UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An exploration of the interactional field set up by social work intervention in community process Clugston, Peter Harold 1967

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AN EXPLORATION OF THE INTERACTIONAL FIELD SET UP BY SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTION I N COMMUNITY PROCESS by P e t e r H a r o l d C l u g s t o n F r e d e r i c k C h a r l e s Harshman Bogna A l i n a M a j c h r z a k Roger W i l l i a m P a t i l l o D a v i d R u s s e l l Ross T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g to the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1967 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i s the i n i t i a t i n g phase o f a l o n g - r a n g e a t t e m p t t o examine - s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n community ; l i f e . I t r a i s e s the q u e s t -i o n " I s i t p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y b o t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s w h i c h a c -c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e community i n t e r a c t i o n s s e t up by s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n , and the v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e o p e r a t i v e - i n those i n t e r a c t i o n s ? " A good d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n i n r e c e n t y e a r s to s o c i a l work a t t e m p t s t o enhance community l i f e . S o c i o l o g i c a l and o t h e r m a t e r i a l has been u t i l i z e d to b u i l d s o c i a l work t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e s p e c i f i c s r e l a -t e d t o community s o c i a l change-and development, b u t l i t t l e p r e c i s i o n has been a c h i e v e d . There has been a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the -area o f c o n c e p t u a l models, and w i t h s o c i a l problems i n community l i f e , so t h a t s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s o f what happens when s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t e r v e n e i n communities a r e v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . T h i s s t u d y has a t h e o r y base w h i c h seeks t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f the work t h a t has been done i n t h i s a r e a w h i l e b e a r i n g upon the c o n c r e t e o p e r a -t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n by a c t o r s i n community i n t e r a c t i o n s . The major c o n c e p t s i d e n t i f i e d as u s e f u l f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a r e : i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d , a c t i o n system, i n t e r v e n t i o n , change agent, t a s k and maintenance p r o c e s s e s , h o r i -z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l l i n k a g e s , s o c i a l p r o c e s s , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , s o c i a l change-, and s t i m u l i f o r s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . The d e s i g n o f the s t u d y l e n d s i t s e l f t o a f i e l d s t u d y w h i c h can e x p l o r e v a r i a b l e s i n o b s e r v e d i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i l e making no s p e c i f i c a t t e m p t to e x p l o r e the i n t e r a c t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s . An i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i s the d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t u t i l i z e d . The s t u d y r e a c h e d c o m p l e t i o n o f the p r e - t e s t s t a g e , w h e r e i n two community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s i n v o l v i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r s were s t u d i e s . No e f f o r t was made to a n a l y z e d a t a w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s ; the a n a l y s i s was c o n f i n e d t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the d a t a f o r the u t i l i t y and p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y o f the s t u d y f o r m u l a t i o n , d e s i g n , . a n d i n s t r u m e n t . •The c o n c l u s i o n drawn a t t h i s s t a g e i s t h a t the s t u d y has p o t e n -t i a l f o r the d i s c o v e r y o f the v a r i a b l e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d s i n community l i f e , i f i t i s m o d i f i e d and a p p l i e d t o an a p p r o p r i a t e sample o f a c t i o n e p i -s o d e s . A s e r i e s o f recommendations f o r the r e v i s i o n o f weak elements i n the s t u d y a r e s u b m i t t e d f o r the use of p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g the s t u d y . These recommendations embrace such i s s u e s as the sample s i z e , d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n r e v i s i o n s ( l a n g u a g e , e x p l i c i t n e s s , r e l i a b i l i t y ) , number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n each a c t i o n - e p i s o d e , c o n t i n u i t y of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n from s t u d y f o r m u l a t i o n , s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , and the n a t u r e o f g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s e s t h a t m i g h t be a t t e m p t e d . The s t u d y team a r e o p t i m i s t i c about the p r o m i s e h e l d o u t by t h i s l i n e o f i n q u i r y f o r the -achievement o f a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the gene-r i c i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y o f s o c i a l work o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h r e s u l t from the i n -t e r a c t i o n o f method and f i e l d i n c o m m u n i t y - o r i e n t e d s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 P r e l i m i n a r y S tatement 1 D i f f i c u l t i e s as E n c o u n t e r e d i n D e v e l o p i n g the Study 2 M a j o r D e c i s i o n s Taken t o Deyelope the Study 3 CHAPTER I I . THE THEORETICAL BASE AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .. 5 The Concept o f F i e l d s o f P r a c t i c e i n S o c i a l Work 8 A s p e c t s o f Community O r g a n i z a t i o n M e t h o d o l o g y Examined 16 Community A c t i o n E p i s o d e s 21 C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f V a r i o u s A s p e c t s o f P r o c e s s 27 Summary o f the P r o b l e m 31 F o r m u l a t i o n o f the Theory Base f o r t h e Study 32 CHAPTER I I I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY 38 L e v e l o f Study D e s i g n 38 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 39 As s u m p t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g the Study 42 P l a n f o r Data C o l l e c t i o n 42 CHAPTER I V . DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 44 A c t i o n E p i s o d e No. I 44 A c t i o n E p i s o d e No. I I 45 Data C o l l e c t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n o f I n t e r v i e w s 47 A n a l y s i s o f Data 49 I n t e r a c t i o n a l F i e l d 50 A c t i o n System 50 I n t e r v e n t i o n 51 Change Agent 51 Task and M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e s s e s 52 H o r i z o n t a l and V e r t i c a l L i n k a g e s 52 S o c i a l P r o c e s s 53 S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e 53 S o c i a l Change 54 Change S t i m u l i 54 C r i t i q u e o f I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 54 Page No. CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 60 C o n c l u s i o n s 60 Recommendations 62 BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 APPENDICES: APPENDIX A - I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 69 APPENDIX B - I n t e r v i e w No. I 76 APPENDIX C - I n t e r v i e w No. I I 93 APPENDIX D - S e c t i o n s o f the I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e R e l a t i n g to C e n t r a l Concepts o f Study 107 v i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S e v e r a l p e o p l e have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . Dr. G. H a m i l t o n , a d v i s o r t o the t h e s i s p r o j e c t , has g i v e n t e c h n i c a l and p r o c e d u r a l a s s i s t a n c e -without w h i c h l i t t l e p r o g r e s s c o u l d have been made. Mr. W. N i c h o l l s has s e r v e d w i l l i n g l y as c o n s u l t a n t t o the t h e s i s group, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t h e o r y base f o r the s t u d y . Mr. W. -A. A r m i t a g e has p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e r e f l e c t i o n s upon the i d e a s f o r the -study as they have emerged. J o y c e C l u g s t o n and G i g i E a t i l l o have b o t h been devoted'and p a t i e n t t h r o u g h o u t the demanding and s t r e n u o u s months d u r i n g w h i c h the stu d y moved from i t s i n c e p t i o n to i t s f i n a l e d i t i n g . To a l l t h e s e p e o p l e the t h e s i s group w i s h t o e x p r e s s deep a p p r e -c i a t i o n and g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , w h i c h has made the s t u d y a t r u l y c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t . AN EXPLORATION OF THE INTERACTIONAL FIELD SET UP BY SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTION I N COMMUNITY PROCESS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY PRELIMINARY STATEMENT T h i s i s a s t u d y about s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o community l i f e . H o p e f u l l y i t - r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t o f a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s o f i n c r e a s i n g p r e -c i s i o n w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y d e s c r i b e the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h o c c u r s a s ; a r e s u l t o f s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n would r e v e a l whether o r n o t t h e r e a r e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n s o c i a l work i n -t e r v e n t i o n e p i s o d e s . I f p a t t e r n s emerge, they s h o u l d have c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g -n i f i c a n c e f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n . a n d e x e c u t i o n o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i s e i n and w i t h c o m m u n i t i e s . I n i t i a l l y , what, i s r e q u i r e d i s a t h e o r e t i c a l base upon w h i c h to b u i l d a rough d e s c r i p t i o n o f the el e m e n t s i n s o c i a l work i n t e r a c t i o n and the e x t e n t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t a r e p r o d u c e d . Then.an a p p r o p r i a t e s t u d y d e s i g n may be adopted to g a i n e n t r y t o the f i e l d so t h a t some d a t a may be e x t r a c t e d . Hypotheses about r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s way can.perhaps be d e v e l o p e d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y , and e v e n t u a l l y f o r f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f such i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d s i s t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n l e n d s i t s e l f t o the s e l e c t i o n o f r e l e v a n t knowledge from o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s and the c h o i c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e s and t e c h n i q u e s f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s s e e k i n g to i n d u c e s o c i a l change a t the com-munity l e v e l . I t a l s o h e l p s t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r j u d g i n g the i m p l i c a -t i o n s o f s o c i a l change; who i s a f f e c t e d , and how, by, a t t e m p t s to produce s o c i a l change i n community l i f e . A c r u c i a l a s s u m p t i o n upon w h i c h t h i s s t u d y , and i n d e e d a l l s o c i a l work i n t e r a c t i o n i s based i s t h a t r a t i o n a l s o c i a l change i s or may be bene-f i c i a l . I f t h i s s t u d y h e l p s t o move s o c i a l work o p e r a t i o n s t o a more r a t i o -n a l base f o r i n d u c i n g s o c i a l change, t h e n community l i f e and i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t w i l l be enhanced by the e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . D i f f i c u l t i e s E n c o u n t e r e d i n D e v e l o p i n g the Study The major d i f f i c u l t y p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f i n the f a s h i o n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y has been t h e p a u c i t y o f t h e o r y s p e c i f i c s i n the components of s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n , the n a t u r e o f community and i t s p r o c e s s e s , . a n d s o c i a l change. There a r e c o n c e p t u a l models o f community a c t i o n . a n d o f s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l and i n p l a n n i n g a r e a s , and a w e a l t h o f d e s c r i p -t i v e m a t e r i a l about v a r i e t i e s o f community, b u t l i t t l e u n i f y i n g t h e o r y about the components o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d s s e t up by community members, o r by community members i n c o n j u n c t i o n . w i t h s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . Very, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on t h e s p e c i f i c s o f community a c t i v i t y . W i t h o u t the p r e c e d e n t of such s t u d i e s o n l y a r o u g h l y - f a s h i o n e d e x p l o r a t i o n to a c h i e v e some p u r c h a s e upon the s l i p p e r y , e l u s i v e phenomenon t h a t i s c o m m u n i t y • a c t i o n may be a t t e m p t e d . The c h o i c e of. a d e s i g n f o r the s t u d y to meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f an a d v e n t u r e i n t o the o b s c u r i t i e s o f a l i t t l e - e x a m i n e d a r e a o f s o c i a l l i f e i s b o t h i m p o r t a n t and p e r p l e x i n g . What i s needed i s a d e s i g n t h a t w i l l p e r -m i t freedom o f movement, because t h e r e a r e so few "knowns",. and y e t w i l l p r o -v i d e some b u i l t - i n l i m i t a t i o n s so t h a t a r e a l i s t i c f o c u s may be a c q u i r e d . S i n c e we know v e r y l i t t l e about the v a r i a b l e s i n community a c t i o n , i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e to adopt a d e s i g n w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e us t o e x p l o r e t h i s a r e a t o d e t e r m i n e some o f the v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e o p e r a t i v e . I t does n o t seem p r a c t i c a l t o a t t e m p t to e x p l o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between, v a r i a b l e s a t t h i s i n i -t i a l s t a g e . T h i s g i v e s us some freedom o f movement and a s e t o f l i m i t a t i o n s upon the a m b i t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . M a j o r D e c i s i o n s Taken t o Develop the St u d y The d e c i s i o n s t h a t have been made t o b r i n g the s t u d y from n o t i o n t o r e a l i t y a r e i n t h r e e main a r e a s . A s e r i e s of ...decisions.: have been made about the c h o i c e o f c o n c e p t u a l m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i n the t h e o r y - b a s e . A community a c t i o n model based on systems t h e o r y w i l l be used f o r d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s . The dynamics o f i n t e r -a c t i o n w i l l be o b s e r v e d i n terms o f a s t r u c t u r e - p r o c e s s t y p e o f movement. The c o n s c i o u s elements i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e worker w i l l be l o o k e d a t i n terms o f t a s k and m a i n t e n a n c e p r o c e s s e s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the v a r i a b l e s f o r s o c i a l work o p e r a t i o n s w i l l be e x p r e s s e d i n t h e framework of s o c i a l work methodology i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " - i n t h i s case a p a r t i c u l a r a g g r e g a t e o f community p r o c e s s e s - t o pro d u c e a c e r t a i n k i n d of s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f such an u n d e r t a k i n g a r e f u r t h e r m a g n i f i e d by the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t i m e , imposed by the academic y e a r , and o f r e s o u r c e s from w h i c h t o draw a sample o f the k i n d o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d t h a t i s t o be e x p l o r e d . The compromise n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e s e f a c t o r s i s t h a t t h e seven months o f time and two e p i s o d e s a v a i l a b l e w i l l be u t i l i z e d t o d e v e l o p t h e s t u d y t o t h e p r e - t e s t o f d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n s t a g e , w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f the i n s t r u m e n t s used t o g a t h e r d a t a . Some recommendations f o r r e v i s i o n a r e l i k e l y t o be f o r t h c o m i n g as t h e p r e - t e s t e x p e r i e n c e i s a n a l y z e d , and t h e r e may be an o p p o r t u n i t y t o h y p o t h e s i z e c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s . The m a t t e r s s e t f o r t h i n t h i s b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l be d e v e l o p e d t o an o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l i n t h e e n s u i n g c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r Two summarizes the e x i s t i n g knowledge r e l e v a n t t o the s t u d y , and o f f e r s a t h e o r y b a s e , e x t r a c t e d from t h i s r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e , uptmii w h i c h t h e s t u d y may be b u i l t . C h a p t e r Three c o n t a i n s an e x p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , the ma i n q u e s t i o n s t h a t c o n c e r n the s t u d y , t h e a s s u m p t i o n s and c o n c e p t s r e q u i r i n g d e f i n i t i o n , and the d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n p l a n . 4. C h a p t e r Four i n c l u d e s the s t u d y f i n d i n g s , t h e i r a n a l y s i s , and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e and f o r t h e methodology used t o r e s e a r c h them. C h a p t e r F i v e c o n t a i n s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations f o r m o d i f y -i n g the s t u d y d e s i g n . CHAPTER I I THE THEORETICAL BASE AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE T h i s c h a p t e r s e t s f o r t h a r e v i e w o f the t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on the s u b j e c t a r e a o f the s t u d y , and a f o r m u l a t i o n o f the t h e o r y base used f o r i t . The community o r g a n i z a t i o n method i n s o c i a l work i s u n d e r g o i n g c o n t i n u i n g s t u d y by the p r o f e s s i o n because o f a f e l t need to d e v e l o p g r e a t e r e x a c t n e s s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge to p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l work o p e r a t i o n s . " S i n c e the 1920's the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f community o r g a -n i z a t i o n i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e has been c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h p u r p o s e , the n a t u r e o f the community, the community as a " c l i e n t " . . . the r o l e ( s ) o f the w o r k e r , the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d s o c i a l a c t i o n t o communi-ty o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e , the l o c u s o f p r a c t i c e and the knowledge b a s e " . (57, p. 177). The l a s t two decades have seen the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new c o n c e p t s and t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s from s o c i o l o g y and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y t o the a n a l y s i s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e . Such con-c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s have opened i t up to. a f r e s h a n a l y s i s w i t h c o n c e p t s w h i c h c a p t u r e a s p e c t s t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s c a n r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e and t h a t a r e amenable to e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . Concepts and t h e o r i e s borrowed from the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s such as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , systems t h e o r y , r o l e t h e o r y the power s t r u c t u r e , and p l a n n e d change have g i v e n the community o r g a n i z a -t i o n method a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and a b r o a d e r knowledge b a s e . F l o y d H u n t e r , James Coleman, R o n a l d L i p p i t t ' . and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , and Roland L Warren (B, 4, 17, 31) have made major c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n a p p l y i n g the t h e o r i e s o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o the Community O r g a n i z a t i o n Method as have many o t h e r w r i t e r s i n t h i s f i e l d . W h i l e such works have broadened the h o r i z o n s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n and g i v e n a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the dynamics 6 . o f t h e community p r o c e s s , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h i s p r o c e s s , many i s s u e s r e m a i n u n r e s o l v e d . T h e r e r e m a i n s a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t e f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o p r e s s on t o i d e n t i f y t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p r a c t i c e s p e c i f i c s and t h e o r i e s t h a t may emerge i n the s t u d y o f t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n between t h i s s o c i a l work method and a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . I f a t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r o p e r a t i o n s i s t o be a c h i e v e d , t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n method, l i k e any o t h e r , has t o be i d e n t i f i e d and s t u d i e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . I t must be examined and a n a l y z e d w i t h i n a c o n c e p t u a l framework t h a t p e r m i t s t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f the r e l e v a n c e o f a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c s o f t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . B e g i n n i n g s t u d i e s o f t h i s k i n d o f i n t e r a c t i o n can be s i g n i f i c a n t i f g e n e r i c s o c i a l work methodology i s i n t r o d u c e d , r a t h e r t h a n community o r g a n i z a t i o n methodology s p e c i f i c a l l y . I t i s an a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t g e n e r i c s o c i a l work methodology w i l l v a r y t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . I f t h i s h o l d s , t h e n i t can a l s o be assumed t h a t community o r g a n i z a t i o n methodology w i l l v a r y t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i n a s i m i l a r manner. The p r e c i s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a n c e w i l l n o t be o b s e r v a b l e a t t h e l e v e l o f an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y t o d e s c r i b e t h e ma j o r v a r i a b l e s i n a f i e l d . The s t a g e o f development o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e ( S o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n method).does n o t p e r m i t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f an e x a c t methodology, p r e c i s e l y because o f gaps i n the t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge base needed t o f o r m u l a t e , an e x p l i c i t m ethodology. Yet a c l e a r i d e a o f what i s meant by and i n c l u d e d i n r e p e a t a b l e s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y t o a s t u d y o f such methodology as a v a r i a b l e i n o u t -comes o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s . The same needs t o be s a i d o f our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the scope o f community development as a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . I n 1959 a t h r e e - y e a r e f f o r t was l a u n c h e d by t h e Committee On Community O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers (NASW) t o c l a r i f y community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e . T h i s Committee's work c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n i n December 1962 of " D e f i n i n g Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e " , w h i c h p r e s e n t e d a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e . (37) The immediate impetus f o r t h i s a t t e m p t was the e f f o r t o f t h e N.A.S.W. Com-m i s s i o n on S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e t o d e f i n e t h e g e n e r i c b ase o f a l l s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n terms o f "a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f v a l u e , p u r p o s e , s a n c t i o n , knowledge, and method. No p a r t a l o n e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s o c i a l work p r a c -t i c e n or i s any p a r t d e s c r i b e d . . . u n i q u e t o s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . I t i s the p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t and c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h i s c o n s t e l l a t i o n w h i c h makes i t s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e and d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from t h e p r a c t i c e o f o t h e r p r o -f e s s i o n s " . (57, p. 185) Thus, i n 1962, t h e N.A.S.W. document D e f i n i n g  Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e a t t e m p t e d t o t r a n s l a t e t h e g e n e r i c f o r m u l a -t i o n s o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n t o t he s p e c i f i c s o f the community o r g a n i z a -t i o n method. S i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s i n t h i s document a r e n o t e d as f o l l o w s : " ( 1 ) The c o n s i s t e n c y o f g e n e r i c s o c i a l work v a l u e s w i t h com-m u n i t y p r a c t i c e . (2) The d u a l i t y o f p u r p o s e , w i t h e q u a l s t r e s s on s t r e n g t h e n i n g the community's c a p a c i t y f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and on achievement o f s e l e c t e d s o c i a l g o a l s . (3) The w i d e s p r e a d a u s p i c e s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n . (4) The d e s c r i p t i o n o f the knowledge s o u r c e s f o r p r a c t i c e , e s p e c i a l l y t he community as a s o c i a l system. (5) The d e s c r i p t i o n o f the method p r a c t i c e d i n community p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e community as a " c l i e n t s ystem", t h e w o r k e r ' s r o l e , and th e p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s the w o r k e r ' s a c t i -v i t i e s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the " c l i e n t system", community assessment, p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d i a g -n o s i s , m o b i l i z a t i o n o f community energy and r e s o u r c e s , development o f p l a n s o f a c t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and m a i n t e -nance o f change p r o c e s s e s , b u i l d i n g l i n e s o f communication, l e a d e r s h i p development, use of c o n f l i c t , management o f power and i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y emphasis. The worker must be aware o f community dynamics, i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . (6) The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s used by the p r a c t i t i o n e r i n a p p l y i n g the method i n s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s , such as s t r u c t u -r i n g , s o c i a l a c t i o n management, f o r m a l s t u d y , e x p e r t con-s u l t a t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i o n , and p r e p a r a t i o n o f p l a n s . " (57, p. 186) 8. The Concept o f F i e l d s o f P r a c t i c e i n S o c i a l Work "A f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " c an. . ... .be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a s o c i a l work method. The d i s t i n c t i o n between... . ( t h e two) .. .must be made e x p l i c i t to a c h i e v e c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y . " (37 p. .1) F a i l u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e and a s o c i a l work method has c o n t r i b u t e d t o many c o n c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n S o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e o ver the y e a r s . I n 1956 the C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n (C.S.W.E.) i n i t s "Re-p o r t o f the Committee on S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n " i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between the i d e a o f a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e ' a n d a s o c i a l work method. (58) The l a t t e r was r e f e r r e d t o as a s o c i a l work " p r o -c e s s " such as s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work or community o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r , as more g e n e r a l l y u s e d , as a s o c i a l work "method." I n a t t e m p t i n g to d e f i n e Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e , the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers (37) took s p e c i a l c o g n i z a n c e o f the d i s t i n c t i o n made between a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e and a s o c i a l work method. E a r l i e r work by A l f r e d Kahn had e n v i s i o n e d a " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e ? 1 as b e i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f ..a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d such as p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , f a m i l y w e l f a r e , c h i l d w e l f a r e , c o r r e c t i o n s , s c h o o l s o c i a l work, p s y c h i a t r i c a g e n c i e s and community p l a n n i n g . •Kahn a l s o i d e n t i f i e d c r i t e r i a by which, t o g u i d e judgements as to whether t h e r e does e x i s t a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i n w h i c h s o c i a l work methodology i s found and can f u n c t i o n . ( 4 1 , p. 9) P r i o r to t h i s , H a r r i e t t B a r t l e t t (34) had s u g g e s t e d t h a t the c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , such as the p r o b l e m o r c o n d i -t i o n o f c e n t r a l c o n c e r n ; the system o f o r g a n i z e d s e r v i c e s ; the body o f know-l e d g e , v a l u e s and method; the s o c i o c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s i n s o c i e t y ; the c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e s and b e h a v i o r o f p e r s o n s s e r v e d , c o l o r the s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n any p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . I n s h o r t , . " t h e s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s o c i a l work method i s the r e s u l t a n t i n t e r s e c t i o n between the e s s e n t i a l e l e -ments i n s o c i a l work methods and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d i n w h i c h i t i s p r a c t i s e d . " (37, p. 3) 9. A l f r e d Kahn had s t a t e d t h a t " i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o p r e t e n d t h a t any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i s l i k e a l l o t h e r s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , the d i s t i n c t i o n b o t h by " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " and by c o r e methods has p r o v e d h e l p f u l . : T h i s i s t r u e d e s p i t e t he f a c t t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y z e t he " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " s t a t e m e n t s on a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n and t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e i s much s i m i l a r i t y and o v e r l a p p i n g . I t was t h i s d i s c o v e r y t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r the i d e a o f g e n e r i c s o c i a l work. I n f a c t , " g e n e r i c " r e f e r s t o r a t h e r a b s t r a c t p r o p o s i t i o n s . Remember, however, t h a t t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r moves from t h e s e h i g h e r a b s t r a c t i o n s t o o p e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s on a lo w e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n and t h a t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e f o c u s e d on the s p e c i f i c s i n a g i v e n agency, w i t h a g i v e n c l i e n t e l e , and w i t h g i v e n s a n c t i o n s and g o a l s . The p a r t i c u l a r ways i n whi c h t h e s e elements combine g i v e us t h e d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e . W h i l e t h e r e i s g e n e r i c t h e o r y , t h e r e i s no g e n e r i c p r a c t i c e . To i g n o r e t he f i e l d s would thus be t o i g n o r e t h e d a i l y r e a l i t i e s of p r a c t i c e and the t a s k o f p r e p a r i n g new p r a c t i t i o n e r s . " (41pp.7-8) The work o f B a r t l e t t , Kahn, and t h e C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n s u g g e s t s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e t h r e e s o c i a l work methods, ( s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work and community o r g a n i z a t i o n ) have v a r i e d s t y l e s and t a k e on d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e dependent upon t h e f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e t o w h i c h t h e y a r e a p p l i e d . W i t h the above c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s i n mind Meyer Schwartz and the Committee f o r a W o r k i n g D e f i n i t i o n of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e hy-p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , "a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work method, eg: Community o r g a n i z a t i o n , t a k e s on c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s when i t i s a p p l i e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . These d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be i l l u s t r a t e d as r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s o f emphasis on c e r t a i n k i n d s o f v a l u e s , p u r p o s e s , s a n c t i o n s , knowledge and methods, w i t h w o r k e r r o l e s d i s t i n c t i v e t o the f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i n w h i c h the s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e n a c t e d . " (37p.3) Schwartz p o i n t s o ut t h a t f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e a r e n o t s t a t i c . F or example, community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r s d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s as p r a c t i s i n g i n t h e f i e l d s o f "urban r e n e w a l and r e d e v e l o p m e n t " , "mental h e a l t h " and "community development". These f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e a r e n o t , however, s u g g e s t e d i n t h e CSWE and NASW t e n t a t i v e l i s t i n g s o f f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e . A l f r e d Kahn acknowledges t h i s when he s t a t e s t h a t "most d i f f i c u l t i s the q u a n t i t a t i v e q u e s t i o n - the " c u t - o f f p o i n t " . A t what p o i n t a r e the demands o f a f i e l d s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t t o j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e n e s s ? O b v i o u s l y t h e r e i s no one answer f o r a l l t i m e s about a g i v e n f i e l d s i n c e t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l dynamic v a r i a b l e s ; c h a n g i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a c h a n g i n g s o c i a l m i l i e u ; c h a n g i n g s o c i a l work knowledge, a t t i -t u d e s , s k i l l s ; changes i n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s " . (41 p. 13) Kahn s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t , " i f the p r o f e s s i o n r e m a i n s f l e x i b l e and open t o change, t h r e e p r o c e s s e s w i l l c o n t i n u o u s l y o c c u r . (1) New " f i e l d s " w i l l c o n s t a n t l y b i d f o r a t t e n t i o n , and some o f t h e s e w i l l d e s e r v e r e c o g n i t i o n . They w i l l a r i s e i n r e s p o n s e to new s o c i a l p roblems o r i n a s p e c i a l i z e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g r o u t e from o l d e r f i e l d s , such as the p s y c h i a t r i c once a r o s e from the m e d i c a l . (2) O l d f i e l d s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the g e n e r i c s o c i a l work c o r e , thus d e c r e a s i n g t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . (3) E x i s t i n g f i e l d s w i l l , i n consequence d i s c o v e r t h a t an e a r l i e r " u n i q u e n e s s " no l o n g e r e x i s t s and t h a t new c o m b i n a t i o n s may be more f u n c t i o n a f o r the p r o f e s s i o n . " (41 p. 13) The W o r k i n g D e f i n i t i o n o f Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e " a t t e m p t s to be an u m b r e l l a t o c o v e r the p r a c t i c e o f com-m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e , however, the s u g g e s t i o n i s r a i s e d : t h a t " i f and when we examine more c l o s e l y t he v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f a u s p i c e f o r the p r a c t i c e o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l we d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i s a c t u a l l y a number o f s u b - f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e i n a g e n e r a l f i e l d c a l l e d ' i x l c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g " w i t h q u i t e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . eg. "community w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g on the c i t y - w i d e l e v e l " , " n e i g h b o r h o o d work", " f e d e r a t e d fund r a i s i n g " , g o v e r n m e n t a l s o c i a l p l a n n i n g " , community development and the l i f e ? And w i l l we f i n d as we r e d e f i n e the s u b f i e l d s o f - p r a c t i c e o f "com-m u n i t y p l a n n i n g " t h a t t h e r e a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t c o n s t e l l a -t i o n s o f f a c t o r s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o c e r t a i n k i n d s o f s p e c i -f i c p r a c t i c e .. . A l l t h i s g i v e s r i s e to c e r t a i n k i n d s o f v a l u e s , knowledge, method and t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s u b f i e l d , h a v i n g a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on the k i n d o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y to be e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s s u b f i e l d . " (37 pp. 32-33) The same m i g h t be s a i d f o r o t h e r s u b f i e l d s such as community development and " u r b a n r e n e w a l and r e d e v e l o p m e n t " and g o v e r n m e n t a l s o c i a l p l a n n i n g " . 