UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Adjective order, rhythmic stress and recall Hether, Christine Anne 1971

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ADJECTIVE ORDER, RHYTHMIC STRESS AND RECALL by CHRISTINE ANNE HETHER B.S., Purdue U n i v e r s i t y , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF S€^E#eE W S i n the Department of PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Sep tember , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada P r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e phenomenon o f p r e f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n E n g l i s h have o v e r l o o k e d o r i g n o r e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f r h y t h m i c s t r e s s i n l a n g u a g e r e c a l l . The i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s d i m e n s i o n becomes e v i -d e n t when one a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d p r e f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a n g u a g e s s u c h as S p a n i s h and F r e n c h w h e r e a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i s f l e x i b l e , b u t r h y t h m i c s t r e s s i s n o t . The h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , t h a t t h e n o n s t r e s s e d w o r d o f a p h r a s e w o u l d be a b e t t e r cue t h a n t h e s t r e s s e d w o r d f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e p h r a s e was n o t s u b -s t a n t i a t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t f i r s t w o r d s t r e s s d u r i n g i n p u t was t h e mos t r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e c a l l i n g p h r a s e s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s p e e c h p e r c e p t i o n and f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . In e f f e c t , t h e d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a c o u s t i c a l m a r k e r o f f i r s t w o r d s t r e s s c o n s t i t u t e a p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t e g y w h i c h i s p r i m a r y i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . The da t a are not comprehens i ve enough to g e n e r a l i z e t h i s p r i n c i p l e to o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , but c e r t a i n l y sugges t the v a l u e o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g such a p o s s i b i l i t y . Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i INTRODUCTION 1 METHOD • 1 4 P a r t A. D e t e r m i n i n g p r e f e r r e d o r d e r i n g 14 P a r t B. Cued-Reca l l t a s k . 16 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 19 BIBLIOGRAPHY 39 APPENDIX I 42 APPENDIX II 43 APPENDIX I I I 45 L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page I S c h e m a t i c D i a g r a m S h o w i n g ANOVA D e s i g n f o r E i g h t y S u b j e c t s . . . . . . . . . 18 I I ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f P h r a s e s R e c a l l e d on T r i a l 1 20 I I I ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f P h r a s e s R e c a l l e d on T r i a l 2 21 IV ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f Nouns R e c a l l e d on T r i a l 1 34 V ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f Nouns R e c a l l e d on T r i a l 2 35 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To T h o r , wi t h L o v e . In E n g l i s h , when a noun i s m o d i f i e d by two or more a d j e c t i v e s , t h e r e i s t y p i c a l l y a p r e f e r r e d o r d e r i n g o f those a d j e c t i v e s . For examp le , an E n g l i s h speake r i s much more l i k e l y to r e f e r to someone 's " l o n g b l a c k h a i r " than to t h e i r " b l a c k , l o n g h a i r . " E x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e by L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and M a r t i n (1968) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t such p r e f e r e n c e s o c c u r to a s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e , and the s t r e n g t h o f the p r e f e r r e d o r d e r i s u s u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . More r e c e n t l y , a s tudy r e p o r t e d by Danks and G l u c k s b u r g , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , showed t h a t s en t ences wh ich i n some r e s p e c t v i o l a t e d p r e f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g were r a t e d as l e s s g r ammat i c a l than sen tences which m a n i f e s t e d no such v i o l a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the e x p e r i m e n t a l da ta c o l l e c t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s c o r r o b o r a t e these f i n d i n g s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , l i n g u i s t s have a t t empted to c l a r i f y the u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s e s i n f l u e n c i n g the a d j e c t i v e phenomenon i n terms of p u r e l y s y n t a c t i c a c c o u n t s . V e n d l e r ( 1 9 6 3 ; 1963a) p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a d j e c t i v e s were o r d e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the way i n wh ich they were r e l a t e d to the noun v i a v a r i o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . Those r e l a t e d v i a a s i m p l e r t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n appeared c l o s e r to the noun. T h u s , " l o n g b l a c k h a i r " i s a s i n g l e phrase d e r i v e d from the two s e p a r a t e p h r a s e s , " b l a c k h a i r " and " l o n g h a i r . " The fo rmer i s r e l a t e d to the noun by v i r t u e o f the f o l l o w i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : N i s A -»• AN ( h a i r i s b l a c k ->• b l a c k h a i r ) . The l a t t e r i s d e r i v e d f rom the t r a n s o f r m a t i o n N i s A f o r N AN ( h a i r i s l ong f o r h a i r -»• l o n g h a i r ) . T h u s , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t r o d u c i n g c o l o r was a p p l i e d p r i o r to the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n wh ich i n t r o d u c e d l e n g t h , m o t i v a t i n g " b l a c k " to appear c l o s e r to the noun than " l o n g . " A l t h o u g h V e n d l e r was a b l e to p r e d i c t o r d e r i n g s f o r v a r i o u s phrases u s i n g t h i s t ype o f a n a l y s i s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c i r c u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n ; i . e . , he used the o r d e r i n g o f a d j e c t i v e s as s u p p o r t f o r the p o s t u l a t e d o r d e r i n g o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and v i c e - v e r s a . A s i m i l a r t h e o r y was deve loped by Annear (1964) who a l s o p o s i t e d o r d e r c l a s s e s o f a d j e c t i v e s . When s e v e r a l a d j e c t i v e s appeared t o g e t h e r b e f o r e the noun , t h e i r o r d e r was s t a t e d to be d e t e r m i n e d by the p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s to wh ich they b e l o n g e d . A n n e a r , h e r s e l f , however , found the p r o p o s a l u n a c c e p t a b l e on the grounds t h a t the p o s t u l a t e d a d j e c t i v e c l a s s e s were not u s e f u l f o r e x p l a i n i n g any o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c phenomena than a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g . L i k e V e n d l e r ' s , the t h e o r y was c i r c u l a r . N o n - s y n t a c t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p r e f e r r e d a d j e c -t i v e o r d e r i n g have a t t empted to i n t e g r a t e both s e m a n t i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e . The f i r s t o f t hese to be c o n s i d e r e d was c a l l e d " d e f i n i t e n e s s o f d e n o t a t i o n " by Sweet (1898) and Z i f f ( 1 9 6 0 ) . Both men no ted t h a t the deno-t a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s a d j e c t i v e s d i f f e r e d to the e x t e n t to wh ich they r e l i e d upon the m o d i f i e d nouns . A d j e c t i v e s wh ich d e s c r i b e the same q u a l i t y r e g a r d l e s s o f the m o d i f i e d noun are p r e f e r r e d c l o s e r to the noun than those a d j e c t i v e s wh ich d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s i n the c o n t e x t o f d i f f e r -ent nouns . As an example o f t h i s , c o n t r a s t the r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c a d j e c t i v e " r e d " w i t h the more ambiguous a d j e c t i v e " g o o d . " The q u a l i t y denoted by the word " r e d " when s p e a k i n g about a " r e d box" i s about the same as t h a t denoted when d i s c u s s i n g a " r e d a p p l e . " However "good" i n the phrase "good box" i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as a "good a p p l e , " the meaning b e i n g p a r t l y d e t e r m i n e d by the noun . T h u s , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s t h e o r y , one would speak o f a "good red a p p l e " r a t h e r than a " r e d good a p p l e . " R e l a t e d to d e f i n i t e n e s s o f d e n o t a t i o n , a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n wh ich appears to be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g i s i t s c l o s e n e s s to the noun i n meaning ( M a r t i n , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h i s a t t r i b u t e was f i r s t a l l u d e d to by V e n d l e r (1963) when e l a b o r a t i n g on the n o t i o n o f " s u b s t a n t i v e n e s s " as d i s -cussed by G. E . Moore ( 1 9 0 3 ) . Most a d j e c t i v e s , s a i d M o o r e , d e s c r i b e p a r t s o f wh ich the o b j e c t i s composed; they are i n t h e m s e l v e s s u b s t a n t i a l and may e x i s t i ndependen t o f the o b j e c t d e s c r i b e d . Wi th a d j e c t i v e s such as "good" however , Moore a s k s : Can we imagine 'good' as e x i s t i n g by i t s e l f in time and not merely the property of some natural object? For myself, I cannot so imagine i t , whereas for the greater number of properties of o b j e c t s - - t h e i r existence does seem to me to be independent of the existence of those objects. They are, in fact, rather parts of which the object is made up than mere predicates which attach to i t - - f o r they are in themselves substan-t i a l and give to the object a l l the substance i t has. But t h i s is not so with 'good''. From the p r e c e d i n g remarks i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a d j e c t i v e s a l s o d i f f e r i n the degree to wh ich they denote p r o p e r t i e s wh ich are e s s e n t i a l o r i n h e r e n t to the o b j e c t d e s c r i b e d . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t i f one w i shes to d e v e l o p a c o n s i s t e n t , n o n c i r c u l a r a c c o u n t o f the phenomenon o f p r e -f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g , one must i n t e g r a t e a l l the v a l i d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f 1 i n g u i s t s , . p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p h i l o s o p h e r s ; the t h e o r y must be a s y n t h e s i s o f s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s . L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n (1969) a t t empted such an i n t e -g r a t i o n i n a s t u d y which showed t h a t a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g i s a f u n c t i o n o f the c o n c r e t e n e s s and s p e c i f i c i t y o f a d j e c t i v e mean ing . These d i m e n s i o n s appear to be r e l a t e d t o , i f not i d e n t i c a l w i t h , " d e f i n i t e n e s s o f d e n o t a t i o n " and " c l o s e n e s s to the noun i n meaning" d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . They showed t h a t the a d j e c t i v e which was p r e f e r r e d c l o s e s t to the noun ( A d j e c t i v e 2) was a s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r cue f o r the o t h e r two words than the a d j e c t i v e p r e f e r r e d f u r t h e s t from the noun , ( A d j e c t i ve 1 ) . The a d j e c t i v e s were a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to i m a g e r y ; t hose c l o s e s t to the noun evoked the most imagery as w e l l as b e i n g the most e f f i c i e n t c u e s . Such f i n d i n g s a re d i r e c t l y i n l i n e w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n s o f Lamber t and P a i v i o ( 1 9 5 6 ) , P a i v i o (1967) and L o c k h a r t (1969) showing t h a t the c a p a c i t y o f any word to cue r e sponses i n p a i r e d - r e c a l l t a s k s i s a f u n c t i o n o f i t s c a p a c i t y to evoke i m a g e r y , wh ich i n t u r n i s r e l a t e d to i t s c o n c r e t e n e s s and s p e c i f i c i t y . In r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , M a r t i n (1968; 1969; 1970) p r e -sen t ed e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g what he c a l l e d a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c h y p o t h e s i s o f a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g . He p o s i t e d t h a t the main a n t e c e d e n t o f the o r d e r o f a d j e c t i v e c h o i c e i s the a c c e s s i -b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t a d j e c t i v e s , w i t h more a c c e s s i b l e a d j e c -t i v e s chosen f i r s t . Two of the q u a l i t i e s wh ich were s a i d to d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n t i a l a d j e c t i v e a c c e s s i b l i t y a re those v e r y d i m e n s i o n s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y by V e n d l e r ( 1 9 6 3 ; 1 9 6 3 a ) , Sweet (1898) and Z i f f ( 1 9 6 0 ) . M a r t i n s t a t e s : . . . the proper choice of an adjective often depends upon a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mean-ing of the modified noun and the property to be denoted by the adjeative. An example o f the above migh t be a t a b l e wh ich i s denoted as " s m a l l " or " l a r g e " depend ing on whether i t i s compared to the cups p l a c e d on i t o r the s o f a p l a c e d next to i t . M a r t i n c a l l s t h i s " a b s o l u t e n e s s . " One i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z e s , however , t h a t t h i s seems to be the same c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c t h a t V e n d l e r termed as c l o s e n e s s to the noun i n mean ing . I t a l s o appears to be the same q u a l i t y wh i ch Danks and G l u c k s b u r g , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p r e f e r to c a l l " i n t r i n s i c a l n e s s . " S i z e o r b i g n e s s would not be as i n t r i n s i c to the o b j e c t a s , f o r e x a m p l e , c o l o r might b e , because i t i s more r e l a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t to e n v i r o n m e n t . M a r t i n (1968) f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t a d j e c t i v e s d i f f e r i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e l a t i v e to the degree to wh ich the noun c o n t e x t must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the c h o i c e . T h i s q u a l i t y seems to be i d e n t i c a l w i t h the i d e a o f d e f i n i t e n e s s o f d e n o t a t i o n . To quote M a r t i n once a g a i n (p . 5, 1 9 6 8 ) : In the choice of those adjectives which are contextual!}} independent in denotation3 less time is thought to be required for scanning the meaning of the modified noun than in the choice of those adj ectives which are context s e n s i t i v e in denotation. T h u s , i t appears t h a t " d e f i n i t e n e s s " has to do w i t h a compar i son among nouns i n a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s , and whether an a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e s gene r a l a s p e c t s a p p r o p r i a t e t o , f o r e x a m p l e , a l l " t a b l e s , " or o n l y an a s p e c t i d i o s y n -c r a t i c to t h a t one t a b l e . A b s o l u t e n e s s , on the o t h e r hand , has to do w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f a s i n g l e noun and whether the a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e s a l l i t s a s p e c t s , o r o n l y one or two. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f M a r t i n ' s h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i v e to the t e n o r o f t h i s paper l i e s i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f why these two d imens ions cause some a d j e c t i v e s to be more a c c e s s -i b l e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , o r d e r e d p r i o r to o t h e r s i n a p h r a s e . He d i s c u s s e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a b s o l u t e n e s s to a c c e s s i -b i l i t y i n terms of the r e l a t i v e number o f compar i sons r e -q u i r e d f o r the c h o i c e o f a g i v e n a d j e c t i v e . To use the p r e -v i o u s e x a m p l e , a p a r t o f the s eman t i c s o f the word " t a b l e " i s some i n f o r m a t i o n wh ich t e l l s us by what s t a n d a r d a t a b l e i s to be c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e or s m a l l . These s t a n d a r d s appear to c o r r e s p o n d to the syn-c a t e g o r e m a t i c markers d i s c u s s e d by Ka tz ( 1 9 6 4 ) . When a noun i s g i v e n a d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y , i t r e c e i v e s not o n l y s y n t a c t i c markers i n d i c a t i n g i t s p a r t o f speech ( e . g . , . noun , a d j e c t i v e , a d v e r b ) , but a l s o a s e r i e s o f s eman t i c markers w h i c h , t aken t o g e t h e r , form a whole meaning f o r t h a t word i n one o f i t s s y n t a c t i c c o n t e x t s . To use the example o f the " t a b l e " once a g a i n , one migh t f i n d the f o l l o w -i n g d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y : T a b l e : Noun - a . ) f u r n i t u r e b.) a r t i f a c t c . ) p h y s i c a l o b j e c t . The noun " t a b l e " as a s u b j e c t i s t h e r e f o r e , a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f markers wh ich a re a l l p a r t o f i t s d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n . As i n t i m a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the concep t o f a b s o l u t e -n e s s , o r , c l o s e n e s s to the noun i n m e a n i n g , depends on the degree to wh ich a g i v e n a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e s the e n t i r e meaning o f the noun. The a d j e c t i v e " l a r g e " f o r e x a m p l e , m o d i f i e s the a s p e c t o f the meaning of " t a b l e " s i g n i f i e d by the m a r k e r , " t a b l e , " and o n l y sometimes m o d i f i e s the o t h e r r e l e v a n t m a r k e r s . Other more a b s o l u t e a d j e c t i v e s such as the c o l o r " r e d " w i l l be a lways s u i t a b l e f o r the o t h e r markers d e l i n e a t i n g the meaning o f " t a b l e " ; e . g . " r e d f u r n i t u r e , " " r e d a r t i f a c t , " " r e d p h y s i c a l o b j e c t , " and " r e d t a b l e . " The second q u a l i t y d e t e r m i n i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t h a t o f d e f i n i t e n e s s , i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f the p a r t i c u -l a r p r o p e r t y be ing denoted i n the c o n t e x t o f t h a t c l a s s o f nouns . A c c o r d i n g to M a r t i n ( 1 9 7 0 ) , the sense o f a g i v e n noun has two a s p e c t s : t hose wh ich are i d i o s y n c r a t i c to the noun and those wh ich are common w i t h v a r y i n g numbers o f o t h e r nouns . When the meaning o f a noun i s s c a n n e d , i t s g e n e r a l a s p e c t s are noted b e f o r e i t s i d i o s y n c r a t i c a s p e c t s . For e x a m p l e , i f " t a b l e " were the noun to be m o d i f i e d , the a s p e c t s wh ich make i t s i m i l a r to a l l o t h e r " t a b l e s " would p resumab ly be noted b e f o r e the f a c t t h a t i t m ight be a " l a r g e " as opposed to a " s m a l l " t a b l e . M a r