UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Transportation and economic development in Tanzania. Mkama, Jumanne 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1968_A8 M54.pdf [ 9.02MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302483.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302483-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302483-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302483-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302483-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302483-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302483-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302483-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302483.ris

Full Text

TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT I N TANZANIA "by JUMANNE MKAMA BoA.,  Hons„,  Makerere  U n i v e r s i t y of E a s t A f r i c a : University College, Kampala,  1966  Uganda  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the  School  of  COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s required  thesis  as  conforming to  the  standard.  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA MY,  1968  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in p a r t i a l  advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  Library  shall  agree that  make i t f r e e l y  permission  p u r p o s e s may  It i s understood  financial  gain  Department n f  f o r reference  copying of t h i s  by t h e Head o f my  tatives.  shall  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  available  f o r extensive  be g r a n t e d  f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  that  thesis  1968  Columbia  the  I further  f o r scholarly  D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  May,  and s t u d y .  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  Community and J R e g i o n a l  I agree that  Planning  of this  thesis f o r  permission.  I  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The a u t h o r of  Canada,  would l i k e  to  thank-the  and U n i t e d R e p u b l i c  scholarship  w h i c h has  study p o s s i b l e o  made t h e  V . S . Pendakur,  structive  criticism.  for his  acknowledgement  of Communications,  the  relevant . Last,  and p o s t i n g  questions  of to  guidance  and  given to the  the East  the this  con-  Ministry African  and L i n t and Seed M a r k e t i n g  Board i n U n i t e d Republic answering  is  for  extended  Labour, and Works,  R a i l w a y s and H a r b o u r s ;  in  Tanzania,  undertaking  Appreciation is  Professor  Special  of  Governments  of  Tanzania,  on the. s u b j e c t  for  cooperation  and s u p p l y i n g  data.  but  not  least,  the.rest  of  to  the  my w i f e , data  for  required  collecting on  Tanzania.  ABSTRACT  Before country,  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t can. t a k e p l a c e  t h e r e m u s t be a m i n i m a l amount o f  infrastructure. prerequisites ever,  it  s o c i a l and economic  Good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s r e g a r d e d a s one o f  t o r a p i d economic g r o w t h .  m u s t be r e l a t e d t o n e e d s o f t h e In the  To be  effective,  country  e a r l y development of T a n z a n i a ,  facilities  were b u i l t m o s t l y f o r s t r a t e g i c  purposes.  Economic m o t i v e s were s e c o n d a r y ,  the  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a new m i n e .  reason.was  to f a c i l i t a t e  It  concerned.  and paramount returns,  The o n l y o t h e r  trade, i n raw m a t e r i a l s  and T a n g a n y i k a .  how-  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  u r e d goods 'between t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n p o w e r , o t h e r ized countries,  the  transportation  o n l y i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e r e was h o p e f o r i m m e d i a t e like  in a  economic  and m a n u f a c t industrial-  was a l s o b e l i e v e d  that  the p r o v i s i o n of r a i l w a y s would l e a d t o r a p i d economic d e v e l o p ment. However,  t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r a i l w a y s i n t h e hope  that  t h e y w o u l d g e n e r a t e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h was u n s u c c e s s f u l . Instead,  r a i l w a y s became a b u r d e n t o t h e  operated at time,  the  a loss  a n d h a d t o be  country because  subsidized.  At the  same  loans borrowed t o b u i l d the r a i l w a y s had to  amortized at  a n a n n u a l r a t e o f b e t w e e n 4- ~ 4 - 1 / 2 % .  r a i l w a y s proved too  c o s t l y a mode f o r i n i t i a t i n g  growth.  (iii)  they  be  Thus,  economic  the  The " c o s t  of  capital  t o t a l l y b e y o n d t h e means of  economic g r o w t h .  .availability for had the  It  1 1  of  the  country i n i t s  c r i p p l e d the  economic  development  stages  f i n a n c i a l and c a p i t a l i n general.  Not o n l y other  s u c h as b e i n g a Mandate T e r r i t o r y , w h i c h  s u l t e d I n f u r t h e r f l i g h t of  capital.  c a p i t a l used to repay the  Thus, the  of the  economy t o  total  r a i l w a y debt before  d i v e r t e d c a p i t a l w h i c h s h o u l d have been sectors  early  country l i m i t e d c a p i t a l f o r development, but  disadvantages,  of  u s e d t o b u i l d r a i l w a y s was  re-  amount  194-8,  invested i n  other  e s t a b l i s h a base f o r f u t u r e  develop-  ment . It as  a less  was a t  this  stage that  roads  The p o l i c y a d o p t e d was t o p r o v i d e a  "country-wide Low-Cost" road system. p l a c e d t o o much e m p h a s i s  ical  of feeder  roads.  characteristics  of  rural the  this  Second, the  it  country.  sufficient  policy at  overlooked the  country.  Finally,  low a standard.  the  ex-  geograph-  the  roads  The n e t  road system d i d not p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e  areas,  result  l i n k s to  the  t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d economy Also,  number o f r o a d s ,  iorated very fast  of  areas w i t h h i g h growth p o t e n t i a l had i n -  o v e r s u p p l i e d w i t h them.  vehicles  First,  on b u i l d i n g t r u n k roads  w h i c h were b u i l t were of t o o was t h e  preferred  c o s t l y mode t h a n r a i l w a y s f o r o p e n i n g u p new a r e a s  f o r development.  pense  came t o b e  But,  w i t h the  and t r a f f i c .  while less prosperous e v e n more s o ,  rapid increase  the  roads  i n volume of  Consequently, maintenance (iv)  areas  costs  were  deterheavy rose  very rapidly, c a l l i n g for the  increased  amount o f money w h i c h c o u l d b e  struction, creased other  s u c h as the b u i l d i n g  maintenance  sectors  economic  of  the  economy,  investment,  world prices  other  country*  of r u r a l f e e d e r r o a d s .  thereby  for  export  the beginning of t h i s  of  the  crops,  conIn-  from  i n h i b i t i n g balanced  f l u c t u a t i o n i n the of  the  c a p i t a l works.  is  fall  of  s i s a l has  of  been  prices building Since affected  expenditure  i t provided sufficient  o n new for  revenue  this  and  en-  i n which  ranked very h i g h . which accounted  and m a r k e t i n g b o a r d s .  t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s made p o s s i b l e during years  of rubber  usually attributed.  world price  less  sisal.  and not w i t h t h e  f o r a stable growth i n -  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of m a r k e t i n g of  cooperatives  has  of.  expenditure'in c a p i t a l works,  Other f a c t o r s clude the  a f t e r the  that  for  economic  D u r i n g t h e K o r e a n boom, when p r i c e s  increased  r o a d development  especially  c o u n t r y and l e v e l s  c r o p were f a v o u r a b l e , couraged  though accounting  important f a c t o r  century,  railways to which i t  revenue  factors,  The m o s t  at  cash crops  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  t h e payment  of u n f a v o u r a b l e w o r l d p r i c e s  l a t e d when w o r l d p r i c e s creased  i n further road  have been v e r y c r u c i a l i n t h e  T h i s c r o p became i m p o r t a n t  the  limited  growth*  growth of the  then,  spent  This  costs diverted c a p i t a l resources  In contrast, capital  expenditure.  were g o o d .  of h i g h  from funds  T h i s has  through of prices accumu-  encouraged  agricultural production, resulting i n a rise  of  in-  income t o the especially process,  farmers  imports.  auction,  overseas,  These i n s t i t u t i o n s  and s h i p the  crops  T h i s has  his  crops  his  own.  at  of the  enabled the  subsistence  deficiencies  economy o f t h e  i n the  country grew.  primitive factor  economy.  methods  levels  The f a i l u r e t o the  past  economic  development of  transportation  transport  countries,  is  still  far  the  thesis Rail  of  this  are  the  study,  increased  o f t h e s e two m o d e s ,  growth in  other  c o n t i n u e d use major  of  limiting  of  these problems  in  of  transportation  on  has  been  also  and o t h e r  i n the  growth.  l i m i t e d because essentials.  case of the  investment  was n o t (vi)  as  i n the  developed, facilities  conducive to  been  stations.  examination  initially  A  T h i s has  that: as  it  developed  g a r a g e s and gas  f i n d i n g s from the  and Road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and d e s p i t e  on  system,  i n an unbalanced  shops,  in  he was  of  from being e s t a b l i s h e d .  confined to r a i l w a y r e p a i r  markets  produce  resulted  equipment  i n d u s t r y , as  The a b o v e  levels  the  to  production.  effectiveness  and has  depended on i m p o r t s f o r local  of  take cognizance  has ' l i m i t e d the  The i m p a c t  than i f  of p r o d u c t i o n has been the  i n increased  to  inadequacies  In agriculture,  to  farmers'  transportation  a c h i e v e d have remained low because of of the  farmers  farmer  But the  items,  undertake  on the  a much more e c o n o m i c a l b a s i s  Despite  sectors  also  i n r e t u r n f o r a minimal charge  income.  the  a n d h e n c e demand f o r c o n s u m e r  economic  of  development for  levels  as' compared t o of  economic  this,  and of  ment,  increased  as  l i m i t e d c a p i t a l resources investment  essential  agriculture.  from r a i l costs, .high.  railways before  study also points  not  how i t  enougho  Five Year P l a n . the  economy,  of  the  needs of  such  less  benefits than  its  light  was  thereafter. fact  that  the of  i n the  role  a developing developed  of growth based  approach to t o be  on  transportation  evaluated  i n terms  the  of  goals  on f u t u r e  i n enabling the  trans-  the  investments sectors  achievement  of  of  in the  of  Five Year P l a n . transport  s h o u l d be b a s e d the  resources  p r i o r i t y s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h o s e central  rail  invested, i n  experienced  a sectorial  on  development  In making d e c i s i o n s  W i t h i n the vestments  from that  develop-  tangible  i n r a p i d f u l f i l m e n t of  economy w h i c h a r e goals  economic  of  invested capital  the  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n has  can a s s i s t  for  economy,  capital  to  In a d d i t i o n , i n the  planned development, is  the  194-8, a n d i n r o a d s  different  countries.  of  case f o r  p o r t a t i o n can p l a y i n the country is  of  because the  opportunity cost  T h i s was t h e  In view  diverted scarce  sectors  Also,  accounting  and e x p e n d i t u r e  and r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were  the  This  factors  growth achieved.  and r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from other  other  country.  It  sector,  decisions  on f u r t h e r  on a p r o p e r e v a l u a t i o n of should also  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has p l a y e d i n the (vii)  past  transport  be g u i d e d b y t h e to  assist  in-  role  r a p i d growth*  F o r example, formances will  a closer  ox r a i l  production.  c o v e r where t h e  of  inadequacy other  of  development  a transportation  will  also  lies  s u c h as  i n the  of  storage, of  the  per-  country  system to  service  the planner to  economy a s  s y s t e m may b e  c a s e i n some p a r t s  future,  enable  of past  due t o  or a p r o c e s s i n g  lack  plant  Tanzania.  o r g a n i z a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t ,  c o o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of the  immediate need i s ing  especially  t i o n of  the  East  transport  system.  and R e g i o n a l  assist  In view of  A f r i c a n Community, t h i s  N a t i o n a l (micro)  Transport  two modes.  a transportation p l a n to  a well balanced  rail facil-  Another  i n developthe  forma-  s h o u l d be d o n e  (macro) l e v e l s .  B o a r d s h o u l d be f o r m e d t o  dis-  a whole.  r o a d . , s h o u l d be p u r - s u e d t h r o u g h p o l i c i e s w h i c h w i l l  itate  at  i n the  a transportation  facilities,  In  It  deficiency  as has been the  and  and r o a d s  provide guidelines for  increased  The  e x a m i n a t i o n and assessment  both  A National  c a r r y out the  above  functionsc The i s s u e most  suitable  properly have  mode f o r f u r t h e r  evaluated.  a role  geographical the  of whether t o  It  development  would appear,  to p l a y because of characteristic  f o r m a t i o n of  develop r a i l  of  their the  should also  however,  that  complementary  country,  and i n  the be  both  modes  nature,  the  assisting  a R e g i o n a l Economic Group i n c l u d i n g K e n y a ,  T a n z a n i a , Uganda. Ruanda, U r u n d i , Transportation  o r r o a d as  should also  Zambia, S o m a l i a and E t h i o p a .  b e made a n i n t e g r a l p a r t  "Ujamaa V i l l a g e " p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . (viii)  F i n a l l y , there  of  the  s h o u l d be  continuing research  i n a p p r a i s i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems  developing countries, port research  so as  to  establish  and development.  (ix)  a theory for  in  trans-  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  . . . . . . . .  LIST OF TABLES  i i i  '  xiii  LIST OF FIGURES  .  xv  LIST OF MAPS INTRODUCTION . . . .  xvi . . . . . . . . . . .  xvii  Chapter I.  TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  . .  The F u n c t i o n o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . . . . . The P r o v i s i o n o f Modern T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n a Developing Area . . . . . . . . . . The Nature o f T r a n s p o r t Investment . . . . T r a n s p o r t and Economic Growth ". . Organization of Transportation . . . . . . II.  THE EVOLUTION OF RAIL AND ROAD TRANSPORTATION LN TANZANIA . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . The Development of R a i l w a y s ; . The Development o f Roads Road Maintenance and C o n s t r u c t i o n C o s t s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R a i l and Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem of T a n z a n i a . .  III.  RAIL AND ROAD COMMUNICATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH  . . . . . .  R a i l w a y s and Economic Growth i n the United States . R a i l w a y s and Economic Growth i n I n d i a . . R a i l and Road Communications i n the Economic Grov/th o f T a n z a n i a . . . . . .  (x)  1 1 2 3 5 6 8 8 9 16 28 32 37 42 42 43 45  T A B L E OF CONTENTS Chapter IV.  Page CASE S T U D I E S  74  Significance of Transport Costs i n the P r o d u c t i o n of Main Export Crops . . .  .  Sisal Coffee and Cotton . . ° . . . . . . . R a i l w a y a n d Road T r a n s p o r t as F a c t o r s i n the Economic Growth o f S . E . T a n z a n i a : M t w a r a a n d Ruvuma R e g i o n s . . . . . . . V.  VI.  THE ROLE OF TRANSPORTATION I N T A N Z A N I A ' S ECONOMIC GROWTH .  89 .  96  Transport Investment B e n e f i t s The P a s t R o l e o f T r a n s p o r t i n T a n z a n i a ' s Economic Growth: An Assessment . . . .  96  TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  APPENDIX .  .  74 81  .  104  .  116  Observation andConclusions . . . . . . . Framework f o r T r a n s p o r t P l a n n i n g and t h e C h o i c e o f Mode f o r F u t u r e D e v e l o p m e n t . T r a n s p o r t and Ujamaa V i l l a g e s . . . . . .  116  .  127 133  137  A.  Development P l a n :  B.  F i v e Y e a r P l a n - Road E x p e n d i t u r e C a r r i e d over from Three Year P l a n and E s t i m a t e d Road E x p e n d i t u r e b y 1966/67 • •  138  Growth of Tanganyika's  14-5  C.  1955-1960 R o a d P r o g r a m m e  Exports,  (xi)  1913/1959  137  .  TABLE OP CONTENTS APPENDIX D.  E.  Page M a r k e t i n g o f C o f f e e and C o t t o n i n T a n z a n i a , and. t h e d i f f e r e n t modes o f T r a n s p o r t u s e d i n moving t h e c r o p f r o m f a r m t o exporting port . . . . .  147  A Framework D e t e r m i n i n g N a t i o n a l and R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t Needs . . . . . . . . .  148  BIBLIOGRAPHY  14-9  (xii)  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Page F i v e Year P l a n - J u l y 196VJune  1969,  Proposed Railway Expenditure 2.  13  Railway Mileage of Track i n Tanzania i n 1966, by C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  14  3.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Roads, by 1936  . . . . . . .  18  4.  ( a ) P r o p o s e d E x p e n d i t u r e Under Development P l a n . . . . . . . . (b) Proposed E x p e n d i t u r e Under  21  4.  1955/1960  1955/1960 Development  5. 6.  P l a n - Roads  M i l e a g e o f C l a s s i f i e d Roads F i v e Year P l a n - 1964/1969  1950-1963  . . .  22  . . .  23  ,  Proposed E x p e n d i t u r e on Roads  '26  7.  Road C o n s t r u c t i o n C o s t s  8.  Road Maintenance C o s t s . . . . . . .  29  9.  O p e r a t i n g Speeds f o r V e h i c l e s  30  10.  . . . . . . . . . . .  The Growth of L i c e n s e d Motor V e h i c l e s ,  1953 - 1963 11.  1906  - 1912:  35  E x p a n s i o n o f Trade of  German E a s t A f r i c a 12.  Government  48  of Tanganyika:  Revenue  and  E x p e n d i t u r e between 1948 - 1959 (xiii) 13.  28  ( a ) Government  60  of Tanganyika -  Development P l a n  1955/1960 .  . . . . . . .  63  L I S T OF TABLES Table 13.  13. 14.  • 14.  Page ( b ) Government o f T a n g a n y i k a - C a p i t a l E x p e n d i t u r e s on Economic & S o c i a l S e c t o r s , 1948/50, 1955/56, 1958/59, a n d E s t i m a t e s f o r 1960/1961 ( c ) G o v e r n m e n t o f T a n g a n y i k a -* E x p e n d i t u r e o n E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t i e s 1948 - 1958/59 . . .  65  ( a ) Government o f T a n g a n y i k a - E x p e n d i t u r e o n S e l e c t e d Economic and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , 1961 - 1 9 6 4 .  68  ( b ) Government o f T a n g a n y i k a - P r o p o s e d E x p e n d i t u r e f o r Development P l a n -  1961/62 - 1963/64 . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15. 16. 16.  17.  64  S i s a l P r o d u c t i o n , Labour and C a p i t a l C o s t s ,  P e r T o n , 1962 a n d 1963  . . . . . . . . . .  70  ?8  (a) Kilimanjaro Native Co-Operative Union L t d C o f f e e S e l l i n g S e c t i o n - 1961/62 S e a s o n  8?  (b) Account f o r Purchasing Cotton L i n t bythe L i n t . a n d Seed M a r k e t i n g Board f o r 1961-62 C r o p S e a s o n .  88  E x p o r t Trade  of Former Southern P r o v i n c e ,  1951 - 1963 . .  93  18.  P r o p o r t i o n o f P u b l i c Debt A c c o u n t e d f o r T e r r i t o r i a l a n d R a i l w a y S e r v i c e s , 1931/32  97  19.  P r o p o r t i o n o f Debt Charges t o D o m e s t i c E x p o r t s a n d R e v e n u e - 1928-1935  96  (xiv)  L I S T OF F I G U R E S Figure 1.  Page Volume of T r a f f i c Sections  on S e l e c t e d Road  and J u n c t i o n s  . . . . . . . . . .  2.  Growth of  3o  Expenditure  4.  Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Comparison of E x p e n d i t u r e on Road M a i n t e n a n c e and Revenue f r o m Motor V e h i c l e Licences . . . . . . . . . .  5. 6.  Import  Trade  -  1925-1938  on Road Maintenance  33  . . . . .  52  and  V a l u e of Imports of R a i l & Road • T r a n s p o r t Equipment . . . . . . A Comparison of V a l u e s of Imports & Import D u t i e s on R a i l & Road Equipment  .  99 100 ,102 103  LIST OF MAPS  Map  Page  1.  Railways B u i l t  Between 1894 and 1965  2.  Development and Improvement Roads, 1955 ~ I 9 6 0 .  J.  Development and Improvement o f Roads Under F i v e Year P l a n - 1964-69 . . . . . .  27  • 4.  Volume of T r a f f i c on T e r r i t o r i a l and L o c a l Main Roads . . . . . . . . . . . .  31  5.  S i s a l , C o t t o n ) C o f f e e Growing A r e a s : R a i l r o a d F a c i l i t i e s and P a t t e r n o f Economic A c t i v i t i e s , Mtwara and Ruvuma Regions . . .  75  (xvi)  • • ° » •  of Trunk  15 20  INTRODUCTION  Statement of the Problem and i t s Importance The m a j o r i t y to  accelerate their  ment b a s e d  set  ensure  since  most  p e r i o d of f i v e to  tive  type of of  i n different  i s most u r g e n t l y  highest  plan.  development  are:  these development  sectors  allocate  of the  penditure  Brookings p . 4-5.  first,  the  the  time a  capital,  which  proposed  economy b e c o m e s  scarce c a p i t a l resources  of resource  has been the  constituted i n the  46.5%  first  large  impera-  where  allocation amount  of  In N i g e r i a , at of  in  it  one  the p u b l i c s e c t o r  first  third plan.  the  capital time, invest-  t h r e e development p l a n s ,  o n r a i l v r a y s was 47% i n t h e  s e c o n d p l a n , a n d 60% i n t h e 1  factors  plans relate to  and second,  being invested i n transportation.  In India,  Two  needed.  developing countries,  ment.  and f u l f i l m e n t  Thus, p r o p e r e v a l u a t i o n of  A d i s t i n c t i v e feature  transportation 1  benefits  development  seven y e a r s ;  limited.  i n order tc  the  out i n the  which und.erlie t h i s  projects  seeking  in pro-  goals  economic  are  on p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s  of the  t o be  developing countries  develop-  which w i l l  tends  the  growth through planned  jects,  factor,  of  p l a n , 67% i n  E x p e n d i t u r e on  exthe roads  0 w e n , to"., S t r a t e g y f o r M o b i l i t y ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : Institution: T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h Programme, 1 9 6 4 ) ,  (xvii)  CHAPTER  I  TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  The. P u n c t i o n o f  1.  Transportation  The f u n c t i o n o f g o o d s f r o m one p l a c e space i s in  overcome  response  to  transportation is another.  and f a c t o r s  t o market  t o move p e o p l e  By so d o i n g , f r i c t i o n i n  of p r o d u c t i o n are  forces.  and  Transportation,  made m o b i l e , as a f a c t o r  in  1 production,  therefore,  creates  "place u t i l i t y " ,  by moving  g o o d s f r o m w h e r e t h e y a r e p r o d u c e d t o w h e r e they a r e f o r consumptipn, provide this lowest  An e f f i c i e n t  service  economic  i n the  improvement w i l l its  These f a c t o r s successful  economic,  and p o l i t i c a l  i n one c o u n t r y may l e a d t o  transport  system,  development.  role,  tation  possible  Its  time and a t  system d e v e l o p s and i t s  social,  not  not  shortest  to the  subsequent  depend on t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f  Transportation is  will  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system ought  cost.  The way a t r a n s p o r t  country,  wanted  the  while i n another  an independent v a r i a b l e  characteristics. development  of  much l e s s  so..  in  "economics  growth,  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " ,  "'"Fair, L . M . and W i l l i a m s , V / . , Economics (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s ) , p™ 3 *  a  economic  i n a s s i s t i n g r a p i d economic  o n l y depend on the  the  of  but  Transpor~  2 how t h e s e a r e political 2.  influenced by p h y s i c a l , economic,•social,  and  factors.  The P r o v i s i o n o f M o d e r n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a Developing Area The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  in  of modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  in  the  developing countries  was t o p r o v e s u p e r i o r t o p r i m i t i v e  methods  which p r e v a i l e d i n these areas.  of t r a n s p o r t  major reason  is  t h a t mechanized t r a n s p o r t  overcoming the vast to porterage, need to  ample,  of  w h i c h was i n e f f i c i e n t  arrival  of the  of compared  and e x p e n s i v e .  Thus  the  and, subsequently,  to  over-  made r a i l w a y s s u p e r i o r t o p o r t e r a g e  c o s t and time s a v e d .  the  was c a p a b l e  q u i c k l y and c h e a p l y as  l i n k hinterlands to ports  seas markets, terms  distances  The  In the  r a i l w a y at  both  in  case of Uganda, f o r the b e g i n n i n g of  century reduced t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs from s i x  this  s h i l l i n g s per  t o n m i l e t o twenty c e n t s p e r t o n m i l e , and t r a v e l time over h a l f  a y e a r t o b e t w e e n two o r t h r e e d a y s b y 2  and r a i l w a y ,  from  porterage  respectively.  A s shown a b o v e , transport  ex-  system i s  the  impact of  evaluated by the  a modern and  efficient  extent to which i t  reduction i n transport  c o s t s and t r a v e l t i m e p o s s i b l e .  c r e a s e d speed l e a d s  c a p i t a l s a v i n g s w h i c h c a n be  f o r development  to  i n other  sectors  of the  makes In-  channelled  economy.  I t I s now o v e r h a l f a c e n t u r y s i n c e m o d e r n means o f 2 H a w k i n s , E . K . , Road and Road T r a n s p o r t i n an U n d e r d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r y : A Case S t u d y o T Uganda ( L o n d o n : Colonial Research~Studies No. 32, Her Majesty's~Stationery O f f i c e , 1962), p . 25. '  3 t r a n s p o r t were p r o v i d e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . c o u n t r i e s , the p i c t u r e i s s t i l l  a mixture  But  of p r i m i t i v e  modern modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h i s r e f l e c t s the in  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of t h e s e c o u n t r i e s and  i n these and  immaturity, their  i n a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e an a l l round modern t r a n s p o r t system to  limited  tation  Although  e s t a b l i s h i n g a modern t r a n s p o r -  system i s the g o a l of p r a c t i c a l l y every  c o u n t r y now is  capital.  engaged i n the m o d e r n i z a t i o n  unrealistic  due  developing  of h e r economy, i t  t o o v e r l o o k t h e p r i m i t i v e t r a n s p o r t methods  a l t o g e t h e r f o r two  reasons.  F i r s t , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a  modern t r a n s p o r t system w i l l take a l o n g time  i n the mean-  t i m e , dependence w i l l be on the p r i m i t i v e methods of t r a n s p o r t which are g r a d u a l l y b e i n g r e p l a c e d .  Second, p r i m i t i v e  t r a n s p o r t methods may  still  s a t i s f y c e r t a i n t y p e s of demand  more e c o n o m i c a l l y and  e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n modern means of t r a n s -  port.  T h i s has been p o i n t e d out i n r e l a t i o n t o some economic 3 a c t i v i t i e s i n West A f r i c a . 3»  The Nature of T r a n s p o r t The  tation  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a modern and  e f f i c i e n t transpor-  system i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p i t a l  magnitude of t h i s fact  Investment  investment  investments.  i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by  The  the  t h a t , once the money has been i n v e s t e d , i t can o n l y be  r e c o v e r e d e i t h e r from revenue o r s o c i a l b e n e f i t s which are  3 - U n i t e d N a t i o n s , T r a n s p o r t Problems i n R e l a t i o n t o Economic Development i n West A f r i c a {'E/OITT^T/KOT) ^ V  3 t r a n s p o r t were p r o v i d e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . c o u n t r i e s , the p i c t u r e  is still  modern modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . in  a mixture  But i n these  o f p r i m i t i v e and  T h i s r e f l e c t s the  immaturity  t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s and t h e i r  i n a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e an a l l round modern t r a n s p o r t system due to  limited capital.  Although  e s t a b l i s h i n g a modern t r a n s p o r -  t a t i o n system i s t h e g o a l o f p r a c t i c a l l y , e v e r y c o u n t r y now engaged i n t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n is  developing  o f h e r economy, i t  u n r e a l i s t i c t o o v e r l o o k t h e p r i m i t i v e t r a n s p o r t methods  a l t o g e t h e r f o r two r e a s o n s .  F i r s t , the establishment  modern tx-ansport system w i l l t a k e a l o n g time  —  of a  i n t h e mean-  time , dependence w i l l be on t h e p r i m i t i v e methods o f t r a n s p o r t which a r e g r a d u a l l y b e i n g r e p l a c e d . t r a n s p o r t methods may s t i l l  Second, p r i m i t i v e  s a t i s f y c e r t a i n t y p e s o f demand  more e c o n o m i c a l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n modern means o f t r a n s port.  T h i s has been p o i n t e d out i n r e l a t i o n t o some economic 3  activities 3.  i n West  Africa.  The Nature o f T r a n s p o r t The  establishment  Investment  o f a modern and e f f i c i e n t  transpor-  t a t i o n system i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s . magnitude o f t h i s investment  The  i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e  f a c t t h a t , once t h e money has been i n v e s t e d , i t can o n l y be r e c o v e r e d e i t h e r from revenue o r s o c i a l b e n e f i t s which a r e 3  " U n i t e d N a t i o n s , T r a n s p o r t Problems i n R e l a t i o n t o Economic Development i n West A f r i c a 02/TJN. l V ^ J ) , ' p . 22'.'  intangible.  4  This factor  i s significant  c a p i t a l f o r economic development day t h a n i n t h e p a s t ,  i n areas w i t h l i m i t e d  a n d i s f a r more r e l e v a n t t o -  when t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f most o f t h e  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s was i n t h e hands o f c o l o n i a l p o w e r s . the p a s t ,  decisions to invest  In  i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were m o t i v a t e d  by immediate r e t u r n s i n t h e f o r m o f p r o f i t s b y t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n of minerals.  I n the present  o u t s i d e c a p i t a l f o r development by a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t  sectors  c a p i t a l from o u t s i d e s o u r c e s  s i t u a t i o n , b o t h l o c a l and  i s scarce  and i n b i g demand  o f t h e economy.  Moreover,  i n t h e f o r m o f a i d and l o a n s i s  i n c o m p e t i t i o n between a l l t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  Also,  t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s a d o p t e d b y some o f t h e c o u n t r i e s have t e n d e d t o f r i g h t e n away p r i v a t e c a p i t a l .  Thus,  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e l i e s  solely  w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l government  o r p u b l i c l y owned  agencies.  Despite l i m i t e d c a p i t a l funds f o r development,  however,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s being a l l o c a t e d a bigger proportion than other sectors  o f t h e economy.  T h i s h a s been p o i n t e d o u t as a n  i n d i c a t i o n of t h e importance o f t h e t r a n s p o r t  sector  i n the  5  o v e r a l l economy.  I t c a n a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t t h i s i s a  "forced investment",  b e c a u s e many o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g  countries  have i n h e r i t e d a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system w h i c h does n o t ^Fromm, G . , ( e d . ) , T r a n s p o r t Investment and Economic Development ( B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n : T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h Programme, W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 3 6 - 3 7 . O w e n , W. , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Economic Development: Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d , N o . 115 (The N a t i o n a l Academy o f Sciences - N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , Washington, D . C , 1966), p. 1. x  facilitate  rapid internal mobility.,  ment o b j e c t i v e s  is  to  i n d u s t r i e s , there  establish  an i n t e r n a l t r a n s p o r t  reduced  which are  for  established  and t h e p r o b l e m i s  facilities,  but  of  case w i t h problems r e l a t e d to  facilities  may b e  Transport  the  enable  and Economic  condition for  current  problems  i n a developing transport  l i n k s and those usually well  of p r o v i d i n g  c o m p l e t e l y -new  e x i s t i n g ones.  This is  not  i n t e r n a l l i n k s i n w h i c h no  Growth a necessity,  economic  American development not  but  development.  v i e w p e r t a i n i n g i n most  and economic development.  t a t i o n but  quick  present.  Transportation is cient  to  The f o r m e r a r e  not  improving the  sub-  costs.  with f a c i l i t a t i n g external  i n t e r n a l movement.  develop-  import  i t may b e n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n  problems connected  4-e  the  except  system which w i l l  When d e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s p o r t  the  for  i s no a l t e r n a t i v e  of p e o p l e and goods at  country,  one o f  expand i n t e r n a l markets  stitution  movement  Since  studies  it  i s not  a  This appears on  suffito  be  transportation  F o r e x a m p l e , Heyman a t t r i b u t e s s o much t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  the  transpor-  rather:  by the golden o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the p o w e r f u l a t t r a c t i o n s of the west: the v i s i o n o f d e n s e r f o r e s t s , r i c h e r m i n e s , w i d e r f i e l d s and b u s i e r towns t h a t p u l l e d t h e t r a p p e r , t h e l u m b e r m a n , t h e m i n e r , f a r m e r and. t h e c a t t l e m a n i r r e s i s t a b l y westward. 6 A survey of  literature  ^Eromm, o p . c i t . ,  p.  on the 31  economic  development  of  the  developing co\intries  clusion.  tends  to  l e a d one t o  The h o p e f o r q u i c k r e t u r n s  hidden " E l Dorados"  i n unexplored parts  was a n i m p o r t a n t f o r c e But t h e r e are overcome.  encouraging other  T h e s e may b e  political.  too,  environmental,  as w e l l  like  of  Africa,  in railways.  w h i c h ought  economic,  to  social  f a c i l i t y which influences  as b e i n g a p p r e c i a t e d  con-  exploitation  of r e g i o n s  investment  factors,  A transportation  number o f p e o p l e ,  from the  a similar  as  be or  a  great  t o what  it  7 might a c c o m p l i s h ,  and f o l l o w e d by improvement  i n methods  a g r i c u l t u r a l production, better marketing f a c i l i t i e s , stable prices, development economy.  have  than the  i n other  Organization'of  sectors  progresses  different  has  specific  traffic  is  of the  of  modes.  of the  I n the  advantages  Railways are 7  consider  economic the  overall  s h o u l d be b a l a n c e d  with  economy.  to the  for  well  land;  it  is  also  economy a n d c a n c o n s t i t u t e As a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  competition tends case of r a i l  to develop and r o a d ,  to the  a  between each  mode  of  l e n g t h of haulage  s u i t e d f o r movement  a  system  carrying particular kinds  economically i n respect  volved.  the  a service  economy.  to maturity,  the  not  on the  and  Transportation  a l l sectors  separate e n t i t y  impact  i n transportation  Transportation l i n k between  a greater  one w h i c h d o e s  Investment  investment 5.  will  of  in-  of b u l k y goods  ' W i l s o n , G . W . , a n d o t h e r s , The I m p a c t o f H i g h w a y Investment on Development ( B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n : Transport R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m m e , W a s h i n g t o n , . D . C . , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 193*  7  at  long distances while road transport i s s u i t a b l e f o r short  d i s t a n c e movement o f l e s s b u l k y i t e m s .  