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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Physical education programmes in the parochial schools of the archdiocese of Vancouver, British Columbia,… Rizak, Eugene Donald 1968

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PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN THE PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS OP THE ARCHDIOCESE OP VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1966-1967 b y : EUGENE (GENE) DONALD RIZAK B. A. U n i v e r s i t y o f Windsor, I960 B. P. E. McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the S c h o o l of PHYSICAL EDUCATION And RECREATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d : THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE, 1968 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an.advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by hlis representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date /$, /US i i ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine the status of the physical education programme, personnel, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies i n the parochial schools of the Archdiocese of Vancouver and to make recommendations f o r a more ef f e c t i v e programme based on c r i t e r i a derived from the B r i t i s h Columbia Administrative B u l l e t i n f o r Elementary Schools, 19^8, and from e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies. An attempt was made to answer the following s i x questions i n order to gather the data needed to solve the problem. 1. How much time i s a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme each week? 2. Professionally speaking, how well prepared are the teachers of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 3 . What a c t i v i t i e s and te s t i n g and measuring techniques are presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? J+. What type of rec r e a t i o n a l programme i s offered? 5. What f a c i l i t i e s do the schools have? What types of equipment and supplies are used i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 6. What are the school p o l i c i e s regarding medical examinations and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n s t r u c t -i o n a l programme? i i i The data were co l l e c t e d by personal v i s i t s by the writer to t h i r t y - e i g h t parochial schools which represented the t o t a l number of schools i n the Archdiocese. None of the schools went higher than grade eight and most f i n i s h e d at grade seven. Interviews were held with t h i r t y - f i v e p r i n c i p a l s and eighteen physical education teachers. For purpose of analysis, schools were c l a s s i f i e d according to enrollment and geographic area and the information was assembled into tables. One school a l l o t t e d 100 minutes or more per week f o r a physical education programme as suggested by the Administrative B u l l e t i n . The majority of teachers of physical education were classroom teachers. None had a degree but the majority had taken an undergrad physical education course. One t h i r d of the outside s p e c i a l i s t s had a physical education degree. A wide range of a c t i v i t i e s was included i n the programmes of the schools and te s t i n g was done i n a few schools. Approximately three-quarters of the schools offered intramural and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programmes. S o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , basketball and track and f i e l d appeared with the greatest frequency i n these programmes. More than one-half of the schools had gymnasiums although less than twenty-five per cent had dressing rooms. Indoor and outdoor f a c i l i t i e s and equipment were inadequate. The majority of schools gave medical examinations once during the p u p i l s ' school years V TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . THE PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . 1 Purpose o f the S t u d y . . . . . . k A n a l y s i s o f the Problem l i D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 5 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the St u d y . 6 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9 I I I . METHODS AND PROCEDURE 18 I n t r o d u c t i o n 18 Sources o f Data 18 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S c h o o l s 18 S c h o o l V i s i t a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s . . . . 22 Q u e s t i o n a i r e f o r R e c o r d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n 25 I V . RESULTS 26 I n t r o d u c t i o n 26 A n a l y s i s o f Responses t o Q u e s t i o n s 27 V. DISCUSSION 52 V I . SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6£ I n t r o d u c t i o n . 6^  Summary of the F i n d i n g s 66 C o n c l u s i o n s 69 v i CHAPTER PAGE Recommendations... 711 Research Projects. 7U BIBLIOGRAPHY. 75 APPENCICES A. Administrative B u l l e t i n For Physical Education For Elementary Schools, 1 9 5 8 . . . 78 B. Letter Of Introduction, #1 83 C. Letter Of Introduction, #2 8ii D. Postcard 85 E. Questionaire during Interview. 86 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Schools According to Enrollment 20 I I . Number and Percentage of Schools According to Type i n Each Geographical Area of the Ci t y and V i c i n i t y 23 I I I . Number and Percentage of Schools with Instru c t i o n a l Programmes According to Enrollment and Geographical Areas 28 IV'. Time Allotment f o r Instructional Programme.... 29 V. Number and Percentage of Classroom Teachers and Outside S p e c i a l i s t s i n Physical Education According to Enrollment 31 VI. Professional Preparation of Teachers and Outside S p e c i a l i s t s i n Physical Education According to Enrollment 32: VII. A c t i v i t i e s i n the Instruc t i o n a l Programme According to Number and Per Cent of the Schools i n Which They Were Presented 3k VIII. Testing and Measuring Techniques According to Number and Per Cent of Schools i n Which They Were Presented. 35 EC. Number and Percentage of Schools According to Enrollment Which Offered a Recreational Programme 36 X. Intramural A c t i v i t i e s According to Number and Per Cent of Schools i n Which They Were Presented 37 XI. Interscholastic A c t i v i t i e s According to Number and Per Cent of Schools i n Which They Were Presented...... 39 v i i i TABLE PAGE XII, Special Events According To Number and Per Cent of Schools in Which They Were Presented . lj.0 XIII. Number and Percentage of F a c i l i t i e s i n Schools According To Enrollment . i\2 XIV. Number and Percentage of F a c i l i t i e s i n Schools According to Geographic Areas •••• 1+3 XV. Equipment i n Schools According To Enrollment of Schools kk XVI. Supplies i n Schools According to Enrollment of Schools IL6 XVII. Medical Examinations, P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Dress of Students and Teachers According To Enrollment £l i x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES PAGE I. Location of Schools With and Without Ins t r u c t i o n a l Programmes 21 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The writer wishes to thank a l l who gave guidance and help with the t h e s i s , e s p e c i a l l y Brother J . C. Bates, Superintendent of Vancouver's Catholic Schools, Dr. Peter M. Mullin s , Dr. Norman S. Watt, Dr. John D. Dennison, Dr. Robert G. Hindmarch, advisors and a l l p r i n c i p a l s and teachers who gave t h e i r time so graciously to provide needed information,• CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM I. INTRODUCTION Mounting evidence i n l i t e r a t u r e indicates the values of physical education programmes i n the development of the physical and motor f i t n e s s of students. Whittle's (1) study of two groups of 8 l tx^elve year old boys, one group p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n good elementary school physical education programmes and the other not, reveals pronounced differences between the groups i n physical and motor f i t n e s s t e s t s . According to Shaffer ( 2 ) , f a i l u r e s on the Kraus-Weber tests could be reduced to a marked degree through condit-ioning exercises. Forty-two per cent of 2 , 2 8 l junior high school boys and g i r l s f a i l e d one or more of the test items i n September; i n November the f a i l u r e s dropped to eight per cent and at the close of the term, the f a i l u r e rate was four per cent. Other studies reveal a r e l a t i o n s h i p between physical f i t n e s s and peer status. Clarke and Jarmen (3) analyzed the academic achievement of boys, ages nine, twelve, and f i f t e e n , who had high and low scores on the Strength Index and the Physical Fitness Index Tests and found that generally boys with high scores on the tests had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher averages on the standard scholastic achievement t e s t s . Clarke and Clarke found a p o s i t i v e 2 r e l a t i o n s h i p between the peer status of boys nine and eleven years of age and t h e i r body size and strength, and according to Jones (3>), boys high in strength tended to be well adjusted s o c i a l l y and psychologically whereas boys low i n strength showed tendencies toward feel i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and other personal maladjustments. These facts exemplify the need of a good physical education programme i n the schools f o r the development of the whole c h i l d . The development of physical education programmes i n Canada as an i n t e g r a l part of education has been con-servative and steady. In B r i t i s h Columbia a survey of the school system i n 192f> indicated the importance of physical education programmes i n the curriculum of the schools. "At p r a c t i c a l l y every s i t t i n g of the Commission representatives of various organizations c a l l e d attention to the importance of systematic i n s t r u c t i o n in physical education as an i n t e g r a l part of the school curriculum" ( 6 ) . "The time devoted to physical education, including team games, should be part of the regular school day" (7)» Two events, World War II and the Kraus-Hirschland study, have had a decided e f f e c t on the development of physical education programmes i n the United States and Canada. Medical examinations at the beginning and during the War revealed that many men and women were u n f i t f o r s e r v i c e . This f a c t resulted i n the pasing of Canada's National Fitness Act, the object of which was to promote 3 the physical f i t n e s s of Canadians through the extension of physical education i n schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The revelation of the Kraus-Weber tests that European youth were more p h y s i c a l l y f i t than t h e i r American counterpart was applicable to Canadians as well and a national e f f o r t again was made by d i g n i t a r i e s and educators to strengthen the f i t n e s s of our youth through physical education programmes i n the schools ( 8 ) . In the United States, the l a t e John F. Kennedy challenged the school administrators and urged them to adopt school programmes "1. to i d e n t i f y the p h y s i c a l l y underdeveloped p u p i l and work with him to improve his physical capacity. 2. to provide a minimum of 15 minutes of vigorous a c t i v i t y everyday f o r a l l students. 3» to use v a l i d f i t n e s s tests to determine pupils physical a b i l i t i e s and evaluate t h i s progress" ( 9 ) . In B r i t i s h Columbia the Chant Report stated: "The Commission i s h e a r t i l y i n accord with the aim of maintaining and improving the physical health and f i t n e s s of the children and youth of the province" ( 1 0 ) . "The Commission recommends that a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the physical education programme be c a r r i e d out i n order to s e l e c t , from the many a c t i v i t e s and desired outcomes i n the course outlines, those that have the most d i r e c t bearing upon recreation and physical development" (11) Today public schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia have c a r e f u l l y planned programmes as directed i n the Ad-minist r a t i v e B u l l e t i n f o r Elementary Schools, 1958. (See Appendix A). Physical education i s a required subject f o r a l l grade l e v e l s with minimum time allotments ranging from 100 minutes to l i | 0 minutes per week f o r elementary grades.. The programmes i n the Catholic schools however are a question mark. I I . PURPOSE OP THE STUDY The purpose of the study i s to determine the status of the physical education programme, personnel, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies i n t h i r t y - e i g h t parochial schools of the Archdiocese of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the school year of 1966-1967*. and to make recommendations f o r a more e f f e c t i v e programme based on c r i t e r i a derived from the Administrative B u l l e t i n f o r Elementary Schools, 1 9 5 8 , and from e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies. I I I . ANALYSIS OP THE PROBLEM To f a c i l i t a t e analysis the following questions were asked i n order to gather the data needed to solve the problem, 1 . How much time i s a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme each week? 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l l y speaking, how well prepared are the teachers of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 3. What a c t i v i t i e s and t e s t i n g and measuring techniques are presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 11. What type of rec r e a t i o n a l programme i s offered? 