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A case study of the implementation of a constructivist professional development program Campbell, Geoffrey James 1991

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A CASE STUDY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A CONSTRUCTIVIST PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM By GEOFFREY JAMES CAMPBELL B.Sc, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19^ >7 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Science Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1991 © Geoffrey James Campbell, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date l¥f DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y b e g i n s w i t h a p e r c e i v e d c r i s i s o f c o n f i d e n c e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w l edge. The t r a d i t i o n a l , p o s i t i v i s t , " t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e " a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge b a s e has been f o u n d t o be u n a b l e t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e x p e r t a c t i o n — e s p e c i a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s o f c o m p l e x i t y and a m b i g u i t y s u c h a s t h o s e r o u t i n e l y f o u n d i n t e a c h i n g . Much r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e , however, has t a k e n t h e a p p r o a c h t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge must be c o n s t u c t e d by t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r a c t i c e . In t h i s v i e w , t h e o r y i s d e v e l o p e d from p r a c t i c e by r e f l e c t i n g on one's a c t i o n - r e l a t e d k nowledge. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o be I n t e l l e c t u a l l y i s o l a t e d and r o u t i n e l y h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h many c l i e n t s a t o n c e , t e a c h e r s have few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use t h i s a p p r o a c h . The p r o b l e m a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s how t o p r o v i d e a p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h f o s t e r s r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y and t h e p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge by t e a c h e r s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . The p r i m a r y t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h u n d e r p i n t h i s s t u d y a r e t h o s e o f " c o n s t r u c t i v i s m " , i n w h i c h l e a r n i n g i s v i e w e d as an a c t i v e p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n c e p t s by c o n n e c t i n g new i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h p r i o r k nowledge, and " r e f l e c t i o n a s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " i n w h i c h r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i s s e e n as a way o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r a c t i c e . T h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g r e f l e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , p r o v i d e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework o£ t h e s t u d y . The s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f a c a s e a n a l y s i s o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o promote t h e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y o f t e a c h e r s . The a c t i v i t y gave two p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e and d i s c u s s v i d e o t a p e d r e c o r d i n g s o f e a c h o t h e r ' s p r a c t i c e o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l months. The r e s u l t a n t d i s c u s s i o n s were a u d i o t a p e d by t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r and t r a n s c r i b e d f o r a n a l y s i s . I n f o r m a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t r a n s c r i p t s and a n a l y s i s o f metaphor were us e d t o i d e n t i f y e l e m e n t s o f t e a c h e r k n o w l edge. I n s t a n c e s o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y were i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g a " c l u e s t r u c t u r e " or s e t o f c r i t e r i a . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t e l e m e n t s o f t e a c h e r knowledge c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n a s u c h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , t h a t i n s t a n c e s of r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y were e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e t i m e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y , and t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y was p e r c e i v e d by t h e t e a c h e r s as b e i n g o f p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i CHAPTER PAGE 1 FOCUS OF THE STUDY 1 introduction 1 Rationale for The study 2 The Research Questions 5 Theoretical Perspectives of The study 7 Methods of The Study 11 Summary 12 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14 Constructivism 14 Schon's Notion of Reflective Practice 16 Reflection as Reconstruction of Experience 20 A r t i s t r y in Teaching Reports 22 Reflection and c l i n i c a l Supervision Reports 23 Reflection and Teacher Collaboration Reports 25 Summary 31 i v 3 METHODS OF THE STUDY 33 Context of the Study 34 Establishing the Teacher Study Programme 36 Data C o l l e c t i o n 38 Analysis of the Data 40 Summary 4 4 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY: LAURA'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIALOGUE 45 Analysis of the Data for Elements of Teacher Knowledge 47 Analysis for Reflective A c t i v i t y 57 Summary 64 5 RESULTS OF THE STUDY: PAUL'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIALOGUE 66 Analysis of the Data for Elements of Teacher Knowledge 66 Analysis for Reflective A c t i v i t y , 74 Summary 8 3 6 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 85 Review of Theoretical Perspectives 85 The Research Questions 88 Conclusions from the Study 90 Limitations of the Study 95 Implications for Further Research 97 BIBIOGRAPHY 99 v i C h a p t e r 1 FOCUS OF THE STUDY i n t r o d u c t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o Schon ( 1 9 8 3 ) , t h e r e I s p r e s e n t l y a c r i s i s o f c o n f i d e n c e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w l e dge. The p o s i t i v i s t " t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e " a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge base has been u n a b l e t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e x p e r t a c t i o n , has s e e n many f a i l u r e s i n s i t u a t i o n s o f c o m p l e x i t y and has c o n t r i b u t e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p l u r a l i s m . Schon, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s ( s e e Kuhn, 1970; Novak, 1984) s u g g e s t s t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r k nowledge i s i n t i m a t e l y t i e d t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n i t s e l f and t h a t a knowledge b a s e must be c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r a c t i c e . P r e v i o u s a c t i o n p r o v i d e s examples o r " e x e m p l a r s " w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o frame o r make s e n s e o f new s i t u a t i o n s , and t h e co m p e t e n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s e e k s t o d e v e l o p an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g r e p e r t o i r e o f e x e m p l a r s t o g u i d e s u b s e q u e n t a c t i o n s . In o t h e r words, we must d e v e l o p t h e o r y f r o m p r a c t i c e , r a t h e r t h a n p r a c t i c e f r o m t h e o r y . To do s o , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s a c t i o n - r e l a t e d knowledge must be made e x p l i c i t , r e f l e c t e d upon and s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s . 2 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t e a c h i n g , a p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h r o u t i n e l y i n v o l v e s a s i n g l e p r a c t i t i o n e r i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h d o z e n s o f c l i e n t s a t o n c e , i s n o t one w h i c h l e n d s i t s e l f t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s e l f -o b s e r v a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n , nor d o e s i t p r o v i d e r e a d y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l knowledge and t h e s h a r i n g o f t h a t knowledge w i t h o t h e r p r a c t i t i o n e r s (N.Garman, 1986). I n d e e d , G i l l i s s (1988) s t a t e s t h a t t h e t i m e and e n e r g y c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r (and s u p p o r t p e r s o n s s u c h as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s ) a r e s u c h t h a t r e f l e c t i o n must " a p p a r e n t l y a w a i t some more e n l i g h t e n e d f u t u r e , when t h e r e i s t i m e as w e l l as i n t e n t i o n " . What may be needed a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o r y f r o m p r a c t i c e , and w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t o document t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s u c h an a c t i v i t y ( w h i c h I w i l l c a l l a P e e r S t u d y Program) and, i n t h e p r o c e s s , t o r e v e a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e knowledge base and r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o f two p a r t i c i p a n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s . R a t i o n a l e F o r The S t u d y The p r o b l e m i s how t o p r o v i d e a p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y f o r t e a c h e r s w h i c h f o c u s s e s on t h e knowledge w h i c h a t e a c h e r a l r e a d y h a s , t h e s h a r i n g o f t h a t knowledge w i t h o t h e r s , and t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s w h i c h i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . As o u t l i n e d l a t e r In t h i s c h a p t e r and 3 more f u l l y i n c h a p t e r two, Schon (1983, 1987) s u g g e s t s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge i s l a r g e l y t a c i t and t h a t i t i s embedded i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t i o n i t s e l f . The p r a c t i t i o n e r may be a b l e t o p e r f o r m an a c t i o n , b u t f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s c i o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e t h e knowledge t h a t s u p p o r t e d t h a t a c t i o n . S c h o n ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i s t h a t i t i s a way o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s v l t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r a c t i c e ( G r i m m e t t , 1 9 8 9 ) . The p r a c t i t i o n e r i s s e e n by s c h o n as "engaged i n a k i n d o f r e f l e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " (Schon, 1990, p. 25) d u r i n g w h i c h p r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f p r a c t i c e a r e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . I t i s r e f l e c t i o n i n t h i s s e n s e — t h e " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " ( G r i m m e t t , P.P., MacKinnon, A.M., E r i c k s o n , G.L. & R e i c k e n , T . J . , 1 9 8 7 ) — t h a t t h e program d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s I n t e n d e d t o promote. In " R e f l e c t i o n : The H e a r t o f c l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s i o n " , Garman (1986) o u t l i n e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h l i n k s c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n and k n o w l e d g e - g e n e r a t i o n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s . She s e e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r a s " p r o v i d i n g t h e t e a c h e r w i t h c o l l a b o r a t i v e h e l p t h a t e n c o u r a g e s t h e t e a c h e r t o become t h e p r i m a r y knowledge g e n e r a t o r " ( p . 1 8 ) . T h i s I s done b y r e f l e c t i n g c a r e f u l l y on " s t a b l e v e r s i o n s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e " s u c h as w r i t t e n , a u d i o or v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n . I n t h i s way, t h e t e a c h e r may be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e r a t i o n a l e w h i c h he o r she h o l d s f o r a c t i o n and, t h e r e b y , g a i n an Improved u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e 4 p r a c t i c e . Garman d o e s , however, r e c o g n i z e t h a t her c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e way t o f o s t e r r e f l e c t i o n r e q u i r e s t i m e and t r a i n e d s u p e r v i s o r s . She c o n c e d e s t h a t , F o r t h e p r e s e n t i t may a l s o be i m p o r t a n t t o e n c o u r a g e c o l l e a g u e s t o engage i n t h e p r o c e s s , f o r one c o l l e a g u e t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r , w i t h b o t h c o l l e a g u e s a g r e e i n g t o muddle t h r o u g h t o g e t h e r a t f i r s t ( p . 2 3 ) . The i n t e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t o o f f e r t e a c h e r s an a c t i v i t y w h i c h u s e s s t a b l e r e c o r d i n g s of c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n t o f o s t e r r e f l e c t i o n on t h a t a c t i o n , b u t w h i c h d o e s n ' t r e q u i r e t h e s u p p o r t o f s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l . I n s t e a d , as a l l u d e d t o by Garman, a t e a c h e r may be a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y s u p p o r t t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f a n o t h e r by q u e s t o n i n g t h e meaning, m o t i v e s and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f o b s e r v e d a c t i o n . P o l a n y i (1958) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e way t o come t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s i s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e p e r s o n we want t o know. We have t o " i d e n t i f y " w i t h t h e p e r s o n by o b s e r v i n g h i s o r h e r a c t i o n s i n c o n t e x t and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h him o r h e r as t o what happened and why. I t i s t h i s p r o c e s s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o make p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge a b o u t t e a c h i n g e x p l i c i t and communicable t h a t t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r hoped t o f o s t e r and t o document i n t h i s s t u d y . 5 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 1. Can e l e m e n t s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s ' knowledge base be  i d e n t i f i e d f r o m d i a l o g u e w h i c h o c c u r e d d u r i n g t h e P e e r S t u d y  Program? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , c a n c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s , i s s u e s o r themes be i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h seem t o be o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e t e a c h e r s ? what Is t h e n a t u r e o£ t h e s e i s s u e s ( i f a n y ) , and how do t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t a l k a b o u t them? Can i n f e r e n c e s be made a b o u t t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l images o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g ? 2. Can one o b s e r v e e v i d e n c e o f ' r e f l e c t l o n - o n - a c t l o n 1 a s t h e  t e a c h e r s a t t e m p t t o make s e n s e o f o b s e r v e d p r a c t i c e ? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , when t e a c h e r s r e f l e c t upon c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n , w i l l t h e r e be e v i d e n c e o f new and f r e s h a p p r e c i a t i o n s ( u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ) o f t h e phenomena? W i l l t h e t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e an a w a r e n e s s t h a t p r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s may be i n c o n s i s e n t w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e ( a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , need m o d i f i c a t i o n ) ? Over t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y , w i l l t h e r e be e v i d e n c e o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f r e f r a m i n g phenomena? 3. D i d t h e P e e r S t u d y P rogram p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h an  o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine t h e i r p r a c t i c e i n a way which t h e y ,  t h e m s e l v e s , c o n s i d e r t o be o f v a l u e ? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , c a n c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n s be r e c o r d e d and r e f l e c t e d upon by t e a c h e r s w i t h i n a n o r m a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e y f i n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l ? At t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t u d y 6 w i l l t h e y e x p r e s s t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e program i n f l u e n c e d t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e i r p r a c t i c e ? W i l l t h e y want t o p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s p rogram ( o r a s i m i l a r one) a g a i n ? As p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n , t h i s s t u d y i s w r i t t e n i n a c o n t e x t u a l l y r i c h f a s h i o n so t h a t what m i g h t emerge i s a s t o r y i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r " c h a r a c t e r s " c a n be u n d e r s t o o d by t h e r e a d e r w e l l enough t o be " i d e n t i f i e d w i t h " and, p o t e n t i a l l y , t o have v a l u e as e x e m p l a r s ( o r g e n e r a t i v e m e t a p h o r s ) w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o add t o t h e r e a d e r s * r e p e r t o i r e . E r i c k s o n (1988) d e s c r i b e s t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f a r e s e a r c h p r o g ram w h i c h u n c o v e r s and makes e x p l i c i t t h e p r e f e r r e d l a n g u a g e and e x e m p l a r s u s e d by t e a c h e r s t o d e s c r i b e and make s e n s e o u t o f c l a s s r o o m phenomena a s : . . . l e g i t i m i z i n g o r " g i v i n g r e a s o n " t o t e a c h e r s ' knowledge and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e knowledge base upon w h i c h many t e a c h e r s s t a n d . . . ( p . 2 0 5 ) . T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e S t u d y T h e r e has been a s h i f t i n v i e w among many i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n e d u c a t i o n f r o m a p o s i t i v l s t , t h e o r y - i n t o - p r a c t i c e p e r s p e c t i v e t o a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t , p r a c t i c e - i n t o - t h e o r y p o i n t o f v i e w ( R o b e r t s , 1 9 8 2 ) . R u b i n (1985) and Schon (1983) s u g g e s t t h a t much o f t h e a r t i s t r y o f t e a c h i n g l i e s i n t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t a c i t p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge, e x p e r t a c t i o n In t h e p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g , 7 and r e f l e c t i o n on t h a t a c t i o n . Knowledge i s c o n s t r u c t e d when t h e l e a r n e r a s c r i b e s p e r s o n a l meaning t o o b s e r v e d e v e n t s by f i n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h i n t e g r a t e t h e new and t h e known. T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by r e f l e c t i n g on t h e phenomena so as t o see t h e new s i t u a t i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f a l e a r n e r ' s r e p e r t o i r e o f p r i o r knowledge and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ( e x e m p l a r s ) (Kuhn, 1 9 7 0 ) . I n f a c t , i t Is t h e o p i n i o n o£ c o n s t r u c t l v i s t s t h a t much e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y must a r i s e f r o m , r a t h e r t h a n p r e c e d e , e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . T h e r e a r e , however, a v a r i e t y o f c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c t i o n , and o f t h e r o l e w h i c h i t p l a y s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge ( G r i m m e t t , P. e t . a l . 1 9 8 7 ) . T h i s s t u d y and i t s a n a l y s i s w i l l be g u i d e d by Schon's c o n c e p t i o n o f r e f l e c t i o n which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Grimmett ( 1 9 8 8 ) : C l e a r l y , t h e c o n t e x t o f Schon's c o n c e p t i o n s o f r e f l e c t i o n i s c o n s t i t u t e d by a c t i o n s e t t i n g s w h i c h p r e c i p i t a t e p u z z l e s o r s u r p r i s e s f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i t i o n e r . H i s f o c u s i s on how p r a c t i t i o n e r s g e n e r a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge i n and a p p r e c i a t e p r o b l e m a t i c f e a t u r e s o f a c t i o n s e t t i n g s (P. 2 4 ) . Grimmett l a b e l s t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a s " R e f l e c t i o n a s R e c o n s t r u c t i n g E x p e r i e n c e " ( G r i m m e t t , 1989) t h a t l e a d s t o new u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s , s e l f - a s - t e a c h e r , and t a k e n -f o r - g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t e a c h i n g : F o r e a c h o f t h e s e a s p e c t s , t h e s o u r c e o f knowledge 8 f o r r e f l e c t i o n i s t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e a c t i o n s e t t i n g and t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l knowledge. P u z z l e m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t r e f l e c t i o n a b o u t a p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n l e a d t o a mode o f knowing t h a t c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d d i a l e c t i c a l . P r a c t i t i o n e r s become knowing when t h e y engage i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h e i t h e r t h e s i t u a t i o n o r t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t g u i d e a c t i o n i n a p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g . I n t h i s v i e w o f t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s , knowledge i s emergent and o f t e n d e p i c t e d as m e t a p h o r i c a l . . . I n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , k n o w l e d g e , i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n s , t r a n s f o r m s p r a c t i c e ( P . 