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Comparison of national parks policy in Canada and the United States. Turner, R. David 1971

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A COMPARISON OF NATIONAL PARKS POLICY IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES ' by ROBERT DAVID TURNER B.Sc. , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in The School of Community and Regional Planning We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date A p r i l 30 . 1971 - i -ABSTRACT The history and development of National Park Systems in Canada and the United States are traced over the l a s t 120 years, and the p o l i c i e s determining t h e i r management are examined and compared to i d e n t i f y basic s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences. O f f i c i a l government reports and p o l i c y statements, h i s t o r i c a l records, and pertinent books, a r t i c l e s , and b u l l e t i n s were used as references for the study. Emphasis i s placed on recent history and existing p o l i c i e s . It i s concluded that the philosophies governing National Parks p o l i c y have been, and s t i l l are, s i g n i f i -cantly d i f f e r e n t , and as a r e s u l t , the National Park Systems of the two countries d i f f e r both p h y s i c a l l y and concept-u a l l y . United States p o l i c y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t e d a greater public and administrative concern for the pro-t e c t i o n of natural environments within the National Parks. As a r e s u l t , attempts are being made to reduce the purely recreational character of the National Parks, and to div e r t the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s to other types of areas, such as National Recreation Areas and National Seashores. In recent years, concerted attempts to alienate areas within the parks have been defeated, primarily through the existence of a strong preservationist movement in the country. The establishment of the National Wilderness Preservation System demonstrates a widespread recognition of natural - i i -area preservation as a n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t land use. In Canada, National Parks p o l i c y has been much less concerned with nature preservation and protection. The provision of public recreation .has gradually become the dominant theme of Canadian National Parks p o l i c y , with concern for natural areas only recently emerging. No widespread preservationist philosophy has existed i n Canada. Despite Canada's lower population, recreation f a c i l i t i e s and accommodations i n the parks are generally more elaborate and extensive than i n the United States. In general terms, the thrust of p o l i c y i n Canada has been to preserve a quasi-natural setting for enjoying recreational a c t i v i t i e s , while i n the United States, p o l i c y has been directed towards preserving and maintaining natural environments. i i i -CONTENTS Page Abstract i Maps v Tables v i Acknowledgements v i i 1 Comparing National Parks P o l i c i e s 2 A) Introduction 2 B) Approach to the Study 3 G) Defining National Parks and Equivalent reserves 4 D) Review of Literature and P r i n c i p a l Sources of Reference 6 2 Early Development of the National Park Systems i n the United States and Canada 13 A) The Beginning: Yellowstone and Yosemite i n the United States 13 B) The National Monuments: A Broadened Perspec-ti v e i n the United States 21 C) Rocky Mountains Park -- the Beginning i n Canada 24 D) Chapter Summary 3 2 3 Evolution of the National Park Systems to 1945 35 A) Creation of the United States National Park Service 35 B) Canadian National Parks: the L e g i s l a t i o n of 1930 40 C) Chapter Summary 44 - iv -Page 4 The National Parks in the Post War Years 47 A) Balancing Use and Preservation i n the American National Parks 47 B) Natural Resources Development i n the American National Parks: 1948 - 1968 55 C) The National Wilderness Preservation System and the Expansion of the American National Park System 63 D) The Canadian National Parks i n the Post War Years 70 E) Chapter Summary 7 5 5 Present Parks Policy i n the United States and Canada 78-A) The Interpretation of Policy: a Comment 78 B) National Parks Policy i n the United States 78 C) Canadian National Parks Policy 86 D) Present P o l i c i e s Compared 97 6 Evolution of National Parks P o l i c i e s : an Overview 100 A) Summary 100 B) Conclusions 107 References 116 - v -MAPS Page 1 N a t i o n a l P a r k s , P r i n c i p a l N a t i o n a l Monuments, and M a j o r N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s 7 2 Canad i an N a t i o n a l P a r k s 8 - v i -TABLES Page I The Range of Social Restraints on Human Manipulation of the Natural Environment 101 II The Evolution of National Park Function in the United States 102 III The Evolution of National Park Function i n Canada 103 - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to acknowledge the valuable assistance, advice, and c r i t i c i s m given to me by my supervisor, Professor William Rees, throughout the preparation of this thesis. Thanks are also due to Professor Al Lucas of the Faculty of Law, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for his helpf u l suggestions and comments. To my wife, Nancy, goes special thanks for her encouragement and advice, and f i n a l l y for her patience in typing t h i s t h e s i s . - 1 -" I c o u l d see t he e n d l e s s s t r eam o f pu lpwood f l o a t i n g down t he Ottawa R i v e r and on t he n o r t h e r n h o r i z o n , j u s t under t h e s c u d d i n g c l o u d s , the w h a l e - b a c k e d r i d g e o f G a t i n e a u Pa r k where I had wa tched b e a v e r a t l u n c h -t i m e t h e p r e v i o u s day. L o o k i n g n o r t h , my mind wandered 150 m i l e s f u r t h e r t o La V e r e n d r y e P r o v i n c i a l Pa rk and i t s s p r a w l -i n g w i l d e r n e s s . On l y t h e C.N.R. and two m ino r h ighways i n t e r r u p t e d t he f l o w o f w i l d -l a n d f r om t h e r e to Hud son ' s Bay. And t h e n , s t a n d i n g i n t h a t modern r e a d i n g room, I had a v i v i d sense o f what a w i l d , young , undev -e l o p e d n a t i o n Canada r e a l l y was. For an A m e r i c a n unaccus tomed t o a f r o n t i e r and p r e p a r e d t o f i n d h i s w i l d e r n e s s i n i s o l a t e d c h u n k s , s u r r o u n d e d by r o a d s , t h i s was a r e v e l a t i o n . I u n d e r s t o o d t h a t Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had f o r t h e l a s t h a l f c e n t u r y o p e r a t e d on d i f f e r e n t w a v e l e n g t h s so f a r as w i l d e r n e s s was c o n c e r n e d . A m e r i -cans had p a s s e d t h r o u g h i t s f r o n t i e r e r a t o an i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f t h e v a l u e o f w i l d e r n e s s ; Canad ian s were s t i l l a p i o n e e r - , i n g p e o p l e who r e t a i n e d t h e o l d a t t i t u d e s t oward u n d e v e l o p e d p l a c e s . " From Wilderness and Man in North America (1969) by R o d e r i c k Nash - 2 -C h a p t e r 1 COMPARING NATIONAL PARKS POLICIES A) I n t r o d u c t i o n N e a r l y a c e n t u r y has pa s s ed s i n c e the w o r l d ' s f i r s t n a t i o n a l p a r k was c r e a t e d i n the Y e l l o w s t o n e h i g h l a n d s of t h e w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e , many more n a t i o n a l p a r k s have been e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h o u t t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n many o t h e r r e g i o n s o f t h e w o r l d . In f i n d i n g w i d e s p r e a d r e c o g n i t i o n , the n a t i o n a l p a r k c o n c e p t has been a l t e r e d and r e v i s e d t o s u i t t h e c u l t u r a l and e n v i r -onmenta l c o n d i t i o n s i n t o w h i c h i t was a d o p t e d . As a r e s u l t , t he r o l e s and f u n c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s have become as d i v e r s i f i e d as t h e i r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Answers t o s uch q u e s t i o n s as "What i s a n a t i o n a l p a r k ? " and "What s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s does i t p e r f o r m ? " a r e n e a r l y as e l u s i v e t oday as t h e y were a c e n t u r y ago. Even on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , the p r o b l e m o f d e f i n i t i o n l o s e s l i t t l e i n c o m p l e x i t y . Canada was t h e f i r s t c o u n t r y t o f o l l o w the l e a d o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem. A t the p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e a re a number o f s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the geog raphy , f u n c t i o n , and p o l i c y o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s be -tween t he two c o u n t r i e s . T h i s i s no t s u r p r i s i n g when the p a r a l l e l s i n t he c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l deve lopment of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s a re c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s , however , e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t t he s i m i l a r i t i e s i n f u n c t i o n and p o l i c y w h i c h a r e seen t oday o r have been p e r c e i v e d i n . t h e - 3 -p a s t a r e s u p e r f i c i a l . The n a t i o n a l p a r k systems o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s may have e v o l v e d a l o n g d i f f e r e n t p a t h s i n r e s p o n s e to d i f f e r i n g i d e a l s , p o l i c i e s , and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . I t i s h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t he h i s t o r i c a l deve lopment o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d and more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d b e f o r e any a t t e m p t i s made to a p p l y t he p l a n n i n g and management e x p e r i e n c e s o f one c o u n t r y t o t he s o l v i n g o f t he p rob lems o f t he o t h e r . The pu rpo se o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o c r i t i c a l l y examine and compare the e v o l u t i o n and deve lopment o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e c o n s t r u c t i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o t he p rob lems f a c i n g p l a n n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , and t h a t t h e s e i n s i g h t s can be a p p l i e d t o i n s t i t u t e improvements i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y i n Canada and t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . B) App r oach to t he S tudy The s t u d y i s l i m i t e d i n scope t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o l i c y f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s and e q u i v a l e n t r e s e r v e s under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . W h i l e r e f e r e n c e i s made t o p r o v i n c i a l and s t a t e p a r k s , t hey a r e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y as t h e y r e l a t e t o t he n a t i o n a l p a r k sys tems o f each c o u n t r y , o r where t hey c l a r i f y a t t i t u d e s towards l a r g e pa r k a r e a s . Emphas i s w i l l be p l a c e d on p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o t he p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a r e a s and t o the deve lopment o f f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the a r e a s i n c l u d e d i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k - 4 -systems. The changing philosophies and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s underlying p o l i c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are also discussed. The study w i l l cover the l a s t 120 years, but w i l l concentrate primarily on the period following World War II. C) Defining National Parks and Equivalent Reserves In Canada and the United States, a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s perform the functions often associated with national parks (Dasmann, 1969). For example, i n the United States, there are "Wilderness Areas", "National Seashores", "National Parks", "National Monuments", and other i n s t i t u t i o n s that provide for landscape protection, recreation, and w i l d l i f e protection i n varying degrees. In Canada, these functions are normally provided by the federal "National Parks" and large p r o v i n c i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d parks. When studying the i n s t i t u t i o n s of two or more countries, an o v e r a l l conceptual d e f i n i t i o n must be derived to make a comparison possible. The International Commission on National Parks of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Nat-u r a l Resources (IUCN) has been concerned with t h i s problem of d e f i n i t i o n for some time. In compiling the United Nations L i s t of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves, c r i t e r i a were established so that some degree of continuity could be maintained i n c l a s s i f y i n g the national parks of member states of the United Nations (Harroy, 1969). These c r i t e r i a r e l a t e to protective status, s i z e , l e g i s l a t i v e authority, - 5 -and park function (Harroy, 1969). According to these c r i -t e r i a , a national park must: 1) be l e g a l l y protected from a l l natural resource e x p l o i t a t i o n by man and from any other threat to the quality of the area; 2) be greater than 2,000 ha. in size and have supervisory personnel on a r a t i o of one to 10,000 ha.; 3) be under the authority of the federal government; and 4) recognize tourism as a legitimate park use (Harroy, 1969). An equivalent reserve has generally si m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to those of a national park, except that tourism may not be a recognized function, in which case the area would be a s t r i c t nature reserve. In addition, l e g i s l a t i v e authority may rest outside the federal admin-i s t r a t i o n -- with a province, for example. The other c r i t e r i a remain unchanged, however (Harroy, 1969). By applying the c r i t e r i a outlined above to the systems of recreation and nature reserves i n Canada and the United States, a large number of "park" and "recreation" areas are eliminated from consideration as equivalents to national parks. For example, in Canada, many large pro-v i n c i a l park areas can be excluded because mining, timber cu t t i n g , and r i v e r developments are permitted. In addition, many roadside types of parks f a i l to meet the minimum size requirements. On the other hand, in the United States, federal Wilderness Areas and National Monuments have a l l the required c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be c l a s s i f i e d as either national parks or equivalent reserves. The location of the - 6 -p a r k r e s e r v e s under d i s c u s s i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada a r e shown i n Maps 1 and 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . D) Rev iew o f L i t e r a t u r e and P r i n c i p a l Sou rce s o f R e f e r e n c e W h i l e numerous b o o k s , a r t i c l e s , and a c c o u n t s have been w r i t t e n about t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and e q u i v a l e n t r e s e r v e s i n b o t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, most have been o f a p o p u l a r n a t u r e , f o c u s i n g on the s c e n i c , h i s t o r i c , o r u n i q u e a s p e c t s o f t h e pa r k a r e a s . Such works a r e d i r e c t e d p r i m a r -i l y t oward s t h e t o u r i s t and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and have p r o v i d e d an e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e means o f mak ing t h e p a r k s b e t t e r known and i n t e r p r e t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each p a r k u n i t . G e n e r a l l y , l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d c o n c e r n i n g p o l i c y o r t he h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f t he p a r k systems ( S c h a r f f , 1966; B u t c h e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , bu t some a u t h o r s p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o the v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e p a r k s and t h e f u n c t i o n s t h e y p e r f o r m ( T i l d e n , 1957 ) . Many o f t he v i s i t o r b r o c h u r e s d i s t r i b u t e d by the N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e s o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Of t he few d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f n a t i o n a l p a r k h i s t o r y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , pe rhaps t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g i s I s e ' s s t u d y , Our National Park Policy: A C r i t i c a l History (1961) . I se p r e s e n t s a t ho r ough t r e a t m e n t o f the h i s t o r i c a l deve lopment o f n a t i o n a l p a r k l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y and o u t l i n e s some o f t h e p r ob l em a r e a s o f pa r k p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . However, he d i r e c t s l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n towards Map 1 National Parks, P r i n c i p a l National Monuments, and Major National Recreation Areas in the United States (after Cahn, 1968). Hap 1 N a t i o n a l P a r k s , P r i n c i p a l N a t i o n a l Monuments, and Major N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Areas 1n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( a f t e r Cahn, 1968). NATIONAL PARKS 1 Hawaii Vo lcanoes 19 Grand Canyon 2 Hal ea kal a 20 P e t r i f i e d Forest 3 Mount McK in ley 21 Wind Cave li Oylmpic 22 Rocky Mounta in 5 Mount R a i n i e r 23 Mesa Verde 6 North Cascades 2h C a r l sbad Caverns 7 C r a t e r Lake 25 Guadalupe Mtns. 8 Redwood 26 Big Bend 9 Lassen V o l c a n i c 27 P i a t t 10 Yo sem i te 28 Hot Sp r i n g s 11 Kings Canyon 29 I s l e Royal e 12 Sequoia 30 Mammoth Cave 13 G l a c i e r 31 Great Smoky lit Yel1owstone Mtns. 15 Grand Teton 32 Shenandoah 16 Canyon Lands 33 Acad i a 17 Z i on 31. E v e r g l a d e s 18 Bryce Canyon 35 V i r g i n I s l and s PRINCIPAL NATIONAL MONUMENTS A Ka tm'a i B G l a c i e r Bay C Oregon Caves D Lava Beds E Muir Woods F Channel I s l ands G Joshua T r e e H Death V a l l e y I C r a t e r s o f the Moo n j Cedar Breaks K Arches L Na tu ra l B r i dge s M Grand Canyon N Canyon de C h e l l y o Oregon P ipe Cactus p Saguaro Q D inosaur R Dev i 1 ' s Tower S Badlands T Chesapeake & Ohio Canal u Buck I s l and Reef MAJOR NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS a Po int Reyes b Cou lee Dam c Lake Mead d Glen Canyon e B ighorn Canyon r A r b u c k l e g Padre I s l and h Ozark R iverway l Natchez T r a c e Par kway J B lue Ridge Parkway k Cape H a t t e r a s 1 As sa teague I s l and m F i r e I s i and n Cape Cod - 8 -Map 2 Canadian National Parks (after National Parks Branch, 1964). ( l \ YUKON ; 0 V jjX'\ B R I T I S H COLUMBIA NORTHWEST T E R R I T O R I E S / EWAN k 8 ' ^ \ j 1 2 Seal e Miles 500 NEVFOUND-'*VA LAND NOVA SCOTIA CANADIAN NATIONAL PARKS 1 Pac i f i c Rim (Long Beach) 2 Mount Revelstoke 3 Glacier U Yoho 5 Kootenay 6 Jasper T Banff 8 Waterton Lakes 9 Elk Island 10 Wood Buffalo 11 Prince Albert 12 Riding Mountain 13 Point Pelee 1U Georgian Bay Islands 15 St. Lawrence Islands 16 La Mauricie IT Fo r i l l on 18 Kouchibouguac 1 9 Fundy 20 Kejimkujik 21 Cape Breton Highlands 22 Prince Edward Island 23 Gros Morne 2k Terra Nova Map Z Canadian National Parks (after National Parks Branch, 1964). - 9 -the a t t i t u d e s b e h i n d p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s o r t he r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s t o the c o n s e r v a t i o n movement as a w h o l e . On the o t h e r hand , f o r m e r S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r S t e w a r t L. U d a l l (1963a), d i s c u s s e s t h e deve lopment o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n movement and i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n h i s The Quiet C r i s i s . A l s o u s e f u l i s t h e s t u d y by Jones (1965) , John Muir and the Sierra Club, w h i c h d e t a i l s t he l i f e o f t h i s e a r l y p r oponen t o f w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n and the p a r t he p l a y e d i n t he d i s p u t e o v e r t he f l o o d i n g o f t he H e t c h Hetchy V a l l e y i n Y o s e m i t e N a t i o n a l P a r k . In a d d i t i o n , N a s h ' s Wilderness and the American Mind (1967) p r e s e n t s a t h o r o u g h t r e a t m e n t o f t h e deve lopment o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k sys tem and n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s work a r e t he d i s -c u s s i o n s o f the c hang i n g a t t i t u d e s towards w i l d e r n e s s p r e -s e r v a t i o n i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g the l a s t 150 y e a r s . The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Canad i an s i t u a t i o n i s no t as w e l l documented. Two s t u d i e s o f B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k , however , p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n s i g h t s i n t o t he h i s t o r y o f a Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k ( S c a c e , 1968; B y r n e , 1962 ) . Of t he works d i r e c t e d towards a c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , o n l y t h r e e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y , and each d e a l s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s s y s t em. D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n (1969) demons t r a te a s e n s i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he p o l i c y and p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s , p r o v i d i n g t h e most r e c e n t o v e r v i e w o f t he - 10 -s i t u a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t study-on n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y , on w i l d l i f e management i n p a r t i -c u l a r , was p r e p a r e d f o r t he S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r by a g roup o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t s ( L e o p o l d e t a l . , 1 963 ) . W i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d as t he " L e o p o l d R e p o r t " , t h i s s t u d y d i s c u s s e s t he g e n e r a l pu rpo se s o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s and s t r e s s e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f b a s i c e c o l o g i c a l knowledge as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o management and p l a n n i n g o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . The t h i r d n o t a b l e s t u d y was a l s o u n d e r t a k e n f o r the S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r . T h i s r e p o r t ( P e n f o l d e t a l . , 1968) p r e s e n t s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e pu rpo se s and d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r r oad s w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s and s u gge s t s t h a t a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t t o l a r g e s c a l e r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n programs i n t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s . Two c o n f e r e n c e s have p r o v i d e d p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . The p r o c e e d i n g s o f t he F i r s t Wor ld C o n f e r e n c e on N a t i o n a l P a r k s , h e l d i n S e a t t l e i n 1961, g i v e s a v a l u a b l e g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e on n a t i o n a l p a r k s and e q u i v a l e n t r e s e r v e s (Adams, 1 962 ) . Even more s i g n i f i c a n t t o Canada i s t he r e c e n t c o n f e r e n c e , The Canadian National Parks: Today and Tomorrow, h e l d i n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . The p r o c e e d i n g s (Ne l s on and S c a c e , 1969) c o n t a i n the f i r s t ma jo r a c c u m u l a t i o n o f pape r s on the n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n t h i s c o u n t r y . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v e n t t o t h i s s t u d y . H a r r o y (1969) g i v e s a d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k movement and t he p rob lems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e f i n i n g n a t i o n a l p a r k s and - 11 e q u i v a l e n t r e s e r v e s i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and e n v i r o n m e n t s . C h r g t i e n ( 1969 ) , N i c o l ( 1969 ) , and N e l s o n (1969) p r o v i d e some o f t he f i r s t documented a c c o u n t s o f t he h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y . Brown (1969) d i s c u s s e s t he e a r l y deve lopment o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada and r e l a t e s p a r k p o l i c y t o t he r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n p o l i c y o f t h e f e d e r a l government . R o d e r i c k N a s h ' s paper ( 1969 ) , " W i l d e r n e s s and Man i n N o r t h A m e r i c a " , i s t h e most p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s s t u d y . He p r e s e n t s a c o n v i n c i n g ca se f o r t he c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r -c e p t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a r ea s and w i l d e r n e s s between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d i n a n o t h e r s t u d y (Cowan, 1969 ) . S t a t emen t s o f p o l i c y i s s u e d by the f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ments o f b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . The p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e a r e more numerous and t e n d t o be more d e t a i l e d t h a n t ho se o f i t s Canad i an c o u n t e r p a r t . P a r t i c u l a r -l y u s e f u l a r e t he g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s f o r n a t u r a l a r e a s and r e c r e a t i o n a r ea s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t i o n a l p a r k sy s tem ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e , 1968a, b ) , and t h e o v e r a l l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t f o r C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a). The r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n s f o r s e v e r a l o f t h e Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k s a r e a l s o u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o p l a n n i n g and management - 12 -g o a l s f o r t he p a r k s i n Canada ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1 9 6 9 b , c , 1 9 7 0 a , b , c , d ) . S e v e r a l o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n have been e x p l o i t e d . These i n c l u d e r e l e v e n t p o r t i o n s o f t h e Congressional Record o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s Congres s and t h e Canad i an Hansard. I n a d d i t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n s s uch as Park News ( Canad i an N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n ) , The L i v i n g Wilderness (The W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y ) , National Parks and Conservation Magazine ( N a t i o n a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n ) , t he S i e r r a C l u b ' s B u l l e t i n , and o t h e r s i m i l a r j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s and l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k sy s tems o f Canada and t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Park News, t he one Canad i an p u b l i c a t i o n w h o l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p a r k s , has been p r oduced o n l y s i n c e 1963 , when the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n was f o r m e d . The d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem p r o v i d e d by A m e r i c a n c o n s e r v a t i o n j o u r n a l s i s much more c o m p l e t e . The Sierra Club B u l l e t i n has been p u b l i s h e d s i n c e the 1 8 9 0 ' s , and National Parks Magazine has been i n p r i n t s i n c e 1918. - 13 -C h a p t e r 2 EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA A) The B e g i n n i n g : Y e l l o w s t o n e and Yo sem i t e i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s The i d e a t h a t l a r g e a r e a s o f u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r a e s t h e t i c and i n s p i r a t i o n a l v a l u e appea r s t o have f i r s t been e x p r e s s e d i n 1832 by George C a t l i n , an A m e r i c a n a r t i s t ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e , 1968a ) . The n o t i o n was s u p p o r t e d by Henry Tho reau and o t h e r n a t u r a l i s t - p h i l o s o p h e r s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y a f t e r t he l a t e 1 8 5 0 ' s (Nash, 1967 ) . I t s f i r s t r e a l e x p r e s s i o n i n g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1864, when Y o s e m i t e V a l l e y and t he M a r i p o s a Redwood Grove were t u r n e d o ve r t o the s t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n as a p a r k . The s t a t e was to h o l d the l a n d s f o r p u b l i c u s e , r e s o r t , and r e c r e a t i o n , i n a l i e n a b l e f o r a l l t i m e ( H a r t e s v e l d t , 1963 ) . I t was no t u n t i l 1872, however , t h a t t he n a t i o n a l p a r k movement had i t s l e g a l b e g i n n i n g s . In t h a t y e a r , o ve r 2,000,000 a c r e s i n t he h i g h c o u n t r y o f w e s t e r n Wyoming, e a s t e r n I daho , and s o u t h e r n Montana were r e s e r v e d and s e t a s i d e as t he w o r l d ' s f i r s t n a t i o n a l p a r k ; Y e l l o w s t o n e Pa r k was a r e a l i t y (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 21-40 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . A t t h a t t i m e , the Y e l l o w s t o n e r e g i o n was one o f the most i n a c c e s s i b l e p a r t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , y e t the s p e c t a c u l a r n a t u r e o f i t s c anyon s , g e y s e r s , and w a t e r f a l l s had c a p t u r e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f a few - 14 e a r l y e x p l o r e r s , who e f f e c t i v e l y l o b b i e d f o r i t s p r e s e r -v a t i o n as a p u b l i c r e s e r v e ( I s e , 1961; L a n g f o r d , 1905 ) . There was , however , o p p o s i t i o n to t he pas sage o f t he Y e l l o w -s t o n e Pa rk A c t . The v a s t n e s s o f t he A m e r i c a n f r o n t i e r p e r v a d e d the t hough t s o f some o p p o n e n t s , who saw no need f o r i t s p r o t e c t i o n . In f a c t , as has been p o i n t e d o u t , t he r e s e r v a t i o n o f f e d e r a l l a n d s was q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o the p o l i c y o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s government a t t h a t t i m e ( U d a l l , 1963a; I s e , 1961 ) . The comments o f C a l i f o r n i a ' s S e n a t o r C o l e a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t he o p p o s i n g v i e w : "I do no t see the r e a s o n o r p r o p r i e t y o f s e t t i n g a p a r t a l a r g e t r a c t o f l a n d o f t h a t k i n d i n the T e r r i t o r i e s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r a p u b l i c p a r k . The re i s abundance o f p u b l i c p a r k g round i n the Rocky Moun ta i n s t h a t w i l l n e v e r be o c -c u p i e d . I t i s a l l one g r e a t p a r k , and neve r can be a n y t h i n g e l s e ; l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f i t a t a l l e v e n t s . . . " ( i n I s e , 1961 ) . S u p p o r t e r s o f t he A c t a rgued t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l t o i n s u r e p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t he s c e n i c wonders o f t h e a r e a . I n i t i a l l y a t l e a s t , t h e y were no t c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e s e r v i n g t h e w i l d e r n e s s t h a t s u r r o u n d e d the a t t r a c t i o n s (Nash, 1967; L a n g f o r d , 1905 ) . The p r o v i s i o n s o f t he A c t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d , f o r t h e y d i d p r o v i d e l e g i s -l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n f o r t he who le o f Y e l l o w s t o n e P a r k , and hence f o r t h e w i l d e r n e s s c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n : " Y e l l o w s t o n e . . . i s h e r e b y r e s e r v e d and w i t h d r a w n f r om s e t t l e m e n t , o c c u p a n c y , o r s a l e under t he laws o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , and d e d i c a t e d and s e t a p a r t as a p u b l i c p a r k o r p l e a s u r i n g - g r o u n d f o r t h e b e n e f i t and enjoyment o f t he p e o p l e . " (16. U.S.C. s e c . 