11. I t i s t h e o p i n i o n of Meyer Schwartz and h i s Committee t h a t the r e a l " p a y - o f f " o f the W o r k i n g D e f i n i t i o n o f Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e w i l l come when i t i s r e l a t e d t o s t u d i e s of v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e and the t h e o r e t i c a l p r a c t i c e s p e c i f i c s r e l a t e d t o them. Schwartz thus s t r e s s e s the need f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as t h e y i n f l u e n c e , shape, f a s h i o n and mold t h e s p e c i f i c s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n . S o c i a l work i s p r a c t i c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o r more b r o a d l y , i n r e l a t i o n t o s o c i a l s y s t ems, and i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s between and among t h e s e s o c i a l s y s t e m s . Now when the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n s t i t u t i o n o r s o c i a l s ystem - or c l u s t e r t h e r e o f - so shape t h e " s p e c i f i c " as t o make a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , t h i s i s known as a " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " . A " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " t h e n , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p a t t e r n of emphasis, o r i e n t a t i o n , a d a p t i o n and s p e c i f i c i n t e g r a t i o n o f elements i n g e n e r i c s o c i a l work as demanded by the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the s o c i a l s ystem or c l u s t e r s o f s o c i a l s ystems. Kahn i d e n t i f i e s e i g h t b a s i c components of a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e w h i c h ar e as f o l l o w s : " ( 1 ) There must be i n v o l v e d a d e f i n i t e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n or i n s t i t u t i o n s o r a s e r i e s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s . (2) There must be a c l i e n t e l e f o r whom s p e c i f i c s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e . (3) S o c i e t y , d e f i n e s and d e l e g a t e s t o the s o c i a l w o r k e r a p o i n t o f e n t r y t o a s e t o f t a s k s and problems r e l a t e d t o the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n ( s ) or o r g a n i z a t i o n s . (4) T h e r e i s a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the  g o a l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n ( s ) and of s o c i a l work. (5) There i s i n v o l v e d a c o n t r i b u t i o n by s o c i a l work t o t h e c h a r a c t e r and g o a l s of t h e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . (6) The p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l work i n a g i v e n f i e l d i n v o l v e s a c o n s t a n t assessment and development of the v a r i o u s c o r e methods and t h e i r use. (7) The r e q u i r e d , a d a p t a t i o n s , emphases and i n t e g r a t i o n s a r e o f a d i m e n s i o n , scope and c o m p l e x i t y t h a t demand c o n t i n u e d a t t e n t i o n i n p r a c t i c e and e d u c a t i o n . (8) The r e q u i r e d a d a p t a t i o n s , emphases, and i n t e g r a t i o n s a r e of a d i m e n s i o n , scope and c o m p l e x i t y t h a t cannot s t r a t e g i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n t h e scope of any o t h e r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e or f u l l y a b s orbed a t once w i t h i n t h e g e n e r i c c o r e " . ( 4 1 p . 9 ) A f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i s , t h e r e f o r e , seen as b e i n g c o m p r i s e d of a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s , vtwo of w h i c h a r e s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s . By s t r u c t u r e i s meant th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a number o f i n t e r a c t i n g s o c i a l systems o r u n i t s and by p r o c e s s i s meant th e n a t u r a l and p r o g r e s s i v e movement and a c t i v i t y o f t h e s e s o c i a l systems i n i n t e r a c t i o n as t h e y d e a l w i t h one or more problems i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l and/or s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n c l u d e d i n the c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i a l s y s t e m ( s ) such a s , the p r o b l e m c o n d i t i o n of c e n t r a l c o n c e r n , t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m ( s ) , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e s and b e h a v i o r o f p e r s o n s s e r v e d , and t h e p a t t e r n of emphasis, o r i e n t a t i o n , a d a p t a t i o n and s p e c i f i c i n t e g r a t i o n of elements i n g e n e r i c s o c i a l work as demanded by the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s o c i a l s ystem o r c l u s t e r o f s o c i a l s y s t e m s . I t i s t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of p r a c t i c e t h a t i s b e l i e v e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work method when a p p l i e d t o t h a t f i e l d . I n o t h e r words, s o c i a l work methodology i s b e l i e v e d t o t a k e on u n i q u e and i d e n t i f i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s when a p p l i e d t o v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d by Meyer Schwartz (37p.33) t h a t w i t h i n each f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , s u b f i e l d s may e x i s t w h i c h r e q u i r e s o c i a l work methodology t o become even more s p e c i f i c , when a p p l i e d i n s u b f i e l d s . The s p e c i f i c sub-f i e l d may r e q u i r e more emphasis on t h e v a r i o u s methods, t e c h n i q u e s , s k i l l s , and knowledge o f any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work method; a movement from the g e n e r i c e l ements t o t h e more s p e c i f i c ; a movement from h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n t o o p e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s on a l o w e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . 13. S u b f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e can be r educed t o a l o w e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n w h i c h t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g s w i t h i n s u b f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e . A t t h i s l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . o n e m i g h t h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t s o c i a l work methodology w i l l t a k e on more d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e p e n d i n g upon such f a c t o r s as agency s t r u c t u r e , s a n c t i o n and mandate, s p e c i f i c problems of c o n c e r n , power s t r u c t u r e , s y s t e m i c l i n k a g e s , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A t t h i s l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n , s o c i a l work methodology and s o c i a l work r o l e s become as s p e c i f i c , o p e r a t i o n a l and s p e c i a l i z e d as the s e t t i n g demands. B e f o r e one can d e t e r m i n e the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s o c i a l work method e n a c t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c e l e ments o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r method must be examined at l o w e r l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n or i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s s u b f i e l d s of p r a c t i c e and s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g s . A f t e r t h i s i s done i t may be p o s s i b l e tQ^jthen f a c t o r out the u n i q u e elements o f t h a t method, i n each s u b f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , from t h e g e n e r i c e l e m e n t s . These g e n e r i c elements o f t h e s o c i a l work method can t h e n be s a i d t o be " c o r e " elements o f the p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work method when e n a c t e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . F o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , community development i s i d e n t i f i e d as a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b r o a d s o c i a l change and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w i t h a f o c u s on m o d i f y i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and community l i f e t o b e t t e r s e r v e b o t h p a r t i c i p a t i n g and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g community members. Community development as a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e encompasses " o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s t o improve c o n d i t i o n s o f l i v i n g i n a community, and i n v o l v e s (1) the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y and/or e x p e r t s e r v i c e s from o u t s i d e the community, and (2) t h e e n l i s t m e n t o f s e l f - h e l p and c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t o f the r e s i d e n t s o f t h e community".(1Op.501) E r n e s t Harper and A r t h u r Dunham p o i n t out t h a t t h e . t e r m "community development" i s u s u a l l y a p p l i e d p r i m a r i l y t o v i l l a g e s and c o m m u n i t i e s . E a r l i e r w r i t e r s tenc|&d t o r e s t r i c t 14. community development t o u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d o r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s b u t i n r e c e n t y e a r s i t has come t o be seen as encompassing a c t i v i t i e s aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g s e l f - h e l p and l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e i n urban or r u r a l s e t t i n g s i n b o t h " d e v e l o p e d " and " u n d e r d e v e l o p e d " c o u n t r i e s . Urban community development i s a s u b - f i e l d of p r a c t i c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by neighbourhood s o c i a l change and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h a f o c u s on m o d i f y i n g v e r t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n s i n community l i f e . The key words a r e " u r b a n " and "development". T h i s sub-f i e l d i s s e t i n s e c t i o n s o f u r b a n a r e a s , and i t s f o c u s i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l as opposed t o p l a n n i n g o r c o o r d i n a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . The latfeier two a r e seen as s e p a r a t e f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n . A r e v i e w o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f community development r e v e a l s t h a t i t i s r e g a r d e d w i d e l y as a p r o c e s s . T h i s s t u d y a l s o d e f i n e s f i e l d s of p r a c t i c e i n terms o f p r o c e s s , i n r e l a t i o n t o s t r u c t u r e and o t h e r f a c t o r s . These o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s do n o t d i s p r o v e t h e c o n t e n t i o n h e r e t h a t community development i s a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , b u t th e y do p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the k i n d s o f p r o c e s s e s t h a t may be found w i t h i n the f i e l d as d e f i n e d f o r the pu r p o s e s o f the s t u d y . C a r l C. T a y l o r (60) w r i t i n g on t h e t o p i c "Community Development Programs and Methods" i d e n t i f i e s f o u r main s t e p s i n community development w h i c h a r e as f o l l o w s : (1) S y s t e m a t i c d i s c u s s i o n o f common f e l t needs by members of t h e community. (2) S y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g t o c a r r y out the f i r s t s e l f - h e l p u n d e r t a k i n g t h a t has been s e l e c t e d by the community. (3) M o b i l i z a t i o n and h a r n e s s i n g o f the p h y s i c a l economic and s o c i a l p o t e n t i a l s o f l o c a l community groups. (4) The c r e a t i o n of a s p i r a t i o n and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o u n d e r t a k e a d d i t i o n a l community improvement p r o j e c t s . " B a s i c a l l y community development i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s by w h i c h human b e i n g s can become more competent t o l i v e w i t h and g a i n some c o n t r o l over l o c a l a s p e c t s o f a f r u s t r a t i n g and c h a n g i n g w o r l d . I t i n v o l v e s c o o p e r a t i v e s t u d y , group d e c i s i o n s , c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , and j o i n t e v a l u a t i o n t h a t l e a d s t o c o n t i n u i n g a c t i o n . I t c a l l s f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l l h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s . a n d a g e n c i e s t h a t c a n a s s i s t i n . p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . But p e r s o n a l i t y growth through.group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l o c a l common good i s the f o c u s . The emphasis s h i f t s from improvement o f f a c i l i t i e s , o f economic l i f e , and even o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h a t s u p p o r t s community atmospheres, im-p o r t a n t as these a r e , to improvement i n p e o p l e . B u t the p e r s o n a l b e t t e r m e n t i s b r o u g h t about i n the m i d s t o f s o c i a l a c t i o n t h a t s e r v e s a g r o w i n g awareness o f community need." (2, pp. 78-79) The c l e a r e s t d e f i n i t i o n of the g o a l o f community development i s t h a t i t p l a c e s p r i m a r y emphasis on human r e s o u r c e development and se c o n d a r y em-p h a s i s on s o c i a l change and c o m p l e t i o n o f . s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s . Community de-velopment as a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " s t r e s s e s the v a l u e o f c o o p e r a t i o n , u s u a l l y seeks to a v o i d c o n f l i c t , .attempts t o o r g a n i z e p e o p l e around p o s i t i v e g o a l s s t a t e d i n p o s i t i v e terms, r a t h e r t h a n d i s c o n t e n t o r c o n f l i c t , and h e l p s t o . a l t e r t he a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e toward change." (26, p. 58) Rola n d L. Warren d e s c r i b e s community development as b e i n g "a p r o -c e s s o f h e l p i n g community p e o p l e t o . a n a l y z e t h e i r p r o b l e m s , t o e x e r c i s e as l a r g e a measure o f autonomy as i s p o s s i b l e and f e a s i b l e , .and t o promote a g r e a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n and the i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n w i t h the community as a whole. .Through such -a p r o c e s s , communities may be h e l p e d t o c o n f r o n t t h e i r problems as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . " ( 31, p. .20) I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t by community p e o p l e to work t o g e t h e r t o g u i d e the f u t u r e o f t h e i r communities and the development o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e t of t e c h n i q u e s f o r a s s i s t i n g community p e o p l e i n such a p r o c e s s i s i n i t s e l f a n , i m p o r t a n t advance i n the c u r r e n t changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . I r w i n Sanders p o i n t s o u t t h a t community development i s "a p r o c e s s o f change from a c o n d i t i o n where one or two p e o p l e o r . a s m a l l e l i t e w i t h i n o r w i t h o u t the l o c a l community make a d e c i s i o n f o r the r e s t o f the p e o p l e , to a c o n d i t i o n where the p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s make t h e s e d e c i s i o n s about m a t t e r s o f common c o n c e r n ; from•a s t a t e o f minimum t o one o f maximum c o o p e r a t i o n ; from a c o n d i t i o n where few p a r t i c i p a t e t o one where many . p a r t i -c i p a t e ; from a c o n d i t i o n where a l l r e s o u r c e s and s p e c i a l i s t s come from o u t s i d e t o one where l o c a l p e o p l e make the most use o f t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s e t c . " (25 pp. 407-408) As e a r l i e r s t a t e d , community development i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o a c t i v i t i e s w i t h p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s , n o r i s i t n e c e s s a r i l y concerned s o l e l y or even p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n d u s t r i a l development. "The term i s coming t o be used i n c r e a s i n g l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada t o denote a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have as an i m p o r t a n t f o c u s t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g of t h e h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n i n l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . Much of what i s c o n s i d e r e d community development abroad would n o t f a l l w i t h i n the p r e s e n t d e f i n i t i o n f o r t he a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d f r e q u e n t l y do not aim p r i m a r i l y a t s t r e n g t h e n i n g the h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n of the l o c a l community, but r a t h e r a t a c c o m p l i s h i n g some s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e such as c h a n g i n g methods of a g r i c u l t u r e , i m p r o v i n g the i n d u s t r i a l b a s e , i m p r o v i n g s a n i t a t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g l i t e r a c y , and so on."(31pp.324-325) A c o m p a r a t i v e awareness o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f h e l p i n g communities to become more e f f e c t i v e by s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n has become a p p a r e n t i n t h e g r o w i n g f i e l d o f community development. S o c i a l w o r k e r s and o t h e r s a c t i v e i n t h i s f i e l d have become s p e c i f i c a l l y aware of the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e g o a l of s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n and of t h e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h s p e c i f i c t a s k g o a l s a r e a c h i e v e d . I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d by p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h i s f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e t h a t " u n l e s s and u n t i l s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g groups a r e d e v e l o p e d , communities as s u c h have n o t d e v e l o p e d no m a t t e r how many t h i n g s have been done f o r them".(bOp.528) A s p e c t s of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n M e t h o d o l o g y Examined. A s p e c t s of methodology i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e t h a t a r e of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s d i f f e r e n t i a l emphasis upon e n h a n c i n g t a s k and m a i n t e n a n c e p r o c e s s e s of community a c t i o n systems as he i n t e r v e n e s i n t o community p r o c e s s . M i l d r e d B a r r y (33) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r i s a c a t a l y s t who when i n t e r v e n i n g i n the community s i t u a t i o n , e n a b l e s t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t o o c c u r . The w o r k e r b r i n g s t o t h e community a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h a r e i n d i c a t i v e of h i s p a r t i n t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s and s e r v e t o p o i n t up the knowledge and s k i l l he needs i n o r d e r t o do h i s j o b e f f e c t i v e l y . A c c o r d i n g t o B a r r y , t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s a r e : " ( 1 ) A S o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y ; (2) Knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r be-h a v i o u r , groups and t h e i r b e h a v i o u r , communities and t h e i r b e h a v i o u r ; (3) C o n s c i o u s use of one's r o l e as an e n a b l i n g , h e l p i n g p e r s o n ; (4) A b i l i t y t o work w i t h the e x i s t i n g community s t r u c t u r e w i t h -o u t b e i n g bound by i t , to r e c o g n i z e t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l as more do n o t change o v e r n i g h t and t h a t t h e r e a r e s t r o n g l o y a l t i e s t o g r o u p s , to i n s t i t u t i o n s , and t o e s t a b -l i s h p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g ; (5) Knowledge o f the s e t t i n g , s t r u c t u r e , and f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e o f p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s ; (6) . S k i l l i n u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s methods and t e c h n i q u e s ; a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w i n g , committee l e a d e r s h i p , r e s e a r c h , r e -c o r d i n g , and p u b l i c and p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . " (33 p. 242) These a r e the s k i l l s , knowledge, v a l u e s , methods and t e c h n i q u e s t h a t the worker must b r i n g t o the community i f he i s t o m e a n i n g f u l l y and p u r p o s e -f u l l y i n t e r v e n e i n the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . An a r e a o f knowledge t h a t i s v a l u a b l e to s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i s systems t h e o r y , because i t i s one way o f d e s c r i b i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . A r e v i e w o f i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s o f " s y s t e m " as r e l a t e d to community i s i n c l u d e d b ecause o f i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s . "A s o c i a l s ystem i s a s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f u n i t s w h i c h endures t h r o u g h t i m e . I t has b o t h e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l a s p e c t s r e l a t i n g the system to i t s e n v i r o n m e n t and i t s u n i t s t o each o t h e r . I t c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t s s u r r o u n d -i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , p e r f o r m i n g a f u n c t i o n c a l l e d boundary m a i n t e -nance. I t tends to m a i n t a i n an e q u i l i b r i u m i n the sense t h a t i t a d a p t s to changes from o u t s i d e the system i n such a way as t o m i n i m i z e the i m p a c t o f the change on the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and t o r e g u l a r i z e the subsequent r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " (31 p. 136) The s t u d y o f s o c i a l systems f o c u s e s on c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s t h a t emerge when two or more p e r s o n s i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . Thus the u n i t s o f ana-l y s i s o f a s o c i a l system are n o t p e r s o n s as such b u t s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f i n -t e r a c t i o n among p e r s o n s , such as r o l e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h r e f e r s t o c l u s t e r s o f r o l e s . I n g e n e r a l , systems may be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g of two t y p e s ; c l o s e d and open, the major d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t c l o s e d systems a r e i s o l a t e d from, whereas open systems a r e r e l a t e d t o and exchange m a t t e r w i t h , t h e i r e n v i r o n -ment". (11 p. 39) L i v i n g o r g a n i s m s a r e examples o f open sys t e m s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t the d i n s t i n c t i o n between open and c l o s e d systems 18. i s n e v e r a b s o l u t e . There i s no system t h a t i s c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d from i t s e n v i r o n m e n t and s i m i l a r l y t h e r e a r e no l i v i n g organisms w h i c h tend t o a c t l i k e c l o s e d s y s t e m s . Hearn p o i n t s out t h a t , " e v e r y o r d e r o f system w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e s m a l l e s t , has sub s y s t e m s , and a l l b u t the l a r g e s t a r e a p a r t o f a s u p r a - system c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e system i n i t s e n v i r o n m e n t . There a r e f a c t o r s i n b o t h t h e system and the en v i r o n m e n t w h i c h e f f e c t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . Such f a c t o r s i n a system or i t s subsystem a r e c a l l e d v a r i a b l e s , whereas t h o s e systems i n t h e en v i r o n m e n t a r e c a l l e d p a r a m e t e r s . " ( l i p . 4 2 ) E v e r y system has a boundary w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from i t s e n v i r o n m e n t . The boundary o f a system has been d e f i n e d as " t h a t r e g i o n where g r e a t e r engrgy i s r e q u i r e d f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n a c r o s s i t t h a n f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n i m m e d i a t e l y o u t s i d e t h a t r e g i o n or i m m e d i a t e l y i n s i d e i t " . ( 4 6 p . 5 1 6 ) E v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s e x t e r n a l " t o t h e boundary o f a system can be d e s c r i b e d as i t s e n v i r o n m e n t . T a l c o t t P a r s o n s and o t h e r s have d e v e l o p e d a t h e o r y o f s o c i a l systems w h i c h t h e y d e f i n e as a system o f i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a p l u r a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s . A s o c i e t y t h e r e f o r e i s n o t o n l y a s o c i a l system b u t a l s o a v e r y complex network o f i n t e r a c t i n g and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t subsystems, each of w h i c h i s e q u a l l y a u t h e n t i c a l l y a s o c i a l system. Groups, c o m m u n i t i e s , and s o c i e t i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y l i v i n g s y s t e m s , or t h e y a r e i n P a r s o n ' s terms s o c i a l s y s t e m s . For P a r s o n s a s o c i a l system i s d e f i n e d as "two or more u n i t s r e l a t e d s u c h t h a t a change i n the s t a t e o f any u n i t , X I , w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a change o f s t a t e i n t h e r e m a i n i n g u n i t s w h i c h i n t u r n i s f o l l o w e d by a change i n t h e s t a t e o f u n i t X I , e t c . " ( 2 2 p . 4 0 2 ) P u t more s i m p l y a s o c i a l s y stem i s formed o f two or more u n i t s i n dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h each o t h e r . A s o c i a l s ystem t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t s o f p e r s o n s a r r a n g e d i n some o r d e r e d f a s h i o n . T h i s arrangement i s t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the system. S o c i a l p r o c e s s i s t h e dynamic i n t e r p l a y o f t h e subsystems i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e t o t a l s o c i a l system i n a s t a t e o f dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m . S o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and 19. s o c i a l p r o c e s s a r e l i m i t e d by f u n c t i o n . Thus i f the s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r w i s h e s to u n d e r s t a n d s o c i a l l i f e a t any l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n , be i t a t the i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y o r s m a l l group o r community l e v e l , then c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s and the s o c i a l p r o -c e s s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l system. A c c o r d i n g to Loomis, a s o c i a l system, " i s c o m p r i s e d o f the p a t t e r n e d i n t e r a c t i o n o f members, i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f a p l u r a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s whose r e l a t i o n s t o each o t h e r a r e m u t u a l l y o r i e n t e d t h r o u g h the d e f i n i t i o n and m e d i a t i o n o f a p a t t e r n o f s t r u c t u r e d and shaped symbols and e x p e c t a t i o n s " . (18 p. 4) Loomis i d e n t i f i e s n i n e elements t h a t c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l system: b e l i e f ( k n o w l e d g e ) ; s e n t i m e n t ; end g o a l o r o b j e c t i v e ; norm; s t a t u s r o l e ( p o s i t i o n ) ; r a n k ; p o w e r ; . s a n c t i o n ; and f a c i l i t y , each o f w h i c h i s a r t i c u l a t e d as a p r o c e s s . Homans 1 d e f i n i t i o n o f a s o c i a l system i s d e r i v e d from h i s a n a l y s i s of s m a l l g r o u p s . He f e e l s t h a t " t h e a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s and s e n t i m e n t s o f the group members, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s o f those elements w i t h one a n o t h e r d u r i n g the time the group i s a c t i v e c o n s t i t u t e s a s o c i a l s y stem." (12 p. 87) Warren p o i n t s o u t t h a t "when systems c o m p r i s i n g groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s , whether f o r m a l l y o r i n f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s as u n i t s o f a s t i l l l a r g e r s o c i a l system, they a r e o f t e n d e s i g n a t e d as subsystems. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they t h e m s e l v e s •are s o c i a l systems, b u t a t the same time they a r e p a r t o f a l a r g e r s o c i a l system". (31 p. 138) T h i s c o n c e p t i s an i m p o r t a n t one i n c o m m u n i t y • a n a l y s i s . The i m p o r t a n c e l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t t o the e x t e n t t h a t a community i s a s o c i a l system, many o f i t s subsystems a r e a t the same time subsystems o f l a r g e r systems w h i c h ex-tend beyond i t s b o r d e r s . I n a n a l y z i n g community as a s o c i a l system i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s i d e r the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n s i n v o l v e d . Homans i d e n t i f i e s the e x t e r n a l  systems o f a s o c i a l s ystem as "group b e h a v i o u r t h a t e n a b l e s the s y s t e m t o 20. s u r v i v e i n i t s e n v i r o n m e n t " and the i n t e r n a l system as "group b e h a v i o u r t h a t i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the s e n t i m e n t s towards one a n o t h e r d e v e l o p e d by the members o f the group i n the c o u r s e o f t h e i r l i f e t o g e t h e r " . ( 1 2 p . l 0 9 ) T h i s c o i n c i d e s r o u g h l y w i t h a d i s t i n c t i o n between t a s k p r o c e s s e s and maintenance p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l s y s t e m s . " I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h i t s p u r p o s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s environment a group must n o t o n l y p e r f o r m g o a l - o r i e n t e d t a s k s , b u t i t must a l s o be a b l e t o keep i t s members so o r g a n i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r t h a t t h e y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f u n c t i o n as a group and p e r f o r m t a s k s . There a r e two i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s t o t h i s p r o c e s s o f m a i n t a i n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e group. One i s what Homans c a l l e d s e n t i m e n t . T h i s has t o do w i t h t h e p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s w h i c h group members d e v e l o p toward each o t h e r and toward t h e group as a whole as t h e y i n t e r a c t i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k s t o f u l f i l l t h e group's p u r p o s e . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o c e s s has t o "do w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e group members w i t h i n w h i c h l a b o r i s d i v i d e d , s u b s t a s k s a r e pe r f o r m e d and rewards a r e a l l o c a t e d " . ( 3 1 p . 1 3 9 ) Task p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l systems a r e seen by Warren as b e i n g r e l a t e d to e x t e r n a l s y s t e m and i n v o l v e the a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e members a r e m a i n t a i n e d . J a c k Rothman d e a l s w i t h " d e l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n a l p r o b l e m g o a l s " and " g r o s s f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y g o a l s " i n much t h e same way as Warren d e a l s w i t h the t a s k and m a i n t e n a n c e a c t i v i t i e s o f a s o c i a l s y s tem. Rothman i d e n t i f i e s d e l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n a l p r o b l e m g o a l s "as r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n pf c o n c r e t e t a s k s or the s o l u t i o n o f a d e l i m i t e d p r o b l e m h a v i n g t o do w i t h the f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e community s o c i a l system. The purpose may be t o s t r e n g t h e n or r a t i o n a l i z e w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s ( c o o r d i n a t i o n ) , t o e s t a b l i s h new ones, t o change some a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o the community system or t o a segment o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n " . ( 5 5 p . 1 ) These g o a l s a r e v a r i o u s l y n o t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as " s o c i a l r e f o r m g o a l s " o r " s o c i a l a c t i o n g o a l s " and th e y r e l a t e v e r y c l o s e l y t o what Warren r e f e r s t o as t a s k f u n c t i o n s o f s o c i a l s y s t e m s . "Gross f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y g o a l s " a r e i d e n t i f i e d as those i n v o l v i n g such aims as " e s t a b l i s h i n g c o o p e r a t i v e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among groups and i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community, c r e a t i n g a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g and s e l f - p r o p e l l i n g community p l a n n i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r u c t u r e ; s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t and p r a c t i c e s i n the community; e n h a n c i n g w i d e s p r e a d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the community and i t s v a l u e s ; l o c a t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p ; and t e a c h i n g a community p r o b l e m s o l v i n g methodology." (55, p. 2) These g o a l s and a c t i v i t i e s a r e somewhat s i m i l a r , though by no means i d e n t i c a l , t o the maintenance a c t i v i t i e s o f s o c i a l systems o u t l i n e d by Warren These g o a l s have a g r e a t d e a l i n common w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s and aims of the community development p r o c e s s i n communities as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . The " G r o s s f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y g o a l s " o f community s o c i a l systems as i d e n t i f i e d by Rothman tend to be f o c u s e d on e n h a n c i n g the growth and matur i t y j o f the members o f the s o c i a l s ystem r a t h e r t h a n on the s o l u t i o n o f a spe-c i f i c p r o b l e m o r on m e e t i n g a s p e c i a l need. Ross (24) sees t h e s e f u n c t i o n s o r g o a l s as b e i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g a b out community i n t e g r a t i o n and h i s whole o r i e n t a t i o n and approach tends to be f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y upon n u r -t u r i n g and f o s t e r i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the community a c t i o n system. The o b j e c t i v e o f such f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s i s to i n c r e a s e competence i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and t o s u s t a i n f r a t e r n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s t h i s ob-j e c t i v e t h a t J o h n T u r n e r s t r e s s e s when he s t a t e s t h a t "community o r g a n i z a -t i o n . . . m u s t b r o a d e n i t s s t r a t e g i e s i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g from one o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m management to i n c l u d e a community development o r a human development a p p r o a c h . " ( 6 1 , p. 12) Community A c t i o n E p i s o d e s Roland Warren s t a t e s t h a t community a c t i o n s a r e e p i s o d e s . "They have t h e i r b e g i n n i n g s and t h e i r e n d i n g s . They a r e i n i -t i a t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h some p u r p o s e ; they i n v o l v e , a p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f accom-p l i s h i n g the p u r p o s e , w h i c h i n the p r o c e s s may be m o d i f i e d ; t h e n w i t h the r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r e f f o r t the a c t i o n s u b s i d e s , and the e p i s o d e f i n i s h e s . " ( 3 1 , p. 308) Community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s can thus be vie w e d as " a c t i o n systems d e v e l o p i n g f r o m t h e i r i n c e p t i o n to t h e i r d i s s o l u t i o n o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n to the a c t i o n t a s k w h i c h they have been i n s t i t u t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h . " (31 p. .320) 22. Warren s t a t e s t h a t "such a c t i o n s , i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n from a number o f d i v e r s e community u n i t s i n ways n o t c u s t o m a r i l y employed, a r e c l . e a r l y w i t h i n the c o n c e p t s o f community a c t i o n . A l m o s t by d e f i n i t i o n , t h e y c a l l f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s p e c i a l a c t i o n system.