I n the case of  rail  and r o a d , t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m e r l o s i n g h i g h p r i c e d t r a f f i c to the l a t t e r , w i t h consequential l o s s i n p r o f i t s and, tions.  i n some i n s t a n c e s , r e s u l t i n g i n uneconomic  opera-  T h i s phenomenon i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e mature t r a n s -  p o r t environment i n t h e d e v e l o p e d  countries.  C o n t r o l was  e r c i s e d i n o r d e r t o a v o i d m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and  exto  s a f e g u a r d t h e r e v e n u e o f r a i l w a y s , e s p e c i a l l y I f t h e s e were p u b l i c l y owned. Based on t h e e x p e r i e n c e  of the developed  countries, i t  was  f e a r e d t h a t t h e above s i t u a t i o n w o u l d o c c u r i n t h e  ing  c o u n t r i e s i n the process  The  t e n d e n c y was,  develop-  o f r a i l and r o a d d e v e l o p m e n t .  t h e r e f o r e , to discourage  competition  and  s a f e g u a r d r a i l w a y r e v e n u e by r e s t r i c t i n g and r e g u l a t i n g r o a d transport.  In the former B r i t i s h Colonies (e.g., East  t h e method u s e d was  Africa),  r e s t r i c t i v e v e h i c l e l i c e n s i n g on t h e model  8 operated  i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom.  T h i s move was  premature  because o f t h e i n a d e q u a c y of t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . ing  c o u n t r i e s , u n l i k e the developed  In  develop-  a r e a s , p o l i c i e s were  needed w h i c h w o u l d have m a x i m i z e d t h e use o f a l l modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n s u c h a manner as t o f a c i l i t a t e c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  H a w k i n s , op. c i t . , p.  136.  CHAPTER  1.  II  THE EVOLUTION OF R A I L AND ROAD TRANSPORTATION I N TANZANIA  Introduction The f i r s t system  attempt  to  establish  i n Tanganyika dates back to the  Mackinnon and B u x t o n u n d e r t o o k t o Dar-es-Salaam  t o Lake N y a s a , as  i n t e r i o r t o m o d e r n commerce road extended  inland for  attempt  o p e i i up t h e  Zanzibar, .Seyyid M a j i d ,  privileges,  "the  In  an attempt the  1876,  a road from to  open up  slave  the  trade.  The  m i l e s but because of 1 l i t t l e use. Attempts t o use 2  were a l s o u n s u c c e s s f u l .  m a i n l a n d was when t h e  Sultan  The  friends  a concession  This concession  exclusive  right  —  the  area,  The  i n c l u d e d among  to regulate  last  of  who c l a i m e d s u z e r a i n t y o v e r t h e  g r a n t e d Mackinnon and h i s Mackinnon Concession.  1870's.  construct  to replace  of  for transportation to  transport  seventy-three  t s e t s e f l y i t p r o v e d t o be bullocks  a modern  other  navigation  C o u p l a n d , R . , The E x p l o i t a t i o n o f E a s t A f r i c a : The S l a v e T r a d e a n d t h e S c r a m b l e ( F a b e r a n d F a b e r L t d . " , 2A Russel Square, London), pp. 302-303. 2 S m i t h , E . W . , The E a r l i e s t O x - W a g o n s i n T a n g a n y i k a An Experiment Which F a i l e d . Part I: T a n g a n y i k a N o t e s and R e c o r d s , V o l . 4 0 , S e p t . 1955, p p . 1-14; P a r t I I : Tanganyika N o t e s a n d R e c o r d s , V o l . 4 1 , D e c . 1955, (Government P r i n t e r , D a r - o s - S a l a a m ) , p p . 1 - 3.5-  9 of r i v e r s and l a k e s and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r o a d s ,  railways  3 and  telegraphs".  The scheme n e v e r came o f f t h e ground.  The  development o f a modern i n f r a s t r u c t u r e had t o w a i t - u n t i l  a f t e r t h e scramble f o r E a s t A f r i c a was s e t t l e d b y t h e H e l i g o l a n d T r e a t y i n 1890, when Tanganyika became a German Colony.  The i n i t i a l development o f t h e C o l o n y was under-taken  by t h e German E a s t A f r i c a A. 1.  1894 The  Company.  The Development o f R a i l w a y s  1919 German E a s t A f r i c a Company b u i l t  way l i n e , t h e Nordbahn (Tang'a L i n e ) . from 1896 t o 1911? t r a c k was l a i d . uted to The in  The l i n e was  rail-  constructed  d u r i n g which time 220 m i l e s o f r a i l w a y The slow c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s l i n e  l a r g e l y t o t h e inadequacy o f f u n d s .  stop f o r f i v e y e a r s  t h e end i t came t o t h e r e s c u e  i s attrib-  Work on t h e l i n e had  a f t e r the i n i t i a l year  I m p e r i a l Government had no i n t e r e s t  of c o n s t r u c t i o n .  i n the l i n e , 4  although  of the r a i l w a y .  In c o n t r a s t , t h e " M i t t l e l a n d b a h n " built  the f i r s t  ( C e n t r a l L i n e ) , was  a t a speed and e x c e l l e n c e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n nowhere  equalled i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a .  Proper f i n a n c i a l  i n which t h e r a i l w a y company o p e r a t e d  arrangements,  virtually like  a public  •^Coupland, op. c i t . , p . 307. 4 E b e r l x e , R.F., The German Achievements i n E a s t A f r i c a ; Tanganyika Notes and R e c o r d s , No. 55, S e p t . I960 (Government P r i n t e r , Dar-es-Salaasa)"," pp. 196-197.  10 corporation, This  line  ensured  has  remained  railway history begins at at  of  rapid construction  the  most  Tanzania  Dar-es-Salaam  built  the  country  d u r i n g the  Kahama l i n e ,  harbour  almost  inland.  of  A line  on the  line.  undertaking  of  of  in  The  the  line  of  780  two h a l v e s .  miles.  Other  Tabora-  a projected railway line  c e n t i m e t r e gauge f r o m L i n d i Iringa-and  to  It  railways  Lake V i c t o r i a and Ruanda U r u n d i ;  from K i l o s a to  5  I n d i a n Ocean and ends  a distance  into  w h i c h was p a r t  60  the  German A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c l u d e d t h e  s o u t h west' p a r t  tram l i n e  important  of  i n terms of m i l e a g e .  Kigoma on Lake T a n g a n y i k a ,  divides  the  the  some 55  subsequently  to and a miles to  6 M b e y a a n d M b o z i was a l s o w h i c h was t o Britain  result  i n the  (Tanganyika)  German p l a n s  proposed. transfer  But of  the  First  World War,  German E a s t A f r i c a  and B e l g i u m ( R u a n d a - U r u n d i ) ,  and marked t h e  end of  the  first  era  to  ended of  railway  development. 1920  -  1945  The the  second  reconstruction  era of  of the  r a i l w a y development railway lines,  C e n t r a l L i n e w h i c h was d e s t r o y e d  was b e g u n  especially  d u r i n g the  In t h i s  period, railway construction  ^Ibid.,  pp.  German  by  the retreat.  was m o s t l y  in  the  201-202.  ^Gillman, C . , A Short T a n g a n y i k a N o t e s and R e c o r d s , D a r - e s - S a l a a m ^ , p p . "2^"3"0.  H i s t o r y of Tanganyika J u n e 1942 ( G o v e r n m e n t  Railways: Printer,  11 form of  extension  s t a r t e d "by t h e  of  existing  Germans,  lines.  The T a h o r a - K a h a m a  was e x t e n d e d t o N w a n z a o n t h e  o f L a k e V i c t o r i a , f r o m F e b r u a r y 1925 o f 236 m i l e s  to A p r i l  of r a i l w a y l i n e s were b u i l t .  The T a n g a of  Moshi.  this  the  The o n l y new r a i l w a y l i n e b u i l t a t  Manyoni-Kinyangiribranch l i n e  p l e t e d i n 1933. total  started  The l i n e was 93 m i l e s  r a i l w a y mileage  constructed  -  p e r i o d was  i n 1930 a n d com-  long, -bringing  i n t h i s period to  o f 280 m i l e s  The f i r s t  135 m i l e s  tion  145 m i l e s  Groundnut Scheme.  of the  A f t e r the  l i n e was n e v e r  d i z e d by the  government  shorter  from the  w i t h the  the  Central line  line  this  abandonment at  until  of the  a profit. it  It  the  at  between  lead  at  of r a i l w a y l i n e were The scheme l e d t o  operated  in  d i s c o v e r y of  S o u t h e r n R a i l w a y a n d a new p o r t  1948 a n d 1 9 5 4 . the  The  384.  of r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n  The a r e a was l i n k e d t o The o t h e r  w i t h the  the  uneconomic  o f r a i l w a y was b u i l t  1946 a n d 1 9 5 0 wa-s p r e c i p i t a t e d b y t h e Mpanda.  from  1961  A total period.  line  55 m i l e s  M a n y o n i - K i n y a n g i r i r a i l w a y , h o w e v e r , p r o v e d t o be 7 a n d was r e m o v e d b e t w e e n 1944 a n d 1 9 4 7 . 1945  south A total  1928.  was e x t e n d e d t o A r u s h a i n 1929 > a d i s t a n c e  line,-  at  Kalivfa.  associated construc-  Mtwara between  Groundnut Scheme, h a d t o be  was r e m o v e d i n 1962.  C e n t r a l l i n e t o Kongwa, a l s o  subsiA  associated  s c h e m e , was r e m o v e d a n d r e p l a c e d b y a r o a d . 'Ibid., (for  p.  112.  details,  see  Chapter I V , Case Study H o . 2 ) .  12  An was  important f e a t u r e o f r a i l w a y development i n 1948  t h e amalgamation o f t h e Tanganyika R a i l w a y system, t o -  g e t h e r w i t h t h a t o f Kenya-Uganda r a i l w a y , t o form t h e E a s t A f r i c a R a i l w a y s t o he a d m i n i s t e r e d Commission. discussed  by t h e E a s t A f r i c a H i g h  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s amalgamation w i l l be  i n detail later.  But t h e move was d e s c r i b e d by t h e  E a s t A f r i c a R o y a l Commission i n 1953, a s : . a most n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t e p i n t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t i n E a s t A f r i c a , and i t i s v e r y doubtf u l whether w i t h o u t i t Tanganyika c o u l d have r a i s e d the l o a n c a p i t a l which has s i n c e been a u t h o r i z e d f o r e x p e n d i t u r e on t h e Tanganyika S e c t i o n . 8 Since  1948, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r a i l w a y s  o f Tanganyika  became p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h e E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y System. It  ceased t o be a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e Tanganyika government,  a l t h o u g h t h e government u n d e r t a k e s t o guarantee l o a n s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets borrowed by t h e E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y s and Harbours 1961  Administration.  to Present Between 1961 and 1965, a t o t a l o f 141 m i l e s  ways have been b u i l t .  of r a i l -  The Ruvu-Knyusi L i n k L i n e , p r o v i d i n g  a l i n k between t h e Tanga and C e n t r a l L i n e s , has a t o t a l l e n g t h o f 120 m i l e s . to t r a f f i c  The l i n e was begun i n I960 and opened  i n August 1963.  the Mikumi-Kidatu e x t e n s i o n  (London:  The o t h e r r a i l  construction i s  i n t o t h e Kilombero V a l l e y b u i l t .  ^ E a s t A f r i c a R o y a l Commission 1953-1955 Report H.M. Stationery^fTTceTTTJmd. 94^5, p. I 2 4 T "  • 'between F e b r u a r y 1963 and June 1965.  !3  T h i s l i n e now forms  p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s e d Tanzania-Zambia R a i l w a y .  Over h a l f o f  the investment t o be spent on r a i l w a y development d u r i n g t h e F i v e Y e a r P l a n was f o r t h e M i k u m i - K i d a t u r a i l w a y The t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e  extension.  during the plan p e r i o d , i n c l u d i n g  f u n d s c a r r i e d o v e r from p r e v i o u s  a l l o c a t i o n s , i s as f o l l o w s :  TABLE 1 F.Y.P. - 1964-69 PROPOSED RAILWAY EXPENDITURE  Project  £'000  1. C o m p l e t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f r a i l w a y £  6,410  2. Moshi/Kalambweni c u t - o f f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1,100  oeocooooocooooeoocvoooooo  1,120  4. T r a i n C o n t r o l , Hwanza/Tabora...........  22  3- R.OHlIT££  S"fcOC3\.o  Air-brake  conversion.  115  6. B a l l a s t i n g , C e n t r a l L i n e  100  7.  2,600 Total  £11,46?  F.Y.P. - F i v e Year P l a n .  •^Tanganyika F i v e Y e a r P l a n f o r Economic and S o c i a l Development, 1 s t J u l y 1964 - 30th June, 1969 , p . 5 7 . ?  14 The r a i l w a y s b u i l t between 1896 and 1965 a^e shov;n on 1.  Map  miles  T a b l e 2 summarizes  t h e t o t a l number o f r a i l w a y t r a c k  i n T a n z a n i a a t t h e end o f 1 9 6 6 . TABLE 2 ' RAILWAY MILEAGE OF TRACK IN TANZANIA IN 1 9 6 6 , BY CLASSIFICATION Total Mileage of Single Track, i n c l . sidings  Running Lines I.  II.  Main L i n e s : Dar-es-Salaam - Kigoma  7 7 9 . +8  919.08  Tanga - Moshi  218.68  257.72  Mnyusi-Ruvu  117.06  119.51  255.99  265.55  Link  Principal Lines: Tabora - Mwanza  III.  ;  Minor Branch L i n e s : Moshi - A r u s h a  55.62  59.02  K i l o s a - Hikumi - K i d a t u  66.85  74.65  130.86  135.78  1,602.54  1,831.31  K a l i w a - Mpanda Total  Source:  E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y and Harbours A n n u a l Report 1966 ( N a i r o b i , Kenya:  Government  P r i n t e r ) , Statement No. 14, p . 5 5 .  16 • B. The  The Development o f Roads  development o f r o a d s was n o t as s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  c a r r i e d out d u r i n g t h e German . c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as was the case w i t h t h e r a i l w a y s .  V i r t u a l l y no important  road  development t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e German a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . Germans c o n c e n t r a t e d  The  t h e i r e f f o r t s on p r o v i d i n g b r i d g e s ,  f e r r i e s and r e s t houses on important  c a r a v a n r o u t e s , as w e l l  as s e t t l i n g s o l d i e r s on s m a l l h o l d i n g s which s u p p l i e d f o o d t o 10 travellers. 1920  - 194-5 A f t e r t h e F i r s t World War, roads were made by improv-  i n g t r a c k s made h u r r i e d l y t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e movement o f war supplies.  Lack o f funds made any e x t e n s i v e r o a d programme  impossible.  Despite poor road standards,  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  began t o assume importance and by 1938 l o n g d i s t a n c e had  porterage  almost d i s a p p e a r e d  as buses and l o r r i e s became a f a m i l i a r 11 f e a t u r e i n s e t t l e m e n t s and main r o a d s . The e a r l i e s t major r o a d improvement was u n d e r t a k e n on 12 the m i l i t a r y t r a c k between K i l o s a and I r i n g a .  Unfortunately,  t h i s r o a d p a s s e d t h r o u g h a t s e t s e i n f e s t e d a r e a , thus making a c h o i c e o f another  route necessary.  In 1 9 2 7 , the f i r s t  H a r l o w , V., C h i l v e r , E.M. , and Smith, A. ( e d s . ) , A H i s t o r y of East A f r i c a , V o l . I I (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), p . 143. 1 0  i : L  M o f f e t , I . P . ( e d . ) , Handbook o f Tanganyika E d i t i o n (Dar-es~Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , 1958), p . 92. 1 2  2nd  I b i d . , pp. 625-626.  17 s u r v e y of the r o u t e , which was t o form p a r t of the Great N o r t h Road, was undertaken between I r i n g a and Mwenzo, and 13 from Dodoma t o Arusha. In t h e same y e a r , a d e c i s i o n was made 14 t o b u i l d the Dar-es-Salaam - liorogoro Road. t i o n of the Great N o r t h Road was completed  The c o n s t r u c i n 1932.  The  t o t a l l e n g t h of t h i s r o a d i s more t h a n 800 m i l e s , and has remained, the most important r o a d work ever t o be b u i l t i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n h i s t o r y o f T a n z a n i a .  I t s outstanding  f e a t u r e a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t b o t h i t s s e c t i o n s , n o r t h and s o u t h o f the C e n t r a l l i n e , x-zere b u i l t of the most d i f f i c u l t  lying  t h r o u g h some  (but a l s o b e a u t i f u l ) h i g h t e r r a i n  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Great R i f t  Valley.  A number of roads were' a l s o b u i l t t o provid.e a c c e s s t o g o l d mining a r e a s .  The r o a d from I t i g i t o Chunya, some 15 2 5 0 m i l e s i n l e n g t h , was completed i n 1937« In 1 9 3 9 , a r o a d was b u i l t t o l i n k the U r w i r a g o l d f i e l d s w i t h the r a i l 16 way a t U v i n z a .  By t h i s p e r i o d , a l l the important g o l d mining  a r e a s o f the time — 1  such as those i n the Musoma D i s t r i c t  ^ I b i d . , p. 9 7 . Ibid.  ^ I b i d . , p.  117.  " ^ P r o v i n c i a l Commissioners' Annual Report (Dar-es-Salaam:  Government P r i n t e r ) , p. 1 0 0 .  1959  —  had been p r o v i d e d w i t h r e a s o n a b l e r o a d communications, some 17 o f which were r e p o r t e d t o be a l l weather r o a d s . By 1936,  a t o t a l o f 13,928 m i l e s o f r o a d s were 18 r e p o r t e d , c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : TABLE 3 CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS, BY 1936 Miles  C l a s s o f Road  o  o  A .  •  2 3  00000*000  213 97 2,784 1,478 9,356  Total  13,928  D i s t r i c t H e a d q u a r t e r s Ros.cis Main Roads............ D i s t r i c t Roads, Grade D i s t r i c t Roads, Grade >  By 1945 developed, 1945  o  o  only a rudimentary  mostly  on an ad hoc  c  0  0  000000 o 0  o 0  o  o  e  0  0  4  o *  0  r o a d system  had  been  basis.  - 1961 A d e f i n i t e p o l i c y f o r r o a d development came i n t o  f o r c e w i t h the a d o p t i o n of the f i r s t 1946.  A number of f a c t o r s had  Development P l a n i n  c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s .  First,  ' S t o c k l e y , G.M., " O u t l i n e o f the Geology of Musoaa District: B e i n g a P r e l i m i n a r y G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Musoma G o l d f i e l d s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the N i g o t i and Ilcoma A r e a s " , G e o l o g i c a l Survey Dept., B u l l e t i n No. 7 ~ 1935 ( D a r - e s Salaarn: Government P r i n t e r ) , p p « 3 - 4 An Economic Survey o f C o l o n i a l Empire, 1.9.3,6, C o l o n i a l S t u d i e s No. 149 (London: H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e ) , p. 46.  the f a i l u r e of the H a n y o n - K i n y a n g i r i  r a i l w a y l e d t o the  b e l i e f that road c o n s t r u c t i o n provided a l e s s  expensive 1.9  method of opening  up new  a r e a s f o r development.  Second, w i t h  the t r a n s f e r of r a i l w a y s t o the E a s t A f r i c a n H i g h i n 1948,  Commission  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Government i n p r o v i d i n g  communications was  c o n f i n e d t o r o a d development.  p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e f o r r o a d development was  The  main  to provide  a  aim was  develop  20 country-wide "Low-Cost Road a p a t t e r n i n the form o f :  system.  The  to  a " g r i d " of t r u n k r o a d s , f o u r r u n n i n g from n o r t h t o s o u t h , and t h r e e from e a s t t o west. To t h e s e t r u n k r o u t e s , main f e e d e r r o a d s must be p r o v i d e d , and t o t h e s e l a t t e r d i s t r i c t f e e d e r roads t o the o u t l y i n g markets and p r o d u c t i v e a r e a s . 21 There i s no  e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n i n the  "Development  P l a n " f o r a d o p t i n g the " g r i d " p a t t e r n of t r u n k r o u t e s , a l though the World Bank Report the n a t u r a l f l o w of t r a f f i c port  a t t r i b u t e s i t t o "the f a c t t h a t c a r r y i n g the t e r r i t o r y ' s main  c r o p s and the b u l k of the t r a d e i n imported  and  ex-  locally  22 p r o d u c e d goods i s a l o n g l a t e r a l r o u t e s " . p a t t e r n was from  Thus, the  road  complementary t o the r a i l w a y system which runs  e a s t t o west.  The N o r t h - S o u t h trunic r o u t e s were t o  ^ D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n 1955-1960, C a p i t a l Works Programme (Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , 1^55"), P»  20 IBRD., The Economic Development of Tanganyika (Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , T ^ D O ) , p. 155• 21  Development Plan  1955-1960,  22 IBRD., op.  c i t - , p.  155.  op.  c i t . , p.  13.  12.  20  21 p r o v i d e f o r movement i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n . a l s o e v o l v e d as a r e s u l t  o f l i n k i n g r o a d s which were a l r e a d y  i n existence at the promulgation of the 1955-1960 Plan".  The system  "Development  I n f a c t , t h e major f e a t u r e o f r o a d development a t t h i s  p e r i o d was t h e improvement  and u p g r a d i n g o f t h e e x i s t i n g  r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new ones.  roads,  Map 2 shows t h e  p r o p o s e d p a t t e r n o f Trunk Roads under t h e above-mentioned, Plan.  The p r o p o s e d e x p e n d i t u r e under t h i s P l a n was a l l o c a t e d 23 as f o l l o w s : TABLE 4 ( a ) PROPOSED EXPENDITURE UNDER 1 9 5 5 - 1 9 6 0 DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1. 2. 3. Qm 5. 6. 7«  Development o f N a t u r a l Resources ....... £ 4 , 9 5 0 , 0 0 0 Communication ... 7,4-70,000* Urban Development ...«..,.....„ 3*215,000 ElGCtlC'lCX'ty o o o » « f > o * o o o o o * o o » « « o o o e o e o o o } 000 ^ 000 Social Services 5,293,667 Public Buildings ...... 1,950,000 A f r i c a Housing 970,000 Total  £25,848,667  * Of t h e a p p r o x i m a t e £ 7 » 5 m i l l i o n a l l o c a t e d f o r p r o v i s i o n o f s  communications, r o a d s a c c o u n t e d f o r over 50% o f t h i s  total, 24 which was t o be spent as shown i n T a b l e 4 ( b ) f o l l o w i n g .  ^ D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n 1 9 5 5 - 1 9 6 0 , op. c i t . , p . 4. 24 I b i d . , p. 14.  22  TABLE 4 ( b ) PROPOSED EXPENDITURE UNDER 1 9 5 5 - 1 9 6 0 DEVELOPMENT PLAN - ROADS 1. 2. 3« 4.  Trunk Routes Feeder Roads ( i n c l . T e r r i t o r i a l main and l o c a l r o a d s ) .................. Urban Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reserve f o r u n f o r e s e e n r o a d s .........  £  2,243,000 1,289,000 588,000 150,000  0  Total  £4,270,000  Appendix A g i v e s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s on how much was t o be spent on Trunk, Main and L o c a l f e e d e r r o a d s d u r i n g t h e plan period. By miles  1950, the country  had a t o t a l number o f 1 7 , 0 1 2  o f c l a s s i f i e d r o a d s . • T h i s number was i n c r e a s e d t o  21,459 miles  a t t h e end o f 1 9 6 2 .  The t o t a l  increase of  T e r r i t o r i a l , L o c a l and D i s t r i c t main r o a d s between 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 6 2 was 4 , 1 8 3 m i l e s . crease  Within the three c l a s s e s , the greatest i n -  was t h a t of L o c a l ( p r o v i n c i a l ) main r o a d s .  an i n c r e a s e o f 3 , 1 9 4 m i l e s t o 722 m i l e s  There was  o f L o c a l main r o a d s ,  as compared  o f T e r r i t o r i a l roads and 167 m i l e s  of D i s t r i c t  (feeder) roads.  The h i g h  i n c r e a s e o f L o c a l main r o a d s was  l a r g e l y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e a s o n s r a t h e r t h a n f o r encouragi n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development, i n view o f t h e l a c k o f f e e d e r ( D i s t r i c t ) r o a d s l i n k i n g them t o t h e r u r a l a r e a s .  Table  5,  on t h e f o l l o w i n g page, summarizes t h e number o f m i l e s o f r o a d s b u i l t between 1950 and 1 9 6 2 . It i s of i n t e r e s t of c o n c e n t r a t i n g  t o note a t t h i s stage  that the p o l i c y  on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f main roads a t the expense  23 j TABLE 5  MILEAGE OF CLASSIFIED ROADS  1950 - 1963  Year  Township Roads  Other Settlement Roads  Territorial Main Roads  Local Main Roads  District Roads  Total  1950  338  87  3,039  3,055  10,493  17,012  1956  502  126  3,506  3,993  11,055  19,182  1957  490  135  3,517  4,319  10,934  19,395  1958  490  135  3,593  4,521  11,029  19,768  1959  490  138  3,588  4,781  11,033  20,030  I960  495  186  3,774  5,176  10,833  20,464  1962  486  203  3,861  6,249  10,660  21,459  1963  -  -  4,005  6,105  -  Sources  The United Republic of Tanzania, S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract 196J. ( C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau - Directorate of Development and Planning - 1965, Government P r i n t e r , Dar-es-Salaam), p. 61.  24 of f e e d e r roads was p r a i s e d by t h e World Bank  Report:  Up t o t h e p r e s e n t , t h e Government's p o l i c y has been t o b u i l d up t h e main r o a d system t o a l l weather s t a n d a r d , p a s s a b l e a t a l l seasons, and t o a t t e n d t o f e e d e r r o a d improvement a t a s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d s c a l e T h i s was t h e r i g h t p o l i c y t o s t a r t with; a feeder road could serve l i t t l e improvement u n t i l t h e main r o a d c o u l d t a k e i t s traffic. The a l t e r n a t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g a complete system o f main and f e e d e r roads a r e a b y a r e a , would have p r e j u d i c e d t h e economic development o f important a r e a s o f the t e r r i t o r y and would have s e v e r e l y hampered administration. 25 1961 t o P r e s e n t Road development s i n c e independence i s f i r s t  marked  by a f u r t h e r change i n p o l i c y d u r i n g t h e Three Y e a r P l a n 1961/62 - 1963/64.  T h i s P l a n had t h r e e main o b j e c t i v e s , one  of which, was the development o f communications w i t h - o a r t i c u 26 l a r emphasis on p r o v i d i n g f e e d e r roads The  i n the r u r a l  a l l o c a t i o n of the t o t a l c a p i t a l  areas.  expenditure  under t h e P l a n is•shown on T a b l e 14 ( b ) , Page 70» Chapter I I I . Of t h e 6 . 9 £  m i l l i o n a l l o c a t e d f o r communications,  power and works, about t w o - t h i r d s o f i t was f o r r o a d ment.  Trunk roads were a l l o c a t e d  £  develop-  3 . 2 m i l l i o n as compared t o  27  £950,000  f o r feeder roads.  The r a t i o n a l e g u i d i n g t h e s e  c a t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l on page 7 1 . -'IBRD. , op. c i t . , pp. 1 5 5 - 5 6 .  allo-  However, t h e  Smith, H., Readings i n t h e Economic Development and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T a n z a n T a Q I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c Administrat i o n , ' t f n l v e r s i t y C o l l e g e ; Dar-es-Salaam: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p . 349I b i d . , p. 54.  25  e x t e n t t o which t h e r o a d programme under t h e Three T e a r  Plan  c o u l d he implemented was l i m i t e d by t h e amount o f f i n a n c e available.  Not a l l t h e money needed t o a c c o m p l i s h  programme under t h e P l a n was o b t a i n e d . the c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d  the road  T h i s has- n e c e s s i t a t e d  o f r o a d programmes o f t h e Three Y e a r  P l a n t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t F i v e Y e a r P l a n ,  (see  Appendix B) Under the F i v e Y e a r P l a n , t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s e d f o r r o a d development i s s t i l l  t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g a country-wide  28  "Low-Cost Road". 29 are: a)  The f o u r o b j e c t i v e s s e t out i n the p l a n  The t r u n k and major l i n k . r o a d s w i l l be as n e c e s s a r y  b)  t o meet t r a f f i c  developed  requirements.  Major feed.er roads w i l l be improved, o r c o n s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e economic t r a n s p o r t o f an e v e r i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t y o f produce and o t h e r goods.  c)  Minor f e e d e r roads w i l l be improved o r c o n s t r u c t e d to provide  d)  s a t i s f a c t o r y access t o d e v e l o p i n g  areas.  To ensure t h e economic soundness o f each major project, preliminary f e a s i b i l i t y  s t u d i e s w i l l be  u n d e r t a k e n as r e q u i r e d . O b j e c t i v e s (b) and ( c ) o f the P l a n shoiild be commended s i n c e they r e f l e c t  t h e government's i n t e n t i o n t o p r o v i d e  economic t r a n s p o r t t o the p e a s a n t farmer, F i v e Year P l a n , op. c i t . , p* 53 • 2 9  I b i d . . , p. 5 4 .  as w e l l as a c c e s s  26 t o a r e a s w i t h growth p o t e n t i a l — p a s t r o a d p l a n n i n g programmes.  two f a c t o r s o v e r l o o k e d i n The e x p e n d i t u r e under the  F i v e Y e a r P l a n on d i f f e r e n t r o a d s i n the c o u n t r y i s as follows: TABLE 6 FIVE YEAR PLAN - I 9 6 4 A 9 6 9 .  . PROPOSED EXPENDITURE ON ROADS  Roads 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Provision  G r e a t N o r t h Route Western Trunk Route E a s t e r n Trunk Route C e n t r a l Trunk Route N o r t h e r n Trunk Route S o u t h e r n Trunk Route  £  T o t a l s - Trunk Routes  v  98,500 1,000,000 928,000 231,900 lj173,375 257,000  £ 3,688,775  7 . Major L i n k Roads  1,515,625  T o t a l - Trunk & Major L i n k Roads  £ 5,204,400  8. Major F e e d e r Roads 9. Minor F e e d e r Roads  £ 4,890,600 935,000  T o t a l F e e d e r Roads  £ 5,825,600  10. Miscellaneous  £ Grand T o t a l  770,000  £11,800,000  The t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e e n v i s a g e d d u r i n g t h e P l a n p e r i o d i s approximately 2 2 . 9 m i l l i o n ,  of which 2 . 1 m i l l i o n i s a 30 c a r r y - o v e r from the Three Y e a r P l a n . Appendix B g i v e s the £  I b i d . , p. 5 5 .  £  28 phasing of expenditure  on t h e d i f f e r e n t r o a d s .  Map 3 shows  the a c t u a l F i v e Year r o a d development programme. Road Maintenance and C o n s t r u c t i o n C o s t s On the whole, t h e p h y s i c a l geography o f T a n z a n i a not p r o v i d e a v e r y d i f f i c u l t  does  t e r r a i n f o r road c o n s t r u c t i o n .  H i g h l a n d a r e a s a r e c o n f i n e d t o p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s and, i n p a r ticular,  t o the southern p a r t of the country.  The o n l y o t h e r  p h y s i c a l o b s t a c l e s worthy o f mention are t h e R i f t V a l l e y and Swamp a r e a s o f t h e M a l a g a r a s i and R u f i j i R i v e r B a s i n s . . Because t h e c o u n t r y l a c k s s u i t a b l e r o a d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s ( e . g . , "murrum" g r a v e l found imported  i n Uganda),  i t i s dependent  upon  ones, e s p e c i a l l y f o r b u i l d i n g h a r d s u r f a c e r o a d s .  But p r i c e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s have been r i s i n g , and hence c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s .  A t p r e s e n t market p r i c e s , , c o n s t r u c 31  t i o n costs f o r d i f f e r e n t types of surfaces are: TABLE 7  '  ROAD CONSTRUCTION COSTS Pavement _Tj^es Bitumen Bitumen Gravel Gravel  Cost p e r Mile - £  Terrain Plat & r o l l i n g H i l l y country Plat & r o l l i n g H i l l y country  country country  10 13 3 10  -  15,000 25,000 10,000 20,000  P e r s o n a l L e t t e r from t h e M i n i s t r y o f Communications, Labour and Works, The U n i t e d R e p u b l i c o f T a n z a n i a . Ref. TtTo. CW.44019/72. August 1 2 , 1 9 6 7 . J  Most o f t h e r o a d s i n T a n z a n i a a r e o f e a r t h Of t h e t o t a l  9,727 miles  Government i n 1 9 6 2 , Gravel  o f r o a d s m a i n t a i n e d by t h e C e n t r a l  o n l y 871 m i l e s were of bitumen s u r f a c e .  s u r f a c e a c c o u n t e d f o r 1,556 m i l e s and t h e r e m a i n i n g  7 , 3 9 8 m i l e s were o f e a r t h The  standard  surface.  o f r o a d s i n T a n z a n i a has been v e r y much  c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e low s t a n d a r d s o f roads i n i t i a l l y These a r e u s u a l l y b a d l y season.  destroyed  provided.  by heavy r a i n s i n t h e wet  W i t h t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n volume o f t r a f f i c  of h e a v i e r v e h i c l e s , r o a d causing  surfaces.  conditions deteriorated very  i n c r e a s e d maintenance e x p e n d i t u r e .  have i n c r e a s e d from under £-281,000 i n 1951 33  i n 1963/64.  and use fast,  Maintenance 32  to 1 . 5 £  costs  million  The average a n n u a l c o s t o f maintenance o f d i f f e r 34  ent pavement t y p e s  now i s : TABLE 8 ROAD MAINTENANCE COSTS  TypTof .  Road  ~~  C o s t perl^iTe" per year - £  Bitumen ................  450  Engineered Gravel  220  .....  Earth/Gravel  120-140  Tanganyika Government, S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t (Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r . ) , p. 1 0 2 . ~ y  •'-'Statistical Abstract  1964, op. c i t . , p . 111.  Personal L e t t e r , R e f . CW. 44019/72, OP. c i t .  1959  30 The  low  s t a n d a r d o f r o a d s has r e s t r i c t e d  speed, w h i l e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s have tended e a r t h r o a d s , depending i n g speed  vehicle  t o be h i g h on  on the s i z e o f the v e h i c l e .  on d i f f e r e n t r o a d s u r f a c e s g i v e n i n the  the  OperatTanzania-  33 Zambia Highway study a r e : TABLE 9 OPERATING SPEEDS FOR  C I a s s i f i c a t i o n  R o a d Type of  Bitumen  Engineered Gravel  50  40  35  <35  45  35  30  <3 0  Vehicle C a r s & Landrovers Trucks  and Buses  VEHICLES  Improved Earth  Unimproved Earth  R e l i a b l e f i g u r e s on v e h i c l e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s on a country-wide how  b a s i s do not e x i s t .  But  j u s t t o g i v e an i d e a on  t h e s e v a r y w i t h r o a d s t a n d a r d s and t e r r a i n , o p e r a t i n g  c o s t s f o r East A f r i c a n Railway  Road S e r v i c e s i n the  part  of the c o u n t r y have been quoted.  from  1/86  s. ( s h i l l i n g ) * i n I960 t o 1/63 36 v e h i c l e m i l e , a r e d u c t i o n o f about 12%.  Research  southern  These have d e c l i n e d s. i n 1963, Most of the  per roads  *^AID., Tanzania-Zambia Highway Study ( S t a n f o r d I n s t i t u t e , VT$6), AID 3/00702"9?l, p. 56.  •''^Personal L e t t e r from the A s s i s t a n t G e n e r a l Manager's O f f i c e , E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y and Harbours, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Ref. No. ACM48, October 10, 1967. *  Canadian  1 East. A f r i c a n s h i l l i n g cents.  e q u a l s approx.  thirty  31  32  i n t h i s p a r t of t h e c o u n t r y  are of s t a b i l i z e d e a r t h  standard.  The r e d u c t i o n i n o p e r a t i n g c o s t s i s due t o t h e tremendous improvements done on t h e Great N o r t h Road between Morogoro and  I r i n g a , and on s e c t i o n s p a s s i n g  through d i f f i c u l t  terrain,  a l l . o f which have been brought up t o e n g i n e e r e d g r a v e l o r bitumen  standard. The volume o f t r a f f i c  on t h e main roads i s s t i l l  low.  As Map 4- i n d i c a t e s , i n 1962 t h e number o f v e h i c l e s , p e r day, on most roads was  still  l e s s t h a n 3 0 0 , except n e a r o r between  u r b a n c e n t r e s where, i n some p l a c e s , t h e number exceeded 5 0 0 . The growth o f t r a f f i c volumes on s e l e c t e d r o a d  s e c t i o n s and  j u n c t i o n s i s shown on F i g u r e 2.  Thus, r o a d  has been growing i n importance.  This i s further r e f l e c t e d i n  the  transportation  s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n number o f motor v e h i c l e s shown i n  Table  10 on t h e f o l l o w i n g page.  The g r e a t e s t  been i n p r i v a t e v e h i c l e s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  i n c r e a s e has automobiles.  The o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the predominance o f p r i v a t e motor v e h i c l e s i s due t o t h e l i c e n s i n g system, by which p r i v a t e commercial v e h i c l e s are r e g i s t e r e d under "C" l i c e n c e . s h o u l d be n o t e d from the T a b l e , the  But i t  t o o , t h a t the government owns  second l a r g e s t number of v e h i c l e s . 0.  Organization In E a s t A f r i c a  of R a i l and Road (Tanzania,  Transportation  Kenya, Uganda), r a i l w a y s  are oxmed by the "East A f r i c a n P u b l i c " and o r g a n i z e d  as one  of the s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the E a s t A f r i c a n Common  J.,  Figure'1:  Volume o f T r a f f i c on S e l e c t e d R o a d - S e c t i o n s & J u n c t i o n s  hWii: v o v u « i Of •  tunic cw »uicttp to*o ;nciiom «wo  'v  JUwco ?im  4 D O O O M A  cava  m 9aM5TM09to*JUt5*f  •A * U t M *  «a»33 3fe 51  •» T » « « f | t » T . .  