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Effect of special training in mottor skills on the reading ability of grade two pupils with specific… Duggan, E. Anthony 1967

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THE EFFECT OF SPECIAL TRAINING IN MOTOR SKILLS ON THE READING ABILITY OF GRADE TWO PUPILS WITH SPECIFIC READING DISABILITY by E. ANTHONY DUGGAN B.Comm., U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa, B.A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ,  1952  195^  B.P.H.E., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ,  1954  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the S c h o o l of  PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  RECREATION  t o the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,  1967  standard:  In  presenting  for  an a d v a n c e d  that  thesis  Department  agree  that  of  of  this  thesis  Mav.  for  may be g r a n t e d  for  It  of  British for  the  Columbia,  I  reference  and  extensive by  copying  gain  of  agree  this  t h e Head o f my  shall  permission.  Columbia  requirements  is understood  financial  Physical Education  1967  of  available  permission  representatives.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e  freely  or  by h i s  fulfilment  University  purposes  my w r i t t e n  Department  the  scholarly  publication  without  at  in p a r t i a l  s h a l l make i t  I further for  thesis  degree  tha Library  study.  or  this  and R e c r e a t i o n  that not  be  copying allowed  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was  to investigate the  effects of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s on the reading a b i l i t y of grade two pupils who  have a s p e c i f i c  reading d i s a b i l i t y . T h i r t y subjects, a l l of them grade two pupils at the S i r Richard McBride Elementary School i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, were selected.  A l l were classed as poor readers  on  the basis of the Metropolitan Reading Achievement Test. The subjects were given pre-trainlng standardized tests i n Mental A b i l i t y , Reading Achievement, V i s u a l Perception, and General Motor Capacity.  They were then  randomly assigned to f i v e sub-groups f o r S p e c i a l Training purposes.  Group I was the control group.  Group II received  extra i n s t r u c t i o n i n motor s k i l l s and reading. given s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s .  Group III were  Group IV received  extra reading i n s t r u c t i o n , and Group V received s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n both reading and v i s u a l perception.  The  thirty  subjects were equally d i s t r i b u t e d , s i x i n each group. The experimental  groups received approximately f i f t y  minutes of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g every day f o r a period of s i x t y f i v e days.  Case Studies were made of the s i x subjects i n  Group I I I , the Motor A b i l i t y Group.  At the conclusion of the  Special Training Period, a l l subjects were again tested i n  general motor capacity, v i s u a l perception, and reading a b i l i t y . I n i t i a l and f i n a l test scores i n motor capacity, perception, and reading were analysed by Fisher's t s t a t i s t i c and the differences between mean improvements of the f i v e groups were discussed.  Case Study Reports were written f o r each of the  subjects i n Group I I I . A review of the Case Study Reports revealed that a l l of the subjects i n the Motor A b i l i t y Group improved i n reading a b i l i t y , v i s u a l perception, and motor s k i l l s . The group mean scores, before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g , indicated that c h i l d r e n who received special t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s (Group III) improved i n reading a b i l i t y as measured by the Metropolitan Reading Achievement Test, but no more than children i n any of the remaining groups.  I t appears also that  special t r a i n i n g i n motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s can cause an improvement i n the motor a b i l i t y and v i s u a l perception of children at t h i s age l e v e l .  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  I.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ..........................  1  II.  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM ......................  4  III.  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ..........................  11  IV.  METHODS AND PROCEDURES ............................  25  The F r o s t i g Developmental  Test of V i s u a l  P e r c e p t i o n ....................................  26  The C a r p e n t e r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t . f o r C h i l d r e n i n t h e F i r s t Three Grades ........  27  The Motor Q u o t i e n t (M.Q.) .......................  28  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Carpenter General  V.  Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t ...........................  29  S c o r i n g on t h e Iowa-Brace T e s t ..................  31  S e l e c t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups ................  32  Motor A b i l i t y S k i l l s T r a i n i n g ...................  33  F i n a l T e s t i n g ...................................  35  CASE STUDIES OF GROUP I I I SUBJECTS ................  38  Donn A. .........................................  38  P h i l l i p E. ......................................  40  C i n d y F.  42  Grant H. ........................................  44  Mark M. .........................................  46  Samuel W. .......................................  48  CHAPTER VI. VII. VIII.  PAGE RESULTS  50  DISCUSSION ........................................  55  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  58  Summary  58  C o n c l u s i o n s .....................................  59 62  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A.  S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment  .......................  6?  APPENDIX B.  Kephart P e r c e p t u a l - M o t o r Performance Tasks ..  70  W a l k i n g Board ( o r Beam) .....................  71  Jumping  .....................................  77  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Body P a r t s ................  82  I m i t a t i o n o f Movements  83  Angels-in-the-Snow  87  E x e r c i s e s , S t u n t s and Games used i n t h e Motor A b i l i t y S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Program I II III  90  Body E x e r c i s e s  90  B a l a n c e E x e r c i s e s ..................  93  Games  94  Sample o f a L e s s o n P l a n used i n t h e Motor A b i l i t y S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Program APPENDIX C.  ...........  97  G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t S c o r e s f o r Group I I I S u b j e c t s  99  P r o s t i g V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n Test Scores f o r Group I I I S u b j e c t s  105  LIST OF TABLES PAGE I  II  III  Comparison o f R e s u l t s between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means i n t h e Element o f Average Reading Performance  52  Comparison o f R e s u l t s between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means i n t h e Element o f P e r c e p t u a l Performance .......................................  53  Comparison o f R e s u l t s between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means i n t h e Element o f Motor Performance  5^  LIST OF FIGURES PAGE 1.  2.  3.  A 1964 S u r v e y o f Reading Performance on t h e S t a n f o r d Test of the E n t i r e Sixth-Grade P o p u l a t i o n of a Large C i t y i n the E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s  6  The Reading S c o r e s f o r C i t y P u b l i c S c h o o l C h i l d r e n , f o r S u b u r b i a D w e l l e r s , and f o r C h i l d r e n A t t e n d i n g Independent ( P r i v a t e ) S c h o o l s  6  P o s i t i o n s o f t h e Arms f o r Seventeen Items o f t h e I m i t a t i o n o f Movements Task  84  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. H.D. W h i t t l e , f o r h i s g u i d a n c e , c o u n s e l , and a s s i s t a n c e i n preparing t h i s report.  I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. S.R. Brown,  Dr. E.G. Hindmarch, and Dr. D. K e n d a l l , f o r s e r v i n g as members of my A d v i s o r y Committee. Dr. E.N. E l l i s , appreciated.  The a d v i c e and encouragement o f  o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board, i s a l s o much  The P r i n c i p a l o f S i r R i c h a r d McBride E l e m e n t a r y  S c h o o l , Mr. C.W. McLachlan, and t h e S c h o o l ' s s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t o r , Mrs. E. Sharpe, a r e d e s e r v i n g f o r t h e i r patience  and i n t e r e s t .  education  o f s p e c i a l thanks  I am g r a t e f u l t o Mr. Douglas  Garland f o r h i s able a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s study.  Finally, I  would l i k e t o make a s p e c i a l p o i n t o f e x p r e s s i n g my g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e , G a y l e , f o r t h e many hours she devoted t o t h e t y p i n g o f t h i s work.  CHAPTER I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM I n o u r s o c i e t y , the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge depends l a r g e l y on the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o read.  Any  c o n d i t i o n t h a t I n t e r f e r e s w i t h the a b i l i t y t o read i s a serious  handicap. A r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y i s n o t as apparent  as a p h y s i c a l  d i s a b i l i t y such as a c o n g e n i t a l h i p o r a c l u b f o o t , and i s o f t e n n e g l e c t e d f o r t o o l o n g a time.  The number of poor  readers i n our schools I n d i c a t e s t h a t r e a d i n g problems are n o t r e c e i v i n g adequate a t t e n t i o n and treatment. An u n c o r r e c t e d d e f e c t may l e a d t o f u r t h e r d e v i a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y emotional and b e h a v i o r problems. r e c o g n i t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t e treatment m a t t e r of g r e a t  The e a r l y  of a r e a d i n g d e f e c t i s a  importance.  T h i s study i s concerned  w i t h c h i l d r e n who a r e  e s s e n t i a l l y normal, i . e . , w i t h normal h e a r i n g , v i s i o n , and i n t e l l i g e n c e , - but who cannot l e a r n t o read w i t h normal proficiency.  T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s known as s p e c i f i c  reading  disability. A s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y may not be apparent u n t i l the c h i l d i s i n the second grade.  Before t h i s  time,  both the normal reader and the c h i l d who has a s p e c i f i c  2 d i s a b i l i t y may make the same errors i n reading.  What  distinguishes the c h i l d who has a s p e c i f i c reading problem i s the frequency and the persistence of these errors well beyond the time at which they become uncommon i n normal children. Research studies have shown that the c h i l d whose reading achievement i s two or more years below his grade placement and/or mental age i s to be considered a "poor" reader. This problem of s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y Is universal.  I t i s a matter of prime concern to educational  leaders i n a l l areas of t h i s country. Those responsible f o r the education of the children of Vancouver are constantly seeking remedies f o r s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t i e s .  The  Special Programmes Branch of the Vancouver School Board i s continually experimenting with methods of detecting and correcting those pupils who have s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . At the suggestion of Dr. E.N. E l l i s , Research Supervisor of the Special Programmes Branch of the Vancouver School Board, t h i s study was undertaken to investigate the effects of special t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s on the reading a b i l i t y of grade two pupils with s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . The study i s l i m i t e d to t h i r t y pupils i n the S i r Richard McBride Elementary School (hereafter referred to as the "McBride School")* located on East 2 9 t h Avenue, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  The hypothesis of the study i s that these  3  children, a l l of whom are classed as poor readers, w i l l , bytaking part i n a s p e c i a l motor s k i l l s t r a i n i n g program, show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n reading  ability.  CHAPTER II JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM What i s the magnitude of the problem of s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y ?  How many children are defective readers  and where are they to be found?  I f answers to these questions  are to be given, we must f i r s t consider methods of measuring reading competence. Surveys of reading performance are based upon group tests of reading such as the Iowa, Standford, C a l i f o r n i a , Gates, and others.  T y p i c a l l y , the test i s standardized by  scoring the results of i t s administration to a sample of children drawn from selected and presumably representative communities.  P r a c t i c a l considerations determine that the test  must be given to groups of children rather than i n d i v i d u a l l y administered.  The test must be r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f i n order to  avoid fatiguing the c h i l d .  Scoring must be simple; thus there  i s reliance on multiple choice answers which permit machine scoring.  The s k i l l s measured by the elementary reading tests  are d i f f e r e n t from those demanded f o r successful completion of the intermediate and advanced t e s t s .  At the lower l e v e l s ,  l i t t l e more i s required from the c h i l d than the a b i l i t y to decode the v i s u a l symbols into recognizable words.  At  intermediate and advanced l e v e l s , comprehension i s c a l l e d much  5 more d i r e c t l y into play; i n consequence, performance w i l l vary with vocabulary, l e v e l of reasoning, and general i n t e l l e c t u a l facility. With these general considerations i n mind, l e t us look at the facts and figures f o r a 1964 survey of reading performance on the Stanford Test of the entire sixth-grade population of a large c i t y i n the eastern United States (1).  The data  are based on 12,000 c h i l d r e n (children i n s p e c i a l classes f o r mental retardation are not included).  On the abscissa are  plotted reading scores by half-year i n t e r v a l s ; on the ordinate the percentage of the t o t a l sample scoring i n each range.  The  figures show that twenty-eight per cent of the sixth-grade children are reading two or more grades below expected grade l e v e l , the conventional d e f i n i t i o n of severe reading retardation.  With a median reading l e v e l of 5 « 2 , the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s  s h i f t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the l e f t ; by d e f i n i t i o n of t e s t construction, the median should l i e at 6.5.  The epidemio-  l o g i c a l significance of these data can be heightened by comparing them with those from other population groups i n the same area.  Figure 2 plots the reading scores f o r c i t y (urban)  public school children, f o r "suburbia" dwellers, and f o r children attending independent (private) schools i n the c i t y . So great are the differences that one could almost believe three d i f f e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l populations are represented; yet  2+ Years Behind = 27.5$ 2+ Years Ahead  =  3.6%  Median Reading L e v e l -Expected Reading L e v e l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  READING GRADE EQUIVALENTS FIGURE 1 GRADE 6.5  READING LEVELS IN METROPOLIS  (STANFORD TEST -  1964)  City  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  110  READING GRADE EQUIVALENTS FIGURE 2  120  7 the p o t e n t i a l of the c i t y school children i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of the suburban or the independent school children. A s i m i l a r reading t e s t (the Metropolitan Achievement Reading Test) was given to the one hundred and nine grade two pupils at the McBride School i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, i n September, 1966.  Of this test group, forty-two children  achieved scores lower than 3»0» "the standard score accepted i n the Vancouver schools to designate reading competence. Prom these facts and figures, i t i s evident that some elementary  school children do have a reading problem.  In most  cases such children are i n a r e l a t i v e l y good state of health, are not mentally retarded, are free from neurological disorders, and have good hearing and adequate v i s i o n .  In  other words, as stated e a r l i e r , these children have what i s known as a s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y . Further explanation and investigation into the meaning and nature of the term " s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y " w i l l be made i n the next section of t h i s report.  For the moment, i t  i s s u f f i c i e n t to state that the condition does e x i s t , and perhaps i n more of our children than we may be aware. problem i s , what can be done about i t ?  The  I f these unfortunate  individuals are to achieve some measure of success l n t h e i r academic endeavours, i f they are going to progress at a normal  8 r a t e of advancement i n s c h o o l , something must be done t o  help  them. The underlying  i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t , i n many i n s t a n c e s ,  cause of s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y i s the l a c k of  development of b a s i c sensory-motor s k i l l s . Kephart (2)  Studies  i n d i c a t e t h a t the development of form  so important t o the beginning reader,  perception,  F r o s t i g and  p o i n t out t h a t a c h i l d w i t h d e f e c t i v e o r  developed v i s u a l - m o t o r  c o o r d i n a t i o n may  h i m s e l f without clumsiness;  such as c u t t i n g , drawing, and  prove d i f f i c u l t f o r him; i n l e a r n i n g how  poorly  be unable t o  dress  he w i l l probably be unable t o  match h i s schoolmates i n s p o r t s and skills  by  depends upon the  adequate l e a r n i n g of b a s i c sensory-motor s k i l l s . Home (3)  the  games; the non-academic c o l o u r i n g , are l i k e l y to  and he w i l l c e r t a i n l y have d i f f i c u l t y  t o read and  write.  