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Mental ability profiles in kindergarten children of different ethnic groups Van Blankenstein, Barbara Jean 1973

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c  MENTAL ABILITY PROFILES IN KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS by BARBARA JEAN VAN BLANKENSTEIN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of Psychology  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1973  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be granted by  s h a l l not be  ^  jr  Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  a  t  e  my  permission.  Department o f  D  publication  allowed without  Barbara van  r.  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  A p r i l 24,  1973  Blankenstein  i  Abstract  Data from 7 s u b t e s t s of the MPI were analyzed kindergarten Vancouver.  f o r 120  c h i l d r e n I n a low socio-economic area o f G r e a t e r The s u b t e s t s were s e l e c t e d as being  of components o f a mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e  representative  (MAP) and i n c l u d e d  c a t e g o r i e s o f IQ, s p a t i a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , a b s t r a c t reasoni n g , v e r b a l comprehension and g e n e r i c and word  production.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the data i n t o 2 l e v e l s o f age (5 y r s . 3 mos. - 5 y r s . 10 mos.; 5 y r s . 11 mos. - 6 y r s . 6 mos.), 2 l e v e l s of score on the MPI (k - 7; 8 - 1 1 ) , and 3 l e v e l s o f e t h n i c group (Chinese,  I t a l i a n and Canadian) gave 2 c o n t r a s t i n g MAPS.  The  Chinese MAP was d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the I t a l i a n  and  Canadian MAPS which c l o s e l y resembled each o t h e r . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appeared ( p ^ . 0 1 ) f o r a l l c a t e -  g o r i e s between e t h n i c groups w i t h the e x c e p t i o n comprehension. gory.  of v e r b a l  Age was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n any c a t e -  S c o r i n g l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  ( p<.01)  but each e t h n i c group r e t a i n e d i t s MAP a t both low and h i g h levels of scoring.  11  Table  of Contents Page  L i s t o f Tables L i s t of Figures  i i i iv  Introduction E d u c a t i o n a l I n f l u e n c e s and Expectations Genetic Components Animal S t u d i e s Environmental F a c t o r s Compensatory Programmes E a r l i e r Intervention Ethnic Influences Mental A b i l i t i e s Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s i n  1 6 10 10 18 19 22 23  Vancouver Schools  25  Chapter Two The M o d i f i e d P r e d i c t i v e Index MAP Subtests and S c o r i n g  27 30  Method  34  Results  37  Discussion Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s Age Scoring D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment Nature versus Nurture Bibliography  46 56 57 57 59 6l  Appendix 1 I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r T e s t s Used to Assess Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s Examples of Subtests Used to Assess Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s  64 67  iii  L i s t of  Tables  Table I  Page A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t Scores  (Burt, 1958)  8  II  I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotient  39  III  Spatial Conceptualization  4-0  IV  A b s t r a c t Reasoning  kl  V  V e r b a l Comprehension  kZ  VI  Generic  k3  VII  Verbal Production  kk  Tables 11 through V l l present the Range, F v a l u e s C e l l Means of each a p p r o p r i a t e category.  and  iv  List  of  Figures  Figure 1.  Page  Mental A b i l i t y (Stodolsky  Profiles  & Lesser,  1967)  24 47  2.  Mental A b i l i t y  3.  Chinese  Mental A b i l i t y  Profiles  48  4.  Italian  Mental A b i l i t y  Profiles  49  5.  Canadian  6.  Age  7.  Bender Visuo-Motor G e s t a l t Task  67  8.  MPI  68  9.  Wepman A u d i t o r y  Discrimination Test  69  10.  Horst Reversals  Test  70  11.  Gates  Figures  Profiles  Mental A b i l i t y  Profiles  51  Level Differences  Check L i s t  7  f o r Examiner  Word M a t c h i n g  -  11  appear  71  Subtests  i n Appendix  50  1.  V  Acknowledgements  I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to members o f the p r o j e c t v a l i d a t i n g a s c r e e n i n g t e s t f o r minimal c e r e b r a l dysfunction f o r permission  to use data  from  t h e i r study  ( N a t i o n a l H e a l t h Grant 609 - 7 - 355)/  To Dr. W.G.  Davenport and Dr. M. K i m b a l l , I wish to  express a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the past two  years.  F i n a l l y , to my f a m i l y , my most s i n c e r e thanks f o r a l l the p a t i e n c e and understanding d u r i n g the past s i x y e a r s .  they have shown  Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n C h i l d r e n of D i f f e r e n t E t h n i c Groups Barbara  Jean van  Blankensteln  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  The  c o g n i t i v e , p h y s i c a l and  s o c i a l development of a  c h i l d i s i n f l u e n c e d by many f a c t o r s .  For ten years or more,  the e d u c a t i o n a l system s t r u c t u r e s s i x hours of a c h i l d ' s f o r three q u a r t e r s of the year.  day  From the i n c e p t i o n of  compulsory e d u c a t i o n u n t i l very r e c e n t l y , the myth e x i s t e d t h a t equal o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n i n g and development were a v a i l a b l e i n the schools f o r a l l ,  i r r e s p e c t i v e of race  or  social status. E d u c a t i o n a l programmes were developed of i n s t r u c t i o n and  as f i x e d  systems  the c h i l d r e n , e x h i b i t i n g a wide v a r i a n c e  In t h e i r range of s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , were expected  to  conform to I d e n t i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n throughout t h e i r years i n school.  The  f a l l a c y of t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n to conform seems  to be s e l f e v i d e n t : the system i t s e l f , t a t i o n s of the students, and  the teacher's  expec-  the v a r i a n c e d i s p l a y e d by  the  c h i l d r e n have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to very unequal o p p o r t u n i t i e s being  available.  E d u c a t i o n a l I n f l u e n c e s and The  Expectations  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of the r i g i d i t y f o s t e r e d by  s c h o o l system has been s t r o n g l y c h a l l e n g e d . s t r u c t i r e d classroom  programme may  spontaneous involvement  depress  The  the  strictly  a child's  i n a t o p i c , w i t h the c h i l d  not  2  e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t s to f i t a s p e c i f i e d t i m e t a b l e . 9.00; arithmetic at 9.30; 10.30,  may  Art at  language a r t s a t 1 0 . 0 0 ; r e c e s s a t  not permit a c h i l d to become t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n  a s u b j e c t or some aspect of a s u b j e c t which might i n t r i g u e him.  The  compulsory s h i f t to a completely  d i f f e r e n t area  cause the c h i l d to l o s e i n t e r e s t i n what had (Elkind, 1969).  engrossed him  may  initially  I t i s quite possible that,  through t h i s l a c k of f l e x i b i l i t y ,  the schools may  inhibit  r a t h e r than promote l e a r n i n g (Goodman, 1 9 7 2 ) . Goodman ( 1972) abilities,  suggested t h a t , i r r e s p e c t i v e of a  child  the r e s t r i c t i v e , a r t i f i c i a l systems i n schools  do  not encourage the spontaneous use of a c h i l d ' s I n t e l l e c t which w i l l occur i n r e a l l i f e  situations.  t h i s i n the t h e o r i e s of c a u s a l i t y . a c h i l d i s not capable u n t i l around the age use  of and  The  real l i f e  He  g i v e s an example of  According  of h a n d l i n g t h i s stage  (1971)  of development  of seven; yet c h i l d r e n show a f u n c t i o n a l  can v e r b a l i z e c a u s a l connections s i t u a t i o n provides  f o r developing  to P i a g e t  by three or f o u r .  the m a t e r i a l and  the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t and  background  o n l y a f t e r working  a t t h i s on a f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l , can the more a b s t r a c t concepts be d e r i v e d .  These i n t u r n l e a d to an a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e  to other s i t u a t i o n s .  T h i s may  be very a p t l y demonstrated In  the a c q u i s i t i o n of concepts of c o n s e r v a t i o n . a t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h beads, water and  As measured i n  blocks, c h i l d r e n  do not appear to have a t t a i n e d the a b s t r a c t schemas of c o n s e r v a t i o n u n t i l the age three know, and  of f i v e or s i x .  Yet c h i l d r e n a t  can v e r b a l i z e the f a c t of something being  3 b i g g e r o r s m a l l e r , more o r l e s s than w i t h no d i f f i c u l t y a t all.  The c h i l d r e n were able to demonstrate t h i s  functional  use of the concept w i t h o b j e c t s f a m i l i a r t o them i n t h e i r environments.  Quoting K r o p o t k i n ( Russian Educator ),  Goodman s t a t e d , " You can teach a n y t h i n g , but a n y t h i n g t o a c h i l d o r an u n l e t t e r e d peasant,  I f you y o u r s e l f understand  I t c o n c r e t e l y - - - — I f you understand  I t o n l y as an a b s t r a c t  s t r u c t u r e , you can t e a c h n o t h i n g t o them ( p. 297 )• Measurement i n t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n many i n s t a n c e s i n c o r porates items and concepts f o r which the c h i l d as y e t , has no use and t h e r e f o r e has not needed to d e v e l o p . I t might be suggested for  f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , and e s p e c i a l l y  those of lower socio-economic  backgrounds, t h a t much of  what i s taught i n s c h o o l s i s I n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use o u t s i d e of  the s c h o o l .  The m a t e r i a l used and the standards  expected  by the teachers are more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the norms of the middle  c l a s s groups.  As such, these c h i l d r e n are p o s i t i v e l y  r e i n f o r c e d a t home to r e t a i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g a c q u i r e d a t s c h o o l while those c h i l d r e n from the lower groups,  socio-economic  b e i n g n e g a t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d o u t s i d e of s c h o o l ,  e i t h e r don't r e t a i n o r o n l y r e t a i n m i n i m a l l y , what has been taught i n s c h o o l (Goodman, 1972). Strong evidence  t h a t equal o p p o r t u n i t y was not being  g i v e n to c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l was found  In a micro-study done  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between one teacher and her c l a s s and the i n f l u e n c e t h i s had on the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the f i r s t years of s c h o o l ( R i s t , 1970). c h i l d r e n were i n i t i a l l y  three  A group o f k i n d e r g a r t e n  p l a c e d i n t o one of three classroom  4 groups based on i n f o r m a t i o n which had n o t h i n g to do academic p o t e n t i a l . ranged from Table One to  R i s t found  t h a t the i n i t i a l  c h i l d r e n who  Table Three c h i l d r e n who  with  placement  were most l i k e the  were l e a s t l i k e her.  emerged as being r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of reasons  teacher  Pour f a c t o r s  for specific  placement: 1.  Neat, c l e a n c h i l d r e n as opposed to d i r t y , dressed c h i l d r e n .  2.  Those most i n t e r a c t i v e w i t h the teacher and each o t h e r .  with  3.  Those who were the most v e r b a l to those who least verbal.  were the  4.  Those f a c t o r s which were regarded as being most s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . These were known p r i o r to admission and i n c l u d e d such Information as f a m i l y income, race, r e l i g i o n , whether or not the f a m i l y was on w e l f a r e , e t c .  These i n d i c a t e d a s e r i e s of e x p e c t a t i o n s from the which i n f l u e n c e d her treatment  of the c h i l d r e n .  poorly  teacher This  was  most e v i d e n t i n d i f f e r e n t i a l v e r b a l support depending on the group i n which a c h i l d was.  The  c h i l d r e n were a c u t e l y  aware of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the three groups and they advanced i n t o Grades One were r e i n f o r c e d .  and Two,  as  these d i f f e r e n c e s  Placement i n t o these grades was  based  the records from the p r e v i o u s c l a s s and by Grade Two,  on  the  c h i l d r e n , r a n g i n g from h i g h e s t -to lowest worked i n w e l l d e f i n e d groups c a l l e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , T i g e r s , C a r d i n a l s and Clowns.  Pew  i n s t a n c e s were seen of c h i l d r e n moving upwards  from t h e i r i n i t i a l placement groups.  No  Three ever made i t i n t o the T i g e r Group.  c h i l d from Table These c h i l d r e n  then, from t h e i r f i r s t days In s c h o o l were l a b e l l e d as to  f a i l i n g students and  low  the e x p e c t a t i o n s were i n h e r e n t i n the  system t h a t they would remain there as l o n g as they stayed  2  i n school. A r e p o r t from New  York ( S t e i n , 1 9 7 1 ) r e i n f o r c e d  Rist's  arguments of e x p e c t a t i o n s b e i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l a c r o s s  (1970)  groups.  S t e i n s t a t e d that i t was  and Negroes to f a i l  the d e s t i n y of Peurto Ricans  i n s c h o o l w h i l e white c h i l d r e n  passed.  Both the economic and p o l i t i c a l systems made a p o o l of u n s k i l l e d workers necessary and m i n o r i t y groups were expected  i t was  to f i l l .  t h i s category t h a t the Commenting on remedial  summer programmes, implemented to compensate f o r academic f a i l u r e s , she expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t , a l t h o u g h the programmes were expensive, they appeared to the c h i l d r e n .  She  " to do no more damage"  p o i n t e d out the same teachers  who,  d u r i n g the year had p a r t i a l l y been the cause of damage through d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment, were the ones employed f o r the summer remedial work.  The academic progress o f the Peurto R i c a n  and Negro c h i l d r e n from Grade One poor;  onward, was  r e p o r t e d as  t h e i r homes where c l a s s i f i e d as n o i s y but  speechless; t h e i r language was l e s s and u n i m a g i n a t i v e . t h e i r language  essentially  s t a t e d as b e i n g d u l l , c o l o u r -  The e v a l u a t i o n of the q u a l i t y of  might be q u e r i e d ; while i t may  r i b l e to the middle c l a s s norms, the language  not be compaused i n the  s c h o o l s probably d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y from t h a t used i n the s t r e e t s of t h e i r environment. s t r e e t languages tive.  There  i s evidence t h a t  are v e r y r i c h , f u l l y f u n c t i o n a l and  T h e i r use, however, i s not encouraged  these imagina-  or understood  In the s c h o o l s . A c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to achieve has been shown to change d u r i n g the years spent i n s c h o o l .  Using B i a l e r ' s C h i l d r e n s '  Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e s ( 1 9 6 1 ) , B a r t e l  (1970)  found t h a t there  b was a p r o g r e s s i v e decrement from Grade One t o Grade S i x . Lower c l a s s and b l a c k c h i l d r e n had poorer academic r e c o r d s and lower b e l i e f s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e than t h e i r middle c l a s s and white peers d i d .  