5. What f a c i l i t i e s do the schools have? What types of equipment and supplies are used i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 6, What are the school p o l i c i e s regarding medical examinations and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme IV. DEFINITION OF TERMS Archdiocese of Vancouver - the d i s t r i c t i n which Most Reverend Martin Michael Johnson, D. D., has authority. This d i s t r i c t includes Vancouver C i t y , North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Burnaby, Richmond, New Westminister, M a i l l a r d v i l l e , Fraser Valley and coastal towns. Equipment - those items that are not a part of the gymnasium or playground but nevertheless are more or l e s s permanent. Once furnished they make no demand upon the budget f o r some d e f i n i t e period. F a c i l i t i e s - gymnasiums, playgrounds, dressing rooms, shower rooms, and playrooms. In s t r u c t i o n a l programme - that part of the physical educa-ion programme that i s scheduled within the regular teaching-day. Medical examination - a physical examination given by a medical doctor or school nurse. Parochial schools - schools supported and controlled by Roman Catholic parishes. A l l are elementary and none goes higher than grade eight and most f i n i s h at grade seven. Personnel - teachers of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme* Physical education programme - a l l planned experiences available to students through physical education. It includes (a) an i n s t r u c t i o n a l and (b) a r e c r e a t i o n a l programme. Recreational programme - generally occurs at times other than the scheduled in-school periods. This includes the intramural and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programmes. Status - the present state or conditions which existed at the time of the study. Supplies - those items that have no degree of permanency, and are constant items on the annual budget. V. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY It i s r e a d i l y admitted that the physical education programmes i n most Roman Catholic schools lag behind those i n the public schools. On t h i s point L i l l i a n Mann (12.) of Nazareth College states: "Physical education, a phase of complete education deserves a d e f i n i t e place i n the curriculum of the elementary school; however, i n many Catholic schools i t i s not an i n t e g r a l part of the educational programme. Usually the only a c t i v i t y that resembles physical education i s the poorly organized and loosely supervised play that takes place." In recent years three studies to determine the status of physical education i n the public elementary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia have been completed. No study has been conducted among the Catholic schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This study thus informs the Roman Catholic people i n the Archdiocese of Vancouver of the type of physical education programme offered i n t h e i r parochial schools. More important, the study serves as a guide f o r the Superintendent of the Catholic School Board, Brother J . C. Bates, to compare with accepted standards set f o r t h by the B r i t i s h Columbian Department of Education, and secondly, as a guide f o r r e v i s i o n and planning of future programmes. 8 REFERENCES 1. Whittle, N. D., "Effects of Elementary School Physical Education upon Aspects of Physical Motor and Personality Development," Research  Quarterly, v o l . 3 2 , no. 3 (May, 1961J, p. 2 4 9 . 2. Shaffer, G., "Editor's M a i l , " Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, v o l . 28, no• 2:: (February, 1957), p. 6.. 3» Clarke, H. H., Jarmen, B. D., "Scholastic Achievement of Boys 9 , 12, 15 Ye ars of Age as Related to Various Strength and Growth Measures," Research  Quarterly, v o l . 32, no. 2 (May, 1961), p. 155. 4 . Clarke, H. H., Clarke, D. H., " S o c i a l Status and Mental Health of Boys as Related to t h e i r Maturity, S t r u c t u r a l and Strength C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " Research Quarterly, v o l . 3 2 . no. 3 (October, 1961). p. 3267 5 . Ibid., p. 3 2 7 . 6. Putnam, J . H., Weir, C. M.', A Survey of the School System of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , C. P. Banfield, P r i n t e r to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1925, P* 4 7 . 7. I b i d. , p. 5 3 6 . 8. Van V l i e t , M. L., Physical Education i n Canada, Scarborough, Prentice-Hall, 1965, pp. 105-106. 9» Ursula, S i s t e r , "A Physical Fitness Program i s Possible i n Our Schools," Catholic School Journal, v o l . 6 3 , no. 5 , (May, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 3 1 . 10. Chant, S. F. N., Report of the Royal Commission, Province of B r i t i s n Columbia, V i c t o r i a , Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, I960, p. 324* 1 1 . Ibid., p. 326. 12. Mann, L., "Why Physical Education i n Elementary Schools," Catholic School Journal, v o l . 62, no. 1 (January, 1962), p. 2 j : —* CHAPTER II REVIEW OP LITERATURE The investigator's probe of research studies dealing with physical education programmes i n elementary schools revealed that no previous study of physical education had been ca r r i e d out i n the parochial schools of the Archdiocese of Vancouver, In the P a c i f i c Northwest, seven studies were encountered of which four investigated the physical education programmes i n elementary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, In the United States, many studies were done i n the various states. One such study was done by Alexander Georgiady and Russell Savage (1), This study surveyed ninety-three elementary schools representing forty-three states. The o v e r - a l l r e s u l t s of the survey indicated a lack of equipment and personnel. A l l the elementary schools offered physical education programmes but only s i x t y - f i v e per cent had a d a i l y programme, S o f t b a l l , games of low organization and v o l l e y b a l l were most popular i n these programmes. Intramural programmes were more widely used than i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programmes. Swings, outdoor basketball courts, v o l l e y b a l l s and nets, f o o t b a l l s and soccer b a l l s were the most common type of equipment. The most extensive study was done by Schneider (2). 10 This report, Physical Education i n Urban Elementary Schools, was based on 532 school systems and was published by the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, o f f i c e of Education. It was l i m i t e d i n that the data did not r e f l e c t practices i n a given school but rather i n school-systems. However, highlights of the report pertinent to t h i s thesis are as follows: 1. Twenty-three per cent of grades one-three and twenty-eight per cent of grades fo u r - s i x had the recommended d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n a l period of physical education of at leas t t h i r t y minutes i n length. 2 . Fifty-seven per cent of the school systems provided intramural programmes i n which the most popular a c t i v i t i e s were basketball, s o f t b a l l , touch f o o t b a l l f o r boys and v o l l e y b a l l f o r g i r l s . 3» Playdays and sports days were sponsored by f i f t y -eight per cent of the school systems. Medical examinations were given i n ninety-seven per cent of the school systems. 5» Twenty-five per cent gave tests for physical f i t n e s s and t h i r t y - s i x per cent f o r development of s k i l l s . 6. Group games were offered most frequently through grades one-six and the most common team games played were s o f t b a l l , soccer, v o l l e y b a l l and touch f o o t b a l l . 7 . Excellent or adequate gyms or playrooms were 11 a v a i l a b l e i n f i f t y - f o u r per cent of 12,217 school b u i l d i n g s . Fourteen per cent had e x c e l l e n t or adequate d r e s s i n g room or shower f a c i l i t i e s . Forty-seven per cent had outdoor b a s k e t b a l l courts and f i f t y - t h r e e per cent had S o f t b a l l f i e l d s . 8. There was a l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y of indoor equipment. Many other s t u d i e s have been completed r e l a t i n g to surveys of p h y s i c a l education i n elementary schools i n the P a c i f i c Northwest ( 3 » U> £)• For expediency, explanations are made only f o r the s t u d i e s completed i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Grant (6) surveyed s i x t e e n of the twenty-two elementary schools i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby. As set by the LaPorte Score Cards, he found: 1. The programme of a c t i v i t y were r a t e d as f a i r and the elementary school r e s u l t s showed a weakness i n programme o f f e r i n g s i n the primary grades w i t h a b e t t e r emphasis given at the intermediate l e v e l . 2. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d a i l y supervised p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was poor. 3. Outdoor areas i n acres were above standard but surfaces were of mixed c l a y and g r a v e l w i t h l i t t l e or no p r o v i s i o n s of grass and b l a c k t o p areas. IL, P r o v i s i o n of one or more r e c r e a t i o n h a l l s or playrooms r a t e d w e l l above the average. 5 . Dressing and shower rooms were almost non-existent. 12 Two of s i x t e e n s c h o o l s (13 p e r c e n t ) had them. 6 . A l l m i n i m a l s u p p l i e s and equipment had been p r o v i d e d on a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s . 7. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f i n s t r u c t o r s were adequate. 8 . I n t e r - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n s were done i n t h r e e o f s i x t e e n s c h o o l s (19 p e r c e n t ) . 9» E x c e l l e n t s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d f o r m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . I n V i c t o r i a , G rant (7 ) s u r v e y e d twenty-one e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s and t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s s u r v e y , as s e t by the L a P o r t e S c o r e C a r d were as f o l l o w s : 1. The programme of a c t i v i t i e s r a t e d e x c e l l e n t i n p r i m a r y and i n t e r m e d i a t e programmes; rhythms were n e g l e c t e d i n some s c h o o l s due t o l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s . 2. Time a l l o t m e n t s were t h e same f o r a l l s c h o o l s as t h e y are p r e s c r i b e d i n t h e Programme o f S t u d i e s , but below average i n r e g a r d s t o the L a P o r t e s c o r i n g . 3« Only f i v e o f t h i r t y - o n e s c h o o l s r e a c h e d the d e s i r e d s t a n d a r d w h i c h i s a minimum of one a c r e w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l a c r e f o r each 300 s t u d e n t s . S i x showed a minimum of t h r e e a c r e s ; s i x showed a minimum of two a c r e s ; and f o u r l e s s t h a n two a c r e s . 1^. S u r f a c i n g o f f i e l d and c o u r t a r e a s was poor. No s c h o o l met the r e v i s e d c o n d i t i o n of twenty p e r c e n t b l a c k t o p . 5 . There were no d r e s s i n g rooms or shower rooms i n 13 any of the elementary schools of the Greater V i c t o r i a area. 6 , The majority of physical education teachers i n Greater V i c t o r i a were not s p e c i a l i s t s and most of service had been of the " i n - s e r v i c e " nature. Most had one or more Summer School courses at some time or other. 7» The standing of schools with respect to play equipment was very high. 8 . Boys had interschool leagues i n soccer, basket-b a l l and s o f t b a l l . 9» The schools had an excellent r a t i n g i n regards to medical examinations and health services. In the c i t y of New Westminister, Pennington (8) surveyed eight public schools—one secondary, one junior high and six elementary schools. As set by the LaPorte Score Cards, he found: 1 . The schools as a whole were rated only s l i g h t l y above average. 2 » Areas and f a c i l i t i e s were substandard at the elementary l e v e l . Only one of the six elementary schools reached the desired standard which s p e c i f i e s a minimum of one acre with an additional acre f o r each 300 students. 3 . Time allotments were very poor in the schools. The standard of required d a i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n class i n s t r u c t i o n was not met. 11* A c t i v i t i e s presented i n the intermediate grades were rhythms, games relays, stunts and a t h l e t i c s . Only a f a i r portion of these a c t i v i t i e s were covered i n the primary grades. 5* There was l i t t l e adequate dressing and shower rooms although a l l schools had gymnasiums. 6. There was an adequate supply of play equipment. 7 » There were no teachers who had majored i n physical education on the elementary school s t a f f . Most teachers professed no t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d other than the minimum received i n required teacher preparation at normal school or u n i v e r s i t y . 8 . No students were permitted to substitute other a c t i v i t i e s f o r physical education class a c t i v i t y except during very temporary d i s a b i l i t y . 9 » Inter-school competition was a f r i e n d l y , l e s s -organized scheduling of games between schools on t h e i r own. 10. A l l schools reported excellent provision of services i n the f i e l d of medical examinations, advisory or emergency service. In the Vancouver School Board Report ( 9 ) , the elementary school physical education and a t h l e t i c s programme, and f a c i l i t i e s f o r a t h l e t i c s i n Vancouver schools were surveyed. Some recommendations included i n the report were: . 1.:Improvement i n t r a i n i n g i n physical education 1$ of new t e a c h e r s . 2 . More c o n s u l t a t i v e p e r s o n n e l be added t o the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n department and the " i n - s e r v i c e " programme be c o n t i n u e d . 