t i n c o n c l u d e s t h a t d e f i n i t e a d j e c t i v e s are more e a s i l y - a c c e s s i b l e because the sense o f t h e i r meaning can be more q u i c k l y d e t e r m i n e d v i a the noun. I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t the c rux o f the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s i s b rough t i n t o f o c u s . M a r t i n (1970) p roposed t h a t the d i m e n s i o n s o f d e f i n i t e n e s s and a b s o l u t e -ness not o n l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g i n E n g l i s h , but a l s o w i l l c o r r e l a t e w i t h the base s t r u c t u r e s of a l l l a n g u a g e s . In e f f e c t , he i m p l i e s t h a t p r e f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g r e f l e c t s a l anguage u n i v e r s a l . There i s one a s p e c t o f p r e f e r r e d o r d e r i n g , how-e v e r , wh ich has not been touched upon e x p e r i m e n t a l l y e x c e p t by i m p l i c a t i o n , and which n e c c e s s i t a t e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the n o t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l i t y ; t h i s i s the r o l e wh i ch emphasis p l a y s i n the c h o i c e o f a g i v e n a d j e c t i v e . Emphasis o r s t r e s s here r e f e r s to the r e l a t i v e degree o f f o r c e i n t e n d e d f o r the v a r i o u s words i n a s en tence ( K i n g d o n , 1 9 5 8 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f emphasis to a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c i d when c o n s i d e r i n g l anguages such as Span i sh and F r e n c h , where a d j e c t i v e s sometimes p r e c e d e , sometimes an tecede the noun ( c f . C o u s t e n o b l e and A r m s t r o n g , 1934 ; D a v i s , 1954 , 1968 ; K e l 1 e n b e r g e r , 1 9 6 5 ) . In both these l anguages v o c a l a c c e n t cannot be s h i f t e d at w i l l t o any e lement i n the s e n t e n c e , as i t can i n E n g l i s h . Speakers a re , t h e r e f o r e , p o s t u l a t e d to use p o s i t i o n a l s t r e s s - - a l t e r e d word o r d e r — w h e n they w i sh to s t r e s s a p a r t i c u l a r w o r d . Dav is ( 1954 ; 1968) has used the p r i n c i p l e o f p o s i t i o n a l s t r e s s as an a i d i n second language t e a c h i n g . To quote h i m : . . . in a two word phrase3 the second word has the 1 l o g i c a l stress in both French and Spanish; in the case of three or more ele-ments j the l a s t w i l l s t i l l usually carry the emphasis. In English--theref'ore--the modu-l a t i o n of the phrasal stress conforms to the foreign pattern of p o s i t i o n a l stress. ( 1 9 6 8 , p. 2) An example f rom S p a n i s h w i l l s e r ve to i l l u m i n a t e t h i s f u r t h e r . Suppose one w i shed to use t h a t same phrase ment ioned p r e v i o u s l y , " h e r l o n g b l a c k h a i r . " In S p a n i s h , as i n E n g l i s h , the speake r has a c h o i c e o f e m p h a s i z i n g c o l o r , l e n g t h , o r the noun i t s e l f . However, i n h i s n a t i v e Span i sh t o n g u e , i f the c h o i c e were to s t r e s s c o l o r , he would do i t by s a y i n g " sus l a r g o s c a b e l l o s n e g r o s ; " i f he chose l e n g t h , he would s a y , " sus negros c a b e l l o s 1 a r g o s , " o r the noun , " sus l a r g o s y negros c a b e l 1 o s . " S i m i l a r examples can a l s o be drawn from French ( c f . D a v i s , 1 9 6 8 ) . b e c a u s e the d i f f e r e n c e i n prominence between s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i s g r e a t e r i n E n g l i s h than i n many o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . In a d d i t i o n s t r e s s i n E n g l i s h i s used more c o n s i s t e n t l y than i n o t h e r l anguages to e x p r e s s the s p e a k e r ' s meaning ( K i n g d o n , 1 9 5 8 ) . One i s now f a ced w i t h the prob lem o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h i s new f a c e t o f a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . In p a r t i c u l a r , one becomes c u r i o u s as to the r o l e wh i ch v o c a l s t r e s s p l a y s i n the E n g l i s h l a n -guage. M a r t i n (1970) p r o v i d e s us w i t h the e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e i s i ndeed a change i n the s t r e s s p a t t e r n o f a phrase when t h e r e i s a r e v e r s a l o f normal o r d e r . T h i s change i s o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a j u n c t u r e i n the rhythm of the p h r a s e . S e m a n t i c a l l y , the r e v e r s a l i n normal o r d e r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a d j e c t i v e f u r t h e s t f rom the noun becoming a m o d i -f i e r o f the o t h e r two w o r d s , r a t h e r than j u s t the noun i t s e l f . For e x a m p l e , i f " l o n g b l a c k h a i r " were r e v e r s e d to " b l a c k , l o n g h a i r , " b l a c k m o d i f i e s the e n t i r e phrase " l o n g h a i r " ; i . e . , the phrase r e c e i v e s a r i g h t - b r a n c h i n g a n a l y s i s . No s tudy has been s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d , however , to measure the b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s t h a t m igh t be m a n i f e s t e d when one word v e r sus a no the r i s emphas ized i n a p a r t i c u l a r p h r a s e . In p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , i n f a c t , t h i s v a r i a b l e has been c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d . L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n (1969) p r e -sen ted the p a i r e d - r e c a l l t a s k v i s u a l l y , w h i l e P a i v i o , e_t. a l . (1956 ; 1967) i n h i s r e c a l l t a s k s , used a tape w i t h a monoton i c v o i c e . I t i s s p e c u l a t e d as to whether o r not the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n o f v o c a l s t r e s s d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g phase o f a c u e d - r e c a l l t a s k would have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the c u e i n g c a p a c i t y o f a wo rd . Would a s t r e s s e d wo d be an a i d i n the r e c a l l o f the r e s t o f the phrase or a h i n -d rance? K ingdon (1958) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t emphasis i s o f t e n d e f i n e d i n a p r a g m a t i c sense as " c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to s p e c i a l a s p e c t s o f m e a n i n g . " In l i n e w i t h M a r t i n ' s (1970) i deas on s c a n n i n g , t h e n , an a d j e c t i v e (or any word) wh i ch i s s t r e s s e d would be scanned a f t e r o t h e r w o r d s , b e -cause emphas is i s used to c a l l a t t e n t i o n to i d i o s y n c r a c i e s . R e l a t i v e to the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , i t has been i m p l i e d t h a t i n E n g l i s h t h e r e are a t l e a s t two methods o f showing e m p h a s i s . The f i r s t o f t hese i s a l t e r i n g p r e -f e r r e d word o r d e r . H i l l ( 1 9 6 0 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a t e s s p e -c i f i c a l l y t h a t i n a t h r e e word phrase such as " l o n g b l a c k h a i r , " the word f u r t h e s t f rom the noun i s n o r m a l l y s t r e s s e d . The a l t e r e d word o r d e r o f E n g l i s h p o e t r y o f t e n u t i l i z e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e to a c h i e v e emphat i c e f f e c t . For the purposes o f t h i s p a p e r , however , one i s most i n t e r -e s t e d i n the f a c t t h a t the word p r e f e r r e d f a r t h e s t f rom the noun ( A d j e c t i v e 1) not o n l y i s the n o r m a l l y s t r e s s e d o n e , but i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d by L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n (1969) to be the p o o r e s t cue f o r the o t h e r two words i n a p a i r e d - r e c a l l t a s k . One migh t e x p e c t , t h e n , t h a t i f the speake r d e c i d e d to emphas ize c o l o r r a t h e r than l e n g t h , u s i n g a l t e r e d word o r d e r as h i s method , " l o n g " would change i t s c u e i n g power and s u b s e q u e n t l y become the b e t t e r cue w o r d . L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n ' s (1969) s t u d y c o n t r o l l e d f o r such a p o s s i b i l i t y , w i t h r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t chang ing word o r d e r d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y change p r i o r i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t to c u e i n g power . There was a t e n d e n c y , however , f o r a l t e r e d word o r d e r to a f f e c t the c u e i n g a b i l i t y o f a wo rd . Perhaps the emphasis p r o v i d e d by a l t e r e d word o r d e r i n E n g l i s h i s not v i g o r o u s enough to evoke s i g n i f i c a n t changes . The second p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the E n g l i s h speake r i s to v o c a l l y s t r e s s the i n d i c a t e d c o l o r : " l o n g b l a c k h a i r . " In f a c t , t h i s most l i k e l y i s the method the speake r would choose s i n c e p h r a s a l s t r e s s by way o f v o i c e m o d u l a t i o n i s much more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n E n g l i s h than i s p o s i t i o n a l s t r e s s ( D a v i s , 1954 ; 1 9 6 8 ) . A g a i n , one migh t p r e d i c t t h a t b l a c k would become the p o o r e r cue i n a cued-r e c a l l t a s k . The subsequent e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s i s an a t t empt to p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to t hese s p e c u l a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t v o c a l s t r e s s w i l l a f f e c t the c u e i n g c a p a c i t y o f a d j e c t i v e s i n a c u e d - r e c a l l t a s k such t h a t the s t r e s s e d word w i l l be the p o o r e r cue r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s p o s i t i o n i n the p h r a s e . I f i t can be shown t h a t v o c a l s t r e s s does i ndeed a f f e c t the c u e i n g power o f a w o r d , some i n t e r e s t i n g d i v e r s i o n s to the s t u d i e s o f P a i v i o (1967) and Kusyszyn and P a i v i o (1966) w i l l be opened up. I t m igh t be sugges t ed t h a t the i m a g e r y - e v o k i n g c a p a c i t y of w o r d s , ( and/or t h e i r s p e c i f i c i t y and c o n c r e t e n e s s ) a re not a b s o l u t e q u a l i t i e s , but r a t h e r q u a l i t i e s wh ich change w i t h o t h e r d imens i ons of the phrase and c o n t e x t . I r r e s p e c t i v e o f such i m p l i c a t i o n s , however , the f o r e g o i n g d a t a endeavor to i l l u m i n a t e the r e l a t i v e l y o b s c u r e r o l e wh ich r h y t h m i c s t r e s s p l a y s a l o n g w i t h o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c phenomena i n the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . METHOD P a r t A : Determi n i ng p r e f e r r e d o r d e r i n g . I t was f i r s t n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t a l i s t of a d j e c t i v e - a d j e c t i v e noun phrases such t h a t each t r i p l e t was c o n s t r a i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. ) Both a d j e c t i v e s have a f r e q u e n c y coun t of a t l e a s t ten per m i l l i o n by the T h o r n d i k e -Lorge word c o u n t . 