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Evaluation of a physical education programme for grade one blind and partially-sighted children in a… Williams, Carol Inge 1967

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THE EVALUATION OF A PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME FOR GRADE ONE BLIND AND PARTIALLY-SIGHTED CHILDREN IN A RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND BLIND by CAROL INGE WILLIAMS B.P.E. The University of British Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ap r i l , 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the- L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of a programme of physical education for Grade One blind and p a r t i a l l y -sighted children at Jericho H i l l School, the British Columbia Provincial Residential School for the Deaf and Blind. The programme instituted was devised by the author i n a problem-solving, child-centered manner where the act i v i t i e s were performed at the level of interest and a b i l i t y of the individual child. The programme included the following a c t i v i t i e s : 1. Orientation 2. Physical Education Ac t i v i t i e s : The programme extended from September, 1965 to March, 1966 with two or three sessions per week lasting from one-half hour to three-quarters of .. an hour each. Three evaluative measures were used to assess the programme: 1. Objective scores from the pre- and post-programme tests were given where a numerical value could be assigned to these tests. 2. Film loops"'" of the objective test items were used to show pre-and post-programme performances. These were subjectively evaluated by eleven experts i n the f i e l d of physical education. (a (b (c (d (e (f (g (h ( i (j Body awareness Stretching, pulling, twisting Small equipment Large apparatus Creative movements to music Trampolining Water ac t i v i t i e s Outdoor running, walking V i s i t to Santa Claus Activities with a sighted class Stored i n the Library of the School of Physical Education and Recreation, The University of British Columbia. 3« The classroom teacher .reported on her personal record of the effect of the programme on individual children and on the group as a whole. The improved objective test scores, the film loop evaluation by the physical education experts, and the subjective evaluation of the classroom teacher and the Vice-Principal of the Blind Department showed that the programme was successful i n producing improvement i n the children, especially i n the areas of confidence and basic physical s k i l l development. 2 A f i l m was produced i n conjunction with the programme but not as an actual part of the study, showing various a c t i v i t i e s performed by the children throughout the year. This 23 minute black and white 16 mm fi l m was produced and t i t l e d by the author. 2 "Learn to See", available from the Extension Department, The University of British Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Purpose 1 Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1 Delimitations 2 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study 2 Limitations 3 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 The Need f o r Physical Education f o r B l i n d and P a r t i a l l y - S i g h t e d Children . . . 5 General Physical Education Methodology . . . . . . 6 P h y s i c a l Education f o r B l i n d Children 7 S p e c i f i c Physical Education Programmes f o r B l i n d and P a r t i a l l y - S i g h t e d Primary Children 7 II I METHODS AND PROCEDURES 11 Introduction 11 Nature of the Programme 11 Nature of the Group . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Programme Content 14 Evaluation 17 IV RESULTS 21 V DISCUSSION 31 CHAPTER PAGE . VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 33 Summary • 33 Conclusions 34 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 BIBLIOGRAPHY 36 APPENDIX A 39 LIST OF- TABLES TABLE PAGE I Leg L i f t s 22 II Standing Broad Jump 22 III Bar Hang 23 IV Chins 23 V Softball Throw 24 VI Rope Jump 24 VII One Foot Hop 25 VIII Forty Yard Outside Run 25 IX Shuttle Run (3x10 yds) 26 X Balance 26 XI Toe Tapping 27 XII Dash (10 yd) 28 XIII Means and Standard Deviations of the Final Scores After Correction for Rater-Test Item Interaction, Halo Effects and Residual. Interactions 29 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Maze Tracing . . . . . . . 18 2 Balance - Lengthwise and Crosswise . 18 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Problem The problem was to evaluate the effects of a programme of physical education at Jericho H i l l School for Grade One blind and partially-sighted children. Purpose ' The purpose of the study was to i n i t i a t e a programme of physical education, devised by the author, for the Grade One blind and pa r t i a l l y -sighted children, and to test the physical a b i l i t i e s with which they began, and to assess whether any change had taken place at the end of the programme. Subjects Nine Grade One children from Jericho H i l l School, four t o t a l l y blind, and the remainder with varying degrees of partial vision were used as subjects i n this study. Definition of Terms "Blind" - The definition of blindness accepted for economic and legal purposes and the one often used for educational purposes i s 20/200 or less i n the better eye with the best possible correction or restriction i n the f i e l d of vision to an angle subtending an arc of 20 degrees or less (1), "Partially-sighted" - The partially-sighted are defined as those 2 w h o h a v e r e m a i n i n g v i s u a l a c u i t y b e t w e e n 20/200 a n d 20/70 i n t h e b e t t e r e y e w i t h t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t i o n ( 2 ) . " B a s i c P h y s i c a l S k i l l s " - I n t h i s s t u d y b a s i c m o v e m e n t s k i l l s a r e d e f i n e d t o e n c o m p a s s r u n n i n g , c h a n g i n g d i r e c t i o n w h i l e r u n n i n g , b a l a n c e , s u p p o r t i n g o n e ' s o w n w e i g h t w i t h t h e a r m s , t h r o w i n g , w a l k i n g , j u m p i n g f o r d i s t a n c e , j u m p i n g f o r h e i g h t a n d h o p p i n g o n o n e f o o t . " P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e t h o d " - T h e c h i l d - c e n t e r e d o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e t h o d e m p h a s i z e s t h e c h i l d f s i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n t o a c t i v i t y . T h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e c h i l d t h e n w o r k t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o d e v e l o p s k i l f u l n e s s a n d c o n f i d e n c e . D e l i m i t a t i o n s 1 . T h i s s t u d y h a s b e e n l i m i t e d t o o n e p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e w h e r e t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h w a s u s e d . 