I f , as the i n v e s t i g a t o r assumes, one  of the  basic  reasons f o r r e a d i n g r e t a r d a t i o n i s a need f o r more adequate development of sensory-motor s k i l l s , the s o l u t i o n i s an obvious one:  the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n those b a s i c  motor s k i l l s t h a t s t r e s s the development of  laterality,  d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , dominance, c o o r d i n a t i o n , balance, and  other  k i n e s t h e t i c functions In c h i l d r e n . T h i s i n d i r e c t approach t o the remedial aspects of  the  problem of s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y i s not by any means a  9 unique one.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the important work being done by-  researchers such as Kephart, F r o s t i g , and Rabinovlch i n t h i s area, others, such as J e r a l y n Plack, of the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, have r e c e n t l y reported f i n d i n g a high c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l e c t e d motor s k i l l s and reading i n c h i l d r e n of grades one, three, and f i v e  (4).  In summing up, i t i s evident that there i s a need today t o d i s c o v e r ways and means of improving the reading ability  of c h i l d r e n who have a s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y .  The i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t the bases f o r many of these reading problems l i e i n the inadequate development of f u n c t i o n a l motor s k i l l s .  Without adequate form perception, a  c h i l d w i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to l e a r n t o read p r o p e r l y .  The development of adequate form perception  depends upon the adequate l e a r n i n g of basic sensory-motor skills. By conducting case studies of s i x p u p i l s at the grade two l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g , a l l of whom have a s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y , the i n v e s t i g a t o r proposes t o demonstrate, through t r a i n i n g , t e s t i n g , and observation, that there i s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between motor s k i l l s and reading  ability.  REFERENCES 1.  Eisenberg, Leon, "Reading Retardation: Psychiatric and S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects," P e d i a t r i c s, Vol. 37, No. 2, (February, 1966), pp. 273-275.  2.  Kephart, H., The Slow Learner i n the Classroom. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l , Inc., 1961, p. 34.  3«  F r o s t i g , Marianne and Home, David, The F r o s t l g Program f o r the Development of Visual Perception. Chicago: F o l l e t t Publishing Company, 1964, p. 16.  4.  "Recent Research Findings i n Physical Education," The Journal of the Canadian Association f o r Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. Vol. 32, No. 6, (August - September), 1966.  CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE As d e f i n e d by Klapper ( 1 ) , r e a d i n g i s an a c t i v e process i n v o l v i n g a l e a r n e d r e a c t i o n t o symbols. alphabet system, as a h i g h l y developed  Our phonetic  symbol-sound system,  p l a c e s a g r e a t demand on l n t e r s e n s o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r i t s mastery.  E n g l i s h symbols a r e n o t ideographs  or syllabaries,  but are l i k e a l g e b r a i c symbols because they a r e so f a r removed from the o b j e c t o r i d e a they r e p r e s e n t - the s i n g l e are connected  w i t h sounds through c o n v e n t i o n a l use.  letters To l e a r n  t o read E n g l i s h a c h i l d must be a b l e t o d e a l w i t h l e t t e r s and words, i n themselves  n o t e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from  o t h e r , except by l i t t l e e.g.,  "N" and "M";  each  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o r changes i n p o s i t i o n ,  "d" and "b"; »p" and "q", arranged i n  c e r t a i n sequences, and a r b i t r a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n sounds. L e a r n i n g our E n g l i s h alphabet system i n v o l v e s some of the processes which u n d e r l i e the r e a d i n g ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) of p i c t o g r a p h i c and i d e o g r a p h i c w r i t i n g ; however, the complex mental processes e s s e n t i a l t o the mastery o f our phonetic alphabet a r e unnecessary  I n l e a r n i n g t o read p l c t o g r a p h s such  as a road s i g n o r a d o l l a r s i g n .  There p r o b a b l y i s no age  s p e c i f i c i t y i n r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g a t the i d e o g r a p h i c l e v e l ; any c h i l d who can see should be able t o i d e n t i f y ideographs.  We  12 know t h a t young c h i l d r e n c o r r e c t l y d i s t i n g u i s h phonograph r e c o r d l a b e l s ; p r o u d l y name f a m i l i a r s i g n s ; and can o f t e n be t r a i n e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r own forth.  name, o r the word "dog", and  These are words t o us;  three-year o l d .  The  they are ideographs  t o the  i d e o g r a p h i c r e a d i n g s t y l e of the v e r y  young c h i l d p r o b a b l y cannot be r e p l a c e d by phonetic u n t i l there i s the a p p r o p r i a t e developmental organization. may  so  reading  l e v e l of  I f the c h i l d experiences r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y , i t  not appear f o r the f i r s t time u n t i l the second  grade,  because an i d e o g r a p h i c l e a r n i n g s t y l e , adequate f o r pre-primer and primer r e a d i n g , i s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r mastery of t r a d i t i o n a l reading  skills.  The p r e s e n t study i s concerned  w i t h the c h i l d  who  hears w e l l , whose v i s i o n i s i n t a c t , whose g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e i s normal, but who,  nonetheless,  w i t h normal p r o f i c i e n c y .  i s unable  to l e a r n t o read  T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s known as  specific  reading d i s a b i l i t y . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a m u l t i p l i c i t y of names f o r t h i s d i s o r d e r : reading r e t a r d a t i o n (2),  c o n g e n i t a l word b l i n d n e s s , primary developmental  symbolia, and developmental convenience,  aphasia, s t r e p t o -  dyslexia (3).  (For the sake of  we w i l l use the term d y s l e x i a . )  The a d j e c t i v e " s p e c i f i c " c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o both  the  nature of the d i s a b i l i t y and t o medical s c i e n c e ' s ignorance  as  13 t o i t s cause.  S p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y i s d e f i n e d by  C r i t c h l e y as "the f a i l u r e t o l e a r n t o read w i t h normal p r o f i c i e n c y despite conventional i n s t r u c t i o n , a c u l t u r a l l y adequate home, proper m o t i v a t i o n , i n t a c t sense,  normal  i n t e l l i g e n c e , and freedom from gross n e u r o l o g i c a l d e f e c t "  (4).  There a r e no r e l i a b l e d a t a on which t o base a secure estimate of the prevalence of s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y ; such surveys as e x i s t r e c o r d o n l y the extent of r e t a r d a t i o n i n r e a d i n g on group t e s t s without d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as t o cause. C l i n i c a l r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e a much h i g h e r r a t e of occurrence among boys, the male-female r a t i o g e n e r a l l y being f o u r t o one. T h i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o , but h i g h e r than, the s u r p l u s of boys among r e t a r d e d readers from a l l causes, among c h i l d r e n regarded as a c a d e m i c a l l y backward, and among c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d to p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s  (5)«  Boys i n g e n e r a l a r e slower t o  a c q u i r e v e r b a l f a c i l i t y and a r e more prone t o e x h i b i t "immature" behaviour i n the e a r l y s c h o o l  grades.  Once r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s important  t o be a b l e t o determine the type of r e a d i n g e r r o r .  I n most cases of s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y the c h i l d confuse  l e t t e r s t h a t look a l i k e  those t h a t sound a l i k e  (p and q, d and b) as w e l l as  (d and t , b and v ) .  are l i k e l y t o be prominent.  will  Reversal  tendencies  The c h i l d may have great  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h s h o r t words which are anagrams of one another  14 (was  and saw,  on and no,  f o r example), whereas he may  p e r f e c t l y w e l l w i t h p o l y s y l l a b i c words.  do  I n r e a d i n g he  will  s u b s t i t u t e i n v e n t e d words f o r those he cannot read o r guess from the context of the sentence.  He may  read a word  c o r r e c t l y and then f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e i t completely a o r two  later.  c h i l d who  sentence  These v e r y same e r r o r s occur i n the normal  l e a r n s t o read; what d i s t i n g u i s h e s the d y s l e x i c i s  the frequency and p e r s i s t e n c e of these e r r o r s w e l l beyond the time a t which they have become uncommon In the normal.  The  p e r s i s t e n c e of l a r g e numbers of these e r r o r s beyond the second grade i s s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y problems.  R a b i n o v i t c h , e t . a l . (6)  whose r e a d i n g achievement i s two placement and/or mental age  concluded  t h a t the  child  o r more years below h i s grade  i s to be c o n s i d e r e d a r e t a r d e d  reader. Given a c h i l d w i t h r e t a r d a t i o n i n r e a d i n g , we must i n q u i r e as t o h i s g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l .  The  mentally  d e f i c i e n t c h i l d w i l l i n e v i t a b l y have d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g t o read because of h i s l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h symbols abstractions.  I f the r e p o r t of the c h i l d ' s I.Q.  and  i s based  on  i n d i v i d u a l o r group t e s t i n g , the poor reader, p e n a l i z e d by h i s handicap,  i s l i k e l y t o show a d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s v e r b a l  and performance s c o r e s , w i t h the l a t t e r f i f t e e n to twenty points higher.  The  performance score may  be regarded as a  ,  1  5  more v a l i d i n d i c a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l ( 7 ) . Having excluded mental d e f e c t as the cause, we t u r n t o the c h i l d ' s h i s t o r y of s c h o o l attendance f o r evidence the adequacy o f h i s s c h o o l experience.  as t o  Prequent and prolonged  absences from s c h o o l , c o n s p i c u o u s l y poor t e a c h i n g , o r l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n from the home f o r academic achievement may account f o r h i s f a i l u r e t o l e a r n d e s p i t e normal i n t e l l e c t u a l endowment. We next c o n s i d e r sensory d e f e c t , v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y . Moderate sensory d e f e c t s r a r e l y provide a d e c i s i v e b a r r i e r t o l e a r n i n g t o read.  Only the g r o s s e s t v i s u a l  pathology,  r e d u c i n g a c u i t y by as much as f i f t y p e r cent i s l i k e l y t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n of l i t e r a c y .  The d i f f i c u l t y of  the c h i l d w i t h s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y i s not one of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , but r a t h e r o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of symbols. "Not  the eye, but the b r a i n l e a r n s t o read"  (8). (9)?  What o f the r e s u l t s of a n e u r o l o g i c examination Where t h e r e i s u n e q u i v o c a l  evidence  of b r a i n pathology, the  primary d i a g n o s i s i s acute o r c h r o n i c b r a i n syndrome; there i s a symptomatic m a n i f e s t a t i o n , presumably due t o i n j u r y t o the supramarginal  o r angular g y r i o f the dominant hemisphere.  In  c o n t r a s t , the c h i l d w i t h s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y has no post h i s t o r y o f i n j u r y t o the b r a i n ; there are no gross of n e u r o l o g i c d e f e c t .  signs  The a d j e c t i v e " s p e c i f i c " , t h e r e f o r e ,  conveys not o n l y the c i r c u m s c r i b e d nature  of the handicap, but  as w e l l the l a c k of common agreement as t o i t s cause. The u n d e r l y i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s i n d y s l e x i a can be viewed as "the d i s o r d e r e d p r o c e s s i n g of sensory A c c o r d i n g to Klapper i n g may  information".  ( 1 0 ) , three regions of impaired f u n c t i o n -  be c o n s i d e r e d :  (1) inadequate  p r o c e s s i n g of  sensory  i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s i n g l e channel, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f arrangement i n sequence i s i n v o l v e d ; (2) impaired c o o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a r r i v i n g as i n p u t from two d i f f e r e n t sensory m o d a l i t i e s ; and  o r more  (3) d e f i c i e n t c o g n i t i v e  f u n c t i o n i n g , r e s t r i c t i n g the use of s p a t i a l , d i r e c t i o n a l , temporal i n f o r m a t i o n .  I t Is t h i s l a t t e r region that i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d to the purposes t h i s  study.  Mastery of r e a d i n g s k i l l s depends on  effective  c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n t o the s p e c i a l p r o p e r t i e s of the symbols.  A constancy  be developed  graphic  i n the i d e n t i t y of a g r a p h i c symbol must  and maintained,  p o s i t i o n , o r shape.  or  Constant  i n s p i t e of changes i n i t s s i z e , changes do appear, however, i n  the arrangement of l e t t e r s and words, and the l e t t e r forms. Letters l i k e "0" and  and  "X"  "d" c o u l d be regarded  different, positions. concepts  are seldom confused,  but  "p" and  "b"  as the same symbol, p l a c e d i n  I n normal readers, e f f e c t i v e  are e v i d e n t by age seven.  relational  But i n many i n s t a n c e s of  r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y , d e f i c i e n c y i n such f u n c t i o n s i s m a n i f e s t . D y s l e x l c s have t o s t r u g g l e w i t h the problem of o r i e n t a t i o n and  p o s i t i o n of v e r b a l symbols.  Even i f they read a t a l a b o r i o u s l y  slow pace they make c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e r r o r s and r e v e r s a l s , such as r i g h t - l e f t r e v e r s a l s ("b"  ("b" f o r "d") and n e a r - f a r  f o r "p") which Orton (11)  f o r "was").  reversals  c a l l s s t a t i c reversals  ("saw"  Normal c h i l d r e n may a l s o make word r e v e r s a l s but,  as Money (12)  points  out,  the d y s l e x i c i s unique i n making so  many of them f o r so l o n g a time. R i g h t - l e f t d i s o r i e n t a t i o n has been suggested by s e v e r a l authors (13. reversals.  14, 15)  as the u n d e r l y i n g  disturbance i n  R i g h t - l e f t o r i e n t a t i o n i s not a simple p r o c e s s .  Normal c h i l d r e n d i s t i n g u i s h r i g h t - l e f t r e l a t i o n s on t h e i r own bodies and on someone ease's by the age of seven, but t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s o f three objects  (16).  on a t a b l e does not s t a b i l i z e u n t i l age e l e v e n L a t e r a l i t y must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  from the naming o f r i g h t and l e f t .  from handedness and  L a t e r a l i t y i s an i n t e r n a l  awareness of the two s i d e s of the body and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e . I t i s probable t h a t when a c h i l d has l e a r n e d  the s i d e s , he  s t i l l has t o s o l v e the problem of keeping t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s straight.  I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t he l e a r n s t o do t h i s by  d e v e l o p i n g one s i d e as the l e a d i n g s i d e and c o n s i s t e n t l y l e a d i n g w i t h t h i s dominant s i d e .  Such a l e a r n i n g process may  l e a d t o dominance and, among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  handedness.  t h i s connection, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t s t u d i e s  In  o f young  18 c h i l d r e n have shown t h a t handedness develops. i n n a t e , but years.  appears to develop somewhere around the (17)  Gesell  and  appears to have no  not age  of  two  others have n o t i c e d t h i s phenomenon.  P r e v i o u s to t h i s time, the and  It is  c h i l d uses h i s hands  consistent  alternately  choice.  I n l i k e manner, l a t e r a l i t y must be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the naming of s i d e s . hand does not t i o n of the  To  constitute  ask  the  c h i l d to i d e n t i f y h i s  a t e s t of l a t e r a l i t y .  r i g h t hand as opposed to the  based on e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the  The  right  recogni-  l e f t hand can two  parts.  be The  development of l a t e r a l i t y i s extremely important s i n c e i t permits us The  to keep t h i n g s s t r a i g h t  only difference  laterality. t h e r e can  I f there i s no  be no  organism, and "b"  and  between "b"  "d"  projection  and  l e f t and  "d",  then, i s one  consequently the  us. of  r i g h t i n s i d e the  of t h i s l e f t and  organism  r i g h t outside  the  directional characteristics  of  disappear.  In younger d y s l e x i c s , right-left  i n the world around  orientation  t h e r e i s more d i s t u r b a n c e i n  than i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n ,  as a group show o n l y s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r i g h t - l e f t i n i d e n t i f y i n g p a r t s of the s i m i l a r age.  but  dyslexics  disorientation  body, than do normal readers of  However, i f the d y s l e x i c  i s asked to judge  d i r e c t i o n a l l a t e r a l i t y of o b j e c t s , there i s g r e a t e r  the  disorien-  t a t i o n than i s found i n the normal reader, s u g g e s t i n g  that  19 those judgements r e q u i r e h i g h e r o r d e r mental processes  than  r i g h t - l e f t d e s i g n a t i o n s o f p a r t s of the body ( 1 8 ) . D i s t u r b a n c e s i n r i g h t - l e f t o r i e n t a t i o n a r e symptoms of d i s t u r b e d c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , i n the same sense as r e v e r s a l s are.  