Off  5» 59  60 61 62 6 5  »34 »  5fc 5T 3»  1 1! O N « M  i^iitr.tAii.iii^iVa-.iiit:firttt  f»4»»*7M5>a>6t 6 265 64 B«a5 3«67 0859 60fol 6 * 6 5 & < tR9| 35 3fc5? 5* » 60616165 li.il IM * t A IS  jSouree: i  M i n i s t r y of Communications, Labour & Works, T r a f f i c Census Records, Drawing;No.'s 5355/R/^L-/HO.(1965 & 1966)  33  59  60 61  W .fcS  *»4 » 3fc 37 3» 3 9  W W  felt* 6 4  34  Services Organizations.  Thus, t h e R a i l w a y  Administration  i s a p u b l i c corporation responsible t o a l l of the three A f r i c a n governments.  East  I n c o n t r a s t , road operations a r e organ-  i z e d on a p r i v a t e b a s i s , e i t h e r b y i n d i v i d u a l s o r b u s i n e s s firms.  The R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l s o o p e r a t e s  b u s and  t r u c k i n g s e r v i c e s i n the Southern part of Tanzania. The  r a p i d groirbh i n volume o f motor v e h i c l e s l e d t o  e a r l y c o n c e r n about r a i l / r o a d c o m p e t i t i o n . accentuated operated  T h i s c o n c e r n was  by the poor performance of r a i l w a y s , which  at a loss.  Thus, by.1931> l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d  to c o n t r o l road t r a n s p o r t .  I n that year, the "Carriage of  Goods b y M o t o r ( C o n t r o l ) O r d i n a n c e " was p a s s e d .  I t sought  by means o f h i g h p r i c e d l i c e n c e s t o a f f o r d some measure o f c o m o e n s a t i o n t o t h e government r e s u l t i n g f r o m l o s s o f revenue 37  by r a i l w a y a n d , a l s o , t o d i s c o u r a g e ance was n o t e f f e c t i v e .  competition.  The o r d i n -  I t was r e p e a l e d i n 1934, and r e -  p l a c e d b y t h e " C a r r i a g e o f Goods b y M o t o r ( P r o h i b i t i o n ) O r d i n a n c e 1934", w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o p r o h i b i t c o m p e t i t i o n o f motor t r a f f i c w i t h t h e r a i l w a y on c e r t a i n s c h e d u l e d  roads.  38  * S i n c e 1 9 6 1 , f o l l o w i n g t h e achievement o f Independence b y a l l t h e E a s t A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , t h e E.A. H i g h Commission was r e p l a c e d b y t h e E.A. Common S e r v i c e s O r g a n i z a t i o n , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r a i l w a y s and h a r b o u r s , t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a i r w a y s , customs and e x c i s e and income t a x , t o m e n t i o n but a few examples. R e c e n t l y t h e E.A. Common S e r v i c e s Organi z a t i o n has been r e p l a c e d b y t h e E.A. Community, w i t h t h e R a i l w a y now s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e H a r b o u r s f o r m i n g one o f t h e Public Corporations. 37An Economic S u r v e y o f t h e C o l o n i a l Empire 1 9 3 3 , C o l o n i a l flbTTc^ l L o n d o n T ~ T O T r ^ a t i o n ^ ^ #4. ^Ibid.  THE GROWTH OF LICENCED MOTOR VEHICLES 1953 - 1963  TABLE 10: 1953  1954.  1955  1956  1957  19,000  22,000  24,316  26,205  29,675  1958  1959  I960  1961  1962  1963  32,057 35,046  37,046  38,893  41,526  45,620  3,406 3,631 44,932 49,251  Private (Licence) Motor Vehicles Government Motor  .  Vehicles Total  1,680 20,680  1,817 23,817  1,986 2,231 26,302 28,436  2,215 31,890  2,546 34,603  2,613 37,659  2,742 39,788  3,151 42,044  T o t a l - a l l types of Vehicles*  20,809  23,928  26,421  32,019  34,712  38,527  39,968  -  Sources:  28,545  - ,_49 674  (a) Tanganyika: S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract 1959 (Government P r i n t e r , Dar-es-Salaam), p. 55. (b) United Republic of Tanzania: S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract 1964 (Central S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau: Directorate of Development and Planning, 1965, Government Printer, Dar-es-Salaam), p. 60  tt  cars, landrovers, l i g h t vans, trucks and heavy t r a i l e r s , tankers, motorcycles and scooters, e t c .  1  36  A f t e r the Second World War, through  r o a d r e s t r i c t i o n was  the mechanism of l i c e n s i n g .  The  continued  reasons  for control  39  were:  -  •  (1) t o d i s c o u r a g e  c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y ;  (2) t o s a f e g u a r d the m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s f o r r e s t r i c t i n g f r e e e n t r y i n t o the i n d u s t r y by unsuccessful operators; (3)  t o enable  the p r o v i s i o n of a b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n  of the i n d u s t r y ; (4) t o l i m i t  c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r modes —  especially  railways. I n the I960's, r o a d r e s t r i c t i o n was  not s t r i c t l y  en-  f o r c e d , a l t h o u g h the p o l i c y t o o l s f o r d o i n g so were t h e r e . However, r a i l / r o a d c o m p e t i t i o n i s s t i l l  causing  concern,  though not from the government c i r c l e s t h i s time but  the 40  R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and was  a s u b j e c t of a r e c e n t  study.  P r e s e n t government a t t i t u d e on the i s s u e seems t o f a v o u r encouragement of r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y by o p e r a t o r s , o r g a n i z e d on a c o - o p e r a t i v e b a s i s .  Tanzania N a t i o n a l Co-Operative  The  African  There i s no  l e g i s l a t i o n l i m i t i n g the movement of goods a l o n g r u n n i n g p a r a l l e l w i t h the r a i l w a y .  the  routes  f o r m a t i o n of a  T r a n s p o r t Company i s f u r t h e r  r e f l e c t i o n of government i n t e n t i o n t o encourage r o a d t r a n s portation.  ( T h i s experiment, however, has p r o v e d  ^Hawkins,  op^^cijt^,  pp.  a failure  136-139.  azelwood, A., R a i l and Road i n E a s t A f r i c a : T r a n s p o r t C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Under-d'eveloped C o u n t r i e s XOxford, B a s i l BlackwiTT^ 1964).  because the company went bankrupt —  the  t o e s t a b l i s h a new  d e c l a r e d p o l i c y o f t h e government Transport  but i t i s s t i l l  National  Company, once the causes which l e d t o the f a i l u r e  have been i n v e s t i g a t e d ) . In the F i v e Year P l a n ,  a p r o v i s i o n of  £300,000  has  been a l l o c a t e d t o p r o v i d e c r e d i t t o p u r c h a s e v e h i c l e s by 42 transport co-operatives. D„  The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Problem o f T a n z a n i a  A f t e r the h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e o f the e v o l u t i o n of r a i l w a y and r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e q u e s t i o n  t o be  answered  i s whether .there i s a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem i n T a n z a n i a . How  s e r i o u s i s i t and which components c o n s t i t u t e the major  problem i n the system? I n 1961,  the Ivor Id Bank Report h e l d the view t h a t  l a c k of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  as an impediment  t o econ-  43 omic development was Report c o n f i n e d terms of m i l e s  exaggerated.  I t appears the World Bank  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem t o f a c i l i t i e s i n of r o a d s and r a i l w a y s .  To a p p r e c i a t e  the  problem, and. t o measure i t s s i z e i n terms of p r e s e n t  and  f u t u r e needs f o r economic development, the e n t i r e system must be examined:  t e c h n i c a l l y , e.g., a l l the elements i n the  system, the way,  v e h i c l e and motive power; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y ,  42 F i v e Year P l a n , o p . c i t . , p. 4* •'IBRD., op. c i t . p. 135.  55.  38 from the p o i n t of view of o r g a n i z a t i o n of the modes as w e l l as t h e i r c o - o r d i n a t i o n ; s p a t i a l operation  the problem, the views o f  suggest where the problem l i e s . Seed M a r k e t i n g Board and  quirements of the it  was  the  Part  the  hence t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e -  crop had  Up  to  1962,  c o t t o n grown i n the  the C e n t r a l L i n e and  of the  shippers  view i s t h a t of  c o t t o n i n d u s t r y of T a n z a n i a .  Regions of T a n z a n i a a l o n g  and  One  not p o s s i b l e t o move a l l the  Dar-es-Salaam.  lastly,  of each mode.  In a s s e s s i n g  L i n t and  and,  individual  export i t v i a  t o be moved v i a Kisumu  a l o n g Kenya-Uganda r a i l w a y t o Mombasa f o r e x p o r t .  reasons f o r d i v e r t i n g p a r t of the t r a f f i c s u f f i c i e n t wagons a l o n g  was  the C e n t r a l L i n e .  of the Ruvu-Mnynsi L i n k L i n e was,  Lake  The  due  The  t o l a c k of  construction  therefore, a necesary  improvement i n the E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y System, because i t enabled the t r a n s f e r of wagons from Kenya-Uganda-Tanga L i n e s 44 45 t o the C e n t r a l L i n e . T h i s o b j e c t i v e has been f u l f i l l e d . But  i t i s s t i l l not p o s s i b l e t o move a l l the c o t t o n crop from  the Lake Region a l o n g  the C e n t r a l L i n e .  I t i s not  implied  here t h a t a l l the c o t t o n from the Lake R e g i o n s h o u l d be along  the C e n t r a l L i n e ,  L i n t and  However, t h i s i s p r e f e r r e d by  Seed M a r k e t i n g Board as i t w i l l  save them the  moved the problem  44 The L i n t and Seed M a r k e t i n g Board: Report Accounts f o r the Year ended ^ O t h J u n e , 1962 ( P r i n t e d Tanganyika S t a n d a r d , Dar-es-SalaamJT"]?. !?• ^ L e t t e r , Ref.  No.  ACM4S, op. c i t .  and by  o f p a y i n g f o r s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s i n Mombasa by u s i n g own  a t Dar-es-Salaam h a r b o u r .  The  d i v e r s i o n of not  their only  c o t t o n b u t o t h e r t r a f f i c , t o o , t o t h e Kenya-Uganda L i n e , thereby  e a s i n g c o n g e s t i o n a l o n g t h e C e n t r a l L i n e , does not  r e l i e v e t h e i n c r e a s e d c o s t o f shipment of c o t t o n by t h e and Seed M a r k e t i n g  B o a r d due  Lint  t o s t o r a g e c h a r g e s a t Mombasa.  A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n seems t o have grown f a s t e r t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d , making t h e a v a i l a b l e s t o c k of wagons i n sufficient,.  T h i s has  combined w i t h l a c k of s t o r a g e  t i e s a t Dar-es-Salaam h a r b o u r t o a g g r a v a t e t h e  situation.  Because of l a c k o f s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s , p a r t of t h e i n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y of wagons a r e d e l a y e d  facili-  already  a t t h e wharf a w a i t i n g  46  d i r e c t l o a d i n g on t o t h e s h i p . . Congestion  along the C e n t r a l L i n e i s another problem. 47  I t i s a t t r i b u t e d t o i n s u f f i c i e n t m o t i v e power.  Improvement  of m o t i v e power on t h e C e n t r a l L i n e has b e e n slow compared t o the Kenya-Uganda L i n e .  The  l a t t e r l i n e i s given  priority  because i t f o l l o w s a r o u t e w i t h a d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n , i n some p l a c e s r e a c h i n g an a l t i t u d e of 9,000 f e e t . only d i f f i c u l t  I n c o n t r a s t , the  s e c t i o n along the C e n t r a l L i n e i s Saranda,  w h i c h i s h a r d l y 5,000 f e e t h i g h . volume of t r a f f i c .  The  other reason i s the  The Kenya-Uganda. L i n e has  a higher  ^ ^ P e r s o n a l L e t t e r f r o m t h e L i n t and Seed B o a r d , D a r - e s - S a l a a m , T a n z a n i a , R e f . 105, Vol. V S e p t . 25, 1967. ^ L e t t e r R e f . No.  ACM48, op. c i t .  level  Marketing (51),  40  of  traffic  than, t h e C e n t r a l L i n e because o f t h e  predominant  use o f Mombasa h a r b o u r f o r b o t h e x p o r t and i m p o r t t r a f f i c  of  E a s t A f r i c a as a w h o l e . The f i r s t schemes o f d i e s e l i z a t i o n o f t h e E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y System was  c o n f i n e d t o t h e Kenya-Uganda L i n e , and  was  due t o be i n t r o d u c e d on t h e C e n t r a l L i n e between D a r - e s - S a l a a m 48 and Morogoro.  C o n g e s t i o n , as w e l l as t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s  assoc-  i a t e d , w i t h u s i n g a m i x t u r e o f steam and d.iesel e n g i n e s , m i g h t have t o be t o l e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e P l a n p e r i o d , s i n c e t h e  improve-  ment w i l l t a k e some t i m e b e c a u s e i t i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y t h e o r d e r i n g o f more l o c o m o t i v e s b u t r e p l a c i n g e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y track with heavier r a i l s . The main p r o b l e m of  i n ' r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s t h e absence  f e e d e r r o a d s due t o p a s t p o l i c i e s o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g on  b u i l d i n g trunk roads.  T h e r e f o r e , the present road  system  does n o t p r o v i d e e f f i c i e n t l i n k s t o t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e  rural  p o p u l a t i o n and t h e s u b s i s t e n c e economy o f T a n z a n i a . The p o o r standard, o f r o a d s i s a n o t h e r p r o b l e m .  The  p o l i c y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g "Country-Wide Low-Cost Roads" , d e s c r i b e d by t h e W o r l d Bank as d e f e n s i v e , was  to provide, i n  the m a j o r i t y of cases, poor roads which i n the r a i n y  season  became i m p a s s a b l e t h e r e b y c u t t i n g o f f r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s f r o m u r b a n and main s u p p l y c e n t r e s . Next i s t h e p r o b l e m (E.A.R. & H.)  o f o r g a n i z i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g  A n n u a l R e p o r t , I9S7> op. c i t . , p.  17.  41 r a i l and r o a d t r a n s p o r t .  The p r o b l e m t o be r e s o l v e d i n  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n as r e g a r d s t h e two modes, i s : (1) t o m a i n t a i n the p r i n c i p l e s under which the r a i l w a y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e cheap means o f t r a n s p o r t , as w e l l as r e c e i v i n g s u f f i c i e n t revenue f o r o p e r a t ing  and, m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s y s t e m ;  ( 2 ) t o encourage an o r d e r l y development  of r o a d t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n w h i c h does n o t c o n s t i t u t e a t h r e a t t o t h e economical o p e r a t i o n of the r a i l w a y s . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e -problem o f making the. two modes complement — far  r a t h e r t h a n compete -— becomes s i g n i f i c a n t .  As  as t h e d i f f e r e n t modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( r a i l , r o a d and  i n l a n d waterways)  i n T a n z a n i a a r e c o n c e r n e d , i n most c a s e s  t h e y a r e complementary  rather than competitive.  Both export  and i m p o r t t r a f f i c move by r a i l o r r o a d ; a t one t i m e o r another, before reaching t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n .  The W o r l d Bank 49  emphasized t h e need t o s t r e n g t h e n t h i s f e a t u r e i n t h e s y s t e m . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m o f T a n z a n i a i s v a r i e d .  It  r a n g e s from t h e need t o m o d e r n i z e t h e r a i l w a y s by i m p r o v i n g m o t i v e power, t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f wagons, c o n g e s t i o n on t h e C e n t r a l L i n e d u r i n g t h e c r o p s e a s o n , and l a c k o f s t o r a g e f a c i l t i e s at the p o r t s ; t o substandard r o a d s , l a c k of a w e l l d e v e l o p e d f e e d e r r o a d s s y s t e m , and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r a i l r o a d t r a n s p o r t t o ensure economic of  o p e r a t i o n s and e f f i c i e n t  l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s and equipment  rising  traffic. . ^ I B R D . , op. c i t . , p.  153-  and  t o meet t h e demand o f  use  CHAPTER I I I  RAIL AND ROAD COMMUNICATIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH  A b r i e f examination o f t h e r o l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has p l a y e d i n t h e economic g r o w t h i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d w i l l provide  a g e n e r a l framework upon w h i c h t h e a c h i e v e m e n t  o f T a n z a n i a may be compared.  The U n i t e d S t a t e s and I n d i a  have b e e n s e l e c t e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n p u r p o s e s . R a i l w a y s and Economic Growth T n the"TJnited S t a t e s I t was p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r r e g a r d i n g t h e viex^ t h a t r a i l w a y s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o p e n i n g up new l a n d i n t h e 1 2 west was n o t w h o l l y t r u e . P o g e l h a s shown i n a n o t h e r s t u d y t h a t r a i l r o a d s were n o t t h e c h e a p e s t means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as compared t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t , w h i c h h a d p r e c e e d e d r a i l w a y development.  The o n l y advantage r a i l r o a d s h a d o v e r r i v e r  t r a n s p o r t i s t h a t t h e y e l i m i n a t e d wagon h a u l a g e and hence i t s cost.  Thus he  concludes:  I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t even i n t h e absence o f r a i l r o a d s t h e p r a i r i e s w o u l d have b e e n s e t t l e d and e x p l o i t e d . Cheap t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r a i l r o a d s ^ u p r a , p. 5. 2 P o g e l , R.W., R a i l r o a d s and A m e r i c a n Economic Growth: E s s a y i n Economic E T s t o r y ( B a l t i m o r e , J o h n H o p k i n s Press', 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 214.  43  was t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e emergence o f t h e Worth C e n t r a l S t a t e s as t h e g r a n a r y o f t h e N a t i o n . The r a i l r o a d was u n d o u b t e d l y t h e most e f f i c i e n t f o r m of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the farmers of the n a t i o n . But t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f wagon and w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o u l d have p r o v i d e d a r e l a t i v e l y good subs t i t u t e f o r the f a b l e d i r o n h o r s e . 3 The  r o l e o f r a i l w a y s i n t h e economic g r o w t h o f  the  U n i t e d S t a t e s cannot be c o n f i n e d t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of  the  l e v e l of s e r v i c e a l o n e .  I t must be e x t e n d e d t o t h e  i t y t h e y o f f e r e d on the g r o w t h o f t h e i r o n and and  f u e l s , s u c h as c o a l and  p a n d i n g market. i r o n and  and  1860  alone,  s t e e l by r a i l r o a d s r o s e f r o m 4.3  railway building.  steel industry  o i l , by p r o v i d i n g a r e a d y and  Between 1840  tons, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  opportun-  ex-  consumption of  t o 25.2  thousand  Such.were the i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s f r o m The  development o f t h e r a i l w a y i n t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d n o t depend on i m p o r t s f o r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and r o l l i n g s'tock.  Railways,  i n addition to providing  e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m , opened new  an  opportunities for  ex-  p l o i t i n g the c o u n t r y ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and hence economic e x p a n s i o n and  diversification.  R a i l w a y s and Economic Growth In India i  There a r e two  schools  of t h o u g h t on t h e p a r t p l a y e d 4 by r a i l w a y s i n t h e e a r l y economic g r o w t h o f I n d i a . One ^ I b i d . , p. 219. 4 A n s t o y , V., The Economic Development o f I n d i a (Longmans, Green and *<Toiirpany, P5T6; 3 r d e d i t i o n J 7 ~ p p r ~ l 3 3 - 1 4 4 .  44  s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t condemns t h e development o f t h e r a i l w a y s f o r having d i s r u p t e d the indeginous  c o t t a g e i n d u s t r i e s and.  r e p l a c i n g them w i t h t h e f a c t o r y system, access  Railways  of B r i t i s h goods t o t h e I n d i a n m a r k e t , and  making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e c r a f t s m e n The  provided i n so  doing  t o compete p r o f i t a b l y . .  o t h e r s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t sees n o t h i n g wrong i n t h e  d i s r u p t i o n of t h e i n d e g i n o u s t i o n ; s i n c e t h i s was  Indian socio-economic o r g a n i z a -  compensated by l i n k i n g t h e c o u n t r y  t h e r e s t of t h e w o r l d .  to  I t p r o v i d e d an e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m t o  d e a l w i t h t h e f a m i n e p r o b l e m , by l i n k i n g v i l l a g e s and i n g c o n t a c t between p e o p l e and p l a c e s .  increas-  While perhaps the  f o r m e r s c h o o l of t h o u g h t has a c a s e t o p r o v e a g a i n s t r a i l w a y development, i t i s l o g i c a l t o c o n c u r w i t h t h e l a t t e r v i e w . The  i s s u e t o be examined, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o what  degree d i d r a i l w a y development b e n e f i t I n d i a and n o t m e t r o p o l i t a n power w h i c h r u l e d h e r a t t h a t t i m e ? of t r a d e w h i c h d e v e l o p e d and w h i c h was B r i t a i n , minimized  The  the volume  o r i e n t e d towards  the b e n e f i t s which would otherwise  have  a c c r u e d had t h e r a i l w a y s t i m u l a t e d m a r k e t s f o r t h e development of i n t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s  of I n d i a .  As L a n s i n g  arguesz  " . . . t h e I m p e r i a l Government i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r a i l w a y s i n I n d i a i n t h e 19th c e n t u r y d i d not seek p r i m a r i l y t h e economic development o f t h e c o u n t r y . . . . " I n t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e system o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were paramount." 5 The  economic p o l i c y w h i c h shaped t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  5 ^ L a n s i n g , J.B, , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Ecjono_mic_ P o l i c y , (The F r e e F r e e s , New Y o r k : . 196*6T7 p. 136T™"  4-5 system of I n d i a served outside i n t e r e s t s — the  u n l i k e that of  U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h was g e a r e d t o w a r d s o p e n i n g up  a r e a s and s t i m u l a t i n g economic g r o w t h f r o m w i t h i n .  new  Defence  6 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f o r example, over-shadowed economic ones. Where economic f a c t o r s c o u n t e d , t h e s e were d e s i g n e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e r o l e o f I n d i a as  an e x p o r t e r o f raw m a t e r i a l s and 7  i m p o r t e r o f manufactured, goods. to  Thus, t h e l i n k i n g o f p o r t s  t h e i n t e r i o r a r e a s was g i v e n more p r e f e r e n c e t h a n i n t e r n a l  transportation  facilities.  These few examples a r e i n t e n d e d t o show t h a t t h e de facto p o l i t i c a l  s t a t u s o f I n d i a i n t h e 19th  C e n t u r y and  first  h a l f o f t h e 20th C e n t u r y , made t h e economic e f f e c t s o f r a i l way development n o t e n t i r e l y b e n e f i c i a l t o h e r . i n ' t h j y S c o n o m i c Growth o f T a n z a n i a Introduction The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p a r t p l a y e d b y r a i l and r o a d c o m m u n i c a t i o n v i s - a - v i s o t h e r f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e economic g r o w t h o f T a n z a n i a has been b r o k e n up i n f o u r p e r i o d s :  1904-1919, 1920-1948, 1949-1960, ana  1961-64.  The  last  y e a r s o f t h e s e p e r i o d s mark t i m e s ( e x c e p t f o r t h e l a s t p e r i o d ) when s i g n i f i c a n t changes o c c u r r e d , w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e Saxena, K.K., I n d i a n R a i l w a y s - P r o b l e m s ^ a n d P r o s p e c t s ( V o r a & Co., P u b l i s h e r s , PVT^iiimJ.ted, Bombay, IndTaJ, P . 6.  rp  'Ibid.  46  t r a n s p o r t and the c o u n t r y  economic development; namely, the t r a n s f e r of  f r o m German t o B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , T a n g a n y i k a  Railways to East A f r i c a n Railway Administration. p e r i o d (1961-1964) r e p r e s e n t s  The  last  the f i r s t f o u r years of  T a n z a n i a Independence. 1904-1919 E a r l y r a i l w a y " b u i l d i n g i n T a n z a n i a has "been a t t r i b uted to s t r a t e g i c reasons.  While the r a i l w a y s d i d  fulfil  t h i s o b j e c t i v e , c o m m e r c i a l m o t i v e s were a l s o paramount. "Peaceful penetration through competitive 8  development  and  c a p t u r e of t r a f f i c " f e a t u r e d more as a s t i m u l u s t o r a i l w a y development t h a n s t r a t e g y .  L i k e many o t h e r c o l o n i a l powers  of t h e t i m e , Germany needed c o l o n i e s as s o u r c e s o f  raw  m a t e r i a l s f o r h e r d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r i e s and m a r k e t s f o r manuf a c t u r e d good.s.  R a i l w a y s were b u i l t t o meet t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t .  German p o l i c y i n T a n z a n i a was  g e a r e d on  developing  p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e i n the a r e a s where the Tanga L i n e t o be c o n s t r u c t e d ; b a s e d on r u b b e r , c o t t o n , c o f f e e and Much r e s e a r c h was  c a r r i e d out —  was  sisal.  what one h i s t o r i a n has  9 d e s c r i b e d as "the Age  of S c i e n t i f i c C o l o n i z a t i o n " —  out what c r o p s were s u i t e d t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l of the  country. G i l l m a n , op. q ^ E b e r l i e , op.  c i t . , p.  15-  c i t . , p.  11.  to  find  conditions  4-7 C o f f e e p l a n t a t i o n s were u n s u c c e s s f u l as compared t o n a t i v e grown c o f f e e i n Bukoba, w h i c h a c c o u n t e d p a r t o f t h e e x p o r t o f t h i s commodity,  f o r the greater  Favourable p r i c e s i n  t h e w o r l d market l e d t o r a p i d ' e x p a n s i o n o f r u b b e r on a p l a n tation basis.  However, t h e sudden f a l l i n r u b b e r  t o over-production i n Southeast  prices,due  A s i a , doomed t h e r u b b e r  i n d u s t r y and r e s u l t e d i n most o f t h e r u b b e r e s t a t e s b e i n g c o n v e r t e d i n t o s i s a l p l a n t a t i o n s . From t h i s d a t e , s i s a l grew i n importance  and became t h e dominant e x p o r t c r o p i n t h e  economy o f t h e c o u n t r y . The s u c c e s s o f p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e a l s o depended on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a b o u r .  T h i s p r o b l e m was s o l v e d b y  r e s o r t i n g t o compulsory l a b o u r — the s o - c a l l e d " W i l h e l m s t a l 10 System" — by w h i c h A f r i c a n s had a c h o i c e o f e i t h e r w o r k i n g on a p l a n t a t i o n o r on a p u b l i c works programme one month o u t of every f o u r . A t t e m p t s t o grow c o t t o n on a- p l a n t a t i o n b a s i s were unsuccessful. guaranteed  A f r i c a n s a g r e e d t o grow i t when t h e government  a minimum p r i c e h i g h e r t h a n t h e w o r l d p r i c e , w h i c h 11  had dropped i n 1908.  The p r e s e n t  " C o t t o n B e l t " i n t h e Lake  R e g i o n s , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , was n o t a b l e f o r p e a n u t p r o d u c t i o n and e x p o r t e d v i a Mombasa a l o n g t h e Kenya-Uganda R a i l w a y . H a r l o w , op_«_.c.it^, p. 189. • I b i d . , p. 144.  48  Between 1906 and 1912, c r e a s e d as shown b e l o w .  e x p o r t and i m p o r t t r a d e i n -  The i m p o r t trad,e was a c c o u n t e d f o r  by r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l , r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n t a t i o n s . ~ TABLE  11  1906-1912:  EXPANSION OF TRADE OF GERMAN.EAST AFRICA  1906  1907  1908  1909  1910  1911  1912  Exports  52.2  23.8  25.8  33.9  38.7  45.9  50.3  Imports  11.0  12.5  1.0.9  13.1  20.8  22.4  310 4  Total  63.2  36.3  36.7  47.0  59-5  68.3  81.7  ( i n m i l l i o n marks) Source:  H a r l o w , V. and o t h e r s , H i s t o r y o f E a s t A f r i c a , (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 196TT7~lX7~'i53.  The Germans l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n  f o r the beginning  o f a modern economy i n T a n z a n i a , i n w h i c h p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l ture, p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e .  Gillman  concludes, i n respect t o  the Tanga L i n e , t h a t t h e r a i l w a y was a g r e a t  stimulant to  12 r a p i d expansion of p l a n t a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e .  13  Henderson  On t h e o t h e r hand,  a t t r i b u t e s the success t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , i n -  cluding the r a i l w a y , s p e c i a l t a r r i f p r i v i l e g e s , labour and  credit f a c i l i t i e s . Gillman,  I t i s true a l l these f a c t o r s  op. c i t . , p. 21.  'Harlow, op. c i t . , p. 190.  supply  49  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i n i t i a l of T a n z a n i a . the f a l l  economic g r o w t h  As f o r f u t u r e y e a r s , t h e d e c i s i v e f a c t o r was  i n rubber p r i c e s .  This, rather than the r a i l w a y ,  e s t a b l i s h e d s i s a l as t h e m a j o r e x p o r t c r o p o f t h e c o u n t r y . T h i s p e r i o d was b r o u g h t t o an end b y t h e F i r s t W o r l d War, d u r i n g .which t i m e g r e a t damage was done on t h e r a i l w a y s , and t h e i n c i p i e n t economic base was d i s r u p t e d .  1920 - 1948 The  immediate t a s k a f t e r t h e war was t o r e - e s t a b l i s h  l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b y r e h a b i l i t a t i n g t h e r a i l w a y s and upg r a d i n g t h e t r a c k s t o m o t o r a b l e r o a d s . ' The e x t e n t t o w h i c h r e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be e f f e c t e d , t o e s t a b l i s h a base f o r f t i r t h e r development, was l i m i t e d b y t h e amount o f c a p i t a l available.  As a mandate t e r r i t o r y , T a n g a n y i k a c o u l d n o t  borrow money on t h e London M a r k e t — 14 on l o a n s and g r a n t s .  t h e c o u n t r y h a d t o depend  But t h e o n l y type o f l o a n which c o u l d  be r a i s e d under t h e P a l e s t i n e and E a s t A f r i c a n Loans A c t s o f 1926,  1928  and 1931,  ' r e s p e c t i v e l y , were f o r e i t h e r b u i l d i n g  15 r a i l w a y s or roads.  Thus, she was a b l e t o r a i s e about  £ 3 m i l l i o n , under t h e above-mentioned A c t s , t o be s p e n t on railway construction.  The Mwanza b r a n c h l i n e was b u i l t b y  c a p i t a l from these l o a n s . "^Cameron, ox-, c i t . , p. 69. -\Leubuseher, C , T a n g a n y i k a T e r r i t o r y : A S t u d y o f Economic P o l i c y u n d e r Manda^Eey^xf o r o T l J n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,"l94~4") , p. 158.  50 The w o r l d d e p r e s s i o n between 1930 a n d 193^ r e t a r d e d f u r t h e r development.  The f a l l i n t h e p r i c e o f p r i m a r y  p r o d u c t s a f f e c t e d t h e revenue  o f t h e c o u n t r y and t h e p u r c h a s -  ing  The p r i c e f o r s i s a l f e l l  power o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  from  £23 i n 1930 t o £12 p e r t o n i n 1934; t h a t o f c o f f e e f e l l £35 t o £34 p e r t o n a t t h a t t i m e , and b e e s wax p r i c e s 16 f r o m £107 to£80 p e r t o n . ing  from  fell  Demand f o r i m p o r t s d e c l i n e d  affect-  Revenue f e l l f r o m £709,670  revenue f r o m customs d u t i e s .  17 i n 1929-30 t o £411,354 i n 1951-32. Throughout t h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e was u n c e r t a i n t y the p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e o f the country.  The f e a r t h a t  was g o i n g t o become "a pawn on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p e l l e d c a p i t a l from t h e c o u n t r y .  about  Tanganyika  chessboard"  S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e r e was  a campaign t o u n i t e T a n g a n y i k a w i t h Kenya and Uganda.  This  u n i o n was e f f e c t e d i n 1923? and f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d i n 1927 • The Customs U n i o n , however, p r o v e d a l a r g e d i s a d v a n t a g e t o t h e development o f t h e c o u n t r y .  E y c r e a t i n g a F r e e Trade  and a Common T a r r i f between t h e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s ,  area  Tanganyika  l o s t r e v e n u e ; w h i l e p r i c e s f o r some consumer i t e m s i m p o r t e d f r o m Kenya were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e i m p o r t e d f r o m o u t s i d e E a s t 18 Africa.  The o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e t h i s u n i o n h a d was o n t h e  d i s c o u r a g i n g g r o w t h o f l o c a l p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s , s u c h as tea  and s u g a r , a s a r e s u l t o f p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n t o t h o s e  His  M o f f e t , op. c i t . , p . 106. ^Ibid. S m i t h , A.,• F j m a n c i a l M i s s i o n t o T a n g a n y i k a (London: M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1932) Cmd. 4 1 8 2 , pT 22. 1 6  51 of Kenya and Uganda.  19  I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e t r a d e  i m b a l a n c e , l a r g e l y f a v o u r i n g Kenya, was i n i t i a t e d ;  thereby  c r e a t i n g much f r i c t i o n among t h e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s , x^hich was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e an E a s t A f r i c a n Common Market. The  q u e s t i o n o f c l o s e r u n i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e  development and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t on an E a s t African level.  I t was r e g a r d e d as e s s e n t i a l f o r d e c i d i n g a  f u t u r e p a t t e r n o f r a i l and r o a d c o m m u n i c a t i o n , as w e l l as  20 p r o v i d i n g a b e t t e r framework f o r f i n a n c i n g s u c h p r o j e c t s . E f f o r t s t o use r a t e p o l i c i e s as a means t o f o s t e r economic g r o w t h were d i s c r i m i n a t o r y i n t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e system u s e d c h a r g e d l o w and h i g h r a t e s on e x p o r t and import t r a f f i c , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The system has b e e n c r i t i c i z e d  because i t d i d n o t r a i s e h i g h enough revenue f o r t h e r a i l w a y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t was o f a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y n a t u r e i n t h a t i t t e n d e d t o s u b s i d i z e t h o s e economic a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h .  21 Europeans were engaged a t t h e expense o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e . As t h e c o u n t r y was b e g i n n i n g  t o recover  from the  s h o c k s oIfs t h e F i r s t V/orld War, t h e Second V/orld'War s e t i n . L e u b u s c h e r , op. c i t . , p. I l l ,  20 R e p o r t o f t h e Commission on C l o s e r U n i o n o f t h e Dependencie s i n E a s t and C e n t r a l A f r i c a ~ ^ L o n d o n : H i s Majesty's S t a t i o n e r21 y O f f i c e , 1939") Cmd. 5234, pp. 107-129. L e u b u s c h e r , op. c i t . , p. 113.  Figure 2.: oj ir\  £'000,000  5  - ..  Source:  Growth of Import Trade - 1925-1938 .  ... ' .  .  Leubuscher, 0. , Tanganyika T e r r i t o r y ; A Study o f Economic under Mandate (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 194ZH Table CI, p. 205.  Policy  53 Although, t h i s t i m e T a n g a n y i k a was n o t u s e d as a b a t t l e t h e r e was government demands. maize.  ground,  p r e s s u r e p u t on t h e c o u n t r y t o meet war  N o t a b l e among t h e s e was f o o d p r o d u c t i o n ,  namely,  I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e r o a d s e r v i c e s by t h e  R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o encourage t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f maize and r i c e i n t h e S o u t h e r n H i g h l a n d , where development had b e e n r e t a r d e d by i n a d e q u a t e t r a n s p o r t 22 ities.  