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Effects of supervisory profiling on targeted feedback behaviors of preservice physical educators Smith, John O. 1991

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EFFECTS OF SUPERVISORY PROFILING ON TARGETED FEEDBACK BEHAVIORS OF PRESERVICE PHYSICAL EDUCATORS By JOHN O. SMITH B. Sc., The University of Saskatchewan, 1973 . S. P. E., The University of Saskatchewan, 1981 B. Ed., The University of Saskatchewan, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Physica'l Education and Recreation) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1991 0 John O. Smith, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of School of Physical Education and Recreation The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT A review of the research i n the area of teacher education and e s p e c i a l l y i n the domain of p r e s e r v i c e teacher s u p e r v i s i o n i n p h y s i c a l education has i n d i c a t e d the need f o r improvements i n supervisory p r a c t i c e s (Paese, 1984b; T a n n e h i l l & Zakrajsek, 1988). Although s e v e r a l contemporary, research-based supervisory innovations have been made a v a i l a b l e f o r use by u n i v e r s i t y a d v i s o r s and cooperating a s s o c i a t e teachers, few of the methods have been p r a c t i c e d (and none of them e x t e n s i v e l y ) i n the a c t u a l school s e t t i n g ( F r e i b e r g & Waxman, 1988; Siedentop, 1985; Taggart, 1988). Reasons f o r t h i s phenomenon were considered i n l i g h t of school c u l t u r e and educational change research. The completed study measured the e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c supervisory feedback methods on the absolute and r e l a t i v e frequencies of four c a t e g o r i e s of feedback u t i l i z e d by student teachers i n secondary school p h y s i c a l education lessons. Data c o l l e c t e d i l l u s t r a t e d the magnitudes by which each c o n d i t i o n of supervisory feedback changed the amounts and/or r a t i o s of these types of feedback used by the s u b j e c t s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s (MANOVA) of the data was used to determine that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d amongst the groups as a r e s u l t of the treatments and the repeated i n t e r v e n t i o n s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the most e f f e c t i v e supervisory feedback s t r a t e g i e s and f o r the development of a l t e r n a t e methods of student teacher s u p e r v i s i o n were discussed i n l i g h t of both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s and observations. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i l TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i DEDICATION i x INTRODUCTION 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Feedback as a Dependent V a r i a b l e 4 Feedback as an Independent V a r i a b l e 6 The C o n t e x t W i t h i n Which S u p e r v i s i o n Takes P l a c e 8 Statement of t h e Problem 9 Purpose of the Study 10 The Q u e s t i o n f o r Study . 10 Assumptions and L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study 11 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e Study 12 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13 Student Teaching i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 13 C o n v e n t i o n a l S u p e r v i s i o n of Student P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r s 17 C u l t u r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s W i t h i n t h e Sc h o o l 19 I n n o v a t i v e S u p e r v i s o r y M e t h o d o l o g i e s 27 V i d e o t a p e d Feedback f o r Student P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r s . . . . 28 P r o f i l e d Feedback f o r Student P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r s 33 Feedback D e l i v e r e d by Student P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r s 38 Student P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r s ' Awareness o f Feedback 40 Focus o f the Study 42 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES 44 E x p e r i m e n t a l Design 44 E x p e r i m e n t a l V a r i a b l e s 45 L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study 47 Hi s t o r y / H a w t h o r n e E f f e c t 47 Sm a l l Group/Sample S i z e 47 I n d i v i d u a l S u b j e c t D i f f e r e n c e s / A b i 1 i t l e s 48 Gender 49 Ex p e r i m e n t e r B i a s 49 D i f f e r e n c e s i n Feedback F r e q u e n c i e s of S u b j e c t s 49 i i i Population I d e n t i f i e d . . 50 Sampling Method 50 C o l l e c t i o n of Data 51 The I n t e r v e n t i o n Process 52 A n a l y s i s of the Data 52 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Data and V a l i d i t y of the Instrument 55 RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS 56 MANOVA Results 58 Summary of the Results 62 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 64 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s and Discussion 66 Q u a l i t a t i v e Data and Dis c u s s i o n 87 Subject Questionnaire Results and Dis c u s s i o n 91 Recommendations f o r Future Research 95 Conclusions 101 REFERENCES 103 APPENDIX A - THE COMPUTERIZED TEACHING FEEDBACK ANALYSIS PROFILE SYSTEM - PHYSICAL EDUCATION 112 APPENDIX B - THE CTFAPS-PE COMPUTER PROGRAM 117 APPENDIX C - PROTOCOL FOR INTERVENTION SESSIONS WITH SUBJECTS 132 APPENDIX D - CONTENT FOR INITIAL SUBJECT BRIEFING SESSION 135 APPENDIX E - VALIDATION OF CTFAPS-PE 140 APPENDIX F - UNSOLICITED COMMENTS FROM SUBJECTS 145 APPENDIX G - SUBJECT QUESTIONNAIRE 160 APPENDIX H - CONSENT FORMS 169 APPENDIX I - OBSERVATION AND INTERVENTION SCHEDULE 174 APPENDIX J - INTERCORRELATIONS AMONGST OUTCOME VARIABLES ... 179 i v LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 - Teacher Feedback B e h a v i o r s Used as t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e Purpose of S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n t h e MANOVA 5 7 TABLE 2 - MANOVA Source T a b l e f o r Treatment Method E f f e c t s 59 TABLE 3 - MANOVA Source T a b l e f o r t h e E f f e c t s of t h e Repeated Measures V a r i a b l e 60 TABLE 4 - MANOVA Source T a b l e f o r the I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s of the Treatment Methods and t h e Repeated Measures V a r i a b l e 61 TABLE 5 - Dependent V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t e d S l i g h t l y by Main or I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s 67 TABLE 6 - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e P e r c e n t a g e of P o s i t i v e Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per C l a s s P e r i o d 69 TABLE 7 - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e Number of C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per Minute 71 TABLE 8 - Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e Perc e n t a g e of C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per C l a s s P e r i o d 72 TABLE 9 - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e Number of P o s i t i v e - C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per Minute 74 TABLE 10- Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e Perc e n t a g e of P o s i t i v e - C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per C l a s s P e r i o d 75 TABLE 11- Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e Number of Congruent Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per Minute 78 v TABLE 12- Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e P e r c e n t a g e of S p e c i f i c Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per C l a s s P e r i o d 80 TABLE 13- Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e P e r c e n t a g e of P o s i t i v e - S p e c i f i c - C o n g r u e n t Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per C l a s s P e r i o d 83 TABLE 14- Feedback F r e q u e n c i e s and R a t i o s as a F u n c t i o n of A c t i v i t y Content i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Lessons 98 TABLE 15- D i s c r e p a n c i e s i n R e s u l t s O b t a i n e d From O n - s i t e Hand-scored P r o f i l e s and Computer-scored P r o f i l e s Done i n t h e Performance A n a l y s i s L a b o r a t o r y 147 v i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 - Session versus Percentage of P o s i t i v e Feedback Comments Del i v e r e d per Class Period f o r the Three Treatment Groups 69 FIGURE 2 - Session versus Number of C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments De l i v e r e d per Minute f o r the Three Treatment Groups 71 FIGURE 3 - Session versus Percentage of C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments De l i v e r e d per Class Period f o r the Three Treatment Groups 72 FIGURE 4 - Session versus Number of P o s i t i v e - C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments Del i v e r e d per Minute f o r the Three Treatment Groups ....74 FIGURE 5 - Session versus Percentage of P o s i t i v e - C o r r e c t i v e Feedback Comments Del i v e r e d per Class Period f o r the Three Treatment Groups 75 FIGURE 6 - Session versus Number of Congruent Feedback Comments De l i v e r e d per Minute f o r the Three Treatment Groups 78 FIGURE 7 - Session versus Percentage of S p e c i f i c Feedback Comments De l i v e r e d per Class Period f o r the Three Treatment Groups 80 FIGURE 8 - Session versus Percentage of P o s i t i v e - S p e c i f i c -Congruent Feedback Comments D e l i v e r e d per Class Period f o r the Three Treatment Groups 83 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d by se v e r a l people. My p r i n c i p a l advisor - Dr. Gary S i n c l a i r i s acknowledged f o r h i s patience, b e l i e f and inf o r m a t i v e support, which were necessary i n g r e d i e n t s f o r the completion of t h i s study. As w e l l , the members of my Thesis Committee: Dr. Mosher and Dr. Ungerleider were gracious with t h e i r time and energy i n a s s i s t i n g with a l l aspects of the proposal, the data c o l l e c t i o n and i n the w r i t i n g of the f i n a l document. The input and support of these gentlemen were g r e a t l y appreciated. I would a l s o l i k e to acknowledge Dr. Anthony f o r her a s s i s t a n c e and good s p i r i t throughout the course of the study. A n t o i n e t t e Klawer and J e n n i f e r M i l l e r - T a i t must be acknowledged as w e l l , f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the coding and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the observations. The a s s i s t a n c e of Han Joo Eom i n the area of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was a l s o appreciated. Last but not l e a s t , I wish to acknowledge the P h y s i c a l Education student teachers who volunteered to take part i n the study. v i i i DEDICATION T h i s work i s d e d i c a t e d to my best f r i e n d , C a r o l . i x CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION Introduction Lawrence Locke (1984) noted that research about teaching effectiveness has been conducted i n one fashion or another for almost as long as mankind has been involved i n the education process. In f a c t , Locke may have j u s t l y concluded that research done in any area of education was at least i n d i r e c t l y addressing the topic of teaching effectiveness. Effectiveness has been defined most often in terms of student achievement (Brophy, 1981a; L o r t i e , 1975; McKeachie, 1983). With respect to physical education i n s t r u c t i o n , Schempp (1988) noted that: The students of an e f f e c t i v e teacher leave the gym knowing something they didn't know when they walked in - they do more than try to p a r t i c i p a t e - they show improvement in t h e i r motor s k i l l s and demonstrate a greater understanding of sport and movement, (p. 23). Most of the early research ideas i n physical education were borrowed from the "academic" subject areas of mathematics and the language a r t s . However, i t became evident that physical education was a unique d i s c i p l i n e requiring i t s own s p e c i f i c research. Since the 1940s adaptations to e x i s t i n g research methods and instruments have f a c i l i t a t e d the growth of a body of knowledge regarding teaching effectiveness in physical education. In recent years teaching i n physical education has undergone a variety of changes. According to Placek and Locke (1986) most of these changes have come about as a result of research into the elements of the teaching/learning process. 1 Each of the elements reviewed or researched has been deemed, by the respective authors, to have played an important role i n the enhancement of effectiveness i n the teaching process. I n i t i a l l y , the amount of student-time-engaged i n appropriate motor tasks has been repeatedly documented as a v a l i d indicator of effectiveness because of i t s p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to student achievement and enhanced student performance (Randall & Imwold, 1989; Siedentop, Birdwell & Metzler, 1979). A number of researchers (Godbout, Brunelle and Tousignant, 1983; Metzler, 1983; Rife, Shute and Dodds, 1985; Rink, 1985; and Siedentop, 1983) have suggested that the amount of time that students were a c t i v e l y engaged in meaningful and appropriate content-related a c t i v i t i e s would have a bearing on the degree of i n s t r u c t i o n a l effectiveness. Because of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n , effectiveness studies have used the notion of academic learning time i n physical education (ALT-PE) as a dependent variable to i n d i r e c t l y measure the pedagogical value of other teaching behaviors and strategies (Paese, 1982; Randall & Imwold, 1989; Siedentop, Birdwell & Metzler, 1979). Classroom and gymnasium management techniques, teacher planning, feedback delivery, appropriate content selection, presentation smoothness and momentum, accountability and goal setting have a l l been examined in various forms for t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to student achievement i n physical education and thus, to teaching effectiveness. S i m i l a r l y , a l l have been found to a f f e c t the amount, the rate and the retention of that learned by the student. For example, Batesky (1987), Cox (1981), Goldberger (1983), Goldberger and Gerney (1986), and Mosston and 2 Ashworth (1986) have professed that the s t y l e of teaching used by instructors of physical education affected ALT-PE and was therefore related to effectiveness. In other studies and reviews an emphasis was placed on the role of classroom management i n making the teaching of physical education more e f f e c t i v e (French, Lavay & Henderson, 1985; Luke, 1987; 1989). Imwold (1984) and Placek (1983) explained the significance of good i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning in creating an e f f e c t i v e teaching s i t u a t i o n . G r i f f i n (1985; 1989), Martinek (1983; 1989) and Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) provided insight into the rel a t i o n s h i p between the expectancies of teachers regarding students and the subsequent student perceptions of those expectancies which then affected academic involvement, student behavior and ultimately i n s t r u c t i o n a l effectiveness. Cox (1981) and G r i f f i n (1983) noted that the degree of congruence between e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t c u r r i c u l a may have also influenced effectiveness. S i m i l a r l y , emotional climate and more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y teacher-related variables such as enthusiasm, observational s k i l l s , teacher c l a r i t y and the a b i l i t y to develop appropriate progressions have a l l been deemed to enhance effectiveness i n physical education i n s t r u c t i o n according to Rink (1985). In addition to the in s t r u c t i o n a l effectiveness factors already l i s t e d , there has been an increasing need for the public education system to be v i g i l a n t of, and accountable for, the results of i t s programs. It has been assumed that the programs offered in public schools were factors in the increase or decrease of effectiveness of physical education i n s t r u c t i o n . 3 Schwager and Anderson (1983) noted the contribution of programs in the enhancement of effectiveness. These authors claimed that program effectiveness focused upon evaluation, monitoring of improvements, and implementation of changes that were congruent with the other effectiveness indicators. These factors were seen as reasons for changes i n student learning and for the consequent fluctuations i n achievement. The notion of effectiveness has been common to a l l of the reviews and research mentioned to t h i s point. E f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n was a necessary variable for student achievement according to many physical education researchers (Batesky, 1987; Hunter, 1982; Hunter and Russell, 1985; O'Neill, 1988; Rink, 1985; Siedentop, 1983). It was, therefore, not surprising that each of the aforementioned domains has been viewed in l i g h t of i t s contribution to e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n in physical education. Feedback as a Dependent Variable It would be remiss to review the topic of effectiveness without a r t i c u l a t i n g the need for delivering performance feedback to students, p a r t i c u l a r l y those in physical education (Brophy, 1981b; Rink, 1985; Siedentop, 1983). Knowledge of re s u l t s , knowledge of performance, and praise and reinforcement are aspects of teaching/learning that could not be omitted i f improvement in motor performance was to take place and i f ins t r u c t i o n i n physical education i s to be e f f e c t i v e (Brophy, 1981a; 1981b; Lind, 1985; M a g i l l , 1989; Rink, 1985; Rothstein, 1980; Siedentop, 1983; Williamson, O'Sullivan & Jackson, 1 9 8 5 ) . Imwold (1984) i d e n t i f i e d teacher feedback as one of the most 4 powerful determinants of student performance - p a r t i c u l a r l y in motor s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n - and therefore related to teacher success and effectiveness i n motor s k i l l i n s t r u c t i o n . As well, Figley (1985) concluded that teacher reinforcement and feedback (or the lack of i t ) ranked as the second most important determinant of both p o s i t i v e and negative student attitudes toward the subject area of physical education. This implied that feedback had served as a strategy for more than merely e l i c i t i n g correct motor responses from school students. The types of feedback used by physical educators ( i . e . , praise, corrective feedback, p o s i t i v e feedback, s p e c i f i c feedback, and congruent feedback) had several key points i n common, according to Rink (1985). For example, each type should have been genuine, credible, informative and s p e c i f i c in i t s presentation to students. Tuckman (1976) stated that performance feedback had to involve concrete behaviors and had to provide clear evidence of how one was behaving. Brophy (1981a) pointed out that these q u a l i t i e s of feedback tended to make the practice of teaching more e f f e c t i v e and, therefore, the effectiveness of i n s t r u c t i o n was enhanced by increasing the l i k e l i h o o d of learning. It seemed somewhat peculiar that such an important element of teaching had been treated so haphazardly in the process of teaching and, p r i o r to that, i n the process of teaching teachers. Feedback has been mentioned extensively i n most effectiveness l i t e r a t u r e as an essential ingredient for providing both student and teacher with information regarding performance. However,it has not been the topic of many studies concerned with 5 teachers' awareness of how they should have used and managed feedback i n t h e i r classes. This important aspect of teaching has been addressed in t h i s research study concerning teaching i n physical education. In order that physical education teachers not leave t h e i r students' learning to chance, i t was suggested that they become aware of t h e i r own ex i s t i n g feedback behaviors as well as of ideal feedback behaviors to serve as goals for improvement. Feedback as an Independent Variable It has been well documented that e f f e c t i v e feedback should be given to the student in order for that student to achieve (Brophy, 1981b; Magi l l , 1989; Rink, 1985; Siedentop, 1983). Si m i l a r l y , feedback has had to be given to the physical education teacher regarding his/her performance as an instructor (Dunbar and O'Sullivan, 1986; Siedentop, 1983). When t h i s occurred the teacher could then become p r o f i c i e n t i n the use of selected behaviors associated with e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n (e.g., feedback delivery) and thus could become a more e f f e c t i v e teacher. It has been found in several studies that teaching behaviors could be successfully altered or improved using various methods of systematic supervisory feedback and that these changes could be sustained over a considerable length of time (Mancini, Clark & Wuest, 1987; Tuckman & Yates, 1980). Schempp (1988) stated that people could, i n f a c t , learn to teach or at least learn to teach better. Siedentop (1983) emphasized the importance of providing feedback to teachers regarding t h e i r performance just as feedback was necessarily given to students. In f a c t , i t has been 6 suggested that merely providing preservice and inservice teachers with an educated awareness of teaching behaviors was s u f f i c i e n t to cause change in th e i r practice (Barrett, A l l i s o n & B e l l , 1987; B e l l , Barrett & A l l i s o n , 1985; Cusimano, 1987; Mancini, Wuest & van der Mars, 1985; Moore, Schaut & Fritzges, 1978; S i n c l a i r , 1989). It has been stated (Darst, Zakrajsek & Mancini, 1989; Franks, Johnson & S i n c l a i r , 1988; Siedentop, 1983; and Tuckman, 1976) that not only does feedback have to be s p e c i f i c and informative but the observation of the performance has to be systematic and objective in order to best document changes and to intervene with adequate treatments and implementations. Johnson (1989) noted that researchers i n i t i a l l y developed systematic observation techniques to reduce or eliminate the guess-work and su b j e c t i v i t y present i n e a r l i e r methods of determining teacher effectiveness. Although systematic observation was o r i g i n a l l y intended for use in the c o l l e c t i o n of data about teachers in the classroom, many sport and physical education adaptations such as Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE)(Siedentop, Birdwell & Metzler, 1979) and Cheffers Adaptation of Flanders Interaction Analysis (CAFIAS) (Cheffers, 1983) have emerged since the early 1970s. Since that time systematic observation practices have allowed for the r e l i a b l e observation, recording and analysis of behavioral interactions on the playing f i e l d and in the gymnasium (Siedentop, 1983). The objective data collected as a re s u l t , have permitted researchers to discuss many di f f e r e n t teaching behaviors in l i g h t of th e i r e f f e c t on student 7 achievement. However, systematic observation methodologies, having t h e i r foundations in research paradigms, may have been too complex to ensure any e f f e c t i n p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . The Context Within Which Supervision Takes Place Much has been written regarding the need for improvements i n various components of teacher education programs (Paese, 1984b; Tannehill & Zakrajsek, 1988). One such component mentioned has been the area of supervision of student teachers during t h e i r practicum t r a i n i n g . Systematic observation has been advocated as a means of overcoming inadequacies i n supervision but i n r e a l i t y , i t s use i s conspicuously limited. Although l i p service has often been extended to the u t i l i t y of systematic observation instruments most of the advocates of these devices have based t h e i r support for them on the merit of what they could do for the student teacher under contrived experimental conditions. They appeared to be instruments of research and t h e i r usefulness to teachers and supervisors limited. The contexts i n which the student teacher had to teach and in which the supervisor had to advise were often ignored. The l i t e r a t u r e which purported the merit of supervisory techniques based on t h e i r extensive use in schools has been a l l but non-existent. Even behavioral models of supervision such as those described by Gangstead (1983) and Ocansey (1988) have f a i l e d to take into account the time constraints of the cooperating teacher or faculty advisor. The nature and process of c l i n i c a l supervision (Acheson & G a l l , 1987) has implications regarding the need for time on the part of the supervisor. Werner (1988) explained that the teacher/user works 8 within fixed time parameters defined by the i n s t i t u t i o n and the lived-time experience of the participants and, therefore, any innovative method of supervision had to be considered from the point of view of that user. Often much time and collaboration were needed to c l a r i f y changes - two requirements that were seen as incongruent with the c u l t u r a l make-up of the school. The elements of school norms, student teaching norms, school organization and structure, expectations of u n i v e r s i t i e s , university norms and the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and orientations of the supervisors a l l came into play when a change in supervisory practice was envisioned. In planning for the development and investigation of a f e a s i b l e treatment condition within a research study i t has been necessary to demonstrate the intervention's a b i l i t y to address, or at least tread l i g h t l y upon, these contextual components. Statement of the Problem As could be noted from the preceding discussion, there have been a multitude of factors which have influenced the achievement of the physical education student. Of the factors and strategies discussed, student teacher feedback was selected as the outcome variable for measurement and supervisory feedback was selected as the treatment variable for manipulation in t h i s study. It was believed that the f a i l u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r supervisory method in re l a t i n g performance feedback to student physical educators did not l i e in i t s lack of e f f e c t but rather in i t s lack of use due to c u l t u r a l d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s with school norms and organizational structures. For example, a seemingly e f f e c t i v e 9 feedback methodology may have compromised i t s power because i t was too complex or required too much time to be used properly. As a potential solution to t h i s problem, a modification of the Feedback Analysis P r o f i l e (FAP) ( S i n c l a i r , 1989) possessing q u a l i t i e s which may have made i t c u l t u r a l l y compatible with the school context, was examined in the completed study. Purpose of the Study The need for providing student teachers in physical education with high-quality, performance feedback regarding t h e i r own feedback behaviors has been i d e n t i f i e d . Given the variety of methods available to service t h i s need, the purpose of t h i s study was to examine the r e l a t i v e effectiveness of supervisory p r o f i l i n g as an al t e r n a t i v e to feedback methods which have been, to t h i s point, either i n e f f e c t i v e or used sparingly (or misused) by cooperating teachers and university faculty advisors. It should be pointed out that effectiveness i n t h i s case referred to the intervention's a b i l i t y to enhance awareness of feedback behaviors. The Question for Study The design of the study addressed the research question of determining which of three feedback methods ( i . e . , supervisory p r o f i l i n g , videotaped feedback, or conventional means) was more ef f i c a c i o u s in causing student teacher awareness about 'their feedback behaviors. This awareness was measured in terms of observable actions demonstrated subsequent to intervention with one of the feedback methodologies. 