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UBC Theses and Dissertations

interrelationship of regional transportation regional government, and planning regions in Saskatchewan Ropertz, Henry 1972

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THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, AND PLANNING REGIONS IN SASKATCHEWAN by HENRY ROPERTZ B .A. , University of Saskatchewan, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I I I L I I C SC l lUU I of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972 i i In presenting this thesis in partial fulf i l lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t i sh Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written per-mission. School of Community and Regional Planning The University of Br i t i sh Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i i ABSTRACT The related concepts of regional planning and regional govern-ment have been a topic of discussion in Saskatchewan for a considerable period of time without yet being resolved. There are immediate quest-ions requiring solutions which can best be handled on a regional scale: r a i l l ine abandonment and grain movement rat ional izat ion; changing con-sumer patterns that are by-passing small service-centers; the effects of population shift from rural to urban areas; the broadening of the econo-mic base and the creation of a vehicle for the effective use of and therefore, the attraction of Federal development grants. Progress in resolving the above issues has been hampered because debate on these topics has been focused on issues that are not relevant. Discussion to date has centered on confl ict ing urban and rural values, heightened by a misunderstanding on the part of urban-oriented academics and professionals concerning rural needs and way of l i f e . This point has created po l i t i ca l attitudes which are detrimental to the adop-tion of regional government at this time. In summary, there exists a conf l ic t between the idea l i s t ic imposition'of regional government versus popular recognition of the concept. iv The thesis purports to show that resolution of this stalemate might be aided by a recognition of the present existence of informal regions and the corresponding existence of inter-dependence of nodal-centers and their surrounding areas. This is done by examining the relevance of current regional theory and l i terature pertaining to regional planning and central place theory. Several empirical studies and regional workshops were examined to comprehend previous attempts to establish a basis for regionalizing the province. The pattern of average daily t ra f f ic volume was used to delimit areas of ac t iv i ty that have developed naturally. An intui t ive information letter provided an insight on how the public debate has strayed off the track; where the debate now stands regarding regional government; and what degree of progress is immediately feasible. The thesis concludes that informal regions exist to a degree that wi l l suff ic iently display the urban-rural community of interest and wil l enable problem-solving to occur predominantly on the required regional scale in respect of the type of issues discussed above. F ina l ly , a new functional organization is suggested to act on these findings. V . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION • • • • • • • • • 1 The Problem 1 Research Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Regional Theory . . . 8 Regionalism in Saskatchewan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Regionalism in Canada 15 II. DELINEATION OF BOUNDARIES FOR PLANNING REGIONS . . . . . . . . . 27 III. ROLE OF RAIL AND ROAD IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SASKATCHEWAN . . . . 55 Historical Perspective of Transportation in Saskatchewan . . . 55 Rail Function in Saskatchewan . . . . . . . . . 61 Road Function in Saskatchewan 68 IV. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF PLANNING REGIONS AND/OR REGIONAL GOVERNMENT 84 Pressure Groups . . . . . 88 Intuitive Information Letter . . 93 V. INTERPRETATIONS . 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY 110 APPENDICES " . . . 116 APPENDIX A: INTUITIVE INFORMATION LETTER . . . . . . . 116 v i . LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES PAGE 1. Saskatchewan Trade Centers . . . . 14 2. Functional Regions of Middle Order and Population Distribution 18 3. Suggested Economic Regions in B.C 23 4. Chris ta l ler Hexagonal Theory . . . 32 5. Chris ta l ler - Spl i t Centers 34 6. Map Showing Analyzed Area in Southwestern Saskatchewan . . . . 35 7. Proposed Boundaries for Local Government in Saskatchewan . . . 38 8. Single-Centered Regions in Saskatchewan . 42 9. Macro-Regions in Saskatchewan . . . . . . . . 43 10. Nader's Class i f icat ion of Regions - Alternative C 44 11. Economic Regions of Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 12. Regions in Saskatchewan . . . . 52 13. Location of Rail Lines Relative to Areas of Submarginal Land 59 14. Location of Centers between Regina and Moosomin . . . . . . . . 60 15. Railways, 1968 . . 64 16. Roads, 1971 72 17. Main Farm Access System . 73 18. Average Daily Traff ic . . 75 19. Regional Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . 20. Boundary Methodology - A Schematic Approach 77 • i 21. Regional Planning in Saskatchewan 109 v i i LIST OF TABLES • TABLE PAGE I. Nodal Centers Based on Population . 12 II. Regional Class i f icat ion . . . . . . . . . . . 29 III. Theoretical Expectations and Actual Results . . . 33 IV. Macro-Regions in Saskatchewan 41 V. Saskatchewan Economic Regions . . . . . . . . . . 47 VI. Urban Systems By Class 49 VII. Changes in Number of Centers by Class in Saskatchewan . . . . . 50 VIII. Changes in Proportions of Centers by Class in Saskatchewan . . . 51 IX. Percentage Shares of Total Ton-Miles of Goods Transported by Type of Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 X. Summary of Branch-Line Abandonment . . 67 XI. Highway and Rural Road Mileage . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 XII. A Comparison of Urban and Rural Grants . . . . . . . 91 XIII. Numerical Picture of Multi-Purpose Units in Saskatchewan, 1970 95 XIV. Single-Purpose or One-Service Authorities in Saskatchewan, 1967 95 XV. The Universe, of the Intuitive Information Letter •'. 97 XVI. Graded Responses of Intuitive Information Letter . . . . . . . . . 98 • i v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I consider myself extremely fortunate in having had the opportunity -to spend the last eight months under the guidance of Professor Gordon Stead. The many hours of interaction that evolved between us enabled me to gain insights into policy formulation based on the many years he spent .as a senior c i v i l servant in Ottawa. The success of any thesis rests heavily on the amount and type of data available. In this regard I extend my sincere appreciation to Paul Harper, Director, Community Planning Branch, Department of Municipal Af fa i r s , Province of Saskatchewan and to his most capable assistant Ron Clark. F ina l ly , I acknowledge the financial support provided me through the Province of Saskatchewan Planning Fellowships over the past two years. I also acknowledge the supplementary support I received from the School of Community and Regional Planning. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This study examines the concept of regional government in the province of Saskatchewan. The concept was analyzed by relating past empirical studies, reports and workshops; average daily t ra f f ic flows between centers and an intui t ive information le t ter . The letter was sent out to 30 persons, who either by past performances or on the basis of their current positions are involved in the regional government concept. The letter v/as comprised of four open-ended questions and enabled the respondents to express their opinions on where the debate regarding regional government currently stands. The study attempts to demonstrate that informal regions exist now, part icular ly based on the nodal-centre concept. The Problem The Economic Council of Canada predicts that the population of the prairies wil l expand by 45 percent during the next thirty years. How-ever, the Systems Research Group predicts only a 1.2 percent increase for Saskatchewan by the year 2001. Whatever growth there wil l be, most of i t is l i ke ly to be concentrated in the c i t i e s . The Department of Municipal Affairs in Saskatchewan predicts that by 1976, 71 percent of the population wil l be urbanized (reside in centres of at least 100 per-sons). - 2 -The continued mechanization of the agricultural industry, plus the continuing development of the amenities in urban l i f e in Saskatchewan towns and c i t i e s , further indicates that the trend toward concentration of population in urban centers wi l l continue. The types of land-use controls necessary in the rapidly developing urban areas and municipali-t ies wi l l be different from those in rural areas that are less subject to dynamic change. To ensure that these areas wi l l in fact get the separate and individual treatment they merit, planning must be under-taken on a regional basis. However, the province is currently being administered by 771 muni-c i p a l i t i e s . Furthermore, there exist some 24 other types of administra-t ive agencies, each sub-dividing the province with different boundaries. This involves a total of 1,419 different jur isdict ional boundaries or administrative areas. To what extent this is a hindrance to regional planning is d i f f i c u l t to state at this time since the regional planning concept has never been applied in the province. Despite the many over-lapping administrative boundaries, i t appears that, based on several other variables, there exist informal regions. The hypothesis of this thesis is Since the concept of regional ism informally exists now in the province, i t is possible to implement planning regions and regional government. The thesis wil l attempt to demonstrate that a form of regionalism exists now in terms of nodal-centered c i t i e s . Since the trend towards urbanization will continue in the near future, these nodal-centers wi l l increase in population and influence over their respective hinterlands. Without regional planning', the trend towards centralization wil l continue. - 3 -This thesis advocates de-centralization to preserve the rural identity. The price of this identity is partial centralization in terms of separate functional regional governments and planning regions. What this means is that regional governmental areas wil l centralize their administrative functions. This in turn de-centralizes many functions such as community planning and highway development, from the Province. At this stage the rhetorical question could be put forward, "Why have regional governments and planning regions?" There are several reasons why the province should commit i t s e l f to regional governments. F i r s t l y , i t would bring about administrative eff iciency. With 771 municipal coun-c i l s currently doing their own administering and accounting, and 24 other agencies doing their own administering and accounting, with no coterminous boundaries, inefficiency is inevitable. Currently, many municipalities lack qualif ied engineers. Regions would ensure standards and s tab i l i ty in terms of services. In the f i e ld of financing, regional governments would ensure that everyone in the region would pay his or her f a i r share towards the maintenance of the region. F ina l ly , decision-making is slowly eroding away to the provincial government, while municipalities lose their authority. Take, for example, the building of highways. The provincial government agrees to pay a major portion of highway costs i f the munici-pal i ty agrees to the proposed route changes. Without provincial grants, most municipalities could not afford to pay the total costs. What results is loss of decision-making by the local municipality or community. Regional Government would allow the same municipality to aid i t s respective region in compiling a regional plan. The building of highways would then be a part of the regional plan, thereby ensuring local community involve-ment. Furthermore, a regional plan would allow cost-sharing of hospitals, - 4 -schools and recreational f a c i l i t i e s among the member municipalities of each respective region. In many ways this would be a form of the user-pay concept. F ina l ly , regional governments and their concomitant regional plans and their carefully la id out programs would allow the Federal Government to increase Saskatchewan's share of grants. This could be done under the auspices of the Province and would enable Saskatchewan to improve i t s position vis-a-vis the rest of Canada in terms of equalization payments, since currently i t ranks only 7th at $5.87 per capita while neighboring Alberta ranks 3rd at $16.40 per capita. At this stage i t is essential to examine current regional theory, to familiarize ourselves with the terms and concepts relating to region-alism. Following this discussion, an analysis of boundary delineations wi l l be completed. Then a comprehensive study of the role of transportation as i t relates to regions in Saskatchewan is discussed. The f inal section wil l outline the constructs of a provincial policy for planning regions and regional governments. Research Methodology This particular thesis has four objectives, as l i s ted below: 1. Analyze the key terms in the hypothesis. 2. Delineate planning regions. 3. Discuss the role of transportation in planning regions. 4. Develop policy and the constructs of Planning Regions and regional governments. F i r s t l y , a survey of the l i terature was completed to analyze the key words in the hypothesis such as regional government and planning regions. - 5 -Concomitant to this survey was the analysis of existing theories, constructs and concepts relating to the above terms. Secondly, the author u t i l i zed three data sources as means to delineate planning regions. These sources and method of analysis are l i s ted below: Chr i s ta l ler Theory: According to Walter Chr i s ta l le r , a hierarchy of settlements can be organized in various ways, each with its own geometrical arrangement of central places and trade area boundaries. In Chr i s ta l l e r ' s basic model, organized on the market pr inciple , the hierarchy and nesting pattern results in the maximum number of central places possible. This method was u t i l i zed by the Royal Commission on Rural Li fe and Agriculture in Saskatchewan. The data of this report were analyzed in terms of delineating service centers. Central Place Hierarchy: In 1961 the Government of Saskatchewan authorized a study of commun-i ty patterns which would delineate boundaries for a new system of local government (not implemented). The methodology used to create these bound-aries was to determine interdependence of areas to trade centers. This comprehensive data wil l be analyzed in respect to the second objective of this particular thesis. Telephone Matrix: George Nader applied a 422x422 telephone matrix of the entire province's telephone exchanges. He determined that measuring the number of telephone ca l l s between exchanges was a gauge to determine economic interaction. Information was obtained from SASK TEL for the total number of telephone ca l l s made between July 7-11 and July 14-18 in 1969 - ten business days (Monday to Friday). Nader then derived boundaries for regionalization. - 6 -These boundaries wi l l be analyzed vis-a-vis the previous two data sources. An attempt was then made to establish boundaries for planning regions and regional government. Thi rd ly , an attempt wil l be made to discuss the role of transportation in planning regions to demonstrate further the existence of informal as opposed to formal regions. This wi l l be done by surveying the l i terature to analyze the problem of transportation planning and regional develop-ment, with particular emphasis on the rural highway network. Data from the Department of Highways pertaining to average daily t ra f f ic volumes was u t i l i zed to determine the existing road pattern. The ra i l network and i ts existing pattern was analyzed from i t s historical context to the current situation of possible r a i l - l i n e abandonment. Despite the economic f ea s ib i l i ty of regional planning and administra-t ion , the f inal decision to set in motion these concepts is a po l i t i ca l one. In an attempt to demonstrate that a positive po l i t i ca l environment exists in the province, an information letter - not a questionnaire - was sent out to the following persons: Name Position Allan Blakeney Premier, Province of Saskatchewan David Steuart Leader of Opposition E. I. Woods Minister of Municipal Affairs N. Byers Minister of Department of Highways T. Walters Deputy Minister, Department of Municipal Affairs L. T. Holmes Deputy-Minister, Department of Highways L. H. Bergstrom Deputy-Minister, Department of Education I. P. Harper Director, Community Planning Branch H. A. Clampitt Director, Municipal Road Assistance Authority - 7 Name K. Mackie B. A. Lundeen M. W. Sturby R. P. Couturier Andy Campbell Ed Anaka W. E. Thompson L. Thorson J . Connor Dr. J . Richards G. A. Nader J . C. Stabler I. W. Tweddell N. Rosenberg M. Barrow Lome Wilkenson Ed Murphy H. R. Gronnerud Joe Oliver M. Lefoy T. Cholod Position Director, Research and Planning Branch Acting Executive Director, Computer Centre Housing Branch, Department of Municipal Affairs Planning Divis ion, Department of Highways Former Director, Community Planning Branch Regional Health Services, Department of Health Director, Assessment Branch, Department of Municipal Af fa i r s . Director, Saskatchewan School Trustees Association Director, Saskatchewan Urban Municipalit ies Association. Director, Department of Geography University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon) Professor, Department of Geography Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario Professor, Department of Economics University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon Vice-President, Association of Professional Community Planners of Saskatchewan Administrator, Town of Mel fort Director, Battle Creek Regional D i s t r i c t , Alberta Secretary-Treasurer of the Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities (SARM) President of SARM Director of SARM Former City Commissioner, Prince Albert President, Community Planning Association of Canada (Saskatchewan Division) President, Community Planning Association of Canada (Regina Branch) - 8 -The format of the le t ter was composed of four questions; the replies were c lass i f ied as " intu i t ive information", regarding the po l i t i ca l repercussions of regional government. The results were not collated or tabulated, but merely "scrutinized" by the author and his advisors. A position statement was then drafted regarding the po l i t i ca l environment as perceived by the kind of response gathered in the information le t ter . Regional Theory Since considerable l i terature exists in the f i e ld of regional theory, the author has selected a col lect ion of ar t ic les that best relate to the Saskatchewan context. No attempt wi l l be made to state conclusively one def ini t ion in place of another. The main purpose of this section is to define the terms in the hypothesis to ensure some consistency for the reader. F i r s t l y , an attempt to define regions: "Regions are sub-divisions of nation and there are a series of possible c r i t e r i a for determining regions (for a variety of purposes). There are also c i t i e s which can be defined in various ways. Further, there are c i t y regions! This concept of course is simply one way of defining a region: that area whose major source of influence is a c i ty and including the c i ty i t s e l f . " 1• The introduction of these various terms a l l indicate that we have semantic problems in defining a region. However, the problems are not as severe as may be thought at f i r s t sight as there is no need to opt for a particu-lar def ini t ion for each of the concepts which have been introduced. What matters is that concepts be used in a consistent way in particular c i r -cumstances. 1. Wilson, A. G . , "Research for Regional Planning", REGIONAL STUDIES, Vol . 3, No. 1, Pergamon Press, 1969, p.3. - 9 -The Hon. Dan Campbell, B.C. Minister of Municipal Af fa i r s , defines the regional concept as "a device for combining functions. It is not a po l i t i ca l amalgamation. It is functional amalgamation in which a board is established to undertake services and administer them j o i n t l y . " 2 The Ontario Government takes a similar position in i t s approach to planning for development in an area-wide, regional context. This posi-tion i s best summarized by the then Premier, John Robarts: "It is the responsibi l i ty of the Ontario Government to assess the present and future requirements of the province of Ontario relating to soc ia l , economic, and governmental development. The provincial government also has the responsibi l i ty to carry out and give direction to regional land-use and economic development planning." 3. If we accept for the moment the role of the provincial government in regional planning, then we should look at two ways in which regions are delimited. It is c lear ly not always desirable for regional planning purposes to use either of the two major types of regions, formal and functional , but similar c r i t e r i a are often used. "Formal regions, also called homogeneous or uniform regions, are defined on the basis of the homogeneity of places located within the region with respect to a given set of properties; these properties may include both natural and economic phenomena." 