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CBD office location patterns : a Vancouver case study Takahashi, David Leslie 1972

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CBD OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS: A VANCOUVER CASE STUDY by  DAVID LESLIE TAKAHASHI B. Comm. (Econ.) U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of  Community and Regional P l a n n i n g  We accept t h i s required  THE  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I further  agree  t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  may be granted by the Head of my  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  School o f Community  and Regional P l a n n i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada  Date: May, 1972.  permission.  iii  ABSTRACT Beginning from the premise  that there i s a p o s i t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n between form and p r o c e s s , t h i s study  undertakes  t o uncover p a t t e r n s of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n i n the Vancouver  CBD.  I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t intra-CBD l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s r e f l e c t the f u n c t i o n a l or i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between o f f i c e s .  that  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r the  e x i s t e n c e of l i n k a g e s by i d e n t i f y i n g groups or s e t s of o f f i c e types which are t y p i c a l l y found i n c l o s e p h y s i c a l proximity. Two  main s t a t i s t i c a l techniques are u t i l i z e d i n  the case study: analysis.  p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s and  grouping  The former i s used t o i d e n t i f y groups o f o f f i c e  types which e x h i b i t tendencies t o l o c a t e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ; the l a t t e r t o i d e n t i f y sub-areas  i n the CBD  where the  c l u s t e r i n g of i n t e r r e l a t e d o f f i c e types i s most conspicuous. The r e s u l t s , although g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s , cannot be regarded as c o n c l u s i v e as d i r e c t c o n f i r m a t i o n of the h y p o t h e s i s i s not p o s s i b l e .  The  r e s u l t s a r e , however, encouraging and i n d i c a t e the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s important, but o f t e n n e g l e c t e d , area of urban l o c a t i o n t h e o r y .  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I.  Page INTRODUCTION .  1  Nature o f the Problem . . . . . . . . . . .  1  Framework and Problem Statement . . . . . .  4  Hypothesis. . . . . .  9  Relevance of the Study Previous  Studies.  LITERATURE REVIEW AND Trends  III.  12 13  . . . .  15  THEORY . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . .  17  . . . . . . . . . .  19  S p a t i a l S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n a l Linkages .  29  Office Location Patterns.  37  . . . . . . . . .  OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data P r e p a r a t i o n  .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of CBD O f f i c e s Summary of Methodology TV.  .  . . . . . . . .  Chapter O r g a n i z a t i o n II.  . . . . . . . . .  45  . . .  51  . . . . . . . . . .  55  OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS IN THE VANCOUVER CBD. Preliminary Results  44  . . . . . . . . . . . .  57 57  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e . . .  59  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f O f f i c e Groups i n the CBD.  71  Grouping A n a l y s i s - I  72  V  Chapter  Page D e l i n e a t i o n o f Sub-areas  i n the CBD. . . . . .  82  Grouping A n a l y s i s - I I . . . . . . . . . . . .  84  Complex F a c t o r s .  . . . . . . . . .  86  . . . . . . . . . . .  88  V.CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . . . . .  90  . . . . . .  O f f i c e Area R e l a t i o n s h i p  Shortcomings o f the Study.  . . . . . . . . . .  91  General C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93  Areas o f F u r t h e r Research.  93  . . . . . . . . . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . .  96  APPENDICES. A.  103  Survey R e s u l t s o f S t u d i e s on F a c t o r s Governing The L o c a t i o n o f O f f i c e Premises i n C e n t r a l London. .  103  B.  The Data  . . . . . . . . . . .  104  C.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Coding o f Data. . . . . . .  107  D.  D e l i m i t a t i o n o f the CBD.  E.  D e f i n i t i o n of O f f i c e Establishments. . . . . .  118  F.  S.T.C. Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  123  G.  Weighted  132  H.  The A r c Sine T r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r Percentage Data 134  . . . . . . . .  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f O f f i c e s .  I l l  .  vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. 2.  Page Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Employment i n the Lower Mainland by Industry Group. . .  21  Downtown P e n i n s u l a Employment Estimates by Major Groups  .  22  3.  O f f i c e Space i n the C i t y o f Vancouver - 1971  24  4.  Commercial Land Values i n the Downtown P e n i n s u l a - 1971. . . . . . . . . . . . .  5.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of O f f i c e s .  6.  S i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each Variable. F a c t o r Loading on 41 O f f i c e C l a s s e s (Varimax Rotated) . . . . . . . . . . . . Major Headings o f S.I.C. Code as Defined by the C i t y o f Vancouver . . . . . . . . . .  7. A-l  . . . . . . . . .  31 50 58 60 116  vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.  D i s t a n c e and R e c i p r o c i t y B i a s e s . . . . . . .  40  2.  Island E f f e c t Bias.  40  3.  Overlapping Acquaintanceship Bias . . . . . .  40  4.  Force F i e l d B i a s .  40  5.  Flowchart of Methodology. . . . . . . . . .  .  56  6.  C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O f f i c e Types S i g n i f i c a n t a t 0.05 L e v e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62  The Arc Sine Square Root T r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r Percentage Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  136  A-l  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  viii LIST OF MAPS Map  Page  1.  O f f i c e Areas i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. . . . .  25  2.  The Vancouver C e n t r a l Business  47  3.  F a c t o r I - The Head, Government and P r o f e s s i o n a l Business  D i s t r i c t - 1969  O f f i c e s Group . . . .  73  4.  F a c t o r I I - The F o r e s t - I n d u s t r y Group. . . . .  74  5.  F a c t o r I I I - The Earth-based  75  6.  F a c t o r IV - Consumer-oriented Group. . . . . .  76  7.  F a c t o r V I I - The i n s u r a n c e Group . . . . . . .  77  8.  F a c t o r V I I I - The F i n a n c i a l Group. . . . . . .  78  9.  F a c t o r X - The A n c i l l a r y S e r v i c e s Group. . . .  79  10.  F a c t o r XII - The L i g h t Manufacturing  80  11.  F a c t o r XIII - The Mining A c t i v i t y Group. . . .  81  12.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i m i l a r O f f i c e Types . . . . .  85  A-l  Area Covered by Land Use Survey - 1969 . . . .  105  A-2  Coordinate System Used i n the Vancouver Downtown P e n i n s u l a . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial Zoning i n the Downtown P e n i n s u l a - 1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  A-3 A-4 A-5  Group . . . . . .  Group . .  108 113  Approximate Extent o f CBD I n d i c a t e d by Murphy-Vance Technique. . . . . . . . . . .  117  Coding o f Block F r o n t s i n CBD Study Area  122  . . .  ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am deeply indebted t o P r o f e s s o r P a u l 0. Roer whose guidance and c r i t i c i s m p l a y e d a key r o l e i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s - h i s i n f l u e n c e i s everywhere present. In a d d i t i o n , I am a l s o a p p r e c i a t i v e o f the c o o p e r a t i o n I r e c e i v e d from both the Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department and the Greater Vancouver  Regional  D i s t r i c t i n p r o v i d i n g data and i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t o t h e r wise would have been  unobtainable.  L a s t l y , I would l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e to my t y p i s t , Miss K e i S a k a i , who 'burned the midnight oil'  a t my s i d e .  CBD OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS - A VANCOUVER CASE STUDY -  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1  Nature o f the Problem  1.2  Framework and Problem Statement  1.3  Hypothesis  1.4  Relevance o f the Study  1.5  Previous  1.6  Chapter O r g a n i z a t i o n  Studies  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1  Nature o f the Problem During t h e p a s t decade o r so, t h e C e n t r a l  Districts  (CBD) i n many N o r t h A m e r i c a n  experienced  appears t h a t  center  will  increasingly  employment.  Two o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t o f f i c e the notion  that  decentralization  t h e CBD's p o s i t i o n as t h e  m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n ' s major o f f i c e - c e n t r e w i l l The  first  actually  i s the l i m i t e d o f f i c e occurred.  Following  only  w i d e s p r e a d phenomena. otherwise; tion  that  of the  from i t s Manhattan that  i t w o u l d be  s u b u r b a n o f f i c e s became a  The p a s s a g e o f t i m e h a s p r o v e d  the predictions  of widespread o f f i c e  suburbaniza-  f l o u r i s h e d i n t h e 1950's h a s n o t m a t e r i a l i z e d .  Secondly, policy  t h a t has  the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  i n 1954, i t was w i d e l y p r e d i c t e d  a matter o f time b e f o r e  be m a i n t a i n e d .  decentralization  headquarter o f f i c e s of General M i l l s location  As  continue t o suburbanize,  CBD l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s  about o f f i c e - t y p e  reinforce  have  a boom i n o f f i c e - b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n .  most o t h e r e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s it  cities  Business  i n a few i n s t a n c e s ,  of encouraging o f f i c e  adopted w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n  a government  decentralization that  regional  planning  has been  office  centres  2  would develop as a consequence. government  However, a s i d e from  o f f i c e s , which have abided by t h e i r own  dictates,  p o l i c i e s aimed at o f f i c e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n have e x p e r i e n c e d n e i t h e r widespread acceptance nor any r e a l degree of s u c c e s s . The c o n c l u s i o n to be drawn from the above observat i o n s i s t h a t the primacy of the CBD  as an o f f i c e c e n t r e i s  c e r t a i n l y not on the wane, and would appear t o be growing i n importance.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t suggests t h a t the CBD  possesses some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or advantages not a v a i l a b l e to the same degree elsewhere i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . The Advantages of the CBD The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t the advantages possessed by the CBD over other areas i n the r e g i o n are a t l e a s t twofold.  Most sources c i t e the CBD's c e n t r a l i t y or a c c e s s i b i l i t y  to the maximum m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n as a prime advantage possessed by the CBD.  A second advantage a r i s e s from the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the  CBD.  T h i s has been termed agglomeration economies or e x t e r n a l economies. S t u d i e s of the l o c a t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t i e s i n urban areas have r e s u l t e d i n the growth o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e commonly r e f e r r e d t o as urban l a n d use theory.  In i t s s i m p l e s t f o r m u l a t i o n , t h i s theory  states  t h a t the u t i l i z a t i o n of land i s determined by the r e l a t i v e  3  e f f i c i e n c i e s o f v a r i o u s uses a t v a r i o u s  locations  efficiency  i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of l a n d being measured by the r e n t p a y i n g a b i l i t y of firms. t h e i r "highest  With urban s i t e s being  and b e s t use",  allocated to  i n the aggregate, economic  a c t i v i t i e s would be d i s t r i b u t e d about the urban area as a r e s u l t o f the d i f f e r e n t i a l r e n t s which they are capable o f paying. A major d e f i c i e n c y o f urban land use theory while i t i s of considerable operating it  value  i s that  i n e x p l a i n i n g the f o r c e s  t o shape urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e i n the aggregate,  i s inadequate t o e x p l a i n l o c a t i o n on a l o c a l o r micro-  level. theory  What has been g e n e r a l l y ignored i s that concentration  of a c t i v i t i e s i n i t s e l f  c e r t a i n advantages such as f a c i l i t a t i n g permitting  specialization, etc.  i n o f f i c e establishments other  i n urban land use creates  transactions,  While some f o r c e s  result  choosing t o l o c a t e i n the CBD,  f o r c e s simultaneously  determine the l o c a t i o n o f  i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the CBD.  Moreover, the f o r c e s  working on the m i c r o - l e v e l are d i f f e r e n t from those t h a t have l e d t o the d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e i n the CBD. Intra-CBD' L o c a t i o n Because economic a c t i v i t i e s occupy space  (and n o t  p o i n t s i n space) they must be s p a t i a l l y separated.  Therefore,  even a s m a l l area such as the CBD cannot be c o n s i d e r e d  as  4  being  homogenous space s i n c e i f f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s  e x i s t between some e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , differentiated.  the space w i l l become  The l o c a t i o n o f an establishment  w i l l be  i n f l u e n c e d by i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the CBD as much as by the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the CBD t o the e n t i r e  metropolitan  region. I f the c o s t o f overcoming s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n the CBD i s h i g h , the m i c r o - l e v e l l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n become i n c r e a s i n g l y important. should  within will  The l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n  be viewed as a two-step p r o c e s s :  f i r s t comes the  d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e i n the CBD, and second comes the d e c i s i o n on where t o l o c a t e i n the CBD.  T h i s study concerns i t s e l f  w i t h the second type o f l o c a t i o n a l decision-making. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s f e l t t h a t g r e a t e r must be attached  to external  intra--offi.ee i n t e r a c t i o n  importance  economies-—specifically,  as a l o c a t i o n f a c t o r .  It is  the o p i n i o n o f the w r i t e r t h a t the reasons f o r the l a c k o f o f f i c e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n can be t r a c e d t o the e x i s t e n c e o f such e x t e r n a l economies. 1.2  Framework and Problem Statement In t h i s study the CBD w i l l be viewed as being  comprised o f numerous d e c i s i o n - u n i t s which are s p a t i a l l y concentrated  ( i . e . establishments)  and f u n c t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d .  5  Each establishment outside  may have i t s own s e t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s  the CBD but as w e l l i t has i t s own s e t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s  w i t h i n the CBD.  The o u t s i d e  associations play a r o l e i n  determining the choice o f the CBD as a p l a c e o f l o c a t i o n . The  intra-CBD a s s o c i a t i o n s p l a y a r o l e i n determining  w i t h i n CBD l o c a t i o n . Only i n the l a s t few decades have the s p a t i a l patterns  o f urban economic a c t i v i t i e s , come under  analytical scrutiny.  The m a j o r i t y  serious  o f these s t u d i e s have  s t r e s s e d the l o c a t i o n o f manufacturing o r i n d u s t r y , o u t l e t s , or residences. been i g n o r e d  retail  O f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s have g e n e r a l l y  o r t r e a t e d i n a s u p e r f i c i a l manner.  s o - c a l l e d o f f i c e s t u d i e s can be c a t e g o r i z e d  Most  as i n v e n t o r i e s  or surveys o f o f f i c e space, d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f e x i s t i n g o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s , o r o p i n i o n surveys o f o f f i c e space u s e r s . With few e x c e p t i o n s ,  there has been no attempt t o e x p l a i n  why o f f i c e s are l o c a t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r area. In urban land use theory,  when considered  at a l l ,  o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s have u s u a l l y been t r e a t e d as an u n d i f f e r entiated c l a s s of a c t i v i t i e s .  Thus, the r o l e o f f u n c t i o n a l  a s s o c i a t i o n s o r e x t e r n a l economies have not been i n t h i s theory. one  incorporated  A d i f f e r e n t approach i s t h e r e f o r e  which can i n c l u d e these a s p e c t s .  Direct  of e x t e r n a l economies would be exceedingly  indicated,  Incorporation  difficult  since  6 economists have not y e t been a b l e to reach any concerning q u a n t i f i c a t i o n  of e x t e r n a l  d i f f i c u l t y i s compounded i n the since  o f f i c e output i t s e l f  consensus  economies.  This  case of o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s  is difficult  i n d i r e c t means of determining the  to q u a n t i f y .  importance of  economies as a l o c a t i o n f a c t o r i s t h e r e f o r e  An  external  required.  /.It i s a major assumption of t h i s study t h a t d i r e c t and and  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between s p a t i a l form  functional process.  associations s p a t i a l and  T h i s simply means t h a t  functional  between e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r locational relationship.  The  l i t e r a t u r e tends  to support t h i s assumption though e m p i r i c a l still  a  limited.  For  evidence i s  i n s t a n c e , Foley'*' s t a t e s :  I t i s e s s e n t i a l , f o r v a r i o u s purposes, to d i s t i n g u i s h between (I) form (or m o r p h o l o g i c a l or "anatomical") and (II) p r o c e s s (or f u n c t i o n a l or " p h y s i o l o g i c a l " ) aspects of m e t r o p o l i t a n structure. He  goes on to  say:  I n s o f a r as process i n e v i t a b l y occurs i n space, i t i s the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of a c t i v i t y l o c a t i o n (form) t h a t serves to e s t a b l i s h the correspondi n g s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of i n t e r a c t i o n (process). Conversely, a s e n s i t i v i t y to the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t must be maintained has an e s s e n t i a l b e a r i n g on the l o c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s . y Other w r i t e r s  c o u l d a l s o be  cited.  However, s i n c e  assumption i s c r i t i c a l a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n  Foley  (1964), p.  35  and p.  37.  of  the  the  7 subsequent chapter w i l l , i n s t e a d , be devoted to t h i s t o p i c . /For  the p r e s e n t  purposes, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to note  t h a t the assumption leads to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e CBD  i s not random.  office  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i t means t h a t o f f i c e s t h a t are f u n c t i o n a l l y - l i n k e d w i l l tend t o be and  one  s p a t i a l l y - l i n k e d as w e l l .  A second assumption,  t h a t f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y from the f i r s t  assumption,  i s t h a t the behaviour o f i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n - u n i t s i n 2  choosing l o c a t i o n i s r a t i o n a l (eg. p r o f i t - m o t i v a t e d ) . Though market i m p e r f e c t i o n s  of a p h y s i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l  or s o c i a l nature e x i s t and w i l l have some d i s t o r t i n g e f f e c t , nevertheless  i n t o t o some d i s c e r n i b l e r a t i o n a l e  should  e x i s t i n the choice of intra-CBD o f f i c e l o c a t i o n ^ / The at any  s p a t i a l arrangement of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the  given p o i n t i n time, r e p r e s e n t s  the  CBD,  cumulative  decision-making of many i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n - u n i t s .  Further-  more, the l o c a t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s i s unplanned i n t h e sense t h a t o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s can  choose from a v a r i e t y o f  d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the CBD  since o f f i c e f l o o r  space  ^"Place u t i l i t y " i s a very complex s u b j e c t . It is a product of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs and i n f o r m a t i o n . It i s u s u a l l y assumed manifested i n a d e s i r e to maximize or minimize or m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n l e v e l of a c t i v i t y ( s a t i s f i c e ) or an attempt t o outwit a competitor (game t h e o r y ) . See Simmons (1968) , pp. 37-41 f o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s point.  8 i s adaptable f o r many purposes.  Over the long run, a  r a t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f a c t i v i t y l o c a t i o n w i l l tend t o emerge. Market f o r c e s w i l l r e s u l t i n establishments  locating i n  unfavourable l o c a t i o n s e i t h e r becoming bankrupt o r e l s e s i g n a l the need t o r e - l o c a t e .  Firms r e c o g n i z i n g  functional associations with other  their  f i r m s w i l l not be  indifferent to location. Thus by examining the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e establishments,  i t should be p o s s i b l e t o g a i n some  knowledge o f the f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t between office activities.  Generally,  i t i s expected t h a t  f u n c t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l tend t o l o c a t e nearer together  than those not so a s s o c i a t e d .  It is  r e a l i z e d , o f course, t h a t o f f i c e s l o c a t e d next door t o each other o r even i n the same b u i l d i n g o r b l o c k do not n e c e s s a r i l y have any f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Consequently,  a blanket  a s s e r t i o n t h a t establishments  proximity  t o one another are f u n c t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d  one  another would be g r o s s l y m i s l e a d i n g .  t h a t are l o c a t e d i n with  I f , however, i t  i s found t h a t p a r t i c u l a r types o f o f f i c e s are c o n s i s t e n t l y found i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y  to one another  ( i . e . form groups)  t h i s may be regarded as evidence t h a t some f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n probably e x i s t s .  9  1.3  Hypothesis Patterns o r groupings  functionally  associated w i l l  of office  types  that are  emerge f o r a t l e a s t  three  reasons: 1. Some e s t a b l i s h m e n t s  a r e complementary,  2. Some e s t a b l i s h m e n t s  are competitive,  3. Some e s t a b l i s h m e n t s  are interdependent.  The t h r e e r e a s o n s various  are not mutually  exclusive  aspects o f e x t e r n a l economies.  