2 . T h e s t u d y o n l y r e f e r s t o a s p e c i f i c g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n , n a m e l y , G r a d e O n e b l i n d a n d p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d c h i l d r e n . J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s t u d i e s o n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e s f o r n o r m a l l y - s i g h t e d c h i l d r e n (3, 4) a n d b l i n d a d u l t s ( $ ) a n d s o m e o n t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f v a r i o u s f i t n e s s p a r a m e t e r s b e t w e e n n o r m a l l y -s i g h t e d a n d b l i n d c h i l d r e n ( 6 ) , t h e r e a r e n o k n o w n s t u d i e s o n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s f o r G r a d e O n e (6-9 y e a r s ) b l i n d a n d p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d c h i l d r e n . T h e s e c h i l d r e n n o t o n l y h a v e t h e n e e d s o f n o r m a l c h i l d r e n b u t p o s s i b l y h a v e s p e c i a l n e e d s w h i c h c o u l d b e m e t b y u s i n g a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h w h i c h h a s p r o v e d v e r y v a l u a b l e f o r n o r m a l l y - s i g h t e d G r a d e O n e 3 children. Limitations 1 . Film loops were not complete for each child for every objective test. Gaps were caused by ill n e s s of children, technical d i f f i c u l t i e s , and equipment and f a c i l i t y unavailability. 2. The physical appearance, dress and location of filming were features impossible to control from the pre-programme to the post-programme test. 3 . There was no control group used i n the evaluation. Originally, a Grade Two blind and partially-sighted class of similar age range was to be the control group but on testing they proved to be more physically s k i l f u l and experienced than the Grade One class. They were also an intellectually brighter group, and i t was f e l t that a f i n a l comparison could not be made. 4» On the f i r s t test there were communication problems introduced by the children's i n a b i l i t y to understand the required performance. Better post-programme performances might have been due to their increased capacity to appreciate the test requirements. 5. Although objective test items were used i n the evaluation, the actual numerical scores were not considered as important as the qualitative improvement i n the performance of these tests, as seen i n the fil m loops. 4 REFERENCES" 1. Dunn, Lloyd M., Exceptional Children i n the Schools. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1964, p. 414• 2. Dunn, loc. c i t . 3. Cureton, T.K., "Improving the Physical Fitness of Youth", Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Develpm.. 1964, Vol. 29, No. 4, (Serial #95), p. 221. 4. Jokl, Ernst, "Physical Activity and Body Composition: Fatness and Fitness", In Body Composition Part I I . Ed., J. Brozek, Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. September 1963, pp. 778-794* 5. Cratty, Bryant, and Williams, Harriet, "Perceptual Thresholds of Non-Visual Locomotion Part II", Department of Physical Education, Monograph 1966, University of California, Los Angeles: NIH Grant No. NB05577-0251. 6. Buell, Charles, Motor Performance of Visually Handicapped Children, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edwards Brothers Inc., 1950. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE In the literature reviewed, a general attempt has been made to direct the reader's attention to the general purposes of physical education for normal children and to apply these concepts to the physical needs of blind children. Finally, the specific content of existing programmes of physical education for blind primary children has been discussed and their inadequacies revealed. The Need for Physical Education for Blind and Partially-Sighted Children "What does i t do to a child never to have had the opportunity to chase a butterfly? or never to have been able to read "The Three L i t t l e Pigs"....?" (1). In other words, what difference to the child's t o t a l personality does an imbalance i n "input" from the senses really make? A very clear picture of blind children exploring i s given by Lucy Lunt i n "If You Make a Noise I Can't See" (2), "Fingers, fingers, fingers. Soft prying fingers. Searching fingers. Squeezing, picking, relentless fingers. These are the fingers of l i t t l e blind children. The ears and noses and hands and feet and tongues of the blind "see" for them i n that they perceive and comprehend much that sighted children sweep up i n one nonchalant look". Dr. Howe (3), i n the Perkins Report of 1841, further emphasizes the nature of activity i n which blind children should participate: "Never check the actions of the child; follow him, and watch him to prevent any serious accidents, but do not interfere unnecessarily, do not even remove obstacles which he would learn to avoid by tumbling over them a few 6 times. Teach him to. jump rope, to swing weights, to raise his body by his arms and to mingle, as far as possible, i n the rough sports of the older boys, and do not be apprehensive of his safety... Do not too much regard bumps upon the forehead, rough scratches or bloody noses, even these-may have their good influences. At the worst, they affect only the bark, and do not injure the system l i k e the rust of inaction". Joan Toomer (4), i n "Learning Through Play" explains that blindness prevents children from reaching out and seizing objects attractive to them, which i s how normal seeing children experience color, shape, texture and "movability". A blind child needs to have scope to play and be shown the poss i b i l i t i e s of objects and above a l l , be allowed to manipulate objects himself. His play needs to stimulate his imagination and widen his f i e l d of experience. General Physical Education Methodology The purposes and methods of modern physical education are rooted i n general education. "The aim i s the same: the maximum development of the individual for citizenship i n a democratic society i n accordance with his f u l l e s t potentialities". ( 5 ) Physical education i s education through movement but mere physical activity i s not the aim of physical education. ( 6 ) Activity i s only the medium used by the physical education teacher to assist i n the development of well-integrated personalities. Thus, ac t i v i t i e s form the basis of the subject and are not i t s essence. The problem solving child-centered approach to activity has proved to be the most useful and successful with young children, especially with those showing a wide variety of individual differences. 