Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of the hip adolescent, his family and the generation gap Beckman, Lanning Jay 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1971_A8 B42.pdf [ 4.79MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302453.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302453-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302453-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302453-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302453-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302453-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302453-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302453-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302453.ris

Full Text

A STUDY OF THE HIP ADOLESCENT, HIS FAMILY AND THE GENERATION GAP by LANNING JAY BECKMAN B i A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Depar tment o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Sep tembe r , 1971 In presenting this thesis in pa r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PSiCHoLobj  The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date StPrSriffffd ) /<jll i i ABSTRACT The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e I) t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e s t r u c t u r e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e h i p o r unde rg round s u b c u l t u r e ; 2) t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s e v o l v e ; and 3) t h e e v i d e n c e f o r and a g a i n s t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e ' g e n e r a t i o n g a p . " S e v e r a l c o r r e l a t e d i n d i c e s o f ! l h i p n e s s " were u t i l i z e d t o s e l e c t 49 h i p and 44 n o n h i p m a l e , a d o l e s c e n t s u b j e c t s . More t h a n 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' p a r e n t s a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . An e x t e n s i v e b a t t e r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y , a t t i t u d e and demog raph i c q u e s t i o n n a i r a s was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l s u b j e c t s . The d a t a r e v e a l e d l a r g e , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p and nonh i p a d o l e s c e n t s u b j e c t s on 14 o f t h e 18 ma jo r v a r i a b l e s measured In t h e s t u d y . R e l a t i v e t o t h e i r nonh i p c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e h i p s u b j e c t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : T h i n k i n g I n t r o v e r s i o n ; T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t -a t i o n ; E s t h e t i c i s m ; C o g n i t i v e C o m p l e x i t y ; Autonomy; L i b e r a l R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t -a t i o n ; Impu l se E x p r e s s i o n ; A l t r u i s m ; L i b e r a l A t t i t u d e s Toward C h i l d r e n ' s F reedom; Women's F reedom; and Sexua l F reedom. The h i p s u b j e c t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower o n : P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ; P r a c t i c a l O u t l o o k ; and M a s c u l i n i t y . The h i p p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e r e v e a l e d i n t h e f i n d i n g s was compared and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p r o f i l e s o f o t h e r a l i e n a t e d g r o u p s , name l y , r a d i c a l a c t i v -i s t s and t h e B e a t s o f t h e l a t e F i f t i e s . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l changes wh i ch have t r a n s p i r e d i n t h e Bohemian p e r s o n a l i t y d u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e . W h i l e h i p and nonh i p sons d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on 14 o f t h e 18 m a j o r v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r p a r e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s appea red r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r . H i p and nonh i p f a t h e r s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on o n l y two o f t h e 18 v a r i a b l e s ( h i p f a t h e r s were more p e r m i s s i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c h i l d r e n ' s f r eedom and t owa rd s e x u a l f r e e d o m ) . H i p and nonh i p mothe r s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on j u s t i l l one v a r i a b l e ( h i p mother s h e l d more p e r m i s s i v e s e x u a l v i e w s ) . I r r e s p e c t i v e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s , however , t h e g roup means i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g t r e n d f o r t h e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p and nonh i p p a r e n t s t o m i r r o r i n d i r e c t i o n t h e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o n s . On 16 o f t h e 18 v a r i a b l e s , b o t h h i p p a r e n t s s c o r e d i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r nonh ip c o u n t e r p a r t s as d i d t h e i r sons r e l a t i v e t o t h e nonh ip s o n s . The h ypo -t h e s i s was d i s c u s s e d t h a t bo th t h e s m a l l n e s s and c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e s e p a r e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e deve l opment o f h i p o r n onh i p v a l u e s among a d o l e s c e n t s . W h i l e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p a d o l e s c e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s was f ound t o be c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between nonh ip a d o l e s c e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s , t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r a g e n e r a t i o n gap h y p o t h e s i s . On 9 o f t h e 18 v a r i a b l e s , nonh ip sons d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om b o t h p a r e n t s i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n t h a t h i p sons d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om t h e i r s . R e l a t i v e t o t h e i r f a t h e r s and m o t h e r s , b o t h son g roup s d i s p l a y e d : more comp lex c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s ; g r e a t e r i m p u l s e e x p r e s s i o n ; l owe r p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; h i g h e r a n x i e t y ; l ower a l t r u i s m : l ower r e s p o n s e b i a s ; a more c y n i c a l a t t i t u d e t owa rd p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l ; and more l i b e r a l v i e w s r e g a r d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s f r eedom and s e x u a l f reedom. The g e n e r a t i o n g a p , as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o r e g o i n g c l u s t e r o f t r a i t s , was d i s c u s s e d f r om a p s y c h o - h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and p r e d i c t i o n s were e n t e r -t a i n e d r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o b a b l e f u t u r e o f g e n e r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT , 4 , t i i TABLE OF CONTENTS fv L IST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i i C h a p t e r I. INTRODUCTION I The Bohemian H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t 5 C h a p t e r 2. METHOD 13 P i l o t i n g o f t h e S u b j e c t S e l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 13 S e l e c t i o n of H i p and Nonhip S u b j e c t s 14 T e s t i n g t h e S t u d e n t s 18 C o n t a c t i n g and T e s t i n g t h e P a r e n t s 18 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Used i n t h e S tudy 19 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n and A n a l y s e s 22 C h a p t e r 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 24 Demograph ic Data 36 Compa r i s on o f H i p and Nonh ip Sons 40 Compa r i s on of H i p and Nonh ip P a r e n t s 52 Compa r i s on o f Sons and P a r e n t s - G e n e r a t i o n a l D i f f e r e n c e s . . 58 C h a p t e r 4 . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 63 BIBLIOGRAPHY 72 APPENDIX A 76 V LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Means f o r 49 H i p and 44 Nonh ip s u b j e c t s . . . . . . . . . . 17 TABLE II P a r e n t s ' P a r t i c i p a t i o n P a t e s . . . . . . . . . . . 19 TABLE I I I E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 22 TABLE IV Group Means 24 TABLE V S i g n i f i c a n c e o f D i f f e r e n c e s Between Means 29 TABLE VI F a t h e r ' s E d u c a t i o n 36 TABLE VI I F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n 36 TABLE V I I I Wo rk i ng P a t t e r n s o f M o t h e r s 37 TABLE IX P s y c h i a t r i c H i s t o r i e s » 38 TABLE X P o l i t i c a l P a r t y P r e f e r e n c e s 38 TABLE XI R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 40 TABLE XI I P l a n s t o A t t e n d U n i v e r s i t y 42 TABLE X I I I P r o s p e c t i v e O c c u p a t i o n 44 TABLE XIV P l a n s t o A t t e n d U n i v e r s i t y 56 TABLE XV R a n k - O r d e r i n g o f Means 64 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I Academic Histor ies V I I ACKNOWLEDGMENT T h i s s t u d y was p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by a g r a n t - i n - a i d f r om t h e Commit tee on You th o f t h e Depar tment o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . I C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i v i d e t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f d i s s e n t i n g y o u t h i n t o two p r i n c i p a l o r i e n t a t i o n s : t h e Mew L e f t and t h e h i p - B o h e m i a n . The a r e a o f o v e r -l ap and t h e i n t e r c h a n g e between t h e c a t e g o r i e s i s ma rked ; i t s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind t h a t t h e y a r e n o t d i s c r e t e . The f o c u s o f c o n c e r n i n 1 t h i s r e p o r t w i l l be t h e h i p - b o h e m i a n p e r s o n a l i t y , b u t , as o u r i n t e r v i e w d a t a i n d i c a t e s , many o f t h e s u b j e c t s so d e s c r i b e d have a t e a r l i e r t i m e s s u b s c r i b e d a c t i v e l y t o t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e New L e f t , and have e x p e r i e n c e d i n t e n s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t between t h e two f r a t e r n a l , though r i v a l p o i n t s o f v i e w * In many c a s e s , we can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p r i m a r y p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t i s a I i e n a t i o n f rom t h e dominant norms o f We s te rn s o c i e t y . The impu l s e t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h e a l i e n a t i o n moves t h e s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s , though se ldom i s one o f t h e s e a r e t u r n t o n o r m a t i v e l i f e - s t y l e s . K e n i s t o n , who has w r i t t e n a b o u t bo th h i p and a c t i v i s t y o u t h , a r gue s t h a t d e s p i t e t h e v a c i l l a t i o n o f y o u t h between t h e s e two a l l e g i a n c e s , each i s g rounded i n a d i s t i n c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l syndrome. He w r i t e s , " I n t h e f u t u r e , t h e t e n s i o n between t h e r o m a n t i c - a l i e n a t e d and t h e u n i v e r s a l i s t -a c t i v i s t s t y l e s o f d i s s e n t w i l l p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e . I wou ld a n t i c i p a t e a g r o w i n g p o l a r i z a t i o n between t h o s e s t u d e n t s . . . who t u r n t o h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and e x p e r -i e n t i a l p u r s u i t s l i k e d r u g s , s e x , a r t and i n t i m a c y and t h o s e s t u d e n t s who r e -d o u b l e t h e i r e f f o r t s t o change A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y 1 ( 1967 , page 1 3 4 — r e f e r e n c e s can be f ound a l p h a b e t i c a l l y l i s t e d a t t h e end o f t h i s r e p o r t ) . A c o n s i d e r a b l e e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s on t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and f a m i l y backg round o f t h e a c t i v i s t , w h i l e l i t t l e i s known abou t h i p a l i e n a t e d y o u t h . One o f t h e pu rpo se s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o answer c e r t a i n b a s i c q u e s t i o n s abou t t h e l a t t e r g roup and t o compare t h e s e answer s t o What i s known a b o u t t h e f o r m e r . O b s e r v e r s u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e new d i r e c t i o n s i n y o u t h c u l t u r e have 2 p ropo sed two p r e d o m i n a n t a rguments a g a i n s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e phenomenon o f d i s s e n t . F i r s t i t i s a r gued t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t has a lway s been r e b e l l i o u s and i d e a l i s t i c ( i . e . , t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n gap has a l w a y s e x i s t e d ) but t h a t t h e s e t r a i t s d i s a p p e a r a s a d u l t h o o d i s r e a c h e d . Re sea r ch e v i d e n c e shows, however , t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . The a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l f i n d i n g o f s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d more t h a n a decade ago was t h a t s t u d e n t s were h i g h l y c o n f o r m i s t , c o m p l a c e n t , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and s t a t u s - o r i e n t e d ( e . g . , J a c o b , 1957; Go Idsen e t a j _ . , I 9 60 ) . G i l l e s p i e and A l I p o r t (1953) r e p o r t e d t h a t o f a l l n a t i o n a l g r oup s s a m p l e d , none was l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l p r ob l ems t h a n t h e A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t . He showed no t r a c e o f r a d i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s , and was , i f a n y t h i n g , more c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a n h i s e l d e r s . In f a c t , what e v i d e n c e we have s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t i n y f r a c t i o n o f young p e o p l e who were r e b e l l i o u s i n t h e ' 5 0 ' s have no t r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e i r v i e w s , b u t , a s i n t h e c a s e o f A l l e n G i n s b e r g , can be found c i r c u l a t i n g i n Bohemian c o m m u n i t i e s t o d a y . The second argument a g a i n s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e y o u t h movement i s t h a t d i s s e n t e r s r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f young p e o p l e and t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n gap i s l i m i t e d t o t h e s e c a s e s . A n a t i o n a l s u r v e y r e p o r t s , however , t h a t f rom t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f y o u t h g e n e r a l l y , t h e g e n e r a t i o n gap i s l a r g e ( B a n k s , 1969, pp. 39 f f ) . O n l y 25% o f n o n - c o l l e g e y o u t h and \5% o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s f e l t t h e r e was no g e n e r a t i o n gap . Young p e o p l e p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t owa rd a w ide v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s t o be m a r k e d l y d i v e r g e n t f rom t h e i r own. R e l a t i v e t o t h e i r own f e e l i n g s , y o u t h found t h e i r p a r e n t s : I) "more l i k e l y t o compromise w i t h t h i n g s you d o n ' t l i k e . " 2) "more r e s p e c t f u l o f p e o p l e In p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y , " 3) "more l i k e l y t o a c c e p t t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e , " 4) " h a d more f a i t h i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s , " 5) " l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r p e o p l e , ! : 6) " l e s s l i k e l y t o do s o m e t h i n g abou t what you b e l i e v e i s r i g h t , " 3 7) " l e s s open t o t h e w o r l d , " 8) " l e s s o p t i m i s t i c abou t t h e f u t u r e , ! ; 9) " l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n b e a u t y , " 10) " l e s s c o n c e r n e d abou t what i s h appen i n g t o t h e c o u n t r y . " The s u r v e y does n o t o f c o u r s e Imply t h a t a l l o r even a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e young p e o p l e a r e a c t i v e r a d i c a l s . I t does s u g g e s t t h a t a nove l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r t o y o u t h i s i n e x i s t e n c e . A u t h o r s such a s Mead (1970) and Roszak (1969) have p ropo sed t h a t t h e phenomenon o f y o u t h d i s s e n t , a l t h o u g h c u r r e n t l y embraced by a m i n o r i t y , f o r e t e l l s o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s w h i c h w i l l be w i d e l y ab so rbed by Wes te rn c u l t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y a r gue t h a t g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e a l and a r e d e e p l y ancho red i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n s ; t h a t t h e f u r i o u s and c h r o n i c pace o f c u l t u r a l change i n modern s o c i e t i e s has bestowed upon each g e n e r a t i o n a u n i q u e e x p e r i -e n t i a l m i l i e u , mak ing us a l l , as Mead s a y s , " i m m i g r a n t s i n t i m e as o u r f o r e b e a r s were In s p a c e . " She h e r a l d s t h e a d v e n t o f p r e f i q u r a t i v e c u l t u r e , where y o u t h , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r a i d e r s w i l l have t h e c a p a c i t y t o a d a p t t o and shape t h e m u l t i t u d e o f o p e r a t i v e c u l t u r a l f o r c e s . One b a s i s f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s r o o t e d i n t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f c u l t u r e and d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . A number o f s t u d i e s ( e . g . , H o v l a n d , 1951; B r o m l e y , 1958; G r i e w , 1959) have shown t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a ge , a d a p t a b i l i t y and t h e a b i l i t y t o l e a r n new t a s k s , e s p e c i a l l y comp lex o n e s , d e c r e a s e s . The a c c e l e r a t i n g changes i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s e n t new l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s f r om w h i c h e i d e r s o f t e n r e t r e a t i n b e w i l d e r m e n t . E s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e ' 6 0 ' s d i d t h e s e changes and t h e i r e f f e c t s on g e n e r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s become a p p a r e n t . In 1959, C l a r k K e r r , t h e n P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , p r o p h e s i e d i n words w h i c h were t o p r o v e more p a t h e t i c t h a n p r o p h e t i c : " The 4 e m p l o y e r s w i l l l o ve t h i s g e n e r a t i o n . They a r e n ' t g o i n g t o p r e s s many g r i e v a n c e s , t h e r e a r e n ' t g o i n g t o be any r i o t s . " The s t r i k i n g i n a c c u r a c y o f s u ch a p r e d i c t i o n by a man o s t e n s i b l y so c l o s e t o y o u t h i s i t s e l f a c o m p e l l i n g p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e In s u p p o r t o f t h e c o n -c e p t o f a g e n e r a t i o n gap . As t h e ' 6 0 ' s p r o g r e s s e d , i t became c l e a r t o many o b s e r v e r s t h a t a new l i f e - s t y l e b e l o n g i n g t o y o u t h and h o s t i l e t o e l d e r s was e m e r g i n g , and t h a t p r e d i c t i o n s l i k e K e r r ' s a bou t t h e q u i e s c e n c e o f y o u t h were as f a l a c i o u s as t h e y were c o m f o r t i n g . The marked r i s e i n p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e h i p - B o h e m i a n l i f e - s t y l e a round 1965 i n s p i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t . To d a t e , however , a l m o s t no s t r u c t u r e d , e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have f ound t h e i r way i n t o p r i n t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e u n d o u b t -e d l y a number o f such s t u d i e s i n p r o g r e s s . A p a r t f rom t h e b i a s e d and o f t e n s e n s a t i o n a I i s t i c a r t i c l e s w h i c h have s a t u r a t e d t h e mass m e d i a , t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e h i p c o u n t e r c u l t u r e f a l l s p r i m a r i l y i n t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t , u n s t r u c t u r e d s o c i o l o g i c a l f i e l d s t u d i e s and thought p i e c e s : Simmons and W i n o g r a d , 1966; Y a b l o n s k y , 1968; P i t t s , 1969; B e r g e r , 1967; D a v i s , 1967; Simmon and T r o u t , 1967. Of t h e s e Y a b l o n s k y ' s book i s by f a r t h e most t ho r ough and i n f o r m a t i v e . The second c a t e g o r y o f w r i t i n g s i n c l u d e j o u r n a l i s t i c f i e l d s t u d i e s , c ommenta r i e s and a n t h o l o g i e s : B. H. W o l f e , 1968; Von H o f f m a n , 1968; E a r i s m a n , 1968; H o p k i n s , 1968; T. W o l f , 1968; H i n c k l e , 1967. The t h i r d s o u r c e c o m p r i s e s v e r b a t i m i n t e r v i e w s : L. W o l f , 1968; G r o s s , 1968. Because a l a McLuhan, w r i t i n g as a means o f e x p r e s s i o n i s r e j e c t e d by much o f t h e h i p commun i t y , few p e r s o n a l l i t e r a r y s t a t e m e n t s and a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . Some e x c e p t i o n s a r e t h e books by A b b i e Ho f fman , ( R e v o l u t i o n f o r t h e H e l l o f _i_t & Woodstock N a t i o n ) , J e r r y R u b i n , (Do i t ) , and t h e p o e t r y o f A l l e n G i n s b e r g . F i n a l l y , t h e e v e r - g r o w i n g ne twork o f unde rg round newspapers f u r n i s h e s what i s 5 p r o b a b l y t h e most s e n s i t i v e Index o f t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g c o m p l e x i o n o f h i p c u I t u r e . The p r e s e n t r e p o r t w i l l draw upon t h e f o r e g o i n g r e f e r e n c e s f o r a l o o s e o v e r v i e w o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o - h ? s t o r i c a I f e a t u r e s o f Bohemian s o c i e t y . A more d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n can be found i n my p a p e r , "A r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f P r o t e s t i n A m e r i c a , " f r om w h i c h t h e main themes o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n are t a k e n . The Bohemian H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t The s o - c a l l e d h i p p i e phenomenon r e p r e s e n t s t h e most r e c e n t node on t h e h i s t o r i c a l g r aph o f Bohemia . A l t h o u g h c r u c i a l i n n o v a t i o n s have been added t o p r i o r examples o f Bohemian c u l t u r e , t h e sen se o f h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y i s marked . T h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s ago , M a l c o l m Cowley d e s c r i b e d a " s y s t e m o f i d e a s " e m b l e m a t i c o f t h e Bohemian v a l u e - s y s t e m c i r c a 1920. The e i g h t i d e a s l i s t e d c o u l d , w i t h v e r y s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n , f i t t h e c u r r e n t h i p c u l t u r e . They a r e : I) t h e i d e a o f s a l v a t i o n by t h e c h i l d ; 2) t h e i d e a o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ; 3) t h e i d e a o f p a gan i sm ; 4) t h e i d e a o f l i v i n g f o r t h e moment; 5) t h e i d e a o f l i b e r t y ; 6) t h e i d e a o f f e m a l e e q u a l i t y ; 7) t h e i d e a o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t ; 8) t h e i d e a o f c h a n g i n g p l a c e . I n i t i a l l y and t h r o u g h most o f i t s h i s t o r y , Bohemia has been a te rm synonomous w i t h a r t . The p r i m a r y r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f Bohemian community has been the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t i n s o c i e t i e s s een as h o s t i l e t o e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . The demi se o f s y s tems o f p a t r o n a g e bestowed upon t h e a r t i s t t h e r o l e o f s o c i a l c r i t i c , c e r t a i n l y s o c i a l o u t c a s t . Bohemia became t h e h a b i t a t o f t h i s a l i e n -a t i o n . G r ana (1964) has documented t h e h i s t o r i c a l deve l opmen t o f t h e h o s t i l i t y between c o n v e n t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y and i t s Bohemian r e f u g e e s , between the i d e o l o g i e s o f r a t i o n a l i s m and r o m a n t i c i s m . 