The government  facil-  a l s o i n s t i t u t e d a system o f s u b s i -  d i z e d p r i c e s , w h i c h encouraged, t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f f o o d c r o p s i n a r e a s w h i c h had n o t b e e n b r o u g h t under c u l t i v a t i o n because of  high transport costs.  The need t o meet war r e q u i r e m e n t s  o v e r l o o k e d t h e economics o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a tion.  A heavy s t r a i n was p u t on t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f t h e  c o u n t r y and. t h e t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m p r o v e d i n a d e q u a t e .  The  improvements w h i c h were c a r r i e d out d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were c o s t l y and had l i t t l e b e a r i n g t o t h e p a t t e r n o f growth t a k i n g p l a c e .  economic  I n d e e d , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s were  i m p r o v e d a t t h e expense o f o t h e r e s s e n t i a l community needs  23 like  education. Import t r a d e i n c r e a s e d i n p e r i o d s b e f o r e and  the of  d e p r e s s i o n , as shown on t h e g r a p h ( F i g u r e 1 ) .  after  The  list  i m p o r t s was d o m i n a t e d by c o t t o n goods, m o s t l y f r o m J a p a n .  B e i n g a mandate t e r r i t o r y , T a n g a n y i k a c o u l d n o t p u r s u e a M o f f e t , op. c i t . , p. 124. 23 ^ H a r l o w , op. c i t . , p. 618. 2 2  54 discriminatory trade p o l i c y .  The p o l i c y e n f o r c e d a t t h i s  t i m e , opened t h e T a n g a n y i k a market t o i m p o r t t r a d e f r o m  all  o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , w h i l e i n r e t u r n she h a d o n l y  limited  items t o export t o these c o u n t r i e s .  Thus, t h e "Open Door-  Trade P o l i c y " , l i k e t h e E a s t A f r i c a n Customs U n i o n p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , was t o t h e advantage o f o t h e r a r e a s and — i n particular —  Japan.  The p r o b l e m i n r a i l w a y development  at this period  was t h a t t h e l i n e was o p e r a t i n g a t a l o s s and because  railway  r e c e i p t s were i n c l u d e d , i n g e n e r a l r e v e n u e , i t a f f e c t e d t h e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y as a whole. 24  The l o s s o f  r a i l w a y revenue h a d b e e n c a u s e d : (1)  b y t h e l o s s o f t h e c o p p e r t r a f f i c f r o m t h e Congo i n t h e 1950 s, w h i c h h a d been d i v e r t e d f r o m s  •Dar-es-Salaam  to Lobito;  ( 2 ) t h e movement o f e x p o r t and i m p o r t t r a d e f o r a r e a s around Lake V i c t o r i a , w h i c h moved a l o n g t h e KenyaUganda r a i l w a y ; (5) t h e r a i l w a y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t a f f was a c o s t l y one; ( 4 ) t h e heavy b u r d e n o f t h e r a i l w a y d e b t . I n t h e f i n a n c i a l y e a r 1931-32, o u t o f t h e t o t a l  debt  25 o f o v e r 8 m i l l i o n , t w o - t h i r d s was a c c o u n t e d f o r b y r a i l w a y s . £  24 S m i t h , A. , c^__£it._, p«. 84 2  ^ I b i d . , p . 46  55 The u n h e a l t h y f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h A r m i t a g e S m i t h a t t r i b u t e d t o a p r o v i s i o n o f an expensive  economic and s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e comparable t o t h o s e o f  r i c h c o u n t r i e s , r e s u l t e d i n h i s recommending t h e p r o v i s i o n o f low standard, r o a d s i n t h e f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t 26 i t i e s instead of r a i l w a y s .  facil-  The f a i l u r e o f t h e M a n y o n i -  K i n y a n g i r i b r a n c h l i n e t o o p e r a t e a t a p r o f i t vras t o c o n f i r m further  1  t h a t r a i l w a y s were t o o e x p e n s i v e as modes o f t r a n s -  p o r t f o r a s s i s t i n g economic g r o w t h . The a m a l g a m a t i o n o f T a n g a n y i k a r a i l s y s t e m w i t h of Kenya and Uganda i n 1948, far  that  was a d e s i r a b l e development as  as t h e f i n a n c e and t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e r a i l w a y s were  concerned.  "The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s move i n t h e g r o w t h o f  Tanganyika, apart from e l i m i n a t i n g the burden of operating t h e r a i l w a y , was t h a t t h e government  was s a v e d t h e p r o b l e m  o f p r o v i d i n g new r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s ,  and was t h e r e b y e n a b l e d  27 i n r e c o v e r i n g £414,000 l o a n e d t o t h e r a i l w a y d e p a r t m e n t . There were two o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s .  First,  t h e n e w l y formed r a i l w a y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t o f u n c t i o n on a c o m m e r c i a l p r i n c i p l e a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , p r o v i d e cheap t r a n s p o r t t o a s s i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l , m i n i n g and i n d u s t r i a l development 28 i n the three East A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r i e s . Despite t h i s declared I b i d . , p . 8527 ' E a s t A f r i c a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 125. 28 H a w k i n s , op. c i t . , p. 32. 2 6  56 o b j e c t i v e , t h e r a t e p o l i c y w h i c h was d e v i s e d was no f r o m t h e p a s t one:  different  namely, t h e " d i f f e r e n t i a l t a r r i f " .  The  low r a t e s were g e a r e d t o a s s i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l , m i n i n g and i n d u s t r i a l development, and t h e h i g h r a t e c h a r g e d on i m p o r t t r a f f i c was t o make up f o r t h e l o s s . The p a t t e r n o f t h e r a i l s y s t e m o f t h e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e d e f f e c t i v e l i n k s t o Kenya and Uganda and o n l y i n d i r e c t l y t o Tanganyika.  In view of t h i s , i t perpetuated the  l o s s o f e x p o r t and i m p o r t t r a f f i c c o u n t r y as p o i n t e d out  f r o m t h e Lake a r e a s o f t h e  earlier.  The second a s p e c t was t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l : n a t u r e o f the  railways.  By making  i t a s i n g l e s y s t e m , i t became p o s s -  i b l e t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e g a i n s , f o r example, o f moving t h e „• T a n g a n y i k a e x p o r t and i m p o r t t r a f f i c  o f t h e Lake a r e a s f r o m  a c e n t r a l f i n a n c i a l p o o l , upon w h i c h T a n g a n y i k a c o u l d draw for  improvement o f h e r r a i l  system.  'Towards t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d under  discussion,  a n t i c i p a t i o n o f p r o s p e r i t y a f t e r t h e war, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e C o l o n i a l Development and W e l f a r e A c t i n 1940, a "Development P l a n " was drawn up i n 1944. p l a n envisaged the expenditure o f of  £  12.5  m i l l i o n over a p e r i o d  t h r e e y e a r s f o r R e s o u r c e , S o c i a l S e r v i c e and  development.  The  29  Tv/o o t h e r p l a n s came i n t o b e i n g i n 1946  Communication  and  29 -'Burke, F.A. , T a n g a n y i k a : P r e - P l a n n i n g (New S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y Press," ItyP?), p. 46.  1947,  York:  w h i c h were r e v i s e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e 1944 and 1946 p l a n s , respectively — ten years.  w i t h the revised p l a n period extending f o r  The.Ten Y e a r P l a n o f 1946 i s s i g n i f i c a n t  d i s c u s s i o n b e c a u s e i t p u t g r e a t emphasis on  i n this  communication.  O n e - f i f t h o f t h e £10.6 m i l l i o n p r o p o s e d was a l l o c a t e d f o r r a i l w a y development.  Although the r e v i s i o n of t h i s p l a n i s  30 a t t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h e war time p r e s s u r e s mentioned  above cannot be o v e r l o o k e d .  p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , t h e emphasis on c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o t h e war r a t h e r t h a n f o r s t i m u l a t i n g economic  As  was g e a r e d  growth.  1949 - I960 T h i s p e r i o d saw C o l o n i a l P l a n n i n g come i n t o swing.  full  The t y p e o f p l a n n i n g b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o h e r e was n o t  comprehensive.  I t was a " c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f ad hoc schemes  31 and p u b l i c work p r o j e c t s " period of time.  t o be c o m p l e t e d o v e r a s p e c i f i e d  The p r o c e s s was a i d e d b y t h e K o r e a n boom  w h i c h r e a c h e d i t s peak i n T a n g a n y i k a  i n 1954.  During t h i s p e r i o d , the p o p u l a t i o n of the country i n c r e a s e d b y 1.5  m i l l i o n ; f r o m 7.4 m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n 1948 t o  8.7 m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n 1957«  ^he g r o s s d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t i s  e s t i m a t e d t o have grown a t a r a t e o f 6.5% p e r annum, g i v i n g a n e t g r o w t h f o r t h i s p e r i o d o f 5%. 3 1  I b i d . , p . 54.  32 I b i d . , p. 51.  58 P r o d u c t i o n o f main e x p o r t c r o p s i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d , as shown i n A p p e n d i x C..  H i g h i n c r e a s e s were i n  s i s a l , c o f f e e , c o t t o n and cashew n u t s . production i n the mining  sector.  Diamond d o m i n a t e d  There was a n o v e r a l l  incre-  m e n t a l change i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n o f 6 4 % "between 1949 and 1955,  b u t t h i s d r o p p e d t o 6% b y 1958.  Rapid increase i n  e x p o r t p r o d u c t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d t o p r i c e changes.  This d i d  n o t o n l y a f f e c t p r o d u c t i o n , b u t i t l e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n terms o f v a l u e o f t h e main a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t s towards t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d .  S i s a l r e m a i n e d t h e most  important  e x p o r t c r o p , b u t i t s r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e d e c l i n e d f r o m more t h a n 50% i n 1949-50 t o about 30% i n 1960-61, as compared t o tea,  meat and cashew n u t s , w h i c h i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e b e -  53 cause o f f a v o u r a b l e p r i c e s compared t o t h o s e o f s i s a l . importance of s i s a l  i n t h e economy o f T a n z a n i a ,  The  and hence t h e  r e p e r c u s s i o n i t h a d on t h e r e v e n u e o f t h e c o u n t r y , i s d e a l t w i t h i n t h e "Case S t u d i e s " s e c t i o n f u r t h e r o n . But i t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d i n p a s s i n g t h a t , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , T a n g a n y i k a had t h e h i g h e s t a n n u a l r a t e o f g r o w t h o f 7% i n t h e q u a n t i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , as compared to  t h a t o f Kenya and Uganda.  B u t because o f i n i f a v o u r a b l e  p r i c e s f o r s i s a l , t h e r a t e o f g r o w t h b y v a l u e was l e s s .  The  p r i c e i n d e x f o r T a n g a n y i k a r e m a i n e d a t t h e same l e v e l i n  34 1962-63 as i t h a d been i n 1949-30, namely, 108.  - ^ K e y s i m i r a , Y., A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p o r t Development i n E. A f r i c a . I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , C o n f e r e n c e .Papers, 1965, kMakerere U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , Kampala, UggnTLa), . -gt . ^ I b i d . , T a b l e 2 c , p . 17. p  59 Other f a c t o r s which e x p l a i n i n c r e a s e d  agricultural  p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y f o r c o f f e e and c o t t o n , were — the  first,  c o n t r o l imposed o v e r p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o f c a s h  c r o p s d u r i n g t h e war; s e c o n d , t h e development o f N a t i v e Coo p e r a t i v e M a r k e t i n g S o c i e t i e s and M a r k e t i n g B o a r d s , e n c o u r a g e d b y t h e government. The f i r s t  c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t y , the K i l i m a n j a r o  N a t i v e C o - O p e r a t i v e U n i o n , came i n t o b e i n g i n 1932. 1952,  Until  t h e c o t t o n f r o m T a n g a n y i k a was s o l d b y c o n t r a c t t o t h e  Raw C o t t o n C o m m i s s i o n i n B r i t a i n .  I n t h a t y e a r , t h e L i n t and  Seed M a r k e t i n g B o a r d became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l l i n g t h e c r o p . T h i s B o a r d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e V i c t o r i a F e d e r a t i o n o f Coo p e r a t i v e U n i o n , became t h e m a i n a g e n t s f o r h a n d l i n g t h e c o t t o n c r o p as w e l l as s u p e r v i s i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g b e t t e r production techniques. C o - o p e r a t i v e h a n d l i n g o f c r o p s e l i m i n a t e d middlemen, w h i l e the Board s t a b i l i z e d c o t t o n p r i c e s .  In years of favour-  a b l e p r i c e s , t h e B o a r d a c c u m u l a t e d f u n d s w h i c h were u s e d t o s u b s i d i z e the farmers i n years o f poor p r i c e s .  In recent  y e a r s , t h e B o a r d has e x t e n d e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s b y c h a n n e l l i n g some o f i t s p r o f i t s i n t o b u i l d i n g and i m p r o v i n g t r a n s p o r t 36 facilities,  s u c h as f e e d e r r o a d s and s t o r a g e  facilities.  The f o r m a t i o n b y c o f f e e and s i s a l e s t a t e s owners o f the  T a n g a n y i k a C o f f e e Growers A s s o c i a t i o n and T a n g a n y i k a ' L e t t e r , R e f . 105,  V o l . V (51),  op. c i t .  Sisal  60  TABLE 12 GOVERNMENT OE TANGANYIKA: BETWEEN 194-8 Year  REVENUE & EXPENDITURE 1959  Revenue  1948 1949 1950 1955/56 1956/57 1957/58 1958/59  6.7 8.6 10.4  Expenditure  5.8 7.1 8.2  18.7  18.5  17.5  17.8  18.8  18.7  19.2  19.5  F i g u r e s rounded and i n £'000,000. Source:  IBRD., Economic Development o f T a n g a n y i k a , op. c i t . , p . 25.  61 Marketing A s s o c i a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , also played  significant  r o l e s i n m a r k e t i n g t h e s e c r o p s as w e l l as i m p r o v i n g  their  production. The r e v e n u e o f t h e c o u n t r y i n t h i s p e r i o d was r i s i n g a t a r a t e o f 9% p e r annum. 194-9 t o £22.1  I t r o s e from £8.6 m i l l i o n i n  m i l l i o n towards- t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d .  main s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e were f r o m r i s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e export earnings.  37  The  from  T h i s i n c r e a s e d demand f o r i m p o r t s and hence  i n c r e a s e d r e v e n u e f r o m customs and e x c i s e d u t i e s . The  l e v e l o f economic g r o w t h a c h i e v e d i n t h i s p e r i o d  was r e f l e c t e d i n government e x p e n d i t u r e . 1954,  Between 1945 and  r e v e n u e exceeded e x p e n d i t u r e , a f t e r w h i c h t i m e expend-  i t u r e tended t o o u t s t r i p revenue,  as shown on T a b l e 12.  The  i n c r e a s e was m o s t l y f o r c a p i t a l w o r k s , i n w h i c h r o a d c o n s t r u e t i o n featured very high. r e v i s e d a g a i n i n 1950,  Thus, t h e 1947  R e v i s e d P l a n was  t o t a k e i n t o account t h e i n c r e a s e i n  road c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , while the t r a n s f e r of r a i l w a y t o E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l s o made r e v i s i o n 38 necessary. The 1950-1956 "Development P l a n " e n v i s a g e d a c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f £24.4 m i l l i o n , o f w h i c h £ 2 . 7  million  were t o he spent on c a p i t a l programmes. However, c o n t i n u e d p r o s p e r i t y , w h i c h b o o s t e d t h e government p u r s e , encouraged t h e government t o r e v i s e t h e  37 IBRD., op. c i t . , p. 25. 58. M o f f e t , o-  62  1950-1956 p l a n b e f o r e i t was c o m p l e t e d i n 1956, proposed was  e x p e n d i t u r e t o £25-8 m i l l i o n .  t o c o v e r t h e p e r i o d 1955  by  T h i s new  raising  p l a n , which  t o I960, i n c l u d e d an  expenditure  o f £3 m i l l i o n f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e Ruvu-Mnyusi R a i l L i n k . The p l a n t e n d e d t o i n c l i n e t o w a r d s  a l l o c a t i n g more money f o r  s o c i a l services, e s p e c i a l l y education.  But i n a g g r e g a t e  t e r m s , a l l o c a t i o n on c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , was  t h e h i g h e s t , as shown i n T a b l e 13  (a).  compares e x p e n d i t u r e on economic and s o c i a l and T a b l e 13  T a b l e 13  roads,  (b)  infrastructure;  ( c ) compares t h e t o t a l economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  As i t was. p o i n t e d out i n C h a p t e r  I I , the road p o l i c y  aimed a t p r o v i d i n g " q u a n t i t y " r a t h e r t h a n q u a l i t y o f good roads.  N e i t h e r were t h e r o a d s p r o v i d e d b a s e d  on t r a n s p o r t  needs, which e x i s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c o u n t r y . r o a d p a t t e r n " w h i c h f i n a l l y e v o l v e d was  The  u n r e l a t e d to the  p a t t e r n o f economic a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o u n t r y .  I t has  thus  b e e n c r i t i c i z e d as h a v i n g b e e n u n r e a l i s t i c , i n t h a t by: attempting t o spread i t s l i m i t e d resources over a v a s t t e r r i t o r y , and b u y i n g e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge a t g r e a t c o s t , t h e T a n g a n y i k a Government p r o v i d e d t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h were u n d e r u t i l i z e d i n b a c k w a r d a r e a s and i n a d e q u a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s . By I 9 6 0 , T a n g a n y i k a found, i t s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e imp r o v e d , y e t i n c o m p l e t e and e x p e n s i v e t o m a i n t a i n . ... The mere c r e a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c a p i t a l i s no g u a r a n t e e o f economic g r o w t h . Indeed t h e T a n g a n y i k a Government had, i n t h e g r o u n d n u t scheme, ample and c o s t l y e v i d e n c e t h a t i t c o u l d a c t u a l l y s l o w down t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e economy. 39 S m i t h , op.-...9it. , p.  13.  GOVERNMENT OF TANGANYIKA  TABLE 13 (a)  1955-1960  Item  £'000,000  Roads  U.Z  Railways  3.0  Aerodomes  0.2  Public Building  Total Source:  DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1955-1960 Proportion of Expenditure - % 1955-60 compared t o 1946-50 Plan 19.2  17.8  23.9  35.9  3.2  12.5  14.6  5.3  20.5  12.0  2.0  7.5  14.2  2.0  7.7  -  0.97  3.7  5.5  100.0  100.0  4.9 '  -  7.4  25.S  Development Plan 1955-1960: Capita.1 Works Expenditure 1Government Printer, Dar-es-Salasm, 1955), pp. 4 and 6.  includes miscellaneous expenditure  TABLE 13 (b)  GOVERNMENT OF TANGANYIKA - CAPITAL EXPENDITURES ON ECONOMIC & SOCIAL SECTORS 1948-1950, 1955-1956, 1958-1959, AND. ESTIMATES FOR 1960-1961 - i n £'000  1948  Category-  1949  1957/ 1958  1958/ 1959  72 470 939 85  147 492 906 90  247 634 849 140  217 715 1,386 401  1950  1955/ 1956  1956/  359 168 1,094 113  90 311 1,172 208  1957  1960/ 1961  (est.)  Economic Agriculture & Animal  169 140 112 71  180 301  47 73  104  227  292 450  674 570  1,026 1,292  1,196 993  1,135 810  677 721  9  44  346  419  309  291  303  341  134  906 13  707 6  942 38  1,253 68  966 87  1,471 289  1,687  3,439  4,084  5,283  5,454  5,159  6,180  229  162  Social  Township Development.. Public Health & S o c i a l Welfare Public Buildings and  Total Source:  65 • 272 47 996  I.B.R.D. - Economic Development of Tanganyika, • (Government P r i n t e r , Dar-es-Salaam, 1961), p. 28.  TABLE 13 (o)  GOVERNMENT OF TANGANYIKA - EXPENDITURE ON CERTAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES 1948 - 1958/59 i n £000,000 T o t a l Expenditure ( i n c l . Development)  Year  Roads & Bridges  Agriculture and V e t e r i n a r y Services  Water Development  1948  6.8  0,3  0.5  0.1  1949  8.7  0.4  0.7  0.2  1950  11.6  1.4  0.8  0.2  1951  14.6  1.5  0.9  0.2  1952  18.3  2.2  0.8  0.3  1953  18.0  0.9  0.3  0.9  0.5  0.2  1954 Jan./June  .  9.1  .  2.1  1954 -  1955  19.8  1.9  0.9-  0.6  1955 -  1956  22.6  1.9  1.0  0.8  1956 -  1957  23.1  1.8  1.2  0.9  1957 -  1958  24.1  1.8  1.2  0.9  1958 -  1959  24.7  1.8  1.1  1.1  Source:  Smith, H . E . , Readings on Economic Development and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Tanzania ( I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , Dar-es-Salaam, London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p . 16.  66 When t h e c o u n t r y a c h i e v e d 1961,  independence in.December  i t had a d e f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t system i n c a p a b l e o f  a s s i s t i n g r a p i d economic g r o w t h . 1.9.61 - 1964 I n t h e f i r s t f o u r y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e momentum o f economic g r o w t h e x p e r i e n c e d  i n the proceeding  years  continued. I n 1961,  t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y was  t o be about 9*5 m i l l i o n p e o p l e .  estimated  The N a t i o n a l Income  stood  a t £172.5 m i l l i o n and r o s e t o £230.7 m i l l i o n i n 1964. The G r o s s Domestic P r o d u c t i n c r e a s e d f r o m £185-1 m i l l i o n i n I 9 6 0 40 t o £244.5 m i l l i o n i n 1964. The i n c r e a s e i n t h e v a l u e o f G r o s s Domestic P r o d u c t i n 1962 was 7.8% and 6.8% o f I960 41 and  1961 i n c r e a s e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Agricultural  production continued  t o expand.  The  l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e s were i n c o t t o n , c o f f e e and cashew n u t s t h e l a t t e r i n c r e a s e d b y 39%-  The c o n t i n u e d  —  increase i n  cashew n u t p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was s t i m u l a t e d b y s t a b l e market p r i c e s .  C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s s t a b i l i t y , was  the f o r m a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Products  Board,  w h i c h was made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a r k e t i n g cashew n u t s , as w e l l as o t h e r o i l s e e d s , maize and r i c e .  hi  I b i d . , p. 51.  - L e y , C.,.and Robson, P., F e d e r a t i o n i n E a s t A f r i c a : O p - p o r t u n i t i e s and Pro_blems ( N a i r o b i ! Oxford' U n i v e r s i t y ~ P r e s s , "1965J7~Appendix I V , "p. 2"23".  Although  i n a c t u a l f a c t t h e p r i c e o f cashew n u t s  67  f l u c t u a t e d between £40 and £49, p e r t o n , i n I 9 6 0 - 1964, t h e s e changes were n o t f e l t b y t h e f a r m e r .  The i n c r e a s e  i n c o t t o n p r o d u c t i o n a l s o r e f l e c t s a response p r i c e s , w h i c h were above w o r l d a v e r a g e , 42 t h e Mwanza a r e a .  to favourable  g i v e n t o growers i n  S i s a l p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d b y 7%: "but i t s  p r i c e c o n t i n u e d t o f a l l and was b e l o w £110 p e r t o n , t h u s t h e v a l u e r e a l i z e d was l e s s . to  Diamond p r o d u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d  dominate t h e m i n i n g s e c t o r a c c o u n t i n g f o r 22% o f t h e  value of mineral production.  I n 1964, i n v e s t m e n t  p o r t equipment and m a c h i n e r y a c c o u n t e d 43 Capital formation. ^  i n trans-  f o r 4 2 % o f t h e Gross  Government r e v e n u e and e x p e n d i t u r e continued, t o i n R e c u r r e n t r e v e n u e i n c r e a s e d f r o m about £ 27»9 m i l l i o n  crease.  i n t h e f i s c a l y e a r 1961-62, t o £ 34.0 m i l l i o n i n 1964-65. Recurrent  e x p e n d i t u r e f l u c t u a t e d b e t w e e n 2 4 . 7 and 3 4 . 0 £  £  m i l l i o n , e x c e e d i n g r e v e n u e b y 2.8 and 0 . 5 m i l l i o n i n £  1961-62 and 1964-65, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  £  Expenditure  on s o c i a l  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , n o t a b l y education, ranked h i g h , f o l l o w e d by e x p e n d i t u r e on economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w i t h emphasis ing  remain-  on t r u n k r o a d s , as shown i n T a b l e 14 ( a ) . The  r a t e o f e x p e n d i t u r e on S o c i a l S e r v i c e s  throughout  t h i s p e r i o d was about 29% o f a n n u a l t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , w h i l e  —  4 3  , - —•*-—— —  S m i t h , op. c i t . , p. 54. I b i d . , p. 59^  -  ~~-  — •~  68 TABLE 14- (a)  EXPENDITURE ON SELECTED ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SERVICES 1961 - 1964 ~  .  1960/  126L_..  b e c t 0 1  I  1961/ 1962.  1962/ 1963.  1963/ 1964>  1964/  Economic Seryi ce 3 Road & Bridge  II  Maintenance......  1.2  1.5  1.6  1.5  1»5  Agriculture.........  0.8  1.0  1.7  1.6  1.9  Water Supplies......  0.02  0.10  -0.2  -0.3  0.2  Education  3.3  3.9  4.4  4.9  5.9  Medical  1.8  1.9  2.1  2.3  2.5  -  0.1  0.08  0.2  0.2  Social  Ser^ces  Community . Development  fi  Approved estimate. Figures rounded and i n £*000,000.  Source:  The United Republic of Tanzania: S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract 1964 (Central S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau - Directorate of Development and Planning - 1965; Government P r i n t e r , Dar-es-Salaam), pp. 113-114.  69 t h a t on economic s e r v i c e s v a r i e d between 15%  to  20%.  An important a s p e c t i n the development p r o c e s s of the c o u n t r y i n t h i s p e r i o d , was  the implementation  of the  Three  Y e a r P l a n 1961/62 - 1963/64, based m o s t l y on the V o r l d Bank Report  of I960.  The p l a n had t h r e e main o b j e c t i v e s .  First,  the development of a g r i c u l t u r e , l i v e s t o c k , water s u p p l i e s , and i r r i g a t i o n ; second,  the improvement and development of  communications; and, f i n a l l y , the development of 44  secondary  education. T h i s p e r i o d marks a d e p a r t u r e from  "Colonial  P l a n n i n g " , t o the b e g i n n i n g of comprehensive p l a n n i n g .  The  u n d e r l y i n g economic o b j e c t i v e s were t o i n c r e a s e the p e r c a p i t a income of the p o p u l a t i o n and the g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g of the p e o p l e .  The p l a n e n v i s a g e d an e x p e n d i t u r e of  £24 m i l l i o n i n c o n t r a s t to 1 8 £  World Bank R e p o r t . was  m i l l i o n recommended i n the  E x p e n d i t u r e on t r u n k and f e e d e r r o a d s  a l l o c a t e d the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of the development  capital. iture,  These accounted f o r about  i n c o n t r a s t t o 15.5%  17%  of the t o t a l  and 9 « 8 % f o r E d u c a t i o n  expend-  and  A g r i c u l t u r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , as shown i n T a b l e 14 ( b ) . The p o l i c y g u i d i n g r o a d development under the Y e a r P l a n was roads.  Three  to continue b u i l d i n g trunk r a t h e r than feeder  T h i s was  i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the recommendation of  the World Bank R e p o r t , which f a v o u r e d the development of 44 Three Year Development P l a n ( r e p r i n t e d i n S m i t h ) , op. c i t . , p. 349.  70  TABLE H  (b)  GOVERNMENT OF TANGANYIKA: FOR DEVELOPMENT PLAN Main Category *  PROPOSED EXPENDITURE 1961/62 - 1963/64-  Expenditure  oil* Too&l Expenditure  6.9  28.8  1. Communications, Power & Works...  3.2 1.0 0.2 1.8  Total  *  13.5 4.0 0.8 7.5 5.7  24.0  3.3  13.7  2.2  9.1  1.3  5.4  1.3  5.2  1.2  5.2  1.1  4.6  1.0  4.0  24.0  100.0  Except i n 1. Figures rounded and i n £'000,000  Source:  Smith, H.E., R i d i n g s i n the Economic Development and Administration i n • Tanzania (Institute of Public Administration, U n i v e r s i t y College, Dar-es-Salasm, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966, London), pp. 357-S.  71 feeder roads.  45  The  reason f o r not undertaking a feeder  development programme. was s u r v e y o r s who gramme was  t h a t t h e r e were i n s u f f i c i e n t  c o u l d undertake  the job.  The  T r u n k Road P r o -  g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e b e c a u s e t h e s y s t e m , as i t had  been developed  i n p r e - i n d e p e n d e n c e p e r i o d , was  t h e needs o f t h e c o u n t r y a d e q u a t e l y . was  road  not s e r v i n g  Since the road p a t t e r n  o r i e n t e d "outwards", i t f a c i l i t a t e d the o u t f l o w of p u r -  c h a s i n g power f r o m t h e r i c h p r o v i n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y i n t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g Kenya and Uganda.  I t d i d n o t p r o v i d e d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e  t h r e e most d e v e l o p e d  r e g i o n s i n t h e c o u n t r y , namely, West  Lake and N o r t h e r n R e g i o n s ,  as w e l l as l i n k i n g them w i t h t h e  major seaports i n the country.  The  l a t t e r case was  particu-  l a r l y t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f t h e two f o r m e r a r e a s w h i c h d i d n o t have a d i r e c t r o a d l i n k w i t h D a r - e s - S a l a a m .  Thus, t h e  depended e n t i r e l y on t h e r a i l w a y and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , s u p p l y of t h e i r t r a d e f r o m Kenya and Uganda. P l a n r o a d programme was as w e l l as c o n n e c t  on  Three Y e a r  designed to e l i m i n a t e t h i s d e f i c i e n c y  a r e a s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l and m i n e r a l p r o d u c 46  t i o n w i t h t h e main o u t l e t s i n The  The  areas  Tanganyika.  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p o l i c y on t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p -  ment o f a t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m i s t w o - f o l d . ^ I B R D . , op. c i t . , p. 46 S m i t h , op. c i t . , p.  156. 358.  First, i t reflects  72  c o n c e r n on t h e s i d e o f a N a t i o n a l Government t o r e - o r i e n t a t e t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system t o t h e i n t e r n a l needs o f a c o u n t r y i t was b u i l t t o s e r v e ; and t o p r o v i d e more f a c i l i t i e s i n t h o s e a r e a s most d e v e l o p e d and w i t h p r o m i s i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e development.  S e c o n d , i t was.a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t r o a d  t r a n s p o r t s h o u l d be made t o p l a y t h e same r o l e as t h a t o f railways.  T h i s marked a d e p a r t u r e f r o m p a s t p o l i c i e s ,  which  a v o i d e d p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t r o a d c o n n e c t i o n s t o s e a p o r t s as a way  o f d i s c o u r a g i n g c o m p e t i t i o n between r a i l and  road.  S u c h a p o l i c y had worked a g a i n s t t h e development o f i n t e r - r e g i o n a l trade w i t h i n Tanzania. passenger  F o r example, b o t h  and goods t r a f f i c between t h e Lake R e g i o n s  and  A r u s h a - K i l i i n a n j a r o R e g i o n s had t o f o l l o w a c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e t h r o u g h Kenya.  rail  Today, by c o m p l e t i n g t h e Sekenke r o a d  j u n c t i o n , i t i s q u i c k e r and cheaper t r a v e l between t h e two a r e a s .  e s p e c i a l l y f o r people to  I n view of the r a p i d growth  of  m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e two a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Arusha - K i l i m a n j a r o Regions, i n t e r - r e g i o n a l trade i n items s u c h as b e e r , m a t c h e s , s u g a r and t e x t i l e s , w i l l be  highly  encouraged  around  and w i l l r e d u c e t h e dependence o f a r e a s  Lake V i c t o r i a f o r t h e s u p p l y o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s f r o m Kenya and Uganda. The v a l u e o f h a v i n g a d i r e c t r o a d l i n k w i t h t h e main p o r t s , i s t h a t r o a d h a u l a g e c a n be supplemented  t o ease con-  g e s t i o n a t t h e p o r t s by moving t h e l e s s b u l k y and s h o r t - h a u l t r a f f i c inland.  The use o f l o r r i e s t o ease c o n g e s t i o n a t  Mombasa i n r e c e n t y e a r s was p o i n t e d out i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r .  A l t h o u g h . n o s i m i l a r development has b e e n r e p o r t e d i n t h e case o f Dar-es-Salaam, c o n g e s t i o n p r e v a i l e d a t t h e p o r t i n 47  1965»  I n v i e w o f t h e l i m i t e d p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and t h e sudden  dependence o f Zambia f o r i t s i m p o r t and e x p o r t t r a d e v i a Dar-es-Salaam, which i s mostly  t r a n s p o r t e d by road,  traffic  movement b y r o a d ought t o p l a y a b i g r o l e i n e a s i n g c o n g e s t i o n a n d , a l s o , e l i m i n a t i n g u n n e c e s s a r y and e x p e n s i v e of s h i p s i n t h e p o r t s . port  delays  T h i s i n t u r n w i l l r e d u c e expenses i n  operations. P o l i c i e s i n f l u e n c i n g t r a n s p o r t development i n p o s t -  independence d a y s , a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , r o a d t r a n s p o r t , a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e number o f r o a d m i l e s p e r s e .  It re-  f l e c t s a concern w i t h whether o r not t h e e x i s t i n g ti'ansport s y s t e m meets t h e needs o f T a n z a n i a a d e q u a t e l y doing, begin t o e f f e c t those  changes n e c e s s a r y  a n d , i n so to effectively  r e o r i e n t a t e t h e s y s t e m t o meet i n t e r n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs.  E.A.R. & H., A n n u a l R e p o r t 1966, op. c i t . , p. 28.  CHAPTER IV 1 CASE STUDIES 1.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of Transport Costs i n the P r o d u c t i o n of Main Export Crops a)  Sisal S i s a l i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t e x p o r t c r o p i n T a n z a n i a .  I t s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e economy o f t h e c o u n t r y i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s h a r e i n t h e economy as a w h o l e . S i s a l accounts  f o r about 30%  I n 1964-, p r o d u c e r s  of the v a l u e of domestic  exports.  o f s i s a l were t h e second l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r s  o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , a f t e r t h e government, e m p l o y i n g  about  2 25%  o f t h e employed A f r i c a n l a b o u r f o r c e . Most o f t h e a r e a s p r o d u c i n g  s i s a l were l o c a t e d a l o n g  o r n e a r t h e f i r s t r a i l w a y l i n e t o be b u i l t i n t h e T h i s has l e d p e o p l e t o b e l i e v e t h e c r o p was  country.  dependent upon  c l o s e n e s s t o r a i l f a c i l i t i e s f o r s u c c e s s f u l economic p r o d u c t i o n . I t was  a l s o p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r how  t h e c r o p came t o occupy i t s  p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n i n t h e economy o f t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h was to the f a l l i n rubber p r i c e s at the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s  due  century.  S i n c e t h e c r o p i s n o t v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d by c l i m a t e ( a s i n t h e case o f c o f f e e , c o t t o n o r t e a ) , i n t h a t i t can w i t h s t a n d d r o u g h t c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l as p o o r s o i l s , i t s l o c a t i o n a l o n g t h e c o a s t a l b e l t i s n o t b a s e d on p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s .  "4lap 5 has b e e n p r o v i d e d f o r g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e o f a r e a s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e Case S t u d i e s . 2  G u i l l e b a u d , op. c i t . , p.  115.  73 ^ O >: t : l H *  1  C O T T O W CO  tf.|r  OtflWIMt  (HI  «ll»i.l*ll>Q«g  V IC tot  >NO  M'M'"  Of I C O H O W I C  I i  \  . 