3* F a c i l i t i e s be brought up to sta n d a r d . Regarding f a c i l i t i e s f o r a t h l e t i c s , of the s i x t y -three elementary Vancouver s c h o o l s e x c l u d i n g annexes, s i x sch o o l s (9 per cent) d i d not have adequate indoor p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and twelve s c h o o l s (18 per cent) had inadequate p l a y i n g f i e l d s . A, maximum of f i f t y - f i v e s c h o ols (87 per cent) d u r i n g any one season p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the i n t e r s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s programme i n which o n l y the t r a d i t i o n a l s p o r t s - - s o c c e r , v o l l e y b a l l and S o f t b a l l were o f f e r e d . Many games were p l a y e d i n the i n t r a m u r a l programme such a s : s o c c e r , v o l l e y b a l l , s o f t b a l l , badmington, l o o p - o - b a l l rounders, end b a l l , broom b a l l , d o d g e b a l l , net b a l l , Chinese s o c c e r , b a s k e t b a l l , indoor c r i c k e t , deck t e n n i s , s h i n t y , t a b l e t e n n i s , hand s o c c e r , war b a l l * crab s o c c e r , and f l o o r hockey. 16 REFERENCES 1, Georgiady, A., R u s s e l l , S., "Status of P h y s i c a l Education i n Elementary Schools," Research  Quarterly,, v o l . 1 1 , no. 2 (May, 191*0), pp. i|0-1^6. 2» Schneider, E., P h y s i c a l Education In Urban Elementary  Schools, B u l l e t i n no. 1 5 , U n i t e d States Department of H e a l t h , Education and Welfare, U n i t e d States P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, 1959, pp- 1 - 2 9 . 3 » Kennison, J . L., "A Survey of P h y s i c a l Education i n R u r a l P u b l i c Elementary Schools i n the I s l a n d Empire Area of Washington For the School Year 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 5 9 , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1959* i*. Rothnie, J . S., "A Survey and E v a l u a t i o n of the P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum, F a c i l i t i e s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Organization i n Elementary Schools of the Edmonds School D i s t r i c t i n the State of Washington, 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 6 0 , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, I 9 6 0 . 5 , Shearer, F. M., "A Survey of P h y s i c a l Education Programmes and F a c i l i t i e s i n 23k Elementary Schools i n Washington, " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of. Washington, 1933 . 6. Grant, A. N., "The Status of P h y s i c a l Education Programmes i n the P u b l i c Schools of the Municip-a l i t y of Burnaby, School D i s t r i c t No. ILL[, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada i n the Year 1953-195U," Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 195^« 7» Grant, G., "A Survey of the P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum, F a c i l i t i e s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n the Elementary Schools of Greater V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia," Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1953* 8 . Pennington, G., "A Survey of the P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum, F a c i l i t i e s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n the P u b l i c Schools of New Westminister, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, i n the School Year 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 6 0 , " Unpublished Master's Th e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, I 9 6 0 . 17 9* Vancouver School Board, Report to Special Management Committee, Special Committee # 6 — A t h l e t i c s Committee, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, J u l y , 1 9 6 6 , CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURE I. INTRODUCTION The proposal to conduct the survey was submitted to the Superintendent of Schools f o r the Archdiocese of Vancouver f o r his approval. With t h i s permission, the procedures f o r c o l l e c t i n g the data began. These procedures are discussed i n t h i s chapter i n terms of source of data, school v i s i t a t i o n , and questionaire f o r recording information during interviews. I I . SOURCE OP DATA Data were obtained by personal v i s i t s by the writer to t h i r t y - e i g h t parochial schools i n the Archdiocese of Vancouver. Of the t h i r t y - e i g h t schools none went higher than grade eight and most f i n i s h e d at grade seven. This number of schools comprised the t o t a l number of schools i n the Archdiocese and served a t o t a l school population of over 7>800 students. Due to the small number of schools and the necessity of the school board f o r complete information, random s t r a t i f i e d sampling was not done. I I I . CLASSIFICATION OP SCHOOLS C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by Enrollment; The schools were 19 f i r s t c l a s s i f i e d according to enrollments (Table I ) reported i n the Catholic Directory f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon, 1967 (1).- The enrollment i n t e r v a l s were selected on the basis of the following considerations: 1. The probable e f f e c t of the school enrollments upon the quantity and q u a l i t y of physical education programmes offered in the schools. 2. The t o t a l number of pupils represented i n each enrollment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 3. A f e a s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of schools. From Table I , i t may be seen that there i s a f e a s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of schools and the t o t a l number of pupils represented i n each enrollment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was markedly skewed i n the d i r e c t i o n of the Type I schools (0-ll |9)> whereas Type I I (150-249) and Type I I I schools (2£0-up) had an equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n . In t h i s study, the enrollment i n t e r v a l s used f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the schools represented an attempt to compromise between f e a s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of schools and an equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t o t a l school population. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by Location: The schools were further c l a s s i f i e d according to location within the c i t y of Vancouver and v i c i n i t y (Figure I ) . Upon a map of Vancouver and suburbs two l i n e s were drawn through the 20 TABLE I CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT School Enrollment Number and Total Percentage of School Schools Population N % Type I 0-149 10 26 1022 Type II 150-249 16 42 3241 Type III 250-up 12 32 3558 38 100 7821 Source of Data: Catholic Directory f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon, 1967, Seventh Annual E d i t i o n . FIGURE I - 22 c i t y center: one l i n e from the east to west across the c i t y and one l i n e from the north to south across the c i t y . The four geographical areas which resulted from th i s procedure were appropriately l a b e l l e d northwest, northeast, southeast and southwest. Each school was then c l a s s i f i e d according to geographical area i n which i t was located (Table I I ) , From Table II i t may be seen that eighteen schools (l±l per cent) were i n the south-east whereas f i v e (13 per cent) were i n the north-west, IV. SCHOOL VISITATION PROCEDURES In an attempt to insure the co-operation of each school, two l e t t e r s and a stamped self-addressed post-card were sent to each p r i n c i p a l . One l e t t e r was written by the investigator. I t explained the purposes of the study and assured the p r i n c i p a l that the i d e n t i t y of the school would not be disclosed except to the Catholic School Board. A copy of the introductory l e t t e r may be found i n Appendix B. The second l e t t e r was written by the Superintendent of Schools. This l e t t e r introduced the investigator, stated the need of the study and requested the co-operation of the school. A copy of thi s l e t t e r may be found i n Appendix C. The stamped self-addressed postcard enclosed with 23 TABLE II NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OP SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO TYPE IN EACH GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OP THE CITY AND VICINITY Geographical School Area Type I Type II Type III Total N $ N $ N $ N % North East 1 14 4 57 2 28 7 18 North West 3 60 1 20 1 20 5 13 South East 5 28 7 39 6 33 18 47 South West 1 13 4 50 3 38 12 32 10 26 16 42 12 2 38 100 2U the two l e t t e r s provided space f o r supplying information concerning the month, day and hour a v i s i t could be made. If a f t e r two weeks the p r i n c i p a l had f a i l e d to return the postcard, a telephone c a l l was made. For about twenty-f i v e per cent of the schools a telephone c a l l was made. The two p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r f a i l u r e to return the postcards weret 1, The p r i n c i p a l stated there was no physical education programme and f o r t h i s reason had not answered the i n i t i a l l e t t e r . 2 , The p r i n c i p a l gave the postcard to the physical education teacher who m i s l a i d the card. Appointments were made i n the t h i r t y - e i g h t schools over a three month period. A copy of the postcard may be found i n Appendix D. As a reminder of the interview each p r i n c i p a l was c a l l e d by telephone a day or two before the scheduled interview. During the v i s i t the writer conducted personal interviews with the p r i n c i p a l and wherever possible, with the physical education teacher. T h i r t y -f i v e p r i n c i p a l s and eighteen physical education teachers were interviewed. Data r e l a t e d to teacher preparation, time allotment, nature of i n s t r u c t i o n a l and recre a t i o n a l programmes, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies, and p o l i c i e s regarding medical examinations were c o l l e c t e d by 25 means of a questionaire. V . QUESTION A IRE FOR RECORDING INFORMATION The writer devised a questionaire i n which the items included were based on the commonly accepted procedures f o r the organization and administration of physical education programmes set by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. These procedures were found i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Curriculum Syllabus. A copy of these procedures may be found i n Appendix A. Each of the items included i n the questionaire was stated i n a manner which enabled the interviewer to record "yes" or "no" and a check (•) or a number i f a p p l i -cable. To f a c i l i t a t e e f f i c i e n t operation the items were grouped under main headings;— time allotment, personnel, recreational programme, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, supplies and a c t i v i t i e s i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme. To reduce misunderstanding, the writer c a r r i e d out a preliminary interview with the V i c e - p r i n c i p a l of an elementary school. After this interview, the questionaire was revised to correct flaws that were detected. The questionaire was l a t e r approved by a s p e c i a l i s t i n physical education. A copy of the questionaire may be found i n Appendix E. CHAPTER IV RESULTS I. INTRODUCTION The material i n th i s chapter i s based upon the information gained from personal v i s i t s to t h i r t y -eight parochial schools of the Archdiocese of Vancouver. T h i r t y - f i v e p r i n c i p a l s and eighteen physical education teachers supplied information r e l a t i n g to the physical education programme—instructional programme, recreat-i o n a l programme, professional preparation of the teachers, school p o l i c i e s , f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies. Three types of schools were catagorized according to enrollment:--Type I (0-11*9 students); Type II ( l £ 0 -2l|9) J Type III (250-up). Also, the schools were c l a s s i f i e d according to geographical l o c a t i o n . The data were analyzed i n r e l a t i o n to the six basic questions stated i n Chapter I. 1 . How much time i s a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme each week? 2. Professionally speaking, how well prepared are the teachers of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 3. What a c t i v i t i e s and te s t i n g and measuring techniques are presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? I4.. What type of recreational programme i s offered? 27 $, What f a c i l i t i e s do the schools have? What types of equipment and supplies are used i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme ? 