D u r i n g Grades One and Two,  c h i l d r e n showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r  beliefs,  but by Grade Four, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e which continued to i n c r e a s e t o Grade S i x . From t h e s e , s t u d i e s , i t appeared  that a c h i l d  starting  on h i s f i r s t day o f s c h o o l , was a l r e a d y marked f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment which negated a l l attempts  to p r o v i d e equal  opportunity. G e n e t i c Components The  t h i r d f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the unequal o p p o r t u n i t y  i s found i n the wide ranges of developmental in children.  behaviour e v i d e n t  P r i o r to admission to s c h o o l , g e n e t i c and e n v i -  ronmental f a c t o r s and the i n t e r a c t i o n s of these, i n f l u e n c e d the d e v e l o p i n g behaviours of the c h i l d r e n .  Great s t r e s s i n  r e s e a r c h d u r i n g the past two decades has been p l a c e d on the i n f l u e n c e s o f the environment  and changes i n the environment  as they a f f e c t growing c h i l d r e n .  Emphasis on the g e n e t i c  component was l a r g e l y d e s t r e s s e d u n t i l 1969 when Jensen published a c o n t r o v e r s i a l a r t i c l e , arguing that genetic r a t h e r than environmental f a c t o r s were the most important determinants of i n t e l l i g e n c e and mental a b i l i t i e s . H e  felt  t h a t i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s accounted f o r both s o c i a l c l a s s and r a c i a l v a r i a t i o n s found i n the p o p u l a t i o n (Jensen, 1 9 & 9 ) . The genotype,  f i x e d a t c o n c e p t i o n by the union o f the  ovum and sperm, i s expressed as the phenotype which i s  7 the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the genotype w i t h i t s environment. an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  model, Jensen f e l t  Using  t h a t he was a b l e  to a s s i g n approximately 7 0 - 7 5 % o f i n t e l l i g e n c e to g e n e t i c sources;  1 5 - 2 0 % to environmental f a c t o r s w i t h the remaining  5 - 1 0 % being due to e r r o r .  T h i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the  r e s u l t s o f e a r l i e r s t u d i e s done i n England (Burt,  1958).  (See Table JL, p. 8 ) These s t u d i e s were based on an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  model employing l a r g e samples o f k i n s h i p  drawn from s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s .  Jensen f e l t  minance o f the g e n e t i c source e x p l a i n e d  studies  t h a t t h i s predo-  r a c i a l differences i n  i n t e l l i g e n c e and suggested t h a t t h i s was one o f the major reasons why compensatory e d u c a t i o n a l  programmes e s t a b l i s h e d  to date, had f a i l e d t o show l o n g term gains  i n intelligence.  However, r e s e r v a t i o n s e x i s t about the use o f an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  model when attempting to e x t r a p o l a t e w i t h i n group  r e s u l t s to between group s i t u a t i o n s .  Heritability i s a  s t a t i s t i c a l concept and the r e s u l t s can o n l y be g e n e r a l i z e d to the p o p u l a t i o n 1969)  sampled.  I t has been p o i n t e d  out (Crow,  that p r e d i c t i v e models have l i m i t s when new o r q u a l i -  t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t treatments a r e i n t r o d u c e d  i n t o the e n v i -  ronment as the magnitude and d i r e c t i o n o f g e n e t i c are  differences  unpredictable. The  concept o f i n h e r i t e d predominants i n i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  to a l a r g e degree, c o n t r a d i c t e d  the b a s i c precepts o f  P i a g e t i a n t h e o r i e s o f c h i l d development.  " Intelligence i s  developed i n and through experience c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation " ( E l k i n d , I 9 6 9 ) .  These s t r e s s  the I n t e r a c t i o n o f a c h i l d w i t h h i s environment and the environment w i t h the c h i l d .  I t Is expected t h a t c h i l d r e n  8 TABLE 1  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t Scores (Burt,  Source o f V a r i a n c e Genetic: Genlc ( a d d i t i v e ) A s s o r t a t i v e Mating Dominance & E p i s t a s i s Environmental: Covariance o f H e r e d i t y & Environment Random Environmental E f f e c t s , i n c l u d i n g HxE Unreliability Total  (test error)  1958)  Percent  40.5 19.9 16.7 10.6 5.9 6.4 100.0  9 w i l l develop to m a t u r i t y i n a p r e d i c t a b l e f a s h i o n .  The  steps to m a t u r a t i o n show an accumulative d i r e c t i o n and, depending upon exposure to a p p r o p r i a t e elements i n the environment and a c h i l d ' s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s , can be seen a t d i f f e r e n t times i n d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n .  I t might be  hypothesized t h a t , w i t h no environment to grow i n , a c h i l d , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f h i s p o t e n t i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , would show no Intelligence quotient a t a l l . Jensen has s t a t e d : "Although the IQ i s c e r t a i n l y not a 'constant*, i t seems safe to say t h a t under normal e n v i r o n mental c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s a t l e a s t as s t a b l e as o t h e r developmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s t r i c t l y p h y s i c a l n a t u r e " (p.  19)•  T h i s on the s u r f a c e , appeared to be an a c c e p t a b l e  statement.  However, the I m p l i c a t i o n i n h e r e n t was t h a t a  normal environment would produce normal I n t e l l i g e n c e and normal h e i g h t .  Given an abnormal environment, one can o n l y  assume t h a t the d e v i a t i o n s o c c u r i n g i n p h y s i c a l t r a i t s a l i o appear i n i n t e l l i g e n c e .  would  One example o f the former can  be seen i n the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n o f Canadian - Japanese c h i l d r e n of Japanese Immigrant fifties,  parents.  I n Toronto, i n the mid-  these c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r l a t e teens, under the i n f l u -  ence o f r a d i c a l changes i n d i e t from parent t o c h i l d , showed a three to s i x i n c h Increase i n h e i g h t over both parents (R. Takeuchi, p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ) .  I t was e v i d e n t t h a t  n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s v e r y r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d the p h y s i c a l genotype.  I f d e v i a t i o n s o f t h i s magnitude can occur i n a  p h y s i c a l t r a i t i n one g e n e r a t i o n due to an i n c r e a s e d  protein  d i e t , i t would seem l o g i c a l t h a t s i m i l a r v a r i a n c e c o u l d be found i n IQ when changing from what might be regarded as an abnormal t o a normal  environment.  Animal S t u d i e s I n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the n a t u r a l environment o f laboratoryanimals has shown permanent d y s f u n c t i o n a l e f f e c t s i n the maturing a n i m a l s . the  I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment through  eyes, e a r l y i n l i f e , has shown d e f i n i t e neuroanatomical  and neurochemical consequences.  When chimpanzees, who  were  b l i n d reared f o r 28 months were compared to normally reared chimpanzees,  they showed a p a l l o r on the o p t i c d i s c not  apparent on the normal ones.  A u t o p s i e s done on the e x p e r i -  mental animals a t s i x years showed d e f i c i t s i n the g a n g l i o n c e l l l a y e r o f the r e t i n a and o p t i c nerve which i n d i c a t e d i r r e v e r s i b l e e f f e c t s from the i n i t i a l e i g h t e e n months of b l i n d n e s s ( Hunt, 1970). D e f i c i e n c i e s of r i b o n u c l e i c a c i d i n the r e t i n a l  ganglia  have been found i n comparison o f dark and l i g h t r e a r e d mates i n r a b b i t s and k i t t e n s .  litter-  Even dark r e a r i n g f o r a few  days showed damage to the s t r i a t e a r e a o f the v i s u a l  cortex.  The e f f e c t s of dark r e a r i n g have been observed not o n l y i n changes i n the a n a t o m i c a l and chemical c o m p o s i t i o n o f the eyes but have been found to extend to a l t e r a t i o n s i n the thalamus and v i s u a l areas of the c o r t e x . Environmental F a c t o r s Given the c o n f i n e s of a normal environment,  intelligence  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a few i n h e r i t e d , g e n e t i c a l l y r e c e s s i v e d e f e c t s , has i n the median i n t e r v a l s , a s t a b l e range which conforms to the g a u s s i a n o r b e l l c u r v e .  I t i s generally  accepted t h a t the t e s t s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used to e v a l u a t e the p h y s i c a l and c o g n i t i v e behaviour o f i n f a n t s and c h i l d r e n , are  11 b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f the middle c l a s s white c h i l d al.,  1970).  I f the environments  (Kessen e t  o f these c h i l d r e n were  accepted as normal, then the environments  of c h i l d r e n r a i s e d  a c c o r d i n g to o t h e r standards must be c l a s s i f i e d as abnormal. Measurement o f these c h i l d r e n would then be b i a s e d when t e s t e d u s i n g the g e n e r a l l y accepted s c a l e s . phenotypes  I n t e r a c t i o n o f the  w i t h i n these environments might not be s t a b l e .  " The parents o f s e v e r e l y subnormal  children  (previously  d e f i n e d as caused by p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , massive  brain  damage o r r a r e g e n e t i c o r chromosomal a b n o r m a l i t i e s ) a r e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d among a l l  the s o c i a l s t r a t a o f i n d u s t r i a l  s o c i e t y , w h i l e those o f m i l d l y abnormal dominantly from lower s o c i a l c l a s s e s .  s u b j e c t s come p r e There i s now evidence  which suggests m i l d subnormality i n the abscence o f neurol o g i c a l s i g n s i s v i r t u a l l y c o n f i n e d to the lower classes.  social  Indeed, there i s evidence t h a t almost no c h i l d r e n  of h i g h e r s o c i a l c l a s s parents have IQ s c o r e s o f l e s s 80 ».  than  (Jensen, 1 9 6 9 , p. 2 7 )  I t i s i n the a r e a o f comparison between lower and middle c l a s s socio-economic groups t h a t s t u d i e s r e p e a t e d l y show reduced o r r e t a r d e d performances f a v o u r a b l e environment.  by c h i l d r e n from the l e s s  Research done w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  c h i l d r e n , b l a c k versus white p o p u l a t i o n s and slum versus lower and middle c l a s s s t r a t a has i n d i c a t e d that lower performances do e x i s t ; i n some cases, f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to t h i s r e d u c t i o n have been demonstrated. I n i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n f a n t s and c h i l d r e n a r e found to be r e t a r d e d i n p h y s i c a l development,  toilet  training,  gence, speech and a b i l i t y to s e l f feed and d r e s s .  intelliLack o f  s t i m u l a t i o n due  to maternal d e p r i v a t i o n was  being r e s p o n s i b l e  regarded  (Thompson & Grusec, 1970).  as  Foster  place-  ment of c h i l d r e n soon a f t e r b i r t h as opposed to placement a f t e r three years In I n s t i t u t i o n s showed t h a t , by ten f i f t e e n years of age,  the c h i l d r e n who  had  remained  t u t i o n a l i z e d the l o n g e s t were d e f i c i e n t In IQ and conceptualize, and  had  insti-  ability  to  poorer speech development, were r e s t l e s s  l e s s a b l e to concentrate,  records  to  had  poor s c h o o l achievement  and were s o c i a l l y immature, unpopular and  aggressive.  These f i n d i n g s I n d i c a t e d  that three years i n an environment  of maternal and  d e p r i v a t i o n caused trends  stimulus  lopment which appeared i r r e v e r s i b l e  in.deve-  (Thompson et a l , 1970).  Maternal d e p r i v a t i o n per se, d i d not appear to be the  cause  of r e t a r d a t i o n but r a t h e r the l a c k of s t i m u l a t i o n accompanyi n g t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n was  regarded as being  causes of. reduced performance and Dennis and N a j a r i n  one  of the  dysfunctional  behaviours.  (1757) r e p o r t i n g on three  i n I r a n found t h a t the c h i l d r e n i n one  prime  orphanages  i n s t i t u t i o n who  were  handled f r e q u e n t l y , showed motor development s i m i l a r to home reared  c h i l d r e n while those c h i l d r e n i n the other  retarded  i n performance on developmental s c a l e s .  of c h i l d r e n from one t i c e a day  orphanage were g i v e n one  over three weeks i n s i t t i n g ,  pulating objects.  two  A group  hour's  observing  T h i s group showed an i n c r e a s e  were  and  pracmani-  i n perfor-  mance on developmental t e s t scores when compared to c h i l d r e n who  d i d not have t h i s e x t r a s t i m u l a t i o n . Further  support f o r i n c r e a s e d  s t i m u l a t i o n being  to development came from an e a r l y study by Skeels and  basic Dye  (1939)•  I n f a n t s and  young c h i l d r e n from an orphanage were  t r a n s f e r r e d to an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r m e n t a l l y (Thompson e t a l ) 1 9 7 0 ) . had  Within two  retarded  girls.  years, the c h i l d r e n  i n t e r a c t e d w i t h the r e t a r d e d g i r l s showed an IQ  p o i n t s h i g h e r than those who those who  had  who  fifty  remained i n the orphanage:  were t r a n s f e r r e d had an increment of twenty f i v e  points while  those remaining  Rheingold  showed a decrement of  twenty-five.  (I967) found t h a t three to f o u r month o l d  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d I n f a n t s had a higher frequency  and  intensity  of v o c a l i z a t i o n r a t e s to an unknown experimenter than shown by c h i l d r e n r a i s e d a t home.  She  l a c k of s o c i a l stimulations?,  Home r a i s e d c h i l d r e n d i d not  need to a t t r a c t and t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d had necessary The  f e l t that t h i s i n d i c a t e d a  hold a d u l t a t t e n t i o n while  the  l e a r n e d that a s t r o n g response  to a t t r a c t the a d u l t and keep him m a j o r i t y of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  instituwas  near.  t e s t s (Bayley, G e s e l l ,  C a t t e l l ) were of a stage developmental nature,  the  results  i n d i c a t i n g a range of ages a t which s p e c i f i c developmental f e a t u r e s might be expected to occur. questionable  I n f a n t t e s t s have  v a l i d i t y as they g e n e r a l l y show low c o r r e l a t i o n s  w i t h l a t e r measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  The  r e c e n t development  of s e t s of P i a g e t i a n Object Scales were expected to demonstrate a b e t t e r e v a l u a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e development through problem solving. B i r n s and Golden ( 1 9 6 8 ) t e s t i n g Negro c h i l d r e n from slum and working c l a s s and middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s , u s i n g both C a t t e l l I n f a n t Development S c a l e s and concluded  P i a g e t i a n Object  Scales,  t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s In i n t e l l e c t u a l  development or c o g n i t i v e s t y l e were not present d u r i n g  the  Ik sensori-motor stage of development approximately). or  fail  ( up to two years of age  S c o r i n g on these t e s t s was done on a pass  b a s i s and appeared  to show t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s  diffe-  rences i n c h i l d r e n d i d not b e g i n to emerge u n t i l between e i g h t e e n and t h i r t y s i x months when language Two  developed.  more r e c e n t s t u d i e s have shown s i g n i f i c a n t  ences i n performance ( C o l l a r d , 1971)  on e x p l o r a t o r y and p l a y behaviours  and c o g n i t i v e development  at different  l e v e l s from d i f f e r e n t environmental backgrounds U z g l r l s and McV.  differ-  Hunt, I 9 6 9 ) .  The former t e s t e d  t i o n a l i z e d , lower and middle c l a s s i n f a n t s .  