6 A l t h o u g h t h e B o h e m i a n ' s d i s a f f e c t i o n f rom s o c i e t y was p r i m a r i l y e s t h e t i c , e m o t i o n a l , and p e r s o n a l , he n o n e t h e l e s s c o n s t i t u t e d a n a t u r a l , though uneasy p a r t n e r , t o t h e r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s t s whose number were g r o w i n g a t t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y . Such famous Bohemians o f t h e day as J a c k London , Ambrose B i e r c e and I s odo r a Duncan, t o o k up t h e s o c i a l i s t c a u s e . The t e n s i o n s and a f f i l i a t i o n s between t h e e s t h e t i c Bohemian and t h e p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r e c a p t u r e d In t h i s q u o t a t i o n by t h e poe t W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s : , ! I am no t a B o l s h e v i s t no m a t t e r how I may s y m p a t h i z e w i t h t h e mob. I am d i f f e r e n t and o n l y f e e l f o r t h e i r f i g h t f r om a h i g h e r p l a n e . T h a t i s my p u z z l e . " The h i s t o r y o f t h e Bohemian f i g h t a g a i n s t P u r i t a n i s m h a s , t o t h e p r e s e n t , been i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l i s t f i g h t a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m . The most c u r r e n t example o f t h e a l l i a n c e can be seen i n t h e i n t e n t i o n a l w e l d i n g o f t h e Y i p p i e movement f r om t h e ' ' h i p p i e " and t h e New L e f t i d e o l o g i e s , (Ho f fman , 1968, p. 102). D u r i n g t h e ' 2 0 ' s , t h e appea l o f Bohemian i sm reached i t s peak. D i s t r i c t s l i k e G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e were w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as c e n t r e s o f u n i n h i b i t e d e n t e r -t a i n m e n t and ( d u r i n g p r o h i b i t i o n ) o f ea sy a c c e s s t o a l c o h o l , as t o d a y t h e y a r e r e c o g n i z e d d rug c e n t r e s . Bohemian i sm i n many ways has been a wea the r vane f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l c u l t u r e , e x p r e s s i n g i n e x t r eme t h e l e s s e x o t i c t r e n d s f ound g e n e r a l l y . The d e p r e s s i o n and Wo r l d War II d e p l e t e d Bohemia (as t h e r e s t o f A m e r i c a ) bo th i n numbers and v i t a l i t y . The r a d i c a l movement of t h e ' 3 0 ' s l o s t i t s Bohemian f l a v o u r as t h e " f i g h t a g a i n s t P u r i t a n i s m " d i m i n i s h e d i n r e l e v a n c e . The v i g o r o u s l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by Hemingway, F i t z g e r a l d , and G e r t r u d e S t e i n , d i e d o u t l e a v i n g a r e l a t i v e vaccuum i n Ame r i c an l e t t e r s d u r i n g t h e ' 3 0 ' s and ? 4 0 ' s . Academic w r i t e r s h e l d sway i n t h i s e r a , u n t i l , i n t h e e a r l y ' 5 0 ' s , Ke rouac and G i n s b e r g came f o r t h as new v o i c e s i n 7 t h e t r a d i t i o n o f Pound and W i l l i a m s . Thus t h e B e a t G e n e r a t i o n was b o r n — i n i t i a l l y as a l i t e r a r y movement, b u t soon t o become synonymous w i t h a l i f e -s t y l e w h i c h t o o k on t h e p e j o r a t i v e " b e a t n i k ' ' a f t e r t h e te rm was c o i n e d by San F r a n c i s c o c o l u m n i s t Herb Caen . F o r many r ea s on s p e c u l i a r t o t h e 1 4 0 ' s and e a r l y ' 5 0 ' s , t h e i n c i p i e n t B e a t c u l t u r e d i f f e r e d i n c r u c i a l a s p e c t s f rom e a r l i e r examp le s o f Bohemia . By f a r t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n n o v a t i o n s s p r ang f rom deve l opmen t s i n Negro c u l t u r e and f rom t h e c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e Negro and Bohemian c o m m u n i t i e s . J a z z p r o v i d e d t h e m e e t i n g g round f o r t h e two c u l t u r e s . The c r e a t i o n o f " b e b o p " by such m u s i c i a n s as D i z z y G i l l e s p i e , C h a r l i e P a r k e r , and T h e l o n i o u s Monk, r e p r e -s e n t e d a r a d i c a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f j a z z i n t o w h i t e m u s i c , and a g a i n s t t h e e m a s c u l a t i o n o f t h e i n d i g i n o u s A f r o s ound . Fo r t h e f i r s t t i m e B l a c k m u s i c i a n s began t o see t h e m s e l v e s (and t o have t h e w h i t e community r e -c o g n i z e them) no t as e n t e r t a i n e r s o f a f o l k i d i o m , but as a r t i s t s ( s ee J o n e s , 1963, p. 190 ) . Even b e f o r e t h e c hange , many c o m m o n a l i t i e s p r e v a i l e d between Bohemian and B l a c k c u l t u r e s . Most o f C o w l e y ' s e i g h t " i d e a s o f Bohemian i s m " a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e r o m a n t i c i s t themes o f t h e B l a c k e t h o s . W i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f " a l i e n a t e d a r t i s t " t o t h e j a z z m a n ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t , t h e a l l i a n c e between t h e two c u l t u r e s was t o o a p t t o be o v e r l o o k e d . The v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f Bohemia were remode led a round t h e c o n t o u r s o f N e g r o , j a z z c u l t u r e . J a c k K e r o u a c , who wanted t o be c o n s i d e r e d a " j a z z p o e t , " e x p r e s s e d i n h i s epoch -mak i n g n o v e l , On t h e Road , t h e B e a t ' s a t t i t u d e t o B l a c k c u l t u r e and t h e a l i e n a t i o n he f e l t f rom h i s own. A t l i l a c e v e n i n g I w a l k w i t h e v e r y mu s c l e a c h i n g among t h e l i g h t s o f 27 th and We I t o n In t h e Denver c o l o r e d s e c t i o n , w i s h i n g I were a N e g r o , f e e l i n g t h a t t h e b e s t t h e w h i t e w o r l d had o f f e r e d was n o t enough e c s t a s y f o r me, n o t enough l i f e , j o y , k i c k s , d a r k -n e s s , m u s i c , n o t enough n i g h t . 8 S t i l l t o d a y B l a c k i n f l u e n c e on h i p c u l t u r e i s paramount i n t e r m s o f v a l u e s , l i f e - s t y l e s and v o c a b u l a r y . Of t h e s p e c t r u m o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s bo r rowed f rom t h e B l a c k m u s i c i a n , two i n p a r t i c u l a r s t a n d o u t : t h e use o f d rug s as a s t a p l e i n d a i l y l i f e , and t h e " c o o l " e t h i c — a s o r t o f code of p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o u r t r a i t s r e q u i s i t e f o r s u r v i v a l i n an o p e n l y h o s t i l e m i l i e u . The two a r e r e l a t e d . Bo th d rugs and c o o l n e s s ( o r h i p n e s s ) p e r t a i n t o t h e v a l u a t i o n o f s i m u l t a n e o u s l y m a x i m i z i n g i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e and o u t e r c o n t r o l . I n i t i a l l y t h e te rm " h i p " r e f e r r e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e d rug s c e n e . To be " o n t h e h i p u meant t o be a d e v o t e e o f o p i u m , smoked w h i l e t h e u s e r lay on h i s h i p ( M a u r e r , 1938; L i n d e s m i t h , 1947) . And i n j a z z p a r l a n c e , " h i p s t e r " o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a b l a c k n a r c o t i c s a d d i c t , and o n l y l a t e r t o any member o f t h e c o u n t e r c u l t u r e , w h i t e o r b l a c k ( T a l l m a n , 1959) . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t w h i t e r e -f u g e e s f rom m i d d l e - c l a s s c u l t u r e f ound t h e m s e l v e s a t t h i s t i m e w i t h o u t a mean-i n g f u l c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , and so t u r n e d t o t h e r o o t l e s s B l a c k man t o f i n d o n e . L i k e most c o n t e m p o r a r y movements, t h e B e a t G e n e r a t i o n sped p a s t t h e window o f h i s t o r y , l e a v i n g o n l y a b l u r on t h e r e t i n a . The media t u r n e d a few B e a t w r i t e r s i n t o in famous p u b l i c f i g u r e s , whose works s t a n d as an i ndex o f t h e Bea t m e n t a l i t y . L i t t l e however i s known abou t t h e rank and f i l e Bea t s who by t h e l a t e ' 5 0 ' s p o p u l a t e d Bohemian g h e t t o s i n most m a j o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . T h e i r w i t h d r a w a l f rom t h e dominant c u l t u r e and h o s t i l i t y t o t h e s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e p r e c l u d e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . Two m a j o r e x c e p t i o n s a r e R i gney and S m i t h ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f 51 B e a t s l i v i n g i n t h e N o r t h Beach d i s t r i c t o f San F r a n c i s c o between 1958 and I960, and P o l s k y ' s more i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c f i e l d s t u d y o f t h e G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e Bea t c o l o n y . A l t h o u g h R i gney and S m i t h ' s s amp le was f a r f r om homogeneous, s e v e r a l g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s c an be drawn f r om t h e i r d a t a . The s u b j e c t s cane f r om p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i d d l e - c l a s s 9 backg round s w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n skewed t owa rd t h e upper end o f t h e s c a l e . ( P o l s k y e s t i m a t e d 60% o f t h e G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e B e a t s c i r c a I960 came f rom m i d d l e -c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s . ) The a v e r a g e age was 27 f o r men, 23 f o r women. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean o f 21 y e a r s f o r " h i p p i e s , " as f ound i n Y a b l o n s k y ' s n a t i o n a l s u r v e y ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Today you th a r e f i n d i n g t h e i r way t o Bohemia a t an e a r l i e r age t h a n t h e y d i d a decade ago. Asked on p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s t o s e l e c t i t ems most and l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e m s e l v e s , B e a t s c ho se as most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t a t e m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e ; f o r e xamp le , "I am a n x i o u s much o f t h e t i m e ; " "I have unu sua l and b i z a r r e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s . ' ' S e l e c t e d as l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were t h e f o l l o w i n g : "I am a b l e t o d e l a y g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; " "I c an m a i n t a i n matu re h e t e r o - s e x u a I r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (pp. 193 f f . ) . The h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f i n t e n s e i s o l a t i o n , a c o n d i t i o n l e s s a p p l i c a b l e t o p r e s e n t - d a y a l i e n a t e d y o u t h . D r u g s , w h e t h e r as s a c r a m e n t s o r p a l l i a t i v e s , were w i d e l y u s e d . O n l y 14 o f more t h a n 200 B e a t s i n P o l s k y ' s s t u d y d e n i e d i l l e g a l d rug u s e . A l t h o u g h p s y c h o - a c t i v e d rugs were a l s o used a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y by R i gney and S m i t h ' s s u b j e c t s , a l c o h o l was s t i l l l i s t e d as t h e most p o p u l a r d r u g . Many younge r B e a t s however , had been s o c i a l i z e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e p s y c h o - a c t i v e d rug s and n e v e r d r a n k , a s i t u a t i o n common t o d a y among a d o l e s c e n t s . P o l s k y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f o r m a t i v e on p a t t e r n s o f d rug use among B e a t s . An a s t o n i s h i n g l y h i g h number o f R i gney and S m i t h ' s s u b j e c t s (46 o f t h e 51) c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s , a f a c t wh i ch i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f Bohemia . These Bea t s echoed t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f Kenneth R e x r o t h who a s s e r t e d t h a t " A g a i n s t t h e r u i n o f t h e w o r l d , t h e r e i s o n l y one d e f e n s e — t h e c r e a t i v e a c t . ! ; The a n t i - p h i I i s t i n i sm and e l i t i s m a s s o c i a t e d 10 w i t h t h e B e a t c o n c e p t o f a r t f u n c t i o n e d as i n s u l a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e h o s t i l e w o r l d o f " s q u a r e s . ' ' T oday , however , t h e Bea t c o n c e p t o f " f i n e a r t " has been s u p p l a n t e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y by t h e p o p u l i s t c o n c e p t o f f o l k a r t as e x e m p l i f i e d i n r o c k m u s i c , p s y c h e d e l i c p o s t e r s and l i g h t shows. The b a r r i e r s t o membersh ip i n Bohemia have f a l l e n c o n s p i c u o u s l y as d e f e n s i v e n e s s and r e t r e a t i s m p r o v e l e s s n e c e s s a r y i n a w o r l d where d e v i a n c y is " becoming a l m o s t n o r m a t i v e among young p e o p l e . The e v e n t s o f t h e ' 6 0 ' s , p r i m a r i l y t h e p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s , have i r r e v e r -s i b l y a l t e r e d t h e s u b s t a n c e o f h i p - B o h e m i a n c u l t u r e . As o f f i c i a l s e n t i m e n t s a g a i n s t t h e B e a t s g r ew , bo th on t h e p a r t o f t h e p r e s s and p o l i c e , t h e dormant p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l i s m b u r i e d under an e r a o f M c C a r t h y i s t r e p r e s s i o n began t o s t i r . R i gney and Sm i th p r o v i d e a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r a c c o u n t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l deve l opment o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l awaken ing i n San F r a n c i s c o ( pp . 64 f f . ) . In 1959, s t i m u l a t e d by t h e e s c a l a t i o n o f p o l i c e h a r a s s m e n t , t h e B e a t s began o r g a n i z i n g c i t i z e n s c ommi t t ee s t o p r o t e c t t h e i r c i v i l r i g h t s . Much o f t h i s new- found p o l i t i c a l e n e r g y , w h i c h had h i t h e r t o been s t i f l e d by w i t h -d rawa l and d e s p a i r , was l a t e r c h a n n e l e d i n t o t h e C i v i l R i g h t s and A n t i - w a r movements ( N e w f i e l d , 1966) . A t t i t u d e s o f d i s s e n t were so m o n o p o l i z e d i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e decade by p o l i t i c a l e n t h u s i a s m s , t h a t t h e f undamen ta l c o n -c e r n s o f Bohemian c u l t u r e — a r t , s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and so o n — w e r e l a r g e l y e c l i p s e d . Th ree s e r i e s o f e v e n t s s e t t h e s t a g e f o r a Bohemian r e n a i s s a n c e : t h e Kennedy a s s a s s i n a t i o n , t h e c o n s p i c u o u s i n e f f i c a c y o f p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t , a n d - -c o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e B l a c k Power C o n c e p t — t h e e x c l u s i o n o f w h i t e r a d i c a l s f rom t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Movement. The d i s i I I u s i o nmen t s o f w h i t e m i d d l e - c l a s s y o u t h w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t c r e a t e d an opennes s t o n o v e l f o rms o f d i s s e n t . By 1965, t h e p s y c h e d e l i c a l t e r n a t i v e o f f e r e d by 11 T i m o t h y L e a r y and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , and m e d i a t e d by e s t a b l i s h e d c o u n t e r c u I t u r a l he roe s s uch as Bob D y l a n and t h e B e a t l e s , I n s p i r e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a movement based oh t h e use o f d rug s as t h e s a c r a m e n t a l means t o a n o n - v i o l e n t , s p i r i t u a l r e v o l u t i o n . D y l a n ' s 1965 s o n g , " M r . Tambour ine M a n , " w h i c h i s l a c e d w i t h p s y c h e d e l i c a l l u s i o n s , c o n t a i n s t h e l i n e , " I ' m ready f o r t o f a d e / i n t o my own p a r a d e , " Thus D y l a n p u n c t u a t e d f o r h i m s e l f and t hou sand s o f young p e o p l e t h e t r a n s i t i o n f rom p o l i t i c a l t o i n t r o s p e c t i v e c o n c e r n . And t h u s were t h e " h i p p i e s " b e i n g b o r n . The l i n e s o f c o n t i n u i t y f r om t h e B e a t s a r e , o f c o u r s e , d i s t i n c t ( s ee W o l f e , pp. 20 f f . ) . The most n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two movements i s t h a t t h e sen se o f i s o l a t i o n and d e f e a t f e l t by t h e B e a t s has g i v e n way t o f r e q u e n t l y M e s s i a n i c hopes o f t r i u m p h among t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s . R e l a t e d l y , t h e r o l e o f d rug s has assumed t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r e - e m i n e n c e f o r m e r l y a s c r i b e d t o a r t . T h e r e i s , however , some e v i d e n c e t h a t s i n c e 1967 when t h e h i p p i e move-ment r e a c h e d i t s peak i n n o t o r i e t y , much o f t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r p s y c h o - a c t i v e d rugs as s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l panacea has waned. A few o f o u r s u b j e c t s c l a i m t o have g i v e n up d rugs e n t i r e l y ; many have g i v e n up t h e " c h e m i c a l s " — L S D , Amphetamines , STP, e t c . — i n f a v o u r o f " n a t u r a l d r u g s " such as m a r i j u a n a and h a s h i s h . A l t h o u g h " d o p e " i s s t i l l a f a v o r i t e t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , much o f t h e f e r v o r seems t o have gone . Not long ago many h i p y o u t h a g r eed w i t h L e a r y , who p r e a c h e d , " I f e v e r y o n e i n Manha t t an were t o t u r n on and t u n e i n , g r a s s wou ld grow on F i f t h Avenue and t i e l e s s , s h o e l e s s d i v i n i t i e s would dance down t h e c a r - l e s s s t r e e t s . " T o d a y , one g e t s t h e f e e l i n g t h a t such s e n t i m e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a t b e s t n a i v e . The c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e t o d rug s seems t o be g r o w i n g more u t i l i t a r i a n , l e s s e v a n g e l i c a l . The f o l l o w i n g pas sage i s t a k e n f rom a l e a f l e t d i s t r i b u t e d by one o f o u r s u b j e c t s . 12 A Word A b o u t Weed D r o u g h t s T h e V a n c o u v e r Sun r e c e n t l y p r i n t e d a n a r t i c l e a b o u t t h e c u s t o m s s e a r c h e s f o r p o t a t t h e M e x i c o - U . S . b o r d e r . P e o p l e w e r e h e l d up f o r up t o 6 h o u r s w h i l e b o t h A m e r i c a n a n d M e x i c a n c u s t o m s o f f i c e r s s e a r c h e d t h e m f o r d o p e . One a n d a l l w e r e s e a r c h e d , a n d a p p r o x -i m a t e l y 1,000 l b s . o f weed w e r e s e i z e d . T h i s i s f i n e - - t o a p o i n t . I t makes t h e o f f i c i a l s a n d t h e law f e e l t h e y a r e d o i n g some g o o d by c a u s i n g a s h o r t a g e o f s m o k i n g d o p e t h r o u g h o u t t h e S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a . T h e r e i s o n e h angup a b o u t t h e s h o r t a g e o f weed. T h a t i s t h a t m o r e p e o p l e t u r n t o t h e c h e m i c a l s — a c i d , D.M.T. , T.H.C. ( t h e l i s t i s e n d l e s s ) — w i t h o u t s m o k i n g d o p e . FACT: WEED AND HASH ARE LESS HARMFUL TO YOUR BRAIN THAN SYNTHETICS. C h e m i c a l s b u r n o u t y o u r h e a d m o r e t h a n a n y t h i n g G o d - g r o w n e v e r wi I I . A r e c e n t weed d r o u g h t h a s j u s t e n d e d i n V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e c h e m i c a l p u s h e r s made a s m a l l f o r t u n e b e c a u s e p e o p l e w e r e f o r c e d t o t u r n t o t h e s y n t h e t i c s . I f t h i s b o r d e r h a s s l e k e e p s u p , s o o n t h e r e w i l l be no c h o i c e — s y n t h e t i c s o r n o t h i n g . A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e w i l l c h o o s e t o s t o p d o i n g d o p e . T h e m a j o r i t y w i l l t u r n more a n d m o r e t o c h e m i c a l s . E v e n t h o s e who d o n ' t do d o p e s h o u l d h a v e e n o u g h b r a i n s t o r e a l i z e a b a d s c e n e i s h a p p e n i n g . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n m i n d t h a t t h e s e a t t i t u d e s a n d t h e e n t i r e y o u t h s c e n e a r e h i s t o r i c a l p h e n o m e n a , s u b j e c t t o c o n t i n u a l c h a n g e . Th e f o r m -a t i o n o f t h e Y i p p i e s , w h o s e i n t e n t i o n i s t o ''blend p o t a n d p o l i t i c s i n t o a p o l i t i c a l g r a s s - l e a v e s movement" ( H o f f m a n , 1 9 6 8 ) , s i g n a l s a r e s u r g e n c e o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t . To w h a t e x t e n t t h e m e r g e r o f p o l i t i c a l a n d p s y c h e d e l i c i d e o l o g i e s w i l l p r o v e v i a b l e r e m a i n s t o be s e e n . T h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s n a p s h o t o f t h e p r o t e a n y o u t h movement a t o n e p o i n t i n t i m e . 13 C h a p t e r 2 METHOD P i l o t i n g of t h e s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e (H i p S c a l e ) Because an o b j e c t i v e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n was d e s i r e d , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s ee A p p e n d i x A) was s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l h i p a d o l e s c e n t s , 51 i tems c o n c e r n i n g h i p c u l t u r e were composed. The t e s t e l i c i t e d a t t i t u d e s t o -ward r o c k and r o l l g r o u p s , p u b l i c f i g u r e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h i p c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e , and t o w a r d v a r i o u s r e l e v a n t i s s u e s . An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n q u e s t i o n was i n c l u d e d on wh i ch r e s p o n d e n t s were a sked t o i d e n t i f y a number o f e s o t e r i c c o n c e p t s and p e o p l e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e unde rg round c u l t u r e . The h i p s c a l e was t h e n p i l o t e d on two s m a l l g r oup s o f ma le u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s — o n e h i p , t h e o t h e r n o n h i p - - - i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n s o m e t h i n g o f i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i v e v a l i d i t y . The s o l e c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s e p i l o t s u b j e c t s was t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e , t h e h i p g roup chosen f o r t h e i r long h a i r and t h e nonh ip f o r s h o r t h a i r . On each o f t h e 51 i t e m s , t h e i r r e s p o n s e s were s c o r e d as f a l l i n g e i t h e r i n t h e h i p d i r e c t i o n , t h e nonh ip o r as b e i n g n e u t r a l . A t o t a l s c o r e was computed by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e nonh i p f rom t h e h i p i t e m s . Hence an o v e r a l l n e g a t i v e s c o r e i s i n d i c a t i v e of a nonh ip p a t t e r n , a p o s i t i v e s c o r e o f h i p o n e . (The l a r g e r t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e , t h e s t r o n g e r t h e i n c l i n a t i o n i n t h e g i v e n d i r e c t i o n . ) The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e c l e a r s u p p o r t f o r v a r i o u s maxims c o n n e c t i n g appea r ance t o c h a r -a c t e r . The means f o r t h e two g roups a r e : h i p = +24.3; nonh ip = - 5 . 8 ( e i g h t s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n each g r o u p ) . So marked i s t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e t h a t t h e two d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e n o n - o v e r Iapp i n g , t h a t i s , t h e h i g h e s t o f t h e nonh i p s c o r e s i s l o w e r , ( i n f a c t 8 p o i n t s l owe r ) t h a n t h e l owes t o f t h e h i p s c o r e s . On 48 o f t h e 51 i t e m s , t h e h i p s u b j e c t s ' mean i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e nonh ip s u b j e c t s ' . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e h i p s c a l e would be a p p r o p r i a t e . Because i t was e v e n t u a l l y t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , a second p i l o t g roup 14 — t h i s t i m e h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s — w a s a sked t o f i l l o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The group cho sen was t h e L i b e r a l R e l i g i o u s Y o u t h , t h e U n i t a r i a n Chu r ch y o u t h g roup who a r e known f o r t h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e and h i p v i e w s . Of t h e 21 members who com-p l e t e d t h e t e s t , 17 were j u d g e d t o be u n m i s t a k a b l y h i p i n a p p e a r a n c e . T h e i r t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e , as w e l l as comments, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . The II ma le s mean h i p s c o r e was 12 .5 , s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e nonh ip u n i v e r s i t y g r o u p . The 10 f e m a l e s o b t a i n e d a mean s c o r e o f 18 . 