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Mental ability profiles in kindergarten children of different ethnic groups Van Blankenstein, Barbara Jean 1973

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c MENTAL ABILITY PROFILES IN KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS by BARBARA JEAN VAN BLANKENSTEIN B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Barbara van Blankenstein r. ^ jr Psychology Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e A p r i l 24, 1973 i Abstract Data from 7 subtests of the MPI were analyzed f o r 120 kindergarten children In a low socio-economic area of Greater Vancouver. The subtests were selected as being representative of components of a mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e (MAP) and included categories of IQ, s p a t i a l conceptualization, abstract reason-ing, verbal comprehension and generic and word production. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the data into 2 le v e l s of age (5 yrs. 3 mos. - 5 yrs. 10 mos.; 5 yrs. 11 mos. - 6 yrs. 6 mos.), 2 l e v e l s of score on the MPI (k - 7; 8 - 1 1 ) , and 3 le v e l s of ethnic group (Chinese, I t a l i a n and Canadian) gave 2 contrasting MAPS. The Chinese MAP was d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the I t a l i a n and Canadian MAPS which c l o s e l y resembled each other. S i g n i f i c a n t differences appeared (p^.01) fo r a l l cate-gories between ethnic groups with the exception of verbal comprehension. Age was not a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n any cate-gory. Scoring l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( p<.01) but each ethnic group retained i t s MAP at both low and high l e v e l s of scoring. 11 Table of Contents Page L i s t of Tables i i i L i s t of Figures i v Introduction Educational Influences and Expectations 1 Genetic Components 6 Animal Studies 10 Environmental Factors 10 Compensatory Programmes 18 E a r l i e r Intervention 19 Ethnic Influences 22 Mental A b i l i t i e s 23 Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s i n Vancouver Schools 25 Chapter Two The Modified Predictive Index 27 MAP Subtests and Scoring 30 Method 34 Results 37 Discussion Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s 46 Age 56 Scoring 57 D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment 57 Nature versus Nurture 59 Bibliography 6 l Appendix 1 Instructions f o r Tests Used to Assess Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s 64 Examples of Subtests Used to Assess Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s 67 i i i L i s t of Tables Table Page I Analysis of Variance of Intelligence Test Scores (Burt, 1958) 8 II Intelligence Quotient 39 III S p a t i a l Conceptualization 4-0 IV Abstract Reasoning kl V Verbal Comprehension kZ VI Generic k3 VII Verbal Production kk Tables 11 through V l l present the Range, F values and C e l l Means of each appropriate category. i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1 . M e n t a l A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s ( S t o d o l s k y & L e s s e r , 1 9 6 7 ) 24 2. M e n t a l A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s 4 7 3. C h i n e s e M e n t a l A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s 48 4 . I t a l i a n M e n t a l A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s 49 5 . C a n a d i a n M e n t a l A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s 5 0 6 . Age L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s 51 7 . B e n d e r V i s u o - M o t o r G e s t a l t T a s k 6 7 8 . MPI C h e c k L i s t f o r E x a m i n e r 6 8 9 . Wepman A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t 6 9 1 0 . H o r s t R e v e r s a l s T e s t 7 0 1 1 . G a t e s Word M a t c h i n g S u b t e s t s 71 F i g u r e s 7 - 11 a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i x 1 . V Acknowledgements I wish to express my appreciation to members of the project v a l i d a t i n g a screening test f o r minimal cerebral dysfunction for permission to use data from t h e i r study ( National Health Grant 609 - 7 - 355)/ To Dr. W.G. Davenport and Dr. M. Kimball, I wish to express appreciation for t h e i r encouragement and assistance during the past two years. F i n a l l y , to my family, my most sincere thanks f o r a l l the patience and understanding they have shown during the past s i x years. Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s i n Kindergarten Children  of D i f f e r e n t Ethnic Groups Barbara Jean van Blankensteln University of B r i t i s h Columbia The cognitive, physical and s o c i a l development of a c h i l d i s influenced by many fac t o r s . For ten years or more, the educational system structures six hours of a c h i l d ' s day fo r three quarters of the year. From the inception of compulsory education u n t i l very recently, the myth existed that equal opportunity f o r learning and development were available i n the schools f o r a l l , i r r e s p e c t i v e of race or s o c i a l status. Educational programmes were developed as fixed systems of i n s t r u c t i o n and the children, exhibiting a wide variance In t h e i r range of s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , were expected to conform to Identical progression throughout t h e i r years i n school. The f a l l a c y of this expectation to conform seems to be s e l f evident: the system i t s e l f , the teacher's expec-tations of the students, and the variance displayed by the children have a l l contributed to very unequal opportunities being a v a i l a b l e . Educational Influences and Expectations The b e n e f i c i a l e f fects of the r i g i d i t y fostered by the school system has been strongly challenged. The s t r i c t l y s t r u c t i r e d classroom programme may depress a chil d ' s spontaneous involvement i n a topic, with the c h i l d not 2 expressing interests to f i t a s p e c i f i e d timetable. Art at 9 . 0 0 ; arithmetic at 9 . 3 0 ; language arts at 1 0 . 0 0 ; recess at 1 0 . 3 0 , may not permit a c h i l d to become t o t a l l y involved i n a subject or some aspect of a subject which might intrigue him. The compulsory s h i f t to a completely d i f f e r e n t area may cause the c h i l d to lose i n t e r e s t i n what had i n i t i a l l y engrossed him (Elkind, 1 9 6 9 ) . I t i s quite possible that, through this lack of f l e x i b i l i t y , the schools may i n h i b i t rather than promote learning (Goodman, 1972). Goodman ( 1972) suggested that, i r r e s p e c t i v e of a c h i l d a b i l i t i e s , the r e s t r i c t i v e , a r t i f i c i a l systems i n schools do not encourage the spontaneous use of a c h i l d ' s I n t e l l e c t which w i l l occur i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . He gives an example of th i s i n the theories of c a u s a l i t y . According to Piaget (1971) a c h i l d i s not capable of handling t h i s stage of development u n t i l around the age of seven; yet children show a functional use of and can verbalize causal connections by three or four. The r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n provides the material and background f o r developing the chil d ' s i n t e l l e c t and only a f t e r working at t h i s on a functional l e v e l , can the more abstract concepts be derived. These i n turn lead to an a b i l i t y to generalize to other s i t u a t i o n s . This may be very aptly demonstrated In the a c q u i s i t i o n of concepts of conservation. As measured i n a t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n with beads, water and blocks, c h i l d r e n do not appear to have attained the abstract schemas of conservation u n t i l the age of f i v e or s i x . Yet children at three know, and can verbalize the f a c t of something being 3 bigger or smaller, more or less than with no d i f f i c u l t y at a l l . The children were able to demonstrate this functional use of the concept with objects f a m i l i a r to them i n t h e i r environments. Quoting Kropotkin ( Russian Educator ), Goodman stated, " You can teach anything, but anything to a c h i l d or an unlettered peasant, If you yourself understand It concretely - --— I f you understand I t only as an abstract structure, you can teach nothing to them ( p. 297 )• Measurement i n tes t i n g situations i n many instances incor-porates items and concepts f o r which the c h i l d as yet, has no use and therefore has not needed to develop. I t might be suggested f o r a l l children, and e s p e c i a l l y for those of lower socio-economic backgrounds, that much of what i s taught i n schools i s Inappropriate f o r use outside of the school. The material used and the standards expected by the teachers are more representative of the norms of the middle class groups. As such, these childr e n are p o s i t i v e l y reinforced at home to r e t a i n the conditioning acquired at school while those childr e n from the lower socio-economic groups, being negatively reinforced outside of school, either don't r e t a i n or only r e t a i n minimally, what has been taught i n school (Goodman, 1972). Strong evidence that equal opportunity was not being given to childre n i n school was found In a micro-study done on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between one teacher and her class and the influence this had on the children during the f i r s t three years of school (Rist, 1970). A group of kindergarten children were i n i t i a l l y placed into one of three classroom 4 groups based on information which had nothing to do with academic po t e n t i a l . Rist found that the i n i t i a l placement ranged from Table One children who were most l i k e the teacher to Table Three children who were least l i k e her. Pour factors emerged as being representative of reasons f o r s p e c i f i c placement: 1. Neat, clean children as opposed to d i r t y , poorly dressed children. 2. Those most int e r a c t i v e with the teacher and with each other. 3. Those who were the most verbal to those who were the le a s t verbal. 4. Those factors which were regarded as being most s o c i a l l y appropriate. These were known p r i o r to admission and included such Information as family income, race, r e l i g i o n , whether or not the family was on welfare, etc. These indicated a series of expectations from the teacher which influenced her treatment of the children. This was most evident i n d i f f e r e n t i a l verbal support depending on the group i n which a c h i l d was. The children were acutely aware of the differences between the three groups and as they advanced into Grades One and Two, these differences were reinforced. Placement into these grades was based on the records from the previous class and by Grade Two, the children, ranging from highest -to lowest worked i n well defined groups c a l l e d , respectively, Tigers, Cardinals and Clowns. Pew instances were seen of children moving upwards from t h e i r i n i t i a l placement groups. No c h i l d from Table Three ever made i t into the Tiger Group. These children then, from t h e i r f i r s t days In school were l a b e l l e d as low to f a i l i n g students and the expectations were inherent i n the system that they would remain there as long as they stayed 2 i n school. A report from New York (Stein, 1 9 7 1 ) reinforced Rist's ( 1 9 7 0 ) arguments of expectations being d i f f e r e n t i a l across groups. Stein stated that i t was the destiny of Peurto Ricans and Negroes to f a i l i n school while white children passed. Both the economic and p o l i t i c a l systems made a pool of u n s k i l l e d workers necessary and i t was t h i s category that the minority groups were expected to f i l l . Commenting on remedial summer programmes, implemented to compensate f o r academic f a i l u r e s , she expressed the opinion that, although the pro-grammes were expensive, they appeared " to do no more damage" to the children. She pointed out the same teachers who, during the year had p a r t i a l l y been the cause of damage through d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment, were the ones employed f o r the summer remedial work. The academic progress of the Peurto Rican and Negro children from Grade One onward, was reported as poor; t h e i r homes where c l a s s i f i e d as noisy but e s s e n t i a l l y speechless; t h e i r language was stated as being d u l l , colour-less and unimaginative. The evaluation of the qu a l i t y of t h e i r language might be queried; while i t may not be compa-r i b l e to the middle class norms, the language used i n the schools probably d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y from that used i n the streets of t h e i r environment. There i s evidence that these stre e t languages are very r i c h , f u l l y functional and imagina-t i v e . Their use, however, i s not encouraged or understood In the schools. A child's a b i l i t y to achieve has been shown to change during the years spent i n school. Using B i a l e r ' s Childrens' Locus of Control Scales ( 1 9 6 1 ) , Bartel ( 1 9 7 0 ) found that there b was a progressive decrement from Grade One to Grade Six. Lower class and black children had poorer academic records and lower b e l i e f s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to achieve than t h e i r middle class and white peers d i d . During Grades One and Two, children showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r b e l i e f s , but by Grade Four, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference which continued to increase to Grade Six. From these,studies, i t appeared that a c h i l d s t a r t i n g on his f i r s t day of school, was already marked f o r d i f f e r e n -t i a l treatment which negated a l l attempts to provide equal opportunity. Genetic Components The t h i r d factor contributing to the unequal opportunity i s found i n the wide ranges of developmental behaviour evident i n c h i l d r e n . P r i o r to admission to school, genetic and envi-ronmental factors and the interactions of these, influenced the developing behaviours of the children. Great stress i n research during the past two decades has been placed on the influences of the environment and changes i n the environment as they a f f e c t growing children. Emphasis on the genetic component was l a r g e l y destressed u n t i l 1969 when Jensen published