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The ecosystem : A conceptual framework for identifying the ecological implications of planning options Powers, Michael Gerard 1972

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THE ECOSYSTEM: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR IDENTIFYING THE ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF PLANNING OPTIONS Vby MICHAEL GERARD POWERS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of COMMUNITY AMD REGIONAL PLANNING The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date MAY 2. 1972  - i i -ABSTRACT The c u r r e n t p roblem o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e i v e d independence from n a t u r e . Through a d o p t i o n o f a systems p e r s p e c t i v e , however, one r e c o g n i z e s t h e need t o r e l a t e man to h i s n a t u r a l environment. I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e ecosystem p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l model t h a t r e c o g n i z e s the complex i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f man, l a n d , and l i v i n g systems. The development and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e e c o -system c o n c e p t s u g g e s t s a v a r i e t y o f n e c e s s a r y changes r e g a r d i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f man/environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . These changes i n c l u d e : (1) t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and l a n d ; (2) t h e development o f a b o u n d a r y - o r i e n t e d v i e w o f e c o s y s t e m s t a b i l i t y ; and (3) t h e need to adopt a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y i n v o l v i n g s m a l l y e t d i v e r s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e s o f a c t i o n , maximum d i v e r s i t y o f p u b l i c c h o i c e , and systems s t a b i l i t y . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e ecosystem c o n c e p t a r e a p p l i e d t o a s p e c i f i c l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g problem s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e : (1) man-other o r g a n i s m s - p h y s i c a l environment i n t e r r e l a t i o n s ; (2) t h e e c o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a l t e r n a t i v e development p r o p o s a l s upon t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and (3) p r o p o s a l s f o r a comprehensive l a n d - u s e p l a n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e e c o s y s t e m . - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE RAGE Abstract I Introduction 1. Symptoms of A Larger Problem 2. P o l l u t i o n 2. Independent Approaches to. Environmental Problems 3. Ignorance of Resource In t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s 4. Technological andEconomic Bias In The PMnrving Profession 5. An Awakening 7. Problem Synthesis 8. A New D i r e c t i o n 9. Thesis Rationale 10. Scope and Objectives 11. Methodology 12. II The Ecosystem and the Systems Concept 14. The Ecosystem - H i s t o r i c a l Development 14. Ecosystem, System and Complexity 15. The A b i o t i c System 17. Hydrologic System 17. Physical System 19. The P r i n c i p l e of Limiting Factors 20. Biogeochemical Cycles 21. The B i o t i c Environment 22. Concepts Relating To Populations and Species 22. Niche and Habitat 26. Community Energetics and Organization 27. Energy Flow 27. Trophic Web 29. Succession 29. Stress i n Ecosystems 35. Summary and Conclusions 36. — I V — CHAPTER TITLE PAGE III The Boundary Bay Ecosystem 38. Location of Study Area 38. "The Physical Environment of.. Boundary Bay 38. Mineral-Organic Matrix 40. Geology 40. Topography 42. S o i l s 43. Surface Sediment D i s t r i b u t i o n 43. Sands 47. Mud and Peat 47. Salt and Marsh 48. Sh e l l Beds 48. Summary 48. The-Hydrologic System 49. Climate 49. Currents and Tides 51. Rivers and Land Drainage 53. Water Mass Properties". 55. The B i o t i c Environment 56. Salt Marsh 56. T i d a l F l a t s 58. High T i d a l F l a t s 59. Intermediate T i d a l F l a t s 60. Lower T i d a l F l a t s 62. Sand Dollar Community 62. Eelgrass Community 62. Seaward of the F l a t s 66. Fis h , WAterfowl and Seal Populations 66. Boundary Bay Ecosystem - An Overview 70. IV Man and The Boundary Bay Ecosystem 76. H i s t o r i c a l Development of Present Land Uses 76. Man/Resource Relationships 77. Harvest of Resources 78. Depletion of Resources 80. P o l l u t i o n of Resources 81. Future Demand 82. Community Perspective 84. Recreational Demand 84. Pressure on the Upland Areas 87. Uncertainty 87. -v-CHAPTER TITLE PAGE V. Development of Boundary Bay 89. Selected Development A l t e rna t i ves - A C r i t i c a l Review Development Proposals fo r the T i d a l F la ts Two Development Proposals fo r theUpland Areas Spe t t i fo re Farms Proposal South Surrey Plan Study Summary A Proposal - 99. ^ Underly ing Phi losophy and Object ives 99. A Compartmental Approach to Landscape Planning 100. Continuous Use Areas 100. A Po ten t i a l Use: 103. Temporary Use Areas 104. Managed Production Urlit r 106.^ Natural Production Unit 107: ^ecearcResearch Needs 112 . Summary Conclusion 114. VI D iscuss ion and Conclusions 115. VII B ib l iography 122. 130. 131. £ 132. 133. 89. 89. 94. 95. 97. 98. Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III Appendix IV - v i -LIST OF FIGURES NUMBER TITLE PAGE The Hydrologic Cycle 18. 2 The Nitrogen Cycle 23. 3 L o c a t i o n of Study Area 36. 4 Geology of Study Area . 41. 5a S o i l s Map . ' 44. 5b. Boundation Conditions,, and Slope i n Excess of 20% 45. 6 Surface Sediment D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Boundary Bay 46. 7 Winds and Currents i n Boundary Bay 52. 8 Hydrologic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . o f the study area 54. 9 ' .Eelg r a s s , H S r r i n g , Seal Hauling Out S i t e s 64. 10 General Food R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Boundary Bay 74. 11 Current Land Use 77. 12 L o c a t i o n of Four A l t e r n a t i v e Development Proposals For Boundary Bay 90#3; 13 Authors Proposal 101. 14 • Eigh t D i f f e r e n t Hydrodyriamic Areas i n An Estuary 113. - v i i -LIST OF TABLES TITLE Population Parameters Expected Trends i n Ecosystem Development Meteorological Information Available for the Study Area Cumulative Counts of Waterfowl Distri b u t i o n and Relative Abundance of Flora and Fauna i n Boundary Bay Annual Herring Production i n Boundary Bay, 1954-1971 Land Use Proposals for Development of the Boundary Bay Area Estimated Value of Recreational A c t i v i t i e s of Boundary Bay Unsatisfied Applications For Moorage Various Tjcpes and Likely Consequences of Two Alternative Proposals an the Boundary Bay Ecosystem - v i i i -ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d to P r o f e s s o r B i l l Rees whose guidance and c r i t i c i s m p l a y e d a key r o l e i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . A d d i t i o n a l g r a t t i t u d e i s exp r e s s e d to Dr. C. S. H o l l i n g f o r h i s v a l u a b l e , c r i t i q u e . In a d d i t i o n , I wish to e x p r e s s an a p p r e c i a t i o n (?) to my f e l l o w c l a s s members f o r an e n j o y a b l e two y e a r s . - i x -CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Regional planning seeks to t i e a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s , such as housing, employment, and r e g i o n a l economic development, toget h e r . U n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y planners have focused mainly upon economic and s o c i a l development. However a r a t i o n a l p l a n must give greater weight t o other concerns, such as environmental q u a l i t y , f o r reasons discussed below. This concern must extend beyond the s o l u t i o n s to immediate problems and consider the long term impact o f urban s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n on other processes. In t h i s l i g h t the a c q u i s i t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f knowledge i n the p l a n n i n g process i s seen i n -a much l a r g e r c o n t e x t . The establishment o f a b a s i c conceptual framework that i n c o r p o -rates the v a r i e t y o f inputs planners are concerned wi t h i s an e s s e n t i a l f i r s t s t e p . A systems overview provides the b a s i c conceptual framework f o r a "comprehensive" approach as i t encompasses the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f objects to each o t h e r , t h e i r environment and environmental processes. Environment i n t h i s case a p p l i e s to the environmental aspects o f man's s o c i e t y (e.g., housing c o n d i t i o n s ) as w e l l as p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . As I s h a l l p o i n t out i n the next few pages planners have i g n o r e d , both i n theory and p r a c t i c e , the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o the planning process. While the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s does not allow f o r an approach that solves a l l planning problems i t w i l l attempt t o make the planning process more comprehensive. An example of the systems approach w i l l be p r e s e n t e d e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i n p u t o f e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The f i r s t c o n c e p t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f a systems overview i s a c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n o f problems w i t h an emphasis on a n a l y s i s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s (VanDyne, 1969). A s y s t e m a t i c overview o f p a s t and p r e s e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f " e n v i r o n m e n t a l " problems and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l approaches t o problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and s o l u t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s u g g e s t i n g a s p e c i f i c approach t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . SYMPTOMS OF A LARGER PROBLEM P o l l u t i o n U n t i l r e c e n t l y mankind has taken f o r g r a n t e d t h o s e p r o c e s s e s which p r o v i d e him w i t h t h e b a s i c r e q u i s i t e s o f l i f e : c l e a n a i r and water; abundant energy; and a h e a l t h f u l n u t r i e n t s u p p l y . Man has h i s t o r i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d t h e r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e development o f o u r u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y t o be i n abundance and t h a t r e s o u r c e s u p p l y o r s i n k s were dete r m i n e d by p r i c e . But now we are a c u t e l y aware o f i n c r e a -s i n g a i r , water, and s o i l p o l l u t i o n and s c a r c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s . P o l l u t i o n o c c u r s through t h e e x c e s s i v e output o f c h e m i c a l m a t e r i a l s , o r g a n i c wastes, r a d i o a c t i v e p a r t i c l e s , o r o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s which t h e environment can no l o n g e r absorb through t h e normal p r o c e s s e s o f d i l u t i o n , c i r c u l a t i o n , and decay. P o l l u t i o n problems i n themselves are not new, on t h e c o n t r a r y , p o l l u t i o n was g i v e n a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t the time o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n and b e f o r e . -2-However, because o f i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and an emphasis on m a t e r i a l production which p r e c i p i t a t e s l a r g e s c a l e environmental con-tamination the magnitude and urgency o f r e g i o n a l and g l o b a l imbalances have no precedent. Independent Approaches to Environmental Problems While many may recognize the seriousness o f our various e n v i r o n -mental problems our t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and s o l u t i o n are inadequate. An important f a c t o r c h a r a c t e r i z -i n g our approach to many problems o f s o c i e t y i s that we don't even p r o p e r l y i d e n t i f y the problems, only t h e i r symptons. Cooley (1953),.in d i s c u s s i n g the o v e r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the Alas k a Salmon F i s h e r y , observes that s o l u t i o n s are voiced as i f there were only one c u l p r i t and one problem. This l i m i t e d view creates new problems, at times more severe than the o r i g i n a l one as the complexity and i n t e r r e l a t e d nature o f prob-lems are i g n o r e d . Excessive d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or government i s a fundamental reason f o r t h i s myopic approach. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r our b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n -ments has been e x c e s s i v e l y subdivided among a v a r i e t y o f departments and s p e c i a l i s t s i n education and government. For example, Leighton (1966) notes t h a t there are 360 governmental agencies i n the United States -l o c a l , s t a t e , r e g i o n a l , f e d e r a l - that are p a r t l y or e n t i r e l y concerned wit h a i r p o l l u t i o n . Governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o become fragmented i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as i n the Departments of Highways (concern w i t h roads) and A g r i c u l t u r e (concern with crop p r o d u c t i o n ) . Therefore departments are forced to concentrate on p a r t s o f problems and not on the whole problem and freeways are constructed over prime farmland -3-opening t h e a r e a up t o h o u s i n g . R e c o g n i t i o n o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s among t h e v a r i o u s components o f our human and " n a t u r a l " environments and t h e a d o p t i o n o f a comprehensive view i s i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a c o - o r d i n a t e d approach. Examples o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i o u s components o f th e b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment can e a s i l y be n o t e d . L o c a t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s s h o u l d t a k e i n t o account knowledge o f c l i m a t o l o g y s i n c e d r a i n a g e o f p o l l u t e d a i r i n t o v a l l e y s a t n i g h t t i m e can be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r (Lawrence, 1954) as many urban c e n t e r s a r e l o c a t e d i n v a l l e y s , e.g., Vancouver, B.C., Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a . In t h i s example one can see the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a i r , d a n d and i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , misuse o f l a n d through p o o r l o g g i n g o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s may r e s u l t i n e r o s i o n and (among o t h e r t h i n g s ) consequent s i l t a t i o n o f streams a f f e c t i n g a q u a t i c h a b i t a t s , and u l t i m a t e l y man's f o o d s u p p l y . Ignorance o f Resource I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s While t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f l a n d , water and a i r a r e - c r i t i c a l t h e s e r e s o u r c e s a r e o f t e n a l l o c a t e d and managed i n i s o l a t i o n from one an o t h e r . A r e g i o n a l p l a n i s a l s o a p l a n f o r l a n d - a i r - w a t e r use a l t h o u g h t h i s i s seldom r e c o g n i z e d by t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n . A case i n p o i n t i s t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r t h e Lower Mainland, Region o f B.C. (Hope t o Vancouver) which i g n o r e s t h e a i r and water systems as t h e y r e l a t e f u n c t i o n a l l y t o l a n d . P a r t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n a t u r e o f problems has r e c e n t l y e v o l v e d . S o i l , water, and a i r p o l l u t i o n can be seen as a c l u s t e r o f a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d problem -- environment c o n t a m i n a t i o n -4-Society's p e r c e p t i o n and concern f o r a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r r e l a t e d problems; such as environmental contamination, unemployment, and poverty d e f i n e s the metaproblem ( C h e v a l i e r , 1969). The concept o f the metaproblem forces us to recognize the need f o r a comprehensive approach t o problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , analysis> and s o l u t i o n . The Federal Government may be on i t s way to r e a l i z i n g the e x i s t -ence of metaproblems and t r e a t i n g them a c c o r d i n g l y . A conceptual f i r s t step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n was taken w i t h the c r e a t i o n o f the new Department o f the Environment. However, t h i s w i l l only be s u c c e s s f u l i n " s o l v i n g " metaproblems i f a l l the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s i n the Department of the Environment are co-ordinated i n t h e i r a t t a c k s on metaproblems and the department i s a l s o r e l a t e d to the a c t i v i t i e s o f other departments which i d e n t i f y s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s o f the s o c i e t y . As C h e v a l i e r observes: "The new s c a l e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and complexity o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l profoundly a f f e c t the d e f i n i t i o n o f problems and ... t h e i r s o l u t i o n . " ( C h e v a l i e r , 1969) Technological and Economic Bias i n the Planning P r o f e s s i o n The l a s t few s e c t i o n s have emphasized the need to approach problems w i t h a view towards t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d n a t u r e . To date, planners have adopted the t r a d i t i o n a l view o f the "one problem-one s o l u t i o n " approach. This view o r i g i n a t e s from an over emphasis on the b e n e f i t s o f technology and a heavy r e l i a n c e on economic th e o r y . We haven't been able to s o l v e many problems of s o c i e t y because we have been o v e r l y preoccupied w i t h technology and i t s b e n e f i t s t o man without r e a l i z i n g i t s impacts on our environment. For i n s t a n c e , only a few i n d i v i d u a l s have objected t o the l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l land caused by -5- . expanding urban areas. The t e c h n o l o g i s t responds by emphasizing i n c r e a s e d y i e l d s and e f f i c i e n c y ( i n economic terms) on remaining lands due to the a p p l i c a t i o n o f , f o r example, f e r t i l i z e r s and p e s t i c i d e s . This view ignores the e f f e c t s t h a t f e r t i l i z e r s and p e s t i c i d e s have had on our environment. The b e l i e f that technology can provide the s o l u t i o n to a l l our problems i s s t i l l q u i t e widespread. Planners should r e a l i z e the dangers i n such a f a i t h . Urban freeways were supposed to reduce t r a v e l time but t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n f o s t e r e d a gre a t e r demand f o r t h e i r use. Consequently t r a v e l time was not reduced and other problems were c r e a t e d . A deadly combination i s the quick t e c h n o l o g i c a l f i x and what F o r r e s t e r (1969) c a l l s the c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e responses o f dynamic systems. S o c i e t y has repeatedly used an economic ^ r a t i o n a l e to j u s t i f y i t s a c t i o n , i g n o r i n g the e f f e c t s o f those ac t i o n s on the environment. Resources have been a l l o c a t e d v i a the market system. As Black (1969) and Pearse (1968) note, the b e l i e f i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t t h a t i n t e r n a l r e g u l -a t i o n o f p r i v a t e business can prevent problems o f resource d e p l e t i o n or environmental contamination. As w i l l be pointed out below, a s e r i o u s flaw e x i s t s i n t h i s a t t i t u d e . The use o f resources from the environment by p r i v a t e business of t e n imposes a d d i t i o n a l costs on other u s e r s . The a c t i v i t i e s o f one in d u s t r y (e.g. waste d i s p o s a l i n t o a stream) may generate " r e a l " e f f e c t s upon another i n d u s t r y or e n t i r e community (e.g. spending money to c l e a n the p o l l u t e d water) (Herfindahl and Kneese, 1965). These e f f e c t s are termed e x t e r n a l i t i e s by economists and they cannot be remedied by the market system. The " s e r v i c e s " provided by the environment are f r e e and as no p r i c e s on environmental media e x i s t the usual market mechanisms are -6-not e f f e c t i v e (Bower, 1971). One c l e a r r e s u l t o f t h i s f r e e goods a t t i -tude i s the s c a r c i t y o f c e r t a i n animal species and b i o l o g i c a l areas. The " i r r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y " o f these unique phenomenon has been ignored by t r a d i t i o n a l economic theory ( K r u t i l l a , 1967). The planning p r o f e s s i o n has p r i m a r i l y concerned i t s e l f w i t h the a n a l y s i s o f man's economic system, w i t h the extensive use o f the t o o l s o f economic a n a l y s i s developed i n p r o j e c t and market s t u d i e s . Examples are seen i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t and economic base s t u d i e s along w i t h c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . No s p e c i f i c t o o l s , much l e s s a general framework, e x i s t i n planning f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g man/environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Gottman (1961) discussed the r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n o f the North-eastern seaboard of the United States and we are a l l aware of expanding metro p o l i t a n r e g i o n s . However, schemes developed to accommodate fu t u r e expansions have assumed u n l i m i t e d resources and ignored the problems o f waste d i s p o s a l o r1p o l l u t i o n ( c f . D o x i a d i s , 1966). The planning, p r o f e s s i o n has given low p r i o r i t y to n a t u r a l e n v i -ronmental i s s u e s (Galloway and H u e l s t e r , 1971). When the environmental issues have been i d e n t i f i e d : "... the planning p r o f e s s i o n has tended e i t h e r to p e r c e i v e n a t u r a l environmental i s s u e s i n a t a n g e n t i a l way, or to take a view so cosmic and c a t h o l i c t h a t i t has been o f l i m i t e d u t i l i t y i n the development o f s u b s t a n t i v e planning theory and methodology." (Galloway and H u e l s t e r , 1971). An Awakening While t h i s a n a l y s i s o f the planning p r o f e s s i o n has focused upon the planner's ignorance o f .complex man/environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s there are signs that the p r o f e s s i o n i s beginning to consider environmental impacts i n the development of plans and p o l i c i e s . New schools of -7-environmental s t u d i e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d over the past few years at York U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y o f Waterloo and more r e c e n t l y at the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y . I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s are r e l a t i n g p l a n n i n g departments to the d i s c i p l i n e s o f f o r e s t r y , zoology, and economics ( c f . H o l l i n g , 1969). C i t y and r e g i o n a l planning agencies are coming i n t o contact w i t h u n i v e r s i t i e s through computer s i m u l a t i o n s t u d i e s . While these e f f o r t s may p o i n t us i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , they do not i n them-selves c o n s t i t u t e a methodology or more important a philosophy t h a t w i l l r e s u l t i n adaptable and open ended pl a n n i n g t h a t a c t i v e l y considers man/environment i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . PROBLEM SYNTHESIS The i d e n t i f i a b l e problems mentioned above can be synthesized i n t o one c r i t i c a l concept. P o l l u t i o n , the- f o i i e r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f resources and an emphasis on the t e c h n o l o g i c and economic approaches to resource use and development which r e s u l t i n a d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f environmental q u a l i t y are the r e s u l t o f man's perceived s e p a r a t i o n from environmental processes. Tuan (1968) and White (1966) t r a c e the s e p a r a t i o n o f man from nature t o C h r i s t i a n dogma. Mare (1964) discusses the h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f man's arrogant view of h i m s e l f as conqueror o f nature which emerged during the Renaissance. Wherever the o r i g i n may l a y man i s viewed as'the dominant f i g u r e and nature as h i s s e r v a n t . The anthropocentric view o f the n a t u r a l environment recognizes few l i m i t s to man's economies and s o c i e t a l a c t i v i t i e s . The anthropocen-t r i c n o t i o n i s s e l f - d e l u s o r y as i t f a i l s to take i n t o account the f a c t -8-that man i s not only a s o c i a l animal, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h l y complex s o c i a l behaviour, but a l s o a b i o l o g i c a l one. Therefore, h i s u l t i m a t e bonds are the same tha t c o n t r o l the l i v e s o f other organisms - the e n v i -ronment i n which he l i v e s and the genetic framework which he has i n h e r i t e d (Watts, 1970). S u r e l y , man has the power to a l t e r the landscape to s u i t only h i s needs, but does he have the r i g h t ? This appears to be a questi o n o f e t h i c s . A l b e r t Schweitzer has pointed out i n h i s book My Life and Thought t h a t a f a u l t o f t r a d i t i o n a l e t h i c a l philosophy i s tha t i t only d e a l t w i t h man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i m s e l f and not to h i s n a t u r a l environment. A NEW DIRECTION Leopold (1949) recognized the need f o r a b a s i c e t h i c a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p between man and l a n d . E t h i c s i n t h i s case r e f e r s t o the mode o f guidance r e l a t i v e to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the community: " A l l e t h i c s so f a r evolved r e s t upon a s i n g l e premise: t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s a member o f a community o f interdependent p a r t s . His i n s t i n c t s prompt him to compete f o r h i s p l a c e i n that community, but h i s e t h i c s prompt him to co-operate ... The land e t h i c simply enlarges the boundaries o f the community to i n c l u d e s o i l s , waters, p l a n t s , and animals, o r c o l l e c t i v e l y , the land .... In s h o r t , a land e t h i c changes the r o l e o f Homo sapiens from conqueror o f the land commu-n i t y to p l a i n member and c i t i z e n o f i t . I t i m p l i e s respect f o r h i s f e l l o w members, and a l s o respect f o r the community as such." (Leopold, 1949, p. 219). The "new" e t h i c a l b a s i s o f man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s environment must be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the plan n i n g process i n order to broaden the pr o f e s s i o n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e o f man/land r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The complexity o f today's i n t e r v e n t i o n s and the accumulation o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s over the years r e q u i r e s a broad understanding o f organism/environment i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . -9-The development o f an e c o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view i n the planning p r o f e s s i o n i s seen as a new approach so tha t complex man/environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s are recognized i n the planning p r o c e s s . Thesis R a t i o n a l e At t h i s time planning theory has no general concept that r e l a t e s e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to the plan n i n g p r o c e s s . While planners may observe and record f a c t s l i t t l e progress i n the development o f an e t h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and land w i l l a r i s e u n t i l a p r a c t i c a l model that develops c o - o r d i n a t i v e concepts r e l a t i n g man and environment i s c o n s t r u c -t e d . Attempts have been and are being made throughout' North America t o develop such concepts ( c f . H i l l s , 1971; McHarg, 1969). These attempts are i n conformity w i t h Kuhn's (1970) n o t i o n o f the need to i n i t i a t e e x p l o r a t o r y t h r u s t s i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h the c r e d i b i l i t y o f a new concept. He terms t h i s the pre-paradigmatic phase i n the d e v e l -opment o f i d e a s . I t i s i n t h i s s p i r i t o f i n q u i r y that t h i s t h e s i s i s undertaken. . In t h i s t h e s i s the hypothesis approach i s forsaken as the concept under development i s not amenable t o "proo;f" a t t h i s t i m e . The approach i s o r i e n t e d towards the development o f a s p e c i f i c concept that a s s i s t s planners i n the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f human i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n t o n a t u r a l systems. This concept a r i s e s from a systems view o f the world based on a philosophy o f viewing the optimum relationship.between man and nature as a symbiotic one. -10-SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES The land e t h i c that w i l l supplement and guide economic and s o c i a l b a s i s f o r land assignment presupposes a mental image o f la n d as an i n t e r a c t i n g system. An o p e r a t i o n a l concept which i s u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r a c t i n g system i s the ecosystem. The ecosystem i s the u n i t which i n c l u d e s a l l the organisms o f a given area i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment so t h a t there i s an exchange o f m a t e r i a l s between l i v i n g and non l i v i n g p a r t s (Odum, 1971). Any a n a l y s i s o f an ecosystem must consider the behaviour o f the system when a l l the components are together and man i s recognized as one o f the important components. As man and environment can be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d , the ecosystem concept i s a l o g i c a l framework f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the e c o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f land/ a i r / w a t e r use o p t i o n s . The formal s t r u c t u r e o f a comprehensive ecosystem approach i s elaborate ( c f . Odum, 1971; VanDyne, 1969), but e a s i l y grasped. Most users o f the concept have l e f t out s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n s o f the system i n order to reduce the number o f v a r i a b l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s to be c o n s i d -ered. This i s necessary as the a r t o f model b u i l d i n g i s the a r t o f s i m p l i f y i n g complicated problems (Lowry, 1967). I t i s recognized that the n a t u r a l environment i s but one o f s e v e r a l major i s s u e s considered i n the planning p r o c e s s . However, a l l planning i s s u e s i n t e r a c t to some degree and before " r a t i o n a l " planning s o l u t i o n s can be reached, the planner must be: 1) t e c h n i c a l l y aware o f the impact o f la n d / w a t e r / a i r use a l t e r n a t i v e s on e c o l o g i c a l systems, and 2) be i n a p o s i t i o n to suggest land uses and attendent -11-s t r a t e g i e s a r i s i n g from knowledge o f complex organism environment i n t e r a c t i o n s . So one can comprehend the p o t e n t i a l o f the ecosystem concept as a systematic and o b j e c t i v e mechanism f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e c o l o g i c a l conse-quences o f human a c t i v i t y , a s p e c i f i c case study area w i l l be chosen. Boundary Bay i n the Lower Mainland Region o f B.C. appears to be an e x c e l l e n t choice f o r a number o f reasons: 1) Boundary Bay comprises a r i c h b i o l o g i c a l environment which i s " r e l a t i v e l y " simple and comprehendable. 2) An adequate, i f not complete, data base i s a v a i l a b l e f o r the study a r e a . 3) Boundary Bay i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to a burgeoning p o p u l a t i o n of over one m i l l i o n . 4) Growing p o p u l a t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e use o f the area accentuating present resource c o n f l i c t s and c r e a t i n g new ones. 5) An i n t e r n a t i o n a l border and Canadian j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s compound problems i n terms o f management p o l i c i e s and p l a n s . 6) No f i x e d p o l i c y r e : the f u t u r e development o f Boundary Bay. METHODOLOGY Chapter I I describes the ecosystem concept. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l processes through t h i s concept r e q u i r e one to r e l a t e two r a t h e r d i s t i n c t bodies o f l i t e r a t u r e : on\;"the one hand th a t which has a l l u d e d to man's s t r u c t u r a l p o s i t i o n s and f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i n the ecosystem, and on the o t h e r , that which has been concerned w i t h the development o f -12-e c o l o g i c a l theory separate from man's impact. A complete sy n t h e s i s i s not w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s paper but the development o f the ecosystem concept u s e f u l to the planning process us i n g the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i -c a l aspects o f research i s p o s s i b l e . The chapter a l s o s p e c i f i e s some general p r o p e r t i e s o f systems that are found i n ecosystems. Chapter I I I describes the " n a t u r a l " ecosystem o f Boundary Bay. Thus p a r t o f the theory i n Chapter I I i s cast i n terms o f a case study. The p h y s i c a l environment i s described and i s then r e l a t e d to the b i o l o g -i c a l environment. Man i s conce p t u a l l y segregated from a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the " n a t u r a l " ecosystem f o r purposes o f studying the unique a t t r i b u t e s of the ecosystem. Chapter IV describes past and present uses o f Boundary Bay and annotates f u t u r e demand upon the re s o u r c e s . Emphasis i s placed on man's demands upon the resource base and h i s impact upon the ecosystem ( i . e . , changes'in ecosystem s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n ) . Future demands upon the area over the next ten years are examined. Chapter V c r i t i c a l l y evaluates four development a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the study area and presents a p l a n and. attendent s t r a t e g i e s f o r the development o f Boundary.Bay. A l t e r n a t i v e s are evaluated w i t h the use o f the m a t e r i a l presented i n Chapter I I I and a proposal that recognizes the i n t e g r i t y o f the Boundary Bay ecosystem i s developed. Chapter VI emphasizes the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the land e t h i c p h i l o s -ophy t o the p r a c t i c e o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , emphasizing the importance o f e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the plan n i n g p r o c e s s . Changes i n the planning process t h a t appear to be necessary a r e • d i s c u s s e d . -13-CHAPTER I I THE ECOSYSTEM AND THE SYSTEMS CONCEPT THE ECOSYSTEM - HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The concept of the ecosystem dates back many y e a r s . Forbes (1887) use o f the term "microcosm" i n d i c a t e d he was aware of the need f o r e c o l o g i s t s to study s p e c i e s ' i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s between species and t h e i r environment.The term ecosystem i t s e l f was proposed by Tansley (1935), a p l a n t e c o l o g i s t , assthe system r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l l i v i n g and non -l i v i n g f a c t o r s of the environment. Thus Tansley gave formal expression to a v a r i e t y of concepts expressing the same idea.emphasizing the most important aspect of an ecosystem: t h a t i t i s a system composed of i n t e r -a c t i n g p a r t s forming a complex whole: The f i r s t c l e a r e x p o s i t i o n o f an ecosystem, e s p e c i a l ^ i n terms of energy dynamics i n ecosystems, was by Lindeman (1942). While Lindeman and a few others recognized the need t o emphasize f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s t r e s s was placed on the d e s c r i p t i v e order of p a r t s ( s t r u c t u r e ) f o r many years i n e c o l o g i c a l study. For example, the " t y p i c a l " ecology book emphasized the d e l i n e a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n f l u e n c e s o f the environment and separate r e c o g n i t i o n of the v a r i o u s r o l e s o f organisms ( c f . C l a r k e . 1954). Evans (1956) recognized the need f o r e c o l o g i s t s to u t i l i z e the ecosystem concept as the e c o l o g i s t "... i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the q u a n t i t i e s o f matter and energy that pass through a given ecosystem;and w i t h the r a t e s at which they do so...as w e l l as the kinds of organisms that are present i n any p a r t i c u l a r ecosystem and the r o l e s that they occupy:iin i t s s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n " (Evans, 1956, p.1127). -14-Odum recognized the importance of Lindeman's and Evans c o n t r i b u t i o n i n h i s c l a s s i c textbook when he defined ecology as the study o f the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n a l processes of nature and expanded the b a s i c framework o f e c o l o g i c a l study. ECOSYSTEM, SYSTEM AND COMPLEXITY While the concept of a system reaches f a r back i n time there i s no general agreement regarding the s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of a system. For example, F o r r e s t e r (1968, p.- l - l ) d e f i n e s i t as a "grouping of p a r t s t h a t operate together f o r a common purpose," VanDyne (1969, p . l ) recognizes an " i n t e r a c t i n g , interdependent complex," and Catanese and S t e i s s , (-1968, p. 173) view a system as "any e n t i t y , p h y s i c a l or conceptual, which i s composed of i n t e r r e l a t e d p a r t s . " The d e f i n i t i o n of systems u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be - an i n t e r a c t i n g and i-ntefdependentQset of components and processes •forming a complex or- unitary whole.This d e f i n i t i o n of a system emphasizing dynamic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among components and processes e a s i l y r e l a t e s to the d e f i n i t i o n of ecosystem presented by OduM (1971, p.8): "Any u n i t that i n c l u d e s a l l the organisms ( i . e . the community) i n a given area i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment so that a flow of energy leads to c l e a r l y d efined t r o p h i c s t r u c t u r e , b i o t i c d i v e r s i t y , and m a t e r i a l c y c l e s ( i . e . , exchange o f m a t e r i a l s b e t w e e n i l i v i n g and non l i v i n g p a r t s ) within.gthe system i s an e c o l o g i c a l systeffliaor ecosystem." A p r i n c i p a l a t t r i b u t e o f a system i s that we can only hope to understand a system by viewing i t as a whole. This p o i n t cannot.be overemphasized as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the whole are not explained from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i s o l a t e d p a r t s . This approach recognizes -15-that the whole i s more then the sum of i t s p a r t s ( B e r t a l a n f f y , 1968). Each system has a d d e f i n i t e arrangement of p a r t s ( i . e . , a s t r u c t u r e ) a n d performs c e r t a i n g f u n c t i o n s . A defined set of procedures or processes a l s o occur as the system moves through v a r i o u s stages over time. Each system: "..iproduces a set of outputs (which are r e l a t e d t o j i t s f u n c t i o n a l aspects).These outputs, i n t u r n have a feedback e f f e c t on the system as a whole by p r o v i d i n g new inputs i n subsequent c y c l e s . . . . " (Can.tanese and S t e i s s , 1968 ,p. 174). By determining the s t r u c t u r e of a system we l e a r n how i t s components and processes are r e l a t e d . Knowing the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n , the system becomes p r e d i c t a b l e . Complexity of systems revolves around three main p o i n t s : 1) the number of d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e p a r t s , 2) the number of r e c o g n i z a b l e s t a t e s the p a r t s can assume, and 3) the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the system under study. Complexity i s handled by s c i e n t i s t s i n a v a r i e t y of ways, the most common being a narrowly defined o b j e c t i v e and a r e s t r i c t i o n on the accuracy and length of r e c o r d i n g data./ The observer i s important as he describes the l e v e l of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to be used, he s e l e c t s those s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s to be measured and he ^ f i n e s the system boundary according to h i s i n t e r e s t s ( S c h u l t z , 1969). The d e s c r i p t i o n of complex systems which c o n t a i n a snumber of components, and processes i n v o l v e s breaking the system i n t o a s e r i e s of subsystems (Watt, e t . a l . , 1969). This input/output web presents the complexity of systems while easing the problems of system d e s c r i p t i o n . D i v i s i o n s of the ecosystem i n t o subsystems i n t h i s t h e s i s are based on -16-the author's review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d ( c f . VanDyne, 1970; Odum, 1971) and the needs o f the planner. The f i r s t b a s i c d i v i s i o n i s i n t o a b i o t i c and b i o t i c systems. THE ABIOTIC SYSTEM The f i r s t sulb|^stem we w i l l focus upon i s the a b i o t i c p o r t i o n of the ecosystem.The a b i o t i c environment i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n t a i n two subsystems: the h y d r o l o g i c system and the p h y s i c a l system. Hydrologic System Figure 1 presents a general p i c t o r i a l review of the water or hy d r o l o g i c c y c l e . Input of s o l a r energy r e s u l t s i n evaporation of water from water bodies and t r a n s p i r a t i o n from the v e g e t a t i o n . Water i s then t r a n s f e r e d to other areas by wind systems where i t r e t u r n s to earth by p r e c i p i t a t i o n . P r e c i p i t a t i o n on land causes the underground water t a b l e to be recharged and that which i s not absorbed returns to the ocean v i a streams. C i r c u l a t i o n i n water bodies by currents and t i d a l a c t i o n . We now see t h a t water c i r c u l a t e s on the eart h i n a complex s e r i e s o f pathways known c o l l e c t i v e l y as the h y d r o l o g i c c y c l e . A f i n i t e supply o f f r e s h water p l a c e s l i m i t s on the numbers of organisms i n the environment. Water i s a l s o an important medium o f t r a n s p o r t f o r m a t e r i a l s and organisms and provides a home f o r a v a r i e t y of organisms. Man i s d i r e c t l y t i e d t o the a v a i l i b i l i t y o f f r e s h water as i t i s e s s e n t i a l to h i s continued e x i s t e n c e . He has a f f e c t e d the h y d r o l o g i c c y c l e by reducing ground water reserves through pumpia|jgv and i n c r e a s i n g r u n o f f through, f o r example, a reJItaval o f the v e g e t a t i o n . Generally the concept of the hy d r o l o g i c system serves to introduce""the b a s i c s of cli m a t e (e.g., wind, Figure 1: The Hydrologic Cycle (Adapted from Kuenen, 1955) r a i n , . . . e t c . ) J a n d p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l framework f o r duscussingman -o t h e r organism-environment i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s as s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d t o water. P h y s i c a l System P l a n n e r s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y needed i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e g e o l o g y o f an a r e a (e.g., l o c a t i o n o f f a u l t s ) , t h e s o i l s ( ( e . g . , b e a r i n g j s t r e n g t h f o r s t r u c t u r e s ) , and r e l i e f • (e.g., placement o f t r a n s p o r a t i o n n e t w o r k s ) . E c o l o g i s t s have been more con c e r n e d w i t h b i o g e o c h e m i c a l c y c l e s ( i . e . , t h e c i r c u l a t o r y movement o f elements t h r o u g h the ecosystem), and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s ( e . g., s a l i n i t y , pH, and temperature) t o the c h e m i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f organisms. T h i s s e c t i o n , however, w i l l emphasize i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s and b i o g e o c h e m i c a l c y c l e s and t h e case s t u d y w i l l p l a c e g e o l o g y , s o i l s , and r e l i e f i n t h e i r p r o p e r p e r -s p e c t i v e as one o f many f a c t o r s i n t h e concept o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -ment. P h y s i o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ' o f organisms and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance o f p o p u l a t i o n s o f organisms a r e d i r e c t l y o r • i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f such b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s a s : water, l i g h t , h e a t , oxygen, and carbon d i o x i d e . There a r e a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s which produce e n v i r o n m e n t a l l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t r e s t r i c t t h e n u m e r i c a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l growth o f organisms, among t h e s e a r e : tem p e r a t u r e , winds, p r e s s u r e , pH, and s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . E c o l o g i s t s s t i l l don't know what most o f t h e d e t a i l e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n -mental parameters w i l l be. As a l l environments a r e chan g i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y , o f t e n a c c o r d i n g t o d i u r a n l , s e a s o n a l , and annual t r e n d s a t one and t h e same time, t h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e much more complex t h a n might appear a t f i r s t s i g h t . The importance o f p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s from an e c o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t i s shown i n the p r i n c i p l e o f . l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s and t h e concept o f b i o g e p c h e m i c a l c y c l e s . The P r i n c i p l e o f L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s The growth and s i i c c e s o f organisms i n terms o f abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by a s e t o f l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l a s p e c t o f " l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s ^ V T h e s e two dimensions are ( R e i d , 196$): 1) the e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u p p l y o f n u t r i e n t s needed f o r m e t a b olism and growth, and 2) t h e t o l e r a n c e o f an organism fo-T'a g i v e n range o f e n v i r o n ^ mental c o n d i t i o n s and f a c t o r s . The f i r s t f a c t o r i n c o r p o r a t e s L i e b i g s Law o f t h e Minimum* (1840) which s t a t e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l s growth i s r e g u l a t e d by t h a t e s s e n t i a l s u b s t a n c e o c c u r i n g i n l e a s t q u a n t i t y . The t o l e r a n c e organisms have toward a g i v e n range o f en-v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s has d e v e l o p e d Over a l o n g p r o c e s s o f e v o l u t i o n a r y s e l e c t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a c e r t a i n b i o l o g i c a l specialization among organisms. The a l t e r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s has p r o v e d e s p e c i a l c r i t i c a l t o a p o p u l a t i o n ' s chance o f s u r v i v a l . T # i s i s a p t l y i l l u s t r a t e d by man's i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s y n t h e t i c compounds i n t o th e environment, which has produced a v a r i e t y o f j l e t h a l and s u b l e t h a l e f f e c t s . These compounds do e v e n t u a l l y t a k e the same b i o g e o c h e m i c a l pathways as the o t h e r com-pounds e s s e n t i a l t o l i f e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t major m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f ecosystems may r e s u l t from the use o f p e s t i c i d e s althoughv'the f u l l e f f e c t s o f p e s t i c i d e s on i n d i v i d u a l organisms and e n t i r e ecosystems are -20-unknown (Watts, 1971). E c o l o g i s t s , r e c o g n i z i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s , and man's continued m o d i f i c a t i o n of the environment, have e s t a b l i s h e d water and a i r q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a necessary f o r the s u r v i v a l o f organisms. The c r i t e r i a recognize the two dimensions t o the concept of l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . Minimal q u a n t i t i e s of n u t r i e n t s e s s e n t i a l f o r the existence o f organsims are set as are r e s t r i c t i o n s on the q u a n t i t y and type of s y n t h e t i c chemicals i n our water and a i r systems, r e c o g n i z i n g the l i m i t e d t o l e r a n c e of organisms to many of our s y n t h e t i c waste products. These c r i t e r i a have been u s e f u l t p governments as guides i n the establishment o f standards and o b j e c t i v e s which attempt t o minimize the output of those substances a f f e c t i n g p l a n t and animal p o p u l a t i o n s . Biogeochemical Cycles Biogeochemical c y c l e s i n v o l v e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between organisms and environment as e x e m p l i f i e d by the pathways along which the chemical elements e s s e n t i a l to l i f e move through. Organisms r e q u i r e at l e a s t 30 to 40 elements f o r t h e i r growth and development. As an ecosystem has no e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l sources of supply the elements (e.g., carbon,.nitrogen, s u l f u r , and phosphorous) must be c o n t i n u a l l y r e c y c l e d through the ecosysem i f i t i s to p e r s i s t . There i s a l s o a need to understand thq(principle of m a t e r i a l c y c l i n g i n order to per c e i v e one o f the more dangerous and s u b t l e t h r e a t s t o t t h e e xistence o f l i v i n g organisms. This t h r e a t i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r severe a l t e r a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l systems through chemical p o l l u t i o n . Chemical elements- are brought i n t o ecosystems from s e v e r a l pool areas i n the ocean, atmosphere, s o i l , and bedrock. These chemical -21-elements are processed by organisms t o form new b i o l o g i c a l compounds necessary to s u s t a i n l i f e . The•compounds e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n to the a-b i o t i c environment (poor areas) through r e s p i r a t i o n , decay, and l i t t e r f a l l (Watts, 1971). Most of the chemical element stocks are maintained by biogeochemical c y c l e s . The n i t r o g e n cjrcley presented i n Figure 2, i s a complex gaseous-type c y c l e . This i n t r i c a t e c y c l e i s very important, as n i t r o g e n i s a c r i t i c a l component of amino a c i d s , the b u i l d i n g blocks of p r o t e i n . We s h a l l begin to look at the n i t r o g e n c y c l e i n the atmosphere where we f i n d approximately 80% o f the gas on t h i s planet (Qdum, 1971). A p o r t i o n o f t h i s gas i s removed from the atmosphere by m i c r o b i a l a c t i o n and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o l i v i n g t i s s u e . This process i s c a l l e d n i t r o g e n f i x a t i o n . The f i x e d n i t r o g e n can then be taken up by p l a n t s and a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o p r o t e i n . Later t h i s m a t e r i a l i s e i t h e r returned to the environment, or i s consumed by animals before i t s r e t u r n . With the former, i t s degradation occurs and ammonia i s r e l e a s e d . This ammonia i s changed f i r s t i n t o n i t r i t e s and then i n t o n i t r a t e s by microorganisms through a process known as n i t r i f i c a t i o n . A n a t u r a l m i c r o b i a l p r o c e s s , de-n i t r i f i c a t i o n , then removes most of the n i t r a t e by changing i t t o n i t r o g e n or to n i t r o u s o x i d e . These forms are l o s t to a i r where the c y c l e i s continued. THE BIOTIC ENVIRONMENT The l i v i n g p o r t i o n of the ecosystem i s our next area of concern. We f i n d that the b i o t i c world i s organized along a gradient o f i n c r e a s i n g -22-Figure 2: The T e r r e s t r i a l Nitrogen Cycle (Source:Odum, 1971) PROTOPLASM i P l a n t s *• Animals ^ ^ B a c t e r i a * ^ PROTEIN SYNTHESIS I LOSS-TO SEDIMENTS r NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA AND ALGAE NITRATES NITROGEN IN THE AIR ELECTRIFICATION AND PHOTOCHEMICAL FIXATION DENITRIFYING BACTERIA NITRATE BACTERIA ITRITES ^ EXCRETION UREA, ETC. \ BACTERIA AND FUNGI OE DECAY AMINO ACIDS AND ORCANIC_RESIDUES \ AMINIFYING BACTERIA AMMONIAC 1 GAIN FROM NITRITE VOLCANIC ACTION BACTERIA \ IGNEOUS ROCKS complexity, (e.g -cell-tissue-organ-organ system-.... e t c . ) . Studies i n ecology have e s s e n t i a l l y been r e s t r i c t e d to populations, communities, and ecosystems. A population i s a group of the same species which ex i s t s within definable l i m i t s of space and time.