1 . H a v i n g c o m p l e t e d t h e p i l o t pha se , we moved on t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l s u b j e c t s , who, a l o n g w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , were t o f i l l o u t a b a t t e r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S e l e c t i o n o f h i p and nonh ip s u b j e c t s S u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d a t a S e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , c o n s i s t i n g o f g r a d e s 11 -13 , i n C o q u i t l a m , B. C . , a s ubu rb o f V a n c o u v e r . The s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r e v i e w e d a b o v e , was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 ma le E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s , o f whom abou t 90 were t o be s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . The s e l e c t i o n t e s t s were s c o r e d and 45 names f rom t h e upper q u a r t i l e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n ( t h e h i p end) and 58 f rom t h e l ower q u a r t i l e ( t h e nonh ip end) were cho sen f o r p o t e n t i a l i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y . These names were s e l e c t e d because t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s pon se s showed an o v e r a l l c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n i n one o f t h e 2 d i r e c t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o no te t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 11$ o f t h e ma le s (45 o f 400) s c o r e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h i p and abou t 15% (58 o f 400) s c o r e d c o n s i s t e n t l y n o n h i p . The r e m a i n i n g 74^ showed v a r i o u s l y d i s t r i b u t e d p a t t e r n s between t h e two e x t r e m e s . As a c o r r o b o r a t i v e mea su re , t e a c h e r s w e r e . a s k e d t o a s s e s s t h e 103 s t u d e n t s as e i t h e r h i p , nonh ip o r q u e s t i o n a b l e . They were a s ked t o j u d g e t h e s t u d e n t s i n t e rms o f t h e i r own i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c mean ings o f t h e h i p and nonh ip t y p e s . The t e a c h e r s judgement s c o n f i r m e d t h a t 56 o f t h e 58 s t u d e n t s s c o r i n g nonh i p 15 on t h e s e l e c t i o n t e s t w e r e , in f a c t , n o n h i p . These 56 s t u d e n t s were t h e n phoned by t h e r e s e a r c h e r and a sked whe the r t h e y would v o l u n t e e r " o spend two o n e - h o u r p e r i o d s f i l l i n g o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r a s t u d y on t h e g e n e r a t i o n gap. They were a l s o i n f o rmed t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s wou ld l a t e r be c o n t a c t e d abou t p a r t i c i p a t i n g . Of t h e s e 56 s t u d e n t s , 44 f i n a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d as s u b j e c t s . Of t h o s e who d i d no t p a r t i c i p a t e , 2 c o u l d not be r e a c h e d , 5 r e f u s e d due t o l a c k o f e i t h e r t i m e o r i n t e r e s t , and 5 who a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e s i m p l y d i d not show up. When t e a c h e r s were a sked t o a s s e s s a s e i t h e r h i p o r nonh i p t h e 45 s t u d e n t s who s c o r e d a t t h e h i p end o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e y ag reed t h a t o n l y 30 o f t h e s t u d e n t s were u n q u e s t i o n a b l y h i p . When t o l d t h a t t h e o t h e r 15 s t u d e n t s had s c o r e d h i p on t h e t e s t , t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d some s u r p r i s e . F o r one t h i n g , none o f t h e 15 had t h e f u l l s t e r e o t y p i c h i p a p p e a r a n c e , nor had t h e y , t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' k now ledge , e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i r b e h a v i o r , s i g n s o f t h e h i p p a t t e r n . Because we wanted t o be as c e r t a i n as p o s s i b l e of t h e a c c u r a c y o f o u r s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t was d e c i d e d t o o m i t t h e s e 15 names f rom t h e s t u d y , and t o use an a l t e r n a t e p r o c e d u r e f o r s o l i c i t i n g a d d i t i o n a l h i p s u b j e c t s . I t may have been , of c o u r s e , t h a t t h e s e 15 s t u d e n t s were d e v o t e e s o f h i p c u l t u r e and s i m p l y h i d t h e f a c t f rom t e a c h e r s ; a n d , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough , 5 o f them were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e - c h o s e n t h r o u g h t h e a l t e r n a t e , i n d e p e n d e n t s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f w h i c h f o l l o w s . A s t u d e n t who was g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a l e a d e r o f t h e h i p subgroup a t t h e s c h o o l was c o n t a c t e d , i n f o rmed abou t t h e s t u d y and a s ked i f he would h e l p t o l o c a t e a d d i t i o n a l h i p s u b j e c t s . He was e x t r e m e l y c o o p e r a t i v e , and t h r o u g h h i s e f f o r t s , 22 more names were added t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y c o n f i r m e d 30. As we m e n t i o n e d , 5 o f t h e 22 s t u d e n t s had e a r l i e r been s e l e c t e d , bu t were no t c o n f i r m e d by t h e t e a c h e r s ' a s s e s s m e n t s . The 52 s t u d e n t s were t h e n phoned and were a s k e d , a s t h e nonh ip s u b j e c t s had been t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r two o n e - h o u r s e s s i o n s . The name of 16 t h e s t u d e n t c o n t a c t was u s u a l l y used t o h e l p l e g i t i m i z e t h e s t u d y . Not one o f t h e 52 r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on t h e phone and o n l y 3 f a i l e d t o appea r a t t h e d e s i g n a t e d t i m e . The 17 new s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , t h o s e who had been r eached t h r o u g h t h e c o n t a c t bu t who had not y e t c o m p l e t e d t h e h i p s c a l e ) f i l l e d o u t t h e h i p s c a l e p r i o r t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e b a t t e r y . T h i s was t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e y d i d i n f a c t s h a r e t h e h i p a t t i t u d e s f o r wh i ch t h e y were s e l e c t e d . A l l 17 d i d s c o r e h i g h on t h e h i p end o f t h e s c a l e . T h e i r d a t a was t h u s added t o t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r h i p s u b j e c t s , and no s u b s e q u e n t p r o c e d u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s were drawn between t h e s e 2 s ubg roup s o f h i p s u b j e c t s . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e was h i g h e r f o r t h e h i p s u b j e c t s (49 o f 52) t h a n f o r t h e nonh ip (44 o f 5 6 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e h i p s u b j e c t s seemed f a r more e a g e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e , more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e pu rpo se s o f t h e s t u d y , and l e s s d e f e n s i v e t h a n t h e nonh ip s u b j e c t s . T h e r e a r e numerous r ea son s f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e wh i ch p e r t a i n t o p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s , and t h e s e w i l l be d i s -c u s s e d b e l o w . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t c o n t a c t on b e h a l f o f t h e s t u d y f a c i l i t a t e d t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e h i p s u b j e c t s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e i r e a g e r n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e i n f i l l i n g o u t two hour s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g . Edgar F r i e d e n b e r g , w e l l - k n o w n a u t h o r i t y on and champion o f y o u t h movements, e x p r e s s e s h i s doubt t h a t " h i p p i e s " would c o o p e r a t e i n any s t a n d a r d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y ( 1969 , pp. 2 5 - 2 6 ) . In many ways , h i s p o i n t i s w e l l t a k e n and sheds some l i g h t on t h e t y p e o f h i p s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e nonh ip s u b j e c t s . T h i s f a c t w i l l be bo rne o u t t i m e and t i m e a g a i n as we go t h r o u g h t h e r e s u l t s . I t i s a l s o t r u e however , t h a t t h e s e h i p s u b j e c t s have not ( y e t ) made an e x t r eme commitment t o t h e h i p l i f e - s t y l e . F i r s t , t h e y a r e s t i l l young ( a v e r a g e age 1 7 . 4 ) ; o n l y 5 o f 49 l i v e a p a r t f r om t h e i r f a m i l i e s ; o n l y 3 a r e no t i n s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h many have 17 c o n t i n u a l f a n t a s i e s abou t q u i t t i n g and many w i l l b e f o r e g r a d u a t i o n . These a r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y t h e h i p p e s t s t u d e n t s t o be found i n u rban h i g h s c h o o l s . I t i s a l s o u n q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t many o f them w i l l , w i t h i n t h e near f u t u r e make f i r m e r commitment t o a Bohemian way o f l i f e * Our own f i e l d s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d , i n s u p p o r t o f F r i e d e n b e r g ' s c o n t e n t i o n , t h a t i t wou ld be n e x t t o i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n v i n c e many o l d e r h i p Bohemians t o spend 2 hou r s c i r c l i n g ! ' T r u e s ' ! and " F a l s e s " on q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m s . In t h i s s en se i t i s e x p e d i e n t t o s e l e c t younge r s u b j e c t s f r om whom d a t a can be o b t a i n e d . We assume t h e r e a r e c o n t i n u i t i e s i n deve l opmen t and t h u s , t h a t t h o s e o r i e n t a t i o n s wh i ch d e s c r i b e o u r h i p s u b j e c t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i l l a l s o d e s c r i b e t h e p a t t e r n s f o r o l d e r , more commi t ted Bohemian s , f rom whom c o m p a r a b l e d a t a a r e u n a v a i l a b l e . As t h e v a l u e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e , t h e h i p and nonh ip s u b j e c t s do n o t d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o age o r g r a d e . Of c o u r s e , t h e y d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i p s c a l e s c o r e s , as t h i s i s t h e v a r i a b l e used f o r s e l e c t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e a g a i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n between v a l u e - s y s t e m s and a p p e a r a n c e . S u b j e c t s were j udged t o f i t i n t o one o f t h r e e appea rance c a t e g o r i e s : h i p ( u n q u e s t i o n a b l y long h a i r , h i p a c c o u t r e m e n t s s uch as b e l l - b o t t o m p a n t s , s t e e l r im g l a s s e s , I n d i a n b e a d s , s u r p l u s army a p p a r e l e t c . ) ; s e m i - h i p ( l o n g i s h h a i r and a t l e a s t one o f t h e a c c o u t r e m e n t s ) ; nonh ip ( s h o r t h a i r and none o f t h e a c c o u t r e -m e n t s ) . S t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h e appea r ance p a t t e r n s f o r t h e two g r oup s d i f f e r a t a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . T a b l e 1 MEANS FOR 49 HIP AND 44 NONHIP SUBJECTS Age Grade H i p S c a l e Appea rance H i p 17.4 I I .7 +17.1 36 h i p , 12 s e m i - h i p , I nonh ip NonhIp 17.0 I I .6 - 1 6 . 6 0 h i p , I s e m i - h i p , 43 nonh i p S t a t i s t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e between means s i g . no t s i g . not p=.00l p=.00l 18 T e s t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s H i p s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d s e p a r a t e l y f r om t h e n o n h i p ; t h e same p r o c e d u r e was used f o r b o t h . The s u b j e c t s who s t a t e d on t h e phone t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e were g i v e n a range o f t i m e s when t h e r e s e a r c h e r wou ld be t e s t i n g a t t h e s c h o o l . S u b j e c t s f i l l e d o u t t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n g roup s i t u a t i o n s . When t h e y appea red a t t h e d e s i g n a t e d room, t h e y were i n f o rmed g e n e r a l l y abou t t h e p r o -j e c t and a sked w h e t h e r t h e y c o u l d r e t u r n i n a few days t o c o m p l e t e t h e second and l a s t hour o f t e s t s . A l l s u b j e c t s were phoned as a r e m i n d e r of t h e second s e s s i o n . Of t h e 44 nonh ip s u b j e c t s who a t t e n d e d s e s s i o n #1 , 41 r e t u r n e d f o r t h e second s e s s i o n . Of t h e 49 h i p s u b j e c t s , 48 r e t u r n e d . C o n t a c t i n g and t e s t i n g t h e p a r e n t s When t h e s t u d e n t d a t a had been c o l l e c t e d , l e t t e r s were s e n t t o t h e i r p a r e n t s r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A comp lementa ry l e t t e r was i n c l u d e d f rom t h e Commi t tee on Y o u t h , a F e d e r a l Government Agency , i n f o r m i n g p a r e n t s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s t u d y , and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . They were a sked t o come t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l on one o f s e v e r a l e v e n i n g s t o f i l l o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r \i t o 2 h o u r s . In c o n j u n c t i o n , p a r e n t s were phoned, a sked whe the r t h e y had any q u e r i e s abou t t h e s t u d y , and whe the r t h e y wou ld a t t e n d one o f t h e s e s s i o n s . F o r t h o s e who w i s hed t o p a r t i c i p a t e but c o u l d not a t t e n d , a r r a n g e m e n t s were made t o have t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e i r homes. The c o o p e r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s was s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h . Of t h e 174 p a r e n t s c o n t a c t e d , 145 p a r t i c i p a t e d ( 8 3 $ ) . Of t h e 29 p a r e n t s who d i d no t p a r t i c i p a t e , most r e f u s e d , w a n t i n g no p a r t o f t h e s t u d y , some d i d no t have t h e t i m e o r wou ld be o u t o f town and a few d i d no t speak E n g l i s h w e l l enough. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e I I . 19 T a b l e I I PARENTS" PARTICIPATION RATES H i p F a t h e r H ip M o t h e r Nonh ip F a t h e r Nonh ip M o t h e r P a r t i c i p a t e d 34 41 34 36 D i d Not P a r t i c i p a t e . 9 6 7 7 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used i n t h e s t u d y None o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s a t t i t u d e s t owa rd c o n -t e m p o r a r y i s s u e s such as t h e V i e t n a m e s e War, t h e B l a c k P a n t h e r s o r t h e C h i c a g o 7. R a t h e r t h e y were cho sen t o a p p r a i s e g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and a t t i t u d e s p e r t a i n i n g t o c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a I t r a i t s . F o r t h e most p a r t , p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A few q u e s t i o n n a i r e s however were g i v e n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o one o r t h e o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n a l g r o u p . The f o l l o w i n g t e s t s viere g i v e n t o bo th s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . The OMNIBUS PERSONALITY INVENTORY ( O P I ) . The b road s p e c t r u m p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d by H e i s t and Yonge ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p r i m a r i l y f o r use w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s , though i t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a d u l t s as w e l l . The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f 385 Items t o be answered " T r u e " o r " F a l s e , " and y i e l d s s c o r e s on 14 s c a l e s . I n t e l l e c t u a l D i s p o s i t i o n C l u s t e r . 1. T h i n k i n g I n t r o v e r s i o n - P e r s o n s s c o r i n g h i g h on t h i s measure a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l i k i n g f o r r e f l e c t i v e t h o u g h t , by i n t e r e s t i n i d e a s f ound i n l i t e r a t u r e , a r t and p h i l o s o p h y . 2. T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n - H i gh s c o r e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o g i c a l , a n a l y t i c a l and c r i t i c a l In t h e i r app roach t o p rob lems and s i t u a t i o n s . 3. E s t h e t i c i s m - H i gh s c o r e r s show i n t e r e s t i n a r t i s t i c m a t t e r s and show a h i g h l e v e l .of s e n s i t i v i t y t o e s t h e t i c s t i m u l a t i o n . 4 . C o m p l e x i t y - T h i s measure r e f l e c t s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l and f l e x i b l e o r i e n t -20 a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a f i x e d and s i m p l i s t i c way o f v i e w i n g and o r g a n i z i n g phenomena. A u t h o r i t a r i a n Syndrome. 5. Autonomy - H i g h s c o r e r s show l i b e r a l , n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n t h i n k i n g and a t endency t o be i n d e p e n d e n t o f a u t h o r i t y as t r a d i t i o n a l l y imposed t h r o u g h s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 6. R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n - H i gh s c o r e r s a r e s k e p t i c a l o f c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s and t end t o r e j e c t most of them. S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l A d j u s t m e n t C l u s t e r . 7. S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n - H i gh s c o r e r s d i s p l a y s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n b e i n g w i t h p e o p l e , s eek s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n f rom them. 8. Impulse E x p r e s s i o n - H i gh s c o r e r s have an a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , v a l u e s e n s u a l r e a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s . Ve r y h i g h s c o r e r s have f r e q u e n t f e e l i n g s o f r e b e l l i o n and a g g r e s s i o n . 9. P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n - H i gh s c o r e r s adm i t t o few a t t i t u d e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s o c i a l l y a l i e n a t e d o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d p e r s o n s . 10. A n x i e t y Le ve l - H i gh s c o r e r s deny t h a t t h e y have f e e l i n g s o r symptoms o f a n x i e t y and do no t a d m i t t o b e i n g ne rvous o r w o r r i e d . A d d i t i o n a l OPI S c a l e s . 11. A l t r u i s m - The h i g h s c o r e r i s an a f f i N a t i v e p e r s o n , t r u s t i n g and e t h i c a l i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . 12. P r a c t i c a l O u t l o o k - The h i g h s c o r e r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r a c t i c a l a p p l i e d a c t i v i t i e s and t e n d s t o v a l u e m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s and c o n c r e t e accom-p l i s h m e n t s . 13. M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y - H i gh s c o r e r s i n d i c a t e m a s c u l i n e p a t t e r n s w h i c h i n c l u d e few e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t s , low e m o t i o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y , and few a d m i s -s i o n s o f a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . 21 J4. Response B i a s - T h i s measure a s s e s s e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t e s t - t a k i n g a t t i t u d e . H i gh s c o r e p s g e n e r a l l y a r e t r y i n g t o make a gocd i m p r e s s i o n by a n s w e r i n g i n a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e manner. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e O P I , s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d : 1. C h i l d - r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s (Koch e t a j _ . , 1934) - a s s e s s e s p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n c l i n a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s f r e e d o m . 2. A t t i t u d e s t owa rd women's f reedom ( L e v i n s o n & H u f f m a n , 1955) - a s s e s s e s t r a d i t i o n a l v e r s u s l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s toward t h e women's r o l e . 3. I n t i m a c y P e r m i s s i v e n e s s S c a l e ( C h r i s t e n s e n & C a r p e n t e r , 1955) -measures a t t i t u d e s t owa rd s e x u a l f r e e d o m . 4. Death a n x i e t y ( L e v i n g s t o n & Z i m e t , 1965). 5. P h i l o s o p h y o f human n a t u r e s c a l e (Wr i gh t sman , 1964) - measures a t t i t u d e s t owa rd p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l . 6. S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g s c a l e s (Osgood e t a_l_., 1957) - t h e s e i n c l u d e b i p o l a r s c a l e s on wh i ch s u b j e c t s r a t e d , among o t h e r s , c o n c e p t s p e r t a i n -i ng t o : a ) a f f e c t i v e o r i d - r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s ( e . g . , p a s s i o n , i n s t i n c t ) ; b) c o g n i t i v e o r e g o - r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s ( e . g . , t i m e , p l a n n i n g , s c h e d u l e ) ; and c ) s u p e r e g o - r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s ( e . g . , d u t y , p u n i s h m e n t ) . 7. Demograph ic and c a s e h i s t o r i c a l d a t a - t h e f o l l o w i n g i tems o f i n f o r m -a t i o n were o b t a i n e d : e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , o c c u p a t i o n , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , m a r i t a l h i s t o r y , f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n , p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and p s y c h i a t r i c h i s t o r y . Each p a r e n t was a d m i n i s t e r e d a s c a l e a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s t owa rd t h e son i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y ( I t k l n , 1952) , r a t i n g s c a l e s m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s toward h i s o r her s p o u s e , and a segment o f t he h i p s c a l e . S t u d e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d s c a l e s a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s t owa rd bo th p a r e n t s 22 ( I t k i n , 1952) . Academic r e c o r d s d a t i n g back t o t h e f i r s t g r ade were a v a i l a b l e f o r most s t u d e n t s . E x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and a n a l y s e s The d a t a were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 6 main e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I I . T a b l e 111 EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS Son F a t h e r Mo the r H i p HS HF HM N o n h i p NS NF NM In g e n e r a l , a summary s c o r e ( u s u a l l y a mean o r a ve r a ge ) was computed f o r each o f t h e 6 g r o u p s . F o r most v a r i a b l e s , 9 s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n s were p e r -f o r m e d , c o m p a r i n g summary s c o r e s o f t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s : 1. Compa r i s on o f h i p son w i t h nonh ip s o n . 2 . Compar i s on o f h i p f a t h e r w i t h nonh ip f a t h e r . 3. Compa r i s on o f h i p mother w i t h nonh ip m o t h e r , 4 . Compar i s on o f h i p son w i t h h i p f a t h e r . 5. Compa r i s on o f h i p son w i t h h i p mo the r . 6. Compa r i s on o f h i p f a t h e r w i t h h i p m o t h e r . 7. Compa r i s on o f nonh ip son w i t h nonh ip f a t h e r . 8. Compa r i s on o f nonh ip son w i t h nonh i p m o t h e r . 9. Compar i s on o f nonh ip f a t h e r w i t h nonh ip m o t h e r . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s w i l l shed l i g h t on t h e t e n a b i l i t y o f f o u r h y p o t h e s e s : I. N u l l h y p o t h e s i s - no d i f f e r e n c e s p r e v a i l between any o f t h e s i x g r o u p s . 23 2. H i p - I d i o s y n c r a t i c h y p o t h e s i s - t h e h i p son d i f f e r s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f r om each o f t h e o t h e r f i v e g r o u p s , who do not d i f f e r f rom each o t h e r , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e s on t h e h i p son d e r i v e f rom s o u r c e s o t h e r t h a n t h e f a m i i y o r g e n e r a l y o u t h c u l t u r e . 5. F a m i l y d i f f e r e n c e s h y p o t h e s i s - w i t h i n t h e h i p f a m i l y , t h e s o n , f a t h e r and mothe r d i f f e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f rom t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e nonh ip f a m i l y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e h i p s o n ? s i n f l u e n c e s a r e l i n k e d t o f a m i l y s o u r c e s . 4. G e n e r a t i o n Gap h y p o t h e s i s - t h e h i p son and nonh ip son d i f f e r s y s t e m -a t i c a l l y f rom t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r e n t s who do not d i f f e r f r om each o t h e r , i n -d i c a t i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of g e n e r a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n s . The l a s t t h r e e o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e no t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e and can a l l r e c e i v e d e g r e e s o f s u p p o r t on any s i n g l e v a r i a b l e . As we go t h r o u g h t h e r e s u l t s , we w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g wh i ch v a r i a b l e s l end s u p p o r t t o w h i c h h y p o t h e s e s . 