4. , Nader goes on to state that functional or nodal regions emphasize economic linkages and are often called urban-centered regions. ^ ' The "nodal 2. An Interview with the Hon. Daniel Campbell, B.C. Minister of Municipal Af fa i r s . 3. ONTARIO, THE PREMIER, "Design for Development", A Statement On Regional Development Policy, A p r i l , 1966, p.3 4. Nader, G. A . , "Proposals for the Delineation of Planning Regions in Saskatchewan" - Research paper prepared for the Provincial Government, June, 1970, p . l . 5. Nader, G. A . , op. c i t . , p . l . - 10 -concept" (described in detail further on) often is c r i t i c i z e d by those persons residing in i t s "umland." For instance, according to Alonzo, one often meets statements that population movements from the countryside to urban centers are subject to diminishing returns as the result of congestion and l ike factors and con-sequently further movements of population to these centers is inef f ic ient . Second, the c i t i e s are already r ich and powerful, whereas the countryside is being drained of i t s best young people by this migration, thus increas-ingthe inequality among regions. Although both of these positions are often held simultaneously (albeit seldom stated with precision) a moment's thought wil l raise doubts as to whether both can be true simultaneously. ^ With this in mind, regional planning has been defined as a "process based on law and undertaken by a form of responsible government directed towards influencing development, private or public, in a manner that results , in the areas where people settle and establish regional communities, in the best environment and the soundest use of resources that our c i v i l i z a -tion is capable of effecting." ^ \ 6. Alonzo, William, "Equity And Its Relation to Efficiency in Urbanization", Center for Planning and Development Research, University of Ca l i fornia , Berkeley, July, 1968, p.2. 7. Gertler , L. 0 . , "Regional Planning And Development", Background Papers, Resources For Tomorrow Conference, Vol . 1, 1961. * "Umland" is a german geographical term meaning surrounding land or "environs". - 11 -Another view on this point states that planning on a regional scale must be based on law, but regional planning through extra-terr i tor ia l control by one government over another government of equal status is not o a desirable long-run solut ion." ' For example, an urban center attempt-ing to dictate policy to a neighboring rural municipality or vice versa. Dr. J . H. Richards expresses regional planning as the "inter-dependence Q between town and countryside and between region and province." Regionalization means many things to many people. Previous def in i -tions have generally been at the academic l eve l , so-called pure theory. Pract ica l ly speaking, to Mayor Sid Buckwold of Saskatoon "regionalization means incorporating an area within 20 miles of Saskatoon into the c i ty -just far enough to get control of the tax revenue from two or three potash mines." It should now be evident that regional planning has devel-oped along pragmatic lines with l i t t l e attention to formal theory: "It may be premature to expect a fu l ly developed theory in a young and highly disparate f i e l d , but i t does seem possible to generalize about the common features of regional planning as i t has evolved in various countries around the world." 11 These features of homogeneity that Perl off writes about wi l l be analyzed in the Canadian context, placing emphasis on the provinces of Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Bri t i sh Columbia. 8. Jones, Murray, "Urban Focus And Regional Planning", Can. Public Admin. J . I . P . A . C . , Vol . IX, No. 2, June, 1966, p.180. 9. Richards, J . H . , "Regionalism And Regional Planning", Address to The Saskatoon Chamber of Commerce, A p r i l , 1970. 10. Wilkinson, Lome, "Regional Government! Who Needs I t" , The Rural Council lor, Vol . 5, No. 5, August, 1970, p.20. 11. Perloff , Harvey, "Key Features of Regional Planning", A . I . P . JOURNAL, May, 1968, p.l53. - 12 -Regionalism in Saskatchewan The move to urbanization in Saskatchewan has been somewhat slower than other provinces in Canada - nevertheless, urbanization has occurred. A l -though the province of Saskatchewan lost 52,117 persons since 1966, the c i t i e s of Saskatoon and Regina gained s igni f icant ly . Four other nodal centers also had population increases while rural areas experienced sharp declines. This should be kept c learly in mind when discussing regionalism in Saskatchewan. Between 1961-1966 the population of the province increased to 955,344 from 925,181 for a net gain of 30,153. During the correspond-ing period the nodal centers increased over 47,000 people. Table I: Nodal Centers - Population City 1961 1966 1971 Regina 112,141 131,000 137,759 Saskatoon 95,526 115,829 125,079 Moose Jaw 33,206 33,417 31 ,284 Prince Albert 24,168 26,269 27,613 Swift Current 12,186 14,485 15,048 Yorkton 9,995 12,645 13,149 North Battleford 11,230 12,262 12,453 Estevan 7,728 9,063 8,930 Weyburn 9,101 9,022 8,576 Melvi l le 5,191 5,619 5,243 320,652 369,611 385,134 D, .B.S. CENSUS REPORTS 1966 As stated above, between 1966-1971 the province decreased to 919,227 from 955,344. During the period the nodal centers (six increased; four decreased) gained 12,103 persons. The two primate centers, Regina and Saskatoon, gained 16,000 persons. Recent s ta t i s t ics ref lect their importance as trade and manufacturing centers also. - 13 -"A 75 miles radius c i r c l e around these towns would generally cover the central portions of their trading area. This set of areas would extend over nearly the entire settled part of the province. At least one of these centers is within one hour and fifteen minutes maximum driving time of about ninety percent of Saskatchewan's population." 12. This is i l lustrated on the map entit led "Saskatchewan Trade Centers" (Figure 1). The continued mechanization of the agricultural industry, together with the continuing development of the amenities such as higher wages, better schools, more cultural f a c i l i t i e s in urban l i f e in Saskatchewan's towns and c i t i e s , indicate that the trend toward concentration of population in urban centers is l i k e l y to continue. Thus, while the rural areas of the province wil l become more productive, there wi l l not be the same pressures of development in these areas as wi l l be f e l t in the major urban centers. Thus we separate treatment for urban and rural municipali-t i e s . This i s generally the position of the R. M. Bryden study* on Saskatchewan planning which states: "A system of land-use controls which is necessary in the rapidly developing c i ty is not required to cope with the less rapid and diverse rural change. The acceptance of governmental regulation of the use of property, whether by local or provincial government, is based ultimately upon the belief of 12. Stabler, J . C . , "The Relationship of Regional Economics to Regional Governments", C.PAC WORKSHOP, Yorkton, Saskatchewan, Apri l 15, 1970. * Professor Bryden, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, was commissioned by C.M.H.C. and the Saskatchewan Government to study the Community Planning Act and recommend changes in the Act which would make i t possible to form regional governments. - 15 -the property owner in the ultimate beneficial effect of the system upon his property present or future. Therefore, urban residents are l i ke ly to accept techniques of control that would be unacceptable to their counterpart in rural areas." 13 In Saskatchewan these controls come under the Community Planning Act. The move to regional ization in Saskatchewan has been somev/hat slower than in other provinces, but i t has now reached the stage where legis lat ion is being proposed which would effectively implement this form of decision-making, (i .e. , regional planning only). It is always valuable to analyze the pattern that regionalization is taking in other provinces for comparative purposes. The provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario and Bri t i sh Columbia wil l now be discussed. »Regional ism in Canada (A) NOVA SCOTIA In 1967 the Conservative Government in Nova Scotia, in co-operation with the Union of Nova Scotia Municipal i t ies , set up a provincial munici-pal fact finding committee. "The population of Nova Scotia is 760,000. To serve this population there are 65 municipalit ies , 89 municipal, regional and vocational school boards, 686 local boards of school trustees and a variety of boards and commissions relating to grant expendi-tures, planning, l ibrary and other services." '4 There can be no doubt as to why the committee concluded there were too many such units in municipal government. The summary of former Premier Smith's second Report in 1969 stated: "the committee believes that the stress should be on fewer units without the creation of a second t i e r of municipal government except in unusual cases the regions to be defined by the province." 15 13. Bryden, R. M . , "Saskatchewan Planning Legislation Study", Saskatchewan Dept. of Municipal Af fa i r s , Regina, 1969, p . l . 14. Forsyth, A . , "Urban Policies in the Making", CPAC REVIEW, Vol . 20, No. 2, 1970, p.10. 15. Ib id . , p.13. - 16 -The growth of regionalization in Nova Scotia as well as the rest of the Maritimes depends greatly on the regional policies of the Federal Govern-ment and such agencies as ARDA and ADA. It is perhaps too soon to judge the total effect of these policies at this time. (B) ONTARIO The approach of the Ontario Government to regionalization is some-what different than the other provinces. There has been no attempt to regionalize the entire province, no attempt to regionalize or delineate regions in the manner already discussed, but rather on a regional devel-opmental basis. Eight areas were chosen for intensive study and accord-ing to the Director of the Municipal Research Branch of the Ontario Govern-ment in an address delivered in May, 1969 "Several areas are now at some stage along the road to regional government . . . . our need is to give pr ior i ty considerations to areas where need is the greatest." 16. Thus the system now developed in Ontario is called the "Design for Develop-ment" program. Each development concept is intended as a planning frame-work to guide growth and change in the region. Already the Toronto-Centered Region is functioning along with the Kitchener-Waterloo-Galt area as wel l . Several other areas are beginning to form nodal centered regions, e .g . , the London-Windsor area. The Ontario Government of Premier Davis has inherited a pre-conceived pattern for regionalization from his predecessor John Robarts that has in fact nurtured the "city-center" concept developed in theory by H. Carol of 16. Forsyth, A . , op. c i t . , p.13. - 17 -York University in Toronto. (Figure 2). According to Carol , the c i ty forms a socio-economic hub for the whole population of a city-centered region. ^ * This , states Carol , includes functions such as commuter relations between the c i ty and i ts hinterland (rural) as well as recreation. The philosophy of Carol is in search of a system of regions that wi l l provide a suitable stage for social action on the issues of regional government. ^ Leo Gertler takes Carol to task for over-emphasizing the central place theory of a region. Gertler states this concept is backward looking and had i t s origins in the market center idea which i t s e l f had i t s origins in rural society. Gertler states: "No issue can be taken with this concept as such as a cr i ter ion for regional delineation In our time i t is not the most decisive cr i ter ion for defining the urban-center region. We have to keep our eyes on the centrifugal forces - the outward thrust of the c i t y into rural areas." 19 Gertler 's statement is of significance for this thesis since his attitude towards the rural areas is shared by many academics. A similar situation exists in Saskatchewan and wil l become evident in chapter four. The situation in Ontario was regionalization s t r i c t l y on economic terms as late as 1965. The Toronto-Centered Region in existence today was created mainly on economic terms. The progress of events between 1965 and 1969 is well documented ^0 a n c j demonstrates the change in policy since 1965. The need to create the Toronto-Centered Region on more than 17. Carol , H . , "City-Centered Development Regions", Ontario Geography, Vol . 16, No. 2, 1969, p.81. 18. Ib id . , p.22. 19. Gertler , L. 0 . , "Regionalization and Economic Development", CPAC JOURNAL, Vol . 20, No. 1, Ottawa, 1970, p.8. 20. Kidnie, Janet, "Evolution of Regional Planning and Government in Ontario", M.A. THESIS, U . B . C . , A p r i l , 1969, pp.48-68. - 18 -Figure 2: Functional Regions of Middle Order and Population Distribution Source: Carol , Hans, "Development Regions in Southern Ontario Based on City-Centered Regions", Ontario Geography, No. 4, 1969, p.19. - 19 -economic interaction was summarized by Krueger's paper on regional econo-mic development in Ontario: "Unless there is close coordination at the provincial government l e v e l , some of the proposals previously made wil l be impossible to execute and the end result of a l l the attempts at reform at the local level wi l l meet with very limited success. It is for this reason that I recommend, regardless of what other action is taken, that the government establish a Cabinet Committee on regional development." 21 The current situation in Ontario, recommended by the Ontario Com-22 mission on Taxation is one in which a region wil l have a two-tier form of government but wi l l not do away with local municipalities or have their boundaries changed. "The regional council wi l l be composed of elected members from the councils of the local municipalit ies , except for the chairman. The functions carried out by this regional council wi l l include assessment, arter ia l road maintenance, major water, sewage and drainage works, regional planning, capital financing, and welfare services."23 The significant point to remember in Ontario is that to implement f u l l y (by legis lat ion) regional planning, a definite change in the framework of government is required. For the rational implementation of power, i t remains to be seen whether the current government wil l make that change. 21. Kreuger, R., "Regional Economic Development in Ontario", International Conference on Regional Development and Economic Change, Department of Economics and Development, Toronto, 1965, p.45. 22. Report of the Ontario Committee on Taxation was released January, 1968. The Report is discussed further in chapter four. 23. Toronto Globe and Mai l , February 3, 1968, p . l . - 20 -(C) BRITISH COLUMBIA This province has followed a s l ight ly different concept of regional i-zation. The Province is divided into 29 regional d i s t r ic t s and has avoided the second t i e r of government between the province and the municipality. This is typified by Dan Campbell, Minister of Municipal Affairs for Br i t i sh Columbia, in a policy speech published in 1968: "Regional Government does the same thing as metro government but the functions that i t assumes, with the exception of hospitals, are not statutory functions. In addition, the regional d i s t r i c t has no authority to levy i t s own taxes," 24 These regional boards were formed in 1965 with provincial-government appoin-ted directors . Their operation, described by the Vancouver Sun, is unique in Canada, with the announcement on November 5, 1969, by the Provincial Government that the members of these regional boards would henceforth be duly elected. The Sun states that the formation of these boards is to "provide a form of government at the regional level to co-operate munici-pal and non-municipal services. They wil l receive grants from the province for administration costs and grant assistance for regional planning which the province is encouraging them to undertake." I ronica l ly , the c i ty of Vancouver was hesitant to jo in one of these boards until i t was assured that i t would continue to have ful l control of i t s own planning and devel-opment. Not unti l May 6, 1966 did the c i ty endorse regional planning for the lower mainland: 24. An Interview with The Hon. Dan Campbell, B.C. Municipal Affairs Minister, "The Regional Distr ict . . .What It Is...How It Works. 25. Ib id . , p . l . - 21 -"Unti l the plan, the lower mainland regional planning board could and would recommend zoning and land-use changes in 28 municipalit ies , encom-passing an area from Hope to Vancouver. Hence control over zoning changes in Vancouver would remain with c i ty counci l . " 26 It is not clear at this time what the. goals of the Bennett Administra-tion are in the f i e ld of regionalization in the lower mainland. Bear in mind the objectives of other governments for large urban- centers - e .g . , in Br i ta in : "The objective of government policy is to reduce congestion in urban centers by creating new towns. Policy concerned with the r e l i e f of congestion has proceeded haphazardly, bedevilled by the rapid growth of population and the increase in the ownership of private cars ." 2/ The question arises as to what happens to the 28 municipalities in the lower mainland regional planning board.' Provincial Municipal Affairs Minister, the Hon. Daniel Campbell, was asked precisely this question. Is i t a case of regionalism today and amalgamation tomorrow? "No. The questions should not be confused. In one . case you are talking about po l i t i ca l amalgamation as with Alberni and Port Alberni ; the other is functional amalga-mation of regional d i s t r i c t s . There should be some move towards amalgamation of municipalit ies , part icularly on the lower mainland." 28 Another aspect to regional government in B.C. is the position recently taken by the Planning Institute of Br i t i sh Columbia in a brief submitted to 26. Vancouver Sun, May 6, 1966. 27. Wilkinson, R. K., "Cr i ter ia for Regional Planning", TOWN PLANNING REVIEW, Vol . 41, No. 3, July, 1970, p.207. 28. An Interview with The Hon. Daniel Campbell, Minister of Municipal Affairs for Br i t i sh Columbia. - 22 -the Minister of Municipal Affairs in A p r i l , 1970. One of their major proposals was that the province be divided into eight economic regions. (Figure 3). The Brief f a i l s to state the manner (rationale) in which these eight economic regions are to be delineated; however, the Brief is not a comprehensive report, but simply an outline of suggested or proposed policy. PIBC did state that several levels of government are now becoming increasingly ind iv i s ib l e , but the actions of the provincial government are s t i l l the key determinants in regional development. In short, the province's capital works and legis lat ion outweigh a l l other determinants of regional development and thereby set the pattern for decision-making by local govern-ment and private enterprise. PIBC proposed the following principles : 1. HUMAN NEEDS: Take into account the ful l range of human needs and anticipate the consequences of both public and private action. 2. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES: Recognize regional differences and poten-t i a l s and encourage and f ac i l i t a te local decision-making on regional development. 3. INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING: Replace the separate consideration of major provincial government projects by individual departments. 4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS: Embark upon major projects only after considering the fu l l costs and benefits of alternatives, and estab-l i s h their location and pr ior i ty as part of regional development programs. ^ The position taken by PIBC is similar (in principle) to.the position of the Town Planning Institute of Canada and the non-professional Community 29. Planning Institute of Br i t i sh Columbia, "Regional Development - A Framework for Provincial Pol icy" , A Brief to the Minister of Municipal Af fa i r s , Hon. Dan Campbell, A p r i l , 1970. - 23 -Figure 3: Suggested Economic Regions in Br i t i sh Columbia Dav/so^ CreehP P r i n c e ^ ^ George*' PVAiiCCUVI^ k \ ^ K e l s o n 6 i 0 K a n ^ s 5 v - ' (& KcjJown Source: Planning Institute of Br i t i sh Columbia, "Regional Development A Framework for Provincial Pol icy" , A Brief to the Minister of Municipal Af fa i r s , A p r i l , 1970. - 24 -Planning Association of Canada in studies done in other regions. The researching of this topic has made evident two significant factors -the f i r s t being the unwillingness and quite understandable position of the Federal Government towards recommending regions, and the second being the realization that although much is and has been written on the topic of regionalism, evaluation is needed of the methods and approaches in these studies as soon as they are available. The latter i s one reason for this thesis , e .g . , a considerable number of studies have been completed in Saskatchewan concerning regionalism, but few have evaluated other methods and even their own approaches. In the span of less than one year the Federal Government has com-pletely reversed i t s position towards regionalism. In September, 1969 the Hon. Robert Andras, then Federal Minister Responsible For Housing, stated: "Most of our opportunities and most of our problems occur in urban settings. Hence regional disparit ies must be in terms of urban arrangement." 