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Defining the Chinese other : White supremacy, schooling and social structure in British Columbia before… Stanley, Timothy John 1991

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DEFINING THE CHINESE OTHER: WHITE SUPREMACY, SCHOOLING AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BEFORE 1923 by TIMOTHY JOHN STANLEY B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1975 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1991 © Timothy John S t a n l e y , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2788) ABSTRACT D u r i n g t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , r a c i s m , i n t h e form o f w h i t e supremacy, shaped r e l a t i o n s between w h i t e s and C h i n e s e B r i t i s h Columbians. I n r e s i s t i n g and accommodating t o w h i t e supremacy, t h e C h i n e s e were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , a l o n g w i t h t h e members o f t h e dominant s o c i e t y , i n s h a p i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s . White supremacy was c o n s e q u e n t l y a dynamic system, one whose many p a r t s were c o n t i n u a l l y i n f l u x , and whose c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t s — n o t i o n s o f " r a c e " and B r i t i s h Columbia as "a White Man's p r o v i n c e " — w e r e l a r g e l y p o l i t i c a l i n n a t u r e . The t h e s i s argues t h a t w h i t e supremacy, as b o t h i d e o l o g y and o r g a n i z a t i o n , was d e e p l y imbedded i n B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i e t y . E x c l u s i o n based on " r a c e " was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o government i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e y were remade a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o enhance t h e power o f w h i t e male p r o p e r t y - o w n e r s . By t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o f " t h e Chinaman" and " t h e O r i e n t a l " were used as f o i l s i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f i d e f i t i t i e s as " w h i t e s " and as "Canadians." The o f f i c i a l p u b l i c s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m t r a n s m i t t e d t h e s e n o t i o n s , w h i l e s c h o o l s t h e m s e l v e s o r g a n i z e d supremacy i n p r a c t i c e by im p o s i n g r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n on many C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . I n r e a c t i o n , t h e C h i n e s e c r e a t e d t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n s and i d e o l o g i e s . W h i l e t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t e n had c o n t i n u i t i e s w i t h t h e c u l t u r e o f South C h i n a , t h e p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f most B.C. C h i n e s e , t h e y were p r i m a r i l y a d a p t a t i o n s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, i n c l u d i n g t h e r e a l i t i e s o f r a c i s m . C h i n e s e language s c h o o l s p l a y e d an e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n h e l p i n g t o c r e a t e a C h i n e s e merchant p u b l i c s e p a r a t e from t h e dominant s o c i e t y . T h i s p u b l i c was a t once t h e consequence o f e x c l u s i o n and t h e g r e a t e s t community r e s o u r c e i n r e s i s t i n g w h i t e supremacy. The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s by q u e s t i o n i n g t h e w o r k a b i l i t y o f contemporary a n t i - r a c i s t s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h t r e a t r a c i s m as a m a r g i n a l phenomenon, o r as m e r e l y a s e t o f m i s t a k e n i d e a s . I n s t e a d , i t s u g g e s t s t h a t such s t r a t e g i e s must r e c o g n i z e t h a t r a c i s m i s one o f t h e major s t r u c t u r e s o f Canadian s o c i e t y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i FOREWORD v i i i C h a p t e r ONE. SCHOOL SEGREGATION, THE CHALLENGE OF CHINESE ACTIVITY AND THE HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 The 1922-23 S t r i k e o f C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s i n V i c t o r i a 1 Racism 5 The C h i n e s e 14 H i s t o r y 24 Racism and "The S t a t e " 38 S c h o o l i n g 46 Chapter O u t l i n e 49 TWO. ESTABLISHING THE WHITE MAN'S PROVINCE: RACISM, SCHOOLING AND STATE FORMATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 50 The I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S c h o o l S e g r e g a t i o n f o r S t a t e F o r m a t i o n 50 "Race" and t h e C r e a t i o n o f t h e B.C. P u b l i c . . 58 The New C o l o n i a l M a s t e r s • 71 B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l i s m and F i r s t N a t i o n s 77 E x c l u d i n g t h e Ch i n e s e 85 The P o l i t i c a l C o n t e x t o f S c h o o l S e g r e g a t i o n . . 91 THREE. WHITE SUPREMACY AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHINESE CANADIAN SOCIETY 98 S e g r e g a t i o n and S o l i d a r i t y 98 Ch i n e s e B r i t i s h Columbians 101 Cheap Labour 110 Gender, C l a s s and White Supremacy 121 Chinatowns 132 Merchant S o c i e t y 13 8 Ch i n e s e Canadians and "t h e S t a t e " 141 The C h i n e s e Canadian S t a t e . . . . 148 Ch i n e s e Canadian C u l t u r e 158 i v C h a p t e r Page FOUR. DEFINING THE CHINESE OTHER: WHITE SUPREMACY AND LEADING OPINION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 162 L e a d i n g O p i n i o n 162 C h i n e s e " A l i e n s " and " N a t i v e " W h i t e s 170 Canadian N a t i o n a l i s m 175 O r i e n t a l A l i e n n e s s as a S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t . . . 181 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n v s . D e s c r i p t i o n 184 The I m m u t a b i l i t y o f A l i e n n e s s 188 The Menace o f A l i e n n e s s 195 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and t h e C h i n e s e 203 FIVE. SCHOOLING AND THE ORGANIZATION AND IDEOLOGY OF WHITE SUPREMACY: EDUCATIONAL INDOCTRINATION AND SCHOOL SEGREGATION 208 S c h o o l i n g and t h e White Man's P r o v i n c e . . . . 208 Textbook R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f I m p e r i a l i s m . . . . 216 The Nexus o f " C h a r a c t e r " 223 C r e a t i n g O t h e r s 228 The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f "Race" 233 S e g r e g a t i o n and A s s i m i l a t i o n 236 Demands f o r S e g r e g a t i o n 242 Se g r e g a t e d S c h o o l s . . 248 The E x p e r i e n c e o f S e g r e g a t i o n 2 59 SIX. WHITE SUPREMACY, CHINESE CANADIAN SOCIETY AND PATTERNS OF SCHOOLING DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY 266 S c h o o l i n g and t h e C h i n e s e 266 C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n a l T r a d i t i o n s 271 S c h o o l i n g and t h e F o r m a t i o n o f . ' t h e C h i n e s e Merchant P u b l i c 286 "Chinamen, no m a t t e r where we go" 294 The C l a s s N a t u r e o f C h i n e s e S c h o o l i n g 3 01 The Growth o f t h e C h i n e s e S e c t o r 312 SEVEN. "QUESTIONING THE EXISTENCE OF THE WORLD." 319 White Supremacy 319 S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e 325 S c h o o l i n g and t h e P u b l i c Realm 330 BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 34 P r i m a r y Sources 334 Secondary R e f e r e n c e s 34 0 v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page I . BRITISH COLUMBIA POPULATION BY ORIGINS, 1870-1931 69 I I . SEGREGATED DIVISIONS BY SCHOOL IN VANCOUVER AND VICTORIA WITH MALE/FEMALE ENROLMENTS, 1907-1931 253 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS W h i l e any e r r o r s o f o m i s s i o n o r commission a r e e n t i r e l y my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h i s t h e s i s would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e and s u p p o r t o f many o t h e r s . I owe a most p r o f o u n d d e b t t o t h e members and a c t i v i s t s o f t h e B.C. O r g a n i z a t i o n t o F i g h t R acism, i n p a r t i c u l a r Charan G i l l and Kay Ryan. The i d e a s p r e s e n t e d h e r e were shaped t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h members o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s and t h e C e n t r e f o r P o l i c y S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C., i n c l u d i n g B i l l Bruneau, Donald F i s h e r , C e l i a Haig-Brown, Cathy James, M i c h a e l Law, Theres a R i c h a r d s o n , Murray Ross and Tony Varga . B i l l M a c i e j k o p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e by r a i s i n g f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s when mine were e x h a u s t e d , and by b r i n g i n g key t h e o r e t i c a l works and i s s u e s t o my a t t e n t i o n . J e a n Barman a l s o l e n t h e r s u p p o r t and encouragement. B r u c e Ryder k i n d l y l e n t me h i s m a n u s c r i p t on "Racism and t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . " My f r i e n d and t r a v e l l i n g companion, S t a n l e y H e r s c h o r n , i n s i s t e d t h a t I r e a d Hannah A r e n d t . A t v a r i o u s t i m e s , E. B r i a n T i t l e y , P a t r i c i a E. Roy and J.A. Mangan have a l s o s u p p l i e d encouragement. My committee members have been p a r t i c u l a r l y s u p p o r t i v e . A l l a n Smith p u t up w i t h l o n g d e l a y s , f o l l o w e d by u n r e a s o n a b l e d e a d l i n e s . My c o - a d v i s o r s , J . Donald W i l s o n and V i n c e n t D'Oyley, have f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s work i n e v e r y way. J . Don a l d W i l s o n gave me t h e b e n e f i t o f h i s p r o f o u n d knowledge o f Cana d i a n h i s t o r y , b r o u g h t t o my a t t e n t i o n c o u n t l e s s r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h I would have o t h e r w i s e o v e r l o o k e d , and c a r e f u l l y e d i t e d my m a n u s c r i p t s s a v i n g me e n d l e s s embarrassment. He has p r o v i d e d me w i t h an exemplary model f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e work o f s t u d e n t s . V i n c e n t D'Oyley s u g g e s t e d t h a t I pursue t h e p r o j e c t I n ' t h e f i r s t p l a c e and has g u i d e d me t h r o u g h t h e many p i t f a l l s o f a g r a d u a t e c a r e e r . A t e v e r y t u r n , he has l e n t me t h e b e n e f i t o f h i s wisdom and e x p e r i e n c e i n making t h i s p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e . O t h e r s a l s o need acknowledgment: my p a r e n t s , Norman and Ann S t a n l e y , f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g w i t h t h e i r l i v e s t h a t r a c i s m i s a l i e ; my c h i l d r e n , E l a n o r and K a t h e r i n e B o y l e - S t a n l e y , f o r t e a c h i n g me what i t i s t o be human. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank F r a n c e s K. B o y l e f o r h e r u n f l a g g i n g s u p p o r t , h e r f o r b e a r a n c e , h e r c a r e f u l p r o o f - r e a d i n g and most o f a l l f o r h e r l o v e . v i i FOREWORD The d i s c u s s i o n on s c h o o l s e g r e g a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a w h i c h runs t h r o u g h t h e t h e s i s was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d under t h e t i t l e "White Supremacy, C h i n e s e S c h o o l i n g and S c h o o l S e g r e g a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a : The Case o f t h e 1922-1923 Ch i n e s e S t u d e n t s S t r i k e , " H i s t o r i c a l Studies in Education/Revue d ' h i s t o r i e de l'education 2,2 ( F a l l 1990): 287-305. The d i s c u s s i o n on s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s w h i c h appears i n r e v i s e d form i n C h a p t e r F i v e was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d as "White Supremacy and t h e R h e t o r i c o f E d u c a t i o n a l I n d o c t r i n a t i o n : A C a n a d i a n Case-Study" i n J.A. Mangan (ed.) Making Imperial M e n t a l i t i e s : S o c i a l i z a t i o n and B r i t i s h Imperialism (Manchester: M a n c h e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1990), 144-162. v i i i CHAPTER ONE: SCHOOL SEGREGATION, THE CHALLENGE OF CHINESE ACTIVITY AND THE HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The 1922-23 S t r i k e of Chinese Students in V i c t o r i a I n September 1922, t h e V i c t o r i a S c h o o l Board a t t e m p t e d t o s e g r e g a t e a l l o f t h e Ch i n e s e s t u d e n t s e n r o l e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t ' s e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . On September 5, t h e f i r s t day o f c l a s s e s , t h e p r i n c i p a l s o f t h e Boys' C e n t r a l and t h e George J a y S c h o o l s c a l l e d t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s o u t o f t h e i r c l a s s e s , l i n e d them up and marched them down t h e r o a d t o t h e s c h o o l s w h i c h had been s e t a s i d e f o r t h e C h i n e s e o n l y . 1 Much t o t h e s u r p r i s e o f t h e V i c t o r i a S c h o o l Board and i t s o f f i c i a l s , t h e Ch i n e s e community d i d n o t p a s s i v e l y a c q u i e s c e t o . t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y move. When P r i n c i p a l J.A. Cunningham o f Boys' C e n t r a l S c h o o l and h i s charges r e a c h e d t h e s e g r e g a t e d K i n g ' s Road 1 F o r a c c o u n t s o f s c h o o l s e g r e g a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , see Mary Ashworth, "Chapter Two, The C h i n e s e , " i n The Forces Which Shaped Them: A History of the Education of Minority Group Children in B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: New S t a r Books, 1979), 54-90; D a v i d Chuenyan L a i , "The I s s u e o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , 1901-1923," Canadian Ethnic Studies/Etudes ethniques au Canada XIX, 3 (1987): 47-67. On t h e e v e n t s o f September 5, 1922, see " C h i n e s e P u p i l s S t a r t * R e b e l l i o n ' , 1 1 V i c t o r i a Daily Times, September 6, 1922, 2. A t no p o i n t was t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f t h e h a n d f u l o f C h i n e s e h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s e r i o u s l y p r o p o s e d . I t would have been f a r t o o e x p e n s i v e . 1 2 S c h o o l , . . . a C h i n e s e boy h o l d i n g t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g t h e q u i e t e s t and most s t u d i o u s i n t h e c l a s s s h o u t e d something i n t h e O r i e n t a l l i n g o , and l i k e a f l a s h t h e parade d i s b a n d e d , l e a v i n g P r i n c i p a l Cunningham i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e roadway and wondering how he c o u l d overcome t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . 2 S i m i l a r e v e n t s t o o k p l a c e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s from t h e George Jay S c h o o l . 3 The C h i n e s e community had o r g a n i z e d a b o y c o t t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system i n V i c t o r i a t o p r e s s u r e t h e s c h o o l b o a r d i n t o a l l o w i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r former c l a s s e s . D e s p i t e v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s a t r e s o l u t i o n i n t h e coming months, t h e d e a d l o c k between t h e C h i n e s e community and t h e V i c t o r i a S c h o o l B oard c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r . C o n s e q u e n t l y d u r i n g t h e 1922-1923 s c h o o l y e a r , " l e s s t h a n s i x " C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n V i c t o r i a , compared t o 216 t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . 4 T h i s i n c i d e n t poses a number o f problems f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f r a c i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y . To d a t e t h e major s t u d i e s o f r a c i s t i d e o l o g y and i t s p l a c e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l and 2 " C h i n e s e P u p i l s S t a r t * R e b e l l i o n ' . " 3 I b i d . 4 B r i t i s h C olumbia, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Fifty-Second Annual Report of the Public Schools of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1922-23 ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1923) ( h e n c e f o r t h r e f e r r e d t o as Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Annual Report), F45, and " O r i e n t a l s H e a l t h Menace i n S c h o o l s , I n s p e c t o r A s s e r t s , " V i c t o r i a Daily Times, J a n u a r y 12, 1922, 18. 3 s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e p r o v i n c e have f o c u s e d e n t i r e l y on " w h i t e s , " 5 t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a c t i v i t i e s . 6 I n c i d e n t s such as t h e 1922-23 d i s p u t e between V i c t o r i a ' s C h i n e s e community and t h e s c h o o l board s u g g e s t t h a t a d i f f e r e n t approach i s needed. The members o f t a r g e t g roups such as t h e C h i n e s e d i d n o t meekly submit t o w h i t e d o m i n a t i o n , b u t a c t i v e l y r e s i s t e d r a c i s t p r e s s u r e s sometimes s u c c e s s f u l l y . As t a r g e t groups c h a l l e n g e d some measures and accommodated t h e m s e l v e s t o o t h e r s , r a c i s t i d e a s and a c t i v i t i e s i n t u r n changed. T h i s means t h a t t h e members o f t a r g e t groups need t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t as a c t o r s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia who p l a y e d a r o l e i n s h a p i n g t h e s o c i e t y , i t s p o l i t i c s and p u b l i c l i f e . Once t h e a c t i v e , i f u n e q u a l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i s t o r y o f s u b o r d i n a t e groups l i k e t h e C h i n e s e i s r e c o g n i z e d , t h e s t u d y o f r a c i s m can no l o n g e r f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e a t t i t u d e s and 5 T h i s term i s used w i t h some r e l u c t a n c e and f o r 'want o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p l a c e m e n t . I f used u n c r i t i c a l l y , i t can i m p l y t h a t r a c i a l i d e n t i t i e s were grounded i n a n e u t r a l and o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y w h i c h , i t w i l l be argued, t h e y were n o t . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e i s no r e a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p l a c e m e n t t o r e f e r t o t h e conglomerate o f p e o p l e o f p r i m a r i l y B r i t i s h , e a s t e r n Canadian and American o r i g i n s , who o f t e n c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s " w h i t e , " sometimes "Anglo-Saxons," and who used t h e s e term as a way o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a s h a r e d i d e n t i t y . Where a p p r o p r i a t e , I have used terms such as "Anglo-C a n a d i a n " and "European," b u t e x c e p t when d i r e c t l y c i t i n g h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s I have a v o i d e d o t h e r " r a c e " l a b e l s e n t i r e l y . The t e r m " C h i n e s e " i s i n t e n d e d t o r e f e r t o a n a t i o n a l o r e t h n i c group. 