21 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . - 15 -The S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r was d i r e c t e d t o make r e g u l a t i o n s t o " p r o v i d e f o r t he p r e s e r v a t i o n , f rom i n j u r y or s p o l i a t i o n , o f a l l t i m b e r , m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s , n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t i e s , o r wonders w i t h i n s a i d p a r k , and t h e i r r e t e n -t i o n i n t h e i r n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . " The A c t a l s o made p r o v i s i o n s f o r t he accommodat ion o f v i s i t o r s w i t h i n the p a r k . However, f r om 1872 t o 1878 no a p p r o p r i a t i o n s were made to e n f o r c e t he r e g u l a t i o n s d r a f t e d t o p r o t e c t the p a r k , and h e n c e , w h i l e l e g a l l y i n v i o l a t e , the p a r k s u f f e r e d c o n -t i n u e d v a n d a l i s m and i t s w i l d l i f e was s l a u g h t e r e d ( I s e , 1 961 ) . I t was a t l e a s t a b e g i n n i n g . Even when Congres s f i n a l l y a u t h o r i z e d some fund s f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f t he p a r k , t h e y were v e r y meagre, and i n many c a s e s , p r o s e c u t i o n o f p oache r s and v a n d a l s was i m p o s s i b l e unde r e x i s t i n g l a w s . In 1883, t he S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r was g i v e n a u t h o r i t y t o c a l l i n f e d e r a l t r o o p s t o p r o t e c t t he p a r k and i t s w i l d l i f e , but i t was no t u n t i l t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r t h a t t h i s a c t i o n was t a k e n ( I s e , 1961 ) . By t he m i d - 1 8 8 0 ' s , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t he b r o a d e r f u n c -t i o n o f Y e l l o w s t o n e as a w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v e began to emerge. As Nash (1967) r e c o r d s , t he deba te o ve r a p r opo sed r a i l r o a d r i g h t - o f - w a y t h r o u g h t he p a r k marked t he f i r s t t ime t h a t arguments based on a " p r e s e r v e the w i l d e r n e s s " theme s u c c e s s -f u l l y c o u n t e r e d t he u t i l i t a r i a n p r o m o t i o n o f t he d e v e l o p e r s . The p r opo sed r a i l r o a d was to a l l o w t he deve lopment o f a mine - 16 -o u t s i d e the p a r k ' s b o u n d a r i e s . The p r oponen t s o f t h e mine f e l t t h a t i t was u n r e a s o n a b l e to b l o c k t he p r o d u c t i o n o f a m u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r mine f o r t he b e n e f i t " . . . o f a few spo r t smen ben t o n l y on t he p r o t e c t i o n o f a few b u f f a l o " ( Pay son , 1886 ) . P r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s c o u n t e r e d by s t r e s s i n g t he s p i r i t u a l o r i n s p i r a t i o n a l v a l u e s o f t he p r e s e r v e and t h e d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t t h e p r o p o s e d deve lopment wou ld have on the p a r k ' s w i l d e r n e s s (Nash, 1967 ) . Congressman McAdoo o f New J e r s e y was p rompted to comment: " . . . t h e g l o r y o f t h i s t e r r i t o r y i s i t s s u b l i m e s o l i t u d e . C i v i l i z a t i o n i s so u n i v e r s a l t h a t man can o n l y see n a t u r e i n he r m a j e s t y and p r i m a l g l o r y , as i t w e r e , i n t h e s e as y e t v i r g i n r e g i o n s . " ( i n Na sh , 1967 ) . Nash d e s c r i b e s t h i s speech as " a v i n d i c a t i o n of t he p r i n c i p l e o f w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n " . The w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s o f Y e l l o w s t o n e p r e v a i l e d and the argument p ropounded by McAdoo was hea rd w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y . Hence, i n under 20 y e a r s , t he j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Y e l l o w s t o n e had changed f r om one p r o f e s s i n g p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l wonders f o r p u b l i c a c c e s s to one ba sed on the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a w i l d e r n e s s a r e a c o n t a i n i n g o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . W i l d l i f e i n Y e l l o w s t o n e was f i n a l l y g i v e n e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n i n 1894, when Congres s p a s s e d an " A c t to P r o t e c t t he B i r d s and A n i m a l s i n Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l P a r k " (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 21-40 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . Soon a f t e r , however , a program was i n s t i t u t e d to r e d u c e the number o f p r e d a t o r y a n i m a l s - 17 -w i t h i n t he p a r k . The r o l e o f p r e d a t o r s p e c i e s was no t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d o r a p p r e c i a t e d a t t h i s t i m e , and w i l d -l i f e p r o t e c t i o n meant , t o most p e o p l e a t l e a s t , t he p r o t e c t i o n o f a n i m a l s - - u s u a l l y h e r b i v o r e s - - a g a i n s t p o a c h e r s and n a t u r a l p r e d a t o r s . Wolves were u l t i m a t e l y d r i v e n t o e x t i n c t i o n , and couga r s s e r i o u s l y endangered ( I s e , 1 961 ) . The e a r l y h i s t o r y o f Y o s em i t e N a t i o n a l P a r k f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s the deve lopment o f U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y and the deba te o ve r use and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the p a r k s . As n o t e d , i n 1864 t he Yo sem i t e V a l l e y and the M a r i p o s a Grove were t u r n e d o ve r to C a l i f o r n i a f o r p a r k l a n d s . However, as p u b l i c awareness o f t h e s c e n i c q u a l i t i e s o f t he a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t he V a l l e y and o f t he u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s t and s o f i n t e r i o r redwoods i n c r e a s e d , p r e s s u r e mounted f o r t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n as p a r k r e s e r v e s ( S t r o n g , 1970 ) . In 1890, Congres s pa s s ed l e g i s l a t i o n to r e s e r v e S e q u o i a ( N a t i o n a l P a r k ) as a " p u b l i c p a r k or p l e a s u r e g r o u n d " (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 41-45 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . T h i s a c t i o n was f o l l o w e d by t h e c r e a t i o n o f " r e s e r v e d f o r e s t l a n d s " t o i n c l u d e Y o s e m i t e and t he G e n e r a l G r an t S e q u o i a G rove . I se (1961) n o t e s t h a t the new l e g i s l a t i o n was based on the Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l Pa r k A c t and c o n t a i n e d s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Y o s e m i t e N a t i o n a l Pa rk soon became a f o c u s f o r t h e f i r s t n a t i o n a l l y p u b l i c i z e d d i s p u t e ove r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . - 18 -By t he e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s , c e n t r a l C a l i f o r n i a and San F r a n c i s c o ° were f a c i n g a w a t e r s h o r t a g e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t he damming o f t h e H e t c h He t chy Canyon o f t he Toulumne R i v e r i n Y o s e m i t e p r o v i d e d the most e x p e d i e n t s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m . W h i l e l e s s w e l l known t h a t t he Y o s e m i t e V a l l e y , H e t c h He tchy was an o u t s t a n d i n g a r e a i n i t s own r i g h t . The He t ch He tchy c o n t r o v e r s e y has been w e l l d o cu -mented ( J o n e s , 1965; Nash , 1967; I s e , 1961) and w i l l n o t be d e t a i l e d h e r e . However, t he g e n e r a l backg round to the d i s -p u t e and t he e v e n t u a l outcome a r e o f u tmost s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e f l e c t i n g and d i r e c t i n g n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y t r e n d s . A t t he t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , two d i s t i n c t and c o n f l i c t i n g app roache s to the b road q u e s t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e c o n -s e r v a t i o n were becoming e v i d e n t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . One f a v o u r e d t he s c i e n t i f i c management o f a l l r e s o u r c e s i n an a t t e m p t to s t o p the w h o l e s a l e d e s t r u c t i o n and was te o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e d u r i n g the l a s t h a l f o f t he n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( U d a l l , 1963a ) . An o u t s p o k e n a d v o c a t e o f t h i s app roach to c o n s e r v a t i o n was G i f f o r d P i n c h o t , C h i e f F o r e s t e r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e and a p r o m i n e n t f i g u r e d u r i n g the R o o s e v e l t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The o t h e r v i e w o f c o n s e r v a t i o n , w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g t h i s a pp roach i n p r i n c i p l e , was more ext reme and f a v o u r e d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a r g e a r e a s o f w i l d l a n d s as w i l d e r n e s s u n d i s t u r b e d by man ( S t r o n g , 1970 ) . T h i s v i e w encompassed what Nash (1967) has te rmed t h e " W i l d e r n e s s C u l t " . The two - 19 -app roache s t o c o n s e r v a t i o n were b a s i c a l l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , and t h e H e t c h He tchy dam p r o p o s a l b r o u g h t the d i s a g r e e m e n t to t he f o r e . As Nash (1967) n o t e s , "The He t ch Hetchy i s s u e l e f t no g round f o r compromise among t he e a r l y c o n s e r v a -t i o n i s t s " . By f a r t he most p r o m i n e n t f i g u r e p u b l i c i z i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n was John M u i r , one o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f t h e S i e r r a C l u b , an o r g a n i z a t i o n d e v o t e d t o w i l d e r n e s s and n a t i o n a l p a r k p r o t e c t i o n ( J o n e s , 1965 ) . M u i r had a s p e c i a l a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e S i e r r a s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r Y o s e m i t e . He had l e c t u r e d and w r i t t e n numerous a r t i c l e s t o g e n e r a t e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n as p a r k l a n d s . To h i m , the t hough t o f a dam i n H e t c h Hetchy was u n b e a r a b l e . H i s b a s i c a s s e r t i o n was t h a t o t h e r s i t e s c o u l d be u sed to c r e a t e the r e s e r v o i r . A s e c o n d - b e s t s i t e c o u l d have s t o r e d the r e q u i r e d w a t e r and , a t t he same t i m e , wou ld have saved He t ch H e t c h y . How-e v e r , d e s p i t e the s t r e n u o u s and a r t i c u l a t e o b j e c t i o n s o f M u i r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , t he H e t c h He tchy p r o j e c t was a u t h o r i z e d by Congres s i n December, 1913 ( U d a l l , 1963a ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the H e t c h Hetchy c o n t r o v e r s e y i s d i s c u s s e d by Nash (1967) : " I n d e e d the most s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g about t he c o n t r o -v e r s e y o ve r t he v a l l e y was t h a t i t o c c u r r e d a t a l l . One hundred o r even f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r a s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l t o dam a w i l d e r n e s s r i v e r wou ld no t have o c c a s i o n e d the s l i g h t e s t r i p p l e o f p u b l i c p r o t e s t . - 20 -T r a d i t i o n a l A m e r i c a n a s s umpt i on s about t h e use o f u n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y d i d not i n c l u d e r e s e r v i n g i t i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , and i n s p i r a t i o n a l v a l u e s . . . What had f o r m e r l y been the s u b j e c t o f n a t i o n a l c e l e b r a -t i o n was made to appear a n a t i o n a l t r a g e d y . Even the p a r t i s a n s o f San F r a n c i s c o p h r a s e d t h e i s s u e as no t between a good ( c i v i l i z a t i o n ) and an e v i l ( w i l d e r n e s s ) but between two goods. W h i l e p l a c i n g m a t e r i a l needs f i r s t , t hey s t i l l p r o c l a i m e d t h e i r l o v e o f u n s p o i l e d n a t u r e . P r e v i o u s l y , most Ame r i c an s had no t f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o r a t i o n a l i z e the conquest, o f w i l d c o u n t r y i n t h i s manner. For t h r e e c e n t u r i e s t hey had cho sen c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h o u t any h e s i t a t i o n . By 1913, t h e y were no l o n g e r s u r e . " The d i s p u t e o ve r H e t c h He tchy had f o c u s e d n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n on the p a r k s , and c r e a t e d a new l e v e l o f aware -ness o f a e s t h e t i c c o n s e r v a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( S t r o n g , 1970 ) . A t t h e same t i m e , w h i l e the p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s l o s t t he b a t t l e o ve r He t ch H e t c h y , the e x p e r i e n c e i n s p i r e d an u l t i m a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t to have the n a t i o n a l p a r k s made exempt f r om t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e F e d e r a l Water Power A c t and h e l p e d g a i n s u p p o r t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e i n 1916 ( U d a l l , 1 963a ) . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t he p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s r e a l i z e d t h a t t o have an e f f e c t i v e v o i c e i n p o l i c y f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s , t hey must be o r g a n -i z e d and g a i n w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w . Most ma jo r i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s and w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a f t e r t he t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y i n v o l v e d p r o p o s a l s based on a " w i s e u s e " o r 21 -" m u l t i p l e u s e " o f r e s o u r c e s p h i l o s o p h y , i n l e a gue w i t h t he c o n s e r v a t i o n a p p r o a c h propounded by P i n c h o t . In e f f e c t , t he d i s p u t e s o ve r d e v e l o p i n g p a r k l a n d s o r l i m i t i n g t h e i r e x p a n s i o n r e f l e c t e d c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n what can b r o a d l y be c a l l e d "The C o n s e r v a t i o n Movement" . W h i l e t h i s f a c t i s r e c o g n i z e d , f o r s i m p l i c i t y , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s f a v o u r i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p a r k s and w i l d e r n e s s w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y as c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s . B) The N a t i o n a l Monuments: A Broadened P e r s p e c t i v e i n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s As c o n c e r n f o r n a t u r a l a r e a s o f o u t s t a n d i n g s c e n i c q u a l i t y was becoming more and more w i d e s p r e a d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , so too was a c o n c e r n f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f a r c h e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s . Many such s i t e s were l o c a t e d i n the Southwest and G r e a t B a s i n s t a t e s on l a n d s c o n t r o l l e d by t he f e d e r a l government . By 1900, i t had become a p p a r e n t t h a t many a r c h e o l o g i c a l t r e a s u r e s o f t h e Southwest were b e i n g p l u n d e r e d and t h a t some fo rm o f l e g i s -l a t i o n was r e q u i r e d t o i n s u r e t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n . "The s t o r y o f t he a r c h e o l o g i c a l r u i n s o f t he Southwest i s a r a t h e r d e p r e s s i n g s t o r y o f g r o s s v a n d a l i s m f o r many y e a r s , somewhat l i k e the v a n d a l i s m o f the g i a n t s e q u o i a s ; a s t o r y o f p e r t i n a c i o u s b u t , f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , f u t i l e e f f o r t s on the p a r t o f a few d e v o t e d p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o s e c u r e p r o t e c t i o n , and o f f i n a l s u c c e s s i n s a v i n g some o f what was l e f t o f t he r u i n s and o f t h e p r i c e l e s s a r c h e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t s i n t h e m . " ( I s e , 1961 ) . - 22 -P r o p o s a l s f o r l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e s e s i t e s were made as e a r l y as 1882, bu t f ound l i t t l e sympathy u n t i l t h e t u r n o f t he c e n t u r y . A f t e r o ve r s i x y e a r s o f l e g a l a rgument , a B i l l was f i n a l l y p a s s ed by the Congres s and s i g n e d i n t o l aw by P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t on June 8, 1906. C a l l e d "The A c t f o r t he P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A n t i q u i t i e s " (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 431-458 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) , i t empowered the P r e s i d e n t t o r e s e r v e by p r o c l a m a t i o n h i s t o r i c l a n d m a r k s , h i s t o r i c and p r e h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s , and o t h e r o b j e c t s o f h i s t o r i c o r s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t s i t u a t e d on l a n d s owned or c o n t r o l l e d by the f e d e r a l government . I n i t i a l l y , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e s , known as N a t i o n a l Monuments, r ema ined w i t h t he f e d e r a l agency w h i c h had j u r i s d i c t i o n o ve r t he a r e a b e f o r e i t was s e t a s i d e . As a r e s u l t , some n a t i o n a l monu-ments were a d m i n i s t e r e d by t he Department o f t he I n t e r i o r , w h i l e o t h e r s were under the c o n t r o l o f t he Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e ( I se , ' 1961 ) . W h i l e t he pas sage o f t he A n t i q u i t i e s A c t may a t f i r s t appear i n c i d e n t a l t o t he ma jo r t h r u s t towards the d e v e l o p -ment o f a n a t i o n a l p a r k sy s tem i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t made p o s s i b l e the p r o t e c t i o n o f a r e a s , such as Mesa Ve rde i n C o l o r a d o , t h a t were e v e n t u a l l y a f f o r d e d N a t i o n a l P a r k s t a t u s ( I s e , 1961 ; U d a l l , 1963a ) . Second , i t showed an i n c r e a s i n g aware-ness w i t h i n the Congres s o f t h e v a l u e o f h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and s c i e n t i f i c f e a t u r e s o f l a n d s w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s - 23 -and t he need f o r t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , by i t s r a t h e r b r o a d p r o v i s i o n s , i t a l l o w e d t he r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e s w h i c h m i gh t o t h e r w i s e have gone u n p r o t e c t e d , o r f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r d i d no t meet t he r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a n a t i o n a l p a r k ( U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f t h e I n t e r i o r , 1967 ). Many a r e a s were too s m a l l t o become n a t i o n a l p a r k s , o r had some e s t a b l i s h e d r i g h t o r c l a i m w h i c h had to be honou red . The f a c t t h a t n a t i o n a l monu-ments became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t a d j u n c t s t o the n a t i o n a l p a r k s demon s t r a t e s t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Many o u t s t a n d i n g a r ea s and f e a t u r e s were r e s e r v e d under the p r o v i s i o n s o f t he A c t , i n c l u d i n g : Mesa V e r d e , Grand Canyon, G l a c i e r Bay, Dea th V a l l e y , t he P e t r i f i e d F o r e s t , s t and s o f redwoods and o r g a n p i p e c a c t i , and numerous o t h e r a r c h e o l o g i c a l , g e o l o g -i c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l s i t e s . A l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t he n a t i o n a l monuments were c r e a t e d t o i n s u r e t he p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a u n i q u e a r e a o r o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e ; l i t t l e emphas i s was p l a c e d on u s e , r e c r e a t i o n , o r p o s s i b l e r e t u r n s f r om t o u r i s m . N a t i o n a l p a r k s and n a t i o n a l monuments d i f f e r i n a number o f r e s p e c t s . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , the f u n c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l monuments i s t o p r e s e r v e un i que f e a t u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c , h i s t o r i c , o r p r e h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . On t he o t h e r hand , the f u n c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s i s t o p r e s e r v e e n v i r o n m e n t s w h i c h p o s s e s s two or more u n i q u e f e a t u r e s o r q u a l i t i e s . P a r k s a l s o t e n d t o be more s p a c i o u s , whereas 24 -monuments may v a r y g r e a t l y i n s i z e depend ing on t h e f e a t u r e t hey a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r e s e r v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , n a t i o n a l p a r k s have t he added p r o t e c t i o n o f b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d by A c t o f C o n g r e s s , w h i l e n a t i o n a l monuments a r e c r e a t e d by p r o c l a m -a t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o r Congres s ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , 1968a ) . C) Rocky Moun ta i n s Pa r k - - t he B e g i n n i n g i n Canada Canada o f the 1 8 7 0 ' s and e a r l y 1 8 8 0 ' s was a c o u n t r y s t r u g g l i n g f o r u n i t y , e n g r o s s e d i n the b u i l d i n g o f a t r a n s -c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y o v e r 4,000 m i l e s o f u n e x p l o r e d m o u n t a i n s , p r a i r i e , and muskeg, s t a g g e r e d by the v a s t n e s s o f i t s t e r r i t o r y . I t was no t u n t i l 1884 t h a t the c o m p l e t i o n o f t he Canad i an P a c i f i c R a i l w a y to the sho re o f B u r r a r d I n l e t near Vancouve r a l l o w e d t he government t o f o c u s i t s e n e r g i e s on d e v e l o p i n g and s e t t l i n g the h i n t e r l a n d between t he West Coas t and W i n n i p e g . The government o f John A. Macdona ld adop ted a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y s t r e s s i n g economic e x p a n s i o n based on the u t i l i z a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s (Brown, 1969) . E x p a n s i o n wes tward was a c e n t r a l t h r u s t o f t h i s p o l i c y , ba sed on the n o t i o n t h a t s e t t l e m e n t and deve lopment wou ld enhance Canada ' s c l a i m t o the p r a i r i e s and p r o v i d e f r e i g h t and p a s s e n g e r s f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t he Canad i an P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . When a h o t s p r i n g s t o w h i c h g r e a t c u r a t i v e powers were a t t a c h e d was d i s c o v e r e d nea r B a n f f S t a t i o n on t h e Canad i an 25 -P a c i f i c R a i l w a y ' s l i n e t h r o u g h K i c k i n g Hor se P a s s , c o n c e r n d e v e l o p e d t h a t t he a r e a s h o u l d no t be e x p l o i t e d by p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s . The government was a l r e a d y d i s t u r b e d by t he unp l anned deve lopment and c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t had t a k e n p l a c e a t N i a g a r a F a l l s i n O n t a r i o . I t saw i n B a n f f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a v o i d i n g some o f t he u n d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s o f t h e N i a g a r a F a l l s deve l opment . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e was the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g B a n f f t o t he f i n a n c i a l advan tage o f b o t h t he C.P.R. and t he f e d e r a l government . As a r e s u l t , on November 25, 1885, an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l was i s s u e d , r e s e r v i n g 6,400 a c r e s o f l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g t h e B a n f f h o t s p r i n g s ( N i c o l , 1 969 ) . The Orde r n o t e d : " . . . t h a t whereas near t he s t a t i o n o f B a n f f . . . t h e r e have been d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l ho t m i n e r a l s p r i n g s w h i c h p r o m i s e to be o f g r e a t sanitary advantage t o t h e p u b l i c , and i n o r d e r t h a t p r o p e r c o n t r o l o f t he l a n d s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s e s p r i n g s may r e m a i n v e s t e d i n t he Crown, t he s a i d l a n d s i n t he t e r r i t o r y i n c l u d i n g s a i d s p r i n g s and t h e i r immed ia te n e i g h -bou rhood be and t h e y a r e he reby r e s e r v e d f r om s a l e o r s e t t l e m e n t o r s q u a t t i n g . " [emphas i s added] (P .C . 2197, November 25, 1885 ) . As d e t a i l s o f t h e r e s e r v e became b e t t e r known, i t appea r s t h a t i n the minds o f government o f f i c i a l s , t he " s a n i t a r y a d v a n t a g e " o f B a n f f was l e s s i n t i c i n g t h a n the moneta ry advantage i f t h e a r e a was a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e v e l o p e d . P r ime M i n i s t e r John A. Macdona l d was p rompted t o comment: "I do no t suppose i n any p o r t i o n o f t he w o r l d t h e r e can be f ound a spo t t a k e n a l t o g e t h e r , w h i c h combines so many a t t r a c t i o n s and wh i ch p r om i s e s i n as g r e a t a deg ree not o n l y l a r g e p e c u n i a r y advantage t o t he D o m i n i o n , but much p r e s t i g e t o the who le c o u n t r y by a t t r a c t i n g the p o p u l a t i o n , no t o n l y o f t h i s c o n t i n e n t , bu t o f Europe to t h i s p l a c e . " (Macdona ld , 1887 ). 26 -N e e d l e s s t o s a y , the a p p a r e n t p o t e n t i a l o f t he h o t s p r i n g s as an a t t r a c t i o n f o r t o u r i s t s d i d no t go u n n o t i c e d by t he C.P.R. As Byrne (1962) comments, " T h e r e was c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between the company and t he f e d e r a l government d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and i t seems l i k e l y the C.P.R. l o b b y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n g e t t i n g p a r k s l e g i s l a t i o n t h r o u g h p a r l i a m e n t . " S t u d i e s were made o f the A r k a n s a s Hot S p r i n g s r e s e r v e i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h had been c r e a t e d by the f e d e r a l government i n 1832."'" T h e r e , d e s p i t e f e d e r a l government i n v o l v e m e n t , deve lopment by p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s had c a p i t a l i z e d on t he s p r i n g s , and a town had been e s t a b -l i s h e d ( S c a c e , 1968; I s e , 1961 ) . In s p i t e o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he A r k a n s a s R e s e r v e , r e g u l a -t i o n s f o r B a n f f based on t ho se o f t he A m e r i c a n r e s e r v e were a d o p t e d ( S c a c e , 1968 ) . N e l s o n (1969) s t a t e s t h a t B a n f f began as a p l a n n e d community : "The a r rangement s and d i m e n s i o n s o f some l o t s a r e s a i d t o have r e s e m b l e d con tempo ra r y p l a n n e d spa commun i t i e s i n E u r ope , a l t h o u g h an immed ia te A m e r i c a n model was A r kan sa s Hot S p r i n g s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In o t h e r w o r d s , a t t he t ime o f i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , t he t o w n s i t e o f B a n f f was t hough t o f as a r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y i n i t s own r i g h t . " ( N e l s o n , 1969 ) . 1 T h i s was the f i r s t f e d e r a l " r e s e r v e " i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , bu t i t can no t be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e a r l y n a t i o n a l p a r k movement. I t was s c e n i c a l l y u n i m p o r t a n t , and was r e s e r v e d o n l y because o f t he supposed c u r a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f t he h o t s p r i n g s ( I s e , 1961 ) . 27 -The c o n t e n t i o n t h a t B a n f f was d e s i g n e d t o be a l u x u r y r e s o r t o r spa i s s u p p o r t e d by remarks o f P r ime M i n i s t e r Macdona l d d u r i n g House o f Commons deba te on p l a n s t o e s t a b l i s h B a n f f H o t s p r i n g s r e s e r v e as a n a t i o n a l ' p a r k . " A p o r t i o n o f t h e p a r k o f f e r s some b e a u t i f u l s i t e s f o r v i l l a s , and I b e l i e v e i n the p l a n the a r c h i t e c t l a y s t h e s e o u t , t o be l e a s e d to p e o p l e o f w e a l t h , who w i l l e r e c t handsome b u i l d i n g s upon t h e m . " ( i n Brown, 1969 ) . When l e g i s l a t i o n was d r a f t e d to c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l p a r k a t B a n f f i n J u n e , 1887, s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e was made to t h e Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l Pa r k A c t o f 1872. T h i s i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n S e c t i o n 2 o f t he Rocky Moun t a i n s Pa r k A c t , w h i c h i s n e a r l y a word f o r word d u p l i c a t i o n o f a s i m i l a r s e c t i o n i n the Y e l l o w s t o n e l e g i s l a t i o n : "The s a i d t r a c t o f l a n d i s he reby r e s e r v e d and s e t a p a r t as a p u b l i c p a r k and p l e a s u r e g round f o r the b e n e f i t , a d v a n t a g e , and enjoyment o f t he p e o p l e o f Canada, s u b j e c t t o t he p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t and o f t he r e g u l a t i o n s h e r e i n a f t e r m e n t i o n e d , and s h a l l be known as t h e Rocky Mount-a i n s Pa rk o f C a n a d a . " (S .C. 1887, C. 3 2 ) . Government p o l i c y was d i r e c t e d towards t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t he a r e a as a spa and t o u r i s t r e s o r t . The B a n f f h o t s p r i n g s were a r e s o u r c e t h a t c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d f o r t o u r i s m , and the government p l a n n e d t o do j u s t t h a t . In t h i s c o n t e x t , Brown (1969) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e o r i g i n a l p a r k s p o l i c y o f Canada was no t a d e p a r t u r e f r o m , but r a t h e r a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l r e s o u r c e p o l i c y t h a t grew out - 28 -o f the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f the Macdona ld Government. Unde r -l y i n g p a r k s p o l i c y was t he a s s u m p t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e o f p l e n t i f u l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the r e s e r v e s c a p a b l e o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . . . I n d e e d , i n terms o f a f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s e o f ' u s e f u l n e s s ' , g r a z i n g , l u m b e r i n g , and m i n i n g wou ld enhance r a t h e r t h a n d e p r e c a t e the u s e f u l n e s s o f t he r e s e r v a t i o n . " No p r o v i s i o n was made to r e s t r i c t m i n i n g , l o g g i n g , o r g r a z i n g i n t he p a r k . Had such p r o v i s i o n s been i n t r o d u c e d , t he A c t p r o b a b l y wou ld have been d e f e a t e d i n P a r l i a m e n t (Nash, 1969 ) . Thus i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the f i r s t n a t i o n a l p a r k i n Canada was r e g a r d e d as a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f r e s e r v e t han Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l Pa r k i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e the p r o v i s i o n s o f t he f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n may have been s i m i l a r f o r both. Rocky Moun ta i n s N a t i o n a l Pa r k and Y e l l o w s t o n e , the r e a l pu rpo se o f t he Canad i an p a r k was more ana logous t o t h a t o f t he r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t , c o m m e r c i a l l y o r i e n t e d A r k a n s a s Hot S p r i n g s R e s e r v e . The c oncep t o f r e s o u r c e u s e f u l n e s s r ema ined a domi -nant theme o f t he Canad i an g o v e r n m e n t ' s n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y f o r many y e a r s . Brown (1969) c i t e s t he f o l l o w i n g comment on t he deve lopment o f c o a l d e p o s i t s n ea r B a n f f t o w n s i t e , f r om the annua l r e p o r t o f t he s u p e r i n t e n d a n t o f Rocky Moun ta i n s P a r k f o r 1904: 29 -"The a c q u i s i t i o n and deve lopment o f t h i s p r o p e r t y by the Canad i an P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company marks a new e r a , no t o n l y i n t he h i s t o r y o f t h e Rocky Moun ta i n s P a r k , but i n the i n d u s t r i a l l i f e o f t h e d i s t r i c t o f A l b e r t a . The new v i l l a g e o f Bankhead, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a d e t r i m e n t t o the b e a u t y o f the P a r k , w i l l on t he c o n t r a r y add a n o t h e r t o the many and v a r i e d a t t r a c t i o n s o f t he ne i ghbou rhood . . . n e s t l i n g under t he shadow o f Ca s cade , w i t h i t s b e a u t i f u l homes and i t s t eem ing i n d u s t r i a l l i f e i t has a l r e a d y become a p o p u l a r s t o p p i n g p l a c e f o r t o u r i s t s . " A f t e r the B a n f f H o t s p r i n g s r e s e r v e was c r e a t e d , a number o f o t h e r s i m i l a r a r e a s were e s t a b l i s h e d ( N i c o l , 1 9 6 9 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , however , t h a t o f t h e f i r s t f o u r p a r k r e s e r v e s o r f o r e s t p a r k s e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada, t h r e e were d i r e c t l y on the l i n e s o f t he Canad i an P a c i f i c o r C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y s . The N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s (1970b) s t a t e s t h a t J a s p e r , f o r e x a m p l e , " owes i t s c r e a t i o n [ i n 1907] and e a r l y deve lopment t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f [ t he C . N . R . ] . . . " and t h a t Yoho was c r e a t e d i n 1886 " t o p r o t e c t [not r e s e r v e f r om use] the f o r e s t s and s c e n e r y a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e . . . [ C . P . R . ] . . . " ( 1970d) . T h i s p o l i c y o f c r e a t i n g p a r k s a l o n g ma jo r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s was f o l l o w e d i n l a t e r y e a r s w i t h t he c r e a t i o n o f Mt. R e v e l s t o k e N a t