30 These remarks implied that Andras favoured the city-centered development regions of Southern Ontario; yet on June 10, 1970 he told the Annual Meeting of Mayors, and Municipal it ies : "We must, for instance, realize that one of the most important levels of government - municipal - is not yet a recognized participant in the process of establishing objectives - formulation of policy and programs - and allocation of resources." 31 30. The Hon. Robert Andras, Federal Minister for Housing, (Radio Release), "Property Forum", 1969, King Edward Hotel, Toronto, September, 1969. 31. The Hon. Robert Andras, Federal Minister for Housing, (Address) 33rd Annual Convention of the Canadian Federation of Mayors and Municipal i t ies , Halifax, Nova Scotia, June 10, 1970. - 25 -In the Saskatchewan context, this may be interpreted as favouring local rural municipal government. Perhpas the government could decide on this issue i f some direction were given i t by respective communities or regions in the form of c lear , concise proposed policy. The situation in Britain is somewhat similar to that in Canada. While the debate on regionalism continues, the implementation of regional government flounders in the depths of analysis, e .g . , in Br i t a in , which has the Ontario regional concept, "there is currently a lag in some aspects of regional planning since there has been l i t t l e l i terature devoted to 32 analysis of the impact of regional-planning a c t i v i t i e s . " This idea is shared by P.T. Wheeler, who reports that "at the Nottingham Symposium i t was realized that in the last few years much has been written on the topic of regionalization by a variety of agencies, private consultants, and gov-ernment o f f i c i a l s . " 33 wheeler also states that we need evaluation of the methods and approaches adopted in these studies as soon as they are ava i l -able. An attempt was made in this particular analysis to bring some of the diverse views on the subject into focus. Some concentration was devoted to the semantic problem existing in this f i e l d and i t was i l lustrated how this has been interpreted by different Canadian provinces. The analysis did demonstrate that regionalism (whatever form i t may be) depends on the 32. Dutt, Ashok, "Regional Planning in England and Wales" -A C r i t i c a l Evaluation - PLAN, Vol . 10, No. 1, 1969. 33. Wheeler, P. T . , "Proceedings of the Nottingham Symposium on Sub-Regional Studies" - Regional Studies Assoc., East Midlands Branch, Nottingham, 1969. - 26 -circumstances of each case. The semantic problem has not been completely resolved and terms l ike "regional transportation" and "regional government" wil l be defined in the chapters concerned with these concepts. This thesis wi l l not attempt to move from analysis to an approach that wi l l enable a province l ike Saskatchewan to adopt not only planning regions but also regional government. - 27 -CHAPTER II DELINEATION OF BOUNDARIES FOR PLANNING REGIONS In Chapter One, regions were described as sub-divisions of nations and there are a series of possible c r i t e r i a for determining boundaries of regions for a variety of purposes. What are some of the different ways of looking at regions? To answer this question, two others must be posed. What are the basic components of a region? How do we view these compon-ents? Wilson suggests four types of component: "There are mobile objects such as people, goods and vehicles; there are immobile objects or physical  infrastructures such as buildings and transport f a c i l -i t i e s ; there is land which can be put into a special category of i t s own; f ina l ly there are a wide variety of a c t iv i t i e s : l i v i n g , working, shopping, being educa-ted and having a social l i f e for individuals ; there are economic ac t iv i t i e s , and there are ac t iv i t i e s which are interactions such as t r ave l . " 34 These types of components may be c lass i f ied as System Identif ication. The la t ter ac t iv i ty - "interactions" - wil l be discussed in Chapter III. The remaining components wil l be inherent in this analysis of possible c r i t e r i a for establishing boundaries for planning regions in Saskatchewan. This chapter wi l l not attempt to make an extensive analysis of the c r i t e r i a essential for the demarcation of regions. In fact , according to 34. Wilson, A. G . , op. c i t . , p.4. - 28 -Brewis, " i t is possible to speak in general terms about regional prob-lems without explaining precisely what we mean by a region or an area, and for many purposes, a specific delineation of the boundaries - or an agreement on the c r i t e r i a for drawing them - is not essential to useful discussion." This has been part of the problem in Saskatchewan - dis-cussion always broke down at that point when boundary c r i t e r i a were brought into the picture. This particular chapter does not purport to have the final solution, but will demonstrate that the boundary question has been over-emphasized. Take, for example, the definit ion used by the American Association of Geographers - "a region is not an object either self-determined or nature given. It is an intel lectural concept, an entity for purposes of thought, created by the selection of certain features that are relevant to a real interest or problem, and by the disregard of a l l features that O f are considered to be irrelevant . " Furthermore, a United Nations report had this to say regarding the delineation of regions: "there is no particular mystique about ident i-fying them . . . . they are ordinary, common, pract ica l , . geographical areas for which social and economic improvement plans have been conceived, planned and undertaken boundaries may be determined by natural features, trading or metropolitan areas, labour markets, ethnic groupings, or po l i t i ca l jur i sd ic t ions . " 37 35. Brewis, T. N . , Regional Economic Pol i t ics in Canada, The MacMillan Company of Canada, Toronto, 1969, p.43. 36. Regional Economic Planning, Organization for European Economic Cooperation, Paris, 1961, p.379. 37. Design for a Worldwide Study of Regional Development: A Report to the United Nations on a Proposed Research-Training Program, Washington, D . C : Resources for the Future, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md., U .S .A . , 1966, p.3. - 29 -Brewis counters this indifference by stressing the point that " in deter-mining both whether economic development is necessary and what type of development is best suited to an area, some boundaries are much more  important than others." Brewis further states that before we determine regional boundaries, some guidance can be gained by looking at the ways in which regions are commonly c la s s i f ied . Table II: Regional Class i f icat ion a Classi f icat ion Description Homogeneous has one or more significant characteristics in common; such characteristics in the case of a "lagging" region might include a low growth rate, and an abnormally high percent-age of people with less than average educa-t ion . Nodal . are based on focal points of economic ac t i -v i ty and entail functional relationships. Usually a c i t y or town plays a central role . Administrative A municipality or a county. a based on Brewis, T. N . , op. c i t . , p.46-47. Regional class i f icat ions by Brewis illuminate one important factor: the c i t y . The importance of c i t i e s in regional planning has not been stressed until recently: "In the United States, one observes a changing focus from hinterland or watershed to the metropoli-. tan region as the major planning area. One can further expostulate that no effective regional planning can be done in the sense of resource and economic development, without considering the role of c i t i e s , without consid-ering the core of economic progress." 38 38. Friedmann, John, "The Concept of a Planning Region", Regional Development  and Planning: A Reader, eds. John Friedmann and William Alonzo, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., U .S .A. , 1964, p. 500. - 30 -This thesis wi l l attempt to analyze whether or not nodal centers based on economic interaction exist in Saskatchewan. Furthermore, the demarcation of service centers in the province relates d i rec t ly to the boundary question, i . e . , a nodal center plays a primate role in i t s immediate "umland." Three major attempts have been made to establish either new economic (planning) or new administrative boundaries in the province. ^ » ^ The f i r s t of these studies, the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , u t i l i zed the central place theory of Walter Chr i s ta l le r , devel-oped in his book, Die Zentralen Orte in Suddeutschland, written in 1933. According to Chris ta l ler "that c i ty or settlement is named a 'central place 1 which functions as an economical and social center for a larger or smaller umland." Distribution and number of central places of any order may vary: "If the principle of optimum supply of the umland is predominant, there is a central place of next lower order located in the center of the equilateral triangle formed by the location of neighboring central places of next lower order for any central place of higher order, 6 places of s t i l l lower order, etc . " 42 39. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , "Service Centers", Report No. 12, Government of Saskatchewan, Regina, October, 1957, 40. Local Government Continuing Committee, "Local Government in Saskatchewan", Government of Saskatchewan, Regina, March 1, 1961. 41. Nader, G. A . , Proposals for the Delineation of Planning Regions in Saskatchewan (Unpublished), Government of Saskatchewan, Regina, June, 1970. 42. Chr i s ta l le r , W., "The Advantages of Space - Economical Theory for the Practise of Regional Planning", Ekis t ies , Vol . 20, No. 119, October, 1965, p. 223. -31 -Chris ta l ler further states that the development of urban communities is primarily (in an industrial society) a response to the economic and social needs of the rural population. ^ J Certainly this is an over-simplified def init ion of a region; however, as broad regions go, few generalizations pertain more s ignif icantly than Chr i s ta l ler ' s to the province of Saskatchewan. One of the best applications of Chris ta l ler theory in Canada (yet alone Saskatchewan) is the study led by Professor P. Woroby of the University of Saskatchewan (Regina) as part of the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Li fe submitted to the Government of Saskatchewan in 1957. Despite the data being 15 years o ld , i t s t i l l is pertinent today. F i r s t , a further brief analysis of Chris ta l ler theory. The author developed his theoretical system to include various levels or orders of central places. He computed the population of these places, their dis-tances apart, and the sizes and populations of their tributary areas in accordance with his hexagonal theory i l lustrated by Figure 4. To summarize, two fundamental conditions of supply and demand affect the location of service centers: 1. The existence of demand for services in an area exerts economic pressure to service that demand -to locate central services in such a manner that wi l l be accessible to residents of the entire area. 43. Chr i s ta l l e r , W., op. c i t . , p.223. 44. Murphy, Raymond E . , The American Ci ty , McGraw-Hill Book Company, Toronto, 1966, p.76. - 32 -Figure 4: Chris ta l ler c Ideally, each central place would have a c i rcular tributary area, but tangent c i rc le s (A) would leave unserved spaces, and overlapping c i rc les (B) would mean competition in the overlapping areas. Hexagons (C) use a l l the space without overlapping. Hexagonal Theory 0 County Seat O Township Center • Marker Town The pattern of service centers and the hexagonal areas serve accord-ing to Chr i s ta l ler ' s market pr inciple . Five levels of centers are represented in the diagram, though Chris ta l ler considered two s t i l l higher orders of centers. The market town, with a population of 1,000 and at a distance of 4.5 miles from i t s nearest neighbors and serving an area of 17 square miles, is the basis for the system. Source: Murphy, Raymond, The American Ci ty , p. 76. - 33 -2. The economic forces that govern the supply of services (the characteristic sizes of economic reta i l units) wi l l exert pressure to keep the number of service locations at the minimum required to service the demand. 45 Chri s ta l ler assumed an ideal area in which population and resources were distributed uniformly and in which transportation and communication were unimpeded. One further point needs to be c l a r i f i ed and that pertains to sp l i t function or center. Chris ta l ler was aware that in many instances two centers may perform similar dominant roles and therefore devised his sp l i t center system. Instead of each center acting as the central place for six lower centers, the s p l i t centers act as central places for eight lower centers. (Figure 5.) The practical application of Chris ta l ler theory was applied to an area in the South-West corner of Saskatchewan (geographically known as the Pal l i ser Region), as i l lustrated by Figure 6. The results of the Royal Commission on Rural Li fe and Agriculture are quite i l luminating. (See Table III.) Table III: Theoretical Expectations and Results Theoretical Actual Ci t ie s 1 2 Greater Towns 6 8 Towns ' ~ 6 26 Villages 24 65 Hamlets 54 155 Source: Royal Commission on Rural Life and Agriculture, p. 100 45. Royal Commission on Rural Li fe and Agricultu - 34 -Figure 5: Chris ta l ler Theory - Spl i t Centers i / \ 3 P Source: Royal Commission on Rural Life and Agriculture, p.72 - 35 -Figure 6: Map Showing Analyzed.Area in Southwestern Saskatchewan • PRINCE ALBERT ©NORTH BATTLEFORD . © SASKATOON YORKTON© ©SWIFT CURRENT © REGINA MOOSE JAW O WEYBURN Source: Royal Commission on Rural Li fe and Agriculture, p. 76. - 36 -While the location of centers (Table III) is somewhat at variance from the theoretical model, the influence of transportation requirements (railways) accounts for the major part of the dis tort ion. This wi l l be discussed in Chapter III. Chris ta l ler states that when applying the theoretical model of central places in regional planning, i t is impossible to proceed absolutely schematically. It is obligatory to consider features of the ter ra in , the network of natural waters, densities of population, existing settlements, t ra f f ic routes, and las t , but not least , the a n t i c i -pated trends of future development and p o l i t i c a l l y desirable planning AC objectives. The Commission also found topography (areas of sub-marginal land) as a further factor to break down the model. Despite this deviation, the Commission concluded that the theory of service centers adopted in this report ^ appears to be adequate as a framework for analysis. An M.A. thesis in City Planning completed at the University of Manitoba in 1970 applied the Chris ta l ler model to the Pal l i ser Region and concluded (13 years later than the Royal Commission on Rural Li fe and Agriculture) that Chr i s t a l l e r ' s model is " s t i l l useful as a beginning point in the study of an area. In part icular , the hierarchical c lass i f icat ion of the service centers appears to be important as a beginning point and as a method of comparing functional classes of centers." ^ 46. Chr i s t a l l e r , Walter, op. c i t . ' , p.224. 47. Royal Commission on Rural Li fe and Agriculture, p.100. 48. Kovach, James, Regional Development Planning for Saskatchewan, University of Manitoba (unpublished thesis) , 1970, p.43. - 37 -Whereas the Royal Commission on Rural Li fe and Agriculture was not speci f ica l ly concerned with boundaries as determining service centers, 49 the Local Government Continuing Committee Report was spec i f ia l ly con-cerned with the delineation of boundaries for local government re-organiza-t ion. This report, submitted to the Government of Saskatchewan on March 1, 1961, attempted to outline a new system of local government. It recommen-ded a new alignment of boundaries which suggested considerable amalgamation of existing municipalit ies . These proposed new boundaries may be found in Figure 7: Proposed Boundaries for Local Governments in Saskatchewan. At that time (1961) there were 296 rural municipal it ies , 12 local improve-ment d i s t r i c t s and 60 school units in the province. The boundaries created by the Committee produced 66 larger sized unit's called a county-regional system. The Commitee u t i l i zed geographical c r i t e r i a to draft i t s boundar-ies but: "As a further check on i t s work, the committee spot-checked local boundary locations with municipal counci l lors , school board members, municipal secre-taries and others in a number of areas throughout the province. The committee also applied a detailed func-tional test to boundary locations in co-operation with the Department of Education and school o f f i c i a l s . " 50 School unit boundaries were then compared to the tentative community bounda-ries based on trading areas. Adjustments were then made to bring both units into some workable single unit . 49. Local Government Continuing Committee, "Local Government in Saskatchewan", Government of Saskatchewan, 1961 50. Local Government in Saskatchewan Report, p . l9 . Figure - 38 - . n Saskatchewan . , f o r Local Government m Saska 7 : Proposed Boundarves for Lo I» J« 11 II rt ' « » * • ' » ' n M a a P „ t Continuing C o - i t t e e . ^ E ^ . S o u r c e : Local Government - 39 -Two significant conclusions can be made regarding the boundary c r i t e r i a u t i l i zed by this committee. F i r s t l y , a l l proposed boundaries were subject to considerable refinement based on consultations with local o f f i c i a l s . The latter have the intui t ive knowledge, based on lengthy residence in the area, to best describe "sense of community". In other words, whether or not a certain municipality identif ies with a certain service center. Secondly, was the committee's conclusion that a total of 66 county-regions was unworkable. Boundaries could not be established without sp l i t t ing municipalit ies , thus dislocating existing local governments on both sides. Furthermore, dislocations would last for several years and the administration of grants and provincial services* would further com-plicate matters. 51 The most recent report attempting to demarcate the province into regions was completed June, 1970 by;Professor G. A. Nader of the Univer-s i ty of Saskatchewan. Nader attempted to divide the province into planning regions. Finding i t d i f f i c u l t to obtain data of such economic flows as those of goods and services, Nader was successful in obtaining data concern-ing the flow of telephone ca l l s within the province to use as an index of economic interaction. Information was obtained from Sask-Tel. on the number of ca l l s that were exchanged (originating and terminating) between each of 422 communities and a l l other sample communities ( i . e . , a 422 x 422 matrix of telephone c a l l s ) . The data included a l l telephone ca l l s made 51. Nader, G. A . , "Proposals for the Delineation of Planning Regions in Saskatchewan", (Unpublished paper), Submitted to the Department of Municipal Affa irs , June, 1970. Cost-sharing agreements between province and municipality. - 40 -between the sampled communities ( tol l ca l l s ) from July 7th to 11th and July 14th to 18th in 1969 - ten business days (Monday to Friday). 5 2 Following the computation of the data, Nader constructed three c r i t e r i a for delineating planning regions. The f i r s t and major cr i ter ion was that  the majority of ca l l s from a community should be made to the nodal center ^3 in order to remain within the experimental region. In the second cr i ter ion (relaxation of the f i r s t criterion) a community would remain part of a region (same region as delineated by the f i r s t cr i terion) i f the majority of i t s  telephone ca l l s terminated within the region. Nader then discovered that a l l communities were not assigned by the f i r s t two c r i t e r i a . It was necessary to add a third c r i t e r ion . Under the third c r i t e r i o n , communities were assigned to the region to which more ca l l s  were made subject to a contiguity constraint . * At this point regional boundaries were drawn, u t i l i z i n g existing rural municipality boundaries. How val id these boundaries are is open to debate. Signif icantly Chris ta l ler thought telephones were a good measure of central i ty since they were used for business, but today telephones are the "norm" - even in rural areas. However, Christa l ler based his central place theory on telephone c a l l s , and his theory has been applied to Saskatchewan, thusly Nader's boundaries have some relevance. • . . 52. Nader, G. A . , "Proposals for the Delineation of Planning Regions in Saskatchewan", p.2. 