7 "Movement Education for Infants" (7) explains that children must f i r s t be allowed to explore, then they must be guided to discover ways to use their bodies and to find out what they can do with various pieces of apparatus. The teacher helps the children develop their play-like a c t i v i t i e s into more purposeful and s k i l f u l ones. Mauldon and Layson (8) state, "In education the concept of the child as an individual i s now of prime importance....This i s a long process i n which exploring, experimenting, discovering, repeating, selecting and perfecting have their place". They believe that teachers are working with children who think, f e e l and do, so the term "physical" i s not concerned only with the body. Physical Education for Blind Children A l l of the literature on blindness and blind children states that activity and physical education definitely have a place i n the education of a blind child ( 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 ) . Specific Physical Education Programmes for Blind and Partially-Sighted  Primary Children Martha Speakman ( 1 5 ) provides some interesting, useful but limited ideas for physical education programmes for blind children. She suggests play-acting and make-believe a c t i v i t i e s , some simple dances and modified games. She emphasizes the development of a sense of rhythm and a wide use of music. Some suggestions are given as to equipment for playgrounds, playrooms and gymnasia. Her aims and ideals are most valuable for programming, but she does not endeavor to suggest a specific programme. 8 Other sources of programmes f o r b l i n d c h i l d r e n maintain a very formal, t r a d i t i o n a l , games approach to p h y s i c a l education which, according to previous authors, does not f u l f i l the cr e a t i v e , exploratory aspect necessary f o r providing the r i c h e s t and f u l l e s t experiences possible f o r primary b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d c h i l d r e n . Cathryn Pollock (16) i n "A Study of Physical Education Programs f o r the Blind 1* proposes games, f o l k and modern dance, formal apparatus and tumbling events, story plays, swimming, singing games, b a l l s k i l l s , track and f i e l d , t r i c y c l i n g and r o l l e r skating f o r lower l e v e l s - with no fu r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . Charles B u e l l (17) i n "Motor Performances of V i s u a l l y Handicapped Children" o u t l i n e s the elementary p h y s i c a l education programme content of nine d i f f e r e n t United States schools f o r the b l i n d . G i r l s are offered r e l a y s and games, tumbling and apparatus, f o l k dances, c a l i s t h e n i c s , marching, track and f i e l d , swimming and Softball. The boys receive f o o t b a l l and wrestling i n a d d i t i o n to the above programme. Mr. Wiley W. Taylor (18) found i n h i s study of selected b l i n d schools i n the United States that most of the schools had a formal programme of games and c a l i s t h e n i c s . He questions whether c a l i s t h e n i c s should be so important f o r v i s u a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n as there i s not much mental and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y involved i n routine and i n d i v i d u a l exercises. 9 REFERENCES 1. Lemkau, Paul V., "The Influence of Handicapping Conditions on C h i l d Development", Children, March-April, 1961, V o l , 8, No. 2, pp. 43-47. 2. Lunt, Lucy, I f You Make a Noise I Can't See, London, England, V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1965, p. 113. 3 . Howe, Samuel G., Perkins Report of 1841, p. 7« 4. Toomer, Joan, "Learning Through Play", New Outlook f o r the B l i n d , January, 1965, pp. 24-26. 5. Daniels, A.S., and Davies, E.A., Adapted Physical Education, New York, Harper and Row, 1965, p. 18. 6. Department of Education, Physical Education i n Primary Schools, New South Wales, A u s t r a l i a , I960, p. 10. 7. London County Council, Movement Education f o r Infants, 1964. 8. Mauldon, E., and Layson, J . , Teaching Gymnastics, London, England, Macdonald and Evans Ltd., 1965, p. XI. 9. Frampton, Merle E., Education of the B l i n d , New York, Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1940, p. 175. 10. Oberteuffer, Delbert, Physical Education, New York, Harper Brothers, 1956, p. 30. 11. Speakman, Martha T., Recreation f o r B l i n d Children. Children's Bureau Publications (No. 172). United States Department of Labor, Washington Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1927, p. 67. 12. Pearson, Kathleen, "Taking a New Look at Physical Education", New Outlook f o r the B l i n d , November, 1965, pp. 315-317. 13. Taylor, W.W., "Those Who Can't See Need Physical Education Most", J.O.H.P.E.R., May, 1952, V o l . 23, No. 5, p. 20. 14. Sherman, Alan, "Winter Sports and Recreational A c t i v i t i e s at Perkins", New Outlook f o r the B l i n d , V o l . 39, 1945, p. 7. 15. Speakman, l o c . c i t . 16. Pollock, Cathryn, "A Study of Physical Education Programs f o r the B l i n d " , Boston U n i v e r s i t y , Sargent College, May 15, 1962, an unpublished Education 496 paper. 10 17* Buell, Charles, Motor Performances of Visually Handicapped Children, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edwards Brothers Inc., 1950. 18. Taylor, W.W., "Physical Education for the Blind and Partially-Sighted", Master of Arts Thesis (Unpublished), Ohio State University, 1951» C H A P T E R I I I J M E T H O D S A N D P R O C E D U R E S I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w a s t o i n t r o d u c e a n d t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e f o r n i n e G r a d e O n e b l i n d a n d p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d c h i l d r e n a t J e r i c h o H i l l S c h o o l . T h e p r o g r a m m e c o n s i s t e d o f o n e - h a l f h o u r t o t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a n h o u r s e s s i o n s , t w o o r t h r e e t i m e s a w e e k f r o m S e p t e m b e r , 1965 t o M a r c h , 1966. T h i s p r o g r a m m e w a s e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h r e e c r i t e r i a i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e p r o g r a m m e i n i m p r o v i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e a n d b a s i c p h y s i c a l s k i l f u l n e s s . N a t u r e o f t h e P r o g r a m m e T h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e t h o d , o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d i n E n g l a n d , w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e a p p r o a c h f o r t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h s u c h v a r i a b l e d e g r e e s o f b l i n d n e s s a n d o t h e r p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l h a n d i c a p s . N a t u r e o f t h e G r o u p T h e g r o u p w a s c o m p o s e d o f n i n e c h i l d r e n i n t h e G r a d e O n e c l a s s a t J e r i c h o H i l l S c h o o l w h o a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w : 1. " B » w a s b o r n M a r c h 18, 1958 ( a s o f S e p t e m b e r 1, 1965 - 7-5 y e a r s ) . H e h a s b e e n p a r t i a l l y b l i n d s i n c e b i r t h . A t b i r t h h e w a s g i v e n t o a f o s t e r h o m e a n d a t t h e m o m e n t t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r i n g a d o p t i n g h i m . H i s h o m e i s i n A l b e r t a . T h e m e d i c a l t e a m f o u n d h i m a l e r t a n d f r i e n d l y . H i s t e a c h e r f o u n d h i m d e m a n d i n g a l o t o f a t t e n t i o n a n d p l a y i n g t h e " c r y - b a b y " v e r y f r e q u e n t l y . 