6. What are the school p o l i c i e s regarding medical examinations and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme ? Supplementary information i s presented at the conclusion of t h i s chapter. Percentages as read from the tables are expressed i n round figures to the nearest whole number. I I . ANALYSIS OP RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS I. How much time i s a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  programme each week? The number and percentage of schools that had physical education programmes and the number of minutes per week devoted to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme are presented i n Tables III and IV. From Table I I I , i t may be seen that thirty-two of t h i r t y - e i g h t schools ( 8 i | per cent) had an i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme, and (by comparing Tables I and III) of the six schools without a programme, four were Type I schools. A comparison of Table II and Table III reveals that the schools without programmes were i n the geographic areas southwest, southeast and northwest. Table IV indicates that the greatest frequency of 2:8 TABLE III NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OP SCHOOLS WITH INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMMES ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT AND GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS School Type I Type II Type III Total N $ N f N f N % North East North West South East South West 1 11* k 57 1 33 1 33 k 2k 7 1*1+ I* 66 29 33 7 100 3 100 31 16 100 33 6 100 Totals 6 19 16 50 10 31 32 100 29 TABLE IV TIME ALLOTMENT FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMME Enrollment Number of Min-Per Week of 0 30-59 60-79 80-99 100 or Schools more N # N # JU % H % H % N Type I (0-11*9) l* 1*0 1 10 1* 1*0 0 0 1 10 10 Type II (150-21*9) 1 6 7 1*U 6 38 2 13 0 0 16 Type III (250-up) 1 8 1* 33 5 1*2 2 17 0 0 12 Totals 6 16 12 32 15 39 1* 11 1 3 38 30 time a l l o t t e d was 60-79 minutes per week. This occurred i n f i f t e e n schools (39 per cent). One school, a Type I school, a l l o t t e d 100 minutes or more per week. In Type II schools the greatest frequency of time a l l o t t e d was 3 0 -59 minutes per week and i n Type III schools the greatest frequency was 60-79 minutes per week. This occurs i n f o r t y - f o u r and forty-two per cent of the Type I and Type II schools r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l l y speaking, how well prepared are  the teachers of physical education? The number and percentage of classroom teachers and outside s p e c i a l i s t s i n physical education and t h e i r professional preparation according to enrollment are presented i n Tables V and Table VI. Table V shows that there were 112 teachers and outside s p e c i a l i s t s of physical education. Ninety (80 per cent) were classroom teachers who had taken an undergrad-uate course i n physical education, but none had obtained a physical education degree. On the other hand, seven outside s p e c i a l i s t s (32 per cent) of the twenty-two outside s p e c i a l i s t s had a degree i n physical education. Type II schools had the greatest frequency of classroom teachers with an undergraduate course i n physical education. Type III schools had the greatest frequency of classroom teachers without an undergraduate physical TABLE V NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OP CLASS ROOM TEACHERS AND OUTSIDE SPECIALISTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT Classroom Teachers Outside Total i n Physical S p e c i a l i s t s Education i n Physical Education N % N af JO Type I 21 19 3 3 21; Type II 35 31 10 9 45 Type III 3k 30 9 8 43 Totals 90 80 22 20 112 32 TABLE VI PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF TEACHERS AND OUTSIDE SPECIALISTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT Type I Type II Type III Total % (0-11*9) (150-21*9) (250-up) Classroom Teachers with physical education degrees 0 0 0 0 0 Classroom Teachers who have taken undergraduate physical education courses 18 35 21* 77 86 Classroom Teachers who have not taken physical education courses 3 0 10 13 l l * Outside s p e c i a l i s t s with physical education degrees 3 3 1 7 6 Outside s p e c i a l i s t s who have taken physical education courses 0 5 7 12 11 Outside s p e c i a l i s t s who have not taken a physical education course 0 2 1 3 3 33 education course. Table VI also shows that three outside s p e c i a l i s t s and thirteen classroom teachers of physical education (15 per cent) had not taken an undergraduate course i n physical education. 3» What a c t i v i t i e s and t e s t i n g and measuring  techniques are presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? A c t i v i t i e s i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme and te s t i n g and measuring techniques according to number and per cent of schools i n which they were presented are given i n Tables VII and VIII. Relays, group games, and c a l i s t h e n i c s were the a c t i v i t i e s that appeared i n the curriculum with the greatest frequency. (See Table VII). From the same table i t may be seen that the team game which appeared l e a s t frequently was basketball. In Type I schools, the game played with the greatest frequency was v o l l e y b a l l and i n Type II schools, s o f t b a l l . From Table VIII f i v e schools (13 per cent) gave s k i l l t e s t s j six (16 per cent) gave f i t n e s s t e s t s ; and four (11 per cent) gave written and/or o r a l t e s t s . The greatest frequency of te s t i n g was done i n Type II schools. 4. What type of rec r e a t i o n a l programme i s offered? The number and percentage of schools according to the enrollment which offered a recreational programme i s shown i n Table IX. Table X indicates the intramural a c t i v i t i e s according to the number and per cent of schools TABLE VII ACTIVITIES IN THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMME ACCORDING TO NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SCHOOLS IN WHICH THEY WERE PRESENTED C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Schools A c t i v i t y Type I Type II Type III Total Number and Percentage of Schools N ^ N /£ N io N i Basketball 2 20 9 56 10 83 21 55 V o l l e y b a l l 5 50 11* 88 10 83 29 76 Soccer 1 10 11 69 10 83 22 58 S o f t b a l l k 1*0 l i * 88 11 29 76 Relays 6 60 15 91* 11 92 32 81* Relays with b a l l s 6 60 15 91* 11 92 32 81* Group Games 6 60 15 91* 11 92 32 81* Tumbling 5 50 l i * 88 8 67 27 71 C a l i s -thenics 6 60 15 91* 11 92 32 81* Track Events 2 20 i l * 88 8 67 21* 63 F i e l d Events 1 10 10 63 6 50 17 1*5 • 35 TABLE VIII TESTING AND MEASURING TECHNIQUES ACCORDING TO NUMBER AND PER CENT OP SCHOOLS IN WHICH THEY WERE PRESENTED Type I Type II Type III Total N $ N ^ N % N % S k i l l Tests 1 10 3 19 1 8 5 13 Fitness Tests 1 10 5 31 0 6 16 Written or Oral Quizzes 0 3 19 1 8 J+ 11 Centennial Testing 3 30 6 38 6 50 15 39 3& TABLE IX NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT WHICH OFFERED A RECREATIONAL PROGRAMME Intramural Inter- Special Programme scholastic Events Programme N % N $ N < Type I 3 30 k ko 10 100 Type II. 15 9h ik 88 16 100 Type I l l 11 92 10 83- 12 100 29 76 28 Ik 38 100 37 TABLE X INTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES ACCORDING TO NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SCHOOLS IN WHICH THEY WERE PRESENTED Enrollment of Schools A c t i v i t y Type I Type II Type III Total Number and Per Cent of Schools N $ N % N % N i Football 2 13 2 17 k 11 Soccer k 25 5 1*2 9 21+ Basketball 7 kk 6 50 13 31* V o l l e y b a l l 1 10 11 69 8 67 20 53 Track & F i e l d 8 50 5 1*2 13 31* Gymnastics S o f t b a l l 1 10 12 75 8 67 21 55 Badminton 1 10 2 13 3 25 6 16 Ping Pong 1 10 1 8 2 5 Floor Hockey 1 6 1 3 Bowling 1. 6 1 3 Rugby 1 6 1 3 i n which they were presented. Table XI shows i n t e r s c h o l -a s t i c a c t i v i t i e s according to number and per cent of schools i n which they were presented. Table XII indicates s p e c i a l events according to number and per cent of schools i n which they were presented. A comparison of Table II and Table IX shows that i n Type II and Type III schools, approximately ninety per cent offered intramural programmes and approximately eighty per cent of the schools offered i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programmes. It may also be seen that three ( 3 0 per cent) of the Type I schools offered intramural programmes and four (lj.0 per cent) of the Type I schools offered i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programmes respectively. From Table X, i t may be seen that s o f t b a l l was the a c t i v i t y that appeared i n the intramural programmes most often. V o l l e y b a l l , basketball and track and f i e l d appeared with the next greatest frequency. In Type II schools, the a c t i v i t y played with the greatest frequency was s o f t -b a l l ; i n Type III schools, v o l l e y b a l l and s o f t b a l l . V o l l e y b a l l and track and f i e l d were a c t i v i t i e s that appeared i n the i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme with the greatest frequency. (See Table XI). In Type II schools, i t was v o l l e y b a l l ; i n Type III schools, basketball; i n Type I schools, v o l l e y b a l l , track and f i e l d and badminton. Table XII shows that concerts were spe c i a l events which 39 TABLE XI INTERSCHOLASTIC ACTIVITIES ACCORDING TO x NUMBER AND PER CENT OP SCHOOLS IN WHICH THEY WERE PRESENTED Enrollment of Schools Type I Type II Type III Total A c t i v i t y Number and Per Cent of Schools N % N % N i N < F o o t b a l l Soccer 1 10 3 19 2 17 6 16 Basketball 1 10 8 50 8 67 17 US V o l l e y b a l l 3 30 11 69 6 50 20 53 Track & F i e l d 3 30 10 63 7 58 20 53 Gymnastics S o f t b a l l 2 20 9 56 7 58 18 U7 Badminton 3 30 3 19 h 33 10 26 I© TABLE X I I SPECIAL EVENTS ACCORDING TO NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SCHOOLS IN WHICH THEY WERE PRESENTED E n r o l l m e n t of S c h o o l s Type I Type I I Type I I I T o t a l A c t i v i t y Number and Per Cent of S c h o o l s N i N % N i N Swims 6 60 6 38 5 1*2 17 U5 H i k e s 1+ l*o 6 38 5 k2 15 39 S k a t i n g P a r t i e s 2 20 7 1*1* .7 58 16 1*2 C o n c e r t s 9 90 13 81 12 100 3k 89 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n D e m o n s t r a t i o n 2 20 6 38 3 25 11 29 P l a y Days 2 20 1 6 3 8 S c h o o l T r a c k & F i e l d Meets 5 50 13 81 10 83 28 71* S k i Meets H o l i d a y P a r t i e s 5 50 l* 25 6 50 15 39 S p o r t s Days 5 50 9 56 5 1+2 19 50 hi appeared most often. Track and f i e l d meets and sports days appeared with the next greatest frequency. In Type I schools nine (90 per cent) presented concerts and six (60 per cent) presented sxvimming programmes. In Type II and Type III schools, over eighty per cent of the schools presented concerts and school track and f i e l d meets. 5« What f a c i l i t i e s do the schools have? What type  of equipment and supplies are used i n the physical education  classes? F a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies in the schools c l a s s i f i e d according to enrollment are presented i n Tables XIII, XV, XVI, and f a c i l i t i e s i n the schools c l a s s i f i e d according to geographical areas are presented i n Table XIV. From Table XIII i t may be seen that twenty-two (58 per cent) of the schools had gymnasiums, while nine (24 per cent) had dressing rooms. Thirty-two (84 per cent) of the t h i r t y - e i g h t schools had playgrounds of two or less acres and nineteen (50 per cent) were hard top. The greatest percentage of play rooms and the smallest percentage with gymnasiums appeared i n Type II schools. The greatest percentage of schools with gymnasiums and dressing rooms appeared in Type III schools (92. per cent and 67 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The greatest number of schools with playgrounds with two or more acres were Type II schools. 1 2 TABLE XIII NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OP FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT Enrollment of Schools F a c i l i t i e s Type I Type II Type III Total Number and Percentage of Schools N % N N N Gymnasium 1 10 10 63 11 92 22: 58 Dressing Room 0 0 1 6 8 67 9 21* Shower Room 0 0 5 31 5 1*2 10 26 Play Room 8 80 6 38 6 50 20 53 Play Ground 10 100 16 100 12 100 38 100 2 or less acres 9 90 12 75 11 92 32 81* greater than 2 1 10 k 25 1 8 6 16 grass 0 0 3 19 2 17 5 13 hard top 6 60 8 50 5 1*2 19 50 both i * 1*0 5 31 5 1*2 11* 37 1*3 TABLE XIV NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OP F A C I L I T I E S IN SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHIC AREAS G e o g r a p h i c a l Areas F a c i l i t i e s N o r t h N o r t h S o u t h South T o t a l •East West E a s t We S t N $ N % N N *. N i Gymnasium 3 k3 2 ko 13 72 k 50 22: 58 D r e s s i n g Room 2 29 1 20 5 28 1 13 9 Shower Room 2 29 1 20 6 33 1 13 10 26 P l a y Room k Si 3 60 l l 61 2 25 20 53 P l a y Ground 7 100 5 100 18 100 8 100 38 100 2 o r l e s s a c r e s 6 86 5 100 Ik 77 7 88 32 8k 2 o r more a c r e s 1 11+• k 22 1 13 6 16 g r a s s 1 Ik l 20 3 17 5 13 h a r d k 57 k 80 8 72 3 38 19 50 b o t h 2 29 7 39 5 63 37 37 TABLE XV EQUIPMENT IN SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT OF SCHOOLS Equipment i n Type I Type II Type III Total Gymnasium or School Number and Percentage of Schools N % N % N % N Basketball Baskets 2 20 10 63 10 83 22 58 Mats 3 30 12 75 10 83 25 66 Ropes 5 31 2 17 7 18 Piano 10 100 13 81 12 100 35 92 Record player and records 10 100 13 81 12 100 35 92 V o l l e y b a l l net 8 80 l l 69 12 100 31 82 V o l l e y b a l l posts 7 70 l l 69 12: 100 30 79 Benches h ko 7 kk 9 75 20 53 Trampoline P a r a l l e l bars l 6 1 3 Trampollette Spring Board 2 x3 2 1? h 11 Vaulting Horse i 10 3 19 6 50 10 26 1*5 Table XV continued Playground Type > I Type II Type III Total Equipment % % % t N N N N Swings 2 20 k 25 k 33 10 26 Jungle Jim 2 20 3 19 2 17 7 18 Sand Box 2 20 3 19 2 17 7 18 Horizontal Bar Jumping P i t 2 20 7 kk 3 25 12 32 Goal Posts k 25 1 8 5 13 Back Stop 2 20 9 56 8 67 19 50 Jumping Standard 3 30 6 38 6 50 15 39 Outdoor Baskets 5 50 8 50 8 67 21 55 Tether B a l l 1 6 3 25 k l l V o l l e y b a l l l 10 2 13 1 8 k l l TABLE XVI SUPPLIES IN SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT OF SCHOOLS E n r o l l m e n t of S c h o o l s S u p p l i e s Type I Type I I Type I I I T o t a l N i N % N * N 1° Rubber B a l l s h 1+0 5 31 3 25 12 32 (30 o r More) 1 8 1 3 Bean Bags 7 70 Ik 88 9 75 30 79 (15 or more) k 40 11 69 8 67 23 61 Rubber Rhythm B a l l s 7 70 15 94 11 92 33 87 (10 + ) 2 20 13 81 8 67 23 61 S o c c e r B a l l s 9 90 16 100 12 100 37 97 ( 4 + ) 3 30 5 31 6 50 1*1 37 V o l l e y b a l l s 9 90 16 100 12 100 37 97 (4 +) 1 10 h 25 5 U2 10 26 B a s k e t b a l l s 9 90 13 81 12 100 34 89 (2 +) 2 20 12 75 12 100 26 68 S o f t b a l l s 9 90 16 100 12 100 37 97 (10 +) 3 30 9 56 5 U2 17 U5 S o f t b a l l B a t s 9 90 16 100 12 100 37 97 (10 +) k 40 9 56 7 58 20 53 Table XVI continued Supplies Type I Type II Type III T o t a l N i N % N % N % Floor Hockey Sticks 1 6 3 25 1* 11 (30 +} Rubber Quoits 1 10 1 6 1 8 3 8 (1* +) 1 8 1 3 Cross Bar f o r Jumping 2 20 7 1*1* 8 67 17 1*5 ( i * + ) Skipping Ropes 6 60 11 69 11 9 2 28 71* (15 +) 2 20 11 69 7 58 20 53 Coloured Sashes 3 30 5 31 7 58 15 39 (30 +) 1 6 1 3 Markers 1 8 1 3 (1* + ) 1 8 1 3 Whistles 10 100 15 91* 11 9 2 36 95 (2 +) 5 50 13 81 11 9 2 26 76 F i r s t A i d K i t 9 90 15 91* 10 83 31* 89 Weighted Ropes f o r Jumping (2 +)-Batons 6 60 10 63 7 50 23 6 1 ( i * +) 6 60 10 63 6 50 22 59 Table XVI continued Supplies Type i I Type II Type III T o t a l H % N % N % N Lacers and Tighteners B a l l I n f l a t o r s 1* 1*0 10 63 9 75 23 61 Repair K i t 1 6 2 3 8 Shovel and Rake 5 50 10 63 9 75 63 Footballs 7 70 13 81 11 92 31 82 Table Tennis 1 . 