(31p.312) The s p e c i a l a c t i o n system i n v o l v e d i n the community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s , b e i n g a s o c i a l system i n i t s own r i g h t s , engages i n b o t h t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e s and i n system m a i n t e n a n c e b e h a v i o u r . By e x a m i n i n g the p r o c e s s e s o f t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e and system m a i n t e n a n c e o f community a c t i o n systems i n l i g h t o f the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n t h e s e p r o c e s s e s h e r e i n , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y them and a n a l y s e the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s a t t e m p t s t o enhance t h e s e p r o c e s s e s as he i n t e r v e n e s i n t o t h e t o t a l community p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . Warren p o i n t s out t h a t community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s p r o c e e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s and he has a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m u l a t e a model w h i c h w i l l c a p t u r e t h e v a r i o u s k ey s t a g e s i n t h i s p r o c e s s . He s u g g e s t s a f i v e f o l d p a t t e r n w h i c h i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s : " ( l ) i n i t i a l s y s t e m i c e n v i r o n m e n t , ( 2 ) i n c e p t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n s ystem, ( 3 ) e x p a n s i o n o f the a c t i o n s y stem, ( 4 ) o p e r a t i o n of t h e a c t i o n s ystem, and ( 5 ) t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m . " (31 p.315) O t h e r models have been d e v e l o p e d f o r a n a l y z i n g c . community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s b u t t h i s w i l l be t h e one used f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t s t a g e i n Warren's 5 - s t a g e model i s t h e " I n i t i a l S y s t e m i c  E n v i r o n m e n t " from w h i c h the a c t i o n system emerges. Here, t h e community and the v a r i o u s s o c i a l systems w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e i t a r e examined. The c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h e ways i n w h i c h the new community a c t i o n system can be r e l a t e d t o t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e community; the c o n d i t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g system w h i c h c r e a t e s a f a v o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e i n c e p t i o n of t h e p a r t i c u l a r community a c t i o n system; and t h e s y s t e m i c p a t t e r n s f o r community a c t i o n t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t i n t h e community t o w h i c h the community a c t i o n s y s t e m may be r e l a t e d i n some f u n c t i o n a l way. T h i s would i n c l u d e an 23. e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e community and the r e l a t i v e s t a g e of development o f each. V e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s o f a community a r e d e f i n e d as " t h e s t r u c t u r a l and f t u m c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n of i t s v a r i o u s s o c i a l u n i t s and subsystems t o e x t r a community systems". The community's h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n i s d e f i n e d as " t h e s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n of i t s v a r i o u s s o c i a l u n i t s and subsystems t o each o t h e r " . (31p..l61) Warren f e e l s t h a t much c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g about t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e s s g i v e n t o t a s k and m a i n t e n a n c e p r o c e s s e s i n any p a r t i c u l a r community a c t i v i t y c o u l d be c l a r i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by v i e w i n g the s y s t e m i c c o n t e x t out of w h i c h t h e c u r r e n t a c t i o n a r i s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n . The second s t a g e of t h i s model t h e " i n c e p t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n s y s t e m " , d e a l s w i t h t h e a c t i o n systems l o c u s w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m i c e n v i r o n m e n t . I t may o r i g i n a t e w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n such as a w e l f a r e c o u n c i l or a PTA or i t may o r i g i n a t e w i t h a s m a l l e r f o r m a l committee or i n f o r m a l c l i q u e o f p e o p l e w i t h i n such an o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t may o r i g i n a t e w i t h i n t h e i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e community, i n a c l i q u e of f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s , or i t may a r i s e p r i n c i p a l l y on t h e i n i t i a t i v e of l o c a l p e o p l e or p r i n c i p a l l y under the s t i m u l a t i o n o f an o u t s i d e a g e n t . I n any case the i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i s t h e r e l a t i o n of t h e newly i n s t i t u t e d a c t i o n system t o t h o s e o t h e r systems i n the community w h i c h the a c t i o n system must e v e n t u a l l y i n v o l v e i n v a r i o u s ways i n o r d e r f o r t h e a c t i o n t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d . P e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p would be the l i n k a g e s w h i c h t h e members o f t h e a c t i o n system a t t h i s s t a g e have t o v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e community, b o t h f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y . The p r i n c i p a l t a s k o f t h e a c t i o n system a t t h i s s t a g e i s t o d e f i n e t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w h i c h i s t o r e s u l t from the community a c t i o n and t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h e l e m e n t s of t h e community must be i n v o l v e d i n o r d e r t o a s s u r e t h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . S i n c e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s of 24. the s o c i a l s ystem they a r e c o n s i d e r e d f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y as a s p e c t s o f the maintenance p r o c e s s t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n the s o c i a l system. The t h i r d s t a g e o f Warren's model i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the "Expan-s i o n o f the A c t i o n System". I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e i t s p u r p o s e s t h e r e must be an e x p a n s i o n o f the a c t i o n system, f o r , a l m o s t by d e f i n i t i o n , the type o f a c t i o n w h i c h any p a r t i c u l a r i n i t i a l a c t i o n system i s c a p a b l e of a c c o m p l i s h -i n g i s n o t community a c t i o n . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between an " a c t i o n system" and a ''community a c t i o n system". I t o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e s t o the h o r i z o n t a l l i n k a g e s o f the members o f the i n i t i a l a c t i o n s ystem t o o t h e r community or e x t r a community syst e m s . A group o f p a r e n t s i n a c i t y b l o c k c o n c e r n e d about t h e - s t r e e t l i g h t i n g c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a "community a c t i o n . s y s t e m " u n t i l i t had expanded i t s b o u n d a r i e s to i n c l u d e o t h e r c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n c e r n e d about the same p r o b l e m on t h e i r s t r e e t s . The e x p a n s i o n o f the i n i t i a l a c t i o n system i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e h o r i z o n t a l l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r community systems i n v o l v e s by d e f i n i t i o n , a c t i v i t y w h i c h i s e x t e r n a l to the b o u n d a r i e s o f the i n i t i a l a c t i o n system and t h e r e f o r e i s seen, f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , as b e i n g a " t a s k f u n c t i o n " . The p r i n c i p a l q u e s t i o n to ask i n the e x p a n s i o n s t a g e i s , " F o r what purpose a r e a d d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups t o be b r o u g h t i n t o the a c t i o n s ystem?" I t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e t o say t h a t i n most c a s e s the i n i t i a l a c t i o n s ystem i s expanded a c c o r d i n g to what i s e x p e c t e d from d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s or g roups i n the community e i t h e r i n the o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m o r l a t e r on. Warren i d e n t i f i e s the f o u r t h s t a g e i n h i s c o m m u n i t y , a c t i o n model as the " O p e r a t i o n o f the Expanded A c t i o n System". T h i s phase i n c l u d e s the c a r r y i n g p u t o f an e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e or g r oups. I t may a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e the s t a g e i n w h i c h t h e community a c t i o n as suc h , g e t s done. Much of t h e a c t i v i t y a t t h i s s t a g e w i l l depend on the n a t u r e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e a c t i v e system i n r e l a t i o n t o any a d d i t i o n a l system or t a s k a ccomplishment w h i c h i t s e t s up. The " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the A c t i o n System" i s t h e f i n a l s t a g e i n Warren's model o f community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s . As the community a c t i o n ends, the a c t i o n system may have v a r i o u s f a t e s . I t may have a r i s e n t o a c c o m p l i s h some t a s k and t h e n d i s s o l v e . I t may have a r i s e n t o become t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a f u t u r e a c t i o n system. I t may have a r i s e n t o a c c o m p l i s h a t a s k i n v o l v i n g t h e s e t t i n g up o f a f u t u r e a c t i o n system and t h e n d i s s o l v e . Or t h e a c t i o n system may have been more d i f f u s e , i n v o l v i n g s i m p l y t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f the i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t o t a l community, b u i l d i n g up s t r o n g e r h o r i z o n t a l t i e s t h r o u g h t h e d i f f u s e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a change agent w o r k i n g w i t h commu-n i t y members t o h e l p them f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y t o g e t h e r i n a w i d e l y d i v e r s e s e t o f c o n t e x t s . A t t h i s s t a g e we a r e concerned w i t h the s y s t e m i c r e s i d u e o f t h e community a c t i o n . What i s l e f t f rom t h e a c t i o n , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , a f t e r the a c t i o n e p i s o d e i s t e r m i n a t e d ? An i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n i s t h e f o r m a l or i n -f o r m a l n a t u r e o f the s y s t e m i c r e l a t i o n s w h i c h r e m a i n . A new o r g a n i z a t i o n has been e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h can t a k e o t h e r community a c t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e o r a s e t o f i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s has been e s t a b l i s h e d o r s t r e n g t h e n e d w h i c h * may l i k e w i s e f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e a c t i o n . (31) " I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f the s e c t i o n on "Community A c t i o n E p i s o d e s " the s t u d y has drawn i t s m a t e r i a l a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y from R o l a n d L. Warren's a n a l y s i s o f community a c t i o n systems i n h i s book Community i n A m e r i c a ; Rand M c N a l l y & Co., C h i c a g o , 1963, pp. 303-327. 26. There a r e a number o f o t h e r c o n c e p t u a l models w h i c h a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e what happens i n communities i n r e s p o n s e t o s t i m u l i . Some d e s c r i p -t i v e m a t e r i a l has been borrowed from t h e s e , n o t a b l y from t h e Cox model,(36) w h i c h uses the terms " a c t i o n s y s t e m " , " c l i e n t s y s t e m " , "change a g e n t " , "change agency", and " o t h e r a c t o r s i n t h e a c t i o n s y s t e m " . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s Cox's model has p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r t h i s s t u d y , and i s i n c l u d e d below. A PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION PRACTICE (36) 1. S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e - A c t o r s and S e t t i n g A. Change Agency 1. Sponsors and f u n d i n g 2. S a n c t i o n s and r e s t r a i n t s B. Change Agent 1. I d e n t i t y . 2. What he b r i n g s t o the s i t u a t i o n C. C l i e n t System 1. D e s i g n a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f c l i e n t system. 2.. L o c a t i o n and h i s t o r y o f p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f n e i g h b o u r i n g systems. 3. S i g n i f i c a n t demographic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i v i s i o n s i n the c l i e n t system i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . 4. Developments t h a t l e d up t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e agency ( o r w o r k e r ) . 5. R e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e c l i e n t s ystem w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e or l a c k i n g t o s u p p o r t t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h may i n c l u d e t h e development o f a change r e l a t i o n s h i p . D. A c t i o n System E. N e i g h b o r i n g systems and t h e c l i e n t system's r e l a t i o n t o them. Ot h e r models r e f l e c t s i m i l a r i t i e s i n major s t a g e s of a c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d . T h e r e i s an e n v i r o n m e n t b e f o r e i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e r e a r e new r e l a t i o n s h i p s caused by i t , t h e r e a r e a c t i o n s t a k e n on t h e b a s i s of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t h e r e i s e v a l u a t i o n o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e a c t i o n s . What i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h e f a c t o f s t a g e s and p a t t e r n s b e l i e v e d t o be p r e s e n t i n community s o c i a l change r e l a t e d t o i n t e r v e n t i o n . 27 . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of V a r i o u s A s p e c t s o f P r o c e s s An e s s e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e community o r g a n i z a t i o n method o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e and a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i s t h a t o f " p r o c e s s " . The O x f o r d P o c k e t D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s p r o c e s s as- " t h e s t a t e o f g o i n g on o r b e i n g c a r r i e d on; a s e r i e s o f connected a c t i o n s o r e v e n t s " over a p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s i s a g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h p e r m i t s p r o c e s s t o be c o n c e i v e d o f as b o t h a n a t u r a l o c c u r r e n c e , a l o g i c a l sequence of c o n n e c t e d n a t u r a l e v e n t s , and as a sequence t h a t can be i n f l u e n c e d by the a c t o r s w i t h i n i t . " P r o c e s s " a c c o r d i n g t o one d e f i n i t i o n i n Webster's D i c t i o n a r y , i s a " s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s , m o t i o n s or o p e r a t i o n s , d e f i n i t e l y c o n d u c i n g t o an end, whether v o l u n t a r y o r i n v o l u n t a r y . . . . I t d e n o t e s a p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i o n or s e r i e s o f a c t s o r s t e p s " . S o c i o l o g y has d e v e l o p e d the c o n c e p t o f " s o c i a l p r o c e s s " t o d e s c r i b e c p n n e c t e d a c t i o n s o r changes i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , t h a t i s , t r a n s i t i o n s from one s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n t o a n o t h e r . S o c i a l p r o c e s s i s thus s o c i a l i n t e r -a c t i o n o ver a p e r i o d o f t i m e w h i c h p r o d u c e s a sequence of a c t i o n s or changes, or b o t h i n t h e s i t u a t i o n o f one or more p e r s o n s i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t and o t h e r a c t o r s w i t h i n i t . I n i t s f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t s , s o c i a l p r o c e s s i s a c o n c e p t of movement, change, and f l u x . An i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e p t has been t o s t i m u l a t e a sense o f t i m e d i m e n s i o n i n s o c i a l t h e o r y . S o c i a l p r o c e s s t h e o r y thus r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t s t a t i c t h e o r i e s and t h e o r i e s o f s t r u c t u r e . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t o f p r o c e s s means t h a t community o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s o c i a l work i s con c e r n e d w i t h o n g o i n g , dynamic, c h a n g i n g m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n . - . A n o t h e r v i e w o f p r o c e s s t h a t sheds l i g h t on one of i t s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s , p o i n t s out t h a t t h e word may r e f e r t o 28. a s e r i e s o f s t a g e s or a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o pass a u t o m a t i c a l l y . The supposed i n e v i t a b l e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a n e i g h b o r -hood i s o f t e n assumed t o be one example of t h i s a u t o m a t i c p r o c e s s . T h i s v i e w i m p l i e s an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o c e s s t h a t s t r e s s e s a p r o g r e s s i o n from one ev e n t t o a n o t h e r and from a l o w e r t o a h i g h e r s t a g e o f development. B i d d l e and B i d d l e see " s o c i a l p r o c e s s " as r e f e r r i n g t o "a p r o g r e s s i o n o f e v e n t s t h a t a r e p l a n n e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o s e r v e g o a l s t h e y p r o g r e s s i v e l y choose. The e v e n t s p o i n t t o changes i n a group and i n i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t can be termed growth i n s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y and competence. The es s e n c e o f p r o c e s s does n o t c o n s i s t i n any f i x e d s u c c e s s i o n o f e v e n t s b u t i n the growth t h a t o c c u r s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h i n groups and w i t h i n the communities t h e y s e r v e . " ( 2 p . 7 9 ) There i s a s u g g e s t i o n h e r e t h a t t h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s , p l a n n e d and unp l a n n e d . I t i s the a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t i t i s t h e aim and es s e n c e o f s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n t o b r i n g some degree of r a t i o n a l e and o r d e r t o n a t u r a l , unplanned s o c i a l p r o c e s s , i n o t h e r words, t o b r i n g about p l a n n e d change a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l , s m a l l group and community l e v e l s . A g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f what i s meant by " s o c i a l work p r o c e s s " may h e l p t o d e v e l o p t h i s i d e a f u r t h e r . F r i e d l a n d e r d e s c r i b e s i t as "t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between the c l i e n t and t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r ; between the members o f the group w i t h one a n o t h e r and t h e group w o r k e r ; and between i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the community." ( 7 P . 1 4 8 ) There a r e c o n s c i o u s s t r i v i n g s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and o f groups toward b e t t e r s o c i a l work f u n c t i o n i n g , and t h e n t h e r e a r e t h e e f f o r t s made by s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t e r v e n i n g i n t o t h i s n a t u r a l p r o c e s s t o d e v e l o p i t i n t o a more e f f e c t i v e means o f e n h a n c i n g b e t t e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . When such a s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r ( h e r e r e f e r r e d t o a l s o as a change a g e n t ) i s not an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e s i t u a t i o n , or a member of t h e group or community, who t a k e s some s o r t o f l e a d e r s h i p i n the p r o c e s s , b u t i s a p e r s o n from o u t s i d e the system w i t h i n w h i c h the p r o c e s s i s t a k i n g p l a c e , 29. i n t e r v e n t i o n i s thus t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f change. I n t e r v e n t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as t h e e n t r y i n t o a s o c i a l p r o c e s s by an a c t o r who adds a d i m e n s i o n t o t h e a c t i o n system. When a s o c i a l w o r k e r i s the change agent t h i s becomes- " s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n " w h i c h i s d e f i n e d i n a n o t h e r way as " a l l a t t e m p t s by s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . The s o c i a l p r o c e s s engaged i n by the community a c t i o n system emerges as t h e c r u c i a l dynamic i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g by a community. T h e r e f o r e , s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o community l i f e i s an a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e community s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . I n t h i s c o n t e x t Ross s a y s : "There a r e o t h e r p r o c e s s e s o f d e a l i n g w i t h community p r o b l e m s , b u t h e r e we c a l l t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t by w h i c h t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e community t o f u n c t i o n as an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t grows as i t d e a l s w i t h one or more community p r o b l e m s . Sometimes i t may be a d e l i b e r a t e p r o c e s s , a t o t h e r t i m e s i t may s i m p l y be t h e way p e o p l e choose t o work t o g e t h e r . The p r o c e s s , may, t h e r e f o r e , e v o l v e w i t h o u t the a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r i n i t ( t h e p r o c e s s ) i s s o m e t h i n g a p a r t from him. B u t the Jrask o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r i s t o h e l p i n i t i a t e , n o u r i s h , and d e v e l o p t h i s p r o c e s s . . . t o make t h e (community o r g a n i z a t i o n ) p r o c e s s c o n s c i o u s , d e l i b e r a t i v e , and u n d e r s t o o d " ( 2 4 p . 3 9 - 4 0 ) Ross p o i n t s out t h a t " t h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y two a s p e c t s t o the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s : one h a v i n g t o do w i t h p l a n n i n g , and the second w i t h community i n t e g r a t i o n " . ( 2 4 p . 5 0 ) I n h i s v i e w t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s a r e each i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r own r i g h t and a r e i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t s o f the one p r o c e s s . P l a n n i n g i s seen as "an i n c l u s i v e term t o t a k e i n a l l a s p e c t s o f the a c t , from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a p r o b l e m t o a c t i o n I n r e s p e c t t o i t . What i s i n v o l v e d i s the p r o c e s s o f l o c a t i n g and d e f i n i n g a p r o b l e m ( o r a s e t o r p r o b l e m s ) , e x p l o r i n g the n a t u r e and scope o f t h e p r o b l e m , c o n s i d e r i n g v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s t o i t , s e l e c t i n g what appears t o be a f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n - a n d t a k i n g a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s o l u t i o n . c h o s e n " . ( 2 4 p . 5 0 ) T h i s p r o c e s s i s p r a c t i c a l l y synonymous w i t h t h e t a s k p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l systems c o n s i d e r e d e a r l i e r i f one r e c o g n i z e s t h e f a c t t h a t a p r o c e s s i s i n v o l v e d b e f o r e a s o c i a l system a c t u a l l y t a k e s a c t i o n beyond i t s immediate 30. b o u n d a r i e s i n o r d e r t o i n f l u e n c e and b r i n g about change i n i t s e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The second a s p e c t o f the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , w h i c h c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e ma i n t e n a n c e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l s y s t e m s , i s termed "community i n t e g r a t i o n " . "Community i n t e g r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e e x e r c i s e o f c o o p e r a t i v e and c o l l a b o r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s l e a d s t o g r e a t e r (1) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the community, (2) i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e com-m u n i t y and. (3) s h a r i n g o f common v a l u e s and means f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e s e v a l u e s . T h i s i m p l i e s a p r o c e s s a t work i n t he community w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s t he growth o f awareness o f , and l o y a l t y t o , the l a r g e r community of w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l . . i s a p a r t ; development o f a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n and s t a t u s o f t h e community; emergence o f a t t i t u d e s w h i c h p e r m i t c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h p e o p l e who a r e " d i f f e r e n t ? 1 ; and growth o f common v a l u e s , s y mbols, and r i t u a l s i n t h e community as a wh o l e . "(2.4p .5.1) C o n s i d e r i n g what was s a i d e a r l i e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e , i t may v e r y w e l l be t h a t t h e n a t u r a l community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , w i t h i n any p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e has u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h demand a u n i q u e a p p l i c a t i o n of the•community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g method o f s o c i a l work. I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t " p r o c e s s " must be c o n s i d e r e d when e x a m i n i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work method and a s p e c i f i c f i e l d . o f p r a c t i c e . Community o r g a n i z a t i o n as a method i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e has f r e q u e n t l y been d e s c r i b e d as t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a p r o g r e s s i v e l y more e f f e c t i v e a d j u s t m e n t between community r e s o u r c e s and community needs. T h i s a d j u s t m e n t i s o f t e n a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the h e l p o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r and t h r o u g h groups i n t h e community. I t i n v o l v e s p r o b l e m s and needs, t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n conduct o f a p l a n o f a c t i o n . t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n o f o f s o l u t i o n s , and t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and Community o r g a n i z a t i o n as a method o f s o c i a l work i s "more o r l e s s comparable w i t h the p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l c a s e -work and s o c i a l group work. The community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r works w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the community o r segments o f the community f o r the purpose o f i n t e r v e n i n g i n the community p r o c e s s w i t h a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the v a l u e s , s a n c t i o n s , knowledge, methods and t e c h n i q u e s o f s o c i a l work." (37, p. 8) I n e x a m i n i n g the community o r g a n i z a t i o n method i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , as a means o f i n t e r v e n i n g i n t o community p r o c e s s , two g e n e r a l i n -t e r v e n t i o n . a c t i v i t i e s may be i d e n t i f i e d : (1) the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s a t t e m p t s to enhance the t a s k p r o c e s s e s o f the community s o c i a l system o r a c t i o n s y s -tem, and (2) the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s a t t e m p t s to enhance the. m a i n t e n a n c e p r o -c e s s e s o f the community s o c i a l s ystem or a c t i o n system. One way o f a n a l y z i n g s o c i a l work i n t e r n v e n t i o n i n t o the s o c i a l p r o c e s s o f a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , by a community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r , i s t h e n , to examine the d i f f e r e n t i a l emphasis p l a c e d upon e n h a n c i n g the t a s k and/or maintenance p r o c e s s e s o f p a r t i c u l a r community a c t i o n s y s t e m s . T h i s w i l l i n c l u d e the c o n s c i o u s use o f knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d t o the dynamics o f , the need f o r , and the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s , the g o a l s o f each; and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s o f the community a c t i o n s y s tem. I I Summary o f t h e Pr o b l e m There have been g r o w i n g i n q u i r i e s i n r e c e n t s o c i a l work l i t e r a -t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o how s o c i a l work methodology v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g upon the s p e c i f i c f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i n w h i c h i t i s e n a c t e d . I t has been h y p o t h e -s i z e d by some t h a t g e n e r i c s o c i a l work methodology t a k e s on d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a f u n c t i o n o f the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i n w h i c h i t i s a p p l i e d . These d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be i l l u s t r a t e d by r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s o f emphasis on c e r t a i n k i n d s o f v a l u e s , p u r p o s e s , s a n c t i o n s , know-l e d g e , and methods w i t h worker r o l e s d i s t i n c t i v e t o the f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i n w h i c h the s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e method i s e n a c t e d . The NASW Committee on D e f i n i n g Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e has p o i n t e d o u t the need f o r s t u d i e s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r a c t i c e s p e c i f i c s of community o r g a n i z a t i o n methodology i n r e l a t i o n to the v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e i n w h i c h i t i s a p p l i e d . To the w r i t e r s ' knowledge few works have a t t e m p t e d to examine t h i s a r e a o f c o n c e r n . F o r m u l a t i o n o f the Theory Base f o r the Study On the b a s i s o f the. m a t e r i a l r e v i e w e d above, t h e r e f o l l o w s a form-u l a t i o n o f the t h e o r y base w h i c h w i l l be used to f o c u s the s t u d y , d e s c r i b e i t s f i e l d o f e x p l o r a t i o n , ,and i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s . T h i s base i s a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t u a l t o o l f o r o b t a i n i n g and a n a l y z i n g d a t a , because i t d e s c r i b e s what i s b e i n g s t u d i e d (and what i s n o t ) and.where the f i n d i n g s f i t i n t o the know-l e d g e we p o s s e s s about the n a t u r e o f s o c i a l l i f e . The p r e s e n t f o r m u l a t i o n c o n t a i n s a number o f c o n c e p t s from s o c i a l work and from community l i t e r a t u r e . The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s u t i l i z e d h e r e have been a s s i g n e d on an a r b i t r a r y b a s i s , so as t o . a r r i v e a t a temporary s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t e t h a t has v e r y few c o n c r e t e "knowns". The d e c i s i o n . t h a t has to be made i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s whether to d e v o t e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o a p r o c e s s o f c o n c e p t c l a r i f i c a t i o n , o r whether to r e -s o l v e the p r o b l e m o f c l a r i t y by the a r b i t r a r y a s s i g n m e n t o f meanings and v a l u e s t o c o n c e p t s so as t o move beyond t h i s s t a g e to an a c t u a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s i n a f i e l d . The c h o i c e made h e r e i s the l a t t e r , and thus a framework c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n w h i c h to s t u d y a c t u a l f i e l d s i t u a t i o n s o r e p i s o d e s . The a n a l y s i s o f c o l l e c t e d d a t a may i n such c a s e s say as much as , o r more about the s t u d y o f f o r m u l a t i o n i t s e l f t h a n i t does about the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o b s e r v e d . The two major c o n c e p t s employed to l i m i t the s t u d y a r e a s o c i a l work methodology and a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i d e n t i f i e d as "community d e v e l o p -33. merit." N e i t h e r i s as c l e a r l y and c o m p l e t e l y d e l i n e a t e d as i t needs to be f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s , and i n f a c t "community development" i s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d as a "method" o r a " p r o c e s s " . Each w i l l be used i n - a c l e a r l y e x p l i c a t e d way t o p l a c e the s t u d y i n i t s p r o p e r l i g h t and scope., Other l i m i t s t h a t s h o u l d be p l a c e d on such a st u d y a r e a community o r g a n i z a t i o n methodology and an u r b a n community development - s u b - f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . F o r r e a s o n s s u g g e s t e d above the s p e c i f i c s o f community o r g a n i z a -t i o n methodology have n o t been i n t r o d u c e d . I t has been p o s s i b l e t o l i m i t t h e s t u d y t o u r b a n community development. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s p e c i f i c s o f a methodology, b u t w i t h i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h -a s u b - f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . There-f o r e , the e x p l i c a t i o n o f what t h e f o r m u l a t i o n means by the term "method" need be no more e x a c t t h a n t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n p r o duced by the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a s o c i a l worker i s r e l e v a n t t o the advancement o f our knowledge about method i f the i n t e r v e n i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r i s a g r a d u a t e o f a s c h o o l o f s o c i a l work. I t i s n o t even n e c e s s a r y t h a t the i n t e r v e n o r be t r a i n e d i n the "com-mu n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n " method as h i s major c o n c e n t r a t i o n , ,as many o f the major components o f t h i s method have a g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r . I f i t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n v a r i e s community l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , and i s i n t u r n v a r i e d by them, i n c o n s i s t e n t and more o r l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e ways, t h e r e w i l l be i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h i s avenue of i n q u i r y , f o r a l l the methods u t i l i z e d by s o c i a l work. i A g r e a t e r degree o f e x a c t i t u d e i s r e q u i r e d f o r the use o f the con-c e p t o f a " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " , because t h i s i s how the s t u d y w i l l f o r m u l a t e the c h a r a c t e r and d i m e n s i o n s o f the f i e l d o r s i t u a t i o n t h a t i t i s a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l o r e . I n a d d i t i o n , ,i-t may be p o s s i b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between " f i e l d " and "method" w i t h the forme r as an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . 34. Here, the f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e c o n c e p t i s d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a g g r e g a t e s o f p r o c e s s e s w h i c h o c c u r w i t h i n i t , ,and the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n w h i c h the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t to s o c i a l work t a k e p l a c e . "A f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e i s i d e n t i f i e d by a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s -- s t r u c t u r e , p r o c e s s , s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l systems ( p r o b l e m c o n d i t i o n o f c e n t r a l c o n c e r n , s o c i o -economic and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and so f o r t h ) , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e s and b e h a v i o r o f p e r s o n s served,, and the p a t t e r n o f emphasis, o r i e n t a t i o n , . a d a p t a t i o n , and s p e c i f i c i n t e g r a t i o n o f elements i n g e n e r i c s o c i a l work as demanded by the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the s o c i a l system or c l u s t e r s o f s y s t e m s . " (41, p. 9) From t h i s :array o f components s p e c i f i c f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e may be f o r m u l a t e d . "Community development" i s seen f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y /as :-a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e w i t h w h i c h s o c i a l work methodology c a n i n t e r a c t i n p a r t i c u l a r ways. "Community development" i s a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y , and e x p e r t s e r v i c e s from o u t s i d e the community, ,and the e n l i s t m e n t o f s e l f - h e l p and c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t o f the r e s i d e n t s o f the community." I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h i s f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e would have the p r i m a r y , a n d s h a r e d o b j e c t i v e o f d e v e l o p i n g community l i f e t o b e t t e r s e r v e i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. There a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e community s t r u c t u r e s and d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s l o c a t e d i n t h e s e i n t e r -a c t i o n s , and t h e r e a r e o t h e r t e c h n o l o g i e s and e x p e r t s e r v i c e s b e s i d e s s o c i a l work w h i c h i n t e r a c t w i t h c ommunities f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l p u r p o s e s . F o r t h i s s t u d y i t i s enough t o i d e n t i f y community s t r u c t u r e s and d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o -c e s s e s i n an i n t e r a c t i o n p r o duced by s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . Systems t h e o r y a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e u s e f u l t o d e s c r i b e s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s i n i n t e r a c t i o n s , and to an e x t e n t , t o d e s c r i b e the l i m i t s o f the r e l e v a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . I n t e r a c t i o n i s v i e w e d h e r e i n terms o f a "community" as a system o f sy s t e m s , some o f wh i c h i n t e r a c t t o . p r o d u c e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s . T h e i r p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n :are d e s c r i b e d as " s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . I n t e r v e n t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s an a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s or s t r u c t u r e s , by d e f i n i t i o n , .as i t adds an a c t o r t o them. Such o t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s as o c c u r w i l l do so as a r e s u l t o f the r e c i p r o c a l b e h a v i o r o f the - a c t o r s f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n , o r e l s e as a r e s u l t o f some as y e t un-d i s c o v e r e d v a r i a b l e l o c a t e d o u t s i d e o f the s y s t e m i c i n t e r a c t i o n s . The d e s c r i p t i v e term used t o de n o t e the new s y s t e m S w i t h i n the com-mu n i t y system, c r e a t e d b y . i n t e r v e n t i o n , i s " a c t i o n s ystem". There a r e a c t i o n s ystems t h a t do n o t have s o c i a l w o r k e r s employed i n them, b u t the a c t i o n systems e x p l o r e d by t h i s s t u d y do. G i v e n t h i s framework f o r w a t c h i n g a c t o r s engaged i n i n t e r a c t i o n s r e l a t e d to community, p r o c e s s e s , t h e r e needs t o be -a f u r t h e r c o n c e p t u a l t o o l f o r t a k i n g c o g n i z a n c e o f the c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t s o f one a c t o r , the i n t e r v e n o r , t o u t i l i z e and implement s p e c i a l knowledge t o enhance the p r o c e s s e s engaged i n by the a c t i o n system. One way to d e v e l o p t h i s t o o l i s t o l o o k a t the i n t e r a c t i o n s . w h i c h o c c u r , and t o d i v i d e them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r d i r e c t i o n . Those -that o c c u r between a c t o r s i n the a c t i o n s y s t e m may be d e s c r i b e d as " i n t e r n a l " i n t e r a c t i o n s ; t h o s e t h a t o c c u r between one or more a c t o r s i n the a c t i o n system, .and an a c t o r o r a c t o r s i n a n o t h e r system, a r e " e x t e r n a l " i n -t e r a c t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e to see i n t e r n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y as h a v i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g the system and i t s a c t o r s , and e x t e r n a l i n -t e r a c t i o n as p r i m a r i l y f u n c t i o n i n g to a c h i e v e , o r move toward a c h i e v i n g the g o a l s o f the a c t i o n system. A s o c i a l w o r k e r i n t e r v e n i n g i n a community a c t i o n s y s t e m w i l l seek to s t r e n g t h e n the community by h e l p i n g the a c t i o n system a c h i e v e , i t s g o a l s ; p a r t o f h i s knowledge and c o n c e r n w i l l be the need t o s t r e n g t h e n the sys t e m t o f a c i l i t a t e g o a l r e a l i z a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be •36. p o s s i b l e t o o b s e r v e the way i n w h i c h the s o c i a l worker endeavours t o a c h i e v e b o t h o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . An emphasis on i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s by the i n t e r v e n o r s h o u l d b e - o b s e r v a b l e , and i f d e l i b e r a t i v e s e l e c t i o n p a t -t e r n s emerge, t h e s e w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a m e t h o d o l o g y , i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h an a c t i o n system and w i t h i t s e n v i r o n m e n t t o a c h i e v e - c e r t a i n g o a l s . A n o t h e r way to c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h i s i s i n terms o f " t a s k " and "maintenance" p r o c e s s e s o f the a c t i o n system, w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o the "ex-t e r n a l " and " i n t e r n a l " i n t e r a c t i o n s i n an a p p r o x i m a t e way. U l t i m a t e l y , what w i l l be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e w i l l be the p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n and i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h emerge ( o r do n o t emerge) i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , ,and v a r i a n c e i n such p a t t e r n s from s i t u a t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n , and from f i e l d t o f i e l d . I f the v a r i a n c e i s no t more - s i g n i f i c a n t or more pronounced from f i e l d t o f i e l d t h a n from s i t -u a t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e i s need t o re-examine the " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " c o n c e p t and the v a r i a b l e s t h e r e i n . E q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t would be the degree and n a t u r e o f the v a r i a n c e between the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s p u r s u a n t to s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n and those p u r s u a n t t o n o n - s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n , ,as w e l l as v a r i a n c e i n outcomes o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n , and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p s between them. F i n a l l y , a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r the p r o g r e s s i o n o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m d u r i n g i t s l i f e i s needed. Warren's model f o r community a c t i o n l e n d s i t s e l f t o a g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s t a g e s o f t h e . l o w e r a c t i o n system. Some o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s made o f v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n the system change as i t moves t h r o u g h I t s s t a g e s , and t h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t he knowledge, s k i l l s , t e c h n i q u e s , r o l e s , and v a l u e s o f the i n t e r v e n o r . 