a controversial a r t i c l e , arguing that genetic rather than environmental factors were the most important determinants of in t e l l i g e n c e and mental a b i l i t i e s . H e f e l t that inherited t r a i t s accounted f o r both s o c i a l class and r a c i a l variations found i n the population (Jensen, 1 9 & 9 ) . The genotype, fixed at conception by the union of the ovum and sperm, i s expressed as the phenotype which i s 7 the i n t e r a c t i o n of the genotype with i t s environment. Using an analysis of variance model, Jensen f e l t that he was able to assign approximately 7 0 - 7 5 % of i n t e l l i g e n c e to genetic sources; 1 5 - 2 0 % to environmental factors with the remaining 5 - 1 0 % being due to error. This c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the resu l t s of e a r l i e r studies done i n England (Burt, 1 9 5 8 ) . (See Table JL, p. 8 ) These studies were based on an analysis of variance model employing large samples of kinship studies drawn from school populations. Jensen f e l t that t h i s predo-minance of the genetic source explained r a c i a l differences i n in t e l l i g e n c e and suggested that t h i s was one of the major reasons why compensatory educational programmes established to date, had f a i l e d to show long term gains i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . However, reservations e x i s t about the use of an analysis of variance model when attempting to extrapolate within group re s u l t s to between group s i t u a t i o n s . H e r i t a b i l i t y i s a s t a t i s t i c a l concept and the res u l t s can only be generalized to the population sampled. I t has been pointed out (Crow, 1 9 6 9 ) that predictive models have l i m i t s when new or q u a l i -t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t treatments are introduced into the envi-ronment as the magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of genetic differences are unpredictable. The concept of inherited predominants i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , to a large degree, contradicted the basic precepts of Piagetian theories of c h i l d development. " Intelligence i s developed i n and through experience characterized by ass i m i l a t i o n and accommodation " (Elkind, I 9 6 9 ) . These stress the Interaction of a c h i l d with his environment and the environment with the c h i l d . I t Is expected that children 8 TABLE 1 Analysis of Variance of Intelligence Test Scores (Burt, 1958) Source of Variance Percent Genetic: 40.5 Genlc (additive) Assortative Mating 19.9 Dominance & Epis t a s i s 16.7 Environmental: Covariance of Heredity & 10.6 Environment Random Environmental E f f e c t s , 5.9 including HxE U n r e l i a b i l i t y (test error) 6.4 Total 100.0 9 w i l l develop to maturity i n a predictable fashion. The steps to maturation show an accumulative d i r e c t i o n and, de-pending upon exposure to appropriate elements i n the environment and a child' s previous experiences, can be seen at d i f f e r e n t times i n d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n . I t might be hypothesized that , with no environment to grow i n , a c h i l d , i r r e s p e c t i v e of his potential i n t e l l i g e n c e , would show no Intelligence quotient at a l l . Jensen has stated: "Although the IQ i s c e r t a i n l y not a 'constant*, i t seems safe to say that under normal environ-mental conditions, i t i s at l e a s t as stable as other deve-lopmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s t r i c t l y physical nature" (p. 19)• This on the surface, appeared to be an acceptable statement. However, the Implication inherent was that a normal environment would produce normal Intelligence and normal height. Given an abnormal environment, one can only assume that the deviations occuring i n physical t r a i t s would a l i o appear i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . One example of the former can be seen i n the f i r s t generation of Canadian - Japanese c h i l -dren of Japanese Immigrant parents. In Toronto, i n the mid-f i f t i e s , these children i n t h e i r late teens, under the i n f l u -ence of r a d i c a l changes i n d i e t from parent to c h i l d , showed a three to s i x inch Increase i n height over both parents (R. Takeuchi, personal association). I t was evident that n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s very r a d i c a l l y altered the physical genotype. I f deviations of this magnitude can occur i n a physical t r a i t i n one generation due to an increased protein d i e t , i t would seem l o g i c a l that s i m i l a r variance could be found i n IQ when changing from what might be regarded as an abnormal to a normal environment. Animal Studies Intervention into the natural environment of laboratory-animals has shown permanent dysfunctional effects i n the maturing animals. Interaction with the environment through the eyes, early i n l i f e , has shown d e f i n i t e neuroanatomical and neurochemical consequences. When chimpanzees, who were bli n d reared f o r 28 months were compared to normally reared chimpanzees, they showed a p a l l o r on the optic d i s c not apparent on the normal ones. Autopsies done on the experi-mental animals at s i x years showed d e f i c i t s i n the ganglion c e l l layer of the r e t i n a and optic nerve which indicated i r r e v e r s i b l e e f f ects from the i n i t i a l eighteen months of blindness ( Hunt, 1970). Deficiencies of ribonucleic acid i n the r e t i n a l ganglia have been found i n comparison of dark and l i g h t reared l i t t e r -mates i n rabbits and k i t t e n s . Even dark rearing f o r a few days showed damage to the s t r i a t e area of the v i s u a l cortex. The effects of dark rearing have been observed not only i n changes i n the anatomical and chemical composition of the eyes but have been found to extend to a l t e r a t i o n s i n the thalamus and v i s u a l areas of the cortex. Environmental Factors Given the confines of a normal environment, i n t e l l i g e n c e with the exception of a few inherited, g e n e t i c a l l y recessive defects, has i n the median i n t e r v a l s , a stable range which conforms to the gaussian or b e l l curve. I t i s generally accepted that the tests currently being used to evaluate the physical and cognitive behaviour of infants and children, are 11 biased i n favour of the middle class white c h i l d (Kessen et a l . , 1 9 7 0 ) . I f the environments of these children were accepted as normal, then the environments of children raised according to other standards must be c l a s s i f i e d as abnormal. Measurement of these children would then be biased when tested using the generally accepted scales. Interaction of the phenotypes within these environments might not be stable. " The parents of severely subnormal childr e n (previously defined as caused by pathological conditions, massive brain damage or rare genetic or chromosomal abnormalities) are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d among a l l the s o c i a l s t r a t a of i n d u s t r i a l society, while those of mildly abnormal subjects come pre-dominantly from lower s o c i a l classes. There i s now evidence which suggests mild subnormality i n the abscence of neuro-l o g i c a l signs i s v i r t u a l l y confined to the lower s o c i a l classes. Indeed, there i s evidence that almost no children of higher s o c i a l class parents have IQ scores of less than 80 ». (Jensen, 1 9 6 9 , p. 2 7 ) I t i s i n the area of comparison between lower and middle class socio-economic groups that studies repeatedly show reduced or retarded performances by children from the less favourable environment. Research done with i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d children, black versus white populations and slum versus lower and middle class s t r a t a has indicated that lower performances do exist; i n some cases, factors leading to this reduction have been demonstrated. In i n s t i t u t i o n s , infants and children are found to be retarded i n physical development, t o i l e t t r a i n i n g , i n t e l l i -gence, speech and a b i l i t y to s e l f feed and dress. Lack of stimulation due to maternal deprivation was regarded as being responsible (Thompson & Grusec, 1970). Foster place-ment of children soon a f t e r b i r t h as opposed to placement a f t e r three years In I n s t i t u t i o n s showed that, by ten to f i f t e e n years of age, the children who had remained i n s t i -t u t i o n a l i z e d the longest were d e f i c i e n t In IQ and a b i l i t y to conceptualize, had poorer speech development, were r e s t l e s s and less able to concentrate, had poor school achievement records and were s o c i a l l y immature, unpopular and aggressive. These findings Indicated that three years i n an environment of maternal and stimulus deprivation caused trends in.deve-lopment which appeared i r r e v e r s i b l e (Thompson et a l , 1970). Maternal deprivation per se, did not appear to be the cause of retardation but rather the lack of stimulation accompany-ing this deprivation was regarded as being one of the prime causes of. reduced performance and dysfunctional behaviours. Dennis and Najarin (1757) reporting on three orphanages i n Iran found that the children i n one i n s t i t u t i o n who were handled frequently, showed motor development s i m i l a r to home reared children while those children i n the other two were retarded i n performance on developmental scales. A group of children from one orphanage were given one hour's prac-t i c e a day over three weeks i n s i t t i n g , observing and mani-pulating objects. This group showed an increase i n perfor-mance on developmental test scores when compared to children who did not have this extra stimulation. Further support f o r increased stimulation being basic to development came from an early study by Skeels and Dye ( 1 9 3 9 )• Infants and young childre n from an orphanage were transferred to an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r mentally retarded g i r l s . (Thompson et a l ) 1 9 7 0 ) . Within two years, the children who had interacted with the retarded g i r l s showed an IQ f i f t y points higher than those who had remained i n the orphanage: those who were transferred had an increment of twenty f i v e points while those remaining showed a decrement of twenty-five. Rheingold (I967) found that three to four month old i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Infants had a higher frequency and i n t e n s i t y of v o c a l i z a t i o n rates to an unknown experimenter than shown by child r e n raised at home. She f e l t that this indicated a lack of s o c i a l stimulations?, Home raised children did not need to a t t r a c t and hold adult attention while the i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d had learned that a strong response was necessary to a t t r a c t the adult and keep him near. The majority of early childhood tests (Bayley, G e s e l l , C a t t e l l ) were of a stage developmental nature, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g a range of ages at which s p e c i f i c developmental features might be expected to occur. Infant tests have questionable v a l i d i t y as they generally show low correlations with l a t e r measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e . The recent development of sets of Piagetian Object Scales were expected to demonstrate a better evaluation of cognitive development through problem solving. Birns and Golden ( 1968) t e s t i n g Negro children from slum and working class and middle class fa m i l i e s , using both C a t t e l l Infant Development Scales and Piagetian Object Scales, concluded that s o c i a l class differences In i n t e l l e c t u a l development or cognitive s t y l e were not present during the Ik sensori-motor stage of development ( up to two years of age approximately). Scoring on these tests was done on a pass or f a i l basis and appeared to show that s o c i a l class d i f f e -rences i n children did not begin to emerge u n t i l between eighteen and t h i r t y s i x months when language developed. Two more recent studies have shown s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences i n performance on exploratory and play behaviours ( C o l l a r d , 1971) and cognitive development at d i f f e r e n t age le v e l s from d i f f e r e n t environmental backgrounds ( Wachs, Uzglrls and McV. Hunt, I 9 6 9 ) . The former tested i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z e d , lower and middle class infants. The subjects, ranging i n age from eight and a half to thirteen months were matched for age and sex. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n explored l e s s , showed fewer schemas and less s o c i a l p&ay. The lower and middle class children were the same on exploratory behaviours but middle class children were higher on schemas ( which were developed through memory) and i n s o c i a l play. The l e v e l of performance on the Gesell subtests depended on experience with s i m i l a r objects and the extent to which they had been handled. The primary factor emerging which appeared to influence these re s u l t s was the number of children cared fo r by one adult. The t h i r t y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d children were cared f o r by two nurses and the number of children i n the care of one person decreased as s o c i a l class increased. As the r a t i o of children to adults decreased, more opportunity for play and d i f f e r e n t patterns of exploration were included i n the chil d ' s d a i l y l i f e . One of the most comprehensive studies to date i s that of Wachs et a l . (1969)* Children from lower-lower (LL) and JO middle class (MC) s o c i a l groups were tested. A cross-sec t i o n a l study using f i v e l e v e l s of age ( 7, 11, 15, 18 & 22 months) was designed to e s t a b l i s h whe&her differences i n development existed and, i f they did, what factors i n the environment correlated most cl o s e l y with performance. Eighty four percent of the LL c h i l d r e n were Negro and e f f o r t s made to f i n d an equivalent group of MC children proved impossible. Development was assessed using Bayley and C a t t e l l Infant Development Tests and the new Infant Psychological Develop-mental Scales (IPDS) developed i n 1966 by U z g i r i s and Hunt. The IPDS was based on a Piagetian model of i n t e l l e c t u a l development and has adequate inter-observer r e l i a b i l i t y , test r e l i a b i l i t y and construct v a l i d i t y ( Hunt, 1969). Levels of r e l a t i o n s h i p were not given but i n the study being evaluated .75 was the cut-off l e v e l f o r accepting c o r r e l a t i o n r e s u l t s . Items from four scales of the IPDS 1. Development of V i s u a l Pursu&t and Permanence of Objects; 2. Development of Means for Obtaining Desired Environmental Objects; 3. Development of Schemas for Relating Objects; 4. Vocal Imitation; were scored on a four point scale ranging from f a i l u r e (2) through p a r t i a l success (3) and success a f t e r one or more f a i l u r e t r i a l s (4) to immediate and perfect performance on every t r i a l of the task (5). Analysis of these data using a sign test f o r non-parametric matched pairs showed s i g n i f i c a n t differences between disadvantaged and comparison subjects f o r each of the four scales as follows; I D 1 . Object Permanence M@ children performed s i g n i f i -cantly better than LL children at 11 months. By 1 5 months, the gap began to close as the subjects feegan to a t t a i n v i s i b l e displacement of objects and no further differences were found between the groups. 