24 C h a p t e r 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s IV and V. V a r i a b l e s a r e l i s t e d i n r ows ; co lumn head i n g s d e s c r i b e t h e s t a t i s t i c s b e i n g r e p o r t e d . In g e n e r a l , o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s w i l l i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e rows and co lumns o f t h e T a b l e s . The T a b l e Summary w h i c h f o l l o w s w i l l n o t a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h e v e r y e n t r y , bu t w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s among t h e d a t a . The r e a d e r i s i n v i t e d t o s c r u t i n i z e t h e T a b l e f o r w h a t e v e r a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t may be o v e r l o o k e d i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t V a r i a b l e s I t o 27 , and e s p e c i a l l y V a r i a b l e s I t o 18, a r e t o be c o n -s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t t han t h e S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s ( V a r i a b l e s 28 t o 43) each o f wh i ch i s based on a t most 3 summed r e s p o n e e s , whereas t h e f i r s t 27 V a r i a b l e s a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d , m u l t i - i t e m s c a l e s w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s w i l l s e r v e i n many i n s t a n c e s t o s upp l emen t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e m a j o r t e s t s . B e f o r e t a k i n g a d e t a i l e d look a t T a b l e s IV and V, we w i l l d e s c r i b e some o f t h e g e n e r a l demograph i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o u r samp le g r o u p s . T a b l e IV GROUP MEANS H1 P MONH1P 1 2 3 4 5 6 VARIABLES SON FATHER MOTHER SON FATHER MOTHER ( 1 - 1 4 : OPI ) 1. T h i n k i n g I n t r o v e r s i o n 24 .33 21 .59 19.54 17.20 20 .38 18.64 2. T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n 19.57 18.75 14.15 16.23 18.05 13.78 3. E s t h e t i c i s m 14.59 9.25 9.95 7.25 7.08 9.41 4. Comp 1 ex i t y 21.14 12.06 I I .83 14.36 10.24 10.53 25 T a b l e IV C o n t i n u e d GROUP MEANS HIP N0NH1P 1 /. 3 4 5 6 VARIABLES SON FATHER MOTHER SON FATHER MOTHER 5 r Autonomy 29.08 21 .75 21 .33 19.27 19.50 18.41 6, R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n 16.90 16.09 13.90 14.47 14.44 1 1 .83 7. S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n 19.33 21.31 19.35 18.43 20.88 19.67 8. Impulse E x p r e s s i o n 37 .00 24 .38 21 .97 30. 18 21 .53 •18.31 9. P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 22.61 36.47 32 .50 27.41 39 .00 34.69 10. A n x i e t y L e v e l 10. 18 13.66 12.83 1 1 .55 14.41 13.27 1 1. A 1 t r u i sm 16.86 20.28 20 .38 14.59 20.68 20.68 12. P r a c t i c a l O u t l o o k 10.80 16.69 14.73 17.43 17.71 16.91 13. Mascu1 i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y 25.31 31 .63 25 . 10 31 .82 33 . 18 26. 13 14. Response B i a s 9.57 14.25 1 1 .55 10.50 15.00 12.92 15. Ch i I d ' s Freedom 81 .25 63 .22 62.37 63 .82 55.80 59.28 16. Women's Freedom 40.77 37 .03 36. 12 33 . 12 33.91 35.28 17. 1nt i macy-Perm i s s i venes s 6.61 3. 19 2.82 3.60 1 .94 1 .25 18. P h i l o s o p h y Human N a t u r e 123.35 145.72 155.25 127.35 143.03 153.19 19. A t t i t u d e t o T r u s t w o r t h i n e s s 49 .48 60. 16 62.08 49 .25 56.94 62 .06 20 . A t t i t u d e t o A l t r u i s m 49 .40 57.59 64.35 51 .75 57.21 62 .00 21 . A t t i t u d e t o Independence 24.85 27.94 29.05 26.30 27 .82 29.41 22 . A t t i t u d e t o Human I n s t i n c t 5.50 4.71 5. 15 4 .80 4.44 4.67 23. Death A n x i e t y 45 .52 38 .87 41 .52 40 .85 41 . 17 40. 19 24. Rep re s s Ion .354 .656 .825 .625 .588 .63< 26 T a b l e IV C o n t i n u e d GROUP MEANS H I P NONHIP 1 2 3 4 5 6 V A R I A B L E S SON FATHER MOTHER SON FATHER MOTHER 2 5 . P o l i t i c a l P o s i t i o n 4.72 3.67 3.70 3.91 3.84 3.59 2 6 . R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n ( E x t r i n s i c ) 2 7 . 3 3 3 2 . 0 0 31 .97 3 0 . 6 5 3 0 . 7 4 30.71 27. R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n ( 1 n t r i n s i c ) 2 9 . 7 9 2 6 . 7 0 2 3 . 3 0 2 7 . 8 0 2 5 . 0 6 21 .97 SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L CONCEPTS 28. D u t y 13.46 17.20 17.70 16.13 16.52 17.46 29 . L o g i c 15.20 15.57 16.32 14.73 15.80 16.29 3 0 . 1 n s t i n e t 16.70 15.57 16.57 15. 10 16.00 16.50 31 . P u n i s h m e n t 9.89 15.27 15.56 15.75 15.92 16.07 3 2 . T i m e 1 1 .20 17.29 17.57 16.00 17. 10 17.35 3 3 . P a s s i o n 18.63 17. 17 18.69 17.35 17.56 18.79 34. P 1 a n n i ng 15.13 18. 17 18.47 17.35 17.72 18.89 3 5 . S c h e d u 1 e 9.07 13.97 13.19 12.00 13.88 14.74 36. C o m p e t i t i o n 1 1 .46 16.53 16.06 17.04 17.40 16.71 3 7 . T h e P a s t 12.76 15.53 1 5.53 14.63 14.68 15.42 38. T h e P r e s e n t 15.76 17.93 18.38 16.77 18.60 18.32 3 9 . T h e F u t u r e 15.69 18.03 17.50 16.45 18.50 17.79 4 0 . C l o c k s 1 1 .02 15.40 1 4.38 14.43 15.72 16.00 4 3 . S e l f ( S t r o n g ) 4.78 5.41 5.18 5.43 5.48 5.37 27 T a b l e IV C o n t i n u e d GROUP MEANS H I P N0NH1P V A R I A B L E S 1 2 3 4 5 6 INTRAFAM1LY ATTITUDES SON FATHER MOTHER SON FATHER MOTHER A t t i t u d e t o : •*• FATHER BY SON MOTHER BY FATHER FATHER 3Y MOTHER FATHER BY SON MOTHER BY FATHER FATHER BY MOTHER 4 4 . E v a l u a t i o n 2 7 . 4 0 3 3 . 4 5 3 3 . 97 31 .38 35 . 5 2 3 2 . 6 3 4 5 , P o t e n c y 15.50 15.87 17. 66 16.84 17.04 17.59 46. L e n i e n c y 4. 14 4.06 4. 58 3.59 4.07 3.39 47. N o n - h y p o c r i s y 4.26 5.23 5. 21 4.92 5.22 4.89 48. R e l i g i o u s n e s s 3.24 4. 19 "2 -> , 86 4.00 4.44 4.39 A t t i t u d e t o : + MOTHER BY SON MOTHER BY FATHER MOTHER BY SON MOTHER BY FATHER 4 9 . E v a 1 u a t i o n 28.71 3 3 . 4 5 3 3 . 7 0 33.52 -5 0 . P o t e n c y 14.22 15.87 15.57 17.04 -51 . L e n i e n c y 4.35 4.06 4.00 4.07 -5 2 . N o n - h y p o c r i s y 3.89 5.23 4.85 5.22 -5 3 . R e l i g i o u s n e s s 4. 1 1 4. 19 4.75 4.44 -SONS ONLY 56 . A t t i t u d e t o F a t h e r 58.37 - 6 9 . 6 0 - -5 7 . A t t i t u d e t o M o t h e r 5 7 . 5 2 - 6 7 . 13 _ -58. E s t i m a t e d M o t h e r ' s H i p n e s s 12.56 - 10.45 - -5 9 . E s t i m a t e d F a t h e r ' s 11 i p n e s s 1 1 .95 - 9. 18 - -6 0 . 1 .0. 1 17.3 - 1 10.7 - -6 3 . H i p S c o r e (+25) 4 2 . 12 - 8.43 - -28 T a b l e IV C o n t i n u e d GROUP MEANS HIP VARIABLES  PARENTS ONLY 64. A t t i t u d e t o Son 6 5 . E x t i m a t e d Son's P o t e n c y 67. H i p S c o r e SON 2 FATHER 97.38 5.23 78 .59 3 MOTHER 97. 10 5.50 77 .70 4 SON NONHIP 5 FATHER I I I .2 5.92 72 .39 6 MOTHER 10. I 5.75 66.61 T a b l e V S I G N I F I C A N C E OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS (T v a l u e s a n d p r o b a b i l i t i e s ) 1 H I P VS NONH P u I P F AMILY NONHIP FAMILY 7 8 9 10 1 i 12 13 14 15 SONS FATHERS MOTHERS SON VS SON VS FATHER VS SON VS SON VS FATHER VAR!ABIES •HS VS NS HF VS NF HM VS NM FATHER MOTHER MOTHER FATHER MOTHER MOTHER ( 1 - 1 -4 : O P i ) I. T h i n k i n g i n t r o v e r s i o n T=4.64 ,63 .57 I .73 3. 10 1 . 7 7 i .59 1 .06 1 .28 p=.O00*** .546 .575 .090+ . 0 0 4 * * .084+ .118 .298 .207 2. T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n 1=3,33 , 44 .34 1 .07 4.86 3.42 i .21 2.43 3.58 p=.00!*** .667 .732 .291 ,000*** . 0 0 2 * * .233 . 0 1 7 * * . 0 0 1 * * 3. E s t h e t i c i s m T=9.05 1 .74 .51 4.65 5.27 .47 ,38 2.28 1.70 p=.000*** .084+ .617 . 0 0 0 * " ' * . 0 0 0 * * * .647 .708 . 0 2 8 * .095+ 4 . C o m p l e x i t y T=7.49 1 .53 1 .09 8.46 10.09 .36 4.40 4.65 .31 p * . 0 C 0 * * * .126 .297 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * . 7 2 0 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .754 5, A u t o n o m y T=8.25 1 .29 i .74 5.71 6.10 .40 .02 1 . 1 6 .59 p = . 0 0 0 * * * .200 .083+ , 0 0 0 s * * . 0 0 0 * * * .693 .931 ,252 .565 6. R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n T=2.28 1 . 1 1 1.72 .82- 3.08 2.12 .76 2.74 3.03 p=.024* .273 ,086+ .424 . 0 0 4 * * . 0 4 0 * .457 , 0 0 9 * * . 0 0 5 * * 7. S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n T=.64. .30 ,20 ! .86 .07 1.67 1 .86 .67 .54 p=.532 .792 .820 .070+ .904 .102+ .068+ .512 .597 8. i m p u l s e E x p r e s s i o n T=3.93 1 .24 i .86 6.63 7.6! .94 4 . 6 3 7.30 • 3.24 p=.000*** ..21 7 . 064+ . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .357 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .00 3 * * ' 9 . P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n T=9.35 1 .12 .89 7.54 4.59 1 .69 6.40 3.24 1.76 p=.020* .265 .378 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .098+ . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 3 * * .085+ vo T a b l e V C o n t i n u e d HIP VS NONHIP HIP FAMILY NONHIP FAMI 7 8 9 10 1 ! 12 13 14 SONS FATHERS MOTHERS SON VS SON VS FATHER VS SON VS SON VS VARIABLES HS VS NS HF VS NF HM VS NM FATHER MOTHER MOTHER FATHER MOTHER 10. A n x i e t y L e v e l T=1.49 .77 .41 4.54 2.67 ,73 4 ,89 i .70 p=.136 .452 .684 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 1 1 * * .475 , 0 0 0 * * * .094+ 1 1. A l t r u i s m T=2.07 .30 .40 2.69 2.86 .12 4.92 6.23 • p=,039* .756 .692 . 0 1 I * * . 0 0 7 * * ,869 .ooo*** , 0 0 0 * * * 12. P r a c t i c a l O u t l o o k T=6.28 .90 1 .77 6.74 4,76 2.04 ,32 .33 p= .000 * * * .374 .078+ .000*** . 0 0 0 * * * . 048 * .748 .740 13. M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y T=6.8t 1 .31 .95 4.79 ,07 4 ,87 1.17 5.80 p=.O00** * .193 .349 . 0 0 0 * * * ,903 . 0 0 0 * * * .251 , 0 0 0 * * * 14. Response B i a s T=\.06 .69 1,54 5.73 2.28 2,95 4 ,06 2.42 p=.294 .499 ,125 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 27 * . 0 0 6 * * , 0 0 3 * * .020 15. Ch i I d ' s Freedom T=8.14 3.08 i .30 6, 15 7.26 ,27 3.85 I .64 p= .000 * * * . 0 0 3 * * .196 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .777 .001*** . 106+ 16, Women's Freedom T=4.98 I .67 .51 2. 10 2 .97 .22 .93 1 .32 p=.000*»* .098+ .615 . 042 * . 0 0 5 * * .81 I .360 .195 17. I n t i m a c y - P e r m i s s i v e n e s s T=6.7I 2.48 3.97 6,49 9.40 1 .26 3,79 5.42 p= .000 * * * . 015 * . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .215 . 0 0 1 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * !8.' P h i l o s o p h y Human N a t u r e T=,95 .84 ,41 4.76 6.36 1 .88 3.06 4 .67 p=.347 .535 .684 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .067+ . 0 0 5 * * . 0 0 0 * * * 19. A t t i t u d e t o T r u s t - T=. 13 1 .26 .01 5,38 6 .66 1.80 3.60 6 .03 : w o r t h i n e s s p=.866 .209 .941 . 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .078+ . 0 0 1 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * 15 FATHER VS MOTHER .50 .627 .92 .370 I .18 .246 7.80 . 0 0 0 * * * 1.81 .077+ . 163 i .24 .223 2.95 . 0 0 6 * * 3.20 . 0 0 3 * * 3.15 . 0 0 4 * * Oi o T a b l e V C o n t i n u e d - H I P VS NONHIP H P FAMILY NONHIP FAMILY -i i 8 9 10 ! 1 12 S3 14 15 SONS FATHERS MOTHERS SON VS son vs FATHER VS SON VS SON VS ' FATHER VS VAR A 8 L E S HS VS NS HF VS NF HM VS NM FATHER MOTHER MOTHER FATHER MOTHER MOTHER 2 0 . A t t i t u d e t o A 1 - t r u i s m T=|.32 .14 I .07 4.22 6 , 7 5 2,49 2.2! 3.70 2.69 p-.187 .859 .288 . 0 0 0 * * * , 0 0 0 s . 0 1 8 * . 0 3 3 * . 0 0 1 * * * , 0 1 1 * * 21 . A t t ' f t u d e t o I n d e p e n d - T=l,21 .07! .26 2.29 2 , 79 .69 i . 9 i 2.45 1 ,47 e n c e o=.226 .901 .784 , 0 2 8 * . 0 0 8 * * C ^ J~ .242 , 0 1 9 * . 148 2 2 . A t t i t u d e t o Human T=l . 6 2 .68 1.19 1 .01 .67 i .00 i ,09 .08 .33 i n s t i n e t p=.105+ .507 .238 .323 ,51 1 .327 .287 .895 .742 2 3 . D e a t h A n x i e t y T=2.19 1 .0? .61 3.28 ' 2.62 .82 ,43 .37 .62 p=.030* .290 ,550 .003** .0 i 2** ,422 . 674 .715 .547 2 4 . R e p r e s s i o n T=2.50 .420 1 .23 2,55 3.67 ! ,03 .47 .24 .18 p=.014** .679 .279 . 0 1 5 * . 0 0 1 * * * ,312 .649 , 798 .838 2 5 . P o 1 i t i c a 1 P o s i t i o n T=2.50 .47 .32 3.30 2 , 96 ,58 i ,24 1 . 16 .54 p=.OI4** .642 .744 . 0 0 3 * * . 0 0 7 * * ,579 ,272 ,257 .603 2 6 , R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n T=2.46 ,81 .84 3.39 3. 13 ,33 .27 . 19 .95 ( E x t r i ns i c ) p=.OI5** .426 .407 • , 0 0 2 * * . 0 0 3 * * .738 ,778 .827 . .352 27. R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n T=|.39 .731 .89 2. I i 4.84 2.58 I .73 4.94 1.38 ( i n t r i n s i c ) p=.167 .475 .383 . 0 4 2 * . 0 0 0 * * * , 0 1 5 * .087+ , 0 0 0 * * * .876 SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L CONCEPTS 2 8 . D u t y T=3.76 1.25 .42 5.53 4.66 ".82 .96 1 ,49 ' 1 .73 p=.000*** .215 ,679 , 0 0 0 * * * . 0 0 0 * * * .424 .375 . 146 .095+ 29. L o g i c T=.8I .25 .05 .96 1 .62 .43 1 .83 2.66 .76 p=.424 .791 .916 .347 . i l l .676 .077+ . 0 1 3 * * .460 O J Table V Continued HIP VS NONHiP HIP FAMILY NONHIP FAMILY 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 SONS FATHERS MOTHERS SON VS SON VS FATHER VS SON VS SON vs ' FATHER VS VARIABLES HS VS NS HF VS NF HM VS NM FATHER MOTHER MOTHER FATHER MOTHER MOTHER 30. Instinct T=3.10 .53 .08 I .33 .28 .43 .74 1.82 ,75 D-.003** .608 .894 .191 .776 ,677 .474 .078+ ,58! 3!. Punishment T=6.67 .76 .51 4.52 4.80 1 .07 ,05 .44 .00 p=.000*** .455 .616 ,000*** ,000*** .294 ,912 .666 .950 32. Time T=6.62 .66 .09 8,66 8.54 .38 i . n 1 .39 .33 - p=.000*** .522 .888 ..000*** ,000*** .708 .281 .173 .738 33. Passion T=2.33 .49 .13 1. II .96 1 .97 .27 1 .97 L52 p=.02l* .633 .867 .278 .348 ,058+ .782 .057+ .140 34. Planning T=3.5I .67 .80 4.50 5. 14 .40 .00 3.67 1 .60 p=.00l*** .514 .436 ,000*** .000*** .697 .95! .001*** .120 35. Schedule T=3.97 .08 1.84 5,22 3.98 .55 1 .43 3. 12 1 .85 p=.0G0*** .894 . 068+ .000*** .000*** .592 .162 .005** .075+ 36. Competition T=6.80 1 .15 .78 4.84 3,94 ,73 .40 .5! .50 p=.000*** .254 ,456 ,000*** ,001*** .482 .679 .623 .630 37, The Past T=2.40 1.18 1 .82 2,50 1 .42 2.60 .72 ! .07 1 .19 p=.OI8* .24! .071 + .018* .162 .016* .486 .288' .246 38. The Present T=!.37 1.13 .09 2.14 3.84 1 .22 2.19 1.98 .34 p=.172 .263 .891 .039* ,001*** .-232 .038* .056+ .734 39. The Future T=|.04 .76 .38 2.23 1.54 .193 2.73 1.62 .19 p=.303 .456 .707 .033* .130 .828 .012** . 1 14 .831 40. ' Clocks T=4.60 .34 1 .92 5.25 3.18 .30 .97 1 .48 .14 p=,000*** .733 .057+ .000*** .004** .761 .347 . 149 . .858 T a b ! e V C o n t i nued HIP VS NONHIP VARIABLES 43. S e l f ( S t r o n a ) INTRAFAMILY ATT ITUDES 44, E v a l u a t i o n 45. Po ' tencv 46. L e n i e n c y 47. N o n - h y o o c r i S y 46. Re i t'g iousness 49. E v a l u a t i o n 50. P o t e n c y SONS HS VS NS AITiTUOE TO f-ATHER T=2.66 P----.009** 1=2. 15 p=,035* T= l .72 T=i ,78 p=.076+ T=l.73 p=.084+ ATTITUOE TO MOTHER 1--4.00 r>-,000*** T=2.23 r> = . 027 * 8 FATHERS HF VS NF .816 ATTITUDE TO MOTHER .70 .097+ ,57 ,02 ,93 ! .008 .941 .610 MOTHERS HM VS NM .60 .557 Ai T i TUDE TO FATHER . 79 .43? ,07 .399 ' , 67 . 0 1 0 * * .534 HIP FAMILY NONHIP FAMILY 10 SON VS rATHER 2.20 . 0 3 1 * .99 .326 /-Tl I1UDE TO MOTHER d.44 . 0 0 0 * * * \ .73 .091 + SON VS MOTHER 1.19 .242 ATT I riJl'Jh TO FATHER 4.54 .ooo- ** 3. i 5 . 0 04 * * I .26 2. i c , 037 * i , ! 0 .287 1 2 FATHER VS MOTHER ,27 ,7 7b ATT! Tut):; 10 EACH OTHER .79 .444 2. 19 .036* ! . 69 . 099+ .34 .735 ! . 1 0 ,285 SON VS FATHER SON VS MOTHER . 34 .735 ATT' i TUDE TO FATHER AT T!TUDE 10 MOTHER 1 ,43 .162 i .34 .074+ .55 ,596 .41 .085 .70 .^97 .75 .465 . 7 3 .4 76 !5 FATHER VS MOTHER ,55 .729 ATT ITUDE TO EACH OTHER .40 .172 i S .87 | .071+ 2.39 , 0 2 5 s .37 .712 .23 , eo2 T a b l e V C o n t i nued H I P VS NONHIP V A R I A B L E S o\. L e n i e n c y )2. N o n - h y o o c r i s y 5 3 . R e i i a i o u s n e s s SONS ONLY 56. A t t i t u d e t o F a t h e r 5 7 . A t t i t u d e t o M o t h e r 58. E s t i m a t e d M o t h e r ' s H i p n e s s 5 9 . E s t i m a t e d F a t h e r ' s •Hi p n e s s 6 0 . l . Q . 6 3 . H i p S c o r e (+25) H5 VS NS ATT ITUDE TO MOTHER T = l . 0 4 p=.305 1=2.74 p=.007** T---I .46 p-.144 T=3.25 p=.002»* T=3.60 p = . 0 0 l * * * T^-2.03 rv=.04 3* T=2.85 p=.006** T=2.85 p=.006** T-29.29 r>=.000*** 8 FATHERS HF VS NF MOTHERS HM VS NM H I P FAMILY 10 SON VS FATHER ATTITUDE TO MOTHER .46 2.28 . 0 2 9 * .10 .882 12 FATHER VS SON V MOTHER MOTHER NONHIP F A M I L Y I. SON VS FATHER ATTITUDE TO MOTHER .818 .6! .555 2.00 . 0 5 0 * 14 SON VS MOTHER T a b l e V C o n t i n u e d H I P VS NONHIP V A R I A B L E S PARENTS ONLY 64, A t t i t u d e t o S o n 6 5 , E s t i m a t e d S o n ' s " P o t e n c y 6 7 , H i p S c o r e SONS HS VS NS 8 FATHER HF VS NF T=3.38 n=.O02** T=2.54 p=.OI3** T = l . 8 5 P=,067+ MOTHERS HM VS NM 3.18 . 0 0 2 * * .83 ' .417 3.77 . 0 0 0 * * * H I P FAMILY 10 SON VS FATHER SON VS MOTHER 12 FATHER VS MOTHER .3! .755 .89 .385 .18 .247 NONHIP F A M I L Y 13 SON VS FATHER SON VS MOTHER 15 FATHER VS MOTHER .40 .694 ,42 .680 3 + - p r o b a b i I i t y - .10 * - p r o b a b i i i t y - .05 ** - p r o b a b ! I i t y £ .01 *** - p r o b a b i I i t y - .001 36 Demograph ic Da ta Based on t h e two t r a d i t i o n a l measures o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s — f a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n — t h e h i p f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t endency t o b e l o n g t o a h i g h e r s t a t u s l e v e l . F a t h e r s ' e d u c a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e VI and o c c u p a t i o n i n T a b l e V I I . The t r e n d f o r h i p - B o h e m i a n y o u t h t o T a b l e VI FATHER'S EDUCATION HIP NONHIP Beyond Grade 12 8 2 J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n 7 8 Below Grade 12 15 23 Ch i Square = 5.22 (p = .071) T a b l e VI I FATHER 'S OCCUPATION HIP NONHIP Wh i t e Co I I a r 17 10 B l u e C o l l a r I I 20 Ch i Squa re = 3.33 (p = .065) o r i g i n a t e f rom h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s t h a n t h e i r nonh ip c o u n t e r p a r t s has been s u g g e s t e d i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s : R i gney and Sm i t h (1961) and P o l s k y (1967) on The B e a t s ; by Y a b l o n s k i (1968) and B u c k n e r (1968) on ! ; h i p p i e s . ' ! The same f i n d i n g has been r e m a r k a b l y c o n s i s t e n t i n s t u d i e s o f r a d i c a l a c t i v i s t s ( e . g . , F l a c k s , 1967). F o r o u r s a m p l e , t h e c o n c l u s i o n i s no t w a r r a n t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e c l a s s backg rounds o f h i p and n o n - h i p y o u t h . The re i s much 37 o v e r l a p ; many h i p s u b j e c t s come f rom lower m i d d l e c l a s s and many n o n - h i p f rom m i d d l e c l a s s homes; The p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f about .07 i n d i c a t e t h e C l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s a r e no t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g , a n d , as we s h a l l s ee g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s , i t i s f a r e a s i e r t o f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r e n t s o f h i p and nonh ip a d o l e s c e n t s . The re i s f o r example no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e work h i s t o r i e s o f h i p and nonh ip m o t h e r s . Both g r oup s a r e abou t e v e n l y d i v i d e d i n t o w o r k i n g mothe r s and housew ive s as shown i n T a b l e V l l l . T a b l e V l l l WORKING PATTERNS OF MOTHERS HIP NONHIP Work ing 18 18 H o u s e w i f e 22 17 Ch i Squa re = .100 (p = .747 - no t s i g n i f i c a n t ) The m o t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n h i s t o r i e s a r e l i k e w i s e c o m p a r a b l e , h i p mothe r s h a v i n g c o m p l e t e d an a ve r a ge o f 11.3 g r a d e s , and nonh i p 10.8 (p = n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ) . R e g a r d i n g m a r i t a l h i s t o r i e s , 9 o f t h e h i p f a m i l i e s have been d i s r u p t e d by e i t h e r s e p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e o r p a r e n t a l d e a t h ; 39 f a m i l i e s a r e i n t a c t . The r e s p e c t i v e f i g u r e s f o r nonh i p fami I l e s a r e 3 and 38. The s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r a t e o f f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e h i p c a t e g o r y i s n o t , however , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -c a n t (CHI SQUARE = 1.59; p = . 2 0 4 ) . I t w i l l be seen though t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e p o r t t h a t t h e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s do fo rm a p a t t e r n and ough t no t t o be e n t i r e l y d i s r e g a r d e d . P s y c h i a t r i c h i s t o r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e IX. A ; , y e s ' r e s p o n s e means t h e s u b j e c t has a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r been a p s y c h o t h e r a p y p a t i e n t . Compar ing p a t t e r n s f o r a l l t h e h i p s u b j e c t s combined v e r s u s a l l t h e nonh ip c o m b i n e d , t h e CHI SQUARE i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = .006) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t h i p f a m i l i e s a s a 38 T a b l e IX PSYCHIATRIC HISTORIES H i p NONHIP Son F a t h e r M o t h e r Son F a t h e r M o t h e r YES 7 7 6 1 3 1 NO 39 24 24 39 30 34 who l e have s u f f e r e d f rom g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s u l t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d when we come t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s p e r t i n e n t t o s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t . P o l i t i c a l l y one f i n d s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i v e r g e n c e s between p a r e n t g r o u p s . P a r t y p r e f e r e n c e s a r e shown i n T a b l e X. L i k e w i s e on a r a t i n g s c a l e f r om l e f t T a b l e X POLIT ICAL PARTY PREFERENCES H i p Nonh ip F a t h e r Mo the r F a t h e r Mo the r NDP 1 1 12 9 8 L i bera1 7 12 8 9 P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e 6 6 0 2 S o c i a l C r e d i t 5 7 10 9 M i xed 5 7 10 9 wing (7 ) t o r i g h t w ing ( I ) , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s emerge between p a r e n t g r oup s ( s ee T a b l e V, V a r i a b l e 2 5 , Columns 8, 9 , 12 and 15) . The h i p s o n s , however , s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a r t h e r t o t h e l e f t t h a n do nonh ip sons ( V a r i a b l e 2 5 , co lumn 7) a f i n d i n g i n l i n e w i t h t h e n o t i o n t h a t h i p y o u t h t end t owa rd r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s . The h i p s o n s ' mean o f 4 .72 i s n o t , t h o u g h , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x -t reme on a 7 p o i n t s c a l e , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h i p s u b j e c t s a r e no t commi t ted 39 r a d i c a l s but r a t h e r f e e l an empathy f o r l e f t w ing I dea s . Pe rhap s t h i s d i f f e r -ence between h i p and a c t i v i s t y o u t h r e s u l t s f rom p a r e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s . S p e c i f i -c a l l y , v i r t u a l l y a l l s t u d i e s on a c t i v i s t s r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s do have s t r o n g l y l i b e r a l o r r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l v i e w s ( e . g . , F l a c k s , 1967; K e n i s t o n , 1968 ) , and t h a t t h e a c t i v i s t s , whose r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s t e n d t o be warm, a r e c a r r y i n g o n , r a t h e r t h a n r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t , a p r o g r e s s i v e f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n . Our h i p s u b j e c t s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e l e f t o f b o t h p a r e n t s ( V a r i a b l e 2 5 , co lumns 10 and I I ) , b u t much moreso t h a n a c t i v i s t s , appear t o have ab so rbed l e f t w ing a t t i t u d e s f rom o u t s i d e t h e home, w i t h o u t t h e agreement o f p a r e n t s . The r e c i p r o c a l l i k i n g f o r one a n o t h e r i s l owe r f o r bo th h i p " m o t h e r - s o n " and h i p " f a t h e r - s o n " r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a n f o r t h e r e s p e c t i v e nonh ip r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The h y p o t h e s i s t o be d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s r e p o r t i s t h a t t h e i n c l i n a t i o n s t oward a l i e n a t i o n a r e n u r t u r e d w i t h i n t h e h i p f a m i l y bu t t h a t t h e s u b s t a n c e and c o n -t o u r s o f t h e a l i e n a t i o n a r e f a s h i o n e d f rom i n f l u e n c e s beyond t h e f a m i l y . The r e l a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l v i e w s o f h i p p a r e n t s c o n s t i t u t e a n a t u r a l f o c u s o f a t t a c k f o r t h e i r s o n s ' a l i e n a t i o n . F o r p r i n c i p a l l y two r e a s on s t h o u g h , t h e s e a d o l e s c e n t s t e n d no t t o i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s i n o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l a c + j v i t y : f i i . r s t , t h e model c a n n o t be t a k e n f rom p a r e n t a l a c t i v i t y , and s e c o n d , t h e p rob l ems o f i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n , e m o t i o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n and t h e r e f u s a l o r i n a b i l i t y t o p o s t p o n e and channe l i m p u l s e s p r e c l u d e s c o n t i n u e d a l l e g i a n c e t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . R e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e X I . The h i p s o n s ' d i s t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m bo th t h e nonh ip s o n s ' (p = .004) and f rom t h e h i p p a r e n t s (p = . 0 0 1 ) . In p a r t i c u l a r , h i p sons show a d e p a r t u r e f rom t h e c o n v e n t i o n -al, r e l i g i o u s c a t e g o r i e s i n e i t h e r of two ways : t owa rd a b l a n k e t r e n u n c i a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n o r t owa rd an i d i o s y n c r a t i c , m y s t i c a l b e l i e f , e . g . " Zen B u d d h i s m , " "God 40 T a b l e XI RELIGIOUS AFF IL IAT ION H ip Nonh i p Son F a t h e r Mo the r Son F a t h e r Moth e P r o t e s t a n t 12 21 23 20 23 23 C a t h o 1 i c 2 5 8 6 6 9 O t h e r C h r i s t i a n 0 1 4 0 2 0 A t h e i s t 14 4 3 9 3 0 M y s t i c o r i d i o s y n c r a t i c 13 0 0 4 0 0 Undec i ded 6 0 0 0 0 0 J e w i s h 0 0 0 0 0 0 i s L o v e , ! i e t c . The B e a t s i n t h e R i gney and Sm i th s t u d y showed a s i m i l a r s p l i t between a t h e i s m and m y s t i c i s m . About t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e h i p sons and o n e - t h i r d o f t h e nonh i p d e c l a r e t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s t o d i f f e r f r om t h e i r p a r e n t s . The nonh i p sons d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p = .002) f rom t h e i r p a r e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n T a b l e X I . In f a c t t h e i r d e v i a t i o n s f rom p a r e n t s p a r a l l e l t h e h i p s o n s ' p a t t e r n s , though l e s s e x t r e m e l y . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between h i p and nonh ip p a r e n t g r o u p s . I t i s t h i s s o r t o f f i n d i n g wh i ch p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r t h e G e n e r a t i o n Gap h y p o t h e s i s . L e t us t u r n now t o a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s i n T a b l e s IV and V. The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o c u s on t h r e e main a s p e c t s o f t h e d a t a : I) c o m p a r i s o n o f h i p and nonh i p s o n s ; 2) c o m p a r i s o n o f h i p and nonh ip p a r e n t s ; a n d , 3) c o m p a r i s o n o f sons and p a r e n t s . I. Compa r i s on o f h i p and nonh ip sons T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on co lumn 7 i n T a b l e V. The r e a d e r s h o u l d pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e s ymbo l s a l o n g t h e r i g h t hand edge of 41 t h e c o l umn . The r ,+" symbol s i g n i f i e s a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l between .10 and . 0 5 , a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g i n d i c a t i v e o f a t r e n d . The a s t e r i s k s r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s ; t h r e e a s t e r i s k s a t t h e .001 l e v e l , two a t t h e .01 l e v e l and one a t t h e .05 l e v e l . A g l a n c e w i l l i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e two g roup s o f a d o l e s c e n t s d i f f e r on most o f t h e s c a l e s , u s u a l l y a t h i g h l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The p a t t e r n o f d i v e r -gences p a r a l l e l s t h o s e found i n s t u d i e s on s i m i l a r s u b c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . The 0PI ( V a r i a b l e s I t o 14) was a d m i n i s t e r e d by W h i t t a k e r and Watt s (1969) t o g r oup s of B e r k e l e y " n o n - s t u d e n t s , ' ' a p o t p o u r r i o f r a d i c a l s and a l i e n a t e d young p e o p l e , who were found t o d i f f e r f rom a c o n t r o l g roup of s t u d e n t s v e r y much as do o u r h i p s u b j e c t s d i f f e r f r om t h e n o n h i p . S i m i l a r p a t t e r n s a r e r e p o r t e d by H e i s t (1965) f o r B e r k e l e y a c t i v i s t s . I n t e l l e c t u a l D i s p o s i t i o n . H i p and nonh ip s u b j e c t s d i f f e r a t h i g h l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e on V a r i a b l e s I - 4: T h i n k i n g I n t r o v e r s i o n , T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t -a t i o n , E s t h e t i c i s m , and C o m p l e x i t y . H i p s u b j e c t s s c o r e c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r on a l l f o u r s c a l e s , i n d i c a t i n g a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , s e n s i t i v e , i n t r o s p e c t i v e and l e s s s i m p l i s t i c i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e i r a ve r a ge i Q ' s r e c o r d e d o v e r a s e ven y e a r p e r i o d a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n nonh ip IQ ' s ( 117 .3 v e r s u s 110.7, p = . 0 0 6 ) . T h i s outcome i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e m a r k a b l y r e l i a b l e f i n d i n g t h a t p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e i r a p o l i t i c a l c o u n t e r -p a r t s ( e . g . , Bay , 1967) . Commenting on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l t a l e n t s o f members o f t h e F r e e Speech Movement a t B e r k e l e y , Somers (1964 , p. 544) c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t " a m i n o r i t y v i t a l t o t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . " The c o n -c l u s i o n i s based no t s i m p l y on s u p e r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , bu t on s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s on a c t i v i s t s r e p o r t s t h e i r a cademic a c h i e v e m e n t t o be e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h . 42 A l t h o u g h o u r h i p s u b j e c t s show s u p e r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , t h e y do no t do c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y w e l l i n s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t y e a r s . In f a c t , t h e i r a cadem i c s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r nonh ip s u b j e c t s , wh i ch i s d i s p l a y e d t h r o u g h G rade 8, r e v e r s e s d u r i n g h i g h s c h o o l . Academic h i s t o r i e s f o r t h e two g r oup s a r e p r e -s e n t e d i n F i g u r e I. The i n t e r a c t i o n , o r c r o s s o v e r , between t h e two c u r v e s i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = . 0 1 ) . D e s p i t e t h e i r h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e , a n d , as o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s show, t h e i r s t r o n g e r i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s , h i p s u b j e c t s show a marked a cadem i c d e c l i n e i n h i g h s c h o o l . The f a i l u r e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t em t o i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e s e i n t e l l i g e n t and q u e s t i o n i n g young p e o p l e i s a p o i n t wh i ch i s b o t h d i s t u r b i n g and wo r thy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t a I I l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g . The d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n h i g h s c h o o l by t h e h i p s u b j e c t s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r p l a n s r e g a r d i n g U n i v e r s i t y , p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I I . The s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r u n c e r t a i n t y abou t t h e f u t u r e can be seen T a b l e XI I PLANS TO ATTEND UNIVERSITY H ip Nonh ip YES 21 20 NO 12 18 UNCERTAIN 12 2 Ch i Squa re = 8 . 1 0 , p = .017 even more d i s t i n c t l y r e g a r d i n g p r o s p e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s . N e a r l y 60$ o f t h e h i p s u b j e c t s (as opposed t o 25$ o f n onh i p ) a r e u n d e c i d e d abou t t h e i r f u t u r e c a r e e r s . The f i g u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I I I . 43 FIGURE | ACADEMIC HISTORIES 4.9 ACADEMIC GRADES 3.5 (Grades 1-4) (Grades 5-8) (H i gh S c h o o l ) GRADE LEVEL 44 T a b l e X I I I PROSPECTIVE OCCUPATION H i p Nonh i p W h i t e C o l l a r 15 19 B l u e C o l l a r 4 10 U n d e c i d e d 26 10 Ch i Square = 9 . 7 7 , p = .008 A n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . The argument t h a t r i g i d , o p i n i o n a t e d a t t i t u d e s a r e as g r e a t o r g r e a t e r among ' ' h i p p i e s ' * and r a d i c a l s has no t f ound c o n f i r m a t i o n f o r t h e l a t t e r g roup ( e . g . , Wat t s and W h t t t a k e r , 1966) no r does i t i n ou r r e -s e a r c h f o r t h e f o r m e r . The l i b e r t a r i a n e t h i c summar ized i n t h e i n j u n c t i o n " do y o u r own t h i n g " does f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e h i p s u b j e c t s ' p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . T h i s a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m i s p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l a s s a u l t on t h e s u p e r -e g o , a c u t t i n g edge o f wh i ch has been Bohemian i d e o l o g i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e between h i p and nonh ip s u b j e c t s on Autonomy ( V a r i a b l e 5) i s e x t r e m e l y l a r g e . H ip s u b j e c t s show g r e a t e r i ndependence o f t h o u g h t and judgement and a r e more t o l e r a n t o f o t h e r s ' v i e w p o i n t s . They a r e a l s o more l i b e r a l r e g a r d i n g r e l i g i o u s v i e w s ( V a r i a b l e 6 ) . T h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r -e g o - r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s , "DUTY" and "PUNISHMENT" a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower t h a n a r e t h e nonh i p s u b j e c t s ' e v a l u a t i o n s ( V a r i a b l e s 28 and 3 1 ) . R e l a t e d t o t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n o f openness and autonomy a r e t h e l e f t i s t p o l i t i c a l v i e w s o f h i p s u b j e c t s ( V a r i a b l e 2 5 ) . H i g h s c o r e s on P r a c t i c a l O u t l o o k ( V a r i a b l e 12) a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and c o n s e r v a t i s m . T h i s s c a l e a s s e s s e s a p p l i e d , m a t e r i a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s — g e n e r a l l y , endo r sement o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c . E x p e c t e d l y , h i p s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower t h a n nonh ip s c o r e s . 4 5 The r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e s upe rego i s no t s u r p r i s i n g . A more c r u c i a l c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n wrought by h i p i d e o l o g y p e r t a i n s t o p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e s and f u n c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e ' ' e g o . " B r i e f l y , whereas t h e s u p e r -ego Is c o n c e r n e d w i t h b l o c k i n g o r g a n i c i m p u l s e s , t h e ego endeavo r s t o c o n t r o l t hem, t o a r r a n g e a b a l a n c e between t h e i m p u l s e s and t h e c o n s t r a i n t s — c r u d e l y , between i n s t i n c t and s o c i e t y . The ego i s t h e agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e a s o n i n g , d e l a y i n g g r a t i f i c a t i o n , e f f e c t i n g harmony between c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s t h r o u g h compromi se . K e n i s t o n has c a l l e d i t t h e ' ' t e c h n o l o g i c a l e g o , " and i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y ego s t r e n g t h i s t a n t a m o u n t t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t . I t i s a g a i n s t t h e s e e g o i c p r o c e s s e s t h a t h i p c u l t u r e p i t s i t s o p p o s i t i o n . S o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t v e r s u s a l i e n a t i o n . Our d a t a c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e t h a t h i p s u b j e c t s show p o o r e r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , w h i c h we can c a l l " c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n , ' ' and p o o r e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t , o r " s e l f a l i e n a t i o n . " The two a r e no t u n r e l a t e d . As E r i k s o n (1968) has d i s c u s s e d , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c o h e r e n t and s t a b l e i d e n t i t y can e v o l v e o n l y w i t h i n a f ramework o f communal s t r u c t u r e s . The r e j e c t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l communal s t r u c t u r e s i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d — whe the r as c a u s e o r e f f e c t o r b o t h - - t o t h e h i g h r a t e s o f e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e and p e r s o n a l u n h a p p i n e s s among h i p y o u t h . Y a b l o n s k y ( 1968 , p. 36) s ay s o f h i s n a t i o n a l s amp le o f " h i p p i e s : " " P e r h a p s 20^ o f t h e h i p p i e s f r om a l l c a t e g o r i e s a r e s e v e r e l y e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d young p e o p l e who have found i n t h e h i p p i e community a r e f u g e and p e r s o n a l immunity f rom t h e f o rma l s o c i e t y ' s a pp r oach t o d e a l i n g w i t h p s y c h o s i s . " A l t h o u g h s e v e n , o r abou t \5% o f o u r h i p s u b j e c t s have been i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y , I wou ld be r e l u c t a n t t o say t h a t any o f them a r e " s e v e r e l y e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d . " They do as a g r o u p , however , s u f f e r f r om g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e and a l i e n a t i o n t h a n t h e nonh i p s u b j e c t s . The mean f o r h i p Ss on P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ( V a r i a b l e 9) i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y 46 l owe r t h a n f o r nonh ip S s . The i tems on t h i s s c a l e show t h a t h i p S s : " a t t i m e s f e e l c o m p l e t e l y i n a d e q u a t e , have s t r a n g e and p e c u l i a r t h o u g h t s , wonder who t h e y r e a l l y a r e and what t h e y s h o u l d r e a l l y be l i k e and f e e l t h e y a r e no t as happy as o t h e r s seem t o b e . " ( I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o o u r d a t a , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s c a n n o t be a s c r i b e d t o t h e h i p s u b j e c t s ' g r e a t e r h o n e s t y i s r e s p o n d i n g . The Response B i a s s c a l e ( V a r i a b l e 14) i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between h i p and n o n h i p — t h a t i s , no g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y f o r t h e nonh ip t o p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s i n a f a v o r a b l e I i g h t . ) The t e n d e n c y — t h o u g h no t q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t — i s f o r h i p s u b j e c t s t o e x p e r -i e n c e h i g h e r a n x i e t y ( V a r i a b l e 10; h i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e l ower a n x i e t y ) . H i p s u b j e c t s s c o r e v e r y h i g h , f a r above n o n h i p , on t h e Impulse E x p r e s s i o n S c a l e ( V a r i a b l e 8 ) . T h i s s c a l e and t h e syndrome i t r e p r e s e n t s t y p i f i e s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i p s u b j e c t s . The a u t h o r s o f t h e OPI d e s c r i b e t h e IE s c a l e as f o l l o w s : " T h i s s c a l e a s s e s s e s a g e n e r a l r e a d i n e s s t o e x p r e s s i m p u l s e s and t o s eek g r a t i f i c a t i o n e i t h e r i n c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t o r i n o v e r t a c t i o n . H i gh s c o r e r s have an a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , v a l u e s e n s u a l r e a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s . V e r y h i gh s c o r e r s have f r e q u e n t f e e l i n g s o f r e b e l l i o n and a g g r e s s i o n . " ( H e i s t and Yonge , 1968). I t i s t h i s s c a l e w h i c h c a p t u r e s bo th t h e a n t i - e g o i c t e n d e n c i e s o f h i p s u b j e c t s , and r e l a t e d l y , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t . I t i s a s i g n o f r e f u s a l t o say " n o " t o i n n e r f e e l i n g s o r " y e s " t o s o c i e t a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l demands. What K e n i s t o n s a y s o f h i s a l i e n a t e d s u b j e c t s a p p l i e s t o o u r s as w e l l . " They r e j e c t t h e v a l u e a s s u m p t i o n s upon w h i c h most q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures o f ' m a t u r i t y , ' ' e g o - s t r e n g t h ' and ' g ood menta l h e a l t h ' a r e b a s e d . They make a g r e a t e f f o r t t o undermine any s o - c a l l e d ' d e f e n s e s ' t h a t m i g h t p r o t e c t them f r om u n -p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s . F o r most o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s opennes s t o t h e i r own p rob lems and 47 f a i l i n g s i s a c a r d i n a l v i r t u e ' 7 ( 1968 , p. 332) t L e t us c o n s i d e r i n somewhat more d e t a i l t h e n a t u r e o f , and e v i d e n c e f o r , t h e a n t i - e g o l c t e n d e n c i e s o f h i p s u b j e c t s . T h e i r h i g h v a l u a t i o n o f f r eedom t o e x p r e s s t h e d e e p e r , a f f e c t i v e l a y e r s o f t h e p s y c h e - - u s u a I l y c a l l e d t h e " I d " - -Is o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d p o l i t i c a l l y as I i b e r t a r i a n i s n , o r a n a r c h i s m . T h i s v a l u a t i o n was bo rne o u t e m p i r i c a l l y and h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t h r e e i s s u e s : A t t i t u d e t o c h i l d r e n ' s f r eedom ( V a r i a b l e 15 ) , a t t i t u d e t o women's f reedom ( V a r i a b l e 16) and a t t i t u d e t o s e x u a l f r eedom ( V a r i a b l e 17) . These f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m t h r e e i m p o r t a n t d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t e r c u l t u r e a n d , a s we s h a l l s e e , o f Wes te rn c u l t u r e g e n -e r a l l y . F i r s t , t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d as t h e s t a t e o f u n r e p r e s s e d e x i s t e n c e i s a f f i r m e d , and i n c i d e n t l y , t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n s i g n a l s a r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t t h e e g o i c c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e a d u l t r o l e . E a r i s m a n ( 1968 , p. 38) s a y s o f one s u b j e c t , "The h i p p i e l i f e was f o r h e r t h e f reedom t o be l i k e a c h i l d . " The n a t u r a l i s t and r o m a n t i c i s t i m p u l s e s t u r n t h e h i p v i s t a , no t ahead i n t h e name o f p r o g r e s s , bu t back i n t h e name of r e c l a m a t i o n o f a l e gacy d e c l a r e d l o s t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . As t h e d i r e c t i o n i n h i p c u l t u r e , j u s t d i s c u s s e d , c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l r o l e o f a d u l t h o o d , t h e second q u e s t i o n s s e x - r o l e d i s t i n c t i o n s . The breakdown between t h e ma le and f e m a l e r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s has a l e n g t h y h i s t o r y , and some a u t h o r s , s uch as t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , W i n i c k ( 1 9 6 8 ) , c o n s i d e r i t t h e most c r u c i a l c u l t u r a l t r e n d i n modern s o c i e t i e s . Bohemian women have been i n t h e vangua rd o f f e m i n i s t movements f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . Our h i p s u b j e c t s ' p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t owa rd women's e q u a l i t y i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d , wh i ch Brown (1959) and Ma r eu se ( 1955 )—two r e p u t e d men to r s o f t h e y o u t h m o v e m e n t — a c c l a i m as t h e s t a g e o f b i s e x u a l i t y , t h e p r e - e g o i c s t a g e . The h i p s u b j e c t s ' r e j e c t i o n o f t h e ma le r o l e i s bo rne o u t by r e s u l t s on V a r i a b l e 13, 48 M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y . H i p s u b j e c t s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower t h a n n o n h i p , i n -d i c a t i n g a more f e m i n i n e o r i e n t a t i o n , i . e . , g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n e s t h e t i c s , s t r o n g e r f e e l i n g s o f s e n s i t i v i t y and e m o t t o n a I i t y . The r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t t h e m a s c u l i n e r o l e p a r a l l e l s r e f u s a l o f t h e a d u l t r o l e , as both a r e seen t o c o n v e r g e In a syndrome o f s e l f - c o n t r o l , r e p r e s s i o n and " g a m e - p l a y i n g " — t r a i t s t o wh i ch h i p i d e o l o g y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been o p p o s e d . The t h i r d , and r e l a t e d d i r e c t i o n , s e x u a l f r e e d o m , ( V a r i a b l e 17) s o p e r -meates p r e s e n t - d a y c u l t u r e t h a t i t h a r d l y seems t o b e l o n g more t o Bohemia t h a n any o t h e r g r o u p i n g . In f a c t , a l l t h r e e d i r e c t i o n s , wh i ch a r e so common g e n e r a l l y , were l i s t e d by Cowley as Bohemian themes f i f t y y e a r s ago. The f a c t t h a t h i p s u b j e c t s s t i l l e n d o r s e t h e s e t h r e e f reedoms more s t r o n g l y t h a n nonh ip i m p l i e s t h e i n f l u e n c e p r o c e s s f rom Bohemia t o ma i n s t r eam c u l t u r e i s no t c o m p l e t e , bu t when we i n v e s t i g a t e t h e g e n e r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s we s h a l l s ee t o what a g r e a t e x t e n t Bohemian i d e a s have made i n r o a d s among even t h e l e a s t h i p y o u t h . The a n t i - e g o i c , a n t i - r e p r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e s o f h i p y o u t h a r e f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e d by r e s u l t s on t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s . The i d - r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s o f I n s t i n c t ( V a r i a b l e 30) and P a s s i o n ( V a r i a b l e 33) a r e e v a l u a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e l y by h i p s u b j e c t s t h a n by n o n h i p . Whereas t h e i d i s , a c c o r d i n g t o F r e u d , e n t i r e l y d e v o i d o f a s en se o f t i m e , t h e ego i s f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h i s s e n s e . P r i n c i p a l e g o i c f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d e g r a t i f i c a t i o n - p o s t p o n e m e n t and p u r p o s i v e p l a n n i n g — b o t h i n d i s p e n s a b l e a b i l i t i e s i n u r b a n , t e c h n o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s . The t r e n d among h i p y o u t h t o t a k e r e f u g e f r om t h i s l i f e i n e i t h e r unemployment o r r u r a l communes i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a I t r a i t s and a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e 49 t oward t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f t i m e . H i p s u b j e c t s e v a l u a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s p o s i t i v e l y t h a n nonh ip t h e f o l l o w i n g e g o - r e l a t e d t e m p o r a l c o n c e p t s : T ime ( V a r i a b l e 3 2 ) , P l a n n i n g ( V a r i a b l e 3 4 ) , S c h e d u l e ( V a r i a b l e 35) and C l o c k s ( V a r i a b l e 4 0 ) . A l s o , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f h i p s u b j e c t s wear wa tche s (15 o f 46) t h a n nonh i p (27 o f 4 0 ) . The Ch i Squa re o f 9.07 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .003 p r o b a b i I i t y l e v e l i The W e s t e r n , l i n e a r c o n c e p t o f p r o g r e s s i v e t i m e , upon wh i ch bo th p r o f i t m o t i v a t i o n and t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l e t h o s a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y f o u n d e d , i s b e i n g r e j e c t e d by h i p y o u t h i n f a v o r o f a c o n c e p t o f c y c l i c o r n o n - c u m u l a t i v e t i m e w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d both i n O r i e n t a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and p s y c h o - a c t i v e d rug s t a t e s . I t i s i n a r e a s o f b a s i c e p i s t e m o l o g i c a I p e r c e p t i o n s such as t h i s o n e , t h a t d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s between p e o p l e c o n s t i t u t e v i r t u a l l y i n commun i cab l e s t a t e s ; Most o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e a l i e n a t e d has shown t h a t l i t t l e commun-i c a t i o n does pass between t h e i r w o r l d s and t h e s o - c a l l e d normal one . Our d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t i m p o r t a n t changes have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e ' 6 0 ' s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n and w i t h d r a w a l o f a l i e n a t e d y o u t h . S o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . G o u l d ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 43 -44) d e f i n e s a l i e n a t i o n as " a syndrome c o n s i s t i n g of f e e l i n g s o f p e s s i m i s m , c y n i c i s m , d i s t r u s t , apa thy and e m o t i o n a l d i s t a n c e . " T r a d i t i o n a l l y a l i e n a t i o n has been l i n k e d w i t h s t r o n g a n t i - s o c i a l o r a s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s . The r e s u l t s o f G o u l d ' s s t u d y show t h a t r e l a t i v e t o n o n - a l i e n a t e d s u b j e c t s , t h e a l i e n a t e d v i e w o t h e r s a s b e i n g u n t r u s t -w o r t h y , a r e more s o c i a l l y i n t r o v e r t e d , have f e w e r f r i e n d s , and a d m i t t o more p s y c h o - p a t h o l o g y . T h i s p a t t e r n h e l d f o r B e a t s , as w e l l as f o r K e n i s t o n ' s a l i e n a t e d s u b j e c t s i n t h e l a t e ' 5 0 ' s , who s h a r e many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o u r s u b j e c t s , s u ch as e s t h e t i c and r o m a n t i c i n t e r e s t s i n s p o n t e n e i t y , e x p e r i e n t i a l i n t e n s i t y and s p i r i t u a l f r e e d o m s . Of t h e i r a n t i - s o c i a l v i e w s , w h i c h K e n i s t o n b rand s 50 " e x i s t e n t i a l p e s s i m i s m , ' 1 t