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y which d y s l e x i c s have i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  concepts has been noted by most authors. developed  R a b i n o v i t c h (19)  has  a Hawthorne Concept S c a l e f o r d y s l e x c i s i n l i n e w i t h  the r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s problem. There are two broad c a t e g o r i e s of remedial r e a d i n g techniques i n t o which most c u r r e n t approaches can be d i v i d e d . The f i r s t  i s the d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l approach,  and c o n s i s t s of  t r a i n i n g primary r e a d i n g s k i l l s by d i r e c t l y approaching the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r words as sound symbols.  Many s c h o o l s of  thought have i n f l u e n c e d the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s examples of which a r e :  the phonic approach,  training, which d i r e c t s the  c h i l d t o break down words i n t o sound elements; method, employing  the sight-word  v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i v e memory of the whole word;  and a k i n e s t h e t i c look-hear-say method, i n which the c h i l d hears the word, says i t ,  and t r a c e s i t a t the same time.  The  remedial a p p l i c a t i o n of these techniques i s i n s m a l l groups, o r i n d i v i d u a l cases, separate from the classroom. The  second broad c a t e g o r y of remedial  techniques  departs from t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g d i r e c t l y , and i n s t e a d approaches the r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y i n d i r e c t l y .  Improved performance l n  20  other d e f i c i e n t areas of f u n c t i o n i n g , assumed to be r e l a t e d to the mastery of r e a d i n g One  skills,  i s the immediate t r a i n i n g g o a l .  method of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r d y s l e x i c s ,  recommended by Kephart ( 2 0 ) and  others,  ment of l a t e r a l i t y , d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , and improvement of motor s k i l l s  and  s t r e s s e s the  develop-  dominance through the  coordination.  Kephart p o i n t s  out t h a t the development of adequate form p e r c e p t i o n , important to the b e g i n n i n g reader,  so  depends upon the adequate  l e a r n i n g of b a s i c sensory-motor s k i l l s : "Our f i r s t i n f o r m a t i o n about form and about s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d i n form i s k i n e s t h e t i c and t a c t u a l . We must l e a r n k i n e s t h e t i c l a t e r a l i t y before we can proceed t o v i s u a l form." T h i s l a t e r a l i t y must be p r o j e c t e d o u t s i d e the body i n forms of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y before  we  have a b a s i s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d i n form.  These b a s i c s k i l l s  the are  n e c e s s a r y In o r d e r to ensure t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a form are presented t o the c h i l d and him  Involved  are responded t o  by  i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner. An example of t h i s type of remedial t r a i n i n g i s the  use  of the walking board.  The  apparatus i s t o a i d i n t e a c h i n g responses. accurate  Maintaining  primary purpose of t h i s the c h i l d balance and  balance on the board r e q u i r e s  postural an  knowledge of the d i f f e r e n c e between the r i g h t s i d e of  the body and  the l e f t .  The  technique thus a i d s i n the  development of l a t e r a l i t y . necessary  As we have seen, l a t e r a l i t y i s  i n r e a d i n g , where a l e f t - t o - r i g h t p r o g r e s s i o n a c r o s s  the l i n e of p r i n t must be s u s t a i n e d .  I t i s probable  t h a t many  r e v e r s a l s o f words o r l e t t e r s a r e due t o Inadequate l a t e r a l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , a c h i l d ' s experiences  o f r i g h t , l e f t , up, down, f a r ,  and near a r e k i n e s t h e t i c a l l y accentuated  by guided p h y s i c a l  a c t i v i t i e s such as s p r i n g i n g on a trampoline,  catching or  bouncing a b a l l , and b a l a n c i n g on b a l a n c i n g boards.  This  approach i s c o n s i d e r e d by i t s proponents as p o t e n t i a l l y t h e r a p e u t i c f o r d y s l e x i a and has been r e p o r t e d t o be s u c c e s s f u l with i n d i v i d u a l  cases.  C o n t r a r y t o u s u a l f i n d i n g s of low p o s i t i v e  correlation  between motor s k i l l s and academic achievement, J e r a l y n J . P l a c k of the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, a t the 1966 N a t i o n a l  Convention  of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , r e p o r t e d a h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l e c t e d motor s k i l l s and r e a d i n g i n c h i l d r e n o f grades one, t h r e e , and f i v e .  U s i n g one hundred and seventy-two s u b j e c t s ,  r e a d i n g achievement was determined by the Iowa t e s t of B a s i c S k i l l s , and motor s k i l l s were determined by the Johnson Motor Achievement B a t t e r y .  H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were  obtained between achievement i n r e a d i n g and the throw and c a t c h , and the z i g - z a g run t e s t ( 2 1 ) . The  r o l e o f t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g , the e f f e c t of the  development of body tone o r body-awarness through p h y s i c a l  exercises,  the development of compensatory mechanisms f o r  organizing  s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s , a l l are i n need of  investigation.  There i s no sound b a s i s , from a s c i e n t i f i c  p o i n t of v i e w , f o r recommending any one of these approaches t o d y s l e x i a .  program, a p a r t from the r e g u l a r  - an i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g  c l a s s r o o m , conducted  has t r a i n i n g , enthusiasm,  i n h i s techniques  (22).  remedial  They a l l have i n common, however, one  i m p o r t a n t and e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t  t e a c h e r who  further  sympathy, and  by a confidence  REFERENCES 1.  Klapper, Z.S., "Psychoeducational Aspects of Reading D i s a b i l i t i e s , " P e d i a t r i c s , V o l . 3 7 , No. 2 , (February, 1 9 6 6 ) , Page 2 2 1 .  2.  E i s e n b e r g , Leon, "Reading R e t a r d a t i o n : P s y c h i a t r i c and S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s , " P e d i a t r i c s , V o l . 3 7 , No. 2 , (February, 1966), pp. 2 7 3 - 2 7 5 .  3.  C h r i t c h l e y , M., Developmental D y s l e x i a , London: Heineman, 1 9 6 4 .  4.  I b i d . , p. 3 .  5.  S i l v e r , A.A. and Hagin, R., " S p e c i f i c Reading D i s a b i l i t y : D e l i n e a t i o n of the Syndrome and R e l a t i o n s h i p t o C e r e b r a l Dominance," Comparative P s y c h i a t r y , V o l . 1, i 9 6 0 , p. 1 2 6 .  6.  R a b i n o v i t c h , R.D., e t . a l . , "A Research Approach t o Reading R e t a r d a t i o n , " Research P u b l i c a t i o n s , V o l . 3 ^ , 1 9 5 4 , p. 3 6 3 .  7.  Orton, S.T., " S p e c i f i c Reading D i s a b i l i t y Strephosymbolia," J o u r n a l of the American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . V o l . 9 0 , 1 9 2 8 , p. I O 9 5 .  8.  E i s e n b e r g , Loc. c i t .  9.  S i l v e r , A.A.  and Hagin, R.,  Loc. c i t .  10.  Klapper, Z.S.,  Loc. c i t . , p. 2 2 2 .  11.  Orton, S.T.,  12.  Money, J . , Reading D i s a b i l i t y . B a l t i m o r e : Press, 1962.  13.  Money, Loo, c i t .  14.  Benton, A.L., " D y s l e x i a i n R e l a t i o n t o Form P e r c e p t i o n and D i r e c t i o n a l Sense," Reading D i s a b i l i t y , J . Money (ed.), B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s , 1 9 o 2 .  15.  H a r r i s , A . J . , " L a t e r a l Dominance, D i r e c t i o n a l C o n f u s i o n , and Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " J o u r n a l of Psychology. V o l . 44, 1 9 5 7 , P. 2 8 3 .  Loc. c i t . John Hopkins  24 16.  Klapper, Z.S.,  Loo, c i t .  17.  G e s e l l , A., The F i r s t F i v e Years of L i f e , New Harper and Bros., 1940.  18.  Klapper, Z.S.,  19.  R a b i n o v i t c h , R.D., "Reading and L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , " American Handbook of P s y c h i a t r y , New York: Basic Books, 1959* P. 3.  20.  Kephart, H., The Slow L e a r n e r i n the Classroom., Columbus, Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , Inc., I 9 6 I , pp. 45-46.  21.  "Recent Research F i n d i n g s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , " The J o u r n a l of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n . V o l . 32, No. 6, (August - September, I 9 6 6 ) .  22.  Kephart, H.,  Loc. o l t . . p.  Loo, o l t . , p. 87»  York:  223.  CHAPTER IV METHODS AND  the month of September, 1 9 6 6 ,  During two  PROCEDURES  population  the e n t i r e grade  (one hundred and nine p u p i l s ) of the McBride  S c h o o l were g i v e n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Achievement T e s t , Primary I I B a t t e r y , Form "T". for  c h i l d r e n a t the grade two  T h i s i s a standard level  reading  test  (1).  A t the same time, these p u p i l s were scored on  their  performance i n the A l p h a S e c t i o n of the O t i s Mental A b i l i t y Test  ( 2 ) .  and,  when c o r r e l a t e d with the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t  for  T h i s t e s t has a r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t of . 8 ? ,  Reading, i t s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s . 6 8 . From the r e s u l t s of the r e a d i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e  thirty  (30)  study. (a)  p u p i l s were s e l e c t e d as p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s f o r the  These s e l e c t i o n s were based on the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : The  s u b j e c t must not be a r e p e a t e r of the  grade two (b)  l e v e l of schoolwork;  The  s u b j e c t must be between the ages of  six  years, t e n months, and  seven years,  seven months as of the date of the Reading Test; (c)  tests,  The  s u b j e c t must be i n the low achievement  range (average r a t i n g of 2 . 7 o r below) on  the Reading A b i l i t y T e s t ; (d)  The s u b j e c t must be i n a r e l a t i v e l y good s t a t e of h e a l t h , s p e c i f i c a l l y , a body f r e e from d i s e a s e , n o t m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , f r e e from n e u r o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s , and having good a u d i t o r y sense and v i s u a l a c u i t y i n excess Although  o f 50%. an attempt was made t o l i m i t the s u b j e c t s  s e l e c t e d t o a d e f i n i t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotient found  range, t h i s was  t o be i m p o s s i b l e i f a t o t a l o f t h i r t y s u b j e c t s  characteristics The  having  (a) t o (d) was t o be obtained.  t h i r t y s u b j e c t s were then g i v e n two a d d i t i o n a l  t e s t s c o n s i d e r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o be fundamental t o the study. (1)  The F r o s t i g Developmental T e s t of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n  (3)  T h i s t e s t e s t a b l i s h e s a c h i l d ' s l e v e l of performance i n each of f i v e areas of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n .  The c u r r e n t  ( t h i r d ) e d i t i o n of t h i s t e s t was s t a n d a r d i z e d on more than 2,100  children.  Based on the P e r c e p t u a l Quotient, the t e s t -  r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y estimate, a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the e n t i r e sample, was .80. The  r e s u l t s of the r e l i a b i l i t y - v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s made  by F r o s t i g i n d i c a t e t h a t between the ages of three and seven and-a-half  and-a-half  years, v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i s a c h i l d ' s  27 major developmental t a s k . perceptual a b i l i t y ,  There i s not  j u s t one  visual  but s e v e r a l , each of which develop  r e l a t i v e l y independently  of each o t h e r and i n v a r y i n g degrees.  The F r o s t i g T e s t may i n groups; f o r t h i s study,  be administered  the T e s t was  i n d i v i d u a l l y or  administered  t o the  s u b j e c t s i n p a i r s by Mrs. E. Sharpe, S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n I n s t r u c t o r a t McBride S c h o o l . objective. converted  The  c h i l d ' s raw  S c o r i n g on the T e s t i s  score f o r each s u b - t e s t  t o a p e r c e p t u a l age  e q u i v a l e n t , r e p r e s e n t i n g the  a t which the average c h i l d achieves perceptual quotient  (P.Q.) was  was  t h i s score.  The  age  total  then d e r i v e d i n a manner  s i m i l a r t o t h a t used f o r determining  an i n t e l l i g e n c e  quotient  (I.Q.). (2)  The  Carpenter  General Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t f o r C h i l d r e n i n (4)  the F i r s t Three Grades  Designed by Dr. A l l l e e n Carpenter  i n 19^2  specifically  f o r c h i l d r e n i n the lower elementary grades, the t o t a l (GMCS) obtained  on t h i s t e s t may  c h i l d ' s motor c a p a c i t y . motor analogue of the raw i s u s u a l l y expressed The  Carpenter  score  be used as a measure of the  McCloy d e f i n e s motor c a p a c i t y as  "the  score of an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , which  as mental age"  (5)»  T e s t c o n s i s t s of f o u r p a r t s :  ( i ) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index (age x 20 + height x 6 + ( i i ) Sargent Jump (the d i s t a n c e i n centimetres  weight);  between the  28 top of the reach mark and the top of the highest jump mark); ( i i i ) Squat-Thrusts (iv)  ( t o t a l number completed i n ten seconds);  The Iowa-Brace Test (consisting of s i x stunts suitable f o r c h i l d r e n of the f i r s t three grades). Following are the Regression Equations f o r computing  the general motor capacity (GMC)  of pupils i n elementary  school i n the f i r s t three grades. Boys GMC  = 0.181  ( C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index) + 0.769(Sargent Jump  i n cms.)  + 0.510(Brace Test score) + 2.187(Burpee  Test) -  62.  Girls GMC  = 3.576(Sargent Jump i n cms.)  + 2.20(Brace Test  score) + 19.12(Burpee Test) +  29.  The Motor Quotient (M.Q.) The GMCS, when divided by the norm f o r the subject, expresses his capacity as a percentage of the norm or Motor Quotient.  This quotient i s the motor analogue of the  score used i n the measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  I.Q.  The score, based  upon the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index f o r boys, and on age f o r g i r l s , represents the individual's motor capacity r e l a t i v e to size and general maturity. The investigator found that t h i s General Motor  C a p a c i t y t e s t was one of the few a v a i l a b l e i n the r e s e a r c h s u i t a b l e f o r the age group under study. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Carpenter General Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t The Carpenter General Motor C a p a c i t y t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1.  Each of the f i v e experimental  groups was t e s t e d i n t u r n ,  beginning w i t h Group I . 2.  Each s u b j e c t i n the group was weighed and measured f o r h e i g h t , u s i n g the weight and h e i g h t s c a l e s i n the H e a l t h Room a t the McBride S c h o o l .  Weights ( t o the n e a r e s t  one-half pound) and h e i g h t s ( t o the n e a r e s t one-half  inch)  were recorded. 3.  Each s u b j e c t was t e s t e d I n d i v i d u a l l y i n the Sargent Jump t e s t , the Squat-Thrust  t e s t , and the Iowa-Brace t e s t .  The  o t h e r members of the s u b j e c t ' s group were n o t p e r m i t t e d t o witness t h i s phase of the t e s t i n g before p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the 4.  test.  Each p a r t of the Carpenter t e s t was demonstrated t o the subject.  The s u b j e c t then was permitted two p r a c t i c e  t r i a l s t o be c e r t a i n t h a t the s u b j e c t understood and how t o perform  it.  the t e s t  These p r a c t i c e t r i a l s a l s o served  as a warm-up f o r the s u b j e c t . 5.  The s u b j e c t was allowed three o f f i c i a l t r i a l s i n the Sargent Jump t e s t .  The h i g h e s t jump mark a t t a i n e d i n the  30  three t r i a l s was 6.  in  centimeters.  F o r the Squat-Thrust t e s t , the s u b j e c t was one  official trial.  trial.  The  s u b j e c t was 7.  then recorded  The  A stop-watch was  permitted  used t o time the  t o t a l number of s q u a t - t h r u s t s  completed by  Each s t u n t was  try.  the  recorded.  Iowa-Brace t e s t c o n s i s t s of s i x motor a b i l i t y  instructor.  only-  demonstrated to the s u b j e c t by  The  s u b j e c t then was  I f necessary, the s t u n t was  the s u b j e c t attempted the s t u n t .  allowed  one  stunts.  the practice  again demonstrated, The  s i x stunts  and  Included  i n t h i s t e s t are as f o l l o w s : (i)  Grapevine - c o n s i s t s of s t a n d i n g on both f e e t i n a  f u l l squat p o s i t i o n , p l a c i n g arms between the l e g s around the knees so t h a t f i n g e r s touch i n f r o n t . must be h e l d f o r minimum of f i v e  Position  seconds.  ( i i ) One-Knee Balance - s u b j e c t balances on one o t h e r l e g h e l d s t r a i g h t back and  and  knee w i t h  o f f the f l o o r ; arms are  h e l d out t o s i d e s ; p o s i t i o n must be h e l d f o r f i v e  seconds,  ( i i i ) C r o s s - l e g Squat - from c r o s s e d - l e g s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n , arms f o l d e d across chest, s u b j e c t r i s e s t o  standing  p o s i t i o n on s i d e s of f e e t without l o s i n g balance o r moving feet. (iv)  Hop  Backward - the s u b j e c t balances on one  foot,  c l o s e s eyes, takes f i v e hops (on the same f o o t ) backward;  31 subject must hold p o s i t i o n of balance  (with eyes closed),  a f t e r completing f i n a l hop, f o r f i v e seconds; f a i l u r e results i f subject opens eyes too soon or touches other foot to f l o o r or f a l l s over before completion  of t e s t .  (v) Half-turn Jump - balanced on one foot, subject required to jump off the balanced foot, complete a turn, and land on the same foot; l o s i n g balance,  was  180°  touching  other foot to f l o o r , or f a i l i n g to execute a complete  180°  turn constituted f a i l u r e on t h i s t e s t . (vi)  Kneel, Jump to Feet - from a kneeling position, toes  pointed straight behind, and arms held out to side (subject was permitted to swing the arms), the subject  was  required to jump to a standing p o s i t i o n without moving the feet or "rocking" back on the b a l l s of the f e e t . Scoring on the Iowa-Brace Test The subjects were scored on the Iowa-Brace Test i n the following manner:  two  (2) points awarded f o r the successful  completion of each stunt on the f i r s t t r i a l ; one  (1) point  awarded f o r success on the second t r i a l ; no points awarded f o r f a i l u r e to execute stunt i n two t r i e s .  