The  age  ( Wachs, institusubjects,  r a n g i n g i n age from e i g h t and a h a l f to t h i r t e e n months were matched f o r age and sex.  I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n explored  l e s s , showed fewer schemas and l e s s s o c i a l p&ay.  The  lower  and middle c l a s s c h i l d r e n were the same on e x p l o r a t o r y behaviours but middle c l a s s c h i l d r e n were h i g h e r on schemas ( which were developed through memory) and i n s o c i a l The l e v e l of performance  play.  on the G e s e l l s u b t e s t s depended on  experience w i t h s i m i l a r o b j e c t s and the e x t e n t to which had been handled. to for  The primary f a c t o r emerging which  i n f l u e n c e these r e s u l t s was by one a d u l t .  they  appeared  the number of c h i l d r e n cared  The t h i r t y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n were  cared f o r by two nurses and the number of c h i l d r e n i n the care of one person decreased as s o c i a l c l a s s i n c r e a s e d .  As  the  r a t i o of c h i l d r e n to a d u l t s decreased, more o p p o r t u n i t y  for  p l a y and d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of e x p l o r a t i o n were i n c l u d e d  in  the c h i l d ' s d a i l y  life.  One o f the most comprehensive of  Wachs e t a l . (1969)*  s t u d i e s to date i s t h a t  C h i l d r e n from lower-lower (LL) and  JO  middle c l a s s (MC)  s o c i a l groups were t e s t e d .  s e c t i o n a l study u s i n g f i v e l e v e l s of age 22 months) was  designed  A cross-  ( 7, 11,  15,  18  to e s t a b l i s h whe&her d i f f e r e n c e s i n  development e x i s t e d and,  i f they d i d , what f a c t o r s i n the  environment c o r r e l a t e d most c l o s e l y w i t h performance. f o u r percent to  of the LL c h i l d r e n were Negro and  f i n d an e q u i v a l e n t group of MC  Development was  assessed  Development T e s t s and mental S c a l e s The  IPDS was  &  e f f o r t s made  c h i l d r e n proved  u s i n g Bayley and C a t t e l l  the new  Eighty  impossible. Infant  I n f a n t P s y c h o l o g i c a l Develop-  (IPDS) developed i n 1966  by U z g i r i s and  based on a P i a g e t i a n model of  Hunt.  intellectual  development and has adequate i n t e r - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y , reliability  and  construct v a l i d i t y  ( Hunt, 1969).  L e v e l s of  r e l a t i o n s h i p were not g i v e n but i n the study being .75 was  test  evaluated  the c u t - o f f l e v e l f o r a c c e p t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n  results.  Items from f o u r s c a l e s of the IPDS 1.  Development of V i s u a l Pursu&t and Objects;  Permanence of  2.  Development of Means f o r O b t a i n i n g Environmental Objects;  3.  Development of Schemas f o r R e l a t i n g  4.  Vocal Imitation;  Desired Objects;  were scored on a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g from f a i l u r e through p a r t i a l success failure trials  (3) and  success a f t e r one  (4) to immediate and  every t r i a l of the task ( 5 ) .  (2)  or more  p e r f e c t performance  on  A n a l y s i s of these data u s i n g a  s i g n t e s t f o r non-parametric matched p a i r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between disadvantaged  and  each of the f o u r s c a l e s as f o l l o w s ;  comparison s u b j e c t s f o r  ID  1.  Object Permanence M@ c h i l d r e n performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than L L c h i l d r e n a t 1 1 months. By 1 5 months, the gap began t o c l o s e as the s u b j e c t s feegan to a t t a i n v i s i b l e displacement o f o b j e c t s and no f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the groups.  2.  Development o f Means With the e x c e p t i o n o f 1 5 month o l d c h i l d r e n , the MC group performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the L L group, a p p e a r i n g t o be one s t e p ahead o f the disadvantaged c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r development.  3.  L e a r n i n g and F o r e s i g h t No d i f f e r e n c e s were found p r i o r t o 1 5 months, then the MC c h i l d r e n were b e t t e r than the L L c h i l d r e n a t a l l s u c c e s s i v e age l e v e l s i n a toy s t a c k i n g t a s k . I t was f e l t t h a t the task i t s e l f had been too complex f o r the younger c h i l d r e n .  4.  Vocal Imitation On measures o f the t o t a l number of words e l i c i t e d and the number o f a p p r o p r i a t e responses, MC c h i l d r e n were s u p e r i o r t o L L c h i l d r e n i n both measures a t 1 5 and 18 months. The MC and L L c h i l d r e n were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n e l i c i t e d vocabulary s i z e a t 2 2 months but MC were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n a p p r o p r i a t e word usage.  Data from these f o u r s c a l e s , plus  the number o f e x p l o r a -  t o r y and s o c i a l behaviours sand f e a r r e a c t i o n s e x h i b i t e d by each c h i l d were analyzed for  using a point b i - s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between measures o f performance and the  home environment.  T h i s was assessed  u s i n g the Home Stimu-  l a t i o n S c a l e , based on the C a l d w e l l I n v e n t o r y o f Home Stimulation  ( 1 9 6 4 ) which i n c o r p o r a t e d  categories  measuring  the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f the c h i l d ' s house, i n t e n s i t y and v a r i e t y o f s t i m u l a t i o n , types o f m o t h e r - c h i l d  interaction,  language environment and the range o f a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to the c h i l d .  A l l items w i t h l e s s than a . 7 5 i n t e r - r a t e r  r e l i a b i l i t y were dropped from the study.  Consistent  high  c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between s p e c i f i c Items on the Home Stimulation Scale  (HSS)  the a u d i t o r y m o d a l i t y  and the IPDS.  Overstimulation In  was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e r f o r -  mance a t a l l f i v e age l e v e l s .  The items f o r t h i s on the HSS  i n c l u d e d a n o i s y neighbourhood, s m a l l n o i s y home where the  17 child of  could not  noise  was  i n the  testing).  visual  escape from the d i s t u r b a n c e home (TV  left  Conversely,  on  those  items  s t i m u l a t i o n were p o s i t i v e l y  all of  positively  correlated with  level  i n simple  vocaliza-  be  feeding.  exceeded w i t h an  high  to the  c h i l d ' s development.  I n t e n s i t y s t i m u l a t i o n d i d not  e n t i a t e and  attend  t o the a p p r o p r i a t e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e v i s u a l and whole p r o c e s s  m i g h t be  and  excessive  a  being  felt  child  to  as analagous  power w o u l d n o t  power would c a u s e a n  that differ-  f a c t o r s necessary  auditory modalities.  regarded  c i r c u i t where i n s u f f i c i e n t  I t was  permit  optimal  excessive  decrement or increment i n p r e s e n t a t i o n of s t i m u l i detrimental  were  exception  i t would appear t h a t the  o f s t i m u l a t i o n can  persons  tasks  the  and  performance.  Maternal  t h e IPDS w i t h  7 month o l d c h i l d r e n i n s e l f From M i e s e r e s u l t s ,  examiner  t o t o o many o b j e c t s ,  directing  correlated with  level  measuring t a c t i l e  or places, d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s appeared. naming o f o b j e c t s and  high  the whole time the  However, i f i n f a n t s were e x p o s e d  tion,  and  The  to an  electric  trigger a  overload,  for  process  s h u t t i n g of  the  system. Two  p o s s i b l e reasons  differences  b e t w e e n MC  and  are LL  g i v e n f o r the above f i n d i n g s o f c h i l d r e n a t very  T h e s e r e s u l t s were c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h e and  Golden  u n d e r two  (1968) where no years  o f age  children.  The  tasks  not  have b e e n as  when s i m i l a r  the  IPDS (Hunt, 1971).  MC  employed  sensitive  f i n d i n g s of  d i f f e r e n c e s appeared  s c a l e s were u s e d between L L and of  jpoung a g e s .  types  of  groups  B i r n s e t a l (1968)  to environmental  Secondly,  in children  developmental  socio-economic  by  Birns  may  v a r i a t i o n s as  a graduated  scoring tech-  nique  i n c l u d i n g both pass - f a i l c a t e g o r i e s and measures of  c o n s i s t e n c y were used i n the U z g i r i s - Hunt t e s t while  the  m a j o r i t y of o t h e r t e s t s were measured only on a pass -  fail  basis,  A t h i r d reason might be c o n s i d e r e d .  I n the Wachs et  a l study, the c h i l d r e n were m u l t i - r a c i a l while i n the B i r n s Golden work, a l l of the c h i l d r e n were Negro, suggested  l a t e r , t h i s c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n may  a f f e c t responses  As w i l l  be  strongly  on t a s k s .  Compensatory Programmes A growing awareness of the l o n g term d y s f u n c t i o n a l e f f e c t s of  some of the more d e t r i m e n t a l environmental  to  the formation of experimental  f a c t o r s has l e d  remedial programmes.  F i n a n c i a l a i d has been poured i n t o s c h o o l and  pre-school  p r o j e c t s i n an attempt to remedy some of the weaknesses prev a l e n t i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e (The E a r l y T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t ; The  P e r r y Pre-School P r o j e c t ; The  Head S t a r t ) ,  One  Indiana P r o j e c t ; P r o j e c t  programme which had r e c e i v e d wide p u b l i c i t y  and which had g r e a t e x p e c t a t i o n s of i t was Start.  T h i s was  planned and  programme where i t was  t h a t of Head  i n t r o d u c e d as a p r e s c h o o l pl§cy  hoped t h a t the d e t r i m e n t a l environmen-  t a l e f f e c t s from the f i r s t three years c o u l d be permanently counteracted. of age  C h i l d r e n from three and a h a l f to f o u r years  entered the programme f o r e i t h e r two  summers and  one  year or one year andiione summer p r i o r to e n t e r i n g  elementary  school.  decreased  I n i t i a l gains found d u r i n g the programme  back to s o c i a l group norms when the c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d to t h e i r e a r l i e r environment.  The  c o n c l u s i o n reached  people working on the p r o j e c t was  by  that a t r a d i t i o n a l  the nursery  19 school  f o r m a t was  programmes o f parents  not  what s l u m c h i l d r e n n e e d e d .  cognitive,  i n t e r a c t i n g and  l a n g u a g e and  Rather,  number s k i l l s ,  l e a r n i n g w i t h the  with  c h i l d r e n , has  been  suggested.  Earlier  Intervention  An on  the  i m p r e s s i v e amount o f  child  pating four  but  role.  low  the in and  child.  require The  IQ.  Early Training Project  G r a d e One.  However, by  significant.  Intervention  at  not  sufficient The  a downward d i f f u s i o n o f  interest.(Gray Early  the  & Klaus,  1970)  m o t h e r s how  f i n d i n g that to  language t h e y were  shown a n  a  sequential  the  initial  ( K a r n e s e t a l , 1970) to s t i m u l a t e  This  cognitive  and  the  e f f e c t s of appeared  a  to  younger s i b l i n g s  mothers, over a educational  no  a decrease to  there  the  children  e x p e r i m e n t a l c h i l d r e n was  c h i l d r e n when t h e  were g i v e n  home u s e .  finally  that  of  i n t e r v e n t i o n showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  groups of  period,  m o t h e r s and  evident,  summer  the  t h i s t i m e showed  trends f o r  for  fortyy-  intensive  to c o n t r o l  of  partici-  years p r i o r to  to reduce  teaching  enrichment  (1967) gave  w h i c h had  a l e v e l l i n g and  income e n v i r o n m e n t .  from b o t h the  two  Testing  Grade Four, w h i l e  sharp increase,then  be  f o r three  accrue  environment  active,  years of  a c h i e v e m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s were s t i l l  c o n t r o l g r o u p , was  only  mother to p l a y an  e x p e r i m e n t a l c h i l d r e n were s u p e r i o r  longer  low  the  w e e k l y home v i s i t s  entering  i n the  These s t r e s s not  income N e g r o c h i l d r e n t h r e e  work p l u s child  i s beginning to  need f o r v e r y e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n  a disadvantaged the  evidence  fifteen  programme  programme t a u g h t verbal  between month  for the  development  and  incorporated  reinforcement. no  The  significant  teaching principles  e x p e r i m e n t a l and  differences  t i o n but, a f t e r difference  basic  control  i n performance  f i f t e e n months, t h e r e was  between them.  l i n g s were m e a s u r e d  - 134  and  1971)  gave  day c a r e .  two  groups o f c h i l d r e n  The  first  Scales  Infants  showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  better  The  second  high  were d e v e l o p i n g r a p i d l y .  performance  b u t n o t on  e f f e c t s were t h e g r e a t e s t  The  for  infants  for  improved  ( two  o f two  the  f o r Negro e x p e r i m e n t a l c h i l d r e n .  from a comprehensive  of  early  d a y c a r e programme  t o t h i r t y months) showed d e f i n i t e  performance.  when  overlap of  c h i l d r e n and  three y e a r study examining the e f f e c t s  experience derived  motor.  results,  showed no  control  quality  Bayley  g r o u p e n t e r e d t h e programme a t t h e age  s c o r e s b e t w e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l and  from  ( f o u r weeks  group.  IQ S c a l e s ,  differ-  102.  comprehensive,  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p on m e n t a l s k i l l s  vantaged  -  to a control  measured by S t a n f o r d - B i n e t  sib-  h a v i n g a range  for  A  o f younger  (Robinson & Robinson,  group, a d m i t t e d as  t o s i x months) were compared  verbal a b i l i t i e s  interven-  significant  r a n g i n g f r o m 71  study from N o r t h C a r o l i n a  Developmental  to  showed  f o r both groups, v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e  control siblings  A third  prior a  positive  children  When t h e IQ l e v e l s  ences appeared w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l s i b l i n g s 99  using  T h i r t y advantaged  and  trends  nine d i s a d -  c h i l d r e n were g i v e n a programme d e s i g n e d t o d e v e l o p  1.  C o g n i t i v e competence and c o m p l e x i t y i n p e r c e p t u a l m o t o r , l a n g u a g e and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s .  2.  C u r i o s i t y ; . and e n j o y m e n t problem s o l v i n g .  3.  C o - o p e r a t i o n , a d a p t i v e n e s s and of s e l f worth.  4.  Strong, healthy physical  1  i n e x p l o r a t i o n and  positive  systems  of  play  feelings  adaptation.  iii  Student-teacher and parent guidance components o f t h e s t u d y .  programmes were  essential  C o m p a r i s o n w i t h home r e a r e d  a t r e g u l a r s i x month i n t e r v a l s S c a l e s showed i n c r e a s i n g l y  children  on B a y l e y and S t a n f o r d - B i n e t  significant  differences  between  the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n w i t h the n u r s e r y dren performing a t a higher l e v e l . dren  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d  chilchil-  i n t h e programme Improved e o n s i s t e n t l y a b o v e t h e i r  n a l performance  w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n s b e i n g made by t h o s e  c h i l d r e n who e n t e r e d Fowler  origi-  concluded  the day n u r s e r y a t the e a r l i e r  that developmental  gaps between  ages.  socio-  e c o n o m i c g r o u p s c o u l d be made up i n many c a s e s b u t w o u l d n o t be  s u s t a i n e d by a l l d i s a d v a n t a g e d  forms o f support  (Fowler,  tion. the  the p o s s i b i l i t y  and, w i t h t h i s  t h e whole environment  i n m i n d , i t became o b v i o u s  maternal  i f n o t w h o l e f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  One  o f IQ v a r i a n c e a t t h e age o f s e v e n t e e n  half  dicted  by t h e age o f f o u r t o f i v e .  