h e a u t h o r s a y s , " C e n t r a l t o a l i e n a t i o n i s a deep and p e r v a s i v e m i s t r u s t o f any and a l l commi tment s , be t hey t o o t h e r p e o p l e , t o g r o u p s , t o A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e o r even t o t h e S e l f . Most b a s i c he re Is t h e d i s t r u s t o f o t h e r p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l — a low and p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w o f human n a t u r e " ( 1965 , pp. 5 6 - 5 7 ) . A l t h o u g h o u r s u b j e c t s s h a r e many o f t h e t r a i t s o f t h e B e a t s and K e n i s t o n ' s s u b j e c t s — r o m a n t i c i s m , e s t h e t i c i s m and e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s — t h e y do no t m a n i f e s t t h e same p e s s i m i s m and m i s t r u s t t owa rd o t h e r s . T h e r e a r e Impo r t an t h i s t o r i c a l r ea son s f o r t h e change . The s u r g e o f p o l i t i c a l e n e r g i e s i n t h e e a r l y ' 6 0 ' s made e v i d e n t t o c u l t u r a l l y a l i e n a t e d y o u t h t h a t i s o l a t i o n i s n o t an i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c o m i t a n t of c u l t u r a l o p p o s i t i o n . ; The e v o l u t i o n o f c o n c e p t s o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y democ r a c y , c o m m u n i t a r i a n v a l u e s and t h e " l o v e e t h i c " accompan ied t h e s h e d d i n g o f a n t i - s o c i a l and o f t e n , as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e B e a t s , e l i t i s t d e f e n s e s . I n c i d e n t l y , t h e r o l e o f p s y c h e d e l i c d rugs s h o u l d no t be u n d e r p l a y e d as a g e n t s i n t h e e r o s i o n o f t h e s e p s y c h i c d e f e n s e s . The d a t a i n d i c a t e c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a t h i p s u b j e c t s a r e n o t more a n t i - s o c i a l t han nonh i p and i n some c a s e s a r e l e s s s o . On t h e S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n S c a l e ( V a r i a b l e 7) o f t h e O P I — w h i c h measures p r e f e r r e d s t y l e s o f r e l a t i n g t o p e o p l e i n s o c i a l c o n t e x t s , o f no t w i t h d r a w i n g f rom s o c i a l c o n t a c t s — t h e d i f f e r e n c e between h i p and nonh i p s u b j e c t s i s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a l t h o u g h t h e h i p s u b j e c t s a c t u a l l y do s c o r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r , i . e . , more i n t h e e x t r a -v e r t e d d i r e c t i o n . The A l t r u i s m S c a l e ( V a r i a b l e I I ) comes c l o s e s t t o m e a s u r i n g t h e " l o v e e t h i c . " I t a s s e s s e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e f e e l i n g s and w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s . On t h i s s c a l e h i p s u b j e c t s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r , i n d i c a t i n g a more a l t r u i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . V a r i a b l e 18, W r i g h t s m a n ' s P h i l o s o p h y o f Human N a t u r e S c a l e , measures 51 a t t i t u d e s t owa rd p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l . V a r i a b l e s , 19, 20 , and 21 a r e s u b - s c a l e s , w h i c h summed, make up t h e Wr i gh t sman measure ( V a r i a b l e 18) . S i n c e t h e r e a r e no i n t e r e s t i n g i d i o s y n c r a c l e s among t h e t h r e e s u b - s c a l e s , t h e r e a d e r can i g n o r e them and c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e t o t a l mea su re , V a r i a b l e 18. The d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p and nonh ip s u b j e c t s Is n o t s i g n i f i c a n t on t h i s s c a l e , i . e . n e i t h e r g roup shows a g e n e r a l l y more p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l . I t was f e l t t h a t i f h i p i d e o l o g y does r e v e r e t h e u n r e p r e s s e d and t h e n a t u r a l , h i p s u b j e c t s s h o u l d show a h i g h e v a l u a t i o n o f human n a t u r e . E x a m i n -a t i o n o f t h e Wr i gh t sman s c a l e r e v e a l s t h a t i t s i t ems p e r t a i n n o t t o human n a t u r e , b u t t o s o c i a l i z e d man In Wes te rn c u l t u r e . T y p i c a l i t ems a r e : " M o s t p e o p l e wou ld c h e a t on t h e i r income t a x i f t h e y had a chance ; " ' "Mo s t p e o p l e wou ld s t o p and h e l p a p e r s o n whose c a r has b r oken down. " I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t h i p s u b j e c t s , who a r e c r i t i c a l o f s o c i a l i z e d , Wes te rn Man, do no t s c o r e h i g h e r on t h i s s c a l e . ( I n f a c t , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h e y do no t s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r . ) A s c a l e was t h u s c o n s t r u c t e d wh i ch was i n t e n d e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between a t t i t u d e s t owa rd s o c i a l i z e d Man and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l Man ( V a r i a b l e 2 2 ) . An e x -ample o f an i t em f rom t h i s s c a l e i s : "Mo s t p e o p l e a r e s e l f i s h b e c a u s e : a ) i t ' s p a r t o f human n a t u r e ; b) t h a t ' s t h e way o u r s o c i e t y t r a i n s p e o p l e t o b e . " The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s c a l e i n d i c a t e a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t endency f o r h i p s u b -j e c t s t o have a more p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f human n a t u r e t h a n n o n h i p . From a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s e c t i o n a r e , I t h i n k , e n c o u r a g i n g . The w i t h d r a w a l p a t t e r n s wh i ch have h i t h e r t o accompan ied a d o l e s c e n t a l i e n a t i o n , impede t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i d e n t i t y , w h i c h o c c u r s as E r i k s o n a r g u e s , o n l y w i t h i n communal s t r u c t u r e s . The e v o l u t i o n o f a v i a b l e s u b c u l t u r e f o r y o u t h who f e e l e x c l u d e d f rom t h e c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m I s , a t l e a s t In t h e 52 s h o r t r u n , o u r s t r o n g e s t hope f o r c u r b i n g t h e a l a r m i n g l y h i g h r a t e s o f a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . ( I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 6 m i l l i o n o f t h e 30 m i l l i o n A m e r i c a n s between t h e ages o f 15 and 24 a r e m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d . ) F a r more so t h a n d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s o f a decade ago, o u r h i p s u b j e c t s do have an emergent s u b c u l t u r e t o wh i ch t h e i r p r i n c i p a l r e l a t i o n s h i p can be e x t r a v e r t e d and s o c i a b l e . 2 . Compar i s on o f H i p and Nonh ip p a r e n t s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on co lumns 8, 9 , 12 and 15 i n T a b l e V , wh i ch compare p a r e n t s o f h i p and nonh ip f a m i l i e s ( co lumns 8 and 9) and p a r e n t s w i t h i n t h e s e f a m i l i e s ( co lumns 12 and 15). A g a i n , t h e r e a d e r i s a d v i s e d t o pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e symbo l s a l o n g t h e r i g h t hand m a r g i n s o f t h e s e c o l u m n s . L e t us b e g i n w i t h co lumns 8 ( c ompa r i s on s o f h i p and nonh ip f a t h e r s ) and 9 ( c o m p a r i s o n s o f h i p and nonh ip m o t h e r s ) . If l a r g e and i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e x p e c t e d a g l a n c e a t t h e T a b l e w i l l show t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . Whereas h i p and nonh ip sons d i f f e r e d on l i t e r a l l y dozens o f v a r i a b l e s , t h e f a t h e r s do so on o n l y abou t seven and t h e mothe r s on abou t t e n , and t h e s e i n c l u d e m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . O v e r -a l l , one i s f o r c e d t o say t h a t t h e s e p a r e n t s - - w h o have spawned such d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n — b e a r more r e s e m b l a n c e t o one a n o t h e r t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s . And t h i s i s n o t e s p e c i a l l y s u r p r i s i n g . F o r a long w h i l e now, o u r c u l t u r e has w i t n e s s e d t h e g r o w i n g autonomy o f y o u t h c u l t u r e f rom t h e f a m i l y . Most o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on a d o l e s c e n c e empha s i ze s t h e e r o s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y bonds and i n f l u e n c e . As R iesman s a y s , " A l l t h e m o r a l i t y i s t h e g r o u p ' s " ( 1 950 ) . But t h e g r o u p ' s m o r a l i t y , a s t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s i s no t m o n o l i t h i c . I t i s i n f a c t f a r more h e t e r o g e n e o u s t h a n t h e p a r e n t s ' . Each g e n e r a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e can be c o n s t r u e d as m o i s t u r e d r o p l e t s spew ing o f f t h e a c c e l e r a t i n g wheel of h i s t o r y . 53 Each s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n l e a v e s t h e wheel a t a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t i n t i m e and a t a g r e a t e r v e l o c i t y ; T h u s , t h e more r e c e n t t h e g e n e r a t i o n t h e g r e a t e r t h e s p r e a d o f I t s c u l t u r e ; Knowing t h e g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f y ou th c u l t u r e , how can we a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t some young p e o p l e adop t h i o i d e o l o g y w h i l e o t h e r s r e j e c t i t , when t h e i r p a r e n t s appea r so s i m i l a r ? S u r e l y , r u d i m e n t a r y i n c l i n a t i o n s must e v o l v e w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y , must be r e l a t e d i n some w a y — s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y o r a n t a g o n i s t i c a l l y — t o p a r e n t a l v a l u e s . C l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a f u r n i s h e s s u p p o r t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , bu t I t s h o u l d be borne i n mind t h a t p a r e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a l t h o u g h c o n s i s t e n t , a r e v e r y s l i g h t . Such a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s makes a p p a r e n t t h e b r i t t l e n e s s o f o u r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . Sma l l d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r e n t s f e e d t h r o u g h t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o a d i v e r s i f i e d y o u t h c u l t u r e wh i ch s e r v e s t o magn i f y t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a g e n e r a t i o n l a t e r . L e t us c o n s i d e r f i r s t t h e few v a r i a b l e s on wh i ch h i p and nonh ip p a r e n t s d i f f e r , i n c l u d i n g m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . H i p f a t h e r s t end t o s c o r e h i g h e r on E s t h e t i c i s m ( V a r i a b l e 3) t h a n n o n h i p ; f e e l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have g r e a t e r f reedom ( V a r i a b l e 15 ) : f e e l women s h o u l d have g r e a t e r f reedom ( V a r i a b l e 16 ) ; have a more l i b e r a l v i e w t owa rd s e x u a l f reedom ( V a r i a b l e 17 ) : s c o r e h i g h e r on t h e h i p s c a l e ( V a r i a b l e 6 7 ) . On a I I o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , h i p f a t h e r s d i f f e r f rom nonh ip i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n as do t h e i r sons f rom nonh ip s on s . T u r n i n g t o t h e m o t h e r s ' d a t a (co lumn 9 ) , we f i n d h i p mother s t end t o show h i g h e r autonomy ( V a r i a b l e 5) t h a n nonh ip m o t h e r s ; t o be more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s v i e w s ( V a r i a b l e 6 ) ; t o show h i g h e r impu l s e e x p r e s s i o n ( V a r i a b l e 8 ) ; t o have l e s s o f a p r a c t i c a l o u t l o o k ( V a r i a b l e 12) ; t h e y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i b e r a l c o n c e r n i n g s e x u a l f r eedom ( V a r i a b l e 17) ; on t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s , h i p mothe r s t e n d t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o n c e p t s ' ' s c h e d u l e 1 ' ( V a r i a b l e 3 5 ) , ' ' t h e p a s t ' ' 54 ( V a r i a b l e 37) and ' c l o c k s ( V a r i a b l e 40) more n e g a t i v e l y . H i p mothe r s a l s o s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e h i p s c a l e ( V a r i a b l e 6 7 ) . As i n t h e c a s e o f t h e f a t h e r s , t h e m o t h e r s ' d i f f e r e n c e s p a r a l l e l , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r s o n s . The t e n d e n c y t oward i n t r a - f a m i l y c o n s i s t e n c y can be seen on t h e f i r s t 17 V a r i a b l e s . A l t h o u g h on t h e m a j o r i t y o f V a r i a b l e s h i p and nonh ip p a r e n t s do no t d i f f e r s i q n i f i c a n t l y , on 15 o f t h e 17, both o f t h e h i p p a r e n t s d i f f e r f r om t h e r e s p e c t i v e nonh ip p a r e n t s i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n as t h e i r sons d i f f e r f rom n o n -h i p s o n s . A g a i n , i t i s c r u c i a l t o empha s i z e both t h e c o n s i s t e n c y and t h e s m a l l n e s s o f t h e p a r e n t s ' d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s pe rhaps t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t s t o wh i ch t h e h i p sons a r e r e a c t i n g : t o t h e c o n s i s t e n t l i b e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , b u t o r i e n t a t i o n s wh i ch a r e n e v e r t a k e n f a r e n o u g h — o r wh i ch do no t s t a n d up t o t h e t e s t s t o wh i ch t h e a d o l e s c e n t can p u t them. C o n s i d e r t h e h i p f a t h e r , whose r o l e i n t h e emergence o f t h e h i p syndrome may s u p e r c e d e t h e m o t h e r ' s . He u p h o l d s t h e r i g h t s o f young c h i l d r e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more so t h a n does t h e nonh ip f a t h e r ( V a r i a b l e 17, co lumn 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , h i s h i p son t e n d s t o see him as more l e n i e n t ( V a r i a b l e 46 , co lumn 7 ) , and h i s w i f e a g r e e s , r a t i n g him more l e n i e n t t h a n does t h e nonh ip mothe r r a t e h e r husband ( V a r i a b l e 46 , co lumn 9 ) . T h i s c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n c o n c e r n i n g t h e h i p f a t h e r ' s p e r m i s s i v e n e s s does a p p l y t o h i s w i f e r e l a t i v e t o t h e nonh ip w i f e , but l e s s so and s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i -c a n t l y . The h i p s o n , however , r e a c t s t o h i s f a t h e r n e g a t i v e l y : he t e n d s t o see him as more h y p o c r i t i c a l ( V a r i a b l e 4 7 , co lumn 7 ) , weaker ( V a r i a b l e 4 5 , co lumn 7) and l e s s a d m i r a b l e ( V a r i a b l e 44 , and 56, co lumn 7 ) , t h a n does t h e nonh ip s o n . R e c i p r o c a l l y , t h e h i p f a t h e r e v a l u a t e s h i s son more n e g a t i v e l y t h a n does t h e 55 nonh ip f a t h e r ( V a r i a b l e 64 , co lumn 8 ) . In f a c t , t h e h i g h e r t h e h i p s e n ' s s c o r e on t h e h i p s c a l e , t h e more h i s f a t h e r d i s l i k e s him ( c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t = -.433; p = .01"). The mothe r i s no t exempted f r om t h e h i g h e r n e g a t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e h i p f a m i l y . R e l a t i v e t o t h e nonh ip m o t h e r s , she l i k e s he r son l e s s ( V a r i a b l e 64 , co lumn 9) and i s l i k e d l e s s by him ( V a r i a b l e s 49 and 57, co lumn 7). She a l s o t e n d s t o be l i k e d l e s s by he r husband ( V a r i a b l e 44 , co lumn 8) t h a n i s t h e nonh ip m o t h e r . Her son see s h e r as weaker and more h y p o c r i t i c a l t h a n does t h e nonh ip son ( V a r i a b l e s 50 and 52, co lumn 7). Beyond showing g r e a t e r c o n f l i c t and f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e h i p f a m i l y o u r d a t a can s u g g e s t o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y wh i ch c au se s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e . We do no t know, f o r e x a m p l e , whe the r t h e h i p f a t h e r s were more p e r m i s s i v e t owa rd t h e i r c h i l d r e n o u t o f c o n v i c t i o n o r d i s i n t e r e s t . S p e a k i n g o f h i s a l i e n a t e d s u b j e c t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , K e n i s t o n s u g g e s t s a c o n c e p t u a l f ramework wh i ch may be r e -l e v a n t t o o u r s u b j e c t s . He c l a i m s t h e a l i e n a t e d p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a t h e r s a s "weak , d e t a c h e d , a b s e n t , d i s t a n t , remote and somet imes as t o t a l l y u n i n v o l v e d i n t h e u p b r i n g i n g o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' ' 5 ( 1968 , p. 3 4 9 ) . The h i c h e r i n c i d e n c e of h i p f a t h e r s ' h o l d i n g w h i t e c o l a r j o b s may be c o n n e c t e d w i t h " c a r e e r i s t " ' g o a l s wh i ch do draw t h e f a t h e r ' s i n t e r e s t away f rom t h e f a m i l y . T a b l e II shows t h a t h i p f a t h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h e l owe s t o f t h e f o u r p a r e n t g r o u p s . M o r e o v e r , t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r l i t e r a l ab sence o f h i p t h a n nonh ip f a t h e r s : o f 44 nonh ip f a m i l i e s , no f a t h e r s have d i e d and 2 a r e a b s e n t due t o s e p a r a t i o n ; o f 49 h i p f a m i l i e s , 4 f a t h e r s have d i e d and 4 a r e a b s e n t due t o s e p a r a t i o n . The h i p sons see t h e i r f a t h e r s as weaker and as more h y p o c r i t i c a l . The l a t t e r f a c t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e sons have f ound i n c r e a s i n g d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h t h e s l i g h t though c o n s i s t e n t , l i b e r a l v i e w s of t h e i r f a t h e r s . And p r o b a b l y 56 f o r good r e a s o n . I t i s e a s i e r t o g r a n t f reedom t o a young c h i l d — e s p e c i a l l y i f he i s b r i g h t and d o i n g w e l l i n s c h o o l , as were t h e h i p s u b j e c t s - - - t h a n i t i s t o an a d o l e s c e n t e x e r c i s i n g a p e r m i s s i v e h e r i t a g e . E v i d e n c e shows t h a t h i p p a r e n t s h o l d e x p e c t a t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n wh i ch a r e f a r l e s s u n -c e r t a i n and more a m b i t i o u s t h a n t h o s e t h e i r sons h o l d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . In T a b l e X IV , t h e answers a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h a q u e s t i o n "Do you hope t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y ? / Do you hope y o u r son w i l l a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y ? ' 1 The s o n s ' r e s p o n s e s d i f f e r s i g n i f i -T a b l e XIV PLANS TO ATTEND UNIVERSITY H i p Son H i p F a t h e r H ip M o t h e r YES 21 30 33 NO 12 I 6 UNCERTAIN 12 I I c a n t l y f rom bo th t h e f a t h e r s ' (Ch i Squa re = 18 .54 , p = .001) and t h e m o t h e r s ' (Ch i Squa re = 13 .73 , p = . 0 0 1 ) . The h y p o t h e s i s i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h i l d h o o d f r e e d o m , t o w h i c h t h e h i p s o n ' s had grown accus tomed t h r o u g h e i t h e r p a r e n t s ' t a c i t p e r m i s s i v e n e s s o r a c t i v e encou ragement , met w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p a r e n t a l r e s t r I c t i v e n e s s as a d o l e s c e n c e a r r i v e d . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e h y p o c r i s y a s c r i b e d t o p a r e n t s s tems f rom t h e s o n ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f an i n c o n g r u e n c e between t h e i r p r o f e s s e d l i b e r a l i s m and t h e i r newly e x e r c i s e d c o n v e n t i o n a l demands. The r e l a t i v e l y poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p a r e n t s , t h e f a l l i n g o f f g r a d e s i n h i gh s c h o o l , t h e p e r s o n a l a l i e n a t i o n a r e a l l f a c e t s o f t h e e g o ' s r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e s e demands o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n ; a r e a s s e r t i o n s t h a t f reedoms p r om i sed e a r l i e r w i l l not e a s i l y be abandoned. The h i p p a r e n t s , who adop ted v a r i a t i o n s o f S p o c k i a n c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , d i d no t f o r e s e e t h a t t h e f reedoms t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d i n c h i l d h o o d wou ld no t bend 57 r e a d i l y i n i n s t i t u t i o n s wh i ch t a k e o b e d i e n c e and s u b o r d i n a t i o n f o r g r a n t e d . And i t i s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , n o t o r i o u s f o r i t s s l o w n e s s t o a c c e p t change , wh i ch Is t h e p e r f e c t t a r g e t f o r y o u t h f u l d i s s e n t . The f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x -c e r p t i s f r om a l e a f l e t w r i t t e n and d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l by one o f o u r s u b j e c t s : " T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n group o f p e o p l e i n t h i s s c h o o l who have Ideas and o p i n i o n s t h e y want t o be heard by y ou . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i r i d e a s and o p i n i o n s have no t been programmed t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l ' s c o m p u t e r . The mach ine has no t punched h o l e s i n them, r a t i o n a l i z e d them o r a c c e p t e d them f o r y o u . They a r e human i d e a s , c o n c e i v e d by human p e o p l e who c a r e abou t t h e d i r e c t i o n i n wh i ch we a r e t r a v e l l i n g , t h e shapes i n wh i ch o u r heads w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be a f t e r b e i n g p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h o u r c o m p u t e r i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . r M o t h e r - F a t h e r R e l a t i o n s h i p s . T u r n i n g t o co lumns 12 and 15, we o b s e r v e t h a t h i p f a t h e r s and mothe r s d i f f e r on about 14 v a r i a b l e s as do nonh ip f a t h e r s and m o t h e r s . The p a t t e r n o f i n t e r s p o u s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s v e r y s i m i l a r f o r bo th f a m i l y t y p e s . D i s r e g a r d i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s f o r t h e moment, t h e d i r e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s between spouse s i s t h e same f o r bo th f a m i l i e s on 15 of t h e f i r s t 18 v a r i a b l e s ; i . e . , i f t h e h i p f a t h e r s c o r e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e h i p m o t h e r , t h e nonh ip f a t h e r s c o r e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e nonh ip m o t h e r . On s^ven v a r i a b l e s , s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p spouse s a r e a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t and i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n f o r nonh ip s p o u s e s . These v a r i a b l e s , w h i c h do no t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e -tween f a m i l i e s , a r e , we can assume, s e x - r o l e - 1 i n k e d . R e l a t i v e t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s p o u s e s , bo th h i p and nonh ip f a t h e r s : s c o r e h i g h e r i n m a s c u l i n i t y ( V a r i a b l e 13 ) ; have a more s c i e n t i f i c , a n a l y t i c app roach t o i d e a s ( V a r i a b l e 2 ) ; a r e more l i b e r a l i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s ( V a r i a b l e 6 ) ; a d m i t t o f e w e r e m o t i o n a l p r ob l ems ( V a r i a b l e 9 ) , wh i ch may be l i n k e d t o t h e i r g r e a t e r b i a s f o r e n d o r s i n g s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i tems ( V a r i a b l e 14) ; t h e y have a lower a s s e s smen t of p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l ( V a r i a b l e 18) ; and a r e r a t e d as more p o w e r f u l t h a n t h e y r a t e t h e i r w i v e s ( V a r i a b l e 4 5 ) . 