>«  0  0  Same  "Ri"  0  0  Same  "Ro"  0  0  Same  24  TABLE V SOFTBALL THROW - DISTANCE IN FEET Before  After  Comment  "B"  161  24'  Improvement  "C"  15  18»  Improvement  »D"  15'  21'  Improvement  "E"  15'  331  Improvement  tt tt  13'  22»  Improvement  «L"  Absent  Absent  H  1  5'  V  Improvement  "Ri"  18'  30»  Improvement  "Ro"  20»  21'  Improvement  TABLE VI ROPE JUMP - 9" CLEARED OR NOT CLEARED Before  After  Comment  "B"  Successful  Successful  Same  "C"  Successful  Successful  Same  "D"  Not successful  Successful  Improvement  "E"  Successful  Successful  Same  "H"  Successful  Successful  Same  "L"  Absent  Absent  Not successful  Successful  Improvement  "Ri"  Successful  Successful  Same  "Ro"  Not successful  Almost successful  Improvement  25 TABLE VII  ONE FOOT HOP - TIME IN SECONDS FOR 15» Before  After  Comment  "B"  6 sec  4  sec  Improvement  "C"  12 sec  8  sec  Improvement  6 sec  Improvement  5  Improvement  "D" "E"  Poor hopping 7 sec  7 sec  "H"  Could not hop  "L"  Absent  "M"  Could not hop  "Ri" "Ro"  sec  5 sec  Improvement  Absent 9 sec  Improvement  3.8 sec  3.5  Improvement  9 sec  7  sec  sec  Improvement  TABLE V I I I FORTY YARD OUTSIDE RUN - TIME IN SECONDS Before "B"  13.3 sec  «C"  23.5  "D"  24.1 sec  ««E"  24.3  sec  "H"  15.0  sec  "L"  Absent  sec  26.1 sec "Ri"  21  "Ro"  23.2  sec sec  Comment  After  8  sec  Improvement  20.0 sec  Improvement  13  Improvement  sec  8.0 sec  12.0  sec  Improvement Improvement  Absent  20.0 sec  Improvement  11.0 sec  Improvement  20.0 sec  Improvement  26 TABLE IX  SHUTTLE RUN (3x10  yds) - TIME IN SECONDS  Before  After  "B"  13.4 sec  11.1 sec  Improvement  »»C"  28.5 sec  16.2  sec  Improvement  "D"  22.9  17.8  sec  Improvement  »E"  19.5 sec  »H"  20.7 sec  «L"  18.2 sec  Absent  tiM"  47.5 sec  15.8  "Ri"  17.4 sec  16.1 sec  Improvement  "Ro"  23.5 sec  17.0  Improvement  sec  13  TABLE  Comment  sec  Improvement  16.0 sec  Improvement  sec  sec  Improvement  X.  BALANCE - TIME IN SECONDS FOR LENGTHWISE BALANCE, CROSSWISE BALANCE Before »»B" "C" «»D"  1 c  -  1  _  c  —  1 c  "E"  1 c  »H"  1 c  t»L"  1 c  -  —  -  2 sec 4 sec 1 sec 4 sec 0 sec 0 sec 2 sec 2 sec 0 sec 0 sec 0 sec 1 sec  After  1  _  c  —  1  —  c  1 c  1 c  1 c  1 c  4 sec 10 sec 3 sec 9 sec 1 sec 1 sec _ 2 sec - 3 sec 0 sec - 1 sec 0 sec - 3 sec —  — —  Comment Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Same Improvement Same Improvement Same Improvement  Cont'd  Before  After  1 - 0 sec c - 0 sec  1 - 0 sec c - 2 sec  Same Improvement  "Ri"  1 - 2 sec c - 2 sec  1 - 2 sec c - 4 sec  Same Improvement  "Ro"  1 - 0 sec c - 0 sec  1 - 0 sec c - 1 sec  Same Improvement  Comment  TABLE XI TOE TAPPING - NUMBER OF COMPLETE SERIES OF TAPS TO ONE SIDE OF RAISED BOARD AND BACK AGAIN IN THIRTY SECONDS Before  After  Comment  «B"  16  20  Improvement  "C"  7  17  Improvement  "D"  4  11  Improvement  "E»  7  10  Improvement  "H»  8  10  Improvement  »L"  9  10  Improvement  ttjjn  5  10  Improvement  "Ri"  9  17  Improvement  "Ro"  3  9  Improvement  TABLE XII. DASH (10 yd) - TIME IN SECONDS Before  After  Comment  "B"  4*7 sec  3.3 sec  Improvement  "C"  8.2 sec  4.2 sec  Improvement  "D"  5.2 sec  4.9 sec  Improvement  "E"  3.4 sec  3.0 sec  Improvement  "H"  5.1 sec  3.8 sec  Improvement  "L"  Absent  nji»«  10.8 sec  5.1 sec  Improvement  "Ri"  4.6 sec  4*1 sec  Improvement  "Ro"  7.4 sec  4.9 sec  Improvement  Absent  TABLE  XIII  i  MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE FINAL SCORES AFTER CORRECTION FOR RATER-TEST ITEM INTERACTION, HALO EFFECTS AND RESIDUAL INTERACTIONS  CHILD TEST ITEM  "B" Mean  «»C" SD  1.  Leg L i f t s  3.8  2:  Broad Jump  3.4 0.5  Mean  SD  "D" Mean  SD  »E" Mean  »H" SD  Mean  0.4 2.9 0.4 3.0 0.5 3.9 0.4  "Ri" SD  Mean  SD  Bar Hang and Chins  4.  Throw  3.9 0.3 2.0 0.3 2.2 0.3 4.4 0.4 2.5 0.3 2.1 0.5  5.  Rope Jump  2.8  6.  