6 The two most i m p o r t a n t works a r e W. P e t e r Ward, White Canada Forever: Popular Attitudes and Public P o l i c y Toward Orientals in B r i t i s h Columbia ( M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978) and P a t r i c i a E. Roy, A White Man's Province: B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i t i c i a n s and Chinese and Japanese Immigrants, 1858-1914 (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1989). 4 p r a c t i c e s o f t h e dominant group. R a t h e r i t must c o n s i d e r t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f b o t h dominant and s u b o r d i n a t e groups and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. Racism t h e n becomes f u n d a m e n t a l l y a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a dominant and a s u b o r d i n a t e group, r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y a s e t o f p r e j u d i c i a l i d e a s and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s however r e p r e h e n s i b l e . P r e j u d i c e , i n d i v i d u a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c v i o l e n c e , a l l promote t h e dominance o f t h e members o f one group o v e r t h e members o f t h e o t h e r , a t t h e same t i m e t h a t r a c i s t i d e o l o g y j u s t i f i e s t h i s dominance and d e f i n e s w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g t o w h i c h groups. Racism i n t h i s sense e s t a b l i s h e s t h e dominance o f one group w h i l e c i r c u m s c r i b i n g t h e l i v e s o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e group members, p r o f o u n d l y i n h i b i t i n g t h e i r l i f e c h o i c e s . I n s o c i e t i e s l i k e t h a t o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, i t has came t o i n v o l v e what, i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , Hannah A r e n d t r e f e r r e d t o as " t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f an e n t i r e t e x t u r e o f l i f e a c c o r d i n g t o an i d e o l o g y . " 7 W h i l e a d m i t t e d l y r a c i s m has not been t h e o n l y form of d o m i n a t i o n t o o p e r a t e i n t h e above ways, 8 i t has been o f a t b e s t m a r g i n a l i n t e r e s t t o Canadian h i s t o r i a n s and r e m a i n s t o be r e c o g n i z e d as t h e major f a c t o r i n s h a p i n g our s o c i e t y t h a t i t has 7 See Hannah A r e n d t , The O r i g i n s of T o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , new ed. w i t h added p r e f a c e s , (San Diego, New York and London: H a r v e s t / H B J , 1951, 1979). She o b s e r v e d t h a t " I n N a z i Germany, q u e s t i o n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f r a c i s m and a n t i - s e m i t i s m when n o t h i n g m a t t e r e d b u t r a c e o r i g i n , when a c a r e e r depended upon an A A r y a n ' physiognomy (Himmler used t o s e l e c t t h e a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e SS from photographs) and t h e amount o f f o o d upon t h e number o f one's J e w i s h g r a n d p a r e n t s , was l i k e q u e s t i o n i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e w o r l d " (363) . 8 I p a r t i c u l a r l y have i n mind o p p r e s s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o gender and c l a s s . 5 i n f a c t been. 9 A t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t , t h i s l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t once r a c i s m has been woven i n t o t h e " t e x t u r e o f l i f e , " i t s o p e r a t i o n s have been by and l a r g e i n v i s i b l e t o members o f t h e dominant group o r have become so t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d as t o appear n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g t h e r e f o r e argues t h a t r a c i s m was i n t e g r a l t o t h e making o f B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i e t y (and, by e x t e n s i o n , t h a t o f Canada as a whole) d u r i n g t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . White supremacy i s t h e form o f r a c i s m t h a t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s argument. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d t o documenting ways i n w h i c h t h e dominance o f " w h i t e s " was c o n s t r u c t e d o v e r non-white g r o u p s , i n p a r t i c u l a r B r i t i s h Columbians o f C h i n e s e a n c e s t r y , and t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e s e o t h e r groups i n c o n t e s t i n g t h i s dominance. S i n c e i t was one o f t h e few i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y whose c l a i m s t o u n i v e r s a l i t y r e q u i r e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o t h w h i t e s and C h i n e s e , s c h o o l i n g w i l l be t h e p r i n c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r t h e s t u d y . Racism The B r i t i s h s o c i o l o g i s t R o b e r t M i l e s has defended t h e v a l u e o f r a c i s m as an a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r y when n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d as an 9 F o r example, C a r l B e r g e r i n The Writing of Canadian History: Aspects of English-Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Writing since 1900, 2d ed. ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1986) has n o t e d t h a t s t u d i e s o f " t h e o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s o f elements o f t h e n a t i v e - b o r n , B r i t i s h - C a n a d i a n m a j o r i t y " have done much " t o q u a l i f y , i f n o t o v e r t h r o w , t h e image o f Canada as a r e l a t i v e l y t o l e r a n t community" (31 1 ) , but sees t h i s m e r e l y as p a r t o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f " e t h n i c h i s t o r y " t o " t h e new h i s t o r y " ( I b i d . , 307-12). 6 i d e o l o g y . He n o t e s , The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c o n t e n t o f r a c i s m as an i d e o l o g y i s , f i r s t , i t s s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f some b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s ) as t h e c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h a c o l l e c t i v i t y may be i d e n t i f i e d . I n t h i s way, t h e c o l l e c t i v i t y i s r e p r e s e n t e d as h a v i n g a n a t u r a l , unchanging o r i g i n and s t a t u s , and t h e r e f o r e as b e i n g i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Second, t h e group so i d e n t i f i e d must be a t t r i b u t e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l , n e g a t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and/or must be r e p r e s e n t e d as i n d u c i n g , n e g a t i v e consequences f o r any o t h e r . Those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be e i t h e r b i o l o g i c a l o r c u l t u r a l . Thus a l l t h e p e o p l e c o n s i d e r e d t o make up a n a t u r a l , b i o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i v i t y a r e r e p r e s e n t e d as p o s s e s s i n g a range o f ( n e g a t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d ) b i o l o g i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 1 0 I n e f f e c t , r a c i s m p i c k s a b i o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t y t h a t can d e f i n e a group, and a s c r i b e s a d d i t i o n a l n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h a t p r o p e r t y so t h a t a l l members o f t h a t group appear, n a t u r a l l y and u n c h a n g i n g l y , t o have t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m p l y because t h e y s u p p o s e d l y s h a r e t h e same b i o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t y . Thus t h e sta t e m e n t " B l a c k s a r e l a z y " i s r a c i s t s i n c e 1) i t p i c k s s k i n c o l o u r t o d e f i n e a group, 2) a s s i g n s t h e n e g a t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l a z i n e s s t o a l l members o f t h e group and 3) has t h e e f f e c t o f a s c r i b i n g t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l a z i n e s s t o a l l i n d i v i d u a l s whose s k i n c o l o u r can be c l a s s i f i e d as " B l a c k . " C e n t r a l t o M i l e s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f r a c i s m i s t h e c o n c e p t o f " r a c i a l i s a t i o n . " He d e f i n e s " r a c i a l i s a t i o n " as " [ a n i d e o l o g i c a l ] p r o c e s s o f d e l i n e a t i o n o f group b o u n d a r i e s and o f a l l o c a t i o n o f p e r s o n s w i t h i n t h o s e b o u n d a r i e s by p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e t o ( s u p p o s e d l y ) i n h e r e n t c u l t u r a l and/or b i o l o g i c a l ( u s u a l l y 1 0 R o b e r t M i l e s , Racism, Key Id e a s S e r i e s (London: R o u t l e d g e , 1989), 79. 