10 Assumptions and Limitations of the Study This investigation included three supervisory feedback modalities used with student physical educators. The experiment examined the e f f e c t s of the various methods upon the types of, and amounts of, feedback which the preservice teachers delivered to t h e i r students. The three experimental supervisory feedback methods acted as forms of the independent variable while the feedback provided by the student teachers to t h e i r pupils was the outcome variable examined. Several process studies have looked at enhancing the feedback behaviors of student teachers i n physical education through active t r a i n i n g and s p e c i f i c goal-setting interventions (Darst, 1976; Paese, 1987; Williamson, O'Sullivan & Jackson, 1985). Several other investigations have examined the effects of creating an awareness, regarding t h e i r teaching on subsequent behaviors using goal-setting and descriptive feedback interventions such as videotaping or systematic observation (Barrett, A l l i s o n & B e l l , 1987; B e l l , Barrett & A l l i s o n , 1985; Cusimano, 1987; Mancini, Wuest & van der Mars, 1985). The f i r s t assumption of t h i s study, therefore, was that awareness of teaching behaviors was s u f f i c i e n t to cause observable changes in the feedback repertoires of student physical educators. In other words, i t was assumed that teachers could change t h e i r teaching behaviors i f they were aware of them and i f they were also aware of ideal behaviors. The second assumption made was that the e f f e c t i v e delivery of feedback to students could be enhanced by an appropriate supervisory method deployed within the limited number of intervention sessions and within the time parameters of the investigation. Grant, Ballard and Glynn (1990), Imwold (1984) and Tuckman and Yates (1980) have suggested that teachers could indeed change as a r e s u l t of receiving feedback while Paese (1987) noted that intern teachers were able to increase t h e i r feedback behaviors over a four-week period with only one supervisory intervention in that time span. A t h i r d assumption was that, given the limited sample size and treatment group sizes, and given some expected v a r i a b i l i t y within subjects and within groups, s i g n i f i c a n t changes due to treatment intervention would, in fact, be noticeable. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study As has been the focus of previous educational research, t h i s study too, examined feedback enhancement. However, an o r i g i n a l consideration in t h i s study was that behavioral awareness was also i n d i r e c t l y measured. As well, the investigation was unique in that i t regarded the time parameters and s i t u a t i o n a l contexts of the environment in which the interventions were used. The study combined current computer and video technology with the already-validated concept of systematic observation. In addition, the p r a c t i c a l significance extracted from the results of the study was deemed extremely relevant because of the r e a l i s t i c context in which the observations and interventions were c a r r i e d out. It was f e l t , therefore, that, because of these unique considerations, examined within a teaching area in need of further research ( i . e . , physical education), the study contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the growing technical knowledge base in student teaching. 12 CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The researcher or teacher educator who wishes to promote the professional and developmental growth of teachers in physical education and who wishes to do so by using supervisory intervention techniques must f i r s t ask questions about what has worked or f a i l e d i n the past, and why. In the completed study these types of questions c l a r i f i e d the d i r e c t i o n of the research and guided the selection of a f e a s i b l e intervention which could p o t e n t i a l l y foster teaching improvement. This process also intended to improve the methods used by university faculty advisors and in-school cooperating teachers who were responsible for providing performance feedback to student physical education teachers in t h e i r charge. Loucks (1983) claimed that ultimately, the purpose of a l l such change e f f o r t s or educational study must be an attempt to increase or enhance student achievement. Student Teaching i n Physical Education The majority of faculty and associate teacher supervision of student teachers during the course of a teacher education program has taken place within the period of time set aside for the extended practicum. The extended teaching practicum has often been regarded as the most s i g n i f i c a n t element of the programs offered in the majority of teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s (Freiberg & Waxman, 1988; Paese, 1984; Schempp, 1985). Tannehill and Zakrajsek (1988) pointed out that student teaching was the most important experience in the professional preparation of teachers because of the contributions of the process to the development of prospective teachers. They added that the 13 experience was also a necessary coercive s o c i a l i z a t i o n of 3 students into t r a d i t i o n a l teaching ro l e s . Tinning (1988) stated that although student teaching was s i g n i f i c a n t to the professional development of teachers throughout the world, " t h i s very process was implicated in the general f a i l u r e of teacher education to adequately prepare teachers who could envision a world of schooling any d i f f e r e n t from the present one." Teachers have been very uncomfortable with change of any sort and i t appeared to be more b e n e f i c i a l to ' f i t i n ' than i t did to grow as a professional - at least in the beginning stages of teaching. Perhaps the "coercive s o c i a l i z a t i o n " mentioned by Tannehill and Zakrajsek (1988) was deemed ultimately more important than the developmental t r a i n i n g aspect of student teaching. Goodlad (1983a) was in agreement that the most s i g n i f i c a n t part of the professional education of the teacher was the student teaching but q u a l i f i e d t h i s claim by adding - ". . . during t h i s time the neophyte practices under supervision what he or she previously observed teaching to be." The reasons why student teaching was seen by teachers and teacher educators as being so s i g n i f i c a n t then, may not have been for the reasons they would wish to be true. Metzler (1984) stated that the intention of any well-conceived teacher education program was to provide experiences that would develop or improve the student's teaching s k i l l s . However, t h i s notion was perhaps too i d e a l i s t i c , for as Goodlad (1983a) pointed out - "Teachers teach as they have been taught." Tinning (1988) suggested that teacher education was "a process of 'becoming' rather than the mastery of a set of competencies" and 14 that learning to be a teacher involved modeling cooperating teachers. Goodlad (1983a) f e l t that cooperating teachers may not have been the true models for student teachers as they spent r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e time interacting with them compared to the years spent observing the teachers who taught them during t h e i r own schooling experience. Tinning (1988) pointed out that the central problem involved the tendancy for student teachers to "accept exi s t i n g classroom situations as 'given', e s s e n t i a l l y unalterable and beyond c r i t i c i s m . " As well, the only knowledge of practice considered legitimate was that generated by "those not p r a c t i c i n g . Tinning (1988) stated that i t was naive to believe that research was both necessary and s u f f i c i e n t to e f f e c t comprehensive reform in teacher education but, " i f teachers' knowledge became i n t u i t i v e and was only validated pragmatically then we would continue to reproduce the status quo in schools.", and, yes, teachers would continue to teach as they have been taught. As had been discussed, the need to survive the process of student teaching may have been paramount i n the minds of preservice educators. Various researchers have investigated the notion of teacher concerns in order to get at the real issues of student teaching and teacher preparation. McBride (1984) pointed out, for instance, that u n t i l the true concerns of student teachers were known and addressed there would always remain a struggle between the culture of teacher education and the culture of the school and the parts each play in preparing, the student teacher. The c o n f l i c t has been fueled as a result of the immediacy of student teacher concerns, the norms of student 15 teaching and the culture of the school taking precedence over that which was learned in university education courses. Perhaps i t was necessary for student teachers of physical education and other subject areas to be i n i t i a t e d into the culture of teaching through the "sink or swim" process so that they could also be equipped to survive the i s o l a t i o n and presentist ethics facing them in subsequent years of teaching (Lortie, 1975). These factors may have been the same reasons why there were so many professed shortcomings in the development of student teachers during the extended practicum period. What was r e a l l y important in t h i s process? Bullough (1987) noted that when a beginning teacher enters a school for the f i r s t time, "she enters more than a building; she enters a culture of teaching that has evolved in response to school structure and wider c u l t u r a l values that establishes what the appropriate teacher role should be." Was i t possible that the culture of teaching had become so powerful that existing methods of supervision and development were not capable of overcoming the culture's drive to perpetuate? Hargreaves (1987) stated that: Once in motion, the culture of teaching i s reproductive and self-generating, but only as long as the material conditions of i t s existence - the i s o l a t i o n and constraints of the classroom, the limited opportunities for r e f l e c t i o n , the minimal a l l o c a t i o n of statutory time to non-classroom work - p e r s i s t and continue to sustain i t . (p. 28). The intent of t h i s discussion was not to personify school culture but the metaphor did help to explain why there has been so much discontent with university and school supervision 16 (Freiberg & Waxman, 1988; Paese, 1984b; 1987; Taggart, 1988; Tannehill & Zakrajsek, 1988). Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984) claimed that, "Most schools did not provide meaningful supervision and most teachers did not ask for i t and thus the very act of teaching has become i n v i s i b l e . " Conventional Supervision of Student Physical Educators In essence, a need to improve the quality of supervision for student teachers in the area of physical education has been i d e n t i f i e d (Siedentop, 1983; 1985; Williamson, O'Sullivan & Jackson, 1985). Hawkins, Wiegand and Landin (1985) and Ocansey (1987) have concluded that the feedback given to student teachers has often been vague and incomplete. They have added that, frequently the feedback given by supervisors has f a i l e d to provide s p e c i f i c strategies designed to improve subsequent teaching performances. Ocansey (1987) noted that as a result of t h i s i m p l i c i t feedback, student teachers were often unable to follow through successfully in subsequent teaching. In a study by Tannehill and Zakrajsek (1988) results were obtained indicating that cooperating teachers provided minimum feedback to student teachers, held few supervisory conferences, and spent l i t t l e time observing teaching. Cooperating teachers peaked in the number of comments they gave in about the t h i r d week. During the f i n a l four weeks of the practicum, observation time decreased as did the number of v i s i t a t i o n s indicating that many associate teachers abandoned t h e i r supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s altogether. In t o t a l , less than one conference per student teacher was held over the entire practicum. These authors have j u s t l y concluded 17 that the cooperating teacher may have been the weakest component in the f i e l d experience of student physical educators due to a lack of supervisory t r a i n i n g . This information seemed rather frightening in l i g h t of the results of a study by Paese (1984a) who claimed that the cooperating teacher, in f a c t , had even a greater e f f e c t upon the student than the university faculty advisor. Before reviewing the results of Tannehill and Zakrajsek's (1988) study one might have had assumed that there would be enough s i g n i f i c a n t d a i l y contact between student teacher and school associate to p r e c i p i t a t e Paese's comparisons. However, i t seemed that the supervisory practices of both the university advisor and the school advisor may have been in question. Paese (1984b) found that 65 percent of a l l student teachers surveyed f e l t the feedback given to them by t h e i r university faculty advisors was of no value. Freiberg and Waxman (1988) have pointed out that university faculty advisors had a decreased opportunity to give consistent feedback because each t y p i c a l l y supervised ten to twelve student teachers and only had limited time to observe during the practicum. Much of the university faculty advisor's time was consumed i n t r a v e l l i n g to and from the various s i t e s with l i t t l e time remaining for q u a l i t y feedback. It was u n r e a l i s t i c to expect university supervisors to observe student teachers every day, but a l t e r n a t i v e supervisory strategies could have been incorporated into the practicum (Williamson, O'Sullivan & Jackson, 1985). There has been v i r t u a l l y no research suggesting that supervision of teaching, however defined or undertaken, has made any difference in the development of student physical educators, 18 a c c o r d i n g t o Paese (1984b). The combination of the school a s s o c i a t e ' s l a c k of s u p e r v i s o r y t r a i n i n g and the teacher educator's l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n t e a c h i n g teachers (Hawkins, Wiegand & Landin, 1985) has p l a c e d the r e l a t i v e value of t h e i r suggestions and s u p e r v i s o r y feedback i n some doubt. R u s s e l l (1979) noted t h a t some c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s were too nega t i v e , or f a i l e d t o pro v i d e enough or s u f f i c i e n t l y s p e c i f i c feedback. F r e i b e r g and Waxman (1988) agreed that c o o p e r a t i n g teachers g e n e r a l l y d i d not pro v i d e a c c u r a t e and s p e c i f i c feedback to student t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t seemed ev i d e n t t h a t a problem e x i s t e d with the p r a c t i c e of student teacher s u p e r v i s i o n d u r i n g the extended t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c u m of p h y s i c a l educators. F r e i b e r g and Waxman (1988) purported that the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of feedback given was at the core of any e f f e c t i v e student teacher program and th a t the lack of v a l i d and accurate i n f o r m a t i o n would no doubt hinder the p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . I t seemed, however, th a t a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n s and adequate s p e c i f i c feedback c o u l d only be pro v i d e d to p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l educators once the concerns over s u p e r v i s o r t r a v e l time, routes and s c h e d u l i n g , c l i e n t load and, t r a i n i n g f o r s u p e r v i s o r s were addressed. C u l t u r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Within the School I t was contended t h a t the problems of s u p e r v i s i o n d u r i n g student t e a c h i n g have had l i t t l e r e s o l u t i o n w i t h i n the domains of in c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g , s t a f f i n g or f i n a n c i n g . Rather, as p o i n t e d out p r e v i o u s l y , these problems may have been founded i n the w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r e of s c h o o l s . Paese (1987) noted t h a t f i e l d 19 experiences have seemed to cause negative attitudes toward teaching even though a l l persons involved were supposedly po s i t i v e and c o l l e g i a l partners in the t r a i n i n g and education of the student physical educator. It seemed that f i e l d experiences have had l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the p o s i t i v e self-concept of teachers. Schempp (1985) suggested that professional progress was defined by preservice physical educators as, "experiences in which a teacher planned lesson was f e l t to have had worked because the entire class responded to the teacher's e f f o r t s with appropriate s o c i a l behavior." Lack of progress toward becoming a better teacher, on the other hand, was defined through experiences whereby the student teachers, " . . . f e l t an a c t i v i t y they had t r i e d did not work resulting in wasted time and inappropriate s o c i a l behavior by the entire c l a s s . " Should success in teaching be d e f i n i t i o n a l l y achieved by setting low levels of expectations and by classroom management? Taggart (1988) noted that classroom experience tended to place management at the centre of teaching, possibly at the expense of student learning. It was sad to think that student teaching experiences had led young physical educators to adopt l i t t l e more than a student control ideology. According to Schempp (1985) student teachers defined becoming a better teacher in terms of the a b i l i t y to develop and implement t a c t i c s and techniques which dominated and controlled the c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l behavior of th e i r students. Furthermore, these d e f i n i t i o n s did not tend to change throughout the student teaching period. Did student teachers in 20 physical education view t h e i r fundamental mission as one of so c i a l control? Why were motor s k i l l s , f i t n e s s or cognitive s k i l l s not associated with becoming a better teacher (Schempp, 1985)? The answers to these questions may have been founded within the c u l t u r a l s t a b i l i t y of the school and within the norms and the ethics involved in teaching. The e x p l i c i t agenda of teacher education has been one of professional growth and development c e r t a i n l y , but the i m p l i c i t norms of the student teaching experience have seemed to pivot on the "sink or swim" philosophy and the need to survive. This underlying agenda may have grown from the innate structure and b e l i e f system present in the schools. It was t h i s same network of norms and structures that has inh i b i t e d the introduction of successful interventions and supervisory innovations which could have had the potential of catering to the e x p l i c i t goals of teacher growth and development. Perhaps i t would have been too ambitious to think of restructuring schools to provide a culture which was responsive to the e x p l i c i t goals of teacher education. However, i t was possible to take the exi s t i n g school culture into consideration when developing supervisory strategies thereby increasing t h e i r chances for success. Several innovative supervisory practices have emerged from other research as e f f e c t i v e means to improve the supervision component of teacher education. The practices of videotaping, systematic observation and c l i n i c a l supervision, for example, a l l appeared t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound. Each modality produced s i g n i f i c a n t changes in teacher behaviors when studied as a method of providing performance feedback to student teachers. According to 21 Freiberg and Waxman (1988), Siedentop (1985), and Taggart (1988), however, these innovations in teacher supervision have been used far less extensively than t h e i r potential to improve teaching performance would suggest. In determining why t h i s was so, an investigation of supervisory practices that were e f f e c t i v e or not e f f e c t i v e surely began with a closer examination of the context in which they were used. If these methods were to be viewed as changes r e l a t i v e to conventional techniques then the e f f e c t that they have had on school culture (and vice versa) should have also been considered when interpreting the results of research. The structure and organization of the school has lent i t s e l f to s t a b i l i t y rather than change, according to Goodlad (1983b), and therefore, has not been conducive to many of the changes that present themselves within i t s walls. It was f e l t that much good change could result in education i f only the users of change and the context of school culture were considered more during the development of innovations. Several aspects of school culture in h i b i t e d the onset of change therein according to Goodlad (1983b). For instance, Bullough (1987) noted that the culture of teaching was presentist and therefore, only concerned with the here and now. Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984) also spoke of the p r a c t i c a l i t y ethic involved with teaching. Teachers have often taken a s u r v i v a l i s t view of t h e i r work. There was a " d a i l i n e s s " character that permeated the teaching practice according to Bullough (1987). Hence, educators were skeptical of change that required long-term investments of 22 time or energy or emotional commitment and consequently d i d not p r i o r i t i z e t h i s type of change h i g h l y . Bullough (1987) a l s o i d e n t i f i e d i s o l a t i o n as a " h o r r i b l e aspect" of the r o l e of a teacher that few researchers had ever used as an a l l y when d i s c u s s i n g change. Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984) have pointed out that p r i v a c y was a norm of schools under which most, i f not a l l teachers operated. However, the p r i v a c y or i s o l a t i o n norm has served as a form of teacher s e c u r i t y on two counts. F i r s t of a l l , according to Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984), p r i v a c y has demanded that a conscious e f f o r t be made by supervisors or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i f observation was to take p l a c e . Since teachers f e l t much u n c e r t a i n t y about the connection between what they taught and what was a c t u a l l y learned, observation was seen as a t h r e a t and was equated with e v a l u a t i o n . "Evaluation v i o l a t e s one's sense of place and p o s i t i o n i n the world" (Lieberman & M i l l e r , 1984). Therefore p r i v a c y and i s o l a t i o n were valued f o r the p r o t e c t i o n they y i e l d e d against s u p e r v i s i o n and obser v a t i o n . Secondly, Bullough (1987) sta t e d that i s o l a t i o n equated roughly with c o n t r o l and autonomy i n the minds of teachers. L o r t i e (1975) speaks of the "endemic u n c e r t a i n t i e s " that have permeated the existence of teachers. I t was p o s s i b l e that the norms of pr i v a c y and i s o l a t i o n allowed them enough c o n t r o l over t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s to continue i n at l e a s t a se m i - p o s i t i v e frame of mind. Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984) have noted that c o n t r o l norms d i d i n f a c t s a t i s f y the need f o r c e r t a i n t y as w e l l as a i d i n g i n d a i l y classroom i n s t r u c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n ; "Control precedes i n s t r u c t i o n " was a view commonly held by school personnel. Bullough (1987) pointed out that current trends i n s u p e r v i s i o n 23 and classroom observation "aimed at shoving open the classroom door even wider". As a consequence, c o n f l i c t and resistance to change could be expected because t h i s notion seemed incompatible with the teacher-serving norms of privacy and i s o l a t i o n within schools. Hargreaves (1987) i d e n t i f i e d classroom experience as another value which has helped to perpetuate the present culture of teaching. This factor was perceived by many teachers to be the only legitimate source of knowledge regarding teaching. Hargreaves (1987) wrote, "The culture of teaching was a culture in which classroom experience was exalted above a l l else in c o l l e c t i v e discussions of educational matters." L o r t i e (1975) f e l t that one could demonstrate commitment to teaching only by staying with i t for some years. These endemic b e l i e f s l e f t l i t t l e room for the beginning teacher to either express commitment to the profession or gain acceptance from other teachers. Thus the th e o r e t i c a l and technical knowledge that student teachers had accumulated while enrolled in university classes soon became seen by them as meaningless in t h e i r endeavor to be validated as a teacher with experience in c o n t r o l l i n g a classroom. It was not surprising that supervision which focuses on teacher growth did not fare well under t h i s set of rules. Goodlad (1983b) stated that, "the culture of the school must soon begin to operate in such a way as to encourage and give legitimacy to al t e r n a t i v e ideas." It has been suggested that t h i s was es p e c i a l l y true for alternative ideas regarding student teacher supervision. 