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EEG alpha production in alpha conditioning and meditation Warrington, Julia Ann 1971

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EEG ALPHA PRODUCTION IN ALPHA CONDITIONING AND MEDITATION by JULIA ANN WARRINGTON B.A., University of Victoria, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I f u r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s f o r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on o f th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of Psychology  The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 14, 1971 Abstract Following training to discriminate their own alpha and non-alpha production, five subjects were tested over five sessions to determine whether EEG alpha autocontrol by this method was similar to that produced in i n i t i a l meditation practice sessions by five naive meditators. Both groups were compared with a control "resting" group of five subjects. Besides alpha data, an adjective checklist and questionnaire were scored. No significant differences on percent alpha or alpha length were found between groups. However, the interaction effect approached significance. Meditators produced the greatest amount of alpha on the f i r s t session only and subsequently decreased alpha production. They also experienced more negative feelings over the sessions. Alpha conditioned subjects increased alpha production slightly as did the controls who produced some-what less alpha than the former group. Relevance of the results to previous studies was discussed. Suggestions for further controls and methodological improvements were proposed. i i i Table of Contents Introduction o © e o 0 0 9 o o o Operant Conditioning of Autonomic Nervous System Events . 1 Operant Conditioning of Electrical Activity in the Brain 3 Meditations Overview and Subjective Reports o Physiological Studies of Meditation o o « » o • Method • . . « Subjects . o Apparatus and Procedure o « • . HeSUltS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o © o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Q O O O O O O O O O © P 0 O O O 0 o o o . . . 10 13 19 . 19 . 19 . 25 Alpha Discrimination Training Results . . . Subjective Alpha Conditioning Results . . . Comparison of Test Sessions on Mean Percent Alpha Comparison of Test Sessions on Mean Alpha Length Adjective Checklist Data ....<>. Discussion EEG Analysis . Subjective Data Analysis Considerations for Future Research Conclusion . . Bibliography Appendices . o o • o o • o o o O O 3 0 O O O O O O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 O O O C O O O O O O o o o o o o o o e o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o o o o e o o o o o o . 25 . 26 . 27 . 32 . 34 . 37 . 37 . 38 . 42 . ^5 . 46 . 50 iv List of Tables Table 1 Percent Correct Responses on First and Last Alpha Training Runs 25 Table 2a Percent Alpha by Sessions . . . . . . 27 Table 2b Modified Percent Alpha by Sessions . . . . . . 28 Table 3 Frequency of Positive and Negative Adjectives Checked 36 V List of Figures Figure 1 Comparison of Scoring Criteria 29 Figure 2 Percent Alpha over Sessions 31 Figure 3 Mean Alpha Length over Sessions 33 Figure k Comparison of Groups on Mean Percent Alpha Differences and Mean Alpha Length Differences in cm 35 List of Appendices Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III Appendix IV Appendix V Appendix VI Appendix VII Appendix VIII Appendix IX Appendix X 50 Instructions to Subjects Adjective Checklist and Questionnaire . . . 53 Analysis of Variance for Percent Alpha . . . 5^ Analysis of Variance for Percent Alpha on 15 Min. Sessions Converted to 10 Min. . . . 55 Kirk Analysis of Simple Main Effects for Percent Alpha Scores . . 56 Percent Alpha Difference Scores Mean Length of Alpha Bursts by Sessions for the Three Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis of Variance for Mean Alpha Length Mean Alpha Length Difference Scores in cm. . 60 Analysis of Variance for Mean Alpha Length Differences 57 58 59 o o c 61 Acknowledgment s v i i The writer would like to express appreciation and thanks to Dr. R. Tees, Dr. R. Wong9 and Dr. W. Petrusic for their advice, criticism, and encouragement in the conception and completion of this study5 Dr. V/. Nicholls and Dr. S. Iida of the Department of Religious Studies for their advice, enthusiasm, and cooperation; to Prof. Brian Carpendale of Simon Fraser University for his dis-cussions and demonstration of techniques; to Terry Creighton for materials, instruction?;, and advice; to the volunteers for their genero\isly given time and involvement in the study; to Steve and Linda Oxendale for their assistance in scoring; and to my husband John for his vision, support, and encouragement. 1 Operant Conditioning of Autonomic Nervous System Events M i l l e r (1969) pointed out that f o r the past 2,000 years the nervous system has been dichotomized. Voluntary responses of the s k e l e t a l muscles had been associated with reason and hence were regarded from a philosophi-c a l standpoint as superior, while the presumably involuntary glandular v i s c e r a l responses were associated with the unreasoning emotions, con-s t i t u t i n g the i n f e r i o r p a rt. S i m i l a r l y , or perhaps consequently, learning has also been dichotomized. C l a s s i c a l conditioning d e a l t with the l e a r n -ing of "involuntary" responses and instrumental or operant conditioning was responsible f o r "voluntary^ behavior. Skinner and others concluded from very incomplete evidence that instrumental learning was po s s i b l e only f o r "voluntary" nervous system events and that autonomic responses could only be oonditioned c l a s s i c a l l y (Kimmel, I967? M i l l e r , I969). M i l l e r , i n t e r e s t e d i n the nature of t h i s "dichotomy"', began experimental work on the problem of instrumental t r a i n i n g of v i s c e r a l responses. M i l l e r and h i s co-workers* f i r s t conclusive r e s u l t s were obtained i n a study using water reinforcement f o r t h i r s t y dogs i n the operant conditioning of s a l i -v ation ( M i l l e r , 1969; M i l l e r & Carraona, I967). Both increases and de-creases i n the s a l i v a t i o n measure were produced. To r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y of s k e l e t a l involvement i n the l e a r n i n g of a v i s c e r a l response, M i l l e r and h i s associates used curare to produce p a r a l y s i s of s u b j e c t s 0 s k e l e t a l muscles. In these curare studies d i r e c t e l e c t r i c a l stimulation of "rewarding" areas of the b r a i n was used as reinforcement. Using t h i s technique together with shaping of the desired responses, M i l l e r and Di Cara produced r e l i a b l e and s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n heart r a t e i n curarized r a t s ( M i l l e r , I969; M i l l e r & Di Cara, I967). These experimenters also used escape and avoidance of e l e c t r i c a l 2 shock successfully as reinforcement for learning heart rate changes (Miller, 1969; Di Cara & Miller, 1968a), and demonstrated retention of the trained response for a period of at least three months. Transfer of training to the non-curarized state was also successful, and addi-tional training increased specificity of response (Miller, 1969? Di Cara & Miller, 1969)» Learning of a specific visceral response independently of other visceral responses was also found to be possible. Two groups of rats were trained to modify heart rate and intestinal contractions respectively. Rats trained to modify one response showed no change in the other monitored measure. Di Cara and Miller (I967) also obtained highly reliable changes in the rate of urine formation by curarized rats, the learned changes being produced primarily by changes in the rate of blood flow through the kidneys. Changes in blood supply to the stomach wall were also produced by instrumental conditioning. Peripheral vaso-motor responses were shown to be conditionable by operant techniques, and conditioning of differential vasomotor responses in the two ears was shown (Miller, 1969; Di Cara & Miller, 1968b). Blood pressure increases and decreases, independent of heart rate, were also conditioned operant-ly. Without curare, heart rate changes were conditioned and the learned changes were found to persist in subsequent tests when curare was used. Miller suggested that although instrumental learning of human vis-ceral responses "has not yet been completely proved" (Miller, 1969, P* 443), demonstrations of the specificity of visceral change and similar controls make the cumulative results of a number of experiments with humans "increasingly impressive". In discussing the implications of this research, Miller suggested that therapeutic training of human patients with symptoms which are either functional or organic but under neural control, and which 3 can be continuously monitored by instruments, is a distinct possibility. He and his co-workers have used instrumental training with cardiac arrhyth-mias and with suppression of abnormal paroxysmal EEG spikes in epileptics. Kimmel (1967) reviewed the literature of instrumental conditioning of autonomic responses, including studies with human subjects. Like Miller, he concluded that the recent studies on heart rate, vasomotor reflex, salivation, intestinal contractions, and the GSR provided tenta-tive support for the hypothesis that autonomically mediated responses can be conditioned by instrumental methods. Particularly notable are reward training methods where methodological problems of design confounding and possible somatic mediation of observed responses have b??n dealt with effectively. Kimmel noted particularly one study by Birk, Crider, Shapiro, and Tursky (1966) in which operant conditioning of the GSR was successful in a partially curarized human subject. Although somatic activity w?.s not completely blocked, overt movements were ruled out as contributors to the GSR change* Operant Conditioning of Electrical Activity in the Brain Having shown that visceral responses could be conditioned operantly, Miller and his colleagues undertook similar experimentation with electri-cal activity in the brain. Cats were trained to change their EEG average voltage, using direct electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle as a reward* Curarized rats were successfully trained in the same way (Miller, 1969). Kamiya (1969a; 1969b) undertook the study of operant conditioning of the electrical activity of the human brain. In Kamiya»s f i r s t study a subject, with eyes closed, was continually monitored by EEG equipment. He was instructed to respond "A" or "B" indicating in which state (alpha or non-alpha) he thought he was when a signal bell rang. He was told whether he was correct immediately following his response. By the fourth day of training the subject was reporting correctly 100 percent of the time (Kamiya, 1969a). To rule out the contribution of the possible auditory threshold difference between the two states, a further study was under-taken and discrimination of alpha and non-alpha was again found. An attempt to control eye position was introduced. Subjects were instructed to look straight ahead, because i t had been found that without this attempt at control a raised position of the eyes occasionally produced alpha bursts and thus introduced skeletal involvement in the discrimination training. With this attempt to control eye pcsitic::, discrimination per-formance dropped from 100 to 80 percent correct responses but with a small number of additional training