12 2. "C" was bom August 2d, 1959 (as of September 1, 1965 - 6-0 years). She i s t o t a l l y blind, having had retina blastoma that required eye removal at ten months of age. "C" comes from a broken home i n a distant British Columbia town. Her teacher found her lazy but quite intelligent. 3. "D" was born January 7, 1958 (as of September 1, 1965 - 7-8 years) with congenital cataracts caused by maternal rubella i n the third month of pregnancy. This i s her second year i n Grade One. She i s small for her age and underweight. "D" has been i n several foster homes with her present home situation being very insecure. Her teacher found her very intellectually slow with a severe communication problem that does not allow her to follow instructions. 4. "E" was born February 8, 1959 (as of September I, 1965 - 6-7 years) pa r t i a l l y blind i n his right eye and completely blind i n his l e f t eye. The medical examination found him to be somewhat mentally retarded with some lack of co-ordination. He i s one of seven children who l i v e i n very d i f f i c u l t financial circumstances i n Alberta. He i s respected and loved by his parents i n a relatively happy home. He was completely lacking i n any outside experiences, e.g. no experience with electric lights or running water, cars or buses, and had some unusual personal habits, e.g. smoked cigarettes, pipes and chewed tobacco when he arrived. 5. "H" was born December 11, 1958 (as of September 1, 1965 - 6-11 years) p a r t i a l l y blind because of damage to visual nerves. His sight i s completely peripheral and he has made good use of what he has. He i s above average i n intelligence. He has been i n numerous foster homes where he was completely restricted as to movement, e.g. tied to his chair. 13 The present family i s of the Jehovah Witness f a i t h and attend late evening church services frequently and so "H" i s often physically exhausted i n school. 6 . "L" was born February 3, 1957 (as of September 1 , 1965 - 8-7 years) and weighed three pounds. He i s a typical example of the rubella syndrome. This f r a i l child has a very lengthy and involved medical history because of open heart surgery, several eye operations and psychological and psychiatric sessions. He i s defined as a child with multiple physical handicaps with emotional overlay possibly caused by an overly-protective foreign grandmother and no experiences with a mother or father or other children before the school situation. This child has been allowed only limited activity. 7« "M" i s approximately seven years of age (as of September 1 , 1 9 6 5 ) . He i s completely blind with one plastic eye since three years. "M'^ s blindness has upset the parents very much and he was sent back to their native European country. Not long before September, 1965 he was brought back and presented at Jericho H i l l , a frightened, timid and non-English speaking boy. He i s an intellectually bright child lacking any confidence i n himself. 8 . "Ri" was born August 23, 1958 (as of September 1 , I965 - 7-0 years) and weighed three pounds twelve ounces. He i s a ward of the Province of Alberta and has had numerous foster homes - the last one a cruel and sadistic family from which he and four others were removed. At present he i s with an excellent family and appears quite happy. Psychological examinations showed that he was slightly below normal i n intelligence. He appeared very frightened. His teacher found him very 14 easily distracted and immature i n personal and social behaviour. The medical examination reported only light perception but the teacher feels he sees quite well. 9. "Ro" was born March 23, 1958 (as of September 1, 1965 - 7-5 years) and has been blind since birth. This i s his second year i n Grade One, and he i s s t i l l not t o i l e t trained. The medical report found him slow i n independent action and requiring more physical ac t i v i t y . The teacher finds him retarded intellectually, socially and physically. Programme Content 1. Orientation - a "getting-to-know-you" session with fun and games i n their own surroundings. (2 sessions) 2. Physical Education Ac t i v i t i e s : (a) Body awareness, body management: basic physical s k i l l s of walking, s i t t i n g , running; the relationship of body parts; the principles of space, weight, time and force. (5 sessions) (b) Stretching, pulling, twisting: with the aim of body awareness and shape, alternate relaxation and tension. (3 sessions) (c) Small apparatus: bean bags, balls, hoops, skipping ropes, s k i t t l e s , ribbons; to extend the basic body movements and to practise the basic s k i l l s of catching, throwing, kicking, hopping, jumping, skipping, etc. with equipment. To f a c i l i t a t e catching, throwing and kicking by the blind 15 c h i l d r e n , l a r g e , bright colored woollen b a l l s were made. (8 sessions) (d) Large equipment: poles, mats, ladders, c h a i r s , boxes, Cave-Southampton climbing apparatus, and va r i a t i o n s of a l l apparatus; to gain experience i n exploration; to create i n d i v i d u a l ways of moving and b u i l d i n g on to these more complex ways, to develop t o t a l body strength and a g i l i t y by hanging, climbing, pushing, p u l l i n g , l i f t i n g . (8 sessions) (e) Creative movement to music: with the emphasis on freedom of expression; using a v a r i e t y of "home-made" percussion instruments; developing i n (big, small; f a s t , slow; t a l l , short; round, sharp) movement and awareness of body expression i n movement. (5 sessions) ( f ) Water a c t i v i t i e s : as an i n i t i a t i v e t o a new dimension i n which one can move; to use b a l l s and various f l o a t s to maneuver i n the water; to have fun and move f r e e l y . (8 sessions) (g) Trampoline: as another medium i n which to move, experience, p r a c t i s e and gain confidence; i n d i v i d u a l l y getting on and o f f and then 16 p r e s e n t i n g a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h r e e o r f o u r c o - o p e r a t i n g i n p r o d u c i n g movement . (7 s e s s i o n s ) ( h ) A c t i v i t i e s w i t h a s i g h t e d c l a s s : i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h n o r m a l s e e i n g c h i l d r e n i n a v a r i e t y o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( s m a l l a p p a r a t u s , l a r g e a p p a r a t u s , c r e a t i v e d a n c e - i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d t h e n p e r f o r m e d i n g r o u p s ) . (1 s e s s i o n ) ( i ) A v i s i t t o S a n t a C l a u s a n d h i s r e i n d e e r : a v i s i t i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e s h o p p i n g c e n