f o l l o w s t h a t i f economic a c t i v i t i e s not  complementary,  another,  in  location  t o emerge.  patterns  offices  t o expect  location  physical  a r e t h e most  t o one  any p a t t e r n s  i fa l l activities  competitive, or interdependent  i t w o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d  of office  Although  on t h e m i c r o - l e v e l were  Similarly,  t h e CBD were c o m p l e m e n t a r y ,  w i t h one a n o t h e r ,  As a c o r o l l a r y , i t  competitive, or interdependent  t h e r e w o u l d be no r e a s o n  of o f f i c e  a l l engender  t h a t any m e a n i n g f u l  c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d .  interaction  obvious  (movement)  between  manifestation of inter-office  a s s o c i a t i o n s , e v e n i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h f l o w s , some patterns  of office  recognized  l o c a t i o n w o u l d emerge.  that certain  types  of a c t i v i t i e s  and/or c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . probably  most  h i g h l y developed  I t i s commonly  f o rr e t a i l  a r e complementary This notion i s  establishments,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case o f shopping  centres.  have even been prepared  c e n t r e developers on  f o r shopping  Checklists  the s u i t a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s types o f establishments as tenants. The  fact that various o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s also  e x h i b i t some p r e f e r e n c e s f o r l o c a t i o n on the m i c r o - l e v e l i s evidenced  i n some cases i n the CBD.  The popular  conception o f Wall S t r e e t and Madison Avenue i n New York C i t y as c e n t r e s o f f i n a n c i a l and a d v e r t i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e examples o f t h i s .  On the l o c a l  scene,  Howe S t r e e t i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as Vancouver's c e n t r e f o r stock t r a d i n g and mining c a t i o n of sub-areas  activity.  While the i d e n t i f i -  w i t h i n the CBD i s of some i n t e r e s t ,  t h i s r e p r e s e n t s only the " t i p o f the i c e b e r g " .  There a r e ,  i t i s f e l t , more complex u n d e r l y i n g o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s not so e a s i l y a s c e r t a i n a b l e . The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s study i s t h a t f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e an important  f a c t o r i n determin-  i n g o f f i c e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the CBD. Three t e s t a b l e hypotheses a r e formulated  from  t h i s general hypothesis: 1.  Groupings o f interdependent  office  are i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h i n the CBD.  activities That i s ,  11 r e c u r r e n t groups o f o f f i c e s having a s s o c i a t i o n s can be measured  spatial  statistically.  2. Sub-areas of i n t e r - r e l a t e d o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s be s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e l i m i t e d w i t h i n the CBD example, a f i n a n c i a l 3. The  may for  district.  r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n of v a r i o u s o f f i c e areas  i n the CBD ships.  stems from t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -  Generally  i t i s expected t h a t the  spatial  o r d e r i n g of o f f i c e groups i s f u n c t i o n a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e . None of the t e s t a b l e hypotheses c o n s t i t u t e s a v a l i d proof o f the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s . to do so seems v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e .  To o b t a i n the Gottman,3 i n  data  attempting  t o o b t a i n data of the type necessary to conduct an i n q u i r y of t h i s s o r t , was  f i n a l l y f o r c e d to g i v e up i n f r u s t r a t i o n :  T h i s study proved to be q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o do, p a r t i c u l a r l y as attempts a t showing the l i n k a g e s between the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out i n the o f f i c e s and between o f f i c e work and r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s i n Manhattan met with the o b s t a c l e s of secrecy imposed by c o m p e t i t i o n or by c o n f i d e n t i a l aspects of t r a n s a c t i o n s . The  i n a b i l i t y to d i r e c t l y t e s t a hypothesis  i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Helmer and  Rescher^ who  commonly a r i s e s  Some c o n s o l a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d state:  ...an e x p l a n a t i o n i s regarded as s a t i s f a c t o r y i f , w h i l e s h o r t o f l o g i c a l l y e n t a i l i n g the Gottman (1970), p. ^Helmer and Rescher 3  325. (1960), p.  11.  by  12 h y p o t h e s i s , i t succeeds i n making the statement to be e x p l a i n e d h i g h l y c r e d i b l e i n the sense o f p r o v i d i n g c o n v i n c i n g evidence f o r i t . 1.4  Relevance o f the Study The  study o f the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s  l o c a t i o n w i l l provide have acted  of o f f i c e  some n o t i o n o f how " n a t u r a l " f o r c e s  i n shaping CBD o f f i c e  space use. What  should  emerge i s the tendency f o r c e r t a i n o f f i c e - t y p e s t o c l u s t e r or form d i s c r e t e groups. should  provide  Discovery  o f these  a take-off point f o r further  Planners have t y p i c a l l y  patterns analyses.  been more concerned about  a c t i v i t i e s as they occur on the s i t e r a t h e r than the f u n c t i o n system o f which they a r e a p a r t . preoccupation property  This over-riding physical  i s a t t e s t e d t o by the wealth o f data  values,  taxes,  concerning  s a l e s volume, p h y s i c a l space,  construction a c t i v i t y , v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c , a v a i l a b i l i t y of parking  space, e t c .  Knowledge o f how the v a r i o u s  l o c a t e d i n urban areas a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d extremely  activities  i n contrast i s  scanty.  At present,  the p l a n n e r s '  t o o l s f o r shaping the  CBD's growth and development a r e powerful b u t i t o f t e n appears a p p l i e d without r e a l l y knowing what the impacts w i l l be.  Zoning, h e i g h t and bulk r e g u l a t i o n s , e t c . a l l  have a r o l e i n c r e a t i n g an e f f i c i e n t , and perhaps a e s t h e t i c  s e t t i n g f o r the CBD. determining the within  the  Planners have not played a r o l e i n  l o c a t i o n of most i n d i v i d u a l  CBD.  decision-units  P o t e n t i a l l y , at l e a s t , planners could  encourage more e f f i c i e n t use  of CBD  d e s i g n a t i n g uses t h a t c o u l d l o c a t e  o f f i c e space by i n c e r t a i n areas or  buildings. Such p o t e n t i a l would a r i s e i f i t can groups of CBD  o f f i c e s are  w e l l as p r o v i d i n g p l a n n i n g , i t may would be located  shown t h a t  functionally associated.  a more r a t i o n a l e b a s i s suggest t h a t  a regional  f o r CBD  As land  use  o f f i c e centre  f e a s i b l e i f whole groups of o f f i c e s c o u l d  be  there simultaneously.  1.5  Previous Studies There have been few  attempts to study the  arrangement of a c t i v i t i e s i n the office activities. approach.  The  CBD,  spatial  fewer y e t d e a l w i t h  m a j o r i t y have taken a  univariate  That i s , they have segregated c e r t a i n kinds of  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and  then by u s i n g d i r e c t mapping, concen-  tration indices, delimitation and  be  of c l u s t e r s on the  ground,  v a r i o u s g e o - s t a t i s t i c a l techniques, simply seen  they are grouped i n p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s of the CBD. because they attempted t o d e a l w i t h a s i n g l e (or a c t i v i t i e s one  at a time) the  between a c t i v i t i e s have u s u a l l y  how But  activity  inter-relationships  been u n s p e c i f i e d  or  14 e l s e extremely c o a r s e .  Or as Gottman s u c c i n c t l y phrased i t ,  the a n a l y s i s of l i n k a g e s has "more i n t u i t i v e l y than  t y p i c a l l y been approached  systematically."5  An e a r l y study d e a l i n g w i t h the s p a t i a l aspects of functional organizations  i n the c e n t r a l c i t y was  conducted by Rannels^ i n P h i l a d e l p h i a .  that  More r e c e n t  s t u d i e s have used a v a r i e t y of s o p h i s t i c a t e d  statistical  techniques to analyze c e n t r a l c i t y l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s . Whipple  7  i n Melbourne has  used the Pearson product  moment c o r r e l a t i o n to f i n d a s s o c i a t i o n s between CBD uses.  G e t i s and  Getis  8  used a technique c a l l e d  a n a l y s i s to f i n d a s s o c i a t i o n s between r e t a i l i n the downtown area of 13 American c i t i e s .  land  sequence  establishments Goddard^ i n  London used a number of m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques ( f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , and  grouping  to uncover l i n k a g e s between c l a s s e s of o f f i c e s . study bears c l o s e s t resemblance to Goddard's a n a l y s i s of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s  Gottman  (1970) , p.  6  Rannels  (1956) .  7  Whipple  (1968), pp.  8  G e t i s and  9  Goddard  Getis  327  64-70.  (1968), pp.  (1968), pp.  69-85.  The  present  statistical  i n London's c e n t r a l  area.  5  analysis)  317-332.  15 In t h i s study m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l w i l l be employed i n a search f o r s p a t i a l between v a r i o u s  techniques  associations  o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Vancouver  CBD. 1.6  Chapter The  Organization  remainder o f the t h e s i s proceeds i n f o u r  parts.  Chapter I I reviews c u r r e n t trends i n o f f i c e l o c a t i o n and employment, p r o v i d e s an overview o f the theory  underlying  t h i s study, and previews the o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s could emerge. sections.  that  The t h i r d chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o two main  In the f i r s t s e c t i o n the methodology used t o  prepare the data f o r a n a l y s i s i s presented and the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the methodology of the case study.  As w e l l , more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s  of the methodologies used have been i n c l u d e d  as appendices  f o r those who are i n t e r e s t e d i n p u r s u i n g the s u b j e c t matter f u r t h e r .  The f o u r t h chapter d e a l s w i t h the r e s u l t s  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f the case study.  And  l a s t l y , Chapter V p r o v i d e s a summary and the c o n c l u s i o n s  a r i s i n g from the study.  x  x x  16 The  concentration  of o f f i c e s i n the downtown area  i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study.  Upon the  t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between form and  process,  hypothesized that i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r patterns l o c a t i o n to be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the CBD.  assumption  of  The  i t is  office  null  h y p o t h e s i s would s t a t e t h a t o f f i c e l o c a t i o n on the microl e v e l i s non-systematic. General s t u d i e s such as the New  York  Metropolitan  Region Study have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s t r u c t u r e o f the c o n s i s t s of numerous i n t e r - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s e x t e r n a l economies f o r each o t h e r .  The  the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i o u s obvious.  CBD  providing  need to  consider  a c t i v i t i e s i s thus  CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW AND 2.1  Trends  2.2  Spatial Structure Linkages  2.3  Office  Location  THEORY  and F u n c t i o n a l  Patterns  CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORY Introduction The  dominance o f the CBD as an o f f i c e  centre  s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t t h e r e a r e important advantages i n l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s i n close proximity  t o one another."'"  The  nature o f these c e n t r a l i z i n g f o r c e s and how they i n f l u e n c e l o c a t i o n and s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s  on a m i c r o - l e v e l  the CBD) i s the focus o f the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s The  chapter.  d i s c u s s i o n i s presented i n three p a r t s .  f i r s t part outlines continuing and  ( i . e . within  o f f i c e employment.  trends  The  of o f f i c e location  The second p a r t d i s c u s s e s the  c r u c i a l assumption on which t h i s study i s b a s e d - — t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f form and p r o c e s s .  In p a r t i c u l a r , the  connections between s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , e x t e r n a l economies and  a c c e s s i b i l i t y are drawn.  patterns  The l a s t p a r t d e a l s w i t h the  o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n t h a t might be expected w i t h i n  the CBD. The recognized  l a c k o f an o f f i c e l o c a t i o n model has been by many a u t h o r s .  For instance, B r i t t o n Harris  G o t t m a n (1970), p. 325 s t a t e s " . . . d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of t h e upper l e v e l o f t h e s e r v i c e s has been more d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e t h a n t h e d i s p e r s a l o f m a n u f a c t u r e s o r o f rank and f i l e o f f i c e s " because o f "the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f quarternary a c t i v i t i e s , " including administration, finance, x  18 states:  "Even a f t e r we s o r t out those commercial and  s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s which can be l o c a t e d by methods a p p l i c a b l e toretail  t r a d e , t h e r e i s a wide v a r i e t y o f r e s i d u a l  space u s e r s whose needs a r e r a t h e r p o o r l y  office  understood."2  To make up f o r t h i s d e f i c i e n c y , even r a t h e r  sophisticated  models o f urban areas have had t o make r a t h e r gross assumpt i o n s about o f f i c e l o c a t i o n .  The BASS (Bay Area S i m u l a t i o n  Study) study o f San F r a n c i s c o , f o r example, s t a t e s q u i t e simply:  "...relatively l i t t l e  office location...."^  i s c u r r e n t l y known about  T h i s seems an a c c u r a t e summary o f  the s t a t e o f knowledge c o n c e r n i n g o f f i c e  location.  r e s e a r c h , a d v e r t i s i n g , and the mass media. Such a c t i v i t i e s f i t under the heading o f both f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t and specialized a c t i v i t i e s . 2 H a r r i s (1968), p. 62. a s i m i l a r statement.  Goldberg  (1970a), p. 25, makes  3 CREUE (1968), p. 189. As w e l l , a landmark study and one t h a t suggests a v a r i e t y o f reasons f o r the continued dominance o f the CBD as an o f f i c e c e n t r e a r e the v a r i o u s volumes o f the New York M e t r o p o l i t a n Region Study. Though p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e , they c o n t a i n many p e r c e p t i v e i n s i g h t s concerning the l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e s i n the CBD. The volumes by Hoover and Vernon (1959), Robbins and T e r l e c k y j (1960), L i c h t e n b e r g (1960) and Vernon (1963) are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t .  19 2.1  Trends As  a p o i n t of t a k e o f f ,  a few  trends i n o f f i c e - t y p e employment and  o b s e r v a t i o n s about o f f i c e l o c a t i o n with  p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the Vancouver Area should be  noted.  1. O f f i c e Employment The  dramatic i n c r e a s e  in office-type  i n r e c e n t decades can be a t t r i b u t e d  employment to:  a) Growth i n urban p o p u l a t i o n , b)  Increases i n b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y and  in levels  of income, c) A l t e r a t i o n s  i n the  s o c i a l structure  Every succeeding census has proportion  found an  of  society.4  increasing  of the p o p u l a t i o n i n urban areas  ' compared to r u r a l a r e a s .  T h i s r u r a l t o urban  s h i f t alone would account f o r an i n c r e a s e number of o f f i c e - t y p e  jobs.  the standard o f l i v i n g and t h e r e has  in  Additionally, incomes have  been demand f o r more s e r v i c e s  l e d to a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e  4  Rapkin  (1970),  Moreover, the  p.  227.  in  the  as  increased, and  s e r v i c e s of a more s p e c i a l i z e d nature which  employment.  as  also has  office-type  importance of primary  20 and  secondary i n d u s t r i e s have been d e c l i n i n g  r e l a t i v e to t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s .  Because  the  number of o f f i c e - t y p e jobs i n the t e r t i a r y s e c t o r i n d u s t r i e s are t y p i c a l l y g r e a t e r than i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , t h e r e has increase  been a more than  i n office-employment.  of these three trends has  The  over-all effect  been a r a p i d growth i n  o f f i c e - t y p e employment, and  i t i s expected  t h i s r a p i d growth w i l l continue i n the (See  Tables 1 and  2. O f f i c e The  that  future.  2.)  Location  a l l e g e d advantages of a suburban l o c a t i o n  lower land and  r e n t a l c o s t s , more r e l a x e d  ment, d i s p e r s e d and  proportional  labour f o r c e , good  environ-  transportation  communication connections w i t h the CBD,  auto usage, e t c . influence  on the  office-space  has  a p p a r e n t l y had  higher  little  l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n of most major  users.^  C o n s t r u c t i o n t r e n d s across  North America r e v e a l t h a t though the CBD's  proportion  of the urban r e g i o n s o f f i c e space i s d e c l i n i n g r e l a t i v e terms, i n a b s o l u t e terms the CBD than h o l d i n g  i t s own.  i s more  In f a c t , many c i t i e s are  e x p e r i e n c i n g an o f f i c e b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n  Fisher  (1967), C a r r u t h  (1969), and  Seligman  in  now  boom  (1963).  TABLE 1 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE LOWER MAINLAND BY INDUSTRY GROUP (1951 - 1981) EMPLOYMENT AS PERCENT OF TOTAL % Change ECONOMIC ACTUAL** FORECAST ESTIMATES In Employment+ ACTIVITY 1951 1961 1971 1981 2000 1971 t o 1981 range mean agriculture extractive  4.4 4.3  2.9 2.8  1.6 1.4  1.0 0.8  TOTAL PRIMARY  8.7  5.7  3.0  1.8  manufacturing construction  24.0 7.1  18.9 6.8  19.0 6.8  19.0 6.8  TOTAL SECONDARY  31.1  25.7  25.8  25.8  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n group 11.4 trade 19.2 4.2 f i n a n c e group services*** 24.0 p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1.4*  11.4 19.5 5.1 23.3 9.3  11.6 19.5 5.5 24.9 9.7  11.6 19.5 5.5 25.9 9.9  TOTAL TERTIARY  68.6  71.2  72.4  60.2  -65.5 -71.5 1-2  1. 5  -68.5 + 0.5 ••+ 0.0  22-26  24. 0 + 1.75 + 0.0 + 7.4 +12.1 + 6.5  72-77  74. 5  + 5.5  * P u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n employment grouped w i t h " S e r v i c e " u n t i l 1961. **1951 and 1961 Census not s t r i c t l y comparable due t o SIC r e v i s i o n s and i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the "New Establishment Concept." ***Community, business and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . +Some e r r o r due t o rounding. Source: Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver/ 1971, p. 6.  (1971), Real E s t a t e Trends i n  TABLE 2 DOWNTOWN PENINSULA EMPLOYMENT ESTIMATES BY MAJOR GROUPS 1965 1985 Increase Amount Percent Amount Percent 1965-1985  Group Office  54,920  62.. 34  90,600  69.96  36,680  Retail  12,130  13.77  13,930  10.76  1,800  Service  8,960  10.18  15,590  12.04  6,630  Industrial  5,000  5.67:  4,000  3.09  - 1,000  Wholesale  3,500  3.97  1,600  1.23  - 1,900  Other (education & distribution)  3,500  4.07  3,780  2.92  280  88,100  100.00  129,500  100.00  41,400  Totals  Source: Based on Revised e s t i m a t e s ( A p r i l , 1969) of Vancouver T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study p r o j e c t i o n s (VTS, 1966).  to  i n o f f i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n i t s CBD a r e a .  Results  of a r e c e n t l y completed o f f i c e space survey  reveals  t h a t over 2 m i l l i o n square f e e t o f o f f i c e space i n the Vancouver downtown p e n i n s u l a  i s p r e s e n t l y under 7  c o n s t r u c t i o n , and more i s i n the p l a n n i n g  stages.  (See Tables 3 and Map 1.) Trends i n o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s i n l a r g e r c i t i e s a r e of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t because the number and s i z e of o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s and hence the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f r e - l o c a t i n g i n a suburban l o c a t i o n would appear t o be g r e a t e r .  The experiences i n these  cities,  however, would appear t o m i r r o r those i n Vancouver. In New York C i t y , a n a l y s i s o f trends  i n new o f f i c e -  b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n show t h a t between 1963 and 1970  "there has been no d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e -  b u i l d i n g s from the Manhattan CBD a t a l l . "  8  T h i s l a t t e r r e s u l t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h another i n v e s t i g a t i o n on s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  of o f f i c e s i n  the New York Region which i n d i c a t e d t h a t many o f 7  Greater Vancouver Real E s t a t e Board (1971), p . 2. There i s c u r r e n t l y approximately a t o t a l o f 12.5 m i l l i o n square f e e t o f o f f i c e space i n the Greater Vancouver Region. Of t h i s , approximately 2/3 o r 8 m i l l i o n square f e e t a r e l o c a t e d i n the downtown p e n i n s u l a . (GVRD (1971), p. 2 ) . 8Regional P l a n A s s o c i a t i o n (1971), p . 22. T h i s i s based on the f a c t t h a t 50 percent o f the Region's o f f i c e f l o o r space i n 1963 was l o c a t e d i n the Manhattan CBD, and 50 percent o f the new c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n c e t h a t date has been l o c a t e d there also.  TABLE 3 OFFICE SPACE IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER - 1971 (by main commercial a r e a s ) * E x i s t i n g O f f i c e Space  O f f i c e Under C o n s t r u c t i o n  A. Downtown P e n i n s u l a  7,935,000  2,032,000  B. Broadway  1,101,000  149,000  C. E a s t Hastings  . 308,500  D. F r a s e r  254,500  E. Main  184,000  F. Kingsway  229,500  G. Other  885,000  35,000  10,897,500  2,216,000  T o t a l Vancouver C i t y  *See Map 1 f o r l o c a t i o n of these o f f i c e  areas.  Source: Real E s t a t e Board o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, O f f i c e Space Survey, 1971.,p.2.  'WEST  i  VANCOUVER;—  NORTH  NORTH A|  ENGLISH  V X .  •>*>.  BAY  w  t  ?  3  —  VANCOUVER DISTRICT  J~5LJ  I — f e \ j  s  Tlx pflaudi!-* INGS  ST.  ^ENINSUlTA? BURNABY DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY BROADWAY CITY" OF VANCOUVER  RICHMOND • r.T~.?j,  \  OFFICE AREAS IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER - 1971  JF/R  26 the a l l e g e d advantages of the suburbs have proved illusionary.9  Among the sources of disenchantment  were l o s t c o n t a c t s , d e m o r a l i z a t i o n of  staff,  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c r u i t i n g s t a f f , higher  turnover  of young e x e c u t i v e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , need to r e t a i n t i e s w i t h o f f i c e s , and  CBD  long absences of key personnel  who  needed to t r a v e l downtown t o consumate b u s i n e s s transactions. The main impetus f o r s u b u r b a n i z i n g  appears to be  the i n a b i l i t y to f i n d s u f f i c i e n t o f f i c e space i n a single b u i l d i n g at a s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n within the CBD  r a t h e r than the advantages a t t r i b u t e d to  a suburban l o c a t i o n . ^  The  advantages of a  suburban l o c a t i o n , when c o n s i d e r e d a t a l l , to be secondary.  appear  S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn  9Herrera (1967), p. 106-109+. The headquarter o f f i c e s of 138 of the 500 l a r g e s t U.S. c o r p o r a t i o n s are l o c a t e d i n the New York Region. Of these, only 10 have chosen to r e - l o c a t e i n a suburban l o c a t i o n d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1954 to 1967. A t l e a s t one has r e t u r n e d t o Manhattan. Moreover, even those f i r m s which have suburbanized have not been a b l e to sever a l l t i e s with the CBD; a number of them s t i l l m a i n t a i n an o f f i c e i n Manhattan. l O H e r r e r a , (1967), p. 147. As w e l l , i t has been noted t h a t "with very few e x c e p t i o n s , headquarter o f f i c e s are even more concentrated than o t h e r types of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y and g e n e r a l l y begin to appear i n the suburbs o n l y i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas with p o p u l a t i o n s over 2 m i l l i o n . " (Regional P l a n A s s o c i a t i o n (1971), p. 10).  from a study o f o f f i c e r e - l o c a t i o n conducted i n London. H Problems o f O f f i c e L o c a t i o n Over 2000 d i f f e r e n t occupations l i s t the o f f i c e as the p r i n c i p l e p l a c e o f work.12  These o f f i c e  are n o t homogeneous i n t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l  activities  requirements:  some r e q u i r e c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h other f i r m s , some a r e almost t o t a l l y independent,  some a r e consumer-oriented,  provide services only to other firms, e t c .  some  Furthermore,  even o f f i c e s engaged i n the same l i n e o f a c t i v i t y a r e l i k e l y t o have d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n a l requirements  depending  on t h e i r s i z e and the number o f i n t e r n a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s they c a r r y out.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n thus poses a major  problem.  O f f i c e l o c a t i o n , however, has the added c o m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t i s e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o q u a n t i f y the i n p u t s and outputs o f o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s .  The extent o f the problem i s  made c l e a r when the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o f f i c e output (and 13 i n p u t s from o t h e r o f f i c e s ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d :  •'••'•Cowan e t a l (1969) . As w e l l , Hoover and Vernon have noted t h a t a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s f o r suburban l o c a t i o n s (eg. employee p a r k i n g l o t s , c a f e t e r i a s and other amenities) tend t o wipe out savings o f lower l a n d c o s t s and r e n t s . (1960, p. 99). 12propst Stanton of S e r v i c e s . " 1 3  (1968). (1967) .  Adapted  from Chapter 24: "Marketing  28 1.  Intangible. The output o f the o f f i c e i n many cases l i e s i n the form o f p o t e n t i a l r a t h e r than a c t u a l a c t i o n .  2. I n s e p a r a b l e . O f f i c e output i n many cases cannot be separated from the person o f the s e l l e r .  That i s , the  s e l l e r o f the s e r v i c e i s p a r t o f t h e s e r v i c e . 3.  Heterogeneous. There i s no s t a n d a r d i z e d output among competitors or even from t h e same f i r m .  4. P e r i s h a b i l i t y and F l u c t u a t i n g Demand. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e demand f o r o f f i c e output and have a back-log i n v e n t o r y . I f a s i n g l e word were t o be used t o d e s c r i b e o f f i c e output i t would have t o be u n c e r t a i n t y . Whereas, a manufacturing f i r m knows i t s p r o d u c t i o n c o s t and s e l l i n g c o s t s and can, by c a l c u l a t i n g i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , determine w i t h some degree o f exactness the amount o f additional profit  (or l o s s ) t o be o b t a i n e d by r e - l o c a t i n g ,  no such a c c o u n t i n g system e x i s t s f o r the "producer" o f office services.  Hoover and Vernon express t h i s same  n o t i o n by s t a t i n g :  "There i s no process  o f accounting  \  t h a t can weigh the enhancement i n the q u a l i t y o f e x e c u t i v e 1 decision-making  i n a g i v e n l o c a t i o n a g a i n s t the added  costs o f operating i n that The  /  location."14  presence o f u n c e r t a i n t y does, however, i n f l u e n c e  the l o c a t i o n a l behaviour o f o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s : aggravates the need f o r f a s t and f r e q u e n t  "Uncertainty  communication,  both i n n e g o t i a t i n g f o r t r a n s a c t i o n s and i n keeping of developments a f f e c t i n g t h e m a r k e t . " 1 5  abreast  uncertainty  engenders c l u s t e r i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f a c t i v i t i e s  that  i n t e r a c t w i t h one another.  Thus, d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  q u a l i t y o f decision-making,  a l l other t h i n g s being  equal,  i s l a r g e l y due t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as convenience t o o u t s i d e sources  o f i n f o r m a t i o n and ease o f access t o  suppliers or c l i e n t s . 2.2  S p a t i a l S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n a l Linkages The  urban system may be viewed as one o f i n t e r l o c k -  i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g o b j e c t s .  Linkages a r e t h e connections  t h a t complete the system: Linkages l e a d t o the movement o f persons and goods between l i n k e d establishments and generates a tendency on the p a r t o f establishments so r e l a t e d t o seek proximate l o c a t i o n s o r l o c a t i o n s t h a t a r e mutually accessible.16 14Hoover and Vernon (1959), p. 97. 15 Robbins and T e r l e c k y j (1960) , p. 33. 1 6 M i t c h e l l & Rapkin quoted i n Webber (1964), p. 149fn.  30 Linkages,  t h e r e f o r e , i n v o l v e "movement", l i n k e d e s t a b l i s h -  ments" and "proximate l o c a t i o n s . "  These terms are analogous  to the terms s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , e x t e r n a l economies and a c c e s s i b i l i t y as used i n t h i s  study.  Accessibility A c c e s s i b i l i t y has two d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s .  On the  one hand, r e g i o n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f the CBD i n terms o f c e n t r a l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e market.  On the  other hand, i n t e r n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s used i n the c o n t e x t of a s m a l l area such as the CBD. through c o m p e t i t i v e  Over time, e i t h e r  s u r v i v a l or d e l i b e r a t e choice,  activities  i n these areas w i l l tend t o l o c a t e so as t o reduce u n c e r t a i n t y . Land v a l u e s i n the CBD are among the h i g h e s t anywhere: $110;  "a square f o o t o f C e n t r a l Houston c o s t s up t o  o f A t l a n t a , $100; o f Chicago $500; o f San F r a n c i s c o ,  $250; on Wall S t r e e t , $600, o r $27 m i l l i o n an a c r e . "  1 7  Land v a l u e s o f up t o $75 per square f o o t a r e found i n the Vancouver CBD. considered competition  (see Table 4)  The p r i c e o f l a n d , g e n e r a l l y  t o be a measure o f the i n t e n s i t y o f demand and f o r l a n d , v a r i e s w i t h q u a l i t y and a c c e s s .  In  g e n e r a l , s t u d i e s have found a r e n t g r a d i e n t e x i s t s with l a n d i n the CBD being as much as 500 o r more times as 17  McQuade  (1970), p. 132.  TABLE 4 COMMERCIAL LAND VALUES IN THE DOWNTOWN PENINSULA - 1971 $/sq. f t . (Area bounded by Hastings-Robson-Seymour-Thurlow) Hastings and Pender S t r e e t s  $35.00-55.00  Georgia  $50.00-75.00  Robson  $20.00-35.00  Burrard  $50.00-65.00  Horby and Howe S t r e e t s  $25.00-50.00  Georgia - West o f Thurlow  $25.00-30.00  B u r r a r d - Smithe t o Davie  $15.00-20.00  Davie, Robson, Denman $15.00-30.00 Source: Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater Vancouver (1971). Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 1971. p. C-14.  expensive than land a t the f r i n g e . land values w i t h i n the CBD doubling  from one  But a d d i t i o n a l l y ,  1 8  varies considerably,  b l o c k to the next.  I t would  often be  d i f f i c u l t to attempt to e x p l a i n these d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of changes i n r e g i o n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y or s i t e q u a l i t y Land values w i t h i n the CBD internal accessibility The land supply limited.  must a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d  alone.  by  considerations.  a v a i l a b i l i t y of space, measured by  either  or f l o o r area, a t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n i s  O p e r a t i o n of market f o r c e s w i l l cause the b i d -  p r i c e f o r more d e s i r a b l e s i t e s to be higher t h a t are l e s s d e s i r a b l e . land w i t h i n the CBD  1 9  than those  I f the i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s  are considered  of  homogeneous, i t i s the  s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s t h a t make some l o c a t i o n s more d e s i r a b l e than  others.  E x t e r n a l Economies The  concept of e x t e r n a l economies was  by A l f r e d M a r s h a l l  as a c o u n t e r p a r t  introduced  t o i n t e r n a l economies  ( i . e . s c a l e economies w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n ) .  External  economies a r i s e out of "the growth o f r e l a t e d branches of  H o c h (1969), p. 132. IQ Lee f o r i n s t a n c e s t a t e s : " I f access were a major component and v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h l o c a t i o n , then competition would be keen f o r a c c e s s i b l e s i t e s and these would be i n t e n s i v e l y used." (Lee and Yujnovsky (1971), p. 1 8  industry  which mutually a s s i s t one another, perhaps b e i n g 20  located rigorous  i n the same l o c a l i t i e s . "  (Marshall) 21  A more  d e f i n i t i o n i s as f o l l o w s :  E x t e r n a l e f f e c t s a r e p r e s e n t whenever a f i r m p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n depends i n some way on the tie amounts o f the i n p u t s o r outputs o f another ffirm./ An  e x t e r n a l i t y can be s a i d t o be p r e s e n t when,^2 q  The  A  = q  A  (X , X ,...,x ,Y . x  2  m  l)  above equation s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n o f  a f i r m , A, i s dependent upon the " a c t i v i t i e s " , '(X^X^ * *. • r X ) , t h a t a r e e x c l u s i v e l y under i t s c o n t r o l , but a l s o upon Ri  another s i n g l e a c t i v i t y , Y^, which i s by d e f i n i t i o n , under the c o n t r o l o f a second f i r m , B, which i s presumed t o be a member o f the same economic group. A*s  In t h i s simple case,  p r o d u c t i o n depends only on the a c t i v i t i e s o f B.  the normal case, A's p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n may additional variables  from o t h e r  20  include  activities.  Some examples o f e x t e r n a l t i o n , the s h a r i n g  In  e economies a r e  specializa-A  o f i n f o r m a t i o n and "know-how ", the  Q u o t e d by Thorngren  J  (1967), p. 415.  l j . de V. Graaf c i t e d i n Buchanan and S t u b b l e b i n e (1968), p. 415. 2  22 Buchanan and S t u b b l e b i n e (1968) forms t h e b a s i s f o r the remainder o f t h i s paragraph. See p . 478 i n p a r t i c u l a r .  presence o f a s k i l l e d labour p o o l , p u b l i c goods (eg. roads, p o r t s ) , and shared usage o f i n d i v i s a b l e resources (eg. 23 labour,  t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s , s p e c i a l i z e d machinery.)  By  t a k i n g advantage o f e x t e r n a l economies, a f i r m can reduce i t s overhead c o s t s , working s t a f f , space needs, working 24 c a p i t a l , and management problems.  Capture o f these  e x t e r n a l economies, however, u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s t h a t be  i n proximity  being  t o one another  firms  e x t e r n a l economies w h i l e  e x t e r n a l t o the f i r m a r e u s u a l l y i n t e r a l t o an a r e a . E x t e r n a l economies a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r  those a c t i v i t i e s which t y p i c a l l y face a high degree o f i n s t a b i l i t y o r u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n the demand f o r t h e i r products o r s e r v i c e s .  The u n c e r t a i n t y  of demand makes i t d i f f i c u l t  and  sporadicalness  f o r a l l but the very  largest  of f i r m s t o i n t e r n a l i z e a l l o f the f u n c t i o n they c a r r y o u t . As a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , the g r e a t e r the number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a g i v e n area, the higher e x t e r n a l economies.  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  M a t h e m a t i c a l l y , i t can be shown t h a t  w h i l e the number o f economic a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e s  arithmeti  c a l l y , the p o t e n t i a l number o f l i n k s between p a i r s o f economic a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e s  a t a geometric r a t e .  If a  system c o n s i s t s o f two-way l i n k s , then the r e l a t i o n between  2 3  Yavitz  and Stanback (1967)  ?4 ^ * Y a v i t z and Stanback (1967) , p. 13.  number o f nodes, N, and number o f nodes, N, and number o f 25  p o t e n t i a l l i n k s , L , i s g i v e n by: N  %  = N(N-l)  thus, N 0 1 2 3 4 5 etc,  V  N=4 L =12  N=2 N L  = 2  The  N  concentration  o f economic a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e CBD  suggests t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s M M opportunities are g r e a t e r  f o r linkage  f o r m a t i o n , and hence  t o take advantage o f e x t e r n a l  economies,  than elsewhere i n t h e r e g i o n . Spatial  Interaction  To use a phrase c o i n e d by Gottman, we l i v e i n a "transactional society"  a s o c i e t y i n which i n t e r a c t i o n  w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s i s becoming p a r t o f the d a i l y d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . ^ 2  external 25  I n t e r a c t i o n may be e i t h e r i n t e r n a l o r  t o the f i r m .  Cowan and F i n e  The g r e a t e r  the r e l i a n c e of a f i r m  (1969), p. 236.  26Gottman (1966), p. 206.  on  i n t e r n a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s the l e s s r e s t r i c t e d i t i s i n i t s  choice of l o c a t i o n .  C o n v e r s e l y , i f a f i r m uses  sources t o p r o v i d e c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s ,  external  i t s locational  freedom i s more l i m i t e d . In h i s "Communications Theory o f Urban Growth", Meier  2 7  p l a c e s much s t r e s s upon the importance o f f a c e - t o -  face contact i n explaining  the e x i s t e n c e o f urban c e n t r e s .  He argues t h a t the s u b t l e t i e s o f b u s i n e s s  transactions  makes telecommunications a poor s u b s t i t u t e  f o r personal  28 contact.  As w e l l , e m p i r i c a l  evidence o f the importance  of person-to-person c o n t a c t s as a l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r has 29 been uncovered i n surveys o f o f f i c e s . for  See Appendix A  r e s u l t s o f two surveys c a r r i e d out i n London.  "Meier  (1962) , p . 64.  28 Wise a r r i v e s a t a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n . He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t any s u b s t i t u t i o n t h a t takes p l a c e w i l l be more than o f f s e t by an i n c r e a s e d need f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . (Wise (1971), pp. 28^-29). Hawkes (1968), pp. 42-43, Tabor (1969), p. 5, Cowan e t a l (1969) . In two o f the s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out i n c e n t r a l London, the p r i n c i p l e f a c t o r governing the c h o i c e of l o c a t i o n was found t o be "contact w i t h e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s " and"proximity t o c l i e n t s " r e s p e c t i v e l y . Another f i n d i n g o f i n t e r e s t was t h a t o f 144 c e n t r a l f i r m s e x p r e s s i n g an i n t e n t t o seek a suburban l o c a t i o n , o n l y 12 f i n a l l y d i d so. The c h i e f reason g i v e n f o r remaining was " f e a r o f l o s s o f c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r f i r m s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s " (62%). Another study c a r r i e d out i n Leeds d i s c l o s e d t h a t 97% o f a l l f i r m s t h e r e used p e r s o n a l meeting as t h e i r main method o f c o n t a c t i n g customers and c l i e n t s . 29  37 A d d i t i o n a l evidence  of the importance of m i c r o -  l e v e l l o c a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by Goddard i n a r e c e n t l y r e p o r t e d study conducted w i t h C e n t r a l London o f f i c e s :  3n  Approximately o n e - t h i r d of the meetings took p l a c e o u t s i d e the respondents' p l a c e of work and t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e d t r a v e l . O n e - t h i r d of these business t r i p s were on f o o t and took l e s s than 10 minutes. The r e s u l t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the of the present  study and  tends to c o n f i r m the  of i n t e r a c t i o n as a l o c a t i o n a l 2.3  hypothesis  Office Location  importance  factor. Patterns  I t has been contended t h a t p a t t e r n s of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n w i l l be formed as a r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , e x t e r n a l economies and  spatial interaction.  T h i s s e c t i o n of  the Chapter w i l l b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s types l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s t h a t e x i s t i n the Simmons has interaction  of  CBD.  i d e n t i f i e d f i v e " b i a s e s " which e f f e c t  (and hence the l o c a t i o n and  spatial  pattern)  of economic a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the urban area i n a  systematic  way:31 1.  Distance P r o b a b i l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n d e c l i n e s w i t h or some surrogate  30Qoddard  (1971), p.  distance  such as c o s t , time or i n t e r v e n i n g 270.  31simmons (1968) develops these " b i a s e s " i n the form of v a r i o u s "flow m a t r i c e s " o f s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n .  38 opportunities. 2. R e c i p r o c i t y An i n t e r a c t i o n i n one d i r e c t i o n between two p o i n t s m o d i f i e s the l i k e l i h o o d o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n the reverse d i r e c t i o n .  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s inherent  i n a d i s t a n c e model i f the d i s t a n c e measure i s symmetrical. 3. I s l a n d E f f e c t Subsets may e x i s t among the s t a t e s such t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n among members o f the subset and  i s increased  i n t e r a c t i o n across the boundaries o f the subset  i s decreased. 4. Overlapping  Acquaintanceship  Some s t a t e s b e l o n g i n g  t o more than one subset a c t  as t r a n s f e r p o i n t s , c h a n n e l l i n g a l l i n t e r a c t i o n between two subsets. 5. Force  Field  L o c a t i o n s have i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d o f b e i n g s t a r t i n g p o i n t s o r end p o i n t s o f flows due t o c e r t a i n p r o p e r t i e s eg. p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , economic a c t i v i t y .  39 These b i a s e s r e s u l t i n the f o l l o w i n g s o r t s o f l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s emerging: 1. The d i s t a n c e and r e c i p r o c i t y b i a s e s w i l l i n the proximate l o c a t i o n types 2.  result  o f interdependent o f f i c e  (Fig. 1 ) .  The i s l a n d e f f e c t b i a s w i l l r e s u l t i n the i d e n t i f i cation  o f groups o f o f f i c e types t h a t tend t o l o c a t e (Fig. 2 ) .  together  3. The o v e r l a p p i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p b i a s w i l l  result  i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o f f i c e types which are common to more than a s i n g l e group  (Fig. 3).  4. The f o r c e f i e l d b i a s w i l l r e s u l t i n nodes around which groups o f o f f i c e types tend t o be c e n t e r e d (Fig.  4).  I t i s , however, not expected t h a t the p a t t e r n s o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n w i l l be c l e a r - c u t .  The correspondence between  form and process i s i m p e r f e c t because o f the e x i s t e n c e o f a number o f s p a t i a l i n e f f i c i e n c i e s . Spatial  i n e f f i c i e n c i e s arise f o r a variety of  reasons i n c l u d i n g 1. S t r u c t u r a l The  the  following:  Constraints  f r e e adjustment o f an a c t i v i t y ' s l o c a t i o n i s  40 1.  Distance  and R e c i p r o c i t y  CD  Biases'  C - A - B  Linked  2.  Island  Effect  Offices  O  CD  Bias  Areas o f L i n k e d Offices  3. O v e r l a p p i n g A c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p  S2  Bias  ^  O v e r l a p p i n g Areas of L i n k e d O f f i c e s  4.  Force  Field  £  Bias  Linked O f f i c e s Centred on a Node  Letters  ( e g . A,B,C, e t c . ) d e n o t e t y p e s  of  offices.  4  41 constrained  by the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f space.  The  l o c a t i o n a l preferences  o f some a c t i v i t i e s may  t h e r e f o r e not be met.  The s t r u c t u r e s themselves,  because o f t h e i r semi-permanence, r e f l e c t s made i n the p a s t .  In s h o r t , the present  decisions  location,  a v a i l a b i l i t y , and c o s t o f space i n s t r u c t u r e s does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t t h e a c t u a l l o c a t i o n a l preferences  o f t h e i r occupants.  2. Lack o f S p a t i a l M o b i l i t y Anomalies o f l o c a t i o n w i l l a l s o a r i s e because o f the u n w i l l i n g n e s s to market f o r c e s .  o f some a c t i v i t i e s t o respond C e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s seem t i e d  t o p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s because o f h i s t o r i c a l , p r e s t i g e , or goodwill  reasons r a t h e r than f o r any  l o c a t i o n a l advantages.  This i n e r t i a i s reinforced  by t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e n e s s  o f many f i r m s .  3. Long-term C o n t r a c t u a l  Commitments  D i s t o r t i o n o f the l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f a c t i v i t i e s may a l s o r e s u l t from long-term l e a s e agreements. As w e l l , r e - l o c a t i o n o f t e n i n v o l v e s  considerable  monetary expenditures and other d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s . 4. I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e s t r i c t i o n s Zoning and other b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s may prevent  42  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e s a t l o c a t i o n s a t which they a r e d e s i r e d . 