1 4000 000  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e seems t o be a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n  be-  tween i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f p r o d u c t i o n and e a r l y German s e t t l e settlement. Tanga p r o d u c e s 56%,  the C e n t r a l area (coast r e g i o n )  26%, N o r t h e r n a r e a ( A r u s h a and K i l i m a n j a r o ) 7.8%, (Mtwara r e g i o n ) 5.3%  Southern  r e m a i n i n g 3.2%  i s produced  and  the  of the p l a n t a t i o n s i s a l .  The  on a n o n - p l a n t a t i o n b a s i s ( e . g . ,  3 hedge s i s a l ) , m o s t l y f r o m t h e Lake zone.  Tanga was  f i r s t t o be d e v e l o p e d by t h e Germans, t h u s i t has t h e l e a d e r s h i p because o f h i s t o r i c a l  the  maintained  reasons.  S i s a l p r o d u c t i o n i s o n l y f e a s i b l e on a l a r g e - s c a l e basis. The  I t i s b o t h a c a p i t a l and l a b o u r I n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r y .  f a c t t h a t t h e p r s e n t i n d u s t r y o c c u p i e s o n l y about 1% o f  t h e t o t a l a r e a o f t h e c o u n t r y (361,800 s q . m i l e s ) , and t y p e o f l a n d r e q . u i r e d i s i n ample s u p p l y , l a n d cannot  the be  r e g a r d e d as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i n dustry. The minimum c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t f o r p r o d u c i n g a t o n o f s i s a l b e f o r e t h e Second W o r l d War  was  £  59-  The  comparable  4  f i g u r e a t p r e s e n t market v a l u e i s £200. The t o t a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d i n the s i s a l i n d u s t r y of Tanzania i s over  5  E  20  million.  T h i s has a l l come f r o m p r i v a t e s o u r c e s , n o t  much by b o r r o w i n g , but by p l o w i n g b a c k p r o f i t s e a r n e d 3Ibid.,  A p p e n d i x T a b l e C, p.  I b i d . , p.  60.  ^ I b i d . , p.  60.  4  153.  from  so  77 i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n and good market p r i c e s . t h e c o u n t r y has b e e n f a c e d w i t h a s h o r t a g e  Thus,  although  of c a p i t a l ,  the  s i s a l i n d u s t r y h a s , by and l a r g e , b e e n a b l e t o f i n a n c e i t s own  expansion. The  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a b o u r was  p o i n t e d out  earlier  o  as one  of the u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r the success  of p l a n t a -  t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e d u r i n g t h e German a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . of the p r e v a l e n t l i m i t e d mechanized nature of the p r o c e s s , the i n d u s t r y r e q u i r e s a l o t of labour.  Because production  Supply  of  l a b o u r , as w e l l as i t s c o s t , i n terms o f i n c r e a s e i n wages and o t h e r a s p e c t s r e l a t e d t o . i t , w i l l i n f l u e n c e p r o d u c t i o n costs. The relatively  l a b o u r f o r c e f o r t h e i n d u s t r y has stable.  The  remained  i n d u s t r y r e t a i n e d much o f t h e same  6 l a b o u r f o r c e t h r o u g h h i g h and low e x p o r t e a r n i n g s . l a b o u r i s becoming e x p e n s i v e  b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e i n wages  and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , s u c h as s i c k pay, h o l i d a y s and I n 1963,  p a i d leave.  net t o t a l expenditure.  But  c o s t o f l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t e d 58% Between 1958  - 1963,  annual of the  the average  n e t t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , p e r t o n , i n c r e a s e d by 58.8%, t h a t o f  7 l a b o u r a v e r a g e d 67% a t t h e same p e r i o d o f t i m e . T a b l e 15 shows t h e c o s t o f l a b o u r compared t o o t h e r m a j o r c o s t s o f g ' ' - " •"' ' • , MacBean, E x p o r t I n s t a b i l i t y and Economic Development (London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1966), p. l55 1  1111  1 1  ^ G u i l l e b a u d , op. c i t . , pp. 72-73.  78 p r o d u c t i o n o f one t o n o f s i s a l .  The s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f  t r a n s p o r t costs i s r e f l e c t e d by the f a c t t h a t t h i s i s i n cluded i n the heading of " A l l other c o s t s " . TABLE 15 SISAL PRODUCTION LABOUR AND CAPITAL COSTS PER TON  1962 and 1963 Shillings C  o  s  t  Labour  1963  30.6  33-2  +  2.6  9.5  11.9  +  2.4  99.1  119.3  + 20.2  164.4  + 25-2  139.2  Total  Ton  1962  Depreciation A l l other costs* (incl. building contractors)  Per  Increase  * ( i n c l u d e s s t o r e s , power, s t a f f , s a l a r i e s and c o m m i s s i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses, t r a n s p o r t t o p o r t , s i s a l c e s s ) Source:  G u i l l e b a u d , C.V., An Economic S u r v e y o f t h e S i s a l I n d u s t r y o f Tanganyilca~TEngIand:~ James N i s b e t & Co. L t d . , 1966;', p." 69  The c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t must be weighed a g a i n s t t h e c o s t o f l a b o u r t o have any s i g n i f i c a n c e a t a l l i n t h e t o t a l production costs of s i s a l .  Two t y p e s o f t r a n s p o r t c o s t s h o u l d  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  the cost of t r a n s p o r t i n g s i s a l  First,is  f r o m t h e p l a n t a t i o n s t o t h e p o r t e i t h e r a t Tanga, I i t w a r a , o r Dar-es-Salaam.  Second, i s t h e c o s t o f s h i p p i n g t h e s i s a l  the port t o i t s d e s t i n a t i o n (e.g., c . i . f .  or f.o.b.).  from  Only  the f i r s t c o s t s are of concern  here.  Most o f t h e s i s a l i s moved b y ' r a i l w a y t o t h e p o r t s 8 Tanga o r D a r - e s - S a l a a m .  The  railway t a r r i f rate i s  of  "tapered"  Thus r a t e s c h a r g e d on t r a f f i c d e c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g distance. to  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t a r r i f r a t e s a r e not  proportionate  the l e n g t h of haulage. The  t a p e r i n g of r a t e s and t h e low v a l u e n a t u r e  of  s i s a l , r e q u i r i n g s u b s i d i z a t i o n by h i g h v a l u e t r a f f i c , combine to reduce the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t r a n s p o r t c o s t s i n over a l l p r o d u c t i o n of the crop. one  Most o f t h e p l a n t a t i o n s a r e w i t h i n  o r two h u n d r e d m i l e s f r o m t h e p o r t s , t h u s , t h e y do  not  r e a l l y b e n e f i t from r e d u c t i o n i n f r e i g h t charges w i t h i n c r e a s ing  distance.  A t o n o f s i s a l f r o m Morogoro t o D a r - e s - S a l a a m ,  a d i s t a n c e of 125  m i l e s , c o s t s about £1.5  per mile to t r a n s -  p o r t . By c o m p a r i s o n , s i m i l a r w e i g h t o f s i s a l f r o m Ngomeni t o Tanga, a d i s t a n c e o f 15 m i l e s , c o s t s about a £1/4 to transport.  10  o  E x c e p t i n t h e S o u t h e r n (Mtwara) a r e a , where t h e r e i s no r a i l w a y , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e p r o d u c t i s moved by r o a d t o Mtwara. A l s o , i n a few i n s t a n c e s , i n t h e Tanga and C e n t r a l " s i s a l r e g i o n s " , where some e s t a t e s have begun t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e i r s i s a l t o sea p o r t s by r o a d . Q  'Hazelxfood,  op. c i t . , p.  83.  The E c o n o m i s t I n t e l l i g e n c e U n i t : Investment O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n T a n g a n y i k a (The Government o f t h e U n i t e d R e p u b l i c of T a n z a n i a ) , p. 28.  the f i r s t c o s t s are of concern here. Most o f t h e s i s a l i s moved by r a i l w a y t o t h e p o r t s  of  8  Tanga o r D a r - e s - S a l a a m .  The  railway t a r r i f rate i s  Thus r a t e s c h a r g e d on t r a f f i c d e c r e a s e w i t h distance.  "tapered".  increasing  I n o t h e r words, t a r r i f r a t e s a r e not  proportionate  t o the l e n g t h of haulage. The  t a p e r i n g of r a t e s and  t h e low v a l u e n a t u r e o f  s i s a l , r e q u i r i n g s u b s i d i z a t i o n by h i g h v a l u e  t r a f f i c , combine  t o reduce the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t r a n s p o r t c o s t s i n over a l l production  of t h e c r o p .  one  h u n d r e d m i l e s f r o m t h e p o r t s , t h u s , t h e y do  o r two  Most of t h e p l a n t a t i o n s a r e  within not  r e a l l y b e n e f i t from r e d u c t i o n i n f r e i g h t charges w i t h increasing  distance.  a distance  A t o n o f s i s a l f r o m Morogoro t o D a r - e s - S a l a a m ,  of 125  m i l e s , c o s t s about £1.5  per mile to t r a n s -  port. By c o m p a r i s o n , s i m i l a r w e i g h t of s i s a l f r o m Ngomeni t o Tanga, a d i s t a n c e o f 15 m i l e s , c o s t s about a £1/4 t o transport.  10  o  E x c e p t i n t h e S o u t h e r n (Mtwara) a r e a , where t h e r e i s no r a i l w a y , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e p r o d u c t i s moved by r o a d t o Mtwara. A l s o , i n a few i n s t a n c e s , i n t h e Tanga and C e n t r a l " s i s a l r e g i o n s " , where some e s t a t e s have begun t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e i r s i s a l t o sea p o r t s by r o a d . o  jHazelwood, op.  c i t . , p.  85.  ^The Economist I n t e l l i g e n c e U n i t : Investment O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n T a n g a n y i k a (The Government of t h e Un: m i t e d *R e p u b l i c of~7Fanzania"), p. 28.  80 On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were t o adopt a " C o s t - T a p e r e d A c t u a l T a r i f f " , c h a r g e s f o r s h o r t d i s t a n c e s w i l l be t o o h i g h ; c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g t r a n s p o r t c o s t s i n a r e a s where most o f t h e s i s a l  i s now p r o d u c e d .  C h a r g e s f o r medium d i s t a n c e w i l l be r e d u c e d and  c h a r g e s f o r d i s t a n c e s g r e a t e r t h a n 400 m i l e s w i l l be i n -  creased.  B u t t r a n s p o r t c h a r g e s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e f . o . b . 11  v a l u e o f t h e commodity w i l l s t i l l be s m a l l . "if"  substantially,  the t a r r i f  ever, " s i s a l  r a t e s w i l l be changed.  A t t h e moment, how-  i s u n a f f e c t e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c h a r g e 12  a b l e and t r u e m i l e a g e s . " costs discourage altogether  But t h i s i s  Therefore,  the establishment  the view that  of s i s a l  transport  estates i s not  justified.  I t would a p p e a r t h a t s i s a l  e s t a t e owners have p r e -  f e r r e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n by i n t e n s i v e r a t h e r than e x t e n s i v e methods.  A l s o , w h e r e v e r t h e r e h a s b e e n a need t o  b r i n g new l a n d i n t o p r o d u c t i o n ,  i t i s economically  cheaper  t o make t h i s e x p a n s i o n i n a r e a s where t h e i n d u s t r y i s a l r e a d y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , r a t h e r t h a n i n new a r e a s .  The l a t t e r  a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d have i n v o l v e d new c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t t o establish self-containing production units. production  f r o m "hedge s i s a l " ,  The i n c r e a s i n g  growing i n semi-wild  condition  a r o u n d s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t s o f Lake V i c t o r i a , i s a n o t h e r good 11  1 2  H a z e l w o o d , op. c i t . , pp. 98-99. I b i d . , p. 98.  81 example t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t r a n s p o r t c o s t s do n o t i n f l u e n c e g r e a t l y the expansion  of s i s a l production.  The  availability  of c a p i t a l from t h e V i c t o r i a F e d e r a t i o n o f C o o p e r a t i v e  Union  has made p o s s i b l e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f a c t o r y t o c l e a n and boil  "home d i e o r t i c a t e d " s i s a l .  I t would appear, i n t h i s  i n s t a n c e , l a c k o f c a p i t a l t o b u i l d a f a c t o r y t o c l e a n and b a l e s i s a l has b e e n t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e development o f an o r g a n i z e d s i s a l i n d u s t r y a r o u n d t h e Lake a r e a . government i s now e n c o u r a g i n g  The  V i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e Lake  Zone, b a s e d on c u l t i v a t i o n o f s i s a l w h i c h w i l l be p r o c e s s e d and  s o l d under t h e auspices o f t h e V i c t o r i a F e d e r a t i o n o f  Cooperative The  Union. availability  o f c a p i t a l and t h e c o s t o f l a b o u r  w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r e m a i n t h e most i m p o r t a n t production of s i s a l .  factors i n the  These f a c t o r s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h new  m a r k e t s , i n c r e a s e d demand, improvement i n t h e w o r l d p r i c e f o r s i s a l , and s e c o n d a r y u s e o f s i s a l f o r p a p e r p r o d u c t i o n , w i l l determine t h e r o l e t h e crop w i l l continue t o p l a y i n t h e economic g r o w t h o f t h e c o u n t r y .  Transport c o s t s , although  t h e y cannot be o v e r l o o k e d , do n o t c o n s t i t u t e an o b s t a c l e t o the expansion  of the s i s a l industry.  b) C o f f e e and C o t t o n U n l i k e s i s a l , c o f f e e and c o t t o n a r e p e a s a n t  crops  grown b y f a r m e r s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f whom b e l o n g t o c o o p e r a t i v e  82  ^ 14 movements. The most i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e K.N.C.U., B.N.C.U., 15 16 V.F.C.U., and T.C.T.A. — w h i c h h a n d l e t h e c o f f e e c r o p s o f s m a l l e r c o f f e e unions i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c o u n t r y ; such as t h e l i e r u U n i o n i n t h e A r u s h a R e g i o n , Rungwe and Unions  Mbozi  i n Mbeya R e g i o n , and Matengo U n i o n i n Songea R e g i o n .  The K.N.C.U. and V.JT.C.U., t h e two l a r g e s t c o o p e r a t i v e movements f o r c o f f e e and c o t t o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n t h e K i l i m a n j a r o and Lake V i c t o r i a a r e a s , have been s e l e c t e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  17 The p r o d u c i n g u n i t i s t h e f a m i l y "shambas" two t o t h r e e minimum a c r e s p e r f a m i l y and e m p l o y i n g labour.  averaging family  A f t e r h a r v e s t i n g the crop ( c o t t o n or c o f f e e ) , i t  i s t a k e n t o a b u y i n g s t a t i o n e i t h e r by p o r t e r a g e o r b i c y c l e , and, i n some c a s e s , on a l o r r y h i r e d b y a group o f f a r m e r s . The  f o r m e r method i s p r e d o m i n a n t  i n the c o t t o n growing  areas,  where i n Sukumaland, f o r example, b i c y c l e s a r e u s e d e x t e n s i v e - , l y f o r t h i s purpose.  I n c o f f e e a r e a s , because of the  ous t e r r a i n and h i g h o w n e r s h i p  mountain-  o f l o r r i e s and v a n s among t h e  Chaggo p e o p l e , motor t r a n s p o r t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important. The c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f c r o p movement i s b o r n e d i r e c t l y by t h e f a r m e r . A t t h e s t o r e , t h e 15 ^ K i l i m a n j a r o Native Cooperative Union. 14 Bukoba N a t i v e C o o p e r a t i v e U n i o n . 15 ^ V i c t o r i a F e d e r a t i o n of C o o p e r a t i v e Union. " ^ T a n g a n y i k a C o o p e r a t i v e T r a d i n g Agency. 17 ' S w a h i l i word u s e d f o r s m a l l p e a s a n t f a r m s .  83  crop i s s o l d t o the Primary Cooperative  Society, which i s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e l i v e r i n g i t t o a Union's g i n n i n g o r c u r i n g works f o r p r o c e s s i n g  and b a l i n g o r b a g g i n g , d e p e n d i n g on  whether i t i s c o t t o n o r c o f f e e .  The c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g  t h e c r o p i n t h e second phase i s borne b y t h e U n i o n .  After  t h e second s t a g e , t h e c r o p s a r e i n t h e hands o f t h e M a r k e t ing  agencies —  K.N.C.U., B.N.C.U., and T.C.T.A., and  18  These a g e n c i e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a u c t i o n i n g t h e  JJ.S.M.B.  p r o c e s s e d c r o p and f o r i t s f i n a l seas.  shipment t o t h e b u y e r s  Thus, t h e y meet t h e c o s t o f s t o r a g e  t h e l a s t phase — f r o m the seaports  and t r a n s p o r t o f  t h e c u r i n g f a c t o r y and g i n n e r i e s t o  e i t h e r a t D a r - e s - S a l a a m o r Mombasa.  c o f f e e f r o m t h e K i l i m i n j a r o a r e a i s now a u c t i o n e d it  isstill  nearest  exported  over-  Although at Moshi,  t h r o u g h Mombasa i n s t e a d o f Tanga, t h e  p o r t i n Tanganyika, because o f t h e b e t t e r p o r t  facil19  i t i e s o f Mombasa as compared t o t h e l i g h t e r a g e p o r t o f Tanga. Since like  coffee, a high rated t r a f f i c ,  i s not subsidized  cotton or s i s a l , i t i s p o s s i b l e that the cost of t r a n s -  i t t o Mombasa may b e - a s h i g h as t h o s e o f e x p o r t i n g i t t h r o u g h Tanga, p l u s a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s due t o p o o r h a n d l i n g of t h e p o r t .  The m a j o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n  facilities  f o r c o n t i n u i n g t o ex-  p o r t t h e T a n z a n i a c o f f e e t h r o u g h Mombasa, i s t h e l e a d i n g 1 o  L i n t and Seed M a r k e t i n g B o a r d . 19 "\Hoyle, op. c i t . , p . 7 9 .  role  84 t h e c i t y p l a y s as a c e n t r e f o r " c o f f e e exchange"  20  between  E a s t A f r i c a and w o r l d m a r k e t s . C o n t i n u i n g t o e x p o r t p a r t o f t h e c o t t o n grown i n t h e Lake a r e a v i a Mombasa i s i n t e n d e d t o ease c o n g e s t i o n on t h e C e n t r a l L i n e and s t o r a g e  space a t D a r - e s - S a l a a m p o r t , as i t  was p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r . storage f a c i l i t i e s  The c o s t s i n c u r r e d i n h i r i n g  a t Mombasa, b y t h e L i n t and Seed  B o a r d , c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t of c o t t o n l i n t t o t h e buyers.  Marketing  part of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs A p p e n d i x D shows t h e g e n e r a l -  i z e d p a t t e r n o f t h e s t a g e s c o f f e e and c o t t o n p a s s t h r o u g h t o reach t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . As f a r a s t h e c o f f e e g r o w e r i n t h e S o u t h e r n p a r t o f T a n z a n i a i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e s e c o n d s t a g e , namely, f r o m - t h e buying  s t a t i o n of the primary  great l i m i t i n g f a c t o r .  s o c i e t y t o the c u r i n g f a c t o r y , i s a  Absence o f a c u r i n g f a c t o r y i n t h e  a r e a h a s meant t h a t t h e perchment c o f f e e h a s t o be moved about 800 m i l e s t o M o s h i -- b y r o a d i n t h e c a s e o f c o f f e e g r o w n . i n t h e Eungwe and M b o z i a r e a s , o r b y r o a d t o Mtwara t h e n b y s e a to  Tanga and r a i l t o M o s h i .  The c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g c o f f e e  a l o n g t h e s e two a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s a r e 1 1 - 1 2 f o r t h e 21 f o r m e r r o u t e and s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r t h e l a t t e r r o u t e . £  The 2 0  £  s i t u a t i o n of the coffee production i n the Southern  I b i d . , p. 79.  R o w e , J.W.F., The World's C o f f e e : A Study of the Economics and P o l i t i c s o f t h e C o f f e e I n d u s t r i e s o f C e r t a i n C o u n t r i e s and o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o b l e m (London: H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 136. 21  85 a r e a s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d .  H i g h t r a n s p o r t c o s t s f o r moving'  c o f f e e t o c u r i n g works a t I i o s h i a r e n o t t h e l i m i t i n g  factor.  I t i s t h e absence o f a l o c a l c o f f e e c u r i n g f a c t o r y , t h u s n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h e l o n g movements m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , w h i c h i s the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r .  The t o t a l amount o f c o f f e e now  being  produced i n the area i s s t i l l too s m a l l t o support a c u r i n g works.  The minimum e c o n o m i c a l t h r o u g h - p u t o f a c u r i n g works  22  i s 5,000 tons.  I f production  c a n be i n c r e a s e d t o a l e v e l  where a c u r i n g f a c t o r y w i l l be f e a s i b l e , and c a p i t a l f o u n d t o c o n s t r u c t one, t h e l o n g h a u l a g e t o M o s h i and, h e n c e , t h e t r a n s p o r t c o s t s i n v o l v e d w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d . As f o r t h e p r i c e g i v e n t o t h e f a r m e r :  i ti s calcu-  l a t e d t o cover s e r v i c e s , such as t r a n s p o r t t o g i n n e r y o r c u r i n g w o r k s , g i n n i n g and c u r i n g , b a l i n g , s t o r a g e u n d e r t a k e n on h i s b e h a l f b y t h e U n i o n .  and b a g g i n g ,  I n the case of c o f f e e  t r a n s p o r t t o c u r i n g w o r k s , t h e c o s t c o n s t i t u t e s 13% o f t h e t o t a l c o s t ( t r a n s p o r t , c u r i n g , s a m p l i n g and s t o r a g e ) and o n l y about 3% o f o v e r a l l c o s t s i n c u r r e d b y K.N.C.U. p e r bag o f  23 perchment c o f f e e .  The c o s t f o r t r a n s p o r t o f c o t t o n t o  g i n n e r i e s c o n s t i t u t e s about 4% o f o v e r a l l c o s t s b a g g i n g , g i n n i n g and b a l i n g ) .  (transport,  The L i n t and Seed M a r k e t i n g  B o a r d p a y s about 7% l o r t r a n s p o r t and s t o r a g e  of l i n t  cotton  22  ^Ibid. 27)  ^ C a l c u l a t e d f r o m f i g u r e s i n E u t h e n b e r g , H., A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n T a n g a n y i k a ( B e r l i n : SpringerV e r l e g , 1964;, T ^ L l e 2 ^ 7 T ^ C l .  24  b e i n g d e l i v e r e d t o t h e consumer. . Thus, on t h e w h o l e , t h e b u r d e n o f t r a n s p o r t c o s t s s h o u l d e r e d by t h e p e a s a n t  farmer i s s m a l l .  H i s major r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y i s . t o d e l i v e r h i s crop to the primary  society.  From t h e r e on i t i s t h e j o b o f h i s C o o p e r a t i v e U n i o n a f f i l i a t e d m a r k e t i n g a g e n c i e s t o meet t h e r e m a i n d e r costs.  and of the  The two c e n t s o r s o , w h i c h i s d e d u c t e d f r o m h i s  income a f t e r s e l l i n g , t o c o v e r t h e d i r e c t c o s t s f o r t h e s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l be r e n d e r e d , a r e m i n i m a l compared t o t h e p r i c e he r e c e i v e s f o r h i s c r o p .  Transport costs, there-  f o r e , a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e m a r k e t i n g a g e n c i e s , s u c h as t h e K.N.C.U. and L i n t and Seed M a r k e t i n g B o a r d .  The  import-  ance o f t r a n s p o r t c o s t s i n t o t a l c o s t s i n c u r r e d f o r p r o v i d i n g a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s b y t h e U n i o n and  Marketing  a g e n c i e s i n t h e .past i s g i v e n on T a b l e 1 6 . ( a ) and 16 ( b ) . I n t h e case o f c o f f e e , f a c t o r y expenses ( h a n d l i n g , c u r i n g and h a n d p i c k i n g ) , " c o s t " on i n t e r e s t s and bank c h a r g e s , and f o r s i s a l b a g s , a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r t r a n s p o r t t o c u r i n g works.  I t i s p o s s i b l e f a c t o r y expenses i n c l u d e t r a n s -  p o r t c o s t s t o a sea p o r t s i n c e t h e s e c o s t s a r e n o t v e r y obvious. As f o r c o t t o n , however, t h e c o s t s f o r t r a n s p o r t , w e i g h i n g , l o a d i n g and s t o r a g e r a n k h i g h , i f t h o s e c o s t s f o r  I b i d . , T a b l e 29,  p.  102.  87 TABLE 1 6 (a)  K I L I M A N J A R O N A T I V E GO-OPERATIVE UNION L I M I T E D COFFEE S E L L I N G SECTION - 1961/62 SEASON  PROCESSING  Twine, l a b e l s , s t e n c i l s & brushes.... S i s a l bags f o r c o l l e c t i o n Transport, from Societies t o Curing works... Handling, curing 8c handpicklng S i s a l bags f o r export....  ' £2,638 9,763 42,394 17,4^6  £72,281  £ 1,075 425 751 51 4,232  6,534  SELLING  Warehouse rent, sampling & s o r t i n g . . . . . . . . . . Liquoring & t e c h n i c a l services.............. Auction expenses Brokerage: Auctioneers Economic Advisor GENERAL  Coffee cess Interest & Bank charges .... In sur ance Maintenance of scales at Societies P r i n t i n g stationery, i n c l . Kalamsoo Equip... Overtime Accountancy & supervision fees Sundry expenses  £  ?  24,284 £103,099  Total Source:  10 621 1,801 947 8,628 1,221 575 491  Kilimanjaro Native Co-Operative Union Limited, T h i r t i e t h Annual Report 1961-1962 (M shi, Tanzania) Appendix C 0  TABLE 16 (b) ACCOUNT FOR PURCHASING COTTON LINT BI THE LINT AND SEED MARKETING BOARD FOR 1961-1962 CROP SEASON  PURCHASES  H9,971 Bales A.R. Lint  £7,153,699  11,549 Bales B.R. Lint  321,443  D e l i v e r y incentive paid t o unions......  £7,415,1.32 68,875  Ginning q u a l i t y bonus  8,615  Transport, weighing, loading storage & sundry charges  Bank charges  40,682  «...  18,682  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n expenses  7,464  Claires Paid! Quality Bale Measurement..  TOTAL  Source:  £  6,649 80  6,729  £7,626,265  L i n t and S ed Marketing Board, Tanganyika. Report on Account f o r the Year endad 30th June. 1962 (Printed by Tanganyika Standard, Dar-ss-Salaam), Appendix I , p. 32. 3  p u r c h a s i n g l i n t and f o r d e l i v e r y i n c e n t i v e s p a i d t o t h e U n i o n s are  overlooked.  Bank c h a r g e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t  category of costs.  I n c o m p a r i n g t h e s e two T a b l e s ( m e n t i o n e d  p r e v i o u s l y ) , i t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n mind t h a t , u n l i k e t h e L i n t and Seed M a r k e t i n g B o a r d , t h e K.N.C.U. i s b o t h a Coope r a t i v e U n i o n and a M a r k e t i n g Agency comparable t o T.C.T.A. T h i s combines  t h e f u n c t i o n s performed. b y V . F . C . U . and L i n t  and Seed M a r k e t i n g B o a r d f o r c o t t o n . ' Because o f t h i s , some c o s t s a r e n o t v e r y a p p a r e n t as has been i n d i c a t e d  above.  In view of these o t h e r h i g h charges, which a r e necessary of  i f t h e farmer i s t o continue t o b e n e f i t from t h e e x i s t e n c e c o o p e r a t i v e and m a r k e t i n g b o a r d i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e d u c t i o n i n  t r a n s p o r t c o s t due t o d e l a y and l a c k o f s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s as was p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r —  —  w i l l assist i nreducing overall  e x p e n d i t u r e and p r o v i d e a h i g h e r p r o f i t .  One o f t h e r e a s o n s  for  h i g h bank c h a r g e s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e L i n t and Seed M a r k e t -  ing  B o a r d i s due t o t h e p o o r t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s  2.  R a i l w a y and Road T r a n s p o r t as F a c t o r s i n t h e Economic Growth of S.E. T a n z a n i a : A s i g n i f i c a n t h a p p e n i n g f r o m a n economic  and d e l a y s .  development  and comprehensive p l a n n i n g v i e w p o i n t i n t h e economic of  T a n z a n i a , was t h e Groundnut  growth  Scheme.  " ^ P e r s o n a l l e t t e r f r o m L i n t and Seed M a r k e t i n g B o a r d , op. c i t .  90 T h i s Scheme-was a p l a n by t h e B r i t i s h Government, a f t e r t h e Second W o r l d War,  t o grow p e a n u t s i n t h e B r i t i s h  d e p e n d e n c i e s f o r e x p o r t t o E n g l a n d and Europe t o meet t h e shortage of v e g e t a b l e o i l s .  The l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f t h e scheme  was t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n T a n g a n y i k a , u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e 26 O v e r s e a s Food C o r p o r a t i o n , w i t h a c a p i t a l o f 2 5 £  million.  The Scheme i n v o l v e d t h e c l e a r a n c e o f 20,000 a c r e s ; i n t h e f o r m e r W e s t e r n (Urambo), C e n t r a l (Kongwa) and S o u t h e r n (Nachingwea) P r o v i n c e s .  By 1950,  however, t h e Scheme p r o v e d  27 a f a i l u r e and was abandoned.  T h i s Scheme p u t a l o t o f  strain  on t h e p o o r t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m of t h e c o v m t r y f o r moving an i m p o r t e d s u p p l y o f heavy m a c h i n e r y .  But i t a l s o l e f t  c o u n t r y w i t h t r a n s p o r t a s s e t s o f a r a i l w a y and a new  the  seaport  a t Mtwara i n t h e f o r m e r S o u t h e r n P r o v i n c e . From a p l a n n i n g p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e "consequence the  m a s s i v e groundnut  of  scheme i s t h e p o w e r f u l r e i n f o r c e m e n t i t  gave i n v i e w t h a t m o d e r n i z a t i o n and development  f o r Tanganyika 28  depends upon a n a t i o n a l l y  development".  One  planned a g r i c u l t u r a l  o f t h e a r e a s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e scheme was  Naching-  wea  i n the former Southern P r o v i n c e .  the  r a i l w a y was r e t a i n e d w i t h t h e hope t h a t "by l o w e r i n g a  M o f f e t , op. c i t . , p.  When t h e scheme f a i l e d ,  133.  27 28'For d e t a i l s about t h e Groundnut Scheme, see Wood, A. B u r k eA ,f f aop. i t . ,B p. The Groundnut i r c(The o d l e39. y Head, 1956).  91 f r e i g h t c o s t s on b o t h i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s i t w i l l encourage b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e and i n some p a r t s w i l l e n a b l e c e r t a i n . c r o p s t o be grown e c o n o m i c a l l y w h i c h have n o t b e e n w o r t h w i l e  29 i n t h e p a s t owing t o t h e h i g h c o s t o f r o a d h a u l " . The t r a f f i c t o be c a r r i e d b y t h e r a i l w a y was e s t i m a t e d at  121,000 t o n s i n 1953, and was e x p e c t e d t o r i s e t o 242,000  tons by I960.  A c t u a l t r a f f i c c a r r i e d , however, was 32,043  30 and 25,064 t o n s i n 1953 and I960, r e s p e c t i v e l y . run,  t h e r a i l w a y became uneconomic t o o p e r a t e .  I n the long Between 1955  and i 9 6 0 , i t o p e r a t e d a t a n o v e r a l l l o s s o f between £210,000 and £250,000 p e r annum, w h i c h had t o be made good b y t h e T a n g a n y i k a Government t o t h e R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The l i n e  was f i n a l l y c l o s e d and removed i n 1962. When t h e r a i l w a y was u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e was a d e t a i l e d programme f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and improvement o f r o a d s , which i n c l u d e d a trunk road l i n k i n g the coast w i t h i n l a n d  s e t t l e m e n t s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Songea.  31 T h i s r o a d , when i t  was c o m p l e t e d and opened f o r p u b l i c u s e , p r o v i d e d a more f l e x i b l e s e r v i c e o f moving t r a f f i c t h a n t h e r a i l w a y .  Road  t r a n s p o r t , t h e r e f o r e , a t t r a c t e d more e x p o r t and i m p o r t t r a f f i c 29 P l a nosf ti hnethe. S o u tthoenrsn o f t h a n t h e rAa i lReview w a y . FoofrDevelopment example: out 34,000 P r o v i n c e (Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , 1953) 7~P- 4 2 . 30 O'Connor, A.M., R a i l w a y s and Development i n Uganda ( E . A . l . S . R . - O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , N a i r o b i , 1965), pT~T4"2. 31 Review o f Development P l a n , op. c i t . , pp. 40-41. y  92 c a r g o r e c e i v e d a t t h e p o r t o f L i n d i and Mtwara i n I 9 6 0 , t h a n 2,000 t o n s was The  moved i n l a n d on t h e r a i l w a y .  S o u t h e r n P r o v i n c e , b e f o r e i t was  32  divided into  p r e s e n t two r e g i o n s o f Mtwara and Ruvuma, f o r m e d t h e l a r g e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t i n the country.  less  the  second  Good i n t e r n a l  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s were e s s e n t i a l b o t h f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and economic d e v e l o p m e n t .  The  a r e a i s n o t p o o r l y endowed w i t h  r e s o u r c e s , b o t h a g r i c u l t u r a l and m i n e r a l , compared t o p a r t s of Tanzania. and 45  other  I t has c o a l and i r o n ore d e p o s i t s ,  m i l l i o n tons, r e s p e c t i v e l y , s t i l l  awaiting.development  when s u f f i c i e n t demand and c a p i t a l e x i s t . R e p o r t a t t r i b u t e d one  400  The  W o r l d Bank'  o f t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h impedes p r o d u c t i o n  on a c o m m e r c i a l b a s i s was  t h e remoteness o f t h e a r e a f r o m t h e  33 c o a s t and f r o m r a i l t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s .  The  area i s the  l e a d i n g prodxicer o f cashewnut, w h i c h has b e e n shown t o have i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e as a m a j o r e x p o r t c r o p o f t h e  country.  D e s p i t e i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n , however, a g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e x p o r t t r a f f i c o f t h i s c r o p d i d n o t move by r a i l .  Out  o f t h e e x p o r t p r o d u c t i o n o f 30,000 t o n s , o n l y 7,775 t o n s moved by r a i l w a y — The  32  l e s s than a t h i r d of the t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n . a r e a p r o d u c e s about 5.3%  of the t o t a l s i s a l  of  O'Connor, A . M . , R a i l w a y C o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e P a t t e r n o f Economic Development i n E a s t A f r i c a ( p a p e r now p r i n t e d i n T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s , Ko. 36, June 1965), p. 4. ^ I B R D . , op. c i t . , p. 148.  95 the country.  The p r o d u c t i o n o f s i s a l i n t h e a r e a i n c r e a s e d  f r o m 8,074 t o n s i n 1947  34  35  t o 12,268 t o n s i n 1963.  Export trade  of m a j o r p r o d u c t s betv/een 1952 and 1962, shown i n t h e t a b l e below, i n c r e a s e d except f o r timber which s u f f e r e d a d e c l i n e by about 50%. TABLE 17 EXPORT TRADE OP FORMER SOUTHERN PROVINCE  1952 - 1963 Tons E x p o r t e d 3&  Commodity  1952  Cashewnuts  Cassava Sisal  9,740  •.  Groundnuts  16,927 11,159 738  Coffee  196  Timber  4,540  The  l e s s o n t o be l e a r n e d fro-m t h e f a i l u r e  of the  Southern Railway i s t h a t t h e l i n e , i n c o n t r a s t t o road development and improvement i n t h e a r e a , was n o t o r i e n t e d t o 54 y  Review o f Development P l a n , op. c i t . , p.14.  35 "^Guide t o P r e p a r a t i o n o f R e g i o n a l F i v e Y e a r P l a n Mtwara R e g i o n ( D i r e c t o r a t e o f Development and P l a n n i n g ) . 36 Review o f Development P l a n , op. c i t . - , p. 14. ^ H o y l e , B.S.. The S e a p o r t s o f E a s t A f r i c a : A G e o g r a p h i c a l Study ( N a i r o b i : East A f r i c a n P u b l i s h i n g House, 1967), p . 70.  94 t h e l o c a l economy. a c t i v i t i e s had entered  The  economic base, and p a t t e r n o f economic  a l r e a d y b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e  railway  i n t o the p i c t u r e . There was  no doubt by 1952  that road transport  was  p l a y i n g a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the area, judging from the l e v e l 38 t r a f f i c w h i c h on most r o a d s exceeded 100 v e h i c l e s , a Road improvement, w h i c h o c c u r r e d  simultaneously  construction, helped to strengthen advantage t h e l o r r y had  of  day.  with  and make o b v i o u s  railway the  over the r a i l w a y of h a v i n g been the  f i r s t mode o f t r a n s p o r t t o be  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the  area.  U n l i k e t h e N o r t h e r n a r e a , where r a i l w a y p r e c e e d e d motor t r a n s p o r t as t h e f i r s t modern means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i n t h e S o u t h e r n a r e a motor t r a n s p o r t was s t i l l t h e dominant mode ~  t h e f i r s t and  though not n e c e s s a r i l y the  is cheap-  e s t i n some a r e a s . Road improvement h e l p e d t o r e d u c e o p e r a t i n g t h u s e n a b l i n g motor f i r m s and r a t e s as t h o s e b e i n g belief  operators  costs,  t o c h a r g e t h e same  c h a r g e d by t h e r a i l w a y .  