2 2 ) . The c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s as t h e b u i l d i n g o f p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r a c t i c e has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e a c h e r s . I t s u g g e s t s t h a t an e f f e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t program s h o u l d i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s i n o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , r e f l e c t i o n upon t h e meaning o f t h e i r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e , t h e s h a r i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s , and t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f new c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h c a n g u i d e f u t u r e a c t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Schon (1983) e x p r e s s e s t h e c o n c e r n t h a t t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r who does n o t have t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e s e n s e - m a k i n g o f o t h e r s may become t r a p p e d by h a b i t u a l i z e d r o u t i n e s : A p r a c t i t i o n e r m i g h t b r e a k into a c i r c l e o f s e l f -l i m i t i n g r e f l e c t i o n by a t t e n d i n g t o h i s r o l e f r a m e, h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l t h e o r y - i n - u s e , o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g s y s t e m i n w h i c h he f u n c t i o n s . Whatever h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t , however, he i s u n l i k e l y t o g e t f a r u n l e s s he wants t o e x t e n d and d e e p e n h i s r e f l e c t l o n -i n - a c t i o n , and u n l e s s o t h e r s h e l p him s e e what he has worked t o a v o i d s e e i n g , ( p . 283) 9 A number o f r e s e a r c h e r s o f f e r c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y programs as v i a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o promote t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e o f t e a c h e r s (Garman, 1986a; C o s t a and Garmston, 1985; T u r n e r - M u e c k e e t . a l . , 1 9 8 6 ) . I n t h e s e p r o g r a m s , t h e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y o f t e a c h e r s i s s e e n t o be f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r (who i s g e n e r a l l y an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) . As p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r Two i n more d e t a i l , many o f t h e s e programs g i v e e v i d e n c e o f s u c c e s s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y a r e l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e and a r e n o t b r o a d l y u s e d ( G o l d s b e r r y , 1 9 8 5 ) . P e e r s u p e r v i s i o n or p e e r c o a c h i n g programs p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e and t o s h a r e s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r a c t i o n s w h i c h may o t h e r w i s e be h a r d t o p e r c e i v e d u r i n g t h e a c t u a l l e s s o n and o f f e r t h e a l t e r n a t e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e o b s e r v e r . However, t h e y g e n e r a l l y do n o t a d d r e s s t h e meaning o f t h e c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n i n t e r ms o f t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d them, nor t h e need t o i n t e g r a t e new i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h a t a l r e a d y h e l d by t h e t e a c h e r i n v o l v e d ( C o s t a and Garmston, 1985; G o l d s b e r r y , L . , 1 9 88). In o r d e r t o b u i l d new knowledge, t h e t e a c h e r must make t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between what he o r she wanted t o do, what was a c t u a l l y done, what m i g h t have been done, and what c o u l d be done i n t h e f u t u r e . Many r e s e a r c h e r s now s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t may be s u p p o r t e d by t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n . L e i b e r m a n ( 1 9 8 6 ) , i n d e s c r i b i n g t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n teams f o r r e s e a r c h 10 and d e v e l o p m e n t , r e p o r t s t h a t team membership u n i t e s t e a c h e r s and e n c o u r a g e s c o l l e g i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a way w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n . T e a c h e r members o f s u c h teams t e n d t o f e e l a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f empowerment i n t e r m s o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d and t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T u r n e r - M u e c k e , L., R u s s e l l , T. & Bowyer, J . (1986) o f f e r t h e n o t i o n o f " r e c i p r o c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e " i n t e r a c t i o n s between t e a c h e r s ( p . 49) as a way o f a p p r o a c h i n g a " t r u t h f u l r e a l i t y " w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e meaning o f o b s e r v e d c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n s . " R e c i p r o c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e " i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e " s e q u e n c e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s , c o u p l e d w i t h r e f l e c t i o n by b o t h p a r t i e s " (p.48) w h i c h d e c r e a s e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s between o b s e r v e r s and t h o s e o b s e r v e d . T a k e n t o g e t h e r , t h e work o f L e i b e r m a n and T u r n e r - M u e c k e e t . a l . p r o v i d e an argument f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t program w h i c h p l a c e s t e a c h e r s t o g e t h e r i n teams f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b s e r v i n g and r e f l e c t i n g upon e a c h o t h e r ' s p r a c t i c e . T h i s i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e " P e e r S t u d y P r o g r a m " w h i c h i s t h e b a s i s o f t h i s t h e s i s . Methods o f t h e S t u d y Two s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a p e e r s u p e r v i s i o n workshop p r i o r t o t h i s s t u d y were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p r o j e c t . The P e e r s t u d y P r o g r a m i t s e l f i n v o l v e d b o t h t e a c h e r s w a t c h i n g a v i d e o t a p e d l e s s o n w h i c h was t a u g h t by t h e one o f them. T h e r e was no " p r e - c o n f e r e n c e " , agreement o r e x p e c t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g what t h e o b s e r v e r would be a t t e n d i n g t o d u r i n g t h e l e s s o n . The o b s e r v e r s i m p l y o b s e r v e d w i t h the g o a l o f coming t o as a c c u r a t e and c o m p r e h e n s i v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e ' r e a s o n s ' w h i c h u n d e r l a y t h e  t e a c h i n g e p i s o d e s w h i c h were o b s e r v e d . The o b s e r v e r a s k e d q u e s t i o n s , v e n t u r e d g u e s s e s and compared p e r s o n a l v i e w s o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e o b s e r v e d t e a c h e r d u r i n g t h e v i e w i n g o f t h e v i d e o t a p e . The t e a c h e r s ' r o l e s were a l t e r n a t e d e a c h s u c c e s s i v e week so t h a t e a c h t e a c h e r was o b s e r v e d a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s o v e r a two month p e r i o d , and t h e r e s u l t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s between t h e two t e a c h e r s were a u d i o t a p e d by t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r f o r l a t e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , d o c u m e n t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t e a c h e r knowledge was a p p r o a c h e d by c o n d u c t i n g an i n f o r m a l s e a r c h o f t h e d i a l o g u e t r a n s c r i p t s f o r i s s u e s o r themes w h i c h seemed t o be i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e s e themes were s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t o f an a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' use o f m e t a p h o r i c a l words and p h r a s e s (Munby, 1986, 1 9 8 7 ) . The a t t e m p t was t h e n made t o i n f e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l images o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . The k i n d o f knowledge r e f e r r e d t o a s images were s i m i l a r i n k i n d t o t h o s e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n (1985) and E l b a z ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a f o r r e f l e c t i o n w h i c h r e c o n s t r u c t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s u s e d an a p p r o a c h o f f e r e d b y R o b e r t s and R u s s e l l (1975) i n An A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h : D r a w i n g from P h i l o s o p h i c a l A n a l y s i s t o Examine P r a c t i c e . The 12 t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f " c o n s t r u c t i v i s m " and " r e f l e c t i o n as r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " were a p p l i e d t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t e a c h e r d i a l o g u e . T h i s was done by means o f a c l u e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e c t t e a c h e r r e f l e c t i o n a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s . o v e r v i e w o f The T h e s i s T h i s document i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i v e c h a p t e r s . I n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f c h a p t e r One, t h e c h o i c e o f a p p r o a c h and c o n c e p t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n a r e j u s t i f i e d and t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s a r e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . C h a p t e r two c o n s i s t s o f a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v i s m , Schon's n o t i o n o f r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , and r e c e n t e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e on p r o m o t i n g t h e k i n d o f r e f l e c t i o n w h i c h Schon d e s c r i b e s . C h a p t e r t h r e e d i s c u s s e s t h e methods o f t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r s f o u r and f i v e document t h e r e s u l t s a s c a s e - s t u d y a n a l y s e s o f e a c h o f t h e two p a r t i c i p a n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s by d o c u m e n t i n g t e a c h e r knowledge i n t h e forms o f e x e m p l a r s , m e t a p h o r s and images. These c h a p t e r s , e a c h o f w h i c h d e a l s w i t h a s i n g l e t e a c h e r , i d e n t i f y i n s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e c l a i m e d t o r e p r e s e n t a f o r m o f r e f l e c t i o n where t h e t e a c h e r s a r e r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r p e d a g o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . F i n a l l y , i n C h a p t e r S i x , t h e c o n l c u s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d , and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e made f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Summary I f c r e d e n c e i s g i v e n t o t h e w o r l d v i e w t h a t knowledge i s a c t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e l e a r n e r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i t s u s e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t e a c h e r s must i n t e r a c t w i t h l e a r n e r s i n ways wh i c h s u p p o r t s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t e a c h e r w i l l c o n s t r u c t (and r e c o n s t r u c t ) h i s or h e r own knowledge d u r i n g t h e s e I n t e r a c t i o n s . A scheme has been p r o p o s e d w h i c h may p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e f l e c t upon t h e i r a c t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h i s s t u d y a l l o w s two p a r t i c i p a n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o " g i v e r e a s o n " ( S c h o n , 1983) t o e a c h o t h e r and, i n t h e p r o c e s s , make e x p l i c i t some o f t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge and r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . I n C h a p t e r Two, a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e n o t i o n s o f c o n s t r u c t i v i s m and t e a c h e r r e f l e c t i o n i s u n d e r t a k e n . 14 C h a p t e r 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r Is t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e two main t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h u n d e r p i n t h i s s t u d y , " c o n s t r u c t i v i s m " and Schon's n o t i o n o f " r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e " , and t h e n t o draw t o g e t h e r r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e on p r o m o t i n g r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n e d u c a t i o n . c o n s t r u c t i v i s m C o n s t r u c t i v i s m i s a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , or " w o r l d v i e w " ( P e p p e r , 1942), w h i c h c o n c e i v e s o f l e a r n i n g a s a p r o c e s s by w h i c h knowledge i s c o n s t r u c t e d by l e a r n e r s who a c t i v e l y "seek m e aning" i n t h e phenomena b e f o r e them. To do s o , t h e y i n t e g r a t e or l i n k a new p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h e l e m e n t s from t h e i r p r i o r knowledge s t r u c t u r e ( A u s u b e l , 1968) t o c o n s t r u c t new u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . T h e s e new c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e t e s t e d a g a i n s t e x p e r i e n c e and, i f n e c e s s a r y , m o d i f i e d . Kegan (1982) a r g u e s t h e t h a t i t c a n be c o n c e i v e d o f as a t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s i n 15 t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e — a s a p r o g r e s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g l y v i a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f phenomena t h a t we come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h i n o u r own u n i q u e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l w o r l d . The " r e s u l t " o f l e a r n i n g (as s e e n by t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ) i s d e s c r i b e d by D r i v e r & Oldham ( 1 9 8 6 ) : P u t s i m p l y t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t I n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t r u c t 'models' o r 'schemes' w h i c h a r e u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . . . T h e s e 'models' o r 'schemes* a r e s e e n t o be s t r u c t u r e d e n t i t i e s ( o f v a r y i n g c o m p l e x i t y ) . An I n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge, t h e r e f o r e , i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s a s e t o f d i s c r e t e ' b i t s * b u t as a s e r i e s o f s t r u c t u r e s and l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and change o f s u c h s t r u c t u r e s (p 1 0 7 ) . Novak (1984) s u g g e s t s t h a t " c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new knowledge b e g i n s w i t h our o b s e r v a t i o n s o f e v e n t s or o b j e c t s t h r o u g h th e c o n c e p t s we a l r e a d y p o s s e s s " ( p . 4 ) . and t h a t , By t h e t i m e c h i l d r e n b e g i n s c h o o l t h e y have a c q u i r e d a network o f c o n c e p t s and l a n g u a g e r u l e s t h a t p l a y c r u c u a l r o l e s i n s u b s e q u e n t s c h o o l l e a r n i n g . C h i l d r e n a l s o l e a r n methods f o r o r g a n i z i n g e v e n t s o r o b j e c t s t h t e n a b l e them t o s e e new r e g u l a r i t i e s and i n t u r n t o r e c o g n i z e t h e l a b e l s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h o s e r e g u l a r i t i e s ( p . 5 ) . He i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t l e a r n i n g e n t a i l s t h e c o n s t r u c t i n g o f new r e l a t i o n s h i p s between what we a l r e a d y know and what we w i s h t o l e a r n by r e c o g n i z i n g r e g u l a r i t i e s w h i c h c o n n e c t o r u n i f y t h e new w i t h t h e o l d i n some way. Kuhn ( 1 9 7 0 ) , i n an a c c o u n t o f how s c i e n t i s t s a d d r e s s and s o l v e p r o b l e m s , p r o v i d e s us w i t h a n o t i o n o f how t h i s m i g h t be done. He a r g u e s t h a t t h e i r knowledge o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e comes from l e a r n i n g t o s e e new, p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s a s r e s e m b l i n g o t h e r s i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . A p r e v i o u s 16 p r o b l e m s o l u t i o n , o r " e x e m p l a r " i s u s e d t o g e n e r a t e an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e new s i t u a t i o n and t h e o l d s o as t o p r o v i d e an a p p r o a c h t o w a r d t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e new one. I n t h e p r o c e s s , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s p r e v i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s may be m o d i f i e d o r " r e c o n s t r u c t e d " . S chon's N o t i o n o f R e f l e c t i v e P r a c t i c e I n The R e f l e c t i v e P r a c t i t i o n e r ; How P r o f e s s i o n a l s T h i n k i n  A c t i o n . D o n a l d Schon (1983) p u t s f o r t h an e p i s t e m o l o g y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h i n t i m a t e l y t i e s p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge t o t h e t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n i t s e l f . L i k e Kuhn, Schon r e j e c t s t h e t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l i s t v i e w t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f t h e t e c h n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e . A c c o r d i n g t o Schon, much o f what p e o p l e do w h i c h r e q u i r e s s u c h a c t i v i t i e s as r e c o g n i t i o n , judgment and p h y s i c a l s k i l l i s done i n a s p o n t a n e o u s and i n t u i t i v e f a s h i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f a p r o f e s s i o n . He s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r s u c h p r a c t i t i o n e r s , t h e r e i s a k i n d o f knowledge w h i c h i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e i r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r a c t i c e o r , as d e s c r i b e d by K i l b o u r n ( 1 9 8 7 ) , "embedded i n t h e a c t o f d o i n g " . T h i s knowledge i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be l a r g e l y t a c i t , and i s c a l l e d , " k n o w l e d g e - i n - a c t i o n " . To h e l p him d e s c r i b e i t , Schon r e f e r s t o C h e s t e r B a r n a r d ' s (1938) d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " n o n - l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s w h i c h 17 a r e n o t c a p a b l e o f b e i n g e x p r e s s e d In words or as r e a s o n i n g , and w h i c h a r e o n l y made known by a judgement, d e c i s i o n o r a c t i o n " ( p . 5 1 ) . He a l s o r e l a t e s B i r d w h i s t e l l ' s (1970) o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t " i n some c a s e s we were once a g a i n aware o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w h i c h were s u b s e q u e n t l y i n t e r n a l i z e d i n our f e e l i n g f o r t h e s t u f f o f a c t i o n . I n o t h e r c a s e s , we may n e v e r have been aware o f them. In b o t h c a s e s , however, we a r e u s u a l l y u n a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e knowing w h i c h our a c t i o n r e v e a l s " ( p . 5 4 ) . I f " k n o w i n g - i n - a c t i o n " i s s u b c o n s c i o u s p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h c a n be r e f e r r e d t o a s b e i n g " i n t h e g r o o v e " , how does one " f i n d t h e g r o o v e " ? Schon d e s c r i b e s b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s who a d j u s t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e w h i l e t h e y a r e p e r f o r m i n g : (You g e t ) a s p e c i a l f e e l f o r t h e b a l l , a k i n d o f command t h a t l e t s you r e p e a t t h e e x a c t same t h i n g y o u d i d b e f o r e t h a t p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l . F i n d i n g y o u r g r o o v e has t o do w i t h s t u d y i n g t h o s e w i n n i n g h a b i t s and t r y i n g t o r e p e a t them e v e r y t i m e you p e r f o r m ( p . 5 4 ) . Schon c a l l s t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e a d j u s t m e n t w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g , " r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n " and u s e s metaphor t o h e l p him d e s c r i b e i t . P h r a s e s l i k e " t h i n k i n g on y o u r f e e t " , " k e e p i n g y o u r w i t s a b o u t yo u " , " l e a r n i n g by d o i n g " , and u s i n g a " f e e l i n g f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n " a l l s u g g e s t t h a t r e f l e c t l o n - i n - a c t l o n i s a way o f m o d i f y i n g one's k n o w i n g - i n - a c t i o n w i t h o u t s e p a r a t i n g t h i n k i n g f r o m d o i n g . He a r g u e s t h a t i t i s a k i n d o f "change o f k n o wing" ( p . 59) w h i c h c a n o c c u r q u i c k l y o r s l o w l y ( d e p e n d i n g on t h e r a t e o f a c t i o n ) , i n v o l v e s r e f l e c t i o n on " t h e phenomena b e f o r e ( o n e ) , 18 and on t h e p r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w h i c h have been i m p l i c i t i n ( o n e ' s ) b e h a v i o r " , and r e q u i r e s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o " g e n e r a t e b o t h a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e phenomena and a change i n t h e s i t u a t i o n " ( p . 6 8 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a p r a c t i t i o n e r may a l s o " r e f l e c t - o n - a c t i o n " and " r e f l e c t on r e f l e c t i o n - l n - a c t l o n . " In t h e s e c a s e s , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s u r f a c e s t h e t a c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t were b u i l t f r o m p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s ( s u r f a c i n g , c r i t i c i z i n g and r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e t h i n k i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y u s e d ) . T h i s c a n happen i n t h e " a c t i o n p r e s e n t " i n a b r i e f " s t o p and t h i n k " , or i t c a n o c c u r a f t e r t h e a c t i o n i s o v e r as p o s t m o r t e m or d e b r i e f i n g s e s s i o n . U s i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s o f r e f l e c t i o n i n and on a c t i o n , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r b u i l d s a " r e p e r t o i r e o f e x a m p l e s , images u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , and a c t i o n s . " T h i s r e p e r t o i r e , i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Kuhn, s u p p o r t s t h e a p p r o a c h o f new s i t u a t i o n s by p r o v i d i n g a " p r e c e d e n t , o r a metaphor, or an e x e m p l a r f o r t h e u n f a m i l i a r one" ( p . 1 3 8 ) . The p r a c t i t i o n e r s e e s e l e m e n t s o f t h e u n f a m i l i a r a s e l e m e n t s o f t h e r e p e r t o i r e and " d e r i v e ( by s e e i n g a s ) a way o f f r a m i n g t h e p r e s e n t , u n i q u e s i t u a t i o n . " He t r i e s , t h e n , t o "shape t h e s i t u a t i o n t o t h e f r a m e " ( p . 