- The community includes a l l the populations occupying a given area. The concept of community a r i s e s from the consideration that groups, of species e x i b i t interdependent r e l a t i o n s h i p s and seem to act as one u n i t . This i s caused by the establishment of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among species over-evolutionary time (Pimentel, 1964). Concepts Relating to Populations and Species A convienent s t a r t i n g point i s to focus upon the b i o l o g i c a l nature of populations. I n i t i a l l y there are a v a r i e t y of population parameters that must be considered. These are presented i n Table 1. TABLE I POPULATION PARAMETERS PARAMETERS DEFINITION IMPORTANCE 1) N a t a l i t y B i r t h rate Adds to population 2) M o r t a l i t y Death rate Substracts from pppulation 3) Individual growth Biomass Pr o d u c t i v i t y rate Population Governs biomass p r o d u c t i v i t y 4) Population d i s p e r s a l Movement from place of b i r t h to place of breeding Continued changes i n the s p a t i a l and.temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n of animals . Moreover, a v a r i e t y of factors e f f e c t the population parameters and thereby p r o d u c t i v i t y (Watt, 1969): 1) Other organisms of the same species 2) Other organisms of d i f f e r e n t species 3) Disease 4) Resources ( i n f l u e n c e d by q u a n t i t y , q u a l i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of reources over space and time) 5) Weather 6) S i t e f a c t o r s 7) Density Man must recognize the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f these f a c t o r s . For example, severe weather c o n d i t i o n s may d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y increase m o r t a l i t y . An animal may freeze to death or he may d i e because of a reduced food supply caused by severe weather c o n d i t i o n s . A shortage o f food may a l s o decrease growth r a t e s of p o p u l a t i o n s . Man has had tremendous e f f e c t s on p o p u l a t i o n numbers and p r o d u c t i v i t y j v i a r u i n o u s s e x p l o i t a t i o n r a t e s and through p o l l u t i o n . The phenomenon of p o p u l a t i o n growth and d e c l i n e helps to introduce a general property o f ecosystems - feedback. The concept of feedback a r i s e s from C o n t r o l Theory: there are two types ( F o r r e s t e r , 1968). 1) " p o s i t i v e feedback — generates growth processes wherein a c t i o n b u i l d s a r e s u l t that generates s t i l l g r eater a c t i o n , " and 2) "negative feedback - seeks a goal and responds as a consequence of f a i l i n g t o achieve thettgoal." P o pulation growth i s an example o f p o s i t i v e feedback as young produce more young when they mature. Such growth i s some popu l a t i o n s i s r e g u l a t e d by d e n s i t y which feeds back (negative) by way of behavioural mechanisms to reduce the r e p r o d u c t i v e r a t e thus m a i n t a i n i n g a p o p u l a t i o n s i z e w i t h i n set l i m i t s . Feed back i s c r i t i c a l as i t acts to achieve -25-homeostasis (e.g. maintenance of a steady s t a t e ) w i t h i n the system and helps t o e x p l a i n p u r p o s e f u l , a d a p t i v e , and r e g u l a t o r y behaviour i n systems (Hardin, 1966). Some feedback processes r e a c t s immediately t o changes i n t p o p u l a t i o n w h i l e others react a f t e r a long delay ( V a r l e y , 1953). For example, predators can immediately increase t h e i r r a t e of attack on growing numbers of prey, but increases i n predator d e n s i t y are not f e l t u n t i l the next generation ( H o l l i n g , 1966). Another example i s the dependence of the predaror's a t t a c k r a t e on i t s n u t r i t i o n a l h i s t o r y . These examples p o i n t out the e f f e c t of temporal lags on systems p e r -formance and the h i s t o r i c a l nature of systems responses. The h i s t o r i c a l aspects emphasizes t h a t events o f one moment are a f u n c t i o n of the previous h i s t o r y of the system ( H o l l i n g , 1969). The concept of p o p u l a t i o n dynamics i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n determining the e f f e c t of man's attempts t o harvest p o p u l a t i o n s . For example, the age s t r u c t u r e , or number of i n d i v i d u a l s i n any age:group, i s c r i t i c a l as i t p a r t i a l l y determines the b i r t h and death r a t e . Studies of age s t r u c t u r e are u s e f u l i n determining the e f f e c t s of harvest p r a c t i c e s on p o p u l a t i o n v i g o u r and s t a b i l i t y . P o pulation a n a l y s i s i s complicated by important f a c t o r s l i k e m i g r a t i o n , d i s p e r s a l ) ( i . e . , move-ment from p l a c e of b i r t h to pla c e of b r e e d i n g ) , competition between organisms o f the same species as e x e m p l i f i e d by t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and i n t e r -s p e c i f i c competition found i n the concept o f the e c o l o g i c a l n i c h e . Niche and Habitat The concepts of niche and h a b i t a t i s u s u a l l y found i n a d i s c u s s i o n regarding species i n a p o p u l a t i o n . The h a b i t a t o o f an organism i s the p a r t i c u l a r environment, both l i v i n g and n o n l i v i n g , i t o c c u p i e s . -26-In a d d i t i o n to occupying space an organism performs a f u n c t i o n . This r o l e an organism pl a y s i n the environment Is r e f e r e d to as the n i c h e . Some species feed on a v a r i e t y of p l a n t s , animals, i n s e c t s , e t c . and have a broad e c o l o g i c a l niche while others are more r e s t r i c t e d and have s p e c i a l i z e d n i c h e s . The r e s p e c t i v e niches of organisms are the r e s u l t o f a long p e r i o f o f e v o l u t i o n a r y s e l e c t i o n . As nottwo species i n a community occupy the same n i c h species tend to complement each o t h e r . Species may have a niche i n more than one geographic area as do m i g r a t i n g s p e c i e s . Niches may change throughout the l i f e h i s t o r y of an organism as i t may have d i f f e r e n t food requirements at d i f f e r e n t stages of i t s e x i s t e n c e . The concept of the niche i s e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l i n -reference to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e x o t i c species of p l a n t s or animals i n t o the r e c e i v i n g community. Community .Energetics and O r g a n i z a t i o n The community i s the l i v i n g p o r t i o n of the ecosystem. Emphasis;lln t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s on the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of communities and ecosystems. AJknowledge of s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l before i n t e r v e n t i o n s by man take p l a c e . ^Energy Flow Our i n i t i a l concern w i l l be community ene r g e t i c s orgthe i n i t i a l input of energy and how i t flows through the community to be u t i l i z e d by i t s members. I n i t i a l input of s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , water (HOH), and carbon d i o x i d e (CO^) t o green p l a n t s r e s u l t s i n primary p r o d u c t i o n . This i s the storage of energy by the c r e a t i o n of t i s s u e using the photo-synthetic and chemosysnthetic activities of the producer organisms. The conversion of the light energy of the sun to energy of.chemical st bonds in photosynthesis is is accordance with the 1 law of thermo-dynamics as energy is neither created nor destroyed. The stage at which the suns energy is transferee! into utilizable energy is termed the first trophic level (Odum, 1971). The organic matter is then consumed by primary consumers (hervirores pf the second trophic level). Storage of energy by the consumers is termed secondary production. This "energy" is then eaten be members of a third trophic level - the secondary consumers. Green plants are primary producers, herbivorous animals are primary consumers and carnivores and scavengers are secondary consumers. Decomposers then utilize the dead debris of plants and animals and take in the remaining energy, releasing 1^ 0 and heat. A by-product -^0^- is released in respiration by the various organisms and photosynthesis continues with CO^  and additional inputs of sunlight. The transfers of energy between trophic levels is in accordance with the 2nc* law of thermodynamics as there are losses of usable energy. The consequence of this law is that no^ transfer of energy is 100 percent efficient. For example, only about 1% of the suns energy falling on green plants is converted to usable energy and about 10% of this is actually consumed by animasl. This is why grains constitute a large portion of man's diet - greater efficiency of production. A difficulty arises in placing animals at^,specific trophic levels. Many animals arermomnivorous and cannoi3be assigned to any.one level (Phillipson, 1966). Analysis of ecosystems must therefore -28-emphasize the v a r i o u s niches an animal may.occupy i n ecosystems i n r e l a t i o n tp t r o p h i c s t r u c t u r e . Trophic Web The s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f a community can be described i n terms of the s t r u c t u r e o f the t r o p h i c web i n that community. A. t r o p h i c web i s the branches and cross connections between a v a r i e t y of food c h a i n s . A food chain i s the t r a n s f e r of food energy from the primary producer through a s e r i e s of organisms w i t h -repeated e a t i n g and being eaten (Odum, 1971). The, s t r u c t u r e of the t r o p h i c web i s a complex network of food and feeding r e l a t i o n s h i p s of p l a n t s and animals. Man i s c o n s t a n t l y changing the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of p l a n t and animal communities by a n n i h i l a t i o n o f s p e c i e s , c r e a t i o n o f ^monocultures through h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , and by f o r e s t management p r a c t i c e s based on h a r v e s t i n g one species o f . t r e e g a t a given age. The e f f e c t s of these changes may be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t at d i f f e r e n t t r o p h i c l e v e l s . I t appears that a short and simple t r o p h i c pyramid c o n s t i t u t e s the best way to U t i l i z e the output of the ecosystem from the standpoint of community energetics (Watt, 1969). There i s a tendency toward the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t o x i c sub-stances as one goes up the t r o p h i c l e v e l v i a the food web. This con-c e n t r a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of thoae substances which e x i b i t h i g h s o l u b i l i t y i n f a t t y substances and low s o l u b i l i t y i n water (e.g., d i c h l o r o diphenye t r i c h l o r o - e t h a n e -DDT). Man must develop more' s o p h i s t i c a t e d measures of pest c o n t r o l l e a s t he be the v i c t i m of h i s own p e s t i c i d e . -29-Succession The i n f l u e n c e o f the b i o t i c community on the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -ment of the ecosystem prompts d i s c u s s i o n of another important concept, that of su c c e s s i o n . The complexity of succession i s recognized by Odum (1969) as he inc o r p o r a t e s three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "(1) Succession i s the o r d e r l y process o f community changes; these are d i r e c t i o n a l and, therefore., p r e d i c t a b l e . (2) I t r e s u l t s from the m o d i f i c a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -ment by the community. (3) I t culminates i n the e s t a b l i s h -ment of as s t a b l e ecosystem as i s b i o l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e on the s i t e i n question." Ecosystems w i t h no disturbance from the outside change i n a p r o g r e s s i v e and d i r e c t i o n a l way. The "end" product o f t h i s s u c c e s s i o n a l change, termed the community c l i m a x , i s a steady s t a t e e x i b i t i n g e q u i f i n a l i t y . E q u i f i n a l i t y means that s i m i l a r climax formations may develop from d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l v egetations ( W h i t t i c k e r , 1952). The f i n a l * s t a t e that r e s u l t s from t h i s d i r e c t i o n a l change w i l l be a l t e r e d i f the i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s vary or the course of n a t u r a l changes i s a l t e r e d . T herefore, the steady s t a t e i s independent of i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s and i s determined by system parameters which vary w i t h time. Most ecosystmes are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as open systems, asr> they need an energy supply f o r maintenance and p r e s e r v a t i o n . Open systems a l s o exchange energy and m a t e r i a l s w i t h other systems and t h i s causes d i r e c t i o n a l changes i n the system. The d i r e c t i o n i s ecosystems i s towards a steady s t a t e w i t h minimum entropyoor, c o n v e r s e l y , high i n t e r n a l order (Odum, 1971). High i n t e r n a l order of ecosystems can r e f e r to the f i l l i n g of a l l a v a i l a b l e niches i n an ecosystem. The process of succession a l s o tends toward both the steady s t a t e and minimum entrophy. — » — t, F i n a l i s a b i t misleading as some' degree of change i s always oc c u r i n g i n communities. -30-The p r i n c i p l e s of e c o l o g i c a l succession are very relevant when considering man's modification of ecosystems. A l i s t i n g of these p r i n c i p l e s i s presented i n Table 2. An expanded discussion of these p r i n c i p l e s i s h e l p f u l : l)Community energetics: The Production/Biomass r a t i o r e f e r s to the flow of energy per u n i t biomass and the importance l i e s i n the empirical r e l a t i o n between structure and energy fow per unit biomass. As P/B approaches 1 energy fixed tends to be balanced by the energy cost of maintenance. As P increases e f f i c i e n c y u sually decreases. Addition of nutrients into a lake r e s u l t s i n Production/Respiration more than 1 and the system i s pushed back to an e a r l i e r stage. 2)Community Structure and L i f e History: There i s a tendency toward increased v a r i e t y and decreased dominance of species over the long run . Margalef (1963) suggests larder species are the r e s u l t of greater storage c a p a c i t i e s i n animals annd more complex l i f e h i s t o r i e s . Thus animals are adapted{7co e x p l o i t i n g seasonal .or periodic releases of nutrients more common i n mature ecosystems. 3) Nutrients and Growth Form: Various', studies have shown that nutrient pathways are i n c r e a s i n g l y r e f i n e d as an ecosystem matures. Thus small amounts of nutrients are l o s t from ecosystems. Reproduction rates of organisms tend to s t a b i l i z e a f t e r a time. 4) O v e r a l l Homeostasis: The strategy of ecosystem development r e s u l t s i n maximum,protection from environmental perturbations as exemplified by increased symbiosis,, nutrient conservation and d i v e r s i t y of structure. While the degree and rates of changes as well as the time required to reach a steady state may vary the end r e s u l t i s the same -31-/ TABLE 2 EXPECTED TRENDS IN ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Adapted from Odum (1969) ECOSYSTEM ATTRIBUTES DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES MATURE STAGES Community Energetics 1. Gross production/community Greater or less than respiration (P/R rating) one 2. Gross production/standing crop biomass (P/B ratio) Biomass supported/unit energy flow (B/E ratio) Net community production (yield) 5. Food chains High Low High Linear, predominantly grazing Approaches one Low High Low Weblike, pre-dominantly detritus^ Community Structure 6. Total organic matter Small 7. Inorganic nutrients Extrabiotic 8. Biochemical diversity Low 9. Pattern diversity Poorly-organized High Intrabiotic High 3 Well-organized Life History 10. Niche specialization Broad 11. Size of organism Small 12. L i f e cycles Short, simple Narrow Large Long, complex -32-ECOSYSTEM ATTRIBUTES DEVELOPMENTAL MATURE STAGES STAGES Nutrient Cycling 13. M i n e r a l c y c l e s Open^ Closed 14. Role of d e t r i t u s i n n u t r i e n t Unimportant Important re g e n e r a t i o n 15. N u t r i e n t exchange r a t e Rapid Slow between organisms and environment Selection Pressure 16. Growth form I n t r i n s i c r a t e of i n c r e a s e Growth o r i e n t e d towards an upper assymptote Overall Homeostasis 17. I n t e r n a l s y n b i o s i s Undeveloped 18. N u t r i e n t c o n s e r v a t i o n 19. S t a b i l i t y ( r e s i s t e n c e t o e x t e r n a l p e r t u r b a t i o n s ) Poor Poor Developed Good Good 20. Entrophy High Low 1 As an example organic p o l l u t i o n P/R l e s s than one. 2 Various reasons f o r reduced g r a z i n g - one example in c r e a s e d p r e d a t i o n . 3 Increase i n v a r i e t y of p l a n t pigments. 4 Eg., need f o r f e r t i l i z e r i n commercial crops p r o d u c t i o n . -33-— maintance o f s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y and s t a b i l i t y o f f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . The g e n e r a l r e l e v a n c e o f t h e development sequence t o l a n d water use p l a n n i n g i s emphasized t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g " f l i ^ i m o d e l " ( o f T a b l e 2) which c o n s i d e r s 6 g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f young and mature ecosystems (Odum, 1972): Young Ecos P r o d u c t i o n Growth Q u a n t i t y Man's system emphasizes maximum p r o d u c t i o n ( i n terms o f h i g h e s t c a l o r i c y i e l d ) as opposed t o t h e ecosystems g o a l o f maximum p r o t e c t i o n from e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r t u r b a t i o n s . Thus i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t we have e x p e r i e n c e d a v a r i e t y o f .problems i n i n t e g r a t i n g our s o c i a l system w i t h the n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f ecosysitieiii'processes. F o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s p r e v e n t m a t u r i t y o f ecosystems and emphasize p r o d u c t i o n . M o n o c u l t u r e s t e n d t o i n v i t e p e s t o u t b r e a k s and h y b r i d i z a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a b r e e d i n g out o f n a t u r a l and ch e m i c a l d e f e n s e s o f p l a n t s . . Man's system ( i n terms o f t r e n d s i n ecosystem development) i s i n youth a s / i e x e m p l i f i e d by a h i g h b i r t h r a t e , r a p i d economic growth, and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e s s i b l e and unused r e s o u r c e s . Man's system must r e c o g n i z e t h a t e s s e n t i a l l i f e c y c l e r e s o u r c e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and a e s t h e t i c a r e o n l y p r o v i d e d by " l e s s p r o d u c t i v e " l a n d s c a p e s . Man must mature and, f o r example, reduce t h e b i r t h r a t e and b e g i n t o r e c y c l e more o f h i s r e s o u r c e s . More emphasis must be p l a c e d on p l a n n i n g t h e -34-ystems Mature Ecosystems P r o t e c t i o n S t a b i l i t y Q u a l i t y e n t i r e landscape w i t h a v a r i e t y of environments p r o v i d i n g a d i v e r s i t y of ch o i c e . While i t i s impossible to have a l l s i x c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of young and mature ecosystems at the smme time, planners should recognize the d e s i r a b i l i t y of having a l l s i x c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the aggregate; Moderate q u a l i t y and moderate y i e l d of a l l the landscape can r e s u l t from a compromise or we can compartmentalize the landscape so as to ob t a i n h i g h production u n i t s and predominantly p r o t e c t i v e u n i t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t planning s t r a t e g i e s a p p l i e d to each u n i t (Odum, 1972). A compartmental approach-i over the long run emphasizes the determination of l i m i t s t o the manipulation of each compartment before s t r e s s i n eco-systems i s manifested. STRESS IN ECOSYSTEMS Symptoms of s t r e s s i n ecosystems s i g n i f y the l i m i t s to which the system can respond to environmental changes. S t r e s s i s manifest throught the a l t e r a t i o n s i n the abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n of e n t i r e populations w i t h attendent changes i n growth, b i r t h s , deaths, n i c h e s , e t c . I t a l s o r e f e r s to e x t e r n a l l y imposed changes i n community s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n (e.g., a l t e r a t i o n o f s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s ) . Change i t s e l f , does not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c i p i t a t e a dramatic chain r e a c t i o n o f responses by species o f the community because they have experienced changes over t h e i r e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y . Thfb system has b u i l t up an i n t e r n a l r e s i l i e n c e or e l a s t i c i t y and aan adapt before a change i n the s t r u c t u r e of the s t a t e o f the system occurs ( H o l l i n g , 1971). Slow environmental changes over a long p e r i o d of time allow a system t o change i t s s t a t e n a t u r a l l y -35-by means o f adaptive e v o l u t i o n . Man places s t r e s s upon ecosystems because h i s changes a r e: too sudden, v i o l e n t , or arhythmic f o r adaptive change. The l i m i t s o f i n t e r n a l r e s i l i e n c e are exceeded and the system i s d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d . For example, consider the Great Lakes. Man has d r a s t i c l y a l t e r e d t h i s system: 1) w i t h massive inputs o f p o l l u t i o n which has a c c e l e r a t e d the n a t u r a l (successional) process of e u t r o p h i c a t l o n ( i . e . , n u t r i e n t enrichment) by 150,000 y e a r s , 2) by i n a d v e r t a n t l y i n t r o d u c i n g sea lampreys t o the upper lakes through the Saing Lawrence Seaway, and 3) by poor r e g u l a t i o n of the commercial f i s h e r y which has se v e r l y a f f e c t e d the present and f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l of the f i s h e r y harvest ( C h a r l i e r , 1969). As a r e s u l t the water i s u n f i t f o r most uses without heavy treatement and d e s i r a b l e species of f i s h e s have been disappearing as und e s i r a b l e species (e.g., the lamprey) have increased and taken t h e i r p l a c e . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In manipulating the ecosystemjnan has seldom foreseen the f u l l consequences o f h i s a c t i o n s : Planners must recognize the l i m i t e d a d a p t a b i l i t y o f ecosystems to s u r v i v e human i n t e r f e r e n c e and i n c o r p o r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of i n t e r n a l r e s i l i e n c e --chemical, p h y s i c a l and behavioural threshoulds - i n t o plans and p o l i c i e s . The complexity of the ecosystem demands a r a t i o n a l framework o f a n a l y s i s . In managing or manipulation o f the ecosystem man must recognize hthat i s i s capable o f only l i m i t e d e x p l o t i a t i o n . These l i m i t a t i o n s s h o u l d s e t c o n s t r a i n t s on man's b e h a v i o u r and the ecosystem c o n c e p t s i t s e l f s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r q u e s t i o n i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l impact o f h i s a c t i o n s on t h e environment. -37-CHAPTER I I I THE BOUNDARY BAY ECOSYSTEM LOCATION OF STUDY AREA As Shown i n Figure 3, Boundary Bay l i e s on the south s i d e o f the Fraser R i v e r D e l t a i n the Lower Mainland Region of B r i t i s h Columbia, approximately twelve miles south of Vancouver. The study area i s o u t l i n e d i n a s o l i d b l ack l i n e . Beginning i n the southwest the P o i n t Roberts and Beach Grove areas are i n c l u d e d . Continuing north along Highway 17 the western boundary i s terminated at the j u n c t i o n o f highways 17 and 99. The northern boundary i s a terminated a border between a peat bog on the west and a high p l a t e a u on the east w i t h farmland to the south. The eastern boundary i s l o c a t e d f o r the author's o b j e c t i v e s as there were no "convenient" physiographic, e c o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Semiahmoo Bay and the waters between Semiahmoo and P o i n t Roberts are i n c l u d e d , due t o the interchange o f n u t r i e n t s and water w i t h Boundary Bay. The term Boundary Bay used throughout t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e s Mud Bay, Semiahmoo Bay ( i n c l u -s i v e of t h e i r t i d a l f l a t s ) and a l l the waters between Semiahmoo Bay and Point Roberts. The upland areas, t o the study area boundary, and Boundary Bay are termed the study area. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF BOUNDARY BAY The chosen p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s are important as they: -38-Xaepunog VOJL\ .\prus ||f|\V Ajepunoy iv,\:[ J O A U X I -1) p a r t l y determine the p o t e n t i a l production o f p l a n t and animal communities, and 2) c o n s t i t u t e p a r t o f the i n i t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o development by man. The p h y s i c a l parameters are discussed under two headings: 1) the mineral-organic m a t r i x i n c l u d i n g aspects o f geology, topography, sediments, and s o i l s ; and 2) the Hydrologic system. Mineral-Organic M a t r i x Geology The geology o f Boundary Bay (Figure 4) i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f i t s p r o x i m i t y to the Fraser R i v e r and the i n i t i a l i n f l u e n c e s o f g l a c i a l /i, (sand and gravel) outwash from the F r a s e r . ( G l a c i a l outwash i s sand and gravel deposited by streams i s s u i n g from g l a c i e r s . ) Although the Fraser River no longer d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s Boundary Bay, the extensive t i d a l f l a t s at Boundary Bay were deposited by the r i v e r which at one time emptied i n t o Boundary Bay. These are r e f e r r e d to as "sub-aqueous topset beds" by Mathews and Shepard (1962). Bedrock, l i e s approximately 2000 f e e t underneath these beds. Fl a n k i n g the t i d a l f l a t s to the west i s the P o i n t Roberts P e n i n s u l a , an i s l a n d - l i k e d r i f t h i l l j o i n e d to the mainland by the advancing Fraser R i v e r D e l t a (Johnston, 1921). The p e n i n s u l a , o f P l e i s t o c e n e age, p l a y s an important r o l e i n s e p a r a t i n g the a c t i v e western p a r t o f the Fraser D e l t a from Boundary Bay. The area n o r t h o f the Bay i s the Fraser D e l t a composed o f recent ( l e s s than 8000 years old) •-as-Fiqure Groloqy o r Study Area (bourcc : K c l l e r h a ' s and Murray. '969) d e l t a i c sediments. The area south and east o f Crescent Beach and the aforementioned P o i n t Roberts Peninsula are comprised o f P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a l t i l l s and f l u v i o - g l a c i a l deposits ( G a r r i s o n , et.al., 1969). Topography The r e l i e f o f the study area i s q u i t e v a r i e d . A l a r g e s e c t i o n o f the study area which i s n e a r l y f l a t , averaging 4 to 5 fe e t above mean sea l e v e l , corresponds to the l o c a t i o n o f recent d e l t a i c sediments i n Figure 4. To the east and west o f Boundary Bay i t s e l f the land r i s e s t o a maximum o f 350-425 feet above mean sea l e v e l being a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g l a c i a l and p r e g l a c i a l t e r r a i n o u t l i n e d i n Figure 4. Boundary Bay gains i t s - d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r from i t s t i d a l f l a t s . T i d a l f l a t s are the muddy areas between l i n e s o f mean high and mean low t i d e w i t h a small gradient o f e l e v a t i o n change. They u s u a l l y occur on coasts where t i d a l range i s h i g h , where a l o t o f sediments are co n t r i b u t e d to the sea, where the waves are unable to beat i n f u l l f o r c e against the shore and where the dip o f the sediment/water i n t e r f a c e i s low. A l l o f these f a c t o r s are present i n Boundary Bay. Tide f l a t s i n the Bay "... d ip uni f o r m l y seaward at 1.1 ft./lOOO f t . from an e l e v a t i o n of +4 f e e t (mean high t i d e ) to -8 fe e t (mean low t i d e ) approximately 2.5 miles o f f s h o r e . Farther seaward the sediment water i n t e r f a c e steepens to about 2.5 ft./lOOO f t . down to -20 f t . e l e v a t i o n , beyond which another r e l a t i v e l y f l a t bottom i s present" ( K e l l e r h a l s . and Murray, 1969, p. 70). M o d i f i c a t i o n o f the "uniform d i p " occurs w i t h t i d a l channels ( f i v e i n number) and g u l l i e s at the lowermost p o r t i o n o f the t i d a l f l a t s . The t i d a l channels i n Boundary Bay serve two purposes: they f a c i l i t a t e t i d a l exchange and expedite sediment removal.. The main channel which -42-cuts o b l i q u e l y across the t i d a l f l a t area marks the j o i n i n g o f the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers on the east and a small drainage channel on the n o r t h . Landward from the lower t i d a l f l a t s i s an area o f "int e r m e d i a t e " t i d a l f l a t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by incomplete drainage w i t h water remaining i n shallow depressions at ebb t i d e . This area e x p e r i -ences long periods o f exposure and submergence. An ( i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the topography i s th a t the s h o a l i n g e f f e c t o f the t i d a l f l a t s absorbs the bulk o f the storm waves and reduces storm wave height (BACM, 1970). S o i l s The Poi n t Roberts area i s o f P l e i s t o c e n e o r i g i n and i t i s comprised o f g l a c i a l t i l l . Approximately o n e - t h i r d o f the area i s cla s s e d as a g r i c u l t u r a l land by the United States Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e but a g r i c u l t u r e i s l i m i t e d due to poor drainage. The f e r t i l e lowland s o i l s have t h e i r o r i g i n i n the d e l t a i c deposits o f the F r a s e r , and form the prime a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s as they are prote c t e d from the s a l t water by a system o f dykes. The s o i l s map (Figure 5a) provides a b a s i c overview o f s o i l s s u i t a b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t types o f a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. Figure 5b presents i n f o r m a t i o n on foundation c o n d i t i o n s and slope i n excess o f 20%. Surface Sediment D i s t r i b u t i o n The surface sediment d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Boundary Bay i s shown i n Figure 6 and the d i s c u s s i o n below on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sediments comes from K e l l e r h a l s and Murray (1969). Cobbles and Pebbles The g r a v e l d e r i v e d from the P l e i s t o c e n e uplands o f Poi n t Roberts -43-fiigure 5a: A g r i c u l t u r a l S o i l s , and Slope Greater  Than' J0% (Sourer : Grea tcr Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t Base Maos) i Legend ffiMflHigh Production, Wide Range of Cro f a i r to Hiqh Production, Narrow Range of Crops Forage Only Peat Bog Oeveloped Areas Slope Greater Than 2 0 % <0 c o cc QJ c—-ffU ^  !> Q in k l •0 0 — • 1 0 o cr >> 0 k- 0 In c_ C «0 1 l i e s i n a r e s t r i c t e d area on the beach on the northwest s i d e o f Boundary-Bay as the current i s not capable o f t r a n s p o r t i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l very f a r . Sands Coarse sand l y i n g on the outer edge o f the t i d a l f l a t s i s prob-ably a r e s u l t o f heavy wave a c t i o n but i s p a r t i a l l y d e r i v e d from the ero s i o n o f the P l e i s t o c e n e sediments o f Point Roberts. S i l t y sand i s the dominant bottom sediment i n the western p a r t o f Mud Bay (Northcote, 1961). An a n a l y s i s o f the mica content suggests the Fraser R i v e r i s a l s o an important source o f sand f o r Boundary Bay. U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d sand l i e s on the seaward border o f algae mats and i s d e r i v e d from the eroding P l e i s t o c e n e uplands. Mud and Peat Northcote (1961) suggests these sediments are o f g l a c i a l o r i g i n . Three main sources o f sediments are: 1) the supported sediment load o f the Nicomekl and Serpentine R i v e r s , 2) eroded c l i f f s o f the area around Point Roberts and White Rock, and 3) suspended sediment brought i n by the t i d e s and c u r r e n t s . The Nicomekl and Serpentine R i v e r V a l l e y s c o n s i s t mainly o f peat u n d e r l a i n by impervious l a y e r s o f c l a y and s i l t (Sprout and K e l l y , 1961). In a d d i t i o n a l a r g e peat bog marks the northern boundary o f the study a r e a . -47-S a l t Marsh S a l t water marshes occur when sediments from f r e s h water d r a i n -age systems r a i s e the surfaces o f t i d a l f l a t s above mean high water l e v e l (Odum, 1971). A s a l t marsh occurs at the northern f r i n g e o f the t i d a l f l a t s and v a r i e s i n width from a maximum o f 2000 f e e t i n the west to tens of f e e t i n the e a s t . A sm a l l e r marsh, approximately ten acres i n s i z e occurs near the foot o f O l i v e r Road where a small d i t c h enters the Bay. This d i t c h marks the eastward end o f Boundary Bay and westward l i m i t o f Mud Bay. Three-quarters o f a m i l e e a s t , a marsh o f about s i x t y acres i n s i z e i s i n the form o f a long eastward running s p i t . An extensive marsh of about 225 acres i s l o c a t e d between the Serpentine and Nicomekl R i v e r s . Sediments c o n s i s t i n g o f peat, s i l t y c l a y s and sand are present i n the marsh. At the edge o f the marsh one f i n d s d i s a r t i c u l a t e d s h e l l s washed up.by storms. E r o s i o n o f the s a l t marsh i s o c c u r r i n g i n the eastern p a r t o f the a r e a . S h e l l Beds S h e l l beds are present on the lower t i d a l f l a t area near the numerous channels. The m a j o r i t y o f the s h e l l s are broken w i t h the i d e n t -i f i a b l e s h e l l s o f the common blue mussel (Mytilus s p ; ) , the horse clam •igchizothaerus sp.), the b u t t e r clam (Saxidomus sp.), the cockle [Clinocavdium sp.J\, and a few o y s t e r fragments {Ostera sp.) present ( T a y l o r , 1970). Summary The d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance o f sediment i n Boundary Bay i s c o n t r o l l e d by a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s : -48-1) turbulence of the water, 2) current d i r e c t i o n , 3) source o f sand, and as we s h a l l see 4) members o f the community i n any given area. The Hydrologic System Climate I f one uses Koppen's c l i m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, a v a i l a b l e data shows'that Boundary Bay l i e s w i t h i n a cool summer Mediterranean c l i m a t e . In comparison w i t h the r e s t o f Canada, t h i s c l i m a t e i s unique as i t i s q u i t e moderate. The area i s p r o t e c t e d from d i r e c t exposure to r a i n storms a r r i v i n g from the west and southwest over the P a c i f i c Ocean by the mountains o f Vancouver I s l a n d and the Olympic Mountains o f North-west Washington. Good cli m a t e data can be obtained from data o f nearby s t a t i o n s (Table 3). A d d i t i o n a l data i s provided f o r Ladner as i t c l o s e l y approximates the c l i m a t e o f Boundary Bay. The nearest weather s t a t i o n p r o v i d i n g data on sunshine i s the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t which records 1922 hours per year. There i s every reason to b e l i e v e that Boundary Bay r e c e i v e s more sunshine than the a i r p o r t . The growing season extends from mid-March to late-November or e a r l y December w i t h an annual f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d o f 200 days ( T a y l o r , 1970). Temperatures i n Mud Bay are probably higher i n summer as l a r g e r areas o f sand and mud'Wre l a i d bare at low t i d e s . These t i d a l f l a t s are a l s o the l o c a t i o n o f ground fogs i n w i n t e r . T a y l o r (1970) suggests the winds i n Boundary Bay are s i m i l a r to those recorded at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Apart from the f a m i l i a r afternoon sea breezes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o a s t a l areas, -49-TABLE 3. METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION AVAILABLE FOR THE STUDY AREA (Source: Climate of British Columbia, 1966) AREA AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (°F) Annual June, July, November, Decem-August ber, January AVERAGE PRECIPITATION (In.) Annual June, July, August November, December, January SNOWFALL (In.) Annual i C/i O I Ladner 49 White Rock 50 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t 50 60.3 61.1 62.0 39.6 40.3 39.3 37.8 41.2 41.6 T.S 3.9 a.a 14.2 14.2 19.2 FROST DATA (Source: Chapman, 1952) Number of Years Average Frost-free Period Last Frost Early Average Late Early Frost Early Average Late Ladner 34 182 days Apr. 8 March 7 J u n e l j Sept. 3 Oct. 17 Dec. 5 p r e v a i l i n g winds tend to be from an east to s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n i n wi n t e r and a s l i g h t s h i f t to the west i n summer. October and November see the days o f the strongest winds i n the area although from personal observation Mud Bay appears to be pr o t e c t e d from the stronger winds by i t s i n d e n t a t i o n from Boundary Bay. Winds are important when water depths are small as they modify t i d a l flow and c u r r e n t s . Currents and Tides Ocean current s i n the region are from the south f l o w i n g i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n through the S t r a i t o f Georgia. This flow p a t t e r n i s modified i n Boundary Bay as wind plays an important r o l e i n the movement of surface c u r r e n t s , as i t g e n e r a l l y does i n a l l bays and i n l e t s . In Boundary Bay wind d r i v e n surface currents t r a v e l i n a counter-clockwise d i r e c t i o n (Church and Rubin, 1970). The wind and currents are p e r f e c t examples o f t r a n s p o r t media th a t connect the ecosystem of Boundary Bay wi t h i t s outside environment (Figure 7 ) . Tides enter the Bay from the south a l t e r n a t e l y f i l l i n g and d r a i n -i n g the t i d a l f l a t s v i a the t i d a l channels. Thus the bottom topography a f f e c t s the st r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n o f the t i d a l streams. Flood (incoming) t i d e s e n t e r i n g the bay are more concentrated on the eastern s i d e ( T a y l o r , 1970) w h i l e ebb (outgoing) t i d e i s more concentrated on the western s i d e (Taylor,.1970). T a y l o r a l s o notes^the semi-diurnal nature o f t i d a l move-'•is-~' ments w i t h two high waters and two low waters each day. Ebb t i d e v e l o c i t y was recorded by C.B.A. Engineering L t d . , o f Vancouver,:B.C. i n 1959 and the maximum v e l o c i t y was 83.8 cm./sec. Tides are c r i t i c a l as they provide the main source o f energy f o r r a p i d n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g . -51-F igu re / : Winds and Cur ren ts in Boundary Bay ( Source : Church and Rubin , 19/0) Rivers and Land Drainage Feeding i n t o Mud Bay are three r i v e r s - the Nicomekl, Serpentine, and the Campbell. These r i v e r s , the s e v e r a l d i t c h e s which d r a i n adjacent farmlands and the t i d a l e r o s i o n o f adjacent c l i f f s provide Boundary Bay wi t h a constant stream o f i n p u t s . This input may be a t r a n s f e r o f i n o r g a n i c and organic m a t e r i a l from the t e r r e s t r i a l system to the aquatic system as i n the case o f c l i f f e r o s i o n . Organic m a t e r i a l s already present i n the r i v e r waters i s another type o f i n p u t . R i v e r flow data f o r the two r i v e r s (Nicomekl and Serpentine) i s very poor. Upstream records i n d i c a t e t h a t the summer flows are l e s s than ten cubic feet per second and maximum flows during the w i n t e r u s u a l l y range from 100 cubic f e e t per second to 200 cubic feet per second on the Serpentine R i v e r near Fort K e l l (approximately 18 miles north-east o f Boundary Bay) and 500 - 700 cubic f e e t per second on the Nicomekl R i v e r 15 miles east o f Boundary Bay (Canada, Inland Waters Branch, 1968). Figure 8 shows the f l o o d p l a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these two major r i v e r s ( i n terms o f r i v e r flow) i n a d d i t i o n tp those other areas s u s c e p t i b l e to f l o o d i n g . G e nerally the drainage i s poor, as the extensive areas o f s i l t , c l a y and t i l l are n e a r l y impervious and permit l i t t l e downward p e r c o l a -t i o n o f water. For example, the Mud Bay Foreshore i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i l t y s u r face and i n areas where underground stream flow p e r c o l a t e s to the surface - quicksand. Lowland s o i l s are po o r l y drained f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons (Sprout and H o l l a n d , 1959): 1) high t i d e s i n w i n t e r , 2) high p r e c i p i t a t i o n in.^winter, 3) high water caused by the s p r i n g r u n - o f f , -53-Figure 5: { H y d r o l o g i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e ? t u d y Area'TSource ; G r e a t e r V A n c o u v e r R g g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B a s e Maps), 4) low e l e v a t i o n o f lowland s o i l s , and 5) sandy substratum under the lowland s o i l s which allows f o r l a t e r a l movement o f water i n the lower s o i l h o r i z o n s . Figure 8 shows those areas subject to: drainage d i f f i c u l t i e s due to slope and s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Water Mass P r o p e r t i e s There i s d e f i n i t e s p a t i a l heterogeneity i n the p h y s i c a l proper-t i e s o f Boundary Bay water masses. This i s q u i t e common i n e s t u a r i n e areas as t i d a l f l a t s have greater D i s s o l v e d Oxygen (D.O.) conc e n t r a t i o n and temperature v a r i a t i o n than do the main channels ( B e l l a , 1968). This v a r i a t i o n i n D.O. and temperatures i s r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t i o n s i n water l e v e l s w i t h the t i d e s ; For example, i n l a t e August water temperatures on an incoming t i d e i n the Mud Bay area are as high as 68°F at three feet deep (Benson, 1962). Taylor (1970) repor t s temperatures o f 60°F. i n the channel approaching Crescent Beach i n e a r l y August o f 1970 and a 79°F. temperature i n eighteen inches o f water 200 yards o f f shore from Beach-Grove on incoming t i d e s . These temperatures are h a r d l y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f the c o l d P a c i f i c Ocean. The high water temperatures are r e l a t e d to the exposure o f the mud f l a t s at low t i d e to the sun. S a l i n i t y values are hig h f o r Boundary Bay and the waters are r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r . With the normal low t i d e s o f summer, depressions w i t h poor l a t e r a l drainage accumulate s a l t . Evaporation o f water from these depressions plays an important r o l e i n concentrating s a l t s . Most r e p o r t s on Boundary Bay report s a l i n i t y values to be high but give no s p e c i f i c data.. Benson (1962) c i t e s a pH (water) reading o f 6 - 7 near the t i d a l -55-verge (high t i d e border) at Mud Bay and a more b a s i c reading o f 11 near the r a i l r o a d c r o s s i n g . His r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r i n substance to s o i l chemistry t e s t s c a r r i e d out by C l a r k , Gobin, and Sprout (1961) i n a nearby l o c a t i o n . THE BIOTIC ENVIRONMENT K e l l e r h a l s and Murray (1969) i n t h e i r study o f the t i d a l f l a t area o f Boundary Bay grouped p l a n t species and a s s o c i a t e d fauna i n t o f i v e recognizable f l o r a l and faunal communities at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f the t i d a l f l a t s ; , sand d o l l a r community, and the eelgrass community. Four b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the communities: 1) d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s u b s t r a t a , e.g. s l o p e , t y p e , g r a i n s i z e o f p a r t i c l e s , 2) p r o p e r t i e s o f the water mass, e.g. n u t r i e n t s , s a l i n i t y , temperature, 3) water motion v a r i a b l e s such as current f l o w , and 4) i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the various b i o l o g i c a l forms. S a l t Marsh S a l t marshes are known to be among the most productive n a t u r a l ecosystems o f the w o r l d . A v a r i e t y o f reasons account f o r t h e i r productiveness (Odum, 1959); among these are: 1) constant input o f n u t r i e n t s from the land and s e a , 2) r a p i d c i r c u l a t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s and food due to t i d a l a c t i o n , -56-3) a v a r i e t y o f l i f e forms, and 4) year round primary p r o d u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n the s o i l s u s u a l l y provide a f e r t i l e bed f o r the growth o f aquatic p l a n t s and f r e s h water aids the growth o f p l a n t species ( H a r r i s , 1965). The marshes are important t o the sedimentation process as they act as sediment traps during storm t i d e s o f high s p r i n g t i d e s . Marsh p l a n t s are found i n bands or zones i n large p a r t s due to the gradients o f s a l i n i t y and d u r a t i o n o f submergence during t i d a l c y c l e s (Hinde, 1954). In Boundary Bay a dense cover o f halophytes ( s a l t t o l e r -ant p l a n t s ) accumulated d r i f t w o o d , seaweeds, and other m a t e r i a l predom-i n a t e . Benson (1962) i d e n t i f i e s two s p e c i f i c s a l t marsh communities i n the Mud Bay s e c t i o n o f the study area - Grass meadow community and the \Sgliqprnidy'community. Zonation o f p l a n t species i s evident i n these communities. The grassmeadow community l i e s i n the hi g h e r (landward) p o r t i o n o f the marsh. Approximately 70% o f the p l a n t s are represented by one species - Distichlis spi.ca.ta. The growth o f t h i s marsh invades (process o f succession) the'iSalicomiaj}Cownunity l o c a t e d seawards at the lower p a r t o f the marsh. In the t r a n s i t i o n a l area (ecotone) between the two communities tarweed (CvindeHa s t r i a t a ) i s common. On the outer edge o f the Sali-cornia community i s P a c i f i c Glasswort {SaHcovnia p a c i f i c ) . This p l a n t i s important as i t prepares the way f o r i n v a d i n g grasses from the Grassmeadow community by g r a d u a l l y r a i s i n g the l e v e l o f the marsh. Salicovnia i s instrumental i n s t r o n g , t u r f development and i s r e s t r i c t e d to those areas below mean high tide'(Benson, 1962). In the more e s t a b l i s h e d areas Cuscuta sadina3 a p a r a s i t e on glasswort i s abundant. Arrowgrass [Tviglochin mavitima) i s s c a t t e r e d throughout t h i s -.5.7-community. S a l t marsh fauna e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s i s t s o f s o f t s h e l l e d clams {My a sp. ) and the common blue mussel {Mytilus sp.) who u t i l i z e the sea-ward p o r t i o n o f the marsh. A v a r i e t y o f s n a i l s {Cerithium sp.) are a l s o found i n the seaward p o r t i o n o f the marsh and l o c a t e d 'an mean t i d a l channels and ponds are the shore crabs such as Hemigrapsus•sp. ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray, 1969). Information regarding the abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f other i n s e c t s , crustaceans, e t c . i s not a v a i l a b l e . The marshes o f the Boundary Bay ecosystem perform a v a r i e t y o f functions i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the e n t i r e ecosystem, such as: 1) the h a l o p h y t i c p l a n t s are the base f o r a food web s e r v i n g waterfowl and f i l t e r f e eders, 2) the area i s a nursery ground f o r small f i s h and crustaceans, and 3) p r o v i s i o n o f feeding and r e s t i n g ground f o r w a t e r f o w l . T i d a l F l a t s T i d a l f l a t s are c r i t i c a l to the Boundary Bay ecosystem as they provide a h a b i t a t f o r an abundant fauna. The algae are the primary producers and are a major food source i n the t i d a l f l a t zone but l i t t l e i s known s p e c i f i c a l l y about t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y . However, the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f algae may equal that o f the higher y i e l d s from c u l t i v a t e d crops (Pomeroy, 1959). Another major source o f food i s d e t r i t u s , the mixture o f organic m a t e r i a l and the decomposing b a c t e r i a working on i t . The d e t r i t u s i s derived from dead organisms i n the water and a l s o from the breakdown of -58-the marsh p l a n t s . The slope edge o f the t i d a l f l a t i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n p o i n t f o r organic d e t r i t u s and, consequently, one f o c a l p o i n t o f p r o d u c t i o n . Another major source o f primary production are the aquatic p l a n t s - eelgrass and marine phytoplankton are important h e r e . Thus the mud f l a t s are a key t r a n s i t i o n a l h a b i t a t combining food sources from marsh and aquatic h a b i t a t i n t o a form which many b i r d s , f i s h and mammals depend upon. High T i d a l F l a t s Seaward o f the s a l t marsh i s the h i g h t i d a l f l a t . In the western s e c t i o n o f Boundary Bay these f l a t s are'being b u i l t up w i t h the advancing s a l t marsh. The v e g e t a t i o n i s composed o f halophytes which r i s e about one or two f e e t above the general l e v e l o f the f l a t . - These hummocks i n themselves act as sediment traps and a seasonal growth o f blue-green algae mats {Mioroooleus sp.) provides a f u r t h e r sediment t r a p ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray, 1969). The main primary producers i n the area are the blue-green and green a l g a e , Miovoooleus sp. and Enteromorpha sp. r e s p e c t i v e l y . The algae and the l i m i t e d number of halophytes i n the area feed the l a r g e s t percentage o f ducks and shorebirds which use the Bay (Church and Rubin, 1970). Other species o f fauna are scarce due to two environmental l i m i t a t i o n s : 1) long exposure at low t i d e , and 2) r e s i s t e n c e to burrowing by the algae mat. Fauna c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y o f species or burrowing shrimp {Call-i a n a s s a - e a l i f o v n i e n s i s ) and a v a r i e t y o f s n a i l s . Polychaete worms, -59-e s p e c i a l l y Lugworm {Avenicola) occur i n shallow depressions i n the ar e a . They break down the d e t r i t u s and t h e i r a c t i o n b r i n g s t o the surface organic foods u s e f u l t o other c r e a t u r e s . In t h i s way Lugworm i s a c r i t i c a l organism i n the c y c l i n g o f n u t r i e n t s f o r without i t n u t r i e n t s would be l o s t to deeper sediments. Intermediate T i d a l F l a t s There are a v a r i e t y o f reasons t o account f o r the lack o f ^ v e g e t -a t i o n i n the intermediate t i d a l f l a t s . L i m i t i n g f a c t o r s such as s h i f t i n g sediments and r a p i d changes i n drainage channels are combined wit h p r o -longed periods o f exposure and submergence and r e s u l t i n a r i g o r o u s h a b i t a t . P a r a d o x i c a l l y w h i l e there i s a l a c k o f v e g e t a t i o n , the animal community has more species than the high t i d a l f l a t s and i n c l u d e s an abundance o f burrowing shrimp, the f a m i l i a r polychaete worms, and s e v e r a l species o f oysters east o f Mud Bay ( T a y l o r , 1970). The Japanese o y s t e r [Crassostvea qigas~) i s abundant i n the Mud Bay area and the l i t t l e n e c k e d clam {Venevupis japoni-ea~) i s common i n the i n t e r - t i d a l zone. Primary production i n t h i s area o f Boundary Bay r e s u l t s from phytoplankton a r r i v i n g with the incoming t i d e . Red a l g a e , e s p e c i a l l y the dominant Rhodophyoophyta, i s dominant from the lower i n t e r - t i d a l regions to deeper waters and i s an important food source f o r f i l t e r feeders (e.g. b i v a l v e m o l l u s c s ) . Decaying p l a n t s washed i n t o t h i s area provide d e t r i t u s which i s used as food by the f i l t e r f e e d e r s . -61-Lower T i d a l F l a t s Sand D o l l a r Community The Sand D o l l a r Community l i e s on the unvegetated p o r t i o n o f the sandy f l a t s and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sa n d - d o l i a r s (Echinarachnius excentri-ous) and purple s t a r f i s h {Pisaster oehraceus). Horse clams {Schizothaerus n u t t a l l i i ) and b u t t e r clams {Saxidomus gigantens) are q u i t e common as are many polychaete worms (T a y l o r , 1970). Eelgrass Community Eelgrass community contains the "... most v a r i e d and d i v e r s e fauna i n Boundary Bay" ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray, 1969, p. 83). The- eelgrass beds are as s o c i a t e d w i t h the f i v e main drainage channels o f Boundary Bay but changes i n the l o c a t i o n and abundance o f the eelgrass occurs f r e -q u e n t l y . This i s due to t i d a l a c t i o n which c o n s t a n t l y reworks and s h i f t s the sediments thereby a f f e c t i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y o f the area as an eelgrass h a b i t a t . Eelgrass [Zostera marina) extends a l l along the P a c i f i c Coast o f North America from San Diego to Alas k a (Einarsen, 1965). I t occurs i n waters o f prot e c t e d bays and forms dense beds over muddy bottoms. Roots and creeping rhizomes are g e n e r a l l y imbedded i n the mud. Sea l e t t u c e {Ulva sp.) i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the beds o f eelgrass and c o n s t i t u t e an important source o f primary p r o d u c t i o n . Studies show that Ulva sp. and. Zoesterd sp. are h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e food sources: "On the moisture f r e e b a s i s , p r o t e i n and crude f i b e r content o f s e a g r a s s l was almost equal to a l f a l f a hay p r o t e i n . . . The * Seagrass i s the same as e e l g r a s s . -62-d i g e s t i b l e p r o t e i n content o f seagrass was as h i g h as good q u a l i t y o f p r a i r i e hay p r o t e i n " ( A k y i l d i z , 1962). Einarsen (1965) shows that n u t r i -t i o n a l values o f eelgrass and sea l e t t u c e prove adequate f o r good h e a l t h and are by themselves an adequate d i e t f o r the P a c i f i c Black Brant. The brant are s o l e l y dependent on these two sources o f food and a r e , i n c i d e n t l y , a y e a r l y v i s i t o r to Boundary Bay on t h e i r northward m i g r a t i o n . The eelgrass serves a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to primary p r o d u c t i o n . Church and Rubin (1970) p o i n t out that scavengers and f i l t e r feeders (such as b i v a l v e molluscs and poly-chaete worms) are dependent on the eelgrass to t r a p food m a t e r i a l c a r r i e d i n t o t h e i r h a b i t a t . As was mentioned b e f o r e , polychaete worms, p a r t i c -u l a r l y the lugworm {AvenieoZa), perform the important task o f b r i n g i n g to the surface o f the substratum l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f b u r i e d sediment. K e l l e r h a l s and Murray (1969) show t h i s accumulating bottom sediment i s high i n organic content. Thus appreciable q u a n t i t i e s o f organic food are made a v a i l a b l e to other c r e a t u r e s . The importance o f the eelgrass community can be seen i n the v a r i e t y o f species dependent on the eelgrass f o r food and h a b i t a t . The eelgrass provide a h a b i t a t f o r crabs {Cancer magister), s t a r f i s h {Pisastev ochraceus), and cockle clams (Clinocard-iwn n u t t a l l i i ) ( T a y l o r , 1970). In a d d i t i o n to these "permanent" r e s i d e n t s the eelgrass i s v i t a l l y important to the P a c i f i c h e r r i n g (Clupea \pallasii) and a v a r i e t y o f w a t e r f o w l . Both the h e r r i n g and the black brant waterfowl requirements r e q u i r e separate d e s c r i p t i o n . H e r r i n g spawn on the eelgrass beds i n l a t e May w i t h the l a r v a e hatching approximately two weeks l a t e r . Figure 9 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e e l g r a s s . d i s t r i b u t i o n and the h e r r i n g spawning ground. A change -63-Figure 9:Eelgrass Production Areas, Herring Spawning Grounds, and  Seal Hauling Out Sites In Boundary Bay (Sources: Church and Rubin, 1970; Morris, personal communication) ON £ ^ Eelgrass Sites (JL) Herring Spawning Grounds 4Hll> Seal Pupping Areas i n environment i s t y p i c a l o f the l a r v a l stage and s t u d i e s show t h a t m i g r a t i o n occurs between (inshore spawning grounds and an open sea feeding ground (Clemens and Wilby, 1961). The h e r r i n g l a r v a e i n Boundary Bay are c a r r i e d from t h e i r spawning grounds by the counter-clockwise current i n Boundary Bay around Po i n t Roberts u n t i l they are caught i n the northward f l ow o f the S t r a i t o f Georgia and are swept toward the Fraser R i v e r (Church and Rubin, 1970). The h e r r i n g are a fundamental source -for many marine s p e c i e s . Eggs are eaten by f i s h and w a t e r f o w l , e s p e c i a l l y ducks and g u l l s . Larvae are eaten by f i s h and a v a r i e t y o f plankton feeders such as j e l l y f i s h and crustaceans. Larger h e r r i n g are consumed by seals,, a v a r i e t y o f f i s h , and waterfowl. Gates (1967) suggests that the eelgrass i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the importance o f t i d e f l a t s as stopover and feeding areas f o r the Black Brant during the s p r i n g m i g r a t i o n . Knowledge of the feeding h a b i t s o f the Black Brant prove t h i s to be t r u e . The d i e t o f the brant does not inc l u d e a great v a r i e t y o f p l a n t and animal matter. In f a c t the brant feed e x c l u s i v e l y on eelgrass and sea l e t t u c e ( E i n arsen, 1965). The area o f P o i n t Roberts to Crescent Beach i s the feeding and r e s t i n g grounds f o r the brant i n l a t e March and e a r l y A p r i l . The popu-l a t i o n o f Boundary Bay v a r i e s from 30,000 to 50,000 i n the l a s t three weeks o f March and t h i s figure1"^'.. .may compromise 30-50% of the e n t i r e count o f black brant on w i n t e r i n g grounds i n the United States i n January" (Benson, 1964). Boundary Bay i s the l a s t major stopping p o i n t before they proceed to the s p r i n g n e s t i n g s i t e s on the Yukon-Kuskokwin D e l t a i n A l a s k a and the A r c t i c S i b e r i a n c o a s t . -65-Seaward o f the F la ts Seaward of the t i d a l f l a t s there i s a r ap id drop o f f which rece ives de t r i t us from the s a l t marsh a n d ' t i d a l f l a t s and has an abundance o f phytoplankton. Invertebrates are common to the area as are a v a r i e t y o f f i s h . Numerous ducks use the area i n search o f food and as r e s t i ng s i t e s . F i s h , Waterfowl and Seal Populat ions There are a few populat ions which are extremely d i f f i c u l t to place i n any one community as they use a number o f areas i n Boundary Bay at one time or another. Salmon spend an important part o f t h e i r l i f e h i s t o r y i n Boundary Bay. Young f r y a f t e r leav ing the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers remain i n the shallow waters o f the Bay fo r severa l months and adult salmon re turn ing to spawn pass through the waters o f the Bay. Coho, stee lhead and cutthroat t rout a lso u t i l i z e the f resh waters o f the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers and the s a l t water o f the Bay during var ious stages o f t h e i r l i f e h i s t o r i e s . Other species such as su r f smelt and cape l in spawn i n Boundary Bay. They eat small crustaceans and worms and are i n turn eaten by salmon and l o g f i s h . Starry f lounder and yel low sh iner feed on crustaceans, clams, as wel l as on the smal ler f i s h e s . Sandlance who feed on plankton are food f o r Chinook and coho salmon, l i n g cod, and h a l i b u t . S i m i l a r l y , s t i ck leback are an Important food fo r many f i s h and waterfowl, p a r t i c u l a r l y ducks. -66-Waterfowl are abundant throughout the Bay and they deserve a separate d i s c u s s i o n . The e n t i r e Lower Mainland Region by v i r t u e o f i t s s i z e , l o c a t i o n , and i t s moderate w i n t e r c l i m a t e makes i t one o f the most important w i n t e r i n g areas f o r waterfowl i n Canada. While Boundary Bay contains only 27% o f the foreshore areas o f the Lower Mainland, 40% o f the waterfowl v i s i t there ( R u s s e l l and P a i s h , 1970). The Bay a t t r a c t s about f i f t y species o f b i r d s i n c l u d i n g ducks, s h o r e b i r d s , herons, and g u l l s ( T a y l o r , 1970). The area of Boundary.Bay serves the waterfowl i n a number o f ways. I t provides them w i t h food i n the form o f e e l g r a s s , sea l e t t u c e , a lgae, and a v a r i e t y of-marsh p l a n t s . The waterfowl are dependent on d e l t a a g r i c u l t u r a l lands f o r feeding and n e s t i n g requirements. S u b t i d a l marshes i n the area provide key sands and gravels f o r d i g e s t i v e processes of waterfowl. Open water provides the waterfowl w i t h an opportunity to r e s t and s a t i s f y a d d i t i o n a l food requirements. The continued i n f l o w and outflow o f waterfowl during t h e i r seasonal movements i s as yet unmeasured. Therefore i t i s hard to p r e d i c t the true value o f w i n t e r i n g grounds o f the area. Sporadic estimates have been made by the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e i n a e r i a l c e n s u s - f l i g h t s . Up to 75,700 dabbling ducks (which i n c l u d e four main species) have been counted i n , t h e area on a s i n g l e census f l i g h t ( T a y l o r , 1970). Table 4 shows cumulative counts f o r c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d species o f w a t e r f o w l . Ther,i "~-l a r g e s t segment of P a c i f i c flyway sandpipers a l s o stop i n Boundary Bay and t h e i r numbers are estimated i n the thousands. As w e l l as important seasonal m i g r a t i o n movements through the area there i s a l s o a d a i l y movement o f waterfowl due t o feeding r e q u i r e -ments and periods o f inclement weather. Populations o f p i n t a i l , widgeon, TABLE 4. CUMULATIVE COUNTS OF WATERFOWL SURVEYED IN BOUNDARY BAY DURING PERIOD APRILL 1966 - JANUARY 1970 (Source: Taylor, 1970) Month Mallard Widgeon Pintail G.W. Teal Scaup Classified Unident Grand Total Total September 196 110 3,537 1,324 2,000 7,592 425 7,592 October 13,598 38,463 39,525 20,845 80,300 192,731 49,072 241,803 November 65,803 49,367 77,645 38,619 5,685 237,119 71,130 308,249 December 48,238 28,558 66,643 11,465 4,600 159,504 25,706 185,210 January 14,022 16,193 9,995 454 227 40,871 3,609 44,480 February 2,643 1,791 5,133 2,519 - 12,086 867 12,953 March 2,437 761 7,203 120 - 10,521 582 11,103 A p r i l 2,045 7,210 2,820 3,848 - 15,923 15,923 Period Total 148,962 142,453 212,501 79,194 92,812 676,347 151,391 827,313 % of Class Total 22.0 21.7 31.5 11.7 13.7 Adjustment 25.5 24.4 36.6 13.5 Boundary Bay % Dabblers (Scaup Omitted) Comparison 17. 37. 23. 21. Delta Regional % Dabblers Nots: Counts not comparable between months as number of survey f l i g h t s vary. and t e a l move to the Cloverdale area (approximately seven miles east) and i n t o the marshes, between Boundary Bay and Cloverdale n i g h t l y t o f e e d . When strong November and December winds for c e b i r d s o f f Sturgeon Bank and Robert's Bank, up to 20,000 ducks have been counted i n Boundary Bay (Ta y l o r , 1970). These ducks feed on s n a i l s , s h e l l f i s h , and other marine organisms. With strong e a s t e r l y and w e s t e r l y winds there are p e r i o d i c i n l a n d f l i g h t s to the Matsqui and Sumas a r e a , approximately t h i r t y miles east o f Boundary Bay (Renewable Resources Report, 1961). The f i v e main.drainage channels a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the lower t i d e f l a t s a r e ' v i t a l l y important to a harbour s e a l (Phooa v i t u l i n a ) p o p u l a t i o n i n Boundary Bay. The s e a l p o p u l a t i o n appears to remain f a i r l y constant and 1970 estimates place the p o p u l a t i o n at approximately 275. The sea l s spend much o f the summer hauled upon favoured sandbars (Figure 9 ) . The sandbars allow the sea l s space to r e s t , and the bars slope q u i c k l y i n t o water deep enough to provide good escape f a c i l i t i e s ( F i s h e r , 1952). The months o f February and March mark an increase i n s e a l numbers w i t h the appearance o f spawning h e r r i n g i n the Bay (Church and Rubin, 1970). In A p r i l the s e a l s move to the mouth o f the Fraser R i v e r to i n t e r c e p t the annual o l i c h a n {Thaleioh paoifious) run (T a y l o r , 1970). F o l l o w i n g t h i s run the se a l s r e t u r n to Boundary Bay to spend the summer. The pupping season occurs at the end o f J u l y and f o r the most o f August. The sand bars provide a safe area on which to give b i r t h to the young s e a l s . BOUNDARY BAY ECOSYSTEM - AN OVERVIEW Boundary Bay i s t r u l y an open system c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a constant f l u x of water, n u t r i e n t s , and animal p o p u l a t i o n s . Through this flux the Bay is directly tied to other areas. The ecosystem i n -teracts withbother ecosystems on a regional scale through, for example, the hydrologic cycle (inputs from.the Nicomekl, Serpentine, and Campbell Rivers) and via the movements of waterfowl into and out of the area. Astrong t i e acrosses international boundaries in the form of currents flowing into Boundary Bay and on a larger,^continental scale as exemplified by the Pacific Flyway. Some species spend days in the area, others their entire lives. AJlarge portion of the yearly waterfowl populations that frequent the Bay u t i l i z e the area during the winter season. Other species are tied t to the Bay through their l i f e cycles, as seen in the seal, herring and anadromous f i s h populations. Species u t i l i z e the variety of habitat the Bay offers. Waterfowl make use of the entire area as they frequent open water for resting and feeding,the t i d a l flats for food requirements, marsh areas for resting, feeding and protection, and the farmlands of Delta and Surrey for feeding and nesting requirements. An overview of the dis-tribution of flosra and fauna in Boundary Bay is shown in Table 5 as adapted from Kellerhals and Murray (1969). A rich supply of nutrients produced in the Bay-ecesystem forms the basis of food chains that support a variety of organisms including f i s h and waterfowl. Figure 10 generally portrays the food web relationships in Boundary Bay il l u s t r a t i n g the complexity of connections among different species. In review we find that detritus as a* food source i s equally as important as the eelgrass, algae and halophytic plants. Practical application of ecological concepts presented in -71-TABLE 5 COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF FLORA AND FAUNA M BOUNDARY BAY (Adapted from K e l l e r h a l s and Murray, 1969) S a l t Marsh high t i d e FLORA Halophytes Cyanophytes (blue-green algae) Chlorophytes (green algae) Rhodophytes Jania sp. (red algae) cOZOSTERACEPul Zostera sp. ^ e e l g r a s s ) Diatoms FAUNA Gastropoda ( s n a i l s ) Cerithiwn sp. Nassarius sp. Purpura foliatum Pelecypoda ( b i v a l v e s ) Mytilus edulis High T i d a l F l a t s Intermediate T i d a l F l a t s oscr- -fLats Lower T i d a l F l a t s -72-TABLE 5 (continued ) S a l t Marsh Clinocavdium n u t t a l l i i Saxidomas giganteus. (butter clam) Schizothaevus n u t t a l l i i (horse clam) Mya arenaria Nacoma sp. Venerupis sarponica ( l i t t l e necked clam) Ostera sp. (.'Crustaceans .Callianassa c a l i f o v i e n s i s (.burrowing shrimp) Hemigrapsus sp. (shore crabs) Balanus glandula (barnacle) Cancer Manistev (crabs) Coelenterates (burrowing anehome) Echinoderms Pisaster ochvaceus (purple s t a r f i s h ) Dendraster excentricus (sand d o l l a r ) Vermes PolychaeteB (lug worms) ,H.T.Flats I . T . F l a t s Lower T i d a l F l a t s -73V FIGURE 10 OVERVIEW OF FOOD RELATIONSHIPS IN BOUNDARY BAY TROPHIC LEVEL Primary Producers Pr imary Consumers i I Secondary Consumers SON HALOPHYTES (Distichlis spicata) (Crindelin striata-tarweed) (Saliaornia pacifioa -p a c i f i c g l a s s w o r t ) ALGAE MATS PHYTOPL/ (Mioroooluus sp. -b l u e - g r e e n algae) (Enteromorpha sp green a RED ALGAE EELGRASS (Hhadophyeophyte /(Zoestera marina) SEA LETTUCE (Ulva sp.) (Saxidomus gigantio-b u t t e r c lamj (Schizothaerus nuitallii (Mya sp. s o f t s h e l l e d clam) f Chapter I I i s e v i d e n t . The p r o c e s s o f s u c c e s s i o n o c c u r s w i t h t h e v e g -e t a t i o n hummocks which t r a p sediment p r e p a r i n g the way f o r an a d v a n c i n g s a l t marsh. The im p o r t a n t n i c h e o f a worm (Lugworm) which p r e v e n t s t h e l o s s of key n u t r i e n t s t o bottom sediments has been emphasized. The p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l environments a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d through, f o r example, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sand and g r a v e l d e p o s i t s and members o f s p e c i f i c communities and; by the i n f l u e n c e o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance of e e l g r a s s . In a d d i t i o n a moderate c l i m a t e p r o v i d e s the temperatures s u i t a b l e f o r a w i n t e r i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f w a t e r f o w l . -75-CHAPTER IV MAN AND THE BOUNDARY BAY ECOSYSTEM HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESENT LAND USES Man has used the resources o f Boundary Bay f o r a long t i m e . Indians frequented the area south o f the Nicomekl R i v e r long before white man was ever i n Canada. Evidence o f t h e i r e xistence comes from the discovery o f p r i m i t i v e a r t i f a c t s and human remains i n the Crescent Beach area and on B l a c k i e s p i t . However, only w i t h i n the l a s t s e v e n t y - f i v e years has there been extensive m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the " n a t u r a l " landscape of the study a r e a . The large dyke, j u s t north o f Boundary Bay, was constructed i n 1892 so th a t adjacent uplands could be drained and used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. Years l a t e r a marsh near Beach Grove was dyked and drained f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. Vegetation i n the n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s , i n l a n d o f the marsh, c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y o f second growth Douglas F i r and Hemlock. I n i t i a l l y the towns i n the study area were s e t t l e d as summer cottage areas. Changes i n s t r u c t u r e o f these areas occurred w i t h the expansion o f met r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications f a c i l i t i e s were constructed and new land uses developed (see Figure 11 f o r current predominant land u s e s ) . -76-Figure 11: Current Land Use Abandoned A i r p o r t and u s t r i a ] Wireless S t a t i o n MAN/RESOURCE RELATIONSHIPS Harvest of Resources The economy of man demands a removable product from the eco-system. In the case of Boundary Bay a variety of resources have been harvested. Taylor (1970) shows that annual herring production over a fifteen year period (1954-1971) has been in excess of 3000 tons per year (Table 6). Commercial fishing for starry flounder and yellow shiners occur near the International Boundary. Commercial crabs are annually harvested at the rate of 250 tons. These crabs are also obtained close to the border from White Rock and Crescent Beach bases. The area of Point Roberts to Blaine, Washington, in 1954 produced the largest crab catch in the entire Puget Sound Region (Kincaid, 1954). Approximately 6000 pounds of shrimp are collected annually from the Bay (Taylor, 1970). Residents and visitors to the area collect clams for individual consumption. The Japanese oyster was introduced into Mud Bay for harvest purposes as early as 1936. Seed ousters were initially planted at Comox on Vancouver Island and then transplanted when mature to Boundary Bay (Kincaid, 1954). After a time other species such as the Olympic Oyster {Osteva Iwfida) and the important east coast oyster [Osteva vivginicd) became dominant. Mud Bay accounted for 50% of the Provincial oyster harvest at an annual commercial value of $1,000,000.00. High coliform bacteria counts of the oyster led to a closure of the area for commercial production in the early 1960's. -78-TABLE 6. HERRING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL - BOUNDARY AND MUD BAY (Source: Taylor, 1970) Year Miles of Herring Spawn Potential (Tons) Year Miles of Spawn Potentia' 1954 — — 1962 1.7 1,530 1955 15.6 14,040 1963 3.7 3,240 1956 — — 1964 1.2 1,080 1957 2.1 1,890 1965 1.4 1,260 1958 0.6 540 1966 3.8 3,420 1959 0.2 180 1967 7.3 6,570 1960 2.1 1,890 1968 2.6 2,340 1961 3.0 2,700 1969 3.6 3,240 R e c r e a t i o n a l consumption o f Boundary Bay resources i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . Sport f i s h i n g f o r m i g r a t i n g s t e e l h e a d , coho, and c u t t h r o a t t r o u t i s common near the Serpentine and Nicomekl R i v e r s . S t a r r y f l o u n d e r , yellow s h i n e r s , l i n g cod, and h a l i b u t are a l s o caught i n Boundary Bay by the sportsmen. Boundary Bay accounts f o r 14% o f the Lower Mainland hunting days or approximately 33,600 days i n 1965 ( H e d l i n . Menzies A s s o c i a t e s , 1965). A f u l l 70%v,of the Lower Mainland P a c i f i c Black Brant harvest i s accounted f o r i n the Boundary Bay area and the t o t a l duck harvest amounted to approximately 40,000 f o r the 1968 season ( T a y l o r , 1970). The hunting season runs from mid-October u n t i l e a r l y March and the st a t u s o f Boundary Bay as a major waterfowl w i n t e r i n g and mi g r a t i o n area accounts f o r i t s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h the"hunters. Depletion o f Resources The Lower Mainland Region i s one o f the f a s t e s t growing areas i n Canada. This growth has occurred towards the south and east i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l y i n g c l o s e t o Boundary Bay. The southward expansion o f metr o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s d e p l e t i n g the f e r t i l e farmlands o f the Fraser D e l t a by converging the land to urban uses and i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g the fu t u r e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f the region's a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . An e a r l i e r mention was made o f the dependence o f the waterfowl on the adjacent d e l t a farmlands f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n o f feeding and n e s t i n g r e q u i r e -ments. Loss o f these farmlands w i l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the w i n t e r i n g waterfowl populations ( R u s s e l l and P a i s h , 1968). -80-P o l l u t i o n o f Resources Changing land use patt e r n s throughout the years have d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the waters o f Boundary Bay. The e a r l y 1960's saw the commercial o y s t e r f i s h e r y brought to a close due to high c o l i f o r m counts. The high readings were due to sewage wastes from the adjacent upland a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . For many years man has taken f o r granted the water p u r i f i c a t i o n aspects o f Boundary Bay. This f u n c t i o n o f Boundary Bay was adequately f u l f i l l e d f o r a long time but as the c o l i f o r m count increased the system evolved toward a new l e v e l o f homeostasis. . U n f o r t u n a t e l y . t h i s new l e v e l c o n f l i c t e d w i t h man's h e a l t h requirement p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r food consumption. I f t h i s trend o f increased n u t r i e n t enrichment o f the system continues man w i l l no doubt have to i n i t i a t e more r e s t r i c t i o n s on human a c t i v i t y . Expanding metr o p o l i t a n areas r e q u i r e a vast amount o f m a t e r i a l s and energy t o e x i s t . To supply the needs o f these areas i n d u s t r i a l centres are expanding i n s c a l e and are developing new s p a t i a l l i n k a g e s . An e x c e l l e n t example o f t h i s i s the new Cherry P o i n t i n d u s t r i a l centre l o c a t e d between Lummi Bay and B i r c h Bay i n the s h o r e l i n e o f Puget Sound t h i r t y - f i v e miles south o f Boundary Bay. A v a r i e t y o f heavy i n d u s t r i e s are present at the centre: a petrochemical p l a n t , aluminium s m e l t e r , three o i l r e f i n e r i e s , and a thermal power p l a n t . The character o f these i n d u s t r i e s i s