53. Nader designated 65 such centers; those centers which served at least one other community, i . e . , more ca l l s were made to that center than to any other center from at least one community, were chosen as possible nodal centers for regions. Undefined by the author. - 41 -Figure 8 is an example of regions delineated by only the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n . This pattern is obviously unworkable. A major hindrance is the imbalance in size of regions (e .g . , the Saskatoon-centered region vis-a-vis the Wynyard-centered region). In fact , the c i t i e s of Regina and Saskatoon dominated the Nader method to such a degree that he u l t i -mately recommended that only two regions should be implemented (Figure 9). Size i s important, since a smaller region would be unable to compete and therefore survive juxtaposed to a larger region. Table IV: Macro-Regions in Saskatchewan Saskatoon-Macro Region Regina-Macro Region Region Population Region Population Saskatoon 272,000 Regina 284,000 North-west 60,000 Moose Jaw c n r\r\r\ D o , O U U Prince Albert 56,000 Swift Current 58,000 . North-East 50,000 Yorkton 80,000 438,000 490,000. Although Nader suggests that only two macro-regions should be implemented, he did see the need for sub-regions. His report contains several pro-posals for sub-regions, but f ina l ly recommends the pattern displayed in Figure 10. It is of interest to note the Swift Current-centered region. The boundaries (Nader) are quite similar to that employed by the Royal Commission on Rural Life and Agriculture in 1957 and that delimited by 54 Camu, et a l . in 1953. These boundaries were then incorporated in the 54. Economic Zoning of Canada, and the P.P.P. Geographic Code, Economics and Stat i s t ics Branch, Pepartment of Defense Production, August, 1953. - 42 -Figure 8: Single-Centered Regions in Saskatchewan Source: Nader, G. A . , op. c i t . , p.16. - 43 -Figure 9: Macro-Regions in Saskatchewan Source: Nader, G. A . , op. c i t . , , p. Figure 10: - 44 Class i f icat ion of Regions: Alternative "C" •r Source: Nader, G. A . , op. c i t . , p.21. - 45 -55 development of a 68-region system for Canada in 1964. Figure 11 i l lustrates the Saskatchewan Region. Camu, Weeks and Sametz attempted, l ike Nader, to measure economic 56 interaction. Although they incorporated the theory of Perloff and Isard, 5 7 i t was the general theory of August Losch 5 8 that was to provide the framework for the development of the 68-Region System. "His analytical unit consisted of a marketing area surrounding a focal point of economic ac t iv i ty , the shape and extent of the area depending mostly upon transport conditions. This approach is reflected very d irect ly in the present work, in which marketing c r i t e r i a are set alongside production c r i t e r i a in defining zones and wider regions. 59 Transport conditions discussed by the. authors wi l l be analyzed in more depth in Chapter III of this thesis. Figure 11 is an example of the Saskatchewan section of the 68-Region System. A breakdown of those regions is tabulated below. 55. Camu, P . , Weeks, E. P. and Sametz, Z. W., Economic Geography of Canada, Bryant Press Limited, Toronto, 1964. 56. Perloff , H. S., et a l . , "Regions, Resources and Economic Growth", Resources for the Future Inc. , Johns Hopkins Press, 1960. 57. Isard, Walter, Methods of Regional Analysis, Technology Press and Wiley, 1960. 58. Losch, August, Die Raumliche Ordnung der Wirtschaft: Eine Untersuchung uber Standort, Wirtschaftgcbiete und der International en Handel (published by Fischer, 1940, and reviewed by W. F. Stolper in American Economic Review, Vol . XXXIII, 1943, pp.626-36. 59. Camu, P . , et a 1 . . , Economic Geography of Canada, p. 262. Source: Camu, Pierre, et. a l . , Economic Geography of Canada, p.264. - 47 -Table V: Saskatchewan Economic Regions Region Number Name Population a 70 Regina-South-Eastern Plains Region 227,035 71 Moose-Jaw-Palliser Region 148,838 72 Saskatoon-Central Plains Region 187,123 73 Yorkton-South-Eastern Parklands 129,394 74 Central Parklands 212,083 75 Northern Saskatchewan Region 20,708 825,181 a population figures based on the 1961 Census. k data compiled from Economic Geography of Canada by Pierre Camu, et. a l . , p. 341. Unfortunately, data is not available as to specific boundaries delimited by Camu, et. a l . - i . e . , what municipalities are incorporated in each economic region. Nor was Camu precise as to what cr i ter ion enabled him to formulate specific boundaries. On the other hand, considerable data is available u t i l i z i n g other fin indices of economic interaction. In Alberta, studies have also been made u t i l i z i n g Chr i s ta l l e r ' s theory, telephone ca l l s and newspaper inter-action. In Saskatchewan the Atlas ^ of Saskatchewan (1967 Centennial Project) contains similar data. Most of this material cannot be used to •it delineate boundaries, but i t can be used to establish some conformity or consistency once tentative boundaries are established. 60. Central Places in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Peace River Regional Planning Commission, Grande Pra i r ie , November, 1971. 61. Richards, J. H . , and Fung, K. I . , Atlas of Saskatchewan, Published by University of Saskatchewan, Modern Press, Saskatoon, 1969. * data is too general and inconsistent. - 48 -F ina l ly , a comment on how best to undertake regional development -the theme of the 1965 Federal-Provincial Conference. According to Gerald Hodge, Associate Professor, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Toronto, the opinion at the conference tended to crys ta l l i ze around two positions - allocations to so-called "growth poles" or to so-called "depressed areas." Hodge is of the opinion that these posi-tions are over-simplified and quite s imilar . In turn, he introduces his concept of urban systems, for two reasons: " F i r s t , whether one supports regional development according to "growth poles" or "depressed areas", one must face up to the existence of not just a single growth center nor a stagnant undifferentiated land-scape, but to a functioning, interconnected system of centers. Second and most important, is that urban centers are the key to a region's development. Urban centers are, at one and the same time, places of r e s i -dence for many, places for distr ibuting the products of the region's economy, and places for serving the region's economic uni t s . " 63 Hodge chose three d i s t inct and different areas in Canada to demonstrate his theory. One of those areas was Saskatchewan. In his Study of Urban Systems, the author has seven classes, l i s ted here from the lowest to the highest functional l eve l : 62. Hodge, Gerald, "Urban Systems and Regional Pol icy" , Canadian Public Administration, Vol . 9(2), 1966, pp.183-193, reprinted in Readings in Canadian Geography, Robert Irving edit ion, Holt , Rinehart and Winston, Montreal, 1968, p.351. 63. Ib id . , p.352. - 49 -Table VI: Urban Systems, By Class, In Saskatchewan a Type of Center 1. Ham!ets 2. Minimum Convenience Centers 3. Full Convenience Centers 4. Partial Shopping Centers 5. Complete Shopping Centers 6. Secondary Wholesale-Retail Centers 7. Primary Wholesale-Retail Centers a based on 1961 data k in thousands 0 mean figure Number Population D Establishments 404 .03 - .3 3 150 .08 - .7 9 100 .2 - 1.6 16 85 .3 - 1.4 26 29 . .9 - 4.0 58 9 5.0 - 33.2 232 2 95.0 -112 1414 Source: Berry, Brian, Geographic Perspectives on Urban Systems, Prentice-Hall , Inc. , Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . , U .S .A . , p.211. According to Hodge, then, a center was said to "decline" i f i t shifted downward one or more classes but did not disappear completely; a center "expired" i f i t shifted downward below the Hamlet Class threshold (which was a minimum of two business firms). S imilar ly , a center "grew" i f i t shifted upward one or more classes. ^ 64. Hodge, Gerald, "Urban Systems and Regional Pol icy" , p.353. - 50 -According to Table VII, i t is apparent that outright ( i . e . , expired) disappearance, in commercial terms at least , affected almost 13 percent of the centers. Table VII: Changes in Number of Centers by Class in Saskatchewan Type of Center 1951 1961 Percent Change Hamlets 433 404 - 6.7 Min. Con. 191 150 - 21.5 Full Con. 169 100 - 40.8 Part. Shopp. 66 85 + 28.8 Comp. Shopp. 23 29 + 26.1 Sec. W-R. 8 9 + 12.5 Prim. W-R. 2 2 0.0 892 779 - 12.7 Source: Hodge, Gerald, "Urban Systems and Regional Pol icy" , p.355. This is not necessarily an overall decline, but represents the pattern for a l l centers with two or more businesses. Furthermore, this decline was not aggregated equally from a l l classes. Table VII indicates that the two types of convenience, centers had the largest decline, with the shopping centers having the largest increase. Structurally (Table VIII) i t is significant to note that convenience centers in 1961 had a down-grading in position even as Hamlets increased in proportion while declining in numbers. Hodge explains these structural changes as being the result of considerable rural depopulation accompanied by increased physical mobility and expanded incomes of those in the region. - 51 -Table VIII: Changes in Proportion of Centers by Class in Saskatchewan a ' ' 3 Type of Center 1951 1961 Ham!ets 48.6 51.8 Min. Con. 21.4 19.4 Full Con. 18.9 12.7 Part. Shopp. 7.4 10.9 Comp. Shopp. 2.6 3.7 Sec. W-R. 0.9 1.2 Prim. W-R. 0.2 0.3 100.0 100.0 a In Percentages. b 1971 data not available. Source: Hodge, Gerald, "Urban Systems and Regional Pol icy" , p.355. Thus a two-tier system is evolving in the province. Consumer movements are either short t r ips to small centers for frequently needed services or longer tr ips to large centers for specialized goods and ser-vices including major expenditure items. Those centers caught in between are being by-passed or used only as a hamlet in terms of goods and services. Those centers face extinction or severe downgrading. Add other variables l i k e r a i l l ine abandonment and grain s tabi l izat ion and the problem is further compounded. Urban systems are undergoing fundamental changes: in the number of centers, in the distr ibution of component classes of centers, in the den-s i ty and spacing of centers and in the performance of centers in certain spatial situations. These fundamental changes must be taken into considera-tion when delineating regions in Saskatchewan. Figure 12 was compiled using the Hodge c las s i f icat ion for centers within the trade boundaries. Only the upper two hierarchial commercial centers are plotted. - 52 -Figure 12: Regions in Saskatchewan a -f a Classif ied by Gerald Hodge. Source: Hodge, Gerald, "Urban Systems and Regional Pol icy" , pp.351-360. - 53 -Two characteristics of Saskatchewan need to be stated at this time. 1. No other Canadian province has as many small centers (377 vil lages in 1956) or as high a proportion of i t s population l iv ing in them. 65 2. Saskatchewan has more miles of road than any other province in Canada. ° 6 Inherent in the above is the pattern of population growth that has taken place in Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan's population increased rapidly from less than 100,000 in 1901 to 648,000 in 1916 and 932,000 in 1936, but declined by 100,000 in the next fifteen years. By 1966, population had increased to 955,000. 6 7 Furthermore, a significant rural-urban change has taken place. As a resul t , the rural component declined from 84 percent of the total population in 1901 to 51 percent in 1966. 6 8 Inherent in this population shift the past half century is the dramatic history the province has endured since 1901= Farm size o r i g i -nally was 160 acres (today the average farm size is 1,000 acres) which led to over-settlement. To service this widely settled agricultural area, the railways over-committed themselves and today are attempting to close down over 1,000 miles of track. The province also experienced severedrought in the 1930's, coupled with a world-wide depression. Mechanization of farms 65. Baker, W. B. , "Changing Community Patterns in Saskatchewan", Readings in Canadian Geography, ed. Robert N. Irving, Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, L t d . , Montreal, 1968, p.97. 66. Will be discussed in Chapter III. 67. Richards, J . H . , Fung, K. I . , Atlas of Saskatchewan,University of Saskatchewan, Modern Press, Saskatoon, 1969, p.38. 68. Ib id . , p.38. - 54 -and grain specialization have had their effect on the population pattern. Furthermore, in Saskatchewan there is an important dis t inct ion between the rural-farm and rural-non-farm populations. The lat ter are people l iv ing in unincorporated centers of less than 1,000 persons; these comprised 19 percent in 1966. These persons are involved in service trades, adminis-trative functions and farmers residing within the center and not "on the land". They could be c lass i f ied as absentee-farmers. . Thus, despite a substantial decline in farm population, the total population of centers usually considered to exist for the purpose of 69 serving this farm population has increased. Certainly the above state-ments on population shifts i l lu s t ra te the significant changes that have taken place within the province - in part icular , social and economic adjustments. "It is one thing to identify the direction of change; i t is quite another matter to evaluate the des i rabi l i ty of change. Is i t enough to point out that the trend to urbanization promotes higher levels of l iv ing or that centralization means more and better services?" 70 However, more than the concept of urbanization is involved. Institutions such as local government (discussed later) have also undergone change -change in their relationship to public part icipation. Also transportation, particularly road and r a i l , has played a major role in the development or evolution of informal regions in the province. This lat ter aspect is analyzed in the following chapter. 69. Atlas of Saskatchewan, p.38. 70. Baker, W. B. , "Changing Community Patterns in Saskatchewan", p.99. - 55 -CHAPTER III ROLE OF. ROAD AND RAIL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SASKATCHEWAN Historic Perspective of Transportation in Saskatchewan This particular chapter wi l l analyze only r a i l and road modes. The other transportation modes are not determinants of planning regions or regional government. Water transport is not of any significance in Saskatchewan. Pipelines are limited to the transport of o i l and gas and by their nature do not affect settlement. Air transports less than one percent of total ton-miles of goods in the province, and is not a s igni-ficant carrier of a i r passengers. Figures indicated in Table IX are on a national basis as, unfortunately, data is not available for Saskatchewan separately. Table IX: Percentage Shares of Total Ton-Miles of Goods Transported by Type of Carrier , in Canada Oil Gas Pipe- Pipe-Year Rail Road Water A i r a 1 ine 1 ine Total 1949 65.3 6.9 27.8 _ . 100.0 1951 61.3 7.9 27.5 - 3.3 - 100.0 1953 56.9 8.5 28.6 - 6.0 - 100.0 1955 53.8 8.3 27.9 - 10.2 - 100.0 1957 52.6 7.9 27.1 - 12.2 0.2 100.0 1959 47.8 10.1 27.9 - 11.7 2.5 100.0 1961 43.3 10.6 25.8 - 14.2 6.1 100.0 1963 42.4 9.3 26.0 - 14.9 7.4 100.0 1965 41.8 9.3 26.5 - 14.3 8.1 100.0 a Less than one-tenth of one percent. Source: D.B.S. , Daily Bul le t in , February 13, 1967, p.5. - 56 -The Prair ie Provinces Cost Study Commission Report assumed that water carriage has no significance on Prair ie transport and the relat ive importance of truck transport is halved (this is not unreasonable when i t is noted that trucks have their greatest advantage in short-distance hauls where f l e x i b i l i t y is most important). It may be argued that r a i l -roads account for more than 60 percent of Prair ie t r a f f i c . For t ra f f i c originating in Saskatchewan c i t i e s and destined for other Prair ie c i t i e s r a i l shipments account for 98.0 percent. These figures indicate how dominant railroads are in Prair ie transport. Despite this dominance, as the improvement in roads continues, the role of truck transport wi l l increase. What roles then does transportation play? George W. Wilson comments "For example, transportation improvements have been cited as having important positive effects on po l i t i ca l unity, social cohesion, economic growth, specialization and- price s t ab i l i ty , as well as on attitudinal change. Yet, precisely opposite effects are equally plausible ." 7 2 Wilson goes on to state that within transportation i t s e l f we know l i t t l e for certain about the level or behaviour of cost functions, and even less about the appropriate units of output. F ina l ly , he states that i t is one thing to say that some capacity to move goods and people about must exist before any economic development can take place; i t is another to" say that improved capacity by i t s e l f can generate development or even s igni-f icant ly change the growth rate. ^ 71. Prair ie Provinces Cost Study Commission - Report of the Royal Commission on Consumer Problems and Inflation, Provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 1968, p.121. 72. Wilson, George W., "The Role of Transportation in Regional Economic Growth", Proceedings of a Conference on Transportation and Regional  Development, edited by E. W. Tyrchniewicz and Om P. Tangri, Centre for Transportation Studies, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, December, 1970, p.44. 73. I b i d . , p.44. 74. Ib id . , p. 52. - 57 -Notwithstanding these uncertainties, i t is possible to go some way towards examining the role of both r a i l and road as they pertain to devel-opment in Saskatchewan. F i r s t l y , each of these modes wi l l be put into an historical perspective and then they wil l be related to planning regions and regional government. A description of the early development of Saskatchewan is aptly described by the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1940). "The occupation of the Prair ie lands proceeded with l i t t l e discrimination. There were no class i f icat ions of resources, no soil surveys, no climatic records to guide either the government or the unwary sett ler . The policies and methods of the Dominion were mainly designed to serve the national purpose of f i l l i n g the Northwest at once with as many people as possible. The selection of land was lef t largely to chance and to the devices which colonization agents, railways and land companies employed in their own immediate interests. The sectional survey,; the railway land grant scheme, and pre-emptions i l lu s t ra te a system designed for indiscriminate mass colonization and i t worked with almost mechanical perfection. Adjustment to the vagaries and fa i l ings of nature was le f t to time and bitter experience." This description helps to indicate the d i f f i cu l t i e s encountered in Chapter II concerning the delineation of boundaries for planning regions. That chapter also attempted to relate Chris ta l ler location theory to Saskatchewan. It further outlined the existing deviations to Chr i s ta l l e r ' s model. Deviations introduced by transport requirements in Saskatchewan are s ignif icant . It must be remembered that Chris ta l ler derived his model in Southern Germany which was a region already densely populated with a system of central places before the development of modern transportation. In 75. Report of the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1940, p. 67. - 58 -Saskatchewan very few centers existed before the arrival of r a i l . Thus, the cr i ter ion of where to construct r a i l l ines depended on the best areas of land productivity (ab i l i ty to grow wheat) and the placement of numerous marketing points for grain. The latter point was necessary since grain hauls to elevator locations was or ig ina l ly done by horse and wagon. "The effect was to introduce a pronounced pattern of l inear i ty in the location of the centers in each area traversed by a railway l i n e . This effect was further reinforced by the practice of many of the early settle-ments of shifting their location to the railway when i t reached their v i c i n i t y . " 76 This i s i l lustrated by Figure 13. While i t is true that the railways avoided sub-marginal land, these areas would probably remain sparsely populated even i f transportation was not a factor. But transportation is a factor! Its impact can be seen in the location of larger centers along the mainlines of the two transcontin-ental railways and the Trans-Canada Highway. Figure'14 demonstrates how transportation requirements result in the displacement of centers by en-couraging the tendency to cluster on main communication l ines . "Conversely the tributary areas of the clustered centers are closely spaced and show a characteristic elongation in a direction at right angles to the communi-cation system." 7 7 Figure 14 aptly demonstrates the impact of transporta-tion on the development of service centers in Saskatchewan. The effects of both r a i l and road wil l be analyzed separately. 76. Province of Saskatchewan, Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , Report No. 12, Regina, 1957, p. 69. 77. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , p. 71. - 59 -Figure 13: Location of Rail Lines Relative to Submarginal Land a Shaded areas denote submarginal land. Source: Royal Commission on Rural Life and Agriculture, p.70. - 60 -Figure 14: Location of Centers Between Regina and Moosomin Trans-Canada Highway and Trans-Continental Rail Line Scale: One inch to 30 miles. opopulation size Source: Royal Commission on Rural Life and Agriculture, p.71. - 61 -Rail Function in Saskatchewan The history of railway construction in Saskatchewan can be divided into three periods: the f i r s t before 1900; the second from 1900 to 1917; and the third from 1921 to 1931. Following the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway transcon-tinental l ine through Saskatchewan in 1883, the local land grant method was used to encourage the construction of "colonization railways" in advance of settlement. The land grant method was inaugurated in 1881 by the Federal government "as a scheme for se l l ing tracts of odd-numbered sections of land to colonization companies on favorable terms in return for which the companies agreed to locate specified numbers of settlers 78 on their t racts . " The Federal government also encouraged railway con-struction by making land grants which the participating companies were permitted to select from odd-numbered sections in railway 'belts ' designa-7Q ted as ' f a i r l y f i t for settlement . By 1908 a l l the railway land grants had f i n a l l y been selected. The railways had received 31,780,000 acres of land throughout Canada with almost 50% or 15,177,063 acres in Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan total was a l l f e r t i l e land as the railways chose f e r t i l e land in this province for mileage constructed in rugged terrain in other provinces. Between 1900 and 1914 r a i l mileage increased in the province from 1,000 miles to over 6,000 miles. Saskatchewan backed the f i r s t mortgage bonds to 78. Turner, A. R., and McConnel, J . G . , "Historical Geography", Atlas of  Saskatchewan, p.16-17. 