1 4 1 ) . T h i s l e d s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f u n i n t e n d e d c h a n g e s w h i c h g i v e t h e s i t u a t i o n new meaning. The p r a c t i t i o n e r t h e n r e f r a m e s t h e s i t u a t i o n and c o n d u c t s an e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h t e s t s t h e 19 u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e frame i n terms o f i t s a b i l i t y t o s t r u c t u r e t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n s u c h a way as t o s o l v e a s s o c i a t e d p r o b l e m s . A t some p o i n t i n t h e f r a m i n g and r e f r a m i n g o f a new s i t u a t i o n , a p r a c t i t i o n e r may "have c o n s t r u c t e d an i n t e r p r e t i v e s y n t h e s i s w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r and t i e s t o g e t h e r t h e s e v e r a l s t o r i e s he has e l i c i t e d . He has made s o m e t h i n g c o h e r e n t , c o n g r u e n t w i t h h i s o v e r a r c h i n g t h e o r y , and s u s c e p t i b l e t o t e s t by i n t e r v e n t i o n ( p . 1 5 2 ) . " Schon, t h e r e f o r e , o f f e r s a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t e p i s t e m o l o g y o f p r a c t i c e i n w h i c h p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s b o t h m a n i f e s t e d and c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r a c t i c e . T h i s o c c u r s by a p p r e c i a t i n g phenomena i n t h e l i g h t o f a c o n c e p t u a l r e p e r t o i r e o f e x e m p l a r s , images and a c t i o n s , c o n s t r u c t i n g a p p r e c i a t i v e f r a m e s w h i c h s t r u c t u r e t h e new i n f o r m a t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r a c t i c e , and, u l t i m a t e l y , r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i v e s y s t e m (way o f s e e i n g ) . R e f l e c t i o n a s R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f E x p e r i e n c e The r e m a i n d e r o f C h a p t e r Two s e r v e s t o r e v i e w r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e and how i t m i g h t be p r o m o t e d . T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r a p p r o a c h e s t h e l i t e r a t u r e u s i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l scheme p r o p o s e d by Grimmett, MacKinnon, E r i c k s o n & R i e c k e n (1987) t o c a t e g o r i z e c o n c e p t i o n s o f r e f l e c t i o n . In t h i s scheme, s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n a r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e " p e r s p e c t i v e s " w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r t o a d o p t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r o l e s and p u r p o s e s a s s i g n e d t o a knowledge base i n t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y i s " r e f l e c t i o n a s i n s t r u m e n t a l m e d i a t i o n o f a c t i o n " w i t h i n which a r e g r o u p e d s t u d i e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a c o n c e p t o f r e f l e c t i o n a s b e i n g a p r o c e s s t h a t d i r e c t s c o n s c i o u s , d e l i b e r a t e a c t i o n . In t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , r e f l e c t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r t h e " a p p l i c a t i o n " o f t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e In a p o s i t i v i s t l c s e n s e . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y i s " R e f l e c t i o n a s D e l i b e r a t i n g Among C o m p e t i n g Views o f T e a c h i n g " . T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s s t u d i e s w h i c h p r o p o s e c o n c e p t i o n s o f r e f l e c t i o n a s t h e means by w h i c h t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r c h o o s e s from among o p t i o n s f o r a c t i o n . The r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s , t h e n , a l l o w s f o r t h e o r y t o i n f o r m p r a c t i c e . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f l i t e r a t u r e on r e f l e c t i o n i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e s c o n c e p t i o n s o f " R e f l e c t i o n a s t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f E x p e r i e n c e " . In t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f r e f l e c t i o n a s r e c o n s t r u c t i n g (1) u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s , (2) u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f s e l f - a s - t e a c h e r o r t h e c u l t u r a l m i l i e u o f t e a c h i n g , o r (3) u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t a k e n - f o r -g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n s . Grimmett (1989) d e s c r i b e s t h i s t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f c o n c e p t i o n s o f r e f l e c t i o n a s b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h S c h o n ' s : ( S c h o n ' s ) v i e w o f r e f l e c t i o n i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h a 21 c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t f u l n e s s d e s i g n e d t o m e d i a t e (1£ n o t sometimes impede) a c t i o n : he i s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y e n c o u r a g i n g p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s t o d e l i b e r a t e among c o m p e t i n g v i e w s o f what r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g . R a t h e r , he r e g a r d s r e f l e c t i o n as t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e — n o t p r i m a r i l y f o r p u p o s e s o f e x p l i c a t i n g t h e c u l t u r a l m i l i e u o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s w o r l d o r t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n s and humanly c o n s t r u c t e d d i s t o r t i o n s embedded w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and m o r a l c o n t e x t o f s c h o o l s -- b u t f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p p r e h e n d i n g p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g s i n p r o b l e m a t i c ways ( p . 2 4 ) . Schon, h i m s e l f , (1988) d e s c r i b e s an e x e m p l a r y i n s t a n c e o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h : In my t e r m s , t h e y were engaged i n a k i n d o f r e f l e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h ey were engaged i n a k i n d of " s e e i n g " and " d o i n g " a s — s e e i n g t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n as a v e r s i o n o f t h e one t h e y had o b s e r v e d , d o i n g i n t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n as t h e y had s e e n t h e PDP p e o p l e do. I n t h e o r i g i n a l s e n s e o f t h e word m e t a p h o r — f r o m t h e Greek m e a p h e r e i n , t o c a r r y a c r o s s — t h e y were engaged i n a p r o c e s s o f m etaphor, c a r r y i n g a f a m i l i a r e x p e r i e n c e o v e r t o a new c o n t e x t , t r a n s f o r m i n g i n t h a t p r o c e s s b o t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e and t h e new s i t u a t i o n ( p . 2 5 ) . I t i s c l e a r t h a t Schon c o n c e i v e s o f r e f l e c t i o n a s a way o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r a c t i c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , w h i c h u s e s t h e two p e r s p e c t i v e s o f c o n s t r u c t i v i s m and Schon's c o n c e p t i o n o f r e f l e c t i o n as i t ' s t w i n p l a t f o r m s , l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h e x p r e s s a v i e w o f " r e f l e c t i o n as r e c o n s t r u c t i n g e x p e r i e n c e " - - p a r t i c u a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o m o t i n g r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s — w i l l be e x amined more c l o s e l y . 22 A r t i s t r y In T e a c h i n g R e p o r t s An a r e a o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f r e f l e c t i o n as " r e c o n s t r u c t i n g e x p e r i e n c e " i n c l u d e s t h o s e a r t i c l e s w h i c h frame t e a c h i n g as an a r t f u l and c r e a t i v e e n d e a v o u r ( s e e R u b i n , 1883, 1885; E i s n e r , 1983; Shulman, 1987; T r u m b l e , 1986a; Z a h o r i k , 1 9 8 7 ) . F o r example, i n " A r t i s t r y i n  T e a c h i n g " (1983, 1985), L o u i s R u b i n p r e s e n t s a v i e w o f p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge w h i c h complements Schon's and w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e a r t i s t r y o f t h e a c t o f t e a c h i n g . He d e s c r i b e s a r t i s t r y as " b l e n d i n g a t t i t u d e s , i n t e n t i o n s , knowledge and d i s c e r n m e n t i n t o an i n t e g r a l f o r c e " ( R u b i n , 1987, p. 47) and recommends p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h f o s t e r a r t i s t r y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . He b e l i e v e s t h a t s u c h a c t i v i t i e s must i n v o l v e : a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l phenomena, i n t u i t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , s p o n t a n e o u s a d j u s t m e n t s i n p r o c e d u r e , and t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t a c t i c s t o f i t s p e c i a l n e e d s . E i s n e r (1983) s t a t e s t h a t t h e a r t and c r a f t o f t e a c h i n g a r e s u c h t h a t t h e r e c a n be no r u l e s o t h e r t h a n " r u l e s o f thumb." He d e f i n e s t h e s e " r u l e s o f thumb" a s s c h e m a t i c s t h a t s u p p o r t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and judgment. T r u m b l e (1986a) examined how e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s worked t h r o u g h a m i c r o c o m p u t e r s i m u l a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s and r e c o r d e d t h e t e a c h e r s t h o u g h t s on a u d i o t a p e . Her f o c u s was on two a s p e c t s o f R u b i n ' s (1985) c o n c e p t i o n o f t e a c h i n g 23 a r t i s t r y : p e r c e p t i o n and i n t u i t i o n . She f o u n d t h a t h e r two p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s had v e r y d i f f e r e n t ways o f l o o k i n g a t s t u d e n t s and t h a t she was a b l e t o document f a c e t s o f e x e m p l a r s and a " c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f some o f t h e p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s o f t h e t e a c h e r s " ( p . 1 2 0 ) . She a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e use o f v i d e o t a p e m i g h t p r o v i d e a more e f f e c t i v e means o f e l i c i t i n g t h e s e e x e m p l a r f a c e t s . Her c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t p e r c e p t i o n , as a meaning-making p r o c e s s , i s i n f l u e n c e d by . t h e t h e o r i e s - i n - u s e , e x p e r i e n c e s , and t a c i t knowings t h e p e r c e i v e r h o l d s , and t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s c o u l d be v i e w e d as c o n c r e t e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e i r e x i s t i n g k n owledge. R e f l e c t i o n and C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s i o n R e p o r t s A number o f t h e o r i s t s v i e w c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n as a d e v i c e f o r p r o m o t i n g r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y w h i c h r e c o n s t r u c t s e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e a u t h o r s c o n c e i v e o f t h e r o l e o f t h e c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r as g e n e r a t i n g a w a r e n e s s e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r d i d n o t have b e f o r e so as t o promote m e t a c o g n i t i o n i n t e a c h i n g (See J o y c e and Showers, 1982; C o s t a and G a rmston, 1985; C r u i c k s h a n k & A p p l e g a t e , 1981; G o l d s b e r r y , 1986, 1988; G o l d s b e r r y and N o l a n , 1982; Zimpher & Howey, 1 9 8 7 ) . Garman, i n R e f l e c t i o n , t h e H e a r t o f C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s i o n : A  Modern R a t i o n a l e f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l P r a c t i c e (1986a) e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s g r o u p o f p a p e r s . I t o u t l i n e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h l i n k s c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n and knowledge-g e n e r a t i o n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s . Her r e f e r e n c e t o " c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n " stems from th e work o f Cogan (1975) who c o i n e d t h e t e r m i n r e f e r e n c e t o a s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e w h i c h models t h a t o f t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n . Her c o n c e p t i o n o f r e f l e c t i o n i s as a " s e a r c h f o r t h e u n d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l e i n h e r e n t i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as f o r t h e meaning, m o t i v e s , and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e a c t i o n . . . " ( p . 1 4 ) . she b e l i e v e s p e r s o n a l empowerment t o be t h e " e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t " f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n (Garman, 1986b) and s u g g e s t s t h a t " i t may be i m p o r t a n t t o e n c o u r a g e c o l l e a g u e s t o engage i n t h e p r o c e s s , f o r one c o l l e a g u e t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r , w i t h b o t h c o l l e a g u e s a g r e e i n g t o muddle t h r o u g h t o g e t h e r a t f i r s t . " R e p o r t i n g an a n a l y s i s o f a s e r i e s o f c o n f e r e n c e s between a t e a c h e r and h e r s u p e r v i s o r , T u r n e r - M u e c k e , R u s s e l l & Bowyer (1986) a p p l y S chon's c o n c e p t i o n o f r e f l e c t i o n - o n - a c t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s e s o f c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n . T h ey c o n c l u d e t h a t , I n an i n t e r p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t y s u c h a s s u p e r v i s i o n , i n w h i c h t h e d a t a f o r d i s c u s s i o n a r e o b t a i n e d by one p a r t y o b s e r v i n g t h e o t h e r , i t i s o n l y t o o e a s y f o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r , t r y i n g t o r e f r a m e and r e s o l v e a p u z z l e , t o c o n n e c t i t e m s i n a c a u s a l s e q u e n c e and be wrong. Se q u e n c e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s , c o u p l e d w i t h r e f l e c t i o n by b o t h p a r t i e s , seem t o be one good way t o a p p r o a c h some k i n d o f t r u t h f u l r e a l i t y ( p . 4 8 ) . T u r n e r - M u e c k e e t . a l . c a l l t h e s e s e q u e n c e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s , " r e c i p r o c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e " i n t e r a c t i o n s . 25 C o s t a and Garmston (1985) vie w r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y a s t h e t h i r d o f f o u r s t a g e s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t e a c h i n g : P l a n n i n g ( t h e p r e a c t i v e s t a g e ) , T e a c h i n g ( t h e i n t e r a c t i v e s t a g e ) , A n a l y z i n g and E v a l u a t i n g ( t h e r e f l e c t i v e s t a g e ) , and A p p l y i n g ( t h e p r o j e c t i v e s t a g e ) . T h ey d e s c r i b e t h e r e f l e c t i v e s t a g e o f s u p e r v i s i o n a s c o n s i s t i n g o f r e f l e c t i n g upon, a n a l y z i n g and j u d g i n g t e a c h i n g a c t s p e r f o r m e d i n t h e Immediate p a s t . In t h e i r v i e w , i t i s t h e r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a l l o f t h e s e p h a s e s . As c a n be s e e n by t h e s e p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s , c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y models a p p e a r t o h o l d some p r o m i s e f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e k i n d o f r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e t h a t i s c o n c e i v e d by Schon. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e a p p e a r s n o t t o have a d o p t e d t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . G o l d s b e r r y (1988) h o l d s t h e o p i n i o n t h a t c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n has o n l y m i n i m a l l y i n f l u e n c e d s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e . Most s u p e r v i s i o n i s summative, as j u d g e d by a o n c e - a - y e a r o b s e r v a t i o n , and doe s n o t promote t h e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y o f t e a c h e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s a body o f l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h v i e w s t h e p r o m o t i o n o f r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f c o o p e r a t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i o n among t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s . R e f l e c t i o n and T e a c h e r C o l l a b o r a t i o n R e p o r t s I n t h i s , t h e f i n a l a r e a o f l i t e r a t u r e t o be examined i n t h i s c h a p t e r , r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n t e a c h i n g i s s e p a r a t e d from s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e . T e a c h e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o c o l l a b o r a t e s o a s t o promote e a c h o t h e r ' s r e f l e c t i o n - - v i t h o u t t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f someone i n a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y . I n d e e d , Smyth (1988) s u g g e s t s t h a t c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n , as o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d by Cogan (1973) and Goldhammer ( 1 9 6 9 ) , has been d i s t o r t e d f r o m a way f o r t e a c h e r s t o improve p r a c t i c e t o a way f o r o t h e r s t o e v a l u a t e t e a c h e r s . Smyth s t a t e s t h a t , C l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n , as o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d , i s a p r o c e s s t h a t e n a b l e s t e a c h e r s t o q u e s t i o n t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r own t e a c h i n g . . . t h r o u g h c o l l a b o r a t i o n and n o n - e v a l u a t i v e d i a l o g u e , t e a c h e r s c a n employ c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n a s an e d u c a t i v e way o f u n c o v e r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l a n t e c e d e n t s o f a c t i o n s t h a t l i v e on i n t h e p r e s e n t as c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h a t impede and f r u s t r a t e c h a n g e " ( p . 1 5 6 ) . G l i c k m a n (1985) s e e s t h e r o l e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r as c r e a t i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t e a c h e r s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r work, "To improve i n s t r u c t i o n , we must r e s h a p e t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t o f t e a c h e r s i n t o one t h a t i s c o n d u c i v e t o r e f l e c t i v e and c o l l e c t i v e d i a l o g u e among s t a f f members who a r e g i v e n power t o a c t upon t h e i r d e c i s i o n s " ( p . 4 0 ) . He, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s ( s e e E i s n e r , 1983; L e i b e r m a n , 1986, 1988; S e r g l o v a n n l , 1985;) s e e t h e need t o d e v e l o p a c u l t u r e w i t h i n s c h o o l s w h i c h v a l u e s and p r o m o t e s r e f l e c t i o n . Wlldman and N i l e s ( 1 9 8 7 ) , s u g g e s t t h e r e a r e s e v e n needs w h i c h must be met i n o r d e r t o f o s t e r r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n t e a c h e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o them, t e a c h e r s must have o b s e r v a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s t o r e f l e c t upon, t h e s k i l l s t o o b t a i n and e x p r e s s c l a s s r o o m d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o n t r o l o f t h e r e f l e x i v e p r o c e s s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t , a " s a f e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r d i s c l o s i n g one's b e l i e f s , t i m e f o r r e f l e c t i o n and c o l l e g i a l s u p p o r t and r e s p e c t f o r t e a c h e r ' s knowledge. W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e need t o have " o b s e r v a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s t o r e f l e c t upon", v i d e o t a p e was c o n s i d e r e d a " s t a b l e v e r s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " by Garmon (1986) and, as s u c h , an a p p r o p r i a t e method by w h i c h t o o b s e r v e and r e c o r d c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s . As an example o f a way f o r t e a c h e r s t o promote o n e - a n o t h e r s 1 r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , Showers (1985) s t a t e s t h a t p e e r c o a c h i n g f a c i l i t a t e s t h e t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g f o r c l a s s r o o m a p p l i c a t i o n , and d e v e l o p s norms o f c o l l e g i a l l t y and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . She e n c o u r a g e s t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f s c h o o l s t o s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e e r c o a c h i n g teams t o : 1) b u i l d c o m m u n i t i e s of t e a c h e r s who c o n t i n u o u s l y engage i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e i r c r a f t , 2) d e v e l o p t h e s h a r e d l a n g u a g e and s e t o f common u n d e r s t a n d i n g s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c o l l e g i a l s t u d y o f new knowledge and s k i l l s , and 3) f o l l o w - u p t r a i n i n g . Her work i s s u p p o r t e d by t h a t o f L i t t l e (1982) who f o u n d t h a t when t e a c h e r s engage i n f r e q u e n t , c o n t i n u o u s , c o n c r e t e , and p r e c i s e t a l k a b o u t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , t h e y b u i l d a s h a r e d l a n g u a g e t h a t c a n a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t e a c h i n g ( p . 3 3 1 ) . W i t h t h e g o a l o f d e v e l o p i n g r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h e r s , Pugach and 28 Johnson (1987) created a four-step, "Peer Collaboration Project". This project required teachers to: 1) engage in self-questioning and responding to c l a r i f y a problematic s i t u a t i o n , 2) summarize the s i t u a t i o n in a s p e c i f i e d fashion, 3) develop alternatives for action and select one for implementation, and 4) develop a plan to evaluate the selected action. The results of the project indicate that teachers gained a greater understanding of classroom situations in terms of the student's view and the teachers* range of alternatives for action. MacKinnon (1987) developed a systematic technique for detecting "re£lection-in-action" among preservice teachers in a c l i n i c a l supervisory context. He combined Schon's conception of r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n with F u l l e r and Brown's (1975) developmental conception of teacher concerns to construct a "cycle of r e f l e c t i o n " as an an a l y t i c scheme. With this scheme, a clue structure was developed to i d e n t i f y instances of the teachers'reflective a c t i v i t y : Clue 1: Can the phases of the r e f l e c t i v e cycle be "seen" in the dialogue? Is there a period of reframing? Clue 2: Is there evidence of a change in the perspective from which the classroom phenomenon is viewed? S p e c i f i c a l l y , does the teacher make a s h i f t from using teacher-centered to using student-centered interpretalons of the classroom event? 