5.  The L o c a t i o n  Decision  Most d e c i s i o n s o f l o c a t i o n a r e made on the b a s i s of imperfect  knowledge.  available information  And even when a l l the  i s taken i n t o account,  some compromises have t o be made s i n c e no s i n g l e l o c a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o provide  a l l the services  necessary.  X X X T h i s chapter has attempted t o p r o v i d e the remainder o f the study.  In the f i r s t  a focus f o r  s e c t i o n , i t was  i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s , u n l i k e many other  types  of a c t i v i t i e s once housed i n t h e CBD, have shown l i t t l e tendency t o suburbanize.  In the second s e c t i o n , i t was  argued t h a t t h e interdependencies  t h a t e x i s t between o f f i c e s  are o f such importance t h a t they outweigh any advantages o f f e r e d by suburban l o c a t i o n .  Moreover, t h e capture o f  e x t e r n a l economies r e s u l t s i n t h e formation of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the CBD.  of patterns  I t was t h e p a t t e r n i n g  of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s which has been the s u b j e c t o f the f i n a l section.  Although i m p e r f e c t i o n s  accommodation e x i s t  i n the r a t i o n i n g o f o f f i c e  i . e . there i s a l a g between form and  function  n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e should be tendencies f o r  p a t t e r n s o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n t o emerge.  In the case  study  of the Vancouver CBD t h a t f o l l o w s , i t i s hoped through the use o f v a r i o u s m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques uncover these s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o f l o c a t i o n .  to  CHAPTER I I I OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH 3.1  Data  Preparation  3.2  Multivariate Analysis  3.3  Summary o f Methodology  o f CBD O f f i c e s  CHAPTER I I I OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS:  A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH  Introduction E a r l i e r chapters have i n d i c a t e d why p a t t e r n s o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n should e x i s t , and the form these should t a k e .  The p r e s e n t chapter d e s c r i b e s  patterns  the methodology  undertaken t o e m p i r i c a l l y uncover the presence o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n patterns  i n the Vancouver CBD.  To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the u n d e r l y i n g  premise on which  the t e s t a b l e hypotheses o f the study were based was the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s o r l i n k a g e s  that  that e x i s t  between o f f i c e s would emerge as s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s  of l o c a t i o n .  Although some o f f i c e sub-areas c o u l d p o s s i b l y be i d e n t i f i e d by r a t h e r  simple u n i v a r i a t e techniques  (eg. d i r e c t mapping),  other s t u d i e s have shown t h i s approach t o be g e n e r a l l y inadequate t o uncover more complex i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A multivariate  approach*, by c o n t r a s t ,  can take i n t o  better  account the s p a t i a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s and d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t between o f f i c e s .  Functional  relationships  c o u l d then be i n f e r r e d from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the spatial relationships. *The a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out u s i n g the IBM 360 S e r i e s computer f a c i l i t i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. In p a r t i c u l a r , use was made o f a number o f package programmes: SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) , *FACTO (Factor a n a l y s i s ) , and *CGROUP (Hierarchical grouping). In a d d i t i o n , some programming was done by the w r i t e r i n t r a n s f o r m i n g the d a t a t o i t s f i n a l form.  45 3.1  Data P r e p a r a t i o n P r e l i m i n a r y t o proceeding w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l  a n a l y s i s , i t was necessary t o manipulate the data t o make i t conform w i t h the hypotheses /  b e i n g t e s t e d and the i n p u t  requirements o f the v a r i o u s s t a & s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s .  Only  an o u t l i n e o f the methodology used i n p r e p a r i n g the data i s p r o v i d e d here.  However, because i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the  steps taken a t t h i s p o i n t have an i n f l u e n c e on the r e s u l t s of  the subsequent  a n a l y s e s , the d e t a i l e d mechanics have  been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n v a r i o u s appendices.  Data The data u t i l i z e d i n t h i s case study owes i t s o r i g i n s t o a l a n d use survey conducted by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i n the e a r l y p a r t o f 1969. i t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y the type Industrial Classification  Through t h i s (by 3 - d i g i t  survey  Standard  (S.I.C.) number), l o c a t i o n (a  c o o r d i n a t e system was used), and s i z e  (square footage by  f l o o r ) o f a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n the Downtown Vancouver P e n i n s u l a and a d j a c e n t commercial  areas.*  Some t e c h n i c a l notes about the data have been i n c l u d e d i n Appendices B and C. Appendix B d e a l s w i t h the format and i n p u t medium o f the d a t a , w h i l e Appendix C d e s c r i b e s the c o o r d i n a t e system used i n Vancouver t o i n d i c a t e address o r location.  D e l i m i t i n g o f the Vancouver CBD A review o f r e c e n t r e p o r t s i s s u e d by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department f a i l e d t o uncover an o f f i c i a l l y t i o n e d d e f i n i t i o n o f the Vancouver CBD.  sanc-  Though many  r e f e r e n c e s were made t o the Vancouver CBD, there was a singular lack of consistency i n i t s d e l i m i t a t i o n * I t was, t h e r e f o r e , decided rigorous c r i t e r i a . of a technique  t o d e l i m i t the CBD u s i n g more  T h i s was done by u s i n g a m o d i f i c a t i o n  developed by Murphy and V a n c e .  1  Appendix D  d i s c u s s e s t h i s technique  and the method i n which i t was  adapted f o r t h i s study.  Map 2 i n d i c a t e s the boundaries  of t h e Vancouver CBD i n 1969 as determined by the use o f this  technique. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l i m i t i n g t h i s study t o the  CBD i s r a t h e r obvious.  The CBD i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged  as r e p r e s e n t i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f the urban h i e r a r c h y — i t has the g r e a t e s t number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,  the greatest  d i v e r s i t y o f a c t i v i t i e s , t h e h i g h e s t land v a l u e s , e t c . o f any area i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . of o f f i c e s t h a t e x i s t the CBD.  Thus, any p a t t e r n i n g  should be most e a s i l y evidenced i n  Moreover, Murphy and Vance s t a t e " . . . i t  i s only  through the use of a s t a n d a r d i z e d method o f d e l i n e a t i o n t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t comparisons o f CBD's a r e p o s s i b l e . " M u r p h y and Vance  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 187-220.  Murphy and Vance  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 188.  2  2  48 D e f i n i t i o n of O f f i c e s To d i f f e r e n t i a t e between o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s  and  o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s on the b a s i s of S.I.C. numbers, i n many cases, proved  exceedingly  difficult.  Commenting on the d i f f i c u l t y of u s i n g S.T.C. 3 coding i n determining CBD  l a n d use, L a r r y Smith  has  written: The very u s e f u l Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual has been w i d e l y used i n s t u d y i n g the f u n c t i o n s of the CBD, but i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n by i n d u s t r i e s i n s t e a d of by f u n c t i o n makes i t cumbersome. W i t h i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i t may l i s t f u n c t i o n s such as headquarter o f f i c e s not r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as CBD f u n c t i o n s ; whereas, o t h e r f u n c t i o n s , such as p a r k i n g , are not segregated f o r study to the extent necessary f o r ready r e f e r e n c e . A few examples are c i t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . B l o e d e l Co. L t d . , a l a r g e f o r e s t products  MacMillan  firm i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, i s c l a s s i f i e d by the S.T.C. code as 241 Camps & Logging  Contractors".  economy of B r i t i s h Columbia may office.  A person u n f a m i l i a r w i t h not i n c l u d e t h i s as  the  an  In other i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e i s an o v e r l a p between  o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . example, may building.  Wholesalers,- f o r  operate from e i t h e r a warehouse or an  Smith  office  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n p l a c e of o p e r a t i o n are not,  however, d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e u s i n g S.I.C. numbers.  3  "Logging  (1961), p.  354.  Furthermore,  49  any d e f i n i t i o n o f o f f i c e s i s bound t o c o n t a i n elements of arbitrariness.  A bank, f o r example, i s t y p i c a l l y  thought  to be an o f f i c e - t y p e a c t i v i t y y e t from the p o i n t o f view o f the average customer, the s e r v i c e s i t performs  are c l o s e l y  a k i n t o the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by a r e t a i l a c t i v i t y such as a t r a v e l agent.  To "draw the l i n e " i s no easy t a s k .  A t h r e e - s t e p procedure was used i n d e t e r m i n i n g o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n the CBD.  F i r s t , the d e f i n i t i o n  of o f f i c e s by S.I.C. numbers developed by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department f o l l o w i n g completion o f the survey from which t h a t d a t a f o r t h i s study was o b t a i n e d was c o n s i d e r e d a f i r s t approximation.  Second, t h e d e f i n i t i o n was e n l a r g e d  u s i n g c r i t e r i a o f s i z e , f l o o r and l o c a t i o n .  Lastly, i n  cases where doubt s t i l l p e r s i s t e d , the areas were v i s i t e d . The S.I.C. numbers which appeared  to represent o f f i c e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were then c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s which performed  similar functions.  F u r t h e r d e t a i l s on t h i s  procedure are found i n Appendix E. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f o f f i c e s u t i l i z e d , and the S.I.C. numbers comprising them, are shown i n Table  5.  The A r e a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f O f f i c e s To o f f s e t , t o some e x t e n t , the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t e d i n the s i z e o f a r e a ! measure ( i . e . the f l o o r area of o f f i c e space i n each b l o c k - f r o n t ) i t was d e c i d e d t o  50  TABLE 5 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFICES Variable No. and Name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18l 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30, 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.  American S.I.C. Nos. Included* .  AGRIC 11,13,71,73 FOREST 85,86,89 FISH 98 MINING 101,102,104,106 ,108, 109 PETRO 131,138 QUARRY 141,142,148,149 GENCONTR 151 SPECCONT 173,179 204,208,209 FOOD TEXTILE 225,229 231,233,238,239 CLOTH LUMBER 241,242,249 PAPER 262,264 PRINT 271,274,275,279 ELMACH . 366,369 384,387 PROFEQ MANUF 391,396 MISCMAN 399 401,404 TRANSP WATERTR 441,445,446 TRSERV 471,472 COMM 481,482,483,489 UTILITY 492,493,495 WHOLESL 502,503,504,505 ,506, 507,508?509 602,605,609 BANKING 611,614,615,616,619 CREDIT 621,623,628,629 SECURITY INSUR 631,632,636 MISCINS 641,649 651,653,655,659,661 REALEST HOLDCO 671,672,679 ADVERT 731 732,733,734,735 ,736, 739 MISCBS MEDICAL 801,802,803,804 ,807, 809 LEGAL 811 EDUC 829 861,862,863,864 ,865, 866,867,869 NPORG ENGINEER 891 ACCT 893 GOVT 910,920,930 INTGOVT 940  General Type of Activities. Agriculture Forestry Fisheries Metal Mining Petroleum Quarrying General Contracting Special Trade Contractors Food Manufacturing T e x t i l e Manufacturing Apparel Manufacturing Lumber & Wood Products Paper Products P r i n t i n g & Publishing E l e c t r i c a l Machinery Professional Equipment Novelty Manufacturing Miscellaneous Manufacturing Railroad Transportation Water Transportation Transportation Services Communications U t i l i t y Services wholesale Trade Banking Credit Agencies Security Insurance Carriers Insurance Agents Real Estate Holding Companies Advertising Misc. Business Services Medical Services Legal Services Educational Services Non-Profit Organizations Engineering Accounting Canadian Government International Government  *See Appendix F f o r interpretation of S.I.C. numbers.  51 express the d i s t r i b u t i o n of o f f i c e s i n terms of percentages.* To take i n t o account aspects of both s i z e and frequency w i t h which o f f i c e s were d i s t r i b u t e d a "weighted" d i s t r i b u t i o n was  utilized.  d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix G.  percentage  The method t h a t was  used i s  As a f i n a l step i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  o f the data f o r m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , the data was by an a r c s i n e square r o o t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  normalized  The motive f o r  doing so and the procedure used i s d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix 3.2  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of CBD  H.  Offices  Having d e l i m i t e d the boundaries o f the CBD,  defined  o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and transformed the data i n t o u s a b l e form, i t i s now  p o s s i b l e t o proceed w i t h the main a n a l y s i s .  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the transformed data i s used as the i n p u t f o r a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and a grouping  analysis.  Before p r o c e e d i n g , a few words o f c a u t i o n need be expressed.  The r e s u l t s emerging from t h i s case study  cannot  be regarded as c o n c l u s i v e evidence t h a t a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n ship e x i s t s .  At best  of the h y p o t h e s i s .  they r e p r e s e n t an i n d i r e c t v a l i d a t i o n  The t h r e e t e s t a b l e hypotheses  formulated  w h i l e b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s do not exhaust the realm of p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s phenomenon.  In other words, a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s not taken  account i n t h i s study may CBD  office  into  be u n d e r l y i n g the p a t t e r n s of  location.  *An obvious weakness e x i s t s i n t h i s approach: The g r e a t e r the f l o o r area i n a p a r t i c u l a r b l o c k the more heterogeneous the composition of o f f i c e s i s l i k e l y t o be.  52  Two Factor  a n a l y t i c techniques were used i n t h i s study.  a n a l y s i s was  c a r r i e d out to reduce the  dimensionality  of the v a r i a b l e s i n t o fewer composite v a r i a b l e s .  Second,  a grouping a n a l y s i s was  the  factor analysis. and  a p p l i e d to the r e s u l t s of  A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of these techniques  t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h i s study Factor  follows.  Analysis  A prime motive f o r proceeding w i t h a f a c t o r  analysis  i s because of d a t a - r e d u c i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h i s t e c h n i q u e . Factor  a n a l y t i c techniques reduce the d i m e n s i o n a l i t y  of  the  o r i g i n a l s e t of v a r i a b l e s on the b a s i s o f the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n the d a t a . eliminates and  a l l redundent f a c t o r s w i t h i n  generates an u n d e r l y i n g  cted  Basically, factor a s e t of  s e t of o r t h o g o n a l  analysis variables  ( i . e . uncorre-  or independent) f a c t o r s or composite v a r i a b l e s . A v a r i e t y of r e l a t e d mathematical procedures comes  under the g e n e r i c  t i t l e of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s .  A commonly  used v a r i a n t known as p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s i s the method employed i n t h i s study. Without d e l v i n g  i n t o the mathematical aspects of  t h i s technique^, what p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s does  F o r a more r i g o r o u s , y e t e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d , d e s c r i p t i o n of f a c t o r a n a l y t i c techniques, the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o Rummell (1967).  i s f i r s t s e l e c t the l i n e a r combination o f v a r i a b l e s b e s t accounts f o r the v a r i a n c e  i n the data as a whole.  A second f a c t o r i s then d e f i n e d using  the c r i t e r i a  (1)  o r t h o g o n a l t o the f i r s t .  variance  the second f a c t o r i s  In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n a t h i r d and  subsequent f a c t o r s are e x t r a c t e d becomes zero.  from the r e s i d u a l  i t i s the next "best" l i n e a r  combination o f v a r i a b l e s and (2)  variance  that  u n t i l the r e s i d u a l  In g e n e r a l ,  w i t h p r i n c i p a l components  a n a l y s i s the number o f f a c t o r s equals the number o f the o r i g i n a l set of v a r i a b l e s . The  amount o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e  accounted f o r by a  f a c t o r i s i n d i c a t e d by a number c a l l e d an e i g e n v a l u e .  A  standard c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the number o f f a c t o r s to r e t a i n f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s i s an e i g e n v a l u e o f 1.0 t h a t i s , only  those f a c t o r s a c c o u n t i n g f o r a t l e a s t the  amount o f average v a r i a n c e  o f a v a r i a b l e a r e t r e a t e d as  significant. P r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s t h e r e f o r e  was used  i n t h i s study t o reduce t h e number o f o f f i c e c l a s s e s t o a smaller  set of f a c t o r s .  The f a c t o r s are comprised o f  groups o f o f f i c e s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d i n t h i s case, s p a t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d block-fronts.  o r found i n the same  By examining the c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s which  load h i g h l y on a f a c t o r , i n f e r e n c e s existence  w i t h one a n o t h e r - —  of o f f i c e  linkages.  may be made about the  54 A fundamental assumption o f t e n v i o l a t e d i n  applying  m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques to a r e a l data concerns the independence of each o b s e r v a t i o n i s known as a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n .  of a v a r i a b l e .  This  Each of the b l o c k - f r o n t s  used  as a measure of a r e a l data i s not independent o f a d j a c e n t block-fronts.  However, no s a t i s f a c t o r y method e x i s t s f o r  c o r r e c t i n g t h i s problem.^ Grouping The the i n p u t s  Analysis  r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s were used i n t o a grouping a n a l y s i s .  Grouping was  done  on the b a s i s o f p r o f i l e s i m i l a r i t y , i . e . s i m i l a r i t y scores  on each s u b j e c t .  The  In  " t r e e - i n g " p r o c e s s , p a i r s of groups are  i v e l y combined u n t i l a s i n g l e group c o n t a i n i n g o r i g i n a l subjects  results.  an e r r o r term i s g i v e n .  of  c r i t e r i a used i n forming  groups i s t o minimize w i t h i n group v a r i a t i o n . iterative  as  At each step of the  an progress-  a l l of  the  grouping  By viewing the increments of  e r r o r term i t i s u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y a p o i n t  the at  which a n a t u r a l number of groups i s i n d i c a t e d by a substant i a l increase  i n the e r r o r term  ( i . e . combining of  d i s s i m i l a r groups).  The  was  f a c t o r scores  the s t a n d a r d i z e d  Block-fronts  i n p u t t o the grouping programme on each b l o c k - f r o n t .  which have high f a c t o r scores  Cherukupalle  two  (n.d.), p.  27.  are  locations  a t which grouping o f o f f i c e s a r e most pronounced. Grouping  a n a l y s i s was attempted  on two l e v e l s .  F i r s t , grouping was done on s i n g l e f a c t o r s . expected  I t was  t h a t t h i s would r e s u l t i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  o f f i c e sub-areas w i t h i n the CBD.  A second grouping was  done on the combined p r o f i l e o f a l l s i g n i f i c a n t  factors.  T h i s was intended t o i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t t o which o f f i c e groups were i n t e g r a t e d w i t h one another.  The r e s u l t s o f  the two s e t s o f grouping analyses were then p l o t t e d on maps t o see i f s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c o u l d be 3.3  identified. Summary o f Methodology The p r e c e d i n g methodology i s e a s i e s t summarized  by a flow diagram.  T h i s i s shown i n F i g u r e 5. I n the  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , r e s u l t s o f the analyses a r e g i v e n .  56  FIGURE 5 Flowchart of Methodology  Data D e l i m i t i n g of CBD  S3 o  D e f i n i n g of O f f i c e E s t a b l i s h ments ( v a r i a b l e s )  H EH  <  w CM  D e f i n i n g of A r e a l U n i t of O b s e r v a t i o n (subjects)  Pi  CM ><  EH  •< Q  Conversion t o Percentage .—vData T r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o Normalize  uH COH  EH co co H  Factor  Analysis  >n  i-3  Ej  <  EH CO  <:  Grouping  Analysis  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of R e s u l t s — * D co  I  Conclusions  »  CHAPTER IV OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS IN THE VANCOUVER CBD 4.1  Preliminary  Results  4.2  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the F a c t o r  4.3  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f O f f i c e Groups i n the CBD  4.4  Grouping A n a l y s i s - I  4.5  D e l i n e a t i o n o f Sub-areas i n the CBD  4.6  Grouping A n a l y s i s - I I  4.7  Complex F a c t o r s  4.8  O f f i c e Area R e l a t i o n s h i p  Structure  CHAPTER IV OFFICE LOCATION PATTERNS IN THE VANCOUVER CBD Results  o f the f a c t o r and grouping analyses  undertaken t o d i s c o v e r  s p a t i a l patterns  i n the Vancouver CBD a r e r e p o r t e d analyses sought to v e r i f y t h a t  of o f f i c e  location  i n t h i s chapter.  The  (1) t h e r e would be groups  of o f f i c e s t h a t showed t e n d e n c i e s t o l o c a t e i n p r o x i m i t y to one another  (Hypothesis 1 ) ; (2) groups o f o f f i c e s t h a t  were s p a t i a l l y l o c a t e d tended t o form i d e n t i f i a b l e subareas w i t h i n  the CBD (Hypothesis 2 ) ; and (3) t h e r e i s a  f u n c t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e areas i n the CBD (Hypothesis 3 ) . 4 .1  Preliminary An  Results  i n t e r m e d i a t e step i n t h e f a c t o r  procedure i n v o l v e s  analysis  c a l c u l a t i o n of a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix.  T h i s m a t r i x c o r r e l a t e s the degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i r s o f v a r i a b l e s .  