24 Another c u l t u r a l notion was that the school functions within highly defined time parameters (Werner , 1988) . These segmented time periods in conjunction with the norms just mentioned, dictated to the teacher what was taught and how i t was taught. The way time was organized and the way the physical structure of the school was organized was a r e f l e c t i o n of the norms that were in place i n the education system. Just as the physical structure and temporal organization of the school was segmented, so too were the areas of learning - e s p e c i a l l y at the secondary l e v e l . School subjects were seen as more than just groupings of i n t e l l e c t u a l thought. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , they were s o c i a l systems (Hargreaves, 1 9 8 7 ) . This notion meshed with the norms of i s o l a t i o n and privacy and complemented the school's segmented approach to time and space but i t did nothing to a s s i s t with teacher c o l l e g i a l i t y across departments nor with e f f e c t i v e supervision of student teachers. As much as these norms and time structures may have inhi b i t e d true education at times, they have predominated and they have lent great s t a b i l i t y to the school. Teachers have had to adjust to working within these c u l t u r a l parameters and have seemed to be more t r a d i t i o n a l than progressive because of i t (Tye & Tye , 1 9 8 4 ) . However, when thoughtful innovations have arrived on the school scene they have usually only be implemented insofar as they have not altered the existing school norms or structures. Often much time and collaboration have been needed to c l a r i f y changes - two requirements that have not always coincided with the c u l t u r a l make-up of the school. 25 The implementation of any supervisory i n t e r v e n t i o n required that two seldom-mentioned, yet key, p l a y e r s be considered i n the u t i l i t y of the method. These p l a y e r s , as pointed out p r e v i o u s l y , were the i n - s c h o o l cooperating teacher and the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y advisor i n v o l v e d with the student teacher. Not only d i d the f e a s i b i l t y of the innovations have to be considered i n terms of the student teachers as they operated w i t h i n the context of t h e i r new school but they a l s o had to be considered i n terms of the users of t h i s supervisory method as they functioned w i t h i n t h e i r own r e s p e c t i v e contexts. Considering nothing e l s e , student teaching simultaneously brought the c u l t u r e of the school, the c u l t u r e of the u n i v e r s i t y and the norms involved with student teaching onto the same stage. The p o t e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l e f f e c t as a r e s u l t of a supervisory i n t e r v e n t i o n may have been s l i m at best. Often, i n t e r v e n t i o n methods have been promoted as "complex i n design, but p r a c t i c a l to use" (Carlson & McKenzie, 1984) and then l a t e r , opposingly described i n l i g h t of the lengthy t r a i n i n g workshops necessary to use them e f f e c t i v e l y (Abel, 1986; Ocansey, 1987). Freib e r g and Waxman (1988) have noted that o f t e n i n n o v a t i v e methods such as systematic o b s e r v a t i o n , v i d e o t a p i n g , audiotaping and f o r m a l i z e d student feedback were not used to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n p r o v i d i n g feedback to student teachers. Perhaps the reason why these methods were not used more e x t e n s i v e l y by s u p e r v i s o r s of teachers was founded i n the complexity of the data c o l l e c t i o n and i n the time-consuming seminars and workshops necessary to l e a r n how the methods should be used. 26 Innovative S u p e r v i s o r y Methodologies S e v e r a l means of e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n have had the p o t e n t i a l of p r o v i d i n g adequate s p e c i f i c performance feedback to student p h y s i c a l educators. I t has remained t o be seen which of the methods may have been the most e f f e c t i v e at promoting or f o s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e changes i n t a r g e t e d t e a c h i n g behaviors? These contemporary means of a s s i s t i n g student t e a c h e r s have been touted i n the resear c h as e f f e c t i v e methods of p r o v i d i n g p r e s e r v i c e educators with performance feedback capable of e f f e c t i n g p o s i t i v e change i n t e a c h i n g behaviors through e i t h e r an awareness of t h e i r behaviors or through s t r a t e g i e s t o change them. These p r a c t i c e s have had the p o t e n t i a l to i n d i r e c t l y enhance the performance of the p h y s i c a l education student as wel 1 . Again, as good as these p r a c t i c e s appeared i n theory and i n the r e s u l t s of res e a r c h s t u d i e s , one was hard-pressed to f i n d many of the i n n o v a t i v e methods i n use with the student t e a c h e r s once o u t s i d e of the u n i v e r s i t y classroom and i n the gymnasium or on the p l a y i n g f i e l d . Although v i d e o t a p i n g (Chance & Krajewski, 1988; Ronkowski, 1987), s p l i t - s c r e e n v i d e o t a p i n g (Moritz & Martin-Reynolds, 1980), a u d i o t a p i n g / a u d i o c u e i n g (van der Mars, 1988), systematic o b s e r v a t i o n (Darst, Zakrajsek & Mancini, 1989; Siedentop, 1983), and c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n (Acheson and G a l l , 1987) have a l l shown the p o t e n t i a l of addre s s i n g the developmental and p r o f e s s i o n a l growth needs of the student teacher, the most probable means of student teacher s u p e r v i s i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Paese (1984b), was s t i l l a problem s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e based on a r b i t r a r y classroom v i s i t a t i o n s and random anecdotal 27 r e c o r d s . T h i s approach has not been the rnost e f f e c t i v e means of h e l p i n g a student teacher to become a p r o f i c i e n t p r a c t i t i o n e r a c c o r d i n g to Williamson, O ' S u l l i v a n and Jackson (1985). However, t h i s type of s u p e r v i s i o n d i d enable the i m p l i c i t agenda by h e l p i n g student t e a c h e r s to f i t i n t o e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of t e a c h i n g and i n becoming s o c i a l i z e d i n t o age-old school norms and v a l u e s (Goodlad 1983a). Paese (1984b) f e l t t h a t the e x i s t i n g s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e s d i d nothing f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of the student teacher but i n s t e a d merely perpetuated t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and c o n d i t i o n s . As a l l u d e d to p r e v i o u s l y , the success of student t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has depended h e a v i l y on the feedback t h a t they r e c e i v e from s u p e r v i s o r s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s about t h e i r t e a c h i n g performance d u r i n g t h e i r extended practicum e x p e r i e n c e . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have suggested t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s needed to give more s p e c i f i c and i n f o r m a t i v e feedback on teacher performance (Grant, B a l l a r d & Glynn, 1990; Mancini, Wuest & van der Mars, 1985; Siedentop, 1976; 1983). Any one of s e v e r a l methods of s u p e r v i s o r y feedback i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h i s s e r v i c e to t e a c h e r s . Videotaped Feedback f o r Student P h y s i c a l Educators As a n a t u r a l outgrowth of modern f i l m technology, v i d e o t a p i n g of t e a c h i n g behaviors had been seen by many as an a p p r o p r i a t e means of p r o v i d i n g high q u a l i t y , s p e c i f i c and i n f o r m a t i v e feedback to p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s . I t s p o t e n t i a l to p r o v i d e both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e feedback to p h y s i c a l 28 educators regarding t h e i r teaching performance has been w e l l documented (Cameron & C o t r e l l , 1970; Chance & Krajewski, 1988; Mancini, Wuest & van der Mars, 1985; M o r i t z & Martin-Reynolds, 1980; P e r l b e r g & O'Bryant, 1968; Ronkowski , 1987). In a d d i t i o n to these obvious b e n e f i t s , v i d e o t a p i n g , as a source of data c o l l e c t i o n and feedback, seemed to be i n vogue as the technology has become more and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y had increased and the p r i c e of equipment has a l s o become a f f o r d a b l e f o r schools or i n d i v i d u a l teachers. However, as videotaping of p h y s i c a l education student teachers i n the f i e l d had not yet become common p r a c t i c e , there s t i l l remained time to explore other t e c h n o l o g i c a l avenues before teacher educators and advisor s prematurely accepted t h i s method as a panacea f o r t h e i r supervisory shortcomings. A conspicuous lack of evidence to document extensive supervisory videotaping i n other than research s i t u a t i o n s led to the b e l i e f that t h i s technology had not caught on i n the manner that was intended - at l e a s t not f o r the purposes of p r o v i d i n g feedback to teachers on t h e i r teaching performance. There was both research l i t e r a t u r e which looked at the e f f e c t s of videotaping student teachers, and l i t e r a t u r e which reported the e f f e c t s of videotape feedback given to various age or a b i l i t y groups of p h y s i c a l education students. Of 52 s t u d i e s , which employed some form of videotape replay i n pr o v i d i n g feedback, reviewed by Roth s t e i n (1980), 33 of the s t u d i e s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between videotape c o n d i t i o n s and other experimental or c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s . R o t h s t e i n (1980) concluded that advanced beginners tended to b e n e f i t more from the use of 29 videotape r e p l a y than d i d beginners. As w e l l , r e p e t i t i v e use of videotape r e p l a y ( i . e . f i v e times per semester and three times per s e s s i o n ) was shown t o be necessary f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t changes from c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s t o occur. R o t h s t e i n (1980) a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t cues t o d i r e c t the l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o s p e c i f i c p a r t s of the r e p l a y were necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l use of the videotape r e p l a y i n enhancing l e a r n i n g and performance. M o r i t z and Martin-Reynolds (1980) have suggested t h a t i f videotape feedback was to have had any p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on teacher behaviors i t had to be used f o r at l e a s t 20 minutes, three to fou r times per year on a monthly b a s i s with d e c r e a s i n g frequency i n ensuing y e a r s . Sim and Stewart (1984) found evidence s u p p o r t i n g the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the use of a p r o t o t y p i c or template performance of a s k i l l was c r i t i c a l to a l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e h i s / h e r own performance e r r o r s . Penman, Bartz and Davis (1968) used videotape r e p l a y s to a i d i n t e a c h i n g trampoline s k i l l s . They found t h a t t h i s technology c o u l d be used as a means of immediate reinforcement or feedback i n t e a c h i n g but found no evidence to support the f a c t t h a t videotape feedback was any more e f f e c t i v e than c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r b a l feedback. Even though the use of videotape r e p l a y had become i n c r e a s i n g l y popular, evidence of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l was f a r from p e r s u a s i v e ( R i c k l i & Smith, 1980; Ronkowski, 1987; R o t h s t e i n , 1980; Sim & Stewart, 1984). There was some l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s area which a l s o seemed to i n d i c a t e t h a t the great p o t e n t i a l of video i n n o v a t i o n s had not been r e a l i z e d i n most North American schools ( F r e i b e r g & Waxman, 1988; Siedentop, 1985; Taggart, 1988). 30 R o t h s t e i n (1980) concluded t h a t , as an adjunct to l e a r n i n g , videotape replay was f a r too cumbersome and expensive to use i f p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s were not forthcoming. I t was the absence of such documentation t h a t l e f t the process i n question. R i c k l i and Smith (1980) found that i n s t r u c t i o n a l videotaping may not have been as g e n e r a l l y e f f e c t i v e as i t s then-current p o p u l a r i t y and widespread use seemed to i n d i c a t e . However, l i k e most i n s t r u c t i o n a l innovations i t may indeed have had i t s place i n s e r v i n g as an e f f e c t i v e supplement to the more t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r - p r o v i d e d feedback i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s under s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . For example, v i s u a l cues have been c i t e d as a c r i t i c a l part of s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y during e a r l y l e a r n i n g stages. I t was suggested by Sim and Stewart (1984) that even i f videotape feedback d i d not produce s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n performance i t may have been important as i t augmented the v i s u a l system which was the most c r i t i c a l i n motor l e a r n i n g as w e l l as other l e a r n i n g domains. As w e l l , Moritz and Martin-Reynolds (1980) have had found that " t r a d i t i o n a l report card e v a l u a t i o n had not c o n s i s t e n t l y met the needs of the p r o f e s s i o n due to ego b a r r i e r s and defensiveness", a problem not found when videotape feedback was used. E a r l y research on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l videotape feedback i n d i c a t e d that students could l e a r n at l e a s t as w e l l and sometimes be t t e r by t e l e v i s e d i n s t r u c t i o n of some s o r t as compared with conventional i n s t r u c t i o n (Penman, Bartz & Davis, 1968). Another b e n e f i t of videotaped feedback was that 86% of the subjects surveyed 'thought 1 that t h i s modality improved t h e i r 31 performance (Sim & Stewart, 1984). Perhaps t h i s response indicated motivational or psychological benefits. Atienza (1977) ascertained that the most obvious application of videotape replay was documentation. For the purposes of t h i s feedback study, that application was indeed important. Videotaping was a source of performance feedback for one treatment group of student physical educators. It also played a role in obtaining permanent observations that could be reviewed repeatedly both to determine accurate o r i g i n a l results and to establish r e l i a b i l i t y measurements throughout the study. Del Rey (1971) indicated that certain modalities of feedback may have been more or less e f f e c t i v e depending whether the s k i l l in question was opened or closed. The author suggested that the most appropriate augmented informational feedback for closed s k i l l s ( i . e . , golf, archery, and foul shooting in basketball) was knowledge of performance as a f i x a t i o n of the individual's movement pattern was the desired goal. The most appropriate augmented informational feedback for open s k i l l s ( i . e . , open f i e l d t ackling in f o o t b a l l , stickhandling in ice hockey) was knowledge of r e s u l t s , according to Del Rey (1971), as d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n was the desired goal. The author maintained that, based on i n i t i a l observations, videotape replay may have been e f f e c t i v e in providing knowledge of results for open s k i l l s but c e r t a i n l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t role for videotape replay was in providing knowledge of performance to learners in closed s k i l l s i t u a t i o n s . Del Rey (1971) alluded to a descriptive type of verbal or written feedback ( i . e . not unlike behavior p r o f i l e feedback) for provision of the most e f f e c t i v e knowledge of 32 r e s u l t s to lea r n e r s i n open s k i l l s i t u a t i o n s . As teaching p h y s i c a l education must c e r t a i n l y be considered an open s k i l l s i t u a t i o n , no matter how c o n t r o l l e d and organized a c l a s s may have been, the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r using a d e s c r i p t i v e or p r o f i l e type of feedback to provide knowledge of r e s u l t s to student teachers were thus considered. Feedback behavior p r o f i l i n g f o r in s t a n c e , provided a more d e s c r i p t i v e and p r e s c r i p t i v e type of feedback to the c l i e n t than did videotaped feedback alone. This f a c t o r had even more s i g n i f i c a n c e c o n s i d e r i n g that f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s and cooperating teachers i n the schools may not have had been adequately t r a i n e d i n p r o t o c o l s f o r disseminating the videotaped i n f o r m a t i o n . Penman, Bartz and Davis (1968) have had proclaimed videotape feedback to be e f f e c t i v e only a f t e r the c l i e n t s have had become accustomed to seeing t h e i r own image on the screen. Several researchers (Cusimano, 1987; Dunbar and O ' S u l l i v a n , 1986; H a l l , Weinberg & Jackson, 1987) have noted that even though videotaped feedback provided plenty of information regarding teaching behaviors i t may not have been e f f e c t i v e unless accompanied by s p e c i f i c goals and methods of modifying p r a c t i c e s i n the classroom. There was c e r t a i n l y a lack of evidence, however, that these measures were being deployed i n a c t u a l practicum s i t u a t i o n s . P r o f i l e d Feedback f o r Student P h y s i c a l Educators As an a l t e r n a t i v e to videotaping and conventional means of pr o v i d i n g performance feedback, Carlson and McKenzie (1984), Franks, Johnson and S i n c l a i r (1988), H a i l (1978), Luke (1985), 33 O c a n s e y ( 1 9 8 9 ) a n d S n y d e r ( 1 9 8 1 ) h a v e e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o f i l i n g a n d c o m p u t e r i z e d p r o f i l i n g a s a f o r m o f s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n t o r e c o r d , c o d e a n d r e p o r t t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s o f c o a c h e s a n d t e a c h e r s i n s p o r t a n d a t h l e t i c s i t u a t i o n s . The i d e a o f u s i n g c o m p u t e r s t o a i d i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t e a c h e r s was n e i t h e r new n o r w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e 1 9 8 0 s . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s w e r e e n d l e s s , h o w e v e r . I n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e s i t may h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e t o q u a n t u m l e a p p r e s e n t t e c h n o l o g y , l a n d i n g d i r e c t l y i n t h e m i d s t o f more e f f e c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y - b a s e d p r a c t i c e s . The n e e d t o be more e f f i c i e n t a n d t o c o l l e c t more c o m p l e x d a t a l e d s e v e r a l e x e r c i s e a n d s p o r t p e d a g o g y r e s e a r c h e r s t o u s e c o m p u t e r i i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m s ( C a r l s o n & M c K e n z i e , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s l i s t e d s e v e r a l d r a w b a c k s o f c o m p u t e r i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m s i n c l u d i n g h i g h c o s t , d e c r e a s e d p o r t a b i l i t y , no l o n g t e r m s t o r a g e a n d no c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r i m m e d i a t e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . I t h a s become s a f e t o s a y t h a t w i t h t h e w i d e a r r a y o f p o w e r f u l l a p - t o p c o m p u t e r s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , a l l s h o r t c o m i n g s b u t c o s t h a v e b e e n v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d . L u k e ( 1 9 8 5 ) n o t e d t h a t e v e n i f t h e s e d r a w b a c k s w e r e n o t a d d r e s s e d by c u r r e n t t e c h n o l o g y , t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s t h a t c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n b r i n g s t o b e a r on p e r f o r m i n g d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h w e r e w o r t h t h e f i n a n c i a l c o s t a n d m o r e . L u k e m e n t i o n e d t h e h a n d c o d i n g o f d a t a , t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e o f t h e d a t a t o a r e c o r d i n g m a t r i x , t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f row a n d c o l u m n d a t a a n d t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f p e r c e n t a g e s a s j u s t a f e w o f t h e t a s k s s i m p l i f i e d by a c o m p u t e r - b a s e d a n a l y s i s s y s t e m . F r e q u e n t l y f u r t h e r c o m p u t a t i o n s w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y when 34 formulas e x i s t e d to c a l c u l a t e s p e c i f i c parameters of the teaching process. These cumbersome procedures were both time-consuming and tedious i f done by hand. Franks, Johnson and S i n c l a i r (1988) discussed a computerized coaching a n a l y s i s system (CCAS) that was composed of three i n t e r a c t i v e computer programs that s t r u c t u r e d the a c q u i s i t i o n , immediate a n a l y s i s , and storage of p e r t i n e n t observable behaviors d i s p l a y e d by coaches and a t h l e t e s during a t y p i c a l coaching p r a c t i c e . The authors showed enthusiasm about the p o r t a b i l i t y and u t i l i t y of the system i n performing o n - s i t e a n a l y s i s of coaching or teaching behaviors, although i t was most oft e n used o f f - s i t e to code videotaped performances. The o p e r a t i o n a l / b e h a v i o r a l d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the system have had been v a l i d a t e d with greater than 80 % i n t e r - and i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y . The concept involved i n a l l of the computerized teaching/coaching a n a l y s i s systems has remained a simple one. D e f i n i t i o n s of observed behaviors were provided to the recorder who t r a n s l a t e d the teacher's behavior i n t o numerical form using a keyboard or touchpad. The computer software then coded, analyzed, stored and reported the e d i t e d r e s u l t s . H a i l (1978) reported that researchers perceived that teachers became more 'aware' of t h e i r teaching behaviors, more aroused about being able to a l t e r behaviors, and more co n s c i e n t i o u s about planning f o r the kinds of behaviors they wished to e x h i b i t i n a given s i t u a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the " A n a l y s i s Of Teaching Behavior" computer program. 