7 p h e n o t y p i c a l ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " 1 1 The d i v i s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n s i n t o " r a c e s " i s a common form o f r a c i a l i s a t i o n . M i l e s p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s i s "a d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n " s i n c e " a s c r i b i n g a r e a l o r a l l e g e d b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h meaning t o d e f i n e t h e O t h e r n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s d e f i n i n g S e l f by t h e same c r i t e r i o n . " A c c o r d i n g l y , European d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e o f A f r i c a as " b l a c k , " t h o s e o f E a s t A s i a as " y e l l o w " and t h o s e o f t h e A m e r i c a s as " r e d " were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e m s e l v e s as " w h i t e . " 1 2 M i l e s ' d i s c u s s i o n s o f r a c i s m and r a c i a l i z a t i o n b u i l d upon a l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h a t " r a c e " c a t e g o r i e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . The p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f " r a c e " i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t . F i r s t , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e v a r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c a t t e m p t s t o s o r t and c l a s s i f y human b e i n g s on t h e b a s i s o f p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been f r a u g h t w i t h d i f f i c u l t y . 1 3 As A s h l e y Montagu has p o i n t e d o u t , 1 1 I b i d . , 74. M i l e s b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o have a r a c i a l i z i n g d i s c o u r s e w i t h o u t " r a c e . " T h i s was e s s e n t i a l l y h i s argument w i t h r e s p e c t t o I r i s h w o r k i n g c l a s s i m m i g r a n t s t o E n g l a nd i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . See R o b e r t M i l e s , Racism and Migrant Labour: A C r i t i c a l Text (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1982). Much o f Anglophone/Francophone r e l a t i o n s i n Canada and Quebec c o u l d be seen as r a c i a l i z e d i n t h i s sense. 1 2 Indeed d e f i n i n g p e o p l e as "European" was s i m u l t a n e o u s w i t h a p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i n g O t h e r s as " O r i e n t a l . " See Edward W. S a i d , Orientalism (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1978). 1 3 Stephen J . Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: N o r t o n , 1981); Nancy L. Stepan, The Idea of Race in Science: Great B r i t a i n , 1800-1960 (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1982); R i c h a r d C. L e w o n t i n , S t e v e n Rose, and Leon J . Kamin, Not in our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984); and M i c h a e l S c h i f f and R i c h a r d L e w o n t i n , Education and Class: The Irrelevance of IQ Genetic Studies ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1986) . A l l [ a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l ] c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f " r a c e " have t a k e n c o m p l e t e l y f o r g r a n t e d t h e o n l y t h i n g w h i c h r e q u i r e d t o be p r o v e n , namely, t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f r a c e c o r r e s p o n d e d t o a r e a l i t y w h i c h c o u l d a c t u a l l y be measured and v e r i f i e d and d e s c r i p t i v e l y s e t out so t h a t i t c o u l d be seen t o be a f a c t . I n s h o r t , t h a t t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f r a c e i s t r u e w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s i n n a t u r e groups o f human b e i n g s c o m p r i s e d o f i n d i v i d u a l s each o f whom p o s s e s s e s a c e r t a i n a g g r e g a t e o f c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y s e r v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o f a l l o t h e r g r o u p s . 1 4 I n o t h e r words, i t remains t o be demonstrated t h a t human " r a c e s " a r e " n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s . 1 , 1 5 Indeed c r i t i c i s m o f t h e use o f t h i s t e r m by b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n t i s t s i s as o l d as i t s use. 1 6 Even where " r a c e s " a r e n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n b i o l o g i c a l t e rms, as p o p u l a t i o n s d e f i n e d by gene o r b l o o d group f r e q u e n c i e s , t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s p r o b l e m a t i c . Montagu has argued t h a t t h e use o f t h e te r m " r a c e " t o r e f e r t o p o p u l a t i o n s d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f gene f r e q u e n c i e s i s m i s l e a d i n g : " t h e v e r y n o t i o n * r a c e ' i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e s t u d y o f p o p u l a t i o n g e n e t i c s , f o r t h e former t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e a l s w i t h f i x e d c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h e l a t t e r w i t h f l u i d o r f l u c t u a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . " 1 7 I n any e v e n t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f b i o l o g i s t s and g e n e t i c i s t s would p r o b a b l y agree t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f human " r a c e s , " i f t h e y a c c e p t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e a t a l l , i s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r commonality. I n t h i s r e s p e c t i t has been shown t h a t g e n e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n p o p u l a t i o n s a r e g r e a t e r 1 4 A s h l e y Montagu, "The Concept o f Race i n t h e Human S p e c i e s i n t h e L i g h t o f G e n e t i c s , " i n A s h l e y Montagu ( e d . ) , The Concept of Race, (London: F r e e P r e s s o f Glen c o e , 1964), 5. 1 5 M i l e s , Racism, 73. 1 6 Montagu, "Concept o f Race," 2, 15-18. I b i d . , 19. 9 t h a n t h o s e between p o p u l a t i o n s . 1 8 Whether human " r a c e s " can be s a i d t o e x i s t on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s , t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s c e r t a i n l y a m a t t e r o f p o p u l a r f a i t h . I t i s "common sense" t h a t t h e r e a r e " r a c e s , " p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s k i n c o l o u r s , even though on a g l o b a l s c a l e s k i n c o l o u r v a r i a t i o n s a r e g r a d u a l and c o n t i n u o u s , r a t h e r t h a n sudden and s h a r p l y f i x e d . I n a d d i t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l appearance ( t o d a y as w e l l as h i s t o r i c a l l y ) have been o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n v i s i b l e m e n t a l and m o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The p r o blem i s , as Montagu p u t s i t , " [ t ] h e r e i s no such t h i n g as t h e k i n d o f ^ r a c e ' i n w h i c h t h e layman [ s i c ] b e l i e v e s , namely, t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s an i n d i s s o l u b l e a s s o c i a t i o n between m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h make i n d i v i d u a l members o f c e r t a i n * r a c e s ' e i t h e r i n f e r i o r o r s u p e r i o r t o t h e members o f c e r t a i n o t h e r ^ r a c e s ' . " 1 9 R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d , " r a c e " c a t e g o r i e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f a t t e m p t s a t e x p l a i n i n g and r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e w o r l d . T h i s has l e d M i l e s t o d e s c r i b e them as " s o c i a l l y i m a g i n e d . r a t h e r t h a n b i o l o g i c a l r e a l i t i e s . " 2 0 I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e supposed e x i s t e n c e o f " r a c e s " has not i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y been c a l l e d "a modern s u p e r s t i t i o n . " 2 1 The problem f o r t h e h i s t o r i a n i s n o t t o deny t h a t p e o p l e a c t 1 8 L.L. C a v a l l i - S f o r z a , "The G e n e t i c s o f Human P o p u l a t i o n s , " S c i e n t i f i c American, 231, 3 (September 1974): 81-89. 1 9 Montagu, "Concept of Race," 24. 2 0 M i l e s , Racism, 7. 2 1 Jacques Barzun, .Race: A Study in Modern Superstition (London: Methuen, 1938). 10 on t h e b a s i s o f s u p e r s t i t i o n s , but t o e x p l a i n how s u p e r s t i t i o n s come t o be h e l d so d e e p l y t h a t p e o p l e n ot o n l y b e l i e v e i n them, but a r e w i l l i n g t o a l l o w them t o govern t h e i r a c t i o n s . 2 2 I n p a r t t h i s means e s t a b l i s h i n g s u p e r s t i t i o n s as e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e s o c i e t i e s w h i c h produced them: t r e a t i n g them as h i s t o r i c a l a r t i f a c t s w hich need t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e c o n t e x t s w h i c h p r o d u c e d them. 2 3 U n f o r t u n a t e l y when r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n v o k e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n , h i s t o r i a n s , and some o t h e r s as w e l l , have t e n d e d t o end t h e i r s e a r c h e s f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s p o i n t has been made by Montagu and more r e c e n t l y by M i l e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Montagu, "The c h i e f o b j e c t i o n t o t h e term ' r a c e ' i s t h a t i t t a k e s f o r g r a n t e d as s o l v e d problems f a r from b e i n g so and t e n d s t o c l o s e t h e mind t o problems t o w h i c h i t s h o u l d always r e m a i n open." 2 4 P r o p o s i n g " r a c e " as an e x p l a n a t i o n assumes what i n f a c t needs t o be e x p l a i n e d . R o b e r t M i l e s has commented, I f " r a c e s " a r e n o t n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e r e a s o n s and c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s whereby t h e d i s c o u r s e o f " r a c e " i s employed i n an a t t e m p t t o l a b e l , c o n s t i t u t e and e x c l u d e s o c i a l c o l l e c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n be assumed t o be a n a t u r a l and u n i v e r s a l p r o c e s s . Hence, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i d e a o f " r a c e " , i s something t h a t r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s t a s k i s c i r c u m v e n t e d by t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e i d e a i t s e l f i n t o an a n a l y t i c a l c o n c e p t . Thereby, what needs t o be e x p l a i n e d and r e p r e s e n t e d as a s o c i a l p r o c e s s i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d as a s o c i a l f a c t w h i c h i s 2 2 Thus t h e h i s t o r i c a l problem i s not t o deny t h a t J o a n o f A r c h e a r d v o i c e s w h i c h she tho u g h t was God, b u t t o e x p l a i n how i t was t h a t so many p e o p l e a c c e p t e d h e r e x p l a n a t i o n a t f a c e v a l u e . 