such that a v a r i e t y o f p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous p o l l u t a n t s are present i n the form o f e i t h e r the i n i t i a l r e s o u r c e , or e f f l u e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o c e s s i n g and production o f the resource, or b o t h . D i s p e r s a l o f p o l l u t a n t s dumped i n t o the water i s r e l a t e d to the behaviour o f the surface current and the dynamics o f eddies ( K i n c a i d , 1954). Currents i n the r e g i o n , as was mentioned, flow i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n through the Georgia S t r a i t and i n t o Boundary Bay. I t i s almost c e r t a i n p o l l u t a n t s dumped at Cherry P o i n t w i l l f i n d t h e i r way to Boundary Bay v i a these c u r r e n t s . FUTURE DEMAND Community Pe r s p e c t i v e Not wi t h s t a n d i n g the vari o u s land use changes the study area has undergone i n the past few y e a r s , the area to the immediate n o r t h and east o f Boundary Bay s t i l l r e t a i n s a r u r a l p a t t e r n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by farms, low r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s and minimal i n d u s t r y . The low t a x base l i m i t s the sources o f income f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f D e l t a and Surrey and s e r v i c e s and planning f a c i l i t i e s are h i g h l y taxed. Developers have c i t e d i n c r e a s e d revenue f o r municipal c o f f e r s as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r past proposals o f i n d u s t r i a l , commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l development o f the study a r e a . The expansion o f m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s f u r t h e r p r e s s u r i n g the m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s o f D e l t a and Surrey and new l a r g e - s c a l e land use proposals have a r i s e n . There has been a v a r i e t y o f proposals i n reference to develop-ment of Boundary Bay over the years (Table 7 ) . For example, land reclamation o f t i d a l f l a t land f o r i n d u s t r i a l development was considered. However, a study by the now defunct Lower Mainland Regional Board v'(Whose f u n c t i o n has been replaced by the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t and four other r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ) revealed that i n d u s t r i a l development had only consumed 7,400 acres o f the 48,000 a v a i l a b l e upland a c r e s . So -82-TABLE 7. LAND-USE PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOUNDARY BAY AREA ( S o u r c e : Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board Report 1968) Ref. No. Year Proposed Bay Nature of Proposal Proposed 1 1958 Boultbee-Sweet R e c l a m a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r y and p o r t 2 1960 P.F.R.A. (ARDA) S e a - w a l l f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d d r a i n a g e 3 1961 Widgeon Keys R e c l a m a t i o n f o r a c i t y o f 100,000 4 1963 Boultbee-Sweet R e c l a m a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r y , p o r t , p a r k s and h o u s i n g 5 1963 S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y and ARDA Land d r a i n a g e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e 6 1964 Maple Beach T i d e l a n d s R e s i d e n t i a l - r e c r e a t i o n a l complex 7 1964 "Development i n D e l t a " R e c r e a t i o n 8 1964 Save-the-Beaches Beach, c a m p s i t e , m a r i n a and A s s o c i a t i o n s h o r e l i n e 9,10,11 1966 R e g i o n a l P a r k s P l a n Beach, c a m p s i t e , m a r i n a and s h o r e l i n e 12 1967 S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y M a r i n a 13 1967 S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y P o o l , p i c n i c a r e a 14 1968 Swan-Wooster R e s i d e n t i a l - r e c r e a t i o n complex 15 1970 BACM E n g i n e e r i n g L t d . R e s i d e n t i a l - r e c r e a t i o n complex 16 1971 S p e t t i f o r e Farm R e s i d e n t i a l - r e c r e a t i o n a l complex, P r o p o s a l development i n South D e l t a a d j a c e n t to Boundary Bay 17 1972 South S u r r e y P l a n R e s i d e n t i a l development o f Sunnysid Study u p l a n d d i r e c t l y e a s t o f t h e Bay -83-there i s no need f o r reclamation as there i s adequate space to meet i n d u s t r i a l needs f o r many y e a r s . In the same v e i n , there i s no r e a l need to r e c l a i m land f o r urban development s i t e s . General consensus now f i n d s that Boundary Bay i t s e l f i s more s u i t a b l e to the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e and amenity resources o f the area due to i t s w a t e r f o w l , f i s h i n g , and general r e c r e a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s (e.g. moderate c l i m a t e and accessable beach a r e a s ) . However, consensus i s f a r from complete as to the k i n d o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r the study area and the extent ( s c a l e , type, etc.) o f development on the upland areas. R e c r e a t i o n a l Demand Pop u l a t i o n trends suggest a doubling of p o p u l a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland over the next t h i r t y years (Appendix 1 ) . This i n c r e a s e w i l l no doubt be accompanied by increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons. Man i s a t t r a c t e d to open water and the other amenities o f foreshore areas and needs to r e l a x and get away from the pressure o f modern s o c i e t y . In the f u t u r e pressure w i l l i n c r e a s e on a v a i l a b l e parkland and the need f o r new parkland a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n growth: "In terms o f parkland requirements the p r o j e c t e d increases w i l l r e q u i r e a s h i f t from the 1966 standards o f 65 acres per thousand p o p u l a t i o n %o 80 acres per thousand by 1981 and 94 acres per thousand by 2001. In 1966 parkland i n the Lower Mainland was 32,140 acres below the l e v e l neces-sary to meeting e x i s t i n g needs which, i f f u l f i l l e d , would r e q u i r e another 86,000 acres to s a t i s f y the needs.of the 1981 and a f u r t h e r 85,800 acres f o r those o f 2001" ( T a y l o r , 1970, p. 30). -84-The Lower Mainland Region has a shortage o f accessable and usable beach areas. As a r e s u l t , Canadians o f t e n frequent the beaches j u s t south o f the border. Attendance at B i r c h Bay, Washington, a p p r o x i -mately t h i r t y - f i v e miles south o f Vancouver i s 90% Canadian and at Larrabee Bay, s i x t y miles south, approximately 65% o f the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s are Canadian (Renewable Resources C o n s u l t i n g S e r v i c e L i m i t e d , 1969). R e c r e a t i o n a l use o f Boundary Bay has been slow i n developing. The north c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the Bay i s v i r t u a l l y untouched but the extreme east and western areas have r e c e i v e d some p r e s s u r e . I n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f the Bay i s l i m i t e d to the four month summer p e r i o d and only three o f s i x t e e n miles o f beach frontage a r e . u t i l i z e d . On a sunny summer day Beach Grove can expect 1500 - 2000 people and Crescent Beach i n Surrey can expect around 1000 (T a y l o r , 1970). As p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , so does beach use and the v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . Many types o f r e c r e a t i o n a l demand o f s u b s t a n t i a l economic value w i l l i n f l u e n c e the future o f Boundary Bay (Table 8 ) . TABLE 8 ESTIMATED ECONOMIC VALUES OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN BOUNDARY BAY (Source: H e d l i n Menzies., 1967) A c t i v i t y Estimated 1971 Value 1985 Waterfowl a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s $ 516,000.00- $ 962,000.00 Swimming, p i c n i c k i n g and beach a c t i v i t i e s 5,880,000.00 12,100,000.00 Boating, f i s h i n g and water sports 340,000.00 740,000.00 Overnight and group camping 212,000.00 396,000.00 TOTAL: $6,948,000.00 $14,198,000.00 -85-The d e s i r e f o r beach footage has already been recog n i z e d . Overnight and group camping a l s o have a place i n determining demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s although present f a c i l i t i e s are q u i t e l i m i t e d . In a d d i t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a l harvest o f the f i s h and waterfowl resources gives Boundary Bay a high economic v a l u e . Other r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s are i n c r e a s i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y and may have a profound e f f e c t on the study a r e a . The most important o f these appears to be b o a t i n g . The study area's geographical c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s w e l l s u i t e d f o r b o a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s due to the Bay's p r o x i m i t y t o many s h e l t e r e d i n l e t s , s t r a i t s , and coves f o r c r u i s i n g . In 1965, the boat ownership f o r the Lower Mainland was estimated at 45,000 boats; The m a j o r i t y o f t h i s b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y continues to be on the s a l t water areas w i t h a consequent requirement f o r a d d i t i o n a l marine moorages, launching f a c i l i t i e s , water sports areas and marine p a r k s . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n g i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s need f o r a d d i t i o n a l berths as determined by the number of u n s a t i s f i e d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r moorage. TABLE 9 UNSATISFIED APPLICATIONS FOR MOORAGE'IN THE VANCOUVER AREA (Source: P r e l i m i n a r y Report and F i n a n c i a l F e a s i b i l i t y Report, Tsawwassen Marina Development, 1970) J Location Number North Shore - Burrard I n l e t 650 Coal Harbour 700 Other 520 TOTAL: 1870 Estimates l o s s o f boat s a l e s due to l ack o f moorage a v a i l a b l e 250 -86-Because Boundary Bay i s a s h e l t e r e d area, i t w i l l be pressured i n t o p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . P r e s e n t l y there are 375 boats l o c a t e d 'at} the Crescent Beach Marina at the mouth o f the Nicomekl R i v e r and s i x t y boats are moored at Wards Marine up the Nicomekl. Expansion of these f a c i l i t i e s or development o f new ones would be economically r a t i o n a l but a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h marina c o n s t r u c t i o n and use may a f f e c t the ecosystem of Boundary Bay. Pressures on the Uplands Areas Many demands are being made on the upland reaches o f the study area. Proposals to increase r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial d e n s i t i e s a s s o c i -ated w i t h new developments i n the Sunnyside area (Crescent Beach to White Rock) o f Surrey and i n the area j u s t southwest o f the town o f Boundary Bay are undergoing s c r u t i n y by the p u b l i c and the r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g agencies o f the two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . As i s the trend throughout North America, f e r t i l e farmlands i n South D e l t a are being converted t o urban uses. L i t t l e i s known about the fu t u r e o f the abandoned a i r p o r t s i t e but s p e c u l a t i o n i s that i t w i l l be reopened as a p r i v a t e l a n d i n g s t r i p w i t h i n ten years. C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s express concern over the present l e g a l status o f land owned by the B r i t i s h Columbia Harbours Board (a crown 'corporation) which i s zoned i n d u s t r i a l (Figure 11). The p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s o f these uses w i t h ecosystem processes i n Boundary Bay should be s e l f evident from past experience. UNCERTAINLY At the present stage our knowledge o f man's m o d i f i c a t i o n o f -87-ecosystems we cannot p o s s i b l y judge a l l the e f f e c t s o f a p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t . Q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g immediate e f f e c t s on ecosystem s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i s poor.• Temporal and s p a t i a l dimensions are f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s as e c o l o g i c a l impacts show up hundreds o f m i l e s and y e a r s away from t h e i n i t i a l s o u r c e o f t h e problem. Even c u r r e n t water and a i r q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a are s u s p e c t by many e c o l o -g i s t s and t h e l e v e l o f knowledge t h a t such s t a n d a r d s (e.g. "danger" l e v e l s o f ( p h l l u t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ) imply does not e x i s t . The problems o f p r e d i c t i n g the e c o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s does not negate t h e use o f t h e ecosystem c o n c e p t , b u t i t s h o u l d impress upon one the p a u c i t y o f knowledge r e g a r d i n g man/envi-ronment r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P l a n n i n g s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be based on a presumption o f i g n o r a n c e r a t h e r t h a n one o f knowledge ( H o l l i n g and Gol d b e r g , 1971). The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a n d e t h i c p h i l o s o p h y d i s c u s s e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . -88-CHAPTER V DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY BAY SELECTED DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVES - A CRITICAL REVIEW An important stage i n the planning process i s the e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h i s procedure has emphasized economic costs and b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each p l a n . S o c i e t y now appears to r e a l i z e the a d d i t i o n a l need f o r an a n a l y s i s i n terms o f costs and b e n e f i t s to ecosystem s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . The t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l (as a p p l i e d to Boundary Bay) e c o l o g i c a l concepts that have been d e a l t w i t h can be used i n e v a l u a t i n g development a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the study a r e a . Four a l t e r n a t i v e proposals from Table 7 have been s e l e c t e d (Figure 12). Two o f these d i r e c t l y a f f e c t Boundary Bay because large s c a l e a l t e r a t i o n s o f t i d a l f l a t areas r e s u l t . The p o t e n t i a l f o r changes i n the ecosystem w i t h these two developments are v a s t . The e c o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , o f two more recent proposals t h a t develop the upland s e c t i o n s o f the study area are more .obscure due to lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Development Proposals f o r the Tide F l a t s To save space and unnecessary d i s c u s s i o n various types and l i k e l y consequences o f man induced changes upon the Boundary Bay eco-system have been l i s t e d i n Table 1Q. The chosen examples are the 1964 Save-the-Beaches A s s o c i a t i o n Plan (Appendix 2) and the 1970 BACM -89-Figure 12: Locatieo of Four A l t e r n a t i v e Development Proposals For Boundary Bay LEGEND Save the Beaches A s s o c i a t i o n T (beach, campsite and marina com bined with conservation) S p e t t i f o r e Farms ^ Proposal Swan Wooster ( r e c r e a t i o n on Jm South Surrey shores of urban area of 200,000~pl>o]iTeyj development Plan TABLE 10 VARIOUS TYPES AND LIKELY CONSEQUENCES OF TWO ALTERNATIVE PROPOSALS ON THE BOUNDARY BAY ECOSYSTEM M o d i f i c a t i o n : Feature or A c t i v i t y Changes Expected Environmental Impacts Adverse E f f e c t s B e n e f i c i a l E f f e c t s Features Common To BotK Proposals: I . Change i n Basin C o n f i g u r a t i o n a ) F i l l i n g and Bulkheading General r e d u c t i o n i n acreage of prime h a b i t a t ; sedimentation t r a p s i n shore-zone and marsh h a b i t a t ; a l t e r a t i o n of u drainage p a t t e r n s ; c r e a t i o n of b a s i n s ; change i n current v e l o c i t i e s and flow; gross change i n marine f l o r a l commun-i t i e s ; l o s s of n u t r i e n t m a t e r i a l s from beach areas. Decreased p r o d u c t i v i t y o f many species through d e s t r u c t i o n of p l a n t cover and food sources ( i . e . , e e l -grass and a l g a e ) ; species dependent on current flow a f f e c t e d (e.g., h e r r i n g ) ; great u n c e r t a i n t y re future f i s h i n g and s h e l l -f i s h p o t e n t i a l . P r o v i s i o n of an i n -t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l use area; northern s e c t i o n of the Bay i s opened up to pleasure b o a t i n g . b ) S p i t s Current changes, sedimentation processes a l t e r e d . c) Dredging o f Deepening o f drainage channels; n a v i g a t i o n a l t e r a t i o n of drainage p a t t e r n s ; channels increased exchanged of oceanic, bay and marsh water, change i n c i r c u l a t i o n and hence d i s t r i b u t i o n of s a l i n i t y , temper-ature; temporary increase i n s i l t load a f f e c t i n g b o t t o m e l i f e . Same as above Po s s i b l e i n t r u s i o n o f f greater-than-normal,amounts of sea water could decrease c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of marshes through reduction of plan4 cover and food sources. I n -creased t u r b i d i t y l i m i t i n g photosynthesis Access to swimming areas f a c i l i t a t e d . Increased c a r r y i n g (rapacity through p r o v i s i o n of access f o r some species t o p r e v i o u s l y i n a c c e s s i b l e e s t u a r i n e and marsh areas; deepened areas o f f e r haven or routes of escape. Boating access f a c i l i t a t e d . TABLE 10 (continued) d) Segmentation by Lessening of average depth through shoa- Loss of bottom acreage, d i s - [Access to north-s p o i l banks as L c l i n g due to s t r u c t u r e s i n f l u e n c e on c i r - r u p t i o n of flow p a t t e r n s , anderm s e c t i o n w e l l as by r a i l c u l a t i p n ; reduced exchange of f r e s h and saltimpedance of f i s h passage|improved ;?i and highway a a l t water. High s a l i n i t y of s o i l would have nominal e f f e c t on' grades dredged up. p r o d u c t i v i t y I I . P r o t e c t i v e Works: aj Changes i n t i d a l channels R e d i s t r i b u t i o n of freshwater discharge; Depending on s p e c i e s , loweiDepending on species changes i n e s t u a r i n e s a l i n i t y regime; p r o d u c t i v i t y i n some areas.increased c a r r y i n g changes i n ebb t i d e and f l o o d t i d e ve- Anadromous f i s h may become c a p a c i t y i n some' l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n confused. areas b) Sea w a l l s , dykes and levees I I I Miscellaneous a) Changes i n basin c o n f i g u r -a t i o n . Impeded exchange of f r e s h and s a l t water. Loss of t i d a l exchange b e n e f i t s ; changein s a l i n i t y regime M i c r o c l i m a t i c changes General lowered p r o d u c t i v i t y L i m i t e d p r o t e c t i o n because of diminished access from s p r i n g f l o o d t o t i d a l f l a t areas Lowering of some species chances of s u r v i v a l f l o o d t i d e s and winter storms. Some species chances of s u r v i v a l i n c r e a s e d . I f P o l l u t i o n Sediments i n dredged areas u s u a l l y d i f f e r e n t , s i l t and c l a y contrasted to sand and s h e l l - r e s u l t s i n h a b i t a t changes (Sykes,=1971). Increased t u r -b i d i t y of water during c o n s t r u c t i o n ; , changes i n water c h e n i s t r y ; increased BODdecreased p r o d u c t i v i t y of a l l demand, presence of t o x i c compounds s p e c i e s , i n atmosphere from car exhaust; increased sheet r u n o f f ; o i l and gasoline i n water from b e a t i n g . Decrease i n photosynthesis of primary producers feith lowering of p r o d u c t i v i y t of dependent sp e c i e s ; i n .case oflfor a time inadequate o f noxious chemicals Increased f e r t i l t y l i m i t e d ehhancement of p r o d u c t i v i t y TABLE-10 (continued) Continuous use o f .area a s s o c i a t e d w i t h BACM p r o p o s a l D i s r u p t i o n o f f e e d i n g and n e s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f w a t e r f o w l ; e l i m i n a t i o n o f s e a l h a u l i n g out s i t e s due t o p r o x i m i t y o f human a c t i v i t y R e d u c t i o n i n waterfowl .Waterfront l i v i n g numbers; P o t e n t i a l f o r and a l l i t s e l i m i n a t i n g s e a l p o p u l a t i o n a t t e n d e n t a m e n i t i e s v e r y h i g h ; r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h c i n c r e a s e d t a x base the use o f the a r e a f o r f o r D e l t a , m a n y . i n d i v i d u a l s . Engineering L i m i t e d p l a n (Appendix 3 ) . The e f f e c t s o f these proposals upon the Bay ecosystem are l i s t e d together as they are s i m i l a r i n s c a l e and i n the extent o f d i r e c t land use changes. The t a b l e shows that both these examples would i n v o l v e extensive a l t e r a t i o n s o f the n a t u r a l ecosystem o f Boundary Bay. I r o n i c a l l y , the o b j e c t i v e o f both plans i s the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l resources o f the a r e a . However, the process o f develop-i n g resource use at t h i s s c a l e would s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r some o f the amenities the people who frequent Boundary Bay go to enjoy - the f i s h , waterfowl and s e a l p o p u l a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l year round use by a f u l l time r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n (BACM proposal) would destroy the r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l value o f the area. The extent o f a l t e r a t i o n o f the Boundary Bay ecosystem by the two proposed developments suggests t h a t they are incompatible w i t h the i n t e g r i t y o f the Boundary Bay ecosystem. Two Development Proposals f o r the Uplands Areas Two development proposals f o r the upland areas o f the Bay have r e c e n t l y come under p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . One proposal i n v o l v e s an $80 m i l l i o n community development p l a n on 616 acres o f land i n South D e l t a . A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the land i s p r e s e n t l y owned by S. S p e t t i f o r e and Sons Limi t e d (Figure 12). Another proposal (Figure 12) i n v o l v e s the e n t i r e Sunnyside P e n i n s u l a o f South Surrey, excluding the c i t y o f White Rock. The e f f e c t s o f these developments on Boundary.Bay are much more obscure than the two previous proposals but the p o s s i b i l i t y o f some a l t e r a t i o n o f the Bay ecosystem i s s t i l l very r e a l . -94_ S p e t t i f o r e Farms Proposal The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s proposal i s to provide a pleasant mix o f high q u a l i t y housing i n a t o t a l l y planned community f e a t u r i n g many d e s i r -able amenities. More than 20% o f the land area w i l l be dedicated to r e c r e a t i o n a l use. The development a l s o features c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . P r o v i s i o n s are made f o r f u l l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g underground u t i l i t i e s and s t r e e t l i g h t i n g . Water supply i s ample to provide f o r the proposed development and sewage would be exported from the area. The completed development w i l l c o n t a i n a t o t a l o f 3524 residences housing a p o p u l a t i o n o f 9185. P r o j e c t completion w i l l take approximately ten years w i t h an increa s e o f about 1,000 persons per ye a r . The develop-ment would provide an a d d i t i o n a l $19.5 m i l l i o n tax assessment upon completion and create job o p p o r t u n i t i e s to s e r v i c e the increase i n p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s necessary that a g r i c u l t u r a l land be rezoned to r e s i d e n t i a l use. Twenty per cent of the s o i l s are t h i r d c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s l i m i t e d by stoniness and poor drainage. The r e s t o f the area i s u n s u i t a b l f o r farming. While conversion o f land from a g r i c u l t u r a l t o urban uses might be j u s t i f i e d on economic grounds the combined f a c t o r s o f : 1) r a p i d d e p l e t i o n o f f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas throughout Canada, 2) the l o c a t i o n o f most o f the development on a f l o o d p l a i n (see Figure 8 ) , and 3) the need f o r a marine d r i v e a r t e r i a l along the foreshore o f Boundary Bay to s e r v i c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs i n the area suggest t h a t economic c r i t e r i a i s not enough i n a b e n e f i t - c o s t a p p r a i s a l o f development Experience has shown dangers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h developments on the f l o o d p l a i n . The developers suggest that " f l o o d p r o o f i n g " e x i s t s through a combination o f dyking, pumping, land e l e v a t i o n , and water storage and t h a t t h i s w i l l s u f f i c e to a l l e v i a t e the danger of b u i l d i n g on the f l o o d -p l a i n . Shanks (1972) has pointed out that f l o o d p r o o f i n g i n these terms may prove to be a f a l a c i o u s "perception" because no area can be given complete f l o o d proofing.. P o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n the S p e t t i f o r e farms area would r e q u i r e expansion o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks. Plans to improve t r a f f i c flow w i t h ready access to Highway- 17 are already underway. Recent suggestions have been made f o r a marine d r i v e a r t e r i a l t h a t would s k i r t the foreshore area and connect the development to the 499 Freeway. This route proposal along the foreshore o f Boundary Bay i s t e n t a t i v e l y unacceptable b a r r i n g f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . A v a r i e t y o f probable impacts upon the ecosystem would ensue with the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the foreshore route: 1) a l t e r a t i o n s o f surface drainage c o n d i t i o n s . 