With 41 v a r i a b l e s  there a r e 820 p o s s i b l e p a i r s o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , 105 of which proved t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 c r i t e r i o n level.  The r e s u l t s a r e d i s p l a y e d  i n Table 6.  The  c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of each o f the f a c t o r s . The  c o r r e l a t i o n s observed a r e s t r i c t l y an  i n d i c a t i o n o f s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n the a r e a l u n i t  58  TABLE 6  SIGNIFICANT INTERCORRELATIONS FOR EACH VARIABLE (0.05 Level of Significance) VARIABLES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 25. 26. 27. 30. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.  38. 39.  65(6) 41(32) 34(12) 24(20) 59(41) 43(27) 35 (21) 52(39) 41(32) 42(19) 31(35) 49(28) 37(33) 28(27) 59(15) 49 (39) 29(40) 27(17) TEXTILE 57(20) 49(28) CLOTH 41(17) 29(16) LUMBER 72 (15) 59(20) PAPER 25 (41) 24(32) PRINT 51(36) ELMACH 57(20) 41(39) PROFEQ 27(34) 25(41) MANUF 35(34) 31(33) MISCMAN •27(27) TRANSP 38(35) 35(27) WATERTR 41(27) 24(28) TRSERV 31(31) COMM -27(24)-27(33) BANKING 34(31) CREDIT 32(30) 26(35) SECURITY 35(30) REALEST 30(31)-28(37) ADVERT 52(39) 39(33) MISBS 50(39) 29(35) MEDICAL 37(35) 25(37) LEGAL 34(39) 28(41) EDUC 25(39) ENGINEER 34(39) 25(40) ACCT 27(40)  AGRIC FOREST FISH MINING PETRO QUARRY GENCONTR SPECCONT FOOD  28(11) 24(35) 24(38) 34(26) 31(9) 31(32) 29(15)  30(39) 25(6) 24(30) 25(15) 25(38) 28(10) 28(39)  45(33) 25(36) 45(15) 29(24) 53(19)  40(10) 39(20) 35(19) 33(35) 31(32) 26(18) 26(36) 37(27)  38(19). 35(27) 34(38) 29(32) 26(18) 25(17) 27(24) 35(41) 35(20) 30(39) 24(33) 24(21)  39(35) 25(38) 29(40) 24(38)  Only correlations (from the upper t r i a n g l e of a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix) above 0.240 are included and the decimal point has been dropped. Brackets contain variable numbers l i s t e d i n descending order of significance.  59 (facing block-fronts)  and t h e r e f o r e  can be presumed t o  underestimate the a c t u a l degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n .  Office  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s undoubtedly have l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r outside  firms  o f the a r e a l u n i t . Sixteen  factors with eigenvalues of greater  than  1.0 r e s u l t e d from the p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s . Together they account f o r s l i g h t l y more than 75% o f the variance-covariance The  s t r u c t u r e o f the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s .  remaining 25 f a c t o r s have l e s s than average e x p l a n a t o r y  capabilities.  The g e n e r a l  meaning o f 16 e x t r a c t e d  factors  i s t h a t the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f the 41 c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s previously defined  can be reduced t o 16 u n d e r l y i n g  common  dimensions o r o f f i c e groups, which account f o r approximately three-quarters  o f CBD o f f i c e l o c a t i o n .  To f u r t h e r s i m p l i f y the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s , a varimax r o t a t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l specified.  f a c t o r s o l u t i o n was  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between each o f the s i x t e e n  f a c t o r s and t h e v a r i a b l e s i s shown i n Table 7.  The meaning  of the f a c t o r s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  section.  4.2  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Factor Classes  describe  Structure  o f o f f i c e s which l o a d h i g h l y on a f a c t o r  common p a t t e r n s  of s p a t i a l association  of o f f i c e s t h a t a r e t y p i c a l l y found t o g e t h e r .  groups Table 7  60  TABLE 7 FACTOR LOADING ON 41 OFFICE CLASSES (VARIMAX ROTATED)  VARIABLES 1 . AGRIC 2 . FOREST :3. FISH 4 . MINING 5 . PETRO 6 . QUARRY 7 . GENCONTR 8 . SPECCONT 9. FOOD 10. TEXTILE 1 1 . CLOTH 12. LUMBER 13. PAPER 14. PRINT 15. ELMACH 16. PROFEQ 17. MANUF 18. MISCMAN 19. TRANSP 20. WATERTR 2 1 . TRSERV 22. COMM 2 3 . UTILITY 24. WHOLESL 25. BANKING 26. CREDIT 27. SECURITY 2 8 . INSUR 29. MISINS 30. REALEST 3 1 . HOLDCO 32. ADVERT 33. MISCBS 34. MEDICAL 35. LEGAL 36. EDUC 37. NPGRG 38. ENGINEER 39. ACCT 40. GOVT 4 1 . INTGOVT  I  * * * :+57 *  * * * +61 * * * * * +44 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * +64  +64  * * * * +53  +79 +61  .*  II III  *  -55  * * * * * * * * * -89  +93  * * * * +83  IV  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  * * * * * * * * * * -71 * * * * * +50 * * * -50 * -65 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * .* * * * * -44 * * * * * * * * * * :* * +45 * * * * * * +81* * * +44 * * * * +40* * * .* * * * * * * * *. *  •><. v  :• * **  * * * * +70  * * * * * * * * * * * * * -^45 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * +52 * * **  v FACTORS y VI VII VIII IX  * * +80  * * * * * *  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  * * * * +48 * * * +81 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * +44 * * * * * * * * * * * * -78 * * * * +82 * * * * * :• * * * * -69* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * +86 * *  * * * * * *  -41  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * +40 * * * * * *  -73  Only l o a d i n g s above 0.400 have been i n c l u d e d .  * * * * * * * * * * * *  X  XI XII  * * * * * * * * * * ;* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * +80 * * * * +91* * * * +83 * * * * * * * +68 * * +40 * * * * * * :• * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * :• * • * * * * * * * * * +84 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  XIII XIV  * * *  -79  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -43  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -43  XV XVI  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -81  * -42 * +81 * * .* * * * -54 * * -44 * * * * * * * * -47 * * * •* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  * * * * -40  * * * * * * * * * * * * -78 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  The d e c i m a l has been d r o p p e d .  61 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the 16 s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s d i f f e r markedly i n t h e i r degree o f complexity.  Some a r e s i n g l e v a r i a b l e  f a c t o r s which would tend t o i n d i c a t e t h a t they have few linkages  w i t h o t h e r CBD o f f i c e s / w h i l e o t h e r s a r e comprised  of s e v e r a l high l o a d i n g v a r i a b l e s which i n d i c a t e s t h a t they haveslmilar  l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and c o u l d be regarded  as s p a t i a l l y - l i n k e d . For highest  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f a c t o r s only the  factor loading  on each v a r i a b l e has been c o n s i d e r e d .  That i s , each o f the 41 v a r i a b l e s  (office classes) i s  c o n s i d e r e d a member o f only a s i n g l e f a c t o r  ( o f f i c e group).  O f f i c e c l a s s e s which load h i g h l y on more than a s i n g l e factor are considered a t a l a t e r point  i n t h i s chapter.  In F i g . 6, each o f t h e 41 o f f i c e c l a s s e s has been grouped by t h e f a c t o r on which i t loads most h i g h l y and the s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s bonds between p a i r s o f a c t i v i t i e s drawn i n .  T h i s diagram i l l u s t r a t e s the complex  manner i n which o f f i c e c l a s s e s a r e s p a t i a l l y - l i n k e d . As w e l l , i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t two types o f bondings e x i s t t o link office classes.  The within-group bonds  (between  members o f a f a c t o r ) show t h a t o f f i c e s grouped together u s u a l l y have strong  i n t e r n a l bondings  s t a t i s t i c a l l y associated  ( i . e . they a r e  w i t h each o t h e r ) .  A second type  of bonding, between-group bonds, i s a l s o e v i d e n t .  These  are i n d i c a t e d by s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between o f f i c e s  62  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  0_ UJ  o  Lu  o  AGRIC FOREST FISH MINING PETRO QUARRY GENCONTR SPECCONT FOOD TEXTILE CLOTH  12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.  LUMBER PAPER PRINT ELM AO! PROFEQ MANUF MI SOMAN T:;ANSP WATERTR TRSERV  22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 2'8. 29. 30. 31.  COMM UTILITY h'HOLESL BANKING CREDIT SECURITY .INSUR MISCINS REALEST HOLDCO  32. 33. 34. 35. 36. -37. 38. 39. 40. 41.  ADVERT MISCBS MEDICAL LEGAL "EDUC NPORG ENGINEER ACCT GOVT INTGOVT  VI/ (41 15.  391 f38  IX  (  (29)  !  35 XIV! 'Mi  IS  6  CORRELATIONS  \\*3)  BETWEEN OFFICE TYPES SION I F I.CANT AT 0 .1) 5 LEVEL  SIGNIFICANT ON CORRELATE  b e l o n g i n g t o d i f f e r e n t groups o f o f f i c e s .  Because of the  l a r g e number of o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and the l i m i t e d numbers of p o s s i b l e undoubtedly  locations  f o r these e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,  some s p u r i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n s have a r i s e n .  m a j o r i t y of the cases, however, the s p a t i a l would appear t o have some f u n c t i o n a l  In  associations  significance.  I n t u i t i v e l y , a t l e a s t , they seem t o make sense.  Single-Office  Groups  In the case o f f a c t o r s comprised high loading group bonds.  of o n l y a s i n g l e  c l a s s o f o f f i c e s , t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y no Moreover, the s i n g l e - o f f i c e groups  within  generally  show few s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r o f f i c e s . I t t h e r e f o r e makes v e r y l i t t l e  sense t o i n t e r p r e t  f a c t o r s except t o note t h a t g e n e r a l l y  these  offices in this  category appear t o be l o c a t i o n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t - — t h e y no obvious p r e f e r e n c e f o r l o c a t i o n s  i n the CBD.  show  In some  cases, the l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s a r i s e s because of the u n i t of a r e a l measurement being used. a c t i v i t i e s are found i n o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s occupant  i s a single firm.  Some types o f  i n which the  In other cases, s i n g l e  sole  office-  groups probably a r i s e because t h e s e types of o f f i c e s do  not  have any s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other o f f i c e s e i t h e r because they serve a g r e a t v a r i e t y of d i f f e r ent c l i e n t e l e and have no p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e ,  64  or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , because they i n f a c t do not have any need to come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h other o f f i c e s and a r e l o c a t i o n a l l y "footloose."  S i n c e the study i s p r i m a r i l y intended t o  d i s c o v e r p a t t e r n s o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n , i t was decided t o i g n o r e o f f i c e s showing no apparent Consequently,  l o c a t i o n a l preferences.  F a c t o r s IX, XI, XIV, XV, and XVI have been  ignored i n the subsequent a n a l y s e s .  As w e l l , F a c t o r V  was a l s o i g n o r e d though i t was comprised classes.  of 3 o f f i c e  The members o f t h i s group o f o f f i c e s , however,  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , the remaining  factors  are i n t e r p r e t e d one a t a time t o i s o l a t e the common elements shared by each group o f o f f i c e s .  Of p r i n c i p l e concern i n  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f each f a c t o r a r e the within-group The  bonds.  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the between-group bonds i s l e f t t o a  l a t e r stage o f t h i s  study.  S t r u c t u r e o f the Remaining F a c t o r s 1. F a c t o r I i s a Headquarter, Government & P r o f e s s i o n a l Business S e r v i c e s Group. 1  The p r i n c i p l e c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s comprising  this  f a c t o r a r e petroleum-based f i r m s (PETRO), food manufacturers  (FOOD), a d v e r t i s i n g agencies  (ADVERT),  m i s c e l l a n e o u s business s e r v i c e s (MISCBS), e n g i n e e r i n g  consultants and  (ENGINEER), a c c o u n t i n g f i r m s  government (GOVT).  manufacturers h i g h l y on  (ACCT),  E l e c t r i c a l machinery  (ELMACH) a l s o loads r e l a t i v e l y  this factor.  t h i s group are  Most of the  highly correlated  However, i n c o n t r a s t to the  offices  w i t h one  in  another.  other o f f i c e s i n  group, n e i t h e r petroleum-based f i r m s nor  this  government  o f f i c e s show many between-group bonds.  The  few  linkages that petroleum-offices  government o f f i c e s have i s i n d i c a t i v e fact that (2)  (1)  they are  r e l a t i v e l y few  many of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s are  and,  (3)  occupy.  they o f t e n own  the  These o f f i c e s may  the  i n number,  internalized,  therefore  s t i m u l u s f o r the  of t h i s group.  This i s further  the  of  b u i l d i n g s which they  c o n s i d e r e d the  by  and  be  o t h e r members substantiated  l a c k of a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between  petroleum o f f i c e s and I n t u i t i v e l y , one  government o f f i c e s .  might expect the  o f f i c e s to have f u n c t i o n a l a great v a r i e t y  remaining  relationships  of d i f f e r e n t  with  o f f i c e s s i n c e they  p r o v i d e many h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d  services.  Viewed i n t h i s c o n t e x t , i t becomes obvious t h a t \ this factor  r e p r e s e n t s an amalgam of Headquarter'!  Government and  P r o f e s s i o n a l Business S e r v i c e s .  1  66 2. F a c t o r I I i s a F o r e s t - I n d u s t r y The  Group.  group of o f f i c e s comprising  f o r e s t r y firms  t h i s f a c t o r are:  (FOREST), lumber products  E l e c t r i c a l machinery manufacturers  (ELMACH),  r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (TRANSP), and transportation  (WATERTR).  (LUMBER),  water  As w e l l , t h i s f a c t o r  shares a h i g h l o a d i n g on s e c u r i t y f i r m s  (SECURITY)  with F a c t o r X I I I . Although the c l a s s e s of o f f i c e s comprising, f a c t o r show many within-group  this  bonds, a l l of  the  v a r i a b l e s with the e x c e p t i o n of f o r e s t r y and lumbering product  f i r m s have numerous s i g n i f i c a n t  between-group bonds as w e l l .  I t i s the presence  o f the f o r e s t - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s which i s the c a t a l y s t f o r the l o c a t i o n of other members of t h i s group.  T h i s f a c t o r thus seems to d e s c r i b e i  o f f i c e s r e l a t e d to f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s . 3. F a c t o r I I I i s a Earth-based The  /  group.  c l a s s e s of o f f i c e s comprising  this factor  are a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e s and q u a r r y i n g (AGRIC and QUARRY r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The  firms high  c o r r e l a t i o n between a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e s quarrying firms  and  (r=0.65) would i n d i c a t e t h a t  these  c l a s s e s of a c t i v i t i e s share a s p a t i a l a f f i n i t y f o r  67  one another.  Advertising offices  loads r e l a t i v e l y h i g h on t h i s  (ADVERT) a l s o  factor.  The nature o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s would tend t o suggest t h a t they share a common i n t e r e s t exploitation:  i n land  i n one case i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l use  (AGRTC), and i n the other t h e e x t r a c t i n g o f r e s o u r c e s from the ground  (QUARRY).  group o f o f f i c e s can be termed factor.  I t i s interesting  As such, t h i s  a "earth-based"  t o note t h a t QUARRY has  s i g n i f i c a n t bondings w i t h both mining a c t i v i t i e s (MINING) and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s  (TRANSP)  w h i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s do n o t . 4.  F a c t o r IV i s a Consumer-oriented  Group.  The c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s forming t h i s group a r e n o v e l t y manufacturers  (MANUF), medical o f f i c e s  (MEDICAL) and l e g a l s e r v i c e s organizations factor  (LEGAL).  Non-profit  (NPORG) loads f a i r l y h i g h l y on t h i s  as w e l l as on F a c t o r V.  Only medical  o f f i c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the o t h e r o f f i c e s i n t h i s group.  T h i s suggests t h a t  some o t h e r reason other than f u n c t i o n a l i s the main reason f o r the o f f i c e group.  associations Although  admittedly s p e c u l a t i v e , i t seems q u i t e reasonable to assume t h a t the common element  shared by  68  m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , l e g a l s e r v i c e s , and manufacturing i s a need t o be public.  novelty  accessible  T h i s group of o f f i c e s are  They t h e r e f o r e  a "consumer-oriented s e r v i c e s " 5.  may  the  influenced  t h e i r l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n by a need to be to t h e . p u b l i c .  to  be  in  convenient  considered  factor.  F a c t o r VI i s probably a s p u r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  This  f a c t o r i s ignored i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . Two  c l a s s e s of o f f i c e s comprise t h i s f a c t o r :  f i s h e r i e s !(FISH) and (INTGOVT).  Although t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n  between f i s h e r i e s and offices  i n t e r n a t i o n a l government  (r=.59)  i s unknown and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l government  the b a s i s  f o r the  relationship  would appear s p u r i o u s .  l o c a t i o n a l pattern  i s therefore  Their  l i k e l y to be  non-  systematic . 6.  F a c t o r VII The  i s an i n s u r a n c e group.  groups of o f f i c e s comprising t h i s f a c t o r  general contractors  (GENCONT), t e x t i l e manufacturers  (TEXTILE), and  i n s u r a n c e companies  transportation  (WATERTR) a l s o loads f a i r l y  on t h i s f a c t o r .  are:  (INSUR).  Water highly  A l l of the c l a s s e s of o f f i c e s  except insurance companies have s e v e r a l  between-  69  group bonds.  T h i s suggests: t h a t t h i s group o f  o f f i c e s be c o n s i d e r e d an " i n s u r a n c e " f a c t o r s i n c e it  appears t h a t i t i s the presence o f i n s u r a n c e  companies which a t t r a c t s the other c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s found  i n t h i s group.  7 . Factor VIII i s a f i n a n c i a l  1  groupj-  The group o f o f f i c e s comprising F a c t o r V I I I are banks and s i m i l a r  financial institutions  and h o l d i n g and investment  (BANKING)  companies (HOLDCO).  The presence o f o n l y a s i n g l e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n group bond i n t h i s group o f o f f i c e s  probably  i n d i c a t e s t h a t these c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s should have been more f i n e l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d .  The few s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s with other o f f i c e groups i n d i c a t e s t h a t f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e not s p a t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r  types o f o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s  (except h o l d i n g and investment group o f o f f i c e s comprising "financial"in  companies).  t h i s factor are c l e a r l y  nature.  8 . F a c t o r X i s an A n c i l l a r y  S e r v i c e s Group.  Two c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s comprise t h i s printing (EDUC).  The  factor:  s e r v i c e s (PRINT) and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s These o f f i c e s have a s t r o n g  within-group  70 bonding  (r=0.51) (the h i g h e s t s i g n i f i c a n t between-  group bond i s o n l y 0.27).  The  nature of  the  s e r v i c e s these o f f i c e s p r o v i d e s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t t h i s group of o f f i c e s be  c o n s i d e r e d as a  "ancillary services"  They have a need to  be  readily accessible  types of o f f i c e s and to any  particular  9. F a c t o r XII The  factor.  to a great variety hence are  c l a s s of  not  of  highly  different correlated  offices.  i s a l i g h t manufacturing group.  p r i n c i p l e c l a s s e s of o f f i c e s comprising  factor  are  professional  a p p a r e l manufacturing  (CLOTH)  equipment manufacturing  N o v e l t y manufacturing  (MANUF) a l s o  From the  and  (PROFEQ).  loads s i g n i f i c a n t l y  on  this factor.  it  seems e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s group of o f f i c e s  a " l i g h t manufacturing"  this  nature of t h e i r p r o d u c t s , comprise  factor.  10. F a c t o r XIII i s a Mining A c t i v i t y Group. The  group of o f f i c e s comprising F a c t o r X I I I  mining companies  (MINING), t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  (TRSERV), c r e d i t agencies  (CREDIT),  are  services  security  companies(SECURITY), and  r e a l estate firms  Mining companies are  c l a s s of o f f i c e which loads  h i g h e s t on  the  this factor.  The  within-group  (REALEST).  correlations  shows t h a t mining a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o r r e l a t e d  with a l l  o f the other c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s i n t h i s group. can  be i n f e r r e d  It  t h a t i t i s mining company o f f i c e s  which draw the other o f f i c e s i n t h i s group i n t o i t s orbit.  This factor  "mining a c t i v i t y " 4.3  Identification The  factor.  o f O f f i c e Groups i n the CBD  interpretation  intercorrelation  t h e r e f o r e can be c o n s i d e r e d a  of factors  e x t r a c t e d from the  o f o f f i c e s lends some credence t o  Hypothesis 1, namely: Groupings o f interdependent o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s are i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h i n the CBD. However, not a l l o f f i c e s showed any tendency t o form groups w i t h other o f f i c e s .  I t would be o v e r - t a x i n g the l i m i t s o f  t h i s study t o i n f e r t h a t o f f i c e s having few within-group or between-group bonds are prime c a n d i d a t e s f o r suburban re-location,  although i n some cases t h i s may be t r u e .  However, about t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s did  form, i . e . two o r more c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s having s i g n i -  f i c a n t within-group c o r r e l a t i o n s .  In a d d i t i o n , i n many  cases, i t appears t h a t t h e b a s i s o f the s p a t i a l of o f f i c e s i s f u n c t i o n a l l y  justified.  association  That i s , the i m p l i e d  l i n k a g e s between d i f f e r e n t  c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s makes i n t u i t i v e  sense.  t h a t f o r a t l e a s t some types o f  I t can be i n f e r r e d  72  o f f i c e s , s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s are analogous t o f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h a t form and process are t h e r e f o r e interrelated.  4.4  Grouping The  Analysis - 1  f i r s t grouping a n a l y s i s was intended t o  suggest the extent t o which f u n c t i o n a l areas c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the CBD.  The f a c t o r scores o f each o f  the o f f i c e groups c o n s i d e r e d e a r l i e r were used as i n p u t s for  the grouping programme.  