2 3 F o r a b r i l l i a n t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e t a s k o f p l a c i n g p a r t i c u l a r s i n h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , see M i c h a e l R. Marrus, The Holocaust in History ( T o r o n t o : L e s t e r & Orpan Dennys, 1987). Montagu, "Concept o f Race," 15. p r e s e n t e d as e x p l a i n i n g o t h e r s o c i a l f a c t s . 2 5 P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i s M i l e s ' comment t h a t " t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i d e a o f * r a c e ' " r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n . The p r o b lem i s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t r a c i a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s a s o c i a l phenomenon w i t h o u t f a l l i n g i n t o t h e t r a p o f t h i n k i n g t h a t " r a c e s " t h e m s e l v e s a r e n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g . I n s t e a d one must be aware o f two i n t e r l o c k i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l dynamics. One i s t h a t o f d i v i d i n g s o c i e t y i n t o " r a c e s " . A n o t h e r i s t h a t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e dominance o f one o f t h e s e groups r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . I n o t h e r words, t h e c h a l l e n g e i s t o be aware t h a t an a c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s i s a t work. That p r o c e s s i s r a c i s m . M i l e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between r a c i s m w h i c h he d e f i n e s as an i d e o l o g y and " i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m . " M i l e s p o i n t s o u t t h a t r a c i s m can become "embodied (or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ) i n . . . e x c l u s i o n a r y p r a c t i c e s . " 2 6 M i l e s ' t r e a t m e n t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m d i f f e r s f rom t h o s e who f i n d e x c l u s i o n o f a r a c i a l i z e d group as a s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m . M i l e s b e l i e v e s t h a t one' must f i n d e v i d e n c e o f a " r a c i s t d i s c o u r s e " a t t h e t i m e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n was shaped f o r t h e r e t o be i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m , a l t h o u g h he does admit t h a t t h e r a c i s t d i s c o u r s e may have become s i l e n t . F o r example, M i l e s argues t h a t t h e e x c l u s i o n o f B l a c k s from c e r t a i n w o r k p l a c e s i n B r i t a i n may be due t o t r a d i t i o n a l h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n 2 5 M i l e s , Racism, 73. 2 6 I b i d . , 85. M i l e s a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t r a c i s m " a r t i c u l a t e s " w i t h s e x i s t and n a t i o n a l i s t d i s c o u r s e s . I t s h a r e s i n common w i t h them c e r t a i n key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , can p e r f o r m s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s , and c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e r a c t s w i t h them. See I b i d . , 87-97. 12 i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m . Some companies l i k e t o h i r e r e l a t i v e s o f e x i s t i n g employees. Over t i m e , t h i s would t e n d t o e x c l u d e B l a c k s from l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d w o r k p l a c e s . M i l e s would admit t h a t such c a s e s i n v o l v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m o n l y where i t can be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a r a c i s t d i s c o u r s e i s o r was p r e s e n t . T h i s would be t h e case when t h e employer d e l i b e r a t e l y encourages w h i t e w o r k e r s t o g e t t h e i r f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s t o a p p l y f o r w o r k p l a c e openings i n o r d e r t o keep B l a c k s from a p p l y i n g . M i l e s ' d i s t i n c t i o n between r a c i s m as i d e o l o g y and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m , as v a l u a b l e as i t may be i n g e n e r a l o r f o r B r i t a i n t o d a y i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s l a r g e l y an academic one f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia however. V i r t u a l l y a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e e x c l u s i o n o f c e r t a i n p e o p l e s from them a r o s e i n e r a s i n wh i c h r a c i s t d i s c o u r s e was p a r t o f t h e a i r t h a t p e o p l e b r e a t h e d . 2 7 I n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, r a c i s t d i s c o u r s e s and t h e i r embodiment i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms have u s u a l l y been i n s e p a r a b l e , as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s have been o r g a n i z e d a l o n g t h e l i n e . , o f r a c i s t i d e o l o g i e s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t r a c i s m o r g a n i z e d , s y s t e m a t i z e d and s t r u c t u r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s between groups such as " w h i t e s " and " C h i n e s e , " a t t h e same t i m e t h a t i t c r e a t e d and r e c r e a t e d t h e s e g r o u p s . Thus r a c i s m a l s o d i v i d e d s o c i e t y a l o n g r a c i a l l i n e s . S t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s have p l a y e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i s 2 7 F o r example, w h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e u n i f o r m code o f t h e RCMP was n o t d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t e n d e d t o keep S i k h s o u t , t h a t code was f o r m u l a t e d i n an e r a i n w h i c h t h e RCMP, as v i s i b l y s e t a p a r t by i t s u n i f o r m , was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . 13 d i v i s i o n . F o r example, i t s r o l e i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e c a s e o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e and t h e i r t r e a t m e n t under t h e f e d e r a l system of " I n d i a n a g e n t s , " r e s e r v a t i o n s and t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . I n terms o f s c h o o l i n g , t h i s meant t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n s c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and e l s e w h e r e i n Canada, were b a r r e d from a t t e n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l " p u b l i c " s c h o o l s and i n s t e a d a t t e n d e d s e p a r a t e , f e d e r a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d , m i s s i o n a r y - r u n s c h o o l s . 2 8 I t w i l l be seen t h a t s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s a l s o o r g a n i z e d t h e d i v i s i o n between w h i t e s and C h i n e s e . These two a s p e c t s o f r a c i s m , as i d e o l o g y and as o r g a n i z a t i o n , were i n t e r - r e l a t e d and f e d upon each o t h e r . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y a l o n g r a c i a l l i n e s l e n t w e i g h t t o i d e o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , w h i l e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t u r n j u s t i f i e d t h e r a c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i n c e F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e were s e l f - e v i d e n t l y " d i f f e r e n t " from w h i t e s , t h e y r e q u i r e d d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s . They were b e l i e v e d t o be u n s u i t e d t o p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s and c o n s e q u e n t l y ended up i n s e p a r a t e I n d i a n s c h o o l s . T h i s s e p a r a t i o n i n t u r n i n s u l a t e d w h i t e s t u d e n t s from m e a n i n g f u l c o n t a c t w i t h F i r s t N a t i o n s c h i l d r e n , t h u s i n s u r i n g t h a t w h i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e went l a r g e l y u n c h a l l e n g e d . 2 8 On F i r s t N a t i o n s s c h o o l i n g , see, f o r examples, " N a t i v e I n d i a n s , " i n Ashworth, Forces Which Shaped Them, 3-53; J e a n Barman, Yvonne H e b e r t and Don M c C a s k i l l ( e d s . ) , Indian Education in Canada, v o l . 1, The Legacy (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1986); E. B r i a n T i t l e y , " I n d i a n I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l s i n Western Canada," i n Nancy M. Sheehan, J . Donald W i l s o n and D a v i d C. J o nes ( e d s . ) , Schools in the West: Essays in Canadian Educational History ( C a l g a r y : D e t s e l i g , 1986), 133-153; and C e l i a Haig-Browh, Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School (Vancouver: T i l l i c u m L i b r a r y , 1988). 