79. Ib id . , p.16-17. - 62 -the extent of $13,000 per mile for 25 percent of the mileage constructed 80 during this period. The 1914-1918 world war brought a halt to construc-t ion , but the prair ie provinces "pushed" for continuance of r a i l construc-tion in 1918. The railways at f i r s t hesitated but soon branch-line building began in a senseless competition for the t ra f f ic from those areas that yet remained "unserviced" - the latter term meaning areas that were not within 10 miles of a r a i l l i n e . By 1931 over 2,000 miles had been constructed in Saskatchewan. This was 70 percent of the national total during that period. Grain was now considered the lure and the railways extended their service "up to the ten-mile l i m i t " . This construction period was halted due to the depression and during this l u l l a Royal Commission on Railways and Transportation was established to examine the existing situation in 1931-1932. The Duff Commission c r i t i c i z e d the railways for their unrestrained policy of branch-line construction. It concluded: " i t is clear that there was intense r iva l ry between the two systems in a new terr i tory , part icularly in the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. The construction program of one company was responded to by an equal or greater program of construction by the other. The devel-opment of this terr i tory did not meet expectations and the railways now find themselves with additional t ra f f i c mileage and an increased burden of capital charge." 8 1 Thus the Commissioners c learly saw the great f o l l y of over-building, but according to previous agreements the railways' obligations to the settlers were also evident. Part ia l ly to safeguard this obligation, Section 168 of 80. Nader, G. A . , and Setter, W. K., "Transportation in Saskatchewan": Atlas of Saskatchewan, p.174. 81. Ib id . , p.174. - 63 -the Railway Act, requiring approval of the Board of Transport Commissioners to close down a l i n e , was incorporated in the Act in 1932. Between 1932 and 1961, s ignif icant technological advances streamlined not only the railways, but also roads and trucks, reducing the inward move-ment of goods by r a i l , often leaving the outward movement of grain as the only raison d'etre of the branch-line. By this time there were 19,000 miles of r a i l on the prair ies , with 8,800 in Saskatchewan alone. This resulted in 1100 grain stops in Saskatchewan. S ignif icant ly , at 85 percent of these stops at least a "vi l lage settlement" emerged. ^2 Although figures are not available, passenger t ra f f i c was considerable during the period preceding the construction of good roads. The extent of railway construction is evident in Figure 15. Figure 15 also i l lustrates the East-West flow of the railways and the extent of duplication. Also evident from Figure 15 is the dominance of the urban centers, as they act as the "hub" of exist-ing r a i l l ines . It is quite obvious that these urban centers play an influential role within their respective regions. It was stated earl ier that r a i l captures 98.0 percent of t ra f f ic (ton-miles of goods) o r i g i -nating in Prairie centers for shipment to other Prair ie centers and 60 percent for a l l Prair ie t r a f f i c . Therefore, the centers of Regina, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Saskatoon, Melfort, North Battleford and Prince Albert play prominent roles as distr ibution points for their respective watersheds. Missing from this l i s t is Swift Current. This center is situated on the C.P.R. mainline but serves a sparsely populated hinterland in the South-West 82. Channon, J . W., and Burges, A. W., "Branch Line Rationalization". Prepared for the f i r s t Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation  Research Forum, Lac Beauport, P.Q., 1965, p.7.„ - 64 -Figure 15: Railways, 1968 Source: Atlas of Saskatchewan, p.165. - 65 -corner of the province. Chapter II gave evidence that urban-centered regions exist in Saskatchewan. The spatial pattern of r a i l l ines further substantiates this position. The situation has not changed since 1961 when "The economy of the province due to i t s location in the heart of the landlocked area of Canada, is s t i l l dependent on transport by r a i l , and barring unforeseen . developments wi l l continue so in the future. The r a i l -ways of Saskatchewan serve a settled land area far in excess of that of any other province, 40% of the total cultivated acreage of Canada." °3 It is essential at this point to mention two other major positions taken by the Government of Saskatchewan in 1961. They are r a i l l ine abandonment and freight rate discrimination. In regard to the l a t te r , the Government stated: "Saskatchewan remains re lat ively exposed and vulnerable to increases in railway freight rates in spite of a growing divers i f icat ion of. the provincial economy and in spite of the development of competition from other transportation media." 84 This thesis wi l l not attempt to engage i t s e l f with the complex and debatable subject of freight rates. But mention should be made of the role of freight rates and development, as presented by the Government of Saskatchewan to the Macpherson Commission: The view has been expressed before this Commission and elsewhere that high freight rates might be accept-able in the Prairie Provinces as a means of fostering local industry. It must be insisted that there is no general or appreciable sentiment for so divis ive a policy. Saskatchewan wishes to develop local industry appropriate to the region by every economically sound means available. The Government of the Province rejects most emphatically and categorically, however, any suggestion that the rate structure should be used in Western Canada as a protective t a r i f f behind which local industry might be permitted to develop and flourish at the expense of the primary producer and the consumer." ° 5 -83. Canada - Royal Commission on Transportation (1961), (Submission of the Province of Saskatchewan, Summary of ) , p . l . 84. Canada - Royal Commission on Transportation, p 2\ 85. Ib id . , p.21. - 66 -Despite the position taken by the Provincial Government pertaining to branch-line abandonment, the MacPherson Commission on Transportation (1961) recommended major abandonment of railway lines in Saskatchewan. "The Railways responded with a f lurry of applications and by 1963 a moratorium on the processing of abandonment applications for l ines was called after 3,725 miles would have been closed on the Prair ies . (These applications wil l affect 541 stations, 423 grain delivery points, 941 elevators and 35,000 grain producers.)" 85 Saskatchewan's share of these totals would have been 2,000 miles, 301 stations, 266 grain delivery points, 633 elevators and some 21,000 07 grain producers. This policy has of yet not been implemented until more analysis is completed. The Prair ie Provinces contain 19,000 miles of r a i l (8,800 in Saskatchewan) and 17,000 miles is protected from abandonment unti l 1974. At that time more applications possibly may be accepted. What wi l l the policy of the Saskatchewan Government be in 1974? Will i t be in a posi-tion to advise the Federal Government on branch-line abandonment? Would regions be in a better position to advise the provincial government on these matters? The current situation is summarized in Table X. 86. Channon, J . W., and Burges, A. W., "Branch-Line Rationalization", p.16. 87. Ib id . , p.16. - 67 -Table X: Summary of Branch-Line Abandonment Impact Benefits Costs 1. Rationalization of the Country Elevator System (currently 5,000 in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta). 2. Reduce r a i l costs, which in turn, provides r e l i e f for the shipper and the taxpayer. 3. Orderly phasing out of trackage that has no discernible t ra f f ic potential , but in such a way that the disturbance to invest-ment tied to the trackage con-cerned wi l l be minimized. 4. Rail monopoly wil l continue where no alternative mode exists . 5. Construction of short, connect-ing l ines that would adequately replace longer, more costly lines. 6. It could lead to the exchange of "running rights" between the C.N. and C P . RAIL. 1. Rural highways wil l face new demands in load and repair costs. 2. Extractive industries (coal, Potash) might suffer due to lack of access ib i l i ty . 3. Costs of assembling at major shipping points from farms wil l be shifted.from being a component of statutory freight rates to truck charges paid by the producer. 4. Cr i t i ca l for communities already by-passed as consumer service-centers. 5. Concentration of elevator-f a c i l i t i e s in fewer centers in place of single elevators in many centers wil l expose operating companies to new competitive uncertainties. 6. The capacity and location needs of the new elevator system is at present a further uncertainty for the operating companies. 7. Greater immediate sense of isolation considered by rural residents to serve federal purposes at their expense could create a transitory po l i t i ca l problem. Another aspect to be considered pertaining to r a i l l ine abandonment and elevator consolidation is that " i t is probable that the massive realign-ment of a l l the elements of the industry can only be planned and take place - 68 -through jo int action. The problem is not so much one of transportation, although that is certainly one facet of i t , as i t is of the whole industry The second transportation network is not undergoing the same problems This network, consisting of roads, is adopting, however, the similar patte of radiating outward from the major centers. Road Function in Saskatchewan: Concomitant to the construction of the r a i l system was the appear-ance of the rural road system. It began as wagon roads connecting farms and service centers. Today, the Province of Saskatchewan contains the most miles of road per capita in Canada. "In addition to the 10,000 mile highway network which is constructed and maintained by the provincial government, Saskatchewan has 180,864 miles of surveyed road allowance, of which approximately 95,000 miles have been improved to some extent. The construction and maintenance of this road system is the responsibil i ty of the 292 rural municipalities and 9 local improvement d i s t r i c t s . " 89 The above are current s t a t i s t i c s ; however, Table XI, compiled in 1966, i l lustrates the Saskatchewan road mileage in comparison to the other provinces. 88. Stephenson, E. P . , "The West, The Railways, and Change". Proceedings of the Colloquium Series on Transportation, 1968. Vol . 2, August, 1969, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1969, p.59. 89. Clampitt, Harold A . , Planning a Rural Road System for Saskatchewan, a Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Canadian Good Roads Association, Montreal, October 4-10, 1970, p . l . - 69 -Table XI: Highway and Rural Road Mileage By Type and By Province 3 Rigid Flexible Province Pavement Pavement Gravel Earth Total Newfoundland 1,024 3,840 563 5,427 P .E . I . 445 901 1,279 647 3,273 Nova Scotia 10 ' 4,098 4,903 6,499 15,510 New Brunswick 1,818 11,353 — 13,171 Quebec 13,319 1,346 31,396 9,686 55,747 Ontario 1,597 20,829 51,416 3,861 77,703 Manitoba 253 2,775 26,717 13,767 43,512 Saskatchewan 6,265 50,734 67,616 124,615 Al berta 10 5,290 55,497 13,766 74,563 B.C. 21 6,796 14,615 7,058 28,490 Yukon & N.W.T. 4 2,636 91 2,731 CANADA 15,655 51,146 254,388 123,553 444,742 1966 data. Source: Atlas of Saskatchewan, p.189. For comparative purposes, notice the Saskatchewan figures vis-a-vis those for the province of Ontario. Despite the fact that the lat ter has approxi-mately six times the population of the former, i t does not have greater road mileage. This results from Saskatchewan having a dispersed population d i s t r ibut ion, whereas Ontario has i t s greatest density along the Toronto-Windsor corridor. Population distr ibution also accounts for difference in road types. Saskatchewan in 1966 had over 50 percent of the Canadian total earth roads and 25 percent of the Canadian total gravel roads. As already indicated, the construction and maintenance of these roads i s the responsibil i ty of the rural municipalit ies . However, in 1956 the Government decided this burden was too great and offered assistance. - 70 -"A government department called the Municipal Road Assistance Authority was created to administer finan-cia l assistance; to provide technical guidance to the municipalit ies ; and to provide assistance in the overall planning of a comprehensive inter-municipal all-weather road system." 90 This new department was formed just after "the grid road system" was established in 1955. "A 12,000 mile system was designated for construc-tion to high main market road standards. The provincial government participates in the construction costs at a rate varying from 40 to 65 percent." 91 The grid road system was budgeted for 100 mil l ion dollars and the "roads were to be la id out in a "gr id" pattern approxi-mately (although not regularly) six to eight miles apart with the aim of placing every rural resident within at least three or four miles of an all-weather road." 92 Besides Provincial-Municipality shared funding of roads there exist two other cost-sharing agreements. The f i r s t is the Federal-Provincial agreements: the Trans-Canada Highway agreement (1949) - now defunct -and the Resource Road Program in 1958. The other agreement is the 1958 (Provincial) Urban Assistance Policy which was "implemented to give finan-c ia l assistance to designated highway connector routes through urban areas. This policy was extended to include expressways and arter ia l s within the no urban built-up area." * ° 90. Clampitt, Harold A . , op. c i t . , p . l . 91. Saskatchewan - Saskatchewan Highways - Planning for Tomorrow, Planning Branch, Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Trans-portation, Queen's Printer, Regina, 1966. 92. Clampitt, Harold A . , op. c i t . , p.10. 93. Saskatchewan Highways, p.3. - 71 -In summary then, there exists in Saskatchewan road construction funding programs involving the three levels of government: Federal, Provincial and Local . There also exist two departments within the province to administer these agreements. One is the misnamed Department of Highways and Transportation - misnamed since i t f i l l s no transportation function other than building roads. The other is the Municipal Road Assistance Authority - a branch of the Department of Municipal Affa ir s . The s i g n i f i -cance of this situation will be discussed at the end of this chapter. The grid road system adopted in 1955 may be found in Figure 16. Notice the East-West orientation of the highway system, reflecting the historical growth of the r a i l system. The North-South highways (generally perpendicular to the main r a i l system) were bui l t later to " t ie in the system". In 1966 the grid road system was intensified with an additional "16,000 miles to assist municipalities in providing all-weather roads to 94 farm homes occupied on a year-round basis." The pattern of this new program may be found in Figure 17. S ignif icantly , a l l three systems indicated on the map have either an East-West orientation or a North-South alignment. Notice also the road density, part icularly in the North-East and Eastern areas. The low density in the Kindersley-Rosetown area, desig-nated as a split-function service center in Chapter Two, is also quite evident. Figures 16 and 17 also indicate the pre-eminence of the following urban-centered regions: North Battleford, Prince Albert , Saskatoon, Yorkton, 94. Clampitt, Harold A . , op. c i t . , p.12. - 72 -Figure 16: Roads, 1971 Source: Clampitt, Harold A . , op. c i t . , p.28. m WK.fi - 73 -Figure 17: Main Farm Access System PROVINCE OF SASKATCHEWAN L E G E N D i Source: Clampitt, Harold A . , op. c i t . , p.29. •£•4.1 M - 74 -Swift Current, Moose Jaw, Regina and Weyburn. These c i t i e s appear as the center of a radial axis thrusting outward. Figure 18 i l lustrates the average dai ly t ra f f ic on major Saskatchewan roads. Figure 18 should be analyzed in conjunction with Figure 19. Notice the heavy traf f ic on the two east-west inter-provincial highways. Some of this t ra f f i c originates outside Saskatchewan and cannot be considered in Figure 19. Also notice the Saskatoon-Regina corridor. A significant portion of this t ra f f ic is business-oriented between Saskatchewan's two major c i t i e s . Figure 18 further i l lustrates the radial axis influence of the urban centers previously demonstrated by r a i l in Figure 15. Figures 16 and 17 i l lustrated the spatial alignment of roads and how the urban centers act as "hubs" in a wheel. Figure 18 quantitatively substantiates this alignment. Figure 19 then attempts to delineate regions on the basis of annual average 24-hour daily t ra f f ic for a l l motor vehicles. The boundaries were derived by taking the nodal centers delineated in Chapter II. Then a series of points were metered along the major routes connecting urban centers to find the point where t ra f f ic counts were lowest. This methodology is schematically i l lustrated in Figure 20. In Figure 19 t ra f f ic East of Swift Current (Town "A" in Figure 20) is measured as 2,650; 2,100; 2,000; 1,750; then increases to 1,800. Moose Jaw (Town "B" in Figure 20) drains or attracts t r a f f i c , East of Swift Current in a steady pattern: 2,900; 2,450; 1,800; 1,800; 1,750; then increases to 2,000. At a point ("E" in Figure 20) between 1,750 and 2,000, the boundary l ine is drawn. Once the key determinant points have been established, i t is necessary to ' analyze the feeder routes to estimate traf f ic flows, e .g . , heading South on Highway 19 below the boundary point on the Trans-Canada highway between Moose Jaw and Swift Current, i t is apparent that t ra f f ic is Swift Current - 75 -Figure 18: Average Daily Traff ic TRAFFIC VOLUME 1966 A V E R A G E D A I L Y T R A F F I C . Bituminous Surface; four-lane divided Bituminous Surface Oiled Surface Gravel Surface Graded Number of Vehicles per Day 6000 (fi) Trans-Canada Highway 108-w too no S6'~' I H f j h . , , lis from B..-rr,i0 . Source: Atlas of Saskatchewan, p.154. FIG. 13 • SASKATCHEWAN TRAFFIC VOLUME MAP 1970 A V E R A G E DAILY T R A F F I C PftCMftfO H T»t SASKATCHEWAN DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS PLANNING BRANCH TRAFFIC ENGINEERING DIVISION fXkPCS 06T*IN£D FROM i M i » * f l i^TO TRtFfK COUNTS MILt TRAFFIC FOR ALL UOTOA VEHICLES - 77 -Figure 20: Boundary Methodology - A Schematic Approach C. Through Traff ic beyond Town "A" and "B" . D. Traff ic from Town "B" to Town "A" and intermediate points. E. Boundary is drawn at the point where t ra f f i c volume is lowest between Town "A" and Town "B" . F. Traffic from Town "A" to Town "B" and intermediate points. G. Composite total of traf f ic between Town "A" and Town "B" . - 78 -oriented. Kincaid, however, according to t ra f f ic volume, is more closely tied in with LaFleche which is part of the Moose Jaw-centered umland. The boundary is then merely extended to the U.S.A. border. The Swift Current-centered urn!and's northern boundary is extended along the South Saskatchewan River to the Alberta border. Those towns North of the river are part of the Kindersiey-centered umland and those towns South of the r iver are c lear ly part of the Swift Current-centered -umland's t ra f f ic network. Geography is a factor along the r ive r , since there are few bridges which would provide access to the other side of the r ive r . This method-ology is then applied to the entire province, as i l lustrated by Figure 19. The major weakness of this method is that i t cannot account for the exact location of the boundary ( i . e . , Is Farm X in one region or another?). The extent of this -weakness is discussed in Chapter Five. The positive features of this method are: f i r s t l y , i t represents the pattern of consumer demand; secondly, i t delimits the service centers already designated in Chapter Two; t h i r d l y , i t represents a major change from the "usual straight-l ine method" to outline boundaries such as the D.D.P. Code of Camu and Weeks already discussed; fourthly, i t takes into account the pattern of transportation networks (road and r a i l ) that has evolved in Saskatchewan since 1883. One of the most comprehensive studies pertaining to roads in 95 Saskatchewan was completed in 1961. This report urged the province and 95. Local Government Continuing Committee, "The Rural Road Function", A Technical Reference Document to the Report, Local Government  in Saskatchewan, submitted to the Government of Saskatchewan, March 1, 1961, p.4. - 79 -rural municipalities to adopt long-term policies for reducing the existing mileages of municipal roads and concentrating their available resources on inter-connected networks or higher quality roads. Nowhere in this report has the word regional or co-ordinated planning of roads been mentioned. Are long-term policies just a col lect ion of ad-hoc decisions? This thesis is attempting to demonstrate that informal regions exist in the province. Figure 19 suggests this - that, on the basis of consumer demand at least , regions can be delineated. If the urban-centered regions designated by Figure 19 are accepted, the benefits are considerable. Now long-term policies for road construc-tion can be made. The regions have a focus. Comprehensive regional plans wil l define the goals and potential of each region. Then transportation planning wil l become the vehicle to meet the objectives of each region. A modified version of Wilfred Owen's fable, "How the Cit ies Solved Their Transportation Problem" best i l lustrates the role of transportation planning. " 1. The principal problem of regions is not how to move, but how to l i v e . 