2 . Development of Means With the exception of 1 5 month old children, the MC group performed s i g n i -f i c a n t l y better than the LL group, appearing to be one step ahead of the disadvantaged childr e n i n th e i r development. 3 . Learning and Foresight No differences were found p r i o r to 1 5 months, then the MC children were better than the LL children at a l l successive age le v e l s i n a toy stacking task. I t was f e l t that the task i t -s e l f had been too complex fo r the younger children. 4 . Vocal Imitation On measures of the t o t a l number of words e l i c i t e d and the number of appropriate responses, MC children were superior to LL children i n both measures at 1 5 and 18 months. The MC and LL children were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n e l i c i t e d vocabulary size at 22 months but MC were s i g n i f i c a n t l y better i n appropriate word usage. Data from these four scales, plus the number of explora-tory and s o c i a l behaviours sand fear reactions exhibited by each c h i l d were analyzed using a point b i - s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n f o r relationships between measures of performance and the home environment. This was assessed using the Home Stimu-l a t i o n Scale, based on the Caldwell Inventory of Home Stimulation ( 1 9 6 4 ) which incorporated categories measuring the physical condition of the chi l d ' s house, i n t e n s i t y and varie t y of stimulation, types of mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n , language environment and the range of a c t i v i t i e s a vailable to the c h i l d . A l l items with less than a . 7 5 i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y were dropped from the study. Consistent high correlations were found between s p e c i f i c Items on the Home Stimulation Scale (HSS) and the IPDS. Overstimulation In the auditory modality was negatively correlated with perfor-mance at a l l f i v e age l e v e l s . The items f o r t h i s on the HSS included a noisy neighbourhood, small noisy home where the 17 c h i l d c o u l d not escape from the d i s t u r b a n c e and h i g h l e v e l of n o i s e i n the home (TV l e f t on the whole time the examiner was t e s t i n g ) . C o n v e r s e l y , those items measuring t a c t i l e and v i s u a l s t i m u l a t i o n were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h performance. However, i f i n f a n t s were exposed to too many o b j e c t s , persons or p l a c e s , d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s appeared. Maternal v o c a l i z a -t i o n , naming of o b j e c t s and d i r e c t i n g i n simple tasks were a l l p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the IPDS w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of 7 month o l d c h i l d r e n i n s e l f f e e d i n g . From Miese r e s u l t s , i t would appear t h a t the optimal l e v e l of s t i m u l a t i o n can be exceeded w i t h an e x c e s s i v e decrement or increment i n p r e s e n t a t i o n of s t i m u l i b e i n g d e t r i m e n t a l to the c h i l d ' s development. I t was f e l t t h a t h i g h I n t e n s i t y s t i m u l a t i o n d i d not permit a c h i l d to d i f f e r -e n t i a t e and a t t e n d to the a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s necessary f o r development of the v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y m o d a l i t i e s . The whole process might be regarded as analagous to an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t where i n s u f f i c i e n t power would not t r i g g e r a process and e x c e s s i v e power would cause an o v e r l o a d , s h u t t i n g of the system. Two p o s s i b l e reasons are g i v e n f o r the above f i n d i n g s of d i f f e r e n c e s between MC and LL c h i l d r e n a t very jpoung ages. These r e s u l t s were c o n t r a d i c t o r y to the f i n d i n g s of B i r n s and Golden (1968) where no d i f f e r e n c e s appeared i n c h i l d r e n under two years of age when s i m i l a r types of developmental s c a l e s were used between LL and MC socio-economic groups of c h i l d r e n . The tasks employed by B i r n s e t a l (1968) may not have been as s e n s i t i v e to environmental v a r i a t i o n s as the IPDS (Hunt, 1971). Secondly, a graduated s c o r i n g t e c h -nique including both pass - f a i l categories and measures of consistency were used i n the U z g i r i s - Hunt test while the majority of other tests were measured only on a pass - f a i l basis, A t h i r d reason might be considered. In the Wachs et a l study, the children were m u l t i - r a c i a l while i n the Birns -Golden work, a l l of the children were Negro, As w i l l be suggested l a t e r , t h i s c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n may strongly a f f e c t responses on tasks. Compensatory Programmes A growing awareness of the long term dysfunctional effects of some of the more detrimental environmental factors has led to the formation of experimental remedial programmes. Fin a n c i a l a i d has been poured into school and pre-school projects i n an attempt to remedy some of the weaknesses pre-valent i n the s o c i a l structure (The Early Training Project; The Perry Pre-School Project; The Indiana Project; Project Head S t a r t ) , One programme which had received wide p u b l i c i t y and which had great expectations of i t was that of Head Sta r t . This was planned and introduced as a preschool pl§cy programme where i t was hoped that the detrimental environmen-t a l e f f e c ts from the f i r s t three years could be permanently counteracted. Children from three and a hal f to four years of age entered the programme f o r eit h e r two summers and one year or one year andiione summer p r i o r to entering elementary school. I n i t i a l gains found during the programme decreased back to s o c i a l group norms when the children were returned to t h e i r e a r l i e r environment. The conclusion reached by the people working on the project was that a t r a d i t i o n a l nursery 19 s c h o o l format was not what slum c h i l d r e n needed. Rather, programmes of c o g n i t i v e , language and number s k i l l s , w i t h parents i n t e r a c t i n g and l e a r n i n g w i t h the c h i l d r e n , has been suggested. E a r l i e r I n t e r v e n t i o n An impressive amount of evidence i s b e g i n n i n g to accrue on the need f o r v e r y e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the environment of a disadvantaged c h i l d . These s t r e s s not o n l y enrichment f o r the c h i l d but r e q u i r e the mother to p l a y an a c t i v e , p a r t i c i -p a t i n g r o l e . The E a r l y T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t (1967) gave f o r t y y -f o u r low income Negro c h i l d r e n three years of i n t e n s i v e summer work p l u s weekly home v i s i t s f o r three years p r i o r to the c h i l d e n t e r i n g Grade One. T e s t i n g a t t h i s time showed t h a t the experimental c h i l d r e n were s u p e r i o r to c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n i n IQ. However, by Grade Four, while trends f o r language and achievement d i f f e r e n c e s were s t i l l e v i d e n t , they were no l o n g e r s i g n i f i c a n t . I n t e r v e n t i o n which had shown an i n i t i a l sharp i n c r e a s e , t h e n a l e v e l l i n g and f i n a l l y a decrease to the c o n t r o l group, was not s u f f i c i e n t to reduce the e f f e c t s of a low income environment. The f i n d i n g t h a t there appeared to be a downward d i f f u s i o n of t e a c h i n g to the younger s i b l i n g s from both the mothers and the experimental c h i l d r e n was of i n t e r e s t . ( G r a y & Klaus, 1970) E a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between two groups of c h i l d r e n when the mothers, over a f i f t e e n month p e r i o d , were g i v e n a s e q u e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l programme f o r home use. (Karnes et a l , 1970) T h i s programme taught the mothers how to s t i m u l a t e c o g n i t i v e and v e r b a l development and i n c o r p o r a t e d b a s i c t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s u s i n g p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . The experimental and c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance p r i o r to i n t e r v e n -t i o n but, a f t e r f i f t e e n months, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between them. When the IQ l e v e l s of younger s i b -l i n g s were measured f o r both groups, v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e d i f f e r -ences appeared w i t h experimental s i b l i n g s having a range from 99 - 134 and c o n t r o l s i b l i n g s r a n g i n g from 71 - 102. A t h i r d study from North C a r o l i n a (Robinson & Robinson, 1971) gave two groups of c h i l d r e n comprehensive, h i g h q u a l i t y day c a r e . The f i r s t group, admitted as I n f a n t s ( f o u r weeks to s i x months) were compared to a c o n t r o l group. Bayley Developmental S c a l e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r performance f o r the experimental group on mental s k i l l s but not on motor. The second group entered the programme a t the age of two when v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s were d e v e l o p i n g r a p i d l y . The r e s u l t s , measured by S t a n f o r d - B i n e t IQ S c a l e s , showed no o v e r l a p of scores between experimental and c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n and the e f f e c t s were the g r e a t e s t f o r Negro experimental c h i l d r e n . A three year study examining the e f f e c t s of e a r l y experience d e r i v e d from a comprehensive day care programme f o r i n f a n t s ( two to t h i r t y months) showed d e f i n i t e trends f o r improved performance. T h i r t y advantaged and nine d i s a d -vantaged c h i l d r e n were g i v e n a programme designed to develop 1. C o g n i t i v e competence and complexity i n p e r c e p t u a l motor, language and problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s . 2. Curiosity;. 1 and enjoyment i n e x p l o r a t i o n and p l a y problem s o l v i n g . 3. Co-operation, adaptiveness and p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s of s e l f worth. 4. Strong, h e a l t h y p h y s i c a l systems of a d a p t a t i o n . i i i Student-teacher and parent guidance programmes were e s s e n t i a l components of the study. Comparison w i t h home r e a r e d c h i l d r e n a t r e g u l a r s i x month i n t e r v a l s on Bayley and S t a n f o r d - B i n e t S c a l e s showed i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the experimental and c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n w i t h the nurs e r y c h i l -d ren performing a t a hi g h e r l e v e l . The disadvantaged c h i l -d ren i n the programme Improved e o n s i s t e n t l y above t h e i r o r i g i -n a l performance w i t h the g r e a t e s t gains being made by those c h i l d r e n who entered the day nu r s e r y a t the e a r l i e r ages. Fowler concluded t h a t developmental gaps between s o c i o -economic groups c o u l d be made up i n many cases but would not be s u s t a i n e d by a l l disadvantaged f a m i l i e s without a d d i t i o n a l forms of support (Fowler, 1972). These s t u d i e s a l l i n d i c a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g very b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s w i t h e a r l y programmes of i n t e r v e n -t i o n . These must e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r the whole environment of the c h i l d and, w i t h t h i s i n mind, i t became obvious t h a t maternal i f not whole f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l . One h a l f of IQ v a r i a n c e a t the age of seventeen can be pre -d i c t e d by the age of f o u r t o f i v e . I t co u l d be argued t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n should be made p r i o r to t h i s age. I f IQ can be a p p r e c i a b l y i n c r e a s e d i n the f i r s t f o u r years of l i f e , i t remains p o s s i b l e t h a t i t would show an i n c r e a s e a t m a t u r i t y . Beyond a few experimental s t u d i e s , the m a j o r i t y of reme-d i a l programmes are c l o s e l y t i e d to the e d u c a t i o n a l system. I n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the l i v e s o f disadvantaged c h i l d r e n a t an e a r l i e r p e r i o d i s not f e a s i b l e a t presen t w i t h the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . However, as a l l c h i l d r e n must a t t e n d CC school, It i s within the school systems that i t seems most l o g i c a l to i n s t i t u t e remedial programmes. Subjecting masses of c h i l d r e n to a wide v a r i e t y of compensatory programmes appears to have accomplished l i t t l e , as evidenced