8 1 3 Tether B a l l 2 20 1 8 3 8 Badminton 3 30 1 6 3 25 7 18 Table XIV shows that the greatest number of gymnasiums, shower rooms, playgrounds greater than two acres and playrooms were located i n the southeast geographical area. Equipment which appeared with the greatest frequency i n the schools were pianos, phonographs and records, and v o l l e y b a l l nets and posts. In the playground outdoor baskets appeared with the greatest frequency. Nineteen playgrounds (£0 per cent) had backstops; f i f t e e n (37 per cent) had jumping standards; and f i v e (13 per cent) had goal posts. (See Table XV). Also from Table XV, i t may be seen that Type III schools had the greatest percentage of outdoor baskets, jumping standards, and backstops. Type II schools had the greatest percentage of jumping p i t s and goal posts and Type I schools had the greatest percentage of jungle jims and sand boxes. Soccer b a l l s , v o l l e y b a l l s , s o f t b a l l s and s o f t b a l l bats were the supplies that appeared with the greatest frequency. (See Table XVI). A l l Type II and Type III schools had one or more of the above mentioned supplies although only fourteen (37 per cent) had four or more soccer b a l l s , ten (26 per cent) had four or more v o l l e y b a l l s , seventeen (lj.5 per cent) had ten or more s o f t b a l l s , and twenty (53 per cent) had ten or more bats. Type II schools 5o schools had the greatest percentage of bean bags, rubber rhythm b a l l s and batons, while Type III schools had the greatest percentage of f o o t b a l l s , f l o o r hockey s t i c k s , coloured sashes, and skipping ropes. 6. What are the school p o l i c i e s regarding medical  examinations and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  programme? Medical examination, compulsory p u p i l p a r t i c i -pation i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme, and appropriate dress of pupils and teachers are presented i n Table XVII. A l l schools gave medical examinations and most schools (63 per cent) gave medical examinations to each student once during the pupil's school years. Seven schools (18 per cent) gave medical examinations annually. Appropriate dress f o r pupils was required i n t h i r t y -one schools (82 per cent). Additional Information Prom Table VIII, i t may be seen that Centennial t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out i n f i f t e e n schools ( 3 9 per cent). 51 TABLE XVII MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS, PARTICIPATION, AND DRESS OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT Enrollment of Schools Medical Type I . Type II Type III Total Examination N % N % N $ N % Annually 3 30 1 6 6 25 7 18 Once during school year k 1*0 13 81 7 58 21+ 63 Twice during school year 3 30 2 13 2 17 7 18 Other Total 10 16 12 38 100 Compulsory Pupil P a r t i c i p a t i o n 6 6 0 15 91* 11 9 2 32 81* Appropriate dress of Pupils 6 6 0 15 9k 10 83 31 82 Appropriate dress of Teachers 2 20 15 9k 10 83 27 71 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION In view of the findings, the following general-iz a t i o n s would appear to be tenable. The questions stated i n Chapter I are asked to f a c i l i t a t e the discussion. 1 . How much time i s a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme each week? "On the primary l e v e l the classroom teacher and physical education s p e c i a l i s t should t r y to provide a minimum of 30 minutes of supervised play i n which the youngsters engage i n a c t i v i t i e s i n the gymnasium, on the playground or i n the swimming pool. In the i n t e r -mediate grades the time a l l o c a t i o n should be increased to f o r t y or f o r t y - f i v e minutes d a i l y f o r the i n s t r u c t -i o n a l phases of the programme and twenty to t h i r t y minutes d a i l y f o r supervised play" ( 1 ) . S i m i l a r l y the Presidents Council on Physical Fitness advocates at l e a s t f i f t e e n minutes of vigourous a c t i v i t y as part of a d a i l y physical education programme (2). In the parochial schools of Vancouver, the standard of required d a i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n class i n s t r u c t i o n v/as not met nor was the tentative scheduled B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum guide of ll | 0 minutes f o r grades one and two and 100 minutes f o r the intermediate grades. Moreover, time f o r physical education was not at a l l uniform throughout the schools. One school of t h i r t y - e i g h t met the tentative schedule of the curriculum guide; s i x schools were without a programme; and of the thirty-two schools who offered an i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme, four did not include a l l the S3 grades. Compared w i t h the studi e s of Pennington ( 3 ) , Grant and Grant (S>), w n o a l s o d e a l t w i t h the p h y s i c a l education programmes i n the elementary schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the p a r o c h i a l schools f e l l f a r below t h e i r standard, which was th a t set by the B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m guide. In summation, the p a r o c h i a l school programme of p h y s i c a l education leaves much to be d e s i r e d i n regards to time a l l o t m e n t . To t h i s e f f e c t , Voltmer (6) s t a t e s , "The matter of time allotment i s of great importance because no programme of a c t i v i t i e s can operate success-f u l l y unless a proper amount of time i s a l l o t t e d to i t . " 2„ P r o f e s s i o n a l l y speaking, how w e l l prepared are  the teachers of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? One of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s i n elementary school p h y s i c a l education i s whether the classroom teacher or the s p e c i a l i s t should teach p h y s i c a l education. In the p a r o c h i a l schools of the Archdiocese of Vancouver, twenty per cent of the teachers of p h y s i c a l education were out-side s p e c i a l i s t s . This f i g u r e i s double the number i n d i c a t e d by K i r c h n e r ( 7 ) i n h i s book " P h y s i c a l Education For Elementary School C h i l d r e n " . He s t a t e s , "the employment of a f u l l time p h y s i c a l education teacher i n the elementary school i s c e r t a i n l y the exception to the r u l e . Approximately ten per cent of the elementary schools i n the Uni t e d States are c u r r e n t l y u t i l i z i n g t h i s approach." Of the classroom teachers who teach p h y s i c a l education, none had a degree but e i g h t y - s i x per cent had taken an undergraduate physical education course. This corresponds to the writings of physical educators. Bucher (8) states, "Most classroom teachers have i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g i n p h ysical education. Many have no formal course work whatsoever. Some have had a three hour cred i t course which cover a c t i v i t i e s , the philosophy and other aspects of physical education." Similary, according to Voltmer and Esslinger (9) "Classroom teachers are r a r e l y capable of handling elementary school physical education classes i n an acceptable manner. They have a very s u p e r f i c i a l professional preparation f o r such an assignment i f they have any at a l l . " Compared to the professional preparation of teachers i n New Westminister, Pennington (10) found that no teachers of physical education had majored i n physical education and most professed no t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d other than the minimum received i n required teacher preparation at normal school or u n i v e r s i t y . On the other hand, Grant (11) found that the q u a l i f i c a t i o n of instructors i n Burnaby scored well on the LaPorte Score Cards, and i n the Report to the Special Management Committe i n Vancouver (12), although no mention was made of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of physical education teachers, a recommendation was made that there be an improvement i n t r a i n i n g i n physical education of new teachers. In summation, the professional preparation and role of the teachers of physical education i n the parochial 55 schools should be reviewed by the Central Catholic School Board. "No school can be greater than i t s s t a f f , nor a programme advance beyond the v i s i o n of those who administer i t " (13). 3. What a c t i v i t i e s and t e s t i n g and measuring techniques are presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? "The main task within the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme i s to choose the correct a c t i v i t i e s and methods that w i l l most e f f e c t i v e l y r e a l i z e the objectives of p h y s i c a l education To provide a basic framework f o r each teacher to develop a physical education programme, the a c t i v i t i e s have been placed into three broad catagories, namely games, dance and s e l f - t e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s " . (ll|) In the parochial schools of Vancouver, games of low organization, v o l l e y b a l l and s o f t b a l l , and s e l f t e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s such as calesthenics were most popular. Only one school of t h i r t y - e i g h t offered dance. The findings of t h i s study are s i m i l a r to those of Georgiady and Savage's (15) study of ninety-three elementary schools representing forty-three states. It was also found that s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l and games of low organization were most popular. It appears that these a c t i v i t i e s mentioned above are also the most u s e f u l . According to Voltmer and Esslinger (16) "The physical education course should include a c t i v i t i e s that are useful during the time that part-icipants are i n school as well as a f t e r t h e i r school days are over. It i s e n t i r e l y possible that a number of a c t i v i t i e s can serve both purposes w e l l . There are some, however, that w i l l serve better during school days, such as f o o t b a l l and basketball, and others that customarily, although not of necessity serve more generally at a l a t e r time. Handball and v o l l e y b a l l are games of th i s type. Some departments overemphasize the games most i n t e r e s t i n g and useful during school days, others "go to seed" by sponsoring predominantly those a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l serve better i n l i f e . Both must be included in a balanced programme." Regarding te s t i n g and measuring techniques, very l i t t l e was done i n the parochial schools with no more than s i x of t h i r t y - e i g h t schools giving either s k i l l , p h y s i c a l or o r a l t e s t s . Additional information revealed however, that almost f o r t y per cent of the schools c a r r i e d out Centennial t e s t i n g . It appears that the schools do not regard evaluation of students as an a i d i n improving the programme or i n contributing to each child's growth and development. Much can be s a i d f o r evaluation. According to Bucher ( 1 7 ) * the s p e c i f i c reasons f o r establishing a proper evaluation procedure includes the following: 1. i t gives evidence as to whether physical education objectives are being met. 2 . i t helps parents, teachers, and pupils to understand the worth of experiences provided i n physical education programmes. 3 . i t provides a governor or check to dire c t and modify the experiences given i n the programmes to meet the needs of the pu p i l s . This might be useful i n both organization and i n s t r u c t i o n . i | , i t helps i n the formulation of education, p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s f o r the school to apply to the programmes. 5?» i t provides basic information regarding i n d i v i d u a l pupils f o r guidance purposes. 6. i t may act as a means of motivation f o r students to evaluate his i n d i v i d u a l programmes rather than compare himself with others. 7. i t should act as a means of motivation for teachers to f i n d ways to a s s i s t children to meet desirable goals and needs. 57 8. i t may j u s t i f y needs f o r equipment, f a c i l i t i e s , materials and expenditure of monies f o r personnel and leadership i n programmes, 9 . i t may suggest preventive measures that should be taken i n the interest of the p u p i l s . 10. i t should be a means of improving the t o t a l physical education programme so that i t contributes to greater c h i l d growth and development. 11. evaluation can also be used as an a i d i n grouping pupils, predicting future performance, and determining where emphasis should be placed. 