trials performance again reached 100 percent (Kamiya, 1969a). Kamiya and his co-workers found that with successful discrimination training, subjects "seemed to have at the same time acquired the skills necessary for the control of the brain wave states that they had been discriminating1" (Kamiya, 1969b, p. 510), but no comparison figures were presented. Kamiya stated that such results were not found i n untrained subjects. In a later series of studies Kamiya trained subjects to induce or suppress alpha on command without prior discrimination training, using a tone as feedback to indicate alpha (Kamiya, 1969a; Kamiya, 1969b). Sub-jects were given alternate series of five trials each for alpha enhance-ment and alpha suppression. Between blocks of trials "resting" recordings were obtained for which subjects were instructed to rest while the record-ing apparatus was supposedly being adjusted. The obtained resting "base-l i n e " for alpha production was not a straight line; percent time alpha 5 increased over blocks of trials (Kamiya, 1969b). Kamiya interpreted this finding as an indication that the experimental tasks set subjects into preferred modes of "waiting" and added that suppress-only subjects pro-duced a decreasing baseline for percent alpha in the "rest" periods, in-dicating that these subjects were continuing what they were being trained to do. After 40 blocks of trials, eight of Kamiya9s ten subjects were "able to control the tone, emitting or suppressing alpha waves in accord-ance with...instructions" (Kamiya, 1969a, P« 58)« Hart (1968) included a no-training control group in a study which is basically the same as Kamiya's feedback training designed to increase percent time alpha. Subjects in Hart's study were instructed to maintain the alpha feedback tone as long and as steadily as they could in each two-minute t r i a l , and to maintain the same state during preceding and following non-feedback trials. Hart found that subjects who had both in-session feedback training and post-session information about their alpha scores showed greater alpha increases than those who had only feed-back training. However, three of the five control subjects, who received post-session information only, also showed significant increases in their alpha scores. Hart concluded that the inclusion of such a control group was therefore necessary in an alpha conditioning experiment in order not to overestimate the effect of the training sessions. He noted also the great variability among individual curves. In an analysis of variance Hart found a significant sessions effect over the training period but noted that no one group showed a signifi-cantly greater linear trend than the other groups. An analysis of the no-feedback trials for the trained subjects demonstrated that these sub-jects could sustain their alph?. gains when feedback was not present. 6 Hart noted that the different training conditions "seemed to make a d i f -ference but the differences between the training conditions are over-ridden by the var i a b i l i t y within each group" (Hart, 1968, p. 14). Hart concluded that human subjects could be trained to increase their alpha levels i n as few as ten training sessions and that i n -session feedback training was most effective when information about alpha scores was given. However, he concluded from the performance of his control group that some subjects could increase alpha scores when given only post-session information about their alpha scores. The subjective reports of Hart's subjects indicated, though with great v a r i a b i l i t y , that a higher alpha level was plsasant, restful, and desirable. Some subjects f e l t that imagery and mental activity sustained alpha while others f a i t that subjective content was less important than relation to the content. Passive alertness apparently sustained alpha while selective or focused alertness seemed to inhibit alpha activity. One subject who showed a large increase i n alpha activity stated that she imagined herself i n s i d e an artichoke, tranquil and detached, while perception of her surroundings seemed to be outside the layers of the artichoke. These subjective reports are similar to those obtained i n Kamiya*s studies. His subjects indicated that a high alpha state was generally pleasant with "relaxation of the mental apparatus'" and cessation of "being c r i t i c a l about anything, including the experiment" (Kamiya, 1969b). While the alpha state was reported as "not.thinking", "letting the mind wander", or "feeling the heart beat", the non-alpha state appeared to occur when "seeing with the mind's eye" or observing various kinds of visual imagery (Kamiya, 1969a). In alpha conditioning when 7 subjects were required to maintain an alpha feedback tone, i t was observed that visual imagery was effective in decreasing the tone and an "alert calmness, a singleness of attention, and a passive 'following* of the tone sustained i t " (Kamiya, 1969a, p. 58)• It is also noted that Kamiya, as previously mentioned, obtained rapid alpha conditioning with attempted control of eye position. Kamiya concluded that alpha waves apparently result from an alert, non-drowsy state, devoid of concrete, visual imagery. In a review of the literature of the properties of alpha activity, Kreitman and Shaw (I965) noted that alpha activity has been associated with inattention, particularly visual inattention; that attenuation and constriction of alpha activity during mental vigilance was i;aid to be almost invariable; and that some studies showed no one-to-one relation-ship between alpha blocking and either visualizing or attention. Many confusing individual differences have been found, leading to the postula-tion of a much challenged classification of types. Kreitman and Shaw had observed an increase in alpha activity in some subjects with eyes open during mental arithmetic, and noted than none of the above views permitted an explanation for this augmented alpha activity. These authors stated that increased alpha activity associated with conditions other than drowsiness had been reported, notably during stimulus expecta-tion, during fear, with "stimuli which cause sudden immobilisation of the reactive mechanisms", in listening to barely audible stimuli, and with .erne subjects during tactile stimulation, problem solving with eyes open, and mental multiplication. Increased alpha activity was also found with drugs such as atropine, without the presence of sleep (Bradley & Key, 1958). In their experiment Kreitman and Shaw studied alpha change scores in auditory, visual, and tactile threshold or matching exercises, and a mental arithmetic test, with eyes open and closed for each condition. Significant differences were found between individuals and between tests. The authors emphasized that although visual imagery tended to be associ-ated with alpha decreases, this held only as a trend with numerous and strikingly large exceptions. They suggested that attempts to relate changes in the alpha rhythm to any single process would likely not be successful. More detailed study of adaptation to a constant stimulus might be rewarding because alpha enhancement presumably differs from alpha blocking only quantitatively rather than qualitatively. Other types of studies have been done with alpha conditioning and control of neural events. Rosenfeld, Rudell, and Fox (19^9) trained human subjects with instrumental conditioning procedures to change the amplitude of a late component of the auditory evoked potential with and without oscilloscopic feedback of their performance. This type of proce-dure was designed to offer a strategy for investigating behaviorally relevant biolectrical activity of the brain by making the electrical activity, in this case the evoked potential, the criterion for reinforce-ment, as in Hart's (1968) study and Kamiya's later work (1969a; 1969b), rather than the dependent variable as in most previous studies (Fox & Rudell, I 9 6 8 ) . Before Fox and Rudell's type of work, the typical experi-ment involved relating the biolectrical activity of the brain to changes in the behavioral state accompanying learning or differential performance. Fox and Rudell provided a modified approach making reinforcement contin-gent on the actual occurrence of a change such as modification of the evoked potential. In this way the reinforcement is expected to increase the probability of the occurrence of the response. 9 Rosenfeld et ali (1969) wanted to show that operant control of neural events was possible in the human subject and to determine by their subjec-tive responses some insight into the subjects' method of control. Sub-jects were reinforced for increasing the calculated mean difference of the evoked response, then given suppression, reacquisition, and control trials. One group was given oscilloscopic feedback of their performance and a second group was trained in a dim light; the difference in scores was significant in both groups between conditions. The two groups were not statistically compared with each other but a graph of the mean results showed that oscilloscopic feedback produced a slightly higher percent of responses. The subjective data yielded no simple sxpl sanation of the mechanism of operant control. To be reinforced, subjects used imagined sights or sounds, or special attention to various aspects of the stimula-tion. Individual variability in both groups was marked. Although the operant control demonstrated in their study was minimal, Rosenfeld et al. drew several conclusions. They argued against the hypo-thesis that subjects can learn a simple motor response whose somaesthetic feedback or efferent command generates the rewarded amplitude change, because the verbal reports and types of changes seen in the evoked poten-t i a l showed too great a variability to be correlated with the occurrence of a simple motor response. The conclusion was drawn that the subjects learned to generate an internal state which probably mediated an altered evoked potential by somehow effecting a change in neural excitability or size of a particular neuron population. Studies such as that by Fetz (1969) indicate that animals can be trained to increase the activity of individual cells by reinforcement of high rates of neuronal discharge. The systematic approach making the 10 electrical measurement of the neural event the criterion for reinforcement, as suggested by Fox and Rudell (1°68), was used in the Fetz experiment with monkeys. Because the cells monitored in the Fetz study were in the precentral motor (hand) area, increases in neural activity were sometimes accompanied by specific coordinated movements. After a number of train-ing sessions, Fetz's monkeys consistently and rapidly increased the acti-vity of newly monitored cells. It was possible to increase electrical activity at one locus with simultaneous suppression of activity at ano-ther locus. Meditation; Overview and Subjective Reports This short review of operant conditioning cf A.NS and CMS events suggests that subjects, including humans, can learn to exert some degree of autocontrol over these events. Both Kamiya (1969a; 1969b) and Hart (1968) pointed to the similarity between the reports of their subjects regarding the high alpha condition and description of Zen and Yoga medi-tation. Such practices are designed to increase autocontrol of mental and physiological processes (Conze, 1959? Eliade, 1958; Herrigel, 1964; Kapleau, 1967; Suzuki, 1956), and will be outlined briefly later. Kamiya (1969a; 1969b) reported that individuals who have some interest in and practice of meditation (including Zen, Yoga, other formal systems of meditation practice, or a "long history of introspection") apparently learned to control alpha, and particularly to enhance i t , much more rapidly than other subjects. Kamiya (1969b) reported that he had been training some meditators on "marathon" runs up to 20 hours long. These subjects continued to increase their alpha production with this training. One subject after a total of 50 hours of training reached a plateau at 85 percent alpha from an i n i t i a l 15 percent level. The author also noted that the "ineffability" of the meditative state, stressed in the mystical literature (Deikman, 1966a; James, 1961; Maupin, I962; Murphy & Cohen, I965; Noyes, I9655 Pahnke, 1966), was similar to the statements of many of his alpha conditioning subjects. For example, the alpha state was found difficult to describe but had a certain "feel" about i t , and when an attempt at its analysis was made during training the subjects did not perform well. Hart (I968) suggested that the previously mentioned arti-choke imagery report becomes more meaningful when related to the EEG investigations conducted with meditating Buddhist Zen practitioners and Indian yogis. In general, meditation practice involves prolonged motionless s i t -ting with legs fully or half crossed, hands touching each other at the navel or resting joined in the lap, and eyes either closed (in Yoga) or open slightly and looking downwards a short distance ahead (in zazen) (Kapleau, I967; Kasamatsu & Hirai, I966; Maupin, I965). Specific medita-tion exercises may involve concentration on a word, an idea, or a process such as respiration. Kapleau (I967, pp. 30-62) included a detailed account of the posture and concentration practices involved in zazen, which is translated as "sitting meditation", and Eliade (1958) elaborated on yogic practices. The practice of meditation is said to produce a state of attentive awareness with calming of mental activity. Ultimately its aim is to pro-mote a changed state of consciousness which is called satori or enlighten-ment in Zen, and samadhi in Yoga, leading to mukti or liberation. Maupin (1962) presented a review of Zen training methods, resulting experiences, and possible psychological interpretations. Here he described satori as a major shift in the mode of experiencing oneself and the world. Fromm 12 (cited in Maupin, I962, p. 366) considered satori to be "the immediate unreflected grasp of reality, without affective contamination and intel-lectualization". Few psychological studies have been done on the non-physiological aspects of meditation practice. In a study of individual differences in response to a Zen meditation exercise, Maupin (I965) scaled meditation responses of his group of subjects on the basis of post-meditation re-ports and correlated these with aspects of personality functioning. Correlations were found between level of meditation responses and the Rorschach measures of tolerance for unrealistic experience and capacity for controlled primary process. Deikman (19^3) undertook an exploratory study of "contemplative meditation", designed according to the general descriptions of meditation and incorporating the specific instructions found in the mystic litera-ture. Meditation on an object (in this study, a neutral vase) was chosen as a technique. Attention was to be focused on the vase without analysis or association. Subjective phenomena reported over the 12 or more sessions included alteration of perception of the vase, time shortening, conflicting perceptions, increase in ability to exclude extraneous stimuli, personal attachment to the meditation object, and pleasurable quality of the sessions. Other less general phenomena were also reported, including some "mystical!)-sounding experiences (Deikman, 1966b). The hypothesis that contemplative meditation training produces barriers against distrac-ting stimuli was supported by the subjective reports but not by the re-cognition test presented (Deikman, 1963)0 Based on the subjective findings of his exploratory study, Deikman proposed the concept of i!de-automatization!i to describe the course of meditation phenomena. In his 19&3 paper, Deikman emphasized the rapidity with which the phenomena mentioned previously were produced in his medi-tating subjects. He stated that in less than half an hour phenomena occurred which in other contexts have been described as "depersonaliza-tion", "hallucination51, "delusion", etc. These experiences are called "makyo" in zazen and there are to be ignored as they arise (Kapleau, i967)» In contrast with Deikman's classification of subjective responses, Maupin*s subjects, practicing a Zen breathing exercise, experienced in order of response scaling; dizziness or some "befogging" of conscious-ness; calmness with relaxation; pleasant body sensations including vibra-tions, waves, or the feeling that the body was suspended or light; vivid-ness of breathing with almost effortless concentration; and a lucid state of consciousness with a "non-striving" attitude, detachment of thoughts and feelings, and often extensive loss of body feelings (Maupin, 1965)* Physiological Studies of Meditation Physiological aspects of meditation practice have been studied more extensively and systematically than its subjective aspects, providing some basis for comparison with results of CNS and particularly alpha dis-crimination training. Kasamatsu and Hirai (I963; I966) recorded EEG changes continuously before, during, and after zazen in 48 disciples and priests of the Soto and Rinzai sects in Japan, along with pulse rate, respiration, and GSR. These investigators divided the EEG changes found into four stages: appearance of alpha waves with eyes half open, in-crease of alpha amplitude, decrease of alpha frequency, and the occasional appearance of theta trains. These changes did not occur in control sub-jects. Compared with a control group, Zen masters showed l i t t l e or no habituation (decreased alpha blocking time over trials) to a repeated 14 click stimulus. These changes were closely related to length of training and Zen master's progress evaluation (Kasamatsu & Hirai, 1966). These authors noted that the disciples sometimes f e l l into a drowsy state during meditation but when the click stimulus occurred the drowsy EEG pattern changed to the alpha pattern, showing an alpha arousal reaction. However, Kasamatsu and Hirai (I966) systematically compared the EEG changes of meditation with those of sleep and hypnotic trance, showing the divergence of the meditation pattern from the other two states. The authors called the meditation state '"'relaxed awakening with steady responsiveness", a report which is in agreement with Kamiya and Hart's descriptions of the alpha state. In their series of studies of zazen Kasamatsu and Hirai found that the respiratory rate during meditation decreased rapidly to about four per minute, the tidal volume increased and oxygen consumption decreased by about 20 to 30 percent of the normal rate. Metabolic rate also de-creased to a level lower than that shown in control subjects whose res-piration rate was decreased to the same level paced by a metronome. Nakamura, Iwasaki, and Akishige (1961) noted a decrease in blood pH during zazen, indicative of the "tranquillizing effect of the regulation of respiration". Sugi (cited in Sugioka, Nara, Yokowo, Sasaki, & Kasai, I962) examined physiological effects of zazen in the Soto sect and ob-tained similar findings. Respiration rate f e l l to one to two per minute, the basic metabolic rate decreased, sweating ceased, and both alpha and theta waves rapidly appeared with the onset of meditation. Anand, Chhina, and Singh (1961) found persistent alpha activity with well marked increased amplitude modulation in four yogis practicing Raj Yoga meditation. No external stimuli, including strong light, loud noises, 15 touching with a hot glass tube, and the vibration of a tuning fork, pro-duced blocking of the alpha rhythm when the yogis were meditating, but this loss of alpha blocking was not shown when the same subjects were resting. This finding is in contrast with EEG findings regarding alpha blocking during zazen (Kasamatsu & Hirai, 1963; Kasamatsu & Hirai, I966), and probably reflects the effects of different meditation practices. Two of the subjects immersed their hands in cold water, during which time alpha activity persisted (Anand et al., 1961). These experimenters also noted that beginners in Yoga meditation practice who had well marked alpha activity in their resting records showed greater aptitude and enthusiasm for maintaining Yoga practice. Okuma, Takenaka, Koga, Ikeda, and Sugiyama (1957) found similar EEG changes in practitioners of zazen and yogic meditation. With the progress of meditation performances, alpha waves increased "remarkably" even with eyes open. Control subjects at the same stage in EEG recording did not show this alpha increase. These experimenters reported that the alpha activity was "hardly depressed" by auditory stimuli such as claps or bells, but gave no figures. In a study of autonomic functioning in Yoga practitioners (princi-pally Hatha Yoga), Wenger and Bagchi (1961) found somatically mediated changes in cardiac functioning. Greater sympathetic nervous system acti-vity was found during meditation, with the exception of respiration which was greater during resting sessions, slowing to four to seven per minute during meditation. Older yogis showed faster heart rates, lower finger temperatures, greater palmar conductance, and higher blood pressure than students during meditation, suggesting an active process rather than a passive, relaxed contemplation although some muscular relaxation occurred. No definite EEG changes were found during meditation; subjects reported discomfort with the recording apparatus and the presence of foreigners, resulting in lack of depth in meditation. Wallace (1970) studied the effects of "transcendental" meditation practice on oxygen consumption, heart rate, GSR, and EEG, finding signifi-cant changes between the control period and the meditation period in a l l measures. Because of the difficulty in obtaining expert practitioners of zazen or yogic meditation, and the claim that practitioners of tran-scendental meditation immediately experience beneficial physiological changes with no difficulty, Wallace selected for his study 15 college students whose practice of transcendental meditation had ranged from six months to three years. Visual and auditory stimulation was given during several recordings to test habituation of alpha blocking. Oxygen con-sumption decreased about 20 percent from the control period in a l l sub-jects within five minutes after the onset of meditation. Skin resistance increased markedly at the onset of meditation with some rhythmical fluc-tuations during meditation but decreased to the resting level following meditation. Heart rate showed a mean decrease of five beats per minute during meditation. Regularity and amplitude of alpha increased in a l l subjects and four showed alpha frequency slowing and occasional theta waves. The study reported that in almost a l l subjects, alpha blocking caused by repeated auditory or visual stimulation showed no habituation, as in Kasamatsu and Hirai's (1966) study. From his physiological findings Wallace concluded that the state produced by transcendental meditation "seems to be distinct from commonly encountered states of consciousness, such as wakefulness, sleep, and dreaming, and from altered states of con-sciousness, such as hypnosis and autosuggestion" (Wallace, 1970, p. 