29 Clue 3: Does reframing r e s u l t i n a change i n the c o n c l u s i o n s about the problematic phenomenon or i n the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t are d e r i v e d f o r p r a c t i c e ? That i s , i s there a change i n the "I should have's?" c l u e 4: i n the course of reframing, does the teacher draw from h i s or her per s o n a l experience as a student to make sense of the p u p i l ' s p o s i t i o n ? MacKinnon concluded t h a t p r e s e r v i c e teachers can r e f l e c t under those circumstances, and that the c l u e s t r u c t u r e e f f e c t i v e l y d e t e c t e d r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n . In s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , Grimmett (1984, 1987) and Grimmett and Crehan (1987) found t h a t o n l y when both the teacher and the s u p e r v i s o r are f u n c t i o n i n g a t a high conceptual l e v e l do they engage i n r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y which leads t o new i n s i g h t s with r e s p e c t to the teacher's l e s s o n . In Classroom P r a c t i c e : Teacher Images i n A c t i o n , by D. Jean C l a n d i n i n , (1983) noti o n s of a per s o n a l understanding of the p r a c t i c e of t e a c h i n g are examined. T h i s i s done by encouraging t e a c h e r s to a r t i c u l a t e the p r i v a t e images they have when engaged i n p r a c t i c e . These images are seen as complex metaphors which are aggregations of s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . In C l a n d i n i n ' s conception of r e f l e c t i o n , t h e s e images a r e made e x p l i c i t and a v a i l a b l e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n by r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , i n e f f e c t , r e f l e c t i o n makes t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s e x p e r i e n t i a l h i s t o r y a v a i l a b l e f o r use i n p r a c t i c e . E l b a z (1981) r e p o r t s a c a s e s t u d y o f one t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n w h i c h she a r g u e d t h a t c o n t e x t u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n f l u e n c e t h e t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c e . She d e s c r i b e d t h e d e c i s i o n -making o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t e r m s o f d e l i b e r a t i o n u s i n g " r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e " and " i m a g e s " . She c o n c e i v e s o f images a s , " b r i e f m e t a p h o r i c s t a t e m e n t s o f how t e a c h i n g s h o u l d be", and w h i c h , " m a r s h a l s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e o r e t i c a l k nowledge, and s c h o o l f o l k l o r e t o . . . g u i d e t h e t e a c h e r ' s t h i n k i n g and t o o r g a n i z e knowledge i n t h e r e l e v a n t a r e a " ( p . 6 1 ) . Dr a w i n g f r o m a s i m i l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge, S a n d e r s & McCutcheon's (1986) p a p e r p r e s e n t s t h e n o t i o n o f " p r a c t i c a l t h e o r i e s o f t e a c h i n g " w h i c h a r e d e v e l o p e d by t e a c h e r s and w h i c h a r e t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t g u i d e t e a c h e r s ' a c t i o n . T h ey s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e p r a c t i c a l t h e o r i e s o f t e a c h i n g , a s w i t h O b e r g ' s (1986) c o n c e p t i o n o f images, c a n be examined t h r o u g h r e f l e c t i n g on p r a c t i c e . U s i n g Schon's (1983) n o t i o n o f t h e " g e n e r a t i v e m etaphor" as a d e v i c e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r s ' knowledge, Munby (1985, 1986, 1987) examined t e a c h e r s ' use o f metaphor and " f i g u r e s o f speech". He r e p o r t s that t e a c h e r s ' language Is f u l l of metaphor, and that t h e i r r e c u r r a n c e i n t e a c h e r s ' speech r e p r e s e n t s a " t y p i c a l , c o n s t a n t , and coherent way of speaking about p r o f e s s i o n a l concerns" (Munby, 1987, p.378). According to him, a teacher's use of metaphor "gives t a c i t knowledge v o i c e " (Munby, 1986, p. 198), and the "unpacking of the metaphorical content of her speech seems to p o i n t d i r e c t l y to how she 'sees' t e a c h i n g " (Munby, 1986, p. 206). T h i s work b u i l d s on t h a t of L a k o f f and Johnson (1980) who argue t h a t , "the human conceptual system i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d and d e f i n e d . Metaphors as l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s are p o s s i b l e p r e c i s e l y because there are metaphors i n a person's conceptual system" (p. 6). i n a program of r e s e a r c h I n v o l v i n g teacher's use of metaphor, R u s s e l l , Munby, S p a f f o r d and Johnston (1990) suggest t h a t metaphors which teachers use i n d i s c u s s i o n s of p r a c t i c e seem to express t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s and, i n the case of more experienced t e a c h e r s , may a c t as g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r a c t i c e . They a l s o s t a t e t h a t , "the presence of an i n t e r e s t e d , n o n e v a l u a t i v e c o l l e a g u e appears to s t i m u l a t e many teachers to reframe t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of classroom events and to become more aware of how they l e a r n from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s " (p. 88). Summary The r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n t h i s chapter has served to demonstrate the breadth of conceptions of r e f l e c t i o n and of how r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y might be promoted. It has demonstrated the p l a u s i b i l i t y of developing and implementing collaborative, professional development programs which purport to foster r e f l e c t i o n which reconstructs experience. It has given evidence of the value of documenting case studies of teachers' interactive dialogue and offers strategies for the analysis of such dialogue to detect examples of p r a c t i c a l teacher knowledge and instances of r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . Furthermore, i t reveals the uniqueness of the problem which this study pursues: to develop, implement and analyze a professional development program which provides teachers with the opportunity to " r e c i p r o c a l l y r e f l e c t " (Turner-Muecke, 1986) with each other, in a safe and supportive environment, on stable versions of their own classroom action. 3 3 C h a p t e r 3 METHODS OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e x p l a i n t h e methods u s e d t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y and t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r c h o o s i n g them. In a d d i t i o n , by p r o v i d i n g b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e m e t h o d o l o g y and a b o u t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e m s e l v e s , t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y , p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r s f o u r and f i v e , may be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . CONTEXT OF THE STUDY The S u b j e c t s T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r was f o r t u n a t e t o f i n d two v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s who had a l r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a v o l u n t a r y , 50 h o u r , p e e r - s u p e r v i s i o n t r a i n i n g p r o g r am w h i c h was s p o n s o r e d by t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s t r a i n i n g p rogram d e v e l o p e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s t o s u p p o r t c o l l e g i a l i t y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s t o improve t h e a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s t o s u p p o r t s e n s e - m a k i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . C o n v e n i e n t l y , t h e n , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h i s s t u d y began i t w i t h some c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e , a c o l l e g i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h was warm and s u p p o r t i v e , and an i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s a s a way t o improve t h e i r t e a c h i n g . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s * b a c k g r o u n d s : L a u r a i s a v e t e r a n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r o f e i g h t e e n y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . She has t a u g h t a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s , from s c i e n c e t o home e c o n o m i c s , i n a v a r i e t y o f s c h o o l s and d i s t r i c t s , and has r e c e i v e d c o m p l i m e n t a r y t e a c h i n g r e p o r t s t h r o u g h o u t her c a r e e r . I n t h e l a s t f o u r y e a r s she has assumed c o u n s e l l i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s w e l l . Her a s s i g n m e n t a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y was as a t h r e e - q u a r t e r t i m e c o u n s e l l o r w i t h two c l a s s e s o f g r a d e e i g h t f r e n c h ( w h i c h she has t a u g h t f o r many y e a r s ) . I t was one o f h e r g r a d e e i g h t f r e n c h c l a s s e s w h i c h was i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . P a u l i s an e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r , b u t w i t h a b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m L a u r a ' s . He t a u g h t f o r t h r e e y e a r s In t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s " a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l " w h i c h p r o v i d e s a m i n i m a l l y -35 s t r u c t u r e d and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s u p p o r t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r s t u d e n t s whom were h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . He r e c e i v e d a v e r y c o m p l i m e n t a r y r e p o r t on h i s work a t t h a t t i m e and s u b s e q u e n t l y moved t o t h e a d j a c e n t h i g h s c h o o l t o t e a c h e n g l i s h and s o c i a l s t u d i e s t o " a v e r a g e " j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . As o f t h e t i m e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , P a u l was t e a c h i n g j u n i o r e n g l i s h f u l l t i m e , had s i x y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , and was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c o m p e t e n t t e a c h e r by h i s p r i n c i p a l . The c l a s s w h i c h was i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was g r a d e n i n e e n g l i s h . The S c h o o l The s c h o o l w h i c h was t h e s i t e o f t h i s s t u d y had an e n r o l m e n t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e s e i g h t t o t w e l v e , and a s t a f f o f a b o u t 35 t e a c h e r s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y , i t had been r e c e n t l y a c c r e d i t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and was under t h e g u i d a n c e o f a new p r i n c i p a l . The s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d i n a r u r a l community w h i c h i s l a r g e l y s u p p o r t e d b y a p u l p m i l l , l o g g i n g , f i s h i n g and t o u r i s m . An u n u s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s community i s t h a t i t i s w i t h i n a s h o r t f e r r y r i d e f r o m a major c i t y . S t u d e n t s , s t a f f and o t h e r community members have, c o n s e q u e n t l y , an u n u s u a l b l e n d o f s m a l l town i n t e r - p e r s o n a l f a m i l i a r i t y a l o n g w i t h b i g c i t y c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . A m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e a p p e a r a n t e x i s t a n c e o f a r e l a t i v e l y warm, s u p p o r t i v e and f a m i l i a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a f f and s t u d e n t s as w e l l as what 36 a p p e a r s t o be a b r o a d l y - h e l d low e s t e e m f o r t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h e x i s t i n t h e community (compared t o t h o s e p e r c e i v e d t o e x i s t i n t h e c i t y ) . In t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e n , n e i t h e r s t a f f nor s t u d e n t s t e n d t o be s t r o n g l y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e p u r s u i t o f e x c e l l e n c e w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l . A common major g o a l o f s t u d e n t s i s j u s t t o " g e t o u t " o f th e town upon g r a d u a t i o n . I n i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h s t a f f members, t h i s I n v e s t i g a t o r has formed t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t a f f In t h i s s c h o o l were somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y and d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e d i s t r i c t , and y e t were r e l u c t a n t t o t a k e i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new c u r r i c u l a or t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( b o t h a t t h e s c h o o l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s ) , however, seemed t o be v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e i n terms o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h t h e y o f f e r e d s t a f f f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The P e e r S u p e r v i s i o n T r a i n i n g P rogram m e n t i o n e d above i s an example. ESTABLISHING THE TEACHER STUDY PROGRAMME In v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r one and t h e c u l t u r a l m i l i e u o f t h e s c h o o l b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d a bove, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r c h o s e t o d e v e l o p a p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t program w h i c h would i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s who had some c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s a l r e a d y In p l a c e , a c o l l e g l a l r e l a t i o n s h i p 37 which had been p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d , and an I n t e r e s t In t a k i n g the i n i t i a t i v e t o c o n s t r u c t and r e c o n s t r u c t p e r s o n a l , p e d a g o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . The f i r s t two parameters were met by the c h o i c e of t e a c h e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the peer s u p e r v i s o r y t r a i n i n g program mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The t h i r d parameter r e q u i r e d the p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s t o a r t i c u l a t e and r e f l e c t upon t h e i r p e d a g o g i c a l b e l i e f s . To meet two of wildman and N i l e s * (1987) needs f o r f o s t e r i n g r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , " c o n t r o l of the r e f l e x i v e p r o c e s s " and "a ' s a f e ' environment f o r d i s c l o s i n g one's b e l i e f s " , the program was d e s i g n e d t o be as n o n - d i r e c t i v e as p o s s i b l e . I n t h i s s t u d y , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were not asked t o s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f y or t o a d d r e s s p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s nor were t h e y e x p e c t e d t o e v a l u a t e what t h e y saw i n the r e c o r d i n g s of c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y . They were asked o n l y t o o b s e r v e , ask q u e s t i o n s and make comments w i t h the g o a l of coming t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what the o t h e r t e a c h e r was a t t e m p t i n g to a c c o m p l i s h i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n . The t e a c h e r ' s comments and q u e s t i o n s were not c o n s t r a i n e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n any way. The i n t e n t i o n of e s t a b l i s h i n g a n o n - d i r e c t i v e program was t o l e s s e n e v a l u a t i v e c o n c e r n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and t o r e s p e c t t h e i r knowledge w h i l e p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the t e a c h e r s t o g a i n a s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what was o b s e r v e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was the i n t e n t of t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t t h e program would p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the t e a c h e r s , d u r i n g the q u e s t i o n i n g and comparing of p e r s o n a l p e d a g o g i c a l views over the p e r i o d of the 38 program, t o a l t e r o r r e c o n s t r u c t a s p e c t s o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ( H o p e f u l l y , t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d knowledge would l e a d t o an improvement o f p r a c t i c e w h i c h would be of b e n e f i t t o s t u d e n t s . T h i s s t u d y , however, does n o t a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e improved p e d a g o g i c a l p r a c t i c e as a r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o g r a m ) . With r e s p e c t t o t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f t h e s t u d y p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e s o l e inducement was t h e o f f e r o f a p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y t h e s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n t h e p e e r - s u p e r v i s i o n p r ogram. They b o t h knew t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and ( t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s ) r e s p e c t e d him as an e d u c a t o r . To t h e knowledge o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , t h e r e was no o t h e r b a s i s f o r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s t u d y f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . A t t h e t i m e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was a f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r , s u c h as t h e m s e l v e s , who t a u g h t i n t h e same s c h o o l , b u t i n a d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t ( s c i e n c e ) . T h e r e was no h i e r a r c h i c a l power r e l a t i o n s h i p or c o e r c i v e i n d u c e m e n t o f a n y k i n d . DATA COLLECTION V i d e o t a p i n g T e a c h e r s ' L e s s o n s To o b t a i n a r e c o r d i n g o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y upon which t h e two p a r t i c i p a n t s t e a c h e r s c o u l d r e f l e c t , t h e i r c l a s s e s were v i d e o t a p e d a l t e r n a t e l y , f o u r t i m e s e a c h , o v e r a t h r e e - m o n t h p e r i o d , v i d e o t a p e was c h o s e n as a r e c o r d i n g medium b e c a u s e I t s use a l l e v i a t e s t h e need f o r t e a c h e r s t o I n v e s t t i m e I n t o s i t t i n g 39 i n t h e back o£ c l a s s r o o m s , v i d e o t a p e i s more r e l i a b l e t h a n human r e c a l l and i t c a n be r e p l a y e d as o f t e n a s d e s i r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , v i d e o c a m e r a s t e n d t o p r e s e n t a l e s s o b t r u s i v e p r e s e n c e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t h a n do human o b s e r v e r s . P e o p l e g e t u s e d t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a camera q u i c k l y b e c a u s e i t does n o t r e s p o n d or i n t e r a c t i n any w a y — i t s o o n becomes a n o t h e r p i e c e o f c l a s s r o o m f u r n i t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , i t was d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e s t u d y t h a t t h e use o f v i d e o t a p e had t h e u n e x p e c t e d a d v a n t a g e t h a t t h e t i m e l a g between c o n d u c t i n g t h e l e s s o n and w a t c h i n g i t on t e l e v i s i o n i n t r o d u c e d an e l e m e n t o f " e m o t i o n a l d i s t a n c e " from t h e c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n , making i t e a s i e r t o d i s c u s s c r i t i c a l l y . L a u r a , one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s commented, " . . . t o be a b l e t o l o o k a t t h a t i n a n e u t r a l and o b j e c t i v e way, s t i l l somewhat c o n n e c t e d t o t h e e m o t i o n , b u t n o t i n t h e same way as j u s t h a v i n g had i t go by one. I f e l t i t f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r . . . w h a t i t was l i k e . . . and now I c a n s i t i n t h e back o f t h e room and watch the v i d e o w i t h you and i t ' s l i k e y o u and I a r e w a t c h i n g t h i s t e a c h e r t e a c h and we c a n comment on t h e s i t u a t i o n . Where I'm s l i g h t l y e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d , most o f t h a t has d i s a p p e a r e d and I c a n l o o k a t i t w i t h much o b j e c t i v i t y . " A u d l o t a p l n g T e a c h e r s ' D i s c u s s i o n s As s o o n as p o s s i b l e a f t e r e a c h t a p i n g t h e t e a c h e r s v i e w e d t h e t a p e ( i n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ) and d i s c u s s e d what t h e y saw. T h e s e ( e i g h t ) d i s c u s s i o n s were a u d i o t a p e d and t h e dialogue transcribed into written form for analysis by the investigator. The transcriptions comprise 108 double-spaced pages of dialogue. At the end of the program, the participants were brought together again and asked their impressions in a "debriefing". They were asked the single question, "What are your impressions of the Peer Study Program?" The investigator then l e f t and the participants were free to discuss the program in any way and for as long as they wished. Their responses were audiotaped (for later transcription) in the absence of the investigator in the hope that they would feel more able to be candid. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The purpose of the analysis of the discussion transcripts i s twofold. F i r s t , i t is to document the interactions between the teacher participants by i d e n t i f y i n g , recording and categorizing common themes and preferred metaphors and images used. The potential value of t h i s work i s that i t creates a r i c h l y detailed description of teachers' understandings of classroom phenomena. Furthermore, i t provides a basis for developing the "clue structure" (Russell & Roberts, 1975) for detecting r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y on the part of the teachers. 