by the resu l t s of the majority of studies to date. The i d e a l would be an i n d i v i d u a l programme t a i l o r e d to the strengths and weak nesses of each c h i l d . This i s the d i r e c t i o n which many schools, e s p e c i a l l y i n middle and higher class socio-economic areas are heading. Unfortunately, elementary schools are very crowded; the load of preparing t h i r t y - f i v e to f o r t y separately structured curriculae would be impractical f o r the teacher. Working within the e x i s t i n g systems, easier method must be found, p a r t i c u l a r l y In the lower socio-economic areas, to provide an optimal opportunity f o r each c h i l d to lear n . Ethnic Influences One feature of lower socio-economic groups i s a tendency fo r r a c i a l groups to c l u s t e r i n blocks. In Vancouver, sec-tions of the c i t y oriented s p e c i f i c a l l y to I t a l i a n , East Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Canadian Indians can be found. In many cases, these people l i v e In c l o s e l y con-fined geographical areas next to each other but with very l i t t l e crossing of i n v i s i b l e c u l t u r a l l i n e s being evident. These groups have c u l t u r a l mores which d i f f e r greatly from one another and these define the races as d i s t i n c t i v e l y as do t h e i r more overt physical features. This form of struc-turing by races i s peculiar to lower socio-economic groups; while c l u s t e r i n g i s not foreign to higher l e v e l s of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , the reasons f o r t h i s formation tend to be on the basis of professional status and/or income. People of 2j$ s p e c i f i c ethnic groups, with few exceptions, do not l i v e i n the same areas at higher l e v e l s and therefore, the c u l t u r a l e f f e cts attained through juxtaposition with large numbers supporting group norms, are more d i f f u s e . Mental A b i l i t i e s Children entering school from d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups bring with them very d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t i e s . Two studies carried out i n New York and Boston with Jewish, Chinese, Negro and Peurto Rican children demonstrated th i s very emphatically (Stodolsky & Lesser,1967)• Pour very d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s (MAPS) were found for the four d i f f e r e n t groups (See F i g . 1, p. 24). Using four measure of mental a b i l i t y ; verbal, s p a t i a l conceptualization, number and reasoning; a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t MP was found f o r each group and these p r o f i l e s remained stable across l e v e l s of s o c i a l s t r a t a . While middle class groups of childre n resembled each other more cl o s e l y than the lower class children did, the p r o f i l e s were higher on the scale but s i m i l a r to those obtained f o r the lower socio-economic groups. I f consistent differences i n mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s could be measured f o r d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups then t h i s might be a p r a c t i c a l point from which to approach the problem of adequate compensatory education. I s o l a t i n g c h i l d r e n into small l a b e l l e d gro ups, as e a r l i e r indicated, could be d e t r i -mental to the children. However, there seems to be a tendency for c h i l d r e n to r e t a i n t h e i r ethnic i d e n t i t y by groups, par-t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t few years of school and as i t would be at th i s l e v e l that the programmes would be originated 24 25 new d i v i s i o n s would not be created. Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s i n Vancouver Schools The following study was designed to determine whether s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s were to be found i n three ethnic groups i n kindergartens i n a low socio-economic area of Vancouver. Using the Modified Predictive Index (MPI) foraassessment, (See Chapter Two) the following hypotheses were tested: 1. The performance by children from three d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups i n a low socio-economic area of Vancouver would show two d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s . The two ethnic groups of Chinese and I t a l i a n children were expec-ted, to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Children from the t h i r d group, c l a s s i f i e d as Canadian, were expected to demonstrate a p r o f i l e s i m i l a r to that of the I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n . While the Canadian childre n were not regarded as being of a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l group due to the conglomerate of peoples which made up the category, they were included as a t h i r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group f o r purposes of comparison. Many of the features which correlated with depressed performance i n the Wachs et a l study (1969) were present i n the home envi-ronment of the Canadian children. These features were also evident i n the I t a l i a n homes. To a large extent, they did not appear i n the Chinese homes. Therefore, i t was expected to f i n d that the p r o f i l e s c l a s s i f i e d as representative of Canadian and I t a l i a n children would c l o s e l y resemble each other and both would vary d i s t i n c t i v e l y from that shown by the Chinese children. 2b 2. C h i l d r e n who scored a t a h i g h e r l e v e l on the o v e r a l l MPI would show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance when compared to the low s c o r e r s on the items s e l e c t e d to measure s p e c i f i c mental a b i l i t i e s . T h i s v a r i a b l e was i n -cluded to determine whether low s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n would show s i m i l a r p r o f i l e s to hig h e r s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n from the same e t h n i c group or i f they would present a g e n e r a l l y uniform low p r o f i l e a c r o s s c u l t u r a l groups. 3 . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would not appear i n the performance of c h i l d r e n In the two age group c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . - A v a i l a b i l i t y of time i s e s s e n t i a l when t e s t i n g i n s c h o o l s . I f the t e s t b a t t e r y being employed was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e s t -i n g a t a l l age l e v e l s w i t h i n a grade, i t would make a more e f f i c i e n t t o o l which c o u l d be used a t the teacher's d i s c r e -t i o n throughout the year. Chapter Two The Modified Predictive Index The Modified Predictive Index (MPI) i s currently i n use i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study v a l i d a t i n g i t as a screening test to detect minimal cerebral dysfunction (MCD) i n kindergarten. The p i l o t study f o r t h i s project was done i n Vancouver i n the spring of 1970. The l o n g i t u d i n a l v a l i d a t i o n was started i n the spring of 1972 and w i l l continue u n t i l the c h i l d r e n have reached the end of Grade Two. The s p e c i f i c aims of the project were threefold: 1. To develop an e f f e c t i v e screening battery f o r the early detection of MCD i n kindergarten children; t h i s included those with perceptual and.or motor impair-ment and problems i n adjustment a r i s i n g from such factors as hyperactivity, poor emotional control, low f r u s t r a t i o n tolerance, i r r i t a b i l i t y , impulsiveness and short attention span (Strauss & Lehtinen, 19^7). 2. To validate the screening battery by detailed neuro-l o g i c a l and psychological assessments, s e l e c t i n g a population from the screened children which would f i t the diagnostic c r i t e r i a of MCD as d i s t i n c t from Immaturity. 3 . To study the natural history of the condition as well as compare the effectiveness of present day management of MCD with remedial methods based on early detection and detailed assessment. (Eaves, Kendall & Crichton, 1972) A t o t a l of 2,054 c h i l d r e n from 72 p a r t i c i p a t i n g e l e -mentary schools were tested; 325 of these were regarded as having f a i l e d the MPI as they scored between 0 and 3 on a 12 point scale. Two matched groups (A and B) were derived, r e f e l c t i n g proportionately the children across f i v e l e v e l s of socio-economic status. Both groups consisted of 120 children; 80 being c l a s s i f i e d as f a i l (score 0 - 3 ) and 40 as passing (score 4 +) on the MPI. These 40 w i l l serve 28 as normal controls to the f a i l i n g c hildren i n groups A and B. Group A children w i l l be examined by a neuropaediatrician and a psychologist for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Into MCD, Immature and Nor-mal categories. They w i l l be uninformed as to the f a i l u r e or control status of each c h i l d . Educational intervention w i l l be applied where necessary through a counsellor trainee from the Vancouver School Board. Evaluation of this group w i l l be made at the end of Grades One and Two. Group B w i l l remain uncontaminated f o r comparison with Group A i n 197& when a l l children w i l l have completed Grade Two. The Modified Predictive Index i s a composite of the de HIrsch Test Battery Predicting Potential Reading F a i l u r e , Draw-A-Person (scored a f t e r Goodenough-Harris) and Prin t Your Name. The de HIrsch Test Battery ( de HIrsch, Jansky & Langford, I966) was constructed to predict pot e n t i a l reading f a i l u r e i n kindergarten children, and was f i r s t administered to children i n low Income areas of New York i n I963. Over three years, the performance of the children on the test bat-tery was correlated i n Grades One and Two with performance on reading, s p e l l i n g and wri t i n g t e s t s . V a l i d predictions.® of these s k i l l s can be made by evaluating perceptual, motor and language behaviour at an early age. There i s a d i s t i n c t , I d e n t i f i a b l e pattern of d e f i c i e n c i e s i n these areas which i s predictive of d i f f i c u l t i e s found i n the " v i s u a l " languages of reading and s p e l l i n g . The de Hirsch Battery of ten subtests was constructed from 37 short tests which measured a wide range of s k i l l s ; gross and fine motor, auditory, perceptual, verbal, behavlou-29 r a l performance and st y l e of approaching a task. A l l tests given i n kindergarten were correlated with reading and spel -l i n g at the end of Grades One and Two. Thirteen tests were then selected, based on the c r i t e r i a of high c o r r e l a t i o n with v i s u a l language and the a b i l i t y of each test to d i f f e r e n t i a t e c l e a r l y between the average or better reader and the below average or poorer one. None of the tests was skewed exces-s i v e l y . C o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses were done on a 100 groups of tests, varying combinations from 3 to 10 t e s t s . The f i n a l battery predicting reading f a i l u r e consisted of 10 subtests, a l l of which correlated with reading and s p e l l i n g at the end of Grades One and Two at either the . 0 5 or . 0 1 l e v e l of sig n i f i c a n c e . The subtests Included were: 1. Word Reproduction 2. Pencil Use 3 . Bender Visuo-Motor Gestalt Task 4 . Wepman Auditory Discrimination Task 5 . Words Used i n a Story 6 . Categories 7. Horst Reversals Test 8 . Gates Word Matching Subtests 9. Word Recognition 1 10. Word Recognition 1JL In addition to these 10 subtests, the MPI included: 11. Draw-A-Person 12. Pri n t Your Name The MPI subtests f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient (DAP), s p a t i a l conceptualization (Bender), word comprehension (wep-man), word production (Words i n a Story), and abstract rea-30 soning ( Horst Reversals and Gates Word Matching and Catego-r i e s ) were representative of some facets of a mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e and were used i n the present study. MAP Subtests and Scoring 1. Draw-A-Person Jensen believes that mental a b i l i t y refers to the t o t a l of an individual's mental c a p a b i l i t i e s . I n t e l l i -gence, as measured by standard IQ tests, i s regarded as being part of the whole spectrum of human a b i l i t i e s (1969). While the factor structure of the Draw-A-Person Test i s probably considerably less complex than eith e r the Stanford-Binet or Wechsler ChicLdrens 1 Scales, within our own culture, DAP scores correlate about as well with those from other more complex scales as scores on them do to each other. (Hunt,1971). Human figure drawings of a body are in d i c a t i v e of degrees of development and maturation displayed by a c h i l d i n drawing a picture of a boy or g i r l (Bender, 1938). DAP gave the IQ measurement on the MAP and scoring was done by age In years and months on the number of features and body components included. 2. Bender Vlsuo-Motor Gestalt Task Six figures used as a measure of s p a t i a l conceptua-l i z a t i o n were presented s i n g l y f o r the children to copy. Their drawings were used to d i s t i n g u i s h both the a b i l i t y of the c h i l d to respond to the e s s e n t i a l features of each whole design and t h e i r a b i l i t y to display a degree of d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n i n copying. Primitive or poorly integrated performances 31 are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of children with perceptual d i s a b i l i t i e s . I n i t i a l scoring was done on the number of errors with © one point being given for each erroneously reproduced figure to a maximum of 6. A further 2 points were added i f the figures were consistently rotated or overlaid or i f the t o t a l presentation by the c h i l d was indecipherable. For this study, scoring was reversed with the best productions receiving 8 points and errors being subtracted to a minimum score of 0. 