i o n a l Pa r k on t he C.P.R. and Kootenay N a t i o n a l Pa r k on the B a n f f -Windermere Highway ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1 9 7 0 c ) . The i n t e n t t o m a i n t a i n t h e s e a rea s as a t t r a c t i v e t o u r i s t r e s o r t s seems c l e a r . The n e x t s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p i n the deve lopment o f t he Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem took p l a c e i n 1911, when the - 30 -Domin ion F o r e s t Re se r ve s and P a r k s A c t was pa s sed by P a r l i a m e n t (S.C. 1911, C. 1 0 ) . T h i s A c t p r o v i d e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f F o r e s t R e s e r v e s , c o n t r o l l e d by t he f e d e r a l gove rnment , w i t h i n w h i c h a rea s c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d as Domin ion P a r k s . S h o r t l y a f t e r t he pas sage o f t h e A c t , the b o u n d a r i e s o f s e v e r a l p a r k r e s e r v e s were a d j u s t e d , and Rocky Moun ta i n s P a r k , t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r p a r k r e s e r v e s and f o r e s t r e s e r v e s were f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d as Domin ion P a r k s by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l under the p r o v i s i o n s o f t he new l e g i s l a t i o n ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1970d) . These p a r k s were to be " m a i n t a i n e d . . . a n d made use o f as p u b l i c p a r k s and p l e a s u r e grounds f o r t he b e n e f i t , advan -tage and enjoyment o f t he p e o p l e o f Canada " (S.C. 1911, C. 1 0 ) . However, t he p o l i c y o f a l l o w i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the p a r k s c o n t i n u e d , b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y t he same f o r b o t h p a r k s and f o r e s t r e s e r v e s (Nash, 1969 ) . I t was n o t e d by I n t e r i o r M i n i s t e r F rank O l i v e r , t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t he p a r k s " l o o k to t he enjoyment by the p e o p l e o f t he n a t u r a l advantages and b e a u t i e s o f t h e s e s p e c i a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e [ f o r e s t ] r e s e r v e s , w h i l e the r e g u l -a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t he r e m a i n d e r o f t he f o r e s t r e s e r v e s l o o k r a t h e r t o t he e x c l u s i o n o f p e o p l e f r om them" ( i n Brown, 1969 ) . F o l l o w i n g t he pas sage o f t he Domin ion F o r e s t Re se r ve s and P a r k s A c t , a new b r a n c h o f t he Department o f the I n t e r i o r was e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d m i n i s t e r Domin ion P a r k s . J . B. H a r k i n was a p p o i n t e d t he f i r s t Commi s s i one r o f t he Domin ion ( l a t e r - 31 -N a t i o n a l ) P a r k s o f Canada ( W i l l i a m s , 1962 ) . H a r k i n saw as h i s immed ia te t a s k the r e s t o r a t i o n o f t he d e p l e t e d w i l d l i f e and t he deve lopment o f a r o a d sy s tem t o make e f f e c t i v e f i r e p r o t e c t i o n p o s s i b l e . B a s i c a l l y , H a r k i n ' s i n i t i a l p rob lems were ana l ogou s t o t ho se i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h p rompted t h e pa s sage o f t he A c t t o P r o t e c t the B i r d s and A n i m a l s i n Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l P a r k , i n 1894. H a r k i n r e a l i z e d t h a t b e f o r e he c o u l d c a r r y out any a c t i o n , he r e q u i r e d money. I n o r d e r t o g a i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t i n t he l e g i s l a t u r e to i n s u r e the n e c e s s a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , he s e t about t o pub-l i c i z e the v a l u e o f the p a r k s i n terms o f t o u r i s t r e venue s (Nash, 1969; W i l l i a m s , 1962 ) . " Th roughou t t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d t he f a c t t h a t t o w n s i t e s and a h o s t o f h i g h l y u n p r i m i t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were p e r m i t t e d and even encou raged i n B a n f f and o t h e r p a r k s s u gge s t s t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had someth ing o t h e r t h a n p r e s e r v i n g w i l d e r n e s s i n mind as t h e i r g u i d i n g p o l i c y " (Nash, 1969 ) . W h i l e H a r k i n was h i m s e l f c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e s e r v i n g some o f t h e n a t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t he p a r k s , n o t a b l y t he w i l d -l i f e , h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p a r k s was d i r e c t e d t oward t h e i r f u r t h e r deve lopment as t o u r i s t r e s o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . As I se (1961) n o t e s , however , w h i l e Canada was g e n e r a l l y b e h i n d t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n a c h i e v i n g p r o t e c t i o n f o r t he p a r k s and w i l d l i f e , t he f i n a n c i a l bu rden o f t he p a r k s was much g r e a t e r on a pe r c a p i t a b a s i s t h a n i t was i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T o u r i s t deve lopment p r o v i d e d a means o f a c h i e v i n g a l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n . 32 I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , as Brown (1969) n o t e s , t h a t by 1910, a r e a l i z a t i o n o f t he i n t e r r e l a t e d n a t u r e o f r e s o u r c e s was emerg ing i n Canada, and t h a t a movement t oward t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i o n t h r o u g h managed u t i l i z a t i o n was d e v e l o p -i n g . C o n s e r v a t i o n i n t he p r a g m a t i c , u t i l i z a t i o n - o f - r e s o u r c e s f ramework a d v o c a t e d by G i f f o r d P i n c h o t was b e i n g adop ted i n Canada ( Tho rpe , 1961 ) . However, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f -i c a n t t h a t i n Canada " . . . t h e r e was no S i e r r a C l u b , no John M u i r , and n o t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g t h e A m e r i c a n s t r u g g l e t o keep H e t c h He t chy V a l l e y w i l d . The re was no t even a c o n t r o v e r s e y between t he u se and p r e s e r v a t i o n s c h o o l s o f p r i n c i p l e . No one seemed aware t h a t w i l d e r n e s s was a t s t a k e i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . Deve lopment , b o t h economic and r e c r e a t i o n a l , c a r r i e d t he day " (Nash, 1969 ) . Thus , the i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i n Canada d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d s e r v e d to r e i n -f o r c e the p o l i c y o f m u l t i p l e use o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n p a r k a r e a s . D) C h a p t e r Summary F o r m a l i z a t i o n o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k c o n c e p t o c c u r r e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the e a r l y 1 8 7 0 ' s i n r e s p o n s e t o a d e s i r e to p r e s e r v e f o r t he p u b l i c , s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n s w h i c h o t h e r w i s e m igh t be e x p l o i t e d to p r i v a t e advan t age . N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t he p a r k a r ea s were r e s e r v e d f rom d e v e l o p -ment. By the 1 8 9 0 ' s , t he v a l u e o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s as w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v e s was r e c o g n i z e d and d e f e n d e d i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, the Congres s showed c o n t i n u e d - 33 -r e l u c t a n c e to a p p r o p r i a t e adequate sums o f money to i n s u r e p r o t e c t i o n o f p a r k w i l d l i f e o r adequate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p a r k s . W i l d l i f e f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n i n 1'894 , w i t h the pas sage o f the A c t t o P r o t e c t t h e B i r d s and A n i m a l s i n Y e l l o w s t o n e P a r k . The l a t e 1 8 9 0 ' s marked t h e s i g n i f i c a n t b r e a k between t ho se c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s f a v o u r i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e and t h o s e who s u p p o r t e d t he c a r e f u l u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l l r e s o u r c e s t o p r oduce economic b e n e f i t . T h i s d i cho tomy o f c o n s e r v a t i o n p h i l o s o p h y was c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t he d i s p u t e o v e r t h e f l o o d i n g o f He t ch He t chy V a l l e y i n Yo s em i t e N a t i o n a l P a r k . However, by 1914, t he p r o p o n e n t s o f w i l d e r -ne s s and u n d i s t u r b e d p a r k s had g a i n e d n a t i o n w i d e s u p p o r t . In Canada, a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d . The f i r s t n a t i o n a l p a r k s were e s t a b l i s h e d as an e x t e n s i o n o f t he n a t i o n ' s r e s o u r c e deve lopment p o l i c y , and were managed t o p r oduce maximum d o l l a r r e t u r n s t o the c o u n t r y f rom t o u r i s t t r a v e l . No p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the p a r k s was u n d e r t a k e n o r c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . The government showed eage rne s s t o i n v e s t i n the p a r k s , d i r e c t i n g i t s e x p e n d i t u r e s t o improvements f o r t o u r i s t s , n o t f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e a r e a s . In Canada, t h e r e was no d i v i s i o n i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n ; a u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s app roach p r e -v a i l e d . A p u b l i c movement f o r w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the p a r k s , as e v i d e n c e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , was n o n - e x i s t e n t i n Canada. The Domin ion F o r e s t Re se r ve s and P a r k s A c t o f 1911 - 34 -s e r v e d to c l a r i f y t he a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t he f e d e r a l r e s e r v e s , but o f f e r e d no p r o v i s i o n s t o l i m i t deve lopment o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the p a r k s . W i t h t he p a s s i n g o f t h e Domin ion F o r e s t Re se r ve and P a r k s A c t , a N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada i n 1911 , t o p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n f o r p a r k w i l d l i f e , t o c o n t r o l f o r e s t f i r e s , and to promote and d e v e l o p t he p a r k s f o r t o u r i s m . Thus Canada p r e c e d e d t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n s e t t i n g up a c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . However, pe rhap s t h i s can be e x p l a i n e d by the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n app roach t a k e n t o n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n t he two c o u n t r i e s . Canada had an a c t i v e p o l i c y o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e p a r k s , w h i l e the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o l l o w e d a more p a s s i v e p o l i c y o f p r e s e r v i n g t he pa r k a r e a s . One f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n c e can be n o t e d between the e a r l y p o l i c i e s o f t he two c o u n t r i e s . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t he f i r s t n a t i o n a l p a r k s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e m o t e , by s c e n i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s . In c o n t r a s t , i n Canada, the pa r k s were l o c a t e d a round t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n . The s c e n i c q u a l i t i e s o f t he r e s e r v e s i s i n d i s p u t -a b l e , bu t i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t l o c a t i o n and t o u r i s t a c c e s s were more i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a i n many i n s t a n c e s . - 35 -C h a p t e r 3 EVOLUTION OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEMS TO 194 5 A) C r e a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e As the n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s g rew, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p a r k s and monuments became i n c r e a s i n g l y u n c o o r d i n a t e d and d i s o r g a n i z e d . S i n c e no u n i f y i n g agency e x i s t e d to a d m i n i s t e r t he p a r k s , each pa r k was a d m i n i s t e r e d as a s e p a r a t e u n i t under the g e n e r a l s u p e r -v i s i o n o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r . A p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h e p a r k s came s p o r a d i c a l l y f rom Cong r e s s , and monies were o f t e n i l l o g i c a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d and d e s i g n a t e d f o r s p e c i f i c p a r k s or p r o j e c t s . As a r e s u l t , some e x i s t i n g p a r k s were s t a r v e d f o r funds w h i l e o t h e r a r e a s , such as Wind Cave and P i a t t , o f s u b s t a n d a r d q u a l i t y , were e s t a b l i s h e d as new n a t i o n a l p a r k s and g i v e n s u b s t a n t i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s ( I s e , 1961 ) . As e a r l y as 1900, b i l l s had been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Congres s t o c r e a t e a c e n t r a l agency t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s , bu t s u p p o r t f o r the i d e a was no t s u f f i c i e n t ( I s e , 1961 ) . G r a d u a l l y , i n t e r e s t and p r e s s u r e mounted, however . The H e t c h He tchy d i s p u t e f u r t h e r p u b l i c i z e d t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s and h e l p e d s t r e n g t h e n s u p p o r t f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a p a r k s e r v i c e ( S t r o n g , 1970 ) . By 1911, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n g r a d u a l l y became f o r m a l i z e d w i t h i n the Depar tment o f t he I n t e r i o r . In 1913, an A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f t he Department was g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t he p a r k s and s e v e r a l government b u r e a u s . 36 -F i n a l l y , i n 1915, a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s was a p p o i n t e d . S t e ven T. M a t h e r , an e n t h u s i a s t i c w i l d e r n e s s s u p p o r t e r , member o f t h e S i e r r a C l u b , and n a t i o n a l p a r k d e v o t e e , was t he f i r s t man to h o l d the p o s t . Ma the r worked p e r s i s t a n t l y t o g e n e r a t e s u p p o r t f o r c o n g r e s s i o n a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l p a r k agency and f o r s u f f i c i e n t f unds to make such an agency e f f e c t i v e ( S t r o n g , 1970 ) . Pa r k and w i l d e r n e s s a d v o c a t e s f i n a l l y s u c ceeded i n g e n e r a t i n g s u f f i c i e n t e n t h u s i a s m f o r t he l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s -a l s , r e s u l t i n g i n the pas sage o f the N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e A c t o f 1916 (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 1-17 [1964]) (Nash, 1967; I s e , 1 961 ) . A N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e w i t h i n the Depar tment o f t h e I n t e r i o r was e s t a b l i s h e d , and Mather was made f i r s t D i r e c t o r . Under h i s g u i d a n c e , the d i r e c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y and management f o r the n e x t h a l f c e n t u r y was s e t ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969; I s e , 1961 ) . The N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e A c t o f 1916 was h i g h l y s i g -n i f i c a n t because i t e s t a b l i s h e d t he l o n g needed Pa rk S e r v i c e and i t p r o v i d e d u n i f y i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . W h i l e each n a t i o n a l p a r k u n i t was and s t i l l i s e s t a b l i s h e d by s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e A c t d e f i n e d t h e pu rpo se s o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , c l a r i f y i n g p a s t s t a t e m e n t s and s e t t i n g the p a t t e r n f o r f u t u r e l e g i s l a t i o n . I t s t a t e d t h a t " t h e s e r v i c e thus e s t a b l i s h e d s h a l l p romote and r e g u l a t e the use o f t he F e d e r a l a r ea s known as n a t i o n a l p a r k s , monuments, and r e s e r v a t i o n s . . . w h i c h pu rpose i s t o - 37 -c o n s e r v e the s c e n e r y and t h e n a t u r a l and h i s t o r i c o b j e c t s and w i l d l i f e t h e r e i n and t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e enjoyment o f t he same i n such a manner and by such means as w i l l l e a v e them unimpaired f o r t he en joyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s " (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 1-17 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . Other l e g i s l a t i o n , f o r e xamp le , t he S e q u o i a N a t i o n a l Pa r k A c t (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 41-45 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) , had s p e c i f i e d t h a t r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the p a r k s be r e t a i n e d i n t h e i r n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n , but a f t e r 1916, i t was t h e e x p l i c i t p o l i c y o f t h e f e d e r a l government t h a t t h i s be a b a s i c c r i t e r i o n o f a l l n a t i o n a l p a r k s . W i t h a c e n t r a l i z e d government v o i c e f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments a d m i n i s t e r e d by the I n t e r i o r Depa r tment , i t was p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h more u n i f o r m c r i t e r i a f o r t h e r e s e r v e s and more c o n s i s t e n t g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . On May 18, 1918, S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r Lane i s s u e d a d i r e c t i v e on p o l i c y f o r the N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e . I se (1961) n o t e s t h a t t h i s d i r e c t i v e appear s t o have been w r i t t e n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h M a t h e r , o r more l i k e l y by Ma the r h i m -s e l f . I t s c o n t e n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t t hey o u t l i n e the b a s i c f ramework o f p o l i c y w h i c h e x i s t s t o t he p r e s e n t t i m e . S e v e r a l p o i n t s a r e w o r t h y o f s p e c i a l emphas i s . Lane (1918) d e c l a r e d t h a t : " F i r s t , the n a t i o n a l p a r k s must be m a i n t a i n e d i n a b s o l u t e l y u n i m p a i r e d fo rm f o r the use o f f u t u r e g e n e r a -t i o n s as w e l l as t ho se o f our own t i m e ; s e c o n d , t h a t t hey a r e s e t a s i d e f o r t he u s e , o b s e r v a t i o n , h e a l t h , and p l e a s u r e o f t he p e o p l e ; and t h i r d , t h a t the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t must - 38 -d i c t a t e a l l d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n t he p a r k s " . As D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n (1969) and o t h e r s have p o i n t e d o u t , e x p e r i e n c e has shown the f i r s t two i n s t r u c -t i o n s can be c o n f l i c t i n g . However, the i n t e n t i s c l e a r . The n a t i o n a l p a r k s a re b a s i c a l l y a r ea s where n a t u r a l e n v i r -onments a r e t o be m a i n t a i n e d , and use s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e . Lane a l s o s t i p u l a t e d t h a t " e d u c a t i o n a l as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l u se o f t h e p a r k s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d " . T h i s appea r s to be t he f i r s t e x p l i c i t a s s o c i a t i o n o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s w i t h a r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n . S i n c e 1918, t h i s f u n c t i o n o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , and p a r k i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been pu r s ued w i t h e n t h u s i a s m by t he N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969 ) . The p r ob l em o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r new n a t i o n a l p a r k s was e v i d e n t a t t h i s t i m e . " I n s t u d y i n g new p a r k p r o j e c t s , t he S e r v i c e s h o u l d seek to f i n d s c e n e r y o f supreme and d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y o r some n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s so e x t r a o r d i n a r y as t o be o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and i m p o r t a n c e . The n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem as now c o n s t i t u t e d s h o u l d no t be l o w e r e d i n s t a n d a r d , d i g n i t y , and p r e s t i g e by the i n c l u s i o n o f a r e a s w h i c h e x p r e s s i n l e s s t h a n the h i g h e s t te rms the p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o r k i n d o f e x h i b i t t h e y r e p r e s e n t " ( Lane , 1 918 ) . The N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was as much i n need o f f unds as i t s Canad i an c o u n t e r p a r t , and the 39 -a s s o c i a t i o n o f t o u r i s t r e venue s w i t h the p a r k s was a p p e a l -i n g . The N a t i o n a l Pa r k s S e r v i c e p romoted t o u r i s m i n t h e p a r k s w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t once the p a r k s were adequate ly -d e v e l o p e d w i t h roads and f a c i l i t i e s , r evenues c o u l d e q u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s o r even p roduce a p r o f i t ( I s e , 1961 ) . T h i s s t a t e was neve r r e a c h e d , as a p p r o p r i a t i o n s were i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h o u t t he 1 9 2 0 ' s and 1 9 3 0 ' s . W h i l e deve lopment o f t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s was pu r s ued to a f a i r l y h i g h d e g r e e , t h e c o n c e p t o f p a r k s as r e s o r t s n e v e r f ound t he f a v o u r i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t i t d i d i n Canada. M a t h e r , t h e Pa r k S e r -v i c e D i r e c t o r , was o p e r a t i n g under d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a n was Harken i n Canada. As Nash (1969) comments: " L a r g e numbers o f Amer i c an s had a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d e s i r e t h a t the p a r k s no t be ' s p o i l e d ' by o v e r -deve lopment d u r i n g t h e H e t c h He tchy c o n t r o v e r s e y . The f a c t t h a t H e t c h Hetchy was d e v e l o p e d as a w a t e r s u p p l y and hydropower f a c i l i t y o n l y made p e o p l e madder. The S i e r r a C lub and t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A s s o c i a t i o n [ founded i n 1919 under M a t h e r ' s l e a d e r -s h i p ] c o n s t i t u t e d a watchdog f o r t h e p a r k s . In t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s and a f t e r , f r i e n d s o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e p e a t e d l y engaged i n b a t t l e t ho se h o s t i l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t t o w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s and g e n e r a l l y s u cceeded i n k e e p i n g them o u t s i d e p a r k b o r d e r s . " One o t h e r a c t i o n w o r t h y o f no te o c c u r r e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A f t e r many y e a r s o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e and i n C o n g r e s s , l e g i s l a t i o n was pa s s ed a u t h o r i z i n g t he P r e s i d e n t t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e e x e c u t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s o f t he f e d e r a l government by e x e c u t i v e o r d e r ( I s e , 1961 ) . U s i n g t h i s a u t h o r i t y , F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t t r a n s f e r r e d " a l l f u n c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f 40 p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , r e s e r v a t i o n s , n a t i o n a l p a r k s , n a t i o n a l monuments and n a t i o n a l c e m e t e r i e s " t o the N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e ( i n I s e , 1961 ) . Thus , t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e became t h e agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o f t h e f e d e r a l " p a r k " a r e a s . Of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e was t he c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l l o f t he n a t i o n a l monuments i n t o t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e . As a r e s u l t , management f o r t h e s e a rea s c o u l d be b e t t e r c o o r d i n a t e d . B) Canad i an N a t i o n a l P a r k s : t he L e g i s l a t i o n o f 1930 P r i o r to 1930, f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o ve r t h e c o n t r o l o f l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s was not t h e same i n a l l p a r t s o f Canada ( N i c o l , 1 969 ) . Under t he terms o f t he B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , t he p r o v i n c e s were g i v e n c o n t r o l o f l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s ; y e t i n t he t h r e e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s and i n the R a i l w a y B e l t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h i s r i g h t was r e t a i n e d by the f e d e r a l government . As a r e s u l t , t h e f e d e r a l government was f r e e to e s t a b l i s h l a n d p o l i c i e s and to r e s e r v e n a t i o n a l p a r k s o n l y i n the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , w h i l e i n the c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , t h i s f u n c t i o n was t a k e n on by t he p r o v i n c i a l gove rnment s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l o f f e d e r a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y e x p l a i n s many a s p e c t s o f t he p r e s e n t fo rm o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k sy s tem i n Canada. In the c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , and i n B r i t i s h Co l umb i a o u t s i d e the R a i l w a y B e l t , few n a t i o n a l p a r k s were e s t a b l i s h e d . However, some o f t he p r o v i n c e s , n o t a b l y - 41 -O n t a r i o , Quebec, and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , d e v e l o p e d l a r g e sys tems o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s , i n dependen t o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( L i t t e l j o h n and P i m l o t t , 1971; P i m l o t t , 1968; Pa s smore , 1 966 ) . In t h i s way, a d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a r k s d e v e l o p e d i n Canada. The f e d e r a l government had a c l e a r t r a d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g p a r k s i n t he w e s t , but t he p r o v i n c e s , a lways s u s p i c i o u s o f f e d e r a l p o w e r s , had d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own sys tems under t h e i r c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l mandate. Even t o d a y , no s u c c e s s f u l r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t he p r e s umab l y s e p a r a t e f u n c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s has been r e a l i z e d i n Canada. There a r e a number o f f e d e r a l p a r k s t h a t p e r f o r m b a s i c a l l y l o c a l f u n c t i o n s , w h i l e some o u t s t a n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s have c l e a r n a t i o n a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e i n terms o f t he t y p e s o f l a n d s c a p e s t h e y encompass ( N i c o l , 1969; P i m l o t t , 1968 ) . The f e d e r a l government and many o f t he p r o v i n c e s a r e d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g o u t -door r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . In f a c t , some o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s a r e r e f e r r e d t o as " f a m i l y h o l i d a y p a r k s " , and r e c r e a t i o n has a v e r y h i g h p r i o r i t y i n a l l f e d e r a l p a r k s ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . Thus , t h e r e i s a v e r y s i g -n i f i c a n t o v e r l a p o f f u n c t i o n between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n -c i a l p a r k s y s t ems . In r e c e n t y e a r s , one d i s t i n c t i o n i s c l e a r , however . N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e deve lopment has l a r g e l y been e l i m i n a t e d f rom the n a t i o n a l p a r k s , w h i l e i n most o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l s y s t e m s , t he t r e n d has been to open up t he l a r g e r - 42 -p a r k s t o m i n i n g and l o g g i n g ( P i m l o t t , 1 968 ) . In 1930, t he f e d e r a l government r e l i n q u i s h e d c o n t r o l o f n e a r l y a l l o f i t s n o n - p a r k l a n d s i n the p r a i r i e s and i n t h e R a i l w a y B e l t o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a under t h e T r a n s f e r o f Re sou r ce s Agreements (S.C. 1930, C. 3, 29, 37, 4 1 ) . T h i s a c t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o t he f u t u r e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s t e m , f o r i t meant t h a t any new n a t i o n a l p a r k s e s t a b -l i s h e d o u t s i d e o f t h e Yukon and No r t hwe s t T e r r i t o r i e s (where f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s t i l l p r e v a i l e d ) wou ld have t o be c r e a t e d on p r o v i n c i a l l a n d s w i t h the f u l l a p p r o v a l o f t he p r o v i n c i a l government c o n c e r n e d . A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n t a k e n by the f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment i n 1930 was the pas sage o f t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t (R .S .C. 1952, C. 189 as amended). The A c t o u t l i n e d t he pu rpo se s o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n terms s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u sed i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e A c t o f 1916 (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 1-17 [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . Fo r the f i r s t t i m e i n Canada, i t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t he p a r k s be m a i n t a i n e d i n an " u n i m p a i r e d " c o n d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h i s te rm was u n d e f i n e d . S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t i s quo ted as f o l l o w s : "The P a r k s a r e he reby d e d i c a t e d t o t he p e o p l e o f Canada f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n , and enjoyment s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t and t he r e g u l a t i o n s , and such P a r k s s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d and made use o f so as t o l e a v e them u n i m p a i r e d f o r t he enjoyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . " W h i l e t he A c t o f 1930 i n t r o d u c e d the p r o v i s i o n t h a t the p a r k s be m a i n t a i n e d " u n i m p a i r e d " , no change i n p o l i c y - 43 -was e v i d e n t , and the deve lopment o f t he p a r k s f o r t o u r i s m and r e c r e a t i o n was s t i l l a p r ime g o a l . S u p e r i n t e n d a n t H a r k i n , however , was p rompted t o p r i v a t e l y q u e s t i o n the i n c r e a s i n g c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f the p a r k s : " . . . i s n o t o u t s t a n d i n g b e a u t y one o f t he r a r e s t and g r e a t e s t p o s s e s s i o n s a l a n d can po s s e s s ? I t s h o u l d be l o o k e d upon as a n a t i o n a l a s s e t and g i v e n an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n e v e r y programme o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . And q u i t e a s i d e f rom t h e m i l l i o n s o f money t h e s e r a r e p l a c e s b r i n g i n t o a c o u n t r y , have t hey no t an even g r e a t e r v a l u e - - t he power t o g i v e pu re and e n o b l i n g p l e a s u r e , and may t h i s v a l u e seem f a r more i m p o r t a n t t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s t h a n i t does t o d a y . " ( i n W i l l i a m s , 1962 ) . F a c i l i t y - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l deve lopment o f t he p a r k s was e n c o u r a g e d , and p r i v a t e home s i t e s c o n t i n u e d t o be made a v a i l a b l e . U n t i l t he m id 1 9 4 0 ' s "summer c o t t a g e s were b e i n g encou raged as a v e r y d e s i r a b l e use o f the n a t i o n a l p a r k s " ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . In a number o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , n o t a b l y J a s p e r , P r i n c e A l b e r t , and R i d i n g M o u n t a i n , c h o i c e a r ea s w e r e , and s t i l l a r e , b l o c k e d o f f f o r t h e s e p r i v a t e deve lopment s ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p r o v i s i o n o f the N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t was c o n t a i n e d i n S e c t i o n 6 ( 3 ) , w h i c h empowered t he Gove rno r i n C o u n c i l " t o p u r c h a s e , e x p r o p r i a t e , o r o t h e r w i s e a c q u i r e any l a n d s o r i n t e r e s t s t h e r e i n . . . f o r the pu rpo se s o f a p a r k " (R .S .C. 1952, C. 189, as amended). D e s p i t e t h i s p r o -v i s i o n , however , t he f e d e r a l government r e q u e s t e d t h a t a l l new n a t i o n a l p a r k l a n d s be t u r n e d o ve r t o i t by the p r o v i n c e s