2. ) In o r d e r to c o n t r o l e x i s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h , n e i t h e r a d j e c t i v e w i l l e l i c i t the noun more than once i n a group of 80 s u b j e c t s asked to r espond to each a d j e c t i v e w i t h the f i r s t noun t h a t comes to m i n d . 3. ) The noun w i l l e l i c i t n e i t h e r a d j e c t i v e more than once f rom a n o t h e r group d f 80 s u b j e c t s . T h i r t y t r i p l e t s were c o n s t r u c t e d wh ich met w i t h the p r e c e d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s . N e x t , i t was n e c e s s a r y to de t e rm ine i f t h e r e was a p r e f e r r e d o r d e r i n g f o r the t r i p l e t s and to u l t i m a t e l y c a l c u l a t e whether the p r e f e r r e d o r d e r was s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s was c a r r i e d out by p r e s e n t i n g a l i s t o f the t r i p l e t s to a group o f 136 f reshmen u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . . H a l f o f the Ss r e c e i v e d a shee t o f paper w i t h the noun as the f i r s t word o f the t r i p l e t , f o l l o w e d by A d j e c t i v e 1 and then A d j e c t i v e 2. The o t h e r 68 S£ a l s o read the noun as the f i r s t w o r d , but the a d j e c t i v e o r d e r was r e v e r s e d such t h a t A d j e c t i v e 2 was p l a c e d c l o s e s t to the noun. I n s t r u c t i o n s , p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y , asked the s t u d e n t s to a r r ange the words i n t o the o r d e r they would most l i k e l y say them i n a p h r a s e . (See Append i ces I-I I I ) f o r a comp le te l i s t o f the t r i p l e t s and i n s t r u c t i o n s . ) To de t e rm ine the s t r e n g t h o f the p r e f e r r e d o r d e r -i n g , a s i m p l e c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s was per fo rmed w i t h each i t em (McNemar, 1 9 6 8 ) . From the o r i g i n a l 3 0 , 24 i tems were chosen as the s t i m u l i to be used i n the second p a r t o f the e x p e r i m e n t . ( I tems used are shown i n Append i ces I I and I I I . ) Each of t hese 24 i tems m a n i f e s t e d a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e above 6.6 i n d i c a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .01 l e v e l ; i . e . a l l 24 t r i p l e t s showed a d e f i n i t e a p r i o r i p r e f e r e n c e i n o r d e r . P a r t B_: Cued-Reca l 1 t a s k -The major p a r t o f the e x p e r i m e n t a t t empted to r e l a t e v o c a l s t r e s s and word o r d e r i n the 24 phrases to the a b i l i t y o f a s u b j e c t to remember the phrase i n a cued-r e c a l l s i t u a t i o n . Memory was chosen as the dependent v a r -i a b l e f o r two r e a s o n s : 1.) Most da t a f rom the o t h e r e x p e r i -menta l s t u d i e s conce rned w i t h p r e f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g used memory as the b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e ; i t was f e l t t h a t to have a more comprehens i ve b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n , the same d i m e n s i o n s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d wherever p o s s i b l e . 2. ) One of the most obv ious c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l anguage i n g e n e r a l i n v o l v e s the na tu re o f i t s r o l e w i t h r e s p e c t to memory. D e s i g n : The d e s i g n was 2x2x2x2 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e m a t r i x ; Group I r e c e i v e d Items 1-24, w h i l e Group II heard 12-24 , 1- 11 as the i n p u t o r d e r . W i t h i n each i t em t h e r e were two s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s , e i t h e r A d j e c t i v e 1 or 2 , and two o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s , e i t h e r A d j e c t i v e 1 - A d j e c t i v e 2-Noun, or A d j e c t i v e 2- A d j e c t i v e 1-Noun. D u r i n g the r e c a l l t a s k , Ss_ were g i v e n as a cue e i t h e r A d j e c t i v e 1 or 2 , wh ich remained the same over the two t r i a l s , p r e s e n t e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y . P r o c e d u r e : E i g h t y _Ss_ p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s phase o f the e x p e r i m e n t . They had no c o n t a c t w i t h or knowledge of the d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n p a r t A. The Ss^  were randomly a s s i g n e d to e i t h e r group I or I I ; w i t h i n each g r o u p , they were f u r t h e r randomly d i v i d e d i n t o b l o c k s o f 5 Ss_, each b l o c k d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the f o u r p o s s i b l e o r d e r , s t r e s s and cue c o n d i t i o n s . (See Tab l e I f o r a s chema t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the d e s i g n . ) P r e s e n t a t i o n : Items were p r e s e n t e d by a f ema le v o i c e , c a r e -f u l l y r e h e a r s e d w i t h r e s p e c t to s p a c i n g and t i m i n g ; a t h r e e second i n t e r v a l s e p a r a t e d the i n d i v i d u a l t r i p l e t s . The v o i c e was taped on an RCA s o l i d s t a t e s t e r e o tape r e c o r d e r . Each b l o c k o f Ss_ was i n s t r u c t e d to c l o s e t h e i r e y e s , r e l a x , and l i s t e n to the l i s t o f 24 i t e m s . Immed ia te l y f o l l o w i n g , E p r e s e n t e d v e r b a l l y one of the a d j e c t i v e s f rom each t r i p l e t as a c u e . Ss^  were asked to w r i t e down the o t h e r two words which t o g e t h e r w i t h the cue r e p r e s e n t e d the comp le te p h r a s e . Each cue word was s t a t e d t w i c e , and s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d 60 seconds to remember and w r i t e the p h r a s e . Immed ia te l y f o l l o w i n g , a second t r i a l was p r e s e n t e d e x a c t l y l i k e the f i r s t . The f i r s t t r i a l was c o n c e i v e d as a p r a c t i c e t r i a l to f ami 1 i a r i ze Ss^  wi th the t a s k and p r o v i d e a r e s p o n s e s e t e n a b l i n g them to pe r f o rm a t peak 1eve l on t r i a l 2. S c h e m a t i c Diagram Showing ANOVA D e s i g n f o r 80 Ss Con ct\ f1 o n s J.h-Otxkr\ Order ( r roup ZLl J . 4 c m s [-2H n -P"e-fer r e d O r d e r ITJOh-f>refe rr«J Order r\=zo Pre-f erred. O r d e r f\) en-prefer M{ Order '^4 res 0 - / 0 tressec n-JQ n- /o / M i * /Hi-' n-/o v| Sfrcss& Ml Cut l/ariolole. i Cud. a t 2 />-5 0 -5 AS-I 2 Cut. ZVL<L CaC u.t,Ci ( n-5 n=s Ni Cue Cuc^i n-5 n=5 V 2. Cue A t the c l o s e o f the e x p e r i m e n t , Sj_, were asked to g i v e comments w i t h r e s p e c t to what he lped or h i n d e r e d them when a t t e m p t i n g to r e c a l l the p h r a s e . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The da t a was a n a l y z e d u s i n g two r e s p o n s e measu res : the number o f whole c o r r e c t phrases r e c a l l e d by each g r o u p , and the number o f nouns r e c a l l e d . The l a t t e r measure was i n c l u d e d p r i m a r i l y to p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r d r a w i n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h the P a i v i o e t , al_. s t u d i e s . Number o f c o r r e c t phrases r e c a l l e d . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e per formed on the two t r i a l s was group x s t r e s s x cue x o r d e r . T a b l e s I I and I I I summarize each o f t he se a n a l y s e s . I t . i s c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d t h a t the o n l y v a r i a b l e to r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e on e i t h e r t r i a l was t h a t o f the major e f f e c t o f s t r e s s . On T r i a l 1, F = 3 . 6 1 , (p < . 0 5 ) ; on T r i a l 2 , F = 8 . 0 6 , (p < . 