175*0, and that its clinical applications should be further investigated. Wal-lace mentioned two studies investigating the therapeutic valu.e of medita-tion in relieving mental and physical tension and in controlling arterial blood pressure. In an EEG, EKG, and EMG study of seven yogic meditators, Das and Gastaut (1955) found no muscular electrical activity during the meditation practice. Definite acceleration of the cardiac rhythm during profound meditation occurred especially in samadhi, interpreted here ss "ecstasy", with slowing after the end of this period paralleling EEG changes. Acce-leration and decreasing amplitude of the alpha rhythm was also found, with generalized very fast (25-30 to 40-45 cps) activity of small amplitude increasing during This state of "intense generalised cortical stimulation" is in contrast with the EEG findings in znsen (Kasamatsu & Hirai, 1963; Kasamatsu & Hirai, I966) and other types of yogic meditation (Anand et al., I96I; al., 1957). Although EEG findings in meditation studies differ: s xr.e^, most show an increase in alpha activity often with eyes opon, and a difference from EEG patterns characteristic of states such as sleep r.:.vl hypnosis (Anand et al., 1961; Kasamatsu & Hirai, I9635 Kasamatsu & Hirai, I966; Okuma et al., 1957; Sugioka et al., I962; Wallace, 1970). Kasamatsu and Hirai (1966) indicated that the sleep EEG pattern diverged from the medi-tation pattern in that further EEG changes occurred in the sleep pattern, such as fast activity and the appearance of spindles, which did not occur in meditation. Kasamatsu and Hirai described meditation as a prolonged continuation of the pre-sleep pattern but accompanied by alertness. However, a l l of these physiological studies of meditation have used relatively experienced meditators as subjects. No physiological investi-18 gations of the i n i t i a l stages of meditation practice have been published, although inexperienced subjects were used in the clinical research studies of Deikman (19°3) Maupin (1965)0 It would be informative to make a longitudinal study of the physiological changes produced during meditation practice, starting with naive subjects. Kamiya (1966a) noted the close resemblance of the description of the "high alpha state" and reports of Zen and yogic meditation, and as indica-ted previously, found that Zen meditators learned his alpha conditioning tasks more rapidly than his average subjectso It appears that the state promoted in conditioning studies designed to increase alpha output closely resembles that produced after some meditation p r a c t i c e . As Kasamatsu and Hirai (I963? 1966) reported, other changes also occur in meditation be-sides increased alpha output. Because these two practices appear to share some characteristics, however, including some physiological changes and subjective similarities, i t would be appropriate to study parallel stages in their development of alpha autocontrol. Kamiya (1969a), noting the similarity between the two processes, stated that "the fact that for many centuries mystics have been doing something measurably real suggests that the meditative tradition is worth examination" (p. 59)• Consequently an exploratory investigation was designed to compare the effects of alpha conditioning on the production of alpha in subjects trained to discriminate their own production of alpha and non-alpha, and the effects of meditation practice on the production of alpha in subjects' i n i t i a l meditation sessions. A control group completing the same number of EEG recording sessions would be included. Findings from this type of study would be useful in developing autocontrol training procedures and possible therapeutic applications. 19 Method Subjects Subjects were 15 volunteers from an introductory course in religious studies at the University of British Columbia. About 75 students volun-teered to participate in "a study of meditation and alpha conditioning8'' after a short lecture by the experimenter explaining the nature of medita-tion and alpha conditioning as used in this study, EEG recording tech-niques, and the duration of the experiment. However, the experimenter did not reveal the specific nature of the experiment itself or its hypo-theses. All subjects who participated in the training and test sessions were female as there were insufficient males who coiild bo matched on the basis of the resting recording sessions. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 2k with a median of 19 years. Most (11) of the subjects were enrolled in second year arts and most had chosen the religious studies course for interest. None had ever seriously practiced meditation; one subject (JM) had tried meditation over a period of several months but at the time of the experiment had not meditated for over one year. She was assigned to the alpha conditioning group. Apparatus and Procedure From the l i s t of volunteers about 30 were chosen at random to parti-cipate in the resting recording sessions. Subjects sat in a straight backed chair with a Peerless dental headrest adjusted to keep the head relatively immobile but comfortable during the recording. Parietooccipi-tal EEG recordings were made on a Grass Model 7 polygraph, using a single pair of cup electrodes f i l l e d with Grass electrode cream. The occipital electrode was placed approximately 2-3 cm. anterior to the inion on the midline, roughly corresponding to electrode placement OZ according to the 20 10-20 system. The parietal electrode was placed slightly posterior to the midline central point near position PZ. The electrode ground was f i l l e d with electrode cream and clipped to the subject's right earlobe. The signals were amplified by a Grass 7P5A wideband EEG pre-amplifier. A Krohn-Hite Model 330B band pass f i l t e r , attached in series, restricted the recorded signal to a frequency range of 8-12 Hz. Recording sessions were conducted with the single overhead light turned down so that there was sufficient light to see the ink recording but not enough to distract the subject. Each of the selected volunteers was given three one-minute resting recording sessions to determine the basal rs.te cf alpha production with eyes closed. These sessions were given during one hour with rest periods between each session in which the experimenter recorded personal data in an informal manner from the subjects, including age, reason for taking religious studies, course of studies, year, major, and previous medita-tion practice and "mystical" or "peak" experiences. The polygraph records of the resting sessions were scored for each subject, using a criterion of a minimum of four regular waves of a higher amplitude than the irregular surrounding waves to determine where alpha would be marked. Keesey and Nichols (1967) used different criteria for each of their two subjects with respect to amplitude, frequency, and dura-tion of the alpha rhythm. One subject in their study had to have five f u l l waves to be counted as alpha. A single criterion was used for the present experiment as i t appeared to be the simplest scoring method which included the greatest number of potential alpha bursts and excluded obvi-ously non-alpha waves better than other possible criteria. A l l records were scored by hand by the experimenter, with an inde-21 pendent scorer checking records at random to determine the consistency of criterion application. The alpha bursts were measured in cm. and totalled for each session. Obvious muscle artifacts, usually of very short dura-tion, were measured and this length of time was added to the recording session and also scored. To allow for this possibility, recording was continued about 20 sec. over the desired limit for each subject. The total percent alpha for each session was calculated on this basis. The ''resting alpha" score was obtained for each subject by calculating the mean percent alpha over the three one-minute sessions. A mean alpha burst length score was also obtained. On the basis of ease of scoring of the resting recordings and match-ability of the percent of resting alpha with other subjects', 15 subjects were then assigned to groups according to the percent of alpha in their resting recording. On this basis the subjects f e l l into five non-over-lapping groups with the following percent alpha ranges: 13-19$, 27-33$, 34-42$, 46-59$, and 78-88$. One of the three in each group was assigned to each experimental condition, alpha conditioning, meditation training, and a control condition. Alpha Conditioning Procedure. Subjects assigned to the alpha con-ditioning group were trained individually, following Kamiya's early dis-crimination training procedure (Kamiya, 1969a; Kamiya, 1969b). Each was trained in the same experimental room under the conditions of the resting recording sessions, except that the headrest was omitted because subjects had noted that i t was uncomfortable and that they could remain as motion-less without i t . Electrode placement was also the same as during the rest-ing recording sessions. Alpha conditioning subjects were trained to discriminate their own 22 alpha and non-alpha production to a criterion of 90$ correct responses in the final training run. At the f i r s t session subjects were instructed to reply "X" or "Y" immediately following each click signal (see Appendix I). The click was produced at random intervals by the experimenter's release of the EEG timer button, automatically marking the subject's recording. The click was clearly audible but occasionally varied in intensity i f the experimenter released the button at a different angle, obviating the necessity of controlling for threshold differences as in Kamiya's (1969a) experiment. "X" and "Y" were alpha and non-alpha respectively. (These letters were chosen so that the experimenter could readily discriminate the two sounds and so that the subject would not associate them with alpha or non-alpha states as would be suggested by using the letters "A" and "B".) Immediate verbal feedback was given regarding the correct-ness of the response. Each training session lasted 20 min. to 1 hr., depending on the subject's available time, with a varying number of runs in each session. Periodic breaks between runs were taken so that the subject could verbalize her changing conceptualizations of the nature of X and Y. During these periods the experimenter was noncommital but supportive regarding the subjects' hypotheses about the two states. Subjects took three to five sessions, each including a number of runs, to reach a criterion of 90$ correct responses. When this criterion had been met and the subjects felt they knew what "produced an X state in themselves", test sessions were given. EEG recording procedures were the same as previously detailed. The alpha-conditioned subjects were instructed to produce as much X as possible using any method they could find for as long as possible during the test session, and to remain as motionless as possible with their feet flat on the floor, hands in their lap, and eyes closed (see Appendix I). The test sessions consisted of two 10-minute recording sessions conducted on the same day with a short rest period between the two, and subsequently three 15-minute recording sessions conducted at different times convenient to the subjects. After the f i r s t session instructions were given in an abbreviated form. On completion of the five test sessions the subjects completed a brief questionnaire and adjective checklist recording their subjective feelings overall and reactions to each test session (see Appendix II). Meditation Procedure. Training for