Contrary  to  the  a t t h e t i m e of b u i l d i n g t h e S o u t h e r n R a i l w a y , i t was  t h e l e v e l of s e r v i c e , r a t h e r t h a n l a c k o f a c h e a p e r mode o f t r a n s p o r t , w h i c h was  required.  The  t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t b e c a u s e ab i n i t i o , t h e needs of t h e a r e a .  r a i l w a y d i d not i t was  I t only served  meet  not o r i e n t e d  t o d i v e r t the  to  atten-  t i o n o f r o a d programming and d e l a y i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  When  t h i s was  area  f i n a l l y e f f e c t e d , g r o w t h of t h e economy o f t h e 38  Review o f Development P l a n , op.  c i t . , p.  41.  95  v;as a c c e l e r a t e d . I f t h e l e v e l o f development  a c h i e v e d i n t h e a r e a was  l e s s t h a n i t s h o u l d have b e e n , t h e r e a s o n must be sought i n other causes.  Notably, i n those f a c t o r s other than inadequate  transport f a c i l i t i e s , which, t o date, s t i l l development the  inhibit  o f t h e economy o f T a n z a n i a as a w h o l e .  rapid Even i f  Groundnut scheme had s u c c e e d e d and managed t o p r o v i d e  s u f f i c i e n t t r a f f i c f o r t h e l i n e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i t would have done much t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p o s i t i o n o f r o a d t r a n s p o r t i n the  area.  The r a i l w a y was p a r t o f a s u p e r i m p o s e d  g e a r e d t o o u t s i d e needs.  scheme  When t h e scheme f a i l e d , t h e r a i l w a y  c o u l d n o t be made t o f i t i n t o a l o c a l economy w h i c h was g e a r e d to road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  CHAPTER V THE ROLE OP TRANSPORTATION IN TANZANIA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH 1-  Transport Investment B e n e f i t s E x a c t f i g u r e s on t h e amount i n v e s t e d i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  f o r T a n z a n i a a s a whole a r e h a r d t o a r r i v e a t , b e c a u s e o f s c a r c i t y o f d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y b e f o r e 1948.  Only a s l i g h t  a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made h e r e t o a s s e s s t h e magnitude o f pre-1948 transport investment.  R o u g h l y £11.1 m i l l i o n was s p e n t i n  b u i l d i n g r a i l w a y s , the purchasing of r o l l i n g stock,  rehabili-  t a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n t o Germany between 1919 - 1939.  Most  o f t h i s c a p i t a l was p r o v i d e d b y l o a n s , t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f w h i c h , between t h e t e r r i t o r y and i t s r a i l w a y s , i s shown o n T a b l e 18 overleaf. TABLE 19 PROPORTION OP DEBT CHARGES TO DOMESTIC EXPORTS AND REVENUE 1928-1935  Year 1928  1929 1930 1931 1952 1953  _ Debt Charges 158  ' • Domestic Exports 3,873  3,722  % o f Debt Charges t o Domestic Exports 4.1  5-7  ~ ~ Revenue  1,973  ~ % o f Debt Charges t o Revenue 8.0  10.7 13.0  214. 227 311  2,636  1,645  18.9  1,993 1,74-9 1,522  189 585  2,190 2,543  8.6 15-1  1,291 1,565  20.4 14.6 24.6  2,646  16.1  1,720  24.7  12.5  1,974  21.8  1954  425  1955  451  ,3,445  8.6  F i g u r e s g i v e n i n £'000,00"OT~ S o u r c e : F r a n k i e l , H.S., C a p i t a l I n v e s t m e n t i n A f r i c a (Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1938), T a b l e s B 7 , p. 1 7 9 , B 8 , pp.  180-185.  PROPORTION OF PUBLIC DEBT ACCOUNTED FOR TERRITORIAL AND RAILWAY SERVICES, 1931/32  TABLE 1$  Capital  Amount  Annual Service Charges  Source and Type of Loan  Territory  Railways  Expense & Discount  Imperial Exchequer  £ 761,4-00  £1,286,442  £  556,983  518,525  £1,318,383  £1,804,967  Imperial Exchequer (no i n t e r e s t chgs.) I II  Total Guaranteed Loan  4--1/2, 1948/63 £ III IV  Total V  I - IV  Total  £ 46,400  £ 70,186  £123,586  -  1,075,508  -  -  -  £3,123,350  £ 46,400  £ 77,136  £123,586  £1,799,393  £126,196  £2,070,000  £ 8,761  £109,160  £117,921  638,863  2,122,794  233,34-3  3,000,000  36,062  119,838  155,900  78,756  20,000  750,000  32,563  3,937  36,530  £5,805,910  £334,539  £3,943,350  £123,786  £310,121  £433,907  £  £  £  39,900  £ 5,279  £  -  £ 5,279  £8,933,250  £129,065  £310,121  £439,186  651,224* £2,752,901  C o l o n i a l Development funds; Loans  Railways"'  144-, 411  Guaranteed Loan  A%, 1932  Territory  £2,047,342  Guaranteed Loan  IS, 1931-1971  Total  (1932 - 1941)  £  39,900  GRAND TOTAL  £2,792,801  £5,805,910  -  £334,539  (average)  j  * ( r e f e r s t o £500,000 received by that time) Source;  Smith, A., F i n a n c i a l Mission to Tanganyika , "(London": H.M. Stationery O f f i c e , 1932), Cmd. 4182, p . 46.  vO  98 R a i l w a y s were a l l o c a t e d t w o - t h i r d s o f t o t a l from loans.  capital  I n view of the f a c t t h a t r a i l w a y s operated a t a  l o s s , t h e s e l o a n s had t o be s e r v i c e d f r o m G e n e r a l Revenue. T h u s , a l t h o u g h d o m e s t i c e x p o r t s and revenue i n c r e a s e d ( e x c e p t i n t h e p e r i o d o f d e p r e s s i o n 1931-1932), debt c h a r g e s consumed a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e x p o r t and revenue T a b l e 19  receipts.  shows t h e p r o p o r t i o n t a k e n by p u b l i c  f r o m e x p o r t r e v e n u e and g e n e r a l r e v e n u e .  debt  By 1939* t h e p e r  1 c a p i t a debt c h a r g e s had amounted t o £1. 13s. 9d. In contrast, the n e t t o t a l revenue of t h e c o u n t r y i n t h e same p e r i o d was o n l y £33  m i l l i o n o r about  )  £  2-1/2  m i l l i o n p e r annum.  2  Thus, i n t h e s e two decades t h e budget o f t h e c o u n t r y was meagre i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e needs and p r o b l e m s o f the country.  B u t t h i s s m a l l budget had t o accommodate t h e  rail-  way debt I A f t e r 1948,  the investment r e f e r r e d t o , w i t h regards  t o r a i l w a y s , i s t h a t w h i c h was  i n c u r r e d by t h e government t o  s u b s i d i z e n o n - p r o f i t making: l i n e s . 1961,  Between 1954  and I960 -  s l i g h t l y o v e r £1 m i l l i o n was expended by t h e government  3 t o make good t h e l o s s e s o f t h e R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Investment i n r o a d s r e a c h e d a t o t a l o f about m i l l i o n a t t h e end o f 1950.  £1.4  A f t e r t h a t y e a r , t h e r e was i n -  c r e a s i n g expenditure f o r maintenance, r e a c h i n g a l e v e l of . ^ L e u b u s c h e r , op. c i t . , p. 335* 2  M o f f e t , op. c i t . , p.  ^IBRD., op. c i t . , p.  335. 20.  Figure  3:  E X P E N D I T U R E ON RO£D MAINTENANCE AND DEVELOPMENT  99  £»000  '•  Development Expenditure  log  1948  '49  r  50  Source:  '55/6 '56/7 '57/8 '58/9 '59/60 '60/1 '6l/2 '62/3 '63/4 '64/5  Stalisticai^Abstract 1959 & 1964, Central Statistical Bureau, (Bar-es-Salaam: Government Printer) 1  Figure  A COMPARISON OF EXPENDITURE ON ROAD MAINTENANCE AND REVENUE FROM MOTOR V E H I C L E L I C E N C E S  £•000  1,500 .  1,300 .  1,100 .  900 _  700  500 _  300 _ Road Maintenance Expenditure —*  Motor V e h i c l e Licence Revenue  100 i  1955/56  1—-  1  1  1  1  1  1  r  »56/7 '57/8 '58/9 ' 59/60 60/1 '61/2 '62/3 '63/4 ' 6 V 5 Source: S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t , op. c i t .  101  £1.6  m i l l i o n , i n 1961.  E x p e n d i t u ^ on r o a d development  t o d e c l i n e between 1955  tended  - 1959-60, when i t went up a g a i n a t  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Three Y e a r P l a n .  From 1962,  i t started  t o f a l l o f f a g a i n u n t i l the b e g i n n i n g of the F i v e Year P l a n . F i g u r e 5 d e p i c t s t h e t r e n d e x p l a i n e d above.  The  increasing  c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e on road, maintenance r e f l e c t s t h e r a p i d d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f r o a d s as t r a f f i c volume i n c r e a s e d and because of t h e s u b - s t a n d a r d  c o n d i t i o n of the roads.  The money u s e d f o r r o a d improvement came f r o m Revenue.  General  The. r o a d u s e r s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s p o o l was  mostly  i n t h e f o r m o f i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n on i m p o r t e d motor v e h i c l e s and r o a d t r a n s p o r t equipment, motor f u e l t a x , and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , f r o m motor v e h i c l e l i c e n c e s .  Because o f t h e  n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a on r e v e n u e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s e i t e m s , i t i s o n l y p o s s i b l e t o show t h e revenue d e r i v e d f o r the. l a s t item.  Revenue f r o m motor v e h i c l e l i c e n c e s i n c r e a s e d a l l t h e  t i m e , as c a n be s e e n from F i g u r e 4-. of what r o a d maintenance was c a p i t a l f o r new  But t h i s was  only half  c o s t i n g , which d i d not i n c l u d e  road development.  I n p r a c t i c e , the  needed t o meet maintenance and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f new had t o come f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s .  balance roads  Thus, r o a d m a i n t e n a n c e  sumed a s i z a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s .  con-  By  so d o i n g , l e s s had t o be s p e n t i n o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy o r even f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new The  r o a d s , e.g.,  feeder roads.  d e c l i n e o f e x p e n d i t u r e on r o a d development between  and I960,- s u p p o r t s t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n ( s e e F i g u r e 3 ) .  1956  102  Figure 5: V^lue of Imports-of. R a i l and Ro?d Transport Equipment £'000 3,000 Rail  Road  2,500 J  2,000  A  1,500  /V ,  /  \  s  s  1,000 A  500 -I  1950  «51  ^52  »53  '54- '55  ^  ~*57  *5l  Source: S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract, op. p i t .  *59 *S5  ~»5  Figure 6:  A C o m p a r i s o n o f V a l u e s o f I m p o r t s and I m p o r t D u t i e s on R a i l  »nd R o n d  Equipment  103  £'000  1950  '51  '52  Source:  '53  '54  *5~5  ^  «57  Statistical Abstract, op. c i t .  '58  '59  '6b  ^61  '62  '63  104 B o t h r a i l and r o a d had t o depend ( a n d s t i l l do) on i m p o r t s f o r t h e i r equipment. to  p a y i n f o r e i g n exchange.  To g e t t h e s e , t h e c o u n t r y h a d A l t h o u g h t h e p o s t Second W o r l d  War demand f o r t r a n s p o r t equipment h a s f l u c t u a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f r a i l w a y s , because o f t h e l o n g l i f e o f t h i s e q u i p m e n t , i t c o n s t i t u t e d a l a r g e i n v e s t m e n t as shown i n F i g u r e 5« T h i s demand c r e a t e d a market f o r f o r e i g n t r a n s p o r t equipment. manufacture  imported  Thus, t h e b e n e f i t s f r o m l o c a l t r a n s p o r t  i n d u s t r y was n o n - e x i s t e n t .  arose accrued t o overseas s u p p l i e r s .  Whatever b e n e f i t s  The b e n e f i t t o T a n z a n i a  was m a i n l y i n t h e f o r m o f i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n on s u c h i m p o r t s . T h e s e , however, were s m a l l compared t o t o t a l v a l u e o f b o t h r a i l and r o a d equipment i m p o r t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d , as F i g u r e 6 shows.  To have c h a r g e d h i g h e r i m p o r t d u t i e s w o u l d have r e -  s u l t e d i n t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i c e o f t h e equipment a n d , a l s o , i n more f o r e i g n exchange payments. 2.  The P a s t R o l e o f T r a n s p o r t i n T a n z a n i a ' s Economic Growth: An Assessment The  e v o l u t i o n o f r a i l and r o a d t r a n s p o r t , and t h e  economic g r o w t h o f m a i n l a n d T a n z a n i a has b e e n d i s c u s s e d . I f we t a k e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f German C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n as m a r k i n g t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f a modern economic system o f t h e c o u n t r y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t a l l t h i s has t a k e n p l a c e i n a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e j u s t o v e r 50 y e a r s .  The f a c t t h a t t h e economic development  —  105  of  Tanzania i s v e r y r e c e n t , has been s t r e s s e d by t h e World  Bank R e p o r t .  When a s s e s s i n g t h e r o l e o f r a i l , r o a d and o t h e r  t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i n g e n e r a l , t h i s f a c t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n mind. The r a i l w a y s , w h i c h i n T a n z a n i a , preceeded-roaddevelopment, r e d u c e d t r a v e l l i n g t i m e and c o s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y between i n l a n d c e n t r e s and t h e c o a s t a l a r e a s .  I t marked t h e  end o f l o n g c a r a v a n s o f p o r t e r s t o and f r o m t h e c o a s t , w h i c h had been t h e f e a t u r e o f p r e - r a i l w a y e r a .  I n t e r n a l movement,  however, r e l i e d on p o r t e r a g e , e s p e c i a l l y i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n ; and i t was n o t u n t i l t h e b u i l d i n g o f r o a d s a f t e r the  F i r s t W o r l d War and t h e subsequent i n t r o d u c t i o n o f motor  t r a n s p o r t t h a t t h e d e f i c i e n c y was met. P o r t e r a g e as a f o r m o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p r i m i t i v e a s it  i s , was n o t c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d .  I t s t i l l forms an  i m p o r t a n t l i n k o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m , where i t i s more economical than r a i l  or road transport. I t should, therefore,  be r e g a r d e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a "modern" t r a n s p o r t r a t h e r than a legacy of the past.  A l t h o u g h i t would  system  appear  t h a t i t s days a r e numbered i n v i e w o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r ity  o f t h e b i c y c l e , - w h i c h ' p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r s e r v i c e and f l e x -  ibility. The o v e r c o m i n g o f d i s t a n c e i n s p a c e , w h i c h was a c h i e v e d by t h e r a i l w a y s , was o r i e n t e d towards e x p o r t (raw m a t e r i a l s ) and i m p o r t ( m a n u f a c t u r e d ) t r a d e .  The r o a d s y s t e m w h i c h e v o l v e d  106 i n p o s t Second W o r l d War p e r i o d , a c c e n t u a t e d i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n t h i s " l i n e a r " aspect of r a i l / r o a d transport ities.  A n e t w o r k system i s y e t t o d e v e l o p .  facil-  Although the  i n t e g r a t i o n between r a i l / r o a d was a c h i e v e d p h y s i c a l l y , t h e absence o f a f e e d e r r o a d s y s t e m r e d u c e d i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Thus t h e most i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d b y r a i l w a y s was t o f a c i l i t a t e e x p o r t and i m p o r t t r a d e .  T h i s achievement was i n e v i t -  a b l e because i t ' w a s t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r r a i l w a y  construction.  As i n I n d i a and many f o r m e r c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s , t h e r a i l w a y l i n k e d T a n z a n i a t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e as- a s u p p l i e r of  raw m a t e r i a l s and consumer o f m a n u f a c t u r e d goods.  This  r o l e was s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e "open d o o r t r a d e p o l i c y "  pursued  u n d e r t h e mandate s y s t e m .  market  v;as n e g l e c t e d .  By and l a r g e , t h e i n t e r n a l  Road d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h c o u l d have b e e n r e -  g a r d e d as a more f l e x i b l e t r a n s p o r t mode f o r s u c h  development,  was n o t d e v e l o p e d t o open up t h e i n t e r n a l market.  Similar to  the  r a i l w a y a f t e r 1948, t h e main r o a d system was i n t e n d e d f o r  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t r a t e g y and i n t e r - t e r r i t o r i a l t r a d e .  When a  customs u n i o n between Kenya, Uganda and T a n g a n y i k a , was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a common t a r i f f , territorial for  t h e p r e s e n c e o f good i n t e r -  t r a n s p o r t r o u t e s opened T a n g a n y i k a a s a market  Kenya goods and made t h e N o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y  dependent It ities  upon t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e t r a d e o f Kenya and Uganda. i s n o t t h e argument h e r e t h a t i f t r a n s p o r t  facil-  had been g e a r e d t o w a r d s e n c o u r a g i n g t h e e x p a n s i o n o f  107 an i n t e r n a l m a r k e t , t h i s w o u l d have f a c i l i t a t e d r a p i d  growth.  O t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h as c a p i t a l and i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i v i t y had t o be p r e s e n t .  However, assuming f o r t h e moment t h a t t h e  amount o f c a p i t a l w h i c h f l o w e d i n t o T a n z a n i a , and t h e l e v e l of  p r o d u c t i v i t y a c h i e v e d i n t h e p e r i o d u n d e r r e v i e w were above  average,  transport f a c i l i t i e s  o r i e n t e d t o i n t e r n a l market  needs w o u l d have e n c o u r a g e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s f o r w h i c h t h e market e x i s t e d and hence r e d u c e d t h e i n c r e a s i n g dependency o f t h e c o u n t r y t o Kenya i m p o r t s .  Local  raw m a t e r i a l s c o u l d have b e e n u s e d t o m a n u f a c t u r e t h e s e products.  The p o l i c i e s w h i c h g u i d e d t h e development o f c u s -  toms u n i o n i n E a s t A f r i c a d i d n o t f a v o u r T a n z a n i a and t h e r e b y l i m i t e d a n i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f economic g r o w t h i n a r e g i o n a l framework. O t h e r f a c t o r s were more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the r a p i d growth of export t r a d e .  The i n c r e a s e i n  i m p o r t trade was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e i n c r e a s e i n income from s e l l i n g export products.  The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r as f a r  as e x p o r t t r a d e i s c o n c e r n e d  i s the world p r i c e f o r primary  p r o d u c t s upon w h i c h T a n z a n i a i s dependent f o r i t s r e v e n u e . The  e f f e c t of the f l u c t u a t i o n i n the world p r i c e of s i s a l ,  the mainstay  o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s economy, has b e e n and s t i l l i s  i m p o r t a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e t r e n d i n t h e economic ment o f t h e c o u n t r y .  develop-  The f a v o u r a b l e p r i c e s w h i c h were  by t h i s c r o p d u r i n g t h e K o r e a n boom, p r o v i d e d r e v e n u e  enjoyed which  108 e n a b l e d t h e government t o embark on a m b i t i o u s programmes i n p a r t i c u l a r , r o a d development.  To t h i s day,  and,  revenue  o b t a i n e d f r o m s i s a l b y t h e government s t i l l a f f e c t s  budgetary  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a s s e s s i n g a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e on development p r o j e c t s , as c a n be l e a r n e d f r o m a r e c e n t budget s p e e c h : The g r e a t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . h a s been s i s a l e x p o r t t a x r e v e n u e , w h i c h we o r i g i n a l l y e s t i m a t e d w o u l d y i e l d £2.8 m i l l i o n . The f i n a l y i e l d i s n o t l i k e l y t o exc e e d £800,000 — a s h o r t f a l l o f £ 2 m i l l i o n . Taking a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , my r e v i s e d e s t i m a t e o f t o t a l revenue f o r t h e y e a r i s 33 million as compared w i t h my budget e s t i m a t e o f £34 m i l l i o n . 4 £  I n a d d i t i o n , the v i a b i l i t y of the s i s a l i n d u s t r y i n t e r m s of p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s has b e e n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y c a p i t a l and l a b o u r .  of  These two f a c t o r s have b e e n more s i g -  n i f i c a n t than t r a n s p o r t costs ( I n l a n d ) .  As shown  above,  the  t a p e r i n g o f r a i l w a y t a r r i f r a t e s and t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s i s a l p l a n t a t i o n s t o sea p o r t s , makes t r a n s p o r t a l e s s  sig-  n i f i c a n t c o s t i n t h e o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s up t o t h e t i m e when s i s a l i s s h i p p e d overseas.-  N e i t h e r can the  present  l o c a t i o n o f t h e s i s a l p l a n t a t i o n s be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o r a i l f a c i l i t i e s , as was  shown e a r l i e r .  I n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f o t h e r e x p o r t c r o p s , namely, c o t t o n , c o f f e e and c a s h e w n u t s , w o r l d p r i c e s f o r t h e s e commodi t i e s have e q u a l l y b e e n i m p o r t a n t . ment o f c e n t r a l i z e d m a r k e t i n g  However, t h e  establish-  t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i v e s and.  4  U n i t e d R e p u b l i c o f T a n z a n i a , Speech by the H o n o u r a b l e , t h e M i n i s t e r for F i n a n c e , i n t r o d u c i n g t h e • E s t i m a t e s o f Revenue and E x p e n d i t u r e 'T^6~^T€6 to N a t i o n a l  Xssembly, on *IOth June, ''l^^r^Dar-es-ffaTaam: P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p.  6.  Government'  109 m a r k e t i n g b o a r d s h a s b e e n v e r y c r u c i a l i n t h a t t h e y have i n s u l a t e d the peasant farmer from the a f f e c t s of f l u c t u a t i o n i n w o r l d p r i c e s , a n d , i n so d o i n g , p r o v i d i n g a s t a b l e p r i c e incentive f o r increased production.  These i n s t i t u t i o n s a l s o  c a r r y out. on b e h a l f o f t h e p e a s a n t f a r m e r t h o s e s e r v i c e s w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n beyond t h e means o f a s i n g l e f a r m e r  i f he  were t o p r o d u c e h i s c o t t o n o r s i s a l e c o n o m i c a l l y and r e c e i v e a good r e t u r n .  Although  i n t h e o r y one c a n t a l k o f t r a n s p o r t  costs i n subsistence production (with the exception of the i n i t i a l c o s t borne by t h e f a r m e r ) , these c o s t s a r e shared by many p e a s a n t f a r m e r s .  Therefore, the transport costs are  a c t u a l l y a s m a l l percentage  o f t h e o v e r a l l income he r e c e i v e s ,  p l u s f r i n g e b e n e f i t s f o r b e i n g a member o f a c o o p e r a t i v e society. These economic i n s t i t u t i o n s , d e v e l o p e d  t o meet t h e  need o f a p e a s a n t and l a r g e l y s u b s i s t e n c e economy, have b e e n t h e k e y t o t h e economic g r o w t h and. p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e r u r a l a r e a s , and T a n z a n i a  i n general.  I t must be remembered t h a t  t h e a c h i e v e m e n t , t h o u g h f a r f r o m s a t i s f a c t o r y , h a s come about d e s p i t e an inadequate  f e e d e r r o a d s y s t e m , as w e l l as p o o r  t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e due t o i n a d e q u a t e ities.  wagons and s t o r a g e  facil-  A l s o , t h e l e v e l o f economic g r o w t h a c h i e v e d t o d a t e ,  l a r g e l y by i n c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , was b y u s e o f p o o r and p r i m i t i v e methods o f p r o d u c t i o n .  I n the l i g h t of  5 p r e s e n t knowledge o f e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h new f a r m i n g methods, 5  ^Smith-, op. c i t . , pp. 51-52.  110  present  l e v e l s o f p r o d u c t i o n c a n be d o u b l e d and  even t r e b l e d  (e.g., cotton production). The  p r e v a i l i n g low p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e  subsistence  s e c t o r , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e l a r g e s t m a r k e t , has b e e n a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r , too. of income and  This provided  only a subsistence  l i m i t e d demands t o b a s i c n e e d s .  level  A t t h e same  t i m e , i t has m i n i m i z e d p r e s s u r e  w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n p u t  the poor t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s .  Had  on  t h i s happened, i t w o u l d  have a c t e d as a c a t a l y s t i n t r a n s p o r t improvement by e l i m i n a t ing  those b o t t l e n e c k s , which c o n s t i t u t e s the present  problem of the country A l s o , although  stated  earlier.  t h e r e was  c a p i t a l f r o m l o c a l s o u r c e s due  transport  an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s u p p l y  to increase i n export  of  produc-  t i o n , t h i s amount has b e e n l e s s t h a n what w o u l d have b e e n achieved  had  l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i o n been h i g h e r .  To be  effect-  ive,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n imist be r e l a t e d t o p r o d u c t i v i t y and,  all,  to balanced  above  growth.  When e v a l u a t i n g t h e r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n a developing  country,  s u c h as T a n z a n i a , t h e most  f a c t o r i s the c o s t of these necessary  services.  important In the  case  o f T a n z a n i a , and t h i s i s much more r e l e v a n t t o r a i l w a y r a t h e r t h a n r o a d d e v e l o p m e n t , t h i s p r i c e was  too h i g h .  The  "cost  of  c a p i t a l " u s e d t o b u i l d r a i l w a y s were t o t a l l y beyond t h e means F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between P r o d u c t i v i t y , M a r k e t , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and C a p i t a l , see: N u r s k e , R., P r o b l e m s of C a p i t a l F o r m a t i o n i n Underd e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s ; and, Pattern's of Trade and Development. I O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), pp. 4-31.  Ill o f t h e c o u n t r y i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e s o f economic g r o w t h .  An  a v e r a g e o f 4.48% i n t e r e s t h a d t o be s e t a s i d e f o r a m o r t i z i n g l o a n s borrowed t o b u i l d r a i l w a y s .  This crippled the f i n a n c i a l  as w e l l as c a p i t a l a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r economic development i n general. A l t h o u g h t h e h i g h c o s t o f c a p i t a l was n o t c o n f i n e d 7  to  Tanganyika,  t h e many d i s a d v a n t a g e s  t h e c o u n t r y h a d as  compared t o o t h e r p a r t s o f A f r i c a , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n f u r t h e r f l i g h t o f c a p i t a l , meant t h a t a u s t e r i t y measures i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e a l r e a d y l i m i t e d amount o f c a p i t a l was e s s e n t i a l t o achieve a balanced growth.  The t o t a l amount  o f c a p i t a l u s e d t o r e p a y r a i l w a y d e b t b e f o r e 1948, d i v e r t e d c a p i t a l w h i c h s h o u l d have b e e n i n v e s t e d i n o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e economy t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s e f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t .  Thus,  when r a i l w a y s a r e compared t o r o a d s , t h e y i n h i b i t e d  develop-  ment b e c a u s e o f d i v e r t i n g c a p i t a l t o n o n - p r o d u c t i v e  activ-  ities.. The  r o a d s , on t h e o t h e r hand, were l a r g e l y f i n a n c e d  from i n t e r n a l c a p i t a l .  B u t , because the i n i t i a l r o a d  stand-  a r d s were v e r y l o w , t h i s r e s u l t e d i n h i g h m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s . A f t e r 1948, i t was t h e r o a d s r a t h e r t h a n r a i l w a y s w h i c h c a l l e d f o r i n c r e a s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e i n t h e government b u d g e t . The  experience of Tanzania  i n r a i l and r o a d  ment p o s e s two i s s u e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development. ^ F r a n k i e l , H., C a p i t a l I n v e s t m e n t ( O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p . 174.  i n Africa  developFirst,  112 i n regard t o the r a i l w a y s , i s the s i z e of the country.  Can  i t he s a i d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l f a i l u r e o f t h e r a i l w a y s was due to the smallness of the country, Uganda r a i l w a y , w h i c h s e r v e d  s i n c e t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g Kenya-  two c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as t h e  N o r t h e r n p a r t o f T a n z a n i a , o p e r a t e d on a p r o f i t ?  Also, i t  was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t one o f t h e c a u s e s o f l o s s o f r e v e n u e for  t h e T a n g a n y i k a r a i l w a y s was due t o t h e d i v e r s i o n o f Congo  traffic. The  poverty  of the country  has a l s o b e e n  considered 8  as h a v i n g b e e n a n o b s t a c l e t o r a i l w a y d e v e l o p m e n t .  When  t h e amalgamation t o o k p l a c e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t r a f f i c  moved  a l o n g t h e T a n g a n y i k a r a i l w a y s was. s t i l l l e s s t h a n t h a t  along  t h e Kenya-Uganda r a i l w a y .  I t was t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o f i t s  from a c e n t r a l p o o l r a t h e r than the i n c r e a s i n g earning i t y of the l i n e which accounted f o r i t s solvency. volume o f t r a f f i c  along  capac-  As f a r as  t h e two main l i n e s i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e  Tanzania s e c t i o n s t i l l c a r r i e s l e s s t r a f f i c than that which o r i g i n a t e s from the h i n t e r l a n d w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l boundaries. The  second p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r  i s the d i v i s i o n of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n and maintenance o f r a i l w a y s and r o a d s .  I n E a s t A f r i c a , t h i s i s d i v i d e d between t h e R a i l -  way A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i c h i s a p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l governments.  I n t h e case o f T a n z a n i a , t h i s  divi-  s i o n e n a b l e d more money t o be s p e n t on r o a d development. I b i d . , p. 282.  113 But t h e r e was no i n t e r - t e r r i t o r i a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r o a d d e v e l o p m e n t , as was t h e c a s e w i t h r a i l w a y development 1948.  after  The s u g g e s t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h an E a s t A f r i c a n Road  C o r p o r a t i o n recommended b y t h e R o y a l Commission o f 1953-1955, did  not m a t e r i a l i z e .  Thus, e a c h c o u n t r y d e v e l o p e d d i f f e r e n t  p o l i c i e s as r e g a r d s r a i l and r o a d development. I n t h e c a s e o f T a n z a n i a , t r a f f i c h a u l a g e b y r o a d s was restricted. of  The p r o b l e m i n due c o u r s e has become n o t so much  c o n t r o l of road t r a n s p o r t f o r the b e n e f i t s of the r a i l w a y s ,  but  t h e r o l e t h e s e two modes c a n p l a y i n t h e development o f  the  country.  G i v e n p r o p e r c o o r d i n a t i o n , and w i t h t h e e n -  couragement b e i n g g i v e n t o r o a d d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e two modes are  complementary r a t h e r t h a n l a r g e l y c o m p e t i t i v e .  I t would  a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n b e tween r a i l w a y and r o a d o p e r a t i o n s and, t h e r e f o r e , between t h e agencies involved.  The s o l u t i o n o f t h i s p r o b l e m i n f u t u r e  w i l l go a l o n g way t o e l i m i n a t e wastage due t o uneconomic c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e modes and t o make them more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e economic development o f t h e c o u n t r y . In o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , t h e impetous p r o v i d e d by the  development o f r a i l and r o a d was t h e market t h e s e s e r v i c e s  p r o v i d e d f o r c o n s u m p t i o n o f i r o n and s t e e l i n l o c o m o t i v e and t r u c k b u i l d i n g and t h e development o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r y . No s u c h developments t o o k p l a c e i n T a n z a n i a . A t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , as s u c h , i s s t i l l  i n the  114  adolescent stage, although i t s influence i s beginning to .appear i n t h e G r o s s Domestic  Product.  Also, railway repair  workshops a r e one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t employers Africa.  i n East  But most o f t h e employment b e n e f i t s have a c c r u e d t o  K e n y a , where t h e m a i n workshop depot i s l o c a t e d a t N a i r o b i . As f a r as r o a d t r a n s p o r t i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e most i m p o r t a n t development has b e e n i n t h e g r o w t h o f gas and garages f o r r e p a i r , w h i l e t r u c k assembly i n g b u s i n e s s e s a r e s t i l l few i n number.  stations  and body b u i l d -  Since a l l these  a c t i v i t i e s depend m o s t l y on i m p o r t e d i t e m s , T a n z a n i a spends e x t r a on c h a r g e s f o r f o r e i g n exchange. A l l t h e s e f a c t o r s combine t o e x p l a i n why d e s p i t e i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i t s impact has n o t b e e n as g r e a t as was  t h e case i n t h e d e v e l o p e d  areas.  Not o n l y t h a t , b u t t h e wastage t h a t o c c i i r r e d b e c a u s e o f damages and p r o v i s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s t o meet  war  war  demands, as w e l l .as a c t i v i t i e s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e economic development o f t h e c o u n t r y , s u c h as t h e groundnut scheme, l i m i t e d t h e r o l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would have p l a y e d i n t h e economic g r o w t h o f T a n z a n i a . How  f a r does t h e r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e p a s t  economic development become u s e f u l i n p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e development i n T a n z a n i a , and. d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n general?  What s h o u l d be t h e r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e development o f t h e c o u n t r y ?  These q u e s t i o n s ,  framework f o r t r a n s p o r t p l a n n i n g l e v e l ; transport  115  as w e l l as a  a t a n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l  c o o r d i n a t i o n , and t r a n s p o r t  as a t o o l t o  f a c i l i t a t e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f some o f t h e n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , s u c h as "Ujamaa V i l l a g e s " , a r e examined i n t h e f o l l o w i n g chapter.  5  )  CHAPTER V I  TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1.  O b s e r v a t i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s I n a c o u n t r y , w h i c h was c o m p l e t e l y u n d e v e l o p e d  toward  t h e end o f t h e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y , w i t h p o r t e r a g e as t h e m a j o r f o r m o f t r a n s p o r t , r a i l w a y s were r e g a r d e d as t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o any form o f development.  The o b j e c t i v e s g u i d i n g r a i l w a y  d e v e l o p m e n t , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , were m i x e d ; t h e main ones b e i n g h u m a n i t a r i a n , p o l i t i c a l and economic. I n i t i a l l y , i n t h e case o f T a n z a n i a , s t r a t e g i c and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons predominated,  e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g and  i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e F i r s t and Second W o r l d Wars. m o t i v e s were s e c o n d a r y ,  and o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s  Economic  encouraging  o v e r s e a s t r a d e f o r s o u r c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s and m a r k e t s f o r manufactured  goods.  