t e r , a c a r r i d e , a n e s c a l a t o r , h o r d e s o f p e o p l e , a l a r g e s t o r e , S a n t a C l a u s , f e e l i n g a n d d i s c o v e r i n g " r e i n d e e r " , b u y i n g r e f r e s h m e n t s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . (1 s e s s i o n ) ( j ) R u n n i n g a n d w a l k i n g f r e e l y o u t - o f - d o o r s ; i n c l u d e d i n e v e r y l e s s o n , i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e ; w a l k i n g c u r b s , c l i m b i n g r e t a i n i n g w a l l s and f i r e h y d r a n t s ; e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h g u a r d r a i l s , i . e . " s k i n - t h e - c a t " , h a n g i n g , b a l a n c e s w i t h one l e g , " u p s i d e d o w n " , s i t t i n g o n , c l i m b i n g a l o n g a l l i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s ; e x p l o r i n g f l o w e r b e d s a n d g a r d e n s ; games w i t h o u t s i d e s t a i r s - b a c k w a r d s , t w o - b y - t w o , t o t h e t o p a n d f i n d a new way down, e t c . 17 Evaluation 1. Objective Tests - Representative t e s t s of basic p h y s i c a l s k i l l s were chosen from those of Fleishman (1) and Oseretsky (2), as shown below: i . l e g l i f t s - number performed i n one minute, i i . standing broad jump - best one of three t r i a l s , i i i , bar hang - number of seconds held i n a bent-arm hang p o s i t i o n . i v . chins - number performed. v. Softball throw - distance i n f e e t . v i . rope jump - 9" o f f ground. v i i . one foot hop - time taken to hop 15'. v i i i . 40 yard outside run - time i n seconds. i x . s h u ttle run (3x10 yds) - time i n seconds. x. dash (10 yd) - time i n seconds. x i . maze t r a c i n g - filmed only. (See Figure 1). x i i . balance - time i n seconds of lengthwise and time of crosswise balances held with both f e e t on one beam. (See Figure 2). x i i i . toe tapping - number of complete s e r i e s performed i n one minute with a selected foot (with the same apparatus as above, turned sideways and the subjects were seated). 2. F i l m Loops - Film loops of the above objective t e s t performances were made f o r evaluation by eleven experts i n p h y s i c a l education. An Improvement Check L i s t (Appendix A) was constructed f o r each objective t e s t item. These were evaluated on a f i v e point scale with each t e s t item containing from two to seven categories, depending upon 18 Figure 1. Maze Tracing side view top view Figure 2. Balance - Lengthwise and Crosswise 19 the nature of the t e s t . The experts were given a f o l d e r with an Improvement Check L i s t f o r each c h i l d and f o r each objective t e s t item. A l l the f i l m loops were shown to the experts at one session. They were not t o l d which performance was the pre-programme t e s t or which performance was the post-programme t e s t . They were then asked to evaluate the better performance and to check the degree of improvement on the check l i s t . The degrees of improvement were as follows: Worse, None, Marginal, Obvious and Great - scoring one, two, three, four and f i v e points r e s p e c t i v e l y . An improvement score was then calculated f o r each c h i l d on each t e s t f o r each r a t e r a f t e r c o r r e c t i o n f o r r a t e r - t e s t item i n t e r a c t i o n and halo e f f e c t s of the rater - r a t e e i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as r e s i d u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . These corrections were calculated a f t e r the manner of G u i l f o r d (3), and the f i n a l corrected mean r a t e r score f o r each c h i l d on each t e s t i s shown i n Table X I I I . 3. Classroom Teacher's Report - The personal observations of the classroom teacher made throughout the year i n d i c a t e d what she believed to be the influence of the programme on p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n and on the group as a whole. 20 REFERENCES 1. Fleishman, E.A., The Structure and Measurement of Physical Fitness. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964, pp. 76-91. 2. Costa, M.I.L., Fosa, E.J., Doll, E.A., "The Oseretsky Tests", Training School Bulletin. Vineland, N.J., July 29, 1946, pp. 1-48. 3. Guilford, J.P., Psychometric Methods. Second Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1954, Chapter XI. CHAPTER IV RESULTS The results are presented under the three evaluative aspects of the programme: 1 . Objective physical test items given before and after the programme are shown i n Tables I to XII. It must be remembered that these data represent only raw scores, since no r e l i a b i l i t y measurements were obtained and some children made poor scores on the original tests, thus making the significance of any improvement impossible to be determined. Some improvements may be due to better interpretation by the children of test instructions. It may be seen from the tables that a l l children showed improvement i n many of the tests and only i n relatively few of the tests did performances remain the same. In no item was there a decrement i n performance i n the second test. The Chins (Table IV) and Rope Jump (Table VI)Items seem to be unsuitable as discriminatory tests for this type of child, since their scoring i s only pass or f a i l and for most children no i n i t i a l score could be obtained. 2. Film loops of objective test items for each child were produced, including pre-programme and post-programme performances. These loops were evaluated subjectively for improvement by eleven experts i n the f i e l d of physical education. The f i n a l corrected mean rater score for each child on each test i s shown i n Table XIII. Since a rater score of three represents marginal improvement i n the test items, this table shows that a i l the children made marginal improvement on the majority of the tests. TABLE, i : LEG LIFTS - NUMBER PERFORMED IN ONE MINUTE Before After Comment "B" 14 17 Improvement "C" 13 16 Improvement "D" 13 15 Improvement "E" 13 18 Improvement "H" 10 11 Improvement "L" Absent Absent 12 12 Same "Ri" 14 16 Improvement "Ro" 8 12 Improvement TABLE II. STANDING BROAD JUMP - DISTANCE IN INCHES Before After Comment "B" 29" 36" Improvement "C" 26" 30" Improvement »D" 9" 20" Improvement »E" 34" 36" Improvement "H" 27" 35" Improvement »L" Absent Absent ifj/[«t 4 i " 15" Improvement "Ri" 34" 35" Improvement "Ro" 17" 18" Improvement TABLE III BAR HANG - NUMBER OF SECONDS Before After Comment "B" 5 sec 7 sec Improvement "C" 0 1 sec Improvement »»D" 1 sec 8 sec Improvement "E" 1 sec 3 sec Improvement "H" 0 3 sec Improvement "L" 0 0 Same 0 0 Same "Ri" 2 sec 3 sec Improvement "Ro" 0 1 sec Improvement TABLE IV CHINS - NUMBER PERFORMED Before After Comment "B" 0 1 Improvement "C" 0 0 Same «»D" 0 0 Same «E" 0 0 Same »H" 0 0 Same »L" 0 0 Same «M>« 0 0 Same "Ri" 0 0 Same "Ro" 0 0 Same 24 TABLE V SOFTBALL THROW - DISTANCE IN FEET Before After Comment "B" 161 24' Improvement "C" 15 1 