58 The o n l y s c a l e on wh i ch s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e two f a m i l i e s i s t h e a s se s sment o f s p o u s e ' s l e n i e n c y . H i p f a t h e r s a r e r a t e d as more l e n i e n t by t h e i r w i v e s t h a n t h e i r w i v e s a r e r a t e d by them. Nonh ip f a t h e r s , on t h e o t h e r hand , a r e r a t e d as I e s s l e n i e n t by t h e i r w i v e s . T h i s p a t t e r n f o r t h e nonh ip f a m i l y i s i n d i c a t i v e o f more t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t a l r o l e s ; and though t h e o t h e r i n t e r s p o u s e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s do not d e c i s i v e l y s u p p o r t t h i s f i n d i n g , t h e y t e n d t o i n d i c a t e c l e a r e r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e nonh ip t h a n t h e h i p f a m i l y . Nonh ip mothe r s f o r e x a m p l e , have more e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t s ( V a r i a b l e 3 ) , l ower i m p u l s i v i t y ( V a r i a b l e 8 ) , and more c o n s e r v a t i v e s e x u a l v i e w s t h a n t h e i r husbands ( V a r i a b l e 17) . A g a i n , i t s h o u l d be emphas i zed t h a t m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s show marked s i m i l a r i t y between t h e two f a m i l y t y p e s . Where t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s t h e y i n d i c a t e t h e h i p f a m i l y t o be s l i g h t l y l e s s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d , s l i g h t l y more s t r i f e f u l ( e . g . , more b roken homes; h i o f a t h e r s l i k e t h e i r spouses l e s s t h a n nonh ip f a t h e r s l i k e t h e i r s ) . On t h e f i r s t 18 V a r i a b l e s , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between f a t h e r s ' and m o t h e r s ' s c o r e s a r e h i g h e r f o r t h e nonh ip f a m i l y on 13 V a r i a b l e s , as compared w i t h 5 f o r t h e h i p f a m i l y . On V a r i a b l e s 44-48, p a r e n t ' s r a t i n g s o f s p o u s e , c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e h i g h e r on a l l 5 V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e nonh i p f a m i l y (3 of t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t compared t o I f o r t h e h i p f a m i l y ) . These f i n d i n g s imp l y a somewhat g r e a t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s between nonh ip p a r e n t s . 3• Compar i s on o f sons and p a r e n t s ( g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s ) . T h i s s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d i n co lumns 10, I I , 13 and 14 o f T a b l e V. Columns 10 and II i n d i c a t e v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e h i p son and both p a r e n t s . On o n l y v e r y few v a r i a b l e s a r e d i f f e r e n c e s no t h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In g e n e r a l , t h e h i p son d i f f e r s f rom h i s f a t h e r i n t h e same 59 way t h a t he does f rom h f s m o t h e r . On o n l y one o f t h e f i r s t 27 V a r i a b l e s does t h e s o n ' s s c o r e f a i l between h i s p a r e n t ' s . On 26 V a r i a b l e s bo th p a r e n t s s c o r e In one d i r e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r s o n , and on 22 o f t h e s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t between t h e son and both p a r e n t s . The h i p son d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om a t l e a s t one p a r e n t on 26 o f t h e f i r s t 27 V a r i a b l e s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e h i p son d i f f e r s f r om h i s p a r e n t s i n a l m o s t p r e c i s e l y t h e same way he d i f f e r s f r om t h e nonh i p s o n . (The r e a d e r ough t no t t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e f o r e h i p p a r e n t s and nonh ip sons a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t . ) R e l a t i v e t o h i s p a r e n t s , h i p sons m a n i f e s t more s e n s i t i v e and v a r i e g a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s p o s i t i o n s ( V a r i a b l e s 1 -4 ) , a r e l e s s r i g i d and a u t h o r i t a r i a n ( V a r i a b l e s 5 3nd 6 ) , e spouse g r e a t e r f reedoms ( V a r i a b l e s 1 5 - 1 7 ) , ' s h o w poo r p s y c h o - s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t and h i g h e r a n x i e t y ( V a r i a b l e s 8 - 1 0 ) , have a l e s s p r a c t i c a l o u t l o o k ( V a r i a b l e 12 ) , and a r e p o l i t i c a l l y t o t h e l e f t ( V a r i a b l e 2 5 ) . T h e r e a r e however , some i n t e r e s t i n g d i s p a r i t i e s between t h e way h i p sons d i f f e r f r om t h e i r p a r e n t s and t h e way t h e y d i f f e r f r om nonh ip s o n s . H i p and nonh ip sons do no t d i f f e r on Response B i a s ( V a r i a b l e 14), t h e measure o f t e n d e n c i e s t o p r e s e n t o n e s e l f f a v o r a b l y on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . H ip sons s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower t h a n bo th p a r e n t s i n d i c a t i n g a more hone s t and open r e s p o n s e s e t . On V a r i a b l e 18, P h i l o s o p h y o f Human N a t u r e , h i p sons s c o r e f a r below both p a r e n t s , bu t do no t d i f f e r f r om nonh ip s on s . R e l a t e d l y , h i p s o n s , who s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e A l t r u i s m S c a l e ( V a r i a b l e I I ) t h a n nonhip s o n s , s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower t h a n bo th p a r e n t s . The g r e a t e r s o c i a b i l i t y and l e s s e r c y n i c i s m wh i ch were d i s c u s s e d as an emergent t r e n d i n h i p c u l t u r e a r e e v i d e n t l y s t i l l q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r om p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . The g r e a t e r p a r e n t a l Response B i a s ( V a r i a b l e 14) may a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r o s t e n s i b l y h i g h e r a s se s sment o f man ' s e x i s t e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n . One wonders w h e t h e r t h e s e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s pon se s on t h e p a r t o f p a r e n t s 60 a r e no t examp le s o f what t h e i r c h i l d r e n l a b e l h y p o c r i s y o r no t ' t e l l i n g i t l i k e i t f s . l ! To s ummar i ze , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e s o f h i p y o u t h and o f t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e c o l o s s a l l y d i f f e r e n t . The ab sence o f e g o - d e v e l o p m e n t among h i p s u b j e c t s i s p e r v a s i v e l y e v i d e n t . The re i s no c l e a r c u t e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e s e m b l e e i t h e r p a r e n t t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t . The nonh i p s u b j e c t , we s h a l l s e e , e x h i b i t s a t e s t p r o f i l e more s i m i l a r t o h i s f a t h e r ' s t h a n h i s m o t h e r ' s , f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t h i p sons a r e r e j e c t i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a s c u l i n e r o l e . H i p sons do no t d i f f e r f rom t h e i r mothe r s i n m a s c u l i n i t y ( V a r i a b l e 13) and a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s m a s c u l i n e t h a n t h e i r f a t h e r s . L e t us t u r n now t o co lumns 13 and 14, c o m p a r i s o n s o f nonh ip sons w i t h each p a r e n t . C l e a r l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e f a r f e w e r t h a n e x i s t between h i p sons and p a r e n t s . They a r e however numerous, f a r e x c e e d i n g t h e number o f V a r i a b l e s on w h i c h p a r e n t s d i f f e r . Nonh ip sons d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om t h e i r f a t h e r s on 13 V a r i a b l e s and f rom t h e i r mothe r s on 2 1 . The nonh ip son d i f f e r s f rom h i s m o t h e r , bu t no t h i s f a t h e r , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways : he has a more c r i t i c a l and a n a l y t i c i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n ( V a r i a b l e 2 ) ; he has f ewe r e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t s ( V a r i a b l e 3 ) ; he shows g r e a t e r r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a n c e ( V a r i a b l e 6 ) ; i s more m a s c u l i n e ( V a r i a b l e 1 3 ) ; t e n d s t o e v a l u a t e both e g o - r e l a t e d c o n -c e p t s ( P l a n n i n g and S c h e d u l e — V a r i a b l e s 34 and 3 5 ) and i d - r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s ( I n s t i n c t and P a s s i o n — V a r i a b l e s 3 0 and 3 3 ) more n e g a t i v e l y . T h i s p a t t e r n o f c o n t r a s t s seems i n d i c a t i v e o f s e x - l i n k e d d i f f e r e n c e s and o f a g r e a t e r n e g a t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e nonh ip s o n . He d i f f e r s f r om h i s f a t h e r , bu t no t h i s m o t h e r , i n showing l e s s s o c i a l e x t r a v e r s i o n ( V a r i a b l e 7 ) ; and i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e f u t u r e more n e g a t i v e l y ( V a r i a b l e 3 9 ) . 61 L e t us c o n s i d e r now t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e ways nonh i p sons d i f f e r f rom bo th p a r e n t s . The r e a d e r i s a sked t o bea r i n mind t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s u l t s f o r t h e h i p f a m i l i e s , an i s s u e t o w h i c h we s h a l l r e t u r n . The II V a r i a b l e s s e p a r a t i n g sons f rom bo th p a r e n t s l e a v e s no doubt t h a t c o n s i s t e n t g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t w i t h i n t h e nonh ip f a m i l y . On a l l II V a r i a b l e s son d i f f e r i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n f rom bo th p a r e n t s . R e l a t i v e t o bo th p a r e n t s , nonh ip sons e x h i b i t a more comp lex i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s p o s i t i o n , a r e more e x p e r i m e n t a l and f l e x i b l e , a r e more t o l e r a n t o f a m b i g u i t i e s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s , p r e f e r complex r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l i s t i c s o l u t i o n s t o p r ob l ems ( V a r i a b l e 4 ) . They show h i g h e r i m p u l s e e x p r e s s i o n , l e s s o f a t e n d e n c y t o r e p r e s s needs ( V a r i a b l e 8 ) . They show lower P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n and a d m i t t o g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l p r ob l ems ( V a r i a b l e 9 ) . They f e e l g r e a t e r a n x i e t y and t e n s i o n ( V a r i a b l e 10 ) . They a r e l e s s a l t r u i s t i c ( V a r i a b l e 12) ; t h e y show l e s s o f a t endency t o d i s t o r t t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s so as t o appea r i n a f a v o r a b l e l i g h t ( V a r i a b l e 14) ; t h e y a r e more l i b e r a l r e g a r d i n g c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s ( V a r i a b l e 15 ) ; and r e g a r d i n g s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s ( V a r i a b l e 17) ; t h e y have a lower o p i n i o n o f p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l , of human n a t u r e ( V a r i a b l e 18) ; e v a l u a t e L o g i c l e s s p o s i t i v e l y ( V a r i a b l e 29) and e v a l u a t e t h e p r e s e n t l e s s p o s i t i v e l y . I t i s i m p r e s s i v e t o no te t h a t on 10 o f t h e s e II V a r i a b l e s , h i p sons d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om t h e i r p a r e n t s i n p r e c i s e l y t h e same way t h a t nonh ip sons d i f f e r f rom t h e i r s . What t h e s e V a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e i s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s t oday have l e s s o f a P o l l y a n n a a t t i t u d e t o l i f e t h a n do t h e i r p a r e n t s . If a d u l t h o o d i s supposed t o be t h e o n t o g e n e t i c s t a g e when r e a l i s t i c v i e w s s u p p l a n t t h e f i r e b r a n d i d e a l i s m o f y o u t h , what i t has meant among o u r p a r e n t s u b j e c t s i s t h e t endency t o see t h i n g s more s imp I i s t i c a I l y , t o be more r e p r e s s i v e , and t o wh i t ewash t h e s t a t e o f t h e i r w o r l d . 62 T h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e l e s s w i l l i n g t o d i s t o r t t h e i r v i e w s t o f i t a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , o r c o m f o r t i n g l y s i m p l i s t i c , mold ( V a r i a b l e s 14 and 4). They f e e l g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l u n h a p p i n e s s and a n x i e t y , a g r e a t e r c y n i c i s m t owa rd p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y , a more n e g a t i v e a s s e s smen t o f t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . As t h e y a r e more open on q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e y a r e more open when i t comes t o c h i l d r e n ' s f reedom and s e x u a l f r e e d o m . These c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s among a d o l e s c e n t s who a r e so d i f f e r e n t f r om one a n o t h e r t y p i f y t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and w o r l d l i n e s s commonly a s c r i b e d t o y o u t h t o d a y . T h i s i s , I b e l i e v e , an h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l t y — n o t a s e t o f t r a i t s wh i ch t h e i r p a r e n t s had a s young p e o p l e and d i s c a r d e d o r " g o t o v e r " a s t h e y m a t u r e d . The h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of a d o l e s c e n c e 25 o r 30 y e a r s ago s i m p l y do no t a p p l y i n 1970. T h i s i s one r e a s o n why t he a d o l e s c e n t f i n d s such easy d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h h i s p a r e n t s : t h e i r f o l k w i sdom, a c g u i r e d p a i n f u l l y i n one s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a I e r a , b e a r s m i n i m a l a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s t o t h e no-1 e s s - p a i n f u I e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n g r o w i n g up i n a n o t h e r . Thu s , young p e o p l e i n c r e a s i n g l y t u r n t o t h e p e e r g roup as t h e f o u n t o f norms and v a l u e s , f o r a l t h o u g h i t l a c k s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a g e , i t does have t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f y o u t h , and t h a t i t seems makes a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e . 63 C h a p t e r 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS By way o f summary, we w i l l r e v i e w b r i e f l y t h e f i n d i n g s o f T a b l e s IV and V, r e l a t i n g them t o t h e f o u r h y p o t h e s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e Method s e c t i o n . T a b l e XV, w h i c h c o n t a i n s a r a n k - o r d e r i n g o f t h e s i x g roup-means f o r each o f t h e f i r s t 18 V a r i a b l e s , w i l l p r o v e u s e f u l f o r p r o v i d i n g an o v e r v i e w o f t h e d a t a . 1. NuI I H y p o t h e s i s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s wh i ch p r e d i c t s no d i f f e r e n c e s between g r oup s f i n d s n o s u p p o r t w h a t s o e v e r . On a l l V a r i a b l e s , a t l e a s t one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r s . I t i s ha rd t o say whe the r t h i s marked h e t e r o g e n e i t y among samp le g roup s r e p r e s e n t s a t r i u m p h f o r t h e f o r c e s o f p l u r a l i s m o r t h e f o r c e s o f d i s c o r d . 2 . H i p - I d i o s y n c r a t i c H y p o t h e s i s . The p r e d i c t i o n he re t h a t h i p sons w i l l s c o r e e x t r e m e l y d i f f e r e n t l y f r om t h e o t h e r f i v e g roup s f i n d s g e n e r a l c o n f i r m -a t i o n . On 15 o f t h e 18 c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s , t h e h i p s o n s ' mean f a l l s a t one e x t r e m e . On 10 o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r mean i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e n e a r e s t mean o f t h e o t h e r f i v e g r o u p s . R e l a t i v e t o a I I o t h e r g r o u p s , h i p sons e x h i b i t a more t h o u g h t f u l , c r e a t i v e and f l e x i b l e i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s p o s i t i o n ( V a r i a b l e s I, 3 and ' ' ) ; l ower a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , more l i b e r a l v i e w s t owa rd c h i l d r e n ' s , women's and s e x u a l f r e e d o m s ; and l e f t w i ng p o l i t i c a l v i e w s ( V a r i a b l e s 5, 15, 16, 17 and 2 5 ) ; h i g h e r i m p u l s e e x p r e s s i o n and g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e ( V a r i a b l e s 8 and 9 ) ; and a l e s s p r a c t i c a l o u t l o o k ( V a r i a b l e 12) . T h a t h i p sons a r e t h e most e x t r eme g roup can be seen i n T a b l e XV. T h e i r a v e r a g e rank o f 1.2 i s c l e a r l y t h e most d e v i a n t among t h e 6 g r o u p s . 3. F a m i l y D i f f e r e n c e s H y p o t h e s i s . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between h i p and nonh ip sons on t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f V a r i a b l e s . On t h e o t h e r hand , c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p and nonh i p p a r e n t s e x i s t 64 T a b l e XV RANK-ORDERIHG OF MEANS* HIP NONH1P Son F a t h e r Mo the r Son F a t h e r Mo the r 1. T h i n k i n g I n t r o v e r s i o n 1 2 4 6 3 5 2. T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n 1 2 5 4 3 6 3. E s t h e t l c i sm 1 4 2 5 6 3 4. Comp1 ex i t y 1 3 4 2 5 6 5. Autonomy 1 2 3 5 4 6 6. R e l i g i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n 1 2 5 3 4 6 7. S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n 2 6 3 1 5 4 8. Impulse E x p r e s s i o n 1 3 4 2 5 6 9. P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 1 5 3 2 6 4 10. A n x i e t y L e v e l 1 5 3 2 6 4 1 1 . A l t r u i s m 2 3 4 1 5 6 12. P r a c t i c a l O u t l o o k 1 3 2 5 6 4 13. Ma s c u 1 i n i t y - Fem i n i n i t y 2 4 1 6 3 14. Response B i a s 1 5 3 2 6 4 15. C h i I d ' s Freedom 1 3 4 2 6 5 16. Women's Freedom 1 2 3 6 5 4 17. Sexua1 Freedom 1 3 4 2 5 6 18. P h i l o s o p h y Human N a t u r e 1 4 6 2 3 5 T o t a l Rank 21 61 63 57 90 86 A ve r a ge Rank 1.2 3.4 3.5 3.2 5.0 4 .8 I t was a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d t o a s s i g n a rank o f I, 2 o r 3 t o h i p s o n s ' means. 65 on o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . H i p f a t h e r s a r e more p e r m i s s i v e t h a n nonh ip i n c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s ( V a r i a b l e 15) ; a r e more l i b e r a l r e g a r d i n g s e x u a l mores ( V a r i a b l e 17 ) ; and s c o r e h i g h e r on t h e h i p n e s s s c a l e ( V a r i a b l e 6 7 ) . Re -l a t i v e t o nonh i p m o t h e r s , h i p mothe r s a r e more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r s e x u a l v i e w s ( V a r i a b l e 17) . A t a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l , h i p f a t h e r s e xceed nonh ip i n e s t h e t i c I n t e r e s t s ( V a r i a b l e 3 ) ; and i n p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e s t o women's f r eedom ( V a r i a b l e 16) ; h i p mothe r s exceed nonh ip in autonomy ( V a r i a b l e 5 ) , r e l i g i o u s l i b e r a l i s m ( V a r i a b l e 6 ) , impu l s e e x p r e s s i o n ( V a r i a b l e 8) and have a l e s s p r a c t i c a l o u t l o o k ( V a r i a b l e 12) . On a l l of t h e s e V a r i a b l e s , we m i g h t n o t e , h i p p a r e n t s d i f f e r f r om nonh ip e x a c t l y as t h e i r sons d i f f e r f rom n o n h i p . Conden s i n g t h e p a r e n t s ' d i f f e r e n c e s in t h i s way may c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between them. The r e a d e r i s a sked t o keep i n m i n d , however , t h a t on t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f V a r i a b l e s , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences en sue . On t h e f i r s t 18 V a r i a b l e s ^ c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between h i p and nonh ip f a t h e r s on j u s t two v a r i a b l e s and between mothe r s on j u s t o n e . I r r e s p e c t i v e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e however , t h e means i n d i c a t e a v e r y s t r o n g t r e n d f o r t h e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p and nonh ip p a r e n t s t o m i r r o r , in d i r e c t i o n , t h e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s on s . T a b l e XV shows t h a t on 16 o f t h e 18 V a r i a b l e s , i f t h e h i p son r ank s l ower t h a n t h e n o n h i p , bo th h i p p a r e n t s r a nk l ower t h a n t h e r e s p e c t i v e nonh ip p a r e n t s . The a v e r a g e rank o f p a r e n t s , p r e s e n t e d i n t h e bot tom row of t h e T a b l e , i n d i c a t e s how c o n s i s t e n t l y h i p p a r e n t s d i f f e r f rom nonh ip i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n t h e i r sons d i f f e r f r om nonh ip s on s . C l e a r l y f a m i l y d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t and c l e a r l y t h e y a r e v e r y s m a l l . The i d e a was p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t bo th o f t h e f a c t s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e 66 deve l opment o f h i p o r nonh i p v a l u e s i n a d o l e s c e n t s . We have seen t h a t a g r e a t e r a f f e c t i v e n e g a t i v i t y e x i s t s among h i p f a m i l y members. H i p p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n r e c i p r o c a l l y l i k e each o t h e r l e s s ( V a r i a b l e s 56 , 57 and 6 4 ) ; h i p sons see bo th p a r e n t s as more h y p o c r i t i c a l t h a n do nonh ip s o n s . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s l i g h t , though c o n s i s t e n t , p r o g r e s s i v e v i e w s o f h i p p a r e n t s f a l l s h o r t o f t h e i r s o n s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e and t h a t t h e sons e x t r a p o l a t e t h e i r p a r e n t s v i e w s beyond t h e b a r r i e r s o f p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l h y p o c r i s y . The i n c l i n a t i o n s t owa rd h i p n e s s c l e a r l y e v o l v e w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . The e x t e n t t o wh i ch t h e y a r e t a k e n and t h e s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t o u r s w h i c h t h e y a c q u i r e depend upon t h e y o u t h c u l t u r e , wh i ch d i s p l a y s a marked autonomy from p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e . The q u e s t i o n as t o whe the r h i p a d o l e s c e n t s a r e r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t , o r c o n f o r m i n g t o , f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s i s t h u s t o o s imp I i s t I c a I l y po s ed . The d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y a r e d o i n g b o t h . 