37. An a c t i o n e p i s o d e i s " a c t i o n systems d e v e l o p i n g from t h e i r i n c e p t i o n t o t h e i r d i s s o l u t i o n or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " . The model has f i v e s t a g e s , w h i c h a r e , b r i e f l y , i n i t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , i n c e p t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n s ystem, e x p a n s i o n of the a c t i o n system, o p e r a t i o n of t h e a c t i o n system, and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e a c t i o n system. 38. CHAPTER I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY L e v e l o f S t u d y D e s i g n T h i s i s a s t u d y o f i n t e r a c t i o n between method and f i e l d . T h i s means t h a t i t i s a s t u d y w h i c h w i l l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o b s e r v e one or more p r a c t i c e e p i s o d e s i n v o l v i n g a s o c i a l work method and a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , so as t o p r o d u c e d a t a b e a r i n g upon t h e s p e c i f i c s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n c r e a t e d by t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n of method i n t o s i t u a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o b s e r v e p r a c t i c e e p i s o d e s , t h e s t u d y must have an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n , as w e l l as a t h e o r e t i c a l framework w h i c h w i l l b o t h l i m i t t h e scope of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o manageable p r o p o r t i o n s and o r d e r t h e d a t a f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s . The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o l o c a t e and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o b s e r v e p r a c t i c e e p i s o d e s . T h i s means, i n o p e r a t i o n a l t e r m s , t h e s t u d y of s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h a s o c i a l w o r k e r i s o p e r a t i n g , or has o p e r a t e d . The a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o r such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l o f knowledge i s a f i e l d s t u d y . "A f i e l d s t u d y e i t h e r a t t e m p t s o b s e r v a t i o n s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n or i n v e s t i g a t e s t h o r o u g h l y the r e c i p r o c a l p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e p l a y i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r o l e s " . ( 6 p . 5 9 ) The same s o u r c e says e l s w h e r e " i n t h e f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n we a t t e m p t t o s t u d y a s i n g l e community or a s i n g l e group i n terms of i t s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e -i . e . , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of t h e p a r t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and o f t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e " . ( 6 p . 5 9 ) F i e l d s t u d i e s v a r y i n t h e l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n c a n d the l e v e l o f measurement a t t e m p t e d . The t h r e e major t y p e s o f f i e l d s t u d i e s , from the h i g h e s t t o t h e l o w e s t l e v e l s , a r e f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t s , e x p l o r a t o r y f i e l d s t u d i e s , and f i e l d s u r v e y s . Measurement ranges from s t a n d a r d i z e d q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n terms o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , t o an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , w h i c h s i m p l y makes o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s about t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e i n g s t u d i e d . T h i s s t u d y i s an e x p l o r a t o r y f i e l d s t u d y . . I t does n o t a t t e m p t an e x p e r i m e n t n o r does i t c o n f i n e i t s e l f t o a s u r v e y o f l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . I t seeks t o e x p l o r e a d e f i n e d and l i m i t e d f i e l d so as t o d i s c o v e r t h e v a r i a b l e s i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t e x i s t t h e r e i n . T h e r e a r e two l e v e l s o f e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . B e g i n n i n g e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s seek t o i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i a b l e s i n a f i e l d . A t a more advanced l e v e l , o t h e r s endeavor t o e x p l o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s . T h i s i s a b e g i n n i n g s t u d y , w h i c h p r o p o s e s an i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d and seeks t o d i s c o v e r s o m e t h i n g about t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e f i e l d . I t i s hoped t h a t i n t h i s way an avenue of i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be opened up t h a t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y p r o v i d e a c l e a r e r and more e x p l i c i t under-s t a n d i n g o f the n a t u r e o f s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o community l i f e , so t h a t s o c i a l work r e s p o n s e s t o community needs can be e v a l u a t e d and more a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i r e c t e d . I n o r d e r t o e x t r a c t from a f i e l d t h e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t , a t h e o r e t i c a l framework 1 i k e t h e one o f f e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r y . The i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s u t i l i z e d r e q u i r e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . The a s s u m p t i o n s from w h i c h the s t u d y s p r i n g s r e q u i r e c o n c i s e s t a t e m e n t . An e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e c l a r i f i e s t he language used t o r e p o r t t h e s t u d y , and l o c a t e s i t c o r r e c t l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o where i t b e g i n s and where i t hopes t o go. O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 1- " S o c i a l work m e t h o d o l o g y " i s the c o r e o r g e n e r i c e l ements of s o c i a l work. These a r e seen t o a f f e c t the o p e r a t i o n s o f a t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r by e x e r c i s i n g some i n f l u e n c e upon h i s knowledge, v a l u e s , s k i l l s , and o b j e c t i v e s . 40. A " f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e " i s composed o f t h e f a c t o r s o f s t r u c t u r e , p r o c e s s , p r o b l e m c o n d i t i o n o f c e n t r a l c o n c e r n , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and 4 c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m ( s ) i n v o l v e d , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e s and b e h a v i o r of p e r s o n s s e r v e d , and p a t t e r n s o f a d a p t a t i o n o f g e n e r i c s o c i a l work as demanded by the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m ( s ) . "Community Development" i s a f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e w h i c h has a; oconmuiiii'ty-based s t r u c t u r e , one or more s o c i a l development p r o c e s s e s , a b r o a d l y f e l t p r o b l e m c o n d i t i o n , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e s and b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t o f community systems. An " i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d " i s the sum of a c t o r s h a v i n g some c o n t a c t w i t h one o r more a c t o r s i n t h e a c t i o n system c r e a t e d by the community or by t h e i n t e r v e n o r . An " a c t i o n s y s t e m " i s t h e sum o f a c t o r s i n a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h c o n s c i o u s l y promotes a s o c i a l change p r o c e s s , and i n c l u d e s the p r o c e s s i t s e l f . I t i s t h a t s p e c i f i c p a r t o f an i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d w h i c h s t i m u l a t e s and promotes a s o c i a l change p r o c e s s . " I n t e r v e n t i o n " i s t h e e n t r y of a new a c t o r i n t o a p r o c e s s . " S o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n " i s t h e e n t r y o f a s o c i a l w o r k e r i n t o a community s o c i a l p r o c e s s . " S t r u c t u r e " i s t h e l i n k a g e s between a c t o r s i n a p r o c e s s . " P r o c e s s " i s a sequence of a c t i o n s o r e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o one ( o r more) o b j e c t i v e s . " S o c i a l p r o c e s s " has s o c i a l a c t i o n s or e v e n t s and s o c i a l g a i n or change o b j e c t i v e s . "The P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g A p p r o a c h " i s t h e a p p roach used by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r as he i n t e r v e n e s i n the community p r o c e s s . The NASW document, D e f i n i n g Community  O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e d e f i n e s t h i s approach as t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s a t t e m p t s t o " h e l p the community i d e n t i f y and c l a r i f y t h e problems f a c i n g i t . He h e l p s t h e community s e l e c t c e r t a i n p roblems f o r a t t e n t i o n , engages i n o r d e r l y s t u d y , d i a g n o s e s or a p p r a i s e s p r o b a b l e c a u s e s , mounts and c a r r i e s t h r o u g h p l a n s o f a c t i o n a f t e r e x a m i n a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n and f i n a l l y e v a l u a t e s t h e outcome".(37p.16) "A S o c i a l S y s t e m " " i s a s t r u c t u r e of o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f u n i t s , . w h i c h endures t h r o u g h t i m e . I t has b o t h e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l a s p e c t s r e l a t i n g the system t o i t s e n v i r o n m e n t and i t s u n i t s t o each o t h e r . I t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t s s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , p e r f o r m i n g a f u n c t i o n c a l l e d boundary m a i n t e n a n c e . I f tends t o m a i n t a i n an e q u i l i b r i u m i n t h e sense t h a t i t a d a p t s t o changes from o u t s i d e the system i n such a way as t o m i n i m i z e the i m p a c t o f change on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and t o r e g u l a r i z e t h e s u b sequent r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . ( 3 1 p . 1 3 9 ) A s o c i a l system i s a c o l l e c t i o n of s o c i a l u n i t s w i t h i n a permeable boundary, a c r o s s w h i c h l e s s i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r s t h a n does among s o c i a l u n i t s w i t h i n i t . "Task P r o c e s s e s " o f s o c i a l systems a r e a l l t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e d i r e c t e d o u t s i d e the b o u n d a r i e s o f the s o c i a l system i n o r d e r to c o n t r o l i t s s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s so t h a t t h e y w i l l y i e l d h i g h outcomes f o r i t s members i n a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l s of t h e system. "Maintenance P r o c e s s e s " of s o c i a l systems a r e a l l t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of t h e s o c i a l s ystem i n o r d e r t h a t the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of t h e members w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d and f o s t e r e d . " H o r i z o n t a l P a t t e r n s " o f S o c i a l Systems a r e d e f i n e d "as the s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n of i t s v a r i o u s s o c i a l u n i t s and subsystems t o each o t h e r " . ( 3 1 p . 1 6 2 ) " V e r t i c a l P a t t e r n s " o f S o c i a l Systems a r e d e f i n e d as " t h e s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n o f i t s v a r i o u s s o c i a l u n i t s and subsystems t o systems e x t e r n a l t o the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s o c i a l s ystem. "Community A c t i o n E p i s o d e s " a r e community a c t i o n s w h i c h have t h e i r b e g i n n i n g s and t h e i r e n d i n g s . They a r e i n i t i a t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h some p u r p o s e ; t h e y i n v o l v e a p r o c e s s of o r g a n i z a t i o n and t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g the p u r p o s e , w h i c h i n t h e p r o c e s s may be m o d i f i e d ; t h e n w i t h the r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r e f f o r t t h e a c t i o n s u b s i d e s and t h e e p i s o d e f i n i s h e s . ( 3 1 p . 3 0 8 ) "A community A c t i o n System" i s composed o f two or more i n t e r a c t i n g community subsystems or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f community subsystems i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t i n p u r s u i t o f agreed upon o b j e c t i v e s , even though the t a r g e t d y s f u n c t i o n s may n o t be h a n d i c a p p i n g a l l o f the a c t o r s i n t h e a c t i o n system. "A Change Agent 1 , 1 i s a p e r s o n who b r i n g s t o an a c t i o n system some s k i l l s , knowledge or p o s i t i o n , or any c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e , w h i c h e n a b l e s him t o assume one or more i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e s t o the o b j e c t i v e o r o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e a c t i o n system. T h i s s t u d y sees the terms "change a g e n t " and "community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r " as b e i n g synonymous. "A Change Agency" i s the agency under whose a u s p i c e the change agent or community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r o p e r a t e s . "A C l i e n t System" i s t h e s p e c i f i c community system whose a c t o r s may b e n e f i t d i r e c t l y f rom the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e a c t i o n system. " S t i m u l i f o r S o c i a l P r o c e s s e s Toward S o c i a l O b j e c t i v e s " a r e d i s c o m f o r t s or t h e o t h e r i m p u l s e s toward s o c i a l change t h a t w i t h i n the s y s t e m i c e n v i r o n m e n t . the e x i s t 42. A s s u m p t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g t h e Study Numerous a s s u m p t i o n s o p e r a t e t o s u s t a i n and t o r a t i o n a l i z e s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . Some o f t h e s e may be i d e n t i f i e d as p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s s t u d y . We assume t h a t r a t i o n a l s o c i a l change i s b e n e f i c i a l t o t h o s e a f f e c t e d by i t . We assume t h a t i n c r e a s i n g our c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f what a c t u a l l y happens when t h i n g s change w i l l i n c r e a s e our power t o c o n t r o l change. We assume t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a s o c i a l w o r k e r i n t o community l i f e can p r o d u c e new i n t e r a c t i o n s and a l t e r o t h e r s i n o b s e r v a b l e ways. We assume t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s by o b s e r v i n g t he a c t i v i t i e s t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e them. P l a n f o r Data C o l l e c t i o n The d a t a f o r t h i s and subsequent s t u d i e s i n t h i s l i n e of i n q u i r y i s e x t r a c t e d from community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s s t a g e i s one o f ex p o s t f a c t o e x p l o r a t i o n , so an att e m p t w i l l be made t o s e c u r e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of a c t o r s i n such e p i s o d e s , i n t h e form o f r e c o r d i n g s of a c t i v i t i e s o r v e r b a l r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r i n g i n a c t i o n e p i s o d e s . The community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p l o r a t i o n a r e l i m i t e d i n number, as f a r as t h i s ; . g e o g r a p h i c a r e a i s c o n c e r n e d , and t h o s e t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e a r e n o t e x t e n s i v e l y r e c o r d e d . I t has been n e c e s s a r y t o c o n f i n e t h e s t u d y a t t h i s p o i n t i n ti m e t o a p r e - t e s t based upon the r e c a l l o f two p r a c t i t i o n e r s who have completed two more or l e s s u n r e c o r d e d e p i s o d e s . I t was i n t e n d e d t h a t d a t a be c o l l e c t e d from o t h e r a c t o r s i n t h e s e episodes.^-....-but time r e s t r i c t e d t h e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s and t h e r e i s a p r i o r i t y t o o b t a i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r v e n o r s . The method o f d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y i s a q u e s t i o n -n a i r e composed e n t i r e l y o f open-ended q u e s t i o n s . I t i s i n t e n d e d as a frame-work f o r s t r u c t u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e s p o n d e n t s t o e l i c i t t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l r e c a l l o f a c t i o n e p i s o d e s i n w h i c h t h e y had a c t e d . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x . 83. The two community a c t i o n e p i s o d e s b e i n g e x p l o r e d occurred r e c e n t l y i n two d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f urban Vancouver. One i n v o l v e d t h e c o n c e r n s o f c i t i z e n s i n an urban n e i g h b o u r h o o d around t h e i s s u e o f adequate p l a y g r o u n d f a c i l i t i e s . The o t h e r i n v o l v e d t h e e f f o r t s o f a t e n a n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n i n a l o c a l p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t t o b r i n g about b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s between them-s e l v e s and the h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t . The two r e s p o n d e n t s a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y - t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f wide s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a team o f t h r e e i n t e r -v i e w e r s , t h e same team i n t e r v i e w i n g b o t h r e s p o n d e n t s . W r i t t e n n o t e s and a tape r e c o r d i n g machine a r e used f o r each i n t e r v i e w . The member o f t h e team as k s t h e q u e s t i o n s , a second makes n o t e s on t h e r e s p o n s e s , and a t h i r d o p e r a t e s the tape machine. The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e same r o l e s by t h e same group of i n t e r v i e w e r s i s seen as a crude r e l i a b i l i t y measure. The c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l i s the n r e c o r d e d i n an e d i t e d v e r s i o n w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o remove r e p e t i t i o n s w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g t h e c o n t e n t . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s a n a l y z e d by t h e t o t a l s t u d y team w i t h i n a s i m p l e framework. M a t e r i a l j udged r e l e v a n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i s e x t r a c t e d , and o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e made on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s u p p o r t i n f e r r e d by t h e d a t a f o r the v i a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s r e q u i r e s a s u i t a b l e d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t , and gaps between t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework and the i n s t r u m e n t , or between t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e d a t a n e c e s s a r y t o an adequate e x p l o r a t i o n o f a f i e l d may be d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s . A t t h i s s t a g e o f s t u d y o f the f i e l d w h i c h c o n c e r n s t h i s p r e s e n t e n d e a vor, d a t a - a n a l y s i s w i l l n o t b e a r d i r e c t l y upon the ex p o s u r e o f a l l o f the v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t i v e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d , b u t i s e x p e c t e d t o do so i n d i r e c t l y by p r o v i d i n g some d i r e c t i o n t o r e f i n e m e n t s o f t h e t h e o r y b a s e , s t u d y d e s i g n , and d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s and p r o c e d u r e s . 44. CHAPTER IV DATA COLLECTION.AND ANALYSIS T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t the a c t i o n - e p i s o d e s s t u d i e d , the d a t a -c o l l e c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a , .and c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e s t u d y a n d . i t s p r o c e d u r e s . I t s f i r s t t a s k i s to d e s c r i b e i n a b r i e f manner the two a c t i o n e p i s o d e s t h a t have been s t u d i e d to p r e - t e s t the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . ACTION-EPISODE NO. I I t was w i t h i n t h e s e t t i n g o f a P u b l i c H o u s i n g P r o j e c t t h a t t h i s a c t i o n e p i s o d e took p l a c e . The s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m a r o s e from the f a c t t h a t many t e n a n t s w i t h i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g P r o j e c t s were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h r e n t a l p o l i c y and f e l t t h a t the r e n t s they p a i d were u n f a i r - e i t h e r i n the amount they p a i d , or i n the method o f c a l c u l a t i n g the amount they p a i d . They argued t h a t the r e n t a l s c a l e , and method used to a p p l y i t , was n o t one t h a t was con-d u c i v e t o m o t i v a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s / t o r i s e above the low income group, or f o r many, to even a t t e m p t to g e t o f f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . These were some o f the c o m p l a i n t s t h a t the t e n a n t s had made to the p a r t i c u l a r community deve-lopment wo r k e r i n v o l v e d i n t h i s a c t i o n - e p i s o d e . One p a r t i c u l a r t e n a n t who had spoken to the w o r k e r about the r e n i t p r o b l e m knew o f o t h e r s who had e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d i s c o n t e n t t o him. He wanted to do s o m e t h i n g about the s i t u a t i o n and s u g g e s t e d t h a t a m e e t i n g o f the t e n a n t s be c a l l e d i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e what c o u l d be done about the s i t u a -t i o n . The w o r k e r i m m d d i a t e l y s u p p o r t e d him on t h i s i d e a and they began t o o r g a n i z e a m e e t i n g f o r the t e n a n t s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s endeavor. The m e e t i n g was c a l l e d f o r and a d v e r t i s e d t h r o u g h o u t the p r o j e c t ( J u l y .26, 1966). The worker made a p o i n t o f i n v o l v i n g the t e n a n t s o f the o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . The f i r s t m e e t i n g was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l and from i t 45. a s t e e r i n g committee was formed. The s t e e r i n g committee, i n a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s , d r a f t e d a b r i e f o f the t e n a n t ' s c o m p l a i n t s and s e t f o r t h some recommended changes i n t h e r e n t a l p o l i c i e s . A n o t h e r g e n e r a l m e e t i n g was h e l d a t w h i c h t h e b r i e f was a c c e p t e d i n i t s f i n a l form. D e c i s i o n s were a l s o made as t o who s h o u l d r e c e i v e c o p i e s o f t he b r i e f . T h i s l i s t i n c l u d e d C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (C.M.H.C.); Vancouver H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y ; H o u s i n g Commissioner ( V i c t o r i a ) ; S p e c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c r e t a r i a t ; Vancouver Members of P a r l i a m e n t ; t he P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . C o p i e s o f t h e B r i e f were s e n t out t o t h e s e (August 11, 1966), and acknowledgements were i n t u r n r e c e i v e d . The answers i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m a t t e r was b e i n g l o o k e d i n t o by t h e C.M.H.C. and the P r o v i n c i a l Government and t h a t the r e s u l t s would be made known t o the t e n a n t s as soon as d e c i s i o n s were r e a c h e d . When t h e r e was no r e p l y from v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government or the C.M.H.C. f o r s e v e r a l months, t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e s t e e r i n g committee s e n t more l e t t e r s t o e n q u i r e as t o what was ha p p e n i n g . Qn November 7, 1966 word was r e c e i v e d from C.M.H.C. t h a t t h e second recommendation of the b r i e f had been a c c e p t e d , and t h a t d i s c u s s i o n on t h e o t h e r recommendation was c o n t i n u i n g . Many of the same t e n a n t s who had been a c t i v e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n - e p i s o d e a r e now a c t i v e i n f o r m i n g an i n t e r - p r o j e c t c o u n c i l t h a t w i l l a c t as an o f f i c i a l spokesman f o r t h e v a r i o u s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ' i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e o t h e r t e n a n t p r o b l e m s . ACTION-EPISODE N o . I I T h i s a c t i o n - e p i s o d e took p l a c e w i t h i n . a l o c a l u r b a n n e i g h b o r h o o d , c o n s i s t i n g o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s , p r i m a r i l y o f lo w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h degree o f apathy and a f e e l i n g o f power-l e s s n e s s amongst i t s c i t i z e n s . The s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m t h a t t h i s a c t i o n - e p i s o d e 46. was concerned w i t h was the i n a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s and l a c k o f s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h i n a s m a l l p a r k i n the n e i g h b o r h o o d . The community development work e r came i n c o n t a c t w i t h a s m a l l group of women who had been p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d i s c u s s i o n group a t the Y.W.CA. i n the a r e a . T h i s group had p r e v i o u s l y e x p r e s s e d some c o n c e r n about the l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s i n the p a r k and t h e d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r (a s o c i a l w o r k e r from F.S.A.) had i n f o r m e d the community development work e r o f t h i s . Through an i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t w i t h one o f t h i s group t h e worker had g r a d u a l l y become a c c e p t e d by i t and was a b l e t o form a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h : . i t . T h i s group's f i r s t c o n c e r n about p a r k s was d i s p l a y e d when i t p l a n n e d a bus t r i p f o r mothers and c h i l d r e n i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d . The pu r p o s e o f t h i s t r i p was t o use t h e i r f r e e time i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e manner by v i s i t i n g o t h e r p a r k s . E v e n t u a l l y t h e i r c o n c e r n t u r n e d t o t h e i r own l o c a l p a r k w i t h i t s i n a d e q u a t e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . They began t o f o c u s on t h e i r own i d e a s f o r improvement of the p a r k . The c o n c l u s i o n s they came t o were t h a t the p a r k needed i n c r e a s e d s u p e r v i s i o n (more t h a n j u s t one day a week) and t h a t t h e hours o f s u p e r v i s i o n were u n r e a l i s t i c and s h o u l d be changed. The group t h e n d e c i d e d t o phone t h e P a r k s Board t o n o t i f y i t o f t h e i r c o n c e r n s and t o o f f e r t h e i r i d e a s as s o l u t i o n s . The worker a l s o s u g g e s t e d the i d e a t o t h e group o f p r e s e n t i n g a p e t i t i o n t o t h e P a r k s Board as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o the p r o b l e m . The group f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o phone t h e P a r k s Board about t h e i r c o n c e r n s over the s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e s a t t h e p a r k and t o send a p e t i t i o n r e q u e s t i n g improved f a c i l i t i e s . The p e t i t i o n , w h i c h was d r a f t e d by t h e w o r k e r , was t a k e n around the n e i g h b o r h o o d by members of t h e group t o o b t a i n s i g n a t u r e s and was l a t e r m a i l e d t o t h e P a r k s Board. T h i s a c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a change of hours and the f r e q u e n c y o f s u p e r -v i s i o n a t the p a r k . A r e p l y t o t h e p e t i t i o n was a l s o s e n t by t h e P a r k s Board s t a t i n g t h a t the needs o f t h e p a r k were b e i n g s t u d i e d and changes i n t h e f a c i l i t i e s would be dependent on the f i n d i n g s o f t h e i r s t u d y . 47. A f t e r the s u c c e s s of t h i s a c t i o n - e p i s o d e s e v e r a l members of t h e group w i t h d r e w as t h e y were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r c o n c e r n s . However, c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s have moved t o t a k e a c t i o n on o t h e r c o n c e r n s i n t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d . The second t a s k o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . DATA COLLECTION AND DESCRIPTION OF INTERVIEWS The d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y was c o l l e c t e d by means o f an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . (Appendix A.) T h i s method was used f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , the r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e way of c o l l e c t i n g d a t a would be t o g e t i t f i r s t hand from i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e a c t i o n - e p i s o d e s ; more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e would be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who was most aware of t h e p r o c e s s t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n an a c t i o n - e p i s o d e . The s t u d y i s of t h e ex p o s t f a c t o t y p e and the e p i s o d e s s t u d i e d had been p o o r l y r e c o r d e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s , thus e l i m i n a t i n g t h e case s t u d y as a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n d e v i c e . Second, i t was d e c i d e d t o use an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e r a t h e r t h a n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e because i t was f e l t t h a t i n an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e p l i e s would be more spontaneous and hence l e s s b i a s e d . The r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t t h a t i f the r e s p o n d e n t s were l e f t w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o ' f i l l i n ' , t h e i r answers would be more c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t out i n t h e i r own t e r m s . T h i s , i t was t h o u g h t , would i n c r e a s e t h e chances of t h e d a t a b e i n g made t o f i t t h e change a g e n t ' s own p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s of t h e p r o c e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e use of open-ended q u e s t i o n s l e n t i t s e l f t o f a c e - t o : 2 f a c e i d a t a c o l l e c t i o n because of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t i m e and energy o f r e s p o n d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s method m i g h t d e c r e a s e t h e a c c u r a c y o f some r e s p o n s e s i n r e g a r d t o d e t a i l s . However, t h i s l i m i t a t i o n was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be so g r e a t as t o a f f e c t the o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p r o c e s s a t t h e l e v e l needed f o r t h i s s t u d y . 48. The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a c o l l e a g u e who i s n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y , t o g a i n a t r i a l e x p e r i e n c e i n u s i n g the i n s t r u m e n t and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n methods b e f o r e u s i n g i t on t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s p e r s o n was s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f h a v i n g had a s i m i l a r Community Development e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e two p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s . P r i o r t o d e l i v e r y , t h i s p e r s o n was p e r m i t t e d t o r e a d t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f the terms used i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . A tap e r e c o r d e r was n o t used d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r v i e w . However, an a n a l y s i s o f w r i t t e n d a t a t a k e n d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w l e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n t o a p p l y t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t o t h e p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s w i t h a few m i n o r a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , b u t not o f t h e method o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ' The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was t h e n a p p l i e d t o the two p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s . They had been s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n Community Development p r o j e c t s i n Vancouver. They were a l s o most a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e s t u d y team. T h e i r b ackground and e x p e r i e n c e were;|;looked a t by t h e s t u d y group and deemed s u i t a b l e f o r s t u d y p u r p o s e s b e f o r e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s o u g h t . The i n t e r v i e w s were co n d u c t e d i n p r i v a t e homes where i n t e r r u p t i o n s were k e p t t o a minimum. However, one i n t e r v i e w took p l a c e i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s home and t h e r e were s e v e r a l i n t e r r u p t i o n s w h i c h tended t o d i s t r a c t t h e r e s p o n d e n t and t h e i n t e r v i e w team. The o t h e r i n t e r v i e w took p l a c e i n a home of one of t h e i n t e r v i e w team members and t h e r e were no i n t e r r u p t i o n s . The s u b j e c t s were p e r m i t t e d t o r e a d t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of terms used i n the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e as d e f i n e d i n the s t u d y . Agreement as t o the meanings and use of t h e s e terms was j o i n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Once the i n t e r v i e w began, f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f q u e s t i o n s and terms was a v o i d e d . However, i t was found t h a t some f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n was neecedafew ti m e s d u r i n g b o t h i n t e r v i e w s . D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w the r e c o r d e r n o t e d i n condensed form the answer t o each q u e s t i o n . I t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e s e n o t e s c o u l d be used as a r a p i d g u i d e t o d a t a c o n t e n t d u r i n g t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . T h i s r e c o r d i n g , however, was u n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e the e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w was r e c o r d e d on t a p e and i t was n o t o n l y e a s i e r , b u t a l s o more a c c u r a t e t o r e f e r t o the t a p e s . The r e s p o n d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s t o o k t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s s e r i o u s l y and d i d a l l t h e y c o u l d t o h e l p t h e i n t e r v i e w team. The s u b j e c t s were c o o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w . They not o n l y answered t h e q u e s t i o n s as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , b u t o f t e n went f u r t h e r and a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n and c l a r i f y t h e i r answers whenever t h e y c o u l d . T h i s c o o p e r a t i o n g r e a t l y a i d e d the i n t e r v i e w team i n i t s t a s k o f c o l l e c t i n g d a t a . The i n t e r v i e w team a l s o p r o c e s s e d t h e d a t a i n t o i t s f i n a l w r i t t e n form. Each t f u e s t i o n and r e s p o n s e was r e p l a y e d on t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r and t h e n t y p e d . Typed answers a r e n o t a v e r b a t i m r e c o r d i n g , b u t a r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n d e n s a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s answer. V e r b a t i m r e c o r d i n g was n o t used due t o l e n g t h y r e s p o n s e s f r e q u e n t l y c o n t a i n i n g i r r e l e v a n t and r e p e t i t i o u s m a t e r i a l . The r e s p o n s e s c o n t a i n e d i n . A p p e n d i x B and C were seen as a c c u r a t e by t h r e e j u d g e s . A p p e n d i x B and C was t h e n a n a l y z e d t o o b t a i n t h e d a t a p e r t i n e n t t o ufchds s t u d y . The t h i r d t a s k of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . ANALYSIS OF DATA The e n t i r e s t u d y team a n a l y z e d the d a t a u s i n g a s i m p l e framework based upon t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d f o r the s t u d y . The d a t a was s i f t e d f o r m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t t o each c o n c e p t as d e f i n e d , i n an a t t e m p t t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the t h e o r y base f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . I n no way has t h e d a t a been used t o a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a n y t h i n g about t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . A n a l y s i s has been c o n f i n e d t o t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s t u d y as a r e s e a r c h t o o l . 