14 A l t h o u g h t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s r a c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was o f t e n c o n t e s t e d by t h e members o f a f f e c t e d groups t h e m s e l v e s , 2 9 i t was u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l t o p r e v e n t them from c o n f r o n t i n g w h i t e s w i t h t h e i r s h a r e d humanity. Racism, i n t h e s e two senses as i d e o l o g y and as o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t w i l l be argued, has been as i m p o r t a n t a dynamic o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia s o c i e t y and i t s h i s t o r y as have been t h e r e l a t i o n s o f c l a s s and gender. As w i t h t h e s e o t h e r r e l a t i o n s , r a c i s m needs t o be seen as a complex d i a l e c t i c i n v o l v i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o p p r e s s e d as w e l l as o p p r e s s o r s . As i t s v i c t i m s r e s p o n d t o r a c i s t i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s , s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e some, accommodate t o o t h e r s and a r e v i o l a t e d by s t i l l o t h e r s , i t s v i c t i m i z e r s f i n d new i d e a s and new p r a c t i c e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r dominance. Racism, i s n o t a s t a t i c one-way system, but i s i n c o n s t a n t f l u x , c o n t i n u a l l y f i n d i n g new forms and new e x p r e s s i o n s . The Chinese .. '" The c h o i c e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia as t h e t a r g e t group whose e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t by t h i s s t u d y a l s o r e q u i r e s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r g r o u p s -- F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e , Japanese Canadians, Indo-Canadians o r even t h e t i n y B l a c k e n c l a v e — c o u l d have a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d . There a r e however a number of advantages i n c h o o s i n g t h e C h i n e s e , some h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e group i t s e l f and some h a v i n g t o do 2 9 Haig-Brown i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n documenting such r e s i s t a n c e . See Resistance and Renewal, p a s s i m . 15 w i t h t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f t h e group. Amongst t h e n o n - F i r s t N a t i o n s " m i n o r i t y " g r o u p s , t h e C h i n e s e have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e l o n g e s t . The C h i n e s e community has been c o n t i n u o u s l y p r e s e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e t h e g o l d r u s h o f 1858 and c o n s e q u e n t l y i s i n e f f e c t a c h a r t e r group i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s o c i a l h i s t o r y . They a l s o have one o f t h e most d e v e l o p e d h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s o f any " m i n o r i t y " group i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n c l u d i n g works by C h i n e s e Canadians t h e m s e l v e s . 3 0 E s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h i s makes i t p o s s i b l e t o f i n d C h i n e s e Canadian r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e m s e l v e s f a i r l y e a s i l y . 3 1 I n v a l u a b l e i n t h i s r e g a r d , and a p r o d u c t o f t h e w e l l - t i l l e d n a t u r e o f C h i n e s e Canadian h i s t o r y i s t h e C h i n e s e Canadian Research C o l l e c t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f , B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s much o f t h e background r e s e a r c h f o r From China to Canada, t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e Canadian community produced f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m Canada's G e n e r a t i o n s S e r i e s . 3 2 I n c l u d e d i n t h i s 3 0 By c o n t r a s t , o n l y r e c e n t l y have n o n - F i r s t N a t i o n s r e s e a r c h e r s g a i n e d a c c e s s t o t h e h i s t o r i e s o f F i r s t N a t i o n s i n forms f a m i l i a r t o them. See, f o r example, Joanne D r a k e - T e r r y , The Same as Yesterday: The L i l l o o e t Chronicle the Theft of Their Lands and Resources ( L i l l o o e t , B.C.: L i l l o o e t T r i b a l C o u n c i l , 1989). 3 1 A c c o r d i n g t o Edgar Wickberg, t h e l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t y on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada, t h e r e a r e few C h i n e s e Canadian s o u r c e s f o r t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . See Edgar W i c k b e r g , Review o f In a Strange Land. A P i c t o r i a l Record of the Chinese in Canada, 1788-1923, Canadian Ethnic Studies/Etudes ethniques au Canada, XXI, 2 (1989): 126-7. 3 2 H a r r y Con e t a l . , From China to Canada: A History of the Chinese Communities in Canada, ed. Edgar W i c k b e r g , G e n e r a t i o n S e r i e s ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1982). c o l l e c t i o n a r e t h e n o t e s o f t h r e e n a t i v e C h i n e s e s p e a k e r s who were asked t o r e a d t h r o u g h t h e pages o f Tai-hon Kung-po [Dahan Gongbao] or The Chinese Times , 3 3 a C h i n e s e language newspaper p u b l i s h e d i n Vancouver s i n c e 1907. 3 4 These r e a d e r s were asked t o make n o t e s on, and o c c a s i o n a l l y s u p p l y v e r b a t i m t r a n s l a t i o n s o f , m a t t e r s o f i n t e r e s t p a y i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l o c a l and Canadian news s e c t i o n s . The r e s u l t i s an E n g l i s h language i n d e x t o t h i s v i t a l s o u r c e on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada. T h i s i n d e x g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s a c c e s s t o t h i s s o u r c e on t h e p a r t o f n o n - n a t i v e r e a d e r s o f C h i n e s e . 3 5 F u r t h e r m o r e , h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p on t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada has c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t r a c i s m was an e s s e n t i a l element i n s h a p i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s i s t r u e o f h i s t o r i a n s w r i t i n g i n As Cantonese was t h e spoken language o f t h e C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o romanize C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s used i n B.C. by means o f t h e s t a n d a r d Mandarin pinyin system. T h e r e f o r e , I have f o l l o w e d l o c a l usages f o r t h e names o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p e o p l e i n t h e t e x t , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g t h e pinyin r o m a n i z a t i o n i n square b r a c k e t s . However I have used pinyin i n t h e r e f e r e n c e s . The s t a n d a r d i n t h i s as i n o t h e r m a t t e r s has been s e t by W i c k b e r g , From China to Canada. See t h e g l o s s a r y o f l o c a l usages, 272-294. 3 4 T h i s newspaper i s now o n l y a v a i l a b l e on m i c r o f i l m f o r t h e y e a r s 1915 on. The C h i n e s e Canadian R e s e a r c h C o l l e c t i o n (CCRC) i n c l u d e s a f o l d e r f o r 1914, however. See CCRC (UBC S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s ) , Box 4. The Chinese Times i s s t i l l p u b l i s h e d i n Vancouver. 3 5 A l t h o u g h g e n e r a l l y o f good q u a l i t y , t h e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s have o c c a s i o n a l l a p s e s . F or example, a t t i m e s terms such as bairen o r " w h i t e s , " Kanren "Canadian," Yingren " E n g l i s h [ s p e a k e r s ] " and wairen " f o r e i g n e r " a r e i n d i f f e r e n t l y t r a n s l a t e d as " C a u c a s i a n s . " By c o n t r a s t , g r e a t c a r e has been t a k e n t o i n s u r e a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e C h i n e s e t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s o f E n g l i s h p l a c e names. 17 b o t h C h i n e s e and Western h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s . D a v i d T.H. Lee's (Lee Tung-hai) [ L i Donghai] Jianada Huaqiao shi [ H i s t o r y o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e i n Canada] has s e v e r a l c h a p t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h a n t i -C h i n e s e r a c i s m and i t s consequences, as w e l l as c h a p t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n s i n C h i n a : c h a p t e r s on C h i n e s e e x c l u s i o n and C h i n e s e r e s p o n s e , as w e l l as on t h e v i s i t s o f t h e I m p e r i a l Q i n g s t a t e s m e n , L i Hongzhang, t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f C h i n e s e r e f o r m e r s such as Kang Youwei and r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s l i k e Sun Y a t - s e n . 3 7 3 6 See D a v i d T. H. Lee (Lee T ' u n g - h a i ) , Jianada Huaqiao shi (A H i s t o r y o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e i n Canada) ( T a i b e i : Zhonghua Da D i a n B i a n y i n g H u i , 1967) ; Wickberg From China to Canada; Anthony B. Chan, Gold Mountain: The Chinese in the New World (Vancouver: New S t a r Books, 1983); D e n i s e H e l l y , Les Chinois a Montreal, 1877-1951 (Quebec: I n s t i t u t q u e b e c o i s de r e c h e r c h e s u r l a c u l t u r e , 1987); Kwok B. Chan and D e n i s e H e l l y ( e d s . ) , Coping with Racism: the Chinese Experience in Canada, s p e c i a l i s s u e , Canadian Ethnic Studies/ Etudes ethniques au Canada, XIX, 3 (1987); P e t e r S. L i , The Chinese in Canada ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1988); P a u l Yee, Saltwater City: An I l l u s t r a t e d History of the Chinese in Vancouver (Vancouver and S e a t t l e : J . J . Douglas and U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1989). T h i s l a t t e r work, a l t h o u g h a c o f f e e t a b l e book, i s p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f a C h i n e s e community i n Canada. 