One Foot Hop  7.  40 yd. Outside Run  8.  Shuttle Run  9.  Maze  3.2 0.4 2.1 0.4 4.5 0.4 2.5 0.3 3.6 0.4 2.8 0.6 2.8 0.4 3.4 0.4 3.6 0.3 3.0 0.3 3.4 0.4 2.7 0.3  Side & Front Balance  3.5 0.6  10. 11.  Toe Tapping  3.8  3.8  SD  0.2 2.9 0.2 3.4 0.2 2.3 0.2  0.3 2.3 0.3 3.6 0.4 2.2 0.3 2.4 0.3 3.5 0.2  Mean  3.1 0.4  3.  0.2 1.9 0.1  SD  3.1 0.4 2.2 0.5  3.3 0.5 2.8  Mean  "Ro"  2.9 0.3  0.3 4.5 0.2 3.1 0.3  3.4 0.2  3.5 0.4 3.0 0.4 3.7 0.4 1.7 0.3 2.6 0.3 1.8 0.3  2.5 0.5 2.9 0.5  3.4 0.7  2.5 0.5  30 The classroom teacher's evaluation at the conclusion of the programme (a successful teacher f o r f i f t e e n years with a Grade One b l i n d class) was given as follows: " With handicapped children I often f i n d that the lack of co-ordination i s a serious problem. They are expected t o read and write even though t h e i r co-ordination i s poor, t h e i r movements immature, and t h e i r span of attention short. A good physical education programme started at t h i s time would help develop the muscles needed, help them gain s e l f confidence and give them a sense of pleasure and well-being. The short programme given t h i s year d i d help the pupils i n these areas. I t was a new experience f o r most of the group and the r e s u l t s were very s a t i s f a c t o r y . " Her c l i n i c a l reports on i n d i v i d u a l children were as follows: " B» enjoyed the a c t i v i t i e s and although timid at f i r s t , gained confidence. This, with improved co-ordination, helped h i s school work. T  •C* i s a very normal b l i n d c h i l d . activities.  She enjoyed a l l the  »D» i s a slow learner, a very timid c h i l d . I t took a long time f o r her to t r y the a c t i v i t i e s but she gained confidence as she t r i e d . This helped her other school work. •E* i s a slow learner. Physical a c t i v i t i e s gave him an opportunity to show he can be successful. *H has an emotional problem. He enjoyed the a c t i v i t i e s and gained confidence and co-ordination. I t helped both his writing and h i s reading. f  'L* was not able t o complete the programme because of a serious heart condition, and he d i d enjoy the part he could do. *M was very unsure of himself at the beginning of the year. The physical education programme helped him gain confidence and co-ordination. f  R i * gained a great measure of self-confidence t h i s year. The swimming a c t i v i t i e s contributed t o t h i s as he found that he could be successful and even better than some others. f  •Ro's co-ordination i s very poor. The extra physical education programme helped *Ro*s walking and gave him a sense of belonging."  CHAPTER  V  DISCUSSION The  children's performances i n those t e s t s where an  objective  score could be obtained (Tables I to XII) showed improvement i n raw scores i n most items. The general all-round improvement of the children, as indicated i n the f i n a l mean rater scores shown i n Table XIII, i s undoubted, although these improvements are only the r e s u l t of the  subjective  interpretations of the r a t e r s . Both the objective t e s t raw  scores and the q u a l i t y of improvement  of the children's movements are summarized i n the b r i e f i n d i v i d u a l reports on the children presented below: Child "L" was  eliminated  almost e n t i r e l y from t h i s part of the  programme, because of his numerous absences.  I t was  decided, also, that  h i s medical condition did not warrant his p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n such t e s t i n g procedures. Child "B" showed substantial improvement on a l l items. an active c h i l d who  He  was  enjoyed a l l forms of a c t i v i t y .  Child "C", who  was  t o t a l l y b l i n d , showed noticeable improvement  i n the q u a l i t y of movement performed. Child "D"  showed a wide range of r e s u l t s .  