i n t e r v e n t i o n s h o u l d be made p r i o r appreciably remains  possible  that  earlier social  essential. c a n be p r e that  I f IQ c a n be  four years of l i f e , i t  i t w o u l d show a n i n c r e a s e a t m a t u r i t y .  programmes a r e c l o s e l y  Intervention into  of  that  I t c o u l d be a r g u e d to t h i s age.  increased i n the f i r s t  Beyond a few e x p e r i m e n t a l dial  of obtaining  e f f e c t s w i t h e a r l y programmes o f i n t e r v e n -  T h e s e must e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r  child  additional  1972).  These s t u d i e s a l l i n d i c a t e d very b e n e f i c i a l  f a m i l i e s without  the l i v e s  studies,  tied  t h e m a j o r i t y o f reme-  to the e d u c a t i o n a l  o f disadvantaged  system.  children a t an  period i s not f e a s i b l e a t present with the e x i s t i n g structures.  However, a s a l l c h i l d r e n must a t t e n d  CC  s c h o o l , I t i s w i t h i n the s c h o o l systems t h a t i t seems most l o g i c a l to i n s t i t u t e remedial programmes. of  S u b j e c t i n g masses  c h i l d r e n t o a wide v a r i e t y o f compensatory programmes  appears to have accomplished  little,  as evidenced by the  r e s u l t s o f the m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s t o d a t e .  The i d e a l would  be an i n d i v i d u a l programme t a i l o r e d to the s t r e n g t h s and weak nesses  o f each c h i l d .  T h i s i s the d i r e c t i o n which many  s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n middle and h i g h e r c l a s s areas a r e heading.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , elementary  socio-economic schools are  very crowded; the l o a d o f p r e p a r i n g t h i r t y - f i v e t o f o r t y s e p a r a t e l y s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l a e would be i m p r a c t i c a l f o r the t e a c h e r .  Working w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g systems, e a s i e r  method must be found, p a r t i c u l a r l y I n the lower s o c i o economic a r e a s , to provide an o p t i m a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r each c h i l d to l e a r n . Ethnic Influences One for  f e a t u r e o f lower socio-economic  r a c i a l groups t o c l u s t e r i n b l o c k s .  groups i s a tendency I n Vancouver, s e c -  t i o n s o f the c i t y o r i e n t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to I t a l i a n ,  East  I n d i a n , Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Canadian Indians can be found.  I n many cases, these people l i v e In c l o s e l y con-  f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c a l areas next to each o t h e r but w i t h v e r y little  c r o s s i n g o f i n v i s i b l e c u l t u r a l l i n e s being e v i d e n t .  These groups have c u l t u r a l mores which d i f f e r g r e a t l y from one another and these d e f i n e the races as d i s t i n c t i v e l y as do t h e i r more o v e r t p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s .  T h i s form o f s t r u c -  t u r i n g by races i s p e c u l i a r t o lower socio-economic  groups;  while c l u s t e r i n g i s not f o r e i g n to higher l e v e l s of s o c i a l stratification,  the reasons  f o r t h i s f o r m a t i o n tend to be on  the b a s i s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s and/or income.  People o f  2j$  s p e c i f i c e t h n i c groups, w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , do not l i v e i n the same areas a t h i g h e r l e v e l s and t h e r e f o r e , the c u l t u r a l e f f e c t s a t t a i n e d through j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h l a r g e numbers s u p p o r t i n g group norms, a r e more d i f f u s e . Mental A b i l i t i e s C h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g s c h o o l from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups b r i n g w i t h them v e r y d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t i e s . c a r r i e d out i n New  Two  studies  York and Boston w i t h Jewish, Chinese, Negro  and Peurto R i c a n c h i l d r e n demonstrated t h i s v e r y e m p h a t i c a l l y (Stodolsky & Lesser,1967)• profiles  Pour v e r y d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y  (MAPS) were found f o r the f o u r d i f f e r e n t  (See F i g . 1, p. 24).  groups  U s i n g f o u r measure o f mental a b i l i t y ;  v e r b a l , s p a t i a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , number and r e a s o n i n g ; a significantly different MP  was  found f o r each group and  these p r o f i l e s remained s t a b l e a c r o s s l e v e l s o f s o c i a l  strata.  While middle c l a s s groups o f c h i l d r e n resembled each o t h e r more c l o s e l y than the lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n d i d , the p r o f i l e s were h i g h e r on the s c a l e but s i m i l a r to those o b t a i n e d f o r the lower socio-economic groups. I f c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mental a b i l i t y  profiles  c o u l d be measured f o r d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups then t h i s might be a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t from which t o approach the problem o f adequate compensatory  education.  Isolating children into  s m a l l l a b e l l e d g r o ups, as e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d , c o u l d be d e t r i mental to the c h i l d r e n .  However, there seems t o be a tendency  f o r c h i l d r e n to r e t a i n t h e i r e t h n i c i d e n t i t y by groups, part i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t few years of s c h o o l and as i t would be a t t h i s l e v e l t h a t the programmes would be o r i g i n a t e d  24  25 new d i v i s i o n s  would not be c r e a t e d .  Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s  i n Vancouver Schools  The f o l l o w i n g study was designed to determine whether significantly different  mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s were t o be  found i n three e t h n i c groups  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n a low  socio-economic a r e a of Vancouver.  U s i n g the M o d i f i e d  P r e d i c t i v e Index (MPI) foraassessment, (See Chapter Two) the  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were t e s t e d : 1.  The performance by c h i l d r e n from three  different  e t h n i c groups i n a low socio-economic a r e a of Vancouver show two d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t  would  mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s .  The  two e t h n i c groups o f Chinese and I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n were expected, t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t .  C h i l d r e n from the t h i r d  group, c l a s s i f i e d as Canadian, were expected t o demonstrate a profile similar the  to t h a t o f the I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n .  While  Canadian c h i l d r e n were not regarded as b e i n g of a  specific cultural  group due to the conglomerate of peoples  which made up the c a t e g o r y , they were i n c l u d e d as a t h i r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group f o r purposes of comparison. the  Many of  f e a t u r e s which c o r r e l a t e d w i t h depressed performance i n  the Wachs e t a l study ( 1 9 6 9 ) were p r e s e n t i n the home e n v i ronment o f the Canadian c h i l d r e n . e v i d e n t i n the I t a l i a n homes. not  To a l a r g e e x t e n t , they d i d  appear i n the Chinese homes.  to f i n d t h a t the p r o f i l e s  These f e a t u r e s were a l s o  T h e r e f o r e , i t was expected  c l a s s i f i e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  Canadian and I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n would c l o s e l y  resemble each  o t h e r and both would v a r y d i s t i n c t i v e l y from t h a t shown by the  Chinese c h i l d r e n .  2b 2.  C h i l d r e n who s c o r e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l  o v e r a l l MPI w o u l d when compared  show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  t o the low s c o r e r s  t o determine whether  similar profiles ethnic  3.  -Availability  across  cultural  groups. not appear  o f c h i l d r e n I n t h e two age g r o u p  i n the  classifications.  o f t i m e i s e s s e n t i a l when t e s t i n g i n s c h o o l s . was a p p r o p r i a t e  i n g a t a l l age l e v e l s w i t h i n a grade,  tion  show  present a generally uniform  t h e t e s t b a t t e r y b e i n g employed  efficient  c h i l d r e n would  t o h i g h e r s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e same  S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would  performance  If  T h i s v a r i a b l e was i n -  low s c o r i n g  group o r i f t h e y would  low p r o f i l e  i n performance  on the items s e l e c t e d t o  measure s p e c i f i c m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s . cluded  on t h e  i t would  f o r test-  make a more  t o o l w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s d i s c r e -  throughout the year.  Chapter The  Modified Predictive The  Two  Index  M o d i f i e d P r e d i c t i v e Index (MPI)  i s currently  in  use  i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study v a l i d a t i n g i t as a s c r e e n i n g t e s t to d e t e c t  minimal c e r e b r a l d y s f u n c t i o n  The  p i l o t study f o r t h i s p r o j e c t was  the  s p r i n g of 1970.  i n the s p r i n g of 1972 have reached the p r o j e c t were  end  The and  (MCD)  i n kindergarten.  done i n Vancouver i n  l o n g i t u d i n a l v a l i d a t i o n was w i l l continue u n t i l the  of Grade Two.  The  started  children  s p e c i f i c aims of  the  threefold:  1.  To develop an e f f e c t i v e s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y f o r the e a r l y d e t e c t i o n of MCD i n k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ; t h i s i n c l u d e d those w i t h p e r c e p t u a l and.or motor i m p a i r ment and problems i n adjustment a r i s i n g from such f a c t o r s as h y p e r a c t i v i t y , poor emotional c o n t r o l , low f r u s t r a t i o n t o l e r a n c e , i r r i t a b i l i t y , impulsiveness and s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span (Strauss & L e h t i n e n , 19^7).  2.  To v a l i d a t e the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y by d e t a i l e d neurol o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l assessments, s e l e c t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n from the screened c h i l d r e n which would f i t the d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a of MCD as d i s t i n c t from Immaturity.  3.  To study the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y of the c o n d i t i o n as w e l l as compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p r e s e n t day management of MCD w i t h r e m e d i a l methods based on e a r l y d e t e c t i o n and d e t a i l e d assessment. (Eaves, K e n d a l l & C r i c h t o n ,  A t o t a l of 2,054 c h i l d r e n from 72 mentary schools were t e s t e d ; having f a i l e d the MPI 12  point  scale.  Two  as  325  1972)  participating ele-  of these were regarded  they scored between 0 and  matched groups (A and  3 on  B) were  as a  derived,  r e f e l c t i n g proportionately  the c h i l d r e n a c r o s s f i v e l e v e l s  of socio-economic s t a t u s .  Both groups c o n s i s t e d  children;  80 b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d as f a i l  40 as p a s s i n g (score  4 +)  on the MPI.  (score  of  0-3)  These 40 w i l l  120 and serve  28 as normal c o n t r o l s to the f a i l i n g c h i l d r e n i n groups A and B. Group A c h i l d r e n w i l l be examined by a n e u r o p a e d i a t r i c i a n and a p s y c h o l o g i s t f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Into MCD, Immature and Normal  categories.  They w i l l be uninformed as t o the f a i l u r e o r  c o n t r o l s t a t u s of each c h i l d . be a p p l i e d where necessary the Vancouver School Board.  Educational intervention w i l l  through a c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n e e from E v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s group w i l l be  made a t the end of Grades One and Two.  Group B w i l l  remain  uncontaminated f o r comparison w i t h Group A i n 197& when a l l c h i l d r e n w i l l have completed Grade Two. The  M o d i f i e d P r e d i c t i v e Index i s a composite of the  de H I r s c h T e s t B a t t e r y P r e d i c t i n g P o t e n t i a l Reading F a i l u r e , Draw-A-Person (scored a f t e r Goodenough-Harris) and P r i n t Your Name.  The de H I r s c h Test B a t t e r y ( de HIrsch, Jansky &  Langford,  I966) was c o n s t r u c t e d to p r e d i c t p o t e n t i a l r e a d i n g  f a i l u r e i n k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , and was f i r s t  administered  to c h i l d r e n i n low Income areas of New York i n I963.  Over  three y e a r s , the performance o f the c h i l d r e n on the t e s t  bat-  t e r y was c o r r e l a t e d i n Grades One and Two w i t h performance on r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g and w r i t i n g t e s t s . of and  these s k i l l s  V a l i d predictions.®  can be made by e v a l u a t i n g p e r c e p t u a l , motor  language behaviour  a t an e a r l y age.  There i s a d i s t i n c t ,  I d e n t i f i a b l e p a t t e r n o f d e f i c i e n c i e s i n these areas which i s p r e d i c t i v e of d i f f i c u l t i e s of  found  i n the " v i s u a l " languages  r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g . The de H i r s c h B a t t e r y o f t e n s u b t e s t s was c o n s t r u c t e d  from 37 s h o r t t e s t s which measured a wide range o f s k i l l s ; gross and f i n e motor, a u d i t o r y , p e r c e p t u a l , v e r b a l , behavlou-  29 r a l performance and s t y l e o f approaching  a task.  A l l tests  g i v e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g a t the end o f Grades One and Two.  T h i r t e e n t e s t s were  then s e l e c t e d , based on the c r i t e r i a o f h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h v i s u a l language and the a b i l i t y o f each t e s t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e c l e a r l y between the average o r b e t t e r reader and the below average o r poorer one. sively.  None of the t e s t s was skewed  exces-  C o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s were done on a 100 groups o f  t e s t s , v a r y i n g combinations from 3 t o 10 t e s t s .  The f i n a l  b a t t e r y p r e d i c t i n g r e a d i n g f a i l u r e c o n s i s t e d o f 10 s u b t e s t s , a l l o f which c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g a t the end of Grades One and Two a t e i t h e r the . 0 5 o r . 0 1 l e v e l o f significance.  The s u b t e s t s Included were:  1.  Word  2.  P e n c i l Use  3.  Bender Visuo-Motor G e s t a l t Task  4.  Wepman A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Task  5.  Words Used i n a S t o r y  6.  Categories  7.  Horst Reversals  8.  Gates Word Matching  9.  Word R e c o g n i t i o n 1  10.  Reproduction  Test Subtests  Word R e c o g n i t i o n 1JL  I n a d d i t i o n t o these 10 s u b t e s t s , the MPI i n c l u d e d : 11.  Draw-A-Person  12.  P r i n t Your Name  The MPI s u b t e s t s f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t  (DAP),  s p a t i a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n (Bender), word comprehension (wepman),  word p r o d u c t i o n  (Words i n a S t o r y ) , and a b s t r a c t r e a -  30 soning ( Horst R e v e r s a l s and Gates Word Matching and Categor i e s ) were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f some f a c e t s o f a mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e and were used i n the present study. MAP  Subtests and S c o r i n g 1.  