41 C o n s t r u c t s t o D e s c r i b e T e a c h e r s ' Knowledge The i n v e s t i g a t o r r e c o g n i z e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s c o v e r y and e x p l i c a t i o n o f what seems i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s w i l l I n v o l v e a c e r t a i n amount o f I n f e r e n c e and c o n j e c t u r e on h i s p a r t . I n v i e w o f t h i s f a c t , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r has a p p r o a c h e d t h e d a t a from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . The t r a n s c r i p t s were i n t i a l l y r e a d i n an a t t e m p t t o g a i n i n f o r m a l I m p r e s s i o n s o f what seemed t o be i m p o r t a n t t o e a c h t e a c h e r - - a s i n d i c a t e d by an emphasis and r e c u r r e n c e o f s p e c i f i c themes, i s s u e s o r e v e n t s . T h e s e i m p r e s s i o n s were s u b m i t t e d t o f u r t h e r s c r u t i n y by an a n a l y s i s o f metaphor u s a g e . E a c h t e a c h e r s * c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d i a l o g u e was examined f o r m e t a p h o r i c a l terms and p h r a s e s w h i c h were c a t e g o r i z e d a s p r e f e r r e d " f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h " (Munby, 1985, 1986, 1987; L a k o f f & J o h n s o n , 1980). And, i n an a t t e m p t t o a p p r o a c h t h e d a t a f r o m a t h i r d a n g l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o r r o b o r a t i o n by " t r i a n g u l a t i o n " ( D e n z i n , 1978), e x p l a n a t o r y comments w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s made i n t h e f i n a l d e b r i e f i n g were e x a m i n e d . F i n a l l y , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s were us e d t o i n f e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l " i m a g e s " o f t e a c h i n g a s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by C l a n d l n i n ( C l a n d i n i n , 1986; C o n n e l l y & C l a n d i n i n , 1985) and E l b a z ( E l b a z , 1 9 8 1 ) . C l u e S t r u c t u r e t o I d e n t i f y T e a c h e r s ' R e f l e c t i v e A c t i v i t y The s e c o n d p u r p o s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t u d y t r a n s c r i p t s i s t o a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y w h i c h t h e program was d e s i g n e d t o promote. The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y was a p p r o a c h e d u s i n g a scheme d e v e l o p e d by R o b e r t s and R u s s e l l ( 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e i r p o s i t i o n i s t h a t r e s e a r c h i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n has n o t p r o d u c e d c l e a r r e s u l t s w hich c a n be r e a d i l y a p p l i e d t o p r a c t i c e . I n s t e a d , t e a c h i n g may be examined by d e v e l o p i n g " t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s " w h i c h a l l o w r e s e a r c h e r s t o a n a l y z e i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n p r a c t i c e by means of a " c l u e s t r u c t u r e " . T h i s s t r u c t u r e t r a n s l a t e s t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t o a s e t o f c o n t e x t u a l l y - r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i d e n t i f y i n g and c a t e g o r i z i n g t h e p r a c t i c e phenomena. As d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r one, and expanded upon i n c h a p t e r two, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h a r e u s e d t o frame t h i s s t u d y a r e t h o s e o f " c o n s t r u c t i v i s m " and " r e f l e c t i o n as r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " . D evelopment o f t h e C l u e S t r u c t u r e Upon i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a , i t became c l e a r t h a t , as t h e p rogram i n t e n d e d , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s f o c u s s e d on a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s , many of w h i c h seemed t o be n o n - p r o b l e m a t i c . However, i n d o i n g s o , t h e y a r t i c u l a t e d e l e m e n t s o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l , p r a c t i c a l knowledge w h i c h t h e y u s e d t o frame t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e o b s e r v e d c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n . To d e t e c t r e f l e c t i o n - o n - a c t l o n w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e , one must l o o k f o r i n s t a n c e s o f new and f r e s h a p p r e c i a t i o n s o f phenomena i n p r a c t i c e . When e x p e r i e n c e d o e s n ' t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h p a s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r w i l l e x p e r i e n c e s u r p r i s e o r p u z z l e m e n t . The s u r p r i s e a r i s e s from a new a w a r e n e s s t h a t t h i n g s may n o t be as t h e y seem and i t s u g g e s t s a need t o r e c o n s t r u c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . To do s o , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a t t e m p t s t o frame and r e f r a m e t h e phenomenon and, t h e r e b y , t r a n s f o r m h i s or h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i n ways w h i c h g u i d e or t r a n s f o r m p r a c t i c e . A C l u e s t r u c t u r e was c o n s t r u c t e d as a s e t o f c r i t e r i a f o r t h e d e t e c t i o n o f s u c h a c t i v i t y : The C l u e S t r u c t u r e C l u e 1: Can an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g s be i d e n t i f i e d ? Are t h e r e I n s t a n c e s o f s u r p r i s e o r  p u z z l e m e n t ? C l u e 2: I s t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f r e f r a m i n g a c t i v i t y ? S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  a r e t h e r e I n s t a n c e s o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f "I s h o u l d h a v e ' s " , o r "I  c o u l d h a v e ' s " ? C l u e 3: I s t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f new a p p r e c i a t i o n s o f phenomena i n p r a c t i c e ? Over t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y , a r e t h e r e c h a n g e s i n  t h e way i n w h i c h phenomena a r e d e s c r i b e d w h i c h s u g g e s t a new  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h a t phenomena? Over t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y ,  a r e t h e r e c h a n g e s i n m e t a p h o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h ? T h e s e t h r e e c l u e s were d e v e l o p e d by r e p e a t e d l y a p p l y i n g t h e s t u d y ' s f u n d a m e n t a l t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' d i a l o g u e . As t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d e l e m e n t s o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , t h e y a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o be f o u n d i n e a c h t r a n s c r i p t or i n any s p e c i f i e d o r d e r . T h ey were n o t d e s i g n e d t o d e t e c t " c y c l e s " o f r e f l e c t i o n ( M acKinnon, 1 9 8 6 ) , b u t t o a c t as c r i t e r i a t o use t o d e t e c t i n s t a n c e s o f a c t i v i t y w h i c h a p p e a r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . Summary The p r o gram d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y b u i l d s on t h e n o t i o n o f T u r n e r - M u e c k e e t . a l . (1986) o f " r e c i p r o c a l l y - r e f l e c t i v e d i a l o g u e " . I t p r o v i d e d two t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o v i e w and d i s c u s s v i d e o t a p e d e v e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . T h i s p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r was t o e l a b o r a t e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e program, and t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . As t h e i n t e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m i s t o g i v e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l "empowerment" as w e l l a s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d n o t t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e d i a l o g u e between t e a c h e r s . T h i s f a c t has b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s t u d y , and t h e s e were e x p l o r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r as w e l l . 45 C h a p t e r 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY: LAURA'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIALOGUE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h c h a p t e r f i v e , c o m p r i s e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . B o t h c h a p t e r s use t h e t r a n s c r i b e d d i a l o g u e t o c r e a t e a t e n t a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e l e m e n t s o f t h e knowledge base o f t h e t e a c h e r s . T h i s i s done w i t h t h e use o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o r r o b o r a t i o n by " t r i a n g u l a t i o n " ( D e n z i n , 1 9 7 8 ) . W i t h t h e f i r s t a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e, t h e d i a l o g u e i s a p p r o a c h e d by s e a r c h i n g f o r c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s , i s s u e s o r themes w h i c h a r e r e c u r r e n t l y r a i s e d and d i s c u s s e d by t h e t e a c h e r s . The s e c o n d frame c o n s i d e r s t h e s e themes i n l i g h t o f an a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' use o f metaphor i n t h e i r s p e e c h . T h e i r m e t a p h o r i c a l words and p h r a s e s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d a s t h e i r p r e f e r r e d " f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h " w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e c u r r e n t themes, a r e u s e d t o i n f e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e t e a c h e r s • p e r s o n a l images o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . The t h i r d frame examines the t e a c h e r s ' comments i n t h e " d e b r i e f i n g " s e s s i o n a t t h e end o f t h e program f o r f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' k nowledge. These t h r e e a n a l y t i c a l methods p r o v i d e a r i c h d a t a b a s e f o r th e I n t r o d u c t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t o f a c l u e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s u s e d t o d e t e c t r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y a s c o n c e i v e d by Schon. They a l s o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t w h i c h t h e r e a d e r c a n use t o " g i v e t h e t e a c h e r r e a s o n " ( S c h o n , 1983) and t o make s e n s e o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . The c l u e s t r u c t u r e was d e v e l o p e d t o r e c o g n i z e e l e m e n t s o f " r e f l e c t i o n a s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " (Grimmett e t . a l . , 1987) w i t h i n t h e t r a n s c r i b e d d i a l o g u e and In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' i n f e r r e d images o f t e a c h i n g . As d i s c u s s e d In c h a p t e r t h r e e , "The Methods o f t h e S t u d y " , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s r e q u i r e a good d e a l o f i n f e r e n c e and c o n j e c t u r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The d e c i s i o n was made t o n o t d i s c u s s t r a n s c r i b e d s t a t e m e n t s ( n e i t h e r t h e s t a t e m e n t s nor a n y i n f e r e n c e s or c o n j e c t u r e s t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r made a b o u t t h e s t a t e m e n t s ) w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a c c u r a c y o f i n t e r p r e t e d meanings i s u n c e r t a i n . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , t h i s c h a p t e r , w h i c h a d d r e s s e s L a u r a ' s t r a n s c r i p t s ( as w e l l a s c h a p t e r f i v e , w h i c h a d d r e s s e s P a u l ' s t r a n s c r i p t s ) , i s w r i t t e n i n a c o n t e x t u a l l y r i c h f a s h i o n s o t h a t t h e r e a d e r c a n examine d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t s . By d o i n g s o , t h e r e a d e r w i l l be o f f e r e d much c o n t e x t u a l d e t a i l w i t h i n w h i c h t o p l a c e t h e a n a l y s i s and w i t h 47 which to judge i t s v e r i t y . Analysis of the Data for Elements of Teacher Knowledge  Issues and Themes of Importance to Laura I n i t i a l reading of the transcripts of Laura's dialogue gave the impression that she was very concerned with the issue of discipl ine in her classroom, i t is the f i r s t issue to which she attends in the dialogue with her colleague, in the f i r s t discussion session, for example, she immediately refers to the amount of time that i t takes the kids to get their books out, their tendency to break into chatter, and the d i f f i c u l t y of "making them be quiet". She goes on to refer to her use of the overhead projector, her physical movement in cla s s , and her use of a class tutor in terms of classroom d i s c i p l i n e . Each of these w i l l be examined in turn. The Overhead Projector "I pefer i t because I don't l i k e turning my back to them because i f I turn my back to them t h e y ' l l s t a r t to talk . And, as i t i s , some of them are not, you know, with me in what I'm doing. Now Dan is looking at his book, Art is trying to get his homework done quickly because he didn't f i n i s h i t . Most of the rest of them that you can see are generally keeping an eye on things, but i f I had my back to them they'd be ta l k i n g " . 4 8 Her P h y s i c a l Movement i n C l a s s "I have t o g e t c l o s e t o them and I f i n d by moving a r o u n d I keep t h e i r a t t e n t i o n much b e t t e r . . . i f I s t a n d a t t h e f r o n t , p e o p l e who a r e f a r away c a n d r i f t much more e a s i l y . . . I t r y t o move i n a b i t , r a i s e t h e p r e s s u r e a l i t t l e b i t on t h e k i d s who d o n ' t want t o be i n v o l v e d or who a r e b a c k i n g o f f or who a r e s c a r e d " . Her Use o f a T u t o r i n t h e C l a s s " I n t h e p a s t t h a t ' s what I've u s e d a t u t o r t o h e l p w i t h and, you know, had Donna a c o u p l e o f y e a r s ago and we u s e d h e r l a r g e l y f o r r e m e d i a l work. She had an e x t r e m e l y f o r c e f u l p e r s o n a l i t y and was v e r y , v e r y good a t i t and she r e a l l y would t a k e t h o s e k i d s and j u s t d r i l l them i n t h e c o n c e p t u n t i l t h e y had i t . . . I ' m t e mpted t o have Kim ( a n o t h e r t u t o r ) work w i t h t h e e n r i c h e d or w i t h t h e b e t t e r o n e s . . . b u t i t would r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f c o n t r o l and Kim d o e s n ' t have q u i t e as f o r c e f u l a p e r s o n a l i t y . . . " The theme o f c l a s s r o o m d i s c i p l i n e i s p r o b a b l y n o t a s u r p r i s i n g one t o e n c o u n t e r when d i s c u s s i n g g r a d e e i g h t F r e n c h s t u d e n t s , b u t i t p e r v a d e s and d o m i n a t e s L a u r a ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n ( i n t h e f i r s t few t r a n s c r i p t s , e s p e c i a l l y ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , she seems t o frame h e r v i e w o f t h i s i s s u e i n terms o f t h e need or d e s i r e t o c o n t r o l o r r e s t r a i n t h e s t u d e n t s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t she r e c o g n i z e s t h a t b e i n g q u i e t d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e t o l e a r n i n g , "And I f i n d e v e n i f I c a n make them l o o k a t me or make them be q u i e t , t h e y ' r e n o t a l w a y s a b s o r b i n g . . . you know, t h e y ' r e s i t t i n g t h e r e , t h e y a p p e a r t o be p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n b u t i t ' s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n g a b s o r b e d . You have t o c a l l on e a c h one o f them. You might c a l l on t h a t k i d . . . who l e a r n s t h a t t h i n g . The s t r o n g ones l e a r n i t from e a c h o t h e r e a s i l y . " I t may be t h a t her use of t h e word " a b s o r b i n g " a s a metaphor f o r l e a r n i n g i s I n s t r u c t i v e . I f she b e l i e v e s t h a t knowledge i s p a s s i v e l y a b s o r b e d , t h e n i t makes s e n s e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s must be k e p t " s t i l l " i n o r d e r t o " r e c e i v e " t h e i r k n o w l e dge. L a u r a s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r h e r c o n c e r n w i t h i s s u e s o f c l a s s r o o m d i s c i p l i n e . One i s t h e g e n e r a l l e s s o n s t r u c t u r e o f F r e n c h e i g h t : "I'm t r y i n g - i t ' s n o t s u c c e s s f u l , a l t h o u g h I'm t r y i n g t o make them b a s i c a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e a l m o s t w i t h o u t pause f o r s i x t y m i n u t e s . T h e r e i s work t i m e i n t h e p e r i o d b u t t h e b u l k o f i t i s l e s s o n t i m e and p r a c t i c e o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r and I'm a s k i n g them t o be engaged and i t g e t s v e r y b o r i n g and monotonous t o them. One p e r s o n j u s t s t a n d s a t t h e f r o n t and d r o n e s on...and t h a t ' s one r e a s o n t h a t i t ' s somewhat l o o s e , l i k e t h e r e ' s a l o t o f t a l k i n g and t h e n you g e t them, you have t o g e t them e n e r g i z e d and w i l l i n g t o t a l k and t h e n y ou g o t t a s h u t them down and t h e n g e t them t o c o n c e n t r a t e and w r i t e and t h e n g e t them t o l i s t e n and g e t 50 them e n e r g i z e d t o t a l k a t t h e r i g h t t i m e and t h e n g e t them t o s h u t down a g a i n . " She a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t h e r e f f i c a c y a s a d i s c i p l i n a r i a n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her d u a l r o l e as a t e a c h e r and c o u n s e l l o r : "I f i n d a l o t has t o do w i t h t h e amount o f e n e r g y t h a t I hav e . . . whether I'm i n t o i t or n o t has v e r y l i t t l e t o do a b o u t t h e l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . T h a t ' s a l w a y s done...what i t has t o do w i t h i s what I've been d o i n g I m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e t h a t and i f I've been i n a c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n t h a t day, s i t t i n g back l i s t e n i n g t o someone's p r o b l e m s , b e i n g r e c e p t i v e , I f i n d t h a t I c a n ' t change f r o m a r e c e p t i v e mode t o a more a c t i v e , i t ' s n o t a g g r e s s s i v e , i t ' s more an a c t i v e mode, r e a l l y q u i c k l y . I c a n g e t a c t i v e . I go on and I do my l e s s o n , b u t I'm n o t engaged i n i t or a n y t h i n g on an e m o t i o n a l l e v e l " . A s e c o n d , p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d theme w h i c h r e c u r s i n L a u r a ' s d i a l o g u e , i s t h a t o f the d i f f i cu l ty of the course, especially in terms of meeting the learning needs of a l l of the students i n t h e c l a s s : " T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g f o r them t o l e a r n b e c a u s e t h e y have t o l e a r n t o change p e r s o n and t h e y f i n d t h a t v e r y d i f f i c u l t . " 51 " T h a t ' s a d i f f i c u l t d i s t i n c t i o n f o r them t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t o l i s t e n and t o h e a r . " "Some o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d go a l i t t l e f a s t e r b u t t h e r e a r e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s c l a s s t h a t have no F r e n c h so i t ' s v e r y t r i c k y . P a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e I have t o d e l i v e r t h e l e s s o n and t h e n work w i t h them and r e v i e w i t o r a l l y . " " S o m ething t h a t ' s h a r d f o r them t o o ; t h e y ' v e been v e r y good t o d a y , b u t i t ' s h a r d when t h e y ' r e e n e r g i z e d i n o r a l , b e c a u s e t h e y need a c e r t a i n amount o f t h i n k i n g t i m e . . . I d o n ' t u s u a l l y c a l l on k i d s who need t i m e t o t h i n k u n t i l a b o u t t h e s e c o n d p a s s t h r o u g h or the t h i r d p a s s t h r o u g h s o t h a t t h e y have a ch a n c e t o be a l i t t l e more c l e a r on i t , i f t h e y t h i n k . " A t h i r d theme ( w h i c h i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t d i s c i p l i n e ) i s t h a t passive students are considered to be receptive and learning, while active (restless, j i t tery) students are considered to be in need of a change of ac t iv i ty . I f t h e y a r e n o t q u i e t l y a t t e n t i v e , t h e y a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be engaged and l e a r n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g two examples o c c u r e d i n s e p a r a t e l e s s o n t r a n s c r i p t s : Example one P a u l : "How do you know t h e y ' r e g e t t i n g i t r i g h t now? J u s t 52 by..." L a u r a : " W e l l , I'm a s k i n g v a r i o u s ones as we go a l o n g , l i k e what would t h i s be? And some o f them a r e v o l u n t e e r i n g and t h e y ' r e l o o k i n g l i k e t h e y u n d e r s t a n d . T h e r e a r e n ' t k i d s s i t t i n g t h e r e j u s t g o i n g uhhh, o r p u t t i n g t h e i r head down on t h e d e s k . P a u l : "And t h a t ' s what happens when t h e y d o n ' t , t h e y s h u t down?" L a u r a : "Yeah. They j u s t s h u t down when t h e y d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d o r t h e y s t a r t g e t t i n g j i t t e r y . And t h e y ' r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y j i t t e r y y e t . And t h e n , when we s t a r t e d d o i n g t h e ex a m p l e s , k i d s I d i d n ' t e x p e c t would have g o t t e n i t a c t u a l l y v o l u n t e e r e d . They d o n ' t a l l have i t p e r f e c t l y by a n y means, b e c a u s e . . . " P a u l : "But t h e y ' r e w e l l on t h e r o a d . " L a u r a : "But t h e y ' r e w e l l on t h e r o a d . " Example Two L a u r a : "Somewhere i n h e r e I ' l l be c a l l i n g on p e o p l e who d o n ' t have t h e i r hands up. I s h o u l d p r o b a b l y . . . I ' m a l w a y s a l i t t l e u n c e r t a i n , t o o , a b o u t how l o n g t o c o n t i n u e i n one e x c e r c i s e . I wonder i f i t ' s e v e n l o n g enough t h a t e v e r y o n e who wants t o answer g e t s a c h a n c e t o . T h a t y o u r e p e a t i t enough t h a t 53 t h e y ' l l s t a r t to get It, but not go to the point of..." Paul: "Saturation?" Laura: "Saturation. Yes, I t r y to be sensitive to that. Today i t was very easy because they were receptive and, then, when they would s t a r t to get r e s t l e s s , I would change to the next a c t i v i t y . But when they are so very r e s t l e s s . . . " Paul: "It's hard to know what they..." Laura: "It's hard to know whether they've even the basic grasp of i t . " From these dialogue samples, one gets the impression that Laura views the classroom a c t i v i t y as something of a struggle between the teacher and the learners. She seems to fe e l that she must cause learning to happen and that the role of the learner is to passively receive in s t r u c t i o n while the teacher a c t i v e l y dispenses i t . It might be te n t a t i v e l y inferred that this "struggle" represents an element of Laura's personal image of the teacher/student relationship and that her image of teaching is that i t i s a process by which information is tranferred or transmitted from the teacher to the student. These inferences are supported by an analysis of Laura's use of metaphor. 