0 1 ) . No i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s r eached s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h u s , the h y p o t h e s i s o r i g i n a l l y p r e s e n t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , t h a t the n o n s t r e s s e d word would be the b e t t e r cue f o r the r e s t o f the p h r a s e , was not u p h e l d . M o r e o v e r , the da t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t the cue word per se was not a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f Phrases R e c a l l e d on T r i a l 1 Source Sum o f S DF F P Group (G) .312 1 .03 S t r e s s (S) .378 1 3.61 < .05 Cue (C) .325 1 3 .10 --Order (0) .612 1 .06 --G x S .120 1 1.15 --G x C .312 1 .03 --G x 0 .312 1 .03 --S x C .120 1 1.15 S x 0 .120 1 1.15 --C x 0 .276 1 2 .63 --G x S x C .153 1 1,46 --G x S x 0 .112 1 .01 --G x C x 0 .551 1 .53 --S x C x 0 .523 1 .04 --TABLE I I I ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f Phrases R e c a l l e d , T r i a l 2 Source Sum o f S DF F P Group (G) .200 1 .01 S t r e s s (S) .274 1 8.06 < .01 Cue (C) .392 1 1 .15 --Order (0) .162 1 .48 --G x S .115 1 3 .39 --G x C .242 1 .71 --G x 0 .500 1 .15 --S x C .450 1 1 .32 --S x 0 .120 1 1.15 --C x 0 .242 1 .71 --G x S x C .338 1 1 .00 --G x S x 0 .500 1 . .15 --G x C x 0 .200 1 .01 --S x C x 0 .392 1 1 .15 to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e sponse measure . R a t h e r , i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f the r e s u l t s sugges t t h a t s u b j e c t s remembered more whole phrases when the f i r s t word o f the phrase r e c e i v e d emphasis than when the second word r e c e i v e d such e m p h a s i s , and t h a t t h i s e f f e c t was a p p a r e n t l y v i g o r o u s enough to o v e r - r i d e any o t h e r e f f e c t s o f the word o r d e r or q u a l i t i e s o f the cue w o r d . I t appeared to make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e whe the r A d j e c t i v e 1 or 2 was the s t r e s s e d w o r d , whether A d j e c t i v e 1 or 2 was p l a c e d f i r s t , whether A d j e c t i v e 1 or 2 was the cue w o r d , whether the s t r e s s e d or n o n s t r e s s e d word was the c u e , or what was the order of i t e m i n p u t . The p o w e r f u l n e s s o f the s t r e s s v a r i a b l e i n the d a t a i s , on f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o n t r a d i c t o r y to da t a r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . P a i v i o ' s (1967) da t a showed t h a t the a b i l i t y o f a s u b j e c t to r e c a l l a word was r e l a t e d to the i m a g e r y - e v o k i n g c a p a c i t y o f the cue w o r d . L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n ' s (1969) da t a showed t h a t the a b i l i t y o f a s u b j e c t to r e c a l l e i t h e r the noun or the o t h e r a d j e c t i v e i n a phrase was r e l a t e d to q u a l i t i e s o f the cue word i n such a way t h a t the a d j e c t i v e p r e f e r r e d c l o s e s t to the noun was s u p e r i o r . The p o s i t i o n o f t h i s a d j e c t i v e was i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e d by a s p e c t s o f i t s m e a n i n g ; i . e . , " d e f i n i t e -ness" a n d / o r " a b s o l u t e n e s s . " However , i t s h o u l d be r e -emphas ized a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t n e i t h e r P a i v i o nor M a r t i n i n t r o d u c e d v o c a l s t r e s s as an a s p e c t o f t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l des i g n . What the p r e s e n t da t a seems to sugges t i s t h a t s t r e s s as a v a r i a b l e i s somehow more fundamenta l to speech p e r c e p t i o n than the f o r e - m e n t i o n e d s eman t i c q u a l i t i e s o f the cue w o r d . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t a u s e f u l i n -v e s t i g a t i o n o f how and why t h i s migh t be so s h o u l d l o g i c a l l y b e g i n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of f i r s t l anguage l e a r n i n g . One i s reminded of C a r r o l l ' s (1961) d i s c u s s i o n o f d e c o d i n g i n wh ich he emphas izes the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y s e l e c t i o n o f r e l e v a n t s i g n a l even t s from an e n v i r o n m e n t composed of both these even t s and o t h e r e x t r a - m e s s a g e phenomena. He s t a t e s t h a t d e c o d i n g b e h a v i o r i s d e t e r m i n e d by the "imme-d i a t e l y p e r c e i v e d e lements o f the message . . . as w e l l as . . . remote e lements o f the message such as s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e ; . . e t c . " The t h e o r e t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e n c o d i n g and d e c o d i n g p r o v i d e a u s e f u l frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r c o n c e p -t u a l i z i n g f i r s t l anguage l e a r n i n g ; i t seems t h a t the c h i l d ' s f i r s t t a s k must be to d i s c o v e r wh ich a s p e c t s o f  the t o t a l message a re i n f o r m a t i v e and wh ich a re n o t . On ly when such u n i t s a re known w i l l the c h i l d be a b l e to produce c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s . In more g e n e r a l t e r m s , the c a p a c i t y f o r speech commun ica t i on depends on the s u c c e s s f u l d i s c o v e r y o f t hose f e a t u r e s o f the l anguage wh ich are f u n c -t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the u se r s o f t h a t l a n g u a g e . The f i r s t l anguage l e a r n e r can o n l y decode segments o f the message t h a t he i s a b l e to p e r c e i v e . In o t h e r w o r d s , speech p e r c e p t i o n i s the i n i t i a l phase o f l anguage l e a r n i n g . B r a i n e (1961) s t a t e s t h a t . . . the quest-ion of 'what is learned' can only be answered by a statement of the stim-ulus a t t r i b u t e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s which the c h i l d learns to d i s t i n g u i s h . I m p l i c i t i n such a s t a t e m e n t i s the n o t i o n t h a t the s i g n i f i -c a n t a s p e c t s o f a d u l t v e r b a l b e h a v i o r a re marked or cued i n some f a s h i o n by the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the s i g n a l . Decod ing a t i t s most p r i m i t i v e l e v e l would thus i n v o l v e a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o r i e n t e d toward a c o u s t i c a l phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h speech b e h a v i o r . T h e r e f o r e , any e x p l a n a t i o n o f the d e c o d i n g mechanism o f f i r s t l anguage l e a r n e r s must b e g i n w i t h a s t a t emen t c o n c e r n i n g the i n i t i a l s t age o f d e c o d i n g - - the i n t e r a c t i o n between the a c o u s t i c a l marker e l emen t s o f s i g n a l s and the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e s p o n s e to those e l e m e n t s . Too o f t e n r e s e a r c h d a t a has not p r o p e r l y c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s when i n v e s t i g a t i n g language l e a r n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t . For e x a m p l e , the s t u d y by Brown and B e l l u g i (1964) r e c o r d e d spontaneous u t t e r a n c e s o f c h i l d r e n . I t was found t h a t the major c o m p o s i t i o n o f such v e r b a l i z a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f nouns , ve rbs and a d j e c t i v e s - - i . e . , the c o n t e n t words o f the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . However , emphasis on the f a c t t h a t the c h i l d encodes o n l y c e r t a i n word c l a s s e s o b s c u r e s an a d d i t i o n a l i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t hese words - - t h a t i n E n g l i s h they t y p i c a l l y r e c e i v e heavy s t r e s s ( c f . Brown and F r a s e r , 1 9 6 3 ) . The c h i l d may have no knowledge t h a t a word i s a noun , but may be a t t e n d i n g to the emphasis a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s v i ew i s the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the c h i l d ' s d e c o d i n g mechanism i s s e n s i t i v e to i n t o n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s or c o n t o u r s where s t r e s s i s s i g n a l l e d by a c o u s t i c a l c h a n g e s . There i s one s t udy r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e wh ich was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d to t e s t a c h i l d ' s r e c a l l when s t r e s s was v a r i e d . B l a s d e T l (1967) p r e s e n t e d a s e r i e s o f f o u r nonsense words to c h i l d r e n aged t h r e e - f o u r y e a r s o l d , a s k i n g them to i m i t a t e what they h e a r d . V a r y i n g both s t r e s s and word p o s i t i o n , he r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n r e p e a t e d c o r -r e c t l y the words wh ich r e c e i v e d p r i m a r y s t r e s s to a s i g n i f -i c a n t l y g r e a t e r degree than the n o n s t r e s s e d w o r d s . They a l s o remembered the word i n the l a s t p o s i t i o n b e t t e r than the f i r s t t h r e e words o f the s t r i n g , but t h e r e was no s i g -n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between the v a r i a b l e s o f s t r e s s and word p o s i t i o n . The f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t the i n f e r e n c e t h a t t he se two e f f e c t s a re m u t u a l l y i ndependen t cues f o r the c h i l d ' s d e c o d i n g mechanism. Perhaps one of the most s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s i n the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s can be o b t a i n e d by r e l a t i n g t h i s s t udy to B e v e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t e g i e s ( 1 9 7 0 ) . The b a s i c emphasis o f B e v e r ' s d i s c o u r s e "is t h a t t h e r e e x i s t g e n e r a l p e r c e p t u a l laws wh ich canno t be v i o l a t e d by l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t e -g i e s ; i . e . , the manner i n wh ich a pe r son p e r c e i v e s speech i s a s p e c i a l case o f some g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e o f p e r c e p t i o n . Wi th r e s p e c t to p r e f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g , the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e t hough t to be i n o p e r a t i o n i s s t a t e d as s u c h : In an ordered array of adjacent items ... XYZ . . . if XR\Y is the same as YR\Z3 then the array is grouped together. If YR\Z is d i f f e r e n t from XR\Y3 then the stimulus is segmented (XY)Z. ( B e v e r , 1970 , p . 