4 . What type of rec r e a t i o n a l programme i s offered? The r e c r e a t i o n a l programme, as stated in Chapter I, generally occurs at times other than the scheduled i n -school periods and includes the intramural and i n t e r -s c h o l a s t i c programmes and sp e c i a l events. In the parochial schools of Vancouver, approximately seventy-five per cent of the schools offered intramural and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programmes and a l l schools offered some type of s p e c i a l event. The intramural and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme encompassed mainly the intermediate grades whereas the s p e c i a l events were c a r r i e d out by a l l grades. The percentage of parochial schools (75 per cent appro-ximately) engaged in intramural programrr.es i s high. "In a recent survey of over 12,000 urban elementary schools, 57 per cent were b u s i l y engaged i n intramural programmes as part of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s " ( 1 8 ) . The sports played i n the intramural programmes, that i s , — t h e a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on within the walls of the school—were s i m i l a r to the above study. The most popular a c t i v i t i e s in Schneider's (19) study were basketball, 58 S o f t b a l l and touch f o o t b a l l f o r boys and v o l l e y b a l l f o r g i r l s . In the Vancouver parochial schools, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l and basketball appeared with the greatest frequency. In comparing public and parochial schools, there was a greater variety of games played i n the public school (20) In regards to the i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme--comp-e t i t i o n between two or more schools—seventy-five per cent of the parochial schools p a r t i c i p a t e d . This high percent-age i s due to the Catholic Youth Organization (C.Y.O.) who organized the schools f o r competition. Discussion with a few p r i n c i p a l s revealed that the competition was highly organized, although not highly pressured competition. Stress on winning was not great and competition was imitated to bring about school s p i r i t and present s o c i a l behaviour patterns. In comparison with other B r i t i s h Columbian Public Schools Burnaby had less than twenty per cent of the schools competing among themselves ( 2 1 ) ; i n V i c t o r i a , boys had interschool leagues i n soccer, basketball and s o f t b a l l ( 2 2 ) ; i n New West-minister, inter-school competition was a f r i e n d l y less organized scheduling of games between schools on t h e i r own (23 and i n Vancouver v/hich was more highly organized than the parochial schools, the t r a d i t i o n a l sports-soccer, v o l l e y b a l l and s o f t b a l l were offered ( 2 i | ) . In many instances, i t was 59 r e p o r t e d by the p r i n c i p a l s t h a t games took place between the p a r o c h i a l and p u b l i c s c h o o l s . 5» What f a c i l i t i e s do the schools have? What types  of equipment and s u p p l i e s are used i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  programme ?. "Another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the scope and success of the p h y s i c a l education programme i s the adequacy of indoor and outdoor f a c i l i t i e s . Without minimum p l a y i n g space, teaching procedures are i n e f f e c t i v e , a c t i v i t y o f f e r i n g s are l i m i t e d and optimum growth and development of c h i l d r e n are u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d " ( 2 5 ) » The f a c i l i t i e s i n most cases are below the standard set by the B r i t i s h Columbian c u r r i c u l u m guide. (See Appen-d i x A ) . Only f i f t y - e i g h t per cent of the schools had gymnasiums, l e s s than twenty-five per cent had changing rooms, and most schools (80- per cent) had playgrounds of two or l e s s acres (2 acres i s the minimum standard f o r a one-room s c h o o l ) . In comparison w i t h the Vancouver p u b l i c schools (26), over n i n e t y per cent had adequate indoor f a c i l i t i e s and more than e i g h t y per cent had adequate p l a y i n g f i e l d s . In Burnaby, outdoor and indoor f a c i l i t i e s were above the standard (27)5 i n New Westminister and V i c t o r i a , however, few schools reached the d e s i r e d standard i n outdoor f a c i l i t i e s but a l l schools i n those c i t i e s had gymnasiums ( 2 8 , 2 9 ) . One i n t e r s t i n g f a c t i s that the major-i t y of p u b l i c and p a r o c h i a l schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia l a c k e d adequate d r e s s i n g rooms or shower rooms ( 3 0 , 3 1 , 3 2 ) . No doubt the reason f o r poorer f a c i l i t i e s i n the parochial schools i s lack of money. The parochial schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia are not government supported as are the public schools. Financing of the schools i s done through t u i t i o n fees (which might range from f i v e d o l l a r s to twenty-five dollars a month per student) and through i n d i v i d u a l parishes. The Central Catholic School Board created i n January of 1967 a school levy of ten d o l l a r s a year from each Catholic wage earner, yet none of t h i s money goes towards improving the physical education f a c i l i t i e s of the schools but to the support and maintenance of the School Board. It appears that the only solution to obtaining money necessary; f o r p h ysical education f a c i l i t i e s would have to come from a source other than through the aforementioned sources. It i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that should money become available many schools would not be able to acquire the necessary acrage (1) to b u i l d new gymnasiums of (2) to use as play areas since they are i n poorly located and highly populated areas where vacant land i s minimal. In many instances where schools have inadequate outdoor play areas, fortunately a public park i s nearby and according to p r i n c i p a l s and physical education teachers, they are used by the schools with permission of the Vancouver Parks Board. No school had a swimming pool and the majority did not use f a c i l i t i e s close at hand for any type of swimming programme. 61 In one school without a gymnasium a community centre provided the necessary physical education programme f o r a small nominal fee. In regards to play equipment and supplies, the s i t u a t i o n was the same as the f a c i l i t i e s . In summation, the f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies i n the parochial schools f e l l f a r below that of the public schools i n t h e i r v i c i n i t i e s , due to lack of finances. Most schools, i t appears, were doing as well as they could with what they had. Only a few p r i n c i p a l s expressed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the physical education programmes. Many of the schools were blessed with s t a f f members whose enthusiasm and i n t e r e s t overcame the lack of f a c i l i t i e s . For example one school with an enrollment of one hundred and ten with a s t a f f of three American S i s t e r s , with no gymnasium, presented a physical education programme i n t h e i r classrooms with music, tumbling and games of low organization. 6. What are the school p o l i c i e s regarding medical  examinations and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  programme ? According to Pennington ( 3 D , Grant ( 3 2 ) , and Grant (33)# the public schools of New Westminister, V i c t o r i a and Burnaby respectively scored very high with regards to medical examinations and health services. Likewise, through 62 conversation with the p r i n c i p a l s and physical educators of the parochial schools, a l l schools gave medical examinations at some time during the pupil's school years and a nurse was on hand two or three times a week administ-ering health tests and other forms of measurement, screening f o r hearing and v i s i o n , helping to control communicable diseases as well as keeping f u l l health records. In those schools which had programmes of physical education the medical examination by the school health service determined the quantity of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme but not the q u a l i t y . If one had a note from the nurse or doctor one could be excused from the programme. No adapted programme was given i n any of the schools. The majority of the schools required the pupils to change and t h i s was done i n the boys or g i r l s washroom since three-quarters of the schools lacked dressing rooms. The dress that was required consisted of T - s h i r t , shorts, and running shoes. There was uniform dress i n a few schools that were taught by the outside s p e c i a l i s t s . The high percentage of teachers changing for classes i s misleading because many of the teachers were Sisters who would change into t h e i r running shoes but not out of t h e i r habits. 63 REFERENCES 1, Bucher, C. A., Reade, E. M., P h y s i c a l Education and Health i n the Elementary School, New York, MacMillan Co., 1961*, p. 12. 2 . I b i d . , p. U7. 3« Pennington, G., "A Survey of the P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum, F a c i l i t i e s , and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n the P u b l i c Schools of New Westminister, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada i n the School Year 1959-1960," Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, I960. i | . Grant, A. M., "The Status of P h y s i c a l Education Programmes i n the P u b l i c Schools of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby, School D i s t r i c t No. lili, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada i n the Year 1953-1951*," Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 195U» 5. Grant, G., "A Survey of the P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum, F a c i l i t i e s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Organ-i z a t i o n i n the Elementary Schools of Greater V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia," Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1953. 6 . Voltmer, E. F., E s s l i n g e r , A. A., The Organization and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l Education, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 195u, p J 5 . 7. K i r c h n e r , G., P h y s i c a l Education For Elementary School C h i l d r e n , Dubuque, Iowa, W i l l i a m C. Brown Co., 1966, p. 25 . 8. Bucher, op. c i t . , p. l i * . 9 . Voltmer, E s s l i n g e r , op. c i t . , p. 1*5. 10. Pennington, l o c . c i t . 11. Grant, A. M., l o c . c i t . 12. Vancouver School Board, Report To The S p e c i a l Management Committee, S p e c i a l Committee #6-— A t h l e t i c s Committee, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, J u l y , 1966. 13. Voltmer, E s s l i n g e r , op. c i t . , p. 156. 111. Kirchner, op. c i t . , p. 59. 15. Georgiady, A., Savage, R., "Status of Physical Education i n Elementary Schools", Research  Quarterly, v o l . 11 (May, 191+0), pp. 40-^6. 16. Voltmer, Esslinger, op. c i t . , p. 58. 17. Bucher, op. c i t . , p. 20. 18. I b i d . , p. 67. 19. Schneider, E., "Physical Education i n Urban Elementary Schools", B u l l e t i n no. 15, Unite States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, 1959. 20. Vancouver School Board, l o c . c i t . 21. Grant, A. M., l o c . c i t . 22. Grant, G., l o c . c i t . 23. Pennington, l o c . c i t . 2l+. Vancouver School Board, l o c . c i t . 25» Kirchner, op. c i t . , p. 29. 26. Vancouver School Board, l o c . c i t . 27. Grant, A. M., l o c . c i t . 28. Pennington, l o c . c i t . 29. Grant, G., l o c . c i t . 30. Grant, A.M., l o c . c i t . 31. Pennington, l o c . c i t . 32. Grant, G., l o c . c i t . 33. Pennington, l o c . c i t . 3I4.. Grant, G., l o c . c i t . 35. Grant, A. M., l o c . c i t . CHAPTER VI SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS I. INTRODUCTION The purpose of the study was to determine the status of the physical education programme, personnel, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies i n the parochial schools of the Archdiocese of Vancouver and to make recommendations f o r a more e f f e c t i v e programme based on c r i t e r i a derived from the B r i t i s h Columbia Administrative B u l l e t i n f o r Elementary Schools, 1 9 5 8 , and from e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies. An attempt was made to answer the following six questions: 1. How much time i s a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme each week? 2 . Professionally speaking, how well prepared are the teachers of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 3. What a c t i v i t i e s and t e s t i n g and measuring techniques are presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 4. What type of rec r e a t i o n a l programme i s offered? 5. What f a c i l i t i e s do the schools have? What types of equipment and supplies are used i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 6. What are the school p o l i c i e s regarding medical examinations and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? 66 A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d c o n c e r n i n g C e n t e n n i a l t e s t i n g . The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s by the w r i t e r t o t h i r t y - e i g h t p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d the t o t a l number o f s c h o o l s i n t h e A r c h d i o c e s e . I n t e r v i e w s were h e l d w i t h t h i r t y - f i v e p r i n c i p a l s and e i g h t e e n p h y s i c a l o e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . F o r purpose o f a n a l y s i s the s c h o o l s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o e n r o l l m e n t and g e o g r a p h i c a r e a and the i n f o r m a t i o n was assembled i n t o t a b l e s . I I . SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 1. How much time i s a l l o t t e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  programme each week? Over e i g h t y p e r cent o f the s c h o o l s a l l o t t e d one or two p e r i o d s a week t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T w o - f i f t h s of the Type I s c h o o l s gave no time t o an i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme and o n l y one s c h o o l a l l o t t e d ICO minutes o r more. 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l l y s p e a k i n g , how w e l l p r e p a r e d are  the t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? E i g h t p e r cent of the t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s and the r e m a i n d e r \<ere o u t s i d e s p e c i a l i s t s . Of the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , none had a degree i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and f o u r t e e n p e r cent had not t a k e n an u n d e r g r a d u a t e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e . Over t h i r t y p e r cent o f the o u t s i d e s p e c i a l i s t s had a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n degree w h i l e f o u r t e e n p e r cent had not 67 taken a p h y s i c a l education course. 