Those items involving  confidence were the ones i n which she improved, e.g. 40 yard outside run, rope jump, one foot hop,  maze t r a c i n g , and»the items involving  dexterity and a g i l i t y were the ones i n which she did not seem to improve, e.g. bar hang, throw, shuttle run, and toe tapping.  32 Child "E" also showed a wide range of r e s u l t s .  He showed  obvious improvement i n a number of items, e.g. throw, l e g l i f t s , broad jump, one foot hop and s h u t t l e . Child "H" was absent a great deal and so the r e s u l t s of eight tests are missing.  In those test items completed he showed obvious  improvement, e.g. one foot hop and bar hang. Child "M" was a t o t a l l y b l i n d , timid boy who showed great improvement.  The r e s u l t s here showed greater than marginal improvement  i n l e g l i f t s , bar hang, one foot hop, outside run, shuttle and toe tapping. Child " R i " missed seven t e s t s due to i l l n e s s .  The ones he  completed showed above marginal improvement i n broad jump and bar hang. Child "Ro" d i d not show much improvement.  This c h i l d d i d not  seem to benefit p h y s i c a l l y from the programme, although he d i d become more confident, more s o c i a l l y oriented and more able to assume a proper walking posture. F i n a l l y , the unqualified approval of the programme and i t s r e s u l t s by both the classroom teacher and Jericho H i l l ' s V i c e - P r i n c i p a l of  the Blind Department shows that i n t h e i r estimation the programme  was e f f e c t i v e .  CHAPTER  VI  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Summary The problem was t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f a programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t J e r i c h o H i l l S c h o o l f o r Grade One b l i n d and partially-sighted children.  The purpose o f t h e study was t o i n i t i a t e  a programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , d e v i s e d by t h e a u t h o r , f o r t h e Grade One b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d , and t o t e s t t h e p h y s i c a l  abilities  w i t h which t h e y began, and t o a s s e s s whether any change had t a k e n p l a c e at  t h e end o f t h e programme. The programme was approached i n a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g manner  encouraging interest.  t h e c h i l d r e n t o work a t t h e i r own l e v e l o f a b i l i t y and The aims o f t h e programme were t h e same as t h o s e f o r s i g h t e d  c h i l d r e n - w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on d e v e l o p i n g c o n f i d e n c e , enjoyment and b a s i c p h y s i c a l s k i l l s . 1.  General  2.  P h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t i e s : a b c d e f g h i j  T h i s programme extended or  The content o f t h e programme was as f o l l o w s : orientation  Body awareness, body management Stretching, pulling, twisting S m a l l apparatus Large equipment C r e a t i v e movement t o music Water a c t i v i t i e s Trampolining A c t i v i t i e s with a sighted class Santa Claus v i s i t Outdoor r u n n i n g and w a l k i n g f r o m September, 1965  t o March, 1966 w i t h two  t h r e e s e s s i o n s p e r week of o n e - h a l f hour t o t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f an hour  each.  34 Three evaluative measures were used to assess the effects of the programme: 1.  Objective Tests - Representative t e s t s of basic physical  s k i l l s were chosen. 2.  Film Loops - Film loops of the above objective t e s t  performances were made f o r evaluation by eleven experts i n physical education. 3.  Classroom Teacher's Report - The personal observations of the  classroom teacher made throughout the year attempted to indicate what she believed to be the influence of the programme on p a r t i c u l a r children and on the group as a whole.  