Perfect score f o r test  i s twelve (12) points. During the administration of the Iowa-Brace Test, one i n s t r u c t o r demonstrated, explained, and guided the subjects i n each test item while the second i n s t r u c t o r evaluated the  32  subjects  1  performances and recorded  prepared score  the r e s u l t s on s p e c i a l l y -  sheets.  S e l e c t i o n of Experimental Groups The  group of t h i r t y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s was  i n t o f i v e experimental  groups.  subdivided  I n c o n s t r u c t i n g these f i v e  groups, a random s e l e c t i o n was used. s i x s u b j e c t s i n each, were assigned Group I ( C o n t r o l Group).  The f i v e groups,  with  as f o l l o w s :  T h i s group r e c e i v e d no  s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g of any k i n d . Group I I (Motor A b i l i t y and Reading). received twenty-five and t w e n t y - f i v e  T h i s group  minutes of s p e c i a l motor s k i l l s  training  minutes of e x t r a r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n  every day (Monday t o F r i d a y i n c l u s i v e ) f o r a t o t a l p e r i o d of t h i r t e e n weeks. Group I I I (Motor A b i l i t y ) .  T h i s group r e c e i v e d  fifty  minutes of s p e c i a l motor s k i l l s t r a i n i n g d a i l y (Monday t o F r i d a y ) f o r t h i r t e e n weeks. Group IV (Reading O n l y ) .  T h i s group r e c e i v e d  fifty  minutes d a i l y of e x t r a r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n (Monday t o F r i d a y ) f o r t h i r t e e n weeks. Group V (Reading and P e r c e p t i o n ) .  T h i s group r e c e i v e d  twenty-five  minutes of e x t r a r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n and  twenty-five  minutes of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n v i s u a l  daily  perception  (Monday t o F r i d a y i n c l u s i v e ) f o r t h i r t e e n weeks.  33 Motor A b i l i t y S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Groups I I , IV, and V a l l r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g and/or p e r c e p t i o n . was  T h i s p a r t of the S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g  g i v e n t o the s u b j e c t s concerned by Mrs. E. Sharpe, S p e c i a l  E d u c a t i o n I n s t r u c t o r f o r the McBride S c h o o l . The  i n v e s t i g a t o r was  s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and III.  p r i n c i p a l l y concerned w i t h the  t e s t r e s u l t s of the s u b j e c t s i n Group  I t i s t h i s group w i t h which he was  involved  most a c t i v e l y  (as i n s t r u c t o r ) d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d  weeks), f o r approximately  one  (thirteen  hour of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n  motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s each day.  In a d d i t i o n , a case study  made of each of the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s i n Group I I I .  was  (Case  Study Reports f o r each i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i n Group I I I may found  be  i n Chapter V ) . I n order to b e t t e r assess the p a r t i c u l a r  perceptual-motor  a b i l i t i e s and needs of each s u b j e c t i n Groups  I I and I I I , each s u b j e c t i n these two Groups was s e r i e s of motor performance t a s k s to perform. d e v i s e d by Kephart (6) perceptual-motor Appendix "B"  individual  given a  These are tasks  to permit the o b s e r v a t i o n of a c h i l d ' s  behaviour.  These t a s k s are l i s t e d i n  of t h i s r e p o r t .  The nature  of the t a s k s  permit  o b s e r v a t i o n and assessment o f - t h e c h i l d i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time and without apparatus.  the use of complicated  devices  and  T h i s c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s performance  34 p e r m i t s t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o i d e n t i f y h i s l e v e l o f development and t o make a p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n o f t r a i n i n g methods which w i l l a i d him. From t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e Kephart Motor B e h a v i o u r E v a l u a t i o n s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r used t r a i n i n g methods designed  t o c o r r e c t o r improve t h e s p e c i f i c i n a d e q u a c i e s o f  each i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i n Group I I I . G e n e r a l l y , these i n a d e q u a c i e s were found most o f t e n i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s :  hand-eye c o o r d i n a t i o n , p o s t u r e ,  l a t e r a l i t y , d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , and body image.  balance,  From these  subjective observations, the i n v e s t i g a t o r l i s t e d  specific  e x e r c i s e s and t a s k s which would be h e l p f u l i n t r a i n i n g t h e s u b j e c t s i n Groups I I and I I I . The L i s t o f S t u n t s , E x e r c i s e s , and Games f o r t h e t r a i n i n g and improvement i n p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r a b i l i t y s k i l l s may be found i n Appendix "B" o f t h i s r e p o r t . A l l o f t h e s p e c i a l motor a b i l i t y t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s were conducted i n t h e S p e c i a l Programmes c l a s s r o o m a t t h e McBride School.  The f u r n i t u r e and equipment o f t h i s room were  arranged  so t h a t t h e s p e c i a l p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r  t r a i n i n g tasks  and e x e r c i s e s c o u l d be performed w i t h a maximum freedom o f movement and e x p r e s s i o n by t h e s u b j e c t s .  Some o f t h e more  h e l p f u l p i e c e s o f equipment and apparatus  used were:  bags, a 9' x 1 2 ' t r a m p o l i n e , w a l k i n g boards, balance  bean boards,  rubber b a l l s , a c l i m b i n g l a d d e r , hoops, and moveable s c h o o l desks.  35 F o r each day of s p e c i a l motor a b i l i t y t r a i n i n g ,  the  i n v e s t i g a t o r composed a Lesson P l a n based on the S p e c i a l Motor A b i l i t y E x e r c i s e s and Tasks.  A sample copy of a t y p i c a l  Lesson P l a n i s Included i n Appendix "B".  Many of the  specific  e x e r c i s e s and tasks used i n the motor a b i l i t y t r a i n i n g were repeated numerous times d u r i n g the course of the  training  p e r i o d , as the s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y i n c e r t a i n motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s c o u l d o n l y be improved by constant The  repetition.  p e r i o d of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor a b i l i t y  skills  covered a t o t a l of t h i r t e e n weeks, beginning November 21, and  t e r m i n a t i n g March 10,  t r a i n i n g r o u t i n e was (December 17.  1966  1967.  During t h i s time,  1966  the  i n t e r r u p t e d f o r a p e r i o d of three weeks  t o January 8,  examinations and Christmas  1967)  to allow f o r school  holidays.  Final Testing At the c o n c l u s i o n of the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , the t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n remaining  from the o r i g i n a l group of  t h i r t y s u b j e c t s ( f i v e s u b j e c t s had l e f t s c h o o l d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d f o r v a r i o u s reasons) were a g a i n g i v e n the F r o s t i g Developmental T e s t of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n and Carpenter General Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t .  the  I n a d d i t i o n , the  e n t i r e grade two p o p u l a t i o n of the McBride S c h o o l , i n c l u d i n g the t w e n t y - f i v e p u p i l s s e l e c t e d f o r the Study, repeated  the  same M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Achievement T e s t t h a t they t r i e d i n September,  1966.  36 The  r e s u l t s of these v a r i o u s t e s t s were t a b u l a t e d and  compared w i t h the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s t h a t were conducted a t the b e g i n n i n g of the study.  A summary of these r e s u l t s may be  found i n Chapters V and VI of t h i s r e p o r t .  REFERENCES 1.  H i l d r e t h , Gertrude H., M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s , Primary I I B a t t e r y ; Form T., New York: World Book Company, 1948.  2.  O t i s , A r t h u r S., Manual of D i r e c t i o n s , O t i s Quiok-Scoring Mental A b i l i t y T e s t , New York: World Book Company, 1934.  3.  F r o s t i g , Marianne, The F r o s t i g Developmental T e s t of V i s u a l Perception, Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Consulting Psychologists Press, I 9 6 I .  4.  Carpenter, A i l l e e n , "The Measurement of General Motor C a p a c i t y and General Motor A b i l i t y i n C h i l d r e n i n the F i r s t Three Grades," Research Q u a r t e r l y , December,  1942.  5»  McCloy, H.C. and Young N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New York: AppletonC e n t u r y - C r o f t s , Inc., 1954.  6.  Kephart, Newell C , The Slow Learner i n the Classroom. Columbus, Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., i 9 6 0 , Chapter 4 .  CHAPTER V CASE STUDY REPORTS OF GROUP I I I SUBJECTS Key:  I.Q.:  I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotient  M.Q.:  Motor Quotient  P.Q.:  Perceptual  Quotient  Read. Comp.:  Reading Comprehension  Read. Vocab.:  Reading  Ave.  Average Reading A b i l i t y  Read.:  SUBJECT:  Dorm A.  HEIGHT:  49-1/4" M.Q.  AGE: WEIGHT:  7 years, 2 months  46-1/2 lbs.  I.Q.:  107  P.Q. Read. Comp. Read. Vocab. Ave. Read.  95  94  F i n a l Test:  101  106  Difference:  + 6  +12  I n i t i a l Test:  Vocabulary  7 -  11 '  8 - 0  2.7  9 - 6  8 - 1 0  3.9  + 19 mos.  + 10 mos.  +1.2  Homeroom Teacher's Comments: "Donn i s v e r y q u i e t , enjoys a t t e n t i o n , i s r a t h e r dependent.  He works slowly, i s i n c l i n e d t o daydream.  schoolwork i s u n t i d y .  His  He appears t o have few c l o s e f r i e n d s ,  u s u a l l y keeps t o h i m s e l f , and seems a f r a i d t o get i n v o l v e d i n anything."  39 Investigator's  Comments:  "Donn i s p o l i t e , a t t e n t i v e , and t r i e s hard t o l e a r n new s k i l l s .  He appears t o enjoy p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and games.  A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , h i s p h y s i c a l performance-was s l i g h t l y below average.  On both the General  Motor A b i l i t y T e s t and the Kephart Perceptual-Motor Behaviour E v a l u a t i o n , he was below average.  I n i t i a l l y , Donn  demonstrated  a poor sense of balance and a h e s i t a n c y towards p h y s i c a l t a s k s on the balance boards, walking boards, and trampoline. However, a f t e r a few weeks of t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e , he became much more p r o f i c i e n t and c o n f i d e n t i n these a r e a s .  H i s motor  a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d by s i x p o i n t s ; he showed a g a i n of twelve p o i n t s i n v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n ; and h i s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y has improved  by e i g h t e e n months i n comprehension  vocabulary."  and t e n months i n  40 SUBJECT:  P h i l l i p E.  HEIGHT:  44-1/2"  WEIGHT:  M.Q. I n i t i a l Test:  AGE:  94  P.Q.  7 y e a r s , 4 months  38-1/2 l b s .  109  I.Q.:  Read. Comp. Read. Vocab. Ave.  Read.  103  7-10  7 - 8  2.5  8 - 7  Z - 11  2*0  + 3 mos.  +.5  P i n a l Test:  108  121  Difference:  +14  +18  + 9  mos.  Homeroom Teacher's Comments: " P h i l l i p was of September.  a n e x t r e m e l y shy c h i l d a t the b e g i n n i n g  But l a t e l y he w i l l t a l k and answer q u e s t i o n s .  He t r i e s t o j o i n i n and l i k e s t o take p a r t . have any c l o s e f r i e n d s a t s c h o o l . doesn't l i k e c r i t i c i s m .  He doesn't r e a l l y  He i s v e r y s e n s i t i v e and  F o r a w h i l e he would n o t ask t o l e a v e  the room and had s e v e r a l a c c i d e n t s .  But has overcome t h a t .  He i s s t i l l not o u t g o i n g but has come out of h i m s e l f v e r y much of l a t e .  P h i l l i p speaks Chinese a t home.  speak E n g l i s h and h i s f a t h e r speaks v e r y  H i s mother doesn't little.  " P h i l l i p t r i e s h a r d , but most times does not understand  a l o t of the d i r e c t i o n s I g i v e .  doesn't u n d e r s t a n d .  He won't ask i f he  H i s work i s neat and he has some c o n t r o l  of h i s p e n c i l but more i s needed." I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s Comments: "At the s t a r t of the t r a i n i n g program, P h i l l i p was v e r y q u i e t and r e t i c e n t .  He had a d e f i n i t e language b a r r i e r ,  41 and I t was d i f f i c u l t t o judge h i s performance because he c o u l d not always u n d e r s t a n d spoken i n s t r u c t i o n . P h i l l i p had improved tremendously. l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y understanding  By  February,  He now appeared t o have  the i n s t r u c t i o n s  g i v e n , and he  communicated w i t h t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s f r e e l y and e a s i l y . became one o f t h e b e t t e r l e a d e r s i n the body p a r t s t i o n games.  He  identifica-  P h i l l i p showed improvement i n a l l t h e motor  a b i l i t y s k i l l s i n t h e t r a i n i n g program, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r a m p o l i n e performance. T h i s improvement i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s g a i n of f o u r t e e n p o i n t s i n the motor a b i l i t y s c o r e .  In  a d d i t i o n , P h i l l i p showed marked improvement i n p e r c e p t u a l skill  ( e i g h t e e n p o i n t s ) , and g a i n e d n i n e months i n r e a d i n g  comprehension and t h r e e months i n r e a d i n g  vocabulary."  42 SUBJECT:  C i n d y P.  HEIGHT:  49-1/2"  AGE: 7 y e a r s , 10 months WEIGHT:  M.Q. P.Q.  50-1/2 l b s .  I.Q.:  Read. Comp. Read. Vocab. Ave.  Read.  I n i t i a l Test  101  92  7 - 1  7-7  2.5  P i n a l Test:  106  108  8-10  8 - 4  3.3  Difference:  + 5  +16  +21 mos.  +9 mos.  +.8  Homeroom Teacher's  Report:  O r a l Reading: t h a n i t was  last f a l l .  understanding.  87  She  "Cindy's o r a l r e a d i n g i s much b e t t e r She now reads i n phrases and w i t h  i s becoming a more f l u e n t r e a d e r now  that  she can s u c c e s s f u l l y 'sound o u t ' troublesome words. A l s o , she enjoys r e a d i n g t o h e r peers now and shows no embarrassment. S i l e n t Reading:  " R e t e n t i o n of f a c t s i s q u i t e good and  she can s u c c e s s f u l l y read t o f i n d s p e c i f i c answers.  Guide  r e a d i n g p r e s e n t s no problems f o r h e r e i t h e r . Phonetic S k i l l :  "Cindy i s a b l e t o b l e n d sounds  t o g e t h e r t o d i s c o v e r new words.  Occasionally, this blending  p r o c e s s t a k e s time and i n t e r r u p t s h e r o r a l r e a d i n g . H e r r e t e n t i o n of b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y i s average. Spelling: t h a n two e r r o r s .  " I n the u n i t l e s s o n s , she seldom g e t s more I t takes her a l i t t l e longer t o p r i n t her  words, almost as though she p r i n t e d the l e t t e r s f o r the sounds. Behaviour:  "Cindy works w e l l on h e r own and can be  43 depended upon t o complete her work n e a t l y and  correctly."  I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s Comments: "Cindy has shown steady Improvement i n motor a b i l i t y d u r i n g the T r a i n i n g Program.  Her performance on the trampo-  l i n e , balance boards, walking boards, and i n rope s k i p p i n g i s excellent.  Her c o o r d i n a t i o n of body movements i s v e r y good.  S l i g h t l y h i g h e r than the group average  t o b e g i n with, her  Motor Quotient rose by f i v e p o i n t s as a r e s u l t of The 92  training.  r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e Increase i n her P e r c e p t u a l Quotient t o 108)  (from  i n d i c a t e s t h a t e x t r a t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s had a  d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on her p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s .  During  the  T r a i n i n g p e r i o d , Cindy's r e a d i n g a b i l i t y showed a d i s t i n c t improvement, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a of r e a d i n g comprehension."  SUBJECT; HEIGHT:  Grant H.  AGE:  51-1/2"  WEIGHT:  M.Q. P.Q.  68  7 years, 6 months  I.Q.:  lbs.  Read. Comp. Read. Vooab. Ave.  Read.  91  92  8-0  7-7  2.5  P i n a l Test:  102  114  8-7  7-8  2.8  Difference:  +11  +22  I n i t i a l Test:  Homeroom Teachers  +7  +1  mos.  97  +.3  mo.  Comments:  O r a l Reading: s i n c e l a s t December.  "His o r a l r e a d i n g has shown improvement He now  reads w i t h g r e a t e r f l u e n c y and  w i t h b e t t e r understanding of p h r a s i n g .  When r e a d i n g t o h i s  peers, he i s more c o n f i d e n t about doing w e l l than he  was  e a r l i e r i n the term. S i l e n t Reading:  "Grant can r e c a l l f a c t s q u i t e w e l l  when questioned immediately  a f t e r an o r a l r e a d i n g , but  experiences d i f f i c u l t y when asked t o do so the f o l l o w i n g day. Phonetic S k i l l s :  "Grant knows a l l h i s i s o l a t e d  phonetic sounds, but has d i f f i c u l t y i n b l e n d i n g sounds t o form words, e x p e c i a l l y l o n g e r words l i k e  Pondering'  and  'screamed'.  H i s r e t e n t i o n of b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y i s not v e r y good. Spelling: r e v e r s a l s , such as  "Grant has many e r r o r s due  to l e t t e r  'farm-fram', 'yard-yrad',  'dog-bog'.  s p e l l i n g u n i t t w e n t y - f i v e , he had e i g h t such e r r o r s . w r i t t e n work there are many s p e l l i n g e r r o r s too. use h i s phonics.  He  In  In his doesn't  45 Behaviour;  "Restless i n c l a s s , i s a nuisance t o  o t h e r s around him. A t t e n t i o n span i s n o t v e r y l o n g ; becomes bored e a s i l y . " I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s Comments; "At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t r a i n i n g program, Grant showed a d e f i c i e n c y i n b a l a n c e and c o o r d i n a t i o n . revealed  He a l s o  a d i s t i n c t d i r e c t i o n a l i t y problem, o f t e n  confusing  l e f t from r i g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n 'Angels-in-the-Snow'. tended t o be a ' f o l l o w e r ' when p a r t i c i p a t i n g activities.  