3. Wepman Auditory Discrimination Task Twenty pairs of words were presented to each c h i l d who was seated d i r e c t l y i n front of the experimenter but facing i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . This procedure was followed to prevent children from l i p r e a d i n g . A f t e r presentation of each pair of words, the c h i l d was required to state whether they were the 'same' or ' d i f f e r e n t ' . Five pairs of words were the same, the remaining 15 pairs d i f f e r e d on one d i s t i n c t i v e feature or phoneme. This test was included i n the study as a measure of verbal comprehension as i t was desirable to determine whether or not second language speakers of English d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from native speakers. I t was expected that no s i g n i f i c a n t differences would appear between the ethnic groups i n verbal comprehension. Although the Oriental languages i n p a r t i c u l a r have a d i f f e r e n t phonemic structure from English, i t was assumed that both the I t a l i a n and Chinese children had been s u f f i c i e n t l y exposed to enable them to d i s t i n g u i s h the d i s t i n c t i v e features. 199 of 2,654 children from the kindergarten study had been rejected from further i n v e s t i g a t i o n because they were c l a s s i f i e d as having insuf-3 2 f l c i e n t English. Data from eight of these were Included i n the present study as the children had scored above 4 on the MPI and had completed a l l of the subtests. Increasing aural acuity has been found to be p o s i t i v e l y correlated with age and older children were expected to make fewer errors than younger ones. I n i t i a l scoring of the odd numbered test pairs was done on d i s s i m i l a r pairs to a maximum of 15 errors. T M s was reversed f o r the MAPS. 4. Categories The subtest of categories was included as a measure of abstract reasoning i n verbal comprehension and production. The children were presented with three Items from each of three categories and were asked to provide the generic term f o r each group of items. The use of an appropriate generic r e f l e c t s the beginnings of the a b i l i t y to generalize at a symbolic rather than a concrete l e v e l . Scoring was based on the number of categories c o r r e c t l y named and ranged from 0 to 3. 5. Words i n a Story The t o t a l number of words i n the story of Goldi-locks and the Three Bears was counted to obtain a measure of verbal fluency. When a c h i l d indicated that he could not respond, e f f o r t s were made to get him to f r e e l y verbalize on some subject which interested him. Words were counted i n blocks of ten with children scoring under 226 being c l a s s i -f i e d as having f a i l e d . Analysis of verbal comprehension was based on the t o t a l number of words to the nearest f i v e which were included i n the ch i l d ' s output. 6. Horst Reversals Test Children were required to c o r r e c t l y match a sample word with a l i n e of two or three l e t t e r sequences containing s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r groups. This i s a f a i r l y d i f f i c u l t task f o r a young c h i l d to perform because of the abstract rather than concrete nature of the stimulus words. The c h i l d must be able to hold the correct two or three l e t t e r sequence f o r matching. The i n a b i l i t y to recognize and desig-nate those stimuli which are not reversed i s regarded as being highly i n d i c a t i v e of minimal cerebral dysfunction. Many children with MCD are unable to correct this and continue into Grades Three and Four to reverse such l e t t e r as 11 d, p. b. q. s. etc.". Those who have i n i t i a l l y reversed and have corrected by the end of Grade One are usually c l a s s i f i e d as being immature at the time of t e s t i n g . 7. Gates Word Matching Subtests This i s regarded as a r e l a t i v e l y sophisticated task for a kindergarten c h i l d as i t requires the a b i l i t y to conceptualize the word as a whole u n i t . Most childre n can e a s i l y matbih single l e t t e r s at t h i s age but a higher l e v e l of abstract reasoning i s required to match the whole words. Scores f o r the l a s t two subtests were combined and then reversed to give a maximum score of 21 and a minimum of 0. 34 Method In the spring of 1972, the MPI was administered to 280 kindergarten children i n 15 classes from 6 schools i n a low socio-economic area of Metropolitan Vancouver. C l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of socio-economic (SES) status was based on the 1967 census study f o r Metropolitan Vancouver ( L . I . B e l l , I 9 6 9 K Subjects f o r t h i s study were those personally tested as a part of the longitudinal project v a l i d a t i n g the MPI f o r use as a predictor of minimal cerebral dysfunction In kindergar-ten children. Subjects, f o r whom parental permission f o r t e s t i n g had been obtained, were randomly selected from each class u n t i l a l l members of the class had been tested. Administration of the battery was done Individually and required an average time of 35 minutes per c h i l d (range 20 minutes to 1 hour and 15 minutes). The t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n varied from school to school, i n some cases being very s a t i s f a c t o r y and i n others, very poor with frequent d i s t r a c t i o n s and interruptions. (In one school, 80 children were tested i n a windowless supply room i n a basement which was the play area f o r the junior classes.) The e f f e c t s of varied t e s t i n g conditions were expected to influence Individual performance on the MPI but, with random s e l e c t i o n of subjects, i t was f e l t that t h i s would not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a l t e r group r e s u l t s . From the 280 children tested, 120 were c l a s s i f i e d under three factors: 1. Age At the time te s t i n g was done, (March to June, 1972) children i n the classes ranged i n age from a minimum of f i v e years and three months to six years and s i x months. 35 Two l e v e l s of age were designated; Al_ children, who were between f i v e years and three months and f i v e years ten months; A2 children who were f i v e years and eleven months and s i x years and six months at the time they were tested. 2. F i n a l Score on the MPI Data from a l l children scoring three or les s were deleted from this study as they were being used i n further experimental conditions i n the long term project. No c h i l d tested received a maximum scor of twelve. BJL included childr e n whose f i n a l score on the MPI was between four and seven. B2 included the children whose f i n a l score on the MPI was between eight and eleven. 3. Ethnic Culture This was composed of children from three ethnic groups. Cl being Chinese; C2 being I t a l i a n ; C3 being Canadian. Inclusion into the Canadian category was made on the basis of English being the sole language spoken by the c h i l d and no evidence of a strong c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n . Many of the teachers Indicated, either verbally or on the teacher's check l i s t , that English was not the predominant language i n many homes. However, a l l of the childre n tested demonstrated adequate comprehension of English In t h e i r a b i l i t y to perform the tasks i n t e s t i n g . L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y was found i n e l i c i t i n g responses from the children with the exception of "Words i n a Story". The story of "Goldilocks and the Three Bears" i s not one belong-ing to either the Chinese or I t a l i a n cultures. In cases where children said " they didn't know" or " they couldn't remember", e f f o r t s were made to engage them i n conversation about some facet of the i r l i f e which would give a verbal Re-production measure. Scoring f o r the MPI was done by the examiner at the time of testing f o r a l l but three of the subtests. The Draw-A-Person, Bender Visuo-Motor Gestalt Test and Print Your Name were scored by the project psychologist to ensure consistency. Experience i n scoring i s regarded as es s e n t i a l to achieve v a l i d scores on these t e s t . (See Appendix 1 for the basic inst r u c t i o n s , samples of the tests and scoring sheet f o r the MPI) A f t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by age, scoring l e v e l and ethnic group, data from seven subtests of the MPI were compiled for a l l of the children. Draw-A-Person, Bender Visuo-Motor Ges-t a l t Test, Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test, Categories, Words i n a Story, Horst Reversals Test and Gates Word Matching Subtests were used to construct p r o f i l e s of mental a b i l i t y f o r each ethnic group. Prior to analysis, some of the scores on subtests were reversed to make the mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s more meaningful. Data from these subtests were analyzed using a 2 x 2 x 3 f a c t o r i a l between groups design (Age (A) x Score (B) x Ethnic Group (E) ). Significance f o r the F test was set at the .01 l e v e l . A l l data were converted to expanded standard scores for presentation of the mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s . This was done by multiplying a l l standard measures by a constant f a c t o r of two. 37 Results The r e s u l t s of the 2 x 2 x 3 between group analyses of variance (6) are given separately f o r each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r . Age No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the two age groups i n any category. Scoring Level S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the two scoring l e v e l s f o r a l l categories. As was expected, children scoring higher on the MPI also scored higher on the MAP. Intelligence P = 19.93; df = 1, 108; p <.01 Spat i a l Concept. F = 15.98; df = 1, 108; p <.01 Abstract Reasoning F = 92.88; df - It 108. p <.001 Verbal Comprehension F = 17.16; df = 1, 108; p <.01 Generic F = 21.22; df = 1, 108; p <.01 Verbal Production F = 13.52; df = 1, 108; p <.01 Ethnic Group Differences between ethnic groups are presen-ted by categories. Intelligence Table 11 ( p. 39) presents the range, c e l l means and F values based on the raw scores obtained f o r each c h i l d on the Draw-A- Person. S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between Chinese and Canadian-Italian children. Chinese childr e n scored at a higher l e v e l than either Canadian or I t a l i a n children who did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each other. (F = 11.51; df = 2, 108; p C.01) Spatial Conceptualization Table 111 presents the range,©cell means and F values based on the raw scores obtained 38 f o r each c h i l d on the Bender Visuo-Motor Gestalt Test (p. 40). Chinese children scored higher than eith e r Canadian or I t a l i a n children who did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each other. (P = 5 . 0 3 ; df = 2, 108; p<.01) Abstract Reasoning Table IV (p. 41) presents the range, c e l l means and P values based on the raw scores f o r each c h i l d on the Horst Reversals and the Gates Word Matching Tests. Chinese childre n performed at a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l than eith e r Canadian or I t a l i a n children who did not d i f f e r from each other. (F = 22.87; df = 2, 108; p<.01) Chinese children i n both age groups scored at a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l than a l l other children (F = 7.28; df = 2, 108; p<.01). A l l Chinese children and Canadian and I t a l i a n children scoring above 7 on the MPI performed better than Canadian and I t a l i a n children scoring below 8 (F = 12.41; df = 2, 108; p<.01). Verbal Comprehension Table V (p. 42) presents the range, c e l l means and F values based on the raw score f o r each c h i l d on the Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between any ethnic group i n verbal comprehension (F = 2 . 3 2 ; df = 2, 108; p ^ .05). Generic Table VI (p. 43) presents the range, c e l l means and F values based on the raw score f o r each c h i l d on the category subtest. Chinese children performed at a lower l e v e l than Canadian or I t a l i a n children who did not d i f f e r from each other. (F = 9.35; df = 2, 108; p<.01) Verbal Production Table VI1 (p. 44) presents the range, c e l l means and F value based on the raw score f o r each c h i l d on the Words i n a Story subtest. Canadian childre n performed 39 TABLE 11 Intelligence Quotient Range. F Table & C e l l Means Range: E l 75 - 136 E2 70 - 118 E3 71 ~ 119 F Table: Source ss df ms F P A 3 2 0 . 1 3 1 3 2 0 . 1 3 2 . 6 ns B 2448 .03 1 2448 .03 1 9 . 9 3 <.01 E 2 8 2 7 . 5 2 2 1 4 1 3 . 7 6 11 .51 < .01 AxB 8 3 - 3 3 1 8 3 . 3 3 . 6 7 ns AxE 8 2 . 7 2 2 41 . 3 6 . 3 4 ns BxE 244.82 2 122.41 . 9 2 ns AxBxE 2 0 7 . 2 2 2 103.61 .84 ns Error 1 3 2 6 4 . 2 0 108 1 2 2 . 8 2 C e l l Means: Al 9 5 . 3 2 A1B1 91 .63 A1B1E1 93.80 A2 92 .05 A1B2 8 6 . 7 0 A1B1E2 91.00 A2B1 99.00 A1B1E3 90.10 Bl 89.17 A2B2 97.40 A1B2E1 108 .90 B2 98.20 A1B2E2 94.10 A1E1 101 .35 A1B2E3 94.00 E l 100 .53 A1E2 92 .55 A2B1E1 94.20 E2 8 9 . 7 8 A1E3 92 .05 A2B1E2 81 .90 E3 90 .75 A2E1 99.70 A2B1E3 84.00 A2E2 87.OO A2B2E1 105.20 A2E3 8 9 . 4 5 A2B2E2 A2B2E3 92.10 94.90 B-1E1 94.00 B1E2 8 6 . 4 5 B1E3 87 .05 B2E1 1 0 7 . 0 5 B2E2 93.10 B2E3 9 4 . 4 5 40 TABLE 111 Spat i a l Conceptualization Range. F Table & C e l l Means Range; E l 2 - 8 E2 0 - 8 E3 2 - 7 F Tablef Source ss df ms F P A 2.13 1 2 . 1 3 ,94 ns B 3 6 . 3 0 1 36 .30 15.98 <.01 E 22.87 2 11.43 5.'P3 <.01 AxB .33 1 .33 .014 ns AxE 3 .27 2 1 . 6 3 .72 ns BxE 1.40 2 .70 .31 ns AxBxE 1.27 2 . 6 3 .28 ns Error 245.40 1 4 108 2 . 2 7 C e l l Means: Al 4 . 7 A1B1 4 . 13 A1B1E1 4 . 3 0 A2 4 . 9 7 A1B2 5.27 A1B1E2 3 . 9 0 Bl 4.28 A2B1 4 . 4 3 A1B1E3 4.20 A2B2 5 . 5 0 A1B2E1 5 . 9 0 B2 5 . 3 8 A1B2E2 4 . 9 0 E l 5 . 4 5 A1E1 5.10 A1B2E3 5.00 A1E2 4.40 A2B1E1 5 . 3 0 E2 4 . 5 0 A1E3 4.60 A2B1E2 3 . 9 0 E3 4 . 5 5 A2E1 5.80 A2B1E3 4.10 A2E2 4.60 A2B2E1 6 . 3 0 A 2 E 3 4 . 9 5 A2B2E2 A2B2E3 5 . 3 0 4 . 9 0 B1E1 4.80 B1E2 3 . 9 0 B1E3 4 . 1 5 B2E1 6.10 B2E2 5.10 B2E3 ^ . ° 5 41 TABLE IV Abstract Reasoning Range. F Table & C e l l Means Range: E l 13 - 21 E 2 4 - 2 0 E3 0 - 2 1 F Table: Source ss df ms F P A 3 5 . 2 1 1 3 5 . 2 1 3 . 2 2 ns B 1 0 1 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 1 . 5 0 9 2 . 8 8 <.001 E 499 . 8 2 2 249 .91 2 2 . 8 7 <.001 AxB 49.41 1 49.41 4 . 5 2 <.05 AxE 1 5 9 . 1 2 2 7 9 . 5 6 7^27 <.01 BxE 2 7 1 . 2 2 2 1 3 5 . 6 1 12.41 <.01 AxBxE 1 0 3 . 5 2 2 5 1 . 7 6 4 . 7 4 <.05 Error 1180.30 108 10 . 9 3 C e l l Means; A l 14 .02 A1B1 1 0 . 4 7 A2 1 5 . 1 0 A1B2 1 7 . 5 7 A2B1 1 2 . 8 3 Bl 1 1 . 6 5 A2B2 1 7 . 3 7 B2 1 7 . 4 7 A1E1 1 7 . 1 5 E l 17.40 A1E2 13.40 E2 1 2 . 7 0 A1E3 1 1 . 5 0 E3 1 3 . 5 8 A2E1 1 7 . 