3 7 Lee, Jianada Huaqiao shi, 137-158, and 355-379, 256-272, 273-296, 297-320 r e s p e c t i v e l y . W i c k b e r g has c a l l e d t h i s work, "The most comprehensive s o u r c e on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada" and " t h e r e s u l t o f y e a r s o f c a r e f u l r e s e a r c h " even though i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n " r e f l e c t s t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e s t a n d a r d s o f h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g (From China to Canada,334.)." A l s o i m p o r t a n t i s Lee's e a r l i e r e d i t e d work, Jianada Weiduoli Zhonghua Huiguan/Huaqiao Xuexiao chengli qishiwu/liushi zhounian j i n i a n tekan [ S p e c i a l m e m o r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n m a r k i n g t h e s e v e n t y - f i f t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f Canada's V i c t o r i a C h i n e s e C o n s o l i d a t e d B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e s i x t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e S c h o o l ] ( V i c t o r i a : C h i n e s e C o n s o l i d a t e d B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n , 1960) ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Zhonghua Huiguan/Huaqiao Xuexiao tekan). T h i s i s an e s s e n t i a l s o u r c e on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e two i n s t i t u t i o n s named i n t h e t i t l e and on C h i n e s e Canadian h i s t o r y g e n e r a l l y . Many f i n d i n g s , l a t e r r e p r o d u c e d i n more a c c e s s i b l e s o u r c e s , were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d h e r e . I t a l s o c o n t a i n s a number o f a r t i c l e s on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e i n Canada, sometimes by t h e o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e same k i n d o f f i n e s c h o l a r s h i p 18 Anthony B. Chan's p i o n e e r i n g s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada, Gold Mountain, s i m i l a r l y b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f r a c i s m . 3 8 More r e c e n t l y , P e t e r S. L i has p u b l i s h e d an extended d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e manner i n w h i c h r a c i s m shaped C h i n e s e Canadian s o c i e t y . 3 9 These f a c t o r s s u ggest t h a t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e C h i n e s e Canadian community i s an a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e f o r a s t u d y on t h e h i s t o r y o f r a c i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Beyond t h i s , f o c u s i n g on t h e r o l e o f r a c i s m i n s h a p i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e C h i n e s e community can be a v e h i c l e f o r t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e Canadian h i s t o r y i n t o t h e b r o a d e r h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . To d a t e much of t h e h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g on t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada has t r e a t e d them s e p a r a t e l y from t h e h i s t o r y o f Canada as a whole. C h i n e s e and o t h e r A s i a n s a r e o f t e n i n v i s i b l e i n mainstream p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i e s o f Canada 4 0 o r a t b e s t a r e p r e s e n t o n l y as t h e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e l a t e r Jianada Huaqiao shi. 3 8 F o r example, Chan w r i t e s , " r a c i s m has c o n t i n u a l l y i n t r u d e d i n t o t h e d a i l y l i v e s o f C h i n e s e Canadians and no s e r i o u s h i s t o r y c a n i g n o r e i t , " Gold Mountain, 10-11. See h i s e n s u i n g d i s c u s s i o n , 11-19. 3 9 L i , Chinese in Canada. The r o l e o f r a c i s m i n s h a p i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f C h i n e s e Canadians i s a major theme o f t h i s work. 4 0 F o r example, Kenneth McNaught, The Penguin History of Canada (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , England: P e n g u i n Books, 1969, 1988), a s t a n d a r d t e x t b o o k on Canadian p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y , does n o t even m e n t i o n A s i a n s , i g n o r i n g such i s s u e s as t h e r a c i a l n a t u r e o f t h e e l e c t o r a l f r a n c h i s e o r i n t e r n m e n t o f t h e Japanese Canadians d u r i n g t h e Second World War. 19 o b j e c t s o f w h i t e a t t i t u d e s . 4 1 On t h e o t h e r hand, s t u d i e s o f t h e C h i n e s e communities t h e m s e l v e s have e i t h e r been c a r r i e d o ut as an a s p e c t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f C h i n a , i . e . t h e s t u d y o f "Overseas C h i n e s e " as i s e v i d e n t i n D a v i d T.H. Lee, o r as a s e p a r a t e engage " C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n " h i s t o r y w r i t t e n by n o n - f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . 4 2 Indeed t h e major E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e work t o d a t e , From Canada to China, i s a h y b r i d o f t h e s e two forms. 4 3 The s e p a r a t e n e s s o f C h i n e s e Canadian h i s t o r y from t h e mainstream o f Canadian h i s t o r y has l e d Edgar W i c k b e r g , t h e f o r e m o s t s c h o l a r on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada, t o c a l l f o r i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e w r i t i n g o f b r o a d e r Canadian h i s t o r y . W i c k b e r g made t h i s c a l l i n a r e v i e w o f a p i c t o r i a l h i s t o r y about t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada b e f o r e 1923. He n o t e d t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n under r e v i e w documented n o t so much w h i t e r a c i s m as "something a 4 1 T h i s i s e v i d e n t , f o r example, i n R o b e r t C r a i g Brown and Ramsay Cook, Canada 1986-1921: A Nation Transformed, The Canadian C e n t e n a r y S e r i e s ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 19.74) , 68-71. Even t h e n , Brown and Cook suggest t h a t t h e A s i a t i c E x c l u s i o n movement m e r e l y r a i s e d " i n extreme form t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f t h e k i n d o f s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e Canadians wanted t o c r e a t e ( 7 1 ) , " a q u e s t i o n posed by i m m i g r a t i o n (71 f f . ) . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below, t h e i n v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e and o t h e r A s i a n s i n Canadian h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h e major s t u d i e s t o d a t e o f w h i t e a t t i t u d e s towards A s i a n s . 4 2 T h i s i s most e v i d e n t i n t h e works o f Chan, Gold Mountain; L i , Chinese in Canada; and Yee, Saltwater City. 4 3 T h i s work has s e v e r a l a u t h o r s : H a r r y Con, R o n a l d J . Con, Graham Johnson, Edgar Wickberg, and W i l l i a m E. W i l l m o t t . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , b o t h Wickberg and Johnson a r e s i n o l o g i s t s , w h i l e t h e two Cons a r e C h i n e s e Canadians. Wickberg i s t h e book's p r i n c i p a l c o m p i l e r and e d i t o r . P r e v i o u s l y , Wickberg's major work was on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e "Overseas C h i n e s e " community i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . See Edgar W i c k b e r g , The Chinese in P h i l i p p i n e L i f e , 1850-1898 (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965) . b i t more s u b t l e : a documentary o f w h i t e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e C h i n e s e and t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d them." A c c o r d i n g t o Wick b e r g , what emerged from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n was "Chinese m a r g i n a l i t y i n t h e eyes o f t h e Wh i t e s . 1 1 R e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e c r e a t o r s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n approved o r d i s a p p r o v e d o f t h e C h i n e s e , t h e y "assumed t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f w h i t e p e o p l e . Their i n t e r e s t s were t h e norm, t h e y made t h e r u l e s , and i t was t h e i r p r e r o g a t i v e t o a l l o w , o r n o t a l l o w C h i n e s e i n t o t h e p i c t u r e . " 4 4 T h i s poses a l a r g e r problem f o r how h i s t o r y has been w r i t t e n . W i c k b e r g s u g g e s t s , I t may be t h a t o n l y C h i n e s e Canadians s h o u l d w r i t e C h i n e s e Canadian h i s t o r y from C h i n e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s , o r t e l l us how r a c i s m f e e l s . But non-Chinese a u t h o r s can s u r e l y document c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s by non-Chinese. Beyond t h a t , t h e n e x t s t e p i s t o i n t e g r a t e C h i n e s e Canadian h i s t o r y w i t h more g e n e r a l Canadian h i s t o r y . That s h o u l d b e g i n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l by b r i n g i n g o u t Chi n e s e a c t i v i t i e s as a major theme i n l o c a l h i s t o r y . 