the meditation group consisted of meditation practice during the two 10-minute and three 15-minute re-cording sessions, with no practice previous to or between these test sessions. The meditation exercise chosen was the breathing exercise used by Maupin (19^5) in his meditation study. Subjects were instructed to s it up straight with their feet flat on the floor, hands in their lap, and eyes closed, and to remain as motionless as possible during the test session, as in the alpha-conditioning test sessions. The meditation sub-jects were instructed to focus their attention on the breathing movements in the region of the abdomen, to disregard a l l other stimuli, and to bring their attention back to the breathing each time i t focused on any other stimulus (see Appendix I). Meditation subjects completed the same questionnaire and adjective checklist as the alpha-conditioning subjects. Control Procedure. Subjets assigned to the control group received the same preliminary instructions regarding posture during EEG recording as those in the other two groups. Control subjects were instructed to try to maintain an observing attitude (i.e., not to f a l l asleep) during record-ing but to let their thoughts "wander" as in the resting sessions. The same questionnaire and adjective checklist was administered. Analyses. The test session data for a l l three groups was scored in the same way as the resting session data, to yield two measures, mean length of each alpha burst and total percent time spent in alpha for each session. The scores thus found were analyzed according to a repeated measures analysis of variance design comparing treatment conditions and test sessions. Further, the 15-minute sessions were converted to 10-minute session scores by subtracting from the total the lengths of alpha bursts occurring in the f i r s t and last 2§- min. of recording. This trans-formation was made because subjects in a pilot study reported that i t took a few minutes to begin meditation practice and subjects occasionally became bored or restless towards the end of the 15-minute sessions. The obtained data was also analyzed. To determine whether the alpha criteria used were adequate discrimination measures, an independent scorer re-marked the f i r s t test session for a l l subjects, using the alpha criterion of five regular waves of greater amplitude than the surrounding irregular waves. These modified-criterion scores were compared with the original scores. The adjectives checked on the checklist were also compared between groups. Results As noted in the Method section, the 15 subjects f e l l into five non-overlapping groups according to the amount of alpha in their resting recording. Alpha burst mean lengths also varied over individuals. However, when subjects were matched according to their mean alpha length scores in the resting sessions, i t was found that the five original groups overlapped slightly. Groups 2 and 3 overlapped somewhat, as did groups 3 and 4. In general, an increase in alpha length score was accom-panied by an increase in mean percent alpha. Alpha amplitude varied across individuals. However, those producing the most alpha generally had the highest amplitude alpha waves. Alpha Discrimination Training Results The subjects who participated in the alpha discrimination training sessions took between three and five sessions to reach a criterion of 90$ correct responses on the last training run. The percent of correct discrimination responses (X or Y) for the fir s t and final runs is shown in Table 1. Table 1 Percent Correct Responses on First and Last Alpha Training Runs First Discrimination Last Discrimination Subject Training Run Training Run WR 75.6 92.2 LA 68.0 95.8 NF 70.1 96.4 JM 79.7 93.5 PH 86.4 96.4 26 Subjective Alpha Conditioning Results During alpha discrimination training subjects varied in the length of time taken to reach what they thought was an adequate description of the subjective distinction of X (alpha) and Y (non-alpha). Subject WR described Y as seeing a cloud ovnr a city or a tunnel with a light at the end, and X as the fading of the cloud or the disappearance of the tunnel. Subject LA described Y as seeing things in front of her eyes and X as concentrating on the sound of the EEG machine; this subject also noted that i f she did not clearly remember the click or was "not with i t " , she was in X. Subject NF distinguished Y as being associated with a floating feeling while X was heavier. Subject JM, the girl trho had had some pre-vious meditation practice, was the only subject who verbalized a definite distinction between X and Y on the f i r s t training run. This subject noted that in X her head from the eyes up felt light and empty as i f "impulses were shut down" although in this state "thinking on a low level was s t i l l possible". Y occurred when she was "thinking about how empty" her head was, an "ego trip". Like subject LA, she also noted that with a "really big X" she could not even remember the click. Subject PH described Y as "tighter, more of a sensation than X". Because this subject originally had almost 90$ alpha in her resting recording, discrimination training was difficult. However, several training runs were made with eyes half open to lessen alpha production. Subject PH said that this training definitely helped and compared the feeling of X with being at the bottom of a stair-case with high steps, the steps being more difficult to climb as they neared Y, which she "burst into" near the top. To retreat to X required "effortless sliding" but to get deeply into i t required "slow downward stepping". 27 It is noted that because the experimenter was giving immediate feed-back on the correctness of the subject's response while the polygraph recording was being made, with no concurrent computer analysis of the record as in many alpha conditioning studies (e.g. Kamiya, 1969a; Kamiya, 1969b), the occasional error was made or a "not sure" or a "just between" response was given. Rather than confusing the subjects, this type of response seemed to clarify the distinction between X and Y because several subjects reported that they experienced some "deeper" X states and were often not sure themselves about transitions from one state to the other such as at the end of an alpha wave. Comparison of Test Sessions on Mean Percent Alpha The mean percent alpha scores for the resting and test sessions are shown in Tables 2a and 2b. Table 2a Percent Alpha by Sessions Resting First Second Third Fourth Fifth S Session Session Session Session Session Session Control LP 19.4 17.6 19.6 2 6 . 5 34.5 15.9 Group SB 30.6 38.9 37.3 45.7 44.1 58.4 BBr 42.1 25.7 30.6 15.9 37.3 36.0 BBa 46.8 50.7 75.8 81.9 77.5 87.7 JL 78.0 86.4 87.6 85.5 80.9 8 8 . 5 Alpha WR 13.6 15.1 18.5 25.7 29.1 18.3 Conditioning LA 27.8 50.4 64.9 49.8 44.4 39.2 Group NF 34.3 19.4 30.8 43.2 24.1 37.4 JM 59.4 72.1 92.8 89.6 92.4 90.5 PH 87.3 94.8 95.3 95.2 95.2 92.8 Meditation DMc 14.4 25.9 19.6 21.9 15.4 20.6 Group WB 33.6 56.9 52.3 58.4 63.O 64.4 DV 39.3 50.4 46.0 41.7 27.0 30.7 CD 56.0 57.0 61.9 53.2 74.4 41.5 MN 88.6 93.3 92.7 91.2 89.0 87.9 Table 2a shows the scores used in ths main analyses of this study. Table 2b, which follows, includes the percent alpha scores obtained by the inde-pendent scorer for the f i r s t 10-minute session using the more stringent alpha criterion and the reduced 10-minute percent alpha scores for the l a s t three sessions, as detailed i n the Method section. Table 2b Modified Percent Alpha by Sessions F i r s t 10 Min. (Modified S Criteria) Control LP 9.5 Group SB 29.9 BBr 19.3 BBa 71.7 JL 80.3 Alpha WR 8.1 Conditioning LA 44.1 Group NF 13.0 JM 68.7 PH 93.2 Meditation DMc 21.4 Group WS 5I.3 DV 43.4 CD 40.7 MN 86.1 F i r s t 15 Second 15 Third 15 Converted Converted Converted to 10 Min. to 10 Min. to 10 Mir, 26.8 35*1 14.7 43.4 49.0 61.3 13.6 38.2 38.4 85.7 80.1 87.9 89.7 82.4 91.1 25.6 28.6 18.1 47.3 35.9 38.9 42.3 23.6 34.3 90.0 91.5 90.6 95.2 95.4 94.9 19.3 12.6 18.1 59.8 64.3 65.2 40.4 23c6 30.7 53.6 74.1 36.4 92.6 90.2 87.2 These scores were analyzed only to determine whether the original scoring was adequate, and were not further analyzed. Figure 1 graphically compares the f i r s t 10-minute session scored by the original and the more stringent c r i t e r i a . The original criterion for alpha scoring (see Table 2a for results) was used throughout because i t was found that with the more stringent criterion, although most alpha scores were reduced, 10 of the 15 subjects remained i n the same rank order 29 Fig. 1. Comparison of scoring c r i t e r i a 30 for mean percent alpha. A comparison of ranked data on the f i r s t 10-minute session showed only one rank changed in the control group, and two in the alpha conditioning and meditation groups. An analysis of variance for repeated measures was performed with the original data and with the modified five 10-minute sessions' percent alpha data, following Winer (I962). Neither of these analyses showed significant main effects in conditions or test sessions (see Appendices III and IV). In both analyses the probability of occurrence of the interaction effect was between .25 and . I O 5 this effect is noticeable in Figure 2, showing the group means over resting and test sessions. In order to determine whether an overly conservative estimate of group v a r i a n c e was obtained, an analysis removing the matched-group correlation component was calculated for the f i r s t test session (after Courts, I 9 6 6 , pp. 280-285). The ob-tained ?2tQ 2°59 was not significant. While the control group means for percent alpha consistently increased over the five test sessions, the alpha conditioning group means started at a higher level than control scores, increasing for the fi r s t three sessions and then decreasing for the last two test sessions. The medita-tion group showed the highest first-session percent alpha mean but from there consistently decreased mean percent alpha over sessions. An analysis of simple effects was done, following Kirk ( I 9 6 8 ) , to determine which main effects contributed to the interaction effect. A summary of this analysis is shown in Appendix V. It showed a significant difference on the f i r s t test session at the .05 level, with an F of 3»17« Examination of Figure 2 shows that the meditation group produced the greatest amount of alpha on this session, and the differences between groups is greatest for this test session. An inspection of the individual • . CONTROL GROUP • • ALPHA CONDITIONING GROUP » O MEDITATION GROUP Fig. 2. Percent alpha over sessions 32 scores (Table 2a) shows wide individual variability over sessions. In order to make inter- and intra-individual comparisons more readily, differ-ence scores were calculated for each subject, subtracting the resting session percent alpha from the test session score. Although the groups were matched originally on the basis of percent resting alpha, this pro-cedure made i t easier to observe magnitude of changes over sessions (see Appendix VI). An analysis of variance performed on this data was essentially the same as those previously discussed, with an interaction effect having a probability of occurrence between . 2 5 and . 1 0 . Although difference scores customarily produce less significant statistical results, the comparison between the two analyses showed l i t t l e difference. Comparison of Test Sessions on Mean Alpha Length Mean length of alpha for each subject over sessions (see Appendix VII) was also analyzed according to a repeated measures design. Main effects (experimental conditions and sessions) were not significant. The significance of the interaction effect was between . 