50. I n t e r a c t i o n a l F i e l d S e c t i o n I o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i n d i c a t e s what subsystems e x i s t e d w i t h i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . S e c t i o n s I I , I I I , IV and V e x t r a c t d a t a i n d i c a t i n g the e x t e n t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d and the n a t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the f i e l d . However, i t was f e l t g r e a t e r e x a c t n e s s i n t h i s a r e a i s d e s i r a b l e . S e c t i o n I I - G i n d i c a t e s the change age n t ' s e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e an i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . S e c t i o n I I I b e a r s s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e o u t r e a c h of t h e a c t i o n system. S e c t i o n IV-C and D b e a r i n d i r e c t l y upon i t and G i n d i c a t e s the c e n t r a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f the change agent t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e a c t i o n system and i n e x t e r n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . P a r t I r e l a t e s t o the e f f e c t o f the a c t i o n system's a c t i v i t y upon a c t o r s and systems i n the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . S e c t i o n V c o v e r s the t e r m i n a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e change agent i n t h e a c t i o n system. T h i s s e c t i o n s h o u l d gauge more a c c u r a t e l y the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d and i n c l u d e more m a t e r i a l about th e c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e change a g e n t . A c t i o n System K e e p i n g i n mind th e c o n c e p t u a l b i a s of the s t u d y , the d a t a seems t o c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f an a c t i o n system w i t h d i s t i n c t l i f e s t a g e s . S e c t i o n I I o f the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e e x t r a c t s d a t a about t h e i n c e p t i o n of the a c t i o n s ystem, b u t t h e r e may be c o n f u s i o n about t h e a c t u a l l o c a t i o n of the w o r k e r ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n , w h i c h i s seen by the s t u d y as a s e p a r a t e phenomena from the i n c e p t i o n o f the a c t i o n system. P a r t A g i v e s a good p i c t u r e of t h e a c t o r s i n t h e a c t i o n system and the change age n t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t and non-i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a c t i o n system's i n c e p t i o n s t a g e . S e c t i o n I I I d e s c r i b e s i n some d e t a i l the o u t r e a c h of the a c t i o n system i n t o t h e e n v ironment f o r s u p p o r t and the change a g e n t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the system i n t h i s a r e a . S e c t i o n IV i n d i c a t e s i n d e t a i l the o p e r a t i o n of the a c t i o n system. I t i n d i c a t e s the s t r e n g t h o f the a c t i o n system to some d e g r e e . However, what was hoped f o r h e r e was c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g s t r u c t u r e and b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l l i n k a g e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s embedded i n m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g p r o c e s s and a c t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . P a r t H d i s t i n g u i s h e s w i t h some p r e c i s i o n between the a c t i o n s y s t e m and i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d s , b u t P a r t I a g a i n i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o c e s s . S e c t i o n V does n o t r e l a t e c l e a r l y o r a t s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the a c t i o n e p i s o d e and the r e s i d u a o f the a c t i o n s y s tem. I n t e r v e n t i o n The d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the change agent had i m p a c t w i t h i n the f i e l d , based upon the changes w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n the f i e l d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d m a i n l y i n S e c t i o n s I and I I w h i c h c o n t r a s t the f i e l d b e f o r e and a f t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t m i g h t have been h e l p f u l i n terms o f a n a l y z i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e s s i f t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e had u s e d a c o m p a r a t i v e form o f q u e s t i o n i n g . The a d d i t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f the change a g e n t ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n by o t h e r a c t o r s i n t h e s y s t e m i s r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p a more a c c u r a t e c o m p o s i t e p i c t u r e o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n and i t s e f f e c t on i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t the a c t i o n system d e v e l o p e d i n the i n t e r -a c t i o n a l f i e l d a f t e r the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the change a g e n t . There i s a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n i n the d a t a t h a t f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n terms o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the a c t i o n s y s t e m . The i n s t r u m e n t a p p ears t o r e q u i r e more p r e c i s i o n i n o r d e r to o b t a i n d a t a w h i c h would improve our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n t e r v e n t i o n and i t s i m p a c t upon community l i f e . Change Agent I t a p p e a r s p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t from the main body o f the d a t a m a t e r i a l t h a t i d e n t i f i e s the change agent as h a v i n g some e f f e c t upon the i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d i n w h i c h he has i n t e r v e n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f the change a g e n t ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n c a n 52. a l s o be e x t r a c t e d . One o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n t o t h e d a t a must be r e c o g n i z e d . The r e s p o n d e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r t e s t i n g were d e f i n e d and s e l e c t e d because t h e y were seen as change agents i n t h e e p i s o d e s s t u d i e d . However, the s c h e d u l e does seem t o s e p a r a t e and i d e n t i f y the change agent as a u n i q u e a c t o r among i a number of a c t o r s i n an i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d , and appears t o be a t o o l t h a t c o u l d be used t o s e p a r a t e and i d e n t i f y change agents from a group of random r e s p o n d e n t s i n any g i v e n i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . The r e l e v a n t d a t a can be o b t a i n e d from r e s p o n s e s t o s c h e d u l e i t e m s r e l a t e d t o the p o i n t of i n t e r -v e n t i o n , v a l u e s and g o a l s of the change agent and o t h e r a c t o r s , and t h e g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y of t h e change agent i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t o t h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r r o l e s i n the a c t i o n system may a l s o be used t o i d e n t i f y the change a g e n t . Task and M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e s s e s The d a t a appears t o e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be used t o form a p i c t u r e o f the change age n t ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n a c t i v i t y d i r e c t e d toward e n h a n c i n g the t a s k and m a i n t e n a n c e p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t h e a c t i o n system. However, i t does n o t r e v e a l t h e change age n t ' s c o n s c i o u s s e l e c t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s i n terms o f p r o c e s s e s . I t was hoped t h a t the s c h e d u l e would r e v e a l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . (A p r o m i s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t i t seems p o s s i b l e t o get a t the emphasis on one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n each s t a g e o f the e p i s o d e . Because of the l a c k of p r e c i s e n e s s w i t h w h i c h c h a n g i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r a c t i o n were r e c a l l e d , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e c l e a r l y between the w o r k e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a . H o r i z o n t a l and V e r t i c a l L i n k a g e s The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e seems t o have some v a l u e i n s p e c i f y i n g h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l l i n k a g e s w i t h i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d , however the p u r p o s e b e h i n d such l i n k a g e s i s n o t always c l e a r . The s c h e d u l e appears t o o b t a i n d a t a on t h e q u a n t i t y o f the l i n k a g e . The r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d 53. .•: c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l c r i t e r i a t o the a c t u a l f i e l d s i t u a t i o n , however t h i s does n o t seem i m p o r t a n t as t h e s e l i n k a g e s can be r e a d i l y r e p o r t e d d u r i n g t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . S o c i a l P r o c e s s The d a t a appears t o p o i n t t o e x i s t e n c e o f a s o c i a l p r o c e s s w i t h i n the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . The n a t u r e o f the s o c i a l p r o c e s s , i t s components and m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s a r e n o t c l e a r . The s c h e d u l e seems t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e p r o c e s s had a b e g i n n i n g and an end; p r e c i s i o n i s l a c k i n g i n d e t e r m i n i n g the t e r m i n a l p o i n t i n the p r o c e s s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s c h e d u l e may be u s e f u l o n l y f o r ex p o s t f a c t o e p i s o d e s d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The t o t a l p r o c e s s o u t l i n e i n t h e d a t a appears t o be a complex one. S o c i a l p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e d a t a as many p r o c e s s e s i n t e r a c t i n g over a p e r i o d o f ti m e t h a t i n v o l v e s many a c t o r s and sy s t e m s , one of w h i c h i s t h e change agent. The change agent appears t o a f f e c t t h e p r o c e s s e s i n t h e a c t i o n system l a r g e l y t h r o u g h c o n t a c t s w i t h a c t o r s i n t h e system. T h i s a f f e c t e x t e n d s t h r o u g h o u t the a c t i o n e p i s o d e . The p r e s e n c e o f the change agent as an a c t o r appears t o a f f e c t a range o f p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t he i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e The d a t a f ^ i l s t o r e v e a l i n any p r e c i s e way t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t he a c t i o n system o r i t s e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, i n a v e r y g e n e r a l s e n s e , some s t r u c t u r e s can a t l e a s t be i d e n t i f i e d , b u t n o t q u a l i f i e d . S e c t i o n I f a i l s t o i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between systems 4aa the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . S e c t i o n s I I and I I I d a t a i s s c a n t r e g a r d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l developments d u r i n g the i n c e p t i o n and e x p a n s i o n s t a g e s . The main i m p l i c a t i o n from t h e d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n S e c t i o n IV i s t h a t t h e change agent i s a c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n wha t e v e r s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s may be a r e s u l t o f the ty p e o f q u e s t i o n i n g used w h i c h p r o d u c e s m i s l e a d i n g d a t a i n t h i s a r e a . S e c t i o n V i s c o n f u s i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e because 54. t h e r e seems to be no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n made i n the s c h e d u l e o r i n the d a t a between the change agent and the s t r u c t u r e s u r r o u n d i n g him. S o c i a l Change The d a t a r e v e a l s some v a r i a n c e i n the p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l change w i t h -out i n d i c a t i n g why t h e r e s h o u l d be a d i f f e r e n c e . Data produced by t h e sche-d u l e l a c k s the d e t a i l e d f a c t s and c r o s s - c h e c k s from o t h e r s o u r c e s t o a s s e s s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l change p r o c e s s e s . The d a t a does n o t r e v e a l the change a g e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f phenomena a t the time i t o c c u r r e d , nor does i t show c l e a r l y how the change agent a t t e m p t e d t o c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r o l h i s i n -t e r v e n t i o n , and t h e r e b y a l t e r t he p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l change. C o n s c i o u s use o f s e l f t o a l t e r p r o c e s s and a f f e c t s o c i a l change i s h i n t e d a t i n a l l s e c t -i o n s o f the d a t a , b u t n o t f u l l y examined. A n y t h i n g beyond s t a t i n g t h a t the change agent has an awareness o f i n d u c i n g s o c i a l change i n an a c t i o n system would be premature on the b a s i s o f the way the d a t a was a b s t r a c t e d . Change S t i m u l i The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t the change agent c a n be one s t i m u l u s f o r change. The change agent appears t o i n c r e a s e the awareness o f o t h e r a c t o r s o f d i s c o m f o r t s i n the s y s t e m i c e n v i r o m e n t w h i c h become b e t t e r s p e c i f i e d f o r c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n . The s c h e d u l e produces d a t a s u p p o r t i n g the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t d i s c o m f o r t s h a r e d among a number o f a c t o r s i s a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r f o r c r e a t i n g an a c t i o n system, and t h a t o b j e c t i v e s o f the a c t i o n system c a n be d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s d i s c o m f o r t . What i s n o t c l e a r i n the d a t a i s the degree t o which the change agent must s h a r e t h i s d i s c o m f o r t . The f o u r t h t a s k o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s 'to o f f e r c r i t i c i s m s o f the d a t a -c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . CRITIQUE OF INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o c r i t i c i z e the d a t a - c o l l e c t i n g i n s t r u m e n t o b j e c t i v e l y f o r two r e a s o n s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h a t i t i s the c r e a t o r s o f 55. the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e and the i n t e r v i e w e r s t h e m s e l v e s - a l l o f whom ob-v i o u s l y have a s u b j e c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the s c h e d u l e — who a r e c a l l e d upon t o r e n d e r the c r i t i c i s m . The second r e a s o n i s t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i s an e x t r e m e l y s u b j e c t i v e type o f i n s t r u m e n t . A l t h o u g h i t s p r i m a r y i n t e n t was t o c o l l e c t f a c t s about s p e c i f i c a c t i o n e p i s o d e s , i t c o l l e c t s t h e s e f a c t s from i n d i v i d u a l s who p l a y the p r i m a r y r o l e s i n t h e s e e p i s o d e s . Thus, i t f o l l o w s t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the d a t a . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n q u e s t i o n s con-c e r n i n g t h e i r own a c t i o n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t many s u b j e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s e n t e r i n t o the .' a c c o u n t i n g o f f a c t s ' from the r e s p o n d e n t s . These v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e such t h i n g s as the r e s p o n d e n t s ' own i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r g o a l s , and memory. "The f a l l i b i l i t y o f memory f o r n o n r e c u r r i n g e v e n t s , f o r e v e n t s i n the d i s t a n t p a s t , f o r e v e n t s o f l i t t l e i n t e r e s t , and f o r e v e n t s d i f f i c u l t to comprehend; the ephemeral q u a l i t y o f memory and i t s dependence on s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s ; the c o r r u p t i b i l i t y o f memory i n r e l a t i o n to e v e n t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the s e l f --a l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s r e q u i r e c a u t i o n i n a c c e p t i n g as t r u e the remembrance o f t h i n g s p a s t . " (27, p. 244) The p r i m a r y t a s k i n c r e a t i n g the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was to co n s -t r u c t q u e s t i o n s t h a t would s t i m u l a t e the r e s p o n d e n t s ' memory. T h i s was done i n most c a s e s by b e g i n n i n g w i t h g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s on a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y and t h e n f o l l o w i n g t h e s e up w i t h more s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t would e l i c i t more d e t a i l from the r e s p o n d e n t s . L o o k i n g more c l o s e l y a t the r e a c t i o n s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s them-s e l v e s , the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y c a n make on a d a t a -c o l l e c t i n g i n s t r u m e n t o f t h i s k i n d was c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d to the r e s e a r c h e r s . The two i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n s t h emselves-were c o n t r o l l e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d as s i m i l a r l y a s • p o s s i b l e by u s i n g the same i n t e r v i e w team, the same i n t e r v i e w e r , and s i m i l a r p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s i . e . p r i v a t e homes. P e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r -ences o f the two r e s p o n d e n t s became q u i t e c l e a r i n the d i f f e r i n g n a t u r e and d i m e n s i o n s o f the r e s p o n s e s they made to c e r t a i n o f the i t e m s i n the s c h e d u l e . F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , the i n t e r v i e w team was l e f t w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the d a t a - c o l l e c t i n g i n s t r u m e n t tended to be vague, and t h a t the q u e s t i o n s a s ked were too g e n e r a l f o r the r e s p o n d e n t t o f o c u s on them. However, a f t e r the second i n t e r v i e w , t h e s e f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s were n o t a l t o g e t h e r u p h e l d . The i n t e r v i e w team was r e a s s u r e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e e x i s t e d many l e g i t i m a t e doubts as to the c l a r i t y o f s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s , the i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f was n o t as vague as had f i r s t been f e a r e d . The second r e s p o n d e n t appeared to have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n f o c u s s i n g on the q u e s t i o n s and answered them w i t h o u t too much d i f f u s e d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l . As Jahoda p o i n t s o u t "a f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m i n i n t e r v i e w i n g i s t h a t o f l i m i t i n g t he r e s -ponse o f the v e r b o s e i n d i v i d u a l " , (27, p. .241), o r , i n l i m i t i n g r e s p o n s e s a bout s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h seem t o demand v e r b o s e d e s c r i p t i o n s . T h i s was an a s p e c t o f the i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n t h a t was l a r g e l y o v e r -l o o k e d . The r e s e a r c h e r s were, i n f a c t , more con c e r n e d about the p o s s i b i l i t y o f n o t g e t t i n g enough d a t a from the r e s p o n s e s t h a n about the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t too much d a t a m i g h t be p r e s e n t e d . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w r e f l e c t s t h i s weakness on the p a r t o f the d e s i g n . The second i n t e r v i e w was c o n t r o l l e d somewhat more by the i n t e r v i e w e r . D u r i n g the second i n t e r v i e w , the i n t e r -v i e w e r b r o k e i n more o f t e n . a f t e r a q u e s t i o n had been answered, g o i n g on t h e n to the n e x t q u e s t i o n , and i n t h i s way l i m i t i n g , to a degr e e , the amount o f u n n e c e s s a r y r e s p o n s e . I n t h i s same - l i n e o f c r i t i c i s m i t was found t h a t much o f the e x t r a -neous m a t e r i a l g i v e n i n a r e s p o n s e -would o f t e n i n c l u d e answers to q u e s t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d . I t was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o ask a q u e s t i o n i n an open-ended manner t h a t would evoke a r e s p o n s e t h a t was r e l e v a n t o n l y t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n . T h i s weakness r e s u l t e d i n r e p e t i t i o n of c e r t a i n r e s -ponses. A c e r t a i n amount of t h i s r e p e t i t i o n was v a l i d f o r i t o f t e n p r o v i d e d new i n s i g h t s i n t o the same d a t a , and f u r t h e r m o r e , i t p r o v i d e d some k i n d o f v a l i d i t y check.. However, even when t a k i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t , some m a t e r i a l had n e e d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n c o u l d be improved upon from t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w . A n o t h e r k i n d o f v a l i d i t y check became -apparent d u r i n g the second i n t e r v i e w and p e r h a p s , i t c o u l d have been i n c o r p o r a t e d p u r p o s i v e l y i n t o the d e s i g n o f the i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f . T h i s check c e n t e r s around q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e f o l l o w e d by a ' i f y e s ' o r ' i f no' sequence o f q u e s t i o n s . I f the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n i s answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e t h e n a f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s would be asked. However, i f the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n was answered i n the nega-t i v e , t h e n the sequence f o l l o w i n g i t would be o m i t t e d . Once, however, when the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n was answered i n the n e g a t i v e by the r e s p o n d e n t , the i n t e r v i e w e r , prompted by h i s knowledge o f the s i t u a t i o n , asked the sequence w h i c h f o l l o w e d as i f the q u e s t i o n had been answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . The r e s u l t was t h a t r e s p o n s e s were o b t a i n e d w h i c h were i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the r e s p o n d e n t ' s o r i g i n a l n e g a t i v e answer (see i n t e r v i e w No. I I , S e c t i o n I V A, 2 & 3 ) . T h i s t y p e o f check c o u l d have been b u i l t i n t o the i n s t r u m e n t as p a r t o f i t s s t r u c t u r e . There were o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s where the same t e c h -n i q u e c o u l d have been a p p l i e d . L o o k i n g more s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e main a r e a s open to c r i t i c i s m . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , as has been d i s c u s s e d , i s the ambiguous and vague n a t u r e o f many o f the q u e s t i o n s . The w o r d i n g of s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s needs to be improved to i n c r e a s e t h e i r c l a r i t y . I t became e v i d e n t t o the r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t a l t h o u g h they were c l e a r i n t h e i r own minds as to what they i n t e n d e d a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n t o e x p l o r e , the r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not always p e r c e i v e o r i n t e r p r e t the q u e s t i o n i n the same manner. T h e r e f o r e , i t c a n be e x p e c t e d t h a t the r e s p o n s e s were n o t always e x a c t l y what was d e s i r e d . The most o b v i o u s example o f t h i s i s S e c t i o n I o f the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t h a t asks f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the I n i t i a l S y s t e m i c E n v i r o n m e n t . The r e s -pondents were u n s u r e -as to whether t h i s term r e f e r r e d to the time b e f o r e they e n t e r e d the community, or the time b e f o r e they became i n v o l v e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n e p i s o d e under d i s c u s s i o n . The second a r e a o f c r i t i c i s m , w h i c h p e r t a i n s to the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n s , i s t h a t s e v e r a l o f them were . ' d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d ' i n t h a t they c o n s i s t e d o f two o r more p a r t s . The p a r t i c u l a r weakness o f t h i s type o f q u e s t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s tended to answer the l a s t p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n f i r s t , ,and t h e n the f i r s t p a r t . However, i t was d i s -c o v e r e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h the o r d e r o f the r e s p o n s e s c o u l d be s o r t e d o u t l a t e r , the r e s p o n d e n t s o f t e n f o r g o t to answer the f i r s t p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n a t a l l o r d i d so o n l y p a r t i a l l y . There seemed to be a d i f f e r e n c e between the two r e s p o n d e n t s i n terms o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . The t h i r d a r e a o f c r i t i c i s m c e n t e r s around t h o s e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e f o l l o w e d by q u e s t i o n s c o m p r i s e d o f v e r y few words. An example o f . t h i s i s found i n S e c t i o n I I I , B. 2, .3, & 4, where the q u e s t i o n s r e a d : "2. How was t h i s done?, 3. F o r what r e a s o n ? , and 4. I f n o t done, why n o t ? . The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t o f t h i s k i n d of q u e s t i o n was to expand upon the p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n t h a t p r e c e d e d t h e s e sequences. -However, t h e s e quest-ions d i d n o t s t a n d w e l l a l o n e and o f t e n b r o u g h t a c o u n t e r - r e p l y from the r e s p o n d e n t such as "How was what done? or Reason f o r what?". T h i s p o i n t e d o u t t o the i n t e r -v i e w team t h a t t h e s e s h o r t q u e s t i o n s must be r e g a r d e d as c o m p lete q u e s t i o n s i n t h e m s e l v e s and worded as such so t h a t they a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y dependent upon the p r e c e d i n g q u e s t i o n . More g e n e r a l l y , i t was found t h a t most s e c t i o n s of the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e were a b l e t o o b t a i n r e l e v a n t d a t a . S e c t i o n V however, seemed t o be t h e weakest s e c t i o n i n the s c h e d u l e i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The r e s e a r c h e r s had hoped t o get more i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n - e p i s o d e t h a n t h i s s e c t i o n was a b l e t o o b t a i n . I t i s now t h o u g h t t h a t perhaps q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c l i e n t system a t the t i m e o f t h e change age n t ' s t e r m i n a t i o n may h e l p get more r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . One l a s t c r i t i c i s m t h a t has b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s was t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w team d e c i d e d t o a t t e m p t t o f o l l o w the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o make th e i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n s as s i m i l a r as t h e y c o u l d . T h i s d e c i s i o n p r o duced two r e s u l t s . The f i r s t , w h i c h has p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s , was t h a t l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was done d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s d i d r e s u l t i n the s e t t i n g of some k i n d of c o n t r o l s and l i m i t a t i o n s over the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n . The second, w h i c h has nega-t i v e a s p e c t s , was t h a t p r o b i n g , w h i c h c o u l d have l e d t o g r e a t e r d e t a i l , and c l a r i f i c a t i o n . o f the d a t a , was h e l d t o a minimum d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . G e n e r a l l y , the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t was found w a n t i n g i n many a r e a s and i t s weaknesses became q u i t e a p p a r e n t t o the i n t e r v i e w team. Many of t h e s e f a u l t s can be overcome t o improve the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e and i n c r e a s e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . However, used as i t was, the i n s t r u m e n t d i d c o v e r n e a r l y a l l a s p e c t s o f the p a r t i c u l a r ^ a c t i o n e p i s o d e s b e i n g s t u d i e d . F u r t h e r , i t p r o duced a d e s c r i p t i o n by each r e s p o n d e n t t h a t was s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d t h a t s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and i d e n t i f i e d . .CHAPTER V .CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t may be drawn from the s t u d y a t t h i s s t a g e a r e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ones. T h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o n g o i n g s t u d y o f the i n t e r -a c t i o n a l f i e l d s s e t up by s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n c a n be p r e s e n t e d i n the form o f recommendations f o r c a r r y i n g the s t u d y f o r w a r d . . S p e c i f i c a l l y , r e -v i s i o n s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n , d e s i g n , and d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s o f the st u d y c a n be s u g g e s t e d to s t r e n g t h e n i t . CONCLUSIONS The f i r s t t a s k o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o draw such c o n c l u s i o n s as i t may be f e a s i b l e t o e x t r a c t from the s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e to t h i s p o i n t . The a n a l y s i s o f the p r e - t e s t d a t a o f f e r s some encouragement to c o n t i n u e t h e . l i n e o f e x p l o r a t i o n a t t e m p t e d h e r e . There i s the d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t as many as t e n o r t w e l v e major v a r i a b l e s may be i s o l a t e d and i d e n t i f i e d by , the s t u d y , because some d a t a r e l a t i n g to t h i s many p o t e n -t i a l v a r i a b l e s was p r e s e n t i n the body o f d a t a e x t r a c t e d f o r the p r e - t e s t . Data c o l l e c t e d from perhaps 30 a c t i o n e p i s o d e s i n v o l v i n g a s o c i a l worker may e s t a b l i s h a p a t t e r n o f v a r i a b l e s i n such i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d s , o r a t l e a s t the range o f v a r i a b l e s . I t would appear t h a t t h e number o f e p i s o d e s s t u d i e d s h o u l d be a b o u t 3 0 , because o f the l a r g e number o f major v a r i a b l e s t h a t p o t e n t i a l l y may be o p e r a t i v e . T h i s means the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a from a number o f u r b a n a r e a s s p r e a d o u t over a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t . What-e v e r i n s t r u m e n t i s used to g a t h e r d a t a w i l l need to be c a r e f u l l y s e t up and e x p l a i n e d so t h a t the v a r i o u s p e r s o n s c o l l e c t i n g d a t a w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t enough to produce a s m a l l measure o f r e l i a b i l i t y i n the c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , r e l i a b i l i t y s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be enhanced by t i g h t e n i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f the q u e s t i o n s and a v o i d i n g the a m b i g u i t i e s t h a t c a n a r i s e from making f r e e use o f a number o f words o r p h r a s e s t h a t have - s p e c i a l i z e d mean-i n g s . I f a n - a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a c t i o n e p i s o d e , the a c t i o n system and the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d i s t o be g a i n e d , the p e r c e p t i o n s o f o t h e r a c t o r s t h a n t h e i n t e r v e n o r w i l l be needed. T h i s means t h a t the s t u d y i n s t r u ment s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d to the o t h e r a c t o r s i n a n . a c t i o n e p i s o d e as w e l l as t o the i n t e r v e n o r . The k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t c a n be asked such r e s -pondents a r e l i m i t e d by the t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and w o r d - f a m i l i a r i t y o f the p e r s o n s from whom answers a r e sought.. T h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s t r u c t u r e and l a n g u a g e o f the i n s t r u m e n t . S i m p l i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s b e i n g s t u d i e d a r e poss b l e t o o b t a i n , b u t t h e i r p r e c i s e n e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the s t u d y would need to be c a r e f u l l y c h e c k e d . I t may be p o s s i b l e t o e x p r e s s the f o r m u l a t i o n i t s e l f i n s i m p l e r terms. T h i s m ight have a second d i r e c t b e n e f i t i n . t h a t i t i s n o t now e x a c t l y c l e a r to what e x t e n t the d a t a - c o l l e c t -i o n i n s t r u m e n t i s a v a l i d r e f l e c t i o n o f the s t u d y f o r m u l a t i o n as a r t i c u l a t e d The s t u d y d e s i g n seems a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e purpose the s t u d y i s i n -tended to s e r v e . There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the p r e s e n t s t a g e o f e x p l o r -a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s i n the f i e l d c o u l d be combined w i t h an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them. T h i s would p r o b a b l y mean major r e v i s i o n s to the d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t and d i v i s i o n o f the v a r i a b l e s i n t o groups f o r p a r t i a l i z e d s t u d y . The " d i s c o v e r y o f v a r i a b l e s " s t a g e c e r t a i n l y c a n be c o n d u c t e d on i t s own, w i t h h y p o t h e s e s to p r o v i d e some f o c u s f o r the n e x t l e v e l o f s t u d y , w h i c h m i g h t w e l l be d i v i d e d i n t o p a i r s of v a r i a b l e s . H o p e f u l l y - , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s w i l l be v e r i f i e d i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s , and the r e s u l t s u t i l i z e d to f a s h i o n a f a c t u a l base f o r s o c i a l work o p e r a t i v e s i n community l i f e . T h i s would p r o v i d e d i r e c t i v e and e v a l u a t i v e components f o r o n g o i n g s t u d y o f the p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work to d e t e r m i n e the s p e c i f i c s o f i t s methodology i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e . A l t h o u g h i t would be premature t o advance h y p o t h e s e s about v a r i a -b l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , some g e n e r a l a r e a s f o r f u t u r e h y p o t h e s i z i n g c a n be i n f e r r e d from the p r e - t e s t d a t a . The r e l e v a n c e o f t a s k and m a i n t e -nance p r o c e s s e s f o r the c o n s c i o u s use o f i n t e r v e n t i o n and s o c i a l change -t e c h n i q u e s i s one -such a r e a . A n o t h e r i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l l i n k a g e f o r the speed•and permanency o f s o c i a l change. Then t h e r e i s the i n f l u e n c e o f the change agent upon the s e t t i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s . O t h e r s a r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an a c t o r 1 s p r o x i m i t y t o the pro b l e m s i t u a t i o n and the number and f o r c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s p r o duced by him i n p u r -s u i t o f a s o l u t i o n . F i n a l l y t h e r e i s the s i z e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d i n r e l a t i o n to the s i z e and a c t i v i t y (and p r o b l e m - f o c u s ) o f the a c t i o n -system. I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t h y p o t h e s e s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d to p r o p o s e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s i n a t l e a s t t h e s e a r e a s . RECOMMENDATIONS The second t a s k o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s to make recommendations f o r f u r t h e r a n c e o f the s t u d y . The recommendations p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e l i s t e d i n p o i n t form f o r b r e v i t y and c l a r i t y . 1. The sample used f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s i n i t i a l s t u d y s h o u l d c o m p r i s e -at l e a s t 30 a c t i o n e p i s o d e s , because o f the l a r g e number o f v a r i a b l e s s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g p r e s e n t i n the p a t -t e r n s under s t u d y . .These would have to be drawn from s e v e r a l u r b a n c e n t r e s from o t h e r p a r t s o f the c o n t i n e n t . 