35 S i n c l a i r (1989) d e s c r i b e d a c o a c h i n g feedback i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t , when a p p l i e d t o the venue of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n , seemed t o have had t h e p o t e n t i a l of c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the d e v e l o p m e n t a l growth of s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s . S i n c l a i r ' s (1989) Feedback A n a l y s i s P r o f i l e (FAP) p r o v i d e d a d e s c r i p t i v e and s y s t e m a t i c account o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s u t i l i z a t i o n of feedback w i t h i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s r o o m . A m o d i f i c a t i o n of FAP t o be u t i l i z e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was c a l l e d t h e Computerized T e a c h i n g Feedback A n a l y s i s P r o f i l e System i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n (CTFAPS-PE) - see Appendix A. The FAP i n s t r u m e n t had a l s o proven t o be e a s i l y t r a n s l a t e d t o a system of c o m p u t e r i z e d a n a l y s i s . T h i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r f a c t o r s , made S i n c l a i r ' s (1989) feedback a n a l y s i s i n s t r u m e n t a s u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . For example FAP was a s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g s p e c i f i c and a c c u r a t e performance feedback t o s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . As s t a t e d by W i l l i a m s o n , O ' S u l l i v a n and J a c k s o n (1985), i f feedback was g i v e n t o s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s , improvement of t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s would o c c u r . G i v i n g data-based feedback t o t e a c h e r s was one s t r a t e g y t h a t had p o t e n t i a l f o r i m p r o v i n g what o c c u r e d d u r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s ( G r a n t , B a l l a r d & G l y n n , 1990). S e c o n d l y , FAP was easy t o use and had no i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n c r e a s e d t i m e - c o n s u m p t i o n o r l e n g t h y t r a i n i n g . The absence of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s made i t p o t e n t i a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h s c h o o l c u l t u r e , t h e norms of s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g and the time c o n s t r a i n t s of i n - s c h o o l and f a c u l t y s u p e r v i s o r s . The c o m p l e x i t y of t h e i n s t r u m e n t was low because o n l y one a s p e c t of 36 t e a c h i n g was examined. U n l i k e Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n (ALT-PE) ( S i e d e n t o p , B i r d w e l l & M e t z l e r , 1979) and C h e f f e r ' s A d a p t a t i o n of F l a n d e r ' s I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s (CAFIAS) ( C h e f f e r s , 1983), FAP d i d not p u r p o r t t o d e s c r i b e a m u l t i t u d e of t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s i n one o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n . For t h i s reason FAP may have been more p r a c t i c a l f o r use i n t h e s c h o o l w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s and t h e t e a c h e r s and f a c u l t y p e r s o n n e l t h a t s u p e r v i s e d them. The c o m p l e x i t y of o t h e r s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s d i d not f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r use i n the l i m i t e d t ime p e r i o d s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d or s t u d e n t t e a c h e r / t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c i n g . T h e r e f o r e , even though t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s appeared t o be v e r y u s e f u l i n t h e o r y and have had s u i t a b l y s e r v e d r e s e a r c h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e y were not e f f e c t i v e because of t h e i r immense time i m p l i c a t i o n s and u n r e a l i s t i c c o m p l e x i t y . I t was emphasized t h a t , w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t , an i n s t r u m e n t ' s power was founded i n i t s u t i l i t y and not i n i t s r e s e a r c h c a p a b i l i t i e s a l o n e . The FAP i n s t r u m e n t a l l o w e d f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o r e l i a b l y c a t e g o r i z e feedback comments made by t h e t e a c h e r and had the p o t e n t i a l t o f o s t e r t h e e f f i c i e n t d i s s e m i n a t i o n of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l feedback t o t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r i n an a b b r e v i a t e d c l i n i c a l o r b e h a v i o r a l s e t t i n g . R u s s e l l (1979) noted t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s expected feedback from a s s o c i a t e s and a d v i s o r s but t h e y emphasized th e importance of immediate feedback a f t e r c l a s s and no l a t e r than the end of t h e day. F u r t h e r m o r e , they wanted the feedback i n r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i f i c c l a s s e s r a t h e r than as a g e n e r a l i z e d comment on the 37 whole day's work. Both FAP and i t s m o d i f i e d form CTFAPS-PE have had the p o t e n t i a l to c a t e r to those needs. As mentioned, FAP p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on o n l y one aspect of t e a c h i n g i n p h y s i c a l education thus a focus f o r change or improvement was e a s i l y managed by both the student teacher and h i s / h e r s u p e r v i s o r s . As a l l u d e d to p r e v i o u s l y , another aspect of FAP which made i t compatible with the school context was i t s p o t e n t i a l to have data analyzed immediately by computer. Franks, Johnson & S i n c l a i r , (1988) d e s c r i b e d the Computerized Coaching A n a l y s i s System (CCAS) which allowed an observer to code and c a t e g o r i z e the v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between the coach and a t h l e t e ( s ) . At the time of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n the a n a l y s i s hardware f o r t h i s system was not p o r t a b l e enough to f a c i l i t a t e o n - s i t e use i n a school s e t t i n g . However, the p o t e n t i a l to analyze data immediately using a l a p - t o p d e v i c e had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e v e n t u a l l y addressing teacher time c o n s t r a i n t s ( H a i l , 1 9 7 8 ; C a r l s o n & McKenzie, 1 9 8 4 ; Luke, 1 9 8 5 ) . Feedback D e l i v e r e d by Student P h y s i c a l Educators The aspect of t e a c h i n g which was addressed by FAP and the other methodologies used i n the completed study was feedback d e l i v e r y . R o t h s t e i n (1980) s t a t e d t h a t feedback has played an important r o l e i n the l e a r n i n g of motor s k i l l s . Sim and Stewart (1984) a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t i n c o n s i d e r i n g l e a r n i n g i n the psychomotor domain, r e s e a r c h had r e v e a l e d t h a t feedback p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e and t h a t knowledge of performance and knowledge of r e s u l t s were the most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n the motor l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . These authors have added t h a t e x t r i n s i c feedback was 38 necessary i n the i n i t i a l stages of l e a r n i n g to allow the performer to develop a q u a l i t a t i v e l y c o r r e c t movement p a t t e r n . L i n d (1985) claimed t h a t feedback was an e f f e c t i v e teaching behavior. In l e a r n i n g a beginning balance s k i l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , augmented feedback a f f e c t e d learner outcomes i n a p o s i t i v e way. Werner and Rink (1989) professed the importance of d e l i v e r i n g congruent feedback to students i f teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s was to be improved. They have noted that inaccurate i n f o r m a t i o n and general g l o b a l statements by teachers r e s u l t e d i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e student responses. Research had a l s o i n d i c a t e d that verbal feedback was a c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e f o r enhancing motor s k i l l l e a r n i n g but that the amount of feedback given to a c l a s s was not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t i v e of e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Rather, the way i n which feedback was imparted by the teacher could a f f e c t the degree to which l e a r n i n g was f a c i l i t a t e d (Williamson, O ' S u l l i v a n & Jackson, 1985). Throughout the t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e feedback was considered to be an i n t e g r a l part of the i n t e r a c t i v e process. In any l i s t of teaching s k i l l s of any l e a r n i n g theory or model, the component of feedback would be included (Cole, 1983). Siedentop (1983) sta t e d that systematic feedback was necessary f o r motor s k i l l development. Feedback was a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g and thus student achievement and was t h e r e f o r e , r e l a t e d to teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The p r e c i s i o n of feedback was determined by the information content of the comments and how they r e l a t e to the l e a r n i n g task ( i . e . , s p e c i f i c i t y and congruency). 39 Student P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r s ' Awareness of Feedback The q u e s t i o n remained - was t h e computer-based, a b b r e v i a t e d form of FAP (CTFAPS-PE) e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g an awareness of t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e as t r a n s l a t e d by o b s e r v a b l e p o s i t i v e changes i n the t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s t a r g e t e d f o r st u d y ? For example, c o u l d i t s use and t h e subsequent awareness c r e a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g feedback b e h a v i o r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ? I n r e v i e w i n g some o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n r e s e a r c h done i n the f i e l d of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a need was i n d i c a t e d f o r s u p e r v i s o r s t o p r o v i d e g o a l s , performance feedback,, and change s t r a t e g i e s t o s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n o r d e r t o b r i n g about the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s (Hawkins, Wiegand & L a n d i n , 1985; S i e d e n t o p , 1983; W i l l i a m s o n , O ' S u l l i v a n & J a c k s o n , 1985). T h i s p r o t o c o l would have seemed l o g i c a l and j u s t i f i a b l e e x cept t h a t t h e r e was s i m p l y no t e c h n o l o g i c a l base i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h from which s u p e r v i s o r s c o u l d d e t e r m i n e how th e y would f a c i l i t a t e t he change p r o c e s s w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s ( W i l l i a m s o n , O ' S u l l i v a n & J a c k s o n , 1985). There seemed t o be no w e l l -r e s e a r c h e d s t r a t e g i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s . I t has been t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f some r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t w e l 1 - r e s e a r c h e d s t r a t e g i e s of any s o r t may be a l o n g t i m e i n docum e n t a t i o n . In t h e mean time i t may be a w o r t h w h i l e s u p e r v i s o r y s t r a t e g y t o s i m p l y make s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s aware of what i t was t h a t t h e y have been d o i n g i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g ( F r e i b e r g & Waxman, 1988; H a i l , 1978; M a n c i n i , Wuest & van der Mars, 1985). Moore, Schaut and F r i t z g e s (1978) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t e a c h e r s were c a p a b l e of g e n e r a t i n g t h e i r own hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e i r t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s and t h a t they 40 g e n e r a l l y have had the a b i l i t y to come up with the best s t r a t e g y to apply to a s i t u a t i o n provided they could increase t h e i r awareness of the s i t u a t i o n . I t seemed that teacher awareness may have been important i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the upper l i m i t of a teacher's a b i l i t y to observe, hypothesize and t e s t new s t r a t e g i e s . B a r r e t t , A l l i s o n and B e l l (1987) agreed that observation s k i l l was r e l a t e d to e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n teaching. They have concluded that i f teachers were made more aware of t h e i r own teaching behaviors as w e l l as those of others, they would begin to observe those behaviors and ev e n t u a l l y change and u t i l i z e them i n t h e i r own c l a s s e s . B e l l , B a r r e t t and A l l i s o n (1985) have concluded t h a t i f teachers were not made aware of what i t was they were doing they would become too narrow i n t h e i r teaching s t r a t e g i e s and thus become i n e f f e c t i v e . They have stated that the more behaviors a teacher was aware of, the more he/she was capable of changing. Cusimano (1987) l i s t e d four c r i t i c a l components f o r the improvement of the teaching process i n c l u d i n g personal goal s e t t i n g , p r a c t i c e , feedback accompanying the p r a c t i c e and the opportunity f o r self-assessment to create an awareness of teaching performance. Mancini, Wuest and van der Mars (1985) b e l i e v e d that by developing an awareness of one's own behavior student teachers prepared themselves to be t h e i r own self-change agents during t h e i r student teaching experience. Perhaps the reason f o r the weak t e c h n o l o g i c a l base i n education was because teachers were t h e i r own best s t r a t e g i s t s to begin with (once they became aware of what the unique s i t u a t i o n was and what i t was they were doing i n that s i t u a t i o n ) . 41 S i n c l a i r (1989) d e v e l o p e d FAP as an awareness t o o l f o r t h e purpose of f o c u s i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n of b e g i n n i n g coaches on s e l e c t e d elements o p e r a t i n g i n any feedback or l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n would q u a l i f y as a feedback or l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and t h u s FAP or a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of FAP c o u l d be used i n such a s i t u a t i o n t o make s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h a t s u b j e c t f i e l d more aware of what i t was t h e y were d o i n g i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . Focus of t h e Study The r e s e a r c h c i t e d has shown t h a t s p e c i f i c and i n f o r m a t i v e performance feedback g i v e n t o t e a c h e r s i n t h e form of s y s t e m a t i z e d b e h a v i o r a l p r o f i l e s enhance a v a r i e t y of t a r g e t e d t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s . V i d e o t a p i n g , which p r o v i d e s a h i g h volume of a c c u r a t e , o b j e c t i v e feedback a l s o has t h e p o t e n t i a l of enhancing performance. However, the r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h f a v o r i n g t h e use of v i d e o t a p i n g were i n c o n c l u s i v e . A l s o , v i d e o t a p i n g as a feedback methodology showed i n h e r e n t t i m e i m p l i c a t i o n s and the p o t e n t i a l t o be misused i n secondary e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . Thus, v i d e o t a p e d feedback was not r e g a r d e d as t h e b e s t source of p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, the r e s e a r c h c i t e d has s u p p o r t e d s y s t e m a t i z e d or computer-based b e h a v i o r a l p r o f i l i n g because of i t s s p e c i f i c i t y and f o c u s e d o b j e c t i v i t y i n p r o v i d i n g performance feedback. As w e l l , p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s demonstrated fewer time and n e g a t i v e c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s when used as a feedback s o u r c e f o r s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s i n secondary p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The q u a l i t a t i v e comparisons seemed i n 42 favor of systematic p r o f i l i n g before q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s were ever considered. Therefore, i t made sense t h a t i f no d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d amongst these two methodologies and other more t r a d i t i o n a l supervisory feedback techniques (that seem to be a pe r e n n i a l source of student teacher and supervisor d i s c o n t e n t ) , the use of computer-based feedback p r o f i l i n g should have been considered as the most e f f e c t i v e means of p r o v i d i n g performance feedback to p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l educators. Since there was no l i t e r a t u r e to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y e x a l t any of the feedback methods mentioned above the r e s t i t was deemed necessary to i n v e s t i g a t e i f q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s d i d e x i s t amongst the c a p a c i t i e s of the three methods to a l t e r student teacher feedback behavior as a r e s u l t of an increased awareness of feedback behaviors. The design, methodology and procedures o u t l i n e d i n the s e c t i o n that f o l l o w s were u t i l i z e d to determine the most e f f i c a c i o u s method of pr o v i d i n g supervisory feedback to student p h y s i c a l education teachers. 43 CHAPTER I I I - METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n The q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y was a 3 ( f e e d b a c k c o n d i t i o n s ) x 3 ( s e s s i o n s ) f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s on t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r . E i g h t e e n v o l u n t e e r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s (10 m a l e s a n d 8 f e m a l e s r a n g i n g i n age f r o m 22 y e a r s t o 33 y e a r s ; X = 2 5 . 7 2 , s = 3 . 0 3 ) i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h r e e s u p e r v i s o r y f e e d b a c k c o n d i t i o n s : a ) s y s t e m a t i z e d p r o f i l e f e e d b a c k c o m p l e m e n t e d by u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r - b a s e d , a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e F e e d b a c k A n a l y s i s P r o f i l e d e s c r i b e d by S i n c l a i r ( 1 9 8 9 ) - CTFAPS-PE b) v i d e o t a p e d f e e d b a c k c ) c o n v e n t i o n a l f e e d b a c k ( l i m i t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n ) A l l s u p e r v i s o r y p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k g i v e n i n t h e s t u d y was i n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t s u p p l i e d by s c h o o l a n d f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . I n t h e s i n g l e c a s e w h e r e i t was d i s c e r n e d ( t h r o u g h c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a n d a d v i s o r s , u n s o l i c i t e d comments and r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n a i r e s - A p p e n d i c e s F a n d G) t h a t a s c h o o l o r f a c u l t y a d v i s o r a c t u a l l y d i s c u s s e d t h e u s e o f e f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k w i t h a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r i n t h e s t u d y , i t was n o t d o n e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y n o r w e r e a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s ( i . e . , v i d e o t a p e e q u i p m e n t o r t a p e r e c o r d e r s ) u s e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t a n y i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s u b j e c t s a n d t h e i r a d v i s o r s was n o t a f a c t o r i n t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . 44 E x p e r i m e n t a l V a r i a b l e s The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e f e e d b a c k m e t h o d a n d f e e d b a c k s e s s i o n . Two o f t h e l e v e l s o f f e e d b a c k m e t h o d ( i . e . , v i d e o t a p i n g a n d f e e d b a c k p r o f i l i n g ) w e r e c h o s e n f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a means o f p r e c i s e f e e d b a c k t o t h e s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e t e a c h i n g s e t t i n g . The t h i r d m e t h o d ( i . e . , c o n v e n t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n ) o f p r o v i d i n g f e e d b a c k was i n c l u d e d a s a t r e a t m e n t t o p r o v i d e a c o m p a r a t i v e b a s e f o r any c h a n g e s i n t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . B e c a u s e i t was deemed d i f f i c u l t t o m e a s u r e i n c r e a s e d t e a c h e r a w a r e n e s s r e g a r d i n g f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s d i r e c t l y , i t was a s s u m e d ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t e a c h i n g a w a r e n e s s l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d i n C h a p t e r I I ) t h a t a h e i g h t e n e d a w a r e n e s s o f f e e d b a c k u s e d w o u l d c a u s e a c h a n g e i n t h e a c t u a l f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s o f t h e n o v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , i n l i g h t o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l r o l e o f f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r y i n e n h a n c i n g t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r y was m e a s u r e d a s a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e s t u d y ( I m w o l d , 1 9 8 4 ; M e t z l e r , 1984 ) . S t u d e n t t e a c h e r f e e d b a c k t h e n , was u s e d a s t h e g e n e r a l i n d i r e c t m e a s u r e o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r t h e t h r e e f e e d b a c k m e t h o d s i n h e i g h t e n i n g t e a c h e r a w a r e n e s s a b o u t t h e i r u s e o f f e e d b a c k . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f f e e d b a c k w e r e e x a m i n e d . W i t h i n e a c h c a t e g o r y s e v e r a l t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k w h i c h w e r e deemed e f f e c t i v e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e , w e r e a c t u a l l y m e a s u r e d t o s e e i f c h a n g e s o c c u r e d i n a b s o l u t e a n d r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f e a c h t y p e . The c a t e g o r i e s a n d s u b c a t e g o r i z e d 45 t y p e s o f f eedback examined were a l l measured as p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l comments g i v e n and as f r e q u e n c i e s pe r m inu t e o f c l a s s t i m e . The dependent v a r i a b l e s measured i n c l u d e d : 1. The N a t u r e o f t h e f eedback g i v e n . a) P o s i t i v e f eedback b) C o r r e c t i v e f eedback c ) P o s i t i v e - C o r r e c t i v e f eedback d) N e g a t i v e - C o r r e c t i v e f eedback e) N e g a t i v e f eedback 2 . The C o n t e n t o f t h e f eedback g i v e n . a.) S p e c i f i c f eedback b) G e n e r a l f eedback 3. The Congruency (Focus ) o f t he f eedback g i v e n . a) Congruen t f e e d b a c k b) O f f - t a s k f eedback 4 . The A r e n a i n w h i c h t h e f eedback was g i v e n . a) G r o u p - d i r e c t e d f eedback b) I n d i v i d u a l i z e d f eedback - g i v e n p u b l i c l y - g i v e n p r i v a t e l y I t was assumed t h a t each feedback comment wou ld be r a t h e r c o m p l e x , c o n t a i n i n g w i t h i n i t s e v e r a l t y p e s o f dependent v a r i a b l e s . Fo r example , a s t a t emen t may have been q u i t e g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e , p o s i t i v e , o f f - t a s k and g i v e n i n a p u b l i c s e t t i n g Each comment, however , c o n t a i n e d one and o n l y one f e a t u r e from each o f t h e f o u r f eedback c a t e g o r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , t he i n v e s t i g a t o r e n t e r e d t h e s e d a t a i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r y d i v i s i o n s each t i m e a f eedback comment was u t t e r e d . D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f eedback c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i c e s A , D and E . These d e f i n i t i o n s were a l s o used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i n i t i a l v a l i d i t y o f 46 the data c o l l e c t i o n instrument and to determine i n t e r - and i n t r a -observer r e l i a b i l i t y throughout the course of the study. A repeated measures f a c t o r was experimentally necessary i n order to determine trends of improvement (or lack of) f o r each of the i n t e r v e n t i o n m o d a l i t i e s . This a n a l y s i s provided the researcher with an e s t i m a t i o n of the time needed to produce change, given a v a i l a b l e resources, and t h e r e f o r e became an important by-product of the study. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study  H i s t o r y l_ Hawthorne E f f e c t I t was impossible to c o n t r o l improvements i n feedback useage due to c e r t a i n other f a c t o r s ( i . e . r e a l school s i t u a t i o n s and outside coaching from other teachers and the subsequent p r o f e s s i o n a l growth). One of the primary reasons that a conventional i n t e r v e n t i o n group was included i n t h i s study was to examine the e f f e c t s of non-treatment v a r i a b l e s such as exposure to v i d e o t a p i n g , the experience e f f e c t of teaching (which includes s t a f f contact, personal research and t r a d i t i o n a l supervisory i n t e r v e n t i o n ) , and the Hawthorne e f f e c t that was l i k e l y to occur as a r e s u l t of the i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n to the study and as a r e s u l t of performance goa 1-setting. Smal 1 Group l_ Sample Size This f a c t o r proved to be a s t a t i s t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n to the study. I t was p o s s i b l e , given the small numbers of subjects w i t h i n each treatment group, that one of the treatment groups was composed e n t i r e l y of e i t h e r very p r o f i c i e n t or very d e f i c i e n t 47 teaching candidates. In e i t h e r case a s i g n i f i c a n t treatment main e f f e c t may have a r i s e n simply as a f u n c t i o n of that group's s t a t i s t i c a l r e g r e s s i o n toward a mean feedback score. This l i m i t a t i o n was l e f t u n c o n t r o l l e d but i t was determined and reported by e s t a b l i s h i n g b a s e l i n e behaviors i n the f i r s t o bservation s e s s i o n . A n a l y s i s by an ANOVA found that the amounts of the various types of feedback used by the three treatment groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (F=2.03 r p=.1687) p r i o r to the f i r s t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the study i n d i c a t i n g that s t a t i s t i c a l r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t i n g from small group s i z e was not a f a c t o r and the r e f o r e d i d not warrant f u r t h e r c o n t r o l . The decreased sample s i z e a l s o made the w i t h i n subjects and w i t h i n groups v a r i a b i l i t y more meaningful i n the study. Since the e r r o r terms r e s u l t i n g from these two sources of v a r i a b i l i t y were s u b s t a n t i a l l y high, the small group s i z e played a r o l e i n the f a i l u r e to f i n d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as a r e s u l t of treatment. The small sample s i z e a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to decreased power i n the experiment (power " .68) thus i n c r e a s i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y that a type I I e r r o r would occur. I n d i v i d u a l Subject D i f f e r e n c e s / A b i l i t i e s Personal teaching s t y l e and preference may have caused c e r t a i n student teachers to use varying frequencies of feedback. The neophyte p h y s i c a l educators had not yet developed a c o n s i s t e n t s t y l e of teaching which may have r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r rather i n c o n s i s t e n t use of feedback i n the p h y s i c a l education classroom. As w e l l , the teachers who volunteered f o r the study d i s p l a y e d a wide v a r i e t y of teaching t a l e n t and a b i l i t y . AJ.1 of 48 these f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n combination, may have had a profound e f f e c t on the r e s u l t s of the study. The e f f e c t s of these i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s were minimized by the random assignment of volunteer subjects to each of the three treatment groups. Gender Student teacher gender may have had an e f f e c t on the teacher's a b i l i t y to be coached i n e f f e c t i v e feedback useage. Due to the r e l a t i v e l y equal numbers of male and female volunteers f o r the study i t was p o s s i b l e to randomly assign males and females to each treatment independently. This c o n t r o l l e d f o r gender e f f e c t s i n the study. Experimenter Bias Experimenter bias was forseen as a p o t e n t i a l problem because of the f a c t that the researcher was a l s o the camera operator, the videotape a n a l y s t , the person d e l i v e r i n g the feedback and the i n t e r p r e t e r of the r e s u l t s of the study. This phenomenon was minimized to a c e r t a i n extent by the use of pre-constructed s c r i p t s when conferencing (Appendix C) with student teachers and by employing random i n t r a - and i n t e r - observer r e l i a b i l i t y checks on the videotaped data (Appendix E). These methods do not guarantee high r e l i a b i l i t y or a lack of experimenter b i a s , however, they allow the i n v e s t i g a t o r to d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s of the study i n l i g h t of the r e l i a b i l i t y obtained. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Feedback Frequencies of Subjects For various reasons the frequencies of feedback comments d e l i v e r e d i n a s i n g l e lesson by the student p h y s i c a l educators i n 49 t h i s s t u d y f l u c t u a t e d g r e a t l y . The t y p e of a c t i v i t y seemed t o cause feedback useage t o d i f f e r by as much as .81 comments per minute f o r t h e same t e a c h e r . Because t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were a f u n c t i o n of a c t i v i t y and, because t h e a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t v a r i e d g r e a t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y , t h e r e s u l t was low s i g n i f i c a n c e due t o w i d e s p r e a d v a r i a b i l i t y i n feedback s c o r e s i n a l l groups. The u l t i m a t e t a s k became the t a s k of d e c i d i n g which f a c t o r s were inde e d c o n t r o l l a b l e . Time of day o f t h e l e s s o n , d u r a t i o n of t h e l e s s o n , l o c a t i o n of the l e s s o n , type of a c t i v i t y t a u g h t , r o l e of t h e t e a c h e r , s t u d e n t gender and s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e were a l l f a c t o r s which c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . To have a l t e r e d t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s would have l e d t o c o n t r i v e d s i t u a t i o n s w i t h l i t t l e v a l i d i t y i n the a c t u a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g . P o p u l a t i o n I d e n t i f i e d The p o p u l a t i o n t o which the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d a r e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n who would be t a k i n g p a r t i n an extended 13-16 week p r a c t i c u m p r i o r t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Sampling Method Subsequent t o a b r i e f i n g s e s s i o n p r e s e n t e d t o p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s , on the methodology, p r o c e d u r e s and i n t e n t of t h e s t u d y , a n o n - p r o b a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g o f v o l u n t e e r s from a l l U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t a k i n g p a r t i n the 13 week extended t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c u m (1990-1991) was s e l e c t e d as t h e s u b j e c t base f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . From the sample of v o l u n t e e r s t h e male s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o each of t h e t h r e e methods groups by u s i n g s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 50 n u m b e r s t o p l a c e e a c h i n o n e o f t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s a s i n t h e m e t h o d d e s c r i b e d by S h a v e l s o n (1988 p p . 1 0 - 1 1 , 667-668). F o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s u s i n g a s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e . C o l l e c t i o n o f D a t a A p p r o x i m a t e l y one month a f t e r a s h o r t b r i e f i n g s e s s i o n , w h e r e t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e s c r i b e d (by means o f a s c r i p t e d summary e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e - A p p e n d i x D) t o t h e s u b j e c t s t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r y t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , t h e t e a c h e r s u b j e c t s were o b s e r v e d w h i l e t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s . T h e y were e q u i p p e d w i t h a b a t t e r y p o w e r e d (2 x A A ) , c o n c e a l a b l e w i r e l e s s t r a n s m i t t e r a n d l a p e l c l i p m i c r o p h o n e . The a u d i o r e c e i v e r u s e d was a m a t c h i n g 49 MHz c r y s t a l c o n t r o l l e d u n i t , r e q u i r i n g s e r v i c e by r e g u l a r AC e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t . T h e a u d i o s i g n a l r e c e i v e d was t r a n s m i t t e d d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h a s o u n d c a b l e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l m i c r o p h o n e i n p u t o f t h e v i d e o c a m e r a u s e d . T h e s u b j e c t s were v i d e o t a p e d d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h e c a m e r a u s e d f o r a l l v i d e o t a p i n g s e s s i o n s was a P a n a s o n i c PV610 f u l l s i z e VHS c o l o r c a m c o r d e r w i t h an a u t o m a t i c f o c u s , 8X zoom l e n s a n d two l u x l i g h t s e n s i t i v i t y . A l l l e s s o n s t a u g h t by members o f t h e P r o f i l e G r o u p w e r e a l s o h a n d - s c o r e d o n - s i t e t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e l i v e r y o f i m m e d i a t e p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h a t t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . E a c h member o f t h e g r o u p r e c e i v e d a c a r b o n c o p y o f t h e t a l l y s h e e t ( A p p e n d i x A) i n p r o f i l e f o r m . T h e o r i g i n a l c o p y was a t t a c h e d t o t h e v i d e o t a p e o f t h e l e s s o n . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e o n - s i t e s c o r i n g w e r e c o m p a r e d t o t h e r e s u l t s o f m a c h i n e -s c o r i n g o n c e b a c k i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e a n a l y s i s l a b o r a t o r y . T h e r e s u l t s w e r e c o d e d u s i n g a T a n d y 1000 S L m i c r o - c o m p u t e r e m p l o y i n g t h e C T F A P S - P E s o f t w a r e ( A p p e n d i x B) w h i l e o b s e r v i n g t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g e p i s o d e o n a S e a r s 14 i n c h , b l a c k a n d w h i t e m o n i t o r w i t h t h e image s u p p l i e d , v i a c o a x i a l c a b l e , by t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d P a n a s o n i c PV610 c a m c o r d e r . On a v e r a g e , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n h a n d - s c o r e d , o n - s i t e r e s u l t s a n d t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m v i d e o t a p e s was 7 . 9 7 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s (s = 8 . 5 0 ) , i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y (91.9%) b e t w e e n t h e two i n s t r u m e n t s i n c o d i n g f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . A l l v i d e o t a p e s w e r e a n a l y z e d t o e s t a b l i s h an i n i t i a l b e h a v i o r a l p r o f i l e o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r . F o l l o w i n g t h e v i d e o t a p i n g a n d p r o f i l i n g , t h e s u b j e c t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f f e e d b a c k o n t h e s e l e c t e d t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s ( a b s o l u t e a n d r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k u s e d ) i n a p o s t - l e s s o n c o n f e r e n c e f o r m a t . T h e I n t e r v e n t i o n P r o c e s s In o r d e r t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r d e l i v e r e d comments i n t h e f o r m o f a s c r i p t e d summary o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . An e x a m p l e o f t h e p r o t o c o l s f o r d e l i v e r i n g f e e d b a c k t o e a c h o f t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x C . A n a l y s i s o f t h e D a t a T h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e c o d e d a n d c a t e g o r i z e d u s i n g an a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e F e e d b a c k A n a l y s i s P r o f i l e ( S i n c l a i r , 1 9 8 9 ) . I n i t i a l l e v e l s f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e f i r s t o f t h r e e t a p i n g s e s s i o n s . T h e 52 f i r s t t a p i n g s e s s i o n a i d e d i n t h e v i d e o t a p e h a b i t u a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s - a p r o c e s s w h i c h was a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d by p r e v i o u s v i d e o t a p i n g o f l e s s o n s i n u n d e r g r a d u a t e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s c l a s s e s . I t was a s s u m e d t h a t some h a b i t u a t i o n had a l r e a d y o c c u r e d i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s d i d v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e s t u d y a n d t h u s w e r e o b v i o u s l y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e p r o c e s s . T h e s u b j e c t comments a n d r e s p o n s e s i n A p p e n d i c e s F a n d G s u p p o r t e d t h i s n o t i o n . T h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d were a n a l y z e d by u s e o f two s e p a r a t e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e f o r a 3 x 3 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s o n t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r a n d s e v e n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n e a c h . Two MANOVAs w e r e e m p l o y e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r i n g m e t h o d s u s e d i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l raw d a t a c o l l e c t e d . One MANOVA was u s e d t o a n a l y z e p e r c e n t a g e s o f f e e d b a c k u s e d . T h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s were c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e number o f c a t e g o r i z e d comments by t h e t o t a l number o f f e e d b a c k comments m a d e . T h i s v a l u e was n o t o n l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e t e a c h e r s ' e f f e c t i v e n e s s b u t a l s o u p o n p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s s u c h a s f l a m b o y a n c e a n d v e r b o s i t y . T h e s e c o n d MANOVA was u s e d t o a n a l y z e f r e q u e n c i e s o f c a t e g o r i z e d c o m m e n t s . T h e s e f r e q u e n c i e s were c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e number o f comments made i n e a c h c a t e g o r y by t h e number o f m i n u t e s i n t h e c l a s s p e r i o d . T h i s v a l u e was d e p e n d e n t u p o n t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s r a t h e r t h a n on t e a c h e r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e t r a n s f o r m e d v a l u e s o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n w e r e b e l i e v e d t o be a b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f e e d b a c k e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e v a l u e s a n d w e r e t h u s a n a l y z e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e f o r m e r g r o u p . P o s t h o c c o m p a r i s o n s o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s t t h e two g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s showed t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s h a d a s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e a c h o t h e r t h a n d i d t h e b e t w e e n - g r o u p v a r i a b l e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x J ) . A c c o r d i n g t o H u b e r t y a n d M o r r i s (1989) u s e o f a MANOVA was i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s t y p e o f d e s i g n . I n i t i a l l y , b e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n a s k e d i f t h e r e were a n y o v e r a l l e f f e c t s p r e s e n t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s , i n t e r v e n t i o n s o r t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e MANOVA was c h o s e n a s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t . S e c o n d l y , q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o s i m p l e e f f e c t s a n d g r o u p c o n t r a s t e f f e c t s were a d d r e s s e d a s w e l l . I t was a l s o a s s u m e d t h a t , b e c a u s e a l l d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s , t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s t t h e o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e s w o u l d be h i g h e n o u g h t o w a r r a n t u s i n g t h e MANOVA. A summary o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o b t a i n e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t u d y c a n be e x a m i n e d i n A p p e n d i x J . T h i s summary s u p p o r t s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a r e a s o n a b l y h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n a m o n g s t t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k m e a s u r e d a s d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s t u d y . T h e e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n a n d t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n o v e r s e s s i o n s were e x a m i n e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r e a c h o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t a more q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h e r comments a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c o n f e r e n c i n g s e s s i o n s may p r o v e b e n e f i c i a l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g a n d d i s c u s s i n g t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . S i n c e t h e r e was no p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h d a t a t o s u g g e s t t h a t a n y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d a r i s e t h r o u g h u s e o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n was h e l p f u l i n p o i n t i n g o u t r e a s o n s f o r 54 d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s a r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l was k e p t , a n d s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n a i r e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l o f t h e p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e D a t a a n d V a l i d i t y o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t V a l i d a t i o n o f t h e C o m p u t e r i z e d T e a c h i n g F e e d b a c k A n a l y s i s P r o f i l e S y s t e m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t o c c u r e d p r i o r t o t h e commencement o f t h e s t u d y t h r o u g h i n d e p e n d e n t s c o r i n g o f s e g m e n t s o f two v i d e o t a p e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s by t h r e e k n o w l e d g e a b l e e v a l u a t o r s ( e . g . , k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y were a l l f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e u s e o f a n d o b s e r v a t i o n o f f e e d b a c k i n t e a c h i n g s e t t i n g s and t h a t t h e y w e r e a l l f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p a r e n t i n s t r u m e n t - F A P ) . T h e m e t h o d o f c a l c u l a t i n g t h e i n i t i a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was t h e p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c u s e d by H a w k i n s , W i e g a n d a n d L a n d i n (1985) a n d J o h n s o n ( 1 9 8 9 ) . T h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s were m o d i f i e d s e v e r a l t i m e s w h i l e u s i n g two i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r t o c o d e o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r s . O n c e t h e t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t s o b t a i n e d , s u r p a s s e d t h e 80 p e r c e n t t h r e s h o l d , t h e d e f i n i t i o n s y i e l d i n g t h i s a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f r e l i a b i l i t y , w e r e u s e d t o c o d e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s i n t h e s t u d y . T h e C T F A P S - P E i n s t r u m e n t was i n i t i a l l y v a l i d a t e d w i t h 8 4 . 1 p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t a m o n g s t t h e t h r e e o b s e r v e r s . S u b s e q u e n t i n t e r - a n d i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k s y i e l d e d a g r e e m e n t s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 80 p e r c e n t ( A p p e n d i x E) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e c o d i n g p e r f o r m e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e s t u d y was a c c e p t a b l y a c c u r a t e . 55 CHAPTER IV - R E S U L T S AND INTERPRETATIONS In t h i s c h a p t e r t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e s t u d y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : - d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d ( T a b l e 1) - r e s u l t s o f t h e MANOVAs - r e s u l t s o f t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s ( T a b l e s 2 - 4 ) - summary o f t h e r e s u l t s Two s e p a r a t e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVAs) were u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s on 14 d i f f e r e n t d e p e n d e n t t e a c h i n g v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 1) o v e r t h e t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . One MANOVA was u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t s o f m a i n and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s on t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k e m p l o y e d ( s e v e n v a r i a b l e s ) by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s u b j e c t s ( p e r c e n t a g e MANOVA) . T h e o t h e r was u s e d t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s u s e d h a d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on t h e number o f s p e c i f i e d t e a c h e r f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s ( s e v e n v a r i a b l e s ) o c c u r r i n g p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d (amount o f f e e d b a c k MANOVA) . T h e two a n a l y s e s e x a m i n e d w h e t h e r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s w e r e e f f e c t i v e a t i n c r e a s i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a w a r e n e s s a b o u t t h e f e e d b a c k t h e y u s e when i n s t r u c t i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A s a l l u d e d t o i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , a n y a d d e d a w a r e n e s s was deemed t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o c a u s e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s t o c h a n g e t h e i r t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s a n d s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s a w a r e n e s s was t h e n a s s u m e d t o be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by t h e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s a s a p p r o p r i a t e c h a n g e s i n t h e r e l a t i v e a n d a b s o l u t e i n c i d e n c e o f t h e t a r g e t e d f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s . T h e s e o b s e r v a b l e c h a n g e s were t h e n m e a s u r e d a c c o r d i n g l y . T A B L E 1 - TEACHER FEEDBACK BEHAVIORS USED AS THE DEPENDENT V A R I A B L E S FOR THE PURPOSE OF S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S IN THE MANOVA V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E #1. #2. #3. V A R I A B L E #4 #5. #6. V A R I A B L E #7 V A R I A B L E #8 #9. #10. V A R I A B L E #11. Number o f p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d . Number o f p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d . Number o f c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d . Number o f s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d . Number o f c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d . Number o f f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d w h i c h were b o t h s p e c i f i c a n d c o n g r u e n t . Number o f f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e o b s e r v e d w h i c h were b o t h s p e c i f i c a n d c o n g r u e n t a n d e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e . P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments made d u r i n g t h e c l a s s o b s e r v e d w h i c h were p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e . P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments made d u r i n g t h e c l a s s o b s e r v e d w h i c h were p o s i t v e . P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments made d u r i n g t h e c l a s s o b s e r v e d w h i c h were c o r r e c t i v e . P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments made d u r i n g t h e c l a s s o b s e r v e d w h i c h w e r e c o n g r u e n t . V A R I A B L E #12. V A R I A B L E #13. V A R I A B L E #14. P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments made d u r i n g t h e c l a s s p e r i o d o b s e r v e d w h i c h were s p e c i f i c . P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments made d u r i n g t h e c l a s s p e r i o d o b s e r v e d w h i c h were b o t h s p e c i f i c a n d c o n g r u e n t . P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments d e l i v e r e d d u r i n g t h e c l a s s p e r i o d o b s e r v e d w h i c h were b o t h s p e c i f i c a n d c o n g r u e n t a n d e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e . 57 I n an e f f o r t t o d e c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f f a l s e l y a c c e p t i n g one o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t t r e a t m e n t s a s b e i n g more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e o t h e r s a s a r e s u l t o f c h a n c e o c c u r r e n c e s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e t t h e a l p h a v a l u e f o r t h e MANOVAs a t a c o n s e r v a t i v e l e v e l . I t was i m p o r t a n t n o t t o a d v o c a t e a n y o f t h e t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f d e e m p h a s i z i n g t h e o t h e r s u n l e s s e v i d e n c e c l e a r l y s u g g e s t e d t o do s o . On t h e o t h e r h a n d i t was e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t n o t t o o v e r l o o k o r r e j e c t a t r e a t m e n t t h a t d e s e r v e d t o be p r o m o t e d a b o v e t h e o t h e r s . To d e c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a t y p e I e r r o r w h i l e s t i l l a l l o w i n g f o r some power t o d e t e c t t y p e I I e r r o r s t h e a l p h a l e v e l s f o r t h e MANOVAs were s e t a t p = . 0 5 . MANOVA R e s u l t s T h e o v e r a l l F - v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f e e d b a c k p e r c e n t a g e MANOVA w e r e a s f o l l o w s : M e t h o d s - ( F = 0 . 6 5 , p = 0 . 7 7 ) , S e s s i o n s -( F = 1 . 3 5 , p = 0 . 4 2 ) a n d t h e I n t e r a c t i o n - ( F = 0 . 6 8 , p = 0 . 7 8 ) . T h e o v e r a l l F - v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e amount o f f e e d b a c k MANOVA w e r e : M e t h o d s - < F = 0 . 9 1 , p = 0 . 5 6 ) . S e s s i o n s - < F = 0 . 9 3 , p = 0 . 6 3 ) a n d t h e I n t e r a c t i o n - ( F = 1 . 2 3 , p = 0 . 4 7 ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s showed r a t h e r c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t a l l t h r e e f e e d b a c k m e t h o d s a f f e c t e d t h e t e a c h i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s e q u a l l y . T h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was f o r m u l a t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t h r e e f e e d b a c k m e t h o d o l o g i e s u s e d . In l i g h t o f t h e s e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s i t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e C T F A P S - P E p r o f i l e i n t e r v e n t i o n was a t l e a s t a s e f f i c a c i o u s a s t h e o t h e r two f e e d b a c k i n t e r v e n t i o n s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . 58 T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s f o r e a c h o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e shown i n t h e MANOVA s o u r c e t a b l e s ( T a b l e s 2, 3 a n d 4). TABLE 2 - MANOVA SOURCE TABLE FOR TREATMENT METHOD EFFECTS VARIABLE SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARE DEGREES FREEDOM OF F-VALUE PROBABIL: #1. ERROR 0.071 0.172 0.036 0.011 2, 15 3.10 O.0746 #2. ERROR 0.558 1.748 0.279 0.117 2, 15 2.39 0.1252 #3. ERROR 0.061 1.098 0.030 0.073 2, 15 0.42 0.6669 #4. ERROR 0.593 2.080 0.296 0.139 2, 15 2.14 0.1525 #5. ERROR 1.042 2.794 0.521 0.186 2, 15 2.80 0.0927 #6. ERROR 0.225 0.691 0.112 0.046 2, 15 2.44 0.1207 #7. ERROR 0 .146 0 . 419 0.073 0.028 2, 15 2.61 0.1062 #8. ERROR 0.020 0.059 0.010 0.004 2, 15 2.52 0.1139 #9. ERROR 0.053 0.400 0.027 0.027 2, 15 1.00 0.3842 #10. ERROR 0.120 0.539 0.060 0.036 2, 15 1.67 0.2215 #11. ERROR 0.049 0.376 0.024 0.025 2, 15 0.97 0.4019 #12. ERROR 0.060 0.431 0.030 0.029 2, 15 1.05 0.3741 #13. ERROR 0.034 0.354 0.017 0.024 2, 15 0.72 0.5019 #14. ERROR 0.053 0.260 0.027 0.017 2, 15 1.53 0.2480 59 T A B L E 3 - MANOVA SOURCE T A B L E FOR THE E F F E C T S OF THE R E P E A T E D MEASURES V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E SUM OF MEAN SQUARES SQUARE #1. 0 . 0 1 2 O .O06 ERROR 0 . 1 5 8 0 . 0 0 5 #2. 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 1 8 ERROR 1 . 2 8 8 0^043 #3. 0 . 2 1 2 0 . 1 0 6 ERROR 1 . 5 4 4 0 .051 #4. 0 . 1 0 8 0 . 0 5 4 ERROR 1 .946 0 . 0 6 5 #5. 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 5 ERROR 2 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 6 7 #6. 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 1 4 ERROR 0 . 9 1 7 0 . 0 3 1 #7. 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 5 ERROR 0 . 2 7 5 0 . 0 0 9 #8. 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 5 ERROR 0 . 0 7 7 0 . 0 0 3 #9. 0 . 0 0 2 0 .001 ERROR 0 . 3 8 5 0 . 0 1 3 #10. 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 8 ERROR 0 . 2 4 8 0 . 0 0 9 #11. 0 . 1 5 6 0 . 0 7 8 ERROR 0 . 7 2 5 0 . 0 2 4 #12. 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 1 2 ERROR 0 . 4 7 7 0 . 0 1 6 #13. 0 . 0 5 0 0 . 0 2 5 ERROR 0 . 4 2 2 0 . 0 1 4 #14. 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 1 4 ERROR 0 . 1 3 3 0 . 0 0 4 DEGREES OF F - V A L U E P R O B A B I L I T Y FREEDOM 2 , 30 1 . 1 5 O . 3 3 0 3 2 , 30 0 . 4 2 0 . 6 6 1 5 2 , 30 2 . 0 6 0 . 1 4 5 3 2, 30 0 . 8 3 0 . 4 4 5 6 2 , 30 0 . 2 2 0 . 8 0 2 0 2 , 30 0 . 4 7 0 . 6 2 7 3 2 , 30 1 .63 0 . 