The p a t t e r n o f t r a n s p o r t r o u t e s  d e v e l o p e d was t y p i c a l l y c o l o n i a l —  l i n k i n g s o u r c e s o f raw  m a t e r i a l s t o m a r k e t s o v e r s e a s and v i c e v e r s a . system  which  The r a i l w a y  of Tanzania s t i l l r e f l e c t s t h i s t r e n d , which i s being  p e r p e t u a t e d by v i r t u e o f t h e c o u n t r y b e i n g a p r i m a r y exporter.  products  M i n i n g and g r a n d i o s e a g r i c u l t u r a l schemes a l s o l e d  t o t r a n s p o r t development, e s p e c i a l l y r a i l w a y s . I n T a n a n i a , r a i l w a y s p r o v e d t o be t o o e x p e n s i v e a  117  mode o f t r a n s p o r t f o r i n i t i a t i n g economic development. developed  In  c o u n t r i e s l i k e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e U n i t e d  Kingdom, where w a t e r t r a n s p o r t p r e c e e d e d r a i l w a y s , t h e  latter  form p r o v i d e d b e t t e r s e r v i c e s but not n e c e s s a r i l y cheaper. In  T a n z a n i a , r a i l w a y s p r o v i d e d b e t t e r and  s e r v i c e compared t o p o r t e r a g e . burden to the country.  The  m a i n t a i n i n g t h e system was the country.  The  cheaper  B u t , t h e y became a f i n a n c i a l  c a p i t a l f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g and beyond t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  of  l i n e c e a s e d t o be a l i a b i l i t y when i t was  made p a r t o f a r e g i o n a l r a i l w a y system. The  q u e s t i o n o f s i z e o f t h e c o u n t r y as a f a c t o r h o l d s  good i n E a s t A f r i c a , w h i c h i n e s s e n c e c o n s t i t u t e s a w e l l defined geographical u n i t .  S i n c e t h e two m a j o r r a i l w a y s o f  E a s t A f r i c a were c o n s t r u c t e d by two r i v a l p o w e r s , German and B r i t i s h , s t r a t e g i c reasons u n i t y of the area.  overshadowed t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l  When'the whole o f E a s t A f r i c a came u n d e r  B r i t i s h r u l e a f t e r 1919»  e v e n t s were t o l e a d t o t h e  unifica-  t i o n o f t h e two r a i l w a y systems under one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The  success of the East A f r i c a n Railway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n b e i n g a b l e t o o p e r a t e a t a p r o f i t has made i t a v i a b l e p u b l i c u t i l i t y agency, w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e t h r e e E a s t A f r i c a n governments, a b l e t o f l o a t bonds on  international  m a r k e t s as w e l l as b o r r o w f r o m t h e W o r l d Bank c a p i t a l f o r f u r t h e r t r a n s p o r t development.  This i s a very  a s p e c t o f t r a n s p o r t development i n E a s t A f r i c a .  important The  existence of  t h e R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n has removed o b l i g a t i o n f o r r a i l w a y  118  development f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h r e e E a s t A f r i c a n governments. Ho  a l l o c a t i o n i s made f o r r a i l w a y s I n t h e n a t i o n a l b u d g e t s .  But any development p l a n n e d b y t h e R a i l w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n for  any one  o f t h e t h r e e E a s t A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , and  approved  by a l l t h r e e governments, i s c o n s i d e r e d i n the over a l l annual development programmes. The h i g h c o s t o f r a i l w a y s development f a v o u r e d investment  f o r s t i m u l a t i n g economic development.  f o r r o a d development was  t o provide country-wide  The  road policy  low-cost  r o a d s , w i t h emphasis on T r u n k r o a d s f o r m i n g a " g r i d " .  This  p a t t e r n o f main r o a d s was  not  achieved e a s i l y .  But i t was  e v o l v e d as a f u n c t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t i e s . n e s s was  f u r t h e r r e d u c e d by l a c k o f f e e d e r The  Its effective-  roads.  i n i t i a l standard of roads p r o v i d e d , which c o u l d  be i m p r o v e d as demand i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e volume o f were t o o low.  traffic,  Thus i t c a l l e d f o r h i g h e r m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s  t h a n w o u l d have b e e n t h e case i f , f o r example, an a l l w e a t h e r s t a n d a r d was  adopted.  I n view of the f a c t t h a t i t i s excess-  i v e r a i n s w h i c h t e n d t o cause much damage t o e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d r o a d s , the c h o i c e of p r o v i s i o n of a l l weather w o u l d have b e e n q u i t e i n o r d e r . s t a n d a r d r o a d s was  The  low roads  r e s u l t o f p r o v i d i n g low  t h a t t h e s e consumed e x t r a r e s o u r c e s w h i c h  c o u l d have b e e n u s e d f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e m i s s i n g l i n k i n t h e system —  the r u r a l feeder An e x a m i n a t i o n  roads.  o f t h e P i v e Y e a r P l a n Road Programme  shows t h a t a t l e a s t a q u a r t e r o f i t i s i n t h e f o r m o f r o a d  119  improvements f o r u p g r a d i n g  e a r t h s u r f a c e s t o g r a v e l , and t h e  l a t t e r type t o bitumen s u r f a c e . for  I n v i e w o f t h e h i g h demand  s c a r c e c a p i t a l i n o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy, r o a d  development p o l i c i e s s h o u l d a i m a t p r o v i d i n g r o a d s w h i c h c a n s t a n d up t o w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f T a n z a n i a ; as w e l l a s t o ensure r e d u c t i o n i n maintenance c o s t s .  Even more  important  i s t h a t i t i s b e t t e r t o have few m i l e s o f m a i n r o a d s o f good s t a n d a r d , c o m p l e t e w i t h f e e d e r r o a d s , r a t h e r t h a n t o have many m i l e s o f s u b s t a n d a r d m a i n r o a d s , w h i c h a r e e x p e n s i v e t o m a i n t a i n , b u t a t t h e same t i m e i n c o m p l e t e because t h e r e a r e no f e e d e r r o a d s and a r e u n r e l a t e d t o e x i s t i n g economic activities. The  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r a i l w a y and r o a d t r a n s p o r t was  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e d e s i r e t o c o n t r o l r a i l / r o a d c o m p e t i t i o n . On one hand, r o a d development was encouraged as a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g new a r e a s ; on t h e o t h e r hand, i t was b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d so as t o ensure s u f f i c i e n t t r a f f i c f o r r a i l w a y s . The p u r s u a n c e o f a r e s t r i c t i o n p o l i c y on r o a d development was b a s e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f d e v e l o p e d were l o s i n g t r a f f i c t o r o a d s .  c o u n t r i e s where r a i l w a y s  The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h r a i l /  r o a d c o m p e t i t i o n r e t a r d e d t h e movement' o f goods b y r o a d , e s p e c i a l l y long d i s t a n c e haulage.  Even more s o , i t d i s t o r t e d  the p i c t u r e of a t r a n s p o r t environment i n a d e v e l o p i n g country. I n an a r e a where one mode o f t r a n s p o r t i s n o t enough for  development, t r a n s p o r t p o l i c i e s s h o u l d have been t o f o s t e r  120 t h e maximum u s e o f e x i s t i n g c a p a c i t y o f a l l modes o f t r a n s p o r t and make them complement r a t h e r t h a n compete w i t h . e a c h other.  T h i s a p p r o a c h w o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n a b e t t e r c o -  o r d i n a t e d t r a n s p o r t system t h a n a t p r e s e n t .  I n view of the  f a c t t h a t t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f one  t r a n s p o r t mode ( e . g . , r a i l w a y ) and a n o t h e r ( e . g . ,  road),  has b e e n r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t i n T a n z a n i a , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e c a n n o t a f f o r d t o b u y t h e i r own v e h i c l e s , c o m p e t i t i o n t o t h e extent which has t a k e n p l a c e i n the developed c o u n t r i e s i s u n l i k e l y t o occur i n Tanzania. There a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t complem e n t a r y r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t e t i v e modes s h o u l d be t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e i n transport o r g a n i z a t i o n of Tanzania.  The  p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and economic a c t i v i t i e s i s one  reason.  another.  The p a t t e r n o f w h o l e s a l e and r e t a i l t r a d e i s  I n t h e case o f t h e l a t t e r , road t r a n s p o r t i s t h e  most c o n v e n i e n t mode f o r c o l l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n , as t h i s i s on a c r o s s - c o u n t r y b a s i s and t r a n s p o r t e d i n s m a l l and l e s s b u l k y consignments.  Road t r a n s p o r t i s a l s o i n c r e a s i n g  i n p o p u l a r i t y f o r p a s s e n g e r movement even f o r l o n g  distances,  because buses o f f e r a b e t t e r s e r v i c e t h a n the r a i l w a y . ways w i l l c o n t i n u e  t o be i m p o r t a n t  Rail-  f o r b u l k y and l a r g e c o n -  s i g n m e n t s on l o n g l i n e h a u l a g e a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o p o r t s and v i c e v e r s a . The  understanding  of t r a n s p o r t p l a y —  o f t h e r o l e w h i c h d i f f e r e n t modes  i n t h i s c a s e , r a i l and r o a d —  ina  121  p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y i s e s s e n t i a l i f c o - o r d i n a t i o n and, f i n a l l y , i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s p o r t n e t w o r k i s t o be achieved.  The e x p e r i e n c e of t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i n t h i s  i s worth noting.  According to  field  Zvonkov:  one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g o f a j o i n t t r a n s p o r t i s t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n be r e g a r d e d as a u n i f i e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l process f o r the t r a n s f e r of commodities from the sphere of p r o d u c t i o n t o the sphere of c o n s u m p t i o n and n o t m e r e l y t h a t p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e s s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a t i o n and t e r m i n a t i o n o f goods on a s i n g l e medium o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u c h as f r o m one r a i l t e r m i n a l t o a n o t h e r . The u n i f i e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o c e s s r e f e r s t o t h e most e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l the i n t e r - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t media, p e r s o n n e l , and o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e movement o f c o m m o d i t i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s a l l the components o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , s u c h as t h e t y p e o f equipment, t r a n s h i p m e n t t e r m i n a l s , s t o r a g e , b u s e s , and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o m m o d i t i e s . 1 While perhaps t h i s d e s c r i b e s a v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l o f t r a n s p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e r e a r e o t h e r ways w h i c h a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y l i k e T a n z a n i a c a n adopt as a p o i n t o f departure.  The i n n o v a t i o n o f a new t e c h n o l o g y i s a good ex2  ample.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f wagon f e r r i e s on Lake  Victoria,  w h i c h p r o v i d e s a model c o m b i n a t i o n o f w a t e r and r a i l , i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the  development  of transport i n East A f r i c a .  I n the case of  r a i l and r o a d , however, t r a n s p o r t p o l i c i e s w i l l s t i l l  remain  T a a f e , R.N. ( e d . ) , P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e g r a t e d T r a n s p o r t Development i n U.S.S.R. (De-partment o f Geography^ ~ U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago;, p. 14. 2  E a s t A f r i c a n Railwa_y_and H a r b o u r s A n n u a l R e p o r t (Government PrinterVlI^roTr7~lTenya; , pT 3.  '  1965  122  t h e most i m p o r t a n t t o o l s f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n u n t i l s u c h a t i m e t h a t a t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d piggy backs),  (e.g.,  w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f r a i l and  road. This co-ordination  c a n be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a -  t i o n of a N a t i o n a l Transport Board.  The f u n c t i o n o f t h e  B o a r d , however, w i l l n o t be c o n f i n e d  t o b r i n g i n g about c o -  o r d i n a t i o n between r a i l and r o a d , but' w i l l i n c l u d e t h e i m portant The  task of transportation planning  on a n a t i o n a l  level.  b a s i s f o r s u c h a B o a r d i s e x i s t i n g a l r e a d y , namely, t h e  Transport Licensing Authority.  B u t i f i t c a n be formed on  t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d " R e g i o n a l Road B o a r d s " , i t w i l l be even b e t t e r . The  R e g i o n a l Road B o a r d A c t (1967) e n a b l e s t h e  M i n i s t e r i n c h a r g e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h f o r any r e g i o n a R e g i o n a l Road B o a r d .  The f u n c t i o n o f a R e g i o n a l  B o a r d i s t o make recommendations t o t h e . M i n i s t e r the  c o n s t r u c t i o n , improvement, a l t e r a t i o n ,  respecting  reconstruction,  m a i n t e n a n c e and s u p e r v i s i o n o f r o a d s , f e r r i e s and aerodromes, e x c e p t f o r r o a d s w i t h i n an a r e a o f j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a c i t y o r 3  municipal  council.  T h i s A c t , as c a n be g a t h e r e d f r o m above,  includes the consideration The  of f a c i l i t i e s  f o r o t h e r modes.  emphasis on r o a d s i s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a  bottleneck  i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  t h e emphasis o f d e v e l o p i n g t e r r i t o r i a l  Due t o  main r o a d s m e n t i o n e d  ^ P e r s o n a l L e t t e r from M i n i s t r y o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , L a b o u r and Works. The U n i t e d R e p u b l i c o f T a n z a n i a . ' R e f . No. CW.44019/72, August 12, 1967.  123 e a r l i e r , i t meant t h a t l o c a l a r e a s r e m a i n e d u n c o o r d i n a t e d t  t h e main r o a d system o f t h e c o u n t r y . t h e r e f o r e , are intended t o f i l l  R e g i o n a l Road  to  Boards,  t h e gap by a s s e s s i n g t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n needs a t a r e g i o n a l o r l o c a l l e v e l and d e c i d i n g on 4  prioriti.es f o r expenditure. A N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t B o a r d can be formed by heads o f  3  a l l Regional Transport Boards.  T h i s wi11 b r i n g t o g e t h e r what  amounts t o a l i s t o f t r a n s p o r t p r o b l e m s and needs f r o m d i f f e r ent p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y .  I t w i l l r e f l e c t t h e t y p e and magni-  tude of t r a n s p o r t problems which e x i s t .  The  t h i s a p p r o a c h i s i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n of f u n d s .  disadvantage There may  of  be  a  t e n d e n c y by r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to' o v e r l o o k n a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s by c o n c e r n i n g t h e m s e l v e s areas they represent. i s advantageous.  I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e second a l t e r n a t i v e  A N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t B o a r d s h o u l d be  s t i t u t e d by members n o t c o n n e c t e d Boards.  w i t h p r o b l e m s of t h e  with Regional  con-  Transport  I t s h o u l d i n c l u d e government o f f i c i a l s f r o m t h e  m i n i s t r i e s of: a)  Communication'and L a b o u r ;  b) A g r i c u l t u r e ; c ) I n d u s t r y , M i n i n g and Power; d) L a n d s , S u r v e y s , Water and  Settlements.  R e g i o n a l Road B o a r d s have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Mwanza, Mara and S h i n y a n g a R e g i o n s , an i m p o r t a n t c o t t o n g r o w i n g zone of Tanzania^ ^ " T r a n s p o r t " v / i l l be a b e t t e r s u b s t i t u t e f o r "Roads'*, because i t c o v e r s a l l modes.  124 Representatives  s h o u l d a l s o he i n c l u d e d f r o m R a i l w a y Admin-  i s t r a t i o n i n T a n z a n i a , r o a d t r a n s p o r t f i r m s , b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s , cooperatives  and m a r k e t i n g b o a r d s .  Regional Transport  send a l l t h e i r t r a n s p o r t needs  Boards w i l l  and p r o b l e m s t o t h e N a t i o n a l B o a r d .  The  These i t e m s w i l l be e x -  amined i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a n s p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r development o f t h e c o u n t r y  as a whole and t h e f u n d s a v a i l a b l e  w i l l be a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f " n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t  prior-  ities" . How much t r a n s p o r t a t i o n does a d e v e l o p i n g n e e d t o e n s u r e smooth economic development? experience  country  Here a g a i n t h e  of the S o v i e t Union i s r e l e v a n t since i t i s based  on p l a n n e d development.  I n t h e S o v i e t economic d e v e l o p m e n t ,  f u n d s were d i v e r t e d f o r t r a n s p o r t improvement o n l y when capacity threatened  t o be a b o t t l e n e c k i n i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -  6 ment, w h i c h was a p r i o r i i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s The  p l a n n e d development.  S o v i e t t r a n s p o r t p o l i c y was also" g e a r e d t o w a r d s  improving  r a i l w a y s a t t h e expense o f o t h e r modes, and c o n c e n t r a t e d  on  7 t h e movement o f f r e i g h t r a t h e r t h a n p a s s e n g e r t r a f f i c . so d o i n g , t h e S o v i e t U n i o n was a b l e t o a c h i e v e u t i l i z a t i o n of transport capacity without  In  an i n t e n s i v e  t o o much i n v e s t m e n t  o f new c a p i t a l . T a n z a n i a has embarked on p l a n n e d economic and s o c i a l Rromm, op. c i t . , p. 124. ?Ibid.  125 development.  U n l i k e t h e U.S.S.R., however, r e s o u r c e s  limited.  goals are a l s o d i f f e r e n t .  The  Tanzania  d o u b l i n g t h e income o f t h e p e o p l e , becoming  aims a t  self-sufficient  i n t r a i n e d manpower and i n d o u b l i n g t h e a v e r a g e l i f e a n c y , by  are  expect-  1980. D e s p i t e emphasis on s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , i t i s  economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s g i v e n p r i o r i t y , w i t h the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r r a n k i n g t h i r d and a c c o u n t i n g f o r 16% o f  total  8  investment.  I n t h e c a s e of t h e f i r s t g o a l , i t s r e a l i z a t i o n  w i l l depend on i n c r e a s e d i n v e s t m e n t w h i c h employs o v e r 50%  i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r  of the p o p u l a t i o n .  I t was  shown  e a r l i e r t h a t had b e t t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l methods b e e n u s e d , h i g h e r l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d have been r e a l i z e d  than  that achieved to date. Investment i n a g r i c u l t u r e s h o u l d be a p r i o r i i n Tanzania.  The  a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n approach advocated  i n t h e p l a n can b e s t be a c h i e v e d w i t h i n t h e p l a n n e d through  investment  period  i n b e t t e r methods o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c -  t i o n , as w e l l as t h e - p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s  s u c h as  storage  and c u r i n g f a c t o r i e s w h i c h i n some a r e a s have l i m i t e d expansion  the  o f c e r t a i n c a s h c r o p s as w e l l as g i v i n g r i s e  to  u n n e c e s s a r y l o n g d i s t a n c e t r a n s p o r t demand. In  c o n t r a s t to the S o v i e t Union, i n Tanzania  there  has  been i n c r e a s e d a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t o t h e t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r , w i t h a r i s e i n p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s has been t h e c a s e i n I n d i a , too. • ' 8  F a r e r , T . J . ( e d ) . F i n a n c i n g A f r i c a n Economic D e v e l o p (M.I.T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 2>~ "~ ' * tJ  126  Some o f t h i s e x p e n d i t u r e ,  i n t h e c a s e o f T a n z a n i a , was i n -  tended t o e l i m i n a t e the " c o l o n i a l  legacy"  i n the transport  s e c t o r , and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t i n g i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r more t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y . it  T h i s i n v e s t m e n t i s j u s t i f i e d because  i s geared towards o r i e n t i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t system i n t o i n -  t e r n a l needs a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s t i m u l a t e l o c a l m a r k e t s . I t i s t h i s t y p e o f e x p e n d i t u r e w h i c h was r e f e r r e d t o at the beginning ment".  ( s e e C h a p t e r I , p . 4 ) as a " f o r c e d i n v e s t -  I t seems t o be u n a v o i d a b l e i f economic and s o c i a l  o b j e c t i v e s o f p o s t independence a r e t o be f u l f i l l e d .  The  i n c r e a s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g countries i s not merely intended  t o c r e a t e more c a p a c i t y o r  f o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f r a i l w a y and u p g r a d i n g r o a d s , b u t i t i s a l s o due t o t h e r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e n e t w o r k t o meet economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  goals.  T r a n s p o r t needs i n c r e a s e w i t h r i s e i n economic g r o w t h . The  h i g h e r t h e l e v e l o f economic g r o w t h t h e more t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n a country  needs.  I n Tanzania, the supply  c a p a c i t y ahead o f demand was u n s u c c e s s f u l , the Manyoni-Kinyangiri  r a i l w a y showed.  of t r a n s p o r t  as t h e f a i l u r e o f  But i n t h e l i g h t o f  p r e s e n t p l a n n e d development now t a k i n g p l a c e i n T a n z a n i a , p r o v i s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y ahead o f demand w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o t h e same r e s u l t s . resources  I t i s the s c a r c i t y of  w h i c h makes " t h i s a p p r o a c h u n d e s i r a b l e .  Resources  s p e n t on p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t ahead o f demand w i l l have  greater  127  b e n e f i t s i f used t o a l l e v i a t e problems i n other s e c t o r s o f t h e economy a n d , i n so d o i n g , f a c i l i t a t e b a l a n c e d g r o w t h . The  role transport  c a n p l a y and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n  economic development w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d b y a l l t h e f a c t o r s discussed  above.  Thus, t o be e f f e c t i v e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n must  be p l a n n e d c a r e f u l l y . determined.  P r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs ought t o be  T r a f f i c s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g  to the  r e l a t i v e advantage o f one mode o v e r t h e o t h e r f o r s u c h traffic.  New t e c h n o l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s s h o u l d be c o n -  sidered.  T h e s e , as w e l l as b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g  f r o m new t r a n s -  p o r t p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o c o s t and t h e e f f e c t s on t h e c o u n t r y ' s b a l a n c e o f payments, employment p o s i t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n with the e x i s t i n g transport  s y s t e m , have t o be c o n -  sidered i n a l l o c a t i n g resources f o r further transport  develop-  ment. 2.  Framework f o r T r a n s p o r t P l a n n i n g and t h e C h o i c e o f Mode f o r F u t u r e Development The  e f f e c t i v e role of transport  i n future  development  o f T a n z a n i a w i l l depend f i r s t on t h e e x t e n t w h i c h e x i s t i n g p r o b l e m s w i l l be overcome.  The m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y s  f r o m steam t o d i e s e l e n g i n e s now underway, t h e p r o v i s i o n o f adequate r o l l i n g s t o c k , and  storage f a c i l i t i e s , upgrading roads,  t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f e e d e r r o a d s , a r e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s  w h i c h r e q u i r e immediate a t t e n t i o n .  128  P o r t c a p a c i t y and f a c i l i t i e s a l s o must be i m p r o v e d i f t h e needs o f Zambia a r e n o t t o cause a b o t t l e n e c k i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e system.  I t a l s o depends on t h e f o r m u l a t i o n  o f good management p o l i c i e s w h i c h w i l l e n s u r e t h e maximum use  of l i m i t e d transport f a c i l i t i e s All  and c a p i t a l  resources.  these considerations w i l l require c a r e f u l p l a n -  n i n g , not o n l y o f t h e Tanzania t r a n s p o r t system, b u t t h a t of E a s t A f r i c a and Zambia as a w h o l e . Tanzania-Zambia r a i l  Thus t h e p r o p o s e d  l i n k has t o be c o n s i d e r e d  i n planning  t h e t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r t o meet f u t u r e needs. A t r a n s p o r t p l a n f o r T a n z a n i a as s u c h does n o t e x i s t . All  t h a t i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e F i v e T e a r p l a n i s t h e amount t o  be  s p e n t on d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t p r o j e c t s a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  road p r o j e c t s .  No a t t e m p t has been made t o e s t i m a t e  present  o r f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t needs f o r T a n z a n i a . Transport  p l a n n i n g f o r T a n z a n i a c a n be a p p r o a c h e d  e i t h e r on a m i c r o o r macro s c a l e .  The f i r s t r e f e r s t o  n a t i o n a l and t h e second, t o r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  The a p p r o a c h  s e l e c t e d w i l l depend on w h e t h e r t h e p r o j e c t i n v o l v e s T a n z a n i a a l o n e o r T a n z a n i a and a n e i g h b o u r i n g  country.  A l s o , whether  t h e p l a n i s f o r r a i l , r o a d , w a t e r , a i r , p i p e l i n e o r portdevelopment.  I n t h e c a s e o f r a i l , w a t e r , a i r , and p o r t , and  because t h e y a r e o r g a n i z e d  on a r e g i o n a l basis', t h e macro  a p p r o a c h w i l l be t h e b e s t t o u s e . s u g g e s t e d framework f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  Appendix E d e p i c t s a t r a n s p o r t needs a t m i c r o  129  and macro l e v e l s , and t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h s h o u l d be When p l a n n i n g the choice  considered.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o meet f u t u r e n e e d s ,  o f mode u s u a l l y a r i s e s .  I n t h e case o f T a n z a n i a ,  t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the proposed Tanzania-Zambia r a i l w a y w h i c h w i l l j o i n t h e C e n t r a l l i n e t o t h e Zambia r a i l w a y  system.  A l t h o u g h t h e d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d i t has b e e n a c c e l e r a t e d  some-  what b y t h e R h o d e s i a n c r i s i s ,  i t s t i l l provides  ample o f t h e dilemma f a c i n g d e v e l o p i n g  a good e x -  countries i n deciding  w h e t h e r f u t u r e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r s h o u l d be in rail  o r road.. The  ing  d i f f i c u l t y p a r t l y a r i s e s from the misunderstand-  o f t h e r o l e r a i l w a y s have p l a y e d  i n the past.  In the  case of t h e Tanzania-Zambia r a i l w a y , the s i t u a t i o n i s s l i g h t l y more c o m p l i c a t e d . nitude  The c r u x o f t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t t h e mag-  of the investment i n v o l v e d , but r a t h e r the e f f e c t t h i s  r a i l w a y w i l l have on e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y s now p r o v i d i n g ( o r u s e d t o ) o u t l e t t o Zambia, and d e p e n d i n g f o r most o f t h e i r r e v e n u e on t h e movement o f Zambian c o p p e r and i m p o r t goods.  These  • r a i l w a y s ( R h o d e s i a and B e n g u e l a r a i l w a y ) , as w e l l as some other l e s s d i r e c t r o u t e s , are not being used a t f u l l  capacity.  Thus, i t w i l l be u n e c o n o m i c a l t o a l l o c a t e s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s provide  to  more t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s when t h e p r e s e n t ones a r e  s t i l l under-utilized.. The  opportunity  costs of i n v e s t i n g i n a r a i l w a y  130 facility  i n s t e a d o f a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l be v e r y h i g h —  b e n e f i t s w i l l n o t exceed c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s . the  p r o v i s i o n o f adequate  i f its  A l s o , as f a r as  t r a n s p o r t between Zambia and  T a n z a n i a i s c o n c e r n e d , i t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e improvement o f the  e x i s t i n g r o a d ( t h e G r e a t N o r t h Road) c a n b e s t meet t h e  a n t i c i p a t e d t r a d e between t h e two c o u n t r i e s .  Resources,  t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d be i n v e s t e d i n t h e u p g r a d i n g o f t h i s r o a d to  an a l l weather s t a n d a r d . The o t h e r r e a s o n a g a i n s t b u i l d i n g t h e r a i l w a y i s t h e  gauge p r o b l e m .  The E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y system i s on a metre  gauge, w h i l e t h a t o f Zambia i s on a 3'  6"  gauge.  This w i l l  r e q u i r e a s w i t c h i n g s t a t i o n t o enable the t r a n s f e r of engines and wagons f r o m one system t o t h e o t h e r , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g operating costs.  T h e r e f o r e , t h e W o r l d Bank d e c l a r e d t h e  rail-  way p r o j e c t uneconomic and f a v o u r e d f i n a n c i n g t h e u p g r a d i n g o f the  G r e a t N o r t h Road. As f a r as T a n z a n i a i s c o n c e r n e d , a " s o u t h e r n r a i l w a y "  seems t o be overdue. the  The p r o p o s e d r a i l w a y w i l l p a s s t h r o u g h  K i l o m b e r o V a l l e y " a n d t h e S o u t h e r n H i g h l a n d , two a r e a s o f  h i g h a g r i c u l t u r a l and m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l s u f f e r i n g f r o m l a c k of  adequate t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s  l i n e w i l l make p o s s i b l e t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e c o a l  and  i r o n o r e d e p o s i t s i n t h e Ruhuhu B a s i n .  steel  The p r o p o s e d  9 r o l l i n g m i l l w i l l provide a ready  market.  ' A f r i c a n Research B u l l e t i n ( A f r i c a Research L i m i t e d , E n g l a n d ) , Vo. I V , No. 12, J a n u a r y 13, 1968, p. 903.  • 1 3 1  I n t h e c a s e o f Zambia, p o l i t i c a l  considerations  under-  l i e t h e d e s i r e t o c o n s t r u c t t h e r a i l w a y so t h a t i t c a n have a r e l i a b l e o u t l e t , i n view of being  surrounded by " u n f r i e n d l y " 10  c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e U.D.I, by R h o d e s i a .  But having  c o m m i t t e d i t s e l f t o t h e r a i l w a y , Zambia w i l l make s u r e t h a t i t moves most, i f n o t a l l , o f i t s e x p o r t and i m p o r t  traffic  along i t . Thus, t h e f e a r t h a t t h e new l i n e w i l l r u n a t a l o s s i s unfounded.  N o r w i l l t h e d i v e r s i o n o f t r a f f i c b y Zambia  be c o n t r a r y t o what h a s b e e n t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e a r e a .  The  p a t t e r n o f t r a f f i c movement between t h e R h o d e s i a and B e n g u e l a r a i l w a y has n o t b e e n d e t e r m i n e d b y market f o r c e s o n l y .  The  p r e d o m i n a n t u s e o f t h e R h o d e s i a n r a i l w a y b y Zambia, w h i c h i s a l o n g e r r o u t e t o markets t h a n t h e Benguela r a i l w a y , has been d e t e r m i n e d b y "agreements among p r i v a t e companies and r a i l ways, b y r a i l w a y t a r r i f p o l i c i e s , and ocean s h i p p i n g [and] p o l i t i c a l  rates,  r e l a t i o n s among t h e c o l o n i a l powers o r among 11  the c o u n t r i e s The  themselves".  p r o b a b i l i t y o f d i v e r s i o n o f t r a f f i c b y Zambia t o  t h e new l i n e i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g this railway.  o b j e c t i o n t o the b u i l d i n g of  The h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d  by r a i l w a y  development i n T a n z a n i a shows t h a t t h e C e n t r a l L i n e " ^ U n i l a t e r a l D e c l a r a t i o n o f Independence.  suffered  • ^ H a e f e l e , E . J . , S t e i n b e r g , E.B., Government C o n t r o l on T r a n s p o r t , An A f r i c a n Case ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n , T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h Programme), p . 1 0 .  132 a l o s s when c o p p e r t r a f f i c f r o m t h e Congo was d i v e r t e d t o Lobito  a f t e r t h e completion of the Benguela r a i l w a y .  A sim-  i l a r d i v e r s i o n o f t r a f f i c w i l l t u r n t h e s e two r a i l w a y s , a r e now o p e r a t i n g The  which  at a p r o f i t , to a loss.  a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e r a i l w a y t o Zambia i n c l u d e t h e  b e n e f i t which w i l l a r i s e from being able t o c o n t r o l a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h e p r o p o s e d r a i l w a y and r o l l i n g  s t o c k i n i t s own  n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s and t h o s e o f a f r i e n d l y n a t i o n . employment c r e a t e d  The new  b y t h e p r o j e c t , and above a l l t h e s t r o n g e r  l i n k s w i t h E a s t A f r i c a , w i t h w h i c h i t s h a r e s common p o l i t i c a l and  economic o b j e c t i v e s , a r e a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s .  Further,  t h e r e i s t h e hope o f b e i n g a d m i t t e d i n t o t h e E a s t A f r i c a n  12 Economic Community  ( i n c l u d i n g Kenya, Uganda, T a n z a n i a , Ruanda,  U r u n d i and Zambia; and p o s s i b l y S o m a l i a and E t h i o p i a ) . To a p p r e c i a t e  t h e nature of t h e proposed Tanzania-  Zambia r a i l w a y , one must go beyond p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s .  Itin-  v o l v e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f f o r m i n g a l a r g e and u n i f o r m R e g i o n a l Economic Group, e f f i c i e n t l y s e r v e d b y t r a n s p o r t  f a c i l i t i e s to  expand t h e market f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l and economic development i n g e n e r a l . The  W o r l d Bank's r e f u s a l t o . f i n a n c e  e v e r , was n o t t h e end o f t h e s t o r y . has  t h e p r o j e c t , how-  The Maxwell-Stamp  report  f o u n d t h e r a i l w a y economic a n d , t h e r e f o r e , ' f e a s i b l e .  T h i s f i n d i n g , as w e l l a s t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s b e tween Zambia and R h o d e s i a , has made t h e p r o j e c t a n e c e s s i t y . 1961,  The p. 1.  