Draw-A-Person Jensen b e l i e v e s that mental a b i l i t y r e f e r s to  the t o t a l of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental c a p a b i l i t i e s .  Intelli-  gence, as measured by standard IQ t e s t s , i s regarded as being p a r t o f the whole spectrum of human a b i l i t i e s  (1969).  While the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the Draw-A-Person T e s t i s probably c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s complex  than e i t h e r the S t a n f o r d -  B i n e t o r Wechsler ChicLdrens S c a l e s , w i t h i n our own 1  DAP  culture,  s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e about as w e l l w i t h those from o t h e r more  complex s c a l e s as scores on them do to each o t h e r .  (Hunt,1971).  Human f i g u r e drawings of a body are i n d i c a t i v e o f degrees o f development and m a t u r a t i o n d i s p l a y e d by a c h i l d p i c t u r e of a boy o r g i r l DAP  i n drawing a  (Bender, 1938).  gave the IQ measurement on the MAP  and s c o r i n g  was  done by age In years and months on the number o f f e a t u r e s and body components i n c l u d e d . 2.  Bender Vlsuo-Motor G e s t a l t Task S i x f i g u r e s used as a measure of s p a t i a l conceptua-  l i z a t i o n were presented s i n g l y  f o r the c h i l d r e n to copy.  T h e i r drawings were used to d i s t i n g u i s h both the a b i l i t y o f the c h i l d to respond to the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of each whole d e s i g n and t h e i r a b i l i t y to d i s p l a y a degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n copying.  P r i m i t i v e or poorly integrated  performances  31 are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c h i l d r e n w i t h p e r c e p t u a l I n i t i a l s c o r i n g was one  disabilities.  done on the number of e r r o r s w i t h ©  p o i n t being g i v e n f o r each e r r o n e o u s l y reproduced f i g u r e  to a maximum of 6.  A f u r t h e r 2 p o i n t s were added i f the  f i g u r e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y r o t a t e d presentation s c o r i n g was p o i n t s and 3.  by the c h i l d was reversed  or o v e r l a i d or i f the  indecipherable.  total  For t h i s study,  w i t h the best p r o d u c t i o n s r e c e i v i n g 8  e r r o r s being s u b t r a c t e d  to a minimum score of  Wepman A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  0.  Task  Twenty p a i r s o f words were presented to each c h i l d who  was  seated d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t of the experimenter but  i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n .  T h i s procedure was  prevent c h i l d r e n from l i p r e a d i n g . p a i r of words, the c h i l d was were the  'same' or  A f t e r presentation  required  'different'.  followed  facing to  o f each  to s t a t e whether they  F i v e p a i r s of words were  the same, the remaining 15 p a i r s d i f f e r e d on one d i s t i n c t i v e feature  o r phoneme.  This  t e s t was  included  a measure of v e r b a l comprehension as determine whether or not  i t was  desirable  to  second language speakers of  d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from n a t i v e t h a t no  i n the study as  speakers.  I t was  English expected  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would appear between  e t h n i c groups i n v e r b a l comprehension.  Although the  languages i n p a r t i c u l a r have a d i f f e r e n t phonemic from E n g l i s h , c h i l d r e n had  i t was  the Oriental  structure  assumed t h a t both the I t a l i a n and  Chinese  been s u f f i c i e n t l y exposed to enable them to  d i s t i n g u i s h the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . from the k i n d e r g a r t e n study had  199  of 2,654 c h i l d r e n  been r e j e c t e d from  further  i n v e s t i g a t i o n because they were c l a s s i f i e d as having i n s u f -  32  f l c i e n t English. the present  Data from e i g h t of these were Included i n  study as the c h i l d r e n had scored above 4 on the  MPI and had completed a l l of the s u b t e s t s .  Increasing aural  a c u i t y has been found to be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h age and  o l d e r c h i l d r e n were expected to make fewer e r r o r s than  younger ones.  I n i t i a l s c o r i n g o f the odd numbered t e s t p a i r s T M s  was done on d i s s i m i l a r p a i r s t o a maximum o f 15 e r r o r s . was reversed 4.  f o r the MAPS.  Categories The  s u b t e s t o f c a t e g o r i e s was i n c l u d e d as a measure  of a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g The  i n v e r b a l comprehension and p r o d u c t i o n .  c h i l d r e n were presented  with  three Items from each of  three c a t e g o r i e s and were asked t o provide f o r each group of items.  the g e n e r i c  The use of an a p p r o p r i a t e  term  generic  r e f l e c t s the beginnings of the a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e a t a symbolic  r a t h e r than a concrete  level.  S c o r i n g was based on  the number o f c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e c t l y named and ranged from  0 to 3. 5.  Words i n a S t o r y The  t o t a l number of words i n the s t o r y o f G o l d i -  l o c k s and the Three Bears was counted to o b t a i n a measure of verbal fluency.  When a c h i l d i n d i c a t e d t h a t he c o u l d n o t  respond, e f f o r t s were made t o g e t him to f r e e l y v e r b a l i z e on some s u b j e c t which i n t e r e s t e d him. Words were counted i n blocks of t e n w i t h c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g under 226 being f i e d as having  failed.  classi-  A n a l y s i s o f v e r b a l comprehension  was based on the t o t a l number of words t o the n e a r e s t which were i n c l u d e d i n the c h i l d ' s output.  five  6.  Horst R e v e r s a l s T e s t C h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d to c o r r e c t l y match a sample  word w i t h a l i n e of two  or three l e t t e r sequences c o n t a i n i n g  s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r groups.  This i s a f a i r l y  task f o r a young c h i l d to perform  difficult  because of the a b s t r a c t  r a t h e r than concrete nature of the stimulus words.  The  c h i l d must be a b l e to hold the c o r r e c t two  letter  sequence f o r matching.  The  or three  i n a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e and  nate those s t i m u l i which are not r e v e r s e d i s regarded  desigas  b e i n g h i g h l y i n d i c a t i v e of minimal c e r e b r a l d y s f u n c t i o n . Many c h i l d r e n w i t h MCD i n t o Grades Three and 11  are unable to c o r r e c t t h i s and Four to r e v e r s e such l e t t e r as  d, p. b. q. s. e t c . " .  and  Those who  have c o r r e c t e d by the end  have i n i t i a l l y  of Grade One  c l a s s i f i e d as being immature a t the time of 7.  continue  Gates Word Matching T h i s i s regarded  reversed  are u s u a l l y testing.  Subtests  as a r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d  task f o r a k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d as i t r e q u i r e s the a b i l i t y c o n c e p t u a l i z e the word as a whole u n i t . e a s i l y matbih s i n g l e l e t t e r s a t t h i s age  to  Most c h i l d r e n can but a h i g h e r  level  of a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g i s r e q u i r e d to match the whole words. Scores  f o r the l a s t two  s u b t e s t s were combined and  reversed to g i v e a maximum score of 21 and a minimum of  then 0.  34  Method In the s p r i n g of 1 9 7 2 , the MPI 280 k i n d e r g a r t e n low  administered  to  c h i l d r e n i n 1 5 c l a s s e s from 6 schools  socio-economic a r e a of M e t r o p o l i t a n  f i c a t i o n of socio-economic (SES) 1967  was  Vancouver.  s t a t u s was  census study f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n  in a  Classi-  based on  the  Vancouver ( L . I . B e l l ,  Subjects f o r t h i s study were those p e r s o n a l l y  I969K  t e s t e d as  part of the l o n g i t u d i n a l p r o j e c t v a l i d a t i n g the MPI as a p r e d i c t o r of minimal c e r e b r a l d y s f u n c t i o n  In  a  for  use  kindergar-  ten c h i l d r e n . Subjects,  f o r whom p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n f o r t e s t i n g had  been obtained, were randomly s e l e c t e d from each c l a s s u n t i l a l l members of the c l a s s had the b a t t e r y was  done I n d i v i d u a l l y and  time of 35 minutes per c h i l d 15 minutes). school,  The  Administration  (range 20 minutes to 1 hour and  i n some cases being v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y and  school,  of  r e q u i r e d an average  t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n v a r i e d from s c h o o l  v e r y poor w i t h frequent (In one  been t e s t e d .  d i s t r a c t i o n s and  in  to  others,  interruptions.  80 c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d i n a windowless  supply room i n a basement which was junior classes.)  The  the p l a y a r e a f o r  e f f e c t s of v a r i e d t e s t i n g  the  conditions  were expected to i n f l u e n c e I n d i v i d u a l performance on the but, w i t h random s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s ,  i t was  MPI  f e l t that t h i s  would not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a l t e r group r e s u l t s . From the under three 1.  280 c h i l d r e n t e s t e d , 1 2 0 were c l a s s i f i e d  factors:  Age  At  the time t e s t i n g was  done, (March to June,  1 9 7 2 ) c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s e s ranged i n age f i v e years and  three months to s i x years and  from a minimum of s i x months.  35 Two l e v e l s of age were designated; Al_ c h i l d r e n , who were between f i v e years and three months and f i v e years t e n months; A2 c h i l d r e n who were f i v e years and e l e v e n months and s i x years and s i x months a t the time they were t e s t e d . 2.  F i n a l Score on the MPI  Data from a l l c h i l d r e n  s c o r i n g three o r l e s s were d e l e t e d from t h i s study as they were being used i n f u r t h e r experimental l o n g term p r o j e c t . of  twelve.  No c h i l d t e s t e d r e c e i v e d a maximum s c o r  BJL i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n whose f i n a l  MPI was between f o u r and seven. whose f i n a l 3.  c o n d i t i o n s i n the  score on the  B2 i n c l u d e d the c h i l d r e n  score on the MPI was between e i g h t and e l e v e n .  Ethnic Culture  three e t h n i c groups. C3 being Canadian.  T h i s was composed of c h i l d r e n from  C l b e i n g Chinese;  C2 b e i n g  Italian;  I n c l u s i o n i n t o the Canadian category was  made on the b a s i s of E n g l i s h being the s o l e language spoken by the c h i l d and no evidence  of a s t r o n g c u l t u r a l  affiliation.  Many o f the teachers I n d i c a t e d , e i t h e r v e r b a l l y o r on the teacher's check l i s t ,  t h a t E n g l i s h was not the predominant  language i n many homes.  However, a l l of the c h i l d r e n t e s t e d  demonstrated adequate comprehension of E n g l i s h I n t h e i r ability  to perform  the tasks i n t e s t i n g .  Little difficulty  was found  in eliciting  responses  the c h i l d r e n w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of "Words i n a S t o r y " . s t o r y of " G o l d i l o c k s and the Three Bears" ing  to e i t h e r the Chinese  from The  i s not one belong-  or I t a l i a n c u l t u r e s .  I n cases  where c h i l d r e n s a i d " they d i d n ' t know" o r " they c o u l d n ' t remember", e f f o r t s were made to engage them i n c o n v e r s a t i o n about some f a c e t of t h e i r l i f e which would give a v e r b a l  Rep r o d u c t i o n measure. S c o r i n g f o r the MPI was done by the examiner a t the time of t e s t i n g f o r a l l but three o f the s u b t e s t s . Person,  The Draw-A-  Bender Visuo-Motor G e s t a l t T e s t and P r i n t Your Name  were scored by the p r o j e c t p s y c h o l o g i s t t o ensure c o n s i s t e n c y . Experience  i n s c o r i n g i s regarded  v a l i d scores on these t e s t .  as e s s e n t i a l to achieve  (See Appendix 1 f o r the b a s i c  i n s t r u c t i o n s , samples o f the t e s t s and s c o r i n g sheet f o r the MPI) A f t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by age,  s c o r i n g l e v e l and e t h n i c  group, d a t a from seven s u b t e s t s o f the MPI were compiled all  of the c h i l d r e n .  for  Draw-A-Person, Bender Visuo-Motor Ges-  t a l t T e s t , Wepman A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , C a t e g o r i e s , Words i n a Story, Horst R e v e r s a l s Test and Gates Word Matching Subtests were used t o c o n s t r u c t p r o f i l e s o f mental a b i l i t y f o r each e t h n i c group.  P r i o r to a n a l y s i s , some o f the scores  on s u b t e s t s were r e v e r s e d t o make the mental a b i l i t y more meaningful.  Data from these s u b t e s t s were analyzed  u s i n g a 2 x 2 x 3 f a c t o r i a l between groups d e s i g n Score was  profiles  (Age (A) x  (B) x E t h n i c Group (E) ). S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the F t e s t  s e t a t the .01 l e v e l . A l l data were converted  t o expanded standard  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s .  T h i s was done  by m u l t i p l y i n g a l l standard measures by a constant of two.  scores f o r  factor  37 Results The  r e s u l t s o f the 2 x 2 x 3  between group a n a l y s e s o f  v a r i a n c e (6) a r e g i v e n s e p a r a t e l y f o r each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n factor. Age  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the two  age groups i n any category. Scoring Level  S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the  two s c o r i n g l e v e l s f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s .  As was  expected,  c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g higher on the MPI a l s o scored h i g h e r on the  MAP. Intelligence  P = 19.93; d f = 1, 108; p <.01  S p a t i a l Concept.  F = 15.98; d f = 1, 108; p <.01  A b s t r a c t Reasoning  F = 92.88; d f - It 108. p <.001  V e r b a l Comprehension  F = 17.16; d f = 1, 108; p <.01  Generic  F = 21.22; d f = 1, 108; p <.01  Verbal Production  F = 13.52; d f = 1, 108; p <.01  E t h n i c Group  D i f f e r e n c e s between e t h n i c groups a r e presen-  ted by c a t e g o r i e s . Intelligence  Table 11 ( p. 39) presents the range,  cell  means and F values based on the raw scores obtained f o r each c h i l d on the Draw-A-  Person.  S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between Chinese and Canadian-Italian children.  Chinese  c h i l d r e n scored a t a  higher l e v e l than e i t h e r Canadian o r I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n who d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each o t h e r . (F = 11.51; d f = 2, 108;  p C.01) Spatial Conceptualization  Table 111 presents the  range,©cell means and F values based on the raw scores obtained  38 f o r each c h i l d on the Bender Visuo-Motor G e s t a l t T e s t (p. 4 0 ) . Chinese c h i l d r e n scored h i g h e r than e i t h e r Canadian o r I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n who d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each o t h e r . (P = 5 . 0 3 ; d f = 2, 108; p<.01) A b s t r a c t Reasoning  Table IV (p. 41) p r e s e n t s the range,  c e l l means and P v a l u e s based on the raw s c o r e s f o r each c h i l d on the H o r s t R e v e r s a l s and the Gates Word Matching T e s t s . Chinese c h i l d r e n performed a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l than e i t h e r Canadian o r I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n who d i d not d i f f e r from each o t h e r . (F = 22.87; d f = 2, 108; p<.01)  Chinese  c h i l d r e n i n both age groups scored a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l than a l l o t h e r c h i l d r e n (F = 7.28; d f = 2, 108; p < . 