2. Improving the conditions of l iv ing can do more than anything else to reduce the need for moving. 3. But providing transportation is not just a matter of getting things moved. It is also a major means of improving the regional environment. 4. Looked at in this way, transportation has ceased to be a problem because technology and systems techniques have made i t a solut ion." 96 What Owens is saying is that transportation is only the "means" - i t i s not the solution to regional or economic disparity. 96. Hard, Irving, "The Urban Planner Looks at Values", Highway Research  Board, Special Report 105, March, 1969, p.87, contains the original version of Wilfred Owen's fable. - 80 -Wilson, as quoted ear l ier in this chapter, stated: "It is one thing to say that some capacity to move goods and people about must exist before any economic development can take place; i t is another to infer that improved capacity by i t s e l f can generate development or even s ignif icantly change the growth rate." 97 This was realized by Bruce Hutchison several years ago. "In the early 1960's a more comprehensive viewpoint of transportation planning began to emerge. The concept that a transportation system was not an end i t s e l f but simply the means to the achievement of certain broad socio-economic goals began to formalize." 98 However, the Province of Saskatchewan appears to believe that transporta-tion planning means simply highway construction. This apparently is the 00 case since the Annual Reports of the Department of Highways and Trans-portation since 1966 l i s t only "highway construction and funding assist-ance" data. For a l l apparent purposes there is no transportation depart-ment or any agency administering this function. This chapter has attempted to demonstrate that informal regions exist in the province (Figure 19); therefore to undertake comprehensive trans-portation planning in a province with regions requires systems analysis. A system is defined as "a set of inter-related parts or operations, designed to accomplish clearly defined objectives or purposes." ^ Such 97. Wilson, George W., "The Role of Transportation", p.52. , 98. Hutchison, B. G . , "Transportation Planning and Regional Development". Engineering Journal, Vol . 50, January, 1967, p.4. 99. Saskatchewan, Department of Highways and Transportation, Annual Reports 1966-67; 1967-68; 1968-69; 1969-70; 1970-71. 100. Kuhn, T i l l o E . , "New Approaches to Transport Research and Planning", Proceedings of the Colloquium Series on Transportation, Center  for Transportation Studies, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Vol . 2, August, 1966, p.30. - 81 -analysis is thus in some ways "old wine in new bottles" , denoting the sort of imaginative comprehensive research many development planners have always prescribed to. ^ Possibly as the result of our better understanding of system inter-actions, the scope for transport media co-operation seems to be ever widen-ing. For most movements nowadays, several transport services must be ren-dered in sequence by different media. "Good examples are the automobile-aircraf t- taxi combination for the a i r t rave l ler , or the truck-ship-train-1 no truck sequence for transatlantic f re ight . " Systems analysis is probably the solution to the problem of wheat shipments. According to the Attorney General of Saskatchewan, Roy Romanow, speaking to this issue in Vancouver said: "Transportation is so c r i t i c a l to the economy of Saskatchewan that the ministerial responsibi l i ty for i t may end up in the hands of Premier Alan Blakeney."103 Romanow's statement indicates the importance the Government places on wheat shipments, but in many ways is not the solution contained in systems analysis , in which wheat shipments cannot be dealt with separately. Systems analysis i s , however, only the technique or vehicle pertaining to implementation. A new framework is required in which systems analysis may function. 101. Ib id . , p.31. 102. Ib id . , p.31. 103. Vancouver Sun, February 28, 1972. Term to define a mix of "mode" and "way". - 82 -This chapter has attempted to i l lus t ra te that regions exist informally in the province as a result of the impact of transportation, spec i f i ca l ly , road and r a i l . If these regions exist , should not wheat shipments come under the jur i sd ic t ion of the region? Moreover, this jur i sd ict ion could be exclusive, but would t ie in with a provincial system. The regional jur i sd ic t ion would be mainly responsible for i n i t i a l "gathering" and storage. Regions could propose freight rate s tabi l izat ion and r a i l l ine rat ional iza-t ion. With the aid of this new framework, systems analysis could be applied to improve grain shipments not only out of the province but also to the grain ports in Vancouver, Churchill and Lakehead. This chapter has demonstrated the impact of transportation networks on the development of community settlement in Saskatchewan. It i l lustrated and substantiated to some degree the existence of similar urban-centered regions, as discussed in Chapter II. This chapter also discussed the potential for improving transporta-tion in the province i f regions are adopted. The chapter pointed out how regions could act as foci for respective areas to draft "regional objectives" which would lead to some rationalization of r a i l l ines , grain elevators and grain shipments. In this case, the region would make the decision in the best interests of those concerned, rather than the decision being made in Ottawa or even to some extent in Regina. * Significant studies have been completed recently pertaining to Systems Analysis. Hutchison, B. G . , and McDonagh, G. R., "A Systems Orientated Approach to Rural Highway Planning", a Paper written for presentation at the 5th World Meeting, International Road Federation, London, September, 1966, demonstrates how the Province of Alberta has been divided' into a system of 163 land-use zones whose boundaries enclose areas of similar land-use; Argue, A. E . , "Ontario's Program for Transportation Planning", Traff ic Engineering, Vol . 33, No. 11, 1963, discusses how the Province of Ontario has been divided up into Areas for the purpose of Traffic and Planning Studies. - 83 -The delineating of regions based on average dai ly t ra f f ic further substantiates the hypothesis of this thesis , which states that regions do exist informally in the province, a fact not recognized by govern-ment agencies. However, i t is one thing to state that regions exist informally; i t is quite another to state they can become functional. Chapter IV wi l l analyze this aspect of planning regions and regional government and attempt to demonstrate where the current debate l ie s in respect to the above concepts. - 84 -CHAPTER IV FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF PLANNING REGIONS AND REGIONAL GOVERNMENT In this chapter an attempt wil l be made to bring into focus two sets of considerations leading to the conclusion. The f i r s t of these is to demonstrate that i f regions exist informally in the province, i t should be-possible to implement not only planning regions, but also regional government. This wil l be done by examining recent discussions about local government with the aim of determining where the public debate now stands on planning regions and regional govern-ment. Most of the data u t i l i zed in this section wil l be based on policy papers, conferences and workshops held in the province within the theme of regional government. The second is to assess the po l i t i ca l environment within the province as to regional government. If regions exist informally, i t should be poss-ible to demonstrate that they can become functional. However, neither of the above statements are pertinent unless i t is " p o l i t i c a l l y expedient" to adopt the planning region concept in Saskatchewan. The intuit ive infor-mation let ter methodology, which attempts to answer the above statement, was described in Chapter One. The results are contained in this chapter. Chapters Two and Three attempted to demonstrate that regions exist informally in the province. F i r s t l y , service centers were isolated to i l lus t ra te that the nodal-center concept exists in the province and secondl - 85 -i t was demonstrated how settlement patterns have been affected by the two relevant transportation networks - road and r a i l . In other words, the existing spatial patterns were described, with l i t t l e or no concern for implications. Take, for example, the concept of regional growth - growth in this instance meaning population increase and economic expansion and development. What influence wil l the urban centers have on regional growth? One might speculate that the urban center would dominate the region, par-t i cu la r ly industrial centers. "In many instances, rather than inducing growth in the region as a whole, expanding urban centers wil l rob other loca l i t i e s of what growth they had and lead to a decline in their industry and the migration of their population." 104 Few aspects of regional growth have been the topic of more debate among professionals than the subject of migration and population growth. This i s especially significant in Saskatchewan where population has only increased marginally since 1932. However, Saskatchewan has experienced internal migration (rural to urban centers) and external migration (rural and urban to other provinces). "The.di f f iculty in reaching agreement on.the effects of population change is that there are so many variables and unknowns involved. A change in technology or national trading patterns, for example, can transform an "over-populated" region into an "under-populated" one or vice-versa." 105 i In the Saskatchewan context this means that perhaps a population decline wil l allow the province to stabi l ize i t s economy. Stabi l izat ion is used "in the sense of low unemployment, income balance and greater choice of opportunity. Furthermore, the answer to regional development need not necessarily mean industr ia l izat ion, as has been the case previously: 104. Brewis, T. N . , Regional Economic Policies in Canada, The MacMillan Company of Canada Limited, Toronto, 1969, p.58. 105. Brewis, T. N . , op. c i t . , p.59. - 86 -"The rule to be followed in developing a region is now well known. Hire a consultant to t e l l you in analytical terms (that must not exceed newspaper level) that any way to reverse stagnation in your region i s . f ine providing i t is industr ia l izat ion. " 106 Lithwick and Paquet define this rule as "manufacturitis". Furthermore, they also state that a l l regions in Canada cannot be the same simply because i t is impractical on one hand and eliminates diversi ty on the other hand. Planning regions must not be the vehicle to make a l l regions in the province l ike the Regina-centered region. What, then, are the require-ments for a rational approach to regional development? "We must f i r s t know something about the spec i f ic i ty of the region: i t s past and i ts future, i t s relation to the broader economic r e a l i t i e s , and the rudiments of special ization. From here we must attempt to define a program for growth. Then a well-specified set of goals must be extracted from the population, and their enlistment must be sought in the implementation phase." 1 0 7 Lithwick and Paquet further state that existing planning procedures are not focused on regional development, nor wi l l they be in the foreseeable future. ^ 8 Unfortunately this is the case in Saskatchewan where planning is divided into two branches within the Department of Municipal Af fa i r s : Research Planning and Community Planning.. Within the department l i t t l e consultation exists between these two branches, not caused by communica-tion problems but by lack of regional programs sponsored by the provin-c ia l government. The main advisor to the provincial government is the 106. Lithwick, N. H . , and Paquet, G i l l e s , "Regional Development", The Canadian Forum, Vol . 47, December, 1967, p.65. ' , 107. Lithwick, N. H . , and Paquet, G i l l e s , op. c i t . , p.65. 108. Lithwick, N. H . , and Paquet, G i l l e s , "Regional Development and Planning in Canada: An Exploratory Essay", Canadian Public Administrator, Vol . XI, No. 2, Spring, 1968, p.162. - 87 -Economic Advisory Board, with no consultation from planning agencies. Regional planning does not exist in Saskatchewan.* Each provincial department and special purpose government has i t s own narrow program, e .g . , i t was demonstrated in Chapter II that although Saskatchewan is decreasing in total population, the major cit ies :continue to grow continue to be the development f o c i , but since each provincial depart-ment has i t s own specialized program, no regionally co-ordinated "preven-tative measures are being developed to shift from trying to deal with the end results and find ways to stop the flood of people into the primate 109 c i t i e s . " According to Perl off and Mead, regional development can serve to promote rural and urban progress in a jo int fashion and help to avoid undue centralization of population and productive a c t i v i t i e s . The concern for some kind of equal treatment has, is and wi l l con-tinue to be the main focus of those persons concerned with regional planning. This issue was raised in Saskatchewan in 1957, and echoed by Pearson in 1958 who stated that "at the moment we are too much obsessed by the d i f f i cu l t i e s of practical regionalism." ^ The inertia has slowed 109. Perloff , H. S., and Mead, Margaret, "Regional Development and Its Impact on Modernization, Migration and Human Settlement", Ekist ies , Vol . 20, No. 119, 1965, p.200. 110. Kinsel , John F . , "Planning for People", Community Planning Review, Vol . 7, No. 3, September, 1957. 111. Pearson, Norman, "The Regional City Exists" , Community Planning Review, Vol . 8, No. 4, December, 1958, p.114. * ^ As defined by Lithwick and Paquet as a rational approach to regional development. School units , health d i s t r i c t s , etc. - 88 -the move towards regional planning across Canada until now with the imple-mentation by Ontario of the Toronto-centered region. . In this context Dr. J . H. Richards ^ 2 of the University of Saskatchewan in 1967 recommended that the province adopt the economic regions or ig ina l ly set out in "Economic Zoning of Canada and the D.D.P. Geographic Code", explained in Chapter II. The notion has merit, but just how the boundaries were delineated remains a problem, as does a more prominent factor: the lack of public participation in the delineation of those boundaries. Pressure Groups Within the Saskatchewan context, one of the most significant meetings pertaining to regionalism was the Regional Study Committee gathering of " M O January 21, 1970. It brought together a wide assortment of organiza-* tions. Although no firm position was taken at this meeting, there was general agreement that some form of regional planning was necessary. This harmonious atmosphere is not always prevalent in the province, when the topic of discussion is regionalism. In fact , the atmosphere reached a low on May 15, 1970, at the Annual Meeting of the Saskatchewan Chamber of Commerce in Saskatoon. 112. Richards, J . H . , "Perspective on Regional Planning", Community Planning Review, Vol . 17, No. 1, Spring, 1967, p.24. 113. Report of the Regional Study Committee, held in the office of the Minister of Municipal Af fa i r s , January 21, 1970 (unpublished). In attendance were representatives from the Department of Municipal Af fa i r s , Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipal i t ies , Saskatchewan Urban Municipal Association, Saskatchewan School Trustees Association and the Saskatchewan Hospital Association. - 89 -A panel was formed to discuss regionalization at that meeting and two participants were Dr. J . H. Richards, head of the Department of Geography, University of Saskatchewan, and Secretary-Manager of the Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities (SARM) Lome Wilkinson. Dr. Richards described the rural municipalities boundary demarcation in 1909: "The boundaries, coincident with the survey gr id , were drawn, apparently on the basis of the distance traversable by a horse in a day. This is essentially the basis for local rural government - a n d planning -which occurs in this province today." ' '4 Richards made several other pejorative remarks such as "postage stamp size municipal i t ies" , "incapable and unconscientious counci l lors" . In rebuttal , Wilkinson charged that the scholarly mind is on a different 115 wave-length than the practical one. He stated further that many theorists are forever ready and wil l ing to have us embark on uncharted seas, in an experimental voyage to try to prove their theories, while practical people are more prone to examine what they have, and move for-ward very carefully until they are certain of where they are heading. Wilkinson then stated SARM's position towards regional government: "Rural people don't want to t e l l urban people how to run their business; they don't want too many urbans, and they don't want to be told by urban people how to run their business any attempt to force regionaliza-tion on rural people would be met by open rebe l l ion . " H 6 This kind of debate is hardly conducive to the public interests of the Saskatchewan people. 114. Excerpts from the Address of Dr. J . H. Richards to the Annual Meeting of the Saskatchewan Chamber of Commerce, Saskatoon, May 15, 1970. 115. Wilkinson, Lome, "Regional Government! Who Needs It?", The Rural Council lor, August 1, 1970, p.10. 116. Ib id . , p.21. - 90 -This lack of concern was also evident in a special program conducted by the Community Planning Association of Canada (Saskatchewan Division) which embraced a series of three workshops held throughout the province, bringing together interested persons concerned with reg iona l i sm.^ 7 A total of ten major speakers participated (planners, c i v i l servants, town administrators, academics) and each turned out to be advocates for regional government. Whether or not representatives of SARM were invited is not known, but the workshops were unrepresentative without SARM's involvement. In a brief submitted to the Government of Saskatchewan, 1 1 8 CPAC claims 200 delegates participated in these workshops, but gives no indica-tion i f rural municipalities were involved. Not surprisingly, the brief came out so l id ly in favour of regional government. At this time i t is appropriate to discuss the role of the urban muni- -119 c ipa l i ty in regional government. In a submission of their own i t was •charged that the provincial government "favoured the R.M.s and seemed to le t the urban centers in Saskatchewan fend for themselves." (See Table XII.) SUMA recommended electoral boundary changes to correct the 1 21 imbalance of representation in the provincial legis lature. The imbalance 117. Three Workshops were held in this program. The f i r s t in North Battleford, March 2, 1970; the second in Weyburn on March 18; and the third in Yorkton on April 29, 1970. 118. A Brief Submitted to the Government of Saskatchewan by the Community Planning Association of Canada, Saskatchewan Divis ion, with  Respect to Regional Government, June 1, 1970. 119. A Submission to the Government of Saskatchewan on Behalf of the Urban .. Municipalities in the Province, September 16, 1971. 120. Ib id . , p.4. 121. Ib id . , p.5. - 91 -Table XII: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Grants ^ Various Years from 1961-62 1961 1961-62 1966 1966-67 1971 1971-72 Urban Grants Winter Works Incentive Program (Prov. Share) 700,000 955,000 -Water Assistance Grants (2) 600,000 400,000 350,000 Grants to town and c i t y l ibrar ies 18,500 20,000 138,950 Police Grants for towns and c i t i e s - 560,000 Snow removal grants for c i t i e s - - 409,000 Re-assessment grants for c i t i e s - - 75,000 Urban Highway Assistance Grants 311,038 4,900,000 3,919,790 Gravel Grants to towns & vil lages - - 250,000 TOTALS $1,629,538 $6,277,000 $5,703,640 URBAN POPULATION -533,218 602,512 ml o *0 D U I , O H O (60.5%) (63.0%) (65.5%) Rural Grants Grid Roads (3) 4,338,000 5,000,000 6,362,500 Grid Bridge 216,670 380,000 735,000 Other Bridge 383,300 220,000 210,000 Regravelling 317,700 600,000 480,000 Maintenance - 1,000,000 1 ,255,000 Snow Removal - 250,000 360,000 Equalization 696,000 2,000,000 2,750,000 TOTALS $5,951,670 $8,450,000 ! 