2. The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e c a n be r e t a i n e d as the main d a t a -c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t , b u t s h o u l d be e x t e n s i v e l y r e v i s e d i n terms o f i t s language, e x p l i c i t n e s s , and r e l i a b i l i t y , u s i n g the c u r r e n t d a t a - a n a l y s i s as a g u i d e . The s c h e d u l e s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s e v e r a l key a c t o r s i n each e p i s o d e , to g a i n a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l p i c t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s . O t h e r v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e s e a c t o r s would have to be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n r e d e s i g n i n g the s c h e d u l e . G r e a t e r c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n to e n s u r e c o n t i n u i t y o f con-c e p t s between the f o r m u l a t i o n and the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o u l d be g i v e n t o c o m b i n i n g t h i s s t u d y w i t h the second s t a g e , t h a t o f e x p l o r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s , o r t o . p a i r i n g the v a r i a b l e s f o r s t u d y a t the second s t a g e , f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f the f i r s t s t a g e . I t s h o u l d be k e p t c l e a r l y i n mind t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s con-c e n t r a t e d upon a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e , and p l a n s s h o u l d be l a i d f o r d e f i n i n g o t h e r f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e and t h e n s t u d y i n g s o c i a l work methodology i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h them. A c l e a r e x p l i c a t i o n o f how d a t a m i g h t be c o l l e c t e d , s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d f o r i n c l u s i o n w i t h the -schedule. I n t e r v i e w e r s p r e v i o u s l y u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h the s t u d y c a n t h e r e b y g a i n a f i r m i m p r e s s i o n o f the manner i n w h i c h the needed m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d t o e n s u r e a t l e a s t a s m a l l measure o f r e l i a b i l i t y . I t m i g h t be f r u i t f u l to a t t e m p t k: g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s e s about the range o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e e x p e c t a b l e i n t h i s k i n d o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d . One such p r e d i c t i o n m i g h t be, l o o s e l y , t h a t the major v a r i a b l e s i n such i n t e r a c t i o n a l f i e l d s a r e e x c l u s i v e l y s o c i a l i n n a t u r e . That i s , they a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the f a c t o f the p r e s e n c e of two o r more p e r s o n s i n some r e l a t i o n s h i p to each o t h e r , r a t h e r t h a n t o o t h e r f a c t s o f p h y s i c a l , economic, r e l i g i o u s , o r c u l t u r a l l i f e . I t i s our c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i f t h i s s t u d y i s p u r s u e d , v a l u a b l e i n -d i c a t o r s o f the n a t u r e o f and p e r s o n s e f f e c t e d by s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o community l i f e w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d o f knowledge f o r s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e a r e many., and the need f o r s t u d i e s such a s . a r e b e i n g i n i t i a t e d - a n d a d v o c a t e d h e r e i s a p r e s s i n g one. 65. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS 1. A l l p o r t , F., T h e o r i e s o f P e r c e p t i o n and the Concept o f S t r u c t u r e . New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1955. 2. B i d d l e , W i l l i a m and B i d d l e , L., The Community Development P r o c e s s : The  R e d i s c o v e r y o f L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e . New Y o r k , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n I n c . , 1965. Bonner, H.., Group Dynamics, New Y o r k , Ronald P r e s s , 1959. 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H a r p e r , E r n e s t B., and Dunham, A r t h u r , ( e d s . ) , New Y o r k , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1959. 67. .34. B a r t i e t t , H a r r i e t t e , A n a l y z i n g S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e by F i e l d s . New Y o r k , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers I n c . , .1961. 35. C a r t e r , G e n e v i e v e , " S o c i a l Work Community O r g a n i z a t i o n Methods and P r o c e s s e s " , i n Concepts and Methods o f S o c i a l Work. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1958. .36. Cox, F r e d "A Problem S o l v i n g M odel o f Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e , " adapted from, A Scheme f o r the Development and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f •a Change S t r a t e g y i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , M i c h i g a n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1966, (mimeographed). 37. : D e f i n i n g Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e . 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" P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f R e s i d e n t s i n N e ighborhood Community A c t i o n Programs." S o c i a l Work, .January 1966. 53. P r a y , K e n n e t h , "When i s Community O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e ? " P r o c e e d i n g s o f the N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f S o c i a l Work, 1947, New Y o r k , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y • P r e s s , 1947. 54. R e i n , M a r t i n and M o r r i s , R o b e r t , " G o a l s , • S t r u c t u r e s and S t r a t e g i e s f o r Community Change", S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e 1962, New Y o r k , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. -55. Rothman, J a c k , "An A n a l y s i s o f G o a l s and R o l e s i n Community O r g a n i z a -t i o n P r a c t i c e " , S o c i a l Work. V o l . 9, No. .2, A p r i l 1964. 56. S a n d e r s , I.., " P r o f e s s i o n a l R o l e s i n P l a n n e d Change.", i n C e n t r a l l y P l a n n e d Change, ( e d . ) , R o b e r t M o r r i s , New Y o r k , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a -t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers I n c . , 1964. 57. Schwartz., Meyer, "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n " i n E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work, F i f t e e n t h I s s u e , (ed.) H a r r y L. L u r i e , New Y o r k , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f . S o c i a l Workers, I n c . , 1965. 58. S m a l l e y , Ruth, " S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , " C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , ,1966. 59. Stumpf, J a c k , "Community P l a n n i n g and Development.", i n E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work. F i f t e e n t h I s s u e , H a r r y L. L u r i e ( e d . ) , New Y o r k , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers I n c . , 1965. 60. T a y l o r , C a r l , "Community Development Programs and Methods" i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n A c t i o n . H a r p e r , E r n e s t , B. and Dunham, A r t h u r ( e d s . ) , New York., A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1959. 61. T u r n e r , John, " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e P l a n n i n g to S o c i a l Change and S o c i a l Development.", i n S o c i a l Work and S o c i a l P l a n -n i n g . New Y o r k , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers I n c . , 1964. 62. ."Working D e f i n i t i o n o f S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e . " S o c i a l Work, V o l . 3, No. .2, A p r i l 1958. 69. APPENDIX A INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I N I T I A L SYSTEMIC ENVIRONMENT A. What was the s t a t e o f the c l i e n t s ystem p r i o r t o y o u r i n t e r v e n t i o n ? 1. Had the c l i e n t system i d e n t i f i e d any o f i t s f e l t need w i t h i n i t s immediate environment? 2. What were t h e s e needs? 3. Can you d e s c r i b e the h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n s f o r a c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d a t t h i s time w i t h i n the c l i e n t system? 4. Can you d e s c r i b e the v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s f o r a c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d a t t h i s time w i t h i n the c l i e n t system? 5. Were t h e r e any e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the c l i e n t system t h a t were a t t e m p t i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e problems? 6. Were t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o f e s s i o n a l , v o l u n t e e r , o r c i t i z e n s ' groups? 7. How o f t e n d i d they meet? 8. How r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were they o f the c l i e n t system? 9. What had they a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e t o the problem? B. What was y o u r assessment o f the c l i e n t s y s t e m a t t h i s time? ( i n c l u d i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , degree o f m u t u a l s u p p o r t , n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s e t c . , ) 1. D i d you i d e n t i f y any i n d i v i d u a l s or groups who were a c t i v e i n c l i e n t system? .2. Who were they? 3. What were they d o i n g ( i n r e l a t i o n t o the c l i e n t system's needs)? 4. W i t h what r e s u l t s ? C. What were y o u r a) g e n e r a l g o a l s upon g o i n g i n t o the c l i e n t system? b) s p e c i f i c g o a l s upon g o i n g i n t o the c l i e n t system? 1. Were t h e s e g o a l s r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o s t r e n g t h e n i n g h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n s i n the c l i e n t system? 2. I f y e s , how were they r e l a t e d ? 3. I f no, were they r e i a t e d ' S t o v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s ? How? INCEPTION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A„ What b r o u g h t the members o f the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n system t o g e t h e r ? B. Was any o f the a c t i o n system i n o p e r a t i o n b e f o r e y o u r i n t e r v e n t i o n ? C. What, o r who, k e p t the a c t i o n system t o g e t h e r b e f o r e y o u r i n v o l v e -ment? D. How d i d you become i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r . a c t i o n system -1. by i n v i t a t i o n 2. on y o u r own i n i t i a t i v e 3. t h r o u g h a t h i r d p a r t y ? 70. F. I f a c t i o n system formed i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f you, a t what s t a g e d i d you become - i n v o l v e d ? \ 1 1. Under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d t h i s o c c u r ? G. B e f o r e i n t r o d u c t i o n to the a c t i o n system, were you i n c o n t a c t w i t h any o f i t s members? •1. Who was c o n t a c t e d ? How? 2. What was the purpose o f the c o n t a c t ? .3. What was d i s c u s s e d ? 4. .Did t h e s e c o n t a c t s r e l a t e i n any way to a) g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f the a c t i o n system? b) y o u r g o a l s ? 5. Were any i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s made d u r i n g t h e s e i n f o r m a l con-t a c t s ? '6,. Were t h e s e c o n t a c t s made on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s ? 1. What e f f e c t d i d these c o n t a c t s have on the group? i e . - d i d they improve i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f the members? - d i d they s t r e n g t h e n group bonds? - d i d they h e l p s o l v e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? - d i d they f a c i l i t a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ? 8. D i d you g i v e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p t o the - a c t i o n . system t h r o u g h t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? E x p l a i n . 9. D i d you spend a l o t o f time c o n t a c t i n g any p a r t i c u l a r member o f the a c t i o n system? I f y e s , who was i t ? Why was i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t a c t t h i s person? 10. What were the r e s u l t s o f these i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s ? Were they what you had hoped f o r ? 11. What p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r time was t a k e n up w i t h t h e s e - i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s (as opposed to ti m e t a k e n up w i t h f o r m a l c o n t a c t s such as m e e t i n g s ) ? H. .What was the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f . t h e members o f the a c t i o n system to each o t h e r ? I I I . EXPANSION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. D i d the a c t i o n system t r y to b r o a d e n . i t s membership? 1. How was t h i s done? .2. F o r what purpose were a d d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups b r o u g h t i n t o the a c t i o n system? i e . - t o p l a n the t a s k a s p e c t s o f the a c t i o n ? - t o e x e c u t e the v a r i o u s t a s k s i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g o u t the p l a n s ? - t o c o n s t i t u t e - l i n k a g e s or c h a n n e l s o f co m m u n i c a t i o n t o v a r i o u s groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s whose c o o p e r a t i o n m ight be needed? - t o l e n d p r e s t i g e and s a n c t i o n t o the a c t i o n system? - t o e n s u r e t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the end p r o d u c t o f the a c t i o n ? 3. A t whose s u g g e s t i o n or p r e s s u r i n g were they b r o u g h t i n t o the a c t i o n system? 4. Were you i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d e c i s i o n ? How? 71. B. What, i f a n y t h i n g , d i d you do t o b r o a d e n the membership base o f the a c t i o n system? 1. D i d you make an a t t e m p t to i n c r e a s e the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and/or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ? 2. How was t h i s done? 3. F o r what reason? 4. I f n o t done, why not? C. D i d the a c t i o n system form any c o a l i t i o n s w i t h o t h e r groups attempt-i n g t o r e a c h the same g o a l s ? 1. I f y e s , how was t h i s done? 2. D i d t h i s c o a l i t i o n s t r e n g t h e n the a c t i o n system, o r weaken i t ? 3. Was c o n f l i c t i n t r o d u c e d . a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s c o a l i t i o n ? 4. How was i t r e s o l v e d o r p u t to use? 5. What p a r t d i d you p l a y i n the c o a l i t i o n ? i e . - d i d you s u g g e s t i t ? - d i d y ou s u p p o r t i t ? - d i d you oppose i t ? 6. Why? V I V . OPERATION OF THE EXPANDED ACTION SYSTEM A. M e e t i n g s . 1. How o f t e n d i d you meet w i t h the a c t i o n system? .2. D i d you h e l p i n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f o r m a l meetings? 3. How d i d you do t h i s ? i e . d i d you work w i t h the c h a i r m a n , e x e c u t i v e or o t h e r members, e t c . ? 4. Were you i n v o l v e d i n i n s t i t u t i n g some type o f f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? I f y e s , a) how d i d you do t h i s ? b) what was y o u r purpose i n d o i n g t h i s ? c) what -was y o u r r e a s o n f o r d o i n g so? B. P r o b l e m I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1. Who i d e n t i f i e d the p r o b l e m ( s ) t h a t the a c t i o n system was c o n -cerned, w i t h ? 2. D i d you t a k e p a r t i n i d e n t i f y i n g o r f o r m u l a t i n g the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? 3. How d i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p r o c e s s ? 4. W i t h what purpose? 5. Was the p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d by an o u t s i d e system? 6. I f y e s , d i d t h i s i n any ,way i n f l u e n c e the - a c t i o n system o r any o f i t s members? 1: .How? 8. What was the prob.lem(s) i d e n t i f i e d ? 9. How l o n g d i d i t take t o i d e n t i f y the problem(s);? Why? / 72. C. G a t h e r i n g F a c t s 1. How d i d the a c t i o n system go about e x p l o r i n g the n a t u r e , scope and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the prob.lem(s)? 2. Who was i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s ? 3. What was the r e a s o n ( s ) f o r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t ? 4. What p a r t d i d you p l a y ? ( i . e . D i d you h e l p t o c l a r i f y the a c t i o n system's p e r c e p t i o n o f the problem?) 5. I f y e s , i n what way d i d you do t h i s ? a) by p r o v i d i n g them w i t h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n ? b) by s h a r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h them from o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s ? c) by d i r e c t i n g them t o s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n such as e x p e r t s ? D. Proposed s o l u t i o n s 1. .Who s u g g e s t e d s o l u t i o n s to the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? 2. How was t h i s done? When? ( i . e . d u r i n g f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l meet-i n g s ? ) :-3. What were the p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s ? 4. What im p a c t d i d they have on the - a c t i o n system? 5. Were they s u p p o r t e d o r opposed by any members o f the a c t i o n system, i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f ? 6. Was t e n s i o n ( c o n f l i c t ) c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n ? 7. How was t h i s r e s o l v e d ? 8.. D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u g g e s t i n g o r p r e s e n t i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u -tions':'-.to the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? 9. How d i d you do t h i s ? 10. Why d i d you do t h i s ? ( i . e . t o ease c o n f l i c t , s t r e n g t h e n group bonds?) 11. Were you aware o f p o s s i b l e outcomes? 12. How much time was s p e n t i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to the problem? E. D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g 1. What c o u r s e o f a c t i o n was c h o s e n i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? 2. How was t h i s d e c i s i o n ( s ) reached? 3. What -was the e f f e c t o f t h i s d e e i s i o n ( s ) on the a c t i o n system? 4. D i d the d e c i s i o n made c o r r e s p o n d to the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s a) o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m b) y o u r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s c) an o u t s i d e system d) none o f these? 5. How were you i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ? 6. D i d you i n f l u e n c e the - a c t i o n system i n any way i n r e a c h i n g i t s d e c i s i o n ? 7. How d i d you do t h i s ? 8. What was y o u r purpose i n d o i n g t h i s ? 9. D i d you do a n y t h i n g to f a c i l i t a t e the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n the - a c t i o n system? 10. I f y e s a) what d i d you do? b) how d i d you do i t ? c) why? 73. .11. Were you i n agreement w i t h the a c t i o n system's f i n a l d e c i s i o n on the c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o be taken? 12. D i d you show a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l f o r t h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n ? 13. How d i d you do t h i s ? 14. Why? 15. Was i t n e c e s s a r y f o r the a c t i o n system to d e c i d e upon an a l t e r -n a t e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ? Why? 16. What was t h i s a l t e r n a t e c o u r s e ( s ) o f a c t i o n ? 17. Were you i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s u g g e s t i n g a l t e r n a t e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n ? 18. How d i d you do t h i s ? 19. What were t h e s e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n ? 20. .Why d i d you s u g g e s t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n ? 21. How l o n g d i d i t t a k e the a c t i o n system t o r e a c h i t s f i n a l de-c i s i o n on the c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o be taken? F. C o n f l i c t •1. Was t h e r e c o n f l i c t ; w i t h i n the a c t i o n system a t any time? a) How and why d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? b) Between whom d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? 2. Was t h e r e c o n f l i c t between the a c t i o n system and any o u t s i d e g r o u p ( s ) o r i n d i v i d u a l s ? a) How and why d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? b) Between whom d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? 3. What were the e f f e c t s o f the c o n f l i c t on: ..a) p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n s d) achievement o f d e s i r e d g o a l s ? 4. What, i f any, use d i d you make o f t h i s c o n f l i c t ? G. I n f o r m a l C o n t a c t s W i t h i n the A c t i o n System 1. D i d you have any i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s w i t h members of the a c t i o n s y s t e m t h r o u g h o u t the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ? 2. Whom d i d you c o n t a c t ? 3. How o f t e n were t h e s e c o n t a c t s made? 4. Were t h e s e c o n t a c t s d e l i b e r a t e l y a r r a n g e d o r a c c i d e n t a l ? 5. What was the r e a s o n f o r t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? 6.. D i d th e s e c o n t a c t s r e l a t e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o the g o a l s o f a) the a c t i o n s y s t e m b) y o u r g o a l s c) groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e the a c t i o n system? 7. What, i f any, e f f e c t d i d these c o n t a c t s have on the a c t i o n system? 8. What p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r t o t a l time ( w o r k i n g w i t h the a c t i o n system) was s p e n t on i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t s ? H. C o n t a c t s w i t h E x t e r n a l Systems •1. D i d the a c t i o n system, o r any o f i t s members, have any c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , groups o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t any time d u r i n g the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ? a) Between whom d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s e x i s t ? b) What was the -purpose of these contacts? c.) What e f f e c t did these contacts have on the action system? 2. Were you d i r e c t l y involved i n making these contacts? a) Did you make these contacts on your own i n i t i a t i v e , or with the sanction of the action system to act on i t s be-half? 3. What was your purpose i n making these contacts? 4. Whom did you contact? 5. What was the outcome of these contacts? 6. What proportion of your t o t a l time i n this a c t i o n episode was spent on working with i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, or agencies outside the a c t i o n system? I . Action -,1. What action was taken by the ac t i o n system i n i t s e f f o r t s to solve the problem? 2. What was the outcome of th i s a ction a) within the action system? b) on i n d i v i d u a l s , groups or organizations outside the action systems? c) i n terms of the goals and objectives of the ac t i o n system? d) i n terms of your goals and objectives? 3. How were you involved i n helping the action system to carry out t h i s action? 4. Were any s p e c i f i c tasks suggested for or.assigned to you? 5. By whom? Why? 6. What were these tasks? 7. What was the outcome? 8. Did you set any tasks for yourself? 9. What was your purpose for doing so? 10. What were the tasks? 11. What was the outcome? 12. What did you perceive as the outcome of the action? a) Were the re s u l t s what you had hoped or planned for? b) I f not, why not? 13. What was the outcome of the action as seen by other members of the action system? a) Were the r e s u l t s what they had hoped for or expected? b) I f not, why not? 14. Were any of the r e s u l t s of the ac t i o n unexpected? (explain) TRANSFORMATION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. At what point did you withdraw from the action system? 1. Before the attainment of t h e i r goals? 2. Following the attainment of their goals? 3. How did you leave? 4. What was your reason for l e a v i n g at the time you did? 5. How did your departure a f f e c t the ac t i o n system? B. What was l e f t of the ac t i o n system, a f t e r the ac t i o n had been ca r r i e d out? 1. Did the action system disband? 7 5 . 2. I f i t d i d n o t , would you say t h a t i t m i g h t need f u t u r e h e l p ? 3. D i d you see the a c t i o n system as b e i n g a b l e t o h a n d l e i n -c r e a s e d r espons i b i . l i ty? 4. What, i f any, s t r e n g t h s e x i s t e d i n the group? APPENDIX B INTERVIEW NO. I INI T I A L SYSTEMIC ENVIRONMENT A. What was the s t a t e o f t h e c l i e n t system p r i o r t o your i n t e r v e n t i o n ? There was a t e n a n t s a s s o c i a t i o n i n e x i s t e n c e , b u t i t was a s i c k t y p e o f group w i t h many p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t s among members. Eve n t s s p o n s o r e d by t h i s group c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f s o c i a l a c t i v i -t i e s . The members would have been q u i t e f e a r f u l t o t h i n k t h a t t h e y c o u l d speak up about t h e i r needs o r p r o b l e m s . 1. Had the c l i e n t system i d e n t i f i e d any o f i t s f e l t needs w i t h i n i t s immediate environment? Yes, v a r i o u s t e n a n t s i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t had been i n t e r v i e w e d as i n d i v i d u a l s about t h e i r needs and problems when t h e agency e m p l o y i n g t h i s worker f i r s t moved i n t o t he a r e a . 2. What were t h e s e needs? The g e n e r a l atmosphere o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t was p o o r . There was c o n s t a n t f i g h t i n g among c h i l d r e n , and b i c k e r i n g among the t e n a n t s . There was i n a d e q u a t e r e c r e a t i o n and p l a y space i n the p r o j e c t . No l e a d e r s h i p was a p p a r e n t . 3. Can you d e s c r i b e the h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n s f o r a c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d a t t h i s t i m e w i t h i n the c l i e n t system? There was l i t t l e c o mmunication between t e n a n t s o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and o t h e r s i n t h e community when w o r k e r ' s agency f i r s t moved i n t o the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Tenants f e l t t h a t t h e y were s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s ; o t h e r s i n the community saw them as a 'bunch o f c h a r a c t e r s ' . The agency a c t e d as a c a t a l y s t , b r i n g -i n g t e n a n t s i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the s u r r o u n d i n g community. Co-o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s were s t a r t e d w i t h the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r s A s s o -c i a t i o n o f an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and w i t h the e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r -hood Community A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h were a l s o concerned w i t h g e t -t i n g more r e c r e a t i o n f o r t h e a r e a , i n c l u d i n g a community c e n t r e . The Tenants A s s o c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l PTA and v a r i o u s s e r v i c e c l u b s , h e l p e d t o s t a r t a" Study Club program w h i c h p r o v i d e d t u t o r i n g f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n who needed i t most. The Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l t e n a n t s con-d u c t e d an A l l - C a n d i d a t e s p o l i t i c a l m e e t i n g i n t h e p r o j e c t w h i c h was open t o t h e w i d e r community. T h i s was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l , and t e n a n t s began t o f e e l t h a t t h e y had some t i e s w i t h the power s t r u c t u r e . They began t o v o i c e c o n c e r n s . 4. Can you d e s c r i b e the v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s f o r a c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d a t t h i s t i m e w i t h i n t h e c l i e n t system? There was no o f f i c i a l c o mmunication between t e n a n t s and the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y b e f o r e w o r k e r ' s agency moved i n t o t he a r e a . A f t e r t h e agency h e l p e d t e n a n t s form a t o t - l o t committee, w h i c h was s u c c e s s f u l i n g e t t i n g what i t wanted from t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , communication was g r e a t l y improved. •77. 5. Were t h e r e -any e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the c l i e n t system t h a t were a t t e m p t i n g to d e a l w i t h t h e s e problems? A mothers group, t e n a n t s o f the p r o j e c t , .attempted some a c t i o n b u t f a i l e d . The Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t e d b u t was i n e f f e c t -i v e . 6. Were t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o f e s s i o n a l , v o l u n t e e r o r c i t i z e n s ' groups? See above. 1. How o f t e n d i d they meet? Worker d o e s n ' t know. 8.. How r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were -they o f t h e c l i e n t system? They were n o t v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . .9. What had they a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e to the problem? N o t h i n g , as f a r as r e n t s were c o n c e r n e d , b u t a mothers group go t a t o t l o t f o r the p r o j e c t . B. What was y o u r . a s s e s s m e n t o f the c l i e n t s y s t e m a t t h i s time? I t was a low income n e i g h b o u r h o o d , w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f femi-l i e s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i -l i e s , h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s w i t h o n l y the mother i n the home, thus c r e a t i n g an a l m o s t m a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y . There was some degree o f m u t u a l s u p p o r t because o f p r o x i m i t y i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . There were s e v e r a l f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the p r o -j e c t . Some o f the more mature t e n a n t s c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p d i s s o c i a t e d t h e m s e l v e s from t h o s e most a c t i v e i n the Tenants A s s o -c i a t i o n because they d i d n ' t l i k e what was g o i n g on. The t e n a n t s most a c t i v e - i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n had n e u r o t i c needs, ,and s i c k p a t -t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . -1. D i d you i d e n t i f y any i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups t h a t were a c t i v e i n the p r o j e c t ? Y e s . The Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n had some - a c t i v e members. The worker a l s o o b t a i n e d names o f t e n a n t s n o t con-n e c t e d w i t h t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ( f r o m the p r o j e c t manager and o t h e r s ) who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n the community. 2. Who were they? See above. 3. What were they d o i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the c l i e n t system's needs? N o t h i n g . The Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n was s p o n s o r i n g s p e c i a l e v e n t s o f a s o c i a l n a t u r e f o r the p r o j e c t . 4. W i t h what r e s u l t s ? The T e n a n t s . A s s o c i a t i o n was a t a s t a l e m a t e , b u t i t d i d a t l e a s t g i v e the o p p o r t u n i t y to some t e n a n t s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i -t i e s . C. What were a) y o u r g e n e r a l g o a l s upon g o i n g i n t o the c l i e n t system? b) y o u r s p e c i f i c g o a l s upon g o i n g i n t o the c l i e n t system? 78. The o v e r a l l g o a l was a community development one - to t r y t o h e l p p e o p l e to h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . a) G e n e r a l g o a l s were t o t r y t o r e l a t e to p e o p l e , to f i n d o u t t h e i r c o n c e r n s and needs, and t o l o c a t e p e o p l e who m i g h t b e g i n to work f o r the improvement o f the community. b) S p e c i f i c g o a l s were to s t r e n g t h e n the Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n i',) w i t h i n t h e i r own terms o f r e f e r e n c e , t h a t i s , t o h e l p them a c h i e v e what they wanted t o a c h i e v e , ,and t o h e l p them bro a d e n t h e i r h o r i z o n s so t h a t they m i g h t do something about p u b l i c h o u s i n g needs and problems i n a b r o a d e r s e n s e . 1. Were t h e s e g o a l s r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o ; s t r e n g t h e n i n g h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n s i n the c l i e n t system? Not p r i m a r i l y . 2. I f y e s , how were they r e l a t e d ? . They were r e l a t e d to b o t h h o r i z o n t a l and perhaps v e r t i c a l p a t -t e r n s as w e l l as n o t too many improvements would have been p o s s i b l e u n l e s s management was c o n t a c t e d . 3. I f no, were they r e l a t e d t o v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s ? How? See No. 2. INCEPTION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. What b r o u g h t the members o f the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n system t o g e t h e r ? (The a c t i o n s y s t e m r e f e r r e d t o i s the S t e e r i n g Committee f o r the Tenants B r i e f ) . Many were t o g e t h e r a l l a l o n g because they were l i v i n g i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . The worker was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g them t o g e t h e r i n t o c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n . P r i o r to t h i s , o n l y I n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n s had been e x p r e s s e d . S e v e r a l w o r k i n g mothers had w r i t t e n r e g a r d i n g r e n t s to Ottawa, b u t had done so i n d i v i d u a l l y . B. Was any of the a c t i o n system i n o p e r a t i o n b e f o r e y o u r i n t e r v e n t i o n ? No. The Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n was i n o p e r a t i o n p r i o r t o worker i n -t e r v e n t i o n b u t was n o t e f f e c t i v e , nor was i t d e a l i n g w i t h r e n t a l p r o b l e m s . C. What o r who k e p t the a c t i o n system t o g e t h e r b e f o r e y o u r i n v o l v e -ment? Not a p p l i c a b l e . D. How d i d you become i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n system? Worker became i n v o l v e d as a r e s u l t o f p r e c e d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t she had e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s whom she had encouraged t o v e r b a l i z e . The f i r s t m e e t i n g t o t a l k about r e n t s was s t i m u l a t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r t e n a n t who s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e n a n t s do something i n s t e a d o f j u s t s i t t i n g around c o m p l a i n i n g . Worker a c t u a l l y be-came i n v o l v e d on h e r own i n i t i a t i v e . E. Was t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t e n t i o n a l ? Y e s . 1. I f y e s , what was the i n t e n t i o n ? The i n t e n t i o n was to t r y to h e l p t e n a n t s t o do something about t h e i r s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n j u s t s i t t i n g around b e e f -i n g about i t . Worker was more i n t e r e s t e d i n t r y i n g t o i n i -t i a t e c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n t h a n i n the end r e s u l t . 2. What was the a c t i o n system's r e a c t i o n to t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t ? The f i r s t r e a c t i o n was t h a t p e o p l e came t o the m e e t i n g h e l d r e : r e n t s . A more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e c t i o n o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t came. The m e e t i n g tended to. a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t t e n a n t s t h a n those i n v o l v e d i n the Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n , p a r t i -c u l a r l y the w o r k i n g men, who were c o n c e r n e d by the f a c t t h a t r e n t s were based on g r o s s r a t h e r t h a n take-home pay. .3. Was i t -what you had hoped f o r ? No.answer. I f the - a c t i o n system formed i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f you, a t what s t a g e d i d you become i n v o l v e d ? Under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d t h i s o c c u r ? Not a p p l i c a b l e . B e f o r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the a c t i o n system, were you i n c o n t a c t w i t h any o f i t s members? Yes. 1. Who was c o n t a c t e d ? How? Worker c o n t a c t e d s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s who had c o n c e r n s about r e n t s . These i n c l u d e d some mothers who were n o t members o f the Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n who had e a r l i e r been i n v o l v e d w i t h con c e r n s around the d a y - c a r e i s s u e , the male t e n a n t who had ex-p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about r e n t s and had s t i m u l a t e d the f i r s t meet-i n g , and o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d about r e n t s , i n c l u d i n g some members o f the Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n . .2. What was the purpose o f the c o n t a c t ? The purpose was the achievement o f community development g o a l s and h e l p i n g the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t g e t i n v o l v e d i n i m p r o v i n g i t s s i t u a t i o n . 3. What was d i s c u s s e d ? A m i l l i o n t h i n g s were d i s c u s s e d , many o f them u n r e l a t e d t o r e n t a l p r o b l e m s . 4. D i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s r e l a t e i n any way t o : a) g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f the a c t i o n system? b) y o u r g o a l s ? The c o n t a c t s r e l a t e d t o worker g o a l s , and s i n c e some i n d i v i d u a had e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s about r e n t s and o t h e r problems i n hous-i n g p r o j e c t s , p r o b a b l y t o t h e i r g o a l s as w e l l . 5. Were -any i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s made d u r i n g t h e s e i n f o r m a l con-t a c t s ? Yes.. Three p e r s o n s w r o t e down t h e i r own c a s e s on p a p e r , and two o f t h e s e s e n t l e t t e r s to the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y to s e r v e as examples o f o t h e r .people under s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . They were encouraged to do so by the w o r k e r . 8.0. 6. Were t h e s e c o n t a c t s made on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s ? They were c o n t i n u i n g o n l y i n the sense t h a t the worker and the t e n a n t s were i n the same community.. These c o n t a c t s were n o t o r g a n i z e d p r i o r t o the f i r s t m e e t i n g on r e n t a l p r o b l e m s . 7. What e f f e c t d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s have on the a c t i o n system? T h i s was a key s t a g e i n t r y i n g to b u i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t r y i n g to g e t t e n a n t s to do something about r e n t s , and t r y i n g t o keep up t h e i r i n t e r e s t . 8. D id you g i v e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p to the a c t i o n system t h r o u g h t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? E x p l a i n . Worker gave b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p , b u t i t was m o s t l y i n d i r e c t i n the form o f s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t , s u p p o r t i n g t e n a n t a c t i o n :and communicating w i t h the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . 9. D i d you spend a l o t o f time c o n t a c t i n g any p a r t i c u l a r member o f the a c t i o n system? I f y e s , who was i t ? Why was i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t a c t t h i s person? No. Worker c o n t a c t e d a l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d about the p r o b l e m o f r e n t s , and o t h e r s who would be u s e f u l i n t a k i n g a c t i o n . She a l s o i n i t i a t e d c o n t a c t s w i t h v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s . 10. What were the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s ? Were they what you had hoped f o r ? Worker f e l t t h a t i f no i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s had been made, no a c t i o n a t a l l would have been t a k e n , and t h e r e would have been no r e -s u l t s . The r e s u l t s o f the c o n t a c t s were what she had hoped f o r . 