3. What a c t i v i t i e s and t e s t i n g and measuring  techniques are presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? A wide range of a c t i v i t i e s was i n c l u d e d i n the programmes of the schools, but only games of low organ-i z a t i o n and c a l i s t h e n i c s were presented i n a l l the schools o f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l education. V o l l e y b a l l and s o f t b a l l appeared i n the c u r r i c u l u m i n most of the Type I , I I , and I I I schools and Type I I I schools i n c l u d e d soccer and b a s k e t b a l l a l s o . T e s t i n g was done i n a few s c h o o l s . h* What type of r e c r e a t i o n a l programme i s off e r e d ? About three-quarters of the schools o f f e r e d i n t r a m u r a l and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programmes and a l l schools c a r r i e d out some s p e c i a l event. Of the smaller Type I sc h o o l s , only twenty per cent o f f e r e d an i n t r a m u r a l programme and f o r t y per cent o f f e r e d an i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme. In the i n t r a m u r a l programme, s o f t b a l l and v o l l e y b a l l appeared w i t h the greatest frequency i n a l l s c h o o l s . B a s k e t b a l l was played i n one-half of the Type I I I schools whereas t r a c k and f i e l d was played i n one-half of the Type I I sch o o l s . V o l l e y b a l l , , b a s k e t b a l l , s o f t b a l l and t r a c k and f i e l d appeared i n the i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme i n more than one-68 h a l f of the Type II and Type III schools also. Basketball and v o l l e y b a l l were offered viith the greatest frequency in the Type III schools and Type II schools r e p e c t i v e l y . Concerts appeared i n the Type I, Type II and Type III schools as the most frequent s p e c i a l event. Track and f i e l d appeared i n more than three-quarters of the Type II and Type III schools but only i n one-half of the Type I schools. 5 . What f a c i l i t i e s do the schools have? What type  of equipment and supplies are used i n the physical education  classes? More than one-half of the schools had gymnasiums although less than twenty-five per cent had dressing rooms, and of these schools, the larger Type III schools had the greatest percentage of gymnasiums and dressing rooms. Over eighty per cent of the schools had playgrounds of two or less acres and one-half of the playgrounds were hard top. Type II schools had the greatest number of playgrounds of two or more acres. The greatest percentage of gymnasiums, shower rooms, play rooms and playgrounds with more than two acres were located i n the southeast geo-graphical area. More than three-quarters of the schools had pianos, phonographs, records, and v o l l e y b a l l nets and posts i n the school, and one-half the schools had outdoor baskets and 69 backstops. In the playground the smaller schools had the greatest percentage of jungle jims and sandboxes. 6 . What are the school p o l i c i e s regarding medical  examinations and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  programme? A l l schools gave medical examinations, which i n the majority of the schools were given once during the p u p i l s ' school years. The majority of schools required the pupils to change f o r classes and i n over two-thirds of the schools teachers dressed accordingly. I I I . CONCLUSIONS In view of the findings, the following conclusions would appear to be tenable. 1. The time a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme was inadequate. Elementary school children did not receive the benefits of d a i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p hysical education a c t i v i t i e s . 2. The smaller the school, the less time a l l o t t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme. 3. Classroom teachers who were teaching physical education were not well prepared, having professed no t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d other than the minimum received i n required teacher's preparation at normal school or univer-s i t y . On the other hand, outside s p e c i a l i s t , except i n a 70 few cases, were well prepared. I*. A c t i v i t i e s presented i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme showed l i t t l e v a r i e t y . 5 , L i t t l e e f f o r t was made i n the physical education programme f o r tests and measurements, or evaluation of s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l conduct. 6 . The majority of schools, except those with smaller populations, offered a good intramural and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme. 7, A c t i v i t i e s i n the intramural and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme were mainly team games. 8. In a l l schools, basketball, v o l l e y b a l l , s o f t b a l l and track and f i e l d were the sports most played i n the intramural and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme. 9* Type III schools had more f a c i l i t i e s than Type I and Type II schools. 10, Schools were lacking i n nearly a l l aspects of outdoor f a c i l i t i e s and equipment, 11, Indoor f a c i l i t i e s and equipment were inadequate, 12. There were inadequate classroom supplies and the majority of these were f o r team games, 13. Medical and health services were well provided i n a l l the schools, l i | . In most schools that had gyms, the students were required to wear costumes while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme and teachers changed i n most cases 71 to t h e i r running shoes. l£. P a r t i c i p a t i o n was required by a l l students except f o r medical reasons. IV, 'RECOMMENDATIONS 1. A Supervisor of Physical Education should be appointed to a i d and organize the programmes i n the schools i n order to upgrade the programmes. Some of the duties of the Supervisor should include: 1, in-service t r a i n i n g f o r classroom teachers 2, budget making and finance 3 , purchase and care of equipment l i . organizing the i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c programme 5. public r e l a t i o n s 2, Time allotment i n each school f o r physical education should be increased to a d a i l y period of physical education, 3 . School administrators should hire teachers who have a degree i n physical education or who have taken under-graduate preparation i n physical education, I j . , Classroom teachers should be encouraged by the Central School Board to seek additional t r a i n i n g and take summer school courses in physical education i n order to up-grade physical education i n the schools. 5, P r o v i n c i a l curriculum guides, testbooks on administration, organization, tests and measurements, and 72 methodology i n p h y s i c a l education and other s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l should be kept i n each school and made a v a i l a b l e to a l l teachers of p h y s i c a l education. The aforementioned sources would give d i r e c t i o n and serve as an a i d f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of c l a s s e s . 6 . Schools that have no gymnasiums should make a v a i l a b l e indoor a c t i v i t y rooms and/or make use of com-munity centres i n the area. 7» Parks and playgrounds near schools should be u t i l i z e d . 8 . Plans f o r new schools should include d r e s s i n g and shower rooms adjacent to the gymnasium. 9» Since s u p p l i e s are s t o r e d i n classroom c l o s e t s or a corner, a room or o f f i c e should be provided i n each school f o r storage of p h y s i c a l education equipment and s u p p l i e s . 10. Equipment and s u p p l i e s t o the minimum set down by the B r i t i s h Columbian A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n (see Appendix A) to s u i t the needs of the school should be obtained. Money f o r equipment and s u p p l i e s may be obtained by c o l l e c t i n g one d o l l a r per c h i l d each year. 11. In the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme, such a c t i v i t i e s as t e n n i s and badminton t h a t have carry-over value should be i n c l u d e d . 12. W r i t t e n and o r a l quizzes regarding a c t i v i t e s such as soccer and v o l l e y b a l l should be recorded. 73 13• A test and measurement programme such as the C. A. H. P. E. R. Fitness test or the Kraus-Weber test should be done i n the physical education classes i n order to i d e n t i f y children who may benefit from a remedial programme. Ii;. Appropriate tests (such as tests of strength) should be given to every student at each year's beginning and end to evaluate the year's progress. 15. An adapted a c t i v i t y programme, supervised by medical doctors, i s needed f o r a l l schools in order that handicapped students may receive the benefits of a physical education programme. 16. Learn-to-swim programmes should be i n i t i a t e d i n the schools f o r students i n grade f i v e s i m i l a r to the programme organized by the Vancouver School Board. 17» Special events such as sports day be offered once a month to encourage p u p i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n 18. Intramural programmes should include i n d i v i d u a l games such as badminton as well as the popular team games ( v o l l e y b a l l , s o f t b a l l ) . A record of team standing or . i n d i v i d u a l standing should be recorded to increase motivation. 19. More attention should be given f o r co-ordination of e f f o r t s between the nurse and physical education teacher 20. Teachers should change fo r a c t i v i t i e s and the Ik problem of S i s t e r ' s changing f o r classes shoulc be reviewed. 21. Costumes should be the same i n each school. V . RESEARCH PROJECTS 1 . It i s recommended that a study be made i n the 1972-73 school year to determine the progress made and ^  to a s s i s t i n upgrading the physical education i n the c i t y ' s parochial schools. 2. Tests should be made to determine the physical f i t n e s s of the children i n Catholic parochial schools and to compare with the norms of other Canadian children. 3 . A study of the methods and procedures used i n the physical education classes should be made. IL, A study to reveal the attitudes of p r i n c i p a l s and teachers i n the Catholic Schools towards physical education. BOOKS BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 B u c h e r , C. A., Reade, E. M., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h i n the E l e m e n t a r y " S c h o o l , New Y o r k , W. B. Saunders Co., 1961)., pp. 464* Chant, S. P. 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S h a f f e r , G., " E d i t o r ' s M a i l " , J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 2 8 , no. 2 ( F e b r u a r y , 1957), P . 6 . :  U r s u l a , S i s t e r , "A P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Programme i s P o s s i b l e i n Our S c h o o l s " , C a t h o l i c S c h o o l J o u r n a l , v o l . 6 3 , no. 5 (May, 1963), pp. 3 1-32, W h i t t l e , H. D., " E f f e c t s of E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n upon A s p e c t s of P h y s i c a l , Motor and P e r s o n a l i t y Development", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 32, no. 2 (May, 1961), pp. 249 -260 , U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l s Department of E d u c a t i o n , "Programme o f S t u d i e s F o r The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , V i c t o r i a , B, C , Don Mc D i a r m i d , P r i n t e r t o the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1958. G r a n t , A. M., "The S t a t u s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programmes i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burnaby, S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 4U, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada, f o r t he S c h o o l Y e a r 1953-5V* U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1954* G r a n t , G,, "A Survey of the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m , F a c i l i t i e s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s of G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1953< K e n n i s o n , J . L,, "A Survey o f the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n R u r a l P u b l i c E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s i n the I s l a n d Empire A r e a o f Washington f o r the S c h o o l Y e a r 1958 -59" , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1959. 77 P e n n i n g t o n , G., "A Sur v e y and E v a l u a t i o n o f the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m , F a c i l i t i e s , And A d m i n i s t r a t -i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f New W e s t m i n i s t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada, i n the S c h o o l Y e a r , 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n , I 9 6 0 . R o t h n i e , J . S., "A Sur v e y and E v a l u a t i o n o f the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m F a c i l i t i e s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s of the Edmonds S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n t h e S t a t e o f Washington, 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, I 9 6 0 . S h e a r e r , F. M., "A Survey o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programmes and F a c i l i t i e s i n 235 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s i n Washington", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1933* Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , "Report To S p e c i a l Management Committee, S p e c i a l Committee # 6 - - A t h l e t i c s Committee, Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J u l y , 1966. APPENDICES , 78 APPENDIX A ADMINISTRATIVE BULLETIN FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, 19£8 AIMS 1 . To e x p l o r e , f o s t e r , and i n c u l c a t e those i n t e r e s t s , h a b i t s , and i d e a l s which w i l l make the c h i l d b e t t e r able t o take h i s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . 2. To f o s t e r i n the c h i l d an a p p r e c i a t i o n of and d e s i r e f o r those a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g to t o t a l f i t n e s s . 