54 A n a l y s i s o£ M e t a p h o r i c a l Terms and P h r a s e s One h u n d r e d and f o r t y - t w o m e t a p h o r i c a l t e r m s and p h r a s e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n L a u r a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d i a l o g u e and were c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o " f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h " (Munby, 1987). A l l but 29 of t h e s e c o u l d be p l a c e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h : 1) L e s s o n a s M o v i n g O b j e c t . . . w i t h t h e f l o w . . . , . . . t h e y ' r e t h e r e . . . , . . . d r i f t . . . , . . . t h i s p o i n t . . . , . . . r e a d y t o go..., . . . p o i n t g e t t i n g t o . . . , ...end o f c l a s s . . . , . . . g o i n g o v e r . . . , . . . a t t h i s p o i n t . . . , ...go w i t h i t . . . , . . . o f f she g o e s . . . , ...Mike's c o m i n g . . . , . . . g e t c a u g h t up..., . . . g o i n g o v e r . . . , ...go f a s t e r . . . , . . . g o i n g b a c k . . . , ...go f u l l b o r e . . . , ...go on..., ...go b a c k . . . 2) S t u d e n t s a s P a s s i v e O b j e c t s . . . t a k e k i d s . . . , . . . d r i l l them..., ...work on . . . a b s o r b i n g ( i n f o r m a t i o n ) . . . , . . . g e t them..., ...make . . . r a i s e p r e s s u r e . . . , . . . f o c u s them..., . . . l e t them..., h e r . . . , . . . s h u t them down..., ...keep an eye on . . . c o n t a i n them..., . . . t h e y have t o . . . them..., them..•, . . . f o r c e them••., 3) P r o x i m i t y t o t h e T e a c h e r C o r r e l a t e s t o L e a r n i n g : 55 . . . w i t h me..., ...draw i n . . . , ...come back t o him..., ...tune o u t . . . , . . .break o f f . . . , . . . s l i d e away..., . . . w a n d e r i n g . . . , ...engaged..., . . . w i t h y o u . . . I t would seem t h a t i t c o u l d be t e n t a t i v e l y i n f e r r e d t h a t , i n t h i s F r e n c h c l a s s , L a u r a has a " t r a n s m i s s l v e " v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g . I n t h i s v i e w , t h e a c t i v e , d i r e c t i v e t e a c h e r " t r a n s f e r s " i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p a s s i v e , r e c e p t i v e l e a r n e r . I n t h e s e f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h , t h e c u r r i c u l u m seems t o be p e r c e i v e d and d e s c r i b e d as s o m e t h i n g w h i c h moves a l o n g from one " p o i n t " t o " a n o t h e r " . I n t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e , t h e t e a c h e r m i g h t f e e l t h a t she has t o " d r a g " h e r s t u d e n t s a l o n g w i t h m o t i o n o f the c o u r s e . T h i s i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h L a u r a ' s f r e q u e n t use o f m e t a p h o r i c a l terms and p h r a s e s which s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s must be k e p t p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e t o h e r ( " p r o x i m i t y t o t h e t e a c h e r " ) f o r l e a r n i n g t o o c c u r . L a u r a ' s Comments i n t h e D e b r i e f i n g An e x a m i n a t i o n o f L a u r a ' s comments a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y d u r i n g t h e d e b r i e f i n g p r o v i d e some c o r r o b o r a t i o n f o r t h e c o n j e c t u r e t h a t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f pedagogy i s l a r g e l y b a s e d on t h e " t r a n s m i s s l v e " v i e w . 56 "...as we talked before, your kids are grade nines and i t s a d i f f e r e n t subject but they were just so peaceful. What struck me immediately was their peace, their quiet, the relaxedness, their a b i l i t y to get on with the work and interact with i t and with you, their a b i l i t y to l i s t e n to one another... I f e l t that that contrasted alot with my grade eights who are tending to be very hyper, very buzzy, very non-focussed alot of the time. Certainly a group of them, they're just very busy. And, you know, where I f e l t that I was r e a l l y d i r e c t i n g them..." Laura goes on to express a desire to be less "teacher-d i r e c t i v e " , but does i t in terms of making the students  participate in a more "learner-centered" approach. She seems to wish to give up her need to control the students, but perceives that she can't: "That's something that I s t i l l am not s a t i s f i e d with in my grade eight French and that's that in order to maintain a tone where learning takes place that everything i s so teacher-d i r e c t i v e . I would l i k e to be more learner-centered. And I think i t probably i s possible, but I have not been able to make i t possible in my classes. If I stand there and am the authority and b a s i s c a l l y , make the class do these things they w i l l do them. But I've not been able to get them to spontaneously do those things, w i l l i n g l y , on their own." 57 I t m i g h t be i n f e r r e d , t h e n , t h a t L a u r a ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a " s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d " a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g i s c o l o r e d by her c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f a t e a c h e r as a " c o n t r o l l e r " . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o be s u r e o f t h i s , however, as she does seem t o r e c o g n i z e P e t e r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e a s b e i n g f a c i l i t a t i v e ( t h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n c h a p t e r f i v e ) r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t i v e . I t may be t h a t she f e e l s t r a p p e d In her " a u t h o r i t a t i v e r o l e " by t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s and, p o s s i b l y , by t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i t s e l f . I t i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y t o d i s c o v e r i f t h a t v i e w o f h e r r o l e a s a t e a c h e r c a n be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l o f h e r c l a s s e s or I f i t v a r i e s w i t h t h e c o u r s e , g r a d e l e v e l , or some o t h e r p a r a m e t e r . However i t does a p p e a r t o be p r e s e n t i n t h i s s e t o f t r a n s c r i p t s and may i n f l u e n c e t h e way i n which she r e f l e c t s on h e r a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . A n a l y s i s f o r R e f l e c t i v e A c t i v i t y The c l u e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e was a p p l i e d t o t h e t r a n s c r i b e d d a t a as c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e c o n s t r u c t i v e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , and t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r e a c h c l u e . C l u e 1: A r e t h e r e i n s t a n c e s o f s u r p r i s e o r p u z z l e m e n t ? In t h i s f i r s t e x c e r p t , L a u r a ' s p a s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s t u d e n t 58 behavior in her classroom appeared not to connect the need for students to be active to their lack of on-task behavior. Paul suggests this connection and i t seems to surprise her. Excerpt One: Laura: "We're just going over the verbs. I'm showing them to them a l l again using flash cards. That focusses their attention again." Paul: "And i t ' s the same thing, you know, they're l i s t e n i n g right now, but they have to have their hands up with voluntary answers. They're acquiring more focus too. Seems that they have to have something to do. Laura: "Yeah, in order to l i s t e n well. That's very perceptive, something to do." The second excerpt i s similar in that surprise arises from Laura's recognition that she had previously overlooked something which might influence student classroom behavior. In t h i s excerpt, she and Paul are discussing how much more cooperative the French class appears to be during t h i s lesson (when compared to the previous lesson). She hadn't considered the influence that a recent evaluation may have had on the students. 59 Excerpt Two: Paul: "You're not having to do that. You're much more focussed on what you're teaching rather than having to get these guys to s e t t l e down." Laura: " s e t t l e down, that's r i g h t . They're ju s t . . . I don't think I asked them to quiet down any more often. It's j u s t . . . " Paul: "Maybe when they help you produce a copy of that f i r s t report card process and some of them had a shock." Laura: "I think so, because six people in t h i s class f a i l e d and six people in the other class f a i l e d . That's twenty-five percent. And I decided not to give any grace. If they were below the marks, they were below the marks. That's righ t , I hadn't  considered the report card but that seems to have made quite a major difference...We've had t r a n s i t i o n after t r a n s i t i o n , and they've just been able to go from one thing to the next. I think  you're r i g h t , the report card has had alot to do with i t . Expressions of surprise such as these, during which a pr a c t i t i o n e r gains new awarenesses of phenomena in practice, are elements of r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y which support and encourage further r e f l e c t i o n (Schon, 1983). The practitioner may, subsequently, ask herself or her colleague related questions, or engage in a process of generating additional explanations or options for action. It i s these "should have's" and "could have's" which are addressed by the second clue. Clue 2: Are there instances of the expressions "I should have"  and "I could have"? In excerpt 3, Laura responds to Paul's description of a writing assignment which he uses to begin his classes. Laura engages in an attempt to match the idea to the circumstances of her classroom by considering the present a b i l i t y of her students, and by generating task options which might be educationally appropriate for French eight. Excerpt Three: Laura: "That's something that could be very useful s t a r t i n g at about the point we're getting to now where they've got enough vocabulary that I can make them... they could write a very short dialogue or write a short scene or even just write five sentences or...create fiv e questions or maybe two questions plus their answers, that kind of thing. That could be very useful." In excerpt 4, experimenting with the type of tasks given to students at par t i c u l a r times of the day is considered. 61 L a u r a : "I was t h i n k i n g o f t h i s c l a s s , t o o , of d o i n g more o f t h e upper c l a s s r o o m w r i t t e n t y p e e x e r c i s e s i n t h e a f t e r n o o n where t h e y have t o s i t down and f o c u s on a p i e c e o f p a p e r . D o i n g l e s s o r a l work i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , and l e s s . . . f e w e r t h i n g s t h a t r e q u i r e t h a t g r o u p . " P a u l : "You s h o u l d t r y an e i g h t d a y c y c l e . J u s t go from d a y one t o d a y e i g h t . J u s t keep a l i t t l e j o u r n a l o f how I t went." L a u r a : "Yes, t o d a y e i g h t . I m i g h t do t h a t . I c a n t e l l compared t o t h e l a s t one, I've much more e n e r g y , my v o i c e has more v i b r a n c e t o i t . " I t a p p e a r s i n t h e s e e x c e r p t s t h a t L a u r a i s , i n d e e d , r e f l e c t i n g on phenomena i n h e r p r a c t i c e i n a way w h i c h has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o change h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t and h e r b e h a v i o r i n i t . The n e x t c l u e i s d e s i g n e d t o d e t e c t e v i d e n c e o f s u c h r e c o n s t r u c t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . I f a phenomenon i s " r e - u n d e r s t o o d " , t h e l e a r n e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f I t a r e l i k e l y t o c h a n g e . C l u e 3: Over t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y , a r e t h e r e c h a n ges i n t h e way i n w h i c h phenomena a r e d e s c r i b e d w h i c h s u g g e s t a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h a t phenomena? Over t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y . 6 2 are there changes In the use of metaphorical figures of speech? There appears to be a single occurance of Laura's description and redescription of a s p e c i f i c phenomena in which her understanding of i t seemed to change. As described e a r l i e r in t h i s chapter, Laura i n i t i a l l y framed her use of the overhead projector in terms of classroom d i s c i p l i n e . Neither teacher referred to i t again u n t i l Paul did so three months l a t e r , in the eighth and f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t . This time Laura describes her use of the overhead in educational terms rather than those involving the issue of classroom d i s c i p l i n e . Laura: "I use i t (the projector) a l l the time, yes. I never use the board, or hardly ever. I use this because I can keep an eye on them. Not just to keep them busy, but I can see who's understanding, who's not...I also find that they write so slowly that i f I'm writing on the board that I could f i l l up the space and then I can't s t a r t over...some things I ' l l put on there and leave on there and go back and use i t for the next class...and I find i t focusses their attention in one s p e c i f i c area. I also just find i t brighter." It would be e n t i r e l y conjectural as to how and i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n in this program influenced Laura's appreciation of the use of the overhead projector, but i t i s clear that a reconsideration of i t s use did occur. This reconsideration seems to have occured during the descriptions and is considered evidence of a new understanding. 63 time interval between the two by t h i s investigator to give As noted above, Laura's preferred metaphorical figures of speech appeared to be those of "Lesson as Moving Object", "Students as Passive Objects", and "Proximity to the Teacher Correlates to Learning". A review of the eight transcripts suggests that these preferred figures are retained throughout the study. However, in the l a s t two tra n s c r i p t s , Laura's speech begins to include the figures: "Communication as Sending/Receiving" and "Lesson/course/unit/marks as Objects" (to be given or taken). The inclusion of new figures of speech may represent a reconsideration and reconstruction of some elements of Laura's pedagogical understandings. While the notion of "sending/receiving" information as "objects" is s t i l l consistent with a transmlssive image of teaching and learning, i t may represent a s h i f t in Laura's perception of what is important In her classroom interactions. Rather than focussing on the c o n t r o l l i n g issues which are Implied in the figures "students as passive objects" and "proximity to the teacher correlates to learning", Laura appears to have refocussed (somewhat) on the process of giving and receiving information. A tentative speculation might be that she has s h i f t e d her image of learning and teaching from a predominantly transmissive image to one which r e f l e c t s the notion of "transactions" between learners and their teacher. If the speculation i s correct, i t is a s i g n i f i c a n t change o£ perspective for a teacher to make over a period of a few months and might be considered an endorsement of the Peer Study Program. However, i t must be recognized that Laura may have simply become familiar with Paul's use of these metaphors and had, herself, adopted them. It may also be chance that she used such metaphors more frequently in the l a t t e r part of the program. The study would have to be conducted over a longer period of time to v e r i f y t h i s speculation. Summary In t h i s chapter, the data were examined for elements of Laura's pedagogical knowledge base and for evidence of r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . With respect to teacher knowledge, the (related) classroom issues of d i s c i p l i n e , course d i f f i c u l t y , and student behavior as a cue to assessing student understanding were i d e n t i f i e d as recurrent themes. These themes appeared to be of some importance to Laura and were used to infer that she has a somewhat "transmissive" image of learning and teaching. Her use of metaphorical figures of speech as well as statements which she made in the "debriefing" tended to confirm t h i s inference. With respect to r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , the data were analyzed using a clue structure which was designed to detect evidence of 65 r e f l e c t i o n as " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h r e e c l u e s d e t e c t e d i n s t a n c e s o f t h e k i n d o f p u z z l e m e n t which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o p r e c e d e or i n i t i a t e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . The c l u e s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d e v i d e n c e o f t h e r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . T h i s was done by e x a m i n i n g "I s h o u l d h a v e / c o u l d h a v e " s t a t e m e n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e c l u e s t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d an i n s t a n c e o f a change i n t h e use o f m e t a p h o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h . T h i s was t a k e n as s u g g e s t i v e o f a change o f L a u r a ' s p e r s o n a l image o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g , and as e v i d e n c e o f t h e k i n d o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y w h i c h t h i s s t u d y s o u g h t t o d i s c e r n . 66 C h a p t e r 5 RESULTS OF THE STUDY: PAUL'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIALOGUE i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s used i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r a r e r e p e a t e d f o r L a u r a ' s c o - p a r t i c i p a n t , P a u l . The r e a d e r i s , t h e r e b y e , o f f e r e d a s e c o n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f a t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t s , c o n c e r n s and ways of d e s c r i b i n g c l a s s r o o m phenomena as w e l l a s a t e n t a t i v e l y - c o n s t r u c t e d v i e w o f some images o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g w h i c h he seems t o h o l d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c l u e s t r u c t u r e t o t h i s s e c o n d s e t o f t r a n s c r i p t s c a n be e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e some c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c l u e s t r u c t u r e ' s v a l i d i t y as an a n a l y t i c t o o l , and t h e v a l i d i t y o f c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v a l u e o f t h e p r o g r a m as a way t o f o s t e r r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . 67 Analysis of the Data for Elements of Teacher Knowledge  Issues and Themes of Importance to Paul I n i t i a l reading of the transcripts of Peter's dialogue gave the impression that, l i k e Laura, Paul i s concerned with the issue of classroom d i s c i p l i n e . While discussing the behavior of the students in one of Laura's classes, Paul states, " I . . . keep on thinking that when I see these tapes we talk a l o t about management, sort of thing...But, i t ' s r e a l l y important, isn't i t ? I mean, i t ' s r e a l l y important of how you're teaching and what they're learning. It means hearing i t , what's going on." However, unlike Laura, who seemed to frame the issue in terms of the control or r e s t r a i n t of students so that they might passively absorb knowledge, Paul seems to frame the issue in terms of the value of placing some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for learning on the students themselves so that they can a c t i v e l y "engage" with the material to be learned. For example, as mentioned i n Chapter Four, Paul uses a writing assignment to eliminate the need to d i r e c t the students to engage in a learning a c t i v i t y at the s t a r t of each period. That r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is given to them: "You know that what I've been doing t h i s year for English, and I find i t r e a l l y works well is the idea - I've been doing the 68 idea books. A ten minute writing time right at the beginning of the class and you know you may only get about fiv e to eight minutes of writing in by the time they get organized but i t focusses them i n . . . in that f i r s t ten minutes i t focusses them and I've r e a l l y found i t ' s worked well in that "put away their idea books now" and they're ready to go and I don't have to spend as much time as I used to getting them organized and getting their work out and a l l that s t u f f . They know now just to come in  and get their ideas out and sta r t working on them, they focus  themselves. Works well." Paul appears to connect student a c t i v i t y with appropriate behaviour and learning. In this excerpt, they are viewing one of Laura's classes: Paul: "They're d e f i n i t e l y a l o t more res t l e s s than the l a s t c l a s s . I wonder why that i s . . . Are you having to waste alot of time?" Laura: "Alot of time. It's l i k e t h i s a l l of the time. They r e a l l y do have to focus in on the d e t a i l to learn t h i s . . . I t ' s very s p e c i f i c and they just, i t ' s very hard to contain them." Paul: "So they have alot more trouble when you're doing a stand-up lesson than when you're doing... 