2 5 and . 1 0 . The analysis of variance summary is shown in Appendix VIII. Figure 3 presents this comparison of groups over sessions. It is notable that the alpha conditioning group showed the greatest increase in mean length of alpha and also in percent alpha, while the meditation group at the f i r s t session had a slightly greater increase than the control group but thereafter showed a decrease in alpha length to a point slightly below their resting alpha length in the fifth session. Differences between the resting and test session alpha lengths were calculated as for the percent alpha differences, and are shown in Appendix IX. An analysis of variance of the alpha length difference scores showed no significance in main effects but an interaction effect probability 33 F i g . 3» Mean alpha length over sessions. between .10 and .05. The summary of this analysis is shown in Appendix X. A comparison graph of the two measures (percent alpha and alpha length differences) is illustrated in Figure 4. Adjective Checklist Data From the adjective checklist completed at the end of the five test sessions by a l l subjects, nine "positive" adjectives and their approxi-mate negatives were selected for a post hoc analysis of the general sub-jective reaction to the test sessions. Other adjectives originally in-cluded on the checklist could not be matched in this way. On this measure subjects were instructed to check the words which described the feelings, thoughts, or sensations experienced at sny time during the test sessions. The adjectives for this exploratory analysis are shown in Table 3, these were selected for post hoc analysis because positive and negative adjectives appeared to differentiate better between groups than other types of descriptors. The frequencies for the selected adjectives checked by each group are shown in Table 3 on page 36. A chi square analysis of this data showed a difference significant at the .01 level. Inspection of the cells in Table 3 indicates that there was a tendency for the control subjects to give more positive and fewer negative res-ponses than either of the other groups. 35 o z ^ >" tc m ui IU St It 0 a 1 s Z oe w w - J o. I8-| 2.04 I6-| 1.80 14 H L56 12 1.32 io H 1.08 .84 4 H .60 4 -.36 2 •'2 OH ® PERCENT • LENGTH CONTROL GROUP ALPHA CONDITIONING GROUP • MEDITATION GROUP t — — 1 1 1 ~ •—T 1—— FIRST SECOND THIRD FOURTH FIFTH S E S S I O N S Fig. k. Comparison of groups on moan percent alpha differences and mean alpha length differences i n cm. Table 3 Frequency of Positive and Negative Adjectives Checked 1 2 Positive Negative Group Adjectives Adjectives Totals Meditation 24 13 37 Control 30 1 31 Alpha 22 7 29 Conditioning Total 76 21 97 * comfortable, imaginative, tranquil, peaceful, detached, pleasant, calm, relaxed, self-possessed uncomfortable, bored, fidgety, impatient, critical, i r r i -tated, disturbed, restless, anxious Discussion A direct comparison of the alpha changes produced by alpha condition-ing techniques and by meditation has never been made previously. Hence, the present findings cannot be compared directly with those of other studies. Further, physiological measurements of i n i t i a l meditation states have not been reported. Consequently, the results can be only partially compared with previously reported data, although theoretical and methodo-logical aspects can be discussed more extensively. EEG Analysis Although the main results were not significant, the alpha condition-ing findings from this study tend to agree with Kamiya 9s (1969b) report that subjects who have learned to discriminate their own alpha and non-alpha states can to some extent produce alpha when requested. Throughout the fi r s t four test trials alpha conditioned subjects produced a higher mean percent of alpha than the controls. Hart's (I968) question about continued alpha production without feedback is thus partially answered. The alpha production test results of the alpha conditioning subjects showed great variability. It is noted that three of the five subjects showed a general increase over test sessions, with subject JM's increase being the most marked and consistently maintained. This subject increased from 59$ alpha in her resting session to over 90$ alpha on three test sessions, increasing her mean alpha length from 2.43 cm. to 6.62 cm. in her best (fourth) test session. This finding agrees with Kamiya's (1969a, 1969b) report of meditators being rapid learners of alpha control tech-niques; subject JM had previously had some meditation practice. Although this meditation practice was not recent, the techniques appeared to be easily recalled. To deal with the findings in the meditation group, i t must be remem-bered that previous EEG studies have used experienced meditators as sub-jects. In most of these experiments, described in the Introduction, an increase in amount of alpha was found, and in Kasamatsu and Hirai's (I963) studies at least, alpha production became almost continuous in some sub-jects. In the present experiment, the alpha mean increased markedly in the meditation group for the f i r s t test session only. A l l meditation subjects increased their percent alpha from resting levels. However, a general decrease in subsequent sessions was found. This finding may be related to Kamiya's (1969a) report that "trying" tended to produce non-alpha. This observation was also reported by some r ? the alpha condition-ing subjects from this study. A few of the meditation subjects in the present study noted that they had achieved what they thought was a success-ful application of the meditation instructions on the f i r s t session. Although they were warned not to expect the same results each session, some felt that they definitely kept in mind the achievement of the fi r s t session, preventing them from following meditation instructions. The f i r s t meditation session may have introduced a challenging and meaning-ful task encouraging the subjects to involve themselves deeply in the exercise, subsequently found to be difficult. This aspect of the medi-tation practice will be discussed further with the subjective findings. It seems that meditators do need practice to overcome this "interference", at least with this type of meditation instruction. Control subjects tended to increase alpha production over sessions. This finding will be dealt with in the following section. Subjective Data Analysis The alpha conditioning participants' subjective comments tended to 39 vary in reports of alpha-maintaining techniques. One subject, NF, found that visual imagery seemed to enhance alpha production rather than to decrease i t , a report contradicting Kamiya's (1969a, 1969b) main findings. The present result is in agreement with the statement of Kreitman and Shaw (I965), however, to the effect that visual imagery is associated with alpha decreases only as a trend with numerous exceptions. Subject WR indicated that she was developing or discovering a way to keep herself in a feeling of "being inside" her own head, with a realization that she could control herself from there. Subject LA said that concentration on the rhythm of the machine (the click of the timer at one-second intervals) or on her breathing brought her back to X when she felt herself going into Y. Subject PH used the analogy of alpha being at the bottom of a steep staircase, mentioned in Results, but did not describe further any tech-nique. She did state, however, that following the longer sessions she "experienced a strange aftereffect", being "unwilling" to produce any non-alpha, "recording data" like people she saw or the lecture she heard, without analysis. This state was described as a "strange but pleasurable, encapsulated feeling, an entirely-inside-oneself sort of feeling". This comment resembles reports by Kamiya's subjects that the alpha state is not critical or analytical, and is similar to the detachment of meditation. The test trials in both alpha conditioning and control groups pro-duced a higher percent alpha than the resting sessions. The slight in-crease in the control group percent alpha may be due to the instruction to "let the mind wander", a description of one alpha producing technique according to some of Kamiya's subjects. Another factor in the increased alpha might be habituation to the situation when no other task was imposed. The increase might also reflect drowsiness. A mention of drowsiness was 40 more common in control subjects* descriptions of the course of the test sessions than in those of the meditation and alpha conditioning subjects. All five control subjects checked "drowsy" on the checklist. The increased alpha with alert, non-drowsy subjective reactions in both the alpha condi-tioning results and the f i r s t meditation session may parallel Bradley and Key's (1958) findings that certain parasympathomimetic and parasympatho-lytic drugs such as atropine produced patterns of electrical activity which did not correlate with the subject's behavioral state. The subjective findings in the meditation group are similar to Maupin's (I965) reports. Maupin's subjects in their i n i t i a l meditation practice reported occasional dizziness, calmness and relaxation, feelings that the body was suspended or light, vividness of breathing, and occasion-al loss of body feelings. All of the meditation subjects in the present study experienced at least some of these feelings. Subject MN reported a floating feeling during meditation, and also experienced distortions of body image, feeling that her hands were coming into her body at strange angles, a l l twisted together and feeling very heavy and large. A dreamy, floating feeling was noted in almost a l l her test sessions but not men-tioned in association with drowsiness. Subject WS noted that in the fourth test session she felt that "the patch of floor where my feet were and the chair and I were floating". She said she thought she was "imagin-ing" the feeling, and tried to stop i t but could not. Later during that session she "really did concentrate" on her breathing, and " i t was really great. There was only my breathing and space a l l around. Then I spoiled i t when I realized what I was doing." According to Maupin*s meditation response scaling system, this type of finding is classed as a high level of response. One or two alpha conditioning and control subjects also 41 reported some similar occurrences but these were not as emphasized or detailed in their reports. The reporting might be slightly misleading in this respect, because subjects tended to verbalize their reports in terms of their instructions. Also, considering that the meditation subjects checked more negative indicators on the adjective checklist, the greater feeling reported may be related to the greater concentration demanded by the task or personal involvement with i t . If i t can be determined whether the "meditation state indicators" previously mentioned were more vividly experienced by the meditators even on these i n i t i a l practice sessions, i t might be assumed that the subjective experiences at this stage of medita-tion are not paralleled by significant or corresponding EEG alpha changes. That both meditation and alpha conditioning subjects were s t i l l learn-ing their techniques in the test sessions is reflected in their assessment of those sessions as more difficult, uncomfortable, and on the whole some-what less positive compared with the experiences of the control group. On the questionnaires, early indicators of the difficulty of the meditation task