2 1 2 0 2 , 30 1 . 8 9 0 . 1 6 8 5 2 , 30 0 . 1 0 0 . 9 0 0 1 2, 30 0 .91 0 .4141 2 , 30 ' 3 . 2 2 0 . 0 5 4 2 2 , 30 0 . 7 8 0 . 4 6 5 7 2 , 30 1 .77 0 . 1 8 8 4 2 , 30 3 . 2 4 0 . 0 5 3 0 60 T A B L E - MANOVA SOURCE T A B L E FOR THE INTERACTION E F F E C T S OF THE TREATMENT METHODS AND THE REPEATED MEASURES V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E #1. ERROR #2. ERROR #3. ERROR #4. ERROR #5. ERROR #6. ERROR #7. ERROR #8. ERROR #9. ERROR #10. ERROR #11. ERROR #12. ERROR #13. ERROR #14. ERROR SUM OF SQUARES 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 1 5 8 0 . 1 2 4 1 . 2 8 8 0 .641 1 .544 0 . 3 7 9 1 . 9 4 6 0 . 2 7 4 2 . 0 1 0 0 . 1 5 2 0 . 9 1 7 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 2 7 5 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 077 0 . 0 9 3 0 . 385 0 . 1 2 3 0 . 2 4 8 0 .021 0 . 7 2 5 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 4 7 7 0 .031 0 . 4 2 2 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 1 3 3 MEAN SQUARE O .O06 0 . 0 0 5 0 .031 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 1 6 0 0 .051 0 . 0 9 5 0 . 0 6 5 0 . 0 6 8 0 . 0 6 7 0 . 0 3 8 0 .031 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 9 0 .001 0 . 003 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 1 3 0 .031 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 4 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 4 , 30 F - V A L U E P R O B A B I L I T Y 1 . 1 4 0 . 7 2 3 .11 1 .46 1 .02 1 . 2 5 0 . 5 4 0 . 5 8 1 .82 3 . 7 2 0 . 2 2 0 . 2 5 0 . 5 5 0 . 5 2 0 . 3 5 6 1 0 . 5 8 3 9 0 . 0 2 9 5 0 . 2 3 8 6 0 . 4 1 2 4 0 . 3 1 2 5 0 . 7 0 8 4 0 . 6 8 0 7 0 . 1 0 6 8 0 . 0 1 4 1 0 . 9 2 5 2 0 . 9 0 8 5 0 . 7 0 3 2 0 . 7 1 8 9 61 Summary o f t h e R e s u l t s T h e v o l u m e o f t o t a l f e e d b a c k comments a l s o c h a n g e d a l o n g w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d c h a n g e s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s . T h e P r o f i l e g r o u p d e m o n s t r a t e d a n e t i n c r e a s e o f 0 . 3 4 f e e d b a c k comments p e r m i n u t e f r o m s e s s i o n one t h r o u g h t h r e e ( (X = 1 . 2 6 , s = .36 ) t o (X* = 1 . 6 0 , s = . 6 5 ) ) . T h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p a l s o i n c r e a s e d i t s f e e d b a c k comments g i v e n by 0 . 3 2 p e r m i n u t e o v e r t h e t h r e e s e s s i o n s ( (Y = 0 . 9 5 , s = .20 ) t o (X = 1 . 2 7 , s = . 38 ) ) . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s c o r e s a l s o i n c r e a s e d . T h e g a i n s i n g r o u p s c o r e s may h a v e b e e n t h e r e s u l t o f f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e b e h a v i o r s o f one o r two i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t s may h a v e c a u s e d i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e s i n t h e s u b j e c t o f t h o s e g r o u p s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e was a n o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f f e e d b a c k u s e d by members o f b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s w h i l e t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p d i d n o t show t h e same t r e n d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f e e d b a c k a w a r e n e s s c r e a t e d by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t o c o l . F e e d b a c k v o l u m e d e c r e a s e d f o r t h i s g r o u p by 0 . 2 2 comments p e r m i n u t e ( (X = 1 . 5 1 , s = .52 ) t o (X = 1 . 2 9 , s = . 3 6 ) ) . V a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p a l s o d e c r e a s e d o v e r t h e s e s s i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s l i g h t l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n were p e r h a p s more u n i v e r s a l t h a n t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e o t h e r m e t h o d s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e e f f e c t s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p . 0 5 ) , t h e r e may be p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e r e s u l t s o f a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s ( s e e p p . 6 6 - 8 7 ) . I t was p o s s i b l e t h a t s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d i f t h e same r e s u l t s had b e e n o b t a i n e d u s i n g l a r g e r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . M o o r e , S c h a u t a n d F r i t z g e s (1978) u s e d a f e e d b a c k a w a r e n e s s i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s t o e n h a n c e a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s . In a p r e v i o u s s t u d y u s i n g a l i m i t e d number o f s u b j e c t s i n b o t h t h e c o n t r o l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e a w a r e n e s s i n t e r v e n t i o n had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . O n c e t h e number o f s u b j e c t s was i n c r e a s e d i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t s t u d y i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e same i n t e r v e n t i o n d i d h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a w a r e n e s s f e e d b a c k d o e s i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f b r i n g i n g a b o u t d e s i r e d c h a n g e s i n t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r . I n c r e a s i n g t h e s a m p l e s i z e , h o w e v e r , may h a v e s i m p l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s c a n become s i g n i f i c a n t i f t h e number o f s u b j e c t s i s l a r g e e n o u g h . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t became more m e a n i n g f u l t o e x a m i n e t h e c h a n g e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y t h a t t h e y c o u l d b r i n g t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n - r a t h e r t h a n t o m a n i p u l a t e f a c t o r s w h i c h may e n d up y i e l d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i l e p r o d u c i n g no p e r t i n e n t r e s u l t s f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s a n d s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s o r s . 63 CHAPTER V - D ISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS A s a l l u d e d t o i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g may n o t be k n o w n . I f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i s u l t i m a t e l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a s T a n n e h i l l a n d Z a k r a j s e k ( 1 9 8 8 ) , among o t h e r s , h a v e s u g g e s t e d , t h e n what m e s s a g e s h a v e b e e n s e n t t o s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g what i s i m p o r t a n t i n p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h i n g ? Do n o v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s s e e t h e p r a c t i c u m a s a means t o p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o r more s i m p l y a s a m e t h o d o f b e c o m i n g s o c i a l i z e d i n t o a s y s t e m v o i d o f much p o t e n t i a l f o r c h a n g e ? U n t i l t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s c a n come t o t e r m s w i t h what i t i s t h a t t h e e x t e n d e d t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c u m i s e x p l i c i t l y t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p s u i t a b l e s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o f u l f i l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m e e t i n g t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s s t u d y made t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be p r i m a r i l y an a r e n a f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e a c h i n g s k i l l s , t e c h n i q u e s a n d s t r a t e g i e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n a q u a n t i t a t i v e p a r a d i g m was u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o d u c t s o f s u i t a b l e s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t was a l s o p r u d e n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a c h i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e c u l t u r e o f t e a c h i n g a n d t o e x a m i n e t h e p o t e n t i a l t h a t e a c h m e t h o d o l o g y had t o i m p r o v e t h e p r o c e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n . I t was n e c e s s a r y t h e n t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n l i g h t o f what t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o u l d do f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s i n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a n d a l s o i n l i g h t o f what t h e y c o u l d do t o e n h a n c e t h e p r o c e s s o f 64 becoming a l e g i t i m a t e teacher, v a l i d a t e d by one's peers and c o l l e a g u e s . There was l i t e r a t u r e t o suggest t h a t s u p e r v i s o r y feedback i n t e r v e n t i o n s of the v a r i e t y used i n t h i s study c o u l d be employed to change or improve the i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviors of student t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (Siedentop, 1983; W i l l i a m s o n , O ' S u l l i v a n & Jackson, 1985). The r e s u l t s of t h i s study d i d not r e f u t e the f i n d i n g s of these authors, but the f i n d i n g s were i n c o n c l u s i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g what was the best method f o r enhancing feedback d e l i v e r y . I t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t i n the i n s t a n c e s where the computerized p r o f i l i n g feedback method showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y to be an e q u a l l y p r a c t i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y method, t h a t i t was a c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r when examined d e s c r i p t i v e l y . The p r o b a b i l i t y of a type II e r r o r was r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e . T h i s p r o b a b i l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the formula method d e s c r i b e d by Shavelson (1988, pp. 308) to be approximately 0.32 (N = 18, p = .05, D = .50). F a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s somewhat high p r o b a b i l i t y of a type II e r r o r were the small sample s i z e a v a i l a b l e f o r the study and the assignment of p = .05 as the alpha value f o r the analyses of s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta. The value of alpha was c o n s e r v a t i v e l y s e t at p .05 i n t h i s study so t h a t there would only be a small p r o b a b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e because of a type I e r r o r . In a d d i t i o n , the low group sample s i z e f u r t h e r decreased the p r o b a b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n the study as a r e s u l t of chance occurrences or t r i v i a l changes i n behavior. In the process, however, the p r o b a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d f o r f a l s e l y r e j e c t i n g a p e r f e c t l y e f f e c t i v e student teacher feedback 65 methodology. Although the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data obtained in t h i s study has indicated that only limited differences exist amongst the treatment methods used with the preservice physical educators, i t would be remiss to neglect the p r a c t i c a l s ignificance of some of the borderline data. For t h i s reason many of the descriptive s t a t i s t i c s obtained, were also examined to note i f any trends existed due to varying treatments over the intervention sessions. Descriptive Analysis and Discussion As a possible r e s u l t of the heightened awareness about teaching caused by the intervention methodologies, some nonsignificant changes in the absolute and r e l a t i v e volumes of e f f e c t i v e performance feedback delivered by the student physical education teachers were apparent. For example, eight categories of feedback behaviors showed some minor ef f e c t s due to treatment method, session main e f f e c t or the interaction of method and session. Of these variables, three were expressed in terms of number of comments per minute and f i v e were expressed in terms of a percentage of the t o t a l comments delivered i n the class period. Table 5 contains a l i s t of the dependent variables examined that, due to an incapacity to detect type II errors (power ~ .68), may have actually shown s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes. In order to examine these eight instances of near s t a t i s t i c a l significance and thus the p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the intervention e f f e c t s , means tables and graphs have been included i n Tables 6 - 1 3 and Figures 1 - 8 as a supplement to the interpretations of the r e s u l t s . 66 T A B L E 5 . - DEPENDENT V A R I A B L E S A F F E C T E D S L I G H T L Y BY MAIN OR INTERACTION E F F E C T S WITH ALPHA V A L U E S SET AT p = .0071 ( . 0 5 / 7 =.0071 - u s i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y ) ( H u b e r t y & M o r r i s , 1 9 8 9 , p . 306) a) P o s s i b l e T r e a t m e n t m e t h o d s e f f e c t s o n : - n u m b e r o f p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k s p e r m i n u t e (F= 3 . 1 0 , d f = 2 , 1 5 , p = . 0 7 5 ) - n u m b e r o f c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k s p e r m i n u t e (F= 2 . 8 0 , d f = 2 , 1 5 , p = . 0 9 3 ) - p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k g i v e n p e r c l a s s o b s e r v e d (F= 2 . 5 2 , d f = 2 , 1 5 , p = . 1 1 3 9 ) b) P o s s i b l e S e s s i o n s e f f e c t s o n : - p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k g i v e n p e r c l a s s o b s e r v e d (F= 3 . 2 2 , d f = 2 , 3 0 , p = . 0 5 4 ) - p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e - s p e c i f i c - c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k g i v e n p e r c l a s s o b s e r v e d (F= 3 . 2 4 , d f = 2 , 3 0 , p = . 0 5 3 ) c ) P o s s i b l e I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o n : - n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k s p e r m i n u t e (F = 3 . 1 1 , d f = 4 , 3 0 , p = . 0 2 9 ) - p e r c e n t a g e o f c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k g i v e n p e r c l a s s o b s e r v e d (F= 3 . 7 2 , d f = 4 , 3 0 , p = . 0 1 4 ) - p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k g i v e n p e r c l a s s o b s e r v e d (F= 1 . 8 2 , d f = 4 , 3 0 , p = . 1 0 6 8 ) On e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k comments g i v e n by t h e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s ( T a b l e 6 and F i g u r e 1 ) , i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p showed an i n c r e a s e i n t h i s b e h a v i o r b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s e s s i o n s ( (X = 4 1 . 4 , s 1 4 . 1 ) t o (>T = 4 2 . 9 , s = 5 . 8 ) ) w h i l e d i s p l a y i n g an e v e n more s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k b e t w e e n t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d s e s s i o n s (X3 = 4 5 . 7 , s3 = 5 . 9 ) . T h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p i m p r o v e d t h e i r p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d s e s s i o n s w i t h v i r t u a l l y no c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d o b s e r v a t i o n s ( X I = 3 1 . 2 , s i = 1 3 . 1 ; X2 = 4 0 . 6 , s2 = 1 2 . 3 ; 67 X3 = 40.5, s3 = 20.1). In sharp c o n t r a s t the videotape group decreased i n the percentage of p o s i t i v e feedback given over a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s (XI = 43.2, s i = 13.2; X2 = 36.3, s2 = 14.6; X3 = 28.9, s3 = 13.1). These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l methods of p r o v i d i n g feedback to student t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r use of p o s i t i v e feedback were most e f f e c t i v e a t e a r l i e r stages i n the practicum. The i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned by the student t e a c h e r s from the p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n seemed to be most e f f e c t i v e l a t e r i n the p r a c t i c u m while the v i d e o t a p i n g had a r a t h e r i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t on the student t e a c h e r ' s c a p a c i t y to give p o s i t i v e feedback r e g a r d l e s s when i t was used. When the percentage of p o s i t i v e comments given was examined i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the P r o f i l e group demonstrated l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y i n the behavior from s e s s i o n one to s e s s i o n t h r e e . T h i s decreased v a r i a b i l i t y i n scores d i d not occur f o r the other two groups with the Conventional group showing an i n c r e a s e i n v a r i a b i l i t y and the Videotape group demonstrating no change at a l l . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n had a more u n i v e r s a l e f f e c t of making the s u b j e c t s aware t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s of the amount of feedback given to students, a c e r t a i n percentage should be p o s i t i v e . Siedentop (1983) noted t h a t 80 percent of the feedback given by p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r s should be p o s i t i v e . Although t h i s f i g u r e was not observed, changes i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n were noted i n the behaviors of the P r o f i l e group. Aside from the percentage of p o s i t i v e feedback used by the three groups over the t h r e e s e s s i o n s , i t was noteworthy t h a t the number of p o s i t i v e feedback comments d e l i v e r e d per minute by the P r o f i l e group i n c r e a s e d from 0.53 (s = 0.23) to 0.73 (s = 0.31). 68 TABLE 6 - MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE PERCENTAGE OF PO S I T I V E FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER CLASS PERIOD SESSION 1 SESSION 2 SESSION 3 GROUP PROFILE MEAN 4 1 . 4 4 2 . 9 4 5 . 7 4 3 . 3 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 4 . 1 ) ( 5 . 8 ) ( 5 . 9 ) ( 8 . 6 ) VIDEOTAPE MEAN 4 3 . 2 3 6 . 3 2 8 . 9 3 6 . 1 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 3 . 2 ) ( 1 4 . 6 ) ( 1 3 . 1 ) ( 1 3 . 6 ) CONVENTIONAL MEAN 3 1 . 2 4 0 . 6 4 0 . 5 3 7 . 4 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 3 . 1 ) ( 1 2 . 3 ) ( 2 0 . 1 ) ( 1 5 . 2 ) SESSION MEAN 3 8 . 6 3 9 . 9 3 8 . 3 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 3 . 5 ) ( 1 1 . 0 ) ( 1 5 . 2 ) FIGURE 1 - SESSION VERSUS PERCENTAGE OF PO S I T I V E FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER CLASS PERIOD FOR THE THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, p - PROFILE GROUP, v - VIDEOTAPE GROUP, c - CONVENTIONAL GROUP 2 SESSION # 69 In a c l a s s p e r i o d of 50 minutes t h i s seemingly small gain equated to an average increase of 10 p o s i t i v e feedback comments per teacher per c l a s s . These f i n d i n g s were s i m i l a r to the r e s u l t s of a study by Landin, Hawkins and Wiegand (1986) who pointed out that student p h y s i c a l education teachers could increase the amount of p o s i t i v e feedback given to students by 0 . 86 comments per minute as a r e s u l t of supervisory awareness i n t e r v e n t i o n s with teaching improvement s t r a t e g i e s . Even i n accomodating the increase i n the number of p o s i t i v e feedback comments given, the P r o f i l e group showed a gain i n the number of c o r r e c t i v e comments (Table 7 and Figure 2) yet a decrease i n the percentage of c o r r e c t i v e comments (Table 8 and Figure 3). This f a c t r e f l e c t e d the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned increase i n the t o t a l number of feedback comments. The Videotape group, on the other hand, showed a marked increase i n both the number and percentage of c o r r e c t i v e comments given (Tables 7 -8 and Figures 2-3). Both changes may have r e s u l t e d from an i n t e r a c t i o n of the treatment and repeated measures main e f f e c t s . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of experimental treatment and sessions on the percentages of c o r r e c t i v e feedback used by the three groups of student teachers followed the same s o r t of trends d i s p l a y e d i n the examination of the percentage of p o s i t i v e feedback comments used. That i s , the Conventional group decreased i n the percentage of c o r r e c t i v e comments from sessions one to two while the P r o f i l e group remained s t a b l e . Conversely the P r o f i l e group reduced the percentage of c o r r e c t i v e feedback used from sessions two through three a f t e r no n o t i c e a b l e change between the f i r s t and second observations. 70 T A B L E 7 - MEANS AND STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S FOR THE NUMBER OF C O R R E C T I V E FEEDBACK COMMENTS D E L I V E R E D PER MINUTE S E S S I O N 1 S E S S I O N 2 SESSION 3 GROUP P R O F I L E MEAN .58 .70 .72 .67 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( . 1 5 ) ( . 2 4 ) ( . 3 6 ) ( . 2 6 ) V I D E O T A P E MEAN .44 .51 .85 .60 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( . 0 7 ) ( . 1 2 ) ( . 2 6 ) ( . 2 4 ) CONVENTIONAL MEAN .82 .58 .63 .68 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( . 3 3 ) ( . 2 8 ) ( . 2 2 ) ( . 2 8 ) S E S S I O N MEAN .61 . 5 9 .73 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( . 2 8 ) ( . 2 3 ) ( . 2 6 ) F I G U R E 2 - S E S S I O N VERSUS NUMBER OF C O R R E C T I V E FEEDBACK COMMENTS D E L I V E R E D PER MINUTE FOR THE THREE TREATMENT GROUPS. p - P R O F I L E GROUP, V - V I D E O T A P E GROUP, c - CONVENTIONAL GROUP # OF C O R R E C T I V E FEEDBACKS PER MINUTE S E S S I O N # 71 TABLE 8 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE PERCENTAGE OF CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER CLASS PERIOD SESSION 1 SESSION 2 SESSION 3 GROUP PROFILE MEAN 4 7 . 0 4 5 . 4 4 3 . 8 4 5 . 4 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 1 . 0 ) ( 7 . 5 ) ( 6 . 3 ) ( 8 . 1 ) VIDEOTAPE MEAN 4 7 . 1 5 5 . 1 6 7 . 4 5 6 . 6 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 0 . 8 ) ( 1 5 . 1 ) ( 1 2 . 9 ) ( 1 5 . 0 ) CONVENTIONAL MEAN 5 6 . 8 5 2 . 7 5 1 . 3 5 3 . 6 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 6 . 2 ) ( 1 5 . 9 ) ( 1 8 . 1 ) ( 1 6 . 0 ) SESSION MEAN 5 0 . 3 5 1 . 1 5 4 . 2 (STAND. DEV. ) ( 1 3 . 0 ) ( 1 3 . 3 ) ( 1 6 . 1 ) FIGURE 3 - SESSION VERSUS PERCENTAGE OF CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER CLASS PERIOD FOR THE THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, p - PROFILE GROUP, v - VIDEOTAPE GROUP, c - CONVENTIONAL GROUP SESSION # 72 Again, the percentage of c o r r e c t i v e feedback used by the Videotape group i n c r e a s e d over a l l the s e s s i o n s . At the same time t h a t t h e i r use of c o r r e c t i v e feedback i n c r e a s e d the Videotape group's use of p o s i t i v e and p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e comments decreased (Tables 6 , 9 and F i g u r e s 1 , 4 ) . These changes suggested t h a t the Videotape group a p p a r e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e d c o r r e c t i v e feedback, at the expense of comments which had p r e v i o u s l y been p o s i t i v e or p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e . Darst (1976) noted t h a t student t e a c h e r s tended to use very l i t t l e p o s i t i v e feedback or c o r r e c t i v e feedback with t h e i r students i n d i c a t i n g perhaps t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n e i t h e r behavior were j u s t n a t u r a l occurrences r e s u l t i n g from maturation and t e a c h i n g experience. P o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e feedback comments were d e l i v e r e d r a r e l y by the student t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study (Tables 9 -10 and F i g u r e s 4 -5 ) . T h i s was more apparent f o r the Videotape group than f o r the o t h e r s . By the t h i r d o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n the s u b j e c t s i n the Videotape group were g i v i n g p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e feedback at a r a t e of only one comment every 30 minutes. In most cases t h i s equated t o about two p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e comments per c l a s s p e r i o d . The P r o f i l e s u b j e c t s were the only ones to show a s l i g h t net i n c r e a s e i n the amount of p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e feedback given over the t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s . In general i t was not the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of any p a r t i c u l a r method t h a t l e d to t h i s observed change i n the number and percentage of p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e feedback comments used but r a t h e r i t was the profound i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the videotape feedback t h a t stood out. 73 TABLE 9 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE NUMBER OF POSITIVE-CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER MINUTE SESSION 1 SESSION 2 SESSION 3 GROUP PROFILE MEAN .14 .18 . 15 .16 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 1 1 ) ( . 0 9 ) ( . 0 3 ) ( . 0 8 ) VIDEOTAPE MEAN .08 .08 .04 .07 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 0 4 ) ( . 0 7 ) ( . 0 5 ) ( . 0 5 ) CONVENTIONAL MEAN .17 .09 .10 .12 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 1 1 ) . ( . 0 7 ) ( . 1 2 ) ( . 1 1 ) SESSION MEAN .14 .12 .10 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 1 0 ) ( . 0 8 ) ( . 0 9 ) FIGURE 4 - SESSION VERSUS NUMBER OF POSITIVE-CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER MINUTE FOR THE THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, p - PROFILE GROUP, v - VIDEOTAPE GROUP, c - CONVENTIONAL GROUP SESSION # 74 T A B L E 10 - MEANS AND STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S FOR THE PERCENTAGE OF P O S I T I V E - C O R R E C T I V E FEEDBACK COMMENTS D E L I V E R E D PER C L A S S PERIOD S E S S I O N 1 S E S S I O N 2 S E S S I O N 3 GROUP P R O F I L E MEAN 1 1 . 0 1 2 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 1 . 0 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 6 . 0 ) ( 4 . 0 ) ( 4 . 0 ) ( 5 . 0 ) V I D E O T A P E MEAN 9 . 0 8 . 0 3 . 0 7 . 0 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 4 . 0 ) ( 6 . 0 ) ( 3 . 0 ) ( 5 . 0 ) CONVENTIONAL MEAN 1 0 . 0 7 . 0 7 . 0 8 . 0 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 6 . 0 ) ( 6 . 0 ) ( 8 . 0 ) ( 7 . 0 ) S E S S I O N MEAN 1 0 . 0 9 . 0 7 . 