69 Laura: "When they're doing exercises?" Paul: "Yes. The l a s t one we watched I noticed there was alot more a c t i v i t i e s l i k e . . . " Laura: "Yes. This time I didn't do as much" (They continue to discuss the o££-task behavior o£ the students u n t i l the following point in the same t r a n s c r i p t ) . Laura: "We're Just going over the verbs. I'm showing them to them a l l again using flas h cards. That focusses their attention again" (Laura appears to have recognized the eff e c t that the flash cards had on the task-oriented behavior of the students, but i t is Paul who a r t i c u l a t e s the significance of the si t u a t i o n in a way which seemed to surprise her). Paul: "And i t ' s the same thing, you know, they're l i s t e n i n g right now, but they have to have their hands up with voluntary answers. They're acquiring more focus, too. Seems that they have  to have something to do. Laura: "Yeah, in order to l i s t e n well. That's very  perceptive, something to do." From these dialogue samples, one gets the impression that 70 Paul views classroom a c t i v i t y as a process of fostering student learning by giving students the opportunity and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to interact with the material to be learned. It might be inferred from th i s that an element of Paul's personal image of teaching is the notion of " i n t e r a c t i o n " (or "transaction") in which learning occurs as the teacher and the learner Interact with each other and with the material to be learned. Indeed, th i s notion appears to be of such importance to Paul that i t might be considered a recurrent theme of i t s own. "I gave them the option, I'm giving them the option right now of... there's one class that r e a l l y l i k e s to do well on their own. Starting to give them the option whether they want me to read that day...You get three or four who just are reading on their own and then I ' l l read to the rest of them. I'm hoping to wean them off that to the point where they're reading the whole book. Like i t would be the l a s t time. I would l i k e them to read something on their own." "You know the attitude, you've got to have the attitude that, as soon as possible, t h e y ' l l get themselves caught up (on work missed due to absence)... If (taking a test outside of classtime) is not a penalty, they don't seem to think they have to get themselves caught up. Just puts the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on  them, I don't think i t ' s a penalty." "I l i k e teaching English because there is never right or wrong answers. I'm noticing that, just watching myself here. I'm thinking about what they're saying, you know. And wondering, well, i s that right or not?, you know. And i t ends up that they're not looking at me for the right answer. They're trying to  make an argument for i t and I'm not sure whether they're right or wrong...I think that contributes to them l i s t e n i n g to each other, too. Because they're not...some kid could say something and I'm not going to say tht's right or wrong, you know. I can throw i t back at them a l o t . " The conjecture that Paul has an image of pedagogy which is based in a "transaction" view is corroborated by a statement that Laura makes in one of the tr a n s c r i p t s : "And your ro l e , i t seems to me... In this s i t u a t i o n , is you're the f a c i l i t a t o r and you're d i r e c t i n g the action. Not so much you're d i r e c t i n g , you're co-ordinating the action and the responses, so that everyone gets the information." It is clear from these statements that Laura perceives Paul to be influencing the action (which th i s investigator infers to mean the learning a c t i v i t i e s of the students) as opposed to being the central "actor" who performs in such a way as to "cause" learning to occur in the students who are passively l i s t e n i n g . 72 Paul's response to Laura's assessment was a simple, "Un huh." Analysis of Metaphorical Terms and Phrases For further corroboration, Paul's use of metaphor i s examined. Two hundred and twelve metaphorical terms and phrases were i d e n t i f i e d in Paul's speech and were categorized into "figures of speech" (Munby, 1987). Two major findings emerged from an informal examination of these figures of speech. The f i r s t is that Paul consistently used more i d e n t i f i a b l e figures of speech than did Laura. Approximately twice as many figures of speech could be Identified for Paul than could for Laura. The significance of this fact is unclear to this investigator. It could suggest differences in the conceptual complexity with which the two teachers view their practice or i t could relate to previous exposure to figures of speech and/or habitualized ways of describing events. The second of the findings which emerged was that Paul's preferred figures of speech seemed to be "Proximity to the Teacher Correlates to Learning", "Communication as Sending and Receiving", and "Lesson, Course, Marks as Objects" (to be given or taken). 73 1) P r o x i m i t y t o t h e T e a c h e r c o r r e l a t e s t o L e a r n i n g : ...worked w i t h them..., ...had them..., . . . g e t some b a c k . . . , . . . g e t a r o u n d . . . , ...work w i t h . . . , ...coming up..., ...coming from a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e . . . , . . . g e t t i n g back from them..., . . . g e t them..., p u l l them b a c k . . . 2) C o m m u n i c a t i o n as s e n d i n g / R e c e i v i n g : . . . p i c k I t up..., . . . o u t o f my own head..., ...gave l e s s o n . . . , . . . g e t t i n g i d e a s . . . , . . . g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . . . , . . . g r a s p i n g . . . , ...come a c r o s s . . . 3) L e s s o n / C o u r s e / U n i t / M a r k s / T i m e as O b j e c t s : . . . g i v e two p e r i o d s . . . , . . . g i v e mark..., d e t e n t i o n . . . , . . . g i v e an a s s i g n m e n t . . . , . . . g i v e ...gave o p t i o n . . . , . . . g i v e a q u e s t i o n . . . , . . . g i v e . . . g i v e t i m e . . . , . . . g i v i n g q u i z z e s . . . What m i g h t be i n f e r r e d from t h e s e f i g u r e s In l i g h t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t P a u l has a " t r a n s a c t i o n " v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s i n a r o l e w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d . P a u l seems t o v i e w e l e m e n t s o f . . . g i v e a c r e d i t . . . , a t e s t . . . , 74 classroom a c t i v i t y as well as information as commodities which can be manipulated with the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the learner. This is in considerable contrast to the image which Laura appears to hold. Paul's Comments in the Debriefing An examination of Paul's comments at the end of the study during the debriefing provide some corroboration for the conjecture that his understanding of pedagogy i s largely based on the "transaction" view. "...I r e a lized that the kids were quite s e l f - d i r e c t i n g and able to do that. I find myself giving them more of that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to take on for their very own". "...that's why t h i s whole accent on c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s and things. I think that's a tone that we have to set in the school by s e t t i n g them in every one of our classrooms. But i t ' s something very foreign to the kids, too. They're very used to teacher-directive things happening..." Analysis for Reflective A c t i v i t y The detection of Paul's r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y uses the same clue structure as was put forth in chapter Three and applied to Laura's speech in chapter Four. In addition to the detection of 75 e v i d e n c e o f r e f l e c t i o n i n P a u l ' s s p e e c h , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c l u e s t r u c t u r e t o t h i s s e c o n d s e t o f t r a n s c r i p t s c a n be e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e some c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c l u e s t r u c t u r e ' s v a l i d i t y as an a n a l y t i c t o o l , a s w e l l as t h e v e r i t y o f c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the v a l u e o f t h e program as a way t o f o s t e r r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . The t h r e e c l u e s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e t r a n s c r i b e d d a t a as c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e c o n s t r u c t i v e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y and t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d f o r e a c h : C l u e 1: A r e t h e r e I n s t a n c e s o f s u r p r i s e or p u z z l e m e n t ? In t h i s f i r s t e x c e r p t , P a u l r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e m i s b e h a v i o r o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n L a u r a ' s c l a s s n o t o n l y r e s u l t s i n wasted t i m e , b u t t h e s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o use t h e i r m i s b e h a v i o r t o a v o i d h a v i n g t o do c l a s s w o r k . E x c e r p t One: L a u r a : "Oh, i t ' s t e r r i b l e . A t t h i s s t a g e , he n e v e r s t o p s w r i g g l i n g . He w r i g g l e s f o r s i x t y m i n u t e s e v e r y h o u r , l i t e r a l l y c a n n o t s i t s t i l l . Most o f t h o s e ones a r e ( n e v e r ) q u i t e q u i e t . I t ' s l i k e t h e y have bees i n some o f t h e i r b o n n e t s . " 76 Paul: "Yeah. You're having to spend alot of time waiting for them." Laura: "Yeah." Paul: "They l i k e that!" Laura: "Yeah." In the second excerpt, Paul describes a si t u a t i o n in which the students are responding d i f f e r e n t l y than expected. The incident gives r i s e to an expression of surprise and results in refraining a c t i v i t y (the second clue to r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y ) by way of the use of "should haves" and "could haves". Excerpt Two: Paul: "Hmmm. See, they're a f r a i d of thi s one, they're not volunteering. See, wasn't r e a l l y what I was looking for and I just tended to overlook that and l e t ' s t r y the next one." Laura: "Go on to the next one." Paul: "I think I should have just stayed on that one cause I ended up wasting some time. We were just having some 77 ( i n d e c i p h e r a b l e ) t h e r e . I t wasn't v e r y o r g a n i z e d . I c o u l d have j u s t d r o p p e d t h e whole t h i n g , I t h i n k . These guys t e n d t o s u r p r i s e you s o m e t i m e s . I t ' s a l m o s t l i k e , "Huh uh, I'm n o t g o i n g t o l e t him see t h a t " . L a u r a : " I n terms o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r - o r t h e i r engagement." P a u l : "Yeah, t h e y ' r e j u s t down t o e a r t h . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e e x c e r p t examined above, s e v e r a l o t h e r s c o n t a i n e d t h e s e p h r a s e s . C l u e 2: A r e t h e r e I n s t a n c e s o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f " I s h o u l d  h a v e ' s " or "I c o u l d h a v e ' s " ? E x c e r p t T h r e e : L a u r a : "Were t h e y a b l e t o do t h i n g s l i k e make t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s and t h i n g s t h a t were n e c e s s a r y ? " P a u l : " A t t h e end. They r e a l l y had t r o u b l e w i t h i t t o b e g i n w i t h . " L a u r a : " I t ' s d i f f i c u l t , i s n ' t i t ? I t a u g h t much o f t h i s work a t g r a d e t e n l e v e l . T h e r e were some s t u d e n t s t h a t . . . " 78 P a u l : "Where I n o t i c e d I t was In t h e f i r s t e xamples t h a t t h e y g a v e . I see t h e i d e a s . But t h e y came o u t , w e r e n ' t . . . t h e d i n n e r p a r t y , how many g u e s t s , s o t h e y were s t i l l s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g . I'm l o o k i n g a t i t j u s t now and t h i n k i n g t h a t I c o u l d have p r o b a b l y done i t on t h e b o a r d t o b e g i n w i t h , t h e f i r s t t i m e , l i k e I had done w i t h some... L a u r a : "To show them the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . P a u l : " t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I d i d n ' t 'cause I r e a l l y d i d n ' t p i c k i t up u n t i l a f t e r q u i t e a few e x a m p l e s . " In t h i s n e x t e x c e r p t , P a u l r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s i n h i s two e n g l i s h n i n e c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s . He a l m o s t a dmonishes h i m s e l f i n t h i s r e g a r d : E x c e r p t 4: P a u l : "Sometime I have t o change h a t s , you know. I gave t h e same l e s s o n w i t h a g r o u p t h i s m o r n i n g and t h e y were, t h e y a r e my t o p g r o u p , and, bang on, I was g e t t i n g r e a l l y c r e a t i v e s e n t e n c e s r i g h t o f f t h e b a t . I have t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s e guys ( a r e ) coming f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e and i t ' s g o i n g t o be a l i t t l e more d i f f i c u l t . So, t h e g r o u p t h i s m o r n i n g d i d n ' t need i t and t h i s g r o u p t h i s a f t e r n o o n d i d . " 79 Clue 3: Over the period of the study, are there changes in way in  which phenomena are described which suggest a reappreciation of  that phenomena? Over the period of the study, are there changes  in the use of metaphorical figures of speech? As with Laura, there is again a single, convincing occurance of the description and redescription of a s p e c i f i c phenomena in which i t s appreciation seemed to change over the period of the program. In t h i s instance, Paul indicates a concern with respect to his marking load. He is finding i t an onerous task and has attempted to have his students dp some of the marking in cl a s s . However, i t seems that he is feeling unsure of the appropriateness of t h i s approach: Excerpt 5: Paul: "They're just answering their questions right now. Kind of d i f f i c u l t , I find, to mark English as a group. You know, I t r y to do thi s as much as possible, p a r t i c u l a r l y (to take) the marking rate off me, but I s t i l l have to say, Oh well, okay, I ' l l take a look at i t because there's so many." 80 Laura: "Are they marking their own or each others?" Paul: "They are (marking) each others. It's so interpretive, you know, one pupil w i l l kind of have the answer, according to his track record give him half marks or something. I just can't seem to push alot of my working load onto them. You know, to mark my other subjects... I find i t f r u s t r a t i n g . I've got a problem-marking every weekend that high." At t h i s point, Laura offers an observation which supports the marking of student work in cl a s s : Laura: "But I noticed there were a few students that were r e a l l y l i s t e n i n g c a r e f u l l y to the other kids. It's r e a l l y been impressive with t h i s group." Paul: "Yeah, i t seems that they're very good l i s t e n e r s when they l i s t e n to each others answers... Paul reevaluates his view: Paul: "I'm not sure about t h i s . Kind of a necessary e v i l , I guess, so much easier now. I've got marked papers and I can just replay t h i s . " 81 Laura: "Yes, and you've got two o£ the quest ions... not so bad." Paul: "Well, you know, the other class that I did I took them in and I marked them. It was a prep. period for me to go through them and mark them, whereas we have done th i s in ten minutes as a group, so, you know, and you're righ t , there are..." Laura: "Plus they've had the benefit of the discussion and gearing how their answers compared with other answers. A r e p e t i t i o n of their answers." Paul: "Approximately, at le a s t . " Laura: "Is that r e p e t i t i o n of ideas, where other people might have looked at other vocabulary than they have used be r e a l l y b e n e f i c i a l in their own worlds?" Paul: "Yes. It's interesting watching i t on the video. I see alot going on that I'm doing r i g h t . Always fe e l l i k e I'm...(using this approach which is a)... necessary e v i l so I don't have to mark so much." Laura: "It could be that i t has...value for the students, their l e v e l of i n t e r e s t . " 82 P a u l : Oh y e a h , t h a t ' 3 I t . " In t h i s e x c e r p t , P a u l ' s c o n c e r n w i t h h i s m a r k i n g l o a d and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f a s k i n g h i s s t u d e n t s t o do some of t h e m a r k i n g a r e n o t e n t i r e l y a l l e v i a t e d , b u t , w i t h L a u r a ' s h e l p , he seems t o r e a s s e s s t h e s i t u a t i o n In terms o f t h e p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t f o r h i s s t u d e n t s . T h i s i s i n f e r r e d by t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r as an example o f a r e a p p r e c i a t I o n o f a c l a s s r o o m phenomenon. P a u l has r e f r a m e d t h e s i t u a t i o n and i s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t i t on t h e s t r e n g t h o f a r e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e v a l u e t o h i s s t u d e n t s . In e s s e n c e , t h i s r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i n v o l v e s a change o f a p p r e c i a t i o n from t h a t o f b e i n g p r o b l e m a t i c and w o r r i s o m e t o b e i n g a c c e p t a b l e and w i t h p o t e n t i a l v a l u e . P a u l makes a number o f s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e p o s t - p r o g r a m d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h s u p p o r t t h i s c o n j e c t u r e : "I'm l e a v i n g my b i g p i l e o f homework o v e r t h e r e now b u t a t one p o i n t you s u g g e s t e d t o me t h a t i t r e a l l y i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o mark e v e r y t h i n g and i t ' s r e a l l y n o t n e c e s s a r y t o . . . i t ' s a l r i g h t j u s t t o t a k e work i n and j u s t t o c h e c k i t o f f as homework done, you know, and I've s t a r t e d t o do t h a t . . . s o t h a t was a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t you gave me. I g u e s s I knew, b u t you gave me t h e s u g g e s t i o n and t h e n t o l d me i t was a l r i g h t and I t h i n k t h a t I needed t h a t . T h a t ' s a h e l p t o me w i t h my m a r k i n g . " 83 It seems that Paul's reappreciation of a phenomenon of practice has taken the form of a v a l i d a t i o n of what he was already doing. U n t i l the more experienced teacher indicated that i t was "OK", he assumed i t wasn't and described i t in those terms. As noted above, Paul used a va r i e t y o£ figures o£ speech. Within each tr a n s c r i p t , he used metaphorical terms and phrases which t h i s investigator could categorize into twelve to fourteen figures of speech. However, no changes in the use of these figures could be i d e n t i f i e d with any confidence. It may be a consequence of the richness of Paul's use of metaphor that there seems to be i n s u f f i c i e n t data to draw any inferences regarding changes in their use over time. It may also be that the time period of the study was i n s u f f i c i e n t to expect changes or that Paul did not perceive a need to change. Summary In t h i s chapter, the data were examined for elements of Paul's pedagogical knowledge base and for evidence of r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . With respect to teacher knowledge, the issues of classroom d i s c i p l i n e and active, student-centered learning were i d e n t i f i e d as recurrent themes. These themes appeared to be of some importance to Paul and were used to infer that he has a somewhat "transactive" image of learning and teaching. His use of 84 m e t a p h o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h as w e l l as s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h he made i n t h e d e b r i e f i n g t e n d e d t o c o n f i r m t h i s i n f e r e n c e . W ith r e s p e c t t o r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , t h e d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a c l u e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e c t e v i d e n c e o f r e f l e c t i o n as " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e " . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e c l u e s d e t e c t e d I n s t a n c e s o f t h e k i n d of p u z z l e m e n t w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d t o p r e c e d e or i n i t i a t e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . The c l u e s a l s o I d e n t i f i e d e v i d e n c e o f t h e r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . T h i s was done by e x a m i n i n g "I s h o u l d h a v e / c o u l d h a v e " s t a t e m e n t s . The c l u e s t r u c t u r e d i d n o t , however, i d e n t i f y an i n s t a n c e o f a change In P a u l ' s use of m e t a p h o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h . 85 C h a p t e r 6 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS C h a p t e r S i x b e g i n s w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h u n d e r p i n t h e s t u d y . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by r e v i e w s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e program w h i c h t h e s t u d y documents and t h e a n a l y s i s o f i t s r e s u l t s . Then, t h e c o n c l u s i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e put f o r t h . Review o f t h e T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s The s t u d y began w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . T a k i n g t h e w o r l d v i e w t h a t knowledge i s a c t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e l e a r n e r , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o d e v e l o p or c o n s t r u c t knowledge i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g . T h i s i s done by r e f l e c t i n g - i n - a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e " a c t i o n p r e s e n t " ( S c h o n , 1983) and r e f l e c t i n g - o n - a c t i o n i n a b r i e f " s t o p and t h i n k " o r a f t e r t h e a c t i o n i s o v e r . The p r a c t i t i o n e r i s s e e n t o r e c o n s i d e r p r a c t i c a l phenomena In 86 r e s p o n s e t o s u r p r i s e or p u z z l e m e n t w h i c h a r i s e s from a p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n . D u r i n g t h a t r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s framed and r e f r a m e d i n t h e l i g h t o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ( e x e m p l a r s ) so as t o come t o a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p , Implement, and a n a l y z e a p r o g ram w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r s u c h r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p r o g ram w h i c h p a i r s t e a c h e r s , g i v e s them r e c o r d e d c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n t o o b s e r v e and d i s c u s s , and d i r e c t s them t o a t t e m p t t o make s e n s e o f what t h e y s e e and t o " g i v e r e a s o n " t o t h e o b s e r v e d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r , w i l l promote r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y w h i c h may l e a d t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r p r a c t i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . I t i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s u c h a p r o g ram w h i c h s e r v e d as t h e b a s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r r e v i e w e d r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i v i s t n o t i o n o f l e a r n i n g , r e f l e c t i o n as a way o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g p r a c t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t programs w h i c h p u r p o r t t o b l e n d t h e two. Most o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e does so i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r e - s e r v l c e e d u c a t i o n d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a number of t h e o r i s t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r , w i t h a r e p e r t o i r e o f e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge i n p l a c e , has most t o g a i n f r o m r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . Schon ( 1 9 8 7 ) , f o r example, s t a t e s , " . . . a r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c u m o f t h e s o r t we t r i e d t o c r e a t e may most a p p r o p r i a t e l y o c c u r , n o t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s t u d e n t ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r , b u t i n t h e m i d s t o f i t , as a form o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . " C l i