A h i g h f a c t o r score f o r a  group o f o f f i c e s i n d i c a t e d s i t e s w i t h i n the CBD where they were h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d . As o u t l i n e d i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter, was done on the b a s i s o f p r o f i l e s i m i l a r i t y .  grouping Locations  w i t h s i m i l a r f a c t o r scores were then combined by the grouping programme i n t o n a t u r a l groups of  i . e . i n the case  s i n g l e f a c t o r s t y p i c a l l y 5 groups: areas s c o r i n g h i g h  p o s i t i v e l y , areas s c o r i n g moderately  high positively,  areas  s c o r i n g low both p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y , areas s c o r i n g moderately  n e g a t i v e l y , and areas s c o r i n g h i g h n e g a t i v e l y .  G e n e r a l l y o n l y the h i g h l o a d i n g and moderately areas  loading  (with t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sign) f o r each f a c t o r were  mapped.  The r e s u l t s o f the f i r s t grouping a n a l y s i s are  shown on Maps 3 t o 11.  FACTOR I - THE HEAD, GOV'T, AND PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS OFFICES  GROUP u  FACTOR I I - THE FOREST INDUSTRY GROUP  FACTOR I I I - THE EARTH-BASED GROUP  FACTOR IV - THE CONSUMER- ORIENTED GROUP  FACTOR V I I I  - THE FINANCIAL GROUP  FACTOR X - THE ANCILLARY  SERVICES GROUP  FACTOR XII - THE LIGHT MANUFACTURING GROUP c  FACTOR X I I I  -  THE M I N I N G A C T I V I T I E S  GROUP  82 4.5  D e l i n e a t i o n o f Sub-areas i n t h e CBD I t was intended  t h a t the r e s u l t s o f the f i r s t s e t  of the grouping a n a l y s i s would p r o v i d e  confirmation of  h y p o t h e s i s 2, namely, Sub-areas o f s p e c i a l i z e d o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s may be d e l i m i t e d w i t h i n the CBD. To t h i s end, the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s proved moderately s u c c e s s f u l .  only  Only three o f the groups o f o f f i c e s ;  the head, government and p r o f e s s i o n a l b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s group and  (Factor 1 ) , the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y group (Factor 2 ) ,  the mining a c t i v i t y group (Factor 13) showed any  tendency t o form contiguous sub-areas i n the CBD.  And  even i n t h e case o f these groups o f o f f i c e s , there were many e x c e p t i o n s - — i . e .  high s c o r i n g b l o c k - f r o n t s not  contiguous w i t h the main area o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e other groups i n the CBD i s n e c e s s a r i l y random nor does i t imply t h a t t h e within-group bonds f o r these groups o f o f f i c e s are unimportant. other  I t does mean, however, t h a t t h e r e are  l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s present.  The importance o f the  between-group bonds as a l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r i s s t i l l discussed.  t o be  Before doing so, however, a few o b s e r v a t i o n s  on  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f some o f the groups o f o f f i c e s a r e g i v e n . 1. The consumer-oriented group o f o f f i c e s ,  although  83 showing l i t t l e evidence o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g s i n g l e area, a r e found along s t r e e t s i n the CBD. near, the p e r i p h e r y  the major a r t e r i a l  S i d e - s t r e e t s and o f the CBD  in a  locations  have few  high-  scoring block-fronts. 2. The  highest  s c o r i n g b l o c k - f r o n t s o f the  manufacturing group are found i n the s e c t i o n s of the CBD 3. The  older  near i t s margin.  highest concentration  of the a u x i l i a r y  s e r v i c e group i s l o c a t e d near the c e n t r e of the CBD.  light-  geographical  From these l o c a t i o n s they  can serve a g r e a t v a r i e t y of o f f i c e s i n a l l s e c t i o n s o f the  CBD.  4. I t i s noteworthy t h a t the  f i n a n c i a l group of  o f f i c e s d i d not form an i d e n t i f i a b l e sub-area i n the CBD.  I t was  anticipated that a  d i s t r i c t would emerge.  A more  financial  disaggregated  d e f i n i t i o n of the c l a s s e s of o f f i c e s t h i s group probably would have met success.  Not  comprising  with  surprisingly, financial  greater  institutions  are u s u a l l y l o c a t e d f a c i n g major a r t e r i a l s i n the CBD. The  l o c a t i o n a l patterns  of the remaining o f f i c e  groups proved more d i f f i c u l t to determine.  4.6  Grouping A n a l y s i s - I I A second grouping procedure was  the s t a n d a r d i z e d  c a r r i e d out  using  f a c t o r scores of each b l o c k - f r o n t on a l l  the groups of o f f i c e s .  T h i s a n a l y s i s was  intended  to c a s t  l i g h t on the s p a t i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of groups of That i s , i t was w i t h i n the CBD  offices  thought t h a t the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e areas would r e f l e c t the r o l e o f between-group  l i n k a g e s as a l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r .  The  grouping a n a l y s i s are shown on Map  r e s u l t s of  12.  In t o t a l , 11 d i f f e r e n t types of o f f i c e emerged from t h i s a n a l y s i s  this  areas  (as w e l l , there were some a d d i -  t i o n a l s i n g l e b l o c k - f r o n t areas but these were not considered).  Although some c l u s t e r i n g i s e v i d e n t  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these o f f i c e t y p e s ,  i n the  i n general, a l l that  the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s can t e l l us i s t h a t f u n c t i o n a l areas i n the CBD  are not very c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i r s t revealed  This i s  grouping of o f f i c e areas which  t h a t there e x i s t e d much o v e r l a p  d i s t r i b u t i o n of each o f f i c e group.  The  i n the  spatial  r e s u l t s of  the  second grouping procedure c o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d f u r t h e r . An a l t e r n a t i v e method o f a n a l y z i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p of o f f i c e groups was  the  spatial  then c o n s i d e r e d .  r e q u i r e d the viewing of o f f i c e c l a s s e s which loaded on more than a s i n g l e f a c t o r .  This highly  86 4.7  Complex F a c t o r s V a r i a b l e s which have h i g h l o a d i n g s on more than  a s i n g l e f a c t o r can be thought of as measuring more than a s i n g l e dimension. having  In the case of t h i s study,  offices  high c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h more than a s i n g l e group  can be regarded  as being  "common" to both.  t i o n has been made to what has been c a l l e d acquaintanceships"  (p. 39).  E a r l i e r men"overlapping  T h i s i s a s i m i l a r concept.  Examination of the between-group bondings cated i n F i g u r e 6 (p. 62)  r e v e a l s t h a t the members of  F a c t o r I and F a c t o r I I , F a c t o r I I and F a c t o r X I I I can regarded  indi-  can  as complementary--these o f f i c e s have numerous  s i g n i f i c a n t between-group bonds.  If true, this  provides  an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e ' p o o r ' r e s u l t s of the p r e v i o u s ing analysis.  group-  That i s , because the areas of each o f f i c e  group are o v e r l a p p i n g the grouping f u l i n d e l i n i a t i n g f u n c t i o n a l areas  programme was i n the CBD.  of l i n k e d o f f i c e s r a t h e r than forming c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the CBD  unsuccessThe  d i s c r e t e areas  are i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h other  groups of office  groups. R e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s were used to the o f f i c e s which acted as (Table 7, p. 60)  'connectors'  identify  between the groups.  For example, e l e c t r i c a l machinery manu-  f a c t u r e r s are cqmmonly a s s o c i a t e d with both the head, govern-  87  and p r o f e s s i o n a l business s e r v i c e s group, and the i n d u s t r y group.  Similarly,  s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s can be  c o n s i d e r e d the l i n k between the f o r e s t the  insurance group.  forest  i n d u s t r y group and  In some case a t l e a s t ,  i t s seem  p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r the f u n c t i o n a l  relationship  of o f f i c e  groups by viewing t h e i r s p a t i a l  relationships.  Seven of the groups o f o f f i c e s c o n s i d e r e d showed evidence of having s i g n i f i c a n t  spatial association.  A  diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of o f f i c e groups having a t l e a s t one common member i s shown below. Hard-Core ^  Offices  Mining^ Group )  »^  Head, /< X^T Govt.,/ F o r e s t r y ^ v ^ . ^ — ^ ,Jk..m+ e t c . \ Group / \ V ** (Sa^Dup **jf '^tri^urance V Earth^«*«.JL.*^ Group •/ Based J Group / I  •  y  / t  —  ^  Non-essential , I * \  ~ V Consumer- j | L i g h t O r i e n t e d l f Manuf. X Group jS Group  * I / %  As shown above, there seem t o be a t l e a s t two s e t s of o f f i c e groups i n the Vancouver CBD. more complex  Offices  identifiable The  larger,  s e t i s comprised of what might be c o n s i d e r e d  'hard-core' CBD  offices.  The e x i s t e n c e of many s i g n i f i c a n t  88 correlations  between members o f t h i s  suggests that This  they are f u n c t i o n a l interdependent,as  seems t o be i n d i c a t e d b y t h e i r  w h i c h shows t h e i r no for  distinct  set of a c t i v i t i e s  spatial distribution  l o c a t i o n s t o be h i g h l y  office  areas emerging.  c l u s t e r i n g i n a general  In c o n t r a s t ,  office  the other  integrated  There are only  I t might, t h e r e f o r e ,  non-essential  CBD o f f i c e s ,  set of o f f i c e  and t h e i r  O f f i c e Area The  relationship by  the f a c t  original  that  with  other  that  the of  CBD.  offices.  the f u n c t i o n a l  a r e a s i n t h e CBD was  i t was d i f f i c u l t  to find  such  stymied  office  g r o u p s showed any marked  t o c l u s t e r o r agglomerate  i n a single part of  The numerous b e t w e e n - g r o u p bonds between members  each o f f i c e  areas w i t h i n quently  preferences  Relationships  a r e a s ,.iQnly,-,a few o f t h e o f f i c e tendency  they a r e  locational  attempt t o d i s c o v e r  between o f f i c e  tendencies  groups  be i n f e r r e d t h a t  are'-.not'-dependent on t h e l o c a t i o n o f o t h e r 4.8  with  area.  emerged a p p e a r s t o have few i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s offices.  well.  group tend  to indicate that  t h e V a n c o u v e r CBD a r e w e l l  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e  dence f o r t h e t h i r d  to provide  Hypothesis  that,  offices  integrated.  and o f f i c e Conse-  any s u b s t a n t i a l  evi-  The r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s o f f i c e a r e a s i n t h e CBD stems f r o m t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l relationships . X X X  Although the factor  analysis  i d e n t i f i e d groups o f o f f i c e s  w h i c h a p p e a r t o have some f u n c t i o n a l distribution  indicates  defined within  the study.  office  the  of o f f i c e  fact  interpreted indicate  In p a r t  the poor  i n the past  influx  few y e a r s w i t h of offices.  o f new resultant  Nevertheless,  o f f i c e g r o u p s c o u l d be e x t r a c t e d and  from the f a c t o r  office  locational  spatial  a r e a s may be due t o t h e t i m i n g  i n the l o c a t i o n  that  their  areas are not w e l l  There has been a l a r g e  buildings  instability  offices  t h e V a n c o u v e r CBD.  differentiation of  that  basis,  interaction  factor  within  analysis  would t e n d t o  has some i m p o r t a n c e  t h e CBD.  as a  CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY 5.1  Shortcomings o f the Study  5.2  General C o n c l u s i o n s  5.3  Areas o f F u r t h e r Research  90  CHAPTER V.  CONCLUSIONS AND The  SUMMARY  view t h a t the urban system should be  viewed  as a s e r i e s of i n t e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y subsystems i s becoming increasingly prevalent. as but  one  O f f i c e s i n the CBD  sub-system, but  larger regional  system.  an important one,  The  Their  i n the  as a homogeneous c l a s s of  activities.  diverse.  O f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s are a major component of commercial makeup of the CBD. i n the CBD  Although the can be  by v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n t h e o r i e s , theories CBD.  The  far  l o n g e r s u f f i c i e n t to c o n s i d e r  i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s are many and  o f f i c e functions  seen  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study would  tend t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s no o f f i c e s i n the CBD  should be  the  e x i s t e n c e of  l a r g e l y accounted f o r  little  i s s a i d by these same  about the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s w i t h i n  the  tendency of p a t t e r n s of o f f i c e s to emerge would  tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n between o f f i c e s i s an important l o c a t i o n f a c t o r on the m i c r o - l e v e l . attempted to d i s c o v e r  This  study  i f i n t e r a c t i o n did play a r o l e i n  i n f l u e n c i n g o f f i c e l o c a t i o n i n the CBD.  The  r e s u l t s of  t h i s study tend t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s the case f o r some types of o f f i c e s .  Others seem t o have other l o c a t i o n a l  requirements not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study.  5.1  Shortcomings  91  o f the Study  S e v e r a l •shortcomings o f the case study should be noted.  The main problem areas encountered i n u n d e r t a k i n g  the case study were w i t h activities, and  (1) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f o f f i c e  (2) c h o i c e o f a r e a l u n i t s ,  (4) o t h e r l o c a t i o n a l  (3) data measurement,  factors.  1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n To d i s t i n g u i s h o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s from r e t a i l and manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s was d i f f i c u l t cases.  T h i s ambiguity was p a r t i c u l a r l y  to r e s o l v e because  i n many difficult  the d e f i n i t i o n o f l a n d use was  f o r the most p a r t based on S.I.C. numbers r a t h e r than any f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f land use. Consequently,  some a c t i v i t i e s have probably been  m i s c l a s s i f l e d and i n g e n e r a l the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f o f f i c e s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y r e f i n e d and i n c o n s i s t e n t in  definition.  2. A r e a ! U n i t s To reduce t h e problem o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s i z e of a r e a l u n i t s , b l o c k - f r o n t s r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s , were used.  Large d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e  s i z e o f a r e a l u n i t s were s t i l l however i n evidence. T h i s poses a problem i n a n a l y z i n g c o r r e l a t i o n among s p a t i a l u n i t s .  The e r r o r v a r i a n c e t h a t  r e s u l t s from the use o f a r e a l u n i t s o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e i s unknown.  92  3. Data Measurement The o r i g i n a l raw data c o l l e c t e d by the Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department underwent s e v e r a l transformat i o n s b e f o r e being used i n t h i s study.  As w e l l  as any e r r o r s a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d i n the d a t a , a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s were i n t r o d u c e d by m a n i p u l a t i o n (eg. m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) o f the data t o put i t i n u s a b l e form.  The magnitude o f such e r r o r s i s  impossible to estimate. 4 . Other F a c t o r s L o c a t i o n i n the CBD i s i n f l u e n c e d t o some e x t e n t by zoning and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l s and a v a r i e t y of other f a c t o r s not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study.  The  o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f these o t h e r f a c t o r s i s not known. Zoning, f o r i n s t a n c e , reduces the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o v a r i a t i o n among d i f f e r e n t types o f o f f i c e  activities  by l i m i t i n g the areas i n which development can take place.  As w e l l , the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f each o f f i c e  must be kept i n mind. Bearing i n mind the f a c t t h a t d i r e c t c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the hypothesis o f t h i s study was not p o s s i b l e and t h e v a r i o u s shortcomings  o f the case study, any c o n c l u s i o n s drawn must be  viewed c a u t i o u s l y .  93 5.2  General C o n c l u s i o n s F i r s t , the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study suggest t h a t  t h e r e a r e some s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between some c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s , but not a l l .  That i s , c e r t a i n  types o f o f f i c e s a r e s p a t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d and probably f u n c t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one another.  Since the  f i n d i n g i s based on data from a s i n g l e c i t y , Vancouver, d i r e c t e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f t h i s r e s u l t t o o t h e r urban i s not meaningful.  areas  In f a c t , the r e s u l t s would suggest  t h a t the economic base o f the r e g i o n i s important i n the l i n k a g e s t h a t e x i s t between o f f i c e s . A second g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n , and one t h a t has important r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e o f o f f i c e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , i s the f i n d i n g o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between almost a l l types o f o f f i c e s i n the CBD.  Although the  l i n k a g e s a r e i n many cases i n d i r e c t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s t o t a l i t y t h i s suggests t h a t w i t h the p r e sent s t a t e o f communications  technology i t i s h i g h l y  u n l i k e l y that large-scale d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e s from the CBD i s p o s s i b l e . 5.3  Areas o f F u r t h e r Research T h i s study was n o t undertaken w i t h the i n t e n t i o n  t h a t no f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be n e c e s s a r y .  On the  c o n t r a r y , i t was c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y a p i l o t study i n an  o f t e n i g n o r e d area o f urban l o c a t i o n t h e o r y . for  The  urgency  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i s obvious when the  growing importance  of o f f i c e - t y p e employment i n the  r e g i o n a l economy i s c o n s i d e r e d . In  the study undertaken,  office interactivity  viewed p r i m a r i l y from a s t a t i c v i e w p o i n t .  A  was  logical  e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s study would be t o view the dynamic aspects of  CBD  o f f i c e l o c a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o u n r a v e l the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between land use and the l i n k a g e s which generate  spatial  patterns. T h i s study proceeded  from the assumption  ( i n t e r a c t i o n ) f o l l o w s from form  t h a t process  (spatial structure).  r e a l i s t i c a l l y , t h e r e should be feedback  in this  More  relationship.  T h i s i s shown d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y below:  Form -»  ^Process ±Form orm --^  STATIC  DYNAMIC  ^•Process Form not o n l y p l a y s a r o l e i n determining i n t e r a c t i o n , but a l s o i n t e r a c t i o n p l a y s a r o l e i n determining form.  It i s  t h i s complete s y n t h e s i s t h a t i s necessary t o understand l o c a t i o n a l needs of o f f i c e  establishments.  X X X  the  95 T h i s study was l a r g e l y e x p l o r a t o r y  i n nature.  In i t a few m u l t i v a r i a t e techniques were t e s t e d as p o s s i b l e means o f uncovering p a t t e r n s o f f i c e s i n the Vancouver CBD.  i n the l o c a t i o n o f  The r e s u l t s , although f a r  from c o n c l u s i v e , lend evidence t h a t some o f f i c e groups t h a t a r e s p a t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d probably have f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l .  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(1960) Money M e t r o p o l i s ; A L o c a t i o n a l Study of F i n a n c i a l A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e New York Region. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. 1  1  1  Rummel, R. J . (1969) "Understanding F a c t o r A n a l y s i s " The J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n V o l . XI, 4 (December, 1967). 444-480. Seligman, D a n i e l . (1963) "The Future o f the O f f i c e - B u i l d i n g Boom," Fortune,' LXVII;3 (March, 1963), 84-88+. Simmons, James W. (1968) Flows i n an Urban A r e a : A S y n t h e s i s . Toronto: Centre f o r Urban and Community S t u d i e s Research Report No. 6, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto (November, 1968). Simmons, James W. (1970) P a t t e r n s o f I n t e r a c t i o n W i t h i n O n t a r i o and Quebec. Toronto: Centre f o r Urban and Community S t u d i e s Research Paper No. 41, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, (November, 1970). Smith, L a r r y . (1961) "Space f o r the CBD's F u n c t i o n s , " I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f the C i t y , ed. L a r r y S. Bourne. New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. Stanton, W i l l i a m J . (2nd e d i t i o n ) . 1967.  (1967) Fundamentals o f Marketing New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,  Tabor, P h i l i p . (1969) P e d e s t r i a n C i r c u l a t i o n i n O f f i c e s . Cambridge: Land Use and B u i l t Form S t u d i e s Working Paper No. 17, U n i v e r s i t y o f Cambridge School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e ( A p r i l , 1969).  102 Thorngren, B e r t h . (1967) " E x t e r n a l Economies of the Urban Core,'" Urban Core and Inner C i t y , ed. Dr. M i c h e l H. H. van Hultan. L e i d e n , Netherlands:: U n i v e r s i t y o f Amsterdam, 1967. 413-420. Vancouver C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Department. (1965) An i n f o r m a t i o n R e t r i e v a l System f o r Urban A r e a s . T e c h n i c a l Report. Vancouver, B. C. (Revised: May, 1967) February, 1965. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. (1970) Downtown Vancouver: Development: Concepts, Vancouver, B. C. (June, 1970). Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. (1970a) Land Use Downtown Vancouver, 1970. T e c h n i c a l Report Supplement to Downtown Vancouver P l a n , Concepts f o r Development. Vancouver, B. C. ( J u l y , 1970. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. (1971) O f f i c e Establishments--A Directory: A n a l y s i s . Vancouver, B. C. (December, 1971). Vernon, Raymond. (1957) "Production and D i s t r i b u t i o n i n . the Large M e t r o p o l i s , " The: Annals o f the American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , 314 (1957) . 15-29. Vernon, Raymond. (1963) Metropolis: 1985. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company Inc., 1963. Webber, M e l v i n M. (1964) "The Urban P l a c e and the Nonplace Urban Realm," E x p l o r a t i o n s into: Urban S t r u c t u r e , M e l v i n M. Webber e t a l . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania P r e s s , 1964. 79-153. Whipple, R.T.M. (1968) "Land Use A s s o c i a t i o n s i n Melbourne's C e n t r a l Area," A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l . 6:3 (July 1968), 64-70. Wise, A r n o l d . (1971) "The Impact o f E l e c t r o n i c Communications on M e t r o p o l i t a n Form," E k i s t i c s , 32:188 ( J u l y , 1971), 22-31. Y a v i t z , B o r i s and Thomas M. Stanback, J r . (1967) E l e c t r o n i c Data P r o c e s s i n g i n New York C i t y : Lessons f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Economics. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967.  APPENDICES  103 APPENDIX A SURVEY RESULTS OF STUDIES ON FACTORS GOVERNING THE LOCATION OF OFFICE PREMISES IN CENTRAL LONDON 1.  Economist I n t e l l i g e n c e U n i t Survey (19.64) C e n t r a l Samples Reason  2.  ..............%  Good supply o f s t a f f T r a d i t i o n a l / a l w a y s l o c a t e d there Good communications w i t h r e s t o f UK Contact with e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s Contact w i t h i n t e r a l departments  21 .7 40 .6 38 .0 78 .2 11 .2  Contact w i t h p a r e n t / a s s o c i a t e Prestige I n t e r n a l Communications  17 .2 37 .1 11 .9  J o i n t U n i t f o r Planning Reason  companies  Research Survey  (1967)  (*denotes important f o r suburban locations) %  Proximity t o c l i e n t s 24 Near t o a s p e c i f i e d p l a c e 16 Central 15 *"Reasonably c e n t r a l " 13 *Good Communications 12 Near t o parent o r a s s o c i a t e d company 11 Proximity t o s u p p l i e r s or services 9 Suitable rents 8 T r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n f o r p a r t i c u l a r type o f f i r m 8 *Near t o a i r p o r t , r a i l w a y t e r m i n a l , motorway, etc.7 •Accessibility for staff 7 Tradition 6 V i s i t o r s from abroad 5 *Labour a v a i l a b i l i t y 4 Prestige 4 *Car p a r k i n g 4 Good working c o n d i t i o n s 4 *Near d i r e c t o r ' s home 3 Modern new b u i l d i n g 2 *London telephone o r p o s t a l address 1 . A v a i l a b l e a t time 1 *Economist Intelligence Unit, A Survey of the Factors Governing the Location of Offices i n the London Area. Cited i n Hawkes(1968) ,p.43. **Cowan e t a l , (1968).  104 APPENDIX B The The was  Data  source o f the data u t i l i z e d i n t h i s  study  a survey c a r r i e d o u t by the Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g  Department i n the S p r i n g and Summer o f 1969.  The area  surveys i n c l u d e d the e n t i r e Downtown P e n i n s u l a p l u s the commercial d i s t r i c t s (see Map A - l ) . of  along Main S t r e e t and Broadway  A summary o f t h e Downtown P e n i n s u l a p o r t i o n  t h i s survey was p u b l i s h e d by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department  i n J u l y 1970 as a T e c h n i c a l Report t i t l e d Land Use: Vancouver, 1970. As w e l l , a copy o f the coding utilized  Downtown  sheets  i n the course o f the survey i s a v a i l a b l e a t the  C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. The t o t a l  study area data c o n s i s t s o f 15,679  i n d i v i d u a l records.  The data has been coded as f o l l o w s :  1. Each i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d i s 27 columns i n l e n g t h w i t h format: COLUMNS 1-2  (F2.0,2F3.0,2E2.0,F3.0,F1.0,F7.0,F3.0,A1) District.  The d i s t r i c t numbers c o r r e s -  pond t o those u t i l i z e d  i n the 1966  Vancouver T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study. COLUMNS 3-5  Onstreet.  see Appendix C.  COLUMNS 6-8  Atstreet.  see Appendix C.  COLUMNS 9-10  L o t . see Appendix C.  (It would be p o s s i b l e t o read columns 3-10 as a s i n g l e  106 number (eg. F8.0) i n which case t h i s would be the "address" o f each record.) COLUMNS 11-12 F l o o r . is COLUMNS 13-15  The f l o o r on which an e s t a b l i s h -  found.  S.I.C.  Type o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t by  the 3 - d i g i t American S.I.C. Code. See Appendix F. COLUMN M 6  : Open Land Use.  A "1" i n t h i s column  i n d i c a t e s an open space  land use  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the S.I.C. l a n d use i n d i c a t e d i n columns 13-15. (If d e s i r e d , columns 13—16. c o u l d be read as a s i n g l e number  (eg.F4.0) i n which case S.I.C. open  space  l a n d uses would become a separate S.I.C. type) COLUMNS 17-23 A r e a .  Given i n square  COLUMNS 24-26  Parking.  COLUMN  Establishment.  27  feet.  Number o f p a r k i n g  spaces.  A "x" i n column 27  indicates that the record i s not a separate e s t a b l i s h m e n t b u t r a t h e r a p a r t o f a s i n g l e f i r m found on another f l o o r o f the same b u i l d i n g . 2. The medium on which the data i s s t o r e d i s magnetic tape. 1600  The magnetic tape i s 9-track w i t h a d e n s i t y of bytes p e r i n c h (BPI).  Each l o g i c a l r e c o r d i s 255  c h a r a c t e r s i n l e n g t h and the s i z e o f each b l o c k i s 2700 b y t e s .  In t o t a l t h e r e a r e 157 b l o c k s .  107 APPENDIX C D e s c r i p t i o n of the Coding o f Data* ' B a s i c a l l y the coding of s t r e e t p a t t e r n s i n use i n Vancouver i n v o l v e s the superimposing on the s t r e e t p a t t e r n .  of a c o o r d i n a t e m a t r i x  In g e n e r a l , the r e s u l t i n g  street  p a t t e r n c o o r d i n a t e matrix has the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : 1. S t r e e t s themselves are assigned c o - o r d i n a t e numbers. 2. The  c o - o r d i n a t e s warp to f i t the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the  s t r e e t s even when not 3. East-West  linear.  ( h o r i z o n t a l ) s t r e e t s have numbers above  4. North-South  ( v e r t i c a l ) s t r e e t s have numbers below  500. 500.  5. Space i s l e f t between numbers f o r f u t u r e s u b d i v i s i o n s and denser (see Map  s t r e e t spacing i n adj acent  A-2  areas.  f o r the c o o r d i n a t e numbers a s s i g n e d  t o s t r e e t s i n the Downtown Peninsula)  Coding:  An Example  Pender S t . i s a s s i g n e d a c o o r d i n a t e number of  592.  S i m i l a r l y G r a n v i l l e S t . i s assigned a c o o r d i n a t e number of 129.  (See Map  A-2)  Thus Pender i s a s t r e e t running East-West  and, G r a n v i l l e i s a s t r e e t running North-South.  The  street  p a r a l l e l l i n g G r a n v i l l e t o the E a s t i s Seymour S t . which i s numbered as 134.  S i m i l a r l y the s t r e e t p a r a l l e l l i n g Pender t o  the south i s Dunsmuir S t . which i s numbered as 595.  Using  M  COORDINATE  SYSTEM USED IN THE VANCOUVER DOWNTOWN PENINSULA  fern  109 V a n c o u v e r s c o o r d i n a t e system the  s e c t i o n of s t r e e t  1  Pender between G r a n v i l l e and  Seymour i s i n d i c a t e d by  and  the  and  Pender would be i n d i c a t e d by  noted  on 592,129  s e c t i o n of s t r e e t on G r a n v i l l e between Dunsmuir 129,592.  I t should  be  that: a. the o n - s t r e e t  coordinate i s given  first.  b. the n o r t h or west l i m i t of the b l o c k  (intersection)  o r a t - s t r e e t c o o r d i n a t e i s g i v e n next. It i s possible therefore  t o i d e n t i f y each s t r e e t  of b l o c k l e n g t h by u s i n g  6 digits.  An  a d d i t i o n a l 2 d i g i t s can be used t o i d e n t i f y  individual properties These two  section  or 20 f t . increments of s t r e e t .  a d d i t i o n a l d i g i t s immediately f o l l o w the a t - s t r e e t  coordinate.  The  use  of these two  a d d i t i o n a l digits, could  be u s e f u l s i n c e they a l l o w the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f : 1. Corner l o t s . smallest 1 and  99,  and  Corner l o t s may l a r g e s t odd  2 and  i d e n t i f i e d as  or even numbers.  the  (eg. normally  98)  2. Side of s t r e e t . and  be  Side of s t r e e t i s i n d i c a t e d by  even numbers.  3. P o s i t i o n o f l o t i n b l o c k North or West c o r n e r ) .  (eg. 1 s t , 2nd,  3rd  from  odd  110 In t h i s study though t h e data was address  coded u s i n g the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n only the f i r s t  8-digit  6 - d i g i t s were used.  That i s , the u n i t used f o r a n a l y s i s was  individual  block  f r o n t s r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s .  *The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s e c t i o n of the paper was drawn from An Information R e t r i e v a l System f o r Urban Areas p u b l i s h e d as a T e c h n i c a l Report by the Vancouver C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Department. (February 1965, r e v i s e d May 1967). In p a r t i c u l a r pp. 18-47A proved-- u s e f u l .  Ill  APPENDIX D D e l i m i t a t i o n o f the CBD B a s i c a l l y , the Murphy-Vance technique d e f i n e s t h e boundaries o f the CBD by use of a combination o f l a n d use h e i g h t and i n t e n s i t y i n d i c e s .  The o n l y CBD l a n d uses  c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l by t h i s technique a r e r e t a i l and p r i v a t e office activities.  To be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e CBD two  c r i t e r i a have t o be met: 1. a r e t a i l - o f f i c e p l o t r a t i o o f 1 o r more, and 2. a r e t a i l - o f f i c e f l o o r space r a t i o o f 0.5 o r more. The Murphy-Vance approach t o CBD d e l i n e a t i o n i s not without i t s weaknesses.  Archer  1  makes t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s :  Three important l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Murphy-Vance i n d i c e s should be r e c o g n i z e d . They l i m i t C.B.D. l a n d uses t o r e t a i l i n g and p r i v a t e o f f i c e s whereas p u b l i c o f f i c e s and a number o f m e t r o p o l i t a n market-scale l a n d uses can c l a i m a C.B.D. r o l e . Second, t h e i r i n d i c e s p r o v i d e a mechanical d e f i n i t i o n which o n l y p a r t l y r e f l e c t s the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s u n d e r l y i n g the C.B.D. T h i r d , the p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s o f t h e i n d i c e s were determined by r e f e r e n c e t o c i t i e s w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n areas p o p u l a t i o n s i n the range o f 107,000 t o 210,000 persons. The technique u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study departs  from  the Murphy-Vance technique i n the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s : 1. Government o f f i c e s are i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f office  Archer  activities.  (1969), p. 65.  112 2. A p r e l i m i n a r y d e l i n e a t i o n was  c a r r i e d out by  e l i m i n a t i n g a l l areas i n the Downtown P e n i n s u l a not zoned f o r commercial uses. of the downtown area was Map  Approximately  thereby excluded.  A-3). Excluded by t h i s step were areas  50%  (See zoned  i n d u s t r i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , and p a r k i n g , none of which are c o n s i d e r e d by the Murphy-Vance technique to be c e n t r a l business i n c h a r a c t e r .  2  3. " B l o c k - f r o n t s " r a t h e r than " b l o c k s " were used as a b a s i s f o r determining a r e a l u n i t of l a n d use. The use of b l o c k s was  r e j e c t e d because of the  v a r i a t i o n i n uses o f t e n found i n a s i n g l e block seemed t o be e x c e s s i v e .  Neutze has s t a t e d :  "The  accessibility  and c h a r a c t e r of an area can change i n a few  blocks  i n the c e n t r a l area."3 Observation of l a n d use i n the downtown area makes i t obvious t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r of a b l o c k may  undergo v a s t change by merely t u r n i n g  the c o r n e r .  Furthermore, what was  a n a l y s i s was  a u n i t of a r e a l measurement f o r which  v a l i d comparisons c o u l d be made.  wanted i n subsequent  The most common u n i t s  used i n other s t u d i e s of a s i m i l a r type have been i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s or b l o c k s .  The  reason f o r  r e j e c t i n g b l o c k s as a u n i t of a r e a l measurement has  Murphy and Vance (1967), p. 'Neutze (1968) , p.  5.  209.  RM-4  CD-i  C O M P K F . t i t M S I V C  cc.v.tifT  OEVH  DISTRICT  P A R K I M G D' S T  m c  r  CM-!  C O M M C H C I A L  CM-2  C.'JMVLt'CIAL  D!ST  Ut±  PIC T  T  M I C T  INClL'C.I  R I A L  01 \ T M IC T  I M O U S T D I M  R I A L  R I C T  COMMERCIAL ZONING  IN THE DOWNTOWN PENINSULA - 19 70  114 a l r e a d y been g i v e n above.  Individual  buildings  are not a very s a t i s f a c t o r y u n i t o f comparison because o f the g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s that  exist.  A trade-off  had t o be made between v a r i a t i o n i n the  s i z e of areal unit u t i l i z e d and  i n size of building  variations  utilized  (individual  buildings)  i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the a r e a l  (blocks).  unit  A s u i t a b l e compromise, b l o c k -  f r o n t s , was chosen as being s u p e r i o r  to either of  the two o t h e r u n i t s o f a r e a l measurement. By combining the  f l o o r space o f b u i l d i n g s  t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be  l e s s v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e than i f i n d i v i d u a l were used, and a l s o b l o c k - f r o n t s  are probably more  homogeneous i n c h a r a c t e r than are e n t i r e 4. Grouped f l o o r space data r a t h e r  buildings  blocks.  than exact f l o o r  space data was used i n c a l c u l a t i n g f l o o r space r a t i o s . Grouping o f f l o o r space data was c a r r i e d out i n 1000  square f e e t ranges.  That i s , firms o f from 1 t o  1000  square f e e t were c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f equal s i z e ,  and  s i m i l a r l y those from 1001 t o 2000 square f e e t ,  and  so on.  5. Use was made o f a map r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department showing s i t e s w i t h permanent buildings.^  T h i s map enabled the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g o f  Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department  (1970), p. 9.  115 those be  s i t e s i n which redevelopment i s c o n s i d e r e d t o  l i k e l y in> t h e  future.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  i n t o account when d e l i m i t i n g the boundaries  taken  of the  CBD. The  d e f i n i t i o n of o f f i c e and  i n the d e l i m i t i n g o f the CBD  retail activities  corresponds  to that  by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i n i t s 1970 (see T a b l e A—1).  used  developed  l a n d use  An expanded d e f i n i t i o n of o f f i c e  study.^  activities  i s used i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . The p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s of the m o d i f i e d Murphy-Vance technique  u t i l i z e d are shown on Map  A-4I..  A "T-shaped" area  emerged, w i t h t h e most i n t e n s i v e development l o c a t e d i n the area bounded by B u r r a r d  (west), Robson  ( e a s t ) , and the w a t e r f r o n t  (north).  (south), Seymour  Development t o the  e a s t and west appears t o be much more l i n e a r w i t h ment p r i m a r i l y upon H a s t i n g s The  boundaries  c l o s e l y corresponds  and Pender S t r e e t s .  of the CBD  f i n a l l y d e c i d e d upon  t o the areas meeting the  Murphy-Vance c r i t e r i a .  develop-  modified  The main e x c e p t i o n was  "stem" of the "T-shaped" area.  made i n the  Smythe S t . seemed t o form a  n a t u r a l boundary as the southern-most extreme of the s i n c e south of t h i s s t r e e t except  CBD  f o r development along  G r a n v i l l e and B u r r a r d S t r e e t s t h e r e were few o f f i c e or establishments.  Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department  (1970  a).  retail  116 TABLE A - l MAJOR HEADINGS OF S.I.C. CODE AS DEFINED BY THE CITY OF VANCOUVER Major Headings  S.I.C. Numbers Included*  Commercial/Retail Commercial/Office  .53,54,56,57,58,59,72,472 07 ,08,09,10,11,12,13,14,18,208,209,213,225,227,229, 231,234,24,26,28,29,336,249,255,264,461,471,48,49, 60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,731,732,736,739,801,802,803, 804,807,809,81,89,91,92,93,94,990 733,734,735,76,781,782 50,52 55,751,753,754 15,16,17,19,201,202,204,233,238,239,25,27,31,342,344, 346,347,353,357,359,366,369,37,38,39 331,332,339 40,41,421,44,45,478 422  Commercial/Services Commercial/Wholesale Commercial/Automotive Light Industry Heavy Industry Transportation Industry Storage Public Community F a c i l i ties Private Community F a c i l i ties Institutions Amusement and Recreat i o n a l Services Vacant Buildings Vacant Land Under Construction Parking Structure Parking Surface +Residential-Single Family & Duplex ^Residential Apartment +Hotel-Transient & Residential +Rooming House +Movie Theatres  82,84 806 86 79 991,992,993,994,995,996 999 9991 752 7521 881 882 701 702 783  *See Appendix F f o r interpretation of S.I.C. numbers. +Floor space data not a v a i l a b l e . "1" as fourth d i g i t means open land use. Source:  Vancouver City Planning Department (1970) , Land Use Downtown Vancouver, 1970. Technical Report. P. 4-5.  Approximate e x t e n t o f CBD I n d i c a t e d by Murphy-Vance Technique H  118 APPENDIX E D e f i n i t i o n of O f f i c e E s t a b l i s h m e n t s The procedure by which o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d i n the Vancouver CBD  involved three steps.  1. The d e f i n i t i o n of major l a n d uses i n the Downtown P e n i n s u l a u s i n g S.I.C. numbers developed by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department was  considered a f i r s t  approximation.*  (see Table A-I, Appendix D) i.  A l l "Commercial/Retail," "Heavy I n d u s t r y , " "Storage," " P r i v a t e Community  Facilities,"  "Vacant B u i l d i n g s , " "Vacant Land," "Under C o n s t r u c t i o n , " "Parking S t r u c t u r e s , " "Parking S u r f a c e , " and a c t i v i t i e s f o r which no f l o o r data was  a v a i l a b l e were e l i m i n a t e d from  space  further  consideration, ii.  Those S.I.C. numbers, used by the C i t y to d e f i n e "Commercial/Office" 899  (Miscellaneous S e r v i c e s , not  C l a s s i f i e d ) and 990 were accepted as iii.  (except f o r S.I.C. numbers Elsewhere  (Non-Classifiable Establishment))  such,  The remaining S.I.C. numbers underwent f u r t h e r s c r e e n i n g as d e s c r i b e d below.  The p r e c e e d i n g d e l i m i t i n g o f the boundaries of the Vancouv e r CBD (see Appendix C) had the b e n e f i c i a l s i d e - e f f e c t of r e d u c i n g the number of S.I.C. types t h a t needed t o be c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s arose because a p p a r e n t l y a number of types of a c t i v i t i e s occur o u t s i d e the CBD but not w i t h i n i t .  119 2. The i n i t i a l  s c r e e n i n g o f those a c t i v i t i e s whose  f u n c t i o n was s t i l l u n c e r t a i n i n v o l v e d two simple i.  A l l a c t i v i t i e s occupying more than 10,000 f e e t o f f l o o r area were excluded.  tests,  square  The f l o o r space  data f o r each e s t a b l i s h m e n t was s u p p l i e d by f l o o r . An o f f i c e occupying more than a s i n g l e f l o o r was r e p o r t e d as two o r more separate r e c o r d s o r pieces of data.  No o f f i c e b u i l d i n g i n Vancouver  has more than 10,000 square ii.  f e e t on a s i n g l e  floor,  . One study on r e t a i l l i n k a g e s d e f i n e d a l l groundf l o o r a c t i v i t i e s as r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s . ! r e v e r s e was done i n t h i s case.  The  That i s , e s t a b -  lishments found above the ground f l o o r were assumed i n i t i a l l y  t o be o f f i c e s .  In s c r e e n i n g  the S.I.C. numbers an a r b i t r a r y c u t - o f f p o i n t of  50% was s e l e c t e d — i . e . a t l e a s t 5.0% o f the  establishments o f a p a r t i c u l a r S.I.C. number had t o be l o c a t e d above t h e ground  floor—to  be i n c l u d e d as an o f f i c e . 3.. The f i n a l s c r e e n i n g i n v o l v e d t a k i n g a v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of  the geographic  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these  establishments.  High c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e types o f o f f i c e establishments were viewed w i t h s u s p i c i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when l o c a t e d near the p e r i p h e r y o f the CBD.  G e t i s and G e t i s  (1968), pp. 317-332.  120 In most cases i t was  r e l a t i v e l y easy t o r e s o l v e t h i s  particular  problem by v i s i t a t i o n of the s i t e s i n  question.  These s i t e s were not c o n s i d e r e d i n the  subsequent a n a l y s i s when they proved t o be  predominantly  non-office i n character. Though undoubtedly o f f i c e s are s t i l l  some e s t a b l i s h m e n t s which are not  i n c l u d e d and a l s o some e s t a b l i s h m e n t s which  are o f f i c e s have been excluded by t h i s s c r e e n i n g process  these  should r e p r e s e n t only a minor p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l data and t h e r e f o r e not m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r the r e s u l t s  o f the subsequent  analysis. F o l l o w i n g t h i s s c r e e n i n g process approximately  125  S.I.C.  numbers were d i s t i n g u i s h e d as being o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  These  are noted i n Appendix F. There was.-.a l a r g e range i n the number of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n c l u d e d under each of the S.I.C. numbers. there was  In some cases,  o n l y a s i n g l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p a r t i c u l a r  w h i l e i n others t h e r e were s e v e r a l hundred.  type,  Goddard, i n h i s  study of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n London, encountered similar,  difficultyi  a  1  Any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should attempt t o throw an even mesh over the phenomena t h a t i t seeks to c a t e g o r i z e : no one group should be more heterogeneous than another. This c r i t e r i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a t i s f y as i t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l to m a i n t a i n a balance between the number of c l a s s e s and the number of o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h i n each.  "•"Goddard (1968) , p.  72.  121 To p a r t i a l l y overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , the S.I.C. numbers of o f f i c e s performing s i m i l a r l i n e s of  activities  were c o l l a p s e d i n t o fewer, more homogeneous c l a s s e s of offices.  Despite t h i s p o o l i n g of o f f i c e s engaged i n s i m i l a r  types of a c t i v i t i e s c e r t a i n c l a s s of o f f i c e s were poorly represented.  A r b i t r a r i l y , i t was  still  decided t h a t c l a s s e s  of o f f i c e s w i t h fewer than f i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s be  excluded  from f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e t h e i r i n c l u s i o n c o u l d l e a d t o spurious c o r r e l a t i o n s a r i s i n g .  As w e l l , i t was  noted  t h a t i n most cases^the b l o c k f r o n t s f a c i n g major thoroughfares comprised  the m a j o r i t y of o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  of t h i s f a c t , i t was  Because  a r b i t r a r i l y decided t o i g n o r e b l o c k  faces which housed fewer than 5 o f f i c e s .  The  location  and  coding of the b l o c k f r o n t s used i n subsequent analyses i s i n d i c a t e d i n Map  A-5.  