i n p e r p e t u i t y and f r e e o f a l l encumbrances ( N a t i o n a l and - 44 -H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . I t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t he f e d e r a l government was u n w i l l i n g t o e x p r o p r i a t e p r o -v i n c i a l l a n d s , bu t t h e r e i s no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n why p u r c h a s -i n g "or c o s t - s h a r i n g agreements c o u l d no t have been r e a c h e d w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s . T h i s p o l i c y p r o v e d a majo r o b s t a c l e to f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s t em. In the 38 y e a r s b e f o r e t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t was r e l a x e d i n 1968, o n l y s i x r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l n a t i o n a l p a r k s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada ( N i c o l , 1969; B r o o k s , 1969 ) . The N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t had f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e because i t d e f i n e d a l l p a r k s i n a s c h e d u l e a t t a c h e d to t he A c t , and a l l s ub sequent p a r k s c o u l d be c r e a t e d o n l y by ammending t h i s s c h e d u l e by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t . T h i s was an i m p o r t a n t change o v e r p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n (The Domin ion F o r e s t Re se r ve s and P a r k s A c t ) , w h i c h l e f t a u t h o r i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g p a r k s and a d j u s t i n g b o u n d a r i e s w i t h the Governo r i n C o u n c i l . Thu s , t he p a r k s were g i v e n i n c r e a s e d p r o t e c t i o n , s i n c e now o n l y P a r l i a m e n t c o u l d c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l p a r k o r change i t s b o u n d a r i e s . As a r e s u l t , one A c t ( w i t h i t s ammendments) p r o v i d e s a l e g i s l a t i v e u m b r e l l a f o r a l l o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada. C) Chap te r Summary The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c e n t r a l i z e d bu reau t o manage the A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l P a r k s was u n d e r t a k e n i n 1916 under t he p r o v i s i o n s o f t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e A c t . T h i s A c t l a i d - 45 -the b a s i s f o r a l l s ub sequent p a r k a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and emphas i zed t he n e c e s s i t y t o m a i n t a i n the p a r k s i n an u n i m p a i r e d c o n d i t i o n f o r the enjoyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . In 1918, a more e x p l i c i t p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e was d r a f t e d by I n t e r i o r S e c r e t a r y Lane. T h i s document r ema in s a b a s i c p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e . Lane s t r e s s e d t he i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n t a i n i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s i n c o n s i d e r i n g new a rea s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s t em. I n Canada, t he T r a n s f e r o f Re sou rce s Agreements i n 1930 marked t he end o f t h e p e r i o d when the f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment was f r e e t o e s t a b l i s h n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n most p a r t s o f t h e f o u r w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . A l s o i n t h i s y e a r , new l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d s t a t i n g t h a t the p a r k s were t o be m a i n t a i n e d u n i m p a i r e d f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . Thu s , t he p a r k s were no l o n g e r t o be managed as m u l t i p l e use a r ea s where n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d . In a d d i t i o n , p a r k s c o u l d no l o n g e r be c r e a t e d o r a d j u s t e d by t he Gove rno r i n C o u n c i l . P a r l i a m e n t was g i v e n t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and as a r e s u l t , t he p a r k s were b e t t e r p r o t e c t e d . A f t e r 1930, i t became the p o l i c y o f t he government t o e s t a b l i s h new n a t i o n a l p a r k s o n l y on l a n d s t u r n e d ove r t o i t by the p r o v i n c e s i n p e r p e t u i t y and f r e e o f a l l encumbrances . In a number o f t h e p r o v i n c e s , systems o f p a r k s were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d by t he 1 9 3 0 ' s and 1 9 4 0 ' s w h i c h were s i m i l a r - 46 -i n f u n c t i o n t o the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . Thus , no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n e x i s t s i n Canada between the f u n c t i o n s n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . - 47 -Chap te r 4 THE NATIONAL PARKS IN THE POST WAR YEARS A) B a l a n c i n g Use and P r e s e r v a t i o n i n the A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l  P a r k s P r i o r t o Wor l d War I I , v i s i t o r use o f the n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n b o t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada was mode ra te . However, the p o s t war y e a r s w i t n e s s e d an u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n c r e a s e i n t he number o f p e o p l e v i s i t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( N i c o l , 1969; H a r t z o g , 1969 ) . In 1916, when the U n i t e d S t a t e s Pa r k S e r v i c e was f o r m e d , t o t a l v i s i t s t o t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem were under 400 ,000 . By 1956, t he l e v e l had r e a c h e d 55 ,000 ,000 , and was i n c r e a s i n g a t a r a t e of about 10 p e r c e n t p e r y e a r ( C l awson , 1959 ) . By 1945, a u t o m o b i l e s had become t h e most p o p u l a r means o f t r a v e l i n most p a r t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . The c o n t i n -e n t - w i d e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s method o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e i n c r e a s i n g ease o f owne r s h i p o f c a r s made p a r k s a c c e s s -i b l e t o a much g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( S m i t h , 1960 ) . I t a l s o meant t h a t p e o p l e e x p e c t e d t o be a b l e t o use t h e i r v e h i c l e s i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s , and v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e was p l a c e d on the p a r k s and t h e i r r o a d s y s t e m s . F u r t h e r m o r e , v i s i t o r s were (and a r e ) t e n d i n g t o c a r r y more and more equ ipment , such as t r a i l e r s , camper s , and b o a t s , w i t h them. As a r e s u l t , t he p r e s e r v a t i o n f u n c t i o n o f some o f the n a t i o n a l p a r k s was becoming s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d (Cahn, 1968 ) . I t soon became a p p a r e n t t h a t as - 48 -i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s were dev -e l o p e d f o r the accommodat ion and r e c r e a t i o n o f v i s i t o r s , some o f t he n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s o f t he p a r k s s u f f e r e d ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1967; W i l l a r d , 1967 ) . P r e s e r v a t i o n o r i e n t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s began to wonder i f t he v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y o f t he p a r k s , o r i g i n a l l y r e g a r d e d as the o n l y r e a l s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n , was no t i n f a c t a t h r e a t t o them ( L i t t o n , 1952; S hepa rd , 1953 ) . Thus , t h e r e was a change i n the i n t e n s i t y o f use o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s as w e l l as a change i n t he c h a r a c t e r o f t he p a r k u s e r . In t he e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s , t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e was f a c e d w i t h t h e p r ob l em o f c a t c h i n g up w i t h ma i n t enance and improvements d e f e r r e d d u r i n g t he war y e a r s ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , 1956 ) . M o r e o v e r , by 1955, the n a t i o n -a l p a r k s y s tem was c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g accommodat ion f a c i l i t i e s f o r o n l y one h a l f o f t h e a n n u a l v i s i t o r s t o the p a r k s and monuments. In an e f f o r t t o c r e a t e an adequate s u p p l y o f f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t he p a r k s t o meet t he p r o j e c t e d v i s i t o r demands, t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e i n i t i a t e d a 10 y e a r program te rmed " M i s s i o n 6 6 " . Conrad W i r t h , D i r e c t o r o f t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i n t r o d u c e d M i s s i o n 66 by d e f i n i n g t he p r i m a r y ' v a l u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem as " . . . i t s c a p -a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e enjoyment i n i t s b e s t s e n s e , now and i n the f u t u r e " . He c o n t i n u e d w i t h t he f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : - 49 -" A p p r o p r i a t e p a r k use by p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e s p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e s o f t he p a r k s . But t he u n d e r l y i n g pu rpo se o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s , a pu rpo se d e r i v e d c l e a r l y f rom t h e A c t o f 1916 as w e l l as f r om the s e v e r a l a c t s e s t a b l i s h i n g t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments, i s t o y i e l d c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s t o the N a t i o n and i t s p e o p l e . These b e n e f i t s r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y f rom the v i s i t o r ' s e x p e r -i e n c e s i n the a r e a s o f t h e System. I t i s t he f u n c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e and t he o b j e c t i v e o f t h e M i s s i o n 66 program c o n s t a n t l y to improve the q u a l i t y o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . " ( W i r t h , 1958 ) . The M i s s i o n 66 program had e i g h t key o b j e c t i v e s , name ly : " 1 ) To p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l accommodat ions and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s o f t y p e s adap ted to modern r e c r e a t i o n a l n e e d s , t h r o u g h g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i z e w i t h i n and nea r t h e p a r k s . . 2) To p r o v i d e the g o v e r n m e n t - o p e r a t e d f a c i l i t i e s needed t o s e r v e t he p u b l i c , t o p r o t e c t t he p a r k r e s o u r c e s , and t o m a i n t a i n t he p h y s i c a l p l a n t . 3) To p r o v i d e the s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l make the p a r k s more u s a b l e , more e n j o y a b l e , and more m e a n i n g f u l , and t h e r e b y improve the p r o t e c t i o n o f the p a r k s t h r o u g h v i s i t o r c o o p e r a t i o n . 4) To p r o v i d e o p e r a t i n g f unds and f i e l d s t a f f r e q u i r e d t o manage t h e a r e a s , p r o t e c t t h e r e s o u r c e s , and p r o v i d e a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f ma i n tenance f o r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t s . 5) To p r o v i d e adequate l i v i n g q u a r t e r s f o r t h e f i e l d employees o f t he S e r v i c e . 6) To a c q u i r e l a n d s w i t h i n the pa r k s and such o t h e r l a n d s as a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o t e c t i o n or u s e , a c q u i r e the w a t e r r i g h t s needed t o i n s u r e adequate w a t e r s u p p l i e s , and e x t i n g u i s h g r a z i n g r i g h t s and o t h e r compet i ng u s e s . 7) To i n s t i t u t e a c o o r d i n a t e d n a t i o n - w i d e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n to p r oduce a s y s tem o f r e c r e a t i o n a l deve lopment s by each l e v e l o f gove rnment , F e d e r a l , S t a t e , and l o c a l , each b e a r i n g i t s p r o p e r s ha re o f t he expand ing r e c r e a t i o n a l l o a d . 8) To p r o v i d e f o r t he p r o t e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t he w i l d e r n e s s a r ea s w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l Pa rk System and encourage t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n and enjoyment i n ways t h a t w i l l l e a v e them u n i m p a i r e d . " ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , 1956 ) . 50 -These o b j e c t i v e s were d e v e l o p e d w i t h the hope o f r e a c h i n g some s o r t o f b a l a n c e between the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e t he p a r k s w h i l e a t t he same t ime making them a c c e s s i b l e t o the p u b l i c . I t seems t h a t more emphas i s was p l a c e d on deve lopment o f t he p a r k s t h a n on t h e i r p r o -t e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h deve lopment was no t p u r s u e d t o as g r e a t a deg ree as i t was i n Canada. E a r l y i n t he p rog r am, D i r e c t o r W i r t h s t a t e d : " P r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s i s s ometh ing t h a t r e a l l y measures t he who le p rog ram. In p a s s i n g , I m i gh t say t h a t the deve lopment s p l a n n e d f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d v i r t u a l l y w i t h o u t t a k i n g a n o t h e r a c r e f rom t h e r e c o g n i z e d w i l d e r n e s s a rea s i n the s c e n i c n a t i o n a l p a r k s . What M i s s i o n 66 i s d o i n g i s s i m p l y mak ing b e t t e r and more e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e a r e a s i n t h e s e p a r k s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e to us by r o a d . " ( W i r t h , 1958 ) . The c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i t i a l l y e x p r e s s e d p l e a s u r e a t t h e g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l f o r improvements w i t h i n the p a r k s , a l t h o u g h t hey were t r o u b l e d by the s p e c i f i c s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t he program ( P a c k a r d , 1956 ) . For examp le , w h i l e the Pa rk S e r v i c e u n d e r l i n e d t he i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n t a i n -i n g the p a r k s i n an u n i m p a i r e d c o n d i t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s n o t e d w i t h r e g r e t a r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t o f t he S e r v i c e to i n c l u d e the l a s t o f t he e i g h t program o b j e c t i v e s (B rower , 1 958 ) . M o r e o v e r , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s were d i s t u r b e d by the P a r k S e r v i c e ' s f a i l u r e t o i n v o l v e the p u b l i c i n the p l a n n i n g s t a g e s o f t he p rog ram. The M i s s i o n 66 p l a n s were c o l l a t e d on the b a s i s o f recommendat ions o f f i e l d p e r s o n n e l , who were i n s t r u c t e d t o r e p o r t t h e i r immed ia te r e q u i r e m e n t s - 51 -w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g a more comprehen s i ve m a s t e r p l a n (Wayburn and Wayburn, 195 6 ) . From the o r i g i n a l e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f $4 59 ,000 ,000 , t he p r o j e c t grew t o r e q u i r e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f n e a r l y $650,000,000 ( H a r t z o g , 1969 ) . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s e x p e n d i t u r e wou ld meet the demands p r o j e c t e d f o r 1966, t he f i f t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t d i d n o t . Whereas M i s s i o n 66 had e s t i m a t e d v i s i t a t i o n f o r 1966 a t j u s t under 90 , 000 ,000 , n e a r l y 140,000,000 v i s i t e d the p a r k s i n t h a t y e a r ( H a r t z o g , 1969 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t he M i s s i o n 66 program a c c o m p l i s h e d many o f i t s g o a l s . Some f a c i l i t i e s were r e l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t he p a r k s - - f o r example s e r v i c e b u i l d i n g s i n Y o s e m i t e V a l l e y were moved to E l P o r t a l ( N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 5 9 ) - -and an i m p r e s s i v e number o f new f a c i l i t i e s were b u i l t , i n c l u d i n g 17,782 c a m p s i t e s , 12,393 p i c n i c s i t e s , and 100 " v i s i t o r c e n t e r s " e m p h a s i z i n g e d u c a t i o n and p a r k i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n ( H a r t z o g , 1969 ) . On t he o t h e r h and , t h e p r o j e c t has been s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r c e r t a i n d e v e l o p m e n t s . Fo r examp le , c o n s i d e r -a b l e damage was done to g l a c i a l r o c k f o r m a t i o n s d u r i n g r e a l i g n m e n t and w i d e n i n g o f t h e T i o g a Pass r o a d i n Y o s e m i t e , and roads i n Mt . M c K i n l e y N a t i o n a l Pa r k were b u i l t to an e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h s t a n d a r d (Adams, 1958; D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969 ) . In a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e , t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e has 52 -a d m i t t e d r e g r e t o v e r t h e l o c a t i o n o f t he new Canyon V i l l a g e i n Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l P a r k , r e a l i z i n g t h a t i t c o u l d have been b e t t e r s i t e d o u t s i d e the pa r k ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969 ) . Up to t he 1 9 6 0 ' s , t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e has had t o b e a r most o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o v i d i n g f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . "The S e r v i c e , as i t l a t e r r e a c t e d t o p r e s s u r e s was o v e r - g e n e r o u s w i t h a p e r i s h a b l e and s h r i n k i n g r e s o u r c e and d i d no t a c t q u i c k l y enough i n c o o r d i n a t i n g w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s [ such as t he F o r e s t S e r v i c e ] t o s p r e a d t he l o a d and to d i v e r t f u n - s e e k i n g r e c r e a t i o n to o t h e r a r ea s t h a t t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s . " ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969 ) . T h i s comment e x p r e s s e s d i s c o n t e n t v o i c e d by many c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s o v e r t he M i s s i o n 66 p rog ram. They f e l t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s no t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s were b e i n g encou raged i n p a r k a r e a s t o the d e t r i m e n t o f t h e p a r k s ( S m i t h , 1968, 1970 ) . C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e b a s i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s was t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l o r q u a s i - n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , use o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s s h o u l d be l i m i t e d to t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y dependent on and r e l a t e d to t he s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r p a r k . T h e r e f o r e , i t was r e a s o n e d , a g r e a t many a c t i v i t i e s , such as d o w n h i l l s k i i n g , v a c a t i o n c amp i ng , mechan i z ed s p o r t s , g o l f , and o t h e r s i m i l a r p u r s u i t s , s h o u l d be e x c l u d e d f r om the n a t i o n a l p a r k s , o r a t l e a s t g i v e n - 53 -v e r y low p r i o r i t y ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969 ) . " M i s s i o n 66, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a f a r - s i g h t e d p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n t o c o n s e r v e t h e s e c h o i c e a r e a s , seems t o have been c o n c e i v e d t o a l l o w more c omp le t e i n f i l t r a t i o n and u n c r i t i c a l u s e . We r e m a i n somewhat p u z z l e d by -•- as i t seems t o us t he u n f a i r p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s w h i c h have been b r o u g h t t o bea r on the N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e to d i l u t e w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t y . . . a n d the r e l a t i v e peace w i t h w h i c h t he F o r e s t S e r v i c e has been a b l e t o c onduc t i t s w i l d e r n e s s - p r e s e r v i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l p o l i c y . " ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969 ) . W h i l e deve lopment o f t h e p a r k s was an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e , pe rhap s t he most s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f M i s s i o n 66 was i t s a c c e p t a n c e o f the p r e m i s e t h a t v i s i t o r demands must be s a t i s f i e d ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969; D r a p e r , 1956 ) . C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e i s t he q u e s t i o n o f how, i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , one can l i m i t p u b l i c a c c e s s t o p u b l i c l y owned l a n d , bu t as has been p o i n t e d out by numerous w r i t e r s , Ave do no t h e s i t a t e t o l i m i t a d m i t t a n c e to many t y p e s o f p e r -fo rmances o r t o c o n c e r t s and a r t g a l l e r i e s , w h i c h a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s " opened to t he p u b l i c " . Why, t h e n , was no t s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to l i m i t i n g a t t e n d a n c e i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s on a r e s e r v a t i o n o r " f i r s t come f i r s t s e r v e " b a s i s ? I t was r e a l i z e d d u r i n g the f i n a l y e a r s o f t he M i s s i o n 66 p r o j e c t , t h a t t he c a p a c i t y o f t he p a r k s was l i m i t e d , and t h a t a v e r y s e r i o u s a t t e m p t s h o u l d be made to d i v e r t p e o p l e - 54 -away f r om the n a t i o n a l p a r k s by p r o v i d i n g a t t r a c t i v e r e c -r e a t i o n a r e a s a round r e s e r v o i r s , and on u n d e v e l o p e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o a s t l i n e . Land a c q u i s i t i o n programs f o r t h e s e t y p e s o f a r ea s were i n c r e a s e d , and d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s s i x N a t i o n a l S e a s h o r e s , two N a t i o n a l L a k e s h o r e s , and n i n e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A r ea s were e s t a b l i s h e d ( H a r t z o g , 1969 ) . Thus , i n s t e a d o f d e v e l o p i n g t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s f o r r e c r e a -t i o n , a l t e r n a t e a r ea s were a c q u i r e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . The c r i t e r i a f o r such a r ea s a r e l e s s s t r i n g e n t t h a n f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e , 1968b) . Fo r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , l o c a t i o n i s a p r ime c o n c e r n , and o u t s t a n d i n g s c e n i c o r b i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s a r e o f s e conda r y i m p o r t a n c e . In a memorandum, r e l e a s e d i n 1964, I n t e r i o r S e c r e t a r y U d a l l n o t e d : " I n l o o k i n g back a t t he l e g i s l a t i v e enactments t h a t have shaped t he N a t i o n a l Pa rk Sy s tem, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t he Congres s has i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the g r ow ing System t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f a rea s - - n a t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l . N a t u r a l a r e a s a r e the o l d e s t c a t e g o r y , r e a c h i n g back to t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l P a r k a l m o s t a c e n t u r y ago. A l i t t l e l a t e r h i s t o r i c a l a r e a s began to be a u t h o r i z e d c u l m i n a t i n g i n the b r oad c h a r t e r f o r h i s t o r i c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n s e t f o r t h i n the H i s t o r i c S i t e s A c t o f 1935. In r e c e n t d e c a d e s , w i t h e x p l o d i n g p o p u l a t i o n and d i m i n i s h i n g open s p a c e , t he u r g e n t need f o r N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A rea s i s r e c e i v i n g new emphas i s and a t t e n t i o n . . . A s i n g l e , b r o a d management c oncep t encompass ing t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f a r e a s w i t h i n the System i s i n a d e q u a t e e i t h e r f o r t h e i r p r o p e r p r e s e r v a t i o n o r f o r r e a l i z a -t i o n o f t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l f o r p u b l i c use as embodied i n the e x p r e s s i o n s o f C o n g r e s s i o n a l p o l i c y . Each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s r e q u i r e s a s e p a r a t e manage-ment c o n c e p t and a s e p a r a t e s e t o f management p r i n c i p l e s c o o r d i n a t e d to fo rm one o r g a n i c management p l a n f o r t he e n t i r e s y s t e m . " ( i n U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e , 1968b) . 55 -Thus , r e c r e a t i o n was r e c o g n i z e d as a f u n c t i o n s e p a r a t e f r om t h a t o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , and s e p a r a t e p o l i c i e s r e f l e c t i n g t h i s d i f f e r e n c e were d e v e l o p e d ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , 1 968a , b ) . As i s shown i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n o f f u n c t i o n between n a t i o n a l p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n a r ea s has no t been r e c o g n i z e d i n Canada. B) N a t u r a l Re sou rce s Deve lopment i n the A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l  P a r k s : 1948 - 1968 In a d d i t i o n to t h e g row ing p rob lems o f v i s i t o r u se i n t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s f o l l o w i n g Wor ld War I I , t h e r e was a l s o c o n t i n u i n g p r e s s u r e on the N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e and t he f e d e r a l government t o d e v e l o p n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the p a r k s and to l i m i t f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s t em. In t he l a s t 20 y e a r s , t h e r e has been a s u c c e s s i o n o f a t t e m p t s t o a l i e n a t e n a t i o n a l p a r k l a n d s f o r m i n i n g , l u m b e r i n g , and power deve l opmen t . D i s p u t e s have o c c u r r e d , o v e r t h e t i m b e r i n O l ymp i c N a t i o n a l P a r k , m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s i n s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l monuments, and p o s s i b l e w a t e r and power p r o j e c t s i n a number o f p a r k s and monuments. Two d i s p u t e s , i n v o l v i n g D i n o s a u r N a t i o n a l Monument and t h e Grand Canyon, were p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f n a t i o n a l p a r k l e g i s l a t i o n , and i n c l a r i f y i n g t he f u n c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s . Such d i s p u t e s as t h e s e were a l s o i m p o r t a n t because o f the r o l e t h e y p l a y e d i n i n t r u m e n t -i n g a w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c awareness o f t he v a l u e o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . 56 -In 1948, a d i s p u t e began w h i c h was i n many ways r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e H e t c h He tchy c o n t r o v e r s e y 40 y e a r s e a r l i e r (Nash, 1967 ) . A t t h i s t i m e , the F e d e r a l Bureau o f R e c l a m a t i o n r e v e a l e d a p r o p o s a l t o b u i l d two dams on t he Green R i v e r a t Echo Pa r k i n D i n o s a u r N a t i o n a l Monument on the C o l o r a d o - U t a h b o r d e r . T h i s p r e s e r v e had been e s t a b -l i s h e d by Woodrow W i l s o n i n 1915, and was g r e a t l y expanded by F r a n k l i n R o o s e v e l t i n 1938. As p a r t o f a b i l l i o n d o l l a r scheme encompass ing 10 dams, termed the C o l o r a d o R i v e r S t o r a g e P r o j e c t , w a t e r s f r om t h e Echo Pa r k dams were t o fo rm a r e s e r v o i r i n t he canyons and go rges o f D i n o s a u r ( I s e , 1961 ) . The p r o p o s a l was i m m e d i a t e l y c h a l l a n g e d by c o n s e r -v a t i o n i s t s , who f o r s a w no t o n l y t h e l o s s o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l monu-ment, bu t a l s o t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p r e c e d e n t w h i c h c o u l d endanger t he s a n c t i t y o f e v e r y o t h e r u n i t o f t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k System i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s (Nash, 1967 ) . A l r e a d y , o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r dam c o n s t r u c t i o n on the ma in s t ream o f t h e C o l o r a d o R i v e r t h r e a t e n e d b o t h Grand Canyon N a t i o n a l P a r k and Grand Canyon N a t i o n a l Monument, and o t h e r p r o j e c t s were b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r K i n g s Canyon and G l a c i e r N a t i o n a l P a r k s ( N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1948, 1949; P a c k a r d , 1949a, b ) . A p o l i c y w h i c h wou ld a l l o w the f l o o d i n g o f D i n o s a u r N a t i o n a l Monument wou ld g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e the chances o f t h e s e o t h e r p r o j e c t s b e i n g a u t h o r i z e d . - 57 The d i s p u t e o ve r D i n o s a u r soon became a n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n . " N o t s i n c e H e t c h He tchy had so many Amer i c an s so t h o r o u g h l y deba ted t h e wisdom o f p r e s e r v i n g w i l d e r n e s s . " (Nash, 1967 ) . F o l l o w i n g h e a r i n g s on the i s s u e i n J u n e , 1950, and d e s p i t e P a r k S e r v i c e o p p o s i t i o n , I n t e r i o r S e c r e t a r y O.L. Chapman app roved t h e Echo P a r k p r o j e c t . Pa rk S e r v i c e D i r e c t o r Newton D r u r y , who d i s a g r e e d s t r o n g l y w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r ' s d e c i s i o n , was soon a sked to a c c e p t a demot i on o r r e s i g n . He r e s i g n e d , and a new d i r e c t o r more ammenable t o t he S e c r e t a r y was a p p o i n t e d ( I s e , 1961 ) . As f a r as c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s were c o n c e r n e d , the f i g h t had j u s t begun. B e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n work c o u l d b e g i n , the p r o j e c t s t i l l r e q u i r e d C o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o v a l . C o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , The W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y , and t he S i e r r a C lub expanded t h e i r e f f o r t s t o a r o u s e p u b l i c c o n c e r n o v e r t he f u t u r e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s t em. F i l m s such as This is Dino saur and Wilderness River T r a i l were p r oduced and made a v a i l a b l e f o r mass d i s t r i b u t i o n ( N a t i o n a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1954 ) . The n a t i o n a l magaz ine s o f t he o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a r r i e d f r e q u e n t a r t i c l e s , p i c t o r a l s t o r i e s , and.news r e p o r t s as t he d i s p u t e p r o g r e s s e d ( N a t i o n a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1955; B u t c h e r , 1950a , b, 1 952 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d magaz ines such as L i f e , t he Saturday Evening Post, and the Readers Digest p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s g e n e r a l l y oppo s i n g the Echo P a r k dams (Nash, 1967 ) . Nash (1967) s t a t e s t h a t e f f o r t s to s t op 58 -t he p r o j e c t were backed by o ve r 70 n a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and about 230 s t a t e g r o u p s . However, s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o j e c t was a l s o s t r o n g , c e n t e r e d i n the s t a t e s most c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h i t . The Bureau o f R e c l a m a t i o n , w h i c h wou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the dams " . . . w i t h l u s h f und s a t i t s d i s p o s a l . . . p u t on a v e r y e f f e c -t i v e campaign w h i c h won ove r many o f t he p e o p l e o f U t ah and w e s t e r n C o l o r a d o " ( I s e , 1961 ) . W h i l e t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s s t r e s s e d t he s p i r i t u a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s o f t he monument, t hey a l s o u n d e r l i n e d i t s s c i e n t i f i c i m p o r t a n c e and c h a l l e n g e d t he economic r a t i o n a l e and some e n g i n e e r i n g a s s umpt i on s o f t he p r o j e c t ( P a c k a r d , 1955; Nash , 1967 ) . D e s p i t e the i n t e n s i t y o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t he Echo Pa r k dams, b o t h House and Senate subcommi t tee s r e p o r t e d f a v o u r a b l y on the p r o j e c t i n 1954. Nash (1967) comments: " T h e i r a c t i o n was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , s i n c e Wes te rn Congressmen, whose c o n s t i t u e n t s g e n e r a l l y f a v o r e d t h e dam, were i n the m a j o r i t y i n b o t h b o d i e s . W i l d e r n e s s appea red t o be headed f o r a d e c i s i v e d e f e a t , bu t p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s worked f r a n t i c a l l y . A p p e a l i n g t o the p u b l i c w i t h f l y e r s , a r t i c l e s , e d i t o r i a l s , and open l e t t e r s , t hey s u c ceeded i n a r o u s i n g a s t o rm o f p r o t e s t . The House m a i l showed a r a t i o o f t ho se who wou ld keep D i n o s a u r w i l d to t h o s e i n f a v o r o f t he dam o f e i g h t y to one. The r e s u l t was a pos tponement o f C o n g r e s s i o n a l c o n s i d e r -a t i o n o f t he P r o j e c t . " In 1955, t he C o l o r a d o R i v e r S t o r a ge P r o j e c t went b e f o r e the Congress f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The Senate B i l l (S. 500) pa s s ed w i t h an Echo Pa rk dam i n c l u d e d , bu t i n the - 59 -House v e r s i o n (H.R. 3 383 ) , Echo Pa rk was d e l e t e d . Dams f o r F l a m i n g Go rge , G l e n Canyon, and Nava jo R e s e r v o i r were a p p r o v e d , however ( N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1955) . P r o p o n e n t s o f t he Echo Pa r k dam t r i e d t o have the p r o j e c t r e i n s t a t e d , bu t f i n a l l y a g r eed on a compromise ( I s e , 1 961 ) . When t he r e v i s e d B i l l became law the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , i t i n c l u d e d t he p r o v i s i o n t h a t "no dam or r e s e r v o i r c o n -s t r u c t e d under t he a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e A c t s h a l l be w i t h i n any N a t i o n a l Pa r k o r Monument" ( i n Nash , 1 9 6 7 ) . The r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f D i n o s a u r N a t i o n a l Monument as a n a t u r a l w i l d e r n e s s a r e a w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l P a r k System demonst ra ted " t he s k i l l o f t he c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s i n mak ing t h e i r v i e w s known to t he p u b l i c and t he Cong re s s . I t a l s o showed the i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e a c c o r d e d n a t i o n a l p a r k s by the A m e r i c a n p e o p l e . In a d d i t i o n , i t i l l u s t r a t e d t he i m p o r t a n c e o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n q u e s t i o n s a f f e c t i n g a r e a s o f u n i q u e q u a l i t y . Had a p p r o v a l f o r t h e Echo Pa r k dam been l e f t t o l o c a l i n t e r e s t s , i t wou ld have u n d o u b t e d l y been c o n s t r u c t e d , s i n c e l o c a l s u p p o r t f o r t he p r o j e c t was w i d e -s p r e a d . However , because the a r e a was under f e d e r a l admin -i s t r a t i o n , t he s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t he p r o j e c t and t h e monument t o the n a t i o n as a who le was the key q u e s t i o n . I t was o p p o s i t i o n f rom n o n - l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t d e f e a t e d t he p r o j e c t . The r e s o l u t i o n o f t he c o n f l i c t and t he d e l e t i o n o f - 60 the Echo P a r k dams f rom the C o l o r a d o R i v e r S t o r a g e P r o j e c t d i d no t f u l l y s a t i s f y some c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s . Two p rob lems r e m a i n e d . F i r s t l y , t he C o l o r a d o R i v e r S t o r a g e P r o j e c t , as a u t h o r i z e d by C o n g r e s s , i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam i n G l e n Canyon, n o r t h o f t he Grand Canyon. G l e n Canyon, te rmed " t h e P l a c e No One Knew", was a s p e c t a c u l a r w i l d a r e a o f e n c h a n t i n g q u a l i t y ( P o r t e r , 1 963 ) . I t was no t a u n i t o f t h e N a t i o n a l Pa rk Sy s tem, and as a r e s u l t , had no p r o t e c t i o n . C o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o t a b l y the S i e r r a C l u b , t r i e d w i t h o u t s u c c e s s t o have work on the G l e n Canyon dam s t o p p e d ( L e y d e t , 1964) ' . T h e i r p o s i t i o n on the i s s u e was weakened because t hey d i d no t p r e s e n t a u n i t e d f r o n t ( B rower , 1964 ) . The second c o n c e r n was ove r t h e f l o o d i n g o f p a r t s o f Rainbow B r i d g e N a t i o n a l Monument by t he w a t e r s o f Lake P o w e l l , c r e a t e d by t he G l e n Canyon Dam. The l e g i s l a t i o n a u t h o r i z i n g t he p r o j e c t had been i n t e r p r e t e d by t he c o n s e r -v a t i o n i s t s t o mean no damage was t o be a l l o w e d t o r e s u l t f r om t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f any works a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C o l o r a d o R i v e r S t o r a g e P r o j e c t . To i n s u r e p r o t e c t i o n o f Rainbow B r i d g e , some c o n s t r u c t i o n wou ld have had to be u n d e r t a k e n to s t op the r e s e r v o i r f r om f l o o d i n g one o f t h e s i d e canyons l e a d i n g to t he Rainbow B r i d g e (B rower , 1962 ) . D e s p i t e i n i t i a l c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d by the N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e , however , Congres s e x p l i c i t l y d e n i e d a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r such work on two o c c a s i o n s , and on the b a s i s o f t h i s a c t i o n , the Department o f t he I n t e r i o r s t a t e d t h a t the - 61 -p r o v i s i o n f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f the monument was no l o n g e r o p e r a t i v e ( S i e r r a C l u b , 1963a ) . Long terms s t r u c t u r a l damage to t he Rainbow B r i d g e i s a r e a l and c o n t i n u i n g p o s s i b i l t y ( J u d d , 1963 ) . The p r o p o s a l s t o b u i l d dams on the m a i n s t r e a m o f t he C o l o r a d o R i v e r i n t he Grand Canyon r ema ined i n abeyance f o r some t ime a f t e r t h e d i s p u t e ove r the Echo Pa r k dams was r e s o l v e d . However, i n the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , p l a n s t o b u i l d dams i n t he Grand Canyon were advanced by the s t a t e o f A r i z o n a , t he c i t y o f Los A n g e l e s , and t he F e d e r a l Bureau o f R e c l a m a t i o n as p a r t o f t he f e d e r a l Southwest Water P l a n (Thomas, 1963 ) . The P l a n , o u t l i n e d by S e c r e t a r y U d a l l on Augus t 27, 1963, c a l l e d f o r an i n v e s t m e n t o f f o u r b i l l i o n d o l l a r s o ve r a 30 y e a r p e r i o d , and i n c l u d e d u l t i m a t e p l a n s f o r b o t h the B r i d g e Canyon and M a r b l e Canyon dams ( S i e r r a C l u b , 1963b ) . Conce rn f i n a l l y c e n t e r e d on the f e d e r a l deve lopment p r o p o s a l s f o r t he r i v e r . C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s f a v o u r -ed i n c l u s i o n o f a l l o f t he Grand Canyon as a N a t i o n a l Monument t o i n s u r e adequa te c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t s ' b e f o r e Congres s ( S i e r r a C l u b , 1963b ) . T h i s a c t i o n was no t u n d e r -t a k e n , bu t t he f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the Southwest Water P l a n i n s u r e d h e a r i n g s b e f o r e t he Cong re s s . In many ways , the d i s p u t e was s i m i l a r t o the c o n f l i c t o ve r t he deve lopment o f dams i n D i n o s a u r N a t i o n a l Monument. The c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s were no t i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t he b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e r i v e r deve lopment p r o j e c t , but were - 62 -opposed t o t h e Grand Canyon dams s p e c i f i c a l l y ( S m i t h , 1966 ) . The c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s o r g a n i z e d a campa ign w h i c h a r o u s e d m a s s i v e n a t i o n - w i d e s u p p o r t f o r r e t e n t i o n o f the Grand Canyon i n i t s n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t he economic s o f t he p r o p o s a l were q u e s t i o n e d , s i n c e the dams' p r i m a r y pu rpo se was t o a i d i n the f i n a n c i n g o f t he r i v e r deve lopment scheme i n i t s e n t i r e t y . I t became a p p a r e n t t h a t a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t e d t h a t wou ld p roduce a t l e a s t c ompa rab l e b e n e f i t s t o t h o s e p r o j e c t e d f rom t h e two Grand Canyon dams ( S m i t h , 1966; Moss , 1967 ) . The a d v i s a b i l -i t y o f t he dams was f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n e d because o f t he l a r g e amounts of wa te r t h a t wou ld be l o s t t h r o u g h e v a p o r a t i o n f r om t h e r e s e r v o i r s . P r oponen t s o f t he dams c o u n t e r e d t h e s e a r gumen t s , c o n t e n d i n g t h a t t he dams wou ld enhance the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t he a r e a , and t h a t t h e y were e s s e n t i a l t o t he p r o j e c t . In any e v e n t , m a s s i v e p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h t he e x i s t e n c e o f f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s p rompted t he a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n t o d rop b o t h o f the dams f rom i t s r e v i s e d Lower C o l o r a d o R i v e r P r o j e c t ( S i e r r a C l u b , 1967a ) . W h i l e p r e s s u r e f r om s u p p o r t e r s o f t he dams f o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o b u i l d a t l e a s t one o f them c o n t i n u e d , o p p o s i t i o n to the dams was m a i n t a i n e d , and a t t e m p t s to s e c u r e pas sage o f l e g i s l a t i o n to a u t h o r i z e them were u n s u c c e s s f u l ( S i e r r a C l u b , 1967b ) . F i n a l l y , on September 30, 1968, the Senate pa s sed t he C e n t r a l A r i z o n a P r o j e c t A c t , but s t i p u l a t e d t h a t no dams were to be 63 -b u i l t i n the Grand Canyon. Suppor t mounted f o r t he i n c l u -s i o n o f a l l p a r t s o f t he canyon o u t s i d e t he N a t i o n a l P a r k i n an expanded pa r k a r e a , but a c t i o n on t h i s p r o p o s a l was no t f o r t h c o m i n g . The q u e s t i o n o f a l l o w i n g deve lopment w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s , r e j e c t e d i n t he Echo Pa r k d i s p u t e , was a g a i n r e j e c t e d i n Grand Canyon. A g a i n , p u b l i c awareness o f t he v a l u e o f n a t u r a l p a r k s was s t i m u l a t e d , and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s a r ea s was r e a f f i r m e d as a f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f p o l i c y f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s . In a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e o f t he need f o r n a t u r a l a r e a s r e a c h e d an a l l - t i m e h i g h and gave c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s a s t r o n g e r v o i c e i n l a t e r a t t e m p t s t o expand and p r o t e c t the n a t i o n a l p a r k s (Nash, 1967 ) . C) The N a t i o n a l W i l d e r n e s s P r e s e r v a t i o n System and t he  E x p a n s i o n o f t he A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Pa r k System E a r l y p r e s e r v a t i o n - o r i e n t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s , such as John M u i r , has a lway s c o n c e i v e d o f t he n a t i o n a l ' p a r k s p r i m a r i l y as w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v e s ( S t r o n g , 1970; Nash , 1967 ) . I ndeed , i n the y e a r s p r i o r t o Wor ld War I I , when use o f t h e p a r k s was l o w , a de f a c t o w i l d e r n e s s s t a t e e x i s t e d i n t he p a r k s and p r e s s u r e f o r deve lopment was m i n -i m a l . However, w i t h the p o s t - w a r v i s i t o r boom, t he i l l u s i o n was l o s t , and a movement d e v e l o p e d t o c r e a t e a f e d e r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d sy s tem o f t r u e w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . B e g i n n i n g i n 1924, the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e - 64 -o f t h e Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e d e s i g n a t e d a r ea s o f w i l d e r n e s s w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s (Nash, 1967; Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Re sou r ce s Rev iew Commi s s i on , 1962 ) . By 1933, 63 p r i m i t i v e a r e a s were i d e n t i f i e d i n t he n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s , r a n g i n g i n s i z e f rom 5,000 to o v e r 1,000,000 a c r e s (ORRRC, 1962 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e a r e a s were no t p r o t e c t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n and were s u b j e c t t o c o n t i n u i n g p r e s s u r e f o r deve l opmen t . In l a t e r y e a r s , t h e s e a r e a s were r e c l a s s i f i e d and r e d e f i n e d under a v a r i e t y o f r e g u l a t i o n s (see ORRRC, 1962 ) . However, t he p o l i c y o f m a i n t a i n i n g l a r g e a r e a s w i t h i n n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s as w i l d e r n e s s r e g i o n s , w i t h v a r y i n g deg ree s o f p r o t e c t i o n , c o n t i n u e s . A f t e r the s u c c e s s f u l d e f e n s e o f D i no s au r N a t i o n a l Monument by t he c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s , p r e s s u r e mounted f o r t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m . In J u n e , 1956, Hube r t Humphrey i n t r o d u c e d a B i l l (S. 4013) i n t o t h e Senate p r o v i d i n g f o r t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s uch a s y s tem (Humphrey, 1956 ) . S i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n was a l s o i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t he House by John P. S a y l o r (H.R. 11703) . Based on e a r l i e r p r o p o s a l s o f Howard Z a h n i s e r o f The W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y , t he B i l l s c a l l e d f o r f e d e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s a r ea s w i t h i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s , N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s , W i l d l i f e R e f u g e s , and I n d i a n R e s e r v e s , w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n to r e m a i n w i t h t he a g e n c i e s then r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r t he l a n d s i n q u e s t i o n ( S i e r r a C l u b , 1956; Nash , 1967 ) . - 65 -" C o n g r e s s l a v i s h e d more t ime and e f f o r t on t he w i l d e r n e s s b i l l t h a n on any o t h e r measure i n A m e r i c a n c o n s e r v a t i o n h i s t o r y . From June 1957 u n t i l May 1964, t h e r e were n i n e s epa ra te , h e a r i n g s on t he p r o p o s a l c o l l e c t i n g ove r s i x t hou sand pages o f t e s t i m o n y . The b i l l i t s e l f was m o d i f i e d and r e w r i t t e n numerous t i m e s . One r e a s o n f o r t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e l a y i n r e a c h i n g ;a> d e c i s i o n was the v i g o r o u s o p p o s i t i o n to t he permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s f r om wood u s i n g i n d u s t r i e s , o i l , g r a z i n g and m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s , most p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t e r s , some government b u r e a u s , and p r o p o n e n t s o f mass r e c r e a t i o n w i t h p l a n s f o r mechan i z ed a c c e s s t o o u t d o o r a r e a s . A t t he r o o t o f t h e i r d i s s e n t was the f e e l i n g t h a t a w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n s y s tem wou ld be too r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e . " (Nash, 1967) „ D e s p i t e the s t r o n g and v o c a l o p p o s i t i o n to t he w i l d e r n e s s b i l l s , p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r t he measure was w i d e -s p r e a d . Numerous newspapers p r oduced e d i t o r i a l s u r g i n g t h e pas sage o f t h e b i l l s , and t he c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x e r t e d c o n t i n u e d e f f o r t s t o pe r s uade l e g i s l a t o r s and t h e p u b l i c o f t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f t he p r o p o s a l s (The W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y , 1956 ) . "The e x p e r i e n c e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s i n the 1 9 5 0 ' s , when they b a t t l e d w e l l - f i n a n c e d and p o l i t i c a l l y p o w e r f u l s pon se r s o f p r o p o s a l s t o g i v e away p u b l i c l a n d and i n v a d e and e x p l o i t our N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s , N a t i o n a l P a r k s , and o t h e r p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p s , s e t t he s t a g e f o r t h e ' p u s h ' f o r t he W i l d e r n e s s Law. " ( B r a n d b o u r g , 1969 ) . I n d i c a t i v e o f t he w i d e s p r e a d b i - p a r t i s a n s u p p o r t f o r t h e W i l d e r n e s s Law a r e t he House and S e n a t e v o t e s on the B i l l s . The W i l d e r n e s s Law p a s s e d i n t he Senate by 72 to 12 i n 1963, and the f o l l o w i n g y ea r was pa s s ed by the House by 371 t o 1 (Nash, 1967 ) . On September , 1964 „ t he W i l d e r n e s s - 66 -A c t was s i g n e d by P r e s i d e n t Lyndon John son and became Law (16. U.S.C. s e e s . 1131-1136 [1964]) ( J ohn son , 1965 ) . W i l d e r n e s s was d e f i n e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n i n a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t , a l l o w i n g some f l e x i b i l i t y i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " A w i l d e r n e s s , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h o s e a r ea s where man and h i s own works dominate the l a n d s c a p e , i s he reby r e c o g n i z e d as an a r e a where t h e e a r t h and i t s community o f l i f e a r e unt rammeled by man, where man h i m s e l f i s a v i s i t o r who does not r e m a i n . An a r e a o f w i l d e r n e s s i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d to mean i n t h i s A c t an a r e a o f u n d e v e l o p e d F e d e r a l l a n d r e t a i n i n g i t s p r i m e v a l c h a r a c t e r and i n f l u e n c e , w i t h o u t perman-en t improvements or human h a b i t a t i o n , w h i c h i s p r o t e c t e d and managed so as t o p r e s e r v e i t s n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s and w h i c h 1) g e n e r a l l y appear s t o have been a f f e c t e d p r i m a r i l y by t he f o r c e s o f n a t u r e , w i t h t he i m p r i n t of man ' s work s u b s t a n t i a l l y u n n o t i c e -a b l e ; 2) has o u t s t a n d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o l i t u d e o r a p r i m i t i v e and u n c o n f i n e d t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n ; 3) has a t l e a s t f i v e thousand a c r e s o f l a n d o r i s o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o make p r a c t i c a b l e i t s p r e s e r v a -t i o n and use i n an u n i m p a i r e d c o n d i t i o n ; and 4) may a l s o c o n t a i n e c o l o g i c a l , g e o l o g i c a l , o r o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c , e d u c a t i o n a l , s c e n i c , o r h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e s . " (16. U.S.C. s e c . 1132c [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t he l a c k o f emphas i s on the s p e c t a c u l a r n a t u r e o f t h e l a n d s c a p e - - a f e a t u r e w h i c h i s emphas i zed i n c r i t e r i a f o r N a t i o n a l P a r k s ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e , 1 968a ) . I t i s t he n a t u r a l q u a l i t y o f a r e a s w h i c h wa r ran t s t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n , no t some o u t s t a n d -i n g o r s p e c t a c u l a r f e a t u r e . The W i l d e r n e s s Law gave l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n to w i l d e r -ness as a l e g i t i m a t e l a n d use and e s t a b l i s h e d a f ramework f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n a t i o n - w i d e sy s tem o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . I n i t i a l l y , t he Law c a l l e d f o r t he i n c l u s i o n o f a l l " w i l d " - 67 and " w i l d e r n e s s " a r ea s e s t a b l i s h e d by t he Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e on N a t i o n a l F o r e s t l a n d s and gave p r o t e c t i o n t o the Boundary Waters Canoe A r e a . In a d d i t i o n , i t r e q u i r e d , w i t h i n 10 y e a r s , t he r e v i e w o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e P r i m i t i v e A rea s and r o a d l e s s a rea s o f 5,000 a c r e s o r more w i t h i n a l l N a t i o n a l P a r k s , Monuments, W i l d l i f e Re fuge s , and Game Re se r ve s f o r p o s s i b l e r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o t he W i l d e r n e s s P r e s e r v a t i o n Sys tem. U l t i m a t e l y , up to 50,000,000 a c r e s may be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h i s s y s tem. B a s i c a l l y , t he Law s e r v e d t o u n i f y t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a r ea s w i t h i n a v a r i e t y o f f e d e r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d sy s tems and t o i n c r e a s e t he p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d t he se a r e a s . C o n t r o l and r e v i e w o f the a r e a s rema in s w i t h i n t he p r e - e x i s t i n g government a g e n c i e s , however , and t h i s p r o v i s i o n has r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and approaches t o i m p l e m e n t i n g t he l e g i s l a t i o n ( B r andbou r g , 1969) . The s t a t e m e n t o f i n t e n t o f t he W i l d e r n e s s A c t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w o r t h y o f n o t e . I t was t o : " . . . a s s u r e t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , accompan ied by expand ing s e t t l e m e n t and g row ing m e c h a n i z a t i o n , does no t occupy and m o d i f y a l l a rea s w i t h i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and i t s p o s s e s s i o n s , l e a v i n g no l a n d s d e s i g n a t e d f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e i r n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . . . i t i s he reby the p o l i c y o f t he Congres s t o s e c u r e f o r the A m e r i c a n p e o p l e o f p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s the b e n e f i t s o f an e n d u r i n g r e s o u r c e o f w i l d e r n e s s . . . and t h e s e [ W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s ] s h a l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r the use and enjoyment o f t he A m e r i c a n p e o p l e i n such a manner as w i l l l e a v e them u n i m p a i r e d f o r the f u t u r e use and enjoyment as - 68 -w i l d e r n e s s ; and so as t o p r o v i d e f o r t he p r o t e c t i o n o f t he se a r e a s , t he p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r w i l d e r -nes s c h a r a c t e r , and f o r the g a t h e r i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r use and enjoyment as w i l d e r n e s s . . . " (16. U.S.C. s e c . 1132c [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . The Congres s r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r w i l d e r n e s s as a s p e c i a l l a n d u s e , a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t he f e d e r a l l e v e l , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e s e a r ea s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o a l l t he p e o p l e o f t he c o u n t r y . C e r t a i n l y t he A c t r e c o g n i z e d n o n - m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s t y p e o f l a n d u s e . I t was no t t he i n t e n t i o n o f t he Congres s t o change t h e b a s i s pu rpo se s o f a r ea s w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments d e s i g n a t e d as w i l d e r n e s s , bu t r a t h e r t o supp lement t he pu rpo se s f o r w h i c h " u n i t s o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k sy s tem a r e e s t a b l i s h e d " (16. U.S.C. s e c . 1133c [ 1 9 6 4 ] ) . Thus , t he W i l d e r n e s s A c t s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e the p r e s e r v a t i o n f u n c t i o n o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments, mak ing i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t f o r p a r k a rea s t o be d e v e l o p e d f o r i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n , once w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . The pa s sage o f the W i l d e r n e s s A c t encou raged c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s i n t h e i r attempts t o expand t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s tem i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . Bo th Kennedy and John son A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were a n x i o u s t o see new n a t i o n a l p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n a r ea s added and s u p p o r t e d p r o p o s a l s by c o n s e r -v a t i o n i s t s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a redwoods n a t i o n a l p a r k and a p a r k i n t he N o r t h Cascades Range ( U d a l l , 1961; U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f t he I n t e r i o r , 1 966 ) . These - 69 a r ea s had been p r o p o s e d as new n a t i o n a l p a r k s on numerous o c c a s i o n s , but due to g e n e r a l apa thy and o p p o s i t i o n f rom lumber i n t e r e s t s , who d i d no t want the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t i m b e r i n the a r e a s , l i t t l e a c t i o n had been t a k e n . In C a l i f o r n i a , p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r i n c i p a l l y the Save the Redwoods League , had made s u b s t a n t i a l p u r c h a s e s o f s t a n d s o f mature redwoods and dona ted them t o the s t a t e as p a r k l a n d s , bu t by t he m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s some o f t he c r u c i a l s t a n d s were i n immed ia te danger o f b e i n g l o g g e d ( U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f the I n t e r i o r , 1966; Nash , 1967 ) . The c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s mounted a d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o h a s t e n C o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n , r u n n i n g f u l l page newspaper ads and p r o d u c i n g b o o k s , b r o c h u r e s , and f i l m s on t he c o a s t a l redwoods (Hyde and L e y d e t , 1964; S i e r r a C l u b , 1967, 1968a ) . The Redwoods N a t i o n a l Pa rk p r o p o s a l s deba ted i n Congres s had n a t i o n - w i d e s u p p o r t . T h i s was one o f t he most c l o s e l y wa tched c o n s e r v a t i o n d i s p u t e s o f t he c e n t u r y (Wayburn, 1968 ) . U l t i m a t e l y , Congres s pa s sed l e g i s l a t i o n ( P u b l i c Law 90-545) a u t h o r i z i n g a p p r o p r i a t i o n s o f $92,000,000 f o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r i v a t e t i m b e r h o l d i n g s , and e s t a b l i s h e d a 58,000 a c r e n a t i o n a l p a r k (McC l o s key , 1968a ) . In the same c o n g r e s s i o n a l s e s s i o n , a l a r g e N a t i o n a l P a r k - R e c r e a t i o n A r e a - W i l d e r n e s s A r e a complex was e s t a b l i s h e d on N a t i o n a l F o r e s t l a n d s i n t he N o r t h Cascades o f Wash ing ton S t a t e by P u b l i c Law 90-544 (McC l o s key , 1968b ) . The d i s p u t e - 70 o v e r N o r t h Cascades had been n e a r l y as i n t e n s e as t he deba te o v e r Redwoods N a t i o n a l P a r k , w i t h lumber i n t e r e s t s e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n o ve r w i t h d r a w a l o f l a r g e t i m b e r s t a n d s f rom l o g g i n g and c o n s e r v a t i o n g roups s t r e s s i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s o f t he a r e a . A compromise s o l u t i o n was a g reed upon whereby some o f the t i m b e r e d r i v e r v a l l e y s were e x c l u d e d f r om the p a r k ( C a l l i s o n , 1968 ) . The r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s o ve r t he N o r t h Cascades and t he Coas t Redwoods f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s the i n c r e a s i n g commitment t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a r ea s w i t n e s s e d i n the pas sage o f t he W i l d e r n e s s A c t and i n the s u c c e s s f u l d e f e n s e o f D i no s au r N a t i o n a l Monument and the Grand Canyon f r om power deve lopment i n t e r e s t s . D) The Canad i an N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n the Po s t War Yea r s The p o s t ' w a r p e r i o d saw l i t t l e e x p a n s i o n o f the N a t i o n a l P a r k System i n Canada, d e s p i t e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g use o f t he p a r k s ( N i c o l , 1969 ) . A number o f m i n i n g and l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n the w e s t e r n p a r k s were phased out and t he l a n d s a c q u i r e d by the f e d e r a l government . However, i n s p i t e o f t he p r o v i s i o n s o f t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A c t o f 1930, l e a s e s were g r a n t e d to 262 square m i l e s o f t i m b e r i n Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l Pa r k between 1955 and 1962 ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1970d; Thebe r ge , 1970 ) . Logg i ng o f t h i s t i m b e r l e a s e c o n t i n u e s a t t he p r e s e n t t i m e , as does l o g g i n g on some e a r l i e r l e a s e s w i t h i n some o f t h e o t h e r n a t i o n a l p a r k s . However, l o g g i n g i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g phased - 71 -ou t o f a l l n a t i o n a l p a r k s . On the o t h e r hand , i n t he p r o v i n c i a l s y s t e m s , i n d u s t r i a l deve lopment w i t h i n the p a r k s has been condoned , and t h i s s i t u a t i o n can be s a i d to be r e f l e c t i v e o f a t t i t u d e s towards p a r k s i n most o f Canada. A l l f o u r p r o v i n c e s h a v i n g t he l a r g e s t p a r k systems - -B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a , O n t a r i o , and Quebec - - p e r m i t l o g g i n g and m i n i n g deve l opment s and w a t e r impoundments i n some o f t h e i r p a r k a r e a s ( P i m l o t t , 1968; L i t t e l j o h n and P i m l o t t , 1 971 ) . In s e v e r a l c a s e s , such as i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Tweedsmuir and S t r a t h c o n a P a r k s , v a s t a r ea s o f p a r k l a n d have been f l o o d e d , but t h e r e has been l i t t l e p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n to t h e s e encroachments beyond comments i n t he l o c a l newspape r s . As Nash (1969) p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e have been no e q u i v a l e n t s i n Canada t o t he d i s p u t e s o ve r D i n o s a u r N a t i o n a l Monument, the pas sage o f the W i l d e r n e s s A c t , o r t h e p r o p o s e d dams on the Grand Canyon. T h i s i s c l e a r l y not because parks or w i l d e r n e s s a r ea s have not been e q u a l l y t h r e a t e n e d i n Canada. "The p r o p o s a l t h a t B a n f f h o s t t he 1968 o r 1972 W i n t e r O l ymp i c s o c c a s i o n e d s l i g h t l y more c o n t r o v e r s e y but s t i l l much l e s s t h a n even a m ino r row i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . The i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t i n Canada a w i l d e r n e s s movement on a b r o a d , c i t i z e n l e v e l does no t e x i s t . In i t s a b s e n c e , t he p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t he few Canad i an p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s i s and has been s l i g h t . " (Nash, 1969 ) . - 72 -I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e t h a t the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada was no t fo rmed u n t i l 1963 (Nash, 1969 ) . The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s o r g a n -i z a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n fo rmed i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1918, and o f t h e S i e r r a C lub fo rmed i n 1892 by John M u i r ( J o n e s , 1965 ) . T h i s f a c t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t he t r a d i t i o n a l g e n e r a l l a c k o f c o n c e r n o ve r p a r k s and w i l d e r n e s s a r ea s i n Canada, and p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Canad i an a t t i t u d e s towards p a r k s and w i l d e r n e s s a r e a management a re about 50 y e a r s b e h i n d t ho se o f Ame r i c an s (Nash, 1967; Cowan, 1968 ) . W h i l e t h e Canad i an p u b l i c d e m o n s t r a t e d l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r t h e w i l d e r n e s s a s p e c t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s , r e c r e a t i o n i n t he p a r k s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y a f t e r Wor ld War I I ( N i c o l , 1 969 ) . As i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , use has been i n c r e a s i n g by about 10 p e r c e n t each y e a r . P r o b a b l y t h i s i n c r e a s e wou ld have been g r e a t e r had the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s been more b a l a n c e d . Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l P a r k r e p r e s e n t s about one h a l f o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f t he Canad i an N a t i o n a l Pa rk Sy s tem, and s t i l l r ema in s i s o l a t e d and u n d e v e l o p e d , e x c e p t f o r l o g g i n g as n o t e d above . The o t h e r majo r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p a r k a c r e a g e - - t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n the Rocky M o u n t a i n s , i n c l u d i n g Yoho, Koo tenay , B a n f f , and J a s p e r - - has become t h e ma jo r f o c u s o f p o l i c y f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k deve l opment . - 73 -These p a r k s r e c e i v e d t he b u l k o f v i s i t o r use and became m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s . As an i n d i c a t i o n o f t he i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e t h e s e f o u r p a r k s , out o f a t o t a l o f 10 ,000,000 v i s i t s t o t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n 1965 -66 , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 ,000,000 were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s e p a r k s ( N e l s o n , 1969; S t e n t o n , 1969) . Deve lopment w i t h i n the w e s t e r n p a r k s c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x p a n s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s i n the p a r k t o w n s i t e s . W h i l e compact v i s i t o r s e r v i c e c e n t e r complexes were m a i n t a i n e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , l a r g e town-s i t e s d e v e l o p e d i n a number o f t he Canad i an N a t i o n a l P a r k s . These i n c l u d e d t h e towns o f B a n f f , F i e l d , J a s p e r , and Radium Hot S p r i n g s . The l a r g e s t o f t h e s e c e n t e r s i s B a n f f , w h i c h by t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s had grown to a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 ,400, f r om under 300 a t t h e t u r n o f t he c e n t u r y ( N e l s o n , 1969 ) . The e a r l y t r a d i t i o n i f t he Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k s as w e l l d e v e l o p e d r e s o r t s c o n t i n u e d i n t o t he 1 9 5 0 ' s and 1 9 6 0 ' s . Numerous new h o t e l , m o t e l , and s k i deve lopment s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s t i m e , n o t a b l y i n B a n f f ( N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , 1 9 7 0 a , b , c , d ) . O the r t ype s o f deve lopment s have a l s o been p e r m i t t e d i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada. Fo r examp le , between 1947 and 1968-, the B a n f f S choo l o f F i n e A r t s was e s t a b l i s h e d and a b u i l d i n g h o u s i n g the A r c h i v e s o f t he Canad i an R o c k i e s was opened a t B a n f f ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 74 -1970a ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o no te t h a t where s i m i l a r t y p e s o f deve lopment s have been p r o p o s e d i n t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , s t r o n g p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n has been v o i c e d , and p r o j e c t s o f t h i s n a t u r e have g e n e r a l l y n o t been p e r m i t t e d . A c c e s s t o the Rocky M o u n t a i n p a r k s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved by c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t he T r an s -Canada Highway t h r o u g h B a n f f , Yoho, and G l a c i e r N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s and e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s . As a r e s u l t , a marked i n c r e a s e i n v i s i t a t i o n t o a l l o f t h e s e p a r k s o c c u r r e d ( N i c o l , 1969 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t he B a n f f - J a s p e r Highway and t he B a n f f - W i n d e r m e r e Highway were upg raded t o "modern s t a n d a r d s " d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1 9 7 0 a , c ) . The c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f t h e s e r oad s d i d c o n s i d e r a b l e damage t o the p a r k l a n d s c a p e s , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n has been c r i t i c i z e d ( Bod swo r th , 1969 ) . The p r e s e n t t w o - l a n e T r an s -Canada Highway i s now b e i n g u p g r a d e d t o a f o u r - l a n e d roadway ( N e l s o n , 1969; N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1970a ) . I t i s u n f o r t u n -a t e t h a t such a c t i o n i s b e i n g t a k e n w i t h i n t he p a r k s , but s i n c e the Rocky M o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n c l u d e some o f t h e b e s t m o u n t a i n p a s s e s , i t i s a lmos t u n a v o i d a b l e t h a t s uch developments s h o u l d o c c u r . However, as p o i n t e d out by N e l s o n ( 1 969 ) , many roads now i n e x i s t e n c e o r p r o p o s e d i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s do no t s e r v e as p r i m a r y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s and " seem t o be i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s by a u t o , r a t h e r t h a n by f o o t o r h o r s e , t o a r ea s o f o u t s t a n d i n g beau t y - 75 -. . . I n i t i a l l y f a c i l i t i e s such as p u b l i c campgrounds a r e e n v i s i o n e d a l o n g t h e s e s c e n i c r o a d s . But h i s t o r i c a l p r e -c e d e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t m o t e l s , r e s t a u r a n t s , gas s t a t i o n s and o t h e r s e r v i c e s wou ld soon be demanded by and/or p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p u b l i c . " ( N e l s o n , 1969 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , however , even when deve lopment o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s had r e a c h e d the advanced s t a g e n o t e d , no w r i t t e n p o l i c y comparab le t o t he 1918 d i r e c t i v e o f U n i t e d S t a t e s I n t e r i o r S e c r e t a r y Lane had been d e v e l o p e d i n Canada. P o l i c y was based on a r a t h e r l o o s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Parks A c t (R .S .C. 1954 , 189 as ammended) and on management p r o c e d u r e s e s t a b l i s h e d by p r e c e d e n t . As a r e s u l t , p o l i c y was s u b j e c t t o w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s . Thus , w h i l e t he n a t i o n a l p a r k l e g i s l a t i o n i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada i s s i m i l a r , v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p a r k f u n c t i o n and pu rpo se a r e a p p a r e n t . E) Chap te r Summary The p o s t - w a r p e r i o d was marked by a t remendous i n c r e a s e i n p u b l i c use o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n b o t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. However, t he r e spon se s o f t he governments and p a r k s e r v i c e s t o t h i s p r e s s u r e were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , d e s p i t e s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n f rom i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r i c a l i n t e r e s t s , e x t e n s i v e a d d i t i o n s were made to t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s t em. These a d d i t i o n s i n c l u d e d many N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s , W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s , and N a t i o n a l S e a s h o r e s . In Canada, o n l y ' a few s m a l l a d d i t i o n s - 76 -were made to the N a t i o n a l Pa r k Sys tem. Bo th c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e d new f a c i l i t i e s f o r v i s i t o r use w i t h i n e x i s t i n g p a r k s , bu t a d i f f e r e n c e i n t ype and s t a n d a r d o f f a c i l i t y can be n o t e d . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s f a c i l i t i e s were o r i e n t e d t o p a r k s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . Emphas i s was a l s o p l a c e d on i m p r o v i n g p a r k i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by t he p r o v i s i o n o f many new v i s i t o r c e n t e r s under t he M i s s i o n 66 p rog ram. F a c i l i t i e s i n t he Canad i an Pa r k s were more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d and were o r i e n t e d t o a r t i f i c i a l r e c r e a t i o n s , such as g u l f and s k i i n g , and t o m o t e l - h o t e l t y p e s o f accommodat ion . In a d d i t i o n , t he Canad i an N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e a l s o p r o v i d e d space i n t h e p a r k s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l deve lopment s , i n c l u d i n g t he B a n f f S c h o o l o f F i n e A r t s . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , numerous a t t e m p t s were made to a l i e n a t e p a r k l a n d s f o r i n d u s t r i a l deve l opment . However, p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t he e f f o r t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s , who i n i t i a t e d n a t i o n - w i d e o p p o s i t i o n t o such d e v e l o p m e n t s , n e a r l y a l l were r e j e c t e d . In p a r t , t h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t he f a c t t h a t the f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on t he se deve lopment p r o p o s a l s r e s t e d w i t h t he n a t i o n a l government , and thus l o c a l i n t e r e s t s c o u l d no t d e c i d e the f a t e o f a rea s o f n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . In Canada, a l i e n a t i o n o f p a r k l a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s y s t ems , p r o ceeded w i t h l i t t l e p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n . Even though some o f t he a r e a s a f f e c t e d may have been n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and - 77 -w o r t h y o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s t a t u s , l o c a l o r a t l e a s t p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s were g i v e n p r e c e d e n c e . The absence o f a n a t i o n - w i d e p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t movement i n Canada u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l l a c k o f c o n c e r n o f Canad ian s o ve r p a r k p o l i c y i n t h i s c o u n t r y . 78 -C h a p t e r 5 PRESENT PARKS POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA A) The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P o l i c y : a Comment W h i l e i t i s easy to p i n p o i n t p o l i c y changes w h i c h a r e e n a c t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n , i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n the e v o l u t i o n o f p a r k p o l i c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t o d i s c u s s p o l i c y as i t i s p r e s e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada r e q u i r e s some degree o f s u b j e c t i -v i t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g p a s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f r om t h o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t . Fo r a number o f r e a s o n s , p o l i c y f o r N a t i o n a l P a r k Systems i n b o t h Canada and t he U n i t e d S t a t e s can be s a i d t o be i n a p r o c e s s o f change o r dynamism a t t he p r e s e n t t i m e . For examp le , h e a r i n g s on P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n s f o r f o u r o f t he Rocky M o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada a r e underway a t t he t ime o f w r i t i n g . Thus , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l a t t e m p t t o i n d i c a t e t r e n d s i n p o l i c y r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s o f p o l i c y . B) N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s In t he p a s t few y e a r s , a r e d i r e c t i o n o f p o l i c y i s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa rk Sys tem. Le s s emphas i s i s b e i n g p l a c e d on r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t w i t h i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s , and more a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g f o c u s e d on t he n a t u r a l a s p e c t s o f p a r k e n v i r o n m e n t s . The t r a d i t i o n a l Y o s e m i t e F i r e F a l l , i n w h i c h f l a m i n g ashes were pushed o f f a canyon w a l l , has been c u r t a i l e d , and t he c a m p s i t e c a p a c i t y - 79 -o f t h e p a r k was c u t i n h a l f (Cahn, 1968; S m i t h , 1968 ) . M o r e o v e r , i t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s a l i m i t t o t h e number o f v i s i t o r s some s i t e s can a b s o r b . Fo r examp le , v i s i t o r use o f p a r t s o f Mesa Ve rde N a t i o n a l Pa r k i n s o u t h -w e s t e r n C o l o r a d o has been r e s t r i c t e d , w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d numbers p e r m i t t e d to v i s i t t he s p e c t a c u l a r c l i f f d w e l l i n g s each day (Cahn, 1968 ) . F r a s e r D a r l i n g n o t e s i n t he f o r e w a r d to t he second e d i t i o n o f Man and Nature in the National Parks: Reflections on P o l i c y ( D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969) t h a t b i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t he p a r k s has g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d , and t h a t m a s t e r p l a n s f o r t h e p a r k s a r e showing an i n c r e a s i n g l y marked e c o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . He goes on t o comment: " I wou ld go so f a r as t o say t h a t i n c r e a s e d e c o l o g i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the S e r v i c e , has p r o v i d e d some o f the i n e l u c t a b l e p r o o f a h e s i t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n needed t o f i r m - u p i t s p o l i c y . My i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t d i r e c t i o n t oday i s much more d e c i s i v e and w e l l f o r t i f i e d t h a n h e r e t o f o r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h o se f i e l d s most c l o s e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p a r k v a l u e s . The o r i g i n a l d i r e c t i v e s o f o v e r h a l f a c e n t u r y ago were made i n a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d f r om o u r s ; h a l f a m i l l i o n v i s i t o r s t o t h e e n t i r e s y s tem have become a hundred and f i f t y m i l l i o n , i . e . , t h r e e hundred t i m e s as many. The magn i tude o f t he t a s k o f management i s f r i g h t e n i n g , no t o n l y on t he s i d e o f c o n s e r v i n g t he p a r k s , bu t i n t he g row ing awareness o f what the n a t i o n a l p a r k sy s tem means i n t he ma i n tenance o f human e n v i r o n -m e n t a l w e l l - b e i n g . " The i n c r e a s e i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h t o t he p l a n n i n g and management o f the n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has been a i d e d by a number o f o c c u r r e n c e s . For e xamp le , i n e a r l y 1963, a r e p o r t on w i l d l i f e management i n - 80 -the n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( L e o p o l d e t a l . , 1963) was r e l e a s e d , and w h i l e d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t he i n c r e a s i n g p rob lems o f managing w i l d l i f e w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l Pa r k Sy s tem, i t encompassed i n i t s b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e o t h e r e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t t o p l a n n i n g and management i n the p a r k s . I t n o t e d t h a t s i m p l e p r o t e c t i o n o f a r e a s was no t adequate t o i n s u r e ma i n tenance o f p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s o r h a b i t a t s . The c o n t r o l o f f i r e i n the p a r k s , w h i l e a e s t h e t i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e , r e s u l t s i n d r a m a t i c changes t o t he v e g e t a t i o n o f a r e a s , o f t e n to t he d e t r i m e n t o f p a r k v a l u e s . Examples o f h a b i t a t changes i n the E v e r g l a d e s and S equo i a Groves s u p p o r t t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w ( L e o p o l d e t a l . , 1963; H a r t e s v e l d t , 1963 ) . The r e p o r t c a l l e d f o r t he r e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f n a t i v e s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s and p l a n t s i n t o p a r k a r e a s where t hey have been e x t e r m i n a t e d o r d r i v e n to nea r e x t i n c t i o n by man, and f o r a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o remove e x o t i c p l a n t s and a n i m a l s f rom the p a r k s . Some e x c e r p t s f rom t h e L e o p o l d Repo r t a re w o r t h y o f n o t e : "The m a j o r p o l i c y change w h i c h we wou ld recommend t o t h e N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e i s t h a t i t r e c o g n i z e the enormous c o m p l e x i t y o f e c o l o g i c commun i t i e s and the d i v e r s i t y o f management p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e m . . . A second s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c y t h a t we wou ld r e i t e r a t e - - and t h i s one confo rms w i t h p r e s e n t Pa r k S e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s - - t h a t management be l i m i t e d to n a t i v e p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . . . C a r r y i n g t h i s p o i n t f u r t h e r , o b s e r v a b l e a r t i f i c i a l i t y i n any fo rm must be m i n i m i z e d and o b s c u r e d i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e way. W i l d l i f e s h o u l d no t be d i s p l a y e d i n f e n c e d e n c l o s u r e s ; t h i s i s t he f u n c t i o n o f a z oo , no t a n a t i o n a l p a r k . In the same c a t e g o r y i s a r t i f i c i a l f e e d i n g o f w i l d l i f e . . . A l t h o u g h the A m e r i c a n p u b l i c demands a u t o m o t i v e a c c e s s t o t he p a r k s , r oad sys tems 81 -must be r i g i d l y p r e s c r i b e d as t o e x t e n t and d e s i g n . R o a d l e s s w i l d e r n e s s a r ea s s h o u l d be p e r m a n e n t l y zoned.. The g o a l , we r e p e a t , i s t o m a i n t a i n o r c r e a t e the mood o f w i l d A m e r i c a . We a re s p e a k i n g h e r e o f r e s t o r i n g w i l d l i f e t o enhance t h i s mood, bu t the who le e f f e c t can be l o s t i f t he p a r k s a re o v e r d e v e l o p e d f o r m o t o r i z e d t r a v e l . I f t oo many t o u r i s t s c rowd t he r oadway s , t hen we s h o u l d r a t i o n the t o u r i s t s r a t h e r t h a n expand t he roadways . A d d i t i o n a l l y i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , i t seems i n c o n g r u -ous t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d e x i s t i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s mass r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s such as g o l f c o u r s e s , s k i l i f t s , mo to rboa t m a r i n a s , and o t h e r e x t r a n e o u s deve lopment s w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r a d i c t t he management g o a l . We u r ge the N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e to r e v e r s e i t s p o l i c y o f p e r m i t t i n g t h e s e noncon -f o r m i n g u s e s , and t o l i q u i d a t e them as e x p e d i t i o u s l y as p o s s i b l e . . . Above a l l o t h e r p o l i c i e s , t h e ma i n t enance o f n a t u r a l n e s s s h o u l d p r e v a i l . A c t i v e management a imed a t r e s t o r a t i o n o f n a t u r a l c ommun i t i e s o f p l a n t s and a n i m a l s demands s k i l l s and knowledge not now i n e x i s t e n c e . A g r e a t l y expanded r e s e a r c h program o r i e n t e d to management n e e d , must be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e i t s e l f . " ( L e o p o l d e t a l . , 1 963 ) . In summary, t he r e p o r t s t a t e d : "The g o a l o f managing t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments s h o u l d be to p r e s e r v e , o r where n e c e s s a r y t o r e c r e a t e , the e c o l o g i c a l scene as v i ewed by t he f i r s t Eu ropean v i s i t o r s . " The r e p o r t was endo r sed by I n t e r i o r S e c r e t a r y S t e w a r t U d a l l , who o r d e r e d t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e s t e p s be t a k e n " t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e p h i l o s o p h y and t he b a s i c f i n d i n g s i n t o t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k Sy s tem" ( U d a l l , 1963b) . In 1964, a N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s A d v i s o r y Committee was fo rmed to make recommendat ions t o t he D i r e c t o r o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e ( N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971a ) . S i n c e t h e n , i t has been p a r t l y - 82 -r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f a r e s e a r c h program now o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s , has a i d e d i n some d i f f i c u l t management p rob lems such as t h o s e i n v o l v i n g g r i z z l y b e a r s i n Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l P a r k , and has. s e r v e d t o p o i n t ou t a r e a s o f needed r e s e a r c h ( N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n -c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971a ) . O the r p rob lems o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s have been r e c o g n i z e d and c o n f r o n t e d i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . In 1967, the N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e a p p o i n t e d a commi t tee o f d i s t i n -g u i s h e d c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s and c i v i l s e r v i c e s t a f f t o i n v e s t i -g a t e the p r ob l em o f p a r k r oad s t a n d a r d s ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e , 1 968a ) . W h i l e too l e n g t h y to r e l a t e i n d e t a i l h e r e , the recommendat ions o f t h i s commi t tee a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t to t he who le q u e s t i o n o f accommo-c a t i o n o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . Some o f t h e key passages a r e n o t e d b e l o w : " T h i s f l o o d o f p a r k u s e r s r e p r e s e n t s e i t h e r a p r o f o u n d t h r e a t t o p a r k v a l u e s . . . o r an e x t r a -o r d i n a r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o make t ho se v a l u e s a more m e a n i n g f u l p a r t o f t h i s n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l i n h e r -i t a n c e . The s i n g l e a b i d i n g pu rpo se o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s i s t o b r i n g man and h i s env i r onmen t i n t o c l o s e r harmony. I t i s thus t he q u a l i t y o f t he p a r k e x p e r i e n c e - - and not the s t a t i s t i c s o f t r a v e l - -w h i c h must be the p r i m a r y c o n c e r n . " ( P e n f o l d e t a l . , 1968 ) . The r e p o r t goes on to s t a t e t h a t " . . . I n t h i s e r a o f eno rmous l y i n c r e a s i n g v a c a t i o n t r a f f i c , i t must be assumed t h a t t ho se who v i s i t t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k s do so f o r t he pu rpo se o f e n j o y i n g a u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e , and a r e t h e r e f o r e w i l l i n g t o 83 -a c c e p t n e c e s s a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t ho se r e g u l a t i n g numbers o f p e o p l e and t h e i r means o f t r a v e l . Such r e g u l a t i o n s , as n e c e s s a r y , may deepen the awareness o f v i s i t o r s t h a t t hey a r e t r u l y i n p l a c e s o f s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e . Today the f a c t s a r e t h e s e : u n l e s s an open-end r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n program were to be c a r r i e d o u t , t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k s cannot i n d e f i n i t e l y accommo-d a t e e ve r y p e r s o n who wants t o d r i v e an a u t o -m o b i l e w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n t h r o u g h a N a t i o n a l P a r k . " ( P e n f o l d e t a l . , 1963 ) . I t a d d i t i o n a l l y s e t a number o f d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s a p p r o p r i a t e to p a r k r o a d s . S e c r e t a r y U d a l l o r d e r e d a d o p t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s t o i n s u r e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n r o a d - b u i l d i n g d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s ba sed on t he recommenda-t i o n s o f t he Pa r k Road S t anda rd s Committee ( U d a l l , 1969 ) . However, t h i s o r d e r was r e v o k e d by U d a l l ' s s u c c e s s o r , W a l t e r J . H i c k e l , " s i n c e l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n o f p a r k roads i s o n l y one o f s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " ( H i c k e l , 1969 ) . H i c k e l o r d e r e d t h a t t he N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e g e n e r a l l y r e v i s e i t s p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s t o p r o v i d e f o r g r e a t e r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t . The most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t he r o a d s t a n d a r d s r e p o r t (wh i ch was w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e ) i s i t s c h a l l a g e o f such t i m e - h o n o u r e d a s sumpt i on s as u n l i m i t e d v i s i t o r use and u n r e s t r i c t e d v e h i c u l a r use i n the p a r k s . On the o t h e r hand , t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s s l ow pace i n r e v i e w i n g r o a d l e s s a r ea s w i t h i n the p a r k s f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n i n the N a t i o n a l W i l d e r n e s s P r e s e r v a t i o n System as s t i p u l a t e d i n the terms o f t he W i l d e r n e s s A c t ( D i c ke rman , - 84 -1970 ) . Most r e c e n t e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s , however , t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s b e i n g r e c t i f i e d (The W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y , 1970 ) . A n o t h e r p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n i s t he Pa rk S e r v i c e ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t t r a n s i t i o n zones s h o u l d be c r e a t e d a round w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s t o s e p a r a t e them f rom d e v e l o p e d areas w i t h i n t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e , 1968a ) . C o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s have g e n e r a l l y been opposed t o t h i s c o n c e p t , c o n t e n d i n g t h a t such zones wou ld o n l y s e r v e t o a l l o w deve lopment i n l a r g e r p a r t s o f t h e p a r k s , and t h a t d e s i g n a t e d w i l d e r n e s s a rea s s h o u l d be e n l a r g e d to i n c l u d e any t r a n s i t i o n a r e a s ( S m i t h , 1967; D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n , 1969 ) . D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n (1969) comment t h a t t e n t a t i v e w i l d e r n e s s z o n i n g p l a n s were a l r e a d y i n c i r c u l a t i o n (as o f 1967) and t h a t i t c o u l d be q u e s t i o n e d whether some o f t h e s e were drawn on the b a s i s o f w i l d e r n e s s as i t i s a t p r e s e n t , o r were f o r m u l a t e d i n terms o f p o s s i b l e f u t u r e deve lopment s o f v i s i t o r f a c i l i t i e s . They c o n c l u d e t h a t " i t i s a p r i m a r y d u t y o f management o f any n a t i o n a l p a r k t h a t as much o f i t s a r e a as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be w i l d e r n e s s o r nea r w i l d e r -ness i f management i s t o f u l f i l l t h e i n t e n t o f t h e 1916 a c t s e t t i n g up t h e S e r v i c e " . P r i o r to 1964, f u n d i n g f o r t he N a t i o n a l Pa rk System i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s was ba sed on y e a r l y , a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f r om the Cong re s s . In o r d e r t o s t a b i l i z e t he somewhat u n c e r t a i n n a t u r e o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , and a t t he same t ime 85 -to supp lement the c o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , t he Kennedy a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r opo sed t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Land and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n Fund t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y money f o r l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n and deve lopment f o r r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r -v a t i o n . E n a c t e d i n 1965, t he Fund p r o v i d e d f i n a n c i n g f o r a number o f f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and l o c a l programs ( U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f the I n t e r i o r , 1966 ) . By 1968, however , the Fund had become the s o l e s o u r c e o f f i n a n c i n g new a c q u i s i t i o n s f o r t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k Sy s tem, and was i n a d e q u a t e to meet r e q u i r e m e n t s (McC l o s key , 1968b ) . Co s t s o f l a n d i n c r e a s e d beyond p r o j e c t i o n s , and more new pa r k a r ea s were a u t h o r i z e d t h a n had been a n t i c i p a t e d . A l s o , r e venue s were l e s s t h a n had been f o r e s e e n (McC l o s key , 1968b) . The F u n d ' s i n i t i a l s o u r c e s o f revenue were the p r oceed s f rom the s a l e o f s u r p l u s f e d e r a l l a n d s , f unds f rom t h e s a l e o f t h e $7.00 " G o l d e n E a g l e " a n n u a l e n t r a n c e p e r m i t s f o r f e d e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , and n o n - r e i m b u r s e d t a x e s on m o t o r -boa t f u e l ( U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f the I n t e r i o r , 1966 ) . In 1968, a $200,000,000 annua l base f o r t h e f und was e s t a b -l i s h e d . Revenues f rom o u t e r c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f p e t r o l e u m l e a s e s can be u sed f o r the Fund i f Congres s f a i l s t o a p p r o p r i a t e t he f u l l $200,000,000 f rom the t r e a s u r y ( S i e r r a C l u b , 1968b ) . Revenues f rom the Fund a re s h a r e d w i t h s t a t e and l o c a l governments f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a and p a r k p r o j e c t s a d d i t i o n a l t o f e d e r a l u n d e r t a k i n g s . A l t h o u g h t he money i s a v a i l a b l e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t i l l has t he power t o 86 -s e t l i m i t a t i o n s on a l l o c a t i o n s , and Congres s must approve a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t he Land and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n Fund was a f u r t h e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e need t o p u r c h a s e d e s i r a b l e r e c r e a t i o n l a n d s and n a t u r a l a r e a s w h i l e t hey a r e a v a i l a b l e . I t was a p p a r e n t t h a t p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s c o u l d no l o n g e r be e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y on l a n d s g i v e n to t h e f e d e r a l government by t he s t a t e s , o r on n a t i o n a l l y owned t e r r i t o r y , as had been t h e p o l i c y p r i o r t o the m i d - 1 9 5 0 ' s , when the f i r s t N a t i o n a l Sea sho re s were b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . Thus , t he a p p r o v a l o f t he Fund marked a d e c i d e d change i n t he p o l i c y o f l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n f o r t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k Sy s tem, and d e m o n s t r a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l commitment t o e xpand i ng t h e System i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C) Canad i an N a t i o n a l P a r k s P o l i c y As w i t h the A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Pa rk Sy s tem, r e c e n t changes i n p o l i c y can be d i s c e r n e d i n Canada. P r i o r t o 1964, no w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t s o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y e x i s t e d i n Canada. P o l i c y was based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he r a t h e r nebu l ou s s e c t i o n o f t he N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A c t w h i c h d e d i c a t e d the p a r k s f o r p u b l i c b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n , and en joymen t , s u b j e c t to t he p r o v i s i o n t h a t t hey be m a i n t a i n e d u n i m p a i r e d f o r t he en joyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s ( L a i n g , 1964 ) . In a d d i t i o n , p r e c e d e n t and usage were i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s on deve lopment d e c i s i o n s . Based on recommendat ions o f t he r o y a l c ommi s s i on o f government o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s t a t e m e n t o f - 87 -p o l i c y f o r t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s was d e v e l o p e d and app roved by t he f e d e r a l government i n 1964 ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a; L a i n g , 1964 ) . The Hon. A r t h u r L a i n g , t h e n M i n i s t e r o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , s t a t e d t h a t a u n i f i e d , c o h e r e n t , and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y had become i m p e r a t i v e because o f t h e g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d use o f t h e p a r k s . " T h i s volume o f p u b l i c use has a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and r e s u l t e d i n p r e s s u r e f o r the deve lopment o f r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n -ment f a c i l i t i e s t h a t , w h i l e u n o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n o t h e r p l a c e s . . . a r e u n s u i t a b l e i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s , and i f a l l o w e d t o expand u n c h e c k e d , wou ld d e s t r o y the p a r k s ' a b i l i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e to the p u b l i c b e n e f i t i n t he way t hey were i n t e n d e d . " ( L a i n g , 1964 ) . As o v e r a l l p o l i c y f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s , t he new d i r e c t i v e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t : " 1 ) The b a s i c pu rpo se o f t he N a t i o n a l Pa rk System i s t o p r e s e r v e f o r a l l t ime a r e a s w h i c h c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t g e o g r a p h i c a l , g e o l o g i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l or h i s t o r i c f e a t u r e s as a n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e f o r the b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n , and enjoyment o f t he p e o p l e o f Canada. 