i n h i s p h y s i c a l performance,  l a r l y i n balance a c t i v i t i e s ,  twenty-two p o i n t s .  'leader'  He s t i l l has a s l i g h t problem  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between l e f t and r i g h t . increased  particu-  and he had now become a  type i n many o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s .  reading  i n group  By t h e end o f t h e T r a i n i n g P e r i o d , Grant had  Improved c o n s i d e r a b l y  quotient  He  G r a n t ' s motor  e l e v e n p o i n t s , and h i s v i s u a l  perception  A l t h o u g h he showed a d e c i d e d g a i n i n  comprehension, h i s r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y showed l i t t l e  improvement."  SUBJECT:  Mark M.  HEIGHT:  50-1/4"  7 y e a r s , 5 months  AGE: 62  WEIGHT:  M.Q.  P.Q.  lbs.  131  I.Q.:  Read. Comp. Read. Vooab. Ave.  Read.  93  116  7-4  7-0  1.9  P i n a l Test:  101  121  8-4  8-6  3.1  Difference:  +8  +5  I n i t i a l Test:  +12  mos.  +18  mos.  +1.2  Homeroom Teacher's Comments: O r a l Reading:  "He  e s p e c i a l l y i n phrasing.  has shown a l i t t l e  improvement,  Mark doesn't r e a d too f l u e n t l y ;  stumbles o v e r many words.  He does use h i s p h o n e t i c s k i l l s  d i s c o v e r words, but he t a k e s a l o n g t i m e , c o n s e q u e n t l y his  thoughts  about the  losing  paragraph..  S i l e n t Reading:  "He  has d i f f i c u l t y remembering f a c t s  about a s t o r y .  He seems t o be aware of o n l y the v a r i o u s  obvious p o i n t s .  He has g r e a t e r success when q u e s t i o n e d  immediately  f o l l o w i n g a reading.  Mark's v o c a b u l a r y r e t e n t i o n  i s below average, but he a t l e a s t attempts word t h r o u g h phonic s k i l l s . Phonics: sounds.  to  t o d i s c o v e r the  T h i s he d i d n ' t do  "Mark s t i l l mixes up the  before.  ' t h ' and  'wh'  He doesn't l o o k c a r e f u l l y a t h i s words when r e a d i n g  them; he w i l l i n t e r c h a n g e  'p',  'b',  'd , 1  'b'.  O f t e n he  say house i n s t e a d of home, come f o r came, and was  for  will saw.  Mark always seems t o be i n such a h u r r y ; he doesn't have time to  look at I n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s .  k? Spelling:  " O r a l s p e l l i n g average; i n a t e s t though,  he s c o r e s l o w e r because he p r i n t s l e t t e r s backwards, o r l e a v e s l e t t e r s out.  He won't use h i s p h o n i c s .  Behaviour:  "Mischievious i n class.  needs c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n .  Slow worker.  He  He i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a y i n g  than i n working.  H i s o n l y concern a t the p r e s e n t i s w i t h the  a c t u a l gym work.  T h i s he e n j o y s v e r y much."  I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s Comments: "At the b e g i n n i n g of the S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g Program, Mark was  v e r y outspoken, l o u d , and a g g r e s s i v e .  His  headstrong  b e h a v i o u r a f f e c t e d h i s p h y s i c a l performance, so t h a t what appeared t o be a l a c k of motor a b i l i t y was r e s u l t of a t t i t u d e .  p a r t i a l l y the  However, w i t h the p r o p e r d i s c i p l i n e  and  m o t i v a t i o n , Mark improved n o t o n l y i n p h y s i c a l performance, but i n a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r as w e l l . Program, Mark was  By the end of the  the l e a d e r and s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m e r  every s k i l l a c t i v i t y .  i n nearly  A l t h o u g h h i s f i n a l s c o r e s i n motor  a b i l i t y and p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s showed some improvement, perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n was  a c h i e v e d by Mark i n r e a d i n g ,  where f i n a l t e s t s i n d i c a t e d an improvement of t w e l v e months i n r e a d i n g comprehension and e i g h t e e n months i n r e a d i n g vocabulary."  SUBJECT:  Samuel W.  HEIGHT:  48-1/2"  AGE: WEIGHT:  7 y e a r s , 11 months  50-1/2 l b s .  I.Q.: 97  M.Q. P.Q. Head. Comp. Read. Vocab. Ave. Read. 97  95  7-7  7-5  2.2  F i n a l Test:  102  100  8-7  8-9  3.3  Difference:  +5  +5  I n i t i a l Test:  +12 mos.  +16 mos.  +1.1  Homeroom Teacher's Comments: "Hard worker, mature approach, b u t f i n d s r e a d i n g s k i l l s h a r d work.  Sam has always been most c o o p e r a t i v e , and  very a t t e n t i v e during lessons.  However, he has c o n s i d e r a b l e  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h language a r t s , though n o t from l a c k o f a p p l y ing himself.  Mrs. W i l k i e , who t a k e s h i s P.E., says he has  become t h e most p r o f i c i e n t i n h i s c l a s s i n a l l P.E. s k i l l s , though he had c o o r d i n a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s i n Grade 1.  Sam i s  t h o u g h t f u l and c o n s i d e r a t e and a p o p u l a r boy w i t h h i s s c h o o l mates." I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s Comments: "Throughout t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , Sam was an e x c e l l e n t p u p i l , a t t e n t i v e , p e r s e v e r i n g , e n t h u s i a s t i c , and v e r y w e l l behaved.  Perhaps more t h a n any o t h e r s u b j e c t i n Group I I I ,  Sam d i s p l a y e d an e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h a b i l i t y t o l e a r n i n motor skills.  H i s a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h i s a c t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r I s  u n u s u a l f o r h i s age group.  Sam proved t o be e a s i l y t h e most  49 v e r s a t i l e performer  i n the group, and was e x c e p t i o n a l i n  balance beam work and trampoline e x e r c i s e s .  Sam's r e a d i n g  v o c a b u l a r y and r e a d i n g comprehension improved by twelve months and s i x t e e n months r e s p e c t i v e l y . "  CHAPTER V I RESULTS The d a t a . o b t a i n e d from t h e f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups a r e summarized i n T a b l e s I , I I , and I I I . The s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t d e a l s w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e c o r r e l a t e d means o f t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t r e s u l t s i n t h e t h r e e s k i l l elements i n each group.  The t h r e e s k i l l elements a r e :  Achievement;  ( i i ) P e r c e p t u a l Performance; ( i i i ) Motor A b i l i t y  Performance. Group I  ( i ) Reading  The f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups a r e : - t h e C o n t r o l Group  Group I I - t h e Motor A b i l i t y and R e a d i n g Group Group I I I - t h e Motor A b i l i t y Group Group I V  - t h e Reading Group  Group V  - t h e Reading and P e r c e p t i o n Group.  A d i f f e r e n c e i n means i s c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t when t h e p r o b a b i l i t y i s h i g h t h a t i t cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o chance and hence r e p r e s e n t s a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e .  A d i f f e r e n c e i n means i s  s a i d t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t when i t appears r e a s o n a b l y  certain  t h a t i t c o u l d e a s i l y have a r i s e n from normal f l u c t u a t i o n s o r chance. F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e F i s h e r ' s t s t a t i s t i c i n each o f t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between  51 means was p l a c e d i n one o f t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 1.  One c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t e d o f v a l u e s f a l l i n g the .05  2.  below  l e v e l of confidence;  A second c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t e d o f v a l u e s w h i c h f e l l between t h e .05  and .01  l e v e l s of  confidence; 3.  A t h i r d category c o n s i s t e d of values which f e l l a t o r above t h e .01  l e v e l of confidence.  These c a t e g o r i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o the p o s s i b l e consequences o f making e r r o r s o f t h e f i r s t o r second k i n d b u t were used s o l e l y t o c l a s s i f y mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y .  Thus, r e s u l t s were  c o n s i d e r e d as u n r e l i a b l e o r n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i f below t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , s i g n i f i c a n t o r r e l i a b l e a t t h e .05  level  of c o n f i d e n c e , and h i g h l y r e l i a b l e o r h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01  l e v e l of confidence.  The t w o - t a i l e d t e s t was a p p l i e d  i n a l l comparisons between means. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between c o r r e l a t e d means o f t h e I n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t r e s u l t s i n t h e t h r e e s k i l l elements f o r each group i s o u t l i n e d i n Appendix "A" o f t h i s r e p o r t . T a b l e I summarizes t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean performance o f each o f t h e f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s i n t h e s k i l l element o f Reading Achievement.  A l l f i v e groups demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s  52 in this s k i l l .  Group I I I , t h e Motor A b i l i t y Group,  h i g h e s t t r a t i o , 7*14, w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t  the  exhibited  a t t h e one p e r  c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . Two o t h e r groups w h i c h demonstrated significance  a t t h e .01 l e v e l were Group I V (Reading) and  Group V (Reading and P e r c e p t i o n ) , w i t h t r a t i o s o f 4.70 and 5-40 r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE I COMPARISON OP RESULTS BETWEEN INITIAL AND PINAL MEANS IN THE ELEMENT OP READING ACHIEVEMENT GROUP  M  l ,  SD„ 1  SD  2  M  l  _ M  df  t  2  2.40  .224  3.28  .316  + .88  3  4.51*  II  2.43  .283  3.18  .538  + .75  4  2.35*  III  2.38  .300  3.23  .196  + .85  5  7.14**  IV  2.10  .265  2.98  .469  + .88  5  4.7  **  V  2.38  .200  3.30  .728  + .92  3  5.4  **  I  *Signifleant  a t the f i v e p e r cent l e v e l of confidence.  **Significant  a t t h e one p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  T a b l e I I summarizes  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean  performances o f each o f t h e f i v e groups i n t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l tests  i n t h e s k i l l element o f P e r c e p t u a l Performance.  Group I I I (Motor A b i l i t y ) a g a i n demonstrated t h e h i g h e s t t r a t i o o f 4.00,  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e one p e r c e n t l e v e l o f  53 confidence.  Group I V (Reading) and Group V (Reading and  P e r c e p t i o n ) had t v a l u e s o f 2.35 and 2.90 r e s p e c t i v e l y , significant  a t the f i v e p e r cent l e v e l .  both  The l o w e s t r a t i o was  demonstrated by Group I ( C o n t r o l ) , w i t h a t r a t i o o f 1.70, w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE I I COMPARISON OP RESULTS BETWEEN I N I T I A L AND PINAL MEANS IN THE ELEMENT OF PERCEPTUAL PERFORMANCE GROUP  M  l  SD  1  M 2  SD  2  M u  -M l 2  df  t  u  100.3 11.26  2.8  3  1.70  104.2  9.00  6.2  4  1.91  8.19  111.7  7.42  13.0  5  4.00**  101.3  8.48  106.0  6.32  4.7  5  2.35*  100.8  9.85  107.3  8.06  6.5  3  2.9 *  I  97-5  15.39  II  98.0  9.95  III  98.7  IV V  * S i g n i f l e a n t a t the f i v e p e r cent l e v e l of confidence. * * S l g n i f l e a n t a t t h e one p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . T a b l e I I I summarizes t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean performances o f each o f t h e f i v e groups i n t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s i n t h e s k i l l element o f Motor Performance. III,  t h e Motor A b i l i t y Group, showed t h e most  significant  g a i n , w i t h a t r a t i o o f 5 » 0 0 , w h i c h was s t a t i s t i c a l l y c a n t a t t h e one p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  Group  signifi-  Group I I (Motor  54 A b i l i t y and R e a d i n g ) , Group I V ( R e a d i n g ) , and Group V (Reading and P e r c e p t i o n ) a l l showed d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t were significant  a t the f i v e p e r cent l e v e l .  statistically  Group I , t h e C o n t r o l  Group, w i t h a t r a t i o o f o n l y O.98, d i d n o t show a g a i n significant  a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h i s  skill.  TABLE I I I COMPARISON OF RESULTS BETWEEN I N I T I A L AND FINAL MEANS IN THE ELEMENT OF MOTOR PERFORMANCE GROUP  M  l  SD  1  M  2  SD  -M  2  2  df  t  I  92.3  3.32  94.3  1.00  + 2.0  3  • 98  II  92.0  4.00  100.2  4.58  + 8.2  4  2.33*  III  95.2  4.80  IO3.3  2.25  + 9.1  5.00**  IV  101.0  4.00  98.5  3.87  -  5  2.5  5  2.5 *  V  96.0  5.20  101.5  5.10  + 5.5  3  2.8 *  ^ S i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e p e r cent l e v e l of confidence. * * S i g n i f l e a n t a t t h e one p e r cent l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  CHAPTER V I I DISCUSSION The  results  i n d i c a t e an improvement i n Reading A b i l i t y  i n t h e f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups.  The Motor A b i l i t y Group,  Group I I I , showed t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n , a t t h e h i g h l y one p e r cent l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  I t i sespecially  i n g t o note t h a t t h e two groups w h i c h r e c e i v e d training  significant interest-  special  i n r e a d i n g , Group I I (Reading and Motor A b i l i t y ) and  Group I V ( R e a d i n g ) , e x h i b i t e d l e s s improvement i n Reading t h a n Group I I I (Motor A b i l i t y ) . I n t h e element o f P e r c e p t i o n , Group I I I (Motor made a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  Ability)  g a i n a t t h e one p e r c e n t  l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , w h i l e Group I V (Reading) and Group V (Reading and P e r c e p t i o n ) showed s i g n i f i c a n t  gains a t the f i v e  p e r cent l e v e l . I n t h e element o f Motor Performance, t h e Motor A b i l i t y Group (Group I I I ) , as expected, demonstrated t h e most significant  gain, with a t r a t i o of 5«00, s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  a t t h e one p e r cent l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  Group I I  (Motor A b i l i t y and R e a d i n g ) , Group I V ( R e a d i n g ) , and Group V (Reading and P e r c e p t i o n ) showed g a i n s t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e p e r cent l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  The g a i n made by Group  I , t h e C o n t r o l Group, showed no s i g n i f i c a n c e cent l e v e l of confidence.  a t the f i v e p e r  56 I t was shown t h a t t h e Motor A b i l i t y Group, which d i d n o t have any s p e c i a l r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e , improved i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as much as t h e C o n t r o l Group and S p e c i a l Reading  Group.  I n f a c t , t h e Motor A b i l i t y Group demonstrated a t r a t i o g r e a t e r t h a n a l l o f t h e o t h e r groups i n t h e Reading  Achieve-  ment t e s t . The case s t u d i e s made o f t h e s i x i n d i v i d u a l members o f Group I I I (Motor A b i l i t y ) r e v e a l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s o f interest: A f t e r t h i r t e e n weeks o f s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s , 1.  A l l s u b j e c t s showed an improvement i n t h e s k i l l element o f Motor A b i l i t y Performance; t h e improvement i n Motor Q u o t i e n t s  ranged from +5  p o i n t s t o +14 p o i n t s . 2.  A l l s u b j e c t s demonstrated improvement i n t h e s k i l l element o f P e r c e p t u a l Performance; i n Perceptual Quotients to  3.  ranged from +5  gains  points  +14 p o i n t s .  E v e r y s u b j e c t i n t h e Motor A b i l i t y Group showed an improvement i n t h e s k i l l element o f Reading Ability.  The i n c r e a s e s i n Average  s c o r e s ranged from +0.3  t o +1.2.  Reading In fact, a l l  but one o f t h e case s t u d y s u b j e c t s demonstrated an Average Reading s c o r e o f 3*0  o r h i g h e r on  57 the f i n a l M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Achievement T e s t . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y , as a r e s u l t of t h e i r l o w performance on the i n i t i a l  Reading  Achievement T e s t , a l l s i x s u b j e c t s had been c l a s s e d i n t h e poor r e a d e r c a t e g o r y r e a d i n g r a t i n g below  (average  3*0).  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e comments of b o t h t h e homeroom t e a c h e r s and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , based on s u b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was d e c i d e d improvement i n a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r i n each of t h e case s t u d y s u b j e c t s .  CHAPTER V I I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s on t h e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f grade two p u p i l s who a r e c l a s s e d as poor readers. T h i r t y s u b j e c t s , a l l grade two p u p i l s a t t h e McBride S c h o o l i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, were s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  Each s u b j e c t was c l a s s e d as a  r e t a r d e d r e a d e r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r achievement on a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t f o r t h e grade two l e v e l . The p r e - t r a i n i n g and p o s t - t r a i n i n g t e s t s were standardized f o r a l l subjects.  A l l t h i r t y of the o r i g i n a l  s u b j e c t s were s c o r e d on t h e i r performances i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Reading T e s t , t h e O t i s M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t , t h e F r o s t i g Developmental T e s t o f V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n , and t h e Carpenter  G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t .  The t h i r t y s u b j e c t s  x?ere t h e n randomly a s s i g n e d t o f i v e Sub-Groups f o r purposes o f the S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g Program.  