513,106,500 RURAL POPULATION 348,957 352,901 317,379 882,175 955,413 919,227 (1) A few grants which are nominal in amount ( i . e . , less than $15,000) have been omitted as well as a few grants of a 'one-time' nature such as centennial grants which were available to a l l . (2) Available only to towns and v i l lages . (3) Excluding engineering assistance, some of which is also provided. Source: Submission of SUMA to the Government of Saskatchewan, p. 15. - 92 -is shown by the fact that, despite the continued migration to the urban centers which has resulted in Saskatchewan's urban population being 66 per-cent of the to ta l , the majority of electoral seats remains in the control of the hinterlands. SUMA's brief is quite significant as this would reduce the power of the rural areas in the provincial legis lature, concomitantly favouring the adoption of regional government. In response to the SUMA brief , Premier Alan Blakeney said: "While the government has made no commitment, i t is ' incl ined to agree that the time has come to look at the overall picture of the people of Saskatchewan in urban centers. ' " I 2 2 What Premier Blakeney had in mind was announced one week later by the 123 Minister of Municipal Af fa i r s , E. I. Wood: "In response to the need for a broader planning .-base in this province, the Community Planning Branch of my department wil l be opening, next spring, the f i r s t of several regional planning offices . . . . only by taking planning to the people can we demonstrate the value of sound economic and social planning." ' 2 ^ The problems inherent in taking planning to the people are discussed in the Intuitive Information Letter ( I . I .L . ) section. This particular chapter has so far attempted to describe some of the debates on the subject of government administration as well as br ief ly to trace the historical evolution of regional government in the province. The final section is used as a complementary section to the above. This section wil l attempt to assess the current po l i t i ca l atmosphere as to the poss ib i l i ty of 122. The Regina Leader-Post, September 18, 1971 123. Address to the Annual CPAC Conference, by the Honourable E. I. Wood, Minister of Municipal Af fa i r s , Regina, September 24, 1971. 124. Ib id . , p.9. - 93 -implementing regional government or even planning regions with some jurisdict ional powers. Intuitive Information Letter The purpose and methodology of the Intuitive Information Letter was discussed in Chapter I. A copy of the letter may be found in Appendix A. The purpose of the letter was to c l a r i fy present readiness in Saskatchewan to act on~a policy for regional planning and regional government. The latter poses a direct challenge to two kinds of interests: "the parochial interests that benefit from sacrosanct local boundaries, and the specialized interests which, playing on the consequent weakness of local government, have been able to insulate their function from the priority-making process through a combination of con-ditional grants and special-purpose governments." 1^ 5 Dupre includes such "regional" governments as health units , school dis-t r i c t s , e tc . , as special-purpose governments. What Dupre claims, however, is not new. Eric Beecroft raised the same issue 13 years ago in an address to the 21st Annual Conference of the Canadian Federation of Mayors and Municipalities at Victoria in June of 1958, stating that within 10 years, perhaps only f ive , provinces in Canada wil l have an agency whose responsi-b i l i t i e s , among others, wi l l be to undertake the basic research and analysis required to f ac i l i t a te a workable definit ion of boundaries and functions for metropolitan regional governments. 125. Dupre, Stefan J . , "The Pol i t i ca l Dimensions of Regional Government", Pol i t ic s and Government of Urban Canada, ed. by Lionel B. Feldman and Michael D. Goldrick, Methuen, Toronto, 1969, p.290. 126. Beecroft, E r i c , "Government for Metropolitan Regions", Community Planning Review, Vol . 5 , No. 1 , p.11. - 94 -This prediction proved inaccurate. Only the Province of Ontario has completed some analysis pertaining to regional government. Several provin-ces have established planning regions or commissions, but a l l lack any jurisdict ional powers. A major portion of the above analysis was completed by the Ontario Committee on Taxation Report (The Smith Report) or OCT. The Report, released in September, 1968, recommended the establishment of d i rect ly elected regional governments throughout the province of Ontario. This intermediate level would be above existing municipal governments and 1 27 would assume many of their powers. It is noteworthy to consider that OCT's terms of reference was municipal taxation review, and i t was dis-covered that to rat ionalize the existing situation would take the estab-lishment of regional governments. OCT thus added its voice to the growing number of planners, academics and c i v i l servants who favour some kind of regional government in the province of Ontario. A discussion of what professionals and academics in Saskatchewan think of regional government follows. Actually the IIL and OCT had similar terms of reference. However, the author is in no way equating the two analyses. The la t ter was a com-prehensive 24-volume study concerning taxation and not necessarily opinion-oriented, whereas the former is a small selective sample survey. Both did attempt to measure participation at the local l e v e l . OCT was concerned that Ontario was "over-governed" with 964 multi-purpose municipalities and over 3,000 ad-hoc authorities . The position in Saskatchewan is s imilar . (Table XIII.) 127. The Financial Post, September 9, 1968, Vol . 61, p.15. 128. Ib id . , p.15. - 95 -Table XIII: Numerical Picture of Multi-Purpose Units in Saskatchewan, 1970  Cit ies 11 Towns I l l Villages . . . . . . 353 R.M.s 296 L.I .D.s 12 Total 783 Source: Annual Reports of Department of Municipal Af fa i r s . Table XIV: Single-Purpose or One-Service Authorities in Saskatchewan. 1 967  School Units 65 Hospital Distr icts 161 Crop Dis tr ic t s 10 Wheat Pool Distr icts 14 Agricultural Rep. Dis 39 Veterinary Services 42 Family Farm Improvement Technical Sub-dis 14 Family Farm Improvement . Branch Field Organization Distr icts . . . 50 395 Land Registration Dis tr ic t s 8 Assessment Dis tr ic t s 22 Administration Advisors Dis tr ic t s 6 Electr ica l Distribution Dis tr ic t s 14 Conservation Areas 70 Game Management Areas 37 Census Divisions 18 Welfare Regions 11 Economic Regions 18 Manpower Areas 11 Health Stat i s t ical Areas . . . 16 Highway Regions 5 Municipal Road Assistance Authority 5 241 Total 636 Source: Atlas of Saskatchewan, pp.182-185. Furthermore, the problem is compounded by 636 administrative regions. (See Table XIV above.) S ignif icantly , Table XIV does not include local school boards, park commissions, planning commissions, etc. Nor does 1 ?Q Table XIV include over 1,205 Post Offices, stations, or l o c a l i t i e s . v 129. Atlas of Saskatchewan defines Local i t ies as "having less 'compactness' than a hamlet". The terms "Post Office" and "Station" indicate l i t t l e or no population in the immediate area. - 96 -This form of ecumene is fast disappearing in Saskatchewan, but s t i l l repre-sents some form of settlement. OCT summarized the Ontario s ituation: - "The result of providing services on an ad hoc basis is increased fragmentation, which can make access to local government devoid of much of i t s meaning. If the goal of local government is a compromised combina-tion of access and service, i t appears that ad hoc authorities achieve the la t ter at the expense of the former." 130 OCT went so far as to conclude that " i t is an appropriate blending of the * two objectives (access and service) that should determine the size of regional governments". ^"I Within this context, the Intuitive Information Letter posed two ques-tions pertaining to the need for and the "timeliness" of regional govern-ment and two questions related to access and service. The questions are contained in Appendix A, but are repeated here for convenience. 1. Does Saskatchewan need some form of regional planning and/or regional government? 2. Is this the "time" to implement some form of regional government? 3. Is the present form of local government genuinely satisfying public participation in the decision-making process? 4. Would regional government allow a more meaningful par-t ic ipat ion of the public in the decision-making process vis-a-vis the present system? 130. Bureau of.Municipal Research, "Regional Government - the Key to Genuine Local Autonomy", Civic Af fa i r s , May, 1963, Toronto, p.10, 131. Ib id . , p.13. OCT defines "access" as the most widespread participation possible by cit izens and "service" as the economic discharge of public functions and the achievement of technical adequacy in due alignment with public needs and desires. - 97 A total of 30 letters were sent out on a selective basis. Letters were sent to those persons (Table XV) who either are involved in govern-ment, represent involved organizations, or who have demonstrated an interest in regionalization by speaking at meetings, conventions, etc. However, the sample size is too small to draw any significant conclusions. The C i v i l Servant section is the largest since they are d irect ly involved in special-purpose governments. Table XV: The Universe, Restricted Class i f icat ion Sent Response Pol i t ic ians 4 2 C i v i l Servants 12 6 Academics 4 2 Professionals 4 4 SARM^ 3 0 SUMA 2 1 SSTAC 1 1 30 16 a Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipal i t ies . k Saskatchewan Urban Municipalities Association, c Saskatchewan School Trustees Association. Furthermore, i t is not the intention of the author to carry out any s ta t i s t ica l analysis other than that tabulated in Tables XV and XVI. The graded responses in Table XVI are merely to allow one to get an'bver-view" of the kind of responses obtained, e .g . , there appears to be agreement that Saskatchewan needs some form of regional planning/regional government. Some respondents stated that i t was urgent to establish planning regions now. • i As to the problem of "timeliness", this question had the most inconsistent response. Some respondents said i t was too late ; some said the time would never come. One letter was pertinent to the hypothesis of this thesis. - 98 -It stated that'""time" was not an issue, since regional government was happen-ing now, in terms of health service, education and perhaps community planning. On the other hand, one respondent stated that the former government was defeated because i t got involved in this issue and therefore does not see the current government doing likewise. S t i l l , there does appear to be a consensus that regional planning is not only necessary but possible i f the government undertakes a thorough educational program directed to "interaction at a l l social l eve l s . " Table XVI: IIL - Graded Responses a Graded Response Question Number One Two Three Four Definite Yes 11 2 1 Tentative Yes 1 4 3 7 Tentative No 3 7 3 Definite No 1 4 3 2 a based on 13 out of 16 responses. Three did not direct ly respond. These grades should be used with a degree of caution as i t represents only the gist of each response by question as c lass i f ied by the author. Questions Three and Four are concerned with access and service. The pattern of responses is diverse and complex. Some respondents stated that neither the present system of local government nor a form of regional government would provide access to the public. However, a s l ight majority did state that regional government would provide or could provide better access and service to the public. Furthermore, the variety of response to this question indicates that meaningful participation of the public in the v decision-making process is a concept least understood by many of those surveyed. Some responses went so far as to state that public participation - 99 -was a "hindrance" to establishing and implementing programs; furthermore, the farther removed the decision-maker is from the public , the more e f f i c -ient government wil l be - e f f i c ient , perhaps, but hardly meaningful and democratic. Of significance is the fact that general concern exists that the present system is not meeting the demands of access and service. The following analysis was completed for information purposes only. Respondents have been grouped according to profession and the summary statements represent the general attitudes of the respective members of each group. The summaries should be read with a degree of caution. The Pol i t i c ians : Generally the pol i t ic ians were not prepared to state in writing their intui t ive judgment on the timeliness and f ea s ib i l i ty of regional planning \ , and/or regional government in Saskatchewan. S ignif icantly , however, inter-est in the concept of regional government was perceived from the responses. C i v i l Servants: Response by this group was generally in favour of regional planning and regional government, but many were pessimistic as to the adoption of the lat ter by the present government. One segment of c i v i l servants ex-pressed a desire to continue the special-purpose governments now in exist-ence. The respondents also expressed concern that the present local govern-ment system does not lend i t s e l f to public part icipation. Furthermore, many of the c i v i l servants were of the opinion that regional government and i t s province-wide decentralization process would allow greater access of the public to the decision-making process than the present centralized • i form operating out of Regina. Professionals: This group offered the most varied response. However, there was - 100 -agreement that regional planning is required now. As regards regional government, the responses ranged from "now is not the time"; "now is the time"; "the time was 10 years ago"; and "the time is not yet - perhaps in 10 years". Furthermore, this group were concerned that s ignificant mis-information exists regarding regionalization. An extraction from one of the letters summarizes the current environment towards regional government. "I am afraid our greatest problem in this f i e l d i s that-people argue for and against regionalization without thinking. There is no sign of any support for reorganiza-tion based on an understanding of the changes which are rea l ly required." Academics: Unfortunately, this group appears farthest removed from the problem, i . e . , although their theories towards regional government are basically sound, they do not realize the implications that result from their some-times arrogant attitude towards rural people. This message came through loud and clear in responses to the IIL from this group. The thesis has already indicated that some academics are responsible for widening the gap of understanding between the rural and urban areas -their responses to the let ter s t i l l ref lect that paternalist ic attitude towards rural areas discussed ear l i e r . The fact that SARM refused to respond reflects in part the embitter-ment created by the academics over the past years. It must now be realized by a l l academics, c i v i l servants, e t c . , that the needs and desires of the rural people cannot be denied. Nor can they be dictated to either. The fa i lure of some to fu l ly appreciate this fact has been the main hindrance  to regional government to date. - 101 -, CHAPTER FIVE INTERPRETATIONS According to Han Blumenfeld, "regional planning is the extension of planning into a new f i e l d . Like a l l planning i t means explaining interaction and attempting to order a l l actions so that they wil l help rather than hinder each other". 132 . This in essence has been the attempt of this analysis - to demonstrate that informal regions exist now and thus should be recognized as such. This wil l enable the province to lay out a regional planning policy that wil l take into consideration urban and rural areas, i . e . , the recognition of regions (informal) bridges the gap between rural and urban interests. The thesis has demonstrated that each is dependent on the other. Recog-nition of this fact and by planning or governing the two as complementary parts of single units should remove the traditional f r i c t ion that now exists. Each region (urban and rural) then competes for development funds against the other regions, rather than pitt ing urban areas against rural areas. If this type of regionalism is implemented, electoral representa-tion in the legislature could then be changed to ref lect regional interests. The f i r s t part of the conclusion wil l review some of the findings of the thesis. The second part wil l apply the findings to the stated hypothesis. The final section wil l describe some organizational changes that are required i f regional government is implemented. Chr i s ta l ler ' s central place theory as applied to the South-West corner 132. Blumenfeld, Hans, "Regional Planning", Planning the Canadian Environment, Gertler, L. 0 . , Ed . , Harvest House, Montreal, 1968, p.285. - 102 -of the province indicated that the theoretical expectations and actual results were s imilar . Variance from the model was explained by transportation re-quirements l ike road and r a i l . Thus, Chr i s ta l l e r ' s model could be used to designate service or nodal centers in the province. The 66 county-regional boundaries delineated by the Local Government Re-organization Study also designated service centers similar to that delimited by Chr i s ta l l e r ' s theory. The above study also identified problems ensuing from the actual drawing of a regional boundary, e .g . , on what side of the boundary is farm "x". The telephone matrix employed by Nader delineated a South-West region similar to the one derived from applying Chr i s ta l l e r ' s theory to the same area. The actual boundaries did not coincide, but the boundaries are s t i l l s ignif icant . "No two lines, wil l ever coincide completely. There is no such thing as an ideal boundary for a planning region. Whichever one is adopted wil l be a not wholly adequate ., compromise with confl ict ing existing conditions; but the fact of i t s adoption adds a new condition which makes i t more adequate. 133 Whether or not Blumenfeld's view is applicable to Saskatchewan, the concept of a "planning region" is c learly a frui t ful one i f the prime con-cern is economic development rather than just the r e l i e f of distress . "But i f we are to have confidence in the drawing of the planning boundaries, there is an urgent need for more knowledge of the determinants of growth. This is indeed c ruc i a l , for the choice of boundaries wil l depend upon what we know about the growth process." 133. Blumenfeld, Hans, "Regional Planning", p.287. 134. Brewis, T. N . , Regional Economic Policies in Canada, p.49. - 103 -The thesis demonstrated the many fundamental changes in the growth processes evolving in Saskatchewan that must be considered before delineati regions in Saskatchewan: i t described these changes taking place in the number of centers; in the distr ibution of component classes of centers; in the density and spacing of centers; and in the performance of certain spatial situations. Therefore, i t can be concluded that boundaries for planning regions can be delineated bearing in mind the above comments. The policy of pre-c i se ly where the boundary is to be drawn should be a f lexible one, subject to change, and drawn only after extensive interaction with the inhabitants concerned. The above analysis also isolated the existence of nodal-centers and their umland. Chapter III demonstrated the effect of r a i l and road patterns on Chr i s ta l l e r ' s theory. The fact that few centers existed in Saskatchewan before the arr ival of r a i l demonstrates the role that r a i l played in influencing community locations. The findings in the chapter further demon strated how transportation requirements result in the displacement of centers by encouraging the tendency to cluster on main communications l ines and conversely the tributary areas of the clustered centers are closely spaced and show a characteristic elongation in a direction of right angles to the communication system. Analysis of the ra i l system also demonstrated the significance of the nodal-centers within their umlands (Figure 15). These nodal-centers act as terminals or focal-points for their respective regions. However, the current issue of r a i l - l i n e abandonment and grain elevator s tabi l izat ion could alter the patterns disclosed by this thesis. Therefore - 104 -regional governments could ensure that the existing "informal" regions would remain intact and any alteration to the existing ra i l system would have to consider regional goals and objectives. Analysis of the existing road system revealed that i t complemented the r a i l system and further delineated the existence of nodal-centered umlands, figures 16 and 17), by i l lu s t ra t ing the radial axis influence of these centers. Regions were delineated on the basis of annual average 24-hour daily t ra f f i c for a l l motor vehicles. The regions delineated by this method coincided with regions demarcated by Nader's measure of econ-omic interaction. This method, however, could not also account for the exact location of the regional boundary. The positive features of this method are: i t represents the pattern of consumer demand; i t delimits the service centers already designated by Nader; i t represents a major change from the "usual straight-l ine method" ut i l i zed in the past; (Figure 11) and f i n a l l y , i t takes into account the pattern of transportation networks existing now in the province. F ina l ly , this chapter indicated how regions could act as a focus to enable the drafting of "regional objectives" which would lead to ra t iona l i -zation of r a i l l ine s , grain elevators and grain shipments, e .g . , a region (planning or government) would make those decisions that are in the best interests of those residing in the region, rather than centralized decisions being made in Ottawa, or even to some extent Regina. The fourth chapter described where the public debate now stands re planning regions and/or regional government. A short analysis was made concerning regional growth and development. It was indicated that regional  planning does not exist in Saskatchewan. In place of regional planning - 105 -each provincial department and special-purpose government has i t s own program. In this chapter the current po l i t i ca l environment regarding regional government was also discussed and i t was concluded that i t was not con-ducive towards implementation of regional government or any form thereof. However, since the two objectives of regional government defined by OCT (access and service) were not evident in Saskatchewan at the present, the need for regional government exists. The la t ter statements were derived by the findings of the Intuitive Information Letter. However, some forms of regional planning (health services, education and community planning) were taking place. The let ter traced four generalizations: 1. Saskatchewan def inite ly needs some form of regional planning (be i t planning regions and/or regional government). 