Conclusions On the basis of the r e s u l t s shown i t may be concluded that the programme introduced to the b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d children was e f f e c t i v e i n developing basic physical s k i l l s and self-confidence. Re commendations Future studies i n t h i s area should establish evaluative procedures s i m i l a r to those introduced i n t h i s study.  Since the d i s t i n c t motor  d i s a b i l i t y caused by the handicap of blindness introduces great problems of recording objective t e s t scores, a f i l m evaluation i s e s s e n t i a l . However, great care must be taken to make c e r t a i n that standard procedures i n f i l m i n g are followed i n both the pre-and post-gramme testing. Other t e s t items may provide better discrimination between preand post-programme performances than those used i n t h i s study.  It i s  e s s e n t i a l t h a t c h i l d r e n must be able t o make some score i n i t i a l l y on any t e s t item chosen.  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Buell, Charles £., Motor Performance of V i s u a l l y Handicapped Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edwards Brothers Inc., 1950*  Children,  B u e l l , Charles E., Physical Education f o r B l i n d Children, S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , Charles C. Thomas, 1966. Cratty, Bryant; Williams, Harriet, "Perceptual Thresholds of Non-Visual Locomotion Part I I " , Department of Physical Education, Monograph 1966, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles: NIH Grant No. NB  05577-0251.  Cureton, T.K., "Improving the Physical Fitness of Youth", Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Develpm.. 1964, V o l . 29, No. 4, ( S e r i a l #95), pp. 221. Daniels, A.S., and Davies, E.A., Adapted Physical Education, New Second E d i t i o n , Harper and Row, 1965.  York,  Department of Education, Physical Education i n Primary Schools, New  Wales, A u s t r a l i a , I960,  South  Dunn, Lloyd M., Exceptional Children i n the Schools, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964* Fleishman, E.A., The Structure and Measurement of Physical Fitness, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., Prentice-Hall Inc., 1 9 6 4 . pp. 7 6 - 9 1 . Frampton, Merle E., Education of the Blind. New York, Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1940. G u i l f o r d , J.P., Psychometric Methods, Second E d i t i o n , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1954. Hunt, V a l e r i e , Recreation f o r the Handicapped, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. Prentice-Hall Inc., 1955, pp. 78-98. J o k l , Ernst, "Physical A c t i v i t y and Body Composition: Fatness and Fitness", In Body Composition Part I I . Ed., J . Brozek, Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, September 1963, pp. 778-794. London County Council, Movement Education f o r Infants, London, England,  1964.  Lowenfeld, Berthold, Our Blind Children, S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , Second E d i t i o n , Charles C. Thomas, 1964.  37 Lunt, Lucy, I f You Make a Noise I £an't See, London, V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1965. Mauldon, E., and Layson, J . , Teaching Gymnastics, London, England, Macdonaid and Evans Ltd., 1965. Oberteuffer, Deibert, Physical Education. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1956, p. 3. Willee, A.W., Small Apparatus f o r Primary School Physical Education. Melbourne University Press, 1955* PERIODICALS "Basic Concepts of Blind Children", a paper by students i n Orientation and M o b i l i t y Refresher course at Connecticut I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the B l i n d i n August, 1964, New Outlook f o r the Blind, December 1965,  pp. 341-343.  