6 5 A2E2 1 2 . 0 A2E3 1 5 . 6 5 B1E1 1 6 . 6 0 B1E2 8 . 5 0 B1E3 9 . 8 5 B2E1 18 .20 B2E3 1 6 . 9 0 B2E3 1 7 . 3 0 A1B1E1 1 5 . 7 0 A1B1E2 9 . 7 0 A1B1E3 6 . 0 0 A1B2E1 18 .60 A1B2E2 17 . 1 0 A1B2E3 17 . 0 0 A2B1E1 17 .50 A2B1E2 7 . 3 0 A 2 B 1 E 3 1 3 . 7 0 A2B2E1 17.80 A2B2E2 16 .70 A2B2E3 17 .60 42 TABLE V Verbal Comprehension Range, F Table & C e l l Means Range: E l 0 - 14 E2 0 - 15 E 3 0 - 15 F Table: Source ss df ms F P A 6.53 1 6.53 .55 ns B 202.80 1 §202180 17.17 <.01 E 55.02 2 27.51 2.33 ns AxB 4.03 1 4.03 .34 ns AxE 25.02 2 12.51 1.06 ns BxE 2.15 2 1.08 .09 ns AxBxE 27.62 2 13-81 1.17 ns Error 1276.00 108 11.82 C e l l Means: A l 9.82 A1B1 8.70 A1B1E1 7.20 A2 9-35 A1B2 10.93 A1B1E2 9.80 A2B1 7.87 A1B1E3 9.10 Bl 8.28 A2B1 10.83 A1B2E1 9.40 B2 10.89 A1B2E2 11.20 8.68 A1E1 8.30 A1B2E3 12.20 E l A1E2 10.50 A2B1E1 7.60 E2 9.78 A1E3 10.65 A2B1E2 6.80 E3 10.30 A2E1 9.05 A2B1E3 9.20 A2E2 9.05 A2B2E1 10.50 A2E3 9.95 A2B2E2 A2B2E3 11.30 10.70 B1E1 7.40 B1E2 8.30 B1E3 9.15 B2E1 9.95 B2E2 11.25 B2E3 11.45 4 3 TABLE VI Generic Range. F Table & C e l l Means Range: El 0 - 3 E2 0 - 3 E3 0 - 3 F Table: Source ss df ms F P A .75 1 .75 .11 ns B 14.01 1 14.01 21.22 <.'01 E 12.35 2 6.18 9.35 <.01 AxB 1.41 1 1.41 2 . 1 3 ns AxE 3-35 2 1.68 2.53 ns BxE . 1 1 7 2 • 58 .08 ns AxBxE 1 . 51 2 .75 1 . 1 5 ns Error 71 . 30 108 .66 C e l l Means; Al 2.40 A1B1 2.17 A1B1E1 1.80 A2 2 . 3 5 A1B2 2 . 6 3 A1B1E2 2.00 A2B1 1.90 A1B1E3 2.70 Bl 2 . 0 3 A2B2 2.80 A1B2E1 2.20 B2 2.72 A1B2E2 2 . 7 0 • A1E1 2.00 A1B2E3 3.00 E l 1 . 9 3 A1E2 2 . 3 5 A2B1E1 1.30 E2 2 . 5 5 A1E3 2 . 8 5 A2B1E2 2 . 5 0 E3 2 . 6 5 A2E1 1 . 8 5 A2B1E3 1.90 A2E2 2 . 7 5 A2B2E1 2.40 A 2 E 3 2 . 4 5 A2B2E2 A2B2E3 3.00 $.00 B l E l 1 . 5 5 B1E2 2 . 2 5 B1E3 2 . 3 0 B2E1 2 . 3 0 B2E2 2 . 8 5 B2E3 3.00 44 TABLE VI1 Verbal Production Range. F Table & C e l l Means .Ranare: E l 0 - 380 E2 0 - 520 E3 0 - 450 F Table: Source ss df ms F P A .83 1 .83 .006 ns B 1992.68 1 1992.68 13.52 <.01 E 2926.8g 2 1463.41 9.93 <.01 AxB 381.63 1 381.63 2.59 ns AxE 124.62 2 62.31 .42 ns BxE 388.05 2 194.03 1.32 ns AxBxE 36.17 2 18.03 .12 ns Error 15918^80 108 147.40 C e l l Means: 12.01 A1B1 9.72 A1B1E1 6.70 A2 12.18 A1B2 14.30 A1B1E2 7.75 A2B1 6.31 A1B1E3 14.70 Bl ^8.01 A2B2 18.03 A1B2E1 7.20 B2 16.17 A1B2E2 15.95 5.65 A1E1 6.95 A1B2E3 19.75 E l A1E2 11.85 A2B1E1 1.50 E2 12.98 A1E3 17.23 A2B1E2 7.00 E3 17.65 A2E1 4.35 A2B1E3 10.45 A2E2 14.10 A2B2E1 7.20 A2E3 18.08 A2B2E2 A2B2E3 21.20 25.70 B1E1 4.10 B1E2 7-38 B1E3 12.58 B2E1 7.20 B2E2 18.58 B2E3 22.73 45 better than the I t a l i a n children who performed better than the Chinese childr e n (F = 9 . 9 3 ; df = 2, 108; p <.01). A l l appropriate group means were converted to standard scores f o r presentation of the mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s . Figure 2 represents the MAPS fo r the three ethnic groups of Chinese, I t a l i a n and Canadian Children. Figure 2. represents the MAPS fo r both l e v e l s of score obtained by the Chinese ch i l d r e n . Figure 4 represents the MAPS fo r both l e v e l s of score obtained by the I t a l i a n children. Figure j> represents the MAPS f o r both l e v e l s of score obtained by the Canadian children. Figure 6 represents the MAPS fo r a l l children, irrespec-tive of ethnic group, c l a s s i f i e d into age l e v e l s . Discussion Analyses of the data confirmed the following major hypotheses: 1. D i f f e r i n g mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s were present bet-ween Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n children. The MAP repre-senting the Chinese group d i f f e r e d greatly from that shown by the Canadian and I t a l i a n groups. The MAPS of the l a t t e r two were e s s e n t i a l l y the same (See Pig. 2, p. 47). 2. Children scoring higher on the o v e r a l l MPI had pro-f i l e s which were consistently higher than those f o r children scoring at the lower l e v e l . However, the two MAPS for each ethnic group matched each other, i n d i c a t i n g that lower over-a l l performance did not produce a l e v e l l i n g e f f e c t on the p r o f i l e s (See Pig. 3, p. 48; F i g . 4, p. 49; F i g . 5. p. 50). 3. Age was not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r In measuring d i f -ferences between the groups of children i n any category of the MPI (See F i g . 6, p. 51). Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s As can be seen, there were very d i s t i n c t i v e differences between the Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n groups of children as represented on the MAP. The Chinese c h i l d r e n s 1 p r o f i l e diverges markedly from the other two who were cl o s e l y matched and i n some cases overlapped each other. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the Canadian and I t a l i a n groups with the exception of the word production category. This was expected as the story required f o r the test was more common to the native speaker of English. Most of the I t a l i a n children were w i l l i n g to partic i p a t e i n some form of 49 tH - th- i i 1 M : M M M M i M i ]^5i ^  i/l ET1 1 M 1 ' i i "fa!-* 3 - r t ! —f—?—;— 1 — I 1 ! ' | i i i l l ! t i l l i M i l i • 1 — 1 r * - ' i ; i —T — i i — — i — r i ~ T i , ; i ; i j M M M M j I ! t i l l ' ' f ! ! 1 1 1 t - < i i i i- • • • i ) i i •• T i ' i 1 n " i i i i i i l l — I — — | — T T ! i ~7 T " 1 i ! i [ 1 i M i i M M 1 ! • ! 1 1 ! 1 ! 1 • I _ | _ - - \ • j --r-l T t l | "I 1 J - T - T T ! - h r" - 1 — i - * — I I T ~ i — M M — i 1—II — n — i i i i — M — i i 1 1 I - J — 1 T" M l ' i | | n — — h nrTrtT r • n -_l 1 , ' i —r- * I i- ; - ! ! • ' i n M M - -T t T | ! I | i i 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i I i ' ! i ! T*~6 1 " ! ~~1 "P - 1 " — f — j r-1 M- 1 | •—\—*—\—pi t - f - — i — r - — — — j 1 1 1 i ~ f M+ 1 1 i I I i T ~ M ~ P H—r i r ± 1" ! I l l —*— — 1 — r ~ i / r - i "V' I I 1 I. . ..; 1 1 I T t | | ' ! i i -T—T- • 1+0 1 1 ' I ! — p - T - i H — — r i t — i—r— ' 1 1 i 1 |—i 1 • 1 M M M 1 M — I i 1 1 -rj < : I ! i ! | | j | i i I I I M l " i | i "1 i t 1 i i i i ; 4-H-H " p r i — I , j M 1  i i - f r f ' 1 j i -H— L -M -TC3) T T O - — f - r — ^ r ^ ^ M — T - r - — U j — T T T i M i i i ; T . N - f t i + T T T —*- - ^  ' r/- I I I ! I i i i M M — i — ! — } — i — I V / I I I I j J _ 4—j (yrx M - M | j _ _ u _ 4 - • - / -r±MTt • ( I | ! i ! i ; : i ! 1 1 M 1 - ^ - r - r 1 - - ! ' - M D - 4T-H--H n ^ V i ^ T ^ Y ^ 4 1 I ! 1 i I M I i i i f i l l M M I i 1 1 ! I T T • ( T 7 N , n M / %l 1 / 1 i I I I I 1 1 M 1 1 i i i i i M M i i : ! i H M - M J M M 1 \ T—•* 1 1 1 1 1 / lx 1 i 4 I T 1 rv - i i 1 i / y M / — rrUjr -t-—vj—i——i 1 H - M — i — • r r X j / — I I I I — i i : ! 1 i i | M i l M i i M ' . i M M M I _ _ L ^ . . L _ 4 J n _ , _|_ / i _ i ; J V M M I i i I l l i 1 1 1 M ! ' i < M M 1 i 1 T I + T + T ^ T T - T r H e b ' ^ ' / i 1 i H H - T T I r r r ^ i i ICJJ j_! i i i D / T / I I i I • i l I I ' I 1 1 i ! 1 M ! I I I ! M i l I i i i M l i M' M ;, MM - i . , ! . ! - - ^ v _ A M M i i / M 1 i i ! ! 1 M 1 | [Sfr-f: , - r - r —— i / i 1 1 1 1 H ! 1 1 i 1 i T T T T 1 ! I I I I 1 M M j M M • M i i 1 I 1 j | i M • 1 i 1 . < I I I l l i i I I 1 ** 1 i 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 II 1 i l 1 • .1 ! II 1 I — —T~- rrr TS: 1 "' ' T1' ' i' 1 M i M l i l l ' i i i I ! i I ! I . i i i ., |-r-r M M 1 ' ' i i I t1 1 i i i i i II i I ' I I i i i ' t i i i 1 i tK- 1 ' 1*7 1 i i 1 1 I M i l i 1 1 1 1 ! i I 1 1 f - t — ; 1 r - r A ; i—1 r T - •*• p i ••: 1 ! I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 ! 1 1 ' I M i M M I I I 1 ' ' : M l M M 1 1 1 f • / I I I 1 : 1 t i l l I I I I I 1 vVT IT 1 • 1 i H i M l : M M | I O —* —*— - 1~ \J • i—M i !"T" I I ' ; i ; : i i | h - , r I I I ' ' 1 I I M i i r s i j M M . ; , , ' i : \ I ' I I I 1 I I ' 1 : I I 1 • 1 I i 1 1 I J \ i 1 M ! 1 i 1 M M III 1 : M i / - i 1 •••-••( • / T ) •• | | j | i | | j ] ; . i ! I I I ! / • ; ': 1 'NO i ! i T i r s^/ v • ' M — i — ' — i — i — ilLT i r X M M 1 ' i i ' M M i i i ! | / Mi i i H i i n i i i ! : i I 1 i t ! yf M M l i i M l ! M 1 1 11 .! i 1 1 1 I I I I i < 1 I 1 I i 1 i l 1 v 1 ! U l i i | M ! j i i M M M M . / i 1 1 1 1 ; 1 M M — 1 — | — 1 — I -' _ . Q 4 ^ 0 - H + , r - 4 — h • i 1 i l l i i 1 \W--TT-• ^ C : — r * ; 1 i i —r—— — ' — i i i i — i / : • - - i — i i l l ! I : ' : | 1 i KJ 1 1 I I l i ' i i / <T 1 M : ! , _ . _ ! ! ! I M i / ! ! I i ' ! i M M J—r—' I 1 1 1 ' \ 1 1 I I / I ' 1 ! I T I M ; i i LD I i \ i ' i M j / i n 1—1—l H - > v ^ i / 1 1 1 1 \ . — 1 r- i 1 i 1 ; / M i '—r— - - - i j i i i ' • ] 1 ' I ' • M i r i i i / - '1 t i V 1 ' . / • ' 1 I ' — t ) V i i i -  \ j  II M / M . i | . j — 1 | ' 1—r-i - — s — i -1 • • i , i i ' i . \ > 1 i I l i t i k l * \ < \f \ i l i i J><£ M i l M M I \ ! 1 ! I l / ! I I i i i 1 M M M I • | ; i 1 ; ; ] , ' 1 ; ' 1 ,1 . ! 1 1 r— 1 ' 1 1 I ^' I I ! if 1 ' 1 1 U i i"' iK M i l ' ! i \ 1 1 i / 1 M M M j I 1 i 1 1 1 I I I .V i 1 1/ i 1 i 1 1 1 1 T - T T ~T~ ; | M ' i 1 I M ' i ' ' i i v_ / i i 1 I i i i \ i i y i I , ! i i i 1 n | | l 1 l \ i !yf M j ; | i | i j T ! 1 1 M l i I I I I M 1 i ! i 1 1 i : i i i 1 ' i t i \ / 1 i : 1 i 1 ' t i 1 A i i 1 i i I s 1 \ / i i ! l ; i i ' -JW I I 1 ! i l l ' ! t ! 1 * A ' 1 ! " i l l * " 1 i I I . i 1 1 | ! • ! i 1 i I 1 1 ! i • I i • ' i I 1 I 1 f^k l l i ! 1 1 - i 1 1 1 ' ' 1 1 i I •! i U i i | i ! i i i ; : , i ; * ' i j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J ' 1 ' .A 1 1 ' -n—i^  M M I ; | i | : i i i : M l £ E T : V . . C 1 i | 1 i 1 | T t V . M i l P 1 ' 1 i M l ' 1 ! i l l .1 . I j i M 1 1 1 j .! I | : i -. . i 1 * i j j i i i j i i — r r h — h r r ! — r r n — r / r ^ A ^ - t T ^ / ^ i ^ ~ r i M MnTrfr-.-tT*! i i i i i i • i " T " j , ! , ' • ' ' M i l M l ! i i 1 1 i Ri A - M ? i M M M M M M 1 1 ' | H \~ i 1 : f\] I I 1 1 / i | ' | 1 1 i I 1 ' 1 1 ' i ' i 1 1 I i 1 i 1 1 ' M l i M M ! ! i i i M i l 1 i | 1 i 1 i I i i ' i i 1 J. /i r i i / i i | i i i i 1 I 'i I M ' j i 1 ' i 1 ; M M M M ' | 1 i 1 p ' i i ! 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i I ; i i i i i i . ' 1 i i i i ' i ; . ' M i i i | | 1 ! M M l , , l : i i i ! i i i L I . H M l l i i . i I -—1—h- • ~— + • ' i i - i i i 1 i l i l . 1 i ' | | ! M ! —| j 1—i—|—i— I 1 ! \~ 1 1 i i i , i I I i 1 i ; 1 1 I ' I 1 i M ' i " ' i i ; 1 i 1 i I 1 1 ! I : i I i 1 | 1 1 l i l l l i 111 • M l i i 1 S i M '! M 1 M M I 1 M l T l - r r ! i i i • T T T 1 i ! 1 ' ' — , — -i4-M I 1 I M , i T | M i l -- —t—1—1— 4 T 1 1 - 4 r 4 - r - • pr • ' 4 - I M M M ! ! M ' ' " i • i 1 i M M M ; '. — i — T — '—i — — i r — m H 1 1 A-KVA -/FN-! 1 r r T-A --4 AT -"F7-r4—I -Hz • H - 4 - H - - - ~ i - 4 ^ 4 / , )—ri— & - £ 0? — — [Ji 'A dt ! • I . t — . — j . j — i — , — j 1 I j ; | ; | ; ,_j _ ! • t • i — 4 H i ! ! 1 h & i m ^ = m m M • ' | i j—r-<— i ! i ! i — M M 1 ! i i M i i 4- - h r i i 1 — — P _ i '—r i -p M M i M i , r i i i !.. i 1 ! ' T 11 i —j -. i i . . p. "i  i i 1 — M -— r i i 1 I I I ! I i i i ' 1 .-— M 4 - t ~ U - p — 11 i r i i i ! — 1 I i 1 1 ! 1 i i i i ! - p -i 1 i -t- i ; 1 i i 1 1 "I —M~/-» 1 j i i i T -[ r~ M I M_l _ j | I i 1 i i i 1 p - r r ••i r i i i [ 1 - n - i l 1 ! i 1 ! i T i " 'T 44 1—r— | - j -i -|— ~ r - ] 1 i i l i i 1 -4- i —|— 1 I i ! T i I ! i - j — 1 i i 1 • 1 —|— i j i i -! - i — i ! i i 4r i i i ' r 1 4 r 4 -I ; i i i 1 1 ft 1 i i I i 1 1 —ri~~ i i i • i 1 ! 1 i 1 1 | - 4 i i i i 11 11 / i l i i 1 I 1 -r-i 4Pr i ! t -7-p i 4 H 1 —1— | _M I 1 ! Co - t - n ~ r i i I I M i i 1 | i i i i : =!# i i 1 1 I i 1 / 4- 1 1 1-T - r i - -4— M i ! 1 1 : i 1 1 1 ::: • ~t t i . i i i 'X. i i i , I / I I ! 1 I 1 1 I i -j— i : I M i l M l | ! | | | . _4_. 1 / N . 1 .44/ —• r 1 1 i 1 i i i M i l i —j—r -h 'A-r — M -A 1 1 | i ! i r i 1 1 - r M M ! r i j 1 i 1 i — -• -•• i -444-—i—i—i—f— i i ! 1 i —r - * i i i : > t 1 1 1"! 1--1 i 1 | 1 i ! 1 11 i i i i 1 i i I 1 1 ! 1 | 44- i i M M i M ! i 1 ! [ ; ' ! ' i i . 1 1 ' i 4 " T 1 : i i 1 ^ 4 K -I ! ! —r ; i j i rt4 i i • 4 - + - I i i j 4M4- \ \ s i 1 i i 1 1 ! | - 4 < -H4- -4—1-4- 1 44- -j—p M-4-— T - . i i • : i 1 — r i -44-u. ._ 1 i 1 ! V '\ \ 1 ! —I—| -t-1 I 1 —j—M ! , 4 4 t i _ j — -1 r + T T -i—• 1 ! i i i—TT - - T T + + -— M M J . —r i \ ~~T\ 1 1 ! 1 M M ! M M ' •;••} •• 1 T T T 1 i • /i i ! ! 1 — H ~ 44 i 1 1 ! 1 1 1 i • | i -M_44 M M ! ' i ! 4 , i / 1 ! 1—j 1 ! I • i i i i i : i 1 —' — i — 1 — \ — i | M ! 1 1 i ; i i ! i m 4-i i ! i i i : i i ! 1 j i i "' —I"1—r—r~ 1 ! / V ! ' \ 4 1 j  i i i i L4Xr: ! 4 j i ! 1 i '• • ' 1 1 i : i n i 1 i 1 1 ! i i i ! i "T"hr~ : ' 1 ! / A i 1 ! i S 1 f i i i — i — j — i i M M —i—i—I—M i M i i~r " " I T 4 T * 1 l 4 i | T " ! M ! M M , i 1 4 M-T-M-J | M i l • 1 i - < r 1 i r r 1 ,• r r : i j i 4-U -44--Y4 ! 1 i / 44-i i 1 i j i 1 • 1 i i | j I M M M M - i ;• i i M i l 1 1 — $ —i—r i -—i—p i ! i ! — H — i—i— ! 1 1 I T - " | i i ' ! '• i ' i i— ! |— 1 - - ) - - T - ', | i i 4 r > ! I ! ! i : i I j 1 I | \ i . . I I ! M M M i l — j — f inni 1 1 i i i i i ; ! 1 i 1 i r \ i i 1 I 1 1 " ' ! i • M M A-5 • l i 1 ! J : 1—r j i M i ! : l 1 ! 1 1- ~ T " f •; i ; I M M I 1 i i — L i 1 — •trtt - j - j - p - " - r — I M 1 i ~>—|—P , ! 1 1 : ! r " i ! I 1 i 1 — I — i — r ! • : ! M M i_ — - j - j - j - r i - j — i — j - i i ! ! i ! 1 1 | " i ~ i 1 l i i i i i 7 " 1 1 I 1 1 1 i ! 1 i | 1 ! 1 , . : i. l i i i 1 i 1 1 ! ' 1 • ! i 4r4 1 ^ ! 1 i i ! i ! 1 M M • i i i — ! 1 r~r i i I 4 n "* f — r M Q ~'ri-1 1 ! 4/T 1- L 1 l i t / • M _ i 1— - 1 rW- -H / 1 1 o . 0: 1 f ! - 4 T-4 / 3 _ M _ : i ! — i j L - - ) -— r \ _ — i — < i 1 1 ] r 44 i—r~ ;~ ~ / i V 7 " " V T T T i -TT41- "! 1 ! ; M ' 1 1 — , — j — • I 1 | J T | 1 ( r r b OR. 1 1 ' i l l M i l ! 1 | j ! — ^ _.!_ 1 1 1 i 1 i t - -7 - r i f T .• i j i p - 1 - H T - i • j j M M • 1 I i I r44-- ' I ' M 1 M 1 i : ! 1 .j M i l 1 i J . 73 1 t .... | i i i M . | t i M — i — i — i — j — I 1 ! J""" I ! M M • I M i j j i • - - t t i i TT+-i — p i --L-M— l : i 1 ! 1 ! i j U 4 - U -4 - H 4 - M M M M i ' • ; ! i I i i ; - 4 - f - r i ! i I 1 i ! /, — i — -4444 •i ;M i - | ' I • 11 i i i 1 i i i I i i "M 1 1 M M M M , i 1 i 1 + 4 i i 11 • ' i i i i - r | — r f i ; ! I ——\-4 4 . - j. i i 1 i i i —i <~ 'i ! M i l i l l ! - j ' " ; • j i 1" : l M i l l i — I — ' — ; — J — • i i i M M | • 1 !— i M i i l 1 ' M M « • i • 444 i 1 ! ! 