11. What p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r time was t a k e n up w i t h t h e s e i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s ? Worker d i d n ' t know (see day s h e e t s ) . H. What was the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the members o f the a c t i o n system to each o t h e r ? They-were a l l t e n a n t s o f the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o t h e r i n o t h e r ways. I I I . EXPANSION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. Did the a c t i o n system t r y to broa d e n i t s membership? Yes , i t c a l l e d an open m e e t i n g o f i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s . .1. How was t h i s done? N o t i c e s o f the m e e t i n g were s e n t o u t from the agency o f f i c e . 2. .For what purpose were a d d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups b r o u g h t i n t o the a c t i o n system? A t the f i r s t m e e t i n g a S t e e r i n g Committee was formed, w h i c h i n -c l u d e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from one o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . There was e x p a n s i o n i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . 81. 3. A t whose s u g g e s t i o n o r p r e s s u r i n g were they b r o u g h t i n t o the a c t i o n system? 'I'H There were n o t many p e o p l e b r o u g h t i n t o the Committee a f t e r the f i r s t m e e t i n g . However, more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were added from two o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s as w e l l as from the p r o j e c t i n w h i c h the a c t i o n s t a r t e d . There was c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h y e t a t h i r d h o u s i n g p r o j e c t b u t no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . .4. Were you i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d e c i s i o n ? How? Yes, worker s u g g e s t e d some p e o p l e who m i g h t j o i n . A l t h o u g h no d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n had been made to r e c r u i t i n the p r o j e c t i n w h i c h a c t i o n s t a r t e d , the w o r k e r went ou t as p a r t o f a team o f the S t e e r i n g Committee t o o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t o r e c r u i t members. What, i f a n y t h i n g , d i d you do t o b r o a d e n the membership base o f the - a c t i o n system? Worker s t a t e d t h a t she d i d n ' t t r y to b r o a d e n membership as much as s e t up c a s u a l c o m munication. She t r i e d t o d i r e c t t h i s hack to the Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n so t h a t they would be i n f o r m e d as t o what was g o i n g on, -and y e t a t the same time to s u p p o r t what seemed to be a v a r y h e a l t h y t r e n d f o r o t h e r t e n a n t s to be i n v o l v e d i n what was n o t an a c t i o n o f the Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n . .1. Did you make an a t t e m p t to i n c r e a s e the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and/ o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ? The t e n a n t s t h e m s e l v e s had s e t up a good s t r u c t u r e a t the f i r s t m e e t i n g . The S t e e r i n g Committee had r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f w o r k i n g t e n a n t s , t e n a n t s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and t e n a n t s from the v a r i o u s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s on i t . Worker d i d n ' t t h i n k t h a t i n -t e r v e n t i o n was n e c e s s a r y - she d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t i t was up t o h e r to change t h i s s t r u c t u r e . D i d the - a c t i o n system form any c o a l i t i o n s w i t h o t h e r groups a t t e m p t -i n g t o r e a c h the same g o a l s ? Yes., i t d e f i n i t e l y d i d s o . A c o a l i t i o n was formed between h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s o v e r r e n t s . • 1 I f y e s , how was t h i s done? Worker and S t e e r i n g Committee c o n t a c t e d the o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . .2. D i d t h i s c o a l i t i o n s t r e n g t h e n the a c t i o n system or weaken i t ? I t was a p o s i t i v e c o a l i t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e s t r e n g t h e n e d the a c t i o n s y s tem. .3. Was c o n f l i c t i n t r o d u c e d a s . a r e s u l t o f t h i s c o a l i t i o n ? Worker had a n t i c i p a t e d c o n f l i c t ; however, i t d i d n o t d e v e l o p , a l t h o u g h i t m i g h t have i f she h a d n't i n t e r v e n e d . Worker p l a y e d an i n t e r m e d i a r y r o l e , k e e p i n g the Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n i n f o r m e d as to what was g o i n g on, and she t r i e d to i n v o l v e t h i s o r g a n i -z a t i o n by making s u r e t h a t i t was r e p r e s e n t e d on the S t e e r i n g Committee. 82. 4. How was i t r e s o l v e d or p u t to use? T h i s was done t h r o u g h the w o r k e r ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n ( s ee a b o v e ) . 5. What p a r t d i d you p l a y i n the c o a l i t i o n ? Worker had s u g g e s t e d t h a t a v i s i t o r be b r o u g h t i n from one o f the o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t o the f i r s t m e e t i n g . The t e n a n t s t h e n p i c k e d up t h i s i d e a , approved o f i t , and the a c t i o n s ystem expanded to i n c l u d e the o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . I V . OPERATION OF THE EXPANDED ACTION SYSTEM :.A, M e e t i n g s 1. How o f t e n d i d you meet w i t h the a c t i o n system? Worker met w i t h the a c t i o n system o y e r the c o u r s e o f one month. T h i s i n c l u d e d t h r e e g e n e r a l m e e t i n g s p l u s two o r t h r e e meet-i n g s w i t h the S t e e r i n g Committee, from mid-August to mid-Sept-ember . 2. D i d you h e l p i n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f o r m a l meetings? Y e s , the agency o f f i c e h e l p e d a g r e a t d e a l . .3. How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker a c t e d as s e c r e t a r y , as d i d one of the t e n a n t s ; she a l s o h e l p e d ' t o d r a f t the b r i e f , c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l f o r documenting the b r i e f , and a c t e d as c o n s u l t a n t . The -agency o f f i c e t y p e d m i n u t e s , h e l p e d to mimeograph -and c i r c u l a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 4. Were you i n v o l v e d i n i n s t i t u t i n g some type o f f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the - a c t i o n system? B e f o r e the f i r s t m e e t i n g and the f o r m a t i o n o f the. S t e e r i n g Com-m i t t e e , w o r k e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t i n g up the s t r u c t u r e o f the f i r s t m e e t i n g , by p e r s u a d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t e n a n t s to take on c e r t a i n r o l e s i n the m e e t i n g , such as the c h a i r m a n ' s r o l e . The - S t e e r i n g Committee e v o l v e d from the f i r s t g e n e r a l m e e t i n g , and s t r u c t u r e was a m u t u a l development. Worker th e n assumed a s e c r e t a r i a l r o l e , b u t was f a i r l y . a c t i v e i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the m e e t i n g . 5. D i d y o u . a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? Yes, worker d i d so b u t more i n terms o f a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n i n the i n d i v i d u a l s e n s e . She was w i l l i n g , ,at l e a s t on a s h o r t - t e r m b a s i s , to use a few i n d i v i d u a l s who c o u l d c a r r y l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s t e m p o r a r i l y . She saw h e r s e l f as a l e a d e r o f a s o r t . B,. P r o b l e m I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1. Who i d e n t i f i e d the p r o b l e m ( s ) t h a t the a c t i o n system was con-c e r n e d about? A number o f problems were i d e n t i f i e d by the t e n a n t s b e f o r e the f i r s t m e e t i n g . D u r i n g the f i r s t m e e t i n g i t s e l f o t h e r problems were i d e n t i f i e d by t e n a n t s . F o r example, problems o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , w o r k i n g mothers, day c a r e , w o r k i n g t e e n a g e r s were c i t e d . .8.3. .2. D i d you take p a r t i n i d e n t i f y i n g o r f o r m u l a t i n g the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? "No, I don't t h i n k s o . I may have encouraged someone who c o u l d speak t o c e r t a i n problems to b r i n g them up, b u t I d i d n ' t p r e -s e n t them as an o u t s i d e r . " 3. How d i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p r o c e s s ? Worker a c t e d as an e n a b l e r ; she h e l p e d around the p r o c e d u r e o f the m e e t i n g , s u p p o r t e d the c h a i r m a n , and made s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the c o u r s e o f a c t i o n w i t h i n the m e e t i n g . •4. W i t h what purpose? The purpose was to h e l p the t e n a n t s g e t something done. -5. Was t h e - p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d by an o u t s i d e system? No, b u t the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y r e c o g n i z e d i t as a p r o b l e m when i t was i d e n t i f i e d . A f t e r p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d , H o u s i n g A u t h o r -i t y and W e l f a r e o f f i c i a l s were i n v o l v e d . 6. I f y e s , d i d t h i s i n any way i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n system o r any o f i t s members? Not a p p l i c a b l e . 7. How? Not a p p l i c a b l e . 8. What was the p r o b l e m ( s ) i d e n t i f i e d ? A g r e a t number o f problems were i d e n t i f i e d , b u t i t was d e c i d e d to c o n c e n t r a t e on the p r o b l e m o f r e n t s . 9. How l o n g d i d i t t a k e t o i d e n t i f y the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? One m e e t i n g . C. G a t h e r i n g F a c t s 1. How d i d the a c t i o n system go about e x p l o r i n g the n a t u r e , scope -and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the problem? A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d and c i r c u l a t e d t o the p e o p l e who had a t t e n d e d the m e e t i n g , and a l s o t o some i n o t h e r p r o j e c t s . I t was used to document the b r i e f w i t h case examples. .2. Who. was i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s ? A l l the t e n a n t s a t the m e e t i n g and some i n d i v i d u a l s i n o t h e r p r o j e c t s were i n v o l v e d . 3. What was the r e a s o n f o r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t ? I t was to do something about the r e n t s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o -j e c t s . 4. .What p a r t d i d you p l a y ? Worker p l a y e d a v e r y . a c t i v e r o l e t h r o u g h o u t . -She h e l p e d to d r a f t the . q u e s t i o n n a i r e , she was a c t i v e i n S t e e r i n g Committee m e e t i n g s , she h e l p e d the t e n a n t s t o v e r b a l i z e i n the a c t u a l b r i e f , .and a l s o took m i n u t e s a t m e e t i n g s so t h a t she had the f a c t s a t hand. 84. 5. I n what way d i d you do t h i s ? Worker o b t a i n e d a copy o f the r e n t a l s c a l e , w h i c h was v e r y u s e f u l . She had c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , a n d .access t o l i t e r a t u r e t h a t came to the agency o f f i c e . She o b t a i n e d i n -f o r m a t i o n from the Hou s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n as t o when the b r i e f s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d t o be most e f f e c t i v e , and t h i s i n f o r m a -t i o n was v i t a l t o the c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . t a k e n . She a l s o sug-g e s t e d c o n t a c t i n g a l a w y e r to check the b r i e f o v e r . D. Proposed S o l u t i o n s ,1. Who s u g g e s t e d s o l u t i o n s t o the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? S o l u t i o n s came from many p e r s o n s p r e s e n t a t the m e e t i n g . Some q u e s t i o n s were a l s o c l a r i f i e d w i t h the Manager o f the Hous i n g A u t h o r i t y who was p r e s e n t a t t h i s m e e t i n g . 2. How was t h i s , done, and when? S o l u t i o n s were p r o p o s e d from the f l o o r a t the f i r s t g e n e r a l m e e t i n g , ,and t h e n d e v e l o p e d by the S t e e r i n g Committee. 3. What were the p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s ? They were t o p r e s e n t the b r i e f t o a l l l e v e l s o f government -l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l ; to p r e s e n t the b r i e f t o the l o c a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and t o C e n t r a l Mortgage -and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ; and to use the Hous i n g A s s o c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n O t tawa. 4. What i m p a c t d i d they have on the a c t i o n system? None. (?) 5. Were they s u p p o r t e d o r opposed by any members o f the a c t i o n system, i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f ? The b r i e f was s u p p o r t e d by members o f the a c t i o n system. 6. Was t e n s i o n o r c o n f l i c t c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s ? There was no r e a l c o n f l i c t , o n l y a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n as t o what s h o u l d go i n t o the b r i e f . 7. How was t h i s r e s o l v e d ? By common agreement. 8. D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u g g e s t i n g o r p r e s e n t i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u -t i o n s to the problem? Y e s . 9. How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker asked q u e s t i o n s and c l a r i f i e d i s s u e s . 10. Why d i d you do t h i s ? Not a p p l i c a b l e . 11. Were you aware o f p o s s i b l e outcomes? Y e s . Worker knew t h a t a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a change i n r e n t s c a l e s e x i s t e d . A l s o , the - a c t i o n system had the s u p p o r t o f the l o c a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y management and B o a r d * How much time was s p e n t i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o s s i b l e . s o l u t i o n s to the problem? The time -spent, on p r o b l e m - f o r m u l a t i o n con-s i s t e d , o f two m e e t i n g s o f the S t e e r i n g Committee, the f i r s t o f w h i c h was a v e r y l o n g one, w i t h r e s e a r c h i n - b e t w e e n m e e t i n g s . D e c i s i o n - Making What c o u r s e o f a c t i o n was c h o s e n i n a t t e m p t i n g to s o l v e the problem? The - a c t i o n system d e c i d e d t o p r e s e n t a b r i e f to d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government, as w e l l as t o t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , a t . a l l l e v e l s . How was t h i s d e c i s i o n reached? A l r e a d y answered. .What was the e f f e c t o f t h i s d e c i s i o n on t h e a c t i o n system? I t gave the t e n a n t s something t a n g i b l e t o work on. I t a l s o gave them a f e e l i n g o f ac h i e v e m e n t , and t h e r e was a f a i r chance o f s u c c e s s . D i d the d e c i s i o n made c o r r e s p o n d to the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f : a) the a c t i o n system? b) y o u r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ? c) an o u t s i d e system? d) none o f these? I t c o r r e s p o n d e d to a l l o f t h e s e ( a - c ) . How were you i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ? A l r e a d y answered. D i d y o u i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n system i n any way i n r e a c h i n g ••{i'its d e c i s i o n ? Y e s , worker d i d so t o some d e g r e e ; the s i t u a t i o n a l r e a d y e x i s t e d - worker j u s t reminded t e n a n t s o f . i t . How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker g o t f i r s t h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t .and the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y about the t i m i n g o f the b r i e f ; she was i n f l u e n t i a l i n s p e e d i n g up the p r o c e s s and s e t t i n g l i m i t s . She als'W p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the g e n e r a l d i s c u s -s i o n s , .and o f f e r e d to h e l p i n a p p r o p r i a t e ways such as by p e r f o r m i n g s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s . What was y o u r purpose i n d o i n g t h i s ? The p u r p o s e was t o h e l p t e n a n t s do something about r e n t s , and from the w o r k e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , t o s t a r t c o n s t r u c t i v e , c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n w h i c h m i g h t l e a d t o o t h e r t h i n g s . (See a l s o o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t o f g o a l s - I , C ) . 86. 9. D i d you do a n y t h i n g to f a c i l i t a t e t he d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? Ye s . " I was a v e r y v i t a l p a r t o f the whole p r o c e s s . I do not t h i n k t h a t i t would e v e r have s t a r t e d i f I had n o t been t h e r e " . 10. I f y e s , what d i d y o u do? How d i d you do i t ? Why? Worker p l a y e d a p a r t i c i p a t i n g r o l e as w e l l as a s t a f f a d v i -s o r y one. She a c t e d as a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n , and t h r o u g h h e r , c o n t a c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h o t h e r r e s o u r c e s w h i c h the a c t i o n system p r o b a b l y would n o t have been a b l e to g e t i n to u c h w i t h i f she had n o t been t h e r e . 11. Were you i n agreement w i t h t h e . a c t i o n system's f i n a l d e c i s i o n on•the c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o be taken? Ye s , however, worker was d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t the b r i e f was s l a n t e d o n l y towards w o r k i n g t e n a n t s , and n o t o t h e r s . She was a l s o d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t the mothers who had been w o r k i n g f o r a number o f months on the d a y - c a r e i s s u e were n o t i n c l u -ded. 12. D i d you show a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l f o r t h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n ? Worker showed s t r o n g a p p r o v a l and s t r o n g s u p p o r t . 13. How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker d i d t h i s t h r o u g h p o s i t i v e h e l p i n a v a r i e t y o f ways such as g i v i n g encouragement and s u p p o r t . 14. Why? Not a p p l i c a b l e . .15. Was i t n e c e s s a r y f o r the a c t i o n system t o d e c i d e upon an a l -t e r n a t e c o u r s e o f . a c t i o n to be taken? No., n o t a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . However, they had a few it e m s on the agenda f o r f u t u r e m e e t i n g s and f u t u r e c o n c e r n s . The c o u r s e o f a c t i o n d e c i d e d upon i . e . the b r i e f , was so ob-v i o u s and so timely., ,and the a c t i o n system was g i v e n so much encouragement to go ahead with- i t , t h a t t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n o f a l t e r n a t e c o u r s e s o f . a c t i o n . I t was the o b v i o u s d i r e c t i o n f o r a c t i o n . ( Q u e s t i o n s #16 - 21 n o t a p p l i c a b l e ) C o n f l i c t •1. Was t h e r e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the a c t i o n system a t any time? a) how and why d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? b) between whom d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? There was n o t so much c o n f l i c t as d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n as to what the b r i e f s h o u l d c o n t a i n . There were two o t h e r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i . e . the problems o f t e n a n t s on s o c i a l a s s i s -t a n c e and thos e o f w o r k i n g mothers, and a f a i r degree o f con-c e r n e x i s t e d about t h e s e . 87. Was t h e r e c o n f l i c t between the a c t i o n system and any o u t -s i d e groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s ? a) how and why d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? b) between whom d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? There was no c o n f l i c t . The a c t i o n system t r i e d to form con-s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and g e t i n v o l v e m e n t o f the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y r i g h t from the e a r l y s t a g e s o f p l a n n i n g . The w o r k e r d i d t h i s c o n s c i o u s l y and so d i d the t e n a n t s ; i t was the -tenants d e c i s i o n to i n v i t e the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y Manager to t h e i r f i r s t g e n e r a l m e e t i n g , f o r example, a l t h o u g h worker was wary o f t h i s i d e a . Tenants i n v o l v e d the H o u s i n g Autho-r i t y i n the r o l e o f c o n s u l t a n t . "We a v o i d e d c o n f l i c t be-cause we a n t i c i p a t e d i t and we t r i e d to g e t good communica-t i o n " . * s e e f o o t n o t e -at end o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e : a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n w h i c h d i d a r i s e . .What were the e f f e c t s o f t h i s c o n f l i c t on: .a) p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ? b) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ? c) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n s ? d) achievement o f d e s i r e d g o a l s ? * s e e f o o t n o t e a t end o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e . What, , i f any, use d i d you make o f t h i s c o n f l i c t ? * s e e f o o t n o t e a t end o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n f o r m a l C o n t a c t s W i t h i n the A c t i o n System D i d you have any i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s w i t h membeifs o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m t h r o u g h p u t the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ? Very much so. Worker made such c o n t a c t s a l l the t i m e ; t h i s i s the way she worked - b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r a c t i o n was t a k e n . Whom d i d you c o n t a c t ? A number o f pe'Bple phoned, o r dropped i n t o the l o c a l n e i g h -bourhood o f f i c e ; w o r k e r a l s o t a l k e d t o p e o p l e a f t e r the m e e t i n g s , b o t h those t h a t had a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s and t h o s e who had n o t , t o t e l l them about what went on, to g e t t h e i r i d e a s , .and i f p o s s i b l e , t o i n v o l v e them as w e l l . How o f t e n were t h e s e c o n t a c t s made? Worker d i d n o t remember. Were t h e s e c o n t a c t s d e l i b e r a t e l y a r r a n g e d , o r a c c i d e n t a l ? B o t h . What was the r e a s o n f o r t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? The purpose was t o b r o a d e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t o g e t more p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n a c t i o n and to g e t more f a c t s . •88. D i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s r e l a t e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to the g o a l s o f : a) the a c t i o n system? b) y o u r g o a l s ? c) groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e t h e a c t i o n system? T h i s i s d i f f i c u l t to•answer because most o f . t h e s e c o n t a c t s were a l s o made i n r e l a t i o n t o a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s g o i n g on i n the community. However, worke r s t a t e d t h a t they were r e l a t e d t o a l l o f the above p o i n t s as w e l l as t o a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r s . What, i f any, . e f f e c t d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s have on the a c t i o n system? They s u p p o r t e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d . i t , e n l a r g e d p a r t i -c i p a t i o n , ,and.allowed the a c t i o n system to g e t a b r o a d e r p o i n t o f v i e w . What p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r t o t a l time w o r k i n g w i t h the a c t i o n •system was s p e n t on i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s ? Worker d i d n o t remember. C o n t a c t s w i t h E x t e r n a l Systems D i d the a c t i o n system, o r any o f i t s members, have any con-t a c t s w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , groups or o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a t any time d u r i n g the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ? a) between whom d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s e x i s t ? b) what was the purpose o f t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? c) what e f f e c t d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s have on the a c t i o n system? Y e s , a g r e a t many c o n t a c t s were made, most o f w h i c h were s t i m u l a t e d by the w o r k e r ; t h i s was an i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f the community development w o r k e r . a) C o n t a c t s e x i s t e d between: - w o r k e r and the H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n ; she c o n t a c t e d them to f i n d out i f i t was t i m e l y to p r e s e n t a b r i e f or do something about r e n t s . - w o r k e r and the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y Manager; a t the sugges-t i o n o f the t e n a n t s a n d . i n v i t a t i o n o f . the w o r k e r , he a t t e n d e d the f i r s t m e e t i n g . - w o r k e r and a H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y B oard member, who was a l s o on • the Board o f G o v e r n o r s o f w o r k e r ' s agency: he was w e l l - i n f o r m e d , and s u p p o r t e d the a c t i o n a t the • • " B o a r d l e v e l . - worker and managers o f the d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , most o f whom.proved q u i t e s y m p a t h e t i c t o the a c t i o n system: so t h a t they would know what was g o i n g on. - w o r k e r and the C i t y C l e r k : t o g e t -advice on c i r c u l a t i n g the b r i e f . - worker and a l a w y e r ; he was b r o u g h t i n t o h e l p w i t h the v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e o f the b r i e f . b) The purpose was t o g e t w e l l - i n f o r m e d i n f o r m a t i o n , to t r y and g e t the f a c t s , i n the e a r l i e r s t a g e s (worker wanted to be s u r e t h a t t e n a n t s u n d e r s t o o d the b r o a d p o l i c i e s and the v a r i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f government), to g e t c o r r e c t c h a n n e l s f o r c i r c u l a t i n g the b r i e f , to promote c o m m u n i c a t i o n so as t o g e t s u p p o r t from i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n s . A t the same t i m e , a g r e a t 89. d e a l o f o t h e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y was g o i n g on i n the g r e a t e r community i n wh i c h the worke r was o f t e n i n v o l v e d . c) These c o n t a c t s had the e f f e c t o f g e t t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the b r i e f , r e s u l t e d i n a good p i e c e o f a c t i o n , g o t r e s u l t s on the recommendations i n the b r i e f , and g o t good p r e s s c o v e r a g e . Were you d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n making thes e c o n t a c t s ? D i d you make t h e s e c o n t a c t s on y o u r own i n i t i a t i v e , o r w i t h the s a n c t i o n o f the a c t i o n system t o a c t on i t s b e h a l f ? Y e s , worker was d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n making t h e s e c o n t a c t s . She d i d so u s u a l l y w i t h the s a n c t i o n o f the t e n a n t group, u n l e s s i t was j u s t a c o n t a c t t o g e t f a c t s . However, a l l de-c i s i o n s were l e f t to the t e n a n t s to make. What was y o u r purpose i n making t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? I t was to g e t an e f f e c t i v e b r i e f . Whondid you c o n t a c t ? see #1 a) above. What was the outcome o f t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? A l r e a d y answered. What p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r t o t a l time i n t h i s a c t i o n e p i s o d e was s p e n t on w o r k i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , groups o r a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e the a c t i o n system? Worker d i d n o t remember. A c t i o n What a c t i o n was t a k e n by the a c t i o n system i n i t s e f f o r t s to s o l v e the problem? A b r i e f was p r e p a r e d , c i r c u l a t e d and c o n t a c t s w i t h v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s , o f f i c i a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l systems were made. Once the b r i e f was p r e s e n t e d , i t was f o l l o w e d up by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o a l l l e v e l s o f government t o f i n d o u t what had happened to the b r i e f . M e e t i n g was a l s o h e l d i n the F a l l t o f i n d o u t what had happened to the b r i e f . What was the outcome o f t h i s a c t i o n ? a) w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? b) on i n d i v i d u a l s , groups o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s o u t s i d e the a c t i o n sy s tem? c) i n terms o f the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f the a c t i o n system and the worker? a) The a c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n p o s i t i v e changes i n two p o l i c i e s : C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n changed p o l i c i e s i n r e g a r d s to the f i r s t recommendation o f the b r i e f , and a r e n t d e c r e a s e was f o r t h c o m i n g . A l s o , t e n a n t s from d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s had communicated and found t h a t they had m u t u a l c o n c e r n s . They had, t h e r e f o r e , p r o p o s e d the f o r m a t i o n o f an o n g o i n g s t e e r i n g committee t h a t would be-90. come an i n t e r - p r o j e c t Tenants C o u n c i l . b) The Board o f the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y had been unaware o f the problems o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t t e n a n t s u n t i l the b r i e f was p r e s e n t e d . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , a r e a l eye-opener f o r t h i s B oard. The b r i e f a l s o had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e a t a l l l e v e l s o f government; f o r example, an MLA ( o r MP?) made r e f e r e n c e t o the b r i e f i n a speech i n the House o f Commons i n Ottawa. The a c t i o n t a k e n a l s o h e l p e d to s t i m u l a t e and s t r e n g t h e n Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n s i n o t h e r p r o j e c t s , and was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the new i n t e r - p r o j e c t Tenants C o u n c i l . c) The outcome a c h i e v e d , and even more t h a n . a c h i e v e d , the g o a l s o f b o t h w o r k e r and t e n a n t s . Tenants had been r e a l i s t i c i n h o p i n g t h a t one recommendation be a c c e p t e d , b u t had n o t e x p e c t e d t h i s much s u c c e s s . 3. How were you i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g the a c t i o n system to c a r r y o u t t h i s a c t i o n ? A l r e a d y answered. 4. Were any s p e c i f i c t a s k s s u g g e s t e d f o r o r a s s i g n e d t o you? Y e s , q u i t e a few. Q u e s t i o n s #5 - 7 a l r e a d y answered. 8. D i d y o u s e t any t a s k s f o r y o u r s e l f ? Worker assumed one t a s k : t h i s was the s t a f f i n g o f the i n t e r -p r o j e c t Tenants C o u n c i l , u n t i l such time as t h e r e c o u l d be on-g o i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f r e l a t e d t o i t . 9. What was y o u r purpose f o r d o i n g so? The t e n a n t s had s t a r t e d something t h a t worker thought was im-p o r t a n t . They were a s k i n g f o r h e l p , they needed h e l p , so she h e l p e d them. 10. What were the t a s k s ? See #8 above. 11. What was the outcome? The outcome i s n o t a p p a r e n t as y e t . 12. What d i d you p e r c e i v e as the outcome o f the a c t i o n ? a) Were the r e s u l t s what you had hoped for.? • b) I f n o t , why not? The r e s u l t s were g r e a t e r t h a n had been a n t i c i p a t e d ; f o r example, the worker had n o t a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e would be an.ongoing p r o c e s s i . e . the Tenants C o u n c i l , a r i s i n g o u t o f the a c t i o n . 13. What was^the outcome o f the a c t i o n as seen by o t h e r members o f the a c t i o n system? a) Were the r e s u l t s what they had hoped f o r o r expected? b) I f n o t , why not? The r e s u l t s were f a r above what the t e n a n t s had hoped f o r . F o r example, one man had been v e r y c y n i c a l about the i n -f l u e n c e o f the ' l i t t l e man'; he had n o t e x p e c t e d a n y t h i n g t o happen a t a l l . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a c t i o n n e a r l y r e s t o -r e d h i s f a i t h i n human n a t u r e ! 14. Were any of the r e s u l t s o f the a c t i o n unexpected? See #12 & 13 above. TRANSFORMATION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. A t what p o i n t d i d you w i t h d r a w from the a c t i o n system? Worker had not as y e t c o m p l e t e l y w i t h d r a w n from the a c t i o n system. She has assumed l e s s o f a s t i m u l a t i n g , and more o f an e n a b l i n g , s u p p o r t i n g background r o l e . She i s a l s o a c t i n g as a s t a f f con-s u l t a n t t o the i n t e r - p r o j e c t Tenants C o u n c i l . B. What was l e f t o f the a c t i o n system a f t e r the a c t i o n had been c a r -r i e d out? F o r a l i t t l e w h i l e , n o t v e r y much was l e f t o f the a c t i o n system. I f t he worke r had n o t been t h e r e to check w i t h the summer ch a i r m a n and t h r o u g h the c h a i r m a n , to c a l l t o g e t h e r the S t e e r i n g Committee once o r t w i c e d u r i n g the F a l l , the a c t i o n system c o u l d have d i s -s i p a t e d . I t a l m o s t d i d d i s a p p e a r , because the c h a i r m a n was f o r c e d t o move o u t o f the p r o j e c t . There was, t h e r e f o r e , no o f f i c i a l l e a d e r , so worker h e l d t h i n g s t o g e t h e r u n t i l r e c e n t l y when t e n a n t s g o t to the p o i n t o f h a v i n g mass m e e t i n g s and o f f i c i a l l y e n d o r s i n g d e l e g a t e s , by e l e c t i o n . 1. D i d the a c t i o n , s y s t e m d i s b a n d ? See # B. above, 2. I f i t d i d n o t , would you say t h a t i t m i g h t need f u t u r e h e l p ? Worker f e e l s t h a t i t w i l l need f u t u r e h e l p . The t e n a n t s t h i n k so t o o , and have a l r e a d y asked f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p w i t h the Tenants C o u n c i l . A l e a d e r has gone f o r w a r d t o the p r o p e r agency r e q u e s t i n g s u c h . a s s i s t a n c e . 3. D i d you see the a c t i o n system as b e i n g a b l e t o h a n d l e i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? Y e s , i t has a l r e a d y done so. I t has begun to d e a l w i t h new . i s s u e s , such as c o n s i d e r i n g the problems o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n p r o j e c t s . I t has a l s o become i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c r e -l a t i o n s v e n t u r e s , and sees i t s e l f as a n e g o t i a t i n g group be-tween t e n a n t s and the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . 4. What, i f any, s t r e n g t h s e x i s t e d i n the group? The group i s g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h . I t has d e c i d e d to e l e c t o f f i c i a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s , and n o t j u s t use s e v e r a l i n -d i v i d u a l s i n each p r o j e c t who have been c o o p t e d . F o o t n o t e to p.10, q u e s t i o n s #2, 3 and 4. C o n f l i c t W i t h an E x t e r n a l System Worker d e s c r i b e d one c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n , , w h i c h a l m o s t d e s t r o -y e d t h e b r i e f . T h i s o c c u r r e d a f t e r t h e b r i e f had been d r a f t e d and t h e r e had been c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y Manager as to the t i m i n g o f the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the b r i e f to the Board o f the l o c a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . the o r i g i n a l copy o f the b r i e f w i t h the o r i g i n a l s i g n a t u r e s on i t was s e n t to the l o c a l A u t h o r i t y ; w o r k e r s t i l l does n o t know how t h i s happened but somehow someone r e p o r t e d t h i s whole p r o c e s s to the P r e s s b e f o r e the b r i e f o f f i c i a l l y g o t t o the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and b e f o r e i t went to the B o a r d ; i n the P r e s s , the s t o r y came o u t i n a v e r y a g g r e s s i v e way, s t a t i n g t h a t the t e n a n t s were m a r c h i n g on the A u t h o r i t y , and making them sound l i k e a v e r y m i l i t a n t group and a n t i -H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y ; a r e p o r t e r c a l l e d the Manager o f the A u t h o r i t y b e f o r e w o r k e r was aware o f the s t o r y ; the Manager became v e r y f ^ hggy; he c a l l e d the w o r k e r , s a y i n g t h a t the s t o r y , had been a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t to b r i n g p o l i -t i c s i n t o the s i t u a t i o n ( t h e r e was a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n j u s t s t a r t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t ) . He f e l t someone took the s t o r y t o the newspapers b e f o r e i t went to the H o u s i n g A u t -h o r i t y Board as a p r e s s u r e t a c t i c . - w o r k e r a s s u r e d him t h a t t h i s was n o t t r u e , and asked him t o phone a t e n a n t a t one o f the p r o j e c t s who had been i n t e r -v i e w e d by r e p o r t e r s , and had done so q u i t e i n n o c e n t l y ; w o r k e r phoned the man i n q u e s t i o n , who i n t u r n g o t i n t o u c h w i t h the Manager, and e x p l a i n e d t h a t the r e p o r t e r s had g o t t o him i n the same way as they g o t to the Manager. He d i d n o t know how the P r e s s s t o r y had o r i g i n a t e d - he had n o t s t i m u l a t e d i t . I t must have been r e l e a s e d by someone who d i s c l o s e d c o n t e n t s o f the b r i e f w h i l e i t was s t i l l i n d r a f t f o rm w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n from the g e n e r a l m e e t i n g , the Manager was so angry, t h a t he s t a t e d he would n o t sup-p o r t the b r i e f ; he r e c o n s i d e r e d , however, a f t e r he found o u t t h a t the committee was n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s t o r y . 9 3 . APPENDIX C INTERVIEW NO. I I I N I T I A L SYSTEMIC ENVIRONMENT A. What was the s t a t e o f the c l i e n t s ystem p r i o r to y o u r i n t e r v e n -t i o n ? The community was accustomed to h a v i n g a g e n c i e s impose programmes. There was v e r y l i t t l e p l a n n i n g by o r i n v o l v e m e n t o f c i t i z e n s l i v i n g i n the a r e a . 1. Had the c l i e n t s ystem i d e n t i f i e d any o f i t s f e l t needs . ^ w i t h i n i t s immediate environment? Y e s . 