Lefkowitz, Leon, "Evaluating Physical Education Programs", New Outlook  f o r the Blind, A p r i l 1962, pp. 137-139.  Lemkau, Paul V., "The Influence of Handicapping Conditions on Child Development", Children. March-April 1961, V o l . 8, No. 2, pp.  43-47,  Lowenfeld, Greta, "Physical Education - A "Must" f o r Blind Pupils", New Outlook f o r the B l i n d . V o l . 39, 1945, p. 128. Pearson, Kathleen, "Taking a New Look at Physical Education", New Outlook f o r the B l i n d . November 1965, pp. 315-317. Pitham, Vera, "Reading Readiness", New Outlook f o r the Blind , November  1965, pp. 322-324.  Scott, Eileen, "What a B l i n d Baby Needs More Than Tender Loving Care", Maclean's, May 14, 1966, p. 14. Sherman, Alan, "Winter Sports and Recreational A c t i v i t i e s at Perkins", New Outlook f o r the Blind. V o l . 39, 1945, p. 7. Taylor, W.W., "Those Who Can't See Need Physical Education Most", V o l . 23, No. 5, JOHPER. (Journal of the American Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation), May 1952, p. 20. Toomer, Joan, "Learning Through Play", New Outlook f o r the Blind, January 1965, pp. 24-26.  38 UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Costa, M.I.L., Fosa, E.J., D o l l , E . A . , "The Oseretsky Tests", Training School B u l l e t i n , Vineland, N.J., J u l y 29, 1946, pp. 1Howe, Samuel G,, Perkins Report of 1841, p. 7» Jensen, Robert G., "An Evaluation of Physical Education f o r Elementary Schools", Master of Science unpublished Thesis, University of Utah, August 1962. Lefkowitz, Leon Joseph, "A Study of the Program of Physical Education i n Residential Schools f o r the Blind i n Selected States of Northeastern United States", Ed.D, Thesis, 1961, Columbia University, i n Physical Education. Pollock, Cathryn, "A Study of Physical Education Programs f o r the B l i n d " May 15, 1962, an unpublished Education 496 paper, Boston University, Sargent College, Taylor, W.W., "Physical Education f o r the Blind and P a r t i a l l y Sighted", Master of Arts Thesis, Ohio State University, 1951, unpublished  GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS  Speakman, Martha T., "Recreation f o r Blind Children", Children's Bureau Publications (No, 172), United States Department of Labor, Washington Government Printing O f f i c e , 1927*  PERSONAL INTERVIEW  Scott, Eileen, personal interview, August 1965. at the C.N.I.B., Vancouver, B.C.  Head S o c i a l Worker  APPENJD3X A  IMPROVEMENT'CHECK LIST  Worse 1.  LEG LIFTS: (a)  Knee Bent, uncontrolled t o straight emphasizing muscular strength  (b)  Rhythm Slow, lacking rhythm t o f a s t , having a steady rhythm  (c)  Control Sloppy, loose to legs together, straight, tense and precise  (d)  Height of L i f t Extremes of too high and too low to 30° + 5° as optimal  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT, CHECK LIST  Worse 2.  STANDING BROAD JUMP: (a)  I n i t i a l Stance Sloppy, feet apart, uncoordinated, tense to feet together composed, knees s l i g h t l y bent, relaxed  (b)  Preliminary Swings None, s t i f f , r i g i d t o bent knees and swinging arms coordinated  (c)  Distance (by calculation)  (d)  F l i g h t Position Poorly coordinated, i n e f f i c i e n t to legs tucked up, arms held high, high o f f the ground, e f f i c i e n t  (e)  Landing Uncontrolled, center of gravity, not over feet t o feet extension balanced  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 3.  BAR HANG, CHINS: (a)  Time:  (By c a l c u l a t i o n )  (b)  Position Bringing legs up, no resistance t o s t r a i g h t body, body e f f o r t displayed  (c)  Cheating Procedures Sneaking other aids to stay up - swinging, arm over bar to - correct g r i p of hands, stationary p o s i t i o n  (d)  Controlled Lowering Dropping o f f quickly to a b i l i t y t o control speed of body lowering  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 4.  