were shown by comments such as subject CD's statement, "I was sur-prised how hard i t was to concentrate completely," or subject WS's, "I thought i t would be fairly easy to concentrate on my breathing but instead I found i t very difficult." At least these comments indicate that an effort was made to comply with the instructions. A similar difficulty was noted on early test sessions by alpha conditioning subjects. Subject NF stated that after the f i r s t long session she felt most uncomfortable and her interest wandered, and that she was just beginning to feel confi-dence in her ability to produce alpha in the longer sessions. Subject WR felt that towards the end of the last session she was "just beginning to find out how to stay in X." 42 Both Kamiya and Hart discussed some possible therapeutic applications of autonomic and CNS autocontrol techniques. In this study one subject reported that a headache had disappeared during an alpha conditioning test session. The therapeutic possibilities of this type of training are shown in one of the alpha conditioning subjects' comments that she could now f a l l asleep faster, by putting herself into an "X state". This report, together with subject JM's use of a meditation technique to maintain an alpha state, tends to support Kasamatsu and Hirai's (1966) note that medi-tation is a prolonged continuation of the pre-sleep pattern but lacking any of the characteristics of"a deeper sleep pattern, because the alpha state in a non-test situation apparently rapidly developed into a sleep state. Considerations for Future Research In further studies, subjects should be tested so that such peripheral response mechanisms as eye movements and changes in myogenic potential could be excluded as factors influencing alpha production, as mentioned by Begleiter and Plata (I969). These measurements could be recorded to determine whether changes are significantly associated with increased alpha production. None of the subjects involved in the alpha conditioning or meditation groups in the present experiment indicated awareness of using such peripheral response mechanisms as cues during their training or test sessions, suggesting instead subjective means as previously men-tioned. Nevertheless, in future experimentation controls should be included to eliminate the possibility of their use as cues. The problem of comparison of test trials with an i n i t i a l resting level involves potential changes in the baseline over time, such as Kamiya (1969b) found. The resting session percent alpha for this study was deter-43 mined over three recordings in only one session. To deal with this problem in a more effective manner, an experiment should be run with baseline or resting trials interspersed among test trials so that the amount of change in the baseline can be calculated and a more valid comparison between rest-ing and test sessions can be obtained. This type of experiment could attempt to replicate Kamiya°s study in which he found that subjects who had been trained to increase alpha production tended to have an increasing percent alpha baseline, while those who had been trained to suppress alpha had a generally decreasing baseline. The lack of statistically significant differences between groups on the main conditions of the study is due for the most part to the large intra-individual variability. To more effectively compare the alpha auto-control produced by meditators and by alpha conditioned subjects, a study should be designed so that alpha and non-alpha discrimination is over-learned because several subjects in this study felt that they had inade-quate control even though the training criterion had been met. Alpha con-ditioned subjects in this study took a shorter time to reach a discrimina-tion criterion than was indicated in other experiments (Kamiya, 1969a; Kamiya, 1969b). However, Kamiya (1969b) reported that subjects typically responded correctly about 75-80$ of the time during the third hour of training, roughly equivalent to the performance of some of the slower subjects in this experiment. The number of actual discrimination trials to criterion was not indicated in Kamiya°s work. Further, the meditation and control subjects should be exposed to the same number of recording sessions as the alpha conditioning subjects to control for habituation to the situation, a factor which was impossible to control adequately in this study. Also, meditators should have an opportunity to "learn" a meditation technique to be practiced in the test sessions so that the novelty of the technique will not be a possible alpha-suppressing factor. That is, ex-perienced meditators should be compared with overtrained alpha-conditioned subjects. Relevant here is Wallace's (1970) finding that transcendental meditators with a relatively short training period showed similar physio-logical changes to more experienced practitioners of other disciplines of meditation. A replication of Wallace's findings would have to be attemp-ted. Future control subjects should not be given the specific instruc-tions administered in this study, which may have permitted some form of non-focused meditation. To determine whether the present instructions could allow such a process to occur, instructions for a future control group should involve simply the basic posture outline and a warning to remain awake. Use of Kamiya's (1969b) description of "good alpha subjects" could be made to minimize the variability within each group. For example, per-sons interested or participating in sensitivity training or similar groups could be used as subjects in the same type of meditation-alpha condition-ing experiment. In this study, the adjective checklist data can only be considered as suggestive of further lines of research, as the adjectives analyzed were selected following administration of the questionnaire. Before con-cluding that subjective data as inferred from the checklist are not re-flected in parallel physiological findings, i t would have to be determined by a continuation and amplification of this type of study whether the subjective reactions following each session were correlated with its physiological findings. Also, because the EEG produces a gross type of 45 psychological measurement, refinement of techniques and additional record-ing sites would undoubtedly yield more informative data. Post-session information was not consistently obtained in this experiment. Rather, the checklist referred to global feelings and experiences in the study. The rest of the questionnaire was often not answered specifically enough to satisfy the preceding criterion. Clearer results would likely have been obtained with administration of the questionnaire following each session, like the interviews in Deikman's (19&3) a n c* Maupin's (19&5) studies. As shown by Kasamatsu and Hirai (I963), alpha duration and percent alpha tended to increase with meditation practice. One line of future research could investigate the nature of the relationship between percent alpha and alpha length to determine whether this relationship might be closer in meditation and alpha conditioning than in the control condition, a possibility suggested by observation of Figure 4. Conclusion As a technique for increasing alpha production on a very short term basis, alpha conditioning procedures (discrimination training or continu-ous feedback systems) appear to be more effective than the type and stage of meditation used in this study. However, no long term studies (other than Kamiya°s marathon runs) have investigated alpha conditioning, whereas there are numerous reports that with practice meditation tends to increase alpha production to a high degree. That previous meditation experience enables faster learning of alpha discrimination is supported by subject JM's performance. 46 Bibliography Anand, B. K., Chhina, G. S., & Singh, B. Some aspects of electroencephalo-graphic studies in Yogis. Electroencephalography and clinical neuro- physiology,, 1961, 13, 452-45o^ Begleiter, H., & Platz, A. Evoked potentials? modifications by classical conditioning. Science, I969, 166, 769-77L Birk, L., Crider, A., Shapiro, D., & Tursky, B. Operant electrodermal conditioning under partial curarization. Journal of comparative and  physiological psychology, I966, 62, 165-165T Bradley, P. B., & Key, B. J. The effect of drugs on arousal responses pro-duced by electrical stimulation of the reticular formation of the brain. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, 1958* 10, 97-110. Brown, Barbara B. Frequency and phase of hippocampal theta activity in the spontaneously behaving cat. Electroencephalography and clinical  neurophysiology, 1968, 24, 53-62. Conze, E. Buddhisms its essence and development. New York! Harper & Row, 1959. Courts, F. A. Psychological statistics; an introduction. Homewood, 111.; Dorsey, I966. Das, N., & Gastaut, H. Variations de l'activite electrique du cerveau, du coeur, et des muscles squelettiques au cours de la meditation et de 1'extase Yogique. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysio- logy, 1955, Supplement 6, 211-219.. Deikman, A. J. Experimental meditation. Journal of nervous and mental  disease, 1963, 1^ 6, 329-343. Deikman, A. J. Deautomatization and the mystic experience. Psychiatry, 1966, 324-338. (a) Deikman, A. J. Implications of experimentally induced contemplative meditation. Journal of nervous and mental disease, I966, 142, 101-116. (b) Di Cara, L. V., & Miller, N. E. Instrumental learning of urine formation by curarized rats. Psychonomic science, I967, 1., 23-24. Di Cara, L. V., & Miller, N. E. Changes in heart rate instrumentally learned by curarized rats as avoidance responses. Journal of compara- tive and physiological psychology, 1968, 6j5, 8-12. (a) Di Cara, L. V., & Miller, N. E. Instrumental learning of vasomotor res-ponses by rats; Learning to respond differentially in the two ears. Science, 1968, 15£, 1485-1486. (b) 47 Di Cara, L. V., & Miller, N. E. Transfer of instrumentally learned heart-rate changes from curarized to noncurarized states Implications for a mediational hypothesis. Journal of comparative and physiological  psychology, I969, 68, 159-1^21 Edwards, A. L. Statistical methods for the behavioral sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 19°1. Eliade, M. Yoga; immortality and freedom. New York; Pantheon, 1958. Fetz, E. E. Operant conditioning of cortical unit activity. Science, 1969, I65., 955-958. Fox, S. S., & Rudell, A. P. Operant controlled neural event; formal and systematic approach to electrical coding of behavior in brain. Science, I968, 162, 1299-1302. Hart, J. T. Autocontrol of EEG alpha. Psychophysiology, I968, 4, 506 (abstract of paper presented at SPR, 1967) ~" Herrigel, E. Zen; Zen in the art of archery, and The method of Zen. ' New York; McGraw-Hill, 1964. ! James, W. The varieties of religious experience. New York: Collier, 1961. Kamiya, J. Conscious control of brain waves. In Readings in psychology  today. Del Mar, Calif.: Communications/Research/Machines, I969, pp. 299-302. (a) Kamiya, J. Operant control of the EEG alpha rhythm and some of its reported effects on consciousness. In C. Tart (Ed.), Altered states  of consciousness. New York: Wiley, I969. (b) Kapleau, P. (Ed.) The three pillars of Zen: teaching, practice, and  enlightenment. Boston: Beacon Press, 1967. Kasamatsu, A., & Hirai, T. Science of Zazen. Psychologia, I963, 6, 86-91. Kasamatsu, A., & Hirai, T. An electroencephalograph^ study on the zen meditation (Zazen). Folia psychiatrica et neurologica Japonica  (Niigata). 