2. What were t h e s e needs? There was a need f o r a l i b r a r y , f o r p a r k f a c i l i t i e s and e q u i p -ment, f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes, and f o r a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l programmes a t the s c h o o l s . 3 . Can you d e s c r i b e the h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n s f o r a c t i o n t h a t e x i s -t e d a t t h i s time w i t h i n the c l i e n t system? Worker was n o t aware o f a l l the groups e x i s t i n g i n the c l i e n t s y s t e m. However, s e v e r a l l o c a l g roups d i d e x i s t i n the commu-n i t y . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e groups were n o t v e r y ' v i a b l e 1 , t h a t i s , p l a n n i n g was done o n l y w i t h i n the g r o u p s ' own b o u n d a r i e s , w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n o r r e f e r e n c e to o t h e r g r o u p s , a g e n c i e s o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n the community. 4. Can y o u d e s c r i b e the v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s f o r a c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d a t t h i s time w i t h i n the c l i e n t system? There was a R a t e - p a y e r s A s s o c i a t i o n and a Chamber o f Commerce i n the community. 5. Were t h e r e any e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the c l i e n t s ystem t h a t were a t t e m p t i n g to d e a l w i t h t h e s e problems? No, n o t r e a l l y . The Chamber o f Commerce, i n . a v e r y h aphazard manner, was i n t e r e s t e d i n the l i b r a r y i s s u e b u t d i d n o t do as much as i t c o u l d have, the r e a s o n p r o b a b l y b e i n g that- i t had no r e a l commitment to see the a c t i o n t h r o u g h to the end. 6. Were t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o f e s s i o n a l , v o l u n t e e r , o r c i t i z e n s ' groups? Worker s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was h a r d to d e t e r m i n e . 7. How o f t e n d i d they meet? . Worker does n o t know how o f t e n they met. 8. How r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were they o f the c l i e n t system? They were n o t v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the c l i e n t s y s t em. 94. 9. What had t h e y ; a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e to the problem? N o t h i n g . B. What was y o u r assessment o f the c l i e n t s y s t e m . a t t h i s t ime -i n c l u d i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , degree o f m u t u a l s u p p o r t , n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s , e t c . ? The community was a v e r y h e t e r o g e n e o u s one i n terms o f e t h n i c groups and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s . The knowledge and use o f r e s o u r c e s was a t a minimum. There was a h i g h d e g r e e o f a p a t h y , o f f e e l i n g s o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s , and o f b e i n g s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s as a r e s u l t o f l i v i n g i n a d e p r e s s e d a r e a . 1. D i d you i d e n t i f y , any i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups who were a c t i v e i n the c l i e n t system? Y e s . 2. Who were they? One woman was i d e n t i f i e d who was p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i s c u s s i o n g roups a t the YMCA. 3. What were they d o i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the c l i e n t system's needs? The women's d i s c u s s i o n group a t the YMCA mentioned above, b e s i d e s t r y i n g to s o l v e t h e i r own p e r s o n a l needs were c o n c e r -ned about l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s i n the p a r k . 4. W i t h what r e s u l t s ? B e f o r e the worke r was i n t r o d u c e d to t h i s group no a t t e m p t s had been made t o do a n y t h i n g about t h i s p r o b l e m . I t e x i s t e d as a p r o b l e m i n the minds o f the group members however. C. What were a) y o u r g e n e r a l g o a l s upon g o i n g i n t o the c l i e n t system? b) y o u r s p e c i f i c g o a l s upon g o i n g i n t o the c l i e n t system? a) The g e n e r a l g o a l s o f worke r were to d e v e l o p a sense o f com-mu n i t y i d e n t i t y , commitment to and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a r e a . b) S p e c i f i c g o a l s o f worker, were to e n a b l e the c i t i z e n s to v o i c e what the problems o f the community were as they saw them, and to b e g i n to t a k e some a c t i o n t h e m s e l v e s to do some-t h i n g a b out t h e s e p r o b l e m s . 1. Were t h e s e g o a l s r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o s t r e n g t h e n i n g h o r i z o n -t a l p a t t e r n s i n the c l i e n t system? No, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y . 2. I f y e s , how were they r e l a t e d ? N/A. 3. I f no, were they r e l a t e d to v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s ? How? These g o a l s were r e l a t e d to v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s o n l y i n the sense t h a t i t was hoped t h a t the c i t i z e n s c o u l d b e g i n t o see t h a t they c o u l d a f f e c t the power s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e i r community. 95. INCEPTION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. What b r o u g h t the members o f the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n system t o -g e t h e r ? Members were b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r b y , p e r s o n a l needs but. a bus t r i p w i t h the p u r p o s e o f u s i n g f r e e time i n , a c o n s t r u c t i v e way, which, was seen.as h a v i n g some v a l u e to them, s t a r t e d thMs e p i -sode. B. Was any o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m i n o p e r a t i o n b e f o r e y o u r i n t e r -v e n t i o n ? Y e s , the group was.already, formed and m e e t i n g around f a m i l y c o n c e r n s . C. What, o r who, k e p t the a c t i o n system t o g e t h e r b e f o r e y o u r i n -volvement? A s o c i a l w o r k e r from.a f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency who was m e e t i n g w i t h the group. D. How d i d you become i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n system? The w o r k e r i n i t i a l l y c o n t a c t e d one member o f .the group w h i l e k n o c k i n g on d o o r s to f i n d o u t what needs o f the a r e a were. T h i s member r e p o r t e d back t o the group who t h e n d e c i d e d t o i n v i t e the w o r k e r . The s o c i a l w o r k e r from the f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency a l s o h e l p e d to p r e p a r e the group f o r t h i s w o r k e r ' s coming. E. Was t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t e n t i o n a l ? I t was i n t e n t i o n a l on the w o r k e r ' s p a r t . 1. I f y e s , , what was the i n t e n t i o n ? The-worker d i d n o t want t o g e t too i n v o l v e d i n a p l a n n i n g programme as j u s t a n o t h e r s t a f f p e r s o n . He saw t h i s as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h the group on o t h e r con-c e r n s as w e l l . 2 . What was the a c t i o n system's r e a c t i o n to t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t ? The r e a c t i o n . w a s a v e r y n e u t r a l one - i n i t i a l l y , they were j u s t t e s t i n g him. However, they u n d e r s t o o d h i s r o l e as they . had been p r e p a r e d by the s o c i a l w o r k e r from the f a m i l y s e r -v i c e agency. 3. Was i t . w h a t y ou had hoped f o r ? Y e s , i t was. F. I f a c t i o n system formed i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f y o u , , a t what s t a g e d i d you become i n v o l v e d ? Under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d t h i s o c c u r ? Worker became i n v o l v e d a t the p o i n t i n group's development where i t wanted t o p l a n something beyond w h i c h the f a m i l y s e r v i c e w o r k e r ' s r o l e d i d n o t e x t e n d . There was a sense o f g i v e and t a k e , 96. and s o l i d a r i t y , w i t h i n the group a t t h i s p o i n t . T h i s w o r k e r had l i t t l e to do w i t h group b u i l d i n g and group c o h e s i o n . B e f o r e i n t r o d u c t i o n to the a c t i o n system, were you i n . c o n t a c t w i t h any o f i t s members? Ye s . 1. Who was c o n t a c t e d and how? M r s . A. was c o n t a c t e d . . She had p r e v i o u s l y been c o n t a c t e d by wo r k e r when he was k n o c k i n g on d o o r s . The second c o n t a c t p e r t a i n e d to the group/s m e e t i n g around s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m ( t h e p a r k ) . 2. What was the p u r p o s e o f the c o n t a c t ? Worker's purpose was to i n t r o d u c e h i m s e l f , f i r s t to members o f the community a t l a r g e , , and s e c o n d l y to make h i m s e l f a c c e s s i b l e i n the community. A t h i s f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h the a c t i o n system, h i s purpose was to a g a i n i n t e r p r e t h i s r o l e . 3. What was d i s c u s s e d ? P l a n s f o r the s c h e d u l e d bus t r i p were d i s c u s s e d , and a t the end o f the m e e t i n g , group members v o i c e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s about the p a r k , the p l a y g r o u n d , r e c r e a t i o n programmes and h o u s i n g . 4. D i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s r e l a t e i n any way to -a) g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f a c t i o n system? b) y o u r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ? Y e s , worker saw t h i s as a way to b u i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the community. 5. Were any i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s made d u r i n g t h e s e i n f o r m a l c o n -t a c t s ? • Y e s . A f t e r s p e a k i n g w i t h worker,. M r s . A. went back t o the group who d e c i d e d to meet w i t h the w o r k e r . 6. Were t h e s e c o n t a c t s made on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s ? No. Worker had o n l y one c o n t a c t w i t h M r s . A b e f o r e f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h the group. 7. What e f f e c t d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s have on the group? Worker does n o t know. However, a f t e r M r s . A spoke t o them the group d e c i d e d to meet w i t h the w o r k e r . 8. D i d you g i v e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p to the a c t i o n system t h r o u g h t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? E x p l a i n ? Worker gave i n d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p i n t h a t group c o u l d r e l a t e to him. 9. D i d you spend a l o t o f time c o n t a c t i n g any p a r t i c u l a r member o f the a c t i o n system? I f y e s , who was i t ? Why was i t n e c e s -s a r y t o c o n t a c t t h i s p e rson? No. 10. What were the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s ? : Were they what you had hoped f o r ? 97. Y e s , c o n t a c t was what worker had hoped f o r i n t h a t M r s . A l i s t e n e d t o him r a t h e r t h a n slamming the door i n h i s f a c e . 11. What p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r time was t a k e n up w i t h t h e s e i n -f o r m a l c o n t a c t s , as opposed to time t a k e n up w i t h f o r m a l c o n t -a c t s - such as me e t i n g s ? T h i s c o n t a c t o n l y took 15 m i n u t e s . H. What was the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the members o f the a c t i o n system t o each o t h e r ? Worker does n o t know t h i s . I I I . EXPANSION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. D i d the a c t i o n system t r y to broa d e n i t s membership? Y e s . 1. How was t h i s done? The group a t t e m p t e d to b r o a d e n membership by a d v e r t i s i n g the bus t r i p i . e . by f l y e r s , and t h r o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o r k i n g i n the a r e a . 2. F o r what p u r p o s e were a d d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups b r o u g h t i n t o the a c t i o n system? The p u r p o s e was a c t u a l l y to g e t g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e v e n t ( t h e bus t r i p ) n o t to broa d e n membership o f the group. Each member o f the group a t t e m p t e d to g e t as many mothers i n the d i s t r i c t as p o s s i b l e to go on the t r i p , b u t no one o t h e r t h a n the o r i g i n a l e i g h t women were i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g . 3. A t whose s u g g e s t i o n o r p r e s s u r i n g were they b r o u g h t i n t o the a c t i o n system? T h e i r own. 4. Were you i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d e c i s i o n ? How? No. B. What, i f a n y t h i n g , d i d you do t o b r o a d e n the membership base o f the a c t i o n system? Worker d i d n o t h i n g to broa d e n the membership base o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m . ( Q u e s t i o n s # 1 - 4 n o t a p p l i c a b l e ) C. D i d the a c t i o n s y s t e m form any c o a l i t i o n s w i t h o t h e r groups attemp-t i n g to r e a c h the same g o a l s ? No, i t d i d n o t . ( Q u e s t i o n s # 1 - 6 n o t a p p l i c a b l e ) 98. IV. OPERATION OF THE EXPANDED ACTION SYSTEM A. M e e t i n g s ? 1. How o f t e n d i d you meet w i t h the a c t i o n system? Worker met w i t h the a c t i o n s y s t e m once a week. 2. D i d you h e l p i n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f o r m a l meetings? No, the w o r k e r d i d n o t do t h i s . The group d'ecided when, how o f t e n t o meet, and e s t a b l i s h e d i t s own s t r u c t u r e . 3. How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker worked m a i n l y t h r o u g h the c h a i r m a n , ( s ee answer t o #2) 4. Were you i n v o l v e d i n i n s t i t u t i n g some type o f f o r m a l s t r u c -t u r e w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? No, the w o r k e r was n o t . 5. D i d you a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? I f y e s , a) how d i d y o u do t h i s ? b) what was y o u r r e a s o n f o r d o i n g so? Worker a t t e m p t e d to d e v e l o p l e a d e r s h i p i n d i r e c t l y -a) by c o n t r i b u t i n g to group d i s c u s s i o n s as to what r o l e s i n -d i v i d u a l s would have t o p l a y i n r e g a r d t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the programme b) m a i n l y to s u p p o r t what members were s u g g e s t i n g . B. P r o b l e m I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1. Who i d e n t i f i e d t he p r o b l e m ( s ) t h a t the a c t i o n system was con-c e r n e d w i t h ? The members o f the group d i d t h i s . 2. D i d you t a k e p a r t i n i d e n t i f y i n g o r f o r u m u l a t i n g the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? No, the worke r d i d n o t . 3. N/A 4. N/A 5. Was the p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d by an o u t s i d e system? No, i t was n o t . 6. N°t a p p l i c a b l e 7. Not a p p l i c a b l e 8. What was the p r o b l e m ( s ) i d e n t i f i e d ? The problems i d e n t i f i e d c o n c e r n e d p a r k s , and the need f o r more r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . 9. How l o n g d i d i t t a k e t o i d e n t i f y t he p r o b l e m ( s ) ? Why? I t took o n l y one m e e t i n g t o i d e n t i f y the p r o b l e m s . 99. C. G a t h e r i n g F a c t s 1. How d i d t h e a c t i o n system go about e x p l o r i n g t h e n a t u r e , . s c o p e , and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the p r o b l e m ( s ) ? P r e v i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e group p r o v i d e d most o f the f a c t s . The w o r k e r ' s r o l e i n the p l a y g r o u n d i s s u e a t t h i s s t a g e was t r y i n g t o v e r i f y t h e s e f a c t s . He d i d t h i s by t o u r i n g the n e i g h b o u r i n g p a r k and the a d j o i n i n g b l o c k . 2. Who was i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s ? The worker and members o f t h e group were i n v o l v e d . 3. What was the r e a s o n f o r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t ? They had a d e s i r e t o p r o v i d e some programmes i n t h i s p a r t i -c u l a r a r e a i n t h e summertime. 4. What p a r t d i d you p l a y ? D i d you h e l p t o c l a r i f y t h e a c t i o n system's p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r o b l e m , f o r example? Yes, worker d i d t h i s . 5. I f y e s , i n what way d i d you do t h i s ? D u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , w o r k e r h e l p e d t h e group f o c u s on such t h i n g s as: e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the p a r k , how many p e o p l e used the p a r k , what age groups used the p a r k , e x i s t i n g dan-g e r s , i f any, i . e . t r a f f i c , t h e amount o f s u p e r v i s i o n g i v e n i n t h e p a r k . The worker a l s o h e l p e d them f o c u s on what t h e y wanted i n the p a r k . D. P r o p o s e d S o l u t i o n s 1. Who s u g g e s t e d s o l u t i o n s t o the problem? Upon the w o r k e r ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i . e . s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e was not s u f f i c i e n t equipment i n the p a r k , t h e group members began t o f o c u s on t h e i r own i d e a s f o r improvement o f t h e p a r k . 2. How was t h i s done? When? T h i s was done b o t h d u r i n g f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g s . D u r i n g f o r m a l m e e t i n g s , t h e p r o b l e m was d e f i n e d and p r o p o s a l s f o r im-provements made. 3. What were the p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s ? The m a i n . p r o p o s a l s were f o r i n c r e a s e d s u p e r v i s i o n i n the p a r k from one day p e r week t o more, j and f o r a change i n t h e hours o f s u p e r v i s i o n w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d u n r e a l i s t i c . The group d e c i d e d t o phone the P a r k s Board t o t e l l them what t h e y had n o t i c e d and t o g i v e p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s . - 4. What impact d i d th e y have on the a c t i o n system? Worker f e l t t h a t by becoming i n v o l v e d , t h e group members f e l t more competent and th e y had moved beyond t h e s t a g e o f j u s t v e n t i l a t i n g c o n c e r n s . 5. Were th e y s u p p o r t e d o r opposed by any members o f the a c t i o n s y stem, i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f ? They were n o t opposed. 100 6. Was t e n s i o n o r c o n f l i c t c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s ? No t e n s i o n was c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p . 7. Not a p p l i c a b l e 8. D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u g g e s t i n g o r p r e s e n t i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the problem? Ye s , worker d i d t h i s . 9. How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker d i d t h i s by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a p e t i t i o n be s u b m i t t e d t o the P a r k s B o a r d . 10. Why d i d you do t h i s ? The group, a f t e r h a v i n g d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s , found t h e m s e l v e s a t the s t a g e o f n o t knowing what to do. The w o r k e r f e l t t h a t a p e t i t i o n would have the most i m p a c t , and s u g g e s t e d i t as a s o l u t i o n . 11. Were you aware o f p o s s i b l e outcome? Yes. The w o r k e r f e l t t h a t group m i g h t go a l o n g w i t h t h i s p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n . He was a l s o aware t h a t the group might no t r e c e i v e s u p p o r t o t h e r t h a n v e r b a l s u p p o r t from n e i g h b o u -•::: i r i n g b l o c k s . 12. How much time was s p e n t i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the problem? Q u i t e a b i t o f time was s p e n t i n d o i n g t h i s . I t took most o f the a c t i o n system's time o v e r a month and a h a l f . D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g 1. What c o u r s e o f a c t i o n was chosen i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e the problem? Two t h i n g s were a c t u a l l y d e c i d e d upon: i ) i t was d e c i d e d to phone the P a r k s Board to s u g g e s t t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n o f the p a r k be changed - t h a t i t s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d from one to f i v e days per week; i i ) i t was a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t a p e t i t i o n be c i r c u l a t e d t o g e t more f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p a r k e f f e c t i v e the n e x t summer. 2. How was t h i s d e c i s i o n reached? T h i s d e c i s i o n was r e a c h e d t h r o u g h group d i s c u s s i o n s and i n f o r m a l ' ' '- v o t i n g on p r o p o s a l s . 3. What was the e f f e c t o f t h i s d e c i s i o n ( s ) on the a c t i o n system? T h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l . The group was e n t h u s i a s t i c and e a g e r l y a w a i t i n g t o see what r e s u l t s t h e i r a c t i o n s would g e t and what k i n d o f s u p p o r t they would g e t from n e i g h b o u r s . 4. D i d the d e c i s i o n made c o r r e s p o n d t o the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s a) y o u r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ? b) the a c t i o n system? c) an o u t s i d e system? 101. d) none o f these? I t c e r t a i n l y c o r r e s p o n d e d to a) and b ) ; w o r k e r d i d n o t know about c ) . 5. How were you i n v o l v e d i n theppuocess o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ? Worker a c t e d as a c a t a l y s t ; f o r example, when the group g o t s t u c k he p r e s e n t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 6. D i d you i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n system i n anyway i n r e a c h i n g i t s d e c i s i o n ? Y e s . .7. How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker i n t e r p r e t e d t o the group t h a t they had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be c o n c e r n e d - t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n was a l e g i t i m a t e one. He a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h e group s t r o n g l y and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i t . 8. What was y o u r purpose i n d o i n g t h i s ? Worker was s i m p l y d o i n g h i s j o b - making the c i t i z e n s o f the a r e a f e e l t h a t they have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and c a n e f f e c t t h i n g s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s . 9. D i d you do a n y t h i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n the a c t i o n system? Y e s . 10. I f y e s , what d i d you do? How d i d you do i t ? Worker made h i m s e l f a v a i l a b l e t o the group any time i t wanted to meet, and d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to d i s c u s s i t s con-c e r n s n o t h i s . He h e l p e d the group r e a c h the d e c i s i o n s i t wanted to r e a c h . He d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s b e h a v i o u r , b o t h i n t h e group and o u t s i d e o f i t , t h a t h i s commitment was to the c i t i z e n s o f the community r a t h e r t h a n s t r u c t u r e o u t s i d e o f i t . 11. Were you i n agreement w i t h the a c t i o n system's f i n a l d e c i s i o n on the c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o be taken? Y e s . 12. D i d you show a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l f o r t h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n ? Worker showed a p p r o v a l n o t i n words b u t i n e x p r e s s i o n . 13. How d i d you do t h i s ? Worker d i d t h i s t h r o u g h h i s e x p r e s s i o n . £4. Why? No answer. 15. Was i t n e c e s s a r y f o r the a c t i o n system t o d e c i d e upon an a l -t e r n a t e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ? No. ( Q u e s t i o n s #16 - 21 n o t a p p l i c a b l e ) C o n f l i c t 102. 1. Was t h e r e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the a c t i o n system a t any time? a) how and why d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? b) between whom d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? Y e s . There was m i l d t e n s i o n and h o s t i l i t y between members i n t he group as to whether the C h i n e s e and I t a l i a n s i n the a r e a would s u p p o r t the p e t i t i o n . T h i s was n o t a r e a l p r o b -lem, i . e . the group had gone t h r o u g h c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s l i k e t h i s b e f o r e h a n d i t was r e s o l v e d because the group was d e v e l o p e d enough so t h a t i t c o u l d t a l k o u t i t s p r o b l e m s . 2. Was t h e r e c o n f l i c t between the a c t i o n system and any o u t -s i d e groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s ? a) how and why d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t a r i s e ? b) between whom d i d t h i s c o n f l i c t , a r i s e ? Y e s , t h e r e was some c o n f l i c t between the group and the P a r k s B o a r d . A l t h o u g h the P a r k s Board a g r e e d t o the p r o p o s a l s o f the group they d i d n o t . a p p e a r to s y m p a t h i z e w i t h a l l the p r o -p o s a l s , and p r o v i d e d what was r e q u e s t e d i n a h a l f - h e a r t e d way. 3. What were the e f f e c t s o f the c o n f l i c t on: a) p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ? b) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ? c) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? d) a c h i e v e m e n t o f d e s i r e d g o a l s ? The group g o t to t h e p o i n t where i n d i v i d u a l p r e j u d i c e s were submerged i n o r d e r to r e a l i z e g o a l s . Members r e a l i z e d t h a t p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e s had no p l a c e i n t h i s a c t i o n , and were a b l e t o r e s o l v e some o f t h e i r own i n t e r n a l f e e l i n g s . 4. What, i f any, use d i d y o u make o f t h i s c o n f l i c t ? Worker a t t e m p t e d n o t to i g n o r e the c o n f l i c t . He t r i e d t o a s s i s t members t o say what they wanted t o say, and defended t h e i r r i g h t to speak.and h o l d t h e i r o p i n i o n s . He d i d n o t i d e n -t i f y w i t h t h e s e f e e l i n g s ( o f p r e j u d i c e ) , b u t t r i e d to r e s o l v e them f o r the b e n e f i t o f the p r o j e c t . G. I n f o r m a l C o n t a c t s W i t h i n the A c t i o n System. 1. D i d you have any i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s w i t h members o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m t h r o u g h o u t the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ? Y e s . 2. Whom d i d you c o n t a c t ? Worker c o n t a c t e d most members o f the group a t one p o i n t o r a n o t h e r , e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r m e e t i n g s o r between mee-t i n g s , o r perhaps d u r i n g v i s i t s t o the p a r k . 3. How o f t e n were t h e s e c o n t a c t s made? They were made perhaps two o r t h r e e t i m e s b e f o r e a m e e t i n g . 4. Were t h e s e c o n t a c t s d e l i b e r a t e l y a r r a n g e d o r a c c i d e n t a l ? The m a j o r i t y o f them were a c c i d e n t a l . 5. What was the r e a s o n f o r these, c o n t a c t s ? The d e l i b e r a t e ones were f o r the purpose o f g e t t i n g o r 103. g i v i n g more s u p p o r t t o i n d i v i d u a l s who had a g i v e n t a s k a s s i g n e d t o them, t o h e l p work o u t s t e p s to a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e t a s k s o r perhaps r e f e r them t o o t h e r members o f the group. F o r example, many f e l t u n easy.about t a k i n g the p e t i t i o n a r o u n d , so w o r k e r h e l p e d them w i t h t e c h n i q u e s , and a l s o t o overcome t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e . 6. D i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s r e l a t e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e : a) g o a l s o f the a c t i o n system? b) y o u r g o a l s ? c) g o a l s o f groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e the a c t i o n system? Y e s , they were r e l a t e d to a l l o f t h e s e . P e o p l e had wanted to g e t i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . .7. What, i f any, e f f e c t d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s have on the a c t i o n system? They, had a tremendous e f f e c t on the a c t i o n system. Through i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s p e o p l e b e g i n t o see t h a t y ou a r e h o n e s t i n what you a r e d o i n g , o r t h a t you b e l i e v e i n what you a r e d o i n g . They a l s o g e t the i d e a t h a t y ou a r e a b l e t o meet w i t h them when they want you t o , n o t t h r o u g h a p p o i n t m e n t s . 8. What p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r t o t a l time w o r k i n g w i t h the a c t i o n system was s p e n t on i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s ? A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f ti m e was s p e n t on i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s . C o n t a c t s W i t h E x t e r n a l Systems 1. D i d the a c t i o n system o r any o f i t s members have any c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , groups o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t any time d u r i n g the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s ? a) between- whom d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s e x i s t ? b) , what-was the purpose o f these c o n t a c t s ? c) what e f f e c t d i d t h e s e c o n t a c t s have on the a c t i o n system? a) Y e s , members o f the a c t i o n system phoned the P a r k s Board, w r o t e t o the P a r k s B o a r d , and s e n t the p e t i t i o n t o the P a r k s B o a r d . b) The purpose i n so d o i n g was t o g e t s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e s changed,to g e t i n c r e a s e d s u p e r v i s i o n . a t the p a r k and to g e t improved f a c i l i t i e s . c ) The e f f e c t was t h a t p e o p l e began t o f e e l t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o g e t some change i n the community as the r e -a c t i o n from the P a r k s Board was n o t n e g a t i v e . They were a b l e t o speak to p e o p l e i n a u t h o r i t y w i t h o u t g e t t i n g a n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e . 2. Were y o u d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n making t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? a) d i d y o u make t h e s e c o n t a c t s on y o u r own i n i t i a t i v e ? b) o r w i t h the s a n c t i o n o f the a c t i o n s y s t e m t o a c t on i t s b e h a l f ? Y e s , w o r k e r was d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n making such c o n t a c t s . 3. What was y o u r p u r p o s e i n making t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? 104. A f t e r the group c o n t a c t e d the e x t e r n a l s y s t e m s , w o r k e r d i d so as w e l l . He e x p l a i n e d h i s r o l e , and asked about p o s s i b l e outcomes o f the a c t i o n system's r e q u e s t s . 4. Whom d i d you c o n t a c t ? The P a r k s Board was c o n t a c t e d . 5. What was the outcome of t h e s e c o n t a c t s ? A change i n s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e s was b r o u g h t about by t h e - P a r k s B o a r d . 6. What p r o p o r t i o n o f you r t o t a l t ime i n t h i s a c t i o n e p i s o d e was sp e n t on w o r k i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , groups or a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e t h e a c t i o n system? Ahout o n e - e i g h t h of t h e w o r k e r ' s t i m e was sp e n t on t h i s . A c t i o n 1. What a c t i o n was t a k e n by the a c t i o n system i n i t s e f f o r t s t o s o l v e the problem? The group i d e n t i f i e d the p r o b l e m , a s s e s s e d what t h e y f e l t were t h e i r needs, p u t t h e s e i n t h e form o f recommendations, went out and got the s i g n a t u r e s on t h e p e t i t i o n , and m a i l e d i t t o t h e P a r k s Board. The p e t i t i o n s were d r a f t e d by the wor-ker, a l t h o u g h the group s u g g e s t e d what form i t s h o u l d t a k e . The b u l k o f recommendations r e : improvements was t h e i r main c o n t r i b u t i o n . 2. What was the outcome of t h i s a c t i o n ? The outcome was g r a t i f y i n g f o r the group i n t h a t the hours and f r e q u e n c y o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n the p a r k were changed, and the y got a r e p l y t o t h e i r p e t i t i o n from t h e - P a r k s Board s t a t i n g t h a t t h e - P a r k s Board were s t u d y i n g t h e needs o f t h e p a r k , and would i n f o r m t h e group o f f i n d i n g s . The worker was g r a t i f i e d t o see t h a t the group c o u l d move on i t s own; even though t h e i s s u e i n v o l v e d was a s m a l l one, i t was v e r y time consuming. A g e n c i e s i n t h e community were a b l e t o a s s i g n some k i n d o f i n t e g r i t y t o t h i s group, and f e l t t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e t h e y would be a b l e t o s u p p o r t more c i t i z e n v e n t u r e s . 3. How were you i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g t h e a c t i o n system t o c a r r y out t h i s a c t i o n ? The w o r k e r was v e r y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d r a f t i n g t he p e t i t i o n once the f a c t s were p r e s e n t e d a t m e e t i n g s . He p l a y e d the r o l e o f e n c o u r a g e r a l l a l o n g so t h a t t h e group would n o t g i v e up b u t c a r r y t h e a c t i o n t h r o u g h t o c o m p l e t i o n . 4. Were any s p e c i f i c t a s k s s u g g e s t e d f o r or a s s i g n e d t o you? Not r e a l l y , o t h e r t h a n d r a f t i n g t he p e t i t i o n . ( Q u e s t i o n #5 - 7 n o t a p p l i c a b l e ) 8. D id you s e t any t a s k s f o r y o u r s e l f ? . Yes. 105. 9. What was y o u r purpose f o r d o i n g so? See q u e s t i o n #10. 10. What were the t a s k s ? Worker made h i m s e l f a v a i l a b l e to the group any time they wanted t o see him. He a l s o s e t h i m s e l f the g o a l o f n o t l e t t i n g t h i s p r o j e c t be the end o f c i t i z e n a c t i o n i n the a r e a . F o r example, the c i t i z e n s had o t h e r c o n c e r n s i n r e l a t i o n t o h o u s i n g , and one g o a l i n the w o r k e r * s mind was how they c o u l d b e g i n to a t t a c k t h e s e . 11. What was the outcome? Not a p p l i c a b l e . 12. What d i d you p e r c e i v e as the outcome o f the a c t i o n ? a) were the r e s u l t s what you had hoped o r p l a n n e d f o r ? b) i f n o t , why not? The r e s u l t s were what the worke r had hoped and p l a n n e d f o r . 13. What was the outcome o f t h e a c t i o n as seen by o t h e r members o f the a c t i o n system? a) were the r e s u l t s what they had hoped o r p l a n n e d f o r ? \ b) i f n o t , why n o t : The r e s u l t s were g r a t i f y i n g and r e w a r d i n g t o the group (see #2, S e c t i o n I ) . 14. Were any o f t h e r e s u l t s o f the a c t i o n unexpected? E x p l a i n . Y e s . The group was s u r p r i s e d by. the speed o f the r e s u l t s r a t h e r t h a n the a c t u a l outcome. The r e p l y came w i t h i n a week. TRANSFORMATION OF THE ACTION SYSTEM A. A t what p o i n t d i d you w i t h d r a w from the a c t i o n system? Worker s t i l l h a s n ' t w i t h d r a w n a l t h o u g h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n e p i s o d e ended when the P a r k s Board s e n t a r e p l y to the group. ( I n i t s r e p l y , the P a r k s Board s t a t e d t h a t i t was i n agreement w i t h the recommendations, and t h a t i t was i n c l u d i n g i n the budget an a p p l i c a t i o n to C i t y H a l l f o r c o v e r a g e o f the recommendations c o n t a i n e d i n the p e t i t i o n ) . A t t h i s p o i n t , however, worker w i t h -drew from a c t i v e m e e t i n g w i t h the group b u t o t h e r members began to c a l l him on o t h e r c o n c e r n s . B. What was l e f t o f the a c t i o n system a f t e r the a c t i o n had been c a r r i e d out? S e v e r a l members o f the group w i t h d r e w because they were n o t i n i n t e r e s t e d i n some c o n c e r n s now b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . However, they were s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d i n the p a r k i s s u e s h o u l d i t be r e a c t i v a t e d i . e . they were w a i t i n g f o r the r e s u l t s o f the budget p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C i t y H a l l . 1. D i d the a c t i o n s y s t e m d i s b a n d ? See above. 106. 2. Would you say t h a t i t m i g h t need f u r t h e r h e l p ? Y e s , d e p e n d i n g on the k i n d o f c o n c e r n members have o t h e r t h a n the p a r k i s s u e , and depe n d i n g on the k i n d o f r e a c t i o n t o the l a s t r e p l y from the P a r k s Board - they m i g h t . 3. D i d y o u see the a c t i o n system as b e i n g a b l e t o h a n d l e i n -c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? C e r t a i n l y . • 4. What, i f any, s t r e n g t h s e x i s t e d i n the group? I t i s h a r d to say whether the s t r e n g t h was n o t t h e r e be-f o r e ; i t p r o b a b l y was b u t now i t had been d e m o n s t r a t e d . C e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s had moved t o t a k e a c t i o n on o t h e r con-c e r n s i . e . a c r o s s - w a l k , p r o p e r use o f a b l a c k topped a r e a . A l s o , i n d i v i d u a l members o f the group now f e l t f r e e t o come t o w o r k e r w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s . 107. APPENDIX D SECTIONS OF THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE RELATING TO CENTRAL CONCEPTS OF STUDY I n t e r a c t i o n a l F i e l d : A c t i o n System: Change Agent: I n t e r v e n t i o n : Task and M a i n t e n a n c e P r o c e s s e s : S o c i a l P r o c e s s : S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e : S o c i a l Change: S t i m u l i f o r S o c i a l P r o c e s s e s : S e c t i o n s S e c t i o n s S e c t i o n s S e c t i o n s I , I I , I I I , IV, V.. I I - G , IV-C, D. G. I I - ( T o t a l s e c t i o n ) , I I I - A , B . C . IV-A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I.,V-A,B. I-B.C, I I - D , E , F , G , I I I - A ( 4 ) , B , C ( 5 ) , I V - A , B ( 3 , 4 ) , C ( 4 , 5 ) , D ( 5 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 ) , E(5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,17,18, 1 9 , 2 0 ) , F ( 4 ) , G , H ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ) , I ( 3 , 4 , 8,9,10,11,12), V - A , B ( 2 ) . S e c t i o n s I-B,C, II-D,E,F,G S e c t i o n s H o r i z o n t a l & V e r t i c a l L i n k a g e s : S e c t i o n s I I - A,B,C,E,F,G,H, I I I - A , B , C , IV- A,B(3,4),C,p,E,F,G,H,I, V- B. I-A(3,4,5,6,7,8,9),B, I I - C , I I I - A,B,C, I V - C , F ( 2 ) , H,1(1,2,3), V-A,B. S e c t i o n s I-A,B, I I - A , B , C , E ( 2 ) , F , G ( 7 , 1 0 ) , H, I I I - A , B , C , IV-A,B,C,D,E,F,G(6/,7) H,I, V-B. S e c t i o n s I-A,B, I I - B , F , H , I I I - A , B , C , IV- A , D ( 2 ) , E ( 2 ) , G ( 5 ) , H ( I ) , V-B. S e c t i o n s I - B ( 3 , 4 ) , C , II-A,B,C,E,F,G(3,4,5,7) 8,9), I I I - ( T o t a l s e c t i o n ) IV-( T o t a l s e c t i o n ) , V - ( T o t a l s e c t i o n ) . S e c t i o n s I - A ( I , 2 ) , B ( I , 2 , 3 ) , I I - A , C , E ( 2 ) , I I I - A ( 2 , 3 ) , I V - B ( I , 2 , 3 ) , D ( I , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 1 2 ) , E ( 4 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 ) , V- B ( I , 2 , 3 , 4 ) . 

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