0 1 ) . A l l Chinese c h i l d r e n and Canadian and I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g above 7 on the MPI performed b e t t e r than Canadian and I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g below 8 (F = 12.41; d f = 2, 108; p < . 0 1 ) . V e r b a l Comprehension  T a b l e V ( p . 42) p r e s e n t s the range,  c e l l means and F v a l u e s based on the raw score f o r each c h i l d on the Wepman A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t .  No  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s were found between any e t h n i c group i n v e r b a l comprehension Generic  (F = 2 . 3 2 ; d f = 2, 108; p ^ .05). T a b l e VI (p. 43) p r e s e n t s the range, c e l l means  and F v a l u e s based on the raw score f o r each c h i l d on the category s u b t e s t .  Chinese c h i l d r e n performed a t a lower l e v e l  than Canadian o r I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t d i f f e r from each o t h e r . (F = 9.35; d f = 2, 108; p<.01) Verbal Production  Table VI1 (p. 44) p r e s e n t s the range,  c e l l means and F v a l u e based on the raw score f o r each c h i l d on the Words i n a S t o r y s u b t e s t .  Canadian c h i l d r e n performed  39 TABLE 11 I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotient  Range:  El E2 E3  Range. F Table & C e l l Means  75 - 136 70 - 118 71 ~ 119  F Table:  A B E AxB AxE BxE AxBxE Error  df  ss  Source  320.13 2448.03 2827.52 83-33 82.72  ms  1 1 2 1 2 2 2  244.82  207.22 13264.20  320.13 2448.03 1413.76 83.33 41.36 122.41 103.61 122.82  108  F 2.6 19.93 11.51 .67 .34 .92  .84  P ns <.01 < .01 ns ns ns ns  C e l l Means: Al A2  95.32 92.05  Bl B2  89.17 98.20  El E2 E3  100.53 89.78 90.75  A1B1 A1B2 A2B1 A2B2  91.63 86.70 99.00 97.40  A1E1 A1E2 A1E3 A2E1 A2E2 A2E3  101.35 92.55 92.05 99.70 87.OO 89.45  B-1E1 B1E2 B1E3 B2E1 B2E2 B2E3  94.00 86.45 87.05 107.05 93.10 94.45  A1B1E1 A1B1E2 A1B1E3 A1B2E1 A1B2E2 A1B2E3 A2B1E1 A2B1E2 A2B1E3 A2B2E1 A2B2E2 A2B2E3  93.80 91.00 90.10 108.90 94.10 94.00 94.20 81.90 84.00 105.20 92.10 94.90  40 TABLE 111 Spatial Conceptualization Range;  Range. F Table & C e l l Means  El E2 E3  2-8 0-8 2-7  ss  df  ms  1 1 2 1 2 2 2 108  2.13 36.30 11.43 .33 1.63 .70 .63 2.27  F Tablef Source A B E AxB AxE BxE AxBxE Error  2.13 36.30 22.87 .33 3.27 1.40 1.27 245.40 1  4  F ,94 15.98 5.'P3 .014 .72 .31 .28  P ns <.01 <.01 ns ns ns ns  C e l l Means: Al A2  4.7 4.97  Bl B2  4.28 5.38  El E2 E3  5.45 4.50 4.55  A1B1 A1B2 A2B1 A2B2  4.13 5.27 4.43 5.50  A1E1 A1E2 A1E3 A2E1 A2E2  5.10 4.40 4.60 5.80 4.60 4.95  B1E1 B1E2  4.80 3.90 4.15 6.10 5.10 ^.°5  A2E3  B1E3  B2E1 B2E2 B2E3  A1B1E1 A1B1E2 A1B1E3 A1B2E1 A1B2E2 A1B2E3 A2B1E1 A2B1E2 A2B1E3 A2B2E1 A2B2E2 A2B2E3  4.30 3.90 4.20 5.90 4.90 5.00 5.30 3.90 4.10 6.30 5.30 4.90  41  TABLE IV  Abstract  Range:  Reasoning  El E2 E3  Range. F Table & C e l l Means  13 - 21 4 - 2 0 0 - 2 1  F Table: Source A B E AxB AxE BxE AxBxE Error  ss 35.21 1015.00 499.82 49.41 159.12 271.22 103.52 1180.30  df 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 108  ms  F  P  35.21 101.50 249.91 49.41 79.56 135.61 51.76 10.93  3.22 92.88 22.87 4.52 7^27 12.41 4.74  ns <.001 <.001 <.05 <.01 <.01 <.05  C e l l Means; Al A2  14.02 15.10  Bl B2  11.65 17.47  El E2 E3  17.40 12.70 13.58  A1B1 A1B2 A2B1 A2B2  10.47 17.57 12.83 17.37  A1E1 A1E2 A1E3 A2E1 A2E2 A2E3  17.15 13.40 11.50 17.65 12.0 15.65  B1E1 B1E2 B1E3 B2E1 B2E3 B2E3  16.60 8.50 9.85 18.20 16.90 17.30  A1B1E1 A1B1E2 A1B1E3 A1B2E1 A1B2E2 A1B2E3 A2B1E1 A2B1E2 A2B1E3 A2B2E1 A2B2E2 A2B2E3  15.70 9.70 6.00 18.60 17.10 17.00 17.50 7.30 13.70 17.80 16.70 17.60  42 TABLE V  V e r b a l Comprehension  Range:  El E2 E3  Range, F Table & C e l l Means  0 - 14 0 - 15 0 - 15  F Table: Source  ss  6.53  A B E AxB AxE BxE AxBxE Error  202.80  55.02  4.03  25.02  2.15 27.62  1276.00  df  1 1  2  1  2 2 2 108  ms  F  P  6.53  .55 17.17 2.33 .34  ns <.01 ns ns ns ns ns  §202180  27.51  4.03 12.51  1.08  13-81 11.82  1.06  .09  1.17  C e l l Means: Al A2  9.82  Bl B2  8.28 10.89  El E2 E3  8.68  9-35  9.78  10.30  A1B1 A1B2 A2B1 A2B1  8.70  10.93  7.87  10.83  A1E1 A1E2 A1E3 A2E1 A2E2 A2E3  8.30 10.50 10.65  B1E1 B1E2 B1E3 B2E1 B2E2 B2E3  7.40  9.05 9.05 9.95  8.30 9.15 9.95  11.25  11.45  A1B1E1 A1B1E2 A1B1E3 A1B2E1 A1B2E2 A1B2E3 A2B1E1 A2B1E2 A2B1E3 A2B2E1 A2B2E2 A2B2E3  7.20 9.80 9.10 9.40 11.20 12.20 7.60 6.80 9.20  10.50 11.30 10.70  43 TABLE VI Generic  Range:  Range. F Table & C e l l Means  El E2 E3  0 - 3 0 - 3 0 - 3  F Table: Source A B E AxB AxE BxE AxBxE Error  ss  df  ms  F  .75 14.01 12.35 1.41 3-35 .117 1.51 71.30  1 1 2 1 2 2 2 108  .75 14.01 6.18 1.41 1.68 • 58 .75 .66  .11 21.22 9.35 2.13 2.53 .08 1.15  P ns <.'01 <.01 ns ns ns ns  C e l l Means; Al A2  2.40 2.35  Bl B2  2.03 2.72  El E2 E3  1.93 2.55 2.65  •  A1B1 A1B2 A2B1 A2B2  2.17 2.63 1.90 2.80  A1E1 A1E2 A1E3 A2E1 A2E2 A2E3  2.00 2.35 2.85 1.85 2.75 2.45  BlEl B1E2 B1E3 B2E1 B2E2 B2E3  1.55 2.25 2.30 2.30 2.85 3.00  A1B1E1 A1B1E2 A1B1E3 A1B2E1 A1B2E2 A1B2E3 A2B1E1 A2B1E2 A2B1E3 A2B2E1 A2B2E2 A2B2E3  1.80 2.00 2.70 2.20 2.70 3.00 1.30 2.50 1.90 2.40 3.00 $.00  44 TABLE VI1  Verbal Production .Ranare:  El E2 E3  Range. F Table & C e l l Means  0 - 380 0 - 520 0 - 450  F Table: ss  Source A B E AxB AxE BxE AxBxE Error  .83  1992.68 2926.8g 381.63 124.62 388.05 36.17 15918^80  df 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 108  ms .83 1992.68 1463.41 381.63 62.31 194.03 18.03 147.40  F .006 13.52  9.93  2.59 .42 1.32 .12  P ns <.01 <.01 ns ns ns ns  C e l l Means: A2  12.01 12.18  Bl B2  ^8.01 16.17  El E2 E3  5.65  12.98 17.65  A1B1 A1B2 A2B1 A2B2 A1E1 A1E2 A1E3 A2E1 A2E2 A2E3 B1E1 B1E2 B1E3 B2E1 B2E2 B2E3  9.72 14.30  6.31  18.03  6.95  11.85 17.23 4.35 14.10 18.08 4.10  7-38  12.58 7.20 18.58 22.73  A1B1E1 A1B1E2 A1B1E3 A1B2E1 A1B2E2 A1B2E3 A2B1E1 A2B1E2 A2B1E3 A2B2E1 A2B2E2 A2B2E3  6.70 7.75  14.70 7.20  15.95  19.75 1.50 7.00 10.45 7.20 21.20 25.70  45  b e t t e r than the I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n who performed b e t t e r than the Chinese c h i l d r e n (F = 9 . 9 3 ; d f = 2, 108; p <.01). A l l a p p r o p r i a t e group means were converted scores f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the mental a b i l i t y  t o standard  profiles.  F i g u r e 2 r e p r e s e n t s the MAPS f o r the three e t h n i c groups of Chinese,  I t a l i a n and Canadian C h i l d r e n .  F i g u r e 2. r e p r e s e n t s the MAPS f o r both l e v e l s o f score obtained by the Chinese c h i l d r e n . F i g u r e 4 r e p r e s e n t s the MAPS f o r both l e v e l s o f score obtained by the I t a l i a n  children.  F i g u r e j> r e p r e s e n t s the MAPS f o r both l e v e l s of score obtained by the Canadian c h i l d r e n . F i g u r e 6 r e p r e s e n t s the MAPS f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f e t h n i c group, c l a s s i f i e d i n t o age l e v e l s .  Discussion Analyses of the d a t a confirmed the f o l l o w i n g major hypotheses: 1.  D i f f e r i n g mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s were p r e s e n t b e t -  ween Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n .  The MAP r e p r e -  s e n t i n g the Chinese group d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y from t h a t shown by the Canadian and I t a l i a n groups.  The MAPS o f the l a t t e r  two were e s s e n t i a l l y the same (See P i g . 2, p. 4 7 ) . 2.  C h i l d r e n s c o r i n g h i g h e r on the o v e r a l l MPI had pro-  f i l e s which were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r than those f o r c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g a t the lower l e v e l .  However, the two MAPS f o r each  e t h n i c group matched each other, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t lower overa l l performance d i d n o t produce a l e v e l l i n g e f f e c t on the profiles 3.  (See P i g . 3, p. 48; F i g . 4, p. 49; F i g . 5. p. 50). Age was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r I n measuring d i f -  f e r e n c e s between the groups o f c h i l d r e n i n any c a t e g o r y of the MPI (See F i g . 6, p. 51). Mental A b i l i t y  Profiles  As can be seen, there were v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e  differences  between the Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n groups of c h i l d r e n as r e p r e s e n t e d on the MAP.  The Chinese c h i l d r e n s  1  profile  d i v e r g e s markedly from the o t h e r two who were c l o s e l y matched and i n some cases overlapped each o t h e r .  There were no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Canadian and I t a l i a n groups w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the word p r o d u c t i o n c a t e g o r y . T h i s was expected as the s t o r y r e q u i r e d f o r the t e s t was more common t o the n a t i v e speaker o f E n g l i s h .  Most of the  I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n some form of  49  tH-th-  ^ i/l  ]^5i 1! ' r!* '  I 1 I  — -  < 1 i  i  _|_  -\  -  f  -T—T-  —*— — p - T - i  •  •  j  T*~6  M-  1 | 1"  1  r±  i  1+0  " ! •—\—*—\—pi !  — 1 — r ~ i / r i 1 "V' 1 H — — r i t —i—r— '  '  1  1 i  ~~  •  1  M  1  I  M  M  l  !  1  1  - H — - M -TC3) L  T T O  — ^  - — f - r  r^^M—T-r-  T . N-fti+T  T T —*- - ^  I V / I I I I -^-r-r --!' _ 4—j (yrx M- M | I 1T T\ • (T—•* T 71 N 1,1 n M1 r v - -it - —iv1j — i — —ii — rrUjr  j  - M D - 4T-H--H  1  T  /  1  /  iMi i M D i/ Ti /  | [Sfr-f:IIT1' , - r - r1— — i / i — —T~- rrr M 1 t K - 1 ' 1*7 1 i i 1 1 I I I  i  i I  1  1  1  I t TS: i f - t — ; f 1  II  llii  1  1  i"' ' i  i '  r-r A •/  1  1  J  1  • !" T" I I  1 M !1 i 1 / T ) ••M| M ilLT •••-••( i r• X i i i H i i n i i 1 11 .! i 1 1 1 I III  \  i  1  i  !Ul  i  M  |  !  J  l  1 1 1 i1 H1! 1 .1111 1 •  i i  MI ' I l I  1I  ••: : 1 i i I  M i l 1t! i Il Il M l :  1  ; •  1  : I  i !1 1 IIIiI 1  M M III : |1 j | i ' |i | ji ' ]M ; .M i ! i  !  <  j  i  i i i I I I I  :  1  i  I I 1 I i  i  M  T 1T T IT 1  1  I  I ! I I I I M M  1 1 '  M i I I I  M' M ' 1  ': 1  r  1  i  I  1 ' ' : M i M M 'NO i ! i  TMi i  M  s^/ i  1 1 -rj ii  |  "1 i  f i l l M M  i i  v  1 ;1  (  I II Ml"  4-H-H  i ;  -" pf rri — f ' 1j i  — i — ! — } — i —  I | ! i ! i ; : i ! 1  1M 1  I i 1 1 ! i i : ! i  i i i i  M M  HM-MJ  M MM i l M i i 1 1M ! ' i <  M  ' .  M  M  iM  M  1  i  1  M l i M' ;, M M M • 1  M i . ,  i i- i .,. |r r  M  1' '  Ml  M  M i l I i i i • M i i 1 I j | i  .  i  ;  ,  ,  •' M  l  1  •  1  Mi I M !I  I 1 ! I I I II i r s i j  1  MM./  M  ! j !  I  M i / • ; iI I iI !i ! | / / M i t ! yf 1 i l 1 v 1  1  I 1  ' ! i i < : I ! i ! | |  | |  I  i  I i i i  1 I  1  i il i l i ' ' i t ii ii i i 1 11 1 ! i 1I1I1 I1 1I I I M M | IO i i | h- , r i I J  1  i  !  T ~  M~P  1 i i1 M T T T i i i iI I I !M M M  r±MTt ! 1 i  4  MI i 1 Ii • i i l ! ! I1 M I  /  r T - •*• p i I I 1 1i H I I ' ; ' 1 : I  ; i— I 1  1 vVT IT —* —*— - 1~ \I • i—M i \ ' I I I -i  1 ** 1 i II  i' i i  r/-  J V HH-TTI i  1  i 1t  1 1M %ll x 1 / 1 1 i 1 i4 I i i : y M j/ r r X /—IIII— ! 1 i i | M M Ii i ; II ' lI l 1 i 11 rrr^i ! 1 M  1/  1  !i . I! -C J- J^ j_! v_ A  —  ! i ! i I I i  Tt  i |i  1  H - M — i — •  TI+T+T^ 1  j  i  I __L^.. L _ 4 J n _ , _|_ / i _ T T - T r H e b ' ^ ' / i i  i  '  U  j  i i  11  j  n ^ V i ^ _T4 ^- • Y- ^/ - I M I  _u  j _  1  M  —  1 I  ,  i | |  M+  ~f I. . ..;  j  M i i M M Ml '  I  i i '  i  I I M—  M M M M  T"  1 i j 1 1 1  " — l  -1  t-f-  |—i  1  "P —i—r-—— I  1  1' i i —f—?—;—1—  1  J  1  !  M M i  i  i , ; i ; i j ! i 1 i !i T " i [ 1 I1 - J — ! TtT I | |  1  i  I  ;  "fa!-* 3 - r t  1  —  M :M M M  1  1 M  M i l i • 1 — i ! — ~T 1 r1 i t •• T1 !i1 ' i • nI "— I — — | — T T ~7 i 1 i i l l  1  r-1 H—r  j  —  i  i  ET1  T t l | "I 1 T-TT ! - h r"n — —--r-l h n r T r t T- T Tr • n T ~ i — M M — i 1 — I I — n — i i i i — M — 1 I 1 1 1 , ' i —r* I i- ; - ! ! • ' i n M M1 i - -  -  -_l1 — i * — I1 I —  |ii i l l ! t i l l i t ii ;l l i —'T — ' i f i! i! i• i i1- • • • i ) i1 i! !  -  i  .<  1  M  ' i  1  :  —i—'—i—i—  M l  ! M  —1—|—1—I  1  M  1 '  -  I ' Mi M i l l ! Q 4^0- H+, r-4—h•i i l l i i 1 \W--TT: | i KJ 1 II l i ' i i / M M i • ^ C : —r*; 1 i i —r—— —'—ii i i—i /: • i — I ' i < T : !1 , _ . 1_ '!\ ! ! i /I '! 1! J—r—' I1 M1 1 II M I / -- - i j ' •M ' • i i i 1 ' I !i rI iT I iM i / ;- '1 i i LD I i \ i ' i M j / i'n t i V ' ./ • 1 I ' — | ' 1—r-i i , i . V/ i1 i 1 1i -1 II | .'—r— j 1— —l —H - t> v ^ i 1 \ \. — j r - ii 1 i M; // M M . ii i ' - — s —i 1 • i• 1 ; \ > 1 i I l i t i k l * \ < \f \ i l i i 1 M M M ; ] , ' ' I • |;i J><£ M i l M M I \ ! 1 ! I l / ! I I i i i ' i 1 1 ,1 . ! 1 1 r— 1 ' 1 I ^' I I ! if 1 ' 1 1 i ' ' I M ' Ui ii " 'i v iK M i l ' ! i \ 1 1 i / 1 M M M j _/ i i I i i i\ i i y i I , ! i i i T~T~ ! . M; i|l1M M 11i ii1 1 i : Ii i '1 i1 1 I I I ii 1 1 ' i 1 i t.Vi \ i / 11 1/i i 1 t1 II • ' i nA | i| il 1 \ i1 \ /!yfi Mi ! j ; | i | li j i1 I| i ! I• i !I i I i1 1 i 1 i Il s I 1 • I i ' -JW I I ! i l l ' ! t ! *A' 1 ! " 1 !i I 1 I 1 f^k l l i ! 1 1- i 1 1 ' ' 1 1i l l * " 1 i M M M l I | i | : i i i i 1 i I •! i U i i | i ! i i i ; : , i ; * ' i : M l ' TtV. 1 1 1 1 1J ' 1 ' .A 1 1 ' -n—i^ M i l j , ! , 1 i | iM 1 | i M ' • ' ' ! i l l . 1 .I j i M 1 1 j .! I | : i -. . i i i i i i •• i 1 * ijj i ii j i i — r r h — h r r ! — r r n — r / r ^ A ^ - t T ^ / ^ i ^ ~ r nTrfr-.-tT*! M i l M i l i! i i ii 1 1 I i 1 ' M lM i l 1 i A -M ? i M M M M M M i 11 ii . M ' M !i ! i 1 i | 1 i I i i ' i i J. /i r i i/ i i | i i i i M i i 1 ' | \~ i 1 1 i I ' 1M1 ' 'i |' 1i i i i ' i ; . ' I 'i I M 'f\] j iI 1I ' i 1 11; / i | ' | 1 M M 1M i | | 1 p ' i i ! i 1 i 1 i 1 i I ; i i i i i 1! M M iii! ll i l , . , li : i i i 1 L + 1 i i , i I . H M l l i i . i I '||! M ! I 1 ! \~ i 1 1 —| j 1—i—|—i— I I i 1 i ; 1 i I 1 : i I i i; 1 1 I ' I 1 i M 'i " ' 1 ! I i i | 1 1 l i l l l i 111 I 1 M l • T T T i! 1 ' ' • M l i i 1 S i M '! M 1 M M T l - r r !ii i 1  _ .  1  1  :  1  -  -  !  1  ]  1  1  )  1  1  1  1  ;  T - T T  1  1  1  1  !  1  :  1  1  1  ;  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  :  ;  j  £ET V..C 1  i"T"  P ' 1  1  Ri 1  1  1  1  H  :  1  -——h • ~ — • ' i i  -i i i  i  1  1  1  1  1  -i4-i M I  — , — —  —  m  r —  - 4 ^ 4 /  , )—ri—  4T  i i j—r-<—  ! 1  ! i  i  i !  h  !  —M~/-»  i  i  1 ! i 1 ! i T  i  I  ~  -  r  i  -i—  -!  i j  i  i  -t-n~r  !  i :  :::  •  i  ~t  'X.  i i _4_.  .  1  i —  -  • -••  -444-  i  —i—i—i—f— 1  ^4K-  - 4 < -H44 4  ,  • /i  T T T i i  i  1  1 1 i~r " "IT  1  1  t 1  i  <r  —  $  4-  — j — f  —  4 T * 1 i r r ,• r r 1  —  i  •trtt  i  -44-  |  i  • l i  i iJ  1  i  1  .j  i M i l  !1 1 1  --tt ! i I i i ; 1 1 i 11 + 4 • ' i i i 1 !  i  i i TT+- f - r i i - r | — r f! 1 1 i ! !  T  1  1  n  T " !  4 r>  1  !  '  J  /  i i /,  ! ! i — i — I 1 i ! I i . j. ——\i i i i i ;4 4 i 4 -L j rt-rt i 1  1  !  1  -4444  -  ~ •i—i;M < i 'i !  |  —  ! 1 I T " |  1  f •;  ! 1  !  !  M i l  ii  7  OR.  M M 1 i I t i M —i—i—j— ! i j  I  •  I  i :  11 i l  1"  -i l jl ! ' " ; • M M i; i 1  < :  j  i 4"T1 1 i 1 i I 1 1  : i  1 1  1  i  1  T T T i  '•  i—  —I—i—r  4-H4-  i |  1  M  i  ' i ! |— M i l M M "  '  ! i • I i i  M  !  • : !  M  M M 1  i  i  ' i l l M i l 1 M  •I  !  1  "!  |  j  li  1  ! !  ! 1  , . : i. • i i  ;  • M : i ! M  '  1  | j ! 1  i i •  i  ' •  M  I ! j Mi M U4-UM M i 1 "M 1 1 M M i i i M M —I—'—;—J— IM i i i M l • i i i l i i 1 i M M ' M M I| ' •l 1l !— M M I i < I I I !  i  i  T-4 / 3 _ M _  M M  |  i  1  1  -4 -TT41-  r44-I 1 ! J"""  !  —j—M •;••} ••  l i t /  ' I ' M  i  1  ; i  1  M M  1 1  1i  M i l  ! 1 1  ! i ! 1  |  •  M M MM ;• i i !  i  M M '  —'—i—1—\— i | M ! i •' • '  i 1I M M  f !  ~/iV7""V  1 '  1  r i ;i I  4/T - L 1  .  \ i ..II !  1  "  1  I 1  -tM M !  '  " 1i1 !i II1  ii  1!  1 '  i i I I | i  1 i i  j  -  ri  1  b  j I  l | | |  i  1 ! —I—|  -i  \  ~i 1 l i i ^ ! 1  1  i  1  1 :  .i—r~0: ;~  i  --L-M—  ,  •  1  1  i i  MM  1  I 1 | i i i  |  !  M i l MM ! r i j  —i—i—I—M M i l  1 i |  1  ~ T "  1  !  |  Ji  i—i—  i  4  — i — j —  : i  " i  f T- 1 - H T i • j j• j p i i M . | —i l : i 1  H  ~'ri-  ri  .• i  L4Xr: j i ii  j —  4r4 1 o  !  1  M i l i i i  \ \ s i '\ \  1  i i i : i 1  i i i i  :  1 |  MQ "* f1— r  1 !  M-T-M-  i  1  l 1 ! 1 1i ~>—|—P  ] r 44 ( rr  11  |  t  i  i i  i  • i  r  !'i  4M41 ! V  1  !  •! i  1  -  1....  4  i i ! ! ! i  ! I  i  1  1  1  -7 . 73  Si  i  ii ; j i M i I M ! i !  |  i  ! if  1  i  i  1  !  -H < i  \  i — p i  ! M ! M M , / 1 i 44-  i i !  — r — i —  t 1  !/  :  1—r r—  - 1 - - ) - rW-_  1— i j L I 1 | J  1  "T"hr~ ' 1  '  1  !  