1 1 i ! ! - r t - r t i 1 j i 4 - L M M 1 < : i ; i i | I ' l l I I I ! M M I i < ; : : 52 verbal i n t e r a c t i o n with the examiner while the Chinese c h i l -dren on the whole, were very r e t i c e n t about doing so. Six I t a l i a n and twelve Chinese children gave a response of less than ten words. Equivalent patterns of responding i n both the use of the generic (symbolic word representation) and i n word production were expected and found i n a l l three groups of children. In both categories, scoring was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r native speakers of English and lower f o r the Chinese children. The low performance of the Chinese children confirmed the e a r l i e r results obtained by Stodolsky and Lesser (1967) with members of this ethnic group. In comparison with Negro children from the same SES l e v e l , they evidenced a s i g n i f i -cantly lower performance. Both of these studies showed findings contrary to those i n the American national survey on equality of educational opportunities by Coleman (1966) (Stodolsky et a l , I 9 6 7 ) . Chinese children i n thi s study were reported to have performed at the national l e v e l on grade one verbal tasks. Possible differences may be accounted f o r i n that both the current and Stodolsky study were condua-ted using children with known c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n s which may not have been the case with the national survey. The Chinese and I t a l i a n children were regarded as having s u f f i c i e n t English p r i o r to the testing to be designated as b i l i n g u a l . In making this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , data from a l l children, including those who had been c l a s s i f i e d as language r e j e c t from the kindergarten study, were included. In the l a r -ger study, several children were designated as being language 53 re j e c t i n that i t was f e l t that t h e i r English was not suf-f i c i e n t l y adequate to prevent contamination of the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s . The acceptance of these children was conformed f o r the current study as no s i g n i f i c a n t differences appeared bet-ween ethnic groups on the verbal comprehension measure. Children from a l l three groups were able to d i s t i n g u i s h the d i s t i n c t i v e features between d i s s i m i l a r word pairs on the auditory discrimination task. I t was also noted that no c h i l d showed evidence of incomprehension of any of the tasks despite the fac t that many of the tests required quite exten-sive and detailed explanation. In the remaining three categories of IQ, Sp a t i a l Concep-t u a l i z a t i o n and Abstract Reasoning, the Chinese children per-formed at a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l than the other two groups of children. As shown i n Tables 11^  through V l l , the range of scores f o r each ethnic group consistently overlapped within each category. This appears to indicate that each ethnic group has the genotype potential to express i t s e l f equally with other groups as measured by the Individual scores obtained on a l l of the tes t s . Contact was made with Chinese, I t a l i a n and Canadian families l i v i n g i n the same socio-economic area as the c h i l -dren tested. No parent connected with the study on minimal cerebral dysfunction was contacted as i t was f e l t that t h i s would be an intrusion on the v a l i d a t i o n study. Judging from answers given by the thi r t e e n families v i s i t e d (three Chinese; f i v e I t a l i a n ; and f i v e Canadian) strong evidence of differences i n the environment seemed to exis t between the Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n cultures. Conclusions 5* drawn from the information obtained were derived p a r t i a l l y from d i r e c t questioning and p a r t i a l l y from observation. A l l v i s i t s (one to three hours) were la t e i n the afternoon or early i n the evening so that i t was possible f o r both the parents and the childre n to be present. A l l Chinese parents p a r t i c i -pated but three Canadian and one I t a l i a n father were not pre-sent. As the experimenter was personally known to a l l of the people questioned, no d i f f i c u l t y was found i n asking very d i r e c t questions about the childrens 1 a c t i v i t i e s or parental expectations of them at a l a t e r date. The behaviour of the children during the v i s i t was observed with Chinese children seldom responding unless d i r e c t l y asked a question. The structure of the home environment and the parental expectations of the children d i f f e r e d greatly between the Chinese and Canadian - I t a l i a n groups. Indications were that Canadian - I t a l i a n children came from homes which were over-crowded with high l e v e l s of undifferentiated noise. Their l i v e s were poorly regulated as f a r as sleeping hours and meals were concerned with many childre n getting to school l a t e and wandering the streets f o r hours a f t e r the schools closed. Many of the fathers were seasonally employed and therefore, subject to long periods of unemployment and/or welfare. Immediate expectations of c h i l d behaviour were inconsistent, with wide fluctuations between attention and disregard. Both the parents and the.children were overtly very f r i e n d l y and easy to converse with but demonstrated very v o l a t i l e and ex-pressive emotional ranges. Long term expectations concerning schooling and eventual careers f o r the children might be re-garded as quite low. The Canadian - I t a l i a n parents i n this economic group on the whole, regarded advanced education as 55 unnecessary, and expected t h e i r children to become employed as soon as i t was l e g a l l y possuble. The boys, on leaving school, tended to gravitate to the u n s k i l l e d end of the labour force or into s k i l l e d work of a seasonal nature. The g i r l s , a f t e r completion of school, work f o r a while as clerks or shop assistants but i t was anticipated that they would marry at an early age and l i t t l e was expected of them i n an academic or professional sense. Children coming from the Chinese group appeared to develop under very d i f f e r e n t circumstances. While many of the homes were crowded, silence was stressed both i n the physical surroundings (no TV's or radios l e f t unattesa&ed) and verbally from the children. Their l i v e s tended to be well regulated with parental expectations of the childr e n being c l e a r l y defined and consistently reinforced. The parents and children were more reserved and restrained than those i n the Canadian - I t a l i a n group. The family unit was very co-hesive with few fathers being unemployed or on welfare. In many cases, small businesses were owned and managed by the family and a l l members participated i n t h e i r functioning. I f both parents worked, the children were not l e f t to t h e i r own resources; grandparents or other r e l a t i v e s were at home to supervise before and a f t e r school a c t i v i t i e s . Many of the children attended two schools; the regular elementary school and a Chinese school. Here, a f t e r public school hoursm they were taught to read and write i n t h e i r f i r s t language and learned the history and customs* of t h e i r c u l t u r a l group. Immediate expectations of the children were very consistent 5° w i t h i n the c u l t u r e , w i t h academic l e a r n i n g r e c e i v i n g a h i g h p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t a t home. T h i s continued i n t o p o s t -secondary s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n where c h i l d r e n o f both sexes were expected to continue i n t o u n i v e r s i t i e s and s k i l l e d t r a d e s and p r o f e s s i o n s . T h i s c u l t u r a l background appeared to develop the poten-t i a l mental a b i l i t i e s of the Chinese c h i l d r e n to a l e v e l which was h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e and was r e i n f o r c e d by the s o c i e t y i n which they l i v e d . C o nversely, the d i f f e r e n c e s emerging i n the Canadian - I t a l i a n group appeared to depress the p o t e n t i a l of the c h i l d r e n i n a way which would have a l o n g term d e t r i -mental e f f e c t on t h e i r o v e r a l l development. These d i f f e r e n c e s are v e r y e v i d e n t w i t h i n the f i r s t year o f s c h o o l and from the r e s u l t s of oth e r s t u d i e s , they can be expected to i n c r e a s e over time ( S t e i n , 1971; B a r t e l , 1970). Age No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appeared between the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of age group. T h i s was s u r p r i s i n g as many of the t e s t s b e i n g used were scored on s c a l e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the age of the c h i l d a t the time o f t e s t i n g (Wepman; Bender; DAP). I t c o u l d o n l y be assumed t h a t the c h i l d r e n t e s t e d had a l l reached approximately the same developmental stage and t h i s negated any main age e f f e c t . A b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g provided the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found i n the i n t e r -a c t i o n of age w i t h e t h n i c group. Chinese c h i l d r e n i n both age l e v e l s and both s c o r i n g l e v e l s responded a t a high e r l e v e l than any of the other c h i l d r e n (See Tab l e IV). As was mentioned e a r l i e r , the Chinese c h i l d r e n attended a second s c h o o l and they may have had g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the 57 reversal and whole word concept tasks due to positive trans-f e r to the tes t i n g s i t u a t i o n . As the MPI must be given on an in d i v i d u a l basis, the time required f o r tes t i n g becomes and important factor i n i t s use. I f thi s battery eventually becomes a part of the kindergarten programme, the knowledge that age, at t h i s stage i n development, was not a factor contributing to variance should be of considerable value. I t w i l l permit the tester, (quite probably the teacher) s u f f i c i e n t time over the year to examine a l l of the children without too much class disruption. Many children, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Canadian - I t a l i a n group, had poor attendance records and because of t h i s , ocassionally missed the evaluation programmes. Scoring The hypothesis that the MAP would hold for the d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups despite l e v e l of i n i t i a l score on the MPI, was confirmed. With the exception of the Abstract Reasoning category, the MAPS f o r Chinese, Canadian and I t a l i a n children remained the same f o r both l e v e l s of scoring (See Figures 3»4 & 5)• The performance of low scoring c h i l d r e n was not uniformly depressed but matched that of higher scoring children of the same ethnic groups at a lower l e v e l on the scale. I t appears that the a b i l i t y to reason ab s t r a c t l y was an a l l or none function. With the exception of both groups of Chinese children, who were well above the mean i n thi s category, low scoring children did not appear to have th i s a M l i t y while high scoring children d i d . D i f f e r e n t i a l Treatment Confirmation of d i f f e r e n t i a l treat-merit (Rist, 1970: Stein, 1971: Goodman, 1972),was found not only within classes but also between schools. The atmosphere prevalent i n each school was very noticeable, ranging from very r i g i d l y structured schools with few freedoms allowed, to the very open and f l e x i b l e ones. This was seen to a f f e c t not only the students but also the s t a f f , as i n the l a t t e r schools, there appeared to be l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of dysfunctional expectations by the teachers while i n the former, there was strong evidence of this expectation. A l l of the schools were located within a mile of each other and f i n a l analysis of the data did not include a factor related to the school attended by each c h i l d . Testing was done one school at a time and there was a d e f i n i t e depression i n the scores from two schools, involving six out of f i f t e e n classes, while one school of four classes contributed consistently high scores o v e r a l l . In one school, the examiner was introduced to a c h i l d i n front of the whole class to the e f f e c t that " t h i s was my l i t t l e angel". A second c h i l d In the same class ( a F l j i i a n with l i t t l e English) was l a b e l l e d , again i n front of the whole class as "stupid" and this was expanded to include his parents and s i b l i n g s i n other grades. Irrespective of his l e v e l of competence i n English, the rest of the class were very aware of what was being said. Punishment, i n the form of i s o l a t i o n i n the middle of the room and physical smacking of children, was noticed several times over a period of three weeks and usually involved the same three or four children. These early d i f f e r e n t i a l treatments are very l i k e l y to contribute adversely to the child's development i n school. I t was of inte r e s t to note that, with one exception, 59 the attitude prevalent i n the s t a f f room was that displayed throughout the school. The school which was regarded as being the poorest i n i t s r e l a t i o n s with the pupils also showed the highest incidence of vandalism with instances of f r e -quent broken window, d e l i b e r a t e l y blocked t o i l e t s and obsce-n i t i e s chalked on the sidewlks. Nature versus Nurture I t was not within the scope of t h i s study to specify causative factors producing d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s between ethnic groups. As Indicated, there were strong s i m i l a r i t i e s between the environments of I t a l i a n and Canadian children l i v i n g i n this socio-economic area of Vancouver, while there was s t r i k i n g d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between these two and the Chinese environment. Because of the struc-ture of the design, r a c i a l inheritance and ethnic influence were confounded with each other. While the Canadian children did not come from the same gene pool as the I t a l i a n , t h e i r p r o f i l e s were very s i m i l a r and common factors were estab-l i s h e d between the two environmental backgrounds. Genotype potential appeared to be s i m i l a r i n that roughly the same range of scores was demonstrated within each ethnic group on a l l measures. Further continuations of the argument as to whether genetic or nurturant factors contribute most to development should be regarded as unproductive exercises. A c h i l d ' s development consists of a series of changes which show not only d i r e c t i o n a l i t y but also must be accumulative and i r r e v e r s i b l e . As the c h i l d matures, the range of possible outcomes to genetic factors Increases, s e t t i n g up an increa-sin g l y long chain of possible outcomes. 