2) a l t e r a t i o n o f c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n w i t h r e s u l t i n g changes i n (Kutkuhn, 1966): a) chemical components of the water, b) p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s such as temperature, c) suspended matter, and d) f l o r a l and faunal p o p u l a t i o n s . 3) increased sediment removal i n c e r t a i n areas and sediment d e p o s i t i o n i n o t h e r s , and a 4) decrease i n primary production by a l t e r i n g c o n d i t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r growth of primary producers. -96-South Surrey Plan Study The second development proposal (Figure 12) i s the South Surrey P l a n Study. Following the p r i n c i p l e e s t a b l i s h e d by the o f f i c i a l Surrey Community Plan (1966) which c a l l s f o r the expansion o f the f i v e towns i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the focus i n the study i s a town centre which f u n c t i o n s as a meeting and market p l a c e . Surrounding the town are f o u r s m a l l e r v i l l a g e s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f housing types at v a r i a b l e d e n s i t i e s . Density ranges from low (3 to 5 d w e l l i n g s per acre) to medium which allows 5 to 10 dwellings per a c r e , and i n c l u d e s h i g h d e n s i t i e s w i t h i n the town centre (low r i s e apartments at 18 and 24 d w e l l i n g s per a c r e ) . The area i s expected to accommodate 11,000 persons over the next ten years w i t h an increase i n p o p u l a t i o n from 11,000 to 22,300. Re c r e a t i o n a l features i n c l u d e a system of parks and walkwaysj notably a r i v e r f r o n t park along the lowlands o f the South Bank o f the Nicomekl R i v e r and a beach f r o n t walkway along the western perimeter o f the study a r e a . Further emphasis i s placed on expansion o f the marina f a c i l i t i e s at the mouth o f the Nicomekl R i v e r . The South Surrey Plan envisages low d e n s i t i e s over a major p o r t i o n o f the study area through "... small e s t a t e development w i t h l a r g e l o t s . " The r e s u l t i n g low d e n s i t y means tha t sewers w i l l not reach i n d i v i d u a l e s t a t e s because o f the high cost o f t h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n . Due to the non-porous nature o f the s o i l s and drainage i n t o Boundary Bay from the western slopes on the study a r e a , p o l l u t i o n o f the Bay may r e s u l t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i ncreased sediment load r u n o f f r e s u l t i n g from removal o f v e g e t a t i o n during c o n s t r u c t i o n may a f f e c t aquatic production by causing s i l t a t i o n o f h a b i t a t s and a decrease i n l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n . I f aquatic p l a n t s such as eelgrass are so a f f e c t e d the waterfowl p o p u l a t i o n w i l l -97-probably decrease i n numbers. Expansion o f a marina on the south side o f the Nicomekl R i v e r i s a key r e c r e a t i o n a l feature o f the Study P l a n . Benson has already suggested (1962) that the movement o f pleasure boats at the present marina has r e s u l t e d i n some "dist u r b a n c e " o f the waterfowl p o p u l a t i o n . This disturbance would incre a s e w i t h marina development and could become severe because the adjacent Mud Bay area i s a prime waterfowl n e s t i n g , r e s t i n g and feeding p l a c e . Expansion o f the road network would subject the beaches to pressure but no studies have been undertaken to d i s c o v e r the s u i t a b i l i t y o f beach areas to s u s t a i n increased use. No r e a l concern i s expressed over a doubling o f the d e n s i t y i n the area and i t s attendent t e c h n o l o g i -c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . In f a c t there i s no e c o l o g i c a l concept used i n the study on which to base the development p l a n . The study only recommends "that the use of open space be c o n t r o l l e d to maintain the n a t u r a l landscape cover, t r e e s , streams, and drainage courses ... ." A l l these c r i t i c i s m s may be a b i t premature as the p l a n i s up f o r review and i f the p u b l i c forums are any i n d i c a t i o n o f c i t i z e n response the p l a n w i l l be m odified to consider these important p o i n t s . An example of the questions asked at these forums i s provided i n Appendix 4. Summary The a n a l y s i s o f the four plans shows they d i d not recognize the important e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s e s s e n t i a l before development should take p l a c e . Hence the a l t e r n a t i v e s are not compatible with the i n t e g r i t y o f the Boundary Bay ecosystem as presented i n Chapter I I I . Now t h a t proposals f o r Boundary Bay have been c r i t i c i z e d a plan j w i l l be presented -98-that recognizes the integrity of the Boundary Bay ecosystem. A PROPOSAL Underlying Philosophy and Objectives The basic objective of the plan and strategies that follow is preservation of diversity of public choice among the different environ-ments in the study area. This orientation arises from a number of points. A serious problem arising from man's alteration of his environment is a restriction in individual choices in the use and "enjoyment" of the environment. Increased choice enables individuals to make combinations for themselves that more closely f i t their own views of quality of l i f e (Spilhause,. 1972). Quality of l i f e includes another aspect which is the direct concern of this paper: preservation of those basic l i f e support systems necessary for the survival of marine and terrestrial organisms and growth of vegetational communities. But our knowledge of interactions in the ecosystem is minute in relation to our ignorance. We now need a planning philosophy that recognizes our ignorance and is explicit as to what information is required. A thrust in this direction is the creation of planning strategies that emphasize the maintenance of an ecosystem's "homeostasis" of "resilience." Holling (1971) defines resilience as the Ccapacity of a system to absorb environmental changes. The capacity is defined by the system's tolerance to environmental changes before changes in system structure and function occur. -99-A COMPARTMENTAL APPROACH TO LANDSCAPE PLANNING Chapter I I suggested an approach to planning i n which the l a n d -scape i s compartmentalized i n t o v a r i o u s s p a t i a l u n i t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t p lanning t a c t i c s and o b j e c t i v e s a p p l i e d to each u n i t . This approach, adapted from Odum (1972), recognizes the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f having a v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s present i n young and o l d ecosystems i n a p l a n n i n g r e g i o n . The p l a n developed i n t h i s Chapter subdivides the study area i n t o compartments emphasizing: 1) continuous'use areas, e.g., urbanized a r e a s , 2) temporary use areas, e.g.,,beach f a c i l i t i e s , 3) managed production,, i . e . a g r i c u l t u r a l c r ops, and 4) n a t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . p l a n t and animal communities. Figure 13 presents an overview o f the p l a n showing those areas conducive to s p e c i f i c land uses and human a c t i v i t i e s based on an understanding o f the e c o l o g i c a l character, o f the study area. As i n f o r m a t i o n from the Po i n t Roberts area i s l a c k i n g those land uses proposed i n that area are very g e n e r a l . Continuous Use Areas The procedure f o r developing the land use p l a n begins by d e t e r -mining the physiographic l i m i t a t i o n s to urban uses. This stage i s adapted from Ian McHarg (1970) and u t i l i z e s i n f o r m a t i o n presented e a r l i e r on: s o i l s , foundation c o n d i t i o n s , s l o p e , f l o o d p l a i n l o c a t i o n and drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Past h i s t o r y has shown that urban development on areas of good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s , excess slopte, poor foundation c o n d i t i o n s , or -100-Figure 13: Authors Proposal-STRAiT Continuous Use Temporary Use Areas Intensive r e c r e a t i o n a l use ''•'''Managed Production Unit (1) E c o l o g i c a l Extensive r e c r e a t i o n a l use Railway realignment. Reserve (2) Keystone Prod= lotion areas those areas l y i n g i n a f l o o d p l a i n or experiencing drainage problems have u s u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n undesirable environmental consequences, such as e r o s i o n or f l o o d i n g . Therefore Figures 5a, 5b, and 8 r e v e a l i n i t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s to development. Combining the s p a t i a l aspects o f these i n d i v i d u a l l i m i t -a t i o n s we are l e f t w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d area s u i t a b l e to urban development and compatible w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment. As McHarg (1970) has shown t h i s approach to determining optimum areas f o r urban development can a l s o be economically a t t r a c t i v e as w e l l as p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y sound. However we must recognize that there are other l i m i t a t i o n s to development not considered i n the approach McHarg takes but recognizable through a knowledge o f ecosystem dynamics. A knowledge of ecosystem dynamics suggests t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s should not employ the use o f a perimeter road system along the beach f r o n t a g e . Such a road would tend to a l t e r the character o f the area at the very l e a s t and a f f e c t the ecosystem at worst by: 1) i n c r e a s i n g sedimentation during road c o n s t r u c t i o n and 2) reducing over the long run sediment and d e t r i t u s flow from the marshes thereby a l t e r i n g h a b i t a t s and lowering p r o d u c t i v i t y . U t i l -i z a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g roadways perpendicular to the s h o r e l i n e would adequately preserve beach access. While increases i n d e n s i t y o f the South Surrey and South D e l t a uplands i s t e n t a t i v e l y acceptable data on the upland environment i s poor. Therefore base l i n e s t u d i e s should commence immediately so reference p o i n t s are e s t a b l i s h e d that monitor changes i n the environment. An example of such a study i s the a n a l y s i s o f the sediment content o f streams to determine f u t u r e increases i n sediment load i n streams due to poor c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s . An increased sediment load would -102-n e c e s s i t a t e g r e a t e r r e s t r i c t i o n s on c o n s t r u c t i o n and th e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e much e a s i e r t o s e c u r e i f " h a r d " d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e t o s u p p o r t the a c c u s a t i o n . A P o t e n t i a l Use A s e c t i o n o f t h e a r e a d e s i g n a t e d as a managed p r o d u c t i o n u n i t c o n t a i n s an abandoned a i r p o r t . Due to a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n a i r p l a n e s a l e s o v e r t h e p a s t few y e a r s and an a t t e n d e n t need f o r hangar f a c i l i t i e s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d Region p r e s s u r e s w i l l be e x e r t e d t o reopen t h e a i r -p o r t . The op e n i n g i s s u b j e c t t o one c o n s t r a i n t . A l a r g e number o f s e a g u l l s from Boundary Bay pass r i g h t o v e r t h e a i r p o r t i n the morning and ev e n i n g hours i n t h e i r d a i l y v i s i t s t o a garbage dump n o r t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . i O b v i o u s l y i n c o m i n g and o u t g o i n g a i r p l a n e f l i g h t s would not t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g t h e morning and e v e n i n g hours ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 hours d u r a t i o n ) due tp t h e dangers o f t h e b i r d s i n t e r t e r r i n g w i t h f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s by t h e d a i l y movements o f w a t e r f o w l does not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u d e t h e r e o p e n i n g o f the a i r p o r t . I f an a i r p o r t can be s a f e l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y o p e r a t e d on a r e s t r i c t e d time and i f the dump can be moved t o an o t h e r l o c a t i o n so t h e movement o f s e a g u l l s does not i n t e r f e r e w i t h f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s a s m a l l s c a l e a i r p o r t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y out o f t h e q u e s t i o n . However, a d d i t i o n a l d a t a must a l s o be c o l l e c t e d on t h e f l i g h t p a t t e r n s o f o t h e r w a t e r f o w l s p e c i e s i n t h e a r e a t o see i f t h e y would p r e s e n t a l a n d / a i r use c o n f l i c t . The p o t e n t i a l f o r r e l a t i n g a s m a l l r e g i o n a l a i r p o r t t o a r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e - Boundary Bay i s q u i t e i n t r i g u i n g and s h o u l d be l o o k e d / i n t o . -103-Temporary Use Areas 1) Intensive r e c r e a t i o n a l uses on the e s t a b l i s h e d beach areas of White Rock, Crescent Beach, Ocean Park, Beach Grove, Centennial Grove on the Canadian s i d e and Maple Beach on the American s i d e . 2) A beach f r o n t walkway w i l l run from Peace Arch Park at the Canada/U.S. border to Crescent Beach; R e l o c a t i o n o f the present r a i l w a y i s assumed and i s e s s e n t i a l i f any i n c r e a s e i n beach use i s to occur. 3) An i n f o r m a t i o n centre should be e s t a b l i s h e d between Crescent Beach and Ocean Park to inform people o f marine l i f e i n the adjacent rock and t i d a l pools and the t i d a l f l a t areas o f Boundary'Bay. The centre should a l s o emphasize the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f the area w i t h , f o r example, a d i s c u s s i o n on the Indian a r t i f a c t s found i n the area o f Crescent Beach. 4) Overnight and group camping f a c i l i t i e s can be provided i n the f l o o d p l a i n , p r o v i d i n g there are no permanent s t r u c t u r e s o u t s i d e o f water and sewage f a c i l i t i e s . A good l o c a t i o n would be j u s t south of the town o f Boundary Bay. 5) Hunting season i n Boundary Bay does not overlap w i t h summer beach use so the beach areas l o c a t e d away from p o p u l a t i o n centres may be l e f t open to the hunters. 6) E x t e n s i v e , low d e n s i t y r e c r e a t i o n a l uses should occur on beach areas below the dykes at the northern s e c t i o n o f Boundary Bay. Very l i t t l e i s known about present r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f the a r e a . A large p o r t i o n o f the Bay from the north end i s unaccessable due to the dangerous nature o f the t i d a l r i s e over a low gradient o f t i d a l f l a t . With low t i d e one has to walk f o r a long time to get near the water, and longer t o get to an adequate swimming ar e a . -104-Benson (1964) suggested the use o f " g r o i n s " to increase the area's use f o r swimming. Groins are small s t r u c t u r e s that t r a p sediment i n areas w h i l e s t i l l a l l o w i n g the water t o pass thus c r e a t i n g s m a l l depressions i n the Bay w i t h t i m e . The use o f the area by waterfowl u s u a l l y increases f o l l o w i n g g r o i n c o n s t r u c t i o n as does eelgrass produc-t i v i t y (Benson, 1964). This combination may make the use o f these s t r u c t u r e s a good management t o o l . 7) R e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g should take place seaward o f the lower t i d a l f l a t s t o p r o t e c t beach users and s e a l pupping areas from dangerous boaters and n o i s e . This p a r t o f the p l a n preserves a wide range o f choice f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . D i v e r s i t y o f opportunity i s seen i n the p r o v i s i o n o f h u n t i n g , camping, extensive and i n t e n s i v e beach a c t i v i -t i e s , swimming, and b o a t i n g . Extensive r e c r e a t i o n a l use i s compatible w i t h the northern p o r t i o n o f the Bay as l i t t l e c u r r e n t l y i s known about i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l . As the hunting season does not overlap with r e c r e a t i o n a l uses o f the Bay the two are compatible and revenue from hunting as w e l l as from r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s has already proven to be s u b s t a n t i a l (Table 8 ) . In a d d i t i o n the educational value o f the area i s tapped wi t h the establishment o f an i n t e r p r e t i v e c e n t r e . By p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s without extensive m o d i f i -c a t i o n o f the Bay ecosystem the plan allows the p u b l i c a gre a t e r l a t t i t u d e o f choice over d e c i s i o n s regarding the long term (10 years +) fu t u r e of the Bay. This r e s u l t has been one o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s - - t o create a framework that r e s u l t s i n open ended p l a n n i n g . -105-Managed Production Unit 1) A l a r g e upland s e c t i o n o f the study a r e a . i s set aside as farmland. The importance o f p r e s e r v i n g the farmland o f D e l t a and Surrey must be viewed i n the context o f the t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the p r o v i n c e . Approximately 2% o f the land area o f the province i s poten-t i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , e x c l u d i n g ^ g r a z i n g . While D e l t a and Surrey do not provide an overwhelming percentage o f B.C.'s a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage, a f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n o f prime acreage would be u n d e s i r a b l e . The unique (moderate) c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s and good s o i l s provide (Figure 5a) some of the best c o n d i t i o n s i n Canada f o r the production o f a v a r i e t y o f vegetable crops i n c l u d i n g peas, beans, cabbage, and b r u s s e l s p r o u t s . Local food costs are reduced w i t h the continued production o f vegetable crops from farm areas i n the Lower Mainland. The d a i r y farms i n D e l t a a l s o a s s i s t i n keeping food costs i n l i n e . In a d d i t i o n to s a t i s f y i n g human demands f o r food the farmlands a l s o provide food f o r the waterfowl populations o f Boundary Bay. In the event o f severe reductions i n farmland surrounding Vancouver, people can get t h e i r food s t u f f s elsewhere, but the waterfowl cannot and t h e i r chances o f s u r v i v a l are a f f e c t e d . At any r a t e the human system and the waterfowl populations l o s e more o f t h e i r r e s i l i e n c e to environmental changes and more options are f o r e c l o s e d w i t h a g r e a t e r dependence on s i n g l e food sources. A s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n farmland could occur w i t h the d e v e l -opment of a s e c t i o n o f land owned by the B.C. Harbours Board. The land area i s p a r t o f 12,000 acres expropriated as backup land f o r the f e d e r a l l y constructed superport at Robert's Bank i n 1968-1969. At -106-present the land has been leased back to farmers u n t i l the B.C. Harbours Board f i n d s t h a t the land w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes; No immediate plans e x i s t f o r the areas and farming leases have r e c e n t l y been extended from two t o three years to f i v e y e a r s . No one i s q u i t e sure ( i n c l u d i n g the Harbours Board) whether the land w i l l a c t u a l l y be converted to i n d u s t r i a l uses. Lack o f such long r a n g e ' p o l i c i e s by the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments f o r urban and r e g i o n a l growth ( i n a f l o o d p l a i n no l e s s ) s e r i o u s l y hampers municipal and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Planning i s d i f f i c u l t , at b e s t , when agencies having a u t h o r i t y over land assignment do not have s t a t e d goals or o b j e c t i v e s regarding urban growth, economic development, and environmental q u a l i t y . While i n d u s t r i a l development on the farmland might i n c r e a s e d i v e r s i t y o f economic choice over the short run p e r i o d the v i a b i l i t y o f Boundary Bay as a r e c r e a t i o n a l area would be seve r e l y a f f e c t e d . Those i n d u s t r i e s normally a s s o c i a t e d with port development are not compatible w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l uses o f the Bay. A i r p o l l u t i o n from the i n d u s t r i a l area would probably blow i n t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l area a f f e c t i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l experience at the l e a s t and i f p o l l u t i o n was to continue the waterfowl populations r e s i d i n g i n the Bay may become a f f e c t e d . N a t u r a l Production Unit 1) Establishment o f the Mud Bay marsh as an E c o l o g i c a l Reserve. The uniqueness o f t h i s area and i t s importance to waterfowl populations deserves s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n by the r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r . The purpose o f the E c o l o g i c a l Reserves Act (Chapter 16, B.C. Land Act,. 1971) i s to reserve crown land f o r e c o l o g i c a l purposes, i n c l u d i n g : "(a) areas s u i t a b l e f o r s c i e n t i f i c , research and educational -107-purposes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d i e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y vand other aspects o f the n a t u r a l environment, "(b) areas which are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f n a t u r a l ecosystems, "^(c) areas that serve as examples o f ecosystems that have been modified by man and that o f f e r an opportunity to study the recovery o f the n a t u r a l ecosystem from such m o d i f i c a t i o n , "(d) areas i n which r a r e or endangered n a t i v e p l a n t s or animals may be preserved i n t h e i r n a t u r a l h a b i t a t , "(e) areas that c o n t a i n unique and rare examples of b o t a n i c a l , , z o o l o g i c a l or g e o l o g i c a l phenomena" (B.C., Department o f Lands, Forests and Water Resources, 1971). Areas having the p o t e n t i a l f o r one or more o f these purposes are reviewed by an E c o l o g i c a l Committee. I f s e l e c t e d by the committee the reserve i s set aside on Crown Land. E c o l o g i c a l reserves are not r e c r e a t i o n a l areas but are t y p i c a l examples of the ecosystems represented i n the Province arid are to be used f o r research purposes. Type o f research may range from pure science to resource management w i t h people such as educators, n a t u r a l hisfo'ry s o c i e t i e s , and n a t u r a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a lists being i n v o l v e d . The Mud Bay S a l t Marsh appears to s a t i s f y a number of the c r i t e r i a necessary to o b t a i n s t a t u s as an e c o l o g i c a l reserve: a) the s a l t marsh i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f n a t u r a l ecosystems, and b) i s a unique ecosystem i n Canada, c) as Chapter I I I pointed out s a l t marshes are extremely p r o -d u c t i v e u n i t s and Mud Bay does not appear to be an e x c e p t i o n , and d) the Mud Bay marsh contains a d i v e r s i t y o f f l o r a and fauna eminently s u i t a b l e f o r s c i e n t i f i c research and educational purposes. However, the marsh i s not crown land and i s s u s c e p t i b l e to development as s o c i a t e d w i t h the expansion o f the Crescent Beach ar e a . Procedures f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the Mud Bay marsh as an e c o l o g i c a l reserve must begin -108-immediately, so the c r i t i c a l area w i l l not be f u r t h e r a l t e r e d by man's conversion o f land to more immediately p r o f i t a b l e uses. J u s t as impor-t a n t i s the n e c e s s i t y to e s t a b l i s h e c o l o g i c a l base l i n e s t u d i e s i n the area to have a f u t u r e i n d i c a t i o n o f man's d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of Mud Bay s p e c i f i c a l l y and ecosystems i n general. 