i  !  1  ~~T\  / VA i ! 4 i  ;  u. ._  -44-  1  i-j—i—j-  I4  i  |  [  i  1 —1—  i : : i I 1M  1 -r  1 11 1  i i ! 1  1  1  i  M  • 4 - + -  i -  1"! 1--1 i ! I i ij i 1  1  i  1  "  i  t  |  1 1  -M_44  i  -j-j-p-  r~r i i  — , — j — •  1  1 !  >  -—i—p  :  i  i ! i  1  -A  M-4-  4-U - Y 4  ji  .44/ —• r  1  1 -r_M  1  1  i -j— 1  I  1 1  1 1  I  i  M i !  -  /  i  4H  -4—  1-  TI - r iI ! 1 I  i -j—p • : i —r i \ —T-. J. 1 ! i- - T T + + -i—• i i—TT— M M —r / 1 • | M M 1 4 i ! ' i ! , i 1—j j !j II "' —I" —r—r~ ' \ ! i  i i i! i  1  1  1  1 |  i  M  1  !  i  l  4-  i,  1  i  i i  1  i i 1  i  •  i i  i  —ri~~  I  i : M M  i  1  r  /  1  i  * i  '  -7-p  1  .  —|— 4r4I ;  /  — M  ii  |  ! 1  —  444  : i  i i 1 —  i  i  ! 1 i 1 1 i i : i i i ! 1 i 1 !  4  l  -j-j-j-r  _  -4  i1  ',  inniA-5  li  1  i i 1!  i  i  i  1  1  i i  1 -1 r +1T 1 T  1 1  L i— 1 _ i  — ^ _.!_  i  1  rt4  —i—r - T -  --) -  44  —H~  -  44-  -4—1-4i_ j —  :i n  -  1  44-  i  I !! —r ; i j  m  i  -h 'A-r —r  1 |  i  !  1  ! !  —j—r i i i ! 1 1 !  /  N  l - j -  • 1  i  I  t i .  n-i  —|— i  1  i I i i 1 1 I i i i  i  =!#  T i  1 1 i 1 i i 1  —r—  -  1  | -4-  i  i 11 11 ! t  1 1! 1 i i i i  I i  j  '  ,  M M i M i i i 1 I I I !  1 i i | I  [  i  •  M i r i !.. i i 1 .I i i i — 'M  i  1  4r i i  i  4Pr Co  i  i i  1  i  - 4  i i -p —r  _ M  m  ; M_l _  ~i  ; | ; ,_j  -  !  I  ] i i l i i I i ! 1 i i i  ! 1  j;|  1  I ft  M  I  '—r i i 1 — M — 1  "  i i r~  1  m  i  i '—i  H-4-H-- -  =  i  i i . . p. i  44  i -j—  !  •  ' ' " i • — i —T—  M '.  ! !  M M;  !  1  — — P _  —j -.  -[ ••i r i  " 'T  i -|—  1 i  p  1  M  M iM  j—i—,—j  ^  M M  T  i -rr  M  1  I . t—.—j.  •  11 ir -t- i  i  1  1 j  "I i  i  -p-  !  i  11 i  U-p  I  -  -Hz -"F7-r4—I  i i  —  4 - t ~  4  dt  —  ! '  1  • '  m  4-T - h r  i  i  &  i !  • pr  -4r4-r--4  KVA T-AAT A0? — — [Ji 'A  & - £  —4H  !  •t•  |  T | M i l 11 ! 1 --1— t — 1 — 1 — H r r 1 -/FN-  i  1 I M ,  :  , i « • i • ; : :  ;  52 v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the examiner w h i l e the  Chinese  chil-  d r e n on the whole, were very r e t i c e n t about d o i n g s o . S i x I t a l i a n and twelve Chinese c h i l d r e n gave a response of l e s s than t e n words.  E q u i v a l e n t p a t t e r n s o f responding i n both the  use of the g e n e r i c (symbolic word r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) and i n word p r o d u c t i o n were expected and found i n a l l three groups o f children.  I n both c a t e g o r i e s , s c o r i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r f o r n a t i v e speakers of E n g l i s h and lower f o r the Chinese  children.  The low performance  of the Chinese c h i l d r e n confirmed  the e a r l i e r r e s u l t s obtained by S t o d o l s k y and L e s s e r (1967) w i t h members of t h i s e t h n i c group.  I n comparison w i t h Negro  c h i l d r e n from the same SES l e v e l , they evidenced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower performance.  Both o f these s t u d i e s showed  f i n d i n g s c o n t r a r y t o those i n the American  n a t i o n a l survey on  e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s by Coleman (1966) (Stodolsky e t a l , I 9 6 7 ) .  Chinese c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study  were r e p o r t e d to have performed a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l on grade one v e r b a l t a s k s .  P o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s may be accounted  f o r i n t h a t both the c u r r e n t and S t o d o l s k y study were conduated u s i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h known c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n s which may not have been the case w i t h the n a t i o n a l survey. The Chinese and I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n were regarded as having s u f f i c i e n t E n g l i s h p r i o r t o the t e s t i n g t o be d e s i g n a t e d as bilingual.  I n making t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , data from a l l  c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g those who had been c l a s s i f i e d as language r e j e c t from the k i n d e r g a r t e n study, were i n c l u d e d . ger study, s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n were d e s i g n a t e d as b e i n g  I n the l a r language  53 r e j e c t i n that i t was f e l t  t h a t t h e i r E n g l i s h was not s u f -  f i c i e n t l y adequate to prevent contamination o f the o v e r a l l results.  The acceptance  o f these c h i l d r e n was conformed f o r  the c u r r e n t study as no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appeared  bet-  ween e t h n i c groups on the v e r b a l comprehension measure. C h i l d r e n from a l l three groups were a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s between d i s s i m i l a r word p a i r s on the auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n task.  I t was a l s o noted t h a t no  c h i l d showed evidence o f incomprehension  o f any o f the tasks  d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t many o f the t e s t s r e q u i r e d q u i t e extens i v e and d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n . In  the remaining three c a t e g o r i e s o f IQ, S p a t i a l Concep-  t u a l i z a t i o n and A b s t r a c t Reasoning,  the Chinese c h i l d r e n per-  formed a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l than the other two groups o f c h i l d r e n .  As shown i n Tables 11^ through V l l , the  range o f scores f o r each e t h n i c group c o n s i s t e n t l y overlapped w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y .  T h i s appears  to i n d i c a t e t h a t  e t h n i c group has the genotype p o t e n t i a l t o express  each  itself  e q u a l l y w i t h other groups as measured by the I n d i v i d u a l scores obtained on a l l o f the t e s t s . Contact was made w i t h Chinese, I t a l i a n and Canadian f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the same socio-economic dren t e s t e d .  a r e a as the c h i l -  No parent connected w i t h the study on minimal  c e r e b r a l d y s f u n c t i o n was contacted as i t was f e l t would be an i n t r u s i o n on the v a l i d a t i o n study.  that  this  Judging  from answers g i v e n by the t h i r t e e n f a m i l i e s v i s i t e d  (three  Chinese; f i v e I t a l i a n ; and f i v e Canadian) s t r o n g evidence of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the environment  seemed t o e x i s t between the  Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n c u l t u r e s .  Conclusions  5*  drawn from the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained were d e r i v e d  partially  from d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g and p a r t i a l l y from o b s e r v a t i o n . A l l visits  (one to three hours) were l a t e i n the a f t e r n o o n o r e a r l y  i n the evening and  so t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e f o r both the parents  the c h i l d r e n t o be p r e s e n t .  A l l Chinese parents  partici-  pated but three Canadian and one I t a l i a n f a t h e r were n o t present.  As the experimenter was p e r s o n a l l y known to a l l o f the  people  questioned,  no d i f f i c u l t y was found  d i r e c t questions about the c h i l d r e n s  i n asking very  a c t i v i t i e s or parental  1  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f them a t a l a t e r d a t e .  The behaviour  c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the v i s i t was observed  w i t h Chinese c h i l d r e n  seldom responding The  o f the  u n l e s s d i r e c t l y asked a q u e s t i o n .  s t r u c t u r e o f the home environment and the p a r e n t a l  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y between the Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n groups.  I n d i c a t i o n s were t h a t  Canadian - I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n came from homes which were crowded w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d n o i s e .  over-  Their  l i v e s were p o o r l y r e g u l a t e d as f a r as s l e e p i n g hours and meals were concerned w i t h many c h i l d r e n g e t t i n g to s c h o o l l a t e and wandering the s t r e e t s f o r hours a f t e r the s c h o o l s c l o s e d . Many o f the f a t h e r s were s e a s o n a l l y employed and t h e r e f o r e , s u b j e c t to l o n g p e r i o d s o f unemployment and/or w e l f a r e . Immediate e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c h i l d behaviour  were i n c o n s i s t e n t ,  w i t h wide f l u c t u a t i o n s between a t t e n t i o n and d i s r e g a r d .  Both  the parents and t h e . c h i l d r e n were o v e r t l y v e r y f r i e n d l y and easy to converse  w i t h but demonstrated v e r y v o l a t i l e and ex-  p r e s s i v e emotional  ranges.  Long term e x p e c t a t i o n s  concerning  s c h o o l i n g and eventual c a r e e r s f o r the c h i l d r e n might be r e garded as q u i t e low.  The Canadian - I t a l i a n parents  economic group on the whole, regarded  i n this  advanced e d u c a t i o n as  55 unnecessary,  and expected  as soon as i t was  t h e i r c h i l d r e n to become employed  l e g a l l y possuble.  The boys, on l e a v i n g  s c h o o l , tended to g r a v i t a t e to the u n s k i l l e d end of the l a b o u r f o r c e or i n t o s k i l l e d work of a seasonal n a t u r e .  The  girls,  a f t e r completion of s c h o o l , work f o r a while as c l e r k s or shop a s s i s t a n t s but i t was  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t they would marry  at  an e a r l y age and l i t t l e was  or  professional  expected of them i n an academic  sense.  C h i l d r e n coming from the Chinese group appeared develop under very d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . the homes were crowded, s i l e n c e was p h y s i c a l surroundings  (no TV's  and v e r b a l l y from the c h i l d r e n .  to  While many of  s t r e s s e d both i n the  or r a d i o s l e f t unattesa&ed) T h e i r l i v e s tended t o be  w e l l r e g u l a t e d w i t h p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n b e i n g c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and c o n s i s t e n t l y r e i n f o r c e d .  The  parents  and c h i l d r e n were more r e s e r v e d and r e s t r a i n e d than those i n the Canadian  - I t a l i a n group.  The f a m i l y u n i t was  v e r y co-  hesive w i t h few f a t h e r s being unemployed or on w e l f a r e .  In  many cases, s m a l l businesses were owned and managed by the f a m i l y and a l l members p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n g . both parents worked, the c h i l d r e n were not l e f t r e s o u r c e s ; grandparents  to t h e i r  If own  or o t h e r r e l a t i v e s were a t home to  s u p e r v i s e before and a f t e r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s .  Many of the  c h i l d r e n attended two s c h o o l s ; the r e g u l a r elementary s c h o o l and a Chinese s c h o o l .  Here, a f t e r p u b l i c s c h o o l hoursm they  were taught to read and w r i t e i n t h e i r f i r s t language l e a r n e d the h i s t o r y and customs* of t h e i r c u l t u r a l  and  group.  Immediate e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n were v e r y c o n s i s t e n t  5°  w i t h i n the c u l t u r e , w i t h academic l e a r n i n g positive  r e i n f o r c e m e n t a t home.  secondary expected  receiving a high  This continued into  post-  s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n where c h i l d r e n o f b o t h s e x e s t o continue i n t o u n i v e r s i t i e s and s k i l l e d  were  t r a d e s and  professions. This tial  cultural  mental  background  abilities  appeared  of the Chinese  t o develop the poten-  children to a level  was h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e a n d was r e i n f o r c e d which they l i v e d . Canadian  of the c h i l d r e n mental  effect  on t h e i r  (Stein,  the f i r s t  of the tests  o f age group.  b e i n g used  t h e age o f t h e c h i l d DAP).  and  t h i s negated  that  group.  earlier,  tested  the Chinese  stage  Abstract reasoning  Chinese  found  i n the i n t e r -  children  responded  than any o f the other c h i l d r e n  with  (Wepman; B e n d e r ;  t h e same d e v e l o p m e n t a l  and b o t h s c o r i n g l e v e l s  was m e n t i o n e d  correlated  the c h i l d r e n  the only s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  levels  level  of testing  a n y main age e f f e c t .  o f age w i t h e t h n i c  to increase  T h i s was s u r p r i s i n g a s many  a t the time  a l l reached approximately  differences  between t h e two  were s c o r e d o n s c a l e s  had  action  These  detri-  1970).  I t c o u l d o n l y be assumed  provided  the p o t e n t i a l  t h e y c a n be e x p e c t e d  1971; B a r t e l ,  i n the  y e a r o f s c h o o l and from t h e  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r e d  classifications  age  to depress  o v e r a l l development.  of other studies,  over time Age  appeared  emerging  i n a way w h i c h w o u l d have a l o n g t e r m  are very evident within results  by t h e s o c i e t y i n  Conversely, the d i f f e r e n c e s  - I t a l i a n group  which  i n both  a t a higher  ( S e e T a b l e I V ) . As  c h i l d r e n attended a  second  s c h o o l a n d t h e y may have had g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e  57 r e v e r s a l and whole word concept tasks due t o p o s i t i v e  trans-  f e r to the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . As  the MPI must be g i v e n on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , the  time r e q u i r e d  f o r t e s t i n g becomes and important f a c t o r i n  i t s use. I f t h i s b a t t e r y  eventually  becomes a p a r t o f the  k i n d e r g a r t e n programme, the knowledge that age, a t t h i s stage i n development, was not a f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g should be of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e .  to v a r i a n c e  I t w i l l permit the t e s t e r ,  ( q u i t e probably the teacher) s u f f i c i e n t time over the year t o examine a l l o f the c h i l d r e n without too much c l a s s  disruption.  Many c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Canadian - I t a l i a n group, had  poor attendance r e c o r d s and because of t h i s ,  missed the e v a l u a t i o n Scoring  programmes.  The hypothesis that the MAP would hold  d i f f e r e n t ethnic  ocassionally  groups d e s p i t e  f o r the  l e v e l of i n i t i a l score on  the MPI, was confirmed. With the e x c e p t i o n o f the A b s t r a c t Reasoning category, the MAPS f o r Chinese, Canadian and I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n remained the same f o r both l e v e l s of s c o r i n g (See F i g u r e s 3»4 & 5)•  The performance o f low s c o r i n g  children  was not u n i f o r m l y depressed but matched t h a t of h i g h e r c h i l d r e n o f the same e t h n i c scale.  scoring  groups a t a lower l e v e l on the  I t appears that the a b i l i t y to reason a b s t r a c t l y was  an a l l o r none f u n c t i o n .  With the e x c e p t i o n o f both groups  of Chinese c h i l d r e n , who were w e l l above the mean i n t h i s category, low s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n d i d not appear to have t h i s aMlity  while high s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n d i d .  D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment  Confirmation of d i f f e r e n t i a l  treat-  merit ( R i s t , 1970:  S t e i n , 1971:  Goodman, 1972),was found  o n l y w i t h i n c l a s s e s but a l s o between s c h o o l s . p r e v a l e n t i n each school was  The  atmosphere  very n o t i c e a b l e , r a n g i n g  very r i g i d l y s t r u c t u r e d schools w i t h few  from  freedoms allowed,  the very open and  f l e x i b l e ones.  o n l y the students  but a l s o the s t a f f , as i n the l a t t e r  there appeared to be l i t t l e expectations  T h i s was  seen to a f f e c t  of t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n .  