4 5 B r i n g i n g o u t "C h i n e s e a c t i v i t i e s " i n a s t u d y o f r a c i s m i n B.C. would be a s t e p towards i n t e g r a t i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada i n t o t h e l a r g e r C anadian h i s t o r y . 4 6 The v a l u e i n r e n d e r i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f non-white groups as p a r t o f t h e mainstream o f Canadian h i s t o r i o g r a p h y has been de m o n s t r a t e d by R o b i n F i s h e r i n h i s award-winning s t u d y o f what he 4 4 Edgar W i c k b e r g , Review o f In a Strange Land, 126-7. Emphasis i n t h e o r i g i n a l . 4 5 I b i d . , 127. 4 6 R e c e n t l y W i c k b e r g has renewed t h e c a l l f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n t o a " m u l t i c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y " o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia. See Edgar W i c k b e r g , Review o f A White Man's Province: B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i t i c i a n s and Chinese and Japanese Immigrants, 1858-1914, BC Studies, No. 88 (Winter 1990-91): 97-100. c a l l e d " I n d i a n - E u r o p e a n " r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Contact and C o n f l i c t : Indian-European Relations in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1774-1890.47 F i s h e r n o t e d t h a t " t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s and immigrant Europeans" o f Canada had been a t b e s t p e r i p h e r a l t o Canadian h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g , t h a t t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s were r e l e g a t e d t o t h e "background" o f t h a t h i s t o r y . He d e s c r i b e d h i s p r o j e c t as i n p a r t b e i n g " t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r o l e o f t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia." However, s i n c e he f o u n d t h a t " t h e h i s t o r i a n r e l i e s upon w r i t t e n , and t h e r e f o r e European, s o u r c e s , " w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y were d i s t o r t e d by " i g n o r a n c e and p r e j u d i c e , " he argued t h a t i t was more a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n c e n t r a t e on I n d i a n - E u r o p e a n r e l a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n I n d i a n h i s t o r y p e r s e . 4 8 One o f t h e advantages o f " b r i n g i n g out C h i n e s e a c t i v i t i e s as a major theme i n l o c a l h i s t o r y " i s t h a t i t can l e a d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e a c t e d out i n p r a c t i c e . By documenting t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between p e o p l e a t an e v e r y d a y l e v e l , such e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o a v o i d t h e r e i f i c a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s such as " C h i n e s e " and " w h i t e . " T h i s advantage i s a p p a r e n t i n two l o c a l s t u d i e s on t h e c r e a t i o n o f r a c i a l c a t e g o r i e s , one on " I n d i a n s , " t h e o t h e r on C h i n e s e . Duncan Duane Thomson examines how t h e c a t e g o r y o f " I n d i a n s " was c o n s t r u c t e d as p a r t o f a b r o a d e r r a c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i e t y 4 7 R o b i n F i s h e r , Contact and C o n f l i c t : Indian-European Relations in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1774-1890 (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1977) 4 8 I b i d . , x i - x i i i . 22 i n t h e Okanagan. I n Contact and C o n f l i c t , F i s h e r had o b s e r v e d t h a t " I n d i a n s " were not a u n i f o r m group. However, a c c o r d i n g t o F i s h e r t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s " d i d have something i n common d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1774 t o 1890; and t h a t was t h e European." 5 0 S e t t l e r a c c o u n t s emphasized d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Europeans and t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h Columbia and "succeeded i n t r e a t i n g a l l I n d i a n s as i f t h e y were t h e same and i g n o r e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n c u l t u r e s o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia." 5 1 The g e o g r a p h e r Kay Anderson has conducted a superb s t u d y o f Vancouver's Chinatown and i t s r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n and maintenance o f r a c i a l c a t e g o r i e s . 5 2 Anderson argued t h a t Chinatown was n o t so much an e x p r e s s i o n o f C h i n e s e e t h n i c i t y as i t was t h e c r e a t i o n o f w h i t e s o c i e t y . "Chinatown" was a w h i t e i n v e n t i o n i n i m a g i n a t i o n and i n p r a c t i c e . 5 3 4 9 Duncan Duane Thomson, "A H i s t o r y o f t h e Okanagan: I n d i a n s and W h i t e s i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t E r a , 1860 - 1920" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1985). 5 0 F i s h e r , Contact and C o n f l i c t , x i v . 5 1 I b i d . , 88. 5 2 Kay Anderson, , , x E a s t ' as xWest': P l a c e , S t a t e and t h e I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Myth i n Vancouver's Chinatown, 1880-1980" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1988). I n t e r e s t i n g l y i t i s a n o t h e r geographer whose work documents t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o u l d have had l i t t l e sense o f b e i n g C h i n e s e . See D a v i d Chuenyan L a i , "Home County and C l a n O r i g i n s o f Overseas C h i n e s e i n Canada i n t h e E a r l y 1880s," BC Studies, 27 (Autumn, 1975): 3-29. 5 3 Wickberg a l s o i m p l i e s t h i s i n a n o t h e r book r e v i e w . He p o i n t s o ut t h a t u n t i l t h e 1960s Chinatowns and t h e i r l e a d e r s r e mained l a r g e l y independent o f l o c a l w h i t e governments, and " d e s p i t e White s u p p o s i t i o n s — p a r t o f t h e f o l k l o r e about C h i n a t o w n — t h e r e were never master networks e n f o r c i n g community u n i f o r m i t y a t a l l t i m e s . I n f a c t , Chinatowns were e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t h e G i l l i a n C r e e s e ' s work on t h e r o l e o f r a c i s m i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f what she c a l l s "a p o l i t i c a l l y d i v i d e d w o r k i n g c l a s s " i n Vancouver has a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s shaped t h e l i v e s o f w o r k e r s , w i t h o u t r e i f y i n g them. C r e e s e p o i n t e d t o t h e need t o t a k e r a c i a l and gender c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s . She argued t h a t , b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e F i r s t W o rld War, r a c i a l d i v i s i o n s i n B.C. s o c i e t y were such t h a t male w h i t e workers o f t e n d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e i r C h i n e s e c o u n t e r p a r t s as workers a t a l l . 5 4 R a t h e r t h a n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s b e i n g a s i n g l e e n t i t y , i t was d i v i d e d i n t o subgroups d e f i n e d by " r a c e " and gender. Thus, t h e r e were w h i t e male w o r k e r s , w h i t e women w o r k e r s , and C h i n e s e male w o r k e r s . 5 5 Her more r e c e n t work s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f c a p i t a l i s t s t o keep t h e wages o f a l l w o r k e r s low. 5 6 o p i n i o n s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r r e s i d e n t s . " W i c k b e r g f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e two a s p e c t s a r e l i n k e d . See, Edgar Wickberg, Review o f Chinatowns: Towns within C i t i e s in Canada, by D a v i d Chuenyan L a i , i n Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review LXX, No .4' (December 1989): 592-594. Anderson's approach t o r a c i a l c a t e g o r i e s i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o mine. See , n E a s t ' as *West'," 4-15. 5 4 G i l l i a n C r e e s e , " E x c l u s i o n o r S o l i d a r i t y ? Vancouver Workers C o n f r o n t t h e ^ O r i e n t a l Problem'," BC Studies, 80 ( W i n t e r 1988-89): 24-51. 5 5 A c c o r d i n g t o Creese t h e s e d i v i s i o n s o n l y began t o be overcome under t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e s o c i a l i s t movement. See C r e e s e , "Working C l a s s P o l i t i c s , Racism and Sexism: The Making o f a P o l i t i c a l l y D i v i d e d Working C l a s s i n Vancouver, 1900-1939" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1986). 5 6 G i l l i a n C r e e s e , " C l a s s , E t h n i c i t y and C o n f l i c t : The Case o f C h i n e s e and Japanese Immigrants, 1880-1923," i n Rennie Warburton and D a v i d Coburn ( e d s . ) , Workers, Capital and the State in B r i t i s h Columbia: Selected Papers (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 24 C r eese s u p p l i e s an i m p o r t a n t c o r r e c t i o n t o t h e s o - c a l l e d Race and C l a s s debate. W. P e t e r Ward argued t h a t most B r i t i s h C olumbians a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y were more aware o f " r a c e " b o u n d a r i e s t h a n c l a s s ones. 5 7 T h i s drew t h e i r e o f t h e s o c i o l o g i s t R e n n ie Warburton who c o u n t e r e d t h a t c l a s s d i v i s i o n s were most i m p o r t a n t . 5 8 C r e e s e ' s c o r r e c t i o n i s t h a t b