0 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 5 . 0 ) ( 6 . 0 ) ( 6 . 0 ) F I G U R E 5 - S E S S I O N VERSUS PERCENTAGE OF P O S I T I V E - C O R R E C T I V E FEEDBACK COMMENTS D E L I V E R E D PER C L A S S PERIOD FOR THE THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, p - P R O F I L E GROUP, V - V I D E O T A P E GROUP, C - CONVENTIONAL GROUP S E S S I O N # 75 What was p e r h a p s more s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e r e s u l t s was t h e s u b s t a n t i a l d e c r e a s e i n t h e v a r i a b i l t y o f s c o r e s f o r t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r i z e d p r o f i l i n g h a d t h e u n i v e r s a l e f f e c t o f h e l p i n g s u b j e c t s t o f o c u s on t h e i d e a o f g i v i n g f e e d b a c k t h a t was b o t h p o s i t i v e and c o r r e c t i v e . C u s i m a n o (1987) f o u n d t h a t u s i n g a p l a n n e d i n t e r v e n t i o n p a c k a g e i n c l u d i n g a c c u r a t e s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t and s p e c i f i c g o a l -s e t t i n g ( a s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y ) , was c a p a b l e o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e p o s i t i v e and c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k comments f r o m 0 . 7 5 p e r m i n u t e t o 1 .81 p e r m i n u t e . A s w e l l , M e t z l e r (1984) c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t w o u l d be r e a s o n a b l e f o r p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r u s e o f p o s i t i v e and p o s i t i v e -c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k by 100 % a f t e r p r o p e r s u p e r v i s o r y f e e d b a c k . No s u c h i n c r e a s e s were n o t e d i n t h e s t u d y j u s t c o m p l e t e d . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t d e l i v e r i n g p o s i t i v e -c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k was o b v i o u s l y a d i f f i c u l t s k i l l f o r p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s t o m a s t e r . I t seemed t h a t t h e p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was t h e o n l y m e t h o d w h i c h m a i n t a i n e d what l i t t l e p o s i t i v e - c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r e x i s t e d i n t h e r e p e r t o i r e s o f t h e s e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . T h e P r o f i l e g r o u p a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k g i v e n t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ( T a b l e 11 a n d F i g u r e 6 ) . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k comments g i v e n by members i n t h e p r o f i l e g r o u p (XI = .82 , s i = . 2 7 ; 1(2 = 1 . 0 1 , s2 = . 2 8 ; X3 = 1 . 0 4 , s3 = .49 ) c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r e d u c t i o n and r a t h e r s l i g h t i n c r e a s e s shown by t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l a n d V i d e o t a p e g r o u p s r e s p e c t i v e l y 76 r e s u l t e d i n an o b s e r v e d y e t n o n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t (F = 2 . 8 0 , d f = 2 , 1 5 , p = . 0 9 2 7 ) . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s u b s t a n t i a l g a i n s i n c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o f i l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t c o n g r u e n c y o f f e e d b a c k was a m a j o r i t e m i n c l u d e d i n t h e f e e d b a c k p r o f i l e s d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p members a t t h e e n d o f e a c h c l a s s p e r i o d o b s e r v e d . A s c a n be n o t e d by t h e u n s o l i c i t e d s t u d e n t t e a c h e r comments ( A p p e n d i x F) a n d t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( A p p e n d i x G ) , t h e t e a c h e r s d i d i n q u i r e a b o u t c o n g r u e n c y o n many o c c a s i o n s a n d seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n how t h e y c o u l d i m p r o v e t h e i r u s e o f t h a t b e h a v i o r . T h e same k e e n e s s t o be c o n g r u e n t was n o t e x p r e s s e d by t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t n e i t h e r t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p n o r t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p became s u f f i c i e n t l y aware o f t h e c o n g r u e n c y b e h a v i o r t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e c h a n g e s . A g a i n , i n c r e a s i n g v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p c o n g r u e n c y s c o r e s ( s i = . 2 7 , s2 = . 2 8 , s3 = .49 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r - b a s e d f e e d b a c k p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was n o t a s e f f e c t i v e f o r some o f t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p a s i t was f o r o t h e r s . The f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s who o b v i o u s l y d i d i m p r o v e t h e c o n g r u e n c y o f t h e i r f e e d b a c k comments f r o m t h e a w a r e n e s s g a i n e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f e e d b a c k p r o f i l e i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t l e a s t a s e f f e c t i v e i n e n h a n c i n g t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s e f f e c t i v e u s e o f c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k a s were v i d e o t a p e d o r c o n v e n t i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n s . 77 TABLE 11 - MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE NUMBER OF CONGRUENT-FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER MINUTE SESSION 1 SESSION 2 SESSION 3 GROUP PROFILE MEAN . 8 2 1 .01 1 . 0 4 . 9 5 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 2 7 ) ( . 2 8 ) ( . 4 9 ) ( . 3 5 ) VIDEOTAPE MEAN . 5 8 . 6 3 . 6 4 . 6 1 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 2 1 ) ( . 3 0 ) ( . 2 0 ) ( . 2 3 ) CONVENTIONAL MEAN . 9 0 . 7 0 . 7 8 . 7 9 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 4 0 ) ( . 2 9 ) ( . 3 9 ) ( . 3 5 ) SESSION MEAN . 7 6 . 7 8 . 8 2 (STAND. DEV.) ( . 3 2 ) ( . 3 2 ) ( . 4 0 ) FIGURE 6 - SESSION VERSUS NUMBER OF CONGRUENT FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER MINUTE FOR THE THREE TREATMENT GROUPS. p - PROFILE GROUP, v - VIDEOTAPE GROUP, c - CONVENTIONAL GROUP SESSION # 78 A small e f f e c t , due p o s s i b l y to the repeated s e s s i o n s , occured on the dependent v a r i a b l e of percentage of s p e c i f i c feedback given (F = 3 . 2 2 , df = 2 , 3 0 , p = . 0 5 4 2 ) . Both the P r o f i l e and the Conventional groups d i s p l a y e d a decrease i n the r e l a t i v e amounts of s p e c i f i c feedback used over the f i r s t two sessions while the Videotape group showed an increase i n the behavior (Table 12 and Figure 7 ) . Williamson, O ' S u l l i v a n and Jackson (1985) reported t h a t student p h y s i c a l education teachers increased t h e i r use of s p e c i f i c feedback from 47 % to 67 % a f t e r a supervisory i n t e r v e n t i o n employing g o a l - s e t t i n g , systematic observation and performance feedback was used. In the present study a l l groups used approximately 50 % s p e c i f i c feedback i n the second set of observations. This f i n d i n g was i n agreement with the r e s u l t s c o l l e c t e d by R.ikard (1991) who noted that teachers of p h y s i c a l education used s p e c i f i c feedback i n 58 % of t h e i r feedback episodes. The s p e c i f i c feedback used by a l l groups f e l l o f f d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the t h i r d lesson observed. Over a l l three lessons the P r o f i l e group demonstrated an 11 % decrease i n the amount of s p e c i f i c feedback used ( s i = 2 3 . 0 , s2 = 1 6 . 0 ) . The Videotape group used 13 % l e s s s p e c i f i c feedback i n observation three than i n observation two and 7 % l e s s than i n observation one ( s i = 1 5 . 0 , s2 = 1 6 . 0 , s3 = 1 2 . 0 ) . The Conventional group a l s o employed 16 % l e s s s p e c i f i c feedback i n the f i n a l o bservation than i n the i n i t i a l lesson ( s i = 1 1 . 0 , s3 = 1 4 . 0 ) . 79 T A B L E 12 - M E A N S A N D S T A N D A R D S P E C I F I C F E E D B A C K P E R I O D D E V I A T I O N S F O R T H E P E R C E N T A G E O F C O M M E N T S D E L I V E R E D P E R C L A S S S E S S I O N 1 S E S S I O N 2 S E S S I O N 3 G R O U P P R O F I L E M E A N 4 9 . 0 4 7 . 0 3 8 . 0 4 4 . 4 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 2 3 . 0 ) ( 1 5 . 0 ) ( 1 6 . 0 ) ( 1 8 . 1 ) V I D E O T A P E M E A N 3 9 . 0 4 5 . 0 3 2 . 0 3 9 . 1 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 1 5 . 0 ) ( 1 6 . 0 ) ( 1 2 . 0 ) ( 1 4 . 3 ) C O N V E N T I O N A L M E A N 5 3 . 0 4 9 . 0 3 7 . 0 4 6 . 2 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 1 1 . 0 ) ( 1 5 . 0 ) ( 1 4 . 0 ) ( 1 4 . 8 ) S E S S I O N M E A N 4 7 . 4 4 6 . 7 3 5 . 7 ( S T A N D . D E V . ) ( 1 7 . 2 ) ( 1 4 . 7 ) ( 1 3 . 3 ) F I G U R E 7 - S E S S I O N V E R S U S P E R C E N T A G E O F S P E C I F I C F E E D B A C K C O M M E N T S D E L I V E R E D P E R C L A S S P E R I O D FOR T H E T H R E E T R E A T M E N T G R O U P S , p - P R O F I L E G R O U P , v - V I D E O T A P E G R O U P , c - C O N V E N T I O N A L G R O U P S E S S I O N # 80 There were sev e r a l reasons why t h i s steady d e c l i n e i n the percentage of s p e c i f i c feedback could have occured during the course of the study. I n i t i a l l y , s p e c i f i c feedback was defined as a feedback comment which provided the student with some d e s c r i p t i v e or p r e s c r i p t i v e information regarding a performance j u s t completed. As t h i s d e f i n i t i o n was not apprec i a b l y d i f f e r e n t than the d e f i n i t i o n s of s p e c i f i c feedback described by Rink (1985), Siedentop (1983) or S i n c l a i r (1989) i t was safe to assume that i t was not the d e f i n i t i o n of the s k i l l t hat caused decreased codings of the behavior. Likewise, the use of i n t e r - and i n t r a -observer r e l i a b i l i t y checks throughout the course of the study confirmed with greater than 80 % c e r t a i n t y that the s p e c i f i c feedback behaviors were coded a c c u r a t e l y . I t was b e l i e v e d instead that s p e c i f i c feedback behavior was a f u n c t i o n of extensive p r a c t i c e (Siedentop, 1983). This appeared to be more true f o r s p e c i f i c feedback useage than f o r other types of feedback. During the course of t h e i r p r a c t i c a student teachers had many concerns to address (e.g., lesson planning, classroom c o n t r o l , marking and e v a l u a t i o n ) . Because of the shortage of time and energy to work on t h i s seemingly l e s s important aspect of t eaching, the use of s p e c i f i c feedback was not one of the s k i l l s p r a c t i c e d and t h e r e f o r e a degeneration of a b i l i t y occured. I t was a l s o noticed that the student teachers i n the study were res p o n s i b l e f o r teaching a v a r i e t y of content a c t i v i t i e s as t h e i r p r a c t i c a progressed. Many of these a c t i v i t i e s were novel and required that the student teachers spend a considerable amount of time l e a r n i n g about the a c t i v i t y before a c t u a l l y teaching i t . This being the case, many of the teachers were r e l u c t a n t to give 81 a n y t h i n g more t h a n g e n e r a l p r a i s e t o s t u d e n t s when p r a c t i c i n g t h e s k i l l s i n v o l v e d . S p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k u s e a g e t h e n , was a f u n c t i o n o f t e a c h e r e x p e r t i s e a n d c o n f i d e n c e - two f a c t o r s w h i c h w e r e n o t a l w a y s e v i d e n t i n t h e t e a c h i n g r e p e r t o i r e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s o b s e r v e d . T h e s e t e a c h i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s were c o m p o u n d e d f u r t h e r by t h e w i d e r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t and by t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e i r l e s s o n s were o b s e r v e d . I t seemed t h a t b o t h t h e p r o f i l i n g and v i d e o t a p e i n t e r v e n t i o n s made t h e s u b j e c t s aware o f t h e u s e o f s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k , j u d g i n g by t h e i r comments a n d r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s a w a r e n e s s was o b v i o u s l y n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o h e l p them o v e r c o m e t h e i r l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n t e n t a n d t h e i r d e c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n g i v i n g d e s c r i p t i v e o r p r e s c r i p t i v e f e e d b a c k . The f i n a l d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e p o s s i b l y a f f e c t e d by one o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a i n e f f e c t s o r an i n t e r a c t i o n o f e f f e c t s was t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f f e e d b a c k g i v e n c o m b i n i n g a s p e c t s o f p o s i t i v i t y , s p e c i f i c i t y and c o n g r u e n c y ( T a b l e 13 and F i g u r e 8 ) . As was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s u b j e c t s , t h i s d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e was a l s o p o s s i b l y a f f e c t e d by t h e r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s v a r i a b l e i n t h e s t u d y . A l l t h r e e g r o u p s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e same t r e n d s o f i m p r o v e m e n t a n d r e g r e s s i o n o v e r t h e t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . The i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e - s p e c i f i c - c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k u s e d by t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p were t h e most p r o n o u n c e d (XI = 1 1 . 0 , s i = 1 0 . 0 ; 7 2 = 1 7 . 0 , s2 = 1 0 . 0 ) . 82 TABLE 13 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE PERCENTAGE OF POSITIVE-SPECIFIC-CONGRUENT FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER CLASS PERIOD SESSION 1 SESSION 2 SESSION 3 GROUP PROFILE MEAN 1 1 . 0 1 7 . 0 1 3 . 0 1 3 . 6 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 0 . 0 ) ( 1 0 . 0 ) ( 1 0 . 0 ) ( 9 . 7 ) VIDEOTAPE MEAN 8 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 . 0 6 . 0 (STAND. DEV.) ( 1 2 . 0 ) ( 1 0 . 0 ) ( 2 . 0 ) ( 9 . 0 ) CONVENTIONAL MEAN 8 . 0 1 0 . 0 6 . 0 8 .1 (STAND. DEV.) ( 7 . 0 ) ( 1 3 . 0 ) ( 7 . 0 ) ( 8 . 7 ) SESSION MEAN 8 . 9 1 2 . 3 6 . 6 (STAND. DEV.) ( 9 . 1 ) ( 1 0 . 8 ) ( 8 . 2 ) FIGURE 8 - SESSION VERSUS PERCENTAGE OF POSITIVE-SPECIFIC-CONGRUENT FEEDBACK COMMENTS DELIVERED PER CLASS PERIOD FOR THE THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, p - PROFILE GROUP, v - VIDEOTAPE GROUP, c - CONVENTIONAL GROUP SESSION # 83 T h i s type of feedback was not used e x t e n s i v e l y by any of the groups but l e a s t of a l l by the videotape group. The d e c l i n e s i n the percentage of the complex feedback behaviors used were most apparent i n the videotape group (X2 = 1 0 . 0 , s i = 1 0 . 0 ; X3 = 2 . 0 , s3 = 2 . 0 ) . The Videotape group d i d show the same trends of improvement and d e c l i n e as the other methods though. An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s phenomenon was t h a t p o s i t i v e - s p e c i f i c -congruent feedback was complex i n nature and t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t to manage f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . As the pr e s s u r e s and concerns of the pract i c u m had mounted by the t h i r d o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n , the s u b j e c t s i n a l l groups had come to n e g l e c t some of the t e a c h i n g s k i l l s they had emphasized e a r l i e r i n t h e i r student t e a c h i n g . Unless made adequately aware of these behaviors on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s they had a tendancy not to use them i n t h e i r c l a s s e s ( B a r r e t t , A l l i s o n & B e l l , 1 9 8 7 ) . The r e p e t i t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n s a p p a r e n t l y had an e f f e c t on the student p h y s i c a l educator's complex feedback performance r e g a r d l e s s of the type of i n t e r v e n t i o n used. I t appeared t h a t the i n t e r v e n t i o n s had a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t e a r l i e r i n the practi c u m and a negative e f f e c t i n subsequent weeks. The p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was the most e f f e c t i v e at h i g h l i g h t i n g the e a r l y e f f e c t s of the repeated i n t e r v e n t i o n s and at the same time the most e f f e c t i v e at downplaying the negative e f f e c t s o c c u r i n g l a t e r i n the practicum. I t was f e l t t h a t the p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was p o s s i b l y the most e f f e c t i v e means of making student t e a c h e r s aware of t h e i r feedback behaviors because the percentage of combined feedback showed the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e and the s m a l l e s t r e l a t i v e decrease using t h a t method. 84 T h e r e was p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e f a c t t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e means o f p r o v i d i n g f e e d b a c k t o s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u l d i n v o k e c h a n g e s i n b e h a v i o r s t h a t w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y make t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e a more p o s i t i v e one f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A s p o i n t e d o u t , s e v e r a l s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p were a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e amount o f c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k comments t h e y d e l i v e r e d t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s f r o m s e s s i o n one t o s e s s i o n t w o . T h i s i n c r e a s e was r e p o r t e d a s 0 . 1 9 c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k comments p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h i s p r o v e d t o be an i n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e , h o w e v e r , i f e x t r a p o l a t e d o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h r e e 50 m i n u t e c l a s s p e r i o d s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h i s was s e e n a s a g a i n o f 30 e f f e c t i v e comments p e r w e e k . I f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s c o n t a i n e d 30 s t u d e n t s and t h e comments were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h e n e a c h o f t h e c l a s s members w o u l d h a v e r e c e i v e d an i n c r e a s e o f one c o n g r u e n t p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k comment p e r w e e k . I f t h i s one e f f e c t i v e comment was m e a n i n g f u l e n o u g h t o i m p r o v e t h a t s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e , e v e n t e m p o r a r i l y , e n h a n c e d e n j o y m e n t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and i m p r o v e d s e l f - e s t e e m m i g h t be t h e r e s u l t . F u r t h e r e x t r a p o l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t 30 t o 40 comments c o u l d f e a s i b l y be d e l i v e r e d t o e a c h s t u d e n t i n e a c h s c h o o l y e a r . What i s p e r h a p s more s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i e s u s e d t o p r o m o t e f e e d b a c k a w a r e n e s s p r o d u c e d e v e n t h i s s m a l l e f f e c t . The same p r a c t i c a l i t y was a l s o a p p a r e n t i n o t h e r d e p e n d e n t o u t c o m e s . T h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k comments i n c r e a s e d i n t h e r e p e r t o i r e s o f P r o f i l e s u b j e c t s w h i l e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f 85 p u r e l y c o r r e c t i v e comments d e c r e a s e d . T h e s e t r e n d s w e r e t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e t r e n d s shown by t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p a n d more c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e t h a n t h e t r e n d s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . In e s s e n c e , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e f e e d b a c k p r o f i l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y was e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g an a w a r e n e s s i n s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s w h i c h saw them comment more o f t e n on c o r r e c t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g n e a r l y t h e same e m p h a s i s on i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . A t t h e same t i m e t h e C T F A P S - P E m e t h o d o l o g y seemed t o e l i c i t p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s more c o n s i s t e n t l y f r o m t h e P r o f i l e s u b j e c t s t h a n d i d t h e o t h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a s i n d i c a t e d by d e c r e a s e s i n t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f P r o f i l e g r o u p s c o r e s o v e r t h e t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . The e f f e c t o f t h e r e p e a t e d s e s s i o n s on t h e d e l i v e r y o f s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k was a l s o n o t i c e a b l e . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t , a s t h e p r a c t i c u m p r o c e e d e d , t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n a l l g r o u p s were a s k e d t o t e a c h u n f a m i l i a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t . T h i s l a c k o f c o n t e n t f a m i l i a r i t y may h a v e c a u s e d t h e s e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s t o become h e s i t a n t a b o u t u s i n g s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k f o r f e a r o f r e l a y i n g i n a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r t h i s h e s i t a n c y , t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e s t u d y e m p l o y e d g e n e r a l f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s more o f t e n t h a n t h e y w o u l d h a v e i n f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s n o t i o n o f t e a c h e r c o m p e t e n c y may be an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when d e s i g n i n g f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y be deemed r e l e v a n t when i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f s u c h r e s e a r c h . P e r h a p s t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t by s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were 86 n o t a s s i g n i f i c a n t a s o u r c e o f w i t h i n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y a s were t h e t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o m p e t e n c y t o t e a c h t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s . F u t u r e s t u d i e s c o u l d c o n t r o l f o r t h i s p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n by m a t c h i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s u b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t a r e a s w i t h w h i c h t h e y were e q u a l l y f a m i l i a r . Q u a l i t a t i v e D a t a a n d D i s c u s s i o n A l t h o u g h n o t a p r e m i s e t o be m e a s u r e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n t h e s t u d y , i t was s i m i l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n i f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s u s e d t h e r e i n h e l p e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e n t r y o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n t o t h e c u l t u r e o f t e a c h i n g . T h a t i s , t h e r e were no q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a t o s u p p o r t o r r e f u t e t h e f a c t t h a t any o f t h e m e t h o d s h e l p e d t h e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s t o e a s e g r a c e f u l l y i n t o t h e d o m a i n o f t e a c h i n g . T h e r e was some e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , t o s u g g e s t t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d a m o n g s t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s t o e n h a n c e t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i f i c , f o c u s e d f e e d b a c k t o s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s a p p e a r e d t o a l t e r t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u s e o f t h e t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o r s . T h e u n s o l i c i t e d comments made by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s ( s e e A p p e n d i x F) p o i n t e d t o t h e f a c t , t h a t t h e p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n may h a v e b e e n t h e most e f f e c t i v e means o f e n h a n c i n g t h i s t e a c h i n g a w a r e n e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s do n o t b e a r o u t t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e a w a r e n e s s c r e a t e d by f e e d b a c k p r o f i l i n g c o u l d be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t o t e a c h i n g c h a n g e s , t h e q u a l i t a t i v e s u m m a r i e s seemed t o s u g g e s t t h a t p r o f i l i n g was a t l e a s t a s a p p e a l i n g a n d a p p a r e n t l y 87 more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i e s i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o f o c u s o n t h e t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s t a r g e t e d f o r c h a n g e . F o r e x a m p l e , a t o t a l o f 68 comments were made by t h e s i x s u b j e c t s i n t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p i n p o s t - l e s s o n c o n f e r e n c e s . Of t h o s e 68 c o m m e n t s , w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t e a c h e r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e i r l e s s o n s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s and t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i t s e l f , 31 ( 4 5 . 6 %) o f them d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s t a r g e t e d f o r e n h a n c e m e n t i n t h e s t u d y . In a l l , 5 4 . 