123 APPENDIX F S.I.C. Code AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY & FISHERIES Major Group 0 1 . — A g r i c u l t u r e P r o d u c t i o n *011 *013  F i e l d Crops Livestock  Major Group 0 7 . — A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s & Hunting & Trapping *071 A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s , Except Animal Husbandry and H o r t i c u l t u r a l Services *073 H o r t i c u l t u r a l Services Major Group 0 8 . — F o r e s t r y *085 Forestry Services *086 Gathering of F o r e s t Products, Not *089 Miscellaneous Forestry Services Major Group 0 9 . — F i s h e r i e s *098 F i s h H a t c h e r i e s , Farms, &  Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d  Preserves  MINING Major Group 1 0 . — Metal Mining *101 Iron Ores *102 Copper Ores *104 Gold and S i l v e r Ores *106 F e r r o a l l o y Ores, Except Vanadium *108 Metal Mining S e r v i c e s *109 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Metal Ores Major Group 13.—Crude Petroleum and N a t u r a l *131 Crude Petroleum and N a t u r a l Gas *138 O i l and Gas F i e l d S e r v i c e s  Gas  Major Group 14.--Mining and Q u a r r y i n g of N o n - M e t a l l i c M i n e r a l s , Except F u e l s *141 Dimension Stone *142 Crushed & Broken Stone, I n c l u d i n g Riprap *148 N o n - M e t a l l i c M i n e r a l s (except Fuel) S e r v i c e s *149 M i s c e l l a n e o u s N o n - M e t a l l i c M i n e r a l s , Except F u e l s CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION Major Group 15.—BuTTding C o n s t r u c t i o n — G e n e r a l *151 General B u i l d i n g C o n t r a c t o r s  Contractors  124 S.I.C. Code  (cont'd)  Major Group 1 6 — C o n s t r u c t i o n Other Than B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n — General C o n t r a c t o r s •162 Heavy C o n s t r u c t i o n , Except Highway & S t r e e t C o n s t r u c t i o n Major Group 1 7 . — C o n s t r u c t i o n - S p e c i a l Trade C o n t r a c t o r s *171 Plumbing, Heating, and A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g *173 E l e c t r i c a l Work MANUFACTURING Major Group 20.—Food & K i n d r e d Products *204 G r a i n M i l l Products *208 Beverages *209 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Food P r e p a r a t i o n s and Kindred  Products  Major Group 2 2 . — T e x t i l e M i l l Products *225 Knitting Mills *229 M i s c e l l a n e o u s T e x t i l e Goods Major Group 23.--Apparal & Other F i n i s h e d Products Made from Fabrics & Similar Materials *231 Men's, Youths' & Boys' S u i t s , Coats, and Overcoats *233 Women's, M i s s e s ' , and J u n i o r s ' Outerwear *238 Miscellaneous. Apparal and A c c e s s o r i e s *239 M i s c e l l a n e o u s F a b r i c a t e d T e x t i l e Products :  Major Group 24.—Lumber & Wood Products, Except F u r n i t u r e *241. Logging Camps and Logging C o n t r a c t o r s *242 Sawmills and P l a n i n g M i l l s *249 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Wood Products Major Group 2 5 . — F u r n i t u r e and F i x t u r e s 252 Office Furniture 254 P a r t i t i o n s , S h e l v i n g , Lockers, and O f f i c e r & Store Fixtures 259 M i s c e l l a n e o u s F u r n i t u r e and F i x t u r e s Major Group 2 6 . — P a p e r & A l l i e d Products *262 Paper M i l l s , Except B u i l d i n g Paper M i l l s *264 Converted Paper & Paperboard Products, Except and Boxes Major Group 2 7 . — P r i n t i n g , P u b l i s h i n g , ' and *271 Newspapers: P u b l i s h i n g , P u b l i s h i n g 273 Books *274 Miscellaneous Publishing *275 Commercial P r i n t i n g 276 M a n i f o l d Business Forms 278 Blankbooks, Loose Leaf B i n d e r s , and R e l a t e d Work *279 S e r v i c e I n d u s t r i e s f o r the P r i n t i n g  Containers  A l l i e d Industries and P r i n t i n g  Bookbinding & Trade  125 S.I.C. Code  (cont'd.)  Major Group 2 8 . — C h e m i c a l s and A l l i e d Products 289 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Chemical Products Major Group 2 9 . — P e t r o l e u m 291 Petroleum R e f i n i n g  R e f i n i n g and R e l a t e d I n d u s t r i e s  Major Group 3 1 . — L e a t h e r and L e a t h e r Products 314 Footwear, Except Rubber Major Group 3 3 . — P r i m a r y Metal I n d u s t r i e s 331 B l a s t Furnaces, S t e e l Works, and R o l l i n g and F i n i s h i n g Mills Major Group 3 4 . — F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l Products, Except Ordnance, Machinery & T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment 347 C o a t i n g , Engraving, and A l l i e d S e r v i c e s 1  Major Group 3 6 . — E l e c t r i c a l Machinery, Equipment, and S u p p l i e s 364 E l e c t r i c L i g h t i n g and W i r i n g Equipment *366 Communication Equipment *369 M i s c e l l a n e o u s E l e c t r i c a l Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies Major Group 3 8 . — P r o f e s s i o n a l , S c i e n t i f i c , and C o n t r o l l i n g Instruments: Photographic & O p t i c a l Goods, Watches & C l o c k s 381 E n g i n e e r i n g , L a b o r a t o r y , & S c i e n t i f i c & Research Instruments & A s s o c i a t e d Equipment *384 S u r g i c a l , M e d i c a l , and Dental Instruments and S u p p l i e s *387 Watches, C l o c k s , Clockwork Operated Devices, and P a r t s Major Group 3 9 . — M i s c e l l a n e o u s Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s *391 Jewelry, S i l v e r w a r e , and P l a t e d Ware 395 Pens, P e n c i l s , and Other O f f i c e and A r t i s t s ' M a t e r i a l s *396 Costume Jewelry, Costume N o v e l t i e s , Buttons, and M i s c e l l a n e o u s N o t i o n s , Except P r e c i o u s Metal *399 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATIONS, ELECTRIC, GAS AND SANITARY SERVICES Major Group 4 0 . — R a i l r o a d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n *401 Railroads *404 Railways Express S e r v i c e Major Group 42.—Motor F r e i g h t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Warehousing 421 T r u c k i n g , L o c a l and Long D i s t a n c e .422 P u b l i c Warehousing  126 S.I.C. Code  (cont'd.)  Major Group 44.—Water T r a n s p o r t a t i o n *4 41 Deep Sea F o r e i g n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n *445 L o c a l Water T r a n s p o r t a t i o n *446 S e r v i c e s I n c i d e n t a l t o Water T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Major Group 4 5 . — T r a n s p o r t a t i o n by A i r 451 A i r Transportation, C e r t i f i c a t e d Carriers 458 Fixed F a c i l i t i e s - i a n d Services Related t o A i r Transportation Major Group 4 6 . — P i p e L i n e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 461 Gas Pipe L i n e s , except N a t u r a l Gas Major Group 4 7 . — T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e s *471 F r e i g h t Forwarding *472 Arrangement o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Major Group 48.—Communications *481 Telephone Communication (Wire o r Radio) *482 Telegraph Communication (Wire o r Radio) *483 Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g and T e l e v i s i o n *489 Communication S e r v i c e s , Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 49 . — E l e c t r i c , Gas & S a n i t a r y S e r v i c e s *492 Gas Companies and Systems *493 Combination Companies and Systems *495 Sanitary Services WHOLESALE & RETAIL TRADE Major Group 5 0 . — W h o l e s a l e Trade *502 Drugs, Chemicals, & A l l i e d Products *503 P i e c e Goods, Notions, Apparel *504 G r o c e r i e s and R e l a t e d Products *505 Farm Products-Raw M a t e r i a l s *506 E l e c t r i c a l Goods *507 Hardware, and Plumbihgc& Heating Equipment & S u p p l i e s *508 Machinery, Equipment, and S u p p l i e s *509 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Wholesalers Major Group 5 2 . — R e t a i l T r a d e — B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s , Hardware, & Farm Equipment Dealers 522 Plumbing, Heating & A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g Equipment Dealers 523 P a i n t , G l a s s , and Wallpaper Stores 524 E l e c t r i c a l Supply Stores 525 Hardware and Farm Equipment  127 S.I.C. Code  (cont'd.)  Major Group 5 3 . — R e t a i l T r a d e — G e n e r a l Merchandise 531 Department S t o r e s 532 M a i l Order Houses 533 V a r i e t y Stores 539 Miscellaneous R e t a i l Stores Major Group 5 4 . - - R e t a i l Trade--Food S t o r e s 541 Grocery Stores 542 Meat and F i s h (Sea Food) Markets 543 F r u i t S t o r e s and Vegetable Markets 544 Candy, Nut, and C o n f e c t i o n e r y Stores 546 R e t a i l Bakeries 549 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Food S t o r e s Major Group 55.—Automotive Dealers & G a s o l i n e S e r v i c e S t a t i o n s 551 Motor V e h i c l e Dealers (New and Used Cars) 554 Gasoline Service Stations 559 M i s c e l l a n e o u s A i r c r a f t , Marine, & Automotive Dealers Major Group 5 6 . - - R e t a i l T r a d e — A p p a r e l & Accessory Stores 561 Men's & Boys' C l o t h i n g & F u r n i s h i n g s Stores 562 Women's Ready-to-Wear S t o r e s 563 Women's Accessory and S p e c i a l t y S t o r e s 564 C h i l d r e n ' s and I n f a n t s ' Wear S t o r e s 566 Shoe S t o r e s 567 Custom T a i l o r s 568 F u r r i e r s and F u r Shops 569 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Apparel & Accessory S t o r e s Major Group 5 7 . — R e t a i l T r a d e - - F u r n i t u r e , Home F u r n i s h i n g s , and Equipment S t o r e s 571 F u r n i t u r e , Home F u r n i s h i n g s , and Equipment S t o r e s , except A p p l i a n c e s 572 Household A p p l i a n c e S t o r e s 573 Radio, T e l e v i s i o n , and Music S t o r e s Major Group 5 8 . — R e t a i l T r a d e - - E a t i n g and D r i n k i n g P l a c e s 581 E a t i n g and D r i n k i n g P l a c e s Major Group 5 9 . - - R e t a i l T r a d e — M i s c e l l a n e o u s R e t a i l 591 Drug S t o r e s and P r o p r i e t o r y S t o r e s 592 Liquor Stores 593 Antique S t o r e s and Second-Hand S t o r e s 594 Book and S t a t i o n e r y S t o r e s 595 S p o r t i n g Goods S t o r e s and B i c y c l e Shops 597 Jewelry Stores 599 R e t a i l S t o r e s , Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d  1  Stores  128 S.I.C. Code  (cont'd.)  FINANCE, INSURANCE & REAL ESTATE Major Group 60.--Banking *602 Commercial and Stock Saving Banks *605 E s t a b l i s h m e n t s Performing F u n c t i o n s C l o s e l y R e l a t e d To Banking *609 Banks, A l l Kinds and E s t a b l i s h m e n t s Performing F u n c t i o n s C l o s e l y R e l a t e d t o Banking Major Group 6 1 . — C r e d i t Agencies Other Than Banks *611 Rediscount & Fxnancxng I n s t x t u t x o n s f o r C r e d i t Other than Banks *614 Personal Credit I n s t i t u t i o n s *615 Business C r e d i t I n s t i t u t i o n s *616 Loan Correspondents and Brokers *619 Mortgage Companies, Agents and Brokers  Agencies  Major Group 6 2 . — S e c u r i t y & Commodity B r o k e r s , D e a l e r s , Exchanges & S e r v i c e s *621 S e c u r i t y B r o k e r s , D e a l e r s & F l o t a t i o n Companies *622 Commodity C o n t r a c t s Broker's & D e a l e r s *623 S e c u r i t y and Commodity Exchanges *624 *628 S e r v i c e s A l l i e d w i t h the Exchange o f S e c u r i t i e s o r Commodities *629 S e c u r i t y and Commodity B r o k e r s , D e a l e r s and Exchanges :  Major Group 63.—Insurance C a r r i e r s *631 L i f e Insurance *632 A c c i d e n t and H e a l t h Insurance *636 T i t l e Insurance Major Group 64.—Insurance Agents, Brokers and S e r v i c e *641 Insurance Agents, Brokers and S e r v i c e *649 Insurance Companies, Agents, Brokers and S e r v i c e s Including Adjusters Major Group 65.—Real E s t a t e *651 Real E s t a t e Operators (Except Developers) and L e s s o r s *653 Agents, Brokers and Developers *655 S u b d i v i d e r s and Developers *659 Real E s t a t e Agents, Broker Managers, T i t l e A b s t r a c t o r ' s Sub D i v i d e r s , Developers and O p e r a t i v e B u i l d e r s Major Group 66.—Combinations of Real E s t a t e , Insurance, Loans, Law O f f i c e s *661 Combinations o f Real E s t a t e , Insurance, Loans, Law Offices :  ;  129 S.T.C. Code  (cont'd.)  Major Group 6 7 . — H o l d i n g and Other Investment Companies *671 H o l d i n g Companies *672 Investment Companies *679 Miscellaneous Investing I n s t i t u t i o n s SERVICES Major Group 7 0 . — H o t e l s , Rooming Houses, Camps, and Other Lodging P l a c e s 701 H o t e l s , T o u r i s t Courts and Motels 1  1  Major Group 72.—Personal Services 721 L a u n d r i e s , Laundry S e r v i c e s & C l e a n i n g and Dyeing Plants 722 Photographic S t u d i o s , I n c l u d i n g Commercial Photography 723 Beauty Shops 724 Barber Shops 725 Shoe Repair Shops, Shoe Shine P a r l o r s , & Hat C l e a n i n g Shops 729 Miscellaneous- P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e s Major Group 73 . — M i s c e l l a n e o u s Business S e r v i c e s *731 Advertising *732 Consumer C r e d i t R e p o r t i n g Agencies, M e r c a n t i l e R e p o r t i n g *733 D u p l i c a t i n g , A d d r e s s i n g , B l u e p r i n t i n g , Photocopying, M a i l i n g , M a i l i n g L i s t & Stenographic S e r v i c e s *734 S e r v i c e s t o Dwellings and Other B u i l d i n g s *735 News S y n d i c a t e s *736 P r i v a t e Employment Agencies *739 Business S e r v i c e s , Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d 1  Major Group 75. —Automobile Repair , Automobile Garages 751 Automobile R e n t a l s , without D r i v e r s 752 Automobile P a r k i n g 753 Automobile Repair Shops 1  1  S e r v i c e s and  Major Group 76.--Miscellaneous Repair S e r v i c e s 762 E l e c t r i c a l Repair Shops 763 Watch, Clock and Jewelry Repair 769 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Repair Shoes and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e s 1  Major 781  1  Group 79. — M o t i o n P i c t u r e s Motion P i c t u r e P r o d u c t i o n & D i s t r i b u t i o n  Major Group 79.—Amusement & R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s , Except Motion P i c t u r e s 791 Dance H a l l s , S t u d i o s and Schools 792 T h e a t r i c a l Producers (except Motion P i c t u r e s ) , Bands, O r c h e s t r a s and E n t e r t a i n e r s  130 S.I.C. Code 793 794  (cont'd.)  Bowling A l l e y s & B i l l i a r d & P o o l E s t a b l i s h m e n t s Sports Promoters & Commercial Operators & M i s c e l l a n e o u s Amusement & R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s  Major Group 8 0 . — M e d i c a l & Other H e a l t h S e r v i c e s *801 O f f i c e s of P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons *802 O f f i c e s of D e n t i s t s and Dental Surgeons *803 O f f i c e s of O s t e o p a t h i c P h y s i c i a n s *804 O f f i c e s of C h i r o p r a c t o r s *807 M e d i c a l and Dental L a b o r a t o r i e s *809 H e a l t h & A l l i e d S e r v i c e s , not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 8 1 . — L e g a l S e r v i c e s *811 Legal Services Major Group 82.--Educational S e r v i c e s 823 L i b r a r i e s & Information Centers 824 Correspondence Schools & V o c a t i o n a l Schools *829 Schools & E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 84.--Museums, A r t G a l l e r i e s , B o t a n i c a l - & Z o o l o g i c a l Gardens 841 Museums and A r t G a l l e r i e s Major Group 8 6 . — N o n p r o f i t Membership O r g a n i z a t i o n s *861 Business A s s o c i a t i o n s *862 P r o f e s s i o n a l Membership O r g a n i z a t i o n s *863 Labour Unions & S i m i l a r Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n s *864 C i v i c , S o c i a l and F r a t e r n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s *865 P o l i t i c a l Organizations *866 Religious Organizations *867 Charitable Organizations *869 N o n p r o f i t Membership O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Not Elsewhere Classified Major Group 8 9 . — M i s c e l l a n e o u s S e r v i c e s *891 E n g i n e e r i n g and A r c h i t e c t u r a l S e r v i c e s *893 A c c o u n t i n g , A u d i t i n g and Bookkeeping S e r v i c e s GOVERNMENT Major Group 9 1 . — F e d e r a l Government *910 F e d e r a l Government Major Group 9 2 . - - P r o v i n c i a l Government *920 P r o v i n c i a l Government Major Group 9 4 . - - I n t e r n a t i o n a l Government *940 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Government  131 S.I.C. Code (cont'd.) VACANT 991 992 993 994 996 999  Commercial O f f i c e Commercial R e t a i l Commercial Wholesale Industrial Residential Vacant Land  OTHER 990  Non-Classifiable  Establishment  Denotes i n c l u d e d i n d e f i n i t i o n o f o f f i c e u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study. (note:  activities  only those uses found i n the CBD have been  included).  132 APPENDIX G Weighted Percentage  D i s t r i b u t i o n of O f f i c e s  With t h e e x i s t i n g d a t a , two "obvious  possibilities  e x i s t e d f o r p o r t r a y i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of o f f i c e s i n each o f the b l o c k - f r o n t s :  one, t o u t i l i z e the frequency of  occurrence of each type of o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and  second,  to c o n s i d e r the f l o o r area i n square f e e t used f o r each type of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y .  In each case, t h i s would have  r e q u i r e d t a k i n g the p r o p o r t i o n o f each c l a s s of o f f i c e  and  e x p r e s s i n g t h i s as a percentage of the t o t a l number of o f f i c e s , or of the t o t a l o f f i c e f l o o r space, i n each of the block-fronts. However, i t was  f e l t t h a t n e i t h e r method of  showing the composition of each b l o c k - f r o n t was  satisfactory.  Use of frequency p r o v i d e d no i d e a of the s i z e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between o f f i c e s  a l a r g e o f f i c e would have the  same s i g n i f i c a n c e as a s m a l l e r o f f i c e .  Use of o f f i c e  f l o o r a r e a , on the otherhand, d i d not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  take  i n t o account the r e l a t i v e frequency w i t h which a p a r t i c u l a r type o f o f f i c e o c c u r r e d . In an attempt  t o i n c o r p o r a t e the d e s i r a b l e aspects  o f each o f these methods, "class-marks" of ranges of o f f i c e f l o o r space were used. square f o o t ranges  The class-marks were s e t f o r  (eg. 1-1000 sq. f t . ,  1000  1001-2000 sq. f t . ,  etc.)  Thus, an o f f i c e of  would be  g i v e n twice the  than 1000  sq.  ft.  each b l o c k - f r o n t by each c l a s s  1500  sq.  f t . , for  significance  example,  of an o f f i c e of  Percentages were then c a l c u l a t e d t a k i n g the  weighted d i s t r i b u t i o n  for  weighted d i s t r i b u t i o n  of o f f i c e as a p r o p o r t i o n of the  1  total  of o f f i c e s i n each b l o c k - f r o n t .  of  134 APPENDIX H The Arc Sine Transformation  f o r Percentage Data  A fundamental assumption of most  statistical  t e s t i n g i s t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n s assume a m u l t i v a r i a t e normal d i s t r i b u t i o n - — g r a p h i c a l l y represented c u r v e - — a r o u n d the mean v a l u e .  as a b e l l - s h a p e d  Haggett notes t h a t almost  i n v a r i a b l y the s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n s do not c l o s e l y correspond distribution.  1  geographic  to a normal  The presence of a high p r o p o r t i o n o f  low  and h i g h v a l u e s would i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g skewness away from a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s study as w e l l . One  method to circumvent  this difficulty  i s to  analyze not the o r i g i n a l d a t a , but an a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s f o r mation of i t .  A c c o r d i n g t o Haggett an a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s f o r -  mation " s t a b i l i z e s the v a r i a t i o n s and makes the  distribution  more n e a r l y normal so t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l parametric be a p p l i e d without  difficulty."  2  tests  There a r e , however, a  can great  number o f d i f f e r e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f u n c t i o n s p o s s i b l e to normalize etc.) of arc  or s t a b i l i z e data  Goddard u t i l i z e d  (eg. l o g , square r o o t , l o g - l o g ,  a l o g 10 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n h i s  o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n London.  The  study  argument f o r an  s i n e square r o o t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r percentage d a t a ,  •"•Haggett (19691, p.  287.  2  Haggett  (1969), p.  287.  3  Goddard  (1968), p.  72.  135 which has been adopted i n t h i s study, has been presented by 4  Krumbein.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t s v a l u e i n p r e f e r e n c e t o raw  percentage d a t a i n s t u d i e s o f land use have been i n d i c a t e d by a number o f o t h e r s t u d i e s . B a s i c a l l y , the e f f e c t o f an a r c s i n e square r o o t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s to s t a b i l i z e v a r i a n c e . has a range o f from 0% to 100%.  Percentage d a t a  With an a r c s i n e  square  r o o t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , the p o s s i b l e range becomes from 0° to 90°.  The approximate  e f f e c t s o f t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n are  i n d i c a t e d on the f o l l o w i n g graph. Raw  (See F i g . A - l ) .  percentage d a t a i s g e n e r a l l y contoured on an  arithmetic interval scale.  However, as Klumbein  points  out, t h e r e i s some i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t a change from 50 t o 55 p e r c e n t , f o r example, i s not as s i g n i f i c a n t as a change from 5% t o 10%.  That i s , equal d i f f e r e n c e s along  a percentage s c a l e are not n e c e s s a r i l y o f e q u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e in  interpretation. Once the raw percentage d a t a i s transformed u s i n g  the a r c s i n e square r o o t the change from 50% t o 55% becomes much l e s s important than a change from 5% t o 10% but remains more important than a change from 5% t o 6%.  still That i s ,  by t r a n s f o r m i n g percentages t o t h e i r a r c s i n e e q u i v a l e n t s and 4  Krumbein  (1957), pp. 293-297.  5  See Haggett (1969), p. 288 f o r summaries of a number of s t u d i e s i n which t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has been used.  136  FIGURE A - l THE ARC SINE SQUARE ROOT TRANSFORMATION FOR PERCENTAGE DATA  10  20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 (arc s i n e , 0 ° ) (Tables f o r c o n v e r t i n g percentages t o t h e i r arc s i n e s i n degrees a r e g i v e n i n S t a t i s t i c a l Methods (G.W. Snedecor. 4th ed., Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e P r e s s , Ames, 1946. p. 449) and S t a t i s t i c a l Tables f o r B i o l o g i c a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and Medical Research (R.A. F i s h e r and F. Yates, Edinburgh 1957. Table X, p. 2 0 ) ) .  137 c o n t o u r i n g on an equal a r c s i n e i n t e r v a l , a "weighting f a c t o r " t h a t appears t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r percentage data i s provided. The a r c s i n e square r o o t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from percentage d a t a r e q u i r e s a t h r e e step procedure: 1. the percentage i s expressed as a p r o p o r t i o n , 2. i t s square r o o t i s e x t r a c t e d , 3. the angle © whose s i n e i s equal t o the square r o o t i s found. Por example, the percentage 33.3% expressed as a p r o p o r t i o n becomes 0.333.  The square r o o t o f t h i s i s 0.577.  8 whose s i n e i s 0.577 i s 35.2°.  The angle  The number 35.2 i s the a r c  s i n e square r o o t t r a n s f o r m o f 33.3%.  

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