2) Other Steps to Ensure P r e s e r v a t i o n of Keystone Production Areas. S t r a t e g i e s must be developed that- recognize: a) the flow of sediments and d e t r i t u s from the marsh areas and the Serpentine and Nicomekl R i v e r t o the t i d a l f l a t s and b) the importance of the eelgrass beds (Zoestra marina),' as a source of food and h a b i t a t . Placement o f s t r u c t u r e s on the beach areas or t i d a l f l a t s must be preceeded by s t u d i e s that would determine the e f f e c t o f these s t r u c -tures on sedimentation process. In a d d i t i o n f l o o d c o n t r o l and water storage proposals f o r the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers must be preceeded by s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t s o f removal of r i v e r sediments by the r e s e r v o i r , the e f f e c t s o f flow a l t e r a t i o n on marine l i f e and the a l t e r a t i o n o f anadromous f i s h h a b i t a t s and spawning runs. Eelgrass i s c r i t i c a l to the s u r v i v a l o f the black, brant popu-l a t i o n . The brant use the Bay f o r a p e r i o d o f time of t h e i r northward m i g r a t i o n and are s o l e l y dependent on. the eelgrass as a food source. Loss of the eelgrass as a food source would make the brant much more s u s c e p t i b l e to other changes along the P a c i f i c flyway and would undoubtedly r e s u l t i n a r e d u c t i o n i n the p o p u l a t i o n . Thus the brant have no r e s i l i e n c e to environmental changes i n reference to t h e i r food source -109-due t o t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d n i c h e . The events a f f e c t i n g the s u r v i v a l o f species r e s i d i n g b r i e f l y i n one l o c a l i t y w i l l have e f f e c t s which extend beyond the boundaries o f that l o c a l i t y and reach f a r 'into the f u t u r e . Consequently people o f the area should bear a heavy burden o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r conservation o f resources they share w i t h o t h e r s . This r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s recognized by the law. As the brant use the P a c i f i c flyway and are an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r resource Federal involvement may provide a measure o f p r o t e c t i o n through the Migratory B i r d s A c t . In 1916 the United States and Canada signed a t r e a t y f o r purposes of p r o t e c t i n g migratory b i r d s on the North American c o n t i n e n t . A r e s u l t of t h a t t r e a t y was the passage o f the Migratory B i r d s Convention Act (Revised Statutes of Canada, 1930, Sec. 2 ) . The A c t , together w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s made under i t , sets c e r t a i n l i m i t s on hunting season, hunting hours, and bag l i m i t s . I t a l s o r e s t r i c t s hunting methods and equipment, and provides f o r the i s s u e o f s p e c i a l permits f o r propagation, s c i e n t i f i c purposes and p r o t e c t i o n o f crops. The Federal government usin g t h i s act should see that the eelgrass beds o f Boundary Bay are not a l t e r e d as they are c r i t i c a l t o the maintenance o f an (I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e source. P o l l u t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are a l s o important as p o l l u t a n t s would have some e f f e c t on the Boundary Bay ecosystem. Concern was expressed e a r l i e r over the p o t e n t i a l problems w i t h the sewage o u t f a l l at White Rock.' Domestic sewage d i s p o s a l i n small q u a n t i t i e s act as f e r t i l i z e r s to the environment and i f w i s e l y d i s t r i b u t e d could i n c r e a s e f e r t i l i t y and value o f the resources o f Boundary Bay. Excess a d d i t i o n o f sewage and a g r i c u l t u r a l wastes leads t o : -110-1) contamination o f resources such as the o y s t e r beds o f the ar e a , 2) growth o f undesirable species and d e c l i n e o f d e s i r a b l e species (change i n community s t r u c t u r e and function) and 3) a general d e c l i n e i n the p o t e n t i a l f o r b e n e f i c i a l uses o f water. Ketchum (1967) recognizes t h a t current sewage treatment p r a c t i c e s are not s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n s s i n c e f e r t i l i z i n g elements are s t i l l d i s -charged even though organic wastes are l a r g e l y removed. The sewage o u t f a l l from White Rock should be monitored f o r p o l l u t i o n counts o f c o l i f o r m , phosphorus, and n i t r o g e n . P o l l u t i o n problems may r e s u l t from i n d u s t r i a l development at Cherry Point i n Northwest Washington. The Cherry Point development i s di s p o s i n g o f a v a r i e t y o f p o l l u t a n t s t h a t may e v e n t u a l l y f i n d t h e i r way i n t o Boundary Bay v i a the northward current f l o w . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t we examine the nature o f the p o l l u t a n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s at Cherry P o i n t . A by-product o f the I n t a l c o Aluminium smelter i s the chemical f l o u r i d e . F l o u r i d e s p r e c i p i t a t e to form calcium f l o u r i d e which i s a h i g h l y t o x i c b i o l o g i c a l p o i s o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y the f l o u r i d e i s a denatur-ant f o r enzymes. Schneider and Dube (1969) have already recognized changes i n community s t r u c t u r e near the p l a n t . E f f l u e n t s from i n d u s t r i a l activities o f petro chemical p l a n t s are numerous: "These may be organic or i n o r g a n i c and s o l u b l e or non-s o l u b l e i n water. Many of these m a t e r i a l s are extremely t o x i c to marine organisms." (Church and Rubin, 1970). The p o s s i b i l i t y o f an o i l s p i l l d u ring the opera t i o n o f the Cherry Po i n t o i l r e f i n e r i e s i s very r e a l --111-w i t h the probable increase i n shi p t r a f f i c over the next few years i n Georgia S t r a i t the chances are i n c r e a s e d . Long term problems are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development o f a thermal power p l a n t . The p l a n t may burn f o s s i l f u e l s which might produce s e r i o u s a i r p o l l u t i o n problems i f U.S. a i r q u a l i t y emission standards are l a x . Far more dangerious i s the p o t e n t i a l o f nu c l e a r wastes as an e f f l u e n t by-product i f the p l a n t i s to be a nuclearvone. These wastes, e s p e c i a l l y the r a d i o a c t i v e isotopes are cumulative b i o l o g i c a l p o i s o n s . The p o t e n t i a l t h a t a l l o f these p o l l u t a n t s could be c a r r i e d i n t o Boundary Bay may be s l i g h t but l i t t l e i s known about the e f f e c t s they might have on marine h a b i t a t s . M o n i t o r i n g the aforementioned chemicals must begin now to e s t a b l i s h a base l i n e f o r future comparison. Water q u a l i t y moni-t o r i n g procedures must recognize the eight d i f f e r e n t hydrodynamic areas i n an estuary (Figure 14) and should s t r e s s the development o f b i o l o g i c a l i n d i c e s o f p o l l u t i o n whenever possible.. C o n s u l t a t i o n must take place between Canadian and American a u t h o r i t i e s regarding treatment at the source o f the p o l l u t a n t o u t f a l l s . Contingency o i l s p i l l plans must be adopted immediately to deal w i t h such d i s a s t e r s . RESEARCH NEEDS A number of immediate r e s e a r c h needs a r i s e out o f t h i s study. The c a p a b i l i t y o f the designated high i n t e n s i t y beach access to s u s t a i n continuous use over the years without s u f f e r i n g from e r o s i o n i s unknown. Very l i t t l e i s known about the s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p i e r s or j e t t i e s out onto t i d a l f l a t areas. Before any marina -112-Figure 14: Eight d i f f e r e n t hydrodynamic areas i n an e s t u a r i n e s a g i t t a l s e c t i o n OPEN OCEAN ESTUARY High Tide Surface of Water River Drainage Channel i . Low Tide pre_sh. Wafcer.^ ..Mixing,---—' S a l t Water, Zc_r- - Mud-Water n t e r f a c e Very l i t t l e mixing, r e g i o n d e f i a e t h -by h a u d r a u l i c s Aerobic Mud Anaerobic Mud c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a l l o w e d t o t a k e p l a c e on t h e s e f l a t s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t a p h y s i c a l model be b u i l t t o d i s c o v e r changes i n c u r r e n t f l o w , t i d a l v e l o c i t y , s e d i m e n t a t i o n , e t c . caused by c o n s t r u c t i o n o f such s t r u c t u r e s . S i m i l a r l y e n g i n e e r i n g and e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s s h o u l d p r e c e e d d y k i n g and water c o n t r o l p r o p o s a l s . A l o t o f work needs t o be s t a r t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s o f p o l l u t i o n and t h i s s h o u l d commence i m m e d i a t e l y . In a d d i t i o n development o f a computer s i m u l a t i o n model, used e x t e n s i v e l y i n e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h ( f o r a r e v i e w see H o l l i n g , 1972), may be h e l p f u l i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a maximum p o l l u t i o n l o a d f o r Boundary Bay. SUMMARY CONCLUSION We cannot i s o l a t e each i n d i v i d u a l l a n d use c o n s i d e r a t i o n from the whole, n o r can we d e f i n e our o b j e c t i v e s and p l a n s n a r r o w l y w i t h a s i n g l e emphasis, on f o r example, economic growth. We m u s t ( m a i n t a i n a r e s i l i e n c e t o absorb unexpected changes i n the f u t u r e , s i n c e a measure o f t h i s r e s i l i e n c e determines t h e domain o f ecosystem s t a b i l i t y . Thus i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o make s m a l l , d i v e r s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o p r o v i d e f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o f a c t i o n f o r system f l e x i b i l i t y and maximum ' d i v e r s i t y o f p u b l i c c h o i c e . The economic c o s t o f d e t e r m i n i n g and k e e p i n g w i t h i n the domain o f s t a b i l i t y may be a l i t t l e h i g h e r i n t h e s h o r t r u n (e.g. c o s t o f base l i n e s t u d i e s and p o l l u t i o n m o n i t o r i n g ) but i t w i l l p r o v i d e us w i t h the g r e a t e s t amount o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e c u r i t y f o r t h e f u t u r e as advance warning i s e s s e n t i a l t o p r e v e n t l o n g term a l t e r a t i o n s o f the ecosystem. - l f f e -CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION Man has a l t e r e d h i s n a t u r a l environment to s u i t the demands of h i s socio-economic system. The r e s u l t i s severe imbalances i s some r e g i o n a l ecosystems, such as lake E r i e and, d e c l i n i n g s t a b i l i t y or r e s i l i e n c e i n o t h e r s . Man tends to s i m p l i f y ecosystems stressiig-economic gain from the resources present i n the system. The trend toward extensive ecosystem m o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l continue as long as man perceives h i m s e l f independentfrom the environment i n which he l i v e s . I r o n i c a l l y advances i n technology which develop environmental resources i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e n s i v e f a s h i o n increases r a t h e r than decreasetthe complexity of man's i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h e c o l o g i c a l systems. I t i s now recognized t h a t the e f f e c t s of man' s ac t i o n s on e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( b i o l o g i c a l or s o c i a l ) e v e n t u a l l y produce unpleasant consequences f o r man's b i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and economic w e l l b e i n g . The recent e f f e c t of the communication of these problems to the p u b l i c i s an apparent s l i g h t s h i f t i n v a l u e s . Concern f o r "environmental problems" has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n by the passage of l e g i s l a t i o n such as the Canada Water A c t . Nevertheless the r e a l problem continues to beeman's s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s t h a t do not recognize the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the environment and the human community. One aspect of t h i s problem i s the general absence of a reasonably h o l i s t i c approach to land resource p l a n n i n g . An inventory o f resources has u s u a l l y been one of the f i r s t steps i n the planning p rocess, but t h i s has.not always been -115-approached i n a comprehensive manner. Resources have been a n a l y z e d as to q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y , c u r r e n t and p o t e n t i a l u s e s , economic v a l u e , e t c . , on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . To be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e , not o n l y s h o u l d each e e s o u r c e be a n a l y z e d f o r i t s c a p a c i t y t o s u s t a i n u s e s , but a l s o f o r i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r u s e s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s among a b i o t i c and b i o t i c components of t h e ecosystem must be d e t e r m i n e d so thatre'source use does not d i s r u p t t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . INNOVATION The ecosystem concept d e v e l o p e d h e r e p r o v i d e s a framework which r e c o g n i z e s the v a r i e t y of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e environment. I t i s d i r e c t l y u s e f u l i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n e x p l o r i n g . t h e consequences of man's use of t h e l a n d and t h e concept a s s i s t s i n s u g g e s t i n g e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e l a n d u s e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the ecosystem c o n c e p t , brought f o r t h i n Chapter I I , a r e of c o u r s e r e s t r i c t e d i n terms of t h e p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s such as time and money. However, any s u c c e s s f u l p l a n f o r a l a n d a r e a must be >^ ,^  preceeded by a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t h e ecosystem i n v o l v e d . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must t a k e . c o g n i s a n c e of t h e concept of renewable r e s o u r c e s b e i n g p a r t of i n t e r a c t i v e systems. The immediately p r a c t i c a l , a s p e c t s of the ecosystem c o n c e p t , a§ a p p l i e d i n Chapter I I I to Boundary Bay i s to i l l u m i n a t e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among man, o t h e r organisms, and t h e p h y s i c a l environment so a t l e a s t t h e consequences of s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s can be ' p r e d i c t e d . A s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter I I r e c o g n i z e d t h e i n i t i a l -116-c o n c e p t u a l problems man has i n r e l a t i n g h i s s o c i a l system t o the environment as t h e g o a l s and s t r a t e g i e s (of each system) have bended t o oppose each o t h e r . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i s seen a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , o f C h a p t e r V which r e v i e w s t h e impact o f f o u r s e l e c t e d development a l t e r n a t i v e s on t h e Boundary Bay ecosystem. Two p r o p o s a l s which attempt t o open up the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a t o i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l . p u r s u l t s , b o a t i n g and urban use l i e i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e Bay ecosystem. A few key f a c t o r s i n t h e two schemes deserve s p e c i a l mentiorfas t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e assessment o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . F i r s t , t h e s c a l e o f t h e p r o p o s a l s i s q u i t e l a r g e and i n v o l v e s e x t e n s i v e ecosystem a l t e r a t i o n s (Table 10), i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p r e s e n t d e s i r a b l e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e Boundary Bay; ecosystem. Furthermore the two p r o p o s a l s e l i m i n a t e a v a r i e t y o f o p t i o n s , r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e use o f t h e a r e a . The u p l a n d development p r o p o s a l s w h i l e a p p e a r i n g t o have l e s s ecologica-i? impact are s t i l l n a i v e o f t h e p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f and e c o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n the s t u d y a r e a . L o c a t i o n o f a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f one p r o p o s a l on a f l o o d p l a i n i s as example o f t h i s •haivete. In addition'; n e i t h e r concept r e c o g n i z e s t h e purposes o f open space a p a r t from s e r v i n g as a p l a y g r o u n d and a r e a o f v i s u a l r e l i e f . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e u s e s , open space i n the m i d s t o f a development a r e a s h o u l d ; r e c o g n i z e and p r o t e c t t h o s e i d e n t i f i a b l e a r e a s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e m a i n t a i n a n c e o f e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i f p o s s i b l e be e x p l o i t e d f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e ( f o r example those o f n a t u r e -117-s t u d y ) . A new approach to the planned development of Boundary Bay was suggested by i d e n t i f y i n g the physiographic and e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s conducive or r e s t r i c t i v e to s p e c i f i c land uses or human a c t i v i t i e s . By using the "compartmental approach" to landscape planning d i f f e r e n t planning t a c t i c s and o b j d c t i v e s were a p p l i e d to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the landscape. This approach d e l i m i t s areas of human settlement i n the environment where the man/environment r e l a t i o n ^ ship i s a compatible one: -A number oS reasons make the p l a n developed out o f the compartmental mode^superior, to the other development proposals: 1) The approach d i r e c t l y evaluates long term ( p r e v i o u s l y ) hidden c o s t s . Planners must recognize p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of ecosystems i n order t o i n s u r e that the net b e n e f i t s f o r man from(his i n t e r v e n t i o n s are more than j u s t temporary b e n e f i t s f o r some vested i n t e r e s t s . Thus e c o l o g i c a l values share a p l a c e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l economic and s o c i a l concerns r e ; the long,term I m p l i c a t i o n of p l a n n i n g o p t i o n s . . 2) The p l a n recognizes manAs d e s i r e s to l i v e i n the area but the ecosystem imposes i n i t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s on where he s p e c i f i c a l l y l o c a t e s by r e c o g n i z i n g the processes of energy flow and m a t e r i a l c y c l i n g and the r e s t r i c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h physiographic l i m i t a t i o n s , f o r example, excess slope and occurance of a f l o o d p l a i n . 3) The p l a n a l s o recognizes the n e c e s s i t y of p r e s e r v i n g key areas f o r s c i e n t i f i c study as i n the case of the e c o l o g i c a l reserve p r o p o s a l . 4) The concept of r e s i l i e n c e i n e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l -118-systems is directly incorporated into the plan. The setting aside of a large area of land for.nfarmland recognizes a lack of farmland on a provincial and national scale to serve Canada's future food requirements. This farmland i s also an important source of food for the waterfowl that frequent the area. 5)Emphasis on continuous monitoring procedures recognizes the importance of internal s t a b i l i t y in ecosystems. Establishment of ecological base line studies and adequate monitoring procedures for potential pollutants are two examples of the basic type of technical infra-structure required to specify man's impacts on ecosystems. Monitoring specificly refers to the "systematic observation of parameters related to a specific problem,, designed to give information on the characteristics of the problem and their change over time" (SCEP, 1971, p. 68). 6) There i s greater p r e d i c t i b i l i t y of systems parameters over time as a basic grasp of Boundary Bay ecosystem structure and function was obtained in Chapter III. Uncertainty i s quite higher with the other proposals. This is especially true with the development proposals on the ti d a l f l a t s as species would be radically reassorted i f the plans were carried out. 7) Diversity of choice is preserved with a variety^of recreational a c t i v i t i e s available. Urban development is allowed to continue as specified recognizing a basic lack of data on the upland areas and very l i t t l e data for Pt. Roberts. IMPLICATIONS OF THIS APPROACH FOR THE PLANNING PROCESS 1)A "comprehensive" alan must begin with a comprehensive ecosystem analysis emphasizing relationships between organisms and -119-t h e i r environment. 2)The ultimate objective of t h i s a n alysis i s not a s t a t i c environmental d e s c r i p t i o n but: a) the predictions of system responses to a l t e r a t i o n s , and b ) s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n of physiographic and e c o l o g i c a l opportunities and l i m i t a t i o n s for development. 3) Information on e c o l o g i c a l processes should a s s i s t the-""--; d e c i s i o n making process through: a) a d d i t i o n a l information on both the p o s i t i v e and negative consequences of decisions, b) more>Ecomprehensive evaluation of a l t e r n a t i v e s , and c) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of those who stand to.be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a ffected by a plan or project under consideration. 4) Through time the ecosystem concept provides the frame-work for assessing on a case by case basis the c a p a b i l i t y of the eco-system to accomodate suggested changes i n land use. 5) Regulatory controls, (e.g., monitoring) must be b u i l t into the planning process. The r e s u l t s of these controls must "feed back" into plans and p o l i c i e s a l t e r i n g them when necessary. F l e x i b i l i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements i n adapting to these necessary changes i s c r i t i c a l i n t h i s case. 6)Planners must recognize the need to orientate society towards i n t e r n a l s t a b i l t i y rather than expansive growth (Caldwell, 1969). For example, the process of urbanization which builds over productive farmland must be re d i r e c t e d , as i t permanently forecloses an option for the future and increases ones.dependence on a r e s t r i c t e d number of producers. 7 ) F i n a l l y there i s a need to adopt a general planning strategy involving small yet diverse interventions to provide a v a r i e t y -120-o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o f a c t i o n , maximum d i v e r s i t y o f p u b l i c c h o i c e , and i n c r e a s e d chances o f systems s t a b i l i t y . 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"A C o n s i d e r a t i o n of Climax Theory: The Climaxes as a P o p u l a t i o n and P a t t e r n " E c o l o g i c a l Monographs. V o l . 23. pp. 41-78. -129-APPENDIX j J J TABLE IA P o p u l a t i o n growth, D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y Year P o p u l a t i o n Year P o p u l a t i o n Year . P o p u l a t i o n 1961 14,597 1965 18,715 1969 36,537 1962 * 1966 22,011 1970 39,111** 1963 16,187 1967 24,488 1964 17,382 1968 29,801 * No data .** P o p u l a t i o n as a t 28 August, 1970 Table 2A. P o p u l a t i o n trend & f o r e c a s t f o r B r i t i s h Columbia & the Lower Mainland Region, 1921 to 2001 Lower Mainland Region A c t u a l Forecast Year B.C. t o t a l % of B.C. Number 1921 524,582 47.5 249,331 1931 694,263 53.5 371,319 1941 817,861 53.8 440,052 1951 1,165,210 54.6 636,548 1956 1,398,464 53.8 752,983 1961 1,629,082 54.9 893,619 1966 1,873,674 53.7 1,005,824 1971 2,144,000 54.0 1,158,000 1976 2,447,000 54.0 1,321,000 1981 2,793,000 54.0 1,508,000 1986 3,188,000 54.0 1,722,000 2001 4,500,000 53.0 2,400,000 From Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board estimates T y p l C A L - i B E A C H - S E r T i n k i ' SCALE i 30"-0* > VER WIRELESS I i i I a. o ij • . , . w. . '.. - ft .. /• . , " • ' ' *— ... _ : , • UESTIONSFOR AlJOIO-VISUAL-PRZSEHTATIpM - -, PREPARED BY SOUTH- SURREY PIAN/STGpY GROUP . Why i s i t necessary to hav* sestet 120.000 to 125,000 psopie i n the Whit* > _ » w k -3 U t h Surrey awa? Do you beliov* that * trunV. sever line of a certain.capacity ia adequat® s t i f i c a t i o n for 'a certain population density? - If this plan ie a "peoples*- - »la»" --why- v*re "peopla" not involve:! in fors^-lating h* '.basic assumptions, upon which this plan vas based? . How sany of the school - sites-required for -this- plan' have fcsen '-aec-uired? What i s he-eoticvited cost of these additional -school sites iv they acquired r >w? tfh&t i l l the cost be i f thev are acv?uire* 10-29 years from now? What portion of .'this cost «st borne by • ratepayers?. .« W.-at is the estimated capital .cost of nc* - schools" for th« area ;*t fi'-st cycl« * turn1: ion? What portion of this cost must b» borne by ratepayers?. Villi storrs sewers 'be necessary i f the. proposed density occurs? Slhat ai.ll be the oct: to'ratepayers? •• . Why hav<» no additional hospitals beer: included in the plan* 'Vhat-will be the cost 1. ade>-m-:ito hospital f a c i l i t i e s - at f i r s t cycle saturation? What portion of this cor.t rjst be l-orns by ratepayers? .Why h-xs the Mayor established a committee to "review b y - l a w s p o l i c i e s anii •rocedures and to .reco—mend to Ctrjnc.il any change's deemed necessary for greater fficiehcy'? Why i s 50% of this cossasittee ©ads up of-' representative-, of io.rg« evelopjsent 'corspahies? Are any of the principals of these companies Be5nbers of the iherai P^rty? -As Stan .M-xinnon has said of this cosmittee, "Incredible.. Wusn wolves are appointed e .sheoetrds, you can guess who gets shorn"; • - • • . ' Some changes siem to have been 3ade in the Audio-Visas! presentation. - If so, what these changes? ilas- the plan been accordingly asodif ieo*.? ">. Reliable sources indicate that-.>. race track w i l l bo established near Mud Bay on old Kelly farm w i t h i n s few years. Doss this f i t .into the. plan? , Without increased -access to t h f r D e a s freeway how w i l l the f i s s t cycle saturation opul&tion'wove to and from • Vancouver?.-•'• 2. fine of the reasons suggested for the need to adopt a plan at? quickly as possible s that there is a 'freeas on zoning? Is there a freeze on reaoning? .3. .What w i l l i t cost the ratepayers of Surrey to establish MiS service the town centre? !<5. Are the definitions c? the various areas cr. page 1 of the' S*S version of. the Plan/ tudy correct? -5. The Plan proposes the widening of-Crescent, Read to 4 lanes. Villi increased parking e developed at Crescent Beach to handle additional vehichles? Xf. 5->. where? 6. The Mayor has suggeste!- that the" proposed «ystc» of 4-lar.e- park way 3 are envisaged s handling about 10,000 to 40.000 vehichles per day.-. Is this the load on each parkway? 7. 'Is there a section of the Plan/Study, dealing with the ecological effects of the plan as an ecological inventory of tJva ar*i* been completed by the consultants- or by any ther persons? 3. -.The report suggests a pojiulation of 113,500 at f i r s t cycle saturation. What is he projected population for second cycle saturation and when v i i l this occur? ?. When w i l l the financial section of this Plan/Study bo released? Can you infoca -he ratepayers of Surrey now how much Implementation of this pinn w i l l cent thae»? 0. Are the Mayor and Council amenable to in-depth stud;,* .of the plan by .th4 citizens f the.area? .' . '. ,• 

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