3» To develop a sound body and normal mental a t t i t u d e s l e n d i n g to the b e t t e r ment of the organism as a whole, l i . To develop s k i l l i n psycho-motor a c t i v i t i e s . SCOPE School p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t s of (a) an i n s t r u c t -i o n a l and (b) a r e c r e a t i o n a l programme: The i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme i s t h a t scheduled w i t h i n the r e g u l a r teaching-day. The r e c r e a t i o n a l programme g e n e r a l l y occurs at times other than the scheduled i n - s c h o o l p e r i o d s . ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION (a) The I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programme 1 . M e d i c a l Examination of the i n d i v i d u a l by the s c h o o l h e a l t h s e r v i c e determines the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme: r e g u l a r ( f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r normal p h y s i c a l l y f i t ) , m o d i f i e d ( p u p i l s w i t h temporary d i s a b i l i t y ) , or r e s t r i c t e d (permanent h a n d i c a p ) . The m o d i f i e d or r e s t r i c t e d programme c o n s i s t s of s u i t a b l e 79 adapted regular and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and provides further opportunities f o r p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n through r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r equipment, f a c i l i t i e s , supplies, and a i d i n organization and administration. 2 . Time Allotment Health and PRIMARY LEVEL INTERMEDIATE LEVEL Physical Education I II III IV V VI Health 6G 60 60 60 140 ll|0 - - - — Games and Exercises v 100 100 100 100 3. F a c i l i t i e s Playground.—A minimum of 2 acres f o r a one-room school; four-room school, 5 acres. Areas of grass and hard surfaces; l e v e l , drained, and free of hazards. Gymnasium or Playroom.—Adequate as to clear space, heat, and v e n t i l a t i o n ; provided with t o i l e t , storage, and changing f a c i l i t i e s ; smooth f l o o r , l i n e d f o r playing areas, free of o i l and d i r t ; swept and dusted at least once d a i l y , washed weekly. !{.. Equipment Playground Playroom, Gymnasium Minimum— One graduated horizontal bar V o l l e y b a l l net and posts. 80 Jumping p i t . Goal posts. Back-stops. Jumping standards. Desirable--Hard-surfaced court. Swings. Jungle gym. Sand-box. P a r a l l e l bars. Blank w a l l . Horizontal ladder. 5, Supplies Minimum— Rubber or tennis b a l l s , Bean Bags , Rubber rhythm b a l l s Team ropes ( 2 0 ' ) , Wands (k • ) , Phonograph and records, Benches. Piano. Mats, with covers. Basketball hoops. Vaulting box. Climbing ropes Grades I, I I , and III (Class of Thirty) . 3 0 . 1 5 . 1 0 Skipping ropes ( 9 » 6 " , 1 0 ' 6 " ) 1 5 Coloured sashes (varied colours) 3 0 Markers (for courts) li Whistles 2 F i r s t - a i d k i t 1 Grades IV, V, and VI (Class of Thirty) The above and-— Soccer b a l l s (rubber or leather) l\. Weighted ropes f o r high jumping.. 2 Passing sticks or batons., li Whistles... l\ Lacers and tighteners..... 2 B a l l i n f l a t o r 1 Repair k i t (for leather b a l l s ) . . . 1 Shovel and rake 1 V o l l e y b a l l s (rubber or leather) I* Basketballs (rubber) 2 S o f t b a l l s (rubber or leather) 1 0 S o f t b a l l bats. 1 0 Floor hockey st i c k s or wands . 3 0 Rubber quoits or rope r i n g ( 6 " ) . . . . . . . h Cross-bars f o r jumping... 1+ D e s i r a b l e — Rugby, b a l l s . Grass hockey s t i c k s and b a l l s . Paddle tennis bats. Lacrosse sticks and b a l l s . Horseshoes ( s e t s ) . Cricket bats and b a l l s . Quoits (set s ) . Ice hockey st i c k s and pucks. Hoops (wooden, 3 ' diameter) Table-tennis sets, tables. The above figures are suggested. The amount of 8 1 equipment required w i l l depend on the emphasis placed on the various phases of the programme, NOTE.—Most of the above equipment may be obtained from any r e l i a b l e sporting-goods store. 6. P a r t i c i p a t i o n (a) R e q u i r e d . — F u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l regular pupils at a l l times. Temporary cessation f o r medical reasons. (b) Costume.--Teacher and pupils change f o r a c t i v i t y . Minimum needs: Shorts, s h i r t , sx^eater, running-shoes, dance-slippers (made by g i r l s ) , towel, soap. Towel dried d a i l y , laundered at least weekly. Outfits laundered weekly. (c) Routine.—Preparatory changing, £ minutes. F i n a l rub-down, wash, change, 7 minutes. With a shower, 10 minutes. 7, Testing Test, record, and report as i n other subjects. Use achievement charts i n d i c a t i n g development of psycho-motor s k i l l s ; written and o r a l quizzes regarding a c t i v i t i e s j evaluate standards of i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l conduct by d a i l y observance, (b) The Recreational Programme 1 . Intra-mural.—Grades IV to V I — a l l p h y s i c a l l y able pupils p a r t i c i p a t e . Before school, recess, noon, or after 62 s c h o o l h o urs. Use games p r e v i o u s l y taught i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d s ; c o m p e t i t i o n p e r i o d s , two t o three weeks' d u r a t i o n ; r e c o r d team-standing d a i l y . Encourage p u p i l l e a d e r s h i p and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; s t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance. See I n s t r u c t -i o n a l Programme f o r suggested a c t i v i t i e s . F u r t h e r compet-i t i o n might occur on the i n d i v i d u a l games l e v e l - - p i n g - p o n g , d a r t s , s h u f f l e b o a r d , q u o i t s , hopscotch, marbles, or h o rse-shoes. 2. I n t e r - s c h o l a s t i c . — I n Grades IV to VI, d e s i r a b l e outcomes can best be produced, f o r the m a j o r i t y , by p l a y w i t h i n the s c h o o l , r a t h e r than by seeking competion w i t h other s c h o o l s . F o r the few h i g h l y s k i l l e d and e m o t i o n a l l y mature, under wise s u p e r v i s i o n , i n t e r - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n i s v a l u a b l e . 3 » S p e c i a l Events.--At l e a s t one s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n a l event per month: Swims, h i k e s , s k a t i n g p a r t i e s , c o n c e r t s , demonstrations, p l a y days, dance f e s t i v a l s , pageants, May days, f i e l d days, s p o r t s days, t r a c k meets, s k i meets, •sleigh r i d e s , " H o l i d a y " p a r t i e s . S t a f f guidance, p u p i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 83 APPENDIX B LETTER OP INTRODUCTION, #1 Dear Please f i n d enclosed a l e t t e r from Brother J . G. Bates, Superintendent of the Vancouver Catholic School Board, and a stamped self-addressed postcard. On the postcard would you be so kind as to indicate a time and date to v i s i t your school to speak with you and/br your teacher of physical education; i f i t i s to your convenience, a v i s i t to the school on week-ends or after-school hours during the week would be preferred. The length of the v i s i t w i l l be approximately twenty minutes. The purpose of the v i s i t a t i o n i s to ascertain the status of the physical education programme, personnel, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies i n your school and to make recommendations for a more e f f e c t i v e programme from e x i s t i n g . f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies. Data concerning the above mentioned w i l l be made known to Brother Bates and the Catholic School Board but other than t h i s organization, the name of your school w i l l be held i n s t r i c t e s t confidence. It i s hoped that the study w i l l contribute to a better and more complete Catholic educational system. I look forward to meeting you. Yours si n c e r e l y , Gene Rizak APPENDIX C C A T H D L I C P U B L I C S C H O O L B O A R D 8% OF THE A R C H D I O C E S E D F V A N C O U V E R LETTER OP INTRODUCTION, # 2 Apri l 6, 1967. The PrincipalSj Catholic Elementary and High Schools, Archdiocese of Vancouver. Dear Principals: This is to introduce Mr. Eugene Rizak, a teacher at Vancouver College since September 1965. Mr. Rizak is completing a Master's degree in Physical Education at the University of Br i t ish Columbia. The topic of his thesis is "The Physical Education Program in the Catholic Schools of Vancouver". The findings should be of great value for future planning of these programs in our schools. I ask that you give Mr. Rizak your co-operation in his research. He wishes to investigate the current status of physical education in our schools, the f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, etc. Thanking you for your assistance 3 I am, Yours in Christ, brother James C. Bates, C.F.C., Superintendent. APPENDIX D 8$ POSTCARD MR. GENE RIZAK VANCOUVER COLLEGE VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA YOU MAY VISIT (NAME OF SCHOOL) ON (DAY) IN THE MONTH OF (APRIL, MAY, JUNE) 1967, AT (TIME) PRINCIPAL 86 APPENDIX E QUESTIONAIRE DURING INTERVIEW I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programme and Time A l l o t m e n t 1. Is there an i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? (yes/no) Grades programme i s g i v e n : 1 2 3 li 5 6 7 "5 2 » How much time i n minutes per week i s a l l o t t e d i n : grade 1 grade 6 ___ grade 2 grade 7 grade 3 grade 8 grade 4 grade 5 3 . Is there a r e c e s s p e r i o d ? (yes/no) . ' • Grades r e c e s s i s g i v e n : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Personnel 1. How many teachers of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme are t h e r e ? (number) 2v Are the teach e r s (a) classroom teachers who have p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n degrees? (yes/no) ; (number) ________ (b) classroom t e a c h e r s who have taken some undergraduate p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n courses? (yes/no)_ j (number) (c) classroom t e a c h e r s who have n e i t h e r (..3) nor (b)? (yes/no) ; (number) (d) o u t s i d e s p e c i a l i s t s who have a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n degree? (yes/no) ; (number)__ (e) o u t s i d e s p e c i a l i s t s who have taken undergraduate courses i n p h y s i c a l education? (yes/no) j (number) ( f ) o u t s i d e h e l p e r s who have n e i t h e r a degree i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n nor taken undergraduate p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n courses? (yes/no) ; (number) _ ^ R e c r e a t i o n a l Programme 87 1. Is t h e r e an i n t r a - m u r a l programme? (yes/no) Grades programme i s g i v e n : 1 2 3 k 5> & 7"~8 2 . How many p a r t i c i p a n t s are there i n the i n t r a -mural programme? (number) 3 . Is there an i n t e r - s c h o l a s t i c programme? (yes/no) 1|. How many p a r t i c i p a n t s are there i n the i n t e r -s c h o l a s t i c programme? (number) (Check) Sports i n the programme F o o t b a l l Soccer B a s k e t b a l l V o l l e y b a l l T r ack and F i e l d Gymnastics Others ( l i s t ) : , , 5» Are S p e c i a l events o f f e r e d ? (yes/no) Swims Hikes ' \ Sk a t i n g P a r t i e s ' Concerts P h y s i c a l education demonstrations \ Pl a y days Scho o l t r a c k and f i e l d meets S k i meets H o l i d a y P a r t i e s S p o r t s days Others: ( l i s t ) S chool P o l i c i e s 1. Are m e d i c a l examinations g i v e n to students? (yes/no) . When? a n n u a l l y once d u r i n g s c h o o l years twice d u r i n g s c h o o l years o t h e r ( l i s t ) 2:. Are a l l students r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme? (yes/no) 3 . Do p u p i l s wear costumes f o r the c l a s s e s ? (yes/no) l i . Do te a c h e r s change f o r a c t i v i t y ? (yes/no) F a c i l i t i e s Check i f there i s 1. a gymnasium 2 . a d r e s s i n g room ' 3. a shower room Lj.. a playroom 5» a playground Is the gymnasium swept d a i l y ? (yes/no) What i s the number of acres approximately of the playground? grass or hard s u r f a c e ? 2'. Equipment (Check) equipment i n the gymnasium b a s k e t b a l l hoops mats c l i m b i n g ropes piano phonograph and r e c o r d s v o l l e y b a l l nets v o l l e y b a l l p o s t s benches trampoline p a r a l l e l bars t r a m p o l e t t e s p r i n g board v a u l t i n g horse (Check) equipment i n the playground swings jungle j i m sand box graduated h o r o z o n t a l bar jumping p i t g o a l posts back stops jumping s t a n d a r d ___________ outdoor baskets 3, S u p p l i e s Number approximately rubber b a l l s bean bags rubber rhythm b a l l s s o c c e r b a l l s v o l l e y b a l l s . b a s k e t b a l l s 89 s o f t b a l l s s o f t b a l l b a t s f l o o r hockey s t i c k s rubber q u o i t s c r o s s bar f o r jumping f o o t b a l l s s k i p p i n g ropes c o l o u r e d sashes markers w h i s t l e s F i r s t a i d K i t weighted ropes f o r h i g h jumping batons b a l l i n f l a t o r s r e p a i r k i t f o r b a l l s s h o v e l rake l a c e r s and t i g h t e n e r s .(F) A c t i v i t i e s i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme ( C i r c l e grades) b a s k e t b a l l 1 2 3 i * 5 6 7 8 v o l l e y b a l l 1 2 3 1* 5 6 7 8 s o c c e r 1 2 3 1* 5 6 7 8 s o f t b a l l 1 2 3 1* 5 6 7 8 r e l a y s 1 2 3 1* 5 6 7 8 r e l a y s w i t h b a l l s 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 group games 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 tumbling 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 c a l i s t h e n i c s 1 2. 3 k 5 6 7 8 t r a c k events 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 f i e l d events 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 C i r c l e the grades students are t e s t e d and re c o r d e d i n (a) s k i l l s (b) f i t n e s s (c) w r i t t e n or o r a l q u i z z e s 1 2 3 1 * 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 * 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 * 5 6 7 8 

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