327) In e s s e n c e , Bever i s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s e g m e n t a t i o n tends to be e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y a t p o i n t s i n a s t i m u l u s where one can p e r c e i v e a d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f r e l a t i o n s ( R ^ ) . The l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g y ( E " ) wh ich Bever a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e , s t a t e s t h a t : After 'determiner ' the boundary of the head noun phrase is marked by: (1) a set of morpheme classes that signal the end of a noun phrase or immediately sub-sequent morphemes that s i g n i f y the begin-ning of a new noun phrase or a r e l a t i v e clause and3 (2) a subsequent l e x i c a l item that is less uniquely a noun. For our p u r p o s e s , i n t e r e s t i s p r i m a r i l y i n the second a s p e c t , "a l e x i c a l i t em t h a t i s l e s s u n i q u e l y a n o u n . " T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , a n o t h e r way o f f o c u s i n g on the c o n t e x t of the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s by V e n d l e r , ( 1963 ; 1 9 6 3 a ) , Sweet ( 1 8 9 8 ) , Z i f f (1960) and M a r t i n ( 1968 ; 1969; 1 9 7 0 ) ; i . e . , " c l o s e n e s s to the noun i n m e a n i n g , " " s u b s t a t i v e n e s s , " " d e f i n i t e n e s s , " and " a b s o l u t e n e s s . " Whicheve r measure o f " n o u n l i k e n e s s " one chooses to u t i l i z e , the s y n t a c t i c c o n -s t r a i n t s on p renomina l a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g can be summarized as f o l l o w s : i n a s e r i e s o f p r e n o m i n a l a d j e c t i v e - s , the more n o u n l i k e a d j e c t i v e s a re o r d e r e d to be c l o s e r to the head noun they a l l m o d i f y . A c c o r d i n g to B e v e r , the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l i e s i n the fewer- p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a m b i g u i t y . I f more n o u n l i k e a d j e c t i v e s p receded l e s s n o u n l i k e a d j e c t i v e s , then a c c o r d -i n g to s t r a t e g y E " , premature s e g m e n t a t i o n would o c c u r . For e x a m p l e , t ake a phrase t h a t i n v e r t s p r e f e r r e d p r e n o m i n a l a d j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g , such a s : " the r e d , l a r g e t a b l e . " P a r t (2) o f s t r a t e g y E" c o u l d f e a s i b l y segment such a phrase i n c o r r e c t l y as two noun p h r a s e s : ( the r e d ) and ( l a r g e t a b l e ) . T h i s a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t " r e d " i s more n o u n l i k e than " l a r g e " and migh t c o n s t i t u t e a sub-j e c t i n i t s own r i g h t as i n answer to the q u e s t i o n , "Which c o l o r ? " "The r e d , p l e a s e . " A n o t h e r l u c i d example o f t h i s can be seen i f one c o n s i d e r s the c l a s s e s o f a d j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s d e l i n e a t e d by S c h e f f e l i n ( 1 9 7 1 ) . She i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n E n g l i s h , the normal o r d e r o f d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s f o l l o w s the sequence : s i z e , c o l o r and m a t e r i a l ; i . e . , b i g , b l u e rubbe r b a l l . One can t h i n k o f many i n s t a n c e s where "the r u b b e r " c o u l d s t a n d as i t s own p h r a s e , fewer where " the b l u e " migh t s t and a l o n e , and p r o b a b l y none a t a l l where " the b i g " would form a l o g i c a l phrase i n i t s own r i g h t . In the same sense t h a t a c e r t a i n o r d e r o f a d j e c -t i v e s i s p r e f e r r e d over a n o t h e r because i t a l l o w s f o r l e s s a m b i g u i t y , so v o c a l emphasis seems to be an even more p r i m a r y method o f e l i m i n a t i n g c o n f u s i o n ( J e s p e r s o n , 1 9 2 4 ) . Bever ( i n H a y e s , 1 9 7 0 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , d i s c u s s e s s en t ences l i k e : "He and he went to the s t o r e . " There i s no way i n wh ich a l t e r i n g word o r d e r can remove the redundancy and subsequen t c o n f u s i o n o f such a s t a t e m e n t . However , the s en t ence becomes e n t i r e l y p l a u s i b l e i f v o c a l emphasis i s g i v e n to the f i r s t "he" making i t c l e a r t h a t one i s i n d i c a t -i n g two s e p a r a t e m a s c u l i n e f i g u r e s , both o f whom happen to be g o i n g to the s t o r e . In a d d i t i o n , as was p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , s e v e r a l l i n g u i s t s have p o i n t e d out t h a t the common r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n i n an a d j e c t i v e - a d j e c t i v e - n o u n phrase i n E n g l i s h i s to emphas ize the f i r s t word o f a phrase ( c f . F r a n c i s , 1958; J e s p e r s o n , 1924; H i l l , 1 9 6 0 ) . One would p r e d i c t , t h e n , t h a t t r i p l e t s wh ich do not v i o l a t e such p e r c e p t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s would be more e a s i l y remembered s i m p l y because they are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p e r c e p t u a l sys tem employed . Some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s e a r c h da t a e x i s t s showing the deve lopment i n c h i l d r e n o f s e n s i t i v i t y to o r d e r c o n -s t r a i n t s . Bever (1970) p r e s e n t e d c h i l d r e n between the ages o f two and f i v e w i t h phrases t h a t sometimes v i o l a t e d p r e n o m i n a l o r d e r c o n s t r a i n t s . He found t h a t younger c h i l d r e n c o u l d remember such phrases b e t t e r than o l d e r c h i l d r e n , and t h a t the age a t wh ich a c h i l d ' s pe r fo rmance d e t e r i o r a t e d on the t a s k c o i n c i d e d w i t h the age a t wh ich o t h e r r e s e a r c h shows him to be a c q u i r i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r speech p e r c e p t i o n . B r a i n e (1961) r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ove r the age o f t h r e e u s u a l l y no l o n g e r produce n o u n - m o d i f i e r r e v e r s a l s t y p i c a l o f younger c h i l d r e n , such as " h o r s i e b i g " or "dogg ie b r o w n . " H u t t e n l o c h e r (1964) a l s o e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h o r d e r i n g i n u n i t s o f two words and found t h a t c h i l d r e n aged f o u r to f i v e were a b l e to l i s t e n t o , r e v e r s e and r e p e a t p a i r s o f l e t t e r s , nouns and d i g i t s . The c h i l d r e n c o u l d r e v e r s e 8 - 6 , s a y i n g 6 - 8 , B-F became F-B and Horse-coW became cow-h o r s e . However , when commonly found g r ammat i ca l p a i r s such as r e d - a p p l e or man-runs were p r e s e n t e d , the c h i l d r e n had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e v e r s i n g them. H u t t e n l o c h e r a t t e m p t e d to a c c o u n t f o r the f a i l u r e s on the grounds t h a t the r e v e r -s a l s appeared s e m a n t i c a l l y a b s u r d . In ano the r s t u d y d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to t e s t c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n s t r a i n t s on a d j e c t i v e o r d e r , one o f the major f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by S c h e f f e l i n (1971) was t h a t g i r l s r esponded f a s t e s t to the p r e f e r r e d o r d e r , w h i l e boys d i d n o t . T h i s seems to f o l l o w from M a c C a r t h y ' s (1954) e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e i s e a r l i e r l anguage deve lopment by g i r l s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , the g i r l s may have been more de-pendent on l i n g u i s t i c cues i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k . The f a m i l i a r o r d e r may have a i d e d the g i r l s and the u n f a m i l i a r o r d e r may have h i n d e r e d them. T h u s , t h e r e appears to be a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f s u p p o r t f o r p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p i n g and o p e r a t i n g w i t h r e s p e c t to o r d e r c o n s t r a i n t s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g i f the s t i m u l i used i n the p r e s e n t t h e s i s were a l s o adapted to the l e v e l o f young c h i l d r e n to see the e f f e c t o f a p r e n o m i n a l s t r e s s c o n s t r a i n t on t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e c a l l the p h r a s e s . On the b a s i s o f the p r e v i o u s d i s -c u s s i o n , one migh t p r e d i c t t hey would remember i t ems b e t t e r than a d u l t s who have p resumably a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d and s t a b i -l i z e d such s t r a t e g i e s , b u t , i f s t r e s s i s p r i m a r y to word o r d e r , t hey would not do as w e l l as i f the t a s k i n v o l v e d o n l y word o r d e r c o n s t r a i n t . There i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t to the phenomenon o f Engl s t r e s s wh ich seems to be c l a r i f i e d somewhat by the p r e s e n t d a t a . I t was i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t an E n g l i s h speake r has two ways to employ e m p h a s i s : a l t e r e d word o r d e r or v o c a l s t r e s s . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t , however , t h a t when one w i s h e s to s t r e s s A d j e c t i v e 2 i n E n g l i s h , one a c t u a l l y does t h i s by c h a n g i n g word o r d e r , wh ich i n t u r n prompts v o c a l emphasis to o c c u r on A d j e c t i v e 2 r a t h e r than A d j e c t i v e 1. At l e a s t one r e s e a r c h e r , S c h e f f e l i n (1971) has no ted t h i s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h her s t udy o f c l a s s e s o f a t t r i b u t e s . She s t a t e s t h a t E n g l i s h speake r s u t i l i z e the normal o r d e r o f d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s e x c e p t when they w i s h to emphas ize a p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e such as i n the s e n t e n c e , " N o ! , I want the r u b b e r , b l u e b a l l ! " To f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s i d e a , and to l e n d a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t to the f i r s t word s t r e s s as a p r i m a r y p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t e g y f o r s p e e c h , i t would be n e c e s s a r y to pe r fo rm ano the r e x p e r i m e n t i n s t r u c t i n g Ss to e x p r e s s how they would v o c a l l y emphas ize p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s a l l u d e d to i n a p h r a s e , i n a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n . I f Bever i s c o r r e c t , i t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t more s u b j e c t s would r e a r r a n g e word o r d e r , k e e p i n g f i r s t word s t r e s s c o n -s t a n t . Second word s t r e s s as a_ deb i 1 i t a t o r o f memory. A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s wh ich bears c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to the f i n d i n g s . Thus f a r , the d i s c u s s i o n has c e n t e r e d on f i r s t word s t r e s s as a f a c i l i t a t o r o f s h o r t term r e c a l l . However , i t i s a l s o p l a u s i b l e to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t second word s t r e s s i s a d e b i l i t a t o r o f memory. Emphasis on the second word o f the phrase i s l e s s common i n E n g l i s h ; perhaps i t s p re sence p r o v i d e s a c o n f u s i n g c o m p l e x i t y i n t e r -f e r i n g w i t h easy r e c a l l . Bever (1970) t ouches on t h i s i d e a when he s t a t e s t h a t immedia te memory may be e x h a u s t e d e i t h e r by the l e n g t h o f an i n t e r v e n i n g sequence or by the p e r c e p t u a l c o m p l e x i t y o f t h a t s equence . The o r i g i n o f t h a t c o m p l e x i t y can o n l y be s p e c u l a t e d . However , i t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t i t a r i s e s because o f s eman t i c c o n s t r a i n t s which are d e t e r m i n e d by s y n t a c t i c a l o r d e r . When the f i r s t word o f the phrase i s s t r e s s e d , i t r e c e i v e s a r i g h t - b r a n c h i n g a n a l y s i s ; i . e . , i t m o d i f i e s both the o t h e r two words o f the t r i p l e t . However , when the second word i s s t r e s s e d , i t c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to s p e c i a l a s p e c t s o f the noun o n l y , t h e r e b y c o m p l i c a t i n g r e c a l l f o r the e n t i r e p h r a s e . The remarks made by the s u b j e c t s a t the c l o s e o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l s o l e n d s u p p o r t to t h i s i d e a . Most v e r -b a l i z e d t h e i r awareness o f the v a r i a b i l i t y o f the s t r e s s d i m e n s i o n . About 62% i m p l i e d o r s t a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t when the second word was s t r e s s e d , i t seemed "out o f p l a c e " and i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e c a l l the p h r a s e . S e v e r a l pe r sons s a i d they "guessed" from the f i r s t t r i a l t h a t the s t r e s s e d word was the i m p o r t a n t one on wh ich to f o c u s , and t h a t d u r i n g the second t r i a l , when t h i s word came second i n the t r i p l e t , i t d i s r u p t e d the c o n t i n u i t y o f the though t e x p r e s s e d . These s t a t e m e n t s sugges t t h a t s u b j e c t s a t t e n d e d , as wou ld be e x p e c t e d from the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n on speech p e r c e p t i o n , to the a c o u s t i c a l Marke r s - - the s t r e s s e d w o r d s . However , when these words o c c u r r e d i n the uncommon second p o s i t i o n , they v i o l a t e d the p e r c e p t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f f i r s t word s t r e s s i n E n g l i s h , c o m p l i c a t e d the sequence and i n t e r -f e r e d w i t h remembering the p h r a s e . Number o f nouns r e c a l 1 e d . The second measure a n a l y z e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a , t h a t i n v o l v i n g the number o f nouns r e c a l l e d , was i n c l u d e d p r i m a r i l y to p r o v i d e a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the f o r e - m e n t i o n e d s t u d i e s by P a i v i o , ( 1956 , 1 9 6 7 ) , L o c k h a r t (1969) and L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n ( 1 9 6 9 ) . T a b l e s IV and V show t h a t when the number o f nouns i s used as the measure o f c r i t e r i o n , f i r s t word s t r e s s i s not the s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e . R a t h e r , i n l i n e w i t h the p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , the cue word assumes most i m p o r t a n c e , a n d , s p e c i f i c a l l y A d j e c t i v e 2 , t h a t wh ich i s p r e f e r r e d c l o s e s t to the noun . On t r i a l 1, F = 4 .75 (p < . 0 5 ) ; on t r i a l 2 , F = 5 .52 (p < . 0 5 ) . Comparing the r e s u l t s when whole phrases r e c a l l e d was used as the r e sponse measure w i t h the r e s u l t s when nouns were the measure seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t f i r s t w o r d ^ s t r e s s ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f Nouns R e c a l l e d , T r a i l 1 Source Sum o f S DF F P Group (G) .800 1 .08 S t r e s s (S) .200 1 1 .98 Cue (C) . .480 1 4 .75 < .05 Orde r (0) .720 1 .71 --G x S .145 1 1 .43 G x C .242 1 2 .39 --G x 0 .605 1 .60 --S x C .980 1 .97 --S x 0 .369 1 3 .40 --C x 0 .980 1 .97 --G x S x C .113 1 .30 --G x S x 0 .320 1 .32 --G x C x 0 .405 1 .40 --S x C x 0 .455 1 .50 --E r r o r Term .658 65 ANOVA Summary f o r Number o f Nouns R e c a l l e d , T r i a l 2 Source Sum o f S DF F P Group (G) .361 1 .13 S t r e s s (S) .911 1 .34 Cue (C) .148 1 5 .52 < .05 Orde r (0) .451 1 .17 --G x S .630 1 2 .34 --G x C .343 1 .57 --G x 0 .312 1 .01 S x C .200 1 1 .06 --S x 0 .103 1 3 .99 --C x 0 .190 1 .71 G x S x C .153 1 .57 G x S x 0 .136 1 .51 --G x C x 0 .1 20 1 .45 --S x C x 0 .630 1 2 .34 --E r r o r Term .175 65 (an a c o u s t i c a l phenomenon) i s most i m p o r t a n t f o r r e c a l l i n g comple te a d j e c t i v e - a d j e c t i v e - n o u n p h r a s e s , but t h a t p r e -f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e c u e i n g (a s e m a n t i c phenomenon) i s most i m p o r t a n t f o r remembering nouns i n the same p h r a s e s . One p l a u s i b l e , though h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e e x p l a n a -t i o n o f t he se r e s u l t s i n v o l v e s the l i m i t a t i o n o f e n c o d i n g and d e c o d i n g by the c a p a c i t y f o r s t o r a g e i n s h o r t term memory ( c f . M i l l e r , 1 9 5 6 ) . I f man's c a p a c i t y f o r memory i s l i m i t e d , some i t ems w i l l be d e c o d e d , some n o t . Such a r e s t r i c t e d span n e c e s s i t a t e s a s e l e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f i n p u t . In k e e p i n g w i t h the p e r c e p t u a l a s p e c t s o f d e c o d i n g d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t when i n p u t o v e r s t e p s the bounds o f man's s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y , he a t t e n d s to p r i m a r y s i g n a l markers ( a c o u s t i c a l cues ) to t e l l him which e lements are most p e r t i n e n t to u n d e r s t a n d i n g and remembering the message . T h i s seems to be the phenomenon a t work when S_s were asked to r e c a l l the whole p h r a s e s . However , P a i v i o , L o c k h a r t and M a r t i n ' s s t u d i e s p o i n t e d out t h a t S_s are a l s o a b l e to b e t t e r r e c a l l words when they are cued w i t h o t h e r words wh ich e x h i b i t a h i g h c a p a c i t y f o r imagery a n d / o r are s p e c i f i c a l l y d e n o t a t i v e . M a r t i n ( 1 9 6 9 ) , i n t u r n showed t h a t an a d j e c t i v e ' s rank i s a l s o a f u n c t i o n o f i t s j udged c a p a c i t y f o r imagery and o f i t s s p e c i f i c i t y o f d e n o t a t i o n . T h u s , A d j e c t i v e 2 would be a b e t t e r cue than A d j e c t i v e 1. In a d d i t i o n , i t was i n d i c a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t A d j e c t i v e 2 was more bound up w i t h the noun i n the sense t h a t i t i s " c l o s e r to the noun i n m e a n i n g . " I t f o l l o w s , t h e n , t h a t when the S_s_ i n the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t were g i v e n A d j e c t i v e 2 as the c u e , t hey b e t t e r r e c a l l e d the nouns to wh ich they were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d . I t i s r e l e v a n t t h a t i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s to the t a s k , _Ss_ were asked to w r i t e down the whole p h r a s e . I t seems p l a u s i b l e to suppose t h a t when i n the a t t empt to do t h a t , memory f a i l e d , the f a c t t h a t the cue word p r o v i d e d an a d d i t i o n a l a i d f o r r e c a l l o f a p o r t i o n of the phrase ( the n o u n ) , t h a t i s the p o r t i o n t h a t would most o f t e n be r e c a l 1 e d . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s f e l t t h a t the most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the p r e c e d i n g r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t r h y t h m i c s t r e s s i s not o n l y a s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n i n r e c a l l , but perhaps i s the p r i m a r y d i m e n s i o n ; t h a t i s , i t may be the o r i g i n a l marker a t t e n d e d to i n f i r s t -language l e a r n i n g . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t i t i s u t i l i z e d by a d u l t s p e a k e r s when the memory l o a d of a message exceeds the l i m i t s o f the c a p a c i t y f o r s t o r a g e i n s h o r t term memory. C e r t a i n l y no l e s s p e r t i n e n t i s the f i n d i n g t h a t the s e m a n t i c q u a l i t i e s o f a d j e c t i v e s can be used as an i n d i -c a t i o n of t h e i r f a c i l i t y to cue r e c a l l . I t i s f e l t , however , t h a t the da t a w a r r a n t s c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s d i m e n s i o n as seconda ry to t h a t o f s t r e s s ( a t l e a s t i n E n g l i s h ) , and t h a t i t s v i g o r i n o t h e r r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s was p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n o f c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the s t r e s s v a r i a b l e . A n n e a r , S. S. The O r d e r i n g o f P re-nomina l M o d i f i e r s i n E n g l i s h P r o j e c t on L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s , Repor t #6, Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Resea rch F o u n d a t i o n , 1 964 . A r m s t r o n g , Edward C. The F rench s h i f t s i n a d j e c t i v e p o s i -t i o n and t h e i r E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s , S t u d i e s i n  Honor o f A. M a r s h a l l E l l i o t , 1_, B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopk ins P r e s s , B e v e r , Thomas. The c o g n i t i v e b a s i s f o r l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c -t u r e s , In Hayes , R. ( e d . ) , Cogni t i o n and the  Development o f Languages , W i l e y , 1970 . B l a s d e l 1 , R i c h a r d C. S t r e s s and word p o s i t i o n as d e t e r m i -nants o f i m i t a t i o n i n f i r s t - l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s , u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U. o f F l o r i d a , 1967. B r a i n e , M. D. S. The ontogeny o f E n g l i s h phrase s t r u c t u r e : . the f i r s t p h a s e , In A n d e r s o n , R. C. and A u s u b e l , D. P. ( e d s . ) , Read ings i n the P s y c h o l o g y o f  Cogni t i o n , N. Y . : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1961 . B rown, R. and B e l l u g i , U. Three p r o c e s s e s i n the c h i l d ' s a c q u i s t i o n o f s y n t a x . In L e n n e b e r g , E. ( ed . ) , New D i r e c t i o n s i n the S tudy o f Language , Cambridge The MIT P r e s s , 1964. B rown, R. and F r a s e r , C. The a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y n t a x . In C o f e r , C. N. and Musg rave , B. ( e d s . ) , Ve rba l  B e h a v i o r and L e a r n i n g , N .Y . : McGraw H i l l , 1963 . C a r r o l l , J . B. The S tudy o f Language , Cambr idge : Ha rva rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 . C o u s t e n o b l e , H. N. and A r m s t r o n g , L. E. S t u d i e s i n F rench  I n t o n a t i on , C a m b r i d g e , E n g l a n d : W. H e f f e r and S o n s , 1934. Danks , Joseph H. and B l u c k s b u r g , Sam. P s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l i n g o f a d j e c t i v e s o r d e r s , J . V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and  Ve rba l B e h a v i o r , 1969 , 8 , 272-275 . D a v i s , J . C a r y . A d j e c t i v e p o s i t i o n i n F r e n c h . The USF  Language Q u a r t e r l y , 1968 , 2-6. D a v i s , J . C a r y . Rhythmic S t r e s s i n S p a n i s h . Hi s p a n i a , 1954 , X X X V I I , 460-465 . F r a n c i s , W in th rop N. The S t r u c t u r e o f Amer i can E n g l i s h , N. Y . : Rona ld P ress C o . , 1958. H i l l , A. H. I n t r o d u c t i o n to L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e s , N . Y . : C o r n e l l U. P r e s s , 1960 . H u t t e n l o c h e r , J a n e l l e n . C h i l d r e n ' s l anguage word phrase r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S c i e n c e , 1964 , 143_, 264-265 . J e s p e r s o n , O t t o . P h i l o s o p h y o f Grammar, N .Y . : H. H o l t and Co. , 1924 . K a t z , J . J . Semant i c t h e o r y and the meaning o f " G o o d . " J . o f P h i l o s o p h y , 1964 , 2 3 , 739-766 . K e l 1 e n b e r g e r , H u n t e r . The I n f l u e n c e o f A c c e n t u a t i o n on F rench Word O r d e r , N. Y . : Kraus R e p r i n t C o r p . , 1 965 , ( o r i g i n a l l y p r i n t e d by P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) . K i n g d o n , Roger . The Groundwork o f E n g l i s h I n t o n a t i o n , N .Y . : Longman ' s , G r e e n , 1958. L a m b e r t , W a l l a c e E. and P a i v i o , A l l a n . The i n f l u e n c e o f n o u n - a d j e c t i v e o r d e r on l e a r n i n g . Canad ian J .  o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1956 , 1_0, 9-12 . L o c k h a r t , Rober t S. R e t r i e v a l asymmetry i n the r e c a l l o f a d j e c t i v e s and nouns . J . o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h l o g y , 1 9 6 9 , 7 9 , 12-17 . L o c k h a r t , Rober t S. and M a r t i n , James E. A d j e c t i v e o r d e r and the r e c a l l o f a d j e c t i v e - n o u n t r i p l e s . J . of  Ve rba l L e a r n i n g and Ve rba l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 6 9 , 8 , 272-275 . M a c C a r t h y , D o r t h e a . Language deve lopmen t . In L. Ca rm i chae l ( e d . ) , Manuel o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y (2nd e d . ) , N . Y . : John W i l e y , 1954. McNemar, Qui.nn. P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t a t i s t i c s . N . Y . : W i l e y , 1969. M a r t i n , James E.. The De t e rm inan t s o f P r e f e r r e d A d j e c t i v e O r d e r i n g i n E n g l i s h . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s -s e r t a t i o n , U. of I l l i n o i s , 1968 . M a r t i n , James E. A p r o p o s a l f o r a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l assessment o f p r e f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e o r d e r . U n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l , • U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1970 . M a r t i n , James E. Some compe tence-process r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n noun phrases w i t h p re-nomina l and p o s t - n o m i n a l a j d e c t i v e s . J . o f Ve rba l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l  B e h a v i o r , 1 9 6 9 , 8 , 471-480 . M i l l e r , G. A. The m a g i c a l number s e v e n , p l u s o r minus two : some l i m i t s on our c a p a c i t y f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r -m a t i o n . P s y c h o l . R e v . , 1956 , 5_3, 8 1 - 9 7 . Moore , G. E. P r i n c i p i a E t h i c a , Cambr i dge , 1903 . Musg rave , B. ( e d . ) , Ve rba l B e h a v i o r and L e a r n i n g , N . Y . : McGraw H i l l , 1963 . P a i v i o , A l l a n . P a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g and f r e e r e c a l l o f nouns as a f u n c t i o n o f c o n c r e t e n e s s , s p e c i f i c i t y , imagery and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1967 , 2 0 , 239-245 . S c h e f f e l i n , M a r g a r e t . C h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n s t r a i n t s upon a d j e c t i v e o r d e r . J . of L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1971 , 4 , 264-271 . Swee t , H. A New E n g l i s h Grammar, O x f o r d : C l a r e d o n P r e s s , 1898. V e n d l e r , Z. The grammar o f g o o d n e s s . The P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Rev i ew , 1963 , 7 2 , 446-465 . V e n d l e r , Z. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n grammar o f E n g l i s h A d j e c t i v e s . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s P a p e r s , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1963a . Z i f f , P. Semant i c A n a l y s i s . I t h a c a , N . Y . : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960 . DIRECTIONS T h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s an a t t empt to measure how language and memory are i n t e r - r e l a t e d . I am g o i n g to p l a y a tape on wh ich you w i l l hear a s e r i e s o f p h r a s e s . I want you to s i t back i n your c h a i r , c l o s e you r eyes and t r y to r e l a x , c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n l y on the t a p e . A f t e r you have heard a l l the p h r a s e s , t r y to w r i t e down the ones you remember. To he lp y o u , I w i l l g i v e you one word f rom each of the ph rases - you t r y to remember the o t h e r two w o r d s . Q u e s t i o n s ? 1. W r i t e down whole ph rase 2. Cover paper w i t h e x t r a page p r o v i d e d . 3. D o n ' t wor ry about numbers PREFERRED ORDER 1. m a r v e l o u s , o l d r e c i p e 2. a w f u l , brown b a l l o n 3. s u c c e s s f u l , young a t h l e t e 4 . p o o r , wor thy h e r m i t 5. l a r g e , d i r t y c a r r o t 6 . e x p e n s i v e , green wool 7. l o n g , c o m f o r t a b l e g l o v e 8. sad l a z y f r i e n d 9. h o t , r i p e v e g e t a b l e 10 . f r e s h , go lden mushroom 1 1 . t a l l , angry woman 12 . w r e t c h e d , s a l t y pudd ing 1 3 . r i c h , p r o f e s s i o n a l b u r g l a r 1 4 . c h e a p , b o r i n g t oy 1 5 . c l e a n , broken p i ano 16 . i m p r e s s i v e , l i t t l e m a g i c i a n 1 7 . f amous , w i cked k i n g 18 . warm, lumpy b u t t e r 19 . smoo th , happy v o i c e 2 0 . s h o r t , c l e v e r b a c h e l o r 2 1 . s t u p i d , g reedy s c i e n t i s t 2 2 . f a s t , g e n t l e mus ic 2 3 . b i g , l u c k y man 24 . v i o l e n t , s a c r e d dance NONPREFERRED ORDER 1. o l d , marve lous r e c i p e 2. b rown , aw fu l b a l l o o n 3. y o u n g , s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t e 4 . w o r t h y , poor h e r m i t 5. d i r t y , l a r g e c a r r o t 6. g r e e n , e x p e n s i v e wool 7. c o m f o r t a b l e , l o n g g l o v e 8. l a z y , sad f r i e n d 9. r i p e , hot v e g e t a b l e 10 . g o l d e n , f r e s h mushroom 11 . angry , t a l 1 woman 12 . s a l t y , w re t ched pudd ing 1 3 . p r o f e s s i o n a l , r i c h b u r g l a r 14. b o r i n g , cheap t oy 1 5 . b r o k e n , c l e a n p i ano 16 . l i t t l e , i m p r e s s i v e m a g i c i a n 17. w i c k e d , f amous , k i n g 18 . l umpy , warm b u t t e r 1 9 . happy , smooth v o i c e 2 0 . c l e v e r , s h o r t b a c h e l o r 2 1 . g r e e d y , s t u p i d s c i e n t i s t 2 2 . g e n t l e , f a s t mus ic 2 3 . l u c k y , b i g man 24 . s a c r e d , v i o l e n t dance 

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