2. There was no consensus as to whether or not this is the "time" to implement some form of regional government. 3. The present form of local government does not appear to..: be genuinely satisfying public participation in the decision-making process. 4. Regional government would allow a more meaningful par-t ic ipat ion of the public in the decision-making process vis-a-vis the present system. The let ter further substantiated the existence of a lack of understanding on the part of some academics towards rural values. The fact that SARM refused to respond reflects in part the embitterment created by the academics over the past few years. It must be realized by a l l academics, c i v i l ser-vants, and professional planners that the needs and desires of rural people cannot be denied, nor can they be dictated to either. The fa i lure of some to fu l ly appreciate this fact has been the main hindrance to the develop-ment of regional government to date. - 106 -The hypothesis of this thesis is that: Since the concept of regionalism informally exists now in the province, i t is possible to implement planning regions and regional government. The thesis has purported to show that the hypothesis is val id in a number of ways: 1. There exist nodal-centered umlands (based on consumer demand). 2. There are informal regions based on road and r a i l networks. 3. There are many programs carried out by special-purpose provincial departments and local boards that would be more effective i f co-ordinated regionally. The thesis has further suggested that there are immediate problems requir-ing solutions on a regional basis which implies urgency in transforming the informal regions into functional ones through a vehicle l ike regional government. Figure 21 is an organizational chart of a proposal for a new alignment of quasi-jurisdictional powers in the province i f planning regions and regional government are implemented. Administrative Machinery ( i l lustrated by Figure 21). A. Regional Development Council: One for each planning region supported by the provincial or central government and the member urban and rural municipalities and containing membership selected from the member municipalit ies . B. Planning and Redevelopment Department: Comprised of senior c i v i l servants of provincial departments. This department would consist of a regional planning branch (comprised of the community planning branch and the Research Planning branch existing now within Municipal Af fa i r s ) . It would also consist of an economics branch, a parks planning branch and would introduce for the f i r s t time in the - 107 -province a regional transportation branch. C. Advisory Committee: Will exist at the Deputy Minister level and wil l be chaired by the deputy Finance Minister and wil l contain the following existing depart-ments: Finance, Industry, Natural Resources, Agriculture, Education, and Health. The departments of Municipal Affairs and Highways wil l have their functions implemented at the regional l eve l . The organizational chart indicates that the province wil l s t i l l play an important co-ordinating role . Although i t wi l l be the responsibi l i ty of the Regional Development Councils to meet the goals and objectives of their respective regions, both the Advisory Committee and the Planning and Redevelopment Department wil l guide and advise the regions to ensure coordinated development on a provincial scale. This is necessary as the province wil l maintain i t s powers according to the B.N.A. Act. However, the Regional Development Council should have the authority to implement programs. -It wil l be the role of the province to receive federal funds and steer them to the respective regions, not necessarily on a competitive basis, but on the basis of enabling each region to meet i t s own objectives. Two further explanations are needed at this time. F i r s t l y , a new real izat ion is required within the province that separate urban and rural identit ies exist and future planning must be undertaken in close l ia i son with both groups. Furthermore, each group must be wi l l ing to understand the other's specific identity problems. Secondly, the province must educate those outside the province, that in fact Saskatchewan is not a homogeneous wheat-growing, f l a t plain existing within a prair ie region, but a diverse and heterogeneous spectrum of many - 108 -regions evolved through many variables, mostly human and few geographic. The Next Step: Once the realization that regions do exist in the province is made, the next step would be to develop a policy aimed at opening communication channels between urban and rural groups, within each potential region. When this is sat i s factor i ly established, and only then, wi l l i t be poss-ible to establish planning regions in the province. The boundaries derived for these planning regions should be coterminus with those to be used by regional governments. It may take several years to develop the framework of regional govern-ment and in the interim the planning regions wil l serve to test the bound-aries and suggest changes that might be made before regional government is implemented. - 109 -Figure 21: Regional Planning in Saskatchewan Cabinet Office of the Premier Director c l . Regional Planning Branch] 2. Regional Branch of Economics 3. Regional Transportation 4. Parks and Recreation Planning and Redevelopment Department Advisory Committee 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Treasury Industry Natural Res. Agriculture Education Municipal Affairs Regional Development Council Rural Municipality Urban Munici-pal i ty City Local Improvement Di s t r i c t BIBLIOGRAPHY - 110 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Pr imary Sources (Saskatchewan) Address to the Annual CPAC Conference , by the Honourable E . I . Wood, M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Reg ina , September 24, 1971. A B r i e f Submitted to the Government of Saskatchewan by the Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, Saskatchewan D i v i s i o n , w i t h Respect  to Reg iona l Government, June 1, 1970.-Canada - Roya l Commission on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (1961), (Submiss ion of the P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Summary o f . ) C l a m p i t t , H a r o l d , A . , P l a n n i n g a R u r a l Road System f o r Saskatchewan, a Paper presented a t the Annual Convent ion of the Canadian Good Road A s s o c i a t i o n , M o n t r e a l , October 4-10, 1970, p . 1. Excerp t s from the Address of D r . J . H . R i c h a r d s to the Annual Meet ing of the Saskatchewan Chamber of Commerce, Saskatoon, May 15, 1970. L o c a l Government C o n t i n u i n g Committee, " L o c a l Government i n Saskatchewan" Government of Saskatchewan, R e g i n a , March 1, 1961. L o c a l Government C o n t i n u i n g Committee, "The R u r a l Road F u n c t i o n " , A T e c h n i c a l Reference Document to the R e p o r t , L o c a l Government i n  Saskatchewan, submitted to the Government of Saskatchewan, March 1, 1961. Nader, G. A . , " P r o p o s a l s f o r the D e l i n e a t i o n of P l a n n i n g Regions i n Saskatchewan" (Unpublished p a p e r ) , Submitted to the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , June, 1970. P r a i r i e Prov ince s Cost Study Commission - Report of the Roya l Commission on Consumer Problems and I n f l a t i o n , P r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a , Mani toba and Saskatchewan, 1968. Report of the Reg iona l Study Committee, h e l d i n the o f f i c e of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , January 21 , 1970 ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . Report of the Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1940. R i c h a r d s , J . H . , " R e g i o n a l i s m and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , Address to the Saskatoon Chamber of Commerce, A p r i l , 1970. - I l l -Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l L i f e , " S e r v i c e C e n t e r s " , Report No. 12 , Government of Saskatchewan, Reg ina , October , 1957. Saskatchewan - Saskatchewan Highways - P l a n n i n g f o r Tomorrow, P l a n n i n g Branch, Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transpor- . t a t i o n , Queen's P r i n t e r , R e g i n a , 1966. " Saskatchewan, Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Annual Report s 1966-67; 1967-68; 1968-69; 1969-70; 1970-71. Saskatchewan - Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Annual Reports 1966 - 1970. S t a b l e r , J . C , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of R e g i o n a l Economics to R e g i o n a l Governments" , Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada Workshop, Y o r k t o n , Saskatchewan, A p r i l 15 , 1970. A Submission to the Government of Saskatchewan on Beha l f of the  Urban M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e , September 16, 1971. P r i m a r y Sources (Canada) Andras , Rober t , F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r f o r Hous ing , (Radio R e l e a s e ) , " P r o p e r t y Forum", 1969, K i n g Edward H o t e l , Toronto , September, 1969. Andras , R o b e r t , F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r f o r Hous ing , (Addres s ) , 33rd Annual Convent ion of the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n of Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , June 10, 1970. Channon, J . W . , and Burges , A . 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T . , "Proceedings of the Nottingham Symposium on Sub-Regional S t u d i e s " - R e g i o n a l S tud ie s A s s o c i a t i o n , East Mid lands Branch , Nott ingham, 1969. W i l s o n , George W . , "The Role of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n R e g i o n a l Economic G r o w t h " , Proceedings of a Conference on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and R e g i o n a l Development, e d i t e d by E . W. T y r c h n i e w i c z and 0m P . T a n g r i , Centre f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a , Winnipeg , December, 1970. P e r i o d i c a l s Andras , R o b e r t , " N a t i o n a l Urban P o l i c y " , COMMUNITY PLANNING REVIEW, V o l . 20, No. 1, Ottawa, 1970. A l o n z o , W i l l i a m , " E q u i t y and I t s R e l a t i o n to E f f i c i e n c y i n U r b a n i z a t i o n " , Center f o r P l a n n i n g and Development Research , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a ' , B e r k e l e y , J u l y , 1968. Argue , A . E . , " O n t a r i o ' s Program f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g " , T r a f f i c  E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 33 , No. 11 , 1963, d i s c u s s e s how the P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o has been d i v i d e d up i n t o Areas f o r the purpose of T r a f f i c e and P l a n n i n g S t u d i e s . B e e c r o f t , E r i c , "Government f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n s " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, V o l . 5 • N o . l , - 113 -Bureau of M u n i c i p a l Research , " R e g i o n a l Government - the Key to Genuine L o c a l Autonomy", C i v i c A f f a i r s , May, 1963, T o r o n t o . C a r o l , H . , " C i t y - C e n t e r e d Development R e g i o n s " , Ontar io Geography, V o l . 16, No. 2 , 1969. D u t t , Ashok, " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n England and Wales" - A C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n - P L A N , V o l . 10, No. 1, 1969. F o r s y t h , A . , "Urban P o l i c i e s i n the M a k i n g " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, V o l . 20, No. 2 , 1970. G e r t l e r , L . 0 . , " R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n and Economic Development" , Community  P l a n n i n g Rev iew,Vo1 . 20, No. 1, Ottawa, 1970. Jones , M u r r a y , "Urban Focus and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , Canadian P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , J . I . P . A . C . , V o l . I X , No. 2, June, 1966. Hodge, G e r a l d , "Urban Systems and R e g i o n a l P o l i c y " , Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 9 ( 2 ) , 1966, r e p r i n t e d i n Readings i n Canadian Geography, Robert I r v i n g e d i t i o n , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , M o n t r e a l , 1968. H u t c h i s o n , B. G . , " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g and R e g i o n a l Development" , E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , V o l . 50, J anuary , 1967. K i n s e l , John F . , " P l a n n i n g f o r P e o p l e " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, 1 ' *3 O n ^ t»<~l . f . « -1-0-1:7 Kreuger , R . , " R e g i o n a l Economic Development i n O n t a r i o " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on R e g i o n a l Development and Economic Change, Department of Economics and Development, Toronto , 1965. L i t h w i c k , N . H . , and Paquet , G i l l e s , " R e g i o n a l Development" , The Canadian  Forum, V o l , 47 , December, 1967. L i t h w i c k , N . H . , and Paquet , G i l l e s , " R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g i n Canada: An E x p l o r a t o r y Es say" , Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , - V o l . X I , No. 2, S p r i n g , 1968. 11 11 L o s c h , August , Die Raumliche Ordnung der W i r t s c h a f t : E ine Untersuchung 11 : uber S t andor t , W i r t s c h a f t g c b i e t e und der I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n Handel ( p u b l i s h e d by F i s c h e r , 1940, and reviewed by W. F . S t o l p e r i n American Economic Review, V o l . X X X I I I , 1943.) . P e a r s o n , Norman, "The R e g i o n a l C i t y E x i s t s " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, V o l . 8 , No. 4 , December, 1958. P e r l o f f , H . S . , and Mead, Margare t , " R e g i o n a l Development and I t s Impact on M o d e r n i z a t i o n , M i g r a t i o n and Human S e t t l e m e n t , E k i s t i c s , V o l . 20, No. 119, 1965. P e r l o f f , Harvey, "Key Features of R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , A . I . P . J o u r n a l , May, 1968. - 114 -R i c h a r d s , J . H . , " P e r s p e c t i v e on R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , Community P l a n n i n g  Review, V o l . 17, No. 1, S p r i n g , 1967. W i l k i n s o n , L o m e , " R e g i o n a l Government! Who Needs I t " , The R u r a l C o u n c i l l o r , V o l . 5 , No. 5 , August , 1970. W i l k i n s o n , R. K . , " C r i t e r i a f o r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , Town P l a n n i n g Review, V o l . 4 1 , No. 3 , J u l y , 1970. W i l s o n , A . G . , "Research f o r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , V o l . 3 , No. 1, Pergamon P r e s s , 1969. Books Baker , W. B . , "Changing Community P a t t e r n s i n Saskatchewan", Readings i n Canadian Geography, ed . Robert N . I r v i n g , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston of Canada, L t d . , M o n t r e a l , 1968. B lumenfe ld , Hans, " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , P l a n n i n g the Canadian Environment , G e r t l e r , . L . 0 . , E d . , Harves t House, M o n t r e a l , 1968. B r e w i s , T. N . , R e g i o n a l Economic P o l i c i e s i n Canada, The M a c M i l l a n Company of Canada L i m i t e d , Toronto , 1969. Bryden, R. M . , "Saskatchewan P l a n n i n g L e g i s l a t i o n S tudy" , Saskatchewan Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e g i n a , 1969. Camu, P . , Weeks, E . P . and Sametz, Z . W . , Economic Geography of Canada, Bryant Press L i m i t e d , Toronto , 1964. C h r i s t a l l e r , W . , D i e Z e n t r a l e n Orte i n Suddentschland, Gustav F i s c h e r V e r l a g , Jena , 1933. Dupre, S te fan J . , "The P o l i t i c a l Dimensions of R e g i o n a l Government", P o l i t i c s and Government of Urban Canada, ed . by L i o n e l B. Feldman and M i c h a e l D. G o l d r i c k , Methuen, Toronto , 1969. Friedmann, John, "The Concept of a P l a n n i n g R e g i o n " , R e g i o n a l Development  and P l a n n i n g : A Reader, eds . John Friedmann and W i l l i a m A l o n z o , M . I . T . P r e s s , Cambridge, M a s s . , U . S . A . , 1964. I s a r d , W a l t e r , Methods of R e g i o n a l A n a l y s i s , Technology Press and W i l e y , 1960. P e r l o f f , H . S . , et a l . , "Reg ions , Resources and Economic G r o w t h " , Resources f o r the Future I n c . , Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1960. R i c h a r d s , J . H . , Fung, K. I . , A t l a s of Saskatchewan, U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, Modern P r e s s , Saskatoon, 1969. - 115 -Newspapers The Regina Leader-Post, September 18, 1971 The Financial Post, September 9, 1968, Vol. Toronto Globe And Mail, February 3, 1968. Vancouver Sun, May 6, 1966. Vancouver Sun, November 5, 1969. Appendices 7 - 116 -APPENDIX A INTUITIVE INFORMATION LETTER February 25, 1972 Re: I n t u i t i v e I n f o r m a t i o n L e t t e r Dear Respondent: P r o p o s a l s f o r r e g i o n a l government i n Saskatchewan have been the t o p i c of much debate d u r i n g the l a s t few y e a r s . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s , r e p o r t s and theses have attempted to demonstrate the urgent need f o r the implementat ion of such a concept . I n a t h e s i s f o r the degree of Master of A r t s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g the w r i t e r i s a t tempt ing to assess these p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s and suggest a new workable b a s i s f o r a form of r e g i o n a l govern-ment i n the p r o v i n c e . The t h e s i s da ta a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s tha t the p r o v i n c e should be d i v i d e d i n t o r e g i o n s ( p a r t i a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ) . T h i s , i n t u r n d e c e n t r a l i z e s many f u n c t i o n s c u r r e n t l y be ing c e n t r a l i z e d , thereby e n s u r i n g the p r e s e r v a t i o n of l o c a l government. T h i s statement i s made a t a t ime when 1971 f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the p r o v i n c e has decreased 52,117 i n p o p u l a -t i o n s i n c e 1966. Dur ing that p e r i o d , four of the e l e v e n c i t i e s faced a decrease as d i d 72 of the 111 towns and 302 of the 353 v i l l a g e s . A n a l y s i s , however l o g i c a l , cannot p r o v i d e the whole s t o r y where human r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i n v o l v e d . Thus I am w r i t i n g you and some 25 other persons i n r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s i n Saskatchewan to seek an ex-p r e s s i o n of your i n t u i t i v e judgement as to the t i m e l i n e s s and f e a s i b i l i t y of the concepts i n v o l v e d i n the hope that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudy may more - 117 -- 2 - . . l i k e l y be r e l e v a n t and u s e f u l . Your response w i l l remain anonymous and w i l l be used , w i t h o ther s to g a i n an i n s i g h t i n t o the unders tand ing of the v iews of " k e y " persons r e g a r d i n g t h e i r knowledge of the g e n e r a l p u b l P lea se f e e l f r e e to comment on any or a l l of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Does Saskatchewan need some form of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and/or r e g i o n a l government? 2. I s t h i s the " t i m e " to implement some form of r e g i o n a l government? 3. I s the present form of l o c a l government g e n u i n e l y s a t i s f y i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n -making process? 4 . Would r e g i o n a l government a l l o w a more meaningfu l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process v i s - a - v i s the present system? A copy of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n the P l a n n i n g L i b r a r y of the i Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a f t e r May 3, 1972 f o r your p e r u s a l . Thank you f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n . R e s p e c t f u l l y y o u r s , Henry Ropertz Forward Comments To: School of Community and Reg iona l P l a n n i n g U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , B . C . CANADA 

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