there was  done one  a d e f i n i t e depression  f i n a l a n a l y s i s of  overall.  to a  child  f r o n t of the whole c l a s s to the e f f e c t t h a t " t h i s was  little  angel".  with l i t t l e  A second c h i l d In the same c l a s s ( a  E n g l i s h ) was  c l a s s as " s t u p i d " and and  introduced  schools,  s c h o o l of  f o u r c l a s s e s c o n t r i b u t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h scores  in  attended  i n the scores from two  s c h o o l , the examiner was  the  s c h o o l a t a time and  i n v o l v i n g s i x out of f i f t e e n c l a s s e s , w h i l e one  In one  was  A l l of the schools were  data d i d not i n c l u d e a f a c t o r r e l a t e d to the s c h o o l T e s t i n g was  not  schools,  i n the former, there  l o c a t e d w i t h i n a mile of each other and  by each c h i l d .  to  i n d i c a t i o n of d y s f u n c t i o n a l  by the teachers w h i l e  s t r o n g evidence  not  my  Fljiian  l a b e l l e d , a g a i n i n f r o n t of the whole  t h i s was  s i b l i n g s i n other grades.  expanded to i n c l u d e h i s  parents  I r r e s p e c t i v e of h i s l e v e l of  competence i n E n g l i s h , the r e s t of the c l a s s were very aware of what was in was  being s a i d .  Punishment, i n the form of  the middle of the room and  isolation  p h y s i c a l smacking of c h i l d r e n ,  n o t i c e d s e v e r a l times over a p e r i o d of three weeks and  u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d the same three or f o u r c h i l d r e n .  These  e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a l treatments are very l i k e l y to c o n t r i b u t e a d v e r s e l y to the c h i l d ' s development i n s c h o o l . It  was  of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t , w i t h one  exception,  59 the a t t i t u d e p r e v a l e n t i n the s t a f f room was  that displayed  throughout the s c h o o l .  regarded  The  s c h o o l which was  as  being the poorest i n i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the p u p i l s a l s o showed the h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e of vandalism  w i t h i n s t a n c e s of  quent broken window, d e l i b e r a t e l y blocked n i t i e s chalked on the  sidewlks.  Nature versus Nurture  I t was  fre-  t o i l e t s and  obsce-  not w i t h i n the scope of  this  study to s p e c i f y c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s producing d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s between e t h n i c groups.  As I n d i c a t e d , there  were s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the environments of I t a l i a n and Canadian c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h i s socio-economic Vancouver, w h i l e there was these two and  area of  s t r i k i n g d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between  the Chinese environment.  Because of the s t r u c -  ture of the d e s i g n , r a c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e and were confounded w i t h each o t h e r .  ethnic influence  While the Canadian c h i l d r e n  d i d not come from the same gene pool as the I t a l i a n , p r o f i l e s were v e r y s i m i l a r and l i s h e d between the two  their  common f a c t o r s were estab-  environmental  backgrounds.  Genotype  p o t e n t i a l appeared to be s i m i l a r i n t h a t roughly the same range of scores was  demonstrated w i t h i n each e t h n i c group  on a l l measures. F u r t h e r c o n t i n u a t i o n s of the argument as to whether g e n e t i c or n u r t u r a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e most to development should be regarded  as unproductive  exercises.  A child's  development c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of changes which show not o n l y d i r e c t i o n a l i t y but a l s o must be accumulative irreversible.  and  As the c h i l d matures, the range of p o s s i b l e  outcomes to g e n e t i c f a c t o r s Increases, s e t t i n g up an i n c r e a s i n g l y l o n g c h a i n of p o s s i b l e outcomes.  60  " The d i e h o t o m i z a t i o n helped  i n identifying  ment.  I n the course  (of nature  critical o f time,  versus  nurture)  v a r i a b l e s i n human  develop-  the i s s u e o f whether h e r e d i t y  o r e n v i r o n m e n t c o n t r i b u t e d more t o human d e v e l o p m e n t supplanted  by t h a t o f e s t i m a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e ,  which i n t u r n l e d to the i s s u e of i n t e r a c t i o n . " Grinder,  of genetic factors  mental responses resultant their The  across  behaviours  should  could the  be e x p l o r e d  c o n t r i b u t i o n r a t h e r than results  of this  groups.  study  their  diversities.  have c o n f i r m e d  profiles  to continue  c h i l d r e n progresses  environ-  f o r the m u t u a l i t i e s  the existence  i n c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t  These d i f f e r e n c e s , measured  be e x p e c t e d  instituted  evoke d i f f e r e n t i a l  c u l t u r e s ( A n a s t a s i , 1958) a n d t h e  of d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y ethnic  (Anandalaksmy &  1970, p . 118)  Functions  of  was  i n kindergarten,  to d i v e r g e as the e d u c a t i o n of  unless remedial  programmes c a n be  t o e n d e a v o u r t o p r o v i d e a more e q u a l  f o r a l l of the c h i l d r e n .  opportunity  W h i l e a homogenous p r o d u c t  i s not  d e s i r a b l e , a b a l a n c i n g o f e a c h c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t m i g h t be attained  i f the areas  ration.  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Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, R e p r i n t S e r i e s #2, 278 - 3 0 0 , 1969  It  JENSEN, A.J., How Much Can We Boost IQ and S c h o l a s t i c Achievement? Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, R e p r i n t S e r i e s # 2 , 196*9 KARNES, M.B., J.A.TESKA, A.S. HOLPINS and E.D. BADGER, E d u c a t i o n a l I n t e r v e n t i o n a t Home by Mothers of Disadvantaged C h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development, 41: 925 - 935, 1970 MUSSEN, P.  ( e d . ) . C a r m l o h a e l s Manual of C h i l d Psychology ( V o l . 1, T h i r d E d i t i o n ! John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York,. London, Sydney, Toronto. 197° KESSEN.W., M.H. HAITH and P.H. SALAPATEK, Human Infancy: A B i b l i o g r a p h y and Guide. 287 - 360 THOMPSON, W.H. and J.E.GRUSEC, S t u d i e s i n E a r l y Experience. 565 - 634  PIAGET, J .  The C o n s t r u c t i o n of R e a l i t y i n The C h i l d . B a l l a n t i n e Books New York  PIAGET, J .  Judgement and Reasoning i n The C h i l d . L i t t l e f i e l d , Adams & Co. Totowa, New J e r s e y  RIST, R.C,  1  I968  Student S o c i a l C l a s s and Teacher E x p e c t a t i o n s . Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review. 40: 411 - 4 5 1 , 1970  ROBINSON, H.B. and N. ROBINSON, L o n g i t u d i n a l Development of Very Young C h i l d r e n i n a Comprehensive Day Care Programme. C h i l d Development, 42: 1673 - 1 6 8 3 , 1971  63  STEIN, A., S t r a t e g i e s For F a i l u r e . Review. 4 1 : 1141 - H 5 8 ,  Harvard 1971  Educational  STODOLSKY, S. and G. LESSER, L e a r n i n g P a t t e r n s i n The D i s a d vantaged. Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 3 7 : 5^6 5 9 3 . 1967 STRAUSS, A. A. and L. LEHTINEN, Psyohopathology and Educat i o n of The B r a i n I n j u r e d C h i l d . Grune & S t r a t t o n New York, 1 9 ^ 7 WACHS, T.D., I.C. UZGIRIS and J . McV. HUNT, C o g n i t i v e Development i n I n f a n t s of D i f f e r e n t Age L e v e l s From D i f f e r e n t Environmental Backgrounds:..An E x p l a n a t o r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n . M e r r i l l - Palmer Q u a r t e r l y . 1 7 : 283 - 3 1 7 , 1971  64 Appendix 1, I n s t r u c t i o n s and Examples o f Subtests Used t o Assess Mental A b i l i t y  Profiles  B a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r the s u b t e s t s . I f i t becomes apparent  t h a t a c h i l d does n o t f u l l y  these i n s t r u c t i o n s , a t the experimenter's  understand  discretion,  fur-  t h e r expansion and c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s a l l o w e d . 1.  Draw-A-Person  The c h i l d i s asked  t o draw a p i c t u r e o f  a man (boy o r g i r l ) on an 8" x 11" sheet o f u n l i n e d 2.  Bender Visuo-Motor  i s asked  The c h i l d  t o copy s i x designs which are presented t o him one  a t a time. file  G e s t a l t Tafek (See F i g . 7)  paper.  cards.  These a r e drawn i n b l a c k i n k on 5" x 7" i n l i n e d The c h i l d i s t o l d there a r e s i x designs t o copy  onto one p i e c e o f 8" x 11" u n l i n e d paper. Instructions  3.  " Here a r e some designs f o r you t o copy. J u s t copy them the way you see them."  Wepman A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Task  (See F i g . 9)  Twenty odd numbered word p a i r s from t h i s a r e presented and the c h i l d i s asked  t o i n d i c a t e whether the words i n each p a i r  sound the "same" o r " d i f f e r e n t " .  Some c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e ex-  t e n s i v e p r a c t i c e and d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n t o be a b l e t o grasp and a p p l y t h i s  concept.  Instructions  " I am going t o say two words. I want you t o t e l l me whether I say the same word twice o r whether I say two d i f f e r e n t words. T r y t h i s : hand - sand. D i d I say the same word twice? You're r i g h t , I s a i d two d i f f e r e n t words: hand i s n o t the same as sand. Now t r y t h i s L month - month.  65 11  You're r i g h t , I s a i d the same word two times. Now, l i s t e n to the words I am going to say and t e l l me i f they sound the same or d i f f e r e n t . Turn your c h a i r around so you cannot see me. I want to see how w e l l you can l i s t e n . "  Horst R e v e r s a l s T e s t (See F i g . 10)  The  p a r t i c u l a r sec-  t i o n of the Horst R e v e r s a l s T e s t used, c o n s i s t s of t e n rows of two and  three l e t t e r combinations.  used f o r purposes of demonstration scored. necessary  and  The  f i r s t row i s  the remaining nine are  Since the task i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t ,  i t i s often  to provide e x t r a h e l p .  Instructions  " The examiner s h i e l d s a l l but the f i r s t row and p o i n t s to the model; " T e l l me which one looks e x a c t l y l i k e the one I have my f i n g e r on. Now, you f i n d another." I f the c h i l d does not understand, the examiner s a y s , p o i n t i n g to the model " You see, some of them are backwards, the others are the r i g h t way. Pick out the ones t h a t look l i k e the one I have my f i n g e r on." The s h i e l d i s r e moved a f t e r the second row has been attempted. A s s i s t a n c e i s provided as l o n g as the c h i l d seems to b e n e f i t , but i s d i s c o n t i n u e d i f the task i s c l e a r l y too d i f f i c u l t . " :;  5.  Gates Word Matching Subtests  i s asked  (See F i g . 11)  to do f i f t e e n e x e r c i s e s w i t h the f i r s t  Each c h i l d three being  used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . Instructions  6-  " A l l but the f i r s t e x e r c i s e i s s h i e l d e d . " There are two words In t h i s box t h a t look e x a c t l y the same. Can you f i n d them? Take your p e n c i l and draw a l i n e between the ones t h a t look the same." I f the c h i l d f a i l s to understand what i s r e q u i r e d , the examiner c l a r i f i e s the t a s k . The s h i e l d i s removed a f t e r the c h i l d has completed e x e r c i s e s two and t three."  Generic C a t e g o r i e s  Each c h i l d i s asked  to produce c l a s s  names f o r three groups of words: c o l o u r s (red - blue - green),  66 boys or names (Tom  - C h a r l e y - Henry), and  food  ( apple  -  hamburger - i c e cream). Instructions  7.  "What are these t h i n g s : red - blue green?" I f the c h i l d does not respond p r o p e r l y , continue, " I ' l l t e l l you about three o t h e r t h i n g s : B a l l - d o l l - marbles. They are a l l t o y s . Now, t e l l me, what are red - blue - green?" e t c .  Number of Words Used i n a S t o r y  The  number of words a  c h i l d uses i n t e l l i n g the s t o r y of G o l d i l o c k s and Bears i s counted. are counted  C o n t r a c t i o n s of the s u b j e c t and p r e d i c a t e  as two words;  negative are counted nouns are counted  the Three  c o n t r a c t i o n s of the verb and  as one word;  as one word.  The  c h i l d uses c o n s t i t u t e s the s c o r e . know the s t o r y , e f f o r t s  a  hyphenated or compound t o t a l number of words a In cases where he  are made to e l i c i t  doesn't  spontaneous con-  versation. At best, the method used f o r a s s e s s i n g v e r b a l p r o d u c t i o n can only be regarded as a v e r y rough measure, if  the c h i l d  speaks v e r y r a p i d l y .  during testing  Use  o f a tape r e c o r d e r  w i t h l a t e r a n a l y s i s might g i v e a more a c c u r a t e  measure of word p r o d u c t i o n . 8.  particularly  Examiner's Check L i s t  (See F i g . 8)  6? Fig. 1  BENDER VISUO -MOTOR GESTALT TEST  FI&L  SCORE SHEET  8  NAME:  DATE:  CODE Clinical Score Score 1. L e a r n t o " r e a d " BOY and TRAIN 2: Draw a Man, and P r i n t Name 3. P e n c i l use 0 4 . Bender V i s u o Motor G e s t a l t T e s t 17  +25  33  +19  27  35  5  +11 + 13  +21  29  37  +7  15  23  31  39  1 3  + = "Same" i n Form I I 6. Words used i n a s t o r y  7. Review BOY and TRAIN 8. C a t e g o r i e s ( i . e . b a l l - d o l l - m a r b l e s = t o y s ) 1. r e d - g r e e n - b l u e 2. Tom - C h a r l e y - Henry 3. apple - hamburger - i c e cream 9. H o r s t R e v e r s a l T e s t  2  4 5'  8  5  6  9  1  7  10. Gates Word - M a t c h i n g 11. Word R e c o g n i t i o n I . 0.  1  2  12. Word R e c o g n i t i o n I I . 0 13. Word R e p r o d u c t i o n  1  2  (/)below (x)above  „,  o  A U D I T O R Y DISCRIMINATION T E S T F O R M II X  1.  69  Y  gear - beer  X  21.  bar  - bar  22.  bum  - bun  23.  lave  - lathe  2.  cad  - cab  3.  led  - lad  4.  thief - sheaf  24.  shot  - shop  5.  sake - shake  25.  wedge  - wedge  6.  jail  - jail  26.  suck  - sock  7.  ball  - ball  27.  vie  -'thy  8.  lake  - lake  28.  rich  - rich  9.  bead - deed  29.  pit  - kit  10.  rub  30.  guile  - dial  11.  wing - wing  31.  rash  - wrath  12.  gall  - goal  32.  chew  - chew  13.  pet  - pit  33.  fag  - sag  14.  lit  - lick  34.  phase  - phase  15.  bug  - bud  35.  sick  - thick  16.  lass  - lath  36.  wreath - reef  17.  cope - coke  37.  map  - nap  18.  pool - tool  38.  muss  - mush  19.  zone - zone  39.  cart  - tart  20.  fret  40.  cuff  - cuss  M  •  .4/  - rug  - threat  X  8  Y  . Voiy,.-  }''  Y  E r r o r Score Copyright 1958, by Language Research Assoc., Inc., 175 E. Delaware Place, Chicago, 111. 60611. Printed in U.S.A. This form is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of i t by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law.  Name of Child: Examiner's Name:  Date Tested: Age:  Date of Birth:  Grade:  Name of School:  Disabilities:  Hearing: Reading: Speaking: Other:  I.Q.  Test:  X Form I  /30  /10  F o r m II  /30  /10  E r r o r Score:  Additional Comments:  70  Fig.  10  HORST REVERSALS TEST  o t t o . o t . o t. t o . o t . t o  de; de .edl . d e . . e d . e d . d e | a/L. at CWL  .  -vex,  ,  x . a . .  a  X  .  TlU • n a . an. an. na.an pot| to  badj bad.  p..pot.pot.top  dab.dab.bad  l e s s| e l . t e s . L e s . f"  sof  j  set pik. k i p . k l p . p U c f o s . s o f . 5o f . f o s  TI am. a a/m, .madman  F i g . 11  GATES WORD MATCHING SUBTEST  see  sea  shoe  see  say  show  she shoe  boy  toy  top  toy  were  were  or  no  d i g  big  wee  went  on  on  did  d i g  dress  draw  here  hear  which  where  draw  drum  her  here  which  white  t e l l  b e l l  f ood  foot  chick  c h i l d  b e l l  f e l l  took  foot  c h i l d  chair  —  •„.]  

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