1966, 20, 315-336. Keesey, U. T., & Nichols, D. J. Fluctuations in target visibility as related to the occurrence of the alpha component of the electro-encephalogram. Vision research, I967, 7, 859-877. Kimmel, H. D. Instrumental conditioning of autonomically mediated beha-vior. Psychological bulletin, I967, 67, 337-345. Kirk, R. E. Experimental designs procedures for the behavioral sciences. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1968. 48 Kreitman, N., & Shaw, J. C. Experimental enhancement of alpha activity. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, 19^5, 18, 147-155« Maupin, E. W. Zen Buddhisms a psychological review. Journal of con- sulting psychology, 1962, 26, 362-378. Maupin, E. W. Individual differences in response to a Zen meditation exercise. Journal of consulting psychology, 1965, 29, 139-145. Miller, N. E. Learning of visceral and glandular responses. Science, 1969, 163, 434-445. Miller, N. E., & Carmona, A. Modifications of a visceral response and salivation in thirsty dogs, by instrumental training with water reward. Journal of comparative and physiological psychology, I967, 63, 1-6. Miller, N. E., & Di Cara, L. Instrumental learning of heart rate changes in curarized ratss Shaping, and specificity to discriminative stimulus. Journal of comparative and physiological psychology, 1967, 62, 12IT9. ' Murphy, G., & Cohen, S. The search for person-world isomorphism. Main  currents in modern thought, I965, 22, 31-34. Nakamura, S., Iwasaki, K., & Akishige, Y. Psychological studies on the regulation of respiration. (1), on the relationship between res-piration and minor tremor. Psychologia, I 9 6 I , 4, 17-23. Noyes, H. Meditation, the door to wholeness. Main currents in modern thought. I965, 22, 35-41. Okuma, T., Takenaka, S., Koga, E., Ikeda, K., & Sugiyama, H. The EEG of "Zen" and "yoga" practitioners. Electroencephalography and c l i - nical neurophysiology, 1957, Supplement 9, 51-52. Pahnke, W. N. Drugs and mysticism. International journal of parapsy- chology, 1966, 8, 295-320. Rosenfeld, J. P., Rudell, A. P., & Fox, S. S. Operant control of neural events in humans. Science, I969, I65, 821-823. Sugioka, K., Nara, K., Yokowo, T., Sasaki, K., & Kasai, T. Zen. Tokyo: Kasai, I962. Suzuki, D. T. Zen Buddhism. Garden City, M. Y.: Doubleday, 1956. Wallace, R. K. Physiological effects of transcendental meditation. Science. 1970, 162, 1751-1754. Wenger, M. A., & Bagchi, B. K. Studies of autonomic functions in practi-tioners of Yoga in India. Behavioral Science, 1961, 6, 312-323. 49 Winer, B. J. Statistical principles in experimental design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962. Appendix I Instructions for Alpha Discrimination Training Your task is to try to discriminate between two brain states as measured by the EEG. Each time you hear a click, t e l l me right away whether you think you were in state X or state Y at the time of the click. I will t e l l you whether you were right or wrong, and in that way you will get to know how to t e l l the difference between the two states. Make sure you remain as motionless as possible, with your eyes closed. We will have several short training periods today. Are there any ques-tions? Instructions for Alpha Test Sessions Now that you feel you are able to produce X or Y more or less at • will, I want you to try to produce as much X as possible in these "test sessions", using any method you find that you feel works. There will be two 10-minute sessions today and three 15-minute sessions later when you are able to come. Remember to sit as motionless as possible with your eyes closed, feet flat on the floor, and hands in your lap. Questions? Ready? Instructions for Meditation Sessions Your task in this experiment is to practice a simple meditation exercise in the Zen tradition. Your ultimate aim is to suspend your ordi-nary flow of thoughts without falling into a stupor. Your aim is not any specific experience; whatever happens will come with the achievement of various steps in the process of quieting your mind's activity. What I want you to do now is s i t up straight but comfortably in the chair with your feet flat on the floor and your hands together in your lap. You must make sure this position is reasonably comfortable and do not slouch or 51 move around once you have started the exercise. Keep your eyes closed at a l l times during your practice. Let your breathing become relaxed and natural. Let i t set its own pace and depth i f you can. Then focus your attention on your breathing: the movements of your belly, not your nose or throat. Do not allow extraneous thoughts or stimuli to pull your atten-tion away from the breathing. This may be hard to do, but keep directing your attention back to i t . Turn everything else aside i f i t comes up. You may find yourself becoming anxious or uncomfortable. This is because sitting s t i l l and concentrating like this restricts the ordinary ways of avoiding discomfort. If you have to feel uncomfortable, feel uncomfort-able. If you feel pleasant, accept that with the same indifference. Do not analyze your experience but let your awareness of your breathing f i l l your entire mind. There will be two 10-minute practice sessions today and three 15-minute sessions later when you can come. I will t e l l you when the time is up. Questions? Ready? Instructions for Control Sessions For this experiment I need to know the cumulative effect of sitting as motionless as possible, but relaxed, with the eyes closed—the basis of meditation. Your task in this experiment is to sit up straight with your feet flat on the floor and your hands in your lap, eyes closed, and let your mind do what i t wants to. Just let things happen but observe what's going on in your mind. I want you to do this for five sessions, two 10 minutes long today and three 15 minutes long later when you have time to come. I will t e l l you when the time is up. Questions? Ready? Instructions to a l l Subjects after the First Session I would like you to complete a short questionnaire recording your feelings during these sessions. So you can do this better, i t might be 52 good idea to jot down your feelings and reactions following each session o you don't have to try and remember them at the end of a l l the sessions. Appendix II 53 Adjective Check List From the following l i s t , check the words which best describe the feelings, thoughts, or sensations you experienced during the "test sessions". comfortable planning floating alert reflective vital euphoric imaginative bored receptive Name: observant uncomfortable emotional impatient energetic preoccupied tranquil fidgety cheerful drowsy ^critical _calm "relaxed _anxious JLrritated jdetached Jiyperactive ^invulnerable _attentive under s timulated restless dizzy pleasant heavy analytical insightful calculating self-possessed disturbed peaceful Age: Date of Birth; Major or Area of Interest Year and Faculty Reason for taking Rel. St. 200 • Have you ever meditated? If so, please give details: Have you ever had any sort of "peak experience" or "religious experience"? If so, details; Have you had any powerful drug experiences which may be called "peak expert ences"? Details: In the following space and on the reverse i f necessary, please describe the course of your test sessions, your feelings, thoughts, sensations, satis-faction or dissatisfaction with what happened, expectations you may have had, and any other relevant details: Appendix III 54 Analysis of Variance for Percent Alpha Source SS df MS F Between Subjects 5 1 , 1 3 7 . 8 6 14 A (Groups) 3 6 9 . 9 3 2 184.96 0.0437 Subjects within 50,767*93 1 2 4,230.66 Within Subjects 3,993«97 6 0 B (Sessions) 2 5 8 . 6 7 4 64.67 1 . 0 5 0 9 AB Interaction 781-74 8 97.72 1 . 5 8 8 0 * B x Subjects 2,953.56 48 61.53 within * significant between . 2 5 and . 1 0 55 Appendix IV Analysis of Variance for Percent Alpha on 15 Min. Sessions Converted to 10 Min. Source SS df MS F Between Subjects 53,211.56 14 A (Groups) 223.61 2 111.81 0.0253 Subjects within 52,987.95 12 4,415.66 Within Subjects 4,740.80 60 B (Sessions) 249.26 4 62.32 0.8615 AB Interaction 1,019.66 8 127.46 1.762l: B x Subjects 3,471.88 48 72.33 within * significant between .25 and .10 56 Appendix V Kirk Analysis of Simple Main Effects for Percent Alpha Scores Source SS df MS F p A 369.9 2 I85.O 2.7786 .10* A at 422.5 2 211.3 3.1735 .05* A at b2 216.7 2 108.4 1.6277 NS A at bj 256.5 2 128.3 1.9266 NS A at b/j. 26.8 2 13.4 0.2013 NS A at bc| 159.6 2 79.8 1.1988 NS B 258.7 4 64.7 0.9714 NS B at &i 533.8 4 133.5 2.0047 NS B at &2 357.0 4 89.3 1.3407 NS B at a-j I62.6 4 40.7 0.6106 NS AB 781.7 8 97.7 1.4679 .25* Within 3994.0 60 * using Kirk's method for critical values (A + B) Appendix VI 57 Percent Alpha Difference Scores (Test Session Minus Resting Session) First Second Third Fourth Fifth Subject Session Session Session Session Sessior Control LP -1.8 +0.2 +7.1 +15.1 -3-5 Group SB +8.3 +6.7 +15.1 +13.5 +27.8 BBr -16.4 -11.5 -26.2 -4.8 -6.1 BBa +3.9 +29.0 +35.1 +30.7 +40.9 JL +8.4 +9.6 +7.5 +2.9 +10.5 Alpha WR +1.5 +4.9 +12.1 +15.5 +4.7 Conditioning LA +22.6 +37.1 +22.0 +16.6 +11.4 Group NF -14.9 -3«5 +8.9 -10.2 +3.1 JM +12.7 +33.4 +30.2 +33.0 +31.1 PH +7.5 +8.0 +7.9 +7.9 +5.5 Meditation DMc +11.5 +5-2 +7.5 +1.0 +6.2 Group WS +23-3 +18.7 +24.8 +29.4 +30.8 DV +11.1 +6.7 +2.4 -12.3 -8.6 CD +1.0 +5.9 -2.8 +18.4 -14.5 MN +4.7 +4.1 +2.6 +0.4 -0.7 Appendix VII 58 Mean Length of Alpha Bursts by Sessions for the Three Groups Resting F i r s t Second Third Fourth F i f t h Subject Session Session Session Session Session Session Control LP 1.20 1.27 ' 1.36 1.70 1.79 1.32 Group SB 1.72 1.97 2.18 2.26 2.29 2.41 BBr 1.97 1.75 1.75 1.66 2.04 2.21 BBa 1.91 3.78 3.54 5.63 3.57 4.91 JL 3.62 4.36 4.52 4.80 3.03 5.64 Alpha WR 1.33 1.49 I.63 1.78 1.66 1.59 Condition- LA 1.82 3.23 2.71 2.30 2.45 2.35 ing Group NF 1.44 1.38 1.75 1.86 1.61 1.77 JM 2.43 3.39 5.80 4.80 6.62 5.14 PH 4.05 7.99 7.61 8.66 8.27 6.91 Meditation DMc 1.24 1.51 1.47 1.55 1.37 1.48 Group WS 1.64 2.08 2.04 2.12 2.34 2.42 DV 1.80 2.34 2.18 1.95 1.75 1.75 CD 2.12 2.01 2.44 2.07 2.27 2.07 MN 6.87 8.69 7.56 6.71 7.98 5.21 59 Appendix VIII Analysis of Variance for Mean Alpha Length Source SS df MS F Between Subjects 310.2795 14 A (Groups) 12.2471 2 6.1235 0.2465 Subjects within 298.0324 12 24.8360 Within Subjects 23.6866 60 B (Sessions) 0.3574 4 0.0893 0.2362 AB Interaction 5.1844 8 0.6480 1.7142* B x Subjects 18.1448 48 0.3780 within * significant between .25 and .10 Appendix IX 60 Mean Alpha Length Difference Scores in cm<> (Test Session Minus Resting Session) First Second Third Fourth Fifth Subject Session Session Session Session Session Control LP +0.07 +0.16 +0.50 +0.59 +0.12 Group SB +0.25 +0.46 +0.54 +0.57 +O.69 BBr -0.22 -0.22 -0.31 +0.07 +0.24 BBa +1.87 +1.63 +3.72 +1.66 +3.00 JL +0.74 +0.90 +1.18 -0.59 +2.02 Alpha WR +0.16 +0.30 +0.45 +0.33 +0.26 Conditioning LA +1.41 +0.89 +0.48 +O.63 +0.53 Group NF -0.06 +0.31 +0.42 +0.17 +0.33 JM +O.96 +3.37 +2.37 +4.19 +2.71 PH +3.94 +3.56 +4.61 +4.22 +2.86 Meditation DMc +0.27 +0.23 +0.3I +0.13 +0.24 Group WS +0.44 +0.40 +0.48 +0.70 +0.78 DV +0.54 +O.38 +0.15 -0.05 -0.05 CD -0.11 +0.32 -0.05 +0.15 -0.05 MN +1.82 +O.69 -0.16 +1.11 -1.66 Appendix X 61 Analysis of Variance for Mean Alpha Length Differences (Test Session Minus Resting Session i n cm.) Source SS df MS F Between Subjects 92.9247 14 A (Groups) 19.9571 2 9-9785 1.6410 Subjects within 72.9676 12 6.0806 Within Subjects 23.2426 60 B (Sessions) 0.5614 4 0.1403 0.3973 AB Interaction 5.7284 8 0.7160 2.0277 B x Subjects 16.9528 48 O.35::. within * significant between .10 and .05. 


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