18» Improvement »D" 15' 21' Improvement "E" 15' 331 Improvement tt H tt 13' 22» Improvement «L" Absent Absent 5' V Improvement "Ri" 18' 30» Improvement "Ro" 20» 21' Improvement TABLE VI ROPE JUMP - 9" CLEARED OR NOT CLEARED Before After Comment "B" Successful Successful Same "C" Successful Successful Same "D" Not successful Successful Improvement "E" Successful Successful Same "H" Successful Successful Same "L" Absent Absent Not successful Successful Improvement "Ri" Successful Successful Same "Ro" Not successful Almost successful Improvement TABLE VII 25 ONE FOOT HOP - TIME IN SECONDS FOR 15» Before After "B" 6 sec 4 sec "C" 12 sec 8 sec "D" Poor hopping 7 sec 6 sec "E" 7 sec 5 sec "H" Could not hop 5 sec "L" Absent Absent "M" Could not hop 9 sec "Ri" 3.8 sec 3.5 sec "Ro" 9 sec 7 sec Comment Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement TABLE V I I I FORTY YARD OUTSIDE RUN - TIME IN SECONDS "B" «C" "D" ««E" "H" "L" "Ri" "Ro" Before 13.3 sec 23.5 sec 24.1 sec 24.3 sec 15.0 sec Absent 26.1 sec 21 sec 23.2 sec After 8 sec 20.0 sec 13 sec 8.0 sec 12.0 sec Absent 20.0 sec 11.0 sec 20.0 sec Comment Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement Improvement 26 TABLE IX SHUTTLE RUN (3x10 yds) - TIME IN SECONDS Before After Comment "B" 13.4 sec 11.1 sec Improvement »»C" 28.5 sec 16.2 sec Improvement "D" 22.9 sec 17.8 sec Improvement »E" 19.5 sec 13 sec Improvement »H" 20.7 sec 16.0 sec Improvement «L" 18.2 sec Absent tiM" 47.5 sec 15.8 sec Improvement "Ri" 17.4 sec 16.1 sec Improvement "Ro" 23.5 sec 17.0 sec Improvement TABLE X. BALANCE - TIME IN SECONDS FOR LENGTHWISE BALANCE, CROSSWISE BALANCE Before After Comment »»B" 1 2 sec 1 _ 4 sec Improvement c - 4 sec c — 10 sec Improvement "C" 1 _ 1 sec 1 — 3 sec Improvement c — 4 sec c — 9 sec Improvement «»D" 1 — 0 sec 1 — 1 sec Improvement c - 0 sec c — 1 sec Improvement "E" 1 2 sec 1 _ 2 sec Same c - 2 sec c - 3 sec Improvement »H" 1 0 sec 1 0 sec Same c - 0 sec c - 1 sec Improvement t»L" 1 0 sec 1 0 sec Same c - 1 sec c - 3 sec Improvement Cont'd Before After Comment 1 - 0 sec 1 - 0 sec Same c - 0 sec c - 2 sec Improvement "Ri" 1 - 2 sec 1 - 2 sec Same c - 2 sec c - 4 sec Improvement "Ro" 1 - 0 sec 1 - 0 sec Same c - 0 sec c - 1 sec Improvement TABLE XI TOE TAPPING - NUMBER OF COMPLETE SERIES OF TAPS TO ONE SIDE OF RAISED BOARD AND BACK AGAIN IN THIRTY SECONDS Before After Comment «B" 16 20 Improvement "C" 7 17 Improvement "D" 4 11 Improvement "E» 7 10 Improvement "H» 8 10 Improvement »L" 9 10 Improvement ttjjn 5 10 Improvement "Ri" 9 17 Improvement "Ro" 3 9 Improvement TABLE XII. DASH (10 yd) - TIME IN SECONDS Before After Comment "B" 4*7 sec 3.3 sec Improvement "C" 8.2 sec 4.2 sec Improvement "D" 5.2 sec 4.9 sec Improvement "E" 3.4 sec 3.0 sec Improvement "H" 5.1 sec 3.8 sec Improvement "L" Absent Absent nji»« 10.8 sec 5.1 sec Improvement "Ri" 4.6 sec 4*1 sec Improvement "Ro" 7.4 sec 4.9 sec Improvement TABLE XI I I MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE FINAL SCORES AFTER CORRECTION FOR RATER-TEST ITEM INTERACTION, HALO EFFECTS AND RESIDUAL INTERACTIONS i CHILD TEST ITEM "B" «»C" "D" »E" »H" "Ri" "Ro" Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD 1. Leg L i f t s 3.8 0.4 2.9 0.4 3.0 0.5 3.9 0.4 3.1 0.4 2.2 0.5 2: Broad Jump 3.4 0.5 3.3 0.5 3.1 0.4 3. Bar Hang and Chins 2.8 0.2 1.9 0.1 3.8 0.2 2.9 0.2 3.4 0.2 2.3 0.2 4. Throw 3.9 0.3 2.0 0.3 2.2 0.3 4.4 0.4 2.5 0.3 2.1 0.5 5. Rope Jump 2.8 0.3 2.3 0.3 3.6 0.4 2.2 0.3 2.9 0.3 6. One Foot Hop 2.4 0.3 3.5 0.2 3.8 0.3 4.5 0.2 3.1 0.3 3.4 0.2 7. 40 yd. Outside Run 3.2 0.4 2.1 0.4 4.5 0.4 2.5 0.3 3.5 0.4 8. Shuttle Run 3.6 0.4 2.8 0.6 2.8 0.4 3.4 0.4 3.7 0.4 3.0 0.4 9. Maze 3.6 0.3 3.0 0.3 3.4 0.4 2.7 0.3 1.7 0.3 2.6 0.3 1.8 0.3 10. Side & Front Balance 3.5 0.6 2.5 0.5 11. Toe Tapping 2.9 0.5 3.4 0.7 2.5 0.5 30 The classroom teacher's evaluation at the conclusion of the programme (a successful teacher for fifteen years with a Grade One blind class) was given as follows: " With handicapped children I often find that the lack of co-ordination i s a serious problem. They are expected to read and write even though their co-ordination i s poor, their movements immature, and their span of attention short. A good physical education programme started at this time would help develop the muscles needed, help them gain s e l f -confidence and give them a sense of pleasure and well-being. The short programme given this year did help the pupils i n these areas. It was a new experience for most of the group and the results were very satisfactory." Her c l i n i c a l reports on individual children were as follows: " TB» enjoyed the ac t i v i t i e s and although timid at f i r s t , gained confidence. This, with improved co-ordination, helped his school work. •C* i s a very normal blind child. She enjoyed a l l the a c t i v i t i e s . »D» i s a slow learner, a very timid child. It took a long time for her to try the ac t i v i t i e s but she gained confidence as she tried. This helped her other school work. •E* i s a slow learner. Physical a c t i v i t i e s gave him an opportunity to show he can be successful. *Hf has an emotional problem. He enjoyed the ac t i v i t i e s and gained confidence and co-ordination. It helped both his writing and his reading. 'L* was not able to complete the programme because of a serious heart condition, and he did enjoy the part he could do. *Mf was very unsure of himself at the beginning of the year. The physical education programme helped him gain confidence and co-ordination. fRi* gained a great measure of self-confidence this year. The swimming acti v i t i e s contributed to this as he found that he could be successful and even better than some others. •Ro's co-ordination i s very poor. The extra physical education programme helped *Ro*s walking and gave him a sense of belonging." CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The children's performances i n those tests where an objective score could be obtained (Tables I to XII) showed improvement i n raw scores i n most items. The general all-round improvement of the children, as indicated i n the f i n a l mean rater scores shown i n Table XIII, i s undoubted, although these improvements are only the result of the subjective interpretations of the raters. Both the objective test raw scores and the quality of improvement of the children's movements are summarized i n the brief individual reports on the children presented below: Child "L" was eliminated almost entirely from this part of the programme, because of his numerous absences. It was decided, also, that his medical condition did not warrant his participating i n such testing procedures. Child "B" showed substantial improvement on a l l items. He was an active child who enjoyed a l l forms of activity. Child "C", who was t o t a l l y blind, showed noticeable improvement i n the quality of movement performed. Child "D" showed a wide range of results. Those items involving confidence were the ones i n which she improved, e.g. 40 yard outside run, rope jump, one foot hop, maze tracing, and»the items involving dexterity and a g i l i t y were the ones i n which she did not seem to improve, e.g. bar hang, throw, shuttle run, and toe tapping. 