4. The G e n e r a t i o n Gap H y p o t h e s i s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o n s i s t e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e son g roup s ( r e g a r d l e s s o f h i p n e s s ) r e l a t i v e t o t h e p a r e n t g r o u p s . I t s h o u l d be men t i oned a g a i n t h a t t h e nonh ip sons were cho sen f r om t h e most c o n v e n t i o n a l end o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s p e c t r u m . Thu s , e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y d i f f e r f r om t h e i r p a r e n t s i n t h e same way as h i p sons d i f f e r f r om t h e i r s , can be t a k e n as p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n gap h y p o t h e s i s . As we wou ld e x p e c t , t h e r e a r e a number o f V a r i a b l e s on wh i ch nonh ip sons do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om e i t h e r p a r e n t . V IZ . , T h i n k i n g I n t r o v e r s i o n ( V a r i a b l e I ) , Autonomy ( V a r i a b l e 5 ) , P r a c t i c a l O u t l o o k ( V a r i a b l e 12) and A t t i t u d e t o Women's Freedom ( V a r i a b l e 17). On many more V a r i a b l e s however , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between nonh ip sons and both p a r e n t s a r e h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and i n each c a s e , p a r a l l e l t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between h i p sons and p a r e n t s . T h i s i s t h e c a s e in 9 o f t h e f i r s t 18 V a r i a b l e s . R e l a t i v e t o t h e i r f a t h e r s and m o t h e r s , 67 bo th son g roup s d i s p l a y : more complex and f l e x i b l e c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s ( V a r i a b l e 4 ) ; g r e a t e r impu l s e e x p r e s s i o n ( V a r i a b l e 8 ) ; l ower p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e ( V a r i a b l e 9 ) ; h i g h e r a n x i e t y ( V a r i a b l e 10) ; l owe r a l t r u i s m ( V a r i a b l e I I ) ; g r e a t e r h one s t y and l e s s o f a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r e spon se b i a s ( V a r i a b l e 14 ) ; more l i b e r a l v i e w s t oward c h i l d r e n ' s f reedom ( V a r i a b l e 15) and t owa rd s e x u a l f reedom ( V a r i a b l e 17) ; and a more c y n i c a l a t t i t u d e t owa rd p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r t h e G e n e r a t i o n Gap H y p o t h e s i s can be f ound i n T a b l e XV. On 14 o f t h e 18 V a r i a b l e s , nonh ip sons d i f f e r f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s and t h e i r mothe r s i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n as h i p sons d i f f e r f r om t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r e n t s . The nonh ip s o n ' s a v e r a g e - r a n k d i f f e r s c l e a r l y f rom both h i s p a r e n t s ' i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e h i p s o n . In f a c t , t h e nonh ip son r a n k s c l o s e r t o t h e h i p son t h a n any o f t h e p a r e n t g r o u p s . C l e a r l y , b o t h son g roup s have s h i f t e d away f rom t h e i r p a r e n t s i n a c o n s i s t e n t d i r e c t i o n . A g roup o f even t h e l e a s t h i p a d o l -e s c e n t s i s s l i g h t l y c l o s e r t o t h e most h i p a d o l e s c e n t s t h a n a r e t h e most h i p p a r e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o o u r d a t a , g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s migh+ be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s . Young p e o p l e e x h i b i t a l e s s s i m p l i s t i c and more hone s t app roach t o t h e w o r l d . They a r e more c y n i c a l t owa rd p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l , more f r u s t r a t e d and unhappy p e r s o n a l l y , and a r e more l i b e r a l on a number o f c u l t u r a l i s s u e s such as c h i l d r e a r i n g and s e x u a l f r e e d o m . Our d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y o u t h c u l t u r e , i n s o f a r as i t a f f e c t s t h e e n t i r e a d o l e s c e n t s p e c t r u m , d i f f e r s f r om p a r e n t a l c u l t u r e more a l o n g c u l t u r a l t h a n p o l i t i c a l l i n e s . However , t h e r e s e m b l a n c e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s between h i p and nonh i p a d o l e s c e n t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p a r e n t s , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r a d i c a l c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o n v e r t i n g i n t o p o l i t i c a l 6 8 d i f f e r e n c e s i s n o t r emote . T h e r e i s r e a s on t o b e l i e v e t h a t h i p c u l t u r e may s e r v e as a wea the r vane f o r y o u t h c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y , and t h u s f o r t h e f u t u r e o f We s te rn S o c i e t y . My c o n -c l u d i n g remarks w i l l be a d d r e s s e d p r i n c i p a l l y t o t h e i s s u e o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n t h e h i p movement, bu t t h e r e a d e r i s a sked t o b e a r i n mind t h a t the- f u l l y o u t h c u l t u r e s h a r e s many o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f unde rg round c u l t u r e . The hope t h a t t h e gap between c o n v e n t i o n a l and h i p v a l u e s w i l l na r row t h r o u g h t h e spon taneous m a t u r a t i o n o f h i p a d o l e s c e n t s i s n a i v e . A c o u n t e r c u l t u r e and c o u n t e r i d e o l o g y founded on v a l u e s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o ego s t r u c t u r a t i o n have t a k e n r o o t , and f o r a l l o f t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s , i n s p i r e an e n t h u s i a s m w h i c h t h e e l d e r s , who s u b s c r i b e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l v a l u e s , se ldom d i s p l a y . The seeds o f t h e c o u n t e r c u l t u r e were p l a n t e d i n a d v e r t e n t l y by p a r e n t s , bo th t h r o u g h t h e i r c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s and i n t h e i r e q u i v o c a l commitment t o a s y s tem wh i ch even t h e y w i l l a d m i t r e q u i r e s c hange . What young p e o p l e see however , i s t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s have a b d i c a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e f f e c t i n g c h a n g e — w h e t h e r i t be c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l — a n d h a v e , a t b e s t , watched p a s s i v e l y as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t o wh i ch t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e e x p e c t e d t o march have grown i n s i z e and d i m i n i s h e d i n humanness. One o f t h e p r i n c i p a l r o o t s o f t h e c u r r e n t g e n e r a t i o n gap can be t r a c e d t o t h e I 9 5 0 ' s when p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n t was v i r t u a l l y s m o t h e r e d , t h e r a d i c a l l e f t e v i s c e r a t e d . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h e d c h a n n e l s o f p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n t s e v e r e d a bond w h i c h h o l d s g e n e r a t i o n s t o g e t h e r d u r i n g e r a s o f d r a m a t i c change . In f a c t , d u r i n g t h e ' 3 0 ' s a l i e n a t e d y o u t h f ound t h e i r way i n t o r a d i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s Ied  by t h e i r e l d e r s . The ab sence o f a p o l i t i c a l fo rum t o a c t as a m e e t i n g g round between g e n e r a t i o n s i n t h e ' 5 0 ' s i n s p i r e d an u n p r e c e d e n t e d s i t u a t i o n : t h e b i r t h o f an a d o l e s c e n t c u l t u r a l movement, l ed e n t i r e l y by y o u t h and uncomprehended by 69 p a r e n t s . And t h a t was , o f c o u r s e , t h e p o l n t - - t o b u i l d a s a n c t u a r y , however f l i m s y , f r om t h e eg ' o i c demands and p r o j e c t e d a m b i t i o n s o f e l d e r s . A l t h o u g h i n 1958, n o t one h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t i n a t hou sand c o u l d have a r t i c u l a t e d i t , t h e s o u r c e s o f n a s c e n t a d o l e s c e n t c u l t u r e stemmed f rom t h e B l a c k g h e t t o - - - i n t h e fo rm o f r o c k and r o l l — a n d f rom B o h e m i a - - i n t h e fo rm o f a l i f e - s t y l e and s e t o f v a l u e s f a s h i o n e d f r om B l a c k a l i e n a t i o n and e s t h e t i c d i s s e n t . From t h e f u s i o n o f t h e s e two s o u r c e s , a new c u I t u r e was b e i n g b u i l t i n t h e w a s t e l a n d o f s i l e n t A m e r i k a . The t e r m " c u l t u r e " i s c ho sen d e l i b e r a t e l y . By i t i s meant t h e s e t o f c o h e r e n t , a f f e c t i v e v a l u e s and meanings w h i c h a r e beyond q u e s t i o n . T h i s i s why c u l t u r e s a r e so d i f f i c u l t t o b r i d g e : because t h e n a t i v e t a k e s h i s c u l t u r e ' s v a l i d i t y as s e l f e v i d e n t , w h i l e t h e t o u r i s t f i n d s o t h e r l i f e s t y l e s m e r e l y q u a i n t o r a b s u r d . In many ways t h e g e n e r a t i o n s i n t h i s s o c i e t y a r e d e v e l o p i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n a t i v e and t o u r i s t , o n l y n e i t h e r s i d e Is s u r e wh i ch i s w h i c h , and r e g a r d l e s s , no one i s l e a v i n g a f t e r a t h r e e week v a c a t i o n . One c a n n o t be o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t t h e f u t u r e o f g e n e r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t a new g e n e r a t i o n now seems t o s p i n o f f t h e h i s t o r i c a l wheel abou t e v e r y f i v e y e a r s ( t h e same p e r i o d o f t i m e i t t a k e s h a l f o f an e n g i n e e r ' s knowledge t o become o b s o l e t e ) . Phenom-e n o l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f each g e n e r a t i o n i s so v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a t r e l a t i v e t o one a n o t h e r we a r e a l l , as Mead p u t s i t , " i m m i g r a n t s i n t i m e . " Our d i s e a s e o f h i s t o r i c a l d i s l o c a t i o n i s s y m p t o m a t i c of pe rhap s t h e most p e r v a s i v e n e u r o s i s o f modern s o c i e t y , t h e c o m p u l s i v e need f o r change , n o v e l t y , p r o g r e s s . If p r o g r e s s i s o u r most i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t , i t i s a l s o s u r e l y o u r most s e l f -d e s t r u c t i v e , f o r i t s e r v e s o n l y i t s e l f and n e v e r man. T h i s i dea i s d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t f o r many o l d e r p e o p l e , who, d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e s , have s t o o d i n r e v e r e n t i a l awe o f t h e a s t o u n d i n g advances wrought by t e c h n o l o g y . I t i s e a s i e r 70 f o r young p e o p l e , f o r whom r a d i o never s t i r r e d t h e l e a s t e x c i t e m e n t and t e l e -v i s i o n was commonplace b e f o r e t h e i r t o i l e t - t r a i n i n g had been c o m p l e t e d . P s y c h o a n a l y s t s a r gue t h a t t h e impu l s e t o p r o g r e s s i s f ounded on n e u r o t i c t e n d e n c i e s and on b a s i c r e p r e s s i o n . C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : ' : In t h e d i s c o n t e n t e d a n i m a l , Man, ( t h e d e s i r e f o r p l e a s u r a b l e r e p e t i t i o n ) i s t r a n s -formed i n t o a r e g r e s s i v e f i x a t i o n i n t h e p a s t , w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f u n c o n s c i o u s l y c o m p e l l i n g him t o change h i m s e l f , t o become, t o f i n d t h e l i f e p r o p e r t o h i s s p e c i e s . Bu t i f r e p r e s s i o n were overcome and Man c o u l d e n j o y t h e l i f e p r o p e r t o h i s s p e c i e s . . . t h e r e s t l e s s q u e s t f o r n o v e l t y would be r e a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e d e s i r e f o r p l e a s u r a b l e r e p e t i t i o n ; t h e d e s i r e t o Become wou ld be r e a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e d e s i r e t o B e . " The words b e l o n g t o Norman 0 . Brown ( 1959 , p. 9 2 ) , o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a M e n t o r o f t h e y o u t h c o u n t e r c u l t u r e , w h i c h , as o u r d a t a have i n -d i c a t e d , r e j e c t s t h e modes o f e g o - f u n c t i o n i n g upon wh i ch t h e " r e s t l e s s g u e s t f o r n o v e l t y " i s f o u n d e d . Our h i p s u b j e c t s ' l ower r e p r e s s i o n , b e l i e f i n c h i l d h o o d f r e e d o m s , and r e l u c t a n c e t o e n t e r a d u l t h o o d r o l e s , a l l s i g n a l a s h i f t i n t h e c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e t o p r o g r e s s . And t h e p r i c e p a i d f o r t h i s s h i f t — w h e t h e r as c au se o r e f f e c t - - i s p e r s o n a l a l i e n a t i o n and i d e n t i t y - c o n f u s i o n . I t i s , I b e l i e v e , t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s t o l i s t e n t o t h e v o i c e o f a l i e n a t e d young p e o p l e f o r t h e s u b s t a n t i v e and mora l I n t e l l i g e n c e i t s eek s t o c o n v e y . F o r a l l o f i t s u n c e r t a i n t y and c o n f u s i o n , t h e message i s an h o n e s t and h u m a n i s t i c c r y a g a i n s t a c u l t u r a l s y s t em wh i ch p l a c e s t e c h n o l o g i c a I advancement and b u r e a u c r a t i c e f f i c i e n c y b e f o r e t h e needs o f i t s c h i l d r e n . The d i s c o r d between t e c h n o l o g i c a l and human needs has spawned, i n one s h o r t d e c a d e , a p r o t e s t c u l t u r e w h i c h shows no s i g n s o f a b a t i n g . N e i t h e r w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g nor t o k e n i s m w i l l e r a d i c a t e i t . On l y t h e most s e r i o u s a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f young p e o p l e w i l l 71 r e i n s t a t e any measure o f harmony between g e n e r a t i o n s . F a i l i n g t h a t , we a r e l i k e l y t o w i t n e s s d u r i n g t h e ' 7 0 ' s , p r o t e s t wh i ch dwa r f s a n y t h i n g t h e ' 6 0 ' s had t o o f f e r . 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a n k s , L. ( E d . ) . You th i n t u r m o i I. Mew Y o r k : T i m e , 1909. Bay , C. P o l i t i c a l and a p o l i t i c a l s t u d e n t s : F a c t s i n s e a r c h o f t h e o r y . J . s o c . I s s u e s , 1967, 23 , 76--9I . B e r g e r , B. M. H i p p i e m o r a l i t y - — m o r e o l d t h a n new. T r a n s a c t i o n , 1967, 5_ ( 2 ) , 19-27. B r o m l e y , B. B. Some e f f e c t s o f age on s h o r t - t e r m l e a r n i n g and remember ing . J_. G e r o n t o l o g y , 1958, J_3.. 398 -406 . B rown, M. 0 . L i f e a g a i n s t d e a t h : The p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l meaning of h i s t o r y . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 1959. B u c k n e r , hi. T. Su rvey on h i p p i e s . R e p o r t e d i n E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a Y e a r Book, 1968. C h r i s t e n s e n , H. T . , and C a r p e n t e r , G. R. V a l u e - b e h a v i o r d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e g a r d i n g p r e m a r i t a l c o i t u s i n t h r e e Wes te rn c u l t u r e s . Amer. S o c i o I. R e v . , 1962, 27 , 6 6 - 74 . C o w l e y , M. E x i l e ' s r e t u r n . New Y o r k : V i k i n g P r e s s , 1951. D a v i s , F. Why a l l o f us may be h i p p i e s someday. T r a n s a c t i o n , 1967, 5_ ( 2 ) , 10-18. E a r i s m a n , D. E. H i p p i e s i n o u r m i d s t : The r e b e l l i o n beyond r e b e l l i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s P r e s s , 1968. E r i k s o n , E. H. I d e n t i t y : You th and c r i s i s . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1968. F l a c k s , R. The l i b e r a t e d g e n e r a t i o n : An e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e r o o t s o f s t u d e n t p r o t e s t . J . s o c . I s s u e s , 1967, 2 3 , 5 2 - 75 . F r i e d e n b e r g , E. Z. C u r r e n t p a t t e r n s o f a g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . J . s o c . I s s u e s , 1969, 25 , 2 1 - 38 . G i l l e s p i e , J . M., and A l l p o r t , G. W. Y o u t h ' s o u t l o o k on t h e f u t u r e , 1953. 73 G o l s e n , R., R o s e n b e r g , M . , W i l l i a m s , R., and Suchman, E.. What Co l l ege s t u d e n t s t h I n k . P r i n c e t o n : Van M o s t r a n d , I960. G o u l d , L. J ; C o n f o r m i t y and m a r g i n a l i t y : The two f a c e s o f a l i e n a t i o n . J . s o c . I s s u e s , 1969, 39063. Grana> C. Bohemian v e r s u s b o u r g e o i s i e . New Y o r k : B a s i c Book s , 1964. Griew, S. Age changes and i n f o r m a t i o n l o s s i n p e r f o r m a n c e o f a p u r s u i t t r a c k i n g t a s k I n v o l v i n g i n t e r r u p t e d p r e v i e w . J . e x p . P s y c h o l . , 1958, 5 5 , 486 -489 . G r o s s , H. The f l o w e r p e o p l e . New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e , 1968. H e i s t , P. I n t e l l e c t and commitment: The f a c e s o f d i s c o n t e n t . In 0 . W. K n o r r and W. J . M i n t e r ( E d s . ) , O r d e r and f r eedom on t h e campuses. B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o : Wes te rn I n t e r s t a t e Commis s ion f o r H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 1965, 6 1 - 6 9 . H e i s t , P . , and Yonge, G. Omnibus p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y m a n u a l , fo rm F. New Y o r k , P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1968. H i n c k l e , W. The s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e h i p p i e s . Rampa r t s , March 1957. H o f f m a n , A. ( w r i t t e n under t h e pseudonym, F r e e ) . R e v o l u t i o n f o r t h e h e l l o f i t . New Y o r k : D i a l , 1968. H o p k i n s , J . ( E d . ) . The h i p p i e p a p e r s . New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1968. H o v l a n d , C. I. Human l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n . In S. S. S t e v e n s ( E d . ) , Handbook  o f e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k , W i l e y , 1951. I t k i n , W. Some r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t r a - f a r n i l y a t t i t u d e s and p r e n a t a l a t t i t u d e s t oward c h i l d r e n . J . g e n e t . P s y c h o l . , 1952, 80 , 221 -252 . J a c o b , P. Chang ing v a l u e s i n c o l l e g e . Mew Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1957. J o n e s , L. B l u e s p e o p l e . New Y o r k : Mor row, 1963. K e n i s t o n , K. The u n c o m m i t t e d : A l i e n a t e d you th i n A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y . Mew Y o r k : D e l l , 1965. K e n i s t o n , K. The s o u r c e s of s t u d e n t d i s s e n t . J . s o c . I s s u e s , 1967, 23_, 108-137. 74 K e n i s t o n , K. Young r a d i c a l s : No te s on c ommi t t ed y o u t h . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , 1968. K o c h , H. L . , D e n t l e r , M . , D y s a r t , B., and S t r e i t , H. A s c a l e f o r m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e q u e s t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s f r e e d o m . Ch i Id D e v e l o p m . , 1934, 5, 253 -266 . L e v i n s o n , D. J . , and H u f f m a n , P. E. T r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y i d e o l o g y and i t s r e -l a t i o n t o p e r s o n a l i t y . J . P e r s . , 1955, 23 , 251 -273 . L i n d e s m i t h , A. O p p i a t e a d d i c t i o n . B l o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a : P r i n c i p i a P r e s s , 1947. L i v i n g s t o n , D., and Z i m e t , R. A. Death a n x i e t y , a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and c h o i c e o f s p e c i a l i t y i n M e d i c a l s t u d e n t s . J . N e r v . M e n t a l D i s e a s e , 1965, 140, 222 -230 . M a r c u s e , H. E r o s and c i v i l i z a t i o n : A p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n q u i r y i n t o F r e u d . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 1955. M a u r e r , S. A r g o t o f t h e u n d e r w o r l d n a r c o t i c a d d i c t : P a r t I I . Amer i c an S p e e c h , 1938, H3, 179. Mead, M. C u l t u r e and commi.tment: A s t u d y of t h e g e n e r a t i o n gap . New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1970. N e w f i e l d , J . A p r o p h e t i c m i n o r i t y . New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1966. Osgood, C. E. , S u c i , G. J . , and Tannenbaum, P. H. The measurement o f mean ing . U r b a n a , I I I . : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1957. P i t t s , J . R. The h i p p i e s as c o n t r a m e r i t o c r a c y . D i s s e n t , J u l y / A u g u s t , 1969. P o l s k y , N. H u s t l e r s , B e a t s and o t h e r s . New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1967. R i e sman , D. The l o n e l y c r o w d . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950. R i g n e y , F. J . and S m i t h , L. 0 . The r e a l bohemia . New Y o r k : B a s i c Book s , 1961. Ro s z ak , T. The mak ing of a c o u n t e r c u l t u r e . New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1969. 75 Simmon, G;> and T r o u t , G. H i p p i e s i n c o l l e g e — f r o m t e e n y b o p p e r s t o d rug f r e a k s . T r a n s a c t i o n , 1967, 5 , 2 7 - 32 . Simmons, J . Li and W i n o g r a d , B. I t ' s h a p p e n i n g . S a n t a B a r b a r a : M a r c - L a i r d , 1966. Somers , R. HJ The m a i n s p r i n g s o f t h e r e b e l l i o n . In S. L i p s e t and S. W o l i n ( E d s . ) , The B e r k e l e y s t u d e n t r e v o l t . New Y o r k : /\nchor, 1965, 530 -557 . T a l l m a n , W. K e r o u a c ' s Sound. The Tamarack Rev i ew , S p r i n g , 1959, 58 -74 . Von H o f f m a n , N i c h o l a s . We a r e t h e p e o p l e o u r p a r e n t s warned us a g a i n s t . New Y o r k : F a w c e t t , 1968. W a t t s , W. A . , and W h i t t a k e r , D. F r e e speech a d v o c a t e s a t B e r k e l e y . J . A p p l l e d 3 e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e , 1966, 2 , 4 1 - 6 2 . W h i t t a k e r , D . , and W a t t s , W. A. P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a n o n c o n f o r m i s t y o u t h s u b c u l t u r e : A s t u d y o f t h e B e r k e l e y n o n - s t u d e n t . J . s o c . I s s u e s . , 1969, 25 , 6 5 - 8 9 . W i n i c k , C. The new p e o p l e . New Y o r k : P e g a s u s , 1968. W o l f , L. V o i c e s f r om t h e l o ve g e n e r a t i o n . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B rown, 1968. W o l f , T. The e l e c t r i c too I-a i d a c i d t e s t . T o r o n t o : Bantam, 1968. W o l f e , B. H. The h i p p i e s . New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1968. W r i g h t s m a n , L. C. Measurement o f p h i l o s o p h y o f human n a t u r e . P s y c h o l . R e p . , 1964, _ U , 7 4 3 - 7 5 1 . Y a b l o n s k y , L. The h i p p i e t r i p . New Y o r k : P e g a s u s , 1968. 76 APPENDIX A HIP QUESTIONNAIRE D i v i s i o n No: NAME: GRADE: AGE: SEX: M a l e ( P l e a s e p r i n t ) FemaIe I. I n d i c a t e i n what o r d e r you l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x s i n g e r s and m u s i c i a n s . F i r s t , p u t an ' ' N " b e s i d e t h e ones y o u ' v e n e v e r heard o f o r whose m u s i c you know n o t h i n g a b o u t . Then p u t a u I " b e s i d e y o u r f a v o r i t e , a ";2V b e s i d e y o u r n e x t f a v o r i t e and so on down. (Respond q u i c k l y t o a l l i t ems on t h i s g u e s t i o n n a i r e . P u t down y o u r f i r s t g e n u i n e r e a c t i o n . ) The Band GI en Campbel I The Fugs Tom J o n e s Rav i Shanka r G l e n n Ya rbo rough I I . Do t h e same f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x . The Beach Boys Bobby D a r r e n The G r a t e f u l Dead E n g e l b e r t Humpe rd i n k . . Mo the r s o f I n v e n t i o n . . P i n k F l o y d I I I . The f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e a r e known t o s t a n d f o r c e r t a i n b e l i e f s and i d e a s . F o r each p e r s o n l i s t e d b e l o w , show how much you a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w i t h what he s t a n d s f o r g e n e r a l l y . C i r c l e SA i f you STRONGLY AGREE C i r c l e A i f you AGREE C i r c l e MA i f you MILDLY AGREE C i r c l e 0 i f you NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE C i r c l e MD i f you MILDLY DISAGREE C i r c l e D i f you DISAGREE C i r c l e SD i f you STRONGLY DISAGREE P u t a n ' ^ N " b e s i d e t h o s e y o u ' v e n e v e r hea rd o f o r whose Ideas you know a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g a b o u t . (Comedian) Lenny B r u c e SA A MA 0 MD D SD (Mayor) Tom CamDbel l SA A MA 0 MD D SD ( V a n c o u v e r T o w n ' F o o l ) K i m F o l k i s SA A MA 0 MD D SD ( M i l l i o n a i r e Bu s i ne s sman ) J ohn Pau l G e t t y SA A MA 0 MD D SD ( P o e t ) AI I en G i n s b e r g SA A MA 0 MD D SD 77 . ..• SA A MA 0 MD D SD SA A MA 0 MD D SD SA A MA 0 MD D SD A MA 0 MD D SD SA A MA 0 MD D SD SA A MA 0 MD D SD Show how much you a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w i t h each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s ; C i r c l e t h e l e t t e r s t h a t come c l o s e s t t o d e s c r i b i n g y o u r f e e l i n g s abou t t h e o v e r - a l l s t a t e m e n t . 1. You can t e l l a l o t about a p e r s o n f rom knowing h i s a s t r o l o g i c a l s i g n . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 2 . Mos t 9 - t o - 5 j o b s i n t h i s s o c i e t y a r e p r e t t y w o r t h l e s s . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 3. P s y c h e d e l i c d rug s such as m a r i j u a n a a r e dangerous and s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e law. SA A MA 0 MD D SD 4. Canada s h o u l d a l l o w any d r a f t - d o d g e r t o e n t e r t h e c o u n t r y who want s t o . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 5. Our s o c i e t y has i t s f a u l t s but i s s t i l l a good p l a c e t o l i v e . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 6. If a law i s s t u p i d , t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g wrong w i t h a p e r s o n b r e a k i n g t h a t I aw. SA A MA 0 MD D SD 7. P e o p l e who d o n ' t work a r e p a r a s i t e s on s o c i e t y . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 8. I t i s m o s t l y immature p e o p l e who use o b s c e n i t i e s . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 9. If you d o n ! t f e e l l i k e d o i n g s ometh i n g now, i t ' s b e s t t o w a i t u n t i l you f e e l l i k e d o i n g i t . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 78 10. S h o u l d e r - l e n g t h h a i r u s u a l l y l o o k s l ou s y on men. SA A MA 0 MD D SD 11. A good way t o change s o c i e t y i s t o drop o u t o f t h e r a t r a c e . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 12. Neat g rooming i s a s i g n of good c h a r a c t e r . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 13. Drugs l i k e LSD can h e l p you l e a r n a l o t a bou t y o u r s e l f . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 14. P e o p l e who d rop o u t o f s o c i e t y j u s t d o n ' t have t h e s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e t o make i t t o t h e t o p . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 15. Drugs a r e an e s cape f rom r e a l i t y . SA A MA 0 MD D SD 16. P o l i t i c s w o n ' t change s o c i e t y ; d r o p p i n g o u t i s a b e t t e r way. SA A MA 0 MD D SD V. I n d i c a t e i n a p h r a s e o r a s e n t e n c e what each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i s . P u t an " N " b e s i d e t h e ones you d o n ' t know a n y t h i n g a b o u t . ( D o n ' t wo r r y i f you d o n ' t know many of them; no t t o o many p e o p l e do . ) I . VJi I I iam Bu r r ough s 2 . The I C h i n g 3. L e r o i J o n e s 4. Karma 5. Ken Kesey 6. Pau l K r a s s n e r 7. Manda la 8. J i m M o r r i s o n 9. P h i I Ochs 79 10. P s i l o c y b i n 11. San F r a n c i s c o Mime T roupe 12. The Z o d i a c . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302453/manifest

Comment

Related Items