THROW (a)  I n i t i a l Position Body facing forward to body facing sideways and weight on back foot  (b)  Actual Throwing Position Concerned with body r o t a t i o n a path of the b a l l before release t o moment of release  (c)  Arm Action Concerned with optimal "whip-lash" action with the arm going past the ear  (d)  Ball Flight E r r a t i c d i r e c t i o n control, along the ground, straight up tp_ straight ahead getting optimal height f o r the distance  (e)  Distance (By calculation)  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 5.  ROPE JUMP (a)  Approach Running, o f f one foot to standing on two f e e t  (b)  Gather f o r Jump No arm action, no bodyspring action to good arm swing, coordinated with l e g action  (c)  Jumping Style Two feet t o two f e e t , p o s i t i o n i n e f f i c i e n t i n the a i r t o one foot take-off efficient style  (d)  Air Flight No arm action t o a s s i s t f l i g h t , body going "along" instead of "up" t o arm action a s s i s t i n g f l i g h t , body goes straight up and then once rope i s cleared, comes straight down  (e)  Landing Using only  feet, no knee or body action, to three point landing usingTody as well  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 6.  ONE  FOOT HOP  (15»)  (a)  Arm Swing None to h e l p f u l swing f o r balance, height and d i r e c t i o n  (b)  Distance of Hop Low to high, getting o f f the ground, body l i f t from arms and l e g spring  (c)  Control of Free Leg Uncontrolled to controlled  (d)  Time (By calculation)  (e)  Use of Only One Leg Alternating legs, using two feet to complete hopping distance on one foot  (f)  Maintenance of Direction E r r a t i c , unbalanced to s t r a i g h t balanced, control  (g)  Foot Action S t i f f foot, or limp to spring from use of foot  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 7.  OUTSIDE RUN (40 yds) (a)  Time (By c a l c u l a t i o n  (b)  S t r i d e Length Short, jerky steps t o smooth s t r i d e  (c)  Arm Action None; reaching out to f e e l f o r objects to alternating pattern of arm swing  (d)  Coordination of Arm and Leg None t o good e f f e c t i v e coordination  (e)  Height of Leg L i f t Top much or too l i t t l e t o optimal f o r speed and e f f i c i e n t movement  U)  F r edom Confidence i n movement e  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 8.  SHUTTLE (a)  Turns Concerned with controlled deceleration and acceleration and e f f i c i e n c y of body p o s i t i o n  (b)  Appreciation of Test Wide turns, stopping t o f a s t , continuous running from point to point  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 9.  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  MAZE (a)  Balance Concerning a b i l i t y t o hold a p o s i t i o n on the equipment and progress along  (b)  Turn Negotiation Concerning a b i l i t y t o change direction effectively  (c)  General Confidence  (d)  Body Position Ineffective to e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e i n order to maintain balance  (e)  Time (By calculation)  •p-  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  •^orse 10.  BALANCE SIDE AND FRONT (a)  Body Position and General Coordination Concerning e f f e c t i v e use of arms, knees, f e e t , i n order to maintain a balanced position  (b)  General Confidence  (c)  Time (By calculation)  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST  Worse 11.  TOE TAPPING (a)  Height of L i f t Too high or not high enough to optimal l e v e l necessary to clear b a r r i e r  (b)  Number Done (By c a l c u l a t i o n  (c)  Foot Control Limp, non-directed t o controlled, directed  (d)  T o t a l Body Position Too tense or too limp, to relaxed, purposeful d i r e c t i o n of e f f o r t to control foot  None  Marginal  Obvious  Great  

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