32 Child "E" also showed a wide range of results. He showed obvious improvement i n a number of items, e.g. throw, leg l i f t s , broad jump, one foot hop and shuttle. Child "H" was absent a great deal and so the results of eight tests are missing. In those test items completed he showed obvious improvement, e.g. one foot hop and bar hang. Child "M" was a totall y blind, timid boy who showed great improvement. The results here showed greater than marginal improvement i n leg l i f t s , bar hang, one foot hop, outside run, shuttle and toe tapping. Child "Ri" missed seven tests due to i l l n e s s . The ones he completed showed above marginal improvement i n broad jump and bar hang. Child "Ro" did not show much improvement. This child did not seem to benefit physically from the programme, although he did become more confident, more socially oriented and more able to assume a proper walking posture. Finally, the unqualified approval of the programme and i t s results by both the classroom teacher and Jericho H i l l ' s Vice-Principal of the Blind Department shows that i n their estimation the programme was effective. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The problem was t o evaluate the e f f e c t s of a programme of p h y s i c a l education at Jericho H i l l School f o r Grade One b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d c h i l d r e n . The purpose of the study was to i n i t i a t e a programme of p h y s i c a l education, devised by the author, f o r the Grade One b l i n d and p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d , and t o t e s t the p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s with which they began, and t o assess whether any change had taken place at the end of the programme. The programme was approached i n a problem-solving manner encouraging the c h i l d r e n to work at t h e i r own l e v e l of a b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t . The aims of the programme were the same as those f o r sighted c h i l d r e n - with s p e c i a l emphasis on developing confidence, enjoyment and basic p h y s i c a l s k i l l s . The content of the programme was as follows: 1. General o r i e n t a t i o n 2 . Physical education a c t i v i t i e s : This programme extended from September, 1965 to March, 1966 with two or three sessions per week of one-half hour to three-quarters of an hour each. a b f g h i j d e c Body awareness, body management Stretching, p u l l i n g , t w i s t i n g Small apparatus Large equipment Creative movement to music Water a c t i v i t i e s Trampolining A c t i v i t i e s with a sighted class Santa Claus v i s i t Outdoor running and walking 34 Three evaluative measures were used to assess the effects of the programme: 1 . Objective Tests - Representative tests of basic physical s k i l l s were chosen. 2. Film Loops - Film loops of the above objective test performances were made for evaluation by eleven experts i n physical education. 3. Classroom Teacher's Report - The personal observations of the classroom teacher made throughout the year attempted to indicate what she believed to be the influence of the programme on particular children and on the group as a whole. Conclusions On the basis of the results shown i t may be concluded that the programme introduced to the blind and partially-sighted children was effective i n developing basic physical s k i l l s and self-confidence. Re commendations Future studies i n this area should establish evaluative procedures similar to those introduced i n this study. Since the distinct motor dis a b i l i t y caused by the handicap of blindness introduces great problems of recording objective test scores, a fil m evaluation i s essential. However, great care must be taken to make certain that standard procedures i n filming are followed i n both the pre-and post-gramme testing. Other test items may provide better discrimination between pre-and post-programme performances than those used i n this study. It i s essential that children must be able to make some score i n i t i a l l y on any test item chosen. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Buell, Charles £., Motor Performance of Visually Handicapped Children, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edwards Brothers Inc., 1950* Buell, Charles E., Physical Education for Blind Children, Springfield, I l l i n o i s , Charles C. Thomas, 1966. Cratty, Bryant; Williams, Harriet, "Perceptual Thresholds of Non-Visual Locomotion Part II", Department of Physical Education, Monograph 1966, University of California, Los Angeles: NIH Grant No. NB 05577-0251. Cureton, T.K., "Improving the Physical Fitness of Youth", Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Develpm.. 1964, Vol. 29, No. 4, (Serial #95), pp. 221. Daniels, A.S., and Davies, E.A., Adapted Physical Education, New York, Second Edition, Harper and Row, 1965. Department of Education, Physical Education i n Primary Schools, New South Wales, Australia, I960, Dunn, Lloyd M., Exceptional Children i n the Schools, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964* Fleishman, E.A., The Structure and Measurement of Physical Fitness, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964. pp. 7 6 - 9 1 . Frampton, Merle E., Education of the Blind. New York, Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1940. Guilford, J.P., Psychometric Methods, Second Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1954. Hunt, Valerie, Recreation for the Handicapped, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. Prentice-Hall Inc., 1955, pp. 78-98. Jokl, Ernst, "Physical Activity and Body Composition: Fatness and Fitness", In Body Composition Part II. Ed., J. Brozek, Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, September 1963, pp. 778-794. London County Council, Movement Education for Infants, London, England, 1964. Lowenfeld, Berthold, Our Blind Children, Springfield, I l l i n o i s , Second Edition, Charles C. Thomas, 1964. 37 Lunt, Lucy, If You Make a Noise I £an't See, London, Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1965. Mauldon, E., and Layson, J., Teaching Gymnastics, London, England, Macdonaid and Evans Ltd., 1965. Oberteuffer, Deibert, Physical Education. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1956, p. 3. Willee, A.W., Small Apparatus for Primary School Physical Education. Melbourne University Press, 1955* PERIODICALS "Basic Concepts of Blind Children", a paper by students i n Orientation and Mobility Refresher course at Connecticut Institution for the Blind i n August, 1964, New Outlook for the Blind, December 1965, pp. 341-343. Lefkowitz, Leon, "Evaluating Physical Education Programs", New Outlook  for the Blind, April 1962, pp. 137-139. Lemkau, Paul V., "The Influence of Handicapping Conditions on Child Development", Children. March-April 1961, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 43-47, Lowenfeld, Greta, "Physical Education - A "Must" for Blind Pupils", New Outlook for the Blind. Vol. 39, 1945, p. 128. Pearson, Kathleen, "Taking a New Look at Physical Education", New Outlook  for the Blind. November 1965, pp. 315-317. Pitham, Vera, "Reading Readiness", New Outlook for the Blind, November 1965, pp. 322-324. Scott, Eileen, "What a Blind Baby Needs More Than Tender Loving Care", Maclean's, May 14, 1966, p. 14. Sherman, Alan, "Winter Sports and Recreational Activities at Perkins", New Outlook for the Blind. Vol. 39, 1945, p. 7. Taylor, W.W., "Those Who Can't See Need Physical Education Most", Vol. 23, No. 5, JOHPER. (Journal of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation), May 1952, p. 20. Toomer, Joan, "Learning Through Play", New Outlook for the Blind, January 1965, pp. 24-26. 38 UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Costa, M.I.L., Fosa, E.J., Doll, E . A . , "The Oseretsky Tests", Training School Bulletin, Vineland, N.J., July 29, 1946, pp. 1-Howe, Samuel G,, Perkins Report of 1841, p. 7» Jensen, Robert G., "An Evaluation of Physical Education for Elementary Schools", Master of Science unpublished Thesis, University of Utah, August 1962. Lefkowitz, Leon Joseph, "A Study of the Program of Physical Education i n Residential Schools for the Blind i n Selected States of Northeastern United States", Ed.D, Thesis, 1961, Columbia University, i n Physical Education. Pollock, Cathryn, "A Study of Physical Education Programs for the Blind" May 15, 1962, an unpublished Education 496 paper, Boston University, Sargent College, Taylor, W.W., "Physical Education for the Blind and Partially Sighted", Master of Arts Thesis, Ohio State University, 1951, unpublished GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Speakman, Martha T., "Recreation for Blind Children", Children's Bureau Publications (No, 172), United States Department of Labor, Washington Government Printing Office, 1927* PERSONAL INTERVIEW Scott, Eileen, personal interview, August 1965. Head Social Worker at the C.N.I.B., Vancouver, B.C. APPENJD3X A IMPROVEMENT'CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 1. LEG LIFTS: (a) Knee Bent, uncontrolled to straight emphasizing muscular strength (b) Rhythm Slow, lacking rhythm to fast, having a steady rhythm (c) Control Sloppy, loose to legs together, straight, tense and precise (d) Height of L i f t Extremes of too high and too low to 30° + 5° as optimal IMPROVEMENT, CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 2. STANDING BROAD JUMP: (a) I n i t i a l Stance Sloppy, feet apart, uncoordinated, tense to feet together composed, knees slightly bent, relaxed (b) Preliminary Swings None, s t i f f , r i g i d to bent knees and swinging arms coordinated (c) Distance (by calculation) (d) Flight Position Poorly coordinated, inefficient to legs tucked up, arms held high, high off the ground, efficient (e) Landing Uncontrolled, center of gravity, not over feet to feet extension balanced IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 3 . BAR HANG, CHINS: (a) Time: (By calculation) (b) Position Bringing legs up, no resistance to straight body, body effort displayed (c) Cheating Procedures Sneaking other aids to stay up - swinging, arm over bar to - correct grip of hands, stationary position (d) Controlled Lowering Dropping off quickly to a b i l i t y to control speed of body lowering IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 4. THROW (a) I n i t i a l Position Body facing forward to body facing sideways and weight on back foot (b) Actual Throwing Position Concerned with body rotation a path of the b a l l before release to moment of release (c) Arm Action Concerned with optimal "whip-lash" action with the arm going past the ear (d) Ball Flight Erratic direction control, along the ground, straight up tp_ straight ahead getting optimal height for the distance (e) Distance (By calculation) IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 5. ROPE JUMP (a) Approach Running, off one foot to standing on two feet (b) Gather for Jump No arm action, no body-spring action to good arm swing, coordinated with leg action (c) Jumping Style Two feet to two feet, position inefficient i n the ai r to one foot take-off efficient style (d) Air Flight No arm action to assist f l i g h t , body going "along" instead of "up" to arm action assisting f l i g h t , body goes straight up and then once rope i s cleared, comes straight down (e) Landing Using only feet, no knee or body action, to three point landing usingTody as well IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 6. ONE FOOT HOP (15») (a) Arm Swing None to helpful swing for balance, height and direction (b) Distance of Hop Low to high, getting off the ground, body l i f t from arms and leg spring (c) Control of Free Leg Uncontrolled to controlled (d) Time (By calculation) (e) Use of Only One Leg Alternating legs, using two feet to complete hopping distance on one foot (f) Maintenance of Direction Erratic, unbalanced to straight balanced, control (g) Foot Action S t i f f foot, or limp to spring from use of foot IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 7. OUTSIDE RUN (40 yds) (a) Time (By calculation (b) Stride Length Short, jerky steps to smooth stride (c) Arm Action None; reaching out to fee l for objects to alternating pattern of arm swing (d) Coordination of Arm and Leg None to good effective coordination (e) Height of Leg L i f t Top much or too l i t t l e to optimal for speed and efficient movement U) F r e edom Confidence i n movement IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 8. SHUTTLE (a) Turns Concerned with controlled deceleration and acceleration and efficiency of body position (b) Appreciation of Test Wide turns, stopping to fast, continuous running from point to point IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 9. MAZE (a) Balance Concerning a b i l i t y to hold a position on the equipment and progress along (b) Turn Negotiation Concerning a b i l i t y to change direction effectively (c) General Confidence (d) Body Position Ineffective to efficient and effective i n order to maintain balance (e) Time (By calculation) •p-IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST •^orse None Marginal Obvious Great 10. BALANCE SIDE AND FRONT (a) Body Position and General  Coordination Concerning effective use of arms, knees, feet, i n order to maintain a balanced position (b) General Confidence (c) Time (By calculation) IMPROVEMENT CHECK LIST Worse None Marginal Obvious Great 11. TOE TAPPING (a) Height of L i f t Too high or not high enough to optimal level necessary to clear barrier (b) Number Done (By calculation (c) Foot Control Limp, non-directed to controlled, directed (d) Total Body Position Too tense or too limp, to relaxed, purposeful direction of effort to control foot 

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