60 " The d i e h o t o m i z a t i o n (of nature versus n u r t u r e ) helped i n i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n human develop-ment. I n the course of time, the i s s u e of whether h e r e d i t y or environment c o n t r i b u t e d more to human development was supplanted by t h a t of e s t i m a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e , which i n t u r n l e d to the i s s u e of i n t e r a c t i o n . " (Anandalaksmy & G r i n d e r , 1970, p. 118) Functions of g e n e t i c f a c t o r s evoke d i f f e r e n t i a l e n v i r o n -mental responses a c r o s s c u l t u r e s ( A n a s t a s i , 1958) and the r e s u l t a n t behaviours should be ex p l o r e d f o r the m u t u a l i t i e s of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n r a t h e r than t h e i r d i v e r s i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study have confirmed the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t mental a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s i n c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups. These d i f f e r e n c e s , measured i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , c o u l d be expected to continue to d i v e r g e as the e d u c a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n progresses u n l e s s remedial programmes can be i n s t i t u t e d to endeavour to provide a more equal o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l of the c h i l d r e n . While a homogenous product i s not d e s i r a b l e , a b a l a n c i n g o f each c h i l d ' s development might be a t t a i n e d i f the areas of d e f i c i e n c y were g i v e n more c o n s i d e r r a t i o n . I f t h i s can be done by expanding the s c h o o l programme to i n c l u d e f u n c t i o n a l use of s k i l l s i n which an e t h n i c group may not be f a m i l i a r , d y s f u n c t i o n a l or inadequate development may be co u n t e r a c t e d . 61 Bibliography ANANDALAKSHMY, S. and R.E.GRINDER, Conceptual Emphasis i n the History of Developmental Psychology: Evolution-ary Theory, Teleology and the Nature - Nurture Issue. Child Development, 41: 1 1 1 3 - 1 1 2 3 , 1970 ANASTASI, A., Heredity, Environment and The Question "How". Psychological Review, 65: 197 - 208, 1958 ANASTASI, A., Psychological Testing (Third Edition) The MacMillan Co. London, 1968 BARTEL, N.R., Locus of Control and Achievement i n Middle and Lower Class Children. Child Development. 42: 1099 - 1107, 1970 BENDER, L., E. LAWS0N and G. L0WREY, A V i s u a l Motor Gestalt test and Its C l i n i c a l Use. The American Ortho-paedic Association. Research Monograph # 3, 1938 BELL, L. I., Metropolitan Vancouver: An Overflew f o r Social  Planners. Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver Area 19&5 COLLARD, R. R., Exploratory and Play Behaviours of Infants Reared i n an I n s t i t u t i o n and Lower and Middle Class Homes. Child Development, 42: 1 0 0 3 - 1015, 1971 CROW, J.F., Genetic Theories and Influences: Comments on the Value of D i v e r s i t y . Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series # 2, I969 DENNIS, W. and P. NAJARIN, Infant Development Under Environ-mental Handicaps. Psychological Monographs 71s #7 1 9 5 7 ELKIND, D., Piagetian and Psychometric Concepts of Intelligence, Harvard Educational Review, Reprint Series # 2, I969 EAVES, L., D.C. KENDALL and J.U. CRICHTON, The Early Detec-t i o n of Minimal Cerebral Dysfunction. Journal of  Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s . Reprint, Oct. 1972 EAVES, L., D.C. KENDALL and J.U. CRICHTON, Progress Report on National Health Grant 609 - 7 - 3 5 5 . V a l i d a t i o n oT a Screening Test to Detect Minimal Cerebral Dysfunction (MCD) i n Kindergarten Study. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edmonton, January, 1973 FOWLER, W., Developmental Learning Approach.toInfant Care i n a Group Setting. M e r r i l l - Palmer Quarterly, 18: 145 - 175, 1972 62 GOLDEN, M. and B. BIRNS, Soc i a l Class and Cogntive Develop-ment i n Infancy. M e r r i l l - Palmer Quarterly, 14: 139 - 151 . 1968 GOODMAN, P., The Relation of Culture and Learning. The Canadian Psychologist. 1 3 : 293 - 3 0 4 , 1972 GRAY, S.W. and R.A.KLAUS, The Early Training Project: A Seventh Year Report. Child Development, 41: 909 • 924, 1970 de HIRSCH, K., J.J. JANSKY and W.S. IANGPORD, Predicting Reading Failu r e : A Preliminary Study of Reading, Writing and S p e l l i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s i n Preschool Children. Harper 8& Row New York, London , Evanston, I 9 6 6 HUNT, J. M'eV., Early Childhood Education and S o c i a l Class. The Canadian Psychologist. 13: 3 0 5 . - 3 2 8 , 1972 HUNT, J. McV., Has Compensatory Education Failed?. Has I t Been Attempted? Harvard Educational Review, Reprint Series #2, 278 - 3 0 0 , 1969 JENSEN, A.J., How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review, Reprint Series # 2 , 196*9 KARNES, M.B., J.A.TESKA, A.S. HOLPINS and E.D. BADGER, Educational Intervention at Home by Mothers of Disadvantaged Children. Child Development, 41: 925 - 935, 1970 MUSSEN, P. (ed.). Carmlohael 1s Manual of C h i l d Psychology (Vol. 1, Third E d i t i o n ! John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York,. London, Sydney, Toronto. 1 9 7 ° KESSEN.W., M.H. HAITH and P.H. SALAPATEK, Human Infancy: A Bibliography and Guide. 287 - 360 THOMPSON, W.H. and J.E.GRUSEC, Studies i n E a r l y Experience. 565 - 634 PIAGET, J. The Construction of Reality i n The C h i l d . Ballantine Books New York PIAGET, J. Judgement and Reasoning i n The C h i l d . L i t t l e f i e l d , Adams & Co. Totowa, New Jersey I 9 6 8 RIST, R.C, Student So c i a l Class and Teacher Expectations. Harvard Educational Review. 40: 411 - 4 5 1 , 1970 ROBINSON, H.B. and N. ROBINSON, Longitudinal Development of Very Young Children i n a Comprehensive Day Care Programme. Child Development, 42: 1673 - 1 6 8 3 , 1971 63 STEIN, A., Strategies For F a i l u r e . Harvard Educational  Review. 4 1 : 1141 - H 5 8 , 1971 STODOLSKY, S. and G. LESSER, Learning Patterns i n The Disad-vantaged. Harvard Educational Review, 3 7 : 5^6 -5 9 3 . 1967 STRAUSS, A. A. and L. LEHTINEN, Psyohopathology and Educa-t i o n of The Brain Injured C h i l d . Grune & Stratton New York, 19^7 WACHS, T.D., I.C. UZGIRIS and J. McV. HUNT, Cognitive Development i n Infants of D i f f e r e n t Age Levels From Di f f e r e n t Environmental Backgrounds:..An Explanatory Investigation. M e r r i l l - Palmer  Quarterly. 1 7 : 283 - 317 , 1971 64 Appendix 1, Instructions and Examples of Subtests Used to  Assess Mental A b i l i t y P r o f i l e s Basic instructions are standardized f o r the subtests. I f i t becomes apparent that a c h i l d does not f u l l y understand these i n s t r u c t i o n s , at the experimenter's d i s c r e t i o n , f u r -ther expansion and c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s allowed. 1. Draw-A-Person The c h i l d i s asked to draw a picture of a man (boy or g i r l ) on an 8" x 11" sheet of unlined paper. 2. Bender Visuo-Motor Gestalt Tafek (See F i g . 7) The c h i l d i s asked to copy s i x designs which are presented to him one at a time. These are drawn i n black ink on 5" x 7" i n l i n e d f i l e cards. The c h i l d i s told there are s i x designs to copy onto one piece of 8" x 11" unlined paper. Instructions " Here are some designs f o r you to copy. Just copy them the way you see them." 3. Wepman Auditory Discrimination Task (See F i g . 9) Twenty odd numbered word pairs from t h i s are presented and the c h i l d i s asked to indicate whether the words i n each p a i r sound the "same" or " d i f f e r e n t " . Some children require ex-tensive practice and detailed i n s t r u c t i o n to be able to grasp and apply this concept. Instructions " I am going to say two words. I want you to t e l l me whether I say the same word twice or whether I say two d i f f e r e n t words. Try t h i s : hand - sand. Did I say the same word twice? You're r i g h t , I said two d i f -ferent words: hand i s not the same as sand. Now t r y t h i s L month - month. 6 5 11 You're r i g h t , I said the same word two times. Now, l i s t e n to the words I am going to say and t e l l me i f they sound the same or d i f f e r e n t . Turn your chair around so you cannot see me. I want to see how well you can l i s t e n . " Horst Reversals Test (See F i g . 10) The p a r t i c u l a r sec-t i o n of the Horst Reversals Test used, consists of ten rows of two and three l e t t e r combinations. The f i r s t row i s used f o r purposes of demonstration and the remaining nine are scored. Since the task i s quite d i f f i c u l t , i t i s often necessary to provide extra help. Instructions " The examiner shields a l l but the f i r s t row and points to the model; " T e l l me which one looks exactly l i k e the one I have my finger on. Now, you f i n d anot-her." I f the c h i l d does not understand, the examiner says, : ;pointing to the model " You see, some of them are backwards, the others are the r i g h t way. Pick out the ones that look l i k e the one I have my finger on." The shield i s re-moved a f t e r the second row has been attempted. Assistance i s provided as long as the c h i l d seems to benefit, but i s discontinued i f the task i s c l e a r l y too d i f f i c u l t . " 5. Gates Word Matching Subtests (See F i g . 11) Each c h i l d i s asked to do f i f t e e n exercises with the f i r s t three being used for i n s t r u c t i o n . Instructions " A l l but the f i r s t exercise i s shielded. " There are two words In t h i s box that look exactly the same. Can you f i n d them? Take your pencil and draw a l i n e between the ones that look the same." I f the c h i l d f a i l s to understand what i s required, the examiner c l a r i f i e s the task. The sh i e l d i s removed a f t e r the c h i l d has completed exercises two and t three." 6- Generic Categories Each c h i l d i s asked to produce class names fo r three groups of words: colours (red - blue - green), 66 boys or names (Tom - Charley - Henry), and food ( apple -hamburger - ice cream). Instructions "What are these things: red - blue -green?" I f the c h i l d does not respond properly, continue, " I ' l l t e l l you about three other things: B a l l - d o l l - marbles. They are a l l toys. Now, t e l l me, what are red - blue - green?" etc. 7. Number of Words Used i n a Story The number of words a c h i l d uses i n t e l l i n g the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears i s counted. Contractions of the subject and predicate are counted as two words; contractions of the verb and a negative are counted as one word; hyphenated or compound nouns are counted as one word. The t o t a l number of words a c h i l d uses constitutes the score. In cases where he doesn't know the story, e f f o r t s are made to e l i c i t spontaneous con-versation. At best, the method used for assessing verbal production can only be regarded as a very rough measure, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the c h i l d speaks very r a p i d l y . Use of a tape recorder during te s t i n g with l a t e r analysis might give a more accurate measure of word production. 8. Examiner's Check L i s t (See F i g . 8) F i g . 1 BENDER VISUO -MOTOR GESTALT TEST 6? F I & L 8 SCORE SHEET NAME: CODE DATE: C l i n i c a l Score 1. Learn to "read" BOY and TRAIN  2: Draw a Man, and P r i n t Name Score (/)below (x)above 3. P e n c i l use 0 4 . Bender Visuo Motor G e s t a l t Test 1 3 5 +7 15 + = "Same" i n Form I I +11 + 13 17 +25 33 +19 27 35 +21 29 37 23 31 39 6. Words used i n a s t o r y 7. Review BOY and TRAIN 8. Categories ( i . e . b a l l - d o l l - m a r b l e s = toys) 1. red - green - blue 2. Tom - Charley - Henry 3. apple - hamburger - i c e cream 9. Horst Reversal Test 1 4 7 2 5' 8 5 6 9 10. Gates Word - Matching 11. Word Recognition I . 0. 1 2 12. Word Recognition I I . 0 1 2 13. Word Reproduction „, o AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION TEST FORM II 69 X Y X Y 1. gear - beer 21. bar - bar 8 . Voiy,.-2. cad - cab 22. bum - bun 3. led - lad M • 23. lave - lathe 4. thief - sheaf 24. shot - shop 5. sake - shake 25. wedge - wedge 6. jail - jail 26. suck - sock 7. ball - ball .4/ 27. vie -'thy }'' 8. lake - lake 28. rich - rich 9. bead - deed 29. pit - kit 10. rub - rug 30. guile - dial 11. wing - wing 31. rash - wrath 12. gall - goal 32. chew - chew 13. pet - pit 33. fag - sag 14. lit - lick 34. phase - phase 15. bug - bud 35. sick - thick 16. lass - lath 36. wreath - reef 17. cope - coke 37. map - nap 18. pool - tool 38. muss - mush 19. zone - zone 39. cart - tart 20. fret - threat 40. cuff - cuss X Y Error Score Copyright 1958, by Language Research Assoc., Inc., 175 E. Delaware Place, Chicago, 111. 60611. Printed in U.S.A. This form is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of i t by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law. Name of Child: Date Tested: Age: Grade: Disabilities: Date of Birth: Name of School: Hearing: Reading: Speaking: Other: Examiner's Name: I.Q. T e s t : Error Score: X Form I / 3 0 / 1 0 Form II / 3 0 / 1 0 Additional Comments: 70 F i g . 10 HORST REVERSALS TEST o t t o . o t . o t . t o . o t . t o d e ; d e . e d l . d e . . e d . e d . d e | a / L . C W L . -vex, , x . a . . a X . a t TlU • na. an. an. na.an p o t | t o p . . p o t . p o t . t o p badj bad. dab.dab.bad f" l e s | s e l . t e s . L e s . s e t p i k . k i p . k l p . p U c s o f j f o s . s o f . 5 o f . f o s TI am. a a/m, .madman F i g . 11 GATES WORD MATCHING SUBTEST s e e s e a s e e s a y s h o e s h e s h o w s h o e b o y t o y t o p t o y w e r e w e r e w e e w e n t o r n o o n o n d i g b i g d i d d i g d r e s s d r a w d r a w d r u m h e r e h e a r h e r h e r e — • „ . ] w h i c h w h e r e w h i c h w h i t e t e l l b e l l b e l l f e l l f o o d f o o t c h i c k c h i l d t o o k f o o t c h i l d c h a i r 

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