Standard-Tanzania: ~~~ ~  No. 11538, 2nd December,  135  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y has b e e n b r o u g h t c l o s e to. r e a l i t y by the r e a d i n e s s of the People's R e p u b l i c of C h i n a t o g i v e an i n t e r e s t f r e e l o a n t o t h e two governments f o r c o n 15 s t r u c t i o n of the l i n e . A p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g agency was f o r m e d 14  b y t h e two c o u n t r i e s l a s t J u l y , s u c h as t h e gauge p r o b l e m . c a r r i e d out. be b u i l t . 1,042  t o examine t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s ,  An e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d y i s now  A l l these events suggest t h a t the r a i l w a y  being will  When t h e r a i l w a y , w h i c h has a t o t a l l e n g t h o f  miles, i s eventually constructed, i t w i l l  constitute  t h e b i g g e s t u n d e r t a k i n g e v e r t o be c a r r i e d out i n t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , b o t h i n terms o f m i l e s and t h e s i z e o f c a p i t a l i n vestment  i n v o l v e d w h i c h i s about £100,000,000.  The  railway  w i l l t a k e between f i v e t o s e v e n y e a r s t o b u i l d . 3.  Transport..and .Ujamaa V i l l a g e s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , when i t i s p r o p e r l y u t i l i z e d , i s an  . e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n - a s s i s t i n g -the a t t a i n m e n t o f economic and social objectives.  I n T a n z a n i a , f o r example, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  has a r o l e t o p l a y i n " r u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " a p p r o a c h t o a g r i c u l t u r e , b a s e d on p l a n n e d "Ujamaa" V i l l a g e s .  The  ment w i l l a s s i s t i n t h e s e t t i n g up o f t h e s e communities  governby  •^The S t a n d a r d - T a n z a n i a , No. 11467, S e p t . 1 1 , 1967, p . l . 14 The S t a n d a r d - T a n z a n i a , No. 11415, J u l y 12, 1967, p. 1. 15 ^ P o r d e t a i l s on t h e p h i l o s o p h y g u i d i n g t h e s e t t i n g up of "Ujamaa V i l l a g e s " , t h e r e a d e r s h o t i l d c o n s u l t : N y e r e r e , J.K., S o c i a l i s m e n d . R u r a l . Development (Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , T9&7),  134 p r o v i d i n g c a p i t a l , and c a p i t a l equipment s u c h as a g r i c u l t u r a l m a c h i n e r y , t e c h n i c a l a d v i s e r s i n a g r i c u l t u r e and a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y , t e a c h e r s ; as w e l l as community f a c i l i t i e s s c h o o l s , h e a l t h c e n t r e s , and w a t e r s u p p l i e s .  like  Many o f t h e  v i l l a g e s w i l l be b a s e d on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s , and o r g a n i z e d on a c o o p e r a t i v e b a s i s . The l o c a t i o n o f Ujamaa V i l l a g e s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d  by  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l , w i l l i n g s e t t l e r s t o undertake t h e i n i t i a l p i o n e e r work, t h e t y p e o f c r o p t o be grown, and, t h e r e f o r e , favourable environmental f a c t o r s . facilities  Transport  and demand a l s o have t o be examined b e f o r e  final  d e c i s i o n t o s e t up t h e v i l l a g e s i s made. Transport requirements  w i l l v a r y from a c c e s s a b i l i t y  of the proposed area f o r s e t t l e m e n t , e i t h e r by r a i l , road of water.  The r e l o c a t i o n o f p e o p l e and o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t s w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d b y e x i s t i n g transport f a c i l i t i e s .  I n an a r e a where t h e s e a r e a b s e n t  or  p o o r , i t i s bound t o i n c r e a s e i n i t i a l c a p i t a l c o s t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f new t r a n s p o r t r o u t e s have t o be s u r v e y e d and c o n structed.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l a l s o have t o be g i v e n t o t h e  l e v e l o f s e r v i c e b e i n g p r o v i d e d f o r p a s s e n g e r and goods traffic.  D i s t a n c e f r o m m a j o r c e n t r e s o f s u p p l y , as w e l l as  t r a n s p o r t requirements  f o r expected  l e v e l s of production  f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t s w i l l be o f m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g Ujamaa V i l l a g e s .  Thus, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s h o u l d be  135 made a n I n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e "Ujamaa V i l l a g e " p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  The pronouncement t h a t t r a n s p o r t a l o n e i s n o t enough f o r e c o n o m i c a l development h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t i m e and t i m e again.  I n t h i s S t u d y i t s t i l l h o l d s good.  T r a n s p o r t as a  means t o a n end s h o u l d he made t o s e r v e t h e needs f o r w h i c h it  i s supposed t o p r o v i d e a. s e r v i c e .  I t must n o t be d e v e l o p e d  i n s u c h a way t h a t i t r e s u l t s i n m i s a i l o c a t i o n o f s c a r c e resources. I n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , s u c h as T a n z a n i a , where c a p i t a l f o r development i s s c a r c e , a u s t e r i t y measures s h o u l d be p r a c t i s e d t o r e d u c e  i n c r e a s i n g a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s now  being channelled into transportation.  B u t t h i s s h o u l d be  done a f t e r a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e whole economy h a s b e e n made t o a s c e r t a i n what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e p r o b l e m . As i t h a s b e e n shown h e r e , i n some c a s e s i t i s t h e l a c k of storage f a c i l i t i e s o r a processing f a c t o r y which give r i s e t o unnecessary  t r a n s p o r t demand; a n d , h e n c e , i n c r e a s i n g  e x p e n d i t u r e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  «  I t i s i n p o i n t i n g out such m i s d i r e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t h a t past investment  i n t r a n s p o r t guides f u t u r e p l a n n i n g :  b u t t h i s i s n o t t h e end o f t h e t a s k . . The p r o c e s s ought t o continue through r e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e t r a n s p o r t problems of the developing c o u n t r i e s , and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  establishment  o f a t h e o r y f o r t r a n s p o r t r e s e a r c h and development.  136 APPENDIX A:  DEVELOPMENT PLAN: 1955 - I960 ROAD PROGRAMME  Proposed  Expenditure  Road I  1956/57_  1957/60,... _  Total  £  200,000 75,000 60,000 10,000  £ 75,000 175,000 20,000 10,600  £  £  275,000 340,000 80,000 90,000  34-5,000  £280,000  £  £  785,000  £  20,000 279,000  The Great North Road (a} (b) (c) (d)  Aru3ha - Makuyuni Porotos Deviation Bridges General Improvements Total  II  1955/56  £  90,000 70,000 160,000  Other Trunk Routes (a) Dar-es-Salaam/Morogoro 20,000 (b) Morogoro - Iringa 279,000 (c) Southern Trunk Route: L i n d i - Mtama 14,000 Other Sections • 15,000 (d) Eastern Trunk Routes: Coastal Road 15,000 (e) Tanga - Nrthn. Prov.: Korogwe Pare Border Sections 50,000 (f) East/West Trunk Route: Morogoro - Western Province 10,000 (g) Western Trunk Route: Uganda Border - Abercorn: -Bukoba D i s t . S c t i o n 25,000 -Westrn. Prov. 10,000 (h) Lake Victoria/Lake Nyasa: Kenya Boi'der Musoma Section 15,000 Muscma/fawanza S c t . 10,000 Mwanza/Tabora " 10,000 GNR/Lake Nyasa 10,000 e  n  e  n  T o t a l Trunk Routes £  483,000  £  -  20,000  5,000  14,000 85,000  50,000  300,000  365,000  50,000  50,000  150,000  . 20,000  80,000  110,000  25,000 10,000  50,000 20,000  100,000 50,000  20,000 20,000 10,000 10,000  80,000 30,000 20,000 50,000  £235,000  £  740,000  115,000 60,000 40,000 70,000 £1,458,000  APPENDIX A:  DEVELOPMENT PLAN - 1955/60:  137  ROAD PROGRAMME  Proposed Expenditure  Road  1955/56  1956/57  1957/60  £  100,000 10,000  £150,000  £  13,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 8,000  7,000 . 15,000 50,000 30,000  Total  I I I T e r r i t o r i a l Main Roads a) Mwansa - Biharamulo (b) Ushashi - N a n 3 i o (c) Feeder Roads t o Southern Prov. Rlwy. (d) Luiche Swamp - Kigomo (e) Njombe Roads ( f ) Kilombero V a l l e y Roads (g) Mpui - Ilemba (h) Dar-es-Salaam - Morogoro Rd. t o Handeni ( i ) Other Major Roads  „  ,£ T o t a l T e r r i t o r i a l Main Rds.£  —  —  10,000 10,000  181,000  £272,000  £  250,000 10,000  50,000  -  20,000 25,000 110,000 50,000 8,000  30,000 100,000  40,000 120,000  -  -  10,000  e  £  633,000  60,000 £ 80,000 40,000 40,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 24,000 36,000  100,000 120,000 80,000 80,000 100,000 20,000 40,000 40,000 56,000  180,000  IV Other Road P r e l e c t s (a) Improvements T e r r i t o r i a l & £ D i s t r i c t Main Roads (b) B i t u m i n i s a t l o n Main M s . (c) Lake Prov. Cotton Roads (d) E s t e m Prov. Cotton " (e) Northern Province R08&3 ( f ) Surveys (g) F e r r i e s (h) Minor Road Construction ( i ) Improvements D i s t . Rds. (J) Road of Access A g r i c u l t u r a l Areas a  Total Grand T o t a l *  £  20,000 £ 20,000 £ 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,600 80,000 10,000 8,000 5,000 10,000 10,000 8,000 28,000 8,000 12,000 2,000 196,000  £ 1 ,205,000  5,000 £130,000 £  13,000 330.000  £917,000 £ 1 , 4 1 0 , 0 0 0  20,000 £  656,000  £3 ,532,000  * (excluding Urban unforeseen roads) Source:  Develotsnent P l a n : 1955-1960 C a p i t a l Works Programme (Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , 1955), pp. 16-17.  APPENDIX  F.Y.P ROAD .PROGRAMME - ROAD EXPENDITURE PARRIED OVER FROM T.Y.P. AND ESTIMATED ROAD EXPENDITURE BY 1966/67  B:  Route and Project Designation  Year  Capital Expenditure F. Y.. P.  T. Y. P. Carryrover  F. Y. P. Provision  1966/67 Approved Estimate  A. Main Roads 1. Great North Route Arusha (Dodoma Comer) r Babati ) Extension of, bitumen, towards j Babati Iringa - Makumbako Extension..of ..bitumen  1968/9  £  35,000  £  £  £  63,500  63,500  1968/9  35,000  towards Utete Programme T o t a l  1968/69  £  98,500  £  £  750,000  $  £  98,500  £  £  500,000  £  2. Western Trunk Route Uganda Border - Bukoba Biharamulo: Build Kyka Bridge, blturalnization o f Uganda Border - Bukoba  1964/66 1967/69  250,000  195,000  Nyakanazi - Uvinza - b u i l d Malagarasi River , Bridge,  1966/7  200,000  200,000  29,000  Uvinza - Zambia Border - b u i l d Uvinza Bridge t o r e p l a c e _ f e r r y  1967/68  300,000  300,000  5,000  1964/68  £ 1,250,000  Programme T o t a l  £  250,000  £ 1,000,000  £  229,000  APPENDIX  B  F.Y.P. ROAD PROGRAMME - ROAD EXPENDITURE CARRIED OVER FROM T.Y.P. AND ESTIMATED ROAD EXPENDITURE BY J966/67  ~Route and Project Designation  "  ~~ Year ;  Capital Expenditure F. Y. P.  T. Y. P. Carryo\*er  ' .  F. Y. P. Provision  1966/67 Approved Estimate  3. Eastern Trunk Route Kenya Border - Tanga - Segera S i g i River: Bridge and Extension of bitumen towards Kenya Border  1964/66  £  100,000  Segera - Chalinze: Bltuminlzation of (IDA scheme No. 3)  1964/67  625,000  Chalinze - Naganga: Survey of new alignment ( s t a b i l i z e d earth standard) AID scheme  1964/65 & 1968/69  235,000  1968/69  -225,000  1964/69  £ 1,185,000  Nanganga - Mingoyo - Mtwara; Complete engineering gravel to Nanganga. Commence b i t u minization o f Mingoyo t o Nanganga. (Part I IDA Scheme No. 5) Programme T o t a l  £  22,000  £  78,000  £  625,000  360,500  235,000  13,750  225,000  £  257,000  £  928,000  £  384,250  APPENDIX  B: AND ESTIMATED ROAD EXPENDITURE BY  Routs and P r o j e c t  T. Y. P. Carryover  F. Y. P.  1966/67  Provision  Approved Estimate  1964/63 £ . 231,900  £  £  1964/68 £ 1,319,375 £ 146,000  £ 1,173,375  £ 930,000  1964/66  £  £  Year  Designation  Capital Expenditure F . Y. P.  1966/67  4. C e n t r a l T r u n k R o u t e Dodoma - S I n g i d a : Survey and ) r e c o n s t r u c t i o n Manyoni - Issuma) t o engineering gravel standard ) Programme  Total  231,900  5. N o r t h e r n T r u n k R o u t e Taveta Junction - Segera: B l t u m i n i z a t i o n o f >Ikumbara._to K i s a n g i r o ( I D A scheme N o . 4 T ~ Programme  Total  ) ) )  6. S o u t h e r n T r u n k R o u t e Nanganga - M a s a s i - Songea E n g i n e e r e d g r a v e l Nanganga Masasi S o n g e a - Njombe - W i n o Kifanya: Realignment  £  1964/66 £  221,000  £  80,000  44,000  221,000  36,000  Mtvara-Zambia L i n k Road: t o r a i s e standard, o f e x i s t i n g r u n n i n g s u r f a c e between Mtwara a n d G.WR Programme  Total  50,000 650,000  1964/67 £  301,000 £  44,000  £  257,000  £ 700,000  APPENDIX  B  (F.Y.P. ROAD PROGRAMME  CONT'D.)  Route and Project Designation  Year  Capital T. Y. P. Expenditure CarryF. Y. P. over  F. Y. P. Provision \  1966/67 Approved Estimate.  B. Major Link Roads Mwanza - Usagara - Biharamulo:' Bltuminlzation of Usgara - Kikongo Nyakanga - Bunda - Mvanza: Complete Engineered gravel MwanzaNyakanga, bituminlzat&on of Mile 22.to Ma.gu.  1967/68 £  50,000 £  K,500  £  35,500  I964/66  240,000  60,000  180,000  Morogora - Iringa - _BlturainizatIon of Morogoro Mile 38 to Mile 148. (IDA schemes No. 1 & 2) (has been reduced to engineering design)  1964/67  977,875  101,500  876,375  Makuyuni - Ngorongorq - B a r i a t i Mwanza - Arusha, Link Road F e a s i b i l i t y Survey  1964/65 & 1968/69  50,000  50,000  Kenya Border - Musoma: Engineered Gravel; ?4usoma to Mile 20'. Drainage Mile 20 t o Kenya^Border. TlDA scheme No. 9)  1964/66  187,500  187,500  Usagara -.Nzega: Bituminization of 23 miles of road from Usagara to Maguki  1967/68  186,250  136,250  Lindi - Masasi - IDA project completed;  £  13,500  100,255  Dar-es-Salaam - Tunduma: Survey & Design for the section of GNR Tunduma - Iringa. AID project Programme Total  1964/69  £ 1,691,625  £  176,000  £ 1,515,625  £ 113,755  APPENDIX B  (F.Y.P. ROAD PROGRAMME - CONT'D.)  Route and Project Designation  """ Year  Capital Expenditure F. Y. P.  T. Y. P.' Carryover  F. Y. P. Provision  1966/67 Approved Estimate  C. Major Feeder Roads Magu-Bukwimba: Engineered gravel Magu - Bukvrimba  1967/63  Uyole - Itungi Port: t o bitumen s t a n d a r d 77 miles (IDA - No. 6 & 7'  1964/67  £  130,000  £  £  130,000  £  500  1,071,875  9,000  1,062,875  308,072  earth, Kilondoto-BariaU7TlD*F#8  310,000  30,000  780,000  5,000  Dar-es-Salaam K i b i t i : Extension of bitumen miles 4 t o K i b i t i Mile~8S (IDA scheme No. 10) " ..  991,250  23,000  963,250  573,500  630,000  216,000  414,000  268,860  167,000  167,000  Kilondota - B a r i a t i :  Stabilized  Eunda - Nansio: E^gj^Qered. Gravel (AID Scheme) Eastern Trunk Route - Kilwa: Survey of new alignment s t a b i l i z e d earth^stanclard.. (Subject t o AID F e a s i b i l i t y survey) Bukindo - Katunguru - Xarumo: Survey & S t a b i l i z e d earth BuklndoBuchenzi (32 miles); engineered gravel B u c h e n z i - Karuma (49 miles Katunguru - Sengerema: Survey £ engineered gravel - 14 miles Kasemwa - Buyagu - B u s i s i : Survey & s t a b i l i z e d earth on hew alignment  1964/67 1964/65  62,510  1968/69  1965/69  130,000  130,000  8,875  1967/69  113,500  113,500  4,450  1968/69  126,225  126,225  22,000  APPENDIX E  (F.Y.P. ROAD PROGRAMME - CONT'D.)  Route and Project Designation  Year  Capital Expenditure F. Y. P.  T. Y. P. Carryover  - F. Y. P. Provision  1966/67 Approved. Estimate  C. Major Feeder Roads (cont'd.) Marangu - U s s e r i : Survey & b l t u minlzation of Mikuml - Nsolwa  1968/69  304,750  304,750  Mikumi - Ifakara: Survey & b i t u minization of Mikumi - Nsolwa  1968/69  125,000  125,000  Songea - Mbamba Bay: Survey & engineered gravel (lOS miles)  1964/65 1968/69  127,000  127,000  Dar-es-3alaam - Bagamoyo: and extension of bitumen  1967/68  210,000  210,000  - 1964/65 196S/69  154,000  154,000  £  13,000  Survey  Muheza - Amani: Survey & extension of bituminization of 22 miles Improvements t o other major feeder roads (Regional programmes t o be submitted) Bituminization of other major feeder roads (Regional programmes to.be submitted)  1964/68  1964/68  12,500  152,000  52,000  100,000  170,000  20,000  150,000  32,700  -  -  -  25,000  -  -  175,000  Kiberege - Lupiro - M a l i n y i Mbeya (Tunduma) - Sumbawanga: minor improvement works *  -  Rural Feeder Roads - Lake Region**)  -  Programme T o t a l *  1964/67  £'5,412,600  £  522,000  £ 4,890,600  £1,366,967  (To be included i n Feeder Roads programme when Road R. Laboratory's f i n a l report on Transportation has been received) ** (Funds provided t o purchase materials f o r s e t t i n g up of 40 road camps i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the proposals t o take over c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t roads i n Mwanza, Mara and Shinganga Regions)  APPENDIX B  (F.Y.P. ROAD PROGRAMME - CONT'D.)  Route and Project Designation  Capital Expenditure F. Y. P.  Year  T. Y. P. Carryoyer  F. Y. P. Provision  1966/67  Approved Estimate  D. Feeder Roads i n Rural Areas; Miscellaneous Roadworks and Equipment Rural Feeder Roads, Provision of ) culverts & bridging "(AID & CAL) ) Surveys & Investigations Teconomic f e a s i b i l i t y study of a Ruanda - Tanzania Roa&Link was carried out under t h i s scheme)  ) ) ) )  Tourist Roads - Roads selected by) the National Tourist Board ) Cotton Roads Programme T o t a l * Grand T o t a l  1964/67 £ 1,520,000  £ 585,000  £  935,000  £ 112,500  17,500  1964/69  180,000  180,000  1964/69  54,000  54,000  1964/69 £ 2,372,000 £ 667,000  • .. -.. £ 1,705,000  61,295.9 £ 191,295.9  1964/69 £13,861,995 £2,062,000  £10,800,000  £4,015,267.9  * ( A l l project designations have not been shown, but Programme t o t a l i s f o r a l l projects) T. Y. P. - Three Year Plan:  1961/62 - 1963/64  ?. Y.. P. - Five Year Development Plan:  1964 - 1969  145 APPENDIX C  Year  GROWTH OP TANGANYIKA'S EXPORTS QUANTITIES, SELECTED PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS  Sisal  Coffee  Cotton  «000 Tons  •000 Tons  «000 Tons  1913  21  1919  17  1920  17  1921  Groundnuts •000 Tons  Cashew Diam- nuts onds '000 •000 Tons carrats  Total all Exports £'000.0(  1.1  2.2  8  3.8  1.1  1922  10  4.3  1.5  12.5  1.3  1923  13  4.0  1.5  16.5  1.7  1924  18  5.3  2.5  18.7  2.6  1925  18  6.0  4.5  9.1  2.9  1926  25  6.5  4.9  15.9  3.0  1927  33  6.6  3.9  14.1  3.3  1923  36  10.4  4.9  10.6  3.9  1929  46  8.9  4.9  7.8  23.3  3.7  1930  50  11.5  3.7  17.3  13.3  2.6  1931  56  9.3  2.4  3.1  7.8  1.6  1932  61  11.4  3.2  15.9  1.4  2.2  1933  70  12.7  5.1  19.2  1.4  2.5  1934  73  14.8  5.6  8.0  1.2  2.6  1935  83  18.6  10.0  I6.4  1.4  3.4  1936  81  12.1  11.3  22.8  2.7  4.5  1937  91  13.6  11.5  22.3  3.2  5.0  )  146  APPENDIX C GROWTH OF TANGANYIKA'S EXPORTS - QUANTITIES, SELECTED PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS Cashew Diamnuts onds '000 '000 . Tons c a r r a t s  Total all Exports £'000,000  Coffee  Year  '000 Tons  '000 Tons  1938  101  13.7  8.9  3.8  1939  93  16.6  11.6  4.5  .9  1946  112  10.0  4.0  .5  3.2  119.  1947  96  13.9  7.0  3.5  1.3  92.  11.1  1948  117  11.3  9.9  3.1  5.6  148.  16.2  1949  113  12.0  10.8  .8  3.6  131.  20.9  1950  120  15.0  7.0  .1  6.5  131.  24.0  1951  142  16.6  8.3  3.5  8.2  1952  158  18.6  11.1  9.4  11.5  332  47.4  1953  171  15.2  14.8  1.1  11.4  171  35.4  1954  168  19.4  12.1  2.5  16.3  330  37.3  1955  174  18.5  20.4  5.6  18.2  323  37.9  1956  186  21.6  27.9  15.1  16.7  353  47.0  1957  182  18.5  27.2  16.1  33.7  373  41-4  1958  198  22.2  32.1  12.6  31.3  515  44.3  1959  209  19.6  30.7  12.1  33.2  555  47.9  Note:  Cotton  Groundnuts '000 Tons  Sisal  «000 Tons  3.6  3.7  3.4  4.3  9.  40.5  T o t a l Value o f Exports i n c l u d e s other minor commodities not shown on T a b l e , e.g., Tea, Skins - Hides & Calf., F u r ,  Source:  Economic Development of Tanganyika "^Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , I960), pp. 12-13.  -APPENDIX D  THE MARKETING OF COFFEE AND COTTON IN TANZANIA AND THE DIFFERENT MODES OF TRANSPORT USED IN MOVING THE CROP FROM THE FARM TO EXPORTING PORT Peasant farmer  1W~  Mt  (Porterage, bicycle or Lorry (hired by.a group of farmers v  II  Buying Station Primary Society  Pecuniary  •:' M: III  1  /  (Trucking)%.. &  Ginning or Curing Factory U N I 0N •  VFCU ,  _ 4Proceed to farmer, i . e . , benefits (Union and/or LSMB Revenue) (cost II, III & IV)  1 J Benefits  KNCU  -  x  -J Legend Transportation Benefits Mt. - Mode of Transport V.F.C.U. - Victoria Federation of Cooperative Union K.N.C.U. - Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union L. & S.M.B. - Lint & Seed Marketing Board  *  Auctioning, storage transport to Shipping Port L & SMB ^SsTrucking Water'" Rail ,  (e.g., depend(ing whether i t ( i s exported v i a (Mombasa or Dar(es-Salaam  R a i l to Mombasa Auctioning,' Transport to shipping port by "^j K N C U  (Union)  APPENDIX E :  A FRAMEWORK FOR DETERMINING NATIONAL AND REGIONAL TRANSPORT  [148  NEEDS  | S3 vXV<VVXXXXXXXXXV\X<  • [(MAC  R 0)'  i  m  • ( M I C  R 0)|,  I i  Growth, Geographical Distribution (Urban/Rural), P o p u l a t i o n movement, Per C a p i t a Income  PHYSICAL , CHARACTERISTICS  ii 1.W.V.VA*.  AGRICULTURAL  NEEDS'  AGGREGATE TRANSPORT NEEDS ( e . g . , KENYA, UGANDA, T A N Z A N I A , ZAMBIA) NEW TRANSPORT  NATIONAL TRANSPORT  to, VXXXXXXVXXXXXXXXX  C"H A R A C T E R I S T I C S POPULATION PRESENT &. FUTURE  REGIONAL TRANSPORT  PRODUCTION  R a i l , road, water, A i r , P i p e l i n e , P o r t s ; new Technological p o s s i b i l i t i e s (e.g., . i n communications, t e l e p h o n e , r a d i o , T.V.) - w i l l determine A l l o c a t i o n o f resources in T r a n s p o r t Sector.  NEEDS  vXXXXXXXN\XX^£$Sxwv\>  0F  INDUSTRIAL  T H E  E C O N O M Y  PRODUCTION  Internal Exnort Export L o c a l Consumption Present Planned Present| Planned I Present(Planned . Present Planned Total Industrial Production; Total Agricultural Production; Type o f goods p r o d u c e d ; T y p e o f C r o p s ( c a s h St f o o d ) ; Location o fexisting Industries; Export crops (bulky, perishable) New I n d u s t r i a l S c h e m e s Crops f o rL o c a l Consumption ( l o c a t i o n , t y p e and volume inter-regional trade; of production) L o c a t i o n o f new A g r i c u l t u r a l Schemes  NEEDS  PATTERN OF TRADE Inmorted Goods L o c a l foods 1 Present Planned Present Planned Demand f o r I m p o r t s ; Volume o f I m p o r t s ( i . e . , r e d u c t i o n d u e t o I m p o r t Substitution Industries); Demand f o r L o c a l G o o d s ; Distribution Pattern (i.e., w h o l e s a l e and r e t a i l t r a d e )  j  TRAFFIC  ASSIGNMENT  Present  Future  Goods and Passengers ( R a i l , Road, Water, A i r , Pipeline, Ports)  INVENTORY OF E X I S T I N G TRANSPORT F A C I L I T I E S  R a i l , Road, Water, A i r , Pipe Line, Ports;  ':\*:*:vXv$&  •:co•:•:«•:•x«•:««•:•:•:•:•-•>•'-• ,,  Storage f a c i l i t i e s  149  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  A. 1.  TRANSPORTATION  Books a)  General  P a i r , L.M. and W i l l i a m s , W. Economics o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s . Promm, G. ( e d ) . T r a n s p o r t I n v e s t m e n t and Economic D e v e l o p ment. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n : . T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h Programme. 1965* G w i l l i a m , K.M. T r a n s p o r t and P u b l i c P o l i c y . George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1964. Owen, W.  London:  Strategy f o r Mobility. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n : T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h Programme, 1964.  Soberman, R. T r a n s p o r t T e c h n o l o g y f o r D e v e l o p i n g R e g i o n s : A S t u d y o f Road. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n VenezueiaT"^"™" ThFTClTT. P r e s s , 196b7 B u r e a u o f P u b l i c Roads. Highways and Economic and S o c i a l Chan|£e. -Washington, D.C.: u7B^"Department o f Commerce, 1964. W i l s o n , G.W. and o t h e r s . The Impact o f Highway I n v e s t m e n t on Development. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n l " T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h Programme, 1966. b)  East A f r i c a  H a w k i n s , E.K. Road and Road T r a n s p o r t i n a n U n d e r d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r y : A Case S t u d y o f Ugandal ( C o l o n i a l ~ H e s e a r c h S t u d i e s NoT $2T~~Lond'"on: H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1962.  ISO  Hazelwood, A r t h u r . R a i l and Road i n E a s t A f r i c a : Transport C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s . Oxford: B a s i l " B l a c k w e l l , 1964. O'Connor. A.M. ( E . A . I . S  R a i l w a y s and Development i n Uganda. T R T I Nairobi.? O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 *  Van Dongen, I r e n e S . The B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a n . T r a n s p o r t Complexr C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , Department o f Geography ( R e s e a r c h P a p e r No. 3 9 ) December, 1 9 5 4 . 5  c)  Ghana  G o u l d , P.R. The Development o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P a t t e r n i n i n Ghana. E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s : Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y  Press,  2.  I960.  Journals a)  General  Alagoma, D. T r a n s p o r t i n A f r i c a i n R e l a t i o n t o Economic Development: I n s t i t u t e o f T r a n s p o r t J o u r n a l , V o l . 31» No.  2,-1965.  Bonney, R.P.S. Road T r a n s p o r t i n t h e Economic and S o c i a l Development i n N o r t h Borneo.. E k i s t i c s - Feb. 1964. Brown, T.R. and H a r r a l , C.G. E s t i m a t i n g Highway B e n e f i t s i n U n d e r d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s . Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d , No.  115.  ~~~  C a m p b e l l , M. E. and Newcomb, R. The C h a l l e n g e o f Highway T e c h n o l o g y i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s . Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d . No. 115 C a r s t e n s , R.L. and C'Sany, L.H. Economic A n a l y s i s f o r H i g h way. Improvement i n U n d e r d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s . H i g h way R e s e a r c h B o a r d Volume 3 5 , No. 5, 1 9 6 5 . D o g a n i s , R.S. Zambia's O u t l e t t o t h e Sea: A c a s e s t u d y i n C o l o n i a l T r a n s p o r t Development: J o u r n a l o f T r a n s p o r t Economics and P o l i c y . V o l . I , No. I . , J a n . 1967.  151 H a n e r , V.W. Economic E v a l u a t i o n o f I n v e s t m e n t s i n A g r i c u l t u r a l P e n e t r a t i o n Roads i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s . Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d , No. 150. M a r t i n , B.V., and Warden, C.B. Developing Countries. No. I . , 1965-  Transport Planning i n Traffic Quarterly, Vol.  M e y e r , J.R. Transport Technology f o r Developing . A m e r i c a n Economic R e v i e w , L V I , May 1966,  XIX,  Countries. No. 2.  Kaufmann, J . P l a n n i n g f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n v e s t m e n t i n t h e Development o f I r a n . A m e r i c a n Economic R e v i e w; P a p e r s and Proceedings', L I I , May 1962, No. 2. Manoy, J.E. I n v e s t m e n t i n R a i l and Road. T r a n s p o r t J o u r n a l . V o l . 29, 1962.  Institute  of  Mathew, J . B e t z . Highway M a i n t e n a n c e Task - A C o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s . Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d , No. 94. S c o p e l a n d , A. The R o l e o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e Economic I n t e g r a t i o n of Underdeveloped Areas. Land Economics, May, 1966. ~ — ~ *>)  East  Africa  O'Connor, A.M. New R a i l w a y C o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e P a t t e r n o f Economic Development i n E a s t A f r i c a . I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s J o u r n a l , No. 56, June 196$. c)  Tanzania  G i l l m a n , C.A. A Short H i s t o r y of Tanganyika Railways. T a n g a n y i k a N o t e s and R e c o r d s , June 1942. 5«  Reports a)  General  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , P l a n n i n g a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System: I n S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y R e p o r t on UTNT*TJon^ f e r e n c e on A p p l i c a t i o n o f S c i e n c e f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f less-developed areas. (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 3 ) .  152 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , ' ( E G A P E ) , C h o i c e o f T r a n s p o r t Methods a n d I n v e s t m e n t C r i t e r i a : E/CN 11/DPWP 6/L.fH U n i t e d N a t i o n s , T r a n s p o r t P r o b l e m s i n R e l a t i o n t o Economic Development i n West A f r i c a . E/CTT4/63. b)  East A f r i c a  E a s t A f r i c a n R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n 1955-1955 R e p o r t . Cmd 9475 • London: HeTF^Magesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , June 1955* E a s t A f r i c a n R a i l w a y s and H a r b o u r s A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1965^ 19l>5, a n d 1%6" N a i r o b i , Kenya: Government P r i n t e r . U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic C o m m i s s i o n f o r A f r i c a , E a s t A f r i c a n T r a n s p o r t P r o b l e m s i n R e l a t i o n t o Economic D e v e l o p ment: P r o g r e s s R e p o r t . E/CN 14/148. A d d i s Abbaba: F e b . - M a r c h , 1962. ' c)  Tanzania  AID. T a n z a n i a - Z a m b i a Highway S t u d y - R e p o r t s 3/00/02969-71 S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , September 1966.  B. 1.  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING  Books a)  General  B a u e r , P.T. and Yamey, B.S. The Economics o f U n d e r d e v e l o p ment C o u n t r i e s . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1957• H i r s c h m a n , A.O. The S t r a t e g y o f Economic Development. Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965» ' K i n d l e b e r g e r , C.P. Economic Development. M a c g r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1965-  153 Maud, J .  A i d t o D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s . Stamp M e m o r i a l L e c t u r e , A t h l o n e P l a c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1963. Rostov;, W.W. The S t a g e s o f Economic Growth: A Non-Communist M a n i f e s t o . Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. Shone, R. I n v e s t m e n t and Economic Growth. Stamp M e m o r i a l L e c t u r e , A t h l o n e P l a c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1966. T i n b e r g e n , J . Development P l a n n i n g . ( W o r l d U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y ) , M a c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1967* T e c h n o l o g y and Economic Development. V o l . 209, No. 3 , S e p t . 1963.  S c i e n t i f i c American,  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , P l a n n i n g f o r Economic Development. V o l . I I , S t u d i e s i n N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g E x p e r i e n c e . A/5555/Rev. 1/add. 1. New Y o r k : 1965. b)  Africa  E a z e l w o o d , A. ( e d ) A f r i c a n I n t e g r a t i o n and D i s i n t e g r a t i o n . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. R o b i n s o n , E.A.G. ( e d . ) . Economic Development f o r A f r i c a S o u t h o f t h e S a h a r a . London: M a c M i l l a n and Co..,  I9~S3~  c)  Tanzania  B u r k e , F.G. T a n g a n y i k a : P r e p l a n n i n g " . N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g S e r i e s . New Y o r k : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Economic Development o f T a n g a n y i k a . D a r - e s - S a l a a m : Government P r i n t e r , I960 S m i t h , H.E. ( e d . ) R e a d i n g s o n Economic Development a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Tanzania. I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c ATdministration, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , Dar-es-Salaam, T a n z a n i a . London and N a i r o b i : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. The U n i t e d R e p u b l i c o f T a n g a n y i k a and Z a n z i b a r . T a n g a n y i k a F i v e - Y e a r P l a n f o r Economic and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t 1st J u l y 11J6V- 3 0 t h J u n e , 1969. V o l . I and I T : Dar-es-Salaam: The Government P r i n t e r , 1964.  -  154 C.  1.  GENERAL  Books  E s t a l , R.C. and Buchanan, O.R. I n d u s t r i a l A c t i v i t y and and Economic Growth. London: HutclELison '"and~C~o. P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , HJ64. a)  Africa  H a i l e y , W.M.  1956.  An A f r i c a n S u r v e y .  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  H e r b e r t , F.S. C a p i t a l I n v e s t m e n t i n A f r i c a : I t s Course and E f f e c t . L o n d o n : " ~ O x f o r d H T n T v e r s i t y P~res's] T958. M a r c u s , E. a n d M a r c u s , M. I n v e s t m e n t and Deyelojpmen.t Possibilities i nTro^carTfrica. New Y o r k : Bookman A s s o c i a t e s , 1^6"0T~ b)  East A f r i c a  P o r d , V.P.C. Trade on Lake V i c t o r i a : - A : G e o g r a p h i c a l Study. Kampala: iSa's'-t A l ' r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l T ^ e s e a r c h ,  1955.  H o y l e , B.S. The S e a p o r t s o f E a s t A f r i c a : A Geographical S t u d y . N a i r o b i : E a s t " A f r i c a n P u b l i s h i n g House, Hughes, A . J . E a s t A f r i c a : . Books L t d . , 1963-  The S e a r c h f o r U n i t y .  Penguin  L e y s , C. and Robson P. F e d e r a t i o n i n E a s t...Africa O p p o r t u n i t i e s and P r o b l e m s . N a i r o b i : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I^6"5. O'Connor, A.M. An Economic Geography o f E a s t A f r i c a . London: G. B e l l ana~~S'ons, £tdT,"~1966~. R u s s e l , E.U. ( e d . ) . The j ^ a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s o f E a s t A f r i c a . Nairobi: D.A. E a w k i n s ' ^ t d . i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h E a s t A f r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e B u r e a u , J u n e , 1962.  155  c)  Tanzania  A r m i t a g e - S m i t h , K.B.E., C.B. Cmd. 4182. London:  F i n a n c i a l M i s s i o n t o Tanganyika. HTM. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , T9327~^  A r t h u r D. L i t t l e , I n c . T a n g a n y i k a I n d u s t r i a l Development: A P r e l i m i n a r y S t u d y o f Bases f o r t h e E x p a n s i o n o f Industrial Processing A c t i v i t i e s . Cambridge: A r t h u r D. L i t t l e , I n c . "\T^61~. H a w k i n s , H.C.G. 'Wholesale and R e t a i l Trade i n T a n g a n y i k a : A S t u d y o f D i s t r i b u t i o n i n E a s t A f r i c a . The Econom i s t I n t e l l i g e n c e U n i t . New Y o r k : F r e d r i c k A. Praeger, Publishers. M a c d o n a l d , A. T a n z a n i a : A Young N a t i o n i n a H u r r y . New Y o r k : Hawthorn B o o k s , I n c . , 1966. M o f f e t , J . P . Handbook o f T a n g a n y i k a . ( T a n g a n y i k a Government) Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , 1958. S m i t h , H.E. ( e d . ) A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n T a n z a n i a ( I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Dar-es-Salaam), London and N a i r o b i : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. U n i t e d R e p u b l i c o f T a n z a n i a . Investment O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n T a n g a n y i k a . The E c o n o m i s t I n t e l l i g e n c e U n i t . New Y o r k : F r e d r i c k A. P r a e g e r , P u b l i s h e r s , 1965. W i l d e de, J.C. E x p e r i e n c e w i t h A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n Tropical Africa. V o l . I I , The Case S t u d i e s . IBRD. Baltimore: J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1967* 2.  Government P u b l i c a t i o n s  Annual Report of the M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r i e s , M i n e r a l Resources and Power 1964. Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r , 1965:  "  A t l a s e s o f T a n g a n y i k a : 1948. 2d ed.. Dept. o f Lands and S u r v e y s .  Survey D i v i s i o n ,  A t l a s e s of Tanganyika: ""Dept. o f Lands  Survey D i v isxon,  1956. 3d ed. andSurveys.  156  M i n i s t r y o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , Power and Works: A n n u a l R e p o r t 1961 and 1962. Dar-es-Salaam: Government P r i n t e r .  M i n i s t r y o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , L a b o u r and Works: T r a f f i c Census R e c o r d s . Drawing No.'s 5355/R/G/l t o /10 (1965 & 1966) U n i t e d R e p u b l i c o f T a n z a n i a . S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t 1964. President's Office: C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau Dar-es-Salaam: The Government P r i n t e r , 1965. 3.  Graphics  Monkhouse, P . J . and W i l k i n s o n , H.R. Maps and Diagrams. London: Muthen and Co. L t d . , 1§64. "~  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302483/manifest

Comment

Related Items