n i c a l and P e e r s u p e r v i s o r y models were fo u n d t o be h e l p f u l i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e program e n v i s i o n e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . V a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e a n a l y s i s o£ c l i n i c a l and peer s u p e r v i s o r y d a t a were e x p l o r e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d i n t h i s s t u d y was t w o f o l d . F i r s t l y , t h e r e s u l t s were i n f o r m a l l y documented i n a c o n t e x t u a l l y r i c h f a s h i o n w h i c h e n t a i l e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some themes w h i c h seemed t o be i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r p r e f e r r e d f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h . The r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s a r i c h d a t a b a s e w h i c h a s s i s t s t h e r e a d e r t o " g i v e r e a s o n " t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s and w h i c h p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t u a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e s e c o n d a n a l y t i c a l c o m p o n e n t — t h e s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o g ram f o r e v i d e n c e o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . i n t h e s e c o n d component o f t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e t r a n s c r i p t s were a n a l y z e d f o r r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . T h i s was done by m a t c h i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f " c o n s t r u c t i v i s m " and " r e f l e c t i o n as r e c o n s t r u c t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s " t o t h e phenomena i n c o n t e x t u s i n g a method p r o p o s e d by R o b e r t s and R u s s e l l ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e matched t o t h e t r a n s c r i b e d d a t a by means o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c l u e s t r u c t u r e as a s e t o f 88 c r i t e r i a . The r e a d e r was shown how t h e c l u e s t r u c t u r e was p u t t o use t o i d e n t i f y e l e m e n t s o f t h e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y t h a t was s e e n t o o c c u r o v e r a p e r i o d o f d i a l o q u e between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The c l u e s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r q u e s t i o n s : C l u e 1: Can an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g s be i d e n t i f i e d ? A r e t h e r e I n s t a n c e s o f s u r p r i s e or p u z z l e m e n t ? C l u e 2: I s t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f r e f r a m i n g a c t i v i t y ? S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  a r e t h e r e I n s t a n c e s o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f "I s h o u l d h a v e ' s " , "I  c o u l d h a v e ' s " ? C l u e 3: I s t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f new a p p r e c i a t i o n s o f phenomena i n p r a c t i c e ? Over t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y , a r e t h e r e c h a n g e s i n  t h e way i n w h i c h phenomena a r e d e s c r i b e d which s u g g e s t a  r e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h a t phenomena? Over t h e p e r i o d of t h e s t u d y ,  a r e t h e r e c h a n g e s i n m e t a p h o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h ? The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were p u t f o r t h i n c h a p t e r one. T h e s e a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h th e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e i n t e n d e d t o answer. 1. Can e l e m e n t s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s ' knowledge base be  i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g t h e program? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , c a n c l a s s r o o m 89 events, issues or themes be i d e n t i f i e d which seem to be of importance to the teachers? What i s the nature of these issues ( i f any), and how do the participants talk about them? Can inferences be made about the teachers' personal images of teaching and learning? 2. Can one observe evidence of 'reflectlon-on-action' as the  teachers attempt to make sense of observed practice? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , when teachers r e f l e c t upon classroom action, w i l l there be evidence of new and fresh appreciations (understandings) of the phenomena? Wi l l the teachers indicate an awareness that prior understandings may be inconsisent with present phenomena (and, consequently, need modification)? Over the period of the study, w i l l there be evidence of the a c t i v i t y of reframing phenomena? 3. Did the Peer Study Program provide teachers with an  opportunity to examine the i r practice in a way which they,  themselves, consider to be of value? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , can classroom actions be recorded and r e f l e c t e d upon by teachers within a normal school se t t i n g in such a way that they find the experience interesting and useful? At the conclusion of the study w i l l they express the opinion that the program influenced the ways In wh i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e i r p r a c t i c e ? W i l l t h e y want t o p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s p r o g r am ( o r a s i m i l a r one) a g a i n ? C o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e S t u d y The d o c u m e n t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r s f o u r and f i v e have l e d t o a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s . These c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn from t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n an a t t e m p t t o answer the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1. Can e l e m e n t s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s '  knowledge base be i d e n t i f i e d f r o m d i a l o g u e w h i c h o c c u r e d d u r i n g  t h e P e e r S t u d y Program? The p a r t i c i p a n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s d i d seem t o be I n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r themes o r i s s u e s o f p r a c t i c e . I t was fo u n d t h a t t h e i r " r e c i p r o c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e " a t t e m p t s t o make s e n s e o f e a c h o t h e r ' s c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n d e s r i p t i v e and m e t a p h o r i c a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e i s s u e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t experienced teachers are able to identify and articulate practical issues of importance to them while discussing their classroom practice. The d o m i n a n t themes w h i c h were e x p r e s s e d by L a u r a were d i s c i p l i n e , c o u r s e d i f f i c u l t y , and t h e use o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r a s a c l u e t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The l a n g u a g e which she 91 u s e d t o d i s c u s s t h e s e themes was r i c h i n metaphor, she f r e q u e n t l y u s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l t e r m s and p h r a s e s w h i c h seemed t o v i e w l e s s o n s as 'moving o b j e c t s ' , s t u d e n t s a s ' p a s s i v e o b j e c t s ' and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between ' s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g and p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y t o t h e t e a c h e r ' . Her p e r s o n a l image o f t h e n a t u r e o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g i n f e r r e d t o be " t r a n s m i s s l v e " . She seemed t o v i e w l e a r n i n g as t h e p a s s i v e r e c e p t i o n o f knowledge t h a t t h e t e a c h e r has t o " t r a n s m i t " as l e s s o n s move a l o n g . T h e r e seemed t o be a s i n g l e d o m i n a n t theme f o r P a u l . L i k e L a u r a , he was c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t u d e n t d i s c i p l i n e , b u t h i s f o c u s was on t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f making t h e s t u d e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . He us e d t e r ms s u c h as " s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d " v e r s u s " t e a c h e r - c o n t r o l l e d " l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g . H i s l a n g u a g e c o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h : p r o x i m i t y t o t h e t e a c h e r c o r r e l a t e d t o l e a r n i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i o n as s e n d i n g / r e c e i v i n g , and l e s s o n / c o u r s e / u n i t / m a r k s / t i m e as o b j e c t s . He d i s c u s s e d t e a c h i n g i n s u c h a way t h a t i t a p p e a r e d t h a t he v i e w e d i t as a p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g " t r a n s a c t i o n s " between t h e l e a r n e r and t h e t e a c h e r ( as w e l l a s between t h e l e a r n e r and the m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d ) . R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 2. I f ' r e f l e c t i o n - o n - a c t l o n ' i s framed as a  p r o c e s s o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g knowledge by a t t e m p t i n g t o make s e n s e  o f o b s e r v e d phenomena o f p r a c t i c e , w i l l t h e r e be e v i d e n c e o f t h i s 92 process? The second c o n c l u s i o n a r i s e s from the s u c c e s s f u l development and use of the c l u e s t r u c t u r e for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of elements of r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . The a n a l y s i s of the data shows t h a t puzzlement, reframing a c t i v i t y and r e a p p r e c i a t i o n of classroom phenomena can be seen i n the d i a l o g u e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s suggests that the program does foster reflective act iv i ty which leads to the reconstruction of practical understandings in experienced teachers. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s b o l s t e r e d by statements made by the p a r t i c i p a n t s a f t e r the program concluded. Approximately a week a f t e r the f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n of a videotaped l e s s o n , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were brought together and asked the s i n g l e q u e s t i o n , "What are your impressions of the s e r i e s of events we've gone through i n the l a s t couple of months?" T h e i r responses were audlotaped i n the absence of the i n v e s t i g a t o r and these data provided some c o r r o b o r a t i n g evidence fo r the c o n c l u s i o n that the teachers r e c o n s t r u c t e d some previous understandings. For example, Laura s t a t e d that her grasp of how the students p e r c e i v e d her was changed, "I saw more c l e a r l y with the camera being a t the back of the room how I appeared to k i d s and that helped me a l t e r some of the ways I presented myself", and perhaps more im p o r t a n t l y , she s t a t e d that the program experience caused a r e a p p r e c i a t l o n of the p o t e n t i a l merit of a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y ; f o r example: 9 3 "Your idea book that you use in English I don't use that in French but I've started creating more a c t i v i t i e s right at the beginning of the class to s e t t l e them in the way that your idea book does. And I found that that has been h e l p f u l . That's something that I learned from you that I knew about in theory and had done in English, but never looked at and t r i e d in this French c l a s s . It r e a l l y , r e a l l y helps." in this instance, Paul's idea book was described as a way to st a r t the class on task and appears to have acted as a generative metaphor for Laura. Using i t , she was subsequently able to reframe the issue of s t a r t i n g her French class productively in l i g h t of her experience as an English teacher by "seeing ( i t ) as" a s i t u a t i o n in previous experience (which involved having more a c t i v i t i e s r i ght at the s t a r t of the period). She did not act u a l l y adopt the use of an idea book, but used i t to reconstruct her understanding of how French lessons might begin. As a t h i r d conclusion of t h i s study, then, i t seems that regarding reflection as reconstruction of experience is a useful way to interpret hov experienced teachers make sense of observed phenomena of practice. Research question 3. Did the Peer Study Program provide teachers  with an opportunity to examine their practice in a way which  they, themselves, consider to be of value? With respect to the partic i p a n t s ' perceptions of the o v e r a l l value of the program, i t is evident that t h e t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o g r a m t o be o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e . For example, Laura stated in the debriefing, "For me i t was a very valuable experience...Your idea book that you use in English, I don't use in French, but I've started creating more a c t i v i t i e s right at the beginning of the class to s e t t l e them in the way that your idea book does. That's something that I learned from you that I knew about in theory and had done in English, but never looked at and t r i e d in this French c l a s s . It r e a l l y , r e a l l y helps". In the same discussion, Peter states that, "It was good f o r me to explain myself to you. Beyond the tape and things, to a c t u a l l y s i t down with somebody else and have you, being a more experienced teacher than me, having you being able to say, 'Well, English is always l i k e that, and I know what that feels l i k e . ' That made a difference to me because some times I think that I'm the only person being overwhelmed with i t a l l . You know what I mean, It's nice to hear i t sometimes, that's quite normal. It also helped me to come up with some strategies". Both of the teachers seemed pleased with the process and with the influence that i t had on t h e i r work. A f i n a l conclusion arises from frequent participant comments regarding the advantages of the use o f videotape as a means of observing classroom practice. During the transcribed dialogue and in the post-program discussion, the participants stated that video allowed the them to see themselves as the s t u d e n t s s e e them, t h a t I t gave them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e e a c h o t h e r w i t h l e s s i n h i b i t i o n and n e r v o u s n e s s , and t h a t i t p r o v i d e d f o r an " e m o t i o n a l d i s t a n c e " by a l l o w i n g some t i m e t o p a s s between t h e a c t i o n and i t s o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n . From t h i s , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t videotape i s an appropriate means of providing material upon and with which teachers can ref lect . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y Any p r o g ram w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r r e q u i r e s v e r y d e l i c a t e and s e n s i t i v e h a n d l i n g . A t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p must be b u i l t between t h e two p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . I f t h e l e v e l o f t e a c h e r d i s c o m f o r t i s t o o g r e a t , r e c a l l and r e f l e c t i o n w i l l be d i m i n i s h e d and t h e v a l u e o f b o t h t h e program and t h e s t u d y w i l l be compromised. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n o r o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s s t r o n g l y t a i n t e d by d e f e n s i v e n e s s o r a t t e m p t s t o " l o o k good" must be b o r n e i n mind. I t i s f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e two p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y had a l r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a p e e r - s u p e r v i s o r y t r a i n i n g p r o g r am and had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d a c o l l e g i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e use o f v i d e o t a p e as d i s c u s s e d above and t h e n o n - d i r e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h i s p r o g r am as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , c o n t r i b u t e d t o m i n i m i z i n g t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e n o n - d i r e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e program i s i t s e l f a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r t h i s s t u d y . W i t h o u t t h e d i r e c t i o n and support of a f a c i l i t a t o r , the participants may not recognize and analyze problematic areas or they may choose to avoid the discomfort of facing situations where their b e l i e f s are inconsistent with th e i r actions or are themselves promoting dysfunctional behavior in the classroom. In sum, i t may be that the participants w i l l not do the "work" of reconstructing their understandings. This l i m i t a t i o n was discussed in chapter three and i s addressed again later in thi s chapter. Another l i m i t a t i o n to thi s study l i e s l.n the very fact that there were only two teacher participants. This means that the results are highly contextually bound and may be of limited value to other teachers or researchers. However, every attempt was made to document this study in a contextually r i c h fashion so that some examples of ways of seeing, ways of communicating such insight, and ways of thinking could be i d e n t i f i e d and made e x p l i c i t . The analysis of the transcripts i d e n t i f i e d and categorized themes or issues which seem important to the participants. It also determined th e i r use of metaphorical figures of speech, the images they seemed to hold about their practice, and instances of their r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . However, there are two factors which complicate these analyses. The f i r s t i s that the non-directive nature of the study also precluded the investigator from testing his understanding of the meaning and significance of transcribed 97 s t a t e m e n t s by a s k i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s d i r e c t l y . T h i s means t h a t a good d e a l o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n must be i n f e r r e d . However, as d i s c u s s e d a bove, p o s t - p r o g r a m d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e d some c o r r o b o r t a t i o n f o r t h e s e i n f e r e n c e s . The s e c o n d f a c t o r w h i c h c o m p l i c a t e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r must, h i m s e l f , use p a s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e and a p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n o r d e r t o make s e n s e o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s . The r e s u l t was n e c e s s a r i l y a "way o f s e e i n g " t h e a c t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h was d e p e n d e n t upon t h e knowledge base o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . T h i s i s l i k e l y an l n s u r r m o u n t a b l e p r o b l e m b u t i t d o e s n o t n e g a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y w h i c h l o o k s f o r s p e c i f i c examples vs g e n e r a l l a w s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h In t h e judgment o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t program w h i c h i s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y has m e r i t as a way t o promote r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . However, a number o f q u e s t i o n s a r i s e f r o m t h i s s t u d y w h i c h have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h : I s p e e r - s u p e r v i s o r y t r a i n i n g t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s program? C o u l d t h e r e be an a d v a n t a g e t o p l a c i n g t e a c h e r s i n g r o u p s l a r g e r t h a n two? How would t h e r e s u l t s be i n f l u e n c e d by c o n d u c t i n g t h e program o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e — p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e t e c t i o n o f c h a n g e s i n metaphor use? S h o u l d an i n v e s t i g a t o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d i a l o g u e so as t o f a c i l i t a t e r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y ? S h o u l d 98 th e p rogram t a k e a more p r o b l e m a t i c a p p r o a c h ? What might be an a p p r o p r i a t e s u b s e q u e n t program? These q u e s t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , have l e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o e n v i s a g e a p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t program t h a t would be d e s i g n e d t o promote and t o s t u d y r e f l e c t i o n i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . The program m i g h t i n v o l v e t h r e e p h a s e s : The f i r s t phase m i g h t be a p e e r - s u p e r v i s o r y t r a i n i n g p rogram t o g i v e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r p e r s o n a l , c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s phase m i g h t g e n e r a t e a " p o o l " o f t e a c h e r s whom a r e i n t e r e s t e d In r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y and have d e v e l o p e d s u p p o r t i v e , c o l l e g i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one a n o t h e r . The s e c o n d phase m i g h t be a program s i m i l a r t o t h e one put f o r t h i n t h i s s t u d y . I t s p u r p o s e would be t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e i r c o l l e g i a l i t y , t o d e v e l o p a s h a r e d l a n g u a g e used t o d i s c u s s p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e as w e l l as a s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e a c h o t h e r ' s work, and t o promote t h e i r own r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n an e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i s s a f e . The t h i r d phase m i g h t have a p r o b l e m a t i c f o c u s . F o r example, i t might be a program s i m i l a r t o t h e P e e r C o l l a b o r a t i o n P r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d by Pugach & J o h n s o n , (1990) i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e In a s t r u c t u r e d , i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e y c l a r i f y p r o b l e m s , summarize p r o b l e m s , g e n e r a t i o n s o l u t i o n s and e v a l u a t e o p t i o n s . 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ausubel, D. (1968). Educational psychology. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. Barnard, C. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The functions of the executive. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Birdwhistell, R. (1970). Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Clandinin, D. J. (1986). Classroom practice: Teacher images in action. Falmer Press: London. Connelly, F. & Clandinin, D. (1985). Personal P r a c t i c a l Knowledge and Modes of Knowing: Relevance for Teaching and Learning. In: E. 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