Group I was t h e C o n t r o l Group.  Group I I r e c e i v e d e x t r a t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s and r e a d i n g . Group I I I r e c e i v e d e x t r a i n s t r u c t i o n i n motor s k i l l s T h i s Group was a l s o s e l e c t e d f o r Case S t u d y purposes.  only. Group i v  59 received s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading only. r e c e i v e d e x t r a t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g and v i s u a l  Group V perception.  There were o r i g i n a l l y s i x s u b j e c t s i n each o f the f i v e sub-groups.  Sometime d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , f i v e of the  s u b j e c t s dropped out o f s c h o o l f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , l e a v i n g f o u r s u b j e c t s i n Group I , f i v e i n Group I I , s i x i n Group I I I , s i x i n Group I V , and f o u r i n Group V. Group I I I r e c e i v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  f i f t y minutes of  d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n i n motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s f o r a t o t a l of s i x t y - f i v e days.  A l l the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s  t o o k p l a c e i n the s p e c i a l programs c l a s s r o o m  a t the M c B r i d e  School. A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , t h e twnety-five remaining  s u b j e c t s were a g a i n t e s t e d i n g e n e r a l  motor c a p a c i t y , p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y , and r e a d i n g competence. S c o r e s on t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s i n motor c a p a c i t y , p e r c e p t i o n , and r e a d i n g were s u b j e c t e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean improvements o f the groups were  discussed.  Conclusions The r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s  that  c h i l d r e n who a r e c l a s s i f i e d as p o o r r e a d e r s w i l l , by t a k i n g p a r t i n a s p e c i a l motor s k i l l s t r a i n i n g program, show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y .  This f i n d i n g i s ,  however, s u b j e c t t o a l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s i n c e  the  s u b j e c t s i n a l l f i v e groups showed s i m i l a r improvements i n r e a d i n g s k i l l s as measured by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test. The  f a i l u r e of the s p e c i a l motor a b i l i t y group t o show  c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e s i n improvement i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y from the c o n t r o l and o t h e r groups suggests p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s i n the  study: 1.  R e l i a b i l i t y of the Reading Achievement T e s t f o r c h i l d r e n of t h i s age  2.  level;  Problem of b i a s i n groups, d e s p i t e randomized s e l e c t i o n , s i n c e groups i n the s t u d y are  very  small; 3.  S u f f i c i e n t a l l o w a n c e f o r "time l a g " e f f e c t , i . e . , whether o r not r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups w i l l be apparent a f t e r o n l y a six-month p e r i o d between t e s t s ;  4.  P o s s i b l e e f f e c t of e x t r a n e o u s i n f l u e n c e s , such as p r i v a t e r e a d i n g , t u t o r i n g , home environment, s p e c i a l m o t i v a t i o n , and the  like.  However, t h i s i s not t o deny the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s p e c i a l motor a b i l i t y t r a i n i n g programs of r e l a t i v e l y d u r a t i o n may  short  improve the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n as much  as any o t h e r method.  The r e s u l t s showed a d e f i n i t e improvement i n motor a b i l i t y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n those s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s .  The  apparent improvement i n t h e b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e o f s u b j e c t s i n t h i s M o t o r A b i l i t y Group would seem t o be a v e r y i m p o r t a n t benefit  t o t h e c h i l d who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s p e c i a l motor a b i l i t y  t r a i n i n g programs.  I t seems t h a t such programs can  t o t h e improvement of the c a p a c i t y benefit  from  schooling.  contribute  of c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n and  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Benton, A.L. "Dyslexia i n Relation to Form Perception and D i r e c t i o n a l Sense," Reading D i s a b i l i t y . J . Honey (ed.). Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1962. Bovard, J.F., Cozens, F.W., and Hagman, E.P. Tests and Measurements i n Physical Education. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1 9 4 9 . Campbell, William G. Form and Style i n Thesis Writing. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1954. C r i t c h l e y , M. 1964.  Developmental Dyslexia.  London:  Heineman,  C r i t c h l e y , M. "The Evolution of Man's Capacity f o r Language," The Evolution of Man. V o l . I I . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, i960. F r o s t i g , Marianne. "The Education of Children with Learning D i f f i c u l t i e s , " Progress i n Learning Disorders. Helmer R. Mykebust (ed.). New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1967.  F r o s t i g , Marianne. The F r o s t i g Developmental Test of V i s u a l Perception. Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Consulting Psychologists Press. F r o s t i g , Marianne and Home, D. The F r o s t i g Program f o r the Development of V i s u a l Perception. Chicago: F o l l e t t Co., 19341 Garrett, Henry E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1965. Gesell, A. The F i r s t Five Years of L i f e . and Bros., 1940.  New York:  Harper  Gesell, A. and Frances, L. The Child from Five to Ten. New York: Harper and Bros•, 1946• Gray, W.S. The Teaching of Reading and Writing. UNESCO, 1956.  Paris:  63 Grimes, J.W. and A l l i n s m i t h , W. "Compulsivity, Anxiety, and School Achievement," The Causes of Behavior: Readings i n Child Development and Educational Psychology. Rosenblith, J.P. and A l l i n s m i t h , W. (ed.), Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1962. Hildreth, Gertrude H. Metropolitan Achievement Test. Primary II Battery: Form T" New York: World Book Company, 1948. Kephart, H. The Slow Learner i n the Classroom. Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l , Inc., I96I. McCloy, H.C. and Young, N.D. and Physical Education. Crofts, Inc., 1954.  Columbus,  Tests and Measurements l n Health New York: Appleton-Century-  Money, J . Reading D i s a b i l i t y . Press, 1962.  Baltimore:  Monroe, M. Children Who Cannot Read. Chicago Press, 1950.  John Hopkins  Chicago:  U n i v e r s i t y of  Mouly, George J . The Science of Educational Research. York: American Book Co., 1963.  New  Neilson, N.P. S t a t i s t i c s . Tests, and Measurements i n Physical Education. Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : N.-P. Publications, I960. Otis, Arthur S. Manual of Directions. Otis Quick-Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. New York: World Book Company, 1954. Prudden, B. Is Your C h i l d Really F i t . Bros., 1956.  New  York:  Harper and  Rabinovitch, R.D. "Reading and Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s , " American Handbook of Psychiatry. 3, A r i e t i (ed.). New York: Basic Books, 1959. Rabinovitch, R.D. and Ingram, W. "Neuropsychiatry Considerations i n Retardation," C o n f l i c t In the Classroom. R. Newm (ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Co., 1965. Vernon, M.D. Backwardness In Reading. University Press, 1957•  Cambridge:  Cambridge  64 Wellman, B.L. "Physical Growth and Motor Development and Their Relationship to Mental Development i n Children," A Handbook of C h i l d Psychology* C. Murchison (ed.). Worcester: Clark University Press, 1931« PERIODICALS Anderson, Ursula M. "Reading D i s a b i l i t y : What Should the School Physician Look f o r i n Determining I t s Causation," The Journal of School Health. V o l . 35. No. 4, A p r i l , 1965,  pp. 145-152.  Birch, H.G. and Belmont, L. "Auditory-Visual Integration i n Normal and Retarded Readers," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 34(5):852. I905T Birch, H.G. and Belmont, L. "Auditory-Visual Integration, Intelligence, and Reading A b i l i t y i n School Children," Perceptual Motor S k i l l s . 20:295, I965. Carpenter, A i l l e e n . "The Measurement of General Motor Capacity and General Motor A b i l i t y i n the F i r s t Three Grades," Research Quarterly. December, 1942. Dearborn, W.F. "Ocular and Manual Dominance i n Dyslexia," Psychological B u l l e t i n . 28:704, 1931* Eisenberg, Leon. "Reading Retardation: P s y c h i a t r i c and S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects," P e d i a t r i c s . Vol. 37, No. 2, February, 1966. Eustace, R.S. "Specific Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " New Journal of Medicine. 237:243, 1947.  England  Gootzinger, CP., Dirks, D.D. and Baer, C.J. "Auditory Discrimination and Visual Perception i n Good and Poor Readers," J . O l o l . Rhlnol. Larylng.. 69:121, i960. Raring, N.G. "The E f f e c t of Gross Motor Development on V i s u a l Perception and Eye-Hand Co-ordination," Physical Therapy. Vol. 46, February, I966. Harris, A.J. "Lateral Dominance, D i r e c t i o n a l Confusion and Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " Journal of Psychology. 44:283, 1957.  65 Klapper, Z.S. "Psychoeducational Aspects of Beading D i s a b i l i t i e s , " P e d i a t r i c s. V o l . 37. No. 2, February, 1966. Morgan, W.P. "A Case of Congenital Word Blindness," B r i t i s h Medical Journal. 2:1378, I896. Orton, S.T. "Specific Reading D i s a b i l i t y - Strephosymbolia, Journal of the American Medical Association. 90:1095.  11  1928.  Rabinovitoh, R.D., et a l . "A Research Approach to Reading Retardation," Research Publications. V o l . 34, 1954. "Recent Research Findings In Physical Education," The Journal of the Canadian Association f o r Health, Physical Education. and Recreation. V o l . 32. Aug. - Sept.. 1966. No. 6. S i l v e r , A.A. and Hagin, R. "Specific Reading D i s a b i l i t y : Delineation of the Syndrome and Relationship to Cerebral Dominance," Comparative Psychiatry. 1:126, i960. Smith, L.C. "A Study of L a t e r a l i t y Characteristics of Retarded Readers and Reading Achievement," Journal Exp.  Ed.. 18:321, 1950.  Wolfe, L.S. " D i f f e r e n t i a l Factors i n S p e c i f i c Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " Journal of Genet. Psychology. 18:45, 1941.  APPENDIX  APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT The raw scores obtained from the i n i t i a l and f i n a l test results of the Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test, the F r o s t i g Developmental Test of Visual Perception, and the Metropolitan Achievement Reading Test were analyzed  statisti-  c a l l y i n the following manner: Study Design I II III IV V  The Control Group The Motor A b i l i t y and Reading Group The Motor A b i l i t y Group The Reading Group The Reading and Perceptual Group  Tests of the Reading Achievement i n Grade Two Pupils Test 1  Metropolitan Achievement Test  Test 2  Metropolitan Achievement Test  Tests of the Motor Achievement In Grade Two Pupils Test 1  The Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test  Test 2  The Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test  Tests of the Perceptual Achievement i n Grade Two Pupils Test 1  F r o s t i g Developmental Test of Visual Perception  Test 2  F r o s t i g Developmental Test of Visual Perception  67 The Control Group  The Motor A b i l i t y and Reading Group  I n i t i a l Tests  I n i t i a l Tests  No extra i n s t r u c t i o n i n motor, reading and perceptual t r a i n i n g  Thirteen weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n i n motor t r a i n i n g and remedial reading  P i n a l Tests  Twenty-five minutes of Motor Training and Twenty-five minutes of Remedial reading d a i l y f o r the thirteen weeks P i n a l Tests  The Motor Group  The Reading Group  I n i t i a l Tests  I n i t i a l Tests  Thirteen weeks of extra instruction i n motor t r a i n i n g  Thirteen weeks of extra instruction i n remedial reading  F i f t y minutes d a l l y f o r t h i r t e e n weeks  F i f t y minutes d a i l y f o r t h i r t e e n weeks  F i n a l Tests  F i n a l Tests  The Reading and Perceptual Group I n i t i a l Tests Thirteen weeks of extra i n s t r u c t i o n i n remedial reading and perceptual t r a i n i n g Twenty-five minutes of remedial reading d a i l y and Twenty-five minutes of perceptual t r a i n i n g d a i l y f o r the thirteen weeks F i n a l Tests  68 Procedure and Formulae D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the c o r r e l a t e d means of the i n i t i a l  and f i n a l  test  r e s u l t s i n the three s k i l l elements f o r each of the e x p e r i mental groups was c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g formulae: 1.  Number o f s u b j e c t s :  2.  Mean Score:  (N)  M = N  3.  Standard D e v i a t i o n :  4.  Standard E r r o r of the Mean:  5.  Difference  6.  C o r r e l a t i o n between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Test  Y  /  =  -  CT  M  -  (M^ - U^)  between the Means:  Results:  MEXY-EXrY J [/VI x  7.  O" =  2  - ( I X ^ M U  Standard E r r o r of the D i f f e r e n c e  (IT) ]  -  1  2  between C o r r e l a t e d Means: 2  M 8.  C a l c u l a t i o n t o the t ,  l  Ratio:  t =  1  — M 2  S.E. The  l e v e l of confidence was r e q u i r e d  be a c c e p t a b l e .  D  t o reach 0.05 t o  The t a b l e of t a t both the 0.05 and 0.01 l e v e l s  of confidence f o r a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t w i t h f i v e degrees of freedom (N-l) i s shown t o be  2.02  f o u r degrees of freedom (N-l) as  and  3*36  respecltvely; f o r  2.13 and 3*75  respectively;  69  f o r three degrees of freedom (N-l) as 2.35 and 4 . 5 4 respectively (1).  REFERENCES 1.  G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. 5 t h ed., New York: Longmans, Green, 1958, p. 4 4 9 .  APPENDIX B KEPHART PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR PERFORMANCE TASKS (1) Purpose of t h i s Section This section i s devoted to a description of a series, of performances designed to permit the observation of a c h i l d ' s perceptual-motor behaviour.  These are motor tasks  designed by Kephart to reveal the perceptual-motor a b i l i t y of the c h i l d at each developmental stage.  The examiner observes  the performance of the c h i l d and attends to c e r t a i n evidences i n his behaviour which indicate h i s perceptual-motor status. These tasks are designed to permit observation of the c h i l d i n a r e l a t i v e l y short period of time and without the use of complicated devices and apparatus.  A close observation of  the child's performance w i l l permit the teacher to i d e n t i f y his l e v e l of development and to make a preliminary selection of t r a i n i n g methods which w i l l a i d him. I t i s f e l t that the teacher w i l l f i n d t h i s series of observations h e l p f u l i n evaluating children*s a b i l i t y and performance.  I t provides a somewhat new way of looking at the  c h i l d and can serve as a guide to a re-evaluation.  The  observations presented here are somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the customary evaluations through readiness and achievement The present observations can therefore provide valuable  tests.  additional Information as a guide f o r dealing with the problems of the c h i l d . The tasks have been designed f o r and c l i n i c a l l y invesitgated with children s i x to nine years of age. Although they w i l l be found useful with retarded children at older age l e v e l s , some of the tasks w i l l be found too simple f o r older groups.  By the same token, some w i l l be found too d i f f i c u l t  f o r children below age s i x . Since the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the readiness problems In which we are interested i s most c r i t i c a l when the c h i l d begins school, tasks at the s i x - to nine-year l e v e l have been selected. WALKING BOARD (OR BEAM) The walking board Is a modification of the childhood game of walking a r a i l fence or walking along the r a i l s of a r a i l r o a d track.  Techniques s i m i l a r to t h i s have been used  extensively i n kindergarten and elementary school grades. Commercial models df a walking beam w i l l be found i n many school systems. The primary function to be observed with the walking board i s that of balance.  We can also observe postural  f l e x i b i l i t y since the balance problem also creates a s i t u a t i o n i n which movements which cannot be predicted f a r ahead of time must be performed without l o s i n g basic postural adjustment.  72. L a t e r a l i t y i s involved i n maintaining balance i t s e l f and i s approached more s p e c i f i c a l l y when we ask the c h i l d to walk the board i n the sidewise d i r e c t i o n s .  When we introduce the  backward d i r e c t i o n , we require d i f f i c u l t s p a t i a l orientation and s p a t i a l projections. Forward The walking beam i s a section of two-by-four measuring eight to twelve feet long and l a i d along the f l o o r with i t s wider edge down.  The c h i l d walks on the two-by-four as he  would walk on a fence r a i l . Start the c h i l d at one end of the beam. walk to the other end.  Ask him to  Give no further i n s t r u c t i o n s .  Observe  the manner i n which he i s able to balance himself on the beam. Is he able to catch his balance and correct himself when he i s i n danger of f a l l i n g off? Some children w i l l be found who attempt to solve the problem by avoiding the requirement f o r balance.  Thus, they  w i l l run across the beam or take very long strides i n an e f f o r t to reduce the number of times that they have to come to balance.  In these cases, i n s t r u c t the c h i l d that he i s to  walk slowly and use normal s t r i d e s .  Other children w i l l  attempt to place t h e i r feet crosswise on the beam and thus increase the extent of the surface i n order to decrease the demand f o r balance.  Such children should be instructed to  74 place t h e i r feet straight along the board.  A f t e r the examiner  has observed the child's i n i t i a l attempt, he may  demonstrate  the proper method. Evaluation.  Inadequate performance i n t h i s task i s  indicated by f a i l u r e to maintain balance.  The c h i l d who steps  off the board more than once or who pauses frequently when he i s out of balance and has trouble regaining his balance i s showing d i f f i c u l t y .  