4 % o f t h e i r comments d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e aware o r h a d become more a w a r e o f t h e f e e d b a c k t h e y were d e l i v e r i n g t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e f e e d b a c k p r o f i l e . In c o m p a r i s o n , o n l y 7 . 0 % and 8 .3% o f t h e u n s o l i c i t e d comments made by t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p a n d t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a d d r e s s e d t h e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s t a r g e t e d f o r s t u d y . S u b j e c t s i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e y were aware o f o r had become more aware o f t h e f e e d b a c k t h e y u s e d i n 2 9 . 2 % o f t h e i r c o m m e n t s . S i m i l a r r e m a r k s were made by t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p i n 1 4 . 0 % o f t h e i r c o m m e n t s . T h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p d i d , h o w e v e r , d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e y had become more a w a r e o f b e h a v i o r s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e t a r g e t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n 4 6 . 5 % o f t h e i r c o m m e n t s . T h i s h i g h p e r c e n t a g e i s s u p r i s i n g i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t y p e w r i t t e n h a n d o u t s a n d v e r b a l f o c u s i n g c u e s , r e g a r d i n g t h e t a r g e t e d f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s e x c l u s i v e l y , were g i v e n t o e a c h o f them p r i o r t o r e v i e w i n g t h e s h o r t s e g m e n t s o f t h e i r v i d e o t a p e d l e s s o n s . I t seemed t h a t t h e power o f t h e v i d e o t a p e i n m i s d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n a s s t a t e d by R o t h s t e i n ( 1 9 8 0 ) was a t work 88 i n t h e p r o t o c o l o f t h e s t u d y . In c o m p a r i s o n , t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p commented on n o n - t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o r s i n 1 6 . 2 % o f t h e i r r e m a r k s . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p became aware o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s t h a t were p a r t o f t h e i r own a g e n d a s r a t h e r t h a n an e l e m e n t o f t h e a g e n d a o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . I t was n o t i c e d a l s o t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h e V i d e o t a p e and C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s commented more o f t e n on t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ( 2 3 . 3 % a n d 2 5 , 0 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) t h a n d i d t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p ( 5 . 9 %). When t h e o v e r a l l a w a r e n e s s o f a l l a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g ( i . e . , f e e d b a c k a w a r e n e s s , a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r b e h a v i o r s , a w a r e n e s s o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r s ) were c o n s i d e r e d , t h e p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n a p p e a r e d l e s s f a v o r a b l e i n t h a t o n l y 7 0 . 6 % o f comments made by s u b j e c t s i n t h a t g r o u p i n d i c a t e d a h e i g h t e n e d t e a c h i n g a w a r e n e s s . B o t h t h e V i d e o t a p e and t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s made g e n e r a l t e a c h i n g a w a r e n e s s r e m a r k s i n e x c e s s o f 80 % i n t h e i r comments t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ( 8 3 . 7 % and 8 1 . 2 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e v a l u e s seemed t o l i e i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r o f i l e g r o u p made comments r e g a r d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p r o f i l e i t s e l f ( 1 1 . 8 %) w h e r e a s t h e o t h e r g r o u p s made no s u c h r e m a r k s a b o u t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s . T h e comments r e q u e s t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p r o f i l e d e c r e a s e d f r o m s i x t o j u s t two i n t h e s e c o n d s e t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e members o f t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s became more f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r y m e t h o d o l o g y t h e y a l s o n e e d e d l e s s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e amount o f a w a r e n e s s comments m a d e . 89 Comments r e g a r d i n g s u b j e c t i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m w e r e made i n r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r a m o u n t s by s u b j e c t s i n a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . L i k e w i s e , a l l s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s d i r e c t e d an e q u i v a l e n t p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r comments t o w a r d t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h e y w e r e a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n h e a r i n g how t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r f e l t t h e y h a d d o n e . M c B r i d e (1984) a l l u d e d t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a s f a c t o r s i n what t h e y w i l l a t t e n d t o d u r i n g t e a c h i n g a n d f e e d b a c k c o n f e r e n c i n g . I t seemed a s t h o u g h f e e d b a c k p r o f i l e s d i d more t o h e l p p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a t t e n d t o t h e f o c u s o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a n d i d e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two m e t h o d o l o g i e s . I t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s t o s a y t h a t t h e p r o f i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n e l i m i n a t e d t e a c h e r c o n c e r n s . H o w e v e r , t h a t m e t h o d o l o g y may h a v e s h i f t e d t h e c o n c e r n p a t t e r n s t e m p o r a r i l y s o t h a t o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g c o u l d be e x a m i n e d a s w e l l . V i d e o t a p i n g , and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t h o d o l o g y t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , a p p e a r e d t o h i g h l i g h t t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f o c u s o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g w h i c h were commented on and o b s e r v e d by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e p o s t -l e s s o n p r o t o c o l were a l s o t h e a s p e c t s w h i c h were p r i o r i t i z e d most h i g h l y i n t h e i r own a g e n d a s . B a r r e t t , A l l i s o n a n d B e l l (1987) n o t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s d i d n o t s e e e l e m e n t s o f t e a c h i n g t h a t t h e y were n o t a w a r e o f . I f t e a c h e r s were t o become a d e p t a t c h a n g i n g t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s t h e n t h e y w o u l d f i r s t h a v e t o become a w a r e o f what t h o s e b e h a v i o r s were a n d a w a r e o f what i t was t h e y were d o i n g a n d s h o u l d be d o i n g . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t v i d e o t a p i n g may h a v e b e e n an e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e f o r m a k i n g s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s g e n e r a l l y aware o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r 90 own a g e n d a s . H o w e v e r , f e e d b a c k p r o f i l i n g may h a v e b e e n s u p e r i o r i n m a k i n g t h e s e n o v i c e t e a c h e r s more a w a r e o f t h e t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o r s h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e a g e n d a s o f t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y p a r t n e r s . S u b j e c t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n I t was s t a t e d i n t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r t h a t s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s e x p e c t b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s ( R u s s e l l , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h i s f e e d b a c k was c o n s i d e r e d m o s t b e n e f i c i a l i f i t was s p e c i f i c a n d i f i t a l i g n e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e f o c u s o f t h e p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g e p i s o d e . T h e p r o t o c o l s o f e a c h i n t e r v e n t i o n m e t h o d u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c a n d c o n g r u e n t f e e d b a c k t o t h e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s i n v o l v e d . A l t h o u g h no b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e s o c c u r e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h o s e a t t e m p t s , e a c h i n t e r v e n t i o n d i d draw s e v e r a l p o s i t i v e comments f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . S i m and S t e w a r t (1984) n o t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s who were p r o v i d e d w i t h v i d e o t a p e d p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k t h o u g h t t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n was h e l p i n g them t o i m p r o v e t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n . I t was p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o c r e a t i n g v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l a w a r e n e s s , t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a l s o p r o v i d e d t h e n o v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s w i t h some m o t i v a t i o n t o c h a n g e o r i m p r o v e t h e i r t e a c h i n g . In t h e r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d a f t e r t h e f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y ( A p p e n d i x G ) , a l l r e s p o n d e n t s o f b o t h t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p a n d t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n h a d b e e n 91 b e n e f i c i a l i n h e l p i n g them t o become more a w a r e o f t h e f e e d b a c k t h e y u s e d w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s . O n l y one o f f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p f e l t t h a t t h e l i m i t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n h a d made them more aware o f t h e f e e d b a c k t h a t t h e y g a v e t o s t u d e n t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e members o f t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p f e l t u n a n i m o u s l y t h a t t h e h a n d - s c o r e d p r o f i l e s w e r e t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f t h e i r i n c r e a s e d f e e d b a c k a w a r e n e s s . T h e r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e v i d e o t a p e d f e e d b a c k was t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r t h e i r i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s on two o f f i v e o f t h e r e p l i e s w h i l e t h e t w o - p a g e f e e d b a c k h a n d o u t was s e e n a s m o s t b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s . T h e l o n e r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p a l s o i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e t w o - p a g e f e e d b a c k h a n d o u t . A g a i n , i t was f e l t by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h a t an o v e r l o a d o f i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e v i d e o t a p e s o u r c e . T h i s a b u n d a n c e o f s e e m i n g l y p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e V i d e o t a p e g r o u p t o s t a y f o c u s e d on t h e t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o r s . T h o s e who d i d manage t o s t a y o n - t a s k , c r e d i t e d t h e h a n d o u t f o r h e l p i n g t h e m . T h i s was b o r n o u t i n t h e r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n #3 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F o u r o f t h e f i v e r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e y h a d c h a n g e d f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s w h i c h were s p e c i f i c t o t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y . O n l y one o f f i v e a n d one o f f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e V i d o e t a p e g r o u p a n d t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p r e s p e c t i v e l y n o t e d t h a t t h e y h a d a l t e r e d s t u d y - t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o r s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r h e i g h t e n e d a w a r e n e s s . A l l o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m a l l g r o u p s f e l t t h a t t h e c h a n g e s t h e y had made i n t h e i r b e h a v i o r s ( f e e d b a c k o r o t h e r w i s e ) 92 r e n d e r e d t h e i r t e a c h i n g more e f f e c t i v e a n d i m p r o v e d t h e i r r a p p o r t w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s e l f - p e r c e i v e d c h a n g e s i n t h e b e h a v i o r s o f t h e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s w e r e n o t r e l i a b l y o r q u a n t i t a t i v e l y m e a s u r e d , t h e comments r e g a r d i n g t h e c h a n g e s h e l p e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e may be some m o t i v a t i o n a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s i n u s i n g t h e t y p e s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t e m s f i v e , s i x a n d s e v e n on t h e s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t t e m p t e d t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e s a n d n o r m s . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d t o g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . F r o m t h e 14 r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h o f t h e s e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s were n o t b o t h e r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , t h e c a m e r a o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e w i r e l e s s m i c r o p h o n e . T w e l v e o f t h e 14 r e s p o n d e n t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had " n o p r o b l e m " w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e s t u d y ; some e v e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t more c o m f o r t a b l e h a v i n g t h e c a m e r a a n d r e s e a r c h e r i n t h e g y m n a s i u m w h i l e t h e y t a u g h t . The f i n a l q u e s t i o n a s k e d f o r t h e t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f how t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a f f e c t e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . E l e v e n o f t h e 13 r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s i t e m i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s ( o t h e r t h a n some i n i t i a l c u r i o u s i t y ) o n t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h u s , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e a p p a r a t u s a n d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o t o c o l s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y were a c c e p t a b l e means t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I t was r e a l i z e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f v i d e o t a p i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s were o f a d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t y t h a n t h o s e f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r / s u p e r v i s o r . T i m e was an e l e m e n t t h a t was i m p l i e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a g e n d a a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s . L i m i t e d s p a c e , a b s e n c e o f e l e c t r i c a l power o u t l e t s , a n d w i d e r a n g e s o f t e a c h e r movement w i t h i n s i n g l e c l a s s p e r i o d s were a l l f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d t o c o n s i d e r e a c h t i m e a n o b s e r v a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t . In s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e t h e r e was l i m i t e d s p a c e , o u t s i d e p l a y i n g f i e l d s , no e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s ( f o r t h e w i r e l e s s m i c r o p h o n e ) , l i m i t e d t i m e f o r s e t - u p o r t e a r - d o w n , o r w h e r e t h e c a m e r a o p e r a t o r h a d t o o c c a s i o n a l l y be p r o t e c t e d f r o m b a l l s and o t h e r e q u i p m e n t , t h e u s e o f v i d e o t a p i n g a s a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s o u r c e may n o t h a v e b e e n t h e b e s t m e t h o d a v a i l a b l e . A s R o t h s t e i n (1980) p o i n t e d o u t , i f r e s u l t s o f some v a r i e t y a r e n o t f o r t h c o m i n g t h r o u g h t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f v i d e o t a p i n g i t s c o n t i n u e d u t i l i z a t i o n may be c o n t r a i n d i c a t e d by t h e n e g a t i v e t i m e a n d c o n v e n i e n c e i m p l i c a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s u b j e c t r e s p o n s e s w e r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t o f t h e b u r g e o n i n g f i l m a n d s o u n d t e c h n o l o g y made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c i n t h e l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s . H o w e v e r , t h e y w e r e s u r p r i s i n g b e c a u s e t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d norms o f p r i v a c y e x i s t i n g i n t h e c u l t u r e o f s c h o o l s , s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s w e r e b e c o m i n g more a n d more w i l l i n g t o o p e n t h e i r d o o r s t o s u p e r v i s o r s who u s e t h i s t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s p o i n t was a n o t h e r p r a c t i c a l f i n d i n g e m e r g i n g f r o m t h i s s t u d y . I t was f e l t t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c u m b e r s o m e n e s s o f s e t t i n g u p a n d t e a r i n g down v i d e o and s o u n d e q u i p m e n t , t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a p p r e c i a t e d i t s p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s a n d were n o t w o r r i e d by i t s p r e s e n c e . I t w o u l d 94 p e r h a p s be w i s e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s t o k e e p t h i s p o i n t i n m i n d when t h e y l o o k f o r m e t h o d s o f c o l l e c t i n g r e l i a b l e o r p e r m a n e n t d a t a i n f u t u r e t e a c h i n g s t u d i e s . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h I n r e t r o s p e c t , s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s e m e r g e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y w h i c h h a v e l e d t o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , s m a l l g r o u p s i z e s may h a v e c a u s e d some p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . In t h e f u t u r e a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t may be e n h a n c e d by i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f s u b j e c t s w i t h i n e a c h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . A s one r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t o b s e r v e many more t h a n 18 s u b j e c t s a n d do an e f f e c t i v e j o b , i t i s recommended t h a t a s i m i l a r s t u d y u s e no more t h a n 15 s u b j e c t s p e r o b s e r v e r . T h i s r a t i o w o u l d a l l o w t h e o b s e r v e r t o s e e a l l s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t w i c e i n t h r e e s c h o o l weeks i f t h e r e were two v i s i t s p e r d a y . T h i s w o u l d be a f e a s i b l e t i m e f r a m e i f t h e s c h o o l s t o be v i s i t e d were i n t h e same o r a d j a c e n t d i s t r i c t s . T i m e a n d s u p e r v i s o r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s p r o b l e m s a r i s e when r e s e a r c h e r / s u p e r v i s o r s s p e n d more t i m e t r a v e l l i n g t h a n t h e y do i n c o n f e r e n c i n g w i t h t h e i r p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s . O b s e r v a t i o n t i m e i s m e a n i n g l e s s w i t h o u t t h e e x t r a t i m e r e q u i r e d t o d i s c u s s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . T h i s t i m e c a n s e l d o m be f o u n d when s c h e d u l i n g b e c o m e s i n f l e x i b l e . In e s s e n c e , t h e b e s t means f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f s u b j e c t s p e r g r o u p w i t h o u t a l s o i n c r e a s i n g t h e t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s a n d t h u s t h e t i m e i m p l i c a t i o n s w o u l d be t o d e c r e a s e t h e number o f g r o u p s f r o m t h r e e t o t w o . T h e r e a r e p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s i m p l i e d i n 95 t h i s s u g g e s t e d t a c t i c . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y w o u l d become much s i m p l e r s o t h a t f i n d i n g s c o u l d be more e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d . The d e s i g n w o u l d a l s o become more t o l e r a n t o f s u b j e c t m o r t a l i t y a s t h e r e w o u l d be l a r g e r g r o u p s i z e s . T h e a n a l y s i s o f q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a w o u l d become l e s s t i m e - c o n s u m i n g b e c a u s e o f d e c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y i n t h e MANOVA o u t p u t d a t a . In summary , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t g r o u p s i z e s be i n c r e a s e d by d e c r e a s i n g t h e number o f g r o u p s t h u s k e e p i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a s m a n a g e a b l e a s p o s s i b l e a n d s o t h a t t h e r e s u l t s c o u l d be e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y was t h e e x t r e m e v a r i a b i l i t y i n o u t c o m e s c o r e s due t o t h e w i d e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t by t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s v a r i a b i l i t y c a u s e d t h e o c c u r e n c e o f r a t h e r l a r g e e r r o r t e r m s i n t h e MANOVA a n d t h u s d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l m e t h o d s w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o d e c r e a s e t h i s w i t h i n s u b j e c t s and w i t h i n g r o u p s v a r i a b i l i t y i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . I n i t i a l l y , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e p l a y s a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h e w i t h i n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y t h a n do t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r i n g a s a r e s u l t o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s be o b s e r v e d w i t h i n a s h o r t e r t i m e f r a m e s u c h t h a t a l l s e s s i o n s o b s e r v e t h e same p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y f o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . I t w o u l d be more b e n e f i c i a l t o o b s e r v e two s u b j e c t s f r o m e a c h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p f o r a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Once c o m p l e t e d , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f two more s u b j e c t s f r o m e a c h g r o u p c o u l d b e g i n . T h i s p r o c e d u r e w o u l d n o t t a k e a n y l o n g e r t h a n a p r o c e d u r e i n w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r o b s e r v e s a l l members o f a l l g r o u p s f o r a f i r s t s e s s i o n p r i o r t o o b s e r v i n g a l l members o f a l l g r o u p s f o r a s e c o n d t i m e . As c a n be s e e n by t h e t i m e d i s c r e p a n c i e s shown i n A p p e n d i x I, t h i s p r a c t i c e l e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r v i s i t i n g t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g u n i t s a n d t h u s , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e m e t h o d f o r a d d r e s s i n g t h e w i t h i n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y s e e n i n t h i s s t u d y a n d s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , w h e r e i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l be a b l e t o a l t e r t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e i r l e s s o n s , i s t o somehow e q u a t e t h e v a r i o u s c o n t e n t a r e a s by means o f a w e i g h t i n g s y s t e m . T a b l e 14 h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f a c t i v i t y b e i n g t a u g h t by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r . T h e numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n d i c a t e t h e number o f l e s s o n s o b s e r v e d i n t h a t a c t i v i t y . S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s h a v e n o t b e e n c a l c u l a t e d , b u t , a s s u m i n g t h a t s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d be made t o d e c r e a s e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d r e f l e c t t y p i c a l c l a s s e s i n e a c h o f t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s . I f t h e v a l u e s g i v e n were t h e n u s e d t o d e v e l o p a p a r i t y s y s t e m w h e r e t h e f e e d b a c k g i v e n i n a g y m n a s t i c s c l a s s c o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h a n u m e r i c a l f a c t o r t o t h u s e q u a t e i t w i t h t h e f e e d b a c k g i v e n i n a s o c i a l d a n c e c l a s s , t h e n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n c o n t e n t w o u l d no l o n g e r be a l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . 97 T A B L E 14 A C T I V I T Y W T . T R A I N . (11) CPR T R N . (4) GYMNSTCS (5) B S K T B A L L (7) NET GAMES (7) FOLK DNCE (8) MINR GMES (4) FEEDBACK FREQUENCIES AND RATIOS AS A FUNCTION OF A C T I V I T Y CONTENT IN P H Y S I C A L EDUCATION L E S S O N S . #FBs /MIN 1 .32 1 .24 1 .27 1 .51 1 .23 0 . 9 2 1 .19 ;POS %POS-CORR 3 4 . 6 7 1 3 . 3 2 5 0 . 9 0 4 6 . 3 6 4 1 . 4 4 4 0 . 6 3 3 4 . 6 4 1 3 . 4 1 2 . 1 7 1 3 . 2 4 8 . 3 5 6 . 1 0 4 . 4 5 3 . 6 5 A C T I V I T Y W T . T R A I N . (11) CPR T R N . (4) GYMNSTCS ( 5 ) B S K T B A L L (7) NET GAMES (7) FOLK DNCE (8) MINR GMES (4) #FBs /M IN 1 .32 1 .24 1 .27 1 .51 1 .23 0 .92 1 . 1 