2) The p r o v i s i o n o f u r b a n - t y p e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i s no t p a r t o f t h e b a s i c pu rpo se o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s . Such r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n harmony w i t h t he pu rpo se and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a pa r k may be i n t r o -duced as r e q u i r e d to meet r e c r e a t i o n a l need s ; but a lway s so as t o m i n i m i z e impa i rmen t and not a t a l l i f s u b s t a n t i a l impa i rmen t i s i n e v i t a b l e . " ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . W h i l e e m p h a s i z i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t he env i r onmen t as a p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , t he p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t - 88 d i d no te the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : "The p o p u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l pu rpo se s s e c t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l Pa r k s A c t has been to p e r m i t , i n f a c t t o e n c o u r a g e , a r t i f i c i a l r e c r e a t i o n s and t o d e v e l o p p a r k s t o q u i t e an e x t e n t a l o n g summer r e s o r t l i n e s . T h i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n has no t c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d t he v a l u e o f n a t u r e . That v a l u e h a s , however , t a k e n a d e c i s i v e second p l a c e . I t i s no t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t he v a l u e o f n a t u r e has n o t been emphas i zed i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i c y o f our N a t i o n a l P a r k s . A f t e r a l l Canada i s a young n a t i o n , and i t was no t many y e a r s ago t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e o f the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n o r v e r y c l o s e to w i l d e r n e s s , o r a t l e a s t i n r u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . . . The re i s not a t p r e s e n t , among Canad i an s i n g e n e r a l , a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o seek w i l d e r n e s s en joyment . T h i s seems a p p a r e n t by t he s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f Pa rk v i s i t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n h i k i n g , r i d i n g , and camping i n the i s o l a t e d a r e a s o f t h e P a r k s . The demand o f t he m a j o r i t y i s s t i l l f o r modern accommodat ion w i t h a l l o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s common to l i f e i n t he c i t i e s . The v a r i a t i o n i n n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s a l s o s u g ge s t s t h a t c e r t a i n Pa r k s can be s u b j e c t e d t o s e conda r y u s e s , such as a r t i f i c i a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s , i . e . , g o l f , t e n n i s , l awn b o w l i n g , s k i i n g and s i m i l a r p a r t i c i p a n t s p o r t s , w i t h o u t d e t r a c t i n g f r om t h e i r r e a l p u r p o s e , w h i l e o t h e r s c a n n o t . In e s t a b l i s h i n g t he o v e r a l l p l a n f o r each p a r k i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e the r ea son s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p a r k , the l i m i t s o f use t h a t s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d , and t h e u ses t h a t s h o u l d no t be p e r m i t t e d . U n l e s s t h i s i s done, i n a p p r o p r i a t e use p a t t e r n s may c o n t i n u e o r d e v e l o p and the P a r k s w i l l no t a t t a i n t he o b j e c t i v e f o r w h i c h t hey were d e d i c a t e d . " ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . The p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t on N a t i o n a l Pa r k s l e a v e s c o n s i d -e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y f o r t he deve lopment o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the p a r k s . In c o n t r a s t to t h e o v e r a l l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t on r e c r e a t i o n (see No. 2 on p r e v i o u s page) , t he l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n s r e v e a l t h a t a r t i f i c i a l - 89 fo rms o f r e c r e a t i o n ( t ype s no t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he n a t u r a l e n v i r onmen t o f a p a r k ) a r e p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n mos t , i f no t a l l , o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . To q u o t e : " I n v i e w of t h e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n t y p e s o f N a t i o n a l Pa r k s i n the s y s t e m , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y what r e c r e a t i o n s a r e o r a r e no t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e sy s tem as a w h o l e . The b e s t t h a t can be done i n t h i s r e g a r d i s t o p r o v i d e g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s f rom w h i c h a d e c i s i o n can be made f o r each i n d i v i d u a l p a r k a c c o r d i n g to i t s n a t u r e . Pa r k s i n t he sys tem can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s on the b a s i s o f pu rpo se and u s e : a) Pa r k s w h i c h a r e b a s i c a l l y s c e n i c and n a t u r e p a r k s . T h i s i n c l u d e s B a n f f , J a s p e r , Yoho, Koo tenay , G l a c i e r , Mt. R e v e l s t o k e and Cape B r e t o n H i g h l a n d s . b) P a r k s w h i c h a r e b a s i c a l l y f a m i l y h o l i d a y p a r k s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s W a t e r t o n L a k e s , P r i n c e A l b e r t , R i d i n g M o u n t a i n , Fundy, T e r r a Nova and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . c ) P a r k s e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r e s e r v e a s p e c i f i c t y p e o f f a u n a o r f l o r a ; o r an a r e a o f s p e c i a l g e o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c o r g e o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s c a t e g o r y wou ld i n c l u d e E l k I s l a n d , P o i n t P e l e e and S t . Lawrence I s l a n d s . The breakdown ( f o l l o w i n g ) i s g e n e r a l and i n t e n d e d o n l y to a s s i s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a g e n e r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f w h i c h t ype s o f a r t i f i c i a l r e c r e a t i o n s s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d f o r each o f t he g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . . . 1) The t ype s o f r e c r e a t i o n s t h a t a r e a c c e p t a b l e i n a l l p a r k s a re t h o s e w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y n a t u r a l . Such r e c r e a t i o n s as b o a t i n g , swimming, h i k i n g , t r a i l r i d i n g and f i s h i n g a re examples o f n a t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o N a t i o n a l Pa rk p u r p o s e s . The e x t e n t o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n s s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r e f f e c t on the i n d i v i d u a l p a r k . 2) The wholesome o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s such as g o l f , t e n n i s , l awn b o w l i n g and ho r s e s hoe p i t c h i n g a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a c c e p t a b l e i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l and f a m i l y h o l i d a y p a r k s . They s h o u l d n o t be d e v e l -oped as a means o f a t t r a c t i n g v i s i t o r s t o the pa r k but t o s a t i s f y the v a r i a t i o n i n t a s t e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s i n a f a m i l y g r o u p . [ I t s h o u l d be n o t e d - 90 -t h a t e l s e w h e r e i n the p o l i c y document, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t cha r ge s f o r such a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be l e v i e d " t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t he d e s i r e to encourage g e n e r a l u s e " . ] Such f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d o n l y t o meet the r e a s o n a b l e needs o f t h e v i s i t o r s , and o n l y i f t he pa r k does no t s u f f e r a p p r e c i a b l e impa i rment or r educed p o t e n t i a l t o s u p p l y n a t u r a l en joyments to v i s i t o r s who have come f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . T h i s t y p e o f ou tdoo r r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d -e r e d a c c e p t a b l e i n c e r t a i n o f t he p a r k s l i s t e d i n c a t e g o r y a) a l s o . Such a c t i v i t i e s as g o l f and t e n n i s do not f o rm as e s s e n t i a l a p a r t o f t h e pu rpo se o f a s c e n i c and n a t u r e pa r k as t hey do i n a f a m i l y h o l i d a y p a r k . " ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . In g e n e r a l , n e a r l y a l l fo rms o f r e c r e a t i o n a r e p e r m i t t e d i n a l l o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s , e x c e p t t h o s e s p o r t s w h i c h a r e " n o i s y , gaudy, o r t awd ry o r a r e commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a midway o r amusement p a r k a tmo sphe re " ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . One o f the majo r a r e a s o f c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d i n t he p r e s e n t p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r anch i s w i t h t o w n s i t e deve lopment and p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s i n t he p a r k s . The government has e x p r e s s e d i t s i n t e n t t o e l i m i n a t e p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s such as summer c o t t a g e s and homes f r om the p a r k s e x c e p t where such accommodat ion i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p e o p l e w o r k i n g i n the p a r k s ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a;- L a i n g , 1964 ) . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a d e c i d e d s h i f t i n p o l i c y . As has been p o i n t e d o u t , an o p p o s i t e p o l i c y was pu r s ued u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of p r e s e n t l e a s i n g a r r angement s i s i n c l u d e d i n M a c D o n a l d ' s - 91 -d i s c u s s i o n o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y ( 1967 ) . B r i e f l y , t he p o l i c y o f t h e government i s t o s e c u r e t i t l e t o l e a s e s as t h e y e x p i r e and , where p o s s i b l e , t o phase out p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s no t d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i s i t o r accommo-d a t i o n o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t . I t i s t h e i n t e n t o f t h e government t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e c e n t e r s f o r v i s i t o r s where n e c e s s a r y w i t h i n the p a r k s and t o m a i n t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d t o w n s i t e s s uch as B a n f f and J a s p e r ( C h r e t i e n , 1971 ; N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . However , where p o s s i b l e i n the s m a l l e r new n a t i o n a l p a r k s , c o m m e r c i a l deve l opment s w i l l be o u t s i d e t he pa r k b o u n d a r i e s ( C h r e t i e n , 1971 ) . T h i s p o l i c y appea r s t o be s i m i l a r i n app roach t o t h a t adop ted i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e M i s s i o n 66 p rog ram. I t i s w o r t h y o f n o t e t h a t t he P r o v i s i o n a l Ma s te r P l a n s f o r t he Rocky M o u n t a i n p a r k s i n d i c a t e a h i g h l e v e l o f d e v e l -opment f o r v i s i t o r s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , w i t h a c e n t e r l o c a t e d e v e r y 30 m i l e s a l o n g t h e ma jo r r oad s ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1 9 7 0 a , b , c , d ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a majo r accommodat ions c e n t e r a t Lake L o u i s e i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g p l a n n e d . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o house 4,200 g u e s t s , p l u s s t a f f , and w i l l i n c l u d e 84,000 square f e e t o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l / a d m i n i s t r a t i o n space ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1971 ) . T h i s deve lopment i n d i c a t e s a c o n t i n u e d commitment on the p a r t o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e t o t h i s t y p e o f f a c i l i t y w i t h i n p a r k boundar i .e s , and c o n t r a d i c t s t he app roach - 92 a d v o c a t e d by t he Hon. J e a n C h r e t i e n ( 1971 ) , m i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada. I t a l s o c o n t r a -d i c t s t he a s s e r t i o n i n t he p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e t h a t t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n p a r k s a r e b a s i c a l l y " s c e n i c " r e s e r v e s . I f t he P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s a r e an adequa te i n d i c a t i o n , a l a r g e s c a l e s c e n i c r oad deve lopment p rogram i s e n v i s i o n e d f o r a number o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1970a, b , c , d ) . The N a t i o n a l Pa r k s B r anch r e c o g n i z e s a r t e r i a l h i g h w a y s , s uch as the T r an s -Canada H ighway, as i n t r u s i o n s i n t o t he env i r onmen t o f p a r k s and s ugge s t s t h a t e f f o r t s made made t o l o c a t e new n a t i o n a l p a r k s away f r om ma jo r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r oad s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be the b a s i c foi~m o f a c c e s s t o t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , and a re t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t a b l e and even d e s i r a b l e w i t h i n p a r k b o u n d a r i e s ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . Pa rk p o l i c y r e q u i r e s , however , t h a t h i g h d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s be employed to r e d u c e t he d i s r u p t i o n cau sed by roads ( N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1969a ) . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h r o ad s a r e b e i n g p r o j e c t e d f o r some o f t he p a r k s , n o t a b l y t h e f o u r c o n t i g u o u s Rocky M o u n t a i n p a r k s - - B a n f f , J a s p e r , Yoho, and Kootenay - - has been s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d i n a number o f s t u d i e s . I t i s f e a r e d t h a t r o a d deve lopment w i l l be a l l o w e d to p e n e t r a t e some o f t he l a s t r e m a i n i n g u n d e v e l -oped v a l l e y s w i t h i n the p a r k s ( N e l s o n , 1969 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s i n c e r oad s most o f t e n occupy v a l l e y b o t t o m s , d i s r u p t i o n o f - 93 -c r i t i c a l w i n t e r r anges o f h e r b i v o r e s may r e s u l t (Cowan, 1 969 ) . I t i s s t a t e d i n the P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n s t h a t r o ad s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o C l a s s IV and V l a n d s ( g e n e r a l o u tdoo r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s and i n t e n s i v e u se a r ea s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i n t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , bu t i n f a c t , i t may be q u e s t i o n e d i f C l a s s IV and V l a n d s were not d e s i g n a t e d on the b a s i s o f r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n f e a s i b i l i t y , among o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , once roads a r e b u i l t , t h e r e i s o f t e n a t endency t o " i m p r o v e " t h e f a c i l i t y as use i n c r e a s e s . Thus , what was o r i g i n a l l y an i n c o n s p i c u o u s s c e n i c r o a d may u l t i m a t e l y become a ma jo r h i ghway . I n c r e a s e d i n p u t o f e c o l o g i c a l knowledge i n t o p l a n n i n g t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s does no t seem as a p p a r e n t i n Canada as i t does i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Cowan (1969) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t o d a t e no c e n t r a l e c o l o g i c a l g o a l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r p a r k management i n Canada, and c i t e s a number o f p rob lems e v i d e n t w i t h i n B a n f f and J a s p e r r e l a t e d t o a l a c k o f e c o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d p l a n n i n g . Cunningham (1968) n o t e s : " G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t he P a r k s have been and s t i l l a r e b e i n g , managed by p e o p l e w i t h p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e o r deve lopment o r i e n t e d t y p e b a c k g r o u n d s . . . The r e s u l t has been t h a t the Pa rk s have d e v e l o p e d o r have e v o l v e d a d u e l image o r s p l i t p e r s o n a l i t y . The f i r s t Pa r k image i s the Pa rk s o f t he m o u n t a i n s , f o r e s t s , w i l d l i f e - - i n e f f e c t , t he e co s y s t ems . The second image i s t h e Pa rk c o n s i s t i n g o f t he h i g h w a y s , t o w n s i t e s , campgrounds, s k i a r e a s , e t c . - -i n e f f e c t , t he d e v e l o p m e n t s . For t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e the l a s t p a r k image has dom ina ted government t h i n k i n g and a c t i o n s . In o t h e r words t he Pa r k s have no t been managed f o r t h e e c o -s y s t e m s , r a t h e r t hey have been managed f o r t he d e v e l o p -ment s . The ecosy s tems have m e r e l y fo rmed a c o l o r f u l backg round f o r t he d e v e l o p m e n t s . " - 94 -I t has been r e c o g n i z e d f o r some t ime t h a t the N a t i o n a l Pa r k System i s i n c o m p l e t e i n t h a t i t i s g eog r aph -i c a l l y u n b a l a n c e d , and l a r g e p a r t s o f Canada a r e u n r e p r e -s e n t e d (MacDona ld , 1967; C h r e t i e n , 1971 ) . As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , one o f t he ma in o b s t a c l e s t o t he e x p a n s i o n o f t h e System was t he a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e d t he p r o v i n c e s t o t u r n ove r p o t e n t i a l p a r k l a n d s t o t he f e d e r a l government f r e e o f a l l encumbrances and i n p e r p e t u i t y ( P i m l o t t , 1968 ) . In 1968, the f e d e r a l government began a p rog ram o f s h a r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s f o r l a n d s on w h i c h t o e s t a b l i s h c o a s t a l n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( C h r e t i e n , 1971 ) . Under t h i s p r o g r a m , t h e f e d e r a l government has r e a c h e d agreement w i t h s e v e r a l o f t h e p r o v i n c e s , and s e v e r a l new n a t i o n a l p a r k s have been e s t a b l i s h e d . These new a c q u i s i t i o n s i n c l u d e P a c i f i c Rim (a t Long Beach) i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Kouch ibouguac i n New B r u n s w i c k , and Gros Morne i n Newfound l and . In a d d i t i o n , a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r u r a l deve lopment agreement between t he p r o v i n c e o f Quebec and t h e f e d e r a l government has l e a d t o d i s c u s s i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n t he c r e a t i o n o f two n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Quebec ( C h r e t i e n , 1971 ) . However, u n t i l A p r i l , 1971 , the f e d e r a l government had t a k e n no a c t i o n to e s t a b -l i s h p a r k s i n the Yukon o r No r t hwe s t T e r r i t o r i e s , where i t s t i l l has s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n . P r e s s r e p o r t s s t a t e t h a t the f e d e r a l government has now w i t h d r a w n an 870 squa re m i l e a r e a a l o n g t he South Nahann i R i v e r i n the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , pend ing n a t i o n a l p a r k - 95 -s t u d i e s . An O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , p a s s ed on A p r i l 8, 1971 , p r e v e n t s f u r t h e r s t a k i n g o f m i n e r a l c l a i m s or f i l i n g f o r o i l and n a t u r a l gas d r i l l i n g p e r m i t s (Vancouver Sun, 1971 ) . The ma jo r o p p o s i t i o n to t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p a r k s i n the n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s has come f rom m i n i n g and deve lopment i n t e r e s t s ( N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 971b ) . A l s o , the t e r r i t o r i a l governments do no t w i s h t o have l a n d s p e r m a n e n t l y v e s t e d i n the f e d e r a l government as n a t i o n a l p a r k s , s i n c e t h e i r e v e n t u a l a im i s t o g a i n p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s and a t t a i n c o n t r o l o ve r t h e i r l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s . F i n a n c i n g seems to be the key t o n a t i o n a l p a r k e x p a n s i o n i n Canada. The p r o v i n c e s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o bea r t h e f i n a n c i a l bu rden and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a deve lopment w h i c h i s n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t he s h o r t te rm economic e f f e c t s may be d e t r i m e n t a l t o l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t he f e d e r a l budget f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n Canada ave rage s about $40,000,000 a n n u a l l y - - a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.04 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l budget ( N i c o l , 1 969 ) . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a pe r c a p i t a i n v e s t m e n t o f about $2.00 pe r y e a r . T h i s f i g u r e i s about one h a l f o f t he f e d e r a l pe r c a p i t a i n v e s t m e n t i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( S t e n t o n , 1969) . I f t h e government o f Canada i s as i n t e n t on expand ing t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k System as i t has i n d i c a t e d , t h e n i t seems i m p e r a t i v e t h a t g r e a t e r f e d e r a l i n v e s t m e n t s be r e q u i r e d . - 96 -In Canada, t h e r e has been no t r a d i t i o n of p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n h e a r i n g s o r i n t he g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h has been e v i d e n t i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s . However, r e c e n t l y adop ted p r o c e d u r e s i n Canada have i n s t i t u t e d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on t he P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n s f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . A t t h e s e h e a r i n g s , deve lopment and z o n i n g p l a n s f o r each o f t he p a r k s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t he p u b l i c f o r s c r u t i n y and comment. Con se r -v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s g roups w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n the p a r k s , and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s have r e sponded f a v o u r a b l y t o t h i s new p l a n n i n g app roach (see N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , 1 9 7 0 a , b , c ) . The p r o c e d u r e o f c a l l i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n government p o l i c y i n Canada. I t w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y encourage t h e deve lopment o f a more a c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n movement w i t h i n the c o u n t r y . W h i l e t h e n a t u r e and t r a d i t i o n s o f t he g o v e r n m e n t a l sy s tem i n Canada have made i t l e s s open to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t han the government o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t appear s t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c h a n g i n g . I n c r e a s e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s i s c e r t a i n l y an e n c o u r a g i n g s t e p i n t he m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n Canada, and s h o u l d r e s u l t i n the u l t i m a t e improvement o f t he N a t i o n a l Pa rk Sys tem. - 97 -D) P r e s e n t P o l i c i e s Compared The h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t he p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s has shown t h a t p o l i c i e s f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have d i f f e r e d ove r t i m e . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s . Most d i f f e r e n c e s a r e c l e a r l y a m a t t e r o f emphas i s o r d e g r e e , or i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n i n c l u s i o n o f a b s o l u t e d i s m i s s a l o f some c o n c e p t o f p o l i c y . In r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Pa r k S e r v i c e has been moving towards a p o l i c y w h i c h emphas i ze s t h e n a t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s . Non p a r k - s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t a re no t e n c o u r a g e d , and e f f o r t s have been made to c u r t a i l them i n the p a r k s . In Canada, on the o t h e r hand , p r e s e n t p o l i c y r e c o g n i z e s and promotes a w ide v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . The C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e has p l a n n e d an e x t e n s i v e program o f expand ing r o a d systems i n t o many u n d e v e l o p e d p o r t i o n s o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s , a p r o c e s s w h i c h w i l l open some l a r g e a r ea s o f p a r k w i l d e r n e s s t o m o t o r i s t s . In c o n t r a s t , t he U n i t e d S t a t e s Pa rk S e r v i c e has t a k e n r e c e n t a c t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t r o a d deve lopment i s t o be l i m i t e d i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . F u r t h e r m o r e , under t h e terms o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s A c t , r o a d l e s s a r e a s a r e to be r e v i e w e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n p e r m a n e n t l y d e s i g n a t e d W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n app roach t o r o a d deve lopment - 98 -r e f l e c t s a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n emphas i s between p o l i c i e s f o r t he two p a r k s y s t e m s ; the A m e r i c a n p a r k s a r e o r i e n t e d toward s n a t u r e p r e s e r v a t i o n , w h i l e i n Canada, the p a r k s a r e o r i e n t e d towards r e c r e a t i o n . C u r r e n t p o l i c y i n Canada r e c o g n i z e s t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s as b e i n g o f t h r e e t y p e s : s c e n i c and n a t u r e p a r k s , f a m i l y h o l i d a y p a r k s , and s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s p a r k s . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t he se f u n c t i o n s a r e p e r f o r m e d by a number o f o t h e r t y p e s o f a r ea s b e s i d e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . W i t h i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p a r k a rea s have l i m i t e d v i s i t o r c a p a c i t y , w h i c h has i n some ca se s a l r e a d y been e xceeded . T h i s has prompted the N a t i o n a l Pa rk S e r v i c e to r e d u c e accommodat ion i n t h e s e a r e a s and t o c u r t a i l v i s i t a t i o n . W h i l e v i s i t o r p r e s s u r e i s l e s s i n t e n s e i n Canada, some p a r k s a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s v e r y c rowded. The N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r anch does no t e x p r e s s an i n t e n t t o l i m i t v i s i t a t i o n i n any o f t he Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k s a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , a l t h o u g h t he p o s s i b i l i t y f o r f u t u r e c u r t a i l m e n t i s r e c o g n i z e d (see N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Pa r k s B r a n c h , 1 970a ) . In any c a s e , t he i n t e n s i t y o f u se c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e i n the Canad ian p a r k s i s l i k e l y t o be h i g h e r t h a n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s because o f t he t r a d i t i o n o f g r e a t e r p a r k deve lopment i n Canada. - 99 -E c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and knowledge appear s t o be h a v i n g a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on p a r k p l a n n i n g and manage-ment d e c i s i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a n i n Canada. S t u d i e s such as the L e o p o l d Repo r t have s e t new g u i d e -l i n e s f o r p a r k s p o l i c y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s v o i c e d i n t h i s and o t h e r r e p o r t s a r e no t e v i d e n t i n p r e s e n t Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k s p o l i c y . Fund ing f o r p a r k a c q u i s i t i o n i n Canada i s p r e s e n t l y a t a much l o w e r p e r c a p i t a l e v e l t h a n i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , bu t l a n d p r i c e s a r e a l s o l e s s . In any e v e n t , b o t h c o u n t r i e s have r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r a g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l commitment t o t h e p u r c h a s e o f d e s i r a b l e p a r k l a n d s w h i l e t hey a r e s t i l l a v a i l a b l e . 100 -C h a p t e r 6 EVOLUTION OF NATIONAL PARKS POL IC IES: AN OVERVIEW A) Summary T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a summary i n g r a p h i c f o rm o f t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y t r e n d s i n p o l i c y and p o l i c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , as r e f l e c t e d i n t he f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d by t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s and e q u i v a l e n t r e s e r v e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. In o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e p o l i c y change o v e r t i m e , a f ramework d e v i s e d by H a r t (1966) was m o d i f i e d f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y . H a r t s u g g e s t s t h a t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d a r ea s can be d e r i v e d ba sed on the number and t y p e o f r e s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on human m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t he n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . He d e s c r i b e s a con t i nuum between a s t a t e where no r e s t r a i n t s e x i s t t o one where c o n t r o l o f use i s v e s t e d i n a p u b l i c o r q u a s i - p u b l i c body . By r e l a t i n g t h i s f ramework t o a t ime s c a l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e e v o l u t i o n a r y t r e n d s i n n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y and f u n c t i o n . H a r t ' s b a s i c f ramework i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e I, and t he m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s tudy , i s shown i n T a b l e I I f o r t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n T a b l e I I I f o r Canada. Some o f the l a n d use t ype s s u gge s t ed by H a r t were e l i m i n a t e d i n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n because t hey a r e beyond t he range o f l a n d u se s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the N a t i o n a l Pa rk Sys tems. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the o r d e r o f some o f t he head i n g s was changed t o r e f l e c t t he l i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n - 101 -T a b l e I The Range o f S o c i a l R e s t r a i n t s on Human M a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e N a t u r a l Env i r onment ( a f t e r H a r t , 1966 ) . No R e s t r a i n t s imposed by p u b l i c o r r e s t r a i n t s q u a s i - p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p , w h i c h may be s u b d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s ; fewer r e s t r a i n t s more r e s t r a i n t s \ 1 • 1 I I I w > & o > i—i > s c Mu > 2 c/i ^ 2 ?3 22 O fd Z w P • i CD >-i w •-i CD »-J p (/) Mu 4 P (D H ' P P CD P O CD P r t t/i CO O H« CD CD O r t CD y CD (5 3 Ifl 3 4 r t tt r t 3 </) r t »-s CD P >-S CD po H CD p p r+ P p o era ^ C CD C r+ CD C H -3 CD 3 i CD i-i Op H - era e M >-i >~i i-i H •-s I-J n CD P r t P 3 CD CD >-i CD P < CD O < CD r t r+ CD r t CD 3 I-1 3 o CD M CD r t H" CD CD CD CD I-1 O O H* CD 3 3 P r+ r t r t &. CD D e f i n i t i o n o f terms i n T a b l e s I, I I , and I I I ( a f t e r H a r t ) : Easement - o w n e r s h i p o f c e r t a i n l i m i t e d r i g h t s t o l a n d by t he p u b l i c , bu t w i t h most o f t he o w n e r s h i p r i g h t s r e m a i n i n g i n p r i v a t e hands . U s e r - o r i e n t e d R e c r e a t i o n A r e a - an a r e a on w h i c h a h i g h deg ree o f human a l t e r a t i o n i s p e r m i t t e d by s o c i e t y as a w h o l e , as i n s m a l l u r b a n p a r k s . P r o p e r t y i s a c q u i r e d s o l e l y f o r u t i l i z a t i o n and t he e n t i r e a r e a i s p l a n n e d f o r u s e . I n t e r m e d i a t e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a - an a r e a where l i m i t e d a l t e r a -t i o n o f t he l a n d s c a p e i s p e r m i t t e d . Land o f h i g h q u a l i t y l a n d s c a p e s i s u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r deve l opmen t . M u l t i p l e Use Management A r e a - an a r e a where a v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e u se s a re p e r m i t t e d . In some ca se s one use may p r e d o m i n a t e . S i n g l e Re sou rce Management A r e a - an a r e a p r i m a r i l y u s ed t o p r o t e c t an endangered s p e c i e s , b i o t i c community o r h i s t o r i c s i t e . H a b i t a t improvement may be u n d e r t a k e n . N a t u r a l Pa r k - an a r e a d e s i g n a t e d t o p r o v i d e f o r t he m a i n t e n -ance and e x h i b i t i o n o f a l l r e s o u r c e s i n the a r e a . Human i n t e r f e r e n c e i s c a r e f u l l y l i m i t e d . C o n t r o l l e d N a t u r e Re se r ve - an a r e a where m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t he e n v i r o n m e n t i s l i m i t e d t o t ho se t h i n g s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r v i s i t o r c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e (as U.S. W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s ) . S t r i c t N a t u r e Re se r ve - an a r e a d e s i g n a t e d f o r s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y where a c c e s s i s r e s t r i c t e d . - 102 -T a b l e I I The E v o l u t i o n o f N a t i o n a l Pa r k F u n c t i o n i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s Pa r k sy s tem ,f u n c t i o n CD rf <D O 0 CD JH rn U > CD 0 CD < 3 < r< 5H tn +-> o >H CD '+-> PI !=> rf C V) +-) • rf • P o • H o CD C CM CD CD rf rf C • H * <H T 3 >H CD rH Pi U rf i—i CD +-> S rH CD • H CU CD CD rf O CD +J > m w rH •H U o rH bQ f-l JH rH U N •H 4-> +-> rf CD J H bo rf 3 • P 3 • H 0 •rH rH CD +-> U c c +-> 1=1 4-> ?-i (/) bO CD 60 3 U S < C CD • H rf rf O rf +J CD • H > o HH Pi m 2 2 u a co Pi CO w —i 1970 1960 1950 194 0 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1860 rf P * rf o • H +-> rf 2 rH O - H r<-t% <-. 1964 W i l d e r -ness A c t 1 9 5 0 ' s - N a t . R e c r e a t i o n A rea s e s t ab -l i s h e d 1906 A n t i -q u i t i e s A c t 1872 Y e l l o w -s tone N a t . Pa rk A c t * Fo r d e f i n i t i o n s o f t he se t e r m s , see T a b l e I - 103 -T a b l e I I I The E v o l u t i o n o f N a t i o n a l Pa r k F u n c t i o n i n Canada P a r k s y s tem Year rt o rt 0 o rH rH r-C > 0) 0 < 3 < r « rH rH cn •P o 0 +J & rt pi Ul +-> rt T3 tn +-> Pi o • H o OJ C C M 0 0 rt rt P! •H 0 n3 . H rt OJ rH rt O rt t—1 0 4-> rH rH 0 •H rt C H e rt OJ 0 rt O 0 4-> > m w rH •H , H CO rH bO H U U O rH •H +-> 10 +-> rt OJ (H bO 03 +J 2 •H 0 C P! •H rH OJ 4-> O G P! Pi +J fn t/i M 0 bO pj 0) • H rt O rt •P 0 •H > O s < M 00 W 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1860 rt "d •H rH O rH rt rH rt O H rt 0 H 4-> rt 0 fe rt •H o 0 P M C O rH rt CM rt 2; o • H tn P ! • rS4 0 +-> rH U rt rt PM s c e n i c p a r k s d i s t i n g u i s h e d 1930 N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t 1887 Rocky Mtns N a t . Pa r k 1885 B a n f f H o t s p r i n g s r e s e r v e * Fo r d e f i n i t i o n s o f t he se t e r m s , see T a b l e I - 104 -as an a d d i t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t on l a n d u se . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a " m u l t i p l e use a r e a " i s c o n s i d e r e d to be under f e w e r r e s t r a i n t s t han an " i n t e r m e d i a t e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a " . T h i s a r rangement i s more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t he range o f f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d by v a r i o u s u n i t s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Pa rk Systems o f t he two c o u n t r i e s a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e . T h i s g r a p h i c summary s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e the p r o -nounced d i f f e r e n c e s i n the emphas i s o f N a t i o n a l Pa r k s p o l i c y between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, how t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n p o l i c y has changed o ve r t i m e , and how the f u n c t i o n o f each sy s tem has e v o l v e d ove r the same p e r i o d . As shown i n T a b l e I I , N a t i o n a l Pa r k s p o l i c y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has been c o n s i s t e n t l y d i r e c t e d toward s t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a r e a s and has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n s i n c e an e a r l y d a t e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t he f u n c t i o n o f t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s u n t i l t he 1 8 9 0 ' s was p r e s e r v a t i o n o f u n i q u e f e a t u r e s ( i n o t h e r wo rd s , t he p a r k s were s i n g l e r e s o u r c e management a r e a s ) . By t he 1 8 9 0 ' s , i t had s h i f t e d to p r o v i d i n g a n a t u r a l p a r k o r c o n t r o l l e d n a t u r e r e s e r v e ( w i l d e r n e s s a r e a ) . T h i s n a t u r a l p a r k , or w i l d e r n e s s f u n c t i o n p e r s i s t s t o t he p r e s e n t t i m e , a l t h o u g h emphas i s on w i l d e r n e s s i s enhanced somewhat by t he r e c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l Pa r k and o t h e r l a n d s t o W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t he t r e n d o f p o l i c y has been to r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l Pa r k s - 105 -System and c r e a t e s e p a r a t e t ype s o f a r e a s t o f u l f i l l t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . Fo r examp le , t he N a t i o n a l Monuments c a r r y out t h e f u n c t i o n o f p r e s e r v i n g and p r o t e c t i n g s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s or s p e c i e s , and N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A rea s and N a t i o n a l Sea sho re s p e r f o r m the r e c r e a t i o n - i n - a t t r a c t i v e - l a n d s c a p e f u n c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t he W i l d e r n e s s A r e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d e v i s e d t o p r o v i d e a d e s i g n a t i o n f o r a r e a s s e t a s i d e as c o n t r o l l e d n a t u r e r e s e r v e s . N a t i o n a l Pa r k p o l i c y has become f o c u s e d on a more l i m i t e d range o f l a n d u se s t h a t has p o l i c y i n Canada. Thus , i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t he f u n c t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Pa r k s has been i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h a t o f n a t u r a l p a r k s , i n c l u d i n g a r e a s o f w i l d e r n e s s . As a r e s u l t , deve lopment s o f f a c i l i t i e s and t he p r o v i s i o n o f a r t i f i c i a l r e c r e a t i o n has been much more l i m i t e d t h a n i n t h e i r Canad i an c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appa ren t when the v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n p o p u l a t i o n between the two c o u n t r i e s i s c o n s i d e r e d . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a s t r o n g p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t movement d e v e l -oped to s u p p o r t m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l Pa r k s i n t h e i r q u a s i - w i l d e r n e s s s t a t e . D u r i n g t h e l a s t 100 y e a r s , t h i s movement has become f o r m a l i z e d and has e x e r t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n d i r e c t i n g t he f u t u r e fo rm and f u n c t i o n o f t he A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Pa r k Sys tem. In Canada, on the o t h e r hand , p o l i c y has e v o l v e d d i f f e r e n t l y (see T a b l e I I I ) . From t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s , Canad i an - 1 0 6 -N a t i o n a l P a r k s p o l i c y has s h i f t e d f rom e m p h a s i z i n g a m u l t i p l e use f u n c t i o n , accommodat ing r e c r e a t i o n , f o r e s t r y , and m i n i n g , t o a s t a t e where the t h r e e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d a r e : r e c r e a t i o n i n a t t r a c t i v e l a n d s c a p e s , p r o t e c t i o n o f s p e c i a l a r e a s o r s p e c i e s , and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . F o r t u n a t e l y , t he e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t i m b e r and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the Canad i an N a t i o n a l P a r k s has l a r g e l y b e e n d i s c o n t i n u e d . P o l i c y has been to e x t e n d t he r e c r e a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the p a r k s t o i n c l u d e new t y p e s o f l a n d u se s w i t h o u t f o r m a l i z i n g new t y p e s o f a r e a s . The u se s now a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he p a r k s range f r om t ho se o f " i n t e r m e d i a t e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s " t o t ho se o f " c o n t r o l l e d n a t u r e r e s e r v e s " . N a t i o n a l P a r k s p o l i c y i n Canada has been much l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h n a t u r e p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n t h a n has p o l i c y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . E a r l y deve lopment o f t he Canad i an N a t i o n a l Pa r k s was o r i e n t e d t o t o u r i s t accommoda-t i o n ; t he p a r k s were d e v e l o p e d as any o t h e r r e s o u r c e to p r oduce the maximum r e t u r n s . The p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n has g r a d u a l l y become the dominant theme o f Canad i an N a t i o n a l Pa r k s p o l i c y , w i t h a c o n c e r n f o r n a t u r a l a r e a s o n l y r e c e n t l y emerg i ng . The a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d i n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s were t ho se o f a p e o p l e s t i l l c o n q u e r i n g a w i l d e r n e s s , unconce rned w i t h i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , deve lopment s i n the Canad i an N a t i o n a l Pa r k s have been pu r s ued to a much h i g h e r deg ree t han i n t h e U n i t e d - 107 -F a c i l i t i e s and accommodat ions a r e g e n e r a l l y more e l a b o r a t e i n most Canad i an p a r k s . In some areas , such as B a n f f and J a s p e r , a r e s o r t a tmosphere p r e v a i l s , b e a r i n g l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the n a t u r a l n e s s o f t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s . No s t r o n g p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t p h i l o s o p h y has e x i s t e d . i n Canada u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y . B) C o n c l u s i o n s The pu rpo se o f t h i s s t u d y was t o compare the e v o l u t i o n o f p o l i c y f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s and e q u i v a l e n t r e s e r v e s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t o i s o l a t e and d e f i n e d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p o l i c y and p o l i c y i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . Emphas i s has been p l a c e d on p o l i c i e s g o v e r n i n g t h e t ype s o f a c t i v i t i e s p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and on t h e deg ree o f p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d n a t u r a l a r e a s . I t i s r e a s o n e d t h a t r e s t r a i n t s on l a n d use w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d t o r e s t r i c t a c t i v i t i e s and deve lopment s o f p a r k s t o t h e t y p e c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e by the government , and t h r o u g h t he p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , by p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s i n g e n e r a l . Thu s , i t has a l s o been i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e f l e c t on the v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s o f s o c i e t y as t hey have been e x p r e s s e d by the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s and pu rpo se s o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k sys tems i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s . From t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g , as w e l l as more g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s r e f l e c t i n g t he r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r k s , n a t u r a l a r e a s , and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . - 108 -One o f t h e most p r e s s i n g p rob lems i n p l a n n i n g f o r t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada i s d e t e r m i n i n g j u s t what t he p a r k s a r e f o r . The u n c e r t a i n t y e x i s t i n g i n Canada r e g a r d -i n g t h e f u n c t i o n and pu rpo se s o f the n a t i o n a l parks , may w e l l be r e l a t e d to the d i v e r s e and sometimes c o n t r a d i c t i n g f u n c t i o n s a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m e d by t h e p a r k s . Even a f t e r w r i t t e n p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s were p r o d u c e d , so much room f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was l e f t t h a t a number o f p o t e n t i a l c o n t r a -d i c t i o n s e x i s t . How can p e o p l e a p p r e c i a t e t he pu rpo se o f a p a r k when i t may v a r y f rom the p r o v i s i o n o f h i g h l y a r t i f i c i a l s p o r t s t o the ma i n t enance o f c o n t r o l l e d n a t u r a l a r e a s ? Pe rhaps the e x p e r i e n c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s v a l u a b l e i n t h i s r e g a r d . When an a r e a i s c a l l e d a W i l d e r n e s s A r e a , i t s f u n c t i o n and pu rpo se i s c l e a r . S i m i l a r l y , when the U n i t e d S t a t e s f e d e r a l government p r o v i d e s N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n and no t w i l d e r n e s s p r o t e c t i o n i s t o be the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i n t h a t a r e a . N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s have a more r e s t r i c t e d f u n c t i o n , t h a t i s , o f n a t u r a l p a r k s . The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t d i f f e r e n t a r e a s p r o v i d e f o r d i f f e r e n t t ype s o f a c t i v i t i e s and l a n d u ses a l s o s i m p l i f i e s management and p l a n n i n g . The need t o make s u b j e c t i v e judgements c o n c e r n i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n o f an a r e a i s r e d u c e d , and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s a re thus a v o i d e d . M o r e o v e r , i f t he f u n c t i o n o f Canad i an n a t i o n a l p a r k s p e r se i s u n c l e a r , t h e n t he f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n a t i o n a l - 109 -and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i s t o t a l l y f ogbound . W h i l e i t i s no t the pu rpo se o f t h i s s t u d y t o p r e s e n t an a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he Canad i an N a t i o n a l Pa rk System and t he v a r i o u s sys tems o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i n the c o u n t r y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t a r e a l d u p l i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n e x i s t s . O b v i o u s l y , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l sy s tems have no t been f u l l y e x p l o i t e d . The r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t he i d e a l l y s e p a r a t e f u n c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i n Canada wou ld go a l o n g way towards c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g needed r e s e r v e s f o r n a t u r a l a r e a p r e s e r v a t i o n and o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e d i s p u t e s o ve r t he p r o p o s e d deve lopment s w i t h i n the A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Pa rk System i n r e c e n t y e a r s u n d e r l i n e s t he f a c t t h a t such n a t u r a l wonders as a r e p r e s e r v e d w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s a r e r e a l l y o f n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . For e xamp le , p e o p l e i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were c o n c e r n e d ove r t he f a t e o f t h e Grand Canyon and the c o a s t a l redwood s t a n d s . I t was t he n a t i o n - w i d e i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e s e a r ea s t h a t p r e v e n t e d t h e i r deve l opment . However, i t must be r e c o g -n i z e d t h a t l o c a l a r e a s may be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d e c o n o m i c a l l y by the r e s e r v a t i o n o f p a r k s o r by the c u r t a i l m e n t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . F e d e r a l governments s h o u l d be w i l l i n g t o r e i m b u r s e l o c a l p e o p l e o f governments f o r l o s s e s t h e y may s u s t a i n i n n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s . I f i t i s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o c r e a t e a new n a t i o n a l p a r k , t hen i t i s - 110 -a n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o pay f o r i t . The c r e a t i o n o f t he Land and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n Fund i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e r e c e n t p o l i c y o f the Canad i an Government t o s h a r e p a r k a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t he r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . One o f the p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s f a c i n g p a r k p l a n n e r s i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s i s t he a u t o m o b i l e and the accommodat ion o f g r ow ing numbers o f v i s i t o r s i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . I t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y appa ren t t h a t more than a n y t h i n g e l s e , t he a u t o m o b i l e p r e s e n t s a r e a l t h r e a t t o n a t i o n a l p a r k a r e a s once v e h i c l e t r a f f i c r e a c h e s even moderate l e v e l s . P l a n n e r s must come to g r i p s w i t h the q u e s t i o n : Is i t r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y f o r e v e r y p a r k u s e r t o have h i s own a u t o m o b i l e w h i l e i n the n a t i o n a l p a r k s ? S i m i l a r l y , w i t h p r e s e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y , i s i t n e c e s s a r y t o accommodate v i s i t o r s w i t h i n p a r k s when most p a r t s o f even t he l a r g e s t n a t i o n a l p a r k s can be r e a c h e d w i t h i n one o r two hour s t r a v e l t ime f rom c e n t e r s o u t s i d e the p a r k s . Is i t r e a l l y a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f e x p e r i e n c i n g a n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and u n i q u e a r e a such as a n a t i o n a l p a r k t o s l e e p i n a d e l u x e m o t e l u n i t ? When t h i s l e v e l o f s e p a r a -t i o n i s r e a c h e d between the v i s i t o r and t he n a t u r a l e n v i r -onment, can accommodat ion r e a l l y be l i n k e d w i t h n a t i o n a l p a r k pu rpo se s ? The U n i t e d S t a t e s i s c u r r e n t l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e s t r a i n t t han Canada i n open i ng up n a t i o n a l p a r k a r e a s t o h ighway deve lopment and accommodat ion . - I l l -I t i s t he i n t r i c a t e c o m p l e x i t y o f g e o l o g y , c l i m a t e , and b i o l o g i c a l c ommun i t i e s e x i s t i n g i n a p a r k w h i c h make i t a u n i q u e and n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a . Most t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n can be p r o v i d e d i n an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y o f a t t r a c t i v e s e t t i n g s , w h i c h can be c r e a t e d by a r c h i t e c t s and e n g i n e e r s . Whether t y p i c a l o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s a r e r e s e r v e d o r s p e c t a c u l a r f e a t u r e s , t he i n t e g r i t y o f t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g i s c r i t i c a l . i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s . As t he L e o p o l d Repo r t p o i n t e d o u t , t h e n a t u r a l n e s s o f an a r e a i s t he q u a l i t y t h a t s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d i n a n a t i o n a l p a r k ( L e o p o l d e t a l . , 1 963 ) . I t i s t i m e we r e c o g n i z e , as D a r l i n g and E i c h o r n (1969) have s u g g e s t e d , t h a t t he o n l y a b s o l u t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e i n n a t i o n a l p a r k p l a n n i n g can be to c o n s i d e r f i r s t t he e c o l o g i c a l h e a l t h o f a p a r k so t h a t i t s h a l l endure f o r p o s t e r i t y . Thu s , the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t n a t u r a l a r e a s r e p r e s e n t a f r a g i l e and l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e must be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p o l i c y . I t seems f a i r t o say t h a t , i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , the t h r u s t o f p o l i c y i n Canada has been t o p r e s e r v e a q u a s i -n a t u r a l s e t t i n g f o r e n j o y i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , w h i l e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , p o l i c y has been d i r e c t e d towards p r e s e r v i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a p p r o a c h , f o r i t r e f l e c t s a d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r onmen t i n the two c o u n t r i e s . As Nash ( 1969 ) , Cowan ( 1968 ) , and o t h e r s have p o i n t e d o u t , Canad ian s have g e n e r a l l y l a c k e d sympathy - 112 o r c o n c e r n f o r n a t u r a l a r ea s and w i l d e r n e s s . I t i s r ea soned t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e r e s u l t s f rom the s t a g e Canada i s a t i n n a t i o n a l de ve l opmen t . I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t Canada i s s t i l l a p i o n e e r i n g n a t i o n , and i n some r e s p e c t s t h i s i s t r u e . V a s t unpopu-l a t e d p a r t s o f Canada s t i l l e x i s t . However, u n l i k e the U n i t e d S t a t e s h a l f a c e n t u r y ago when a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n m i gh t have been d e s c r i b e d , Canada a l s o has t he i n d u s t r i a l and u r b a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f what has been termed a " p o s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y " ( T r i s t , 1 968 ) . Thus , Canada i s i n f a c t f a r removed f rom b o t h t h e p i o n e e r economy and t h e p i o n e e r t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t he t u r n o f t he c e n t u r y . Few Canad i an s have d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h w i l d e r n e s s and n a t u r a l a r ea s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , y e t t he f e e l i n g p e r s i s t s t h a t t he w i l d e r n e s s i n Canada i s n e a r l y i n f i n i t e . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s i s t r u e , bu t t h e r e a r e many n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s and eco sy s tems t h a t a re b e i n g r a p i d l y and i r r e v e r s i b l y a l t e r e d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n s o u t h e r n Canada, where f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , and m i n i n g have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r some t i m e (see L i t t e l j o h n and P i m l o t t , 1971; Yeomans, 1970 ) . As T r i s t (1968) comments, w h i l e the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f t he p o s t i n d u s t r i a l ( s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d and l e i s u r e -o r i e n t e d ) s o c i e t y i s p r e s e n t i n Canada, what i s n o t , " a nd i s no t b u i l d i n g up a t the pace r e q u i r e d i s any c o r r e s p o n d -i n g change i n ou r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s - 113 -o r e c o l o g i c a l s t r a t e g i e s " . What i s needed , t h e n , i s a change i n a t t i t u d e away f rom t h e i n d u s t r i a l e r a c o n c e p t o f w i l d e r n e s s conque s t as d i s c u s s e d by Nash (1967) , to an a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t he n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , o r as A l d o L e o p o l d (1949) te rmed i t , t he deve lopment o f " a l a n d e t h i c " . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f w i l d e r n e s s , a p a r t f rom any s p e c t a c u l a r q u a l i t i e s , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s encou rage s t he hope t h a t t h i s l a n d e t h i c may be d e v e l o p i n g i n t h a t c o u n t r y . But i f Nash (1969) and Cowan (1968) a r e r i g h t - - i f Canada i s i n deed 25 o r 50 y e a r s b e h i n d t he U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t he deve lopment o f a c o n c e r n g r e a t enough t o prompt government a c t i o n - - t h e n we may be d e s t i n e d t o r e p e a t many o f the m i s t a k e s made i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t he l a s t c e n t u r y . F o r t u n a t e l y , a t t i t u d e s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s need no t t a k e 25 y e a r s t o change. The emerg ing c o n s e r v a t i o n movement i n Canada i s an e n c o u r a g i n g s i g n . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f Canad i an and A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l p a r k p o l i c y has shown t h a t i f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada a r e t o p e r f o r m a n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the f u t u r e , and i f maximum b e n e f i t s a r e to be d e r i v e d f r om t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e s , a number o f changes must be made i n p o l i c y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he pu rpo se and f u n c t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t he f o l l o w i n g recommendat ions a re p r o -p o s e d : - 114 -1) The r o l e s and f u n c t i o n s p r e s e n t l y p e r f o r m e d by t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n Canada s h o u l d be r a t i o n a l i z e d so t h a t a c l e a r and e x p l i c i t d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between r e c r e a t i o n a r ea s and n a t u r a l env i r onment r e s e r v e s . 2) E x p l i c i t and d i s t i n c t p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d f o r each o f the f u n c t i o n s p r e s e n t l y p e r f o r m e d by t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s , i . e . r e c r e a t i o n and s c e n i c p r e s e r v a t i o n . 3) In o r d e r t h a t t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n between t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s , such as t ho se i n Quebec, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and O n t a r i o , be m i n i m i z e d , the f e d e r a l r o l e i n p a r k deve lopment must be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r om the p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and a h i e r a r c h y o f p a r k s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . 4) F e d e r a l a c t i o n s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on r e s e r v i n g n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g b o t h s p e c t a c u l a r l y s c e n i c a r e a s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ecosy s tems and l a n d f o r m s i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s and W i l d e r n e s s A r ea s r e s p e c t i v e l y . A r ea s no t h a v i n g n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s , o r where i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n i s d e s i r e d ( i . e . a r ea s l o c a t e d c l o s e t o u r b a n c e n t e r s ) s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d e x p l i c i t l y as R e c r e a t i o n A r ea s i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t he p r o v i n c e s . 5) The f e d e r a l government s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t a l l o f t he c o s t s f o r p r o t e c t i n g n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s . - 115 -6) Development o f p a r k s f o r a u t o m o b i l e t r a v e l s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n o n l y to the deg ree n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o an a r e a where o t h e r l e s s d i s r u p t i v e means a r e no t f e a s i b l e . P a r k s s h o u l d no t s e r v e as s c e n i c b a c k - d r o p s f o r h i ghway s . 7) The b a s i c g o a l s o f p a r k p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be r e d e f i n e d t o emphas i ze the ma i n t enance o f n a t u r a l e c o l o g i c a l sys tems w i t h i n each u n i t o f t he n a t i o n a l p a r k s y s t em. 8) Deve lopment o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s s h o u l d be o r i e n t e d t o s t i m u l a t i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a r e a s and w i l d e r n e s s i n the p u b l i c - - no t t o p r o v i d i n g f o r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s e q u a l i t i e s . H i g h q u a l i t y n a t i o n a l p a r k s and e q u i v a l e n t a r ea s a r e dependent upon t he ma i n t enance o f n a t u r a l e c o s y s t e m s . Once a l t e r e d , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t , i f no t i m p o s s i b l e , t o r e s t o r e a n a t u r a l s y s tem t o i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e p l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s , once i m p l e m e n t e d , may be i r r e v e r s i b l e , i t i s l o g i c a l t o make as few commit -ments t o d e v e l o p i n g n a t u r a l a r e a s as p o s s i b l e . In p r i n c i p l e , we s h o u l d be opposed to i r r e v e r s i b l e change u n l e s s we a r e v e r y s u re o f where we a r e g o i n g and c e r t a i n t h a t we w i l l neve r w i s h t o r e t u r n . - 116 -REFERENCES Adams, A n s e l . 1958. " A n s e l Adams on Y o s e m i t e " . The L i v i n g Wilderness, 23 ( 6 6 ) : 34 - 35. B a r n a r d , John R. 1956. " F o r e s t W i l d e r n e s s " . Sierra Club B u l l e t i n , 41 ( 1 ) : 25 - 28. B o d s w o r t h , F r e d . 1969. " B e a u t y and t he B u c k " . Park News, 5 ( 1 ) : 13 - 16. ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n MacLean's Magazine, M a r c h , 1963. ) B r a n d b o u r g , S t e w a r t M. 1969. "The W i l d e r n e s s Law and t h e N a t i o n a l Pa rk System o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " . I n : N e l s o n and Scace ( e d . ) , The Canadian National Parks: Today and Tomorrow. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y P r e s s , C a l g a r y , A l t a . B r o o k s , L l o y d . 1969. " P l a n n i n g a Canad i an N a t i o n a l Pa r k System - - P r o g r e s s and P r o b l e m s " . I n : N e l s o n and Scace ( e d . ) , The Canadian National Parks: Today and Tomorrow. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y P r e s s , C a l g a r y , A l t a . B rower , D a v i d . 1958. " ' M i s s i o n 6 5 ' i s P r opo sed by Rev i ewe r o f Pa r k S e r v i c e ' s New B r o c h u r e on W i l d e r n e s s " . National Parks Magazine, 32 ( 1 32 ) : 2 - 6 , 45. B r owe r , D a v i d . 1962. " P l e a s e Keep Those G l e n Canyon Tunne l s Open U n t i l Rainbow B r i d g e P r o t e c t i o n i s C e r t a i n " . Sierra Club B u l l e t i n , 47 ( 3 ) : 2. B r owe r , D a v i d . 1964= " I n t r o d u c t i o n " . I n : L e y d e t , Time and the River Flowing. S i e r r a C l u b , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f . B rown, Robe r t C r a i g . 1969. "The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s : N a t u r a l Re sou r ce and N a t i o n a l Pa r k P o l i c y i n Canada, 1887 - 1 914 " . I n : N e l s o n and Scace ( e d . ) , The Canadian National Parks: Today and Tomorrow. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y P r e s s , C a l g a r y , A l t a . B u t c h e r , Deve reux . 1950a. " S t o p t h e D i n o s a u r Power G r a b " . National Parks Magazine, 24 ( 1 01 ) : 61 - 65. B u t c h e r , Deve reux . 1950b. " T h i s i s D i n o s a u r " . National Parks Magazine, 24 ( 1 03 ) : 123 - 136. B u t c h e r , Deve reux . 1952. " I n De fense o f D i n o s a u r " . Audubon Magazine, 53 ( 1951 ) : 142 - 149. - 117 -B u t c h e r , Deve reux . 1968. Our National Parks in Colour. C l a r k s o n N. P o l t e r . New Y o r k , N.Y. Cahn, R o b e r t . 1968. Will Success Spoil the National Parks? C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r , B o s t o n , Mass. C a l l i s o n , C h a r l e s H. 1968. "The 90 th Congres s and C o n s e r v a -t i o n - - Much Good - - Some F a i l u r e s " . Audubon Magazine, 70 ( 6 ) : 80 - 81 . C h r e t i e n , J e a n . 1969. "Ou r E v o l v i n g N a t i o n a l Pa r k s S y s t e m " . I n : N e l s o n and Scace ( e d . ) , The Canadian National Parks: Today and Tomorrow. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y P r e s s , C a l g a r y , A l t a . C h r 6 t i e n , J e a n . 1971. " P a r k s f o r Tomorrow" . Park News, 7 (1) : 5 - 11 . C l a w s o n , M a r i o n . 1959. "Our N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n t he Year 2000 " . 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The L i v i n g Wilderness, 34 ( 1 12 ) : 40 - 45. 

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