His performance would indicate that he  could p r o f i t from t r a i n i n g procedures designed to a i d general postural adjustment, such as the walking board t r a i n i n g and the balance board and trampoline t r a i n i n g . Watch the manner i n which the c h i l d maintains his balance.  Does he use one side of the body much more  consistently than the other?  For example, does he use one arm  almost exclusively as a counter-balance?  I f so, walking board  or balance board t r a i n i n g can be modified to help him learn to use both sides together.  Ask him to walk the walking board or  balance on the balance board while holding a broomstick or long pole i n the manner i n which a tight-rope walker holds a balancing pole.  Set his hands wide apart on the pole. When  he makes a balancing movement with one side, a compensatory movement of the opposite side i s forced upon him by the pole. In t h i s manner, he can be given practice i n b i l a t e r a l activity.  75 On the other hand, the c h i l d may appear too b i l a t e r a l on the walking board.  Does he use his two arms symmetrically  during too much of his performance?  Does he appear to have  trouble when balance requires a response on one side only? I f so, the walking board and balance board t r a i n i n g can be modified again.  In t h i s case, give the c h i l d two objects to  carry i n his hands as he balances. be markedly heavier than the other.  One of these objects should With the weights i n his  hands, b i l a t e r a l l y symmetrical responses become impossible. The same extent of movement on both sides requires more e f f o r t on one side than on the other.  In l i k e manner, the counter-  balancing e f f e c t of a movement on one side i s greater than that of a movement of the same extent on the other side. Similar t r a i n i n g can be provided f o r the feet and legs by tying sandbags onto the child's ankles. Backward S t a r t the c h i l d at one end of the beam with his back toward i t and the board extending out behind him. Ask him to step up on the beam and walk backward to the other end.  The  same avoidance behaviours discussed above may be encountered here and are dealt with i n the same manner. In addition, i n the backward task, the c h i l d may twist his body so that he i s able to look behind him to see where he i s going.  I f this  occurs, ask the c h i l d I f he can walk the beam backwards  76 without looking.  Stand i n front of him and ask him to keep  looking at you while he walks the beam. Evaluation.  Inadequate performance i s Indicated by  frequent loss of balance and by stepping off the board more than twice.  I f the c h i l d cannot perform without watching h i s  feet or hesitates excessively i n stepping back, he may be having trouble with the backward d i r e c t i o n .  Such c h i l d r e n can  be helped by t r a i n i n g i n posture and balance  (walking board,  balance board, trampoline). Sldewlse Start the c h i l d at one end of the beam facing at right angles to i t so that the beam extends to his r i g h t .  Ask him  to step up on the beam and walk sldewlse to the other end. Observe whether the c h i l d i s able to s h i f t his weight from one foot to the other.  He should move his right foot to the right  and bring his l e f t foot up to i t .  Notice any h e s i t a t i o n or  confusion when movement must change from one foot to the other.  Some c h i l d r e n w i l l t r y to cross one l e g over the  other.  A f t e r the examiner has observed t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , he  may demonstrate the correct method.  I f the c h i l d takes  unusually large s t r i d e s , ask him to step normally.  When he  has progressed to the end of the beam, ask him to walk back sldewlse, moving to his l e f t .  Some children w i l l be found who  can walk the board i n one d i r e c t i o n but not i n the other. I t  i s f e l t that these children are accustomed to avoiding the l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y problem by using only one side as a leading side.  When asked to lead with the opposite side,  they cannot perform.  In walking the beam from r i g h t to l e f t ,  the c h i l d must lead with his l e f t foot.  In walking from l e f t  to r i g h t , he must lead with his r i g h t foot. Evaluation.  This a c t i v i t y i s designed to provide  additional information regarding the use of the two sides of the body.  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n i d e n t i f y i n g the c h i l d  who i s too one-sided.  Watch f o r the c h i l d who has p a r t i c u l a r  d i f f i c u l t y i n one d i r e c t i o n (stepping o f f the board more than twice) and f o r the c h i l d who obviously performs more e a s i l y i n one d i r e c t i o n than i n the other.  Such children are probably  having trouble with l a t e r a l i t y and are solving the problem by using excessive dominance of one side. Modifications of the balance board and walking board t r a i n i n g described above w i l l be found useful.  One of the  best devices f o r such children i s the trampoline since i t emphasizes the importance of symmetrical a c t i v i t i e s .  Angels-  in-the-Snow may be needed to help the c h i l d i d e n t i f y and control the parts of his body on the non-dominant side. JUMPING We can gain further information concerning the child's  78 a b i l i t y to maintain balance and posture i f we ask him to perform against the p u l l of gravity.  The easiest method of  c o n t r o l l i n g such a c t i v i t i e s i s through the use to hopping, skipping, and Jumping performances.  The present techniques  are designed to indicate how well the c h i l d can maintain control of h i s body when he i s asked to behave symmetrically, to behave with each side alone, and to behave a l t e r n a t e l y between sides.  Many of the a c t i v i t i e s suggested here have  been included i n the curriculum of physical education f o r many years.  Through c a r e f u l observation, they can also be used to  give us insight into the l e v e l upon which the c h i l d i s behaving. The series i s designed to present f i r s t  bilateral  a c t i v i t i e s (item A ) , then u n i l a t e r a l a c t i v i t i e s (items B and C), the alternating a c t i v i t i e s - regular a l t e r n a t i o n (items D, E, and P) and i r r e g u l a r a l t e r n a t i o n (items G and H). In order to perform at an acceptable l e v e l , the c h i l d must demonstrate l a t e r a l i t y , body image, rhythm, and the neurological controls related to each of these factors. On alternating a c t i v i t i e s , the examiner should observe very c a r e f u l l y to see whether the a l t e r n a t i o n i s a true flow of a c t i v i t y from one side to the other or whether i t i s two separate a c t i v i t i e s .  Skipping i s a good example.  Skipping  has been used extensively i n classrooms and many children have been l i s t e d as able to skip when the a c t i v i t y d i d not flow  79  smoothly from one side to the other.  Such children, i n e f f e c t ,  hop once on the r i g h t foot, stop, and then hop once on the l e f t foot.  They have treated each side separately and have  set up a separate task on each side of the body.  The  performance which we would l i k e to see i s one i n which the movement flows smoothly and uninterruptedly from one side to the other and back again.  The l a t t e r type of performance i s  i n d i c a t i v e of much better l a t e r a l i t y and body image than i s the former. A.  Both Feet Stand the c h i l d at the side of the room where he has a  c l e a r space measuring the length of the room i n front of him. Ask him to put both feet together and to jump forward step.  one  The c h i l d must hold his feet together while he jumps  and must not step forward as i n walking.  Observe whether he  can use both sides of his body i n t h i s p a r a l l e l fashion. B.  Right Foot Ask the c h i l d to stand on h i s right foot with his l e f t  off the f l o o r . right foot only.  Now  ask him to jump forward one step using his  Observe whether he can s h i f t his posture i n  order to operate with one side of his body only. task, the l e f t foot must not touch the f l o o r .  During the  80  C.  Left Foot Ask the c h i l d to stand on his l e f t foot and jump one  step forward with his l e f t foot only. found who other. D.  Some children w i l l be  can perform t h i s task with one foot but not with the  Observe the same behaviour as i n the right-foot task.  Skip Ask the c h i l d to skip across the room using the feet  alternately.  Observe whether t h i s i s good free movement.  Does the c h i l d alternate sides with ease or does he, i n e f f e c t , have to stop a f t e r each step and determine which side he must use next? E.  Hop  1/1 Ask the c h i l d to stand with his feet together.  ask him to hop on the right foot, l i f t i n g the l e f t . him to hop on the l e f t foot, l i f t i n g the r i g h t .  Now  Next ask  Now ask him  to alternate, hopping f i r s t on the r i g h t and then on the l e f t . The c h i l d ' s body should remain i n one spot during the hopping performance.  Observe whether he i s able to s h i f t e a s i l y from  one side to the other and whether his behaviour i s smooth and rhythmical or s t i f f and jerky.  The l a t t e r type of behaviour  i s evidence that he cannot r e a d i l y s h i f t from one postural orientation to another i n a l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n .  F.  Hop 2/2  81  This task i s the same as the foregoing except that the c h i l d hops twice on the r i g h t foot, twice oh the l e f t , e t c . This task i s more d i f f i c u l t since the rhythm patterns and alternations are not as regular.  Observe the performance f o r  rhythm and smoothness. G.  HOP  2/1 Ask the c h i l d to hop twice on the right foot, once on  the l e f t , twice on the r i g h t , etc. difficult  since the alternation patterns are more complicated.  Observe the performance H.  This task i s s t i l l more  f o r rhythm and smoothness.  Hop 1/2 Ask the c h i l d to hop once on the r i g h t foot, twice on  the l e f t , etc.  This task i s the same as the preceding except  that the sides are reversed. Evaluation Items A through E are related to the child's a b i l i t y to control h i s gross musculature and to alternate a c t i v i t i e s across the center of gravity of h i s body.  Failure on any of  these items would suggest that the c h i l d could p r o f i t from t r a i n i n g techniques concerned with gross body control, such as angels-in-the-snow, trampoline exercises, e t c . Items F through H introduce i n addition to body  82 control a f a c t o r of rhythm.  The c h i l d who f a i l s only on the  l a t t e r items can be expected to p r o f i t from rhythm t r a i n i n g and from trampoline t r a i n i n g where s p e c i a l attention i s paid to the establishment of a rhythm i n body movement which i s matched to an outside rhythm, the movement of the bed of the trampoline. IDENTIFICATION OF BODY PARTS Ask the c h i l d to stand facing you at a distance of about ten f e e t .  Say to the c h i l d : 1.  Touch your shoulders.  2.  Touch your hips.  3.  Touch your head.  4.  Touch your ankles.  5.  Touch your ears.  6.  Touch your f e e t .  7.  Touch your eyes.  8.  Touch your elbows.  9.  Touch your mouth.  Observe whether there i s hesitancy i n any response or whether the c h i l d i s decisive i n obeying each command. Observe whether i n the paired parts he touches both members of the p a i r .  In the case of the command "touch your elbows," i t  i s necessary f o r him to cross his arms over each other.  A  s l i g h t hesitancy here i s permissible since many children are  83 s t a r t l e d at the change In posture required.  When he  has  started a movement toward a part, can he move accurately to that part or does he s t a r t i n the general d i r e c t i o n and then " f e e l around" f o r the f i n a l target? Evaluation This performance i s related to the problem of body image.  There are two general areas of knowledge involved.  The f i r s t i s awareness of the existence of the parts and t h e i r names.  Recognition and naming of parts of the body i s  routinely taught i n nursery and kindergarten programs and these methods are adequate f o r t h i s purpose. The second area i s awarness of the precise l o c a t i o n of parts.  D i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s area i s shown by the c h i l d who  can  s t a r t i n the general d i r e c t i o n of the part but must experiment or " f e e l around" to make f i n a l contact.  He i s not aware of  the exact l o c a t i o n i n space of the part. Such a c h i l d may  be aided by t r a i n i n g  techniques  designed to c a l l attention to the parts of his body and t h e i r l o c a t i o n or control.  Such a c t i v i t i e s as angels-in-the-snow  w i l l be found h e l p f u l . IMITATION OP MOVEMENTS • Ask the c h i l d to stand facing you at about eight to ten feet and f a r enough away from walls and other obstructions  84 6  u  u  u 10  u 11  12  N c  14  13  u  16  15  u  17  /\ B  B  B  B  B  FIGURE 3 P o s i t i o n s of t h e arms f o r s e v e n t e e n items o f t h e I m i t a t i o n of Movements t a s k . To move from each p o s i t i o n t o t h e n e x t r e q u i r e s one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f movement: U = u n i l a t e r a l movement, B = b i l a t e r a l movement, C = c r o s s l a t e r a l movement.  85 that when he extends his arms he w i l l not s t r i k e some object. With his hands loose at his sides, ask him to do whatever you do.  Beginning with pattern No. 1 , move through each of the  patterns i n Figure 3 i n order.  Observe the child's movements  i n going from one pattern to the next.  These patterns are so  designed that u n i l a t e r a l , b i l a t e r a l , and c r o s s l a t e r a l movements are required. Observe the following: (1)  I t i s desirable that the c h i l d reverse the l a t e r a l i t y of  the examiner's movements. That i s to say, when you move your r i g h t hand, he should move his right hand.  A great many  children w i l l be found who p a r a l l e l the movement which they see.  Thus, they w i l l move to t h e i r l e f t when you move your  right arm. Do not i n s t r u c t the c h i l d regarding t h i s translation.  I f he does not spontaneously  allow him to go on p a r a l l e l i n g i t .  reverse the pattern,  Most children w i l l continue  to p a r a l l e l the examiner's movement.  This performance Is  acceptable as long as I t i s consistent.  However, the c h i l d  who sometimes p a r a l l e l s and sometimes reverses i s i n d i c a t i n g trouble. (2)  Movements should be made promply and with definiteness.  Observe any h e s i t a t i o n or lack of certainty i n the child's response.  Look e s p e c i a l l y f o r abortive movements either i n  the arm which should not move or toward a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n i n the arm or arms which should move.  86  (3)  The c h i l d may f a i l to reproduce the movement pattern on  the f i r s t attempt.  Some children w i l l become confused.  w i l l move both arms when only one i s required to move.  They I f the  movement i s completed before the c h i l d appears to recognize that he has made a mistake, pay special attention to this fact.  Sometimes a c h i l d may take the wrong p o s i t i o n and not  recognize t h i s fact u n t i l i t i s c a l l e d to his attention.  In  t h i s case, point out his error and be sure that he achieves the correct p o s i t i o n before proceeding, since the next pattern of movement w i l l be altered i f he does not s t a r t from the correct p o s i t i o n . patterning.  Observe the c h i l d who reverses h i s  He may reverse the pattern f o r a time, then  p a r a l l e l i t f o r a time.  This c h i l d i s showing confusion i n  l a t e r a l i t y and i n body image. Evaluation This a c t i v i t y i s related to the child's a b i l i t y to control his upper limbs independently and i n combination.  It  also requires the t r a n s l a t i o n of a v i s u a l pattern into a motor pattern which w i l l reproduce i t .  D i f f i c u l t y i s shown whenever  the c h i l d displays hesitancy, lack of certainty, or error i n executing the patterns. The c h i l d who displays d i f f i c u l t y can be aided by t r a i n i n g procedures designed to help him with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and control of i n d i v i d u a l parts.  The angels-in-the-snow and  87  rhythm techniques w i l l be found u s e f u l . translation  To a i d w i t h the  of the v i s u a l p a t t e r n i n t o a motor p a t t e r n (and  the r e v e r s e ) , t h i s same examination procedure a training device.  as  Repeat the movements a number of times  ask the c h i l d t o attempt attention  can be used  t o reproduce  them.  Pay  and  particular  t o those p a t t e r n s w i t h which he shows p a r t i c u l a r  problems. ANGELS-IN-THE-SNOW Ask the c h i l d t o l i e on h i s back on the f l o o r w i t h h i s arms a t h i s s i d e and h i s f e e t t o g e t h e r . arms up over h i s head.  Ask him t o move h i s  Be sure he moves them a l o n g the f l o o r .  Ask him t o f e e l the f l o o r w i t h h i s w r i s t s as h i s arms move. Be sure he gets h i s arms completely above h i s head u n t i l h i s two hands touch. Next ask him t o move h i s f e e t a p a r t .  Be sure he moves  them wide apart and keeps h i s h e e l s on the f l o o r d u r i n g the movement.  The  examiner may  demonstrate the movement of arms  and l e g s .  These p r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e s are used t o acquaint  the c h i l d w i t h the technique. want him t o do, 1.  When he has l e a r n e d what you  say:  Move j u s t t h i s arm  (pointing  t o the l e f t arm).  (pointing  t o the r i g h t arm).  Now  back. 2.  Move j u s t t h i s arm back.  Now  88  3*  Move just t h i s l e g (pointing to right l e g ) . Now back.  4.  Move just t h i s l e g (pointing to l e f t l e g ) . Now back.  5»  Move both arms.  Now back.  6.  Move both legs.  Now back.  7•  Move t h i s arm and t h i s l e g (pointing  to l e f t arm and  l e f t l e g ) . Now back. 8.  Move t h i s arm and t h i s l e g (pointing to right arm and right l e g ) . Now back.  9.  Move t h i s arm and t h i s l e g (pointing  to. right arm and  l e f t l e g ) . Now back. 10.  Move t h i s arm and t h i s l e g (pointing to l e f t arm and right l e g ) . Now back.  Do not give the c h i l d any clue to the limb which you ask him to move other than pointing to i t . Some children w i l l be found who are unable to Identify the limb by t h i s v i s u a l clue alone.  Note that he was unable to i d e n t i f y v i s u a l l y . Observe whether or not the child's movements are  smooth and decisive.  Note any jerky movements and any  hesitation i n beginning a movement. indicates  The l a t t e r probably  a d i f f i c u l t y i n i n i t i a t i n g a movement i n a  prescribed limb.  Note whether a l l movements reach t h e i r  maximum extension.  Many times the c h i l d w i l l r e s t r i c t the  movement of one or more limbs when he i s required to control the entire movement sequence.  Frequently the movements w i l l  be adequate when they are b i l a t e r a l l y symmetrical (as In the  89 p r e - t e s t e x e r c i s e s ) but w i l l become r e s t r i c t e d when u n i l a t e r a l or c r o s s l a t e r a l p a t t e r n s a r e c a l l e d f o r . Observe whether the c h i l d s t a r t s h i s movement  promptly  and whether h i s f i r s t movement i s a d e f i n i t e p a r t of the prescribed pattern.  F r e q u e n t l y a c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y the  i n n e r v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n the movement by a b o r t i v e t r i a l movements.  Such l a c k of complete knowledge  w i l l o f t e n be r e v e a l e d i n f a l s e s t a r t s , moving the limb up and down on the f l o o r a f r a c t i o n of an i n c h t o i d e n t i f y i t , a s k i n g f o r r e p e t i t i o n of I n s t r u c t i o n s , l o o k i n g from one limb t o another before beginning, and so f o r t h . Observe c a r e f u l l y whether there i s overflow i n t o limbs whose movements i s not c a l l e d f o r .  other  Thus, when the c h i l d  i s asked t o move the l e f t arm and r i g h t l e g , i s t h e r e a l s o movement i n the r i g h t arm o r l e f t l e g ?  Often the p r e s c r i b e d  movement w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o b i l a t e r a l l y symmetrical p a t t e r n s and both arms o r both l e g s w i l l move. Evaluation D i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s t a s k i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c h i l d i s e x p e r i e n c i n g problems i n c o n t r o l l i n g the p a r t s of h i s body i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n p r e s c r i b e d combinations. performance i s shown by:  Inadequate  ( 1 ) marked h e s i t a n c y i n beginning  the movements; (2) r e s t r i c t i o n o f the extent of movement i n any o f the p a t t e r n s ; (3) overflow of movements t o limbs not  9 0  r e q u i r e d i n the p a t t e r n ; (4) i n a b i l i t y t o i n i t i a t e movement o r i d e n t i f y a limb on the b a s i s of v i s u a l c l u e s alone  (developing  t a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n by p r e s s i n g a g a i n s t the f l o o r o r k i n e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n by a b o r t i v e movements); o r (5) i n a b i l i t y t o c a r r y out any of the p a t t e r n s . F o r the c h i l d who has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s task, the t a s k can be used as a t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y . f a i l u r e , s i m p l e r techniques  I n cases of severe  such as the walking  board,  i m i t a t i o n of movement, s t u n t s , e t c . , may need t o be used  first  t o develop more adequate c o n t r o l of limbs and l a t e r a l i t y concepts  before the c h i l d can perform  present a c t i v i t y .  s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the  I n cases o f p a r a l y s i s o r s p a s t i c  c o n d i t i o n s , m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be r e q u i r e d and s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n may need t o be g i v e n t o s p e c i f i c  limbs.  EXERCISES, STUNTS, AND GAMES USED IN THE MOTOR ABILITY SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAM I BODY EXERCISES 1.  Crawling  2.  Crawling w i t h  3.  Duck Walk  4.  Walking while h o l d i n g c a l v e s  5.  L y i n g down and r o l l i n g  6.  Walking sideways w i t h arms f o l d e d i n f r o n t , with c r o s s i n g  "rider"  over  91 legs and without crossing legs.  Cross legs i n front, i n  back, and then one i n front and one i n back. tempo during exercise.  Increase  Don't twist torso.  7.  Walking with swinging the l e g forward and backward.  8.  S i t t i n g to standing.  S i t on f l o o r with knees bent, feet  i n front, get up and s i t down again.  Same exercise, but  begin with s i t t i n g with crossed legs. 9.  Kneel, get up, and go back to kneeling p o s i t i o n again.  10.  L i e on f l o o r on back and get up by r o l l i n g forward.  11.  He  on f l o o r on stomach and get up by putting hands on  f l o o r and jumping up. 12.  Walk erect, walk i n duck walk, then back to walking erect.  13•  Crouch, jump up, down to crouch again.  14.  Knee bend  15.  A l l possible obstacle runs  16.  A l l climbing equipment  17. "Angels-in-the-Snow" 18.  C i r c l e arms p a r a l l e l to body, backwards and forwards  19.  Arms outstretched to the side, begin with small c i r c l e s , l e t them get bigger u n t i l they are as large as possible, then l e t them get smaller again u n t i l arms stop.  Do  ' backwards and forwards. 20.  Arms stretched out i n front, begin with small c i r c l e s , l e t them get bigger u n t i l they are as large as possible, then l e t them get smaller again u n t i l arms stop. Let  92 b o t h arms go i n same d i r e c t i o n t o r i g h t , t h e n t o l e f t , t h e n move b o t h arms i n o p p o s i t e 21.  directions.  Arms o u t s t r e t c h e d , bend elbows t o p l a c e hands on w a i s t , back a g a i n .  22.  Move head i n a c i r c l e , r i g h t and l e f t .  23.  Move head from r i g h t t o l e f t and backwards s e v e r a l t i m e s .  The  f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d be done i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s :  standing w i t h legs apart, standing w i t h legs together,. s i t t i n g , k n e e l i n g , p r e f e r a b l y on f l o o r w i t h c r o s s e d l e g s . 24.  Arms i n f r o n t , p a r a l l e l .  Swing t o r i g h t and l e f t .  Turn  t o r s o as f a r as p o s s i b l e . 25.  Arms overhead. and  26.  Bend t o r s o as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o r i g h t  left.  Arms overhead. front.  Swing arms and bend t o r s o toward t h e  I f p o s s i b l e , do t h i s a l s o s i t t i n g on f l o o r w i t h  l e g s o u t s t r e t c h e d p a r a l l e l and a l s o o u t s t r e t c h e d i n f r o n t (V shape). 27.  Swing l e g s , s t a n d i n g , w h i l e h o l d i n g on.  28.  C i r c l e l e g s w h i l e s t a n d i n g , H o l d i n g on.  29.  Move l e g s up and down w h i l e l y i n g on t h e f l o o r on t h e back.  30.  C i r c l e l e g s i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s w h i l e l y i n g on f l o o r .  31.  S i t on c h a i r , s t r e t c h l e g s out i n f r o n t h o r i z o n t a l l y , p u t l e g s on f l o o r , t h e n do t h e same b u t t r y t o t o u c h l e g s  with outstretched arms, bending forward. 32.  Stand with feet together and move heels from f l o o r and back to f l o o r , keeping legs straight, u n t i l you begin to gain momentum and toes leave the f l o o r . keep toes straight down.  33»  Run with wide steps. wide jumps.  While jumping,  Try to jump l i g h t l y .  As you are gaining momentum, make  Jump as wide and high as possible, bending  torso back while i n the a i r , and stretching the foot while you jump down. 34.  Jumping, feet once apart, and once together.  35«  Same as i n (3^),  but slowly turning around on one's axis. II BALANCE EXERCISES  ( 1 ) The Walking Board:  (2)  The Balance Board:  (a) walking forward  (a) simple balancing  (b) walking backward  (b) rocking  (c) walking sidewise  (c) b a l l bounce and catch  (d) walk and turn around  (d) bean bag or ring toss  (e) bouncing  (e) simple calesthenics  (f) bean bag into something  (f) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n movements  (g) catching and throwing  (g) balancing bean bag on head  b a l l , bean bag (h) balancing bean bag on head  while doing any of above (h) log r o l l i n g on the spools  ( i ) eye e x e r c i s e s - watching a target - crisscross - different labels ( j ) use of p o l e s - can "be weighted ( 3 ) The T r a m p o l i n e :  (4)  Other B a l a n c e S t u n t s :  (a  bouncing (both f e e t )  (a) S k a t e r ' s s t a n c e  (b  b o u n c i n g (one f o o t )  (b) Squat b a l a n c e  (c  c o n t r o l l e d bouncing i n  (c) the Teapot  one s p o t  (d) t r i p o d b a l a n c e  (d  t u r n i n a i r (90°)  (e) walk on t i p t o e s  (e  t u r n i n a i r (180°)  ( f ) s t a n d on t i p t o e s ( h o l d 10  (f  s e a t drop  (g  knee drop  (h  back drop  l e g f o r w a r d , backward,  (i  f r o n t drop  right,  U  combinations  (assist)  seconds) (g) s t a n d on one f o o t , swing  left  (h) bean bag b a l a n c e on head (i) tight-rope walking ( j ) wheel III  1.  Play pulling.  barrow  GAMES  One c h i l d i s a h o r s e , a n o t h e r the c a r t .  The " c a r t " h o l d s the " h o r s e " somewhat back by l e a n i n g  backwards. 2.  C h i l d r e n p r e t e n d t h e y a r e p u l l i n g a heavy l o a d , moving f o r w a r d by themselves.  3.  They may  a l s o move i n groups.  C h i l d r e n p r e t e n d t h e y are p u s h i n g something heavy w h i l e walking forward.  4.  C h i l d r e n p r e t e n d t h e y are p u s h i n g something back w i t h t h e i r b a c k s , moving backwards.  5.  C h i l d r e n walk sideways w i t h a p u s h i n g o r p u l l i n g m o t i o n , bending t h e i r b o d i e s as i f t h e y were p u l l i n g a rope.  6.  C h i l d r e n b e g i n w i t h one of the movements as b e f o r e , but t h e n p r e t e n d t h a t the l o a d g e t s l i g h t and t h e y walk happily  7.  around.  The movements 1 - 6  are done by v a r i o u s groups s i m u l -  t a n e o u s l y , each group r e a c t i n g t o the o t h e r one. 8.  The c h i l d r e n p l a y "the storm".  F i r s t t h e y r u n w i t h arms  o u t s t r e t c h e d and are the wind.  Then t h e y t i p t o e  running f a s t :  the r a i n .  lightly  The r a i n g e t s h e a v i e r and t h e y  jump, b e i n g thunder and l i g h t n i n g .  Then t h e r e i s a g a i n  l i g h t r a i n u n t i l t h e y c r o u c h o r l i e down.  The storm i s  over. 9.  The c h i l d r e n p l a y the b i r d t r e e , a b i r d , an a i r p l a n e , three p l a y i n g bunnies, f i g h t i n g c h i l d r e n , e t c .  10.  B a l l games h e l p w i t h eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n :  throwing a  b a l l , bouncing a b a l l , K n o c k i n g c a r t o n s down w i t h a b a l l , throwing a b a l l i n t o a basket.  96 11.  Hopscotch, r i n g t o s s .  12.  C i r c l e games:  t a g , drop the bean bag, Red Rover, Don't  C r o s s the L i n e , Cross the L i n e t o S a f e t y G o a l s ,  Squirrel  i n the Cage. 13*  Bean bag games.  14.  Hoop games:  15«  S i n g i n g games:  hoops o r i n n e r t u b e s . R i n g Around the R o s i e , D i d you E v e r See  a  L a s s i e ? , The Parmer i n the D e l l , London B r i d g e , Looby Loo, T h i s i s the Way 16.  we Wash our C l o t h e s .  Games i n v o l v i n g much r u n n i n g , hopping and s k i p p i n g s h o u l d be p l a y e d  daily.  17.  Rabbit  18.  Crab Walk.  19.  M e a s u r i n g Worm.  20.  Elephant  21.  Tunnel b a l l .  22.  Leap f r o g .  23.  Hot  24.  Musical chairs.  25.  Red L i g h t , Green L i g h t .  26.  Rope S k i p p i n g .  27.  H u l a hoop c o n t e s t .  28.  hop.  walk  (pairs).  potato.  Follow-the-leader.  SAMPLE OF A LESSON PLAN USED IN THE MOTOR ABILITY SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAM Motor S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Program WEEK OF: DATE:  January 1 6 - 2 0  Thursday, J a n u a r y 1 9 , 1 9 6 7  INSTRUCTOR: GROUP:  E.A. Duggan  Group I I I S u b j e c t s  Body E x e r c i s e s ( 5 minutes) 1.  S i t t i n g to standing.  2.  Crouch, jump up, down.  3.  Obstacle run.  4.  Angels-in-the-Snow.  Trampoline and B a l a n c e E x e r c i s e s ( 1 5 minutes) 1.  Forward, s i d e w i s e , backward on w a l k i n g board ( w i t h bean bags b a l a n c e d on h e a d s ) .  2.  S k a t e r ' s s t a n c e and squat b a l a n c e .  3.  Trampoline:  bounce and h a l f - t u r n , bounce on one f o o t ,  knee drop. Games ( 5 minutes) 1.  Throw-Catch  2.  Musical chairs.  game w i t h r u b b e r b a l l s .  REFERENCES  1.  K e p h a r t , N e w e l l C , The S l o w L e a r n e r i n the Classroom, Columbus, Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l Books, I n c . , 1965, pp. 121-155.  1  APPENDIX C RAW SCORES GENERAL MOTOR CAPACITY TEST SCORES FOR GROUP I I I SUBJECTS SUBJECT:  Dorm A.  SCORES MADE ON I N I T I A L TEST: AGE:  6-9  HEIGHT:  47"  WEIGHT: RAW SCORE  CONVERTED SCORE  462.8  82.45  17.0  23.08  4.5  22.50  4.0  3*49  McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: Sargent  Jump T e s t :  Squat-Thrust  45-1/2 l b s .  Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : General Motor Capacity Score  131.52  (GMCS):  138.51  Norm f o r G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y :  94.95  Motor Quotient:  SCORES MADE ON F I N A L TEST: 7-2  AGE:  HEIGHT:  49"  WEIGHT: RAW SCORE  CONVERTED SCORE  485.5  88.46  18.5  24.32  5.0  25.00  12.0  10.48  McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index Sargent  Jump T e s t :  Squat-Thrust  46-1/2 l b s .  Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t :  (GMCS):  148.26  Norm f o r G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y  147.03  General Motor Capacity Score  Motor  Quotient:  101.00  SUBJECT:  P h i l l i p E.  SCORES MADE ON I N I T I A L TEST: AGE:  6-11  HEIGHT:  43-1/2"  WEIGHT:  RAW SCORE McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Squat-Thrust  Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y S c o r e  37 I t s .  CONVERTED SCORE  421.5  71.12  17.5  23.08  2.5  12.50  9.0  7.86  (GMCS):  114.56  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y :  121.68  Motor Q u o t i e n t :  94.15  SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE:  7-4  HEIGHT:  44-1/2"  CONVERTED SCORE  452.1  79.50  Sargent Jump T e s t : Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y S c o r e  20.0  27.15  5.5  27.50  12.0  10.48  (GMCS):  144.63  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y : Motor Q u o t i e n t :  38-1/2 l b s .  RAW SCORE McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index:  Squat-Thrust  WEIGHT:  134.05 108.00  101 SUBJECT:  C i n d y F.  SCOBES MADE ON I N I T I A L TEST: AGE:  7-5  HEIGHT:  49-1/2"  RAW SCORE  CONVERTED SCORE  499.0  38.72  McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Squat-Thrust  52 l b s .  WEIGHT:  Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y S c o r e  16.0  1.64  4.5  4.44  10.0  15.60 60.40  (GMCS):  59.57  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y :  101.39  Motor Q u o t i e n t :  SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE:  7-10  HEIGHT:  49-1/2"  CONVERTED SCORE  505.4  39.23 '  S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y S c o r e  21.0  2.17  6.0  5.92  12.0 (GMCS):  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y : Motor Q u o t i e n t :  50-1/2 l b s .  RAW SCORE McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index:  Squat-Thrust  WEIGHT:  16.83 64.25 60.20 106.00  102  SUBJECT:  G r a n t H.  SCORES MADE OH I N I T I A L TEST: AGE:  7-1  HEIGHT:  50"  WEIGHT: RAW SCORE  CONVERTED SCORE  518.6  97.65  19.5  25.80  3.5  17*50  6.0  5.24  McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Squat-Thrust  6? l b s .  Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y S c o r e  (GMCS):  146.19  Norm f o r G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y :  161.01  Motor Q u o t i e n t :  90.80  SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE:  7-6  HEIGHT:  51-1/2"  CONVERTED SCORE  527.0  99.92  21.5  28.51  6.5  32.50  8.0  6.98  S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : General Motor C a p a c i t y Score  (GMCS):  Norm f o r G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y : Motor Q u o t i e n t :  68 l b s .  RAW SCORE McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index:  Squat-Thrust  WEIGHT:  I67.9I 164.46 102.00  103 SUBJECT:  Mark M.  SCORES MADE ON I N I T I A L TEST; AGE:  7-0  HEIGHT:  49"  WEIGHT: RAW SCORE  CONVERTED SCORE  492.0  90.37  15.5  20.37  4.0  20.00  10.0  8.73  McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Squat-Thrust  58 l b s .  Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y Score  139.47  (GMCS):  150.27  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y :  92.81  Motor Q u o t i e n t :  SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE:  7-5  HEIGHT:  50-1/4"  CONVERTED SCORE  511.9  95.80  25.5  33.94  5.0  25.00  6.0  5.24  S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y Score  (GMCS):  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y : Motor Q u o t i e n t :  62 l b s .  RAW SCORE McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index  Squat-Thrust  WEIGHT:  159.98 158.30 101.00  104 SUBJECT:  Samuel ¥.  SCORES MADE ON I N I T I A L TEST: AGE:  7-6  HEIGHT:  46-1/2"  49 l b s .  RAW SCORE  CONVERTED SCORE  476.5  86.13  15.5  20.37  5.0  25.00  9.0  7.86  McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Squat-Thrust  WEIGHT:  Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y S c o r e  139.36  (GMCS):  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y :  143.98 96.79  Motor Q u o t i e n t :  SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE:  7-11  HEIGHT:  48-1/2"  CONVERTED SCORE  499.5  92.40  21.0  27.85  6.0  30.00  7.5  6.11  S a r g e n t Jump T e s t : Test:  Iowa-Brace T e s t : G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y Score  (GMCS):  Norm f o r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y : Motor Q u o t i e n t :  50-1/2 l b s .  RAW SCORE McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index:  Squat-Thrust  WEIGHT:  156.36 153*30 102.00  FROSTIG VISUAL PERCEPTION TEST SCORES FOR GROUP I I I SUBJECTS Key t o A b b r e v i a t i o n s : E. M.:  Eye-Motor C o o r d i n a t i o n  F.G.:  Figure-Ground  F. C.:  Form Constancy  P.S.:  P o s i t i o n i n Space  S.R.:  Spatial Relations  P.Q.:  Perceptual Quotient  I n i t i a l Test Scores: SUBJECT  E.M.  F.G  Donn A.  6.3  5. 9  P h i l l i p E.  6.3  C i n d y F.  F.C  P.S.  S.R.  P.Q.  5. 6  6.3  8.3  94  6. 6  9. 0  7.0  6.6  103  6.9  5. 9  6. 0  8.9  8.3  92  Grant H.  5-9  6. 0  8. 3  5.6  6.0  92  Mark M.  8.6  7. 0  9. 0  7.0  7.6  116  Samuel W.  6.9  6. 0  6. 3  8.9  8.3  95  SUBJECT  E.M.  F.G '.  •  P.S.  S.R.  P.Q.  Donn A.  8.6  6. 0  7. 0  8.9  8.3  106  P h i l l i p E.  9.6  8. 3  9. 0  7.0  8.3  121  C i n d y F.  10.0  6. 6  9. 0  7.0  8.3  108  Grant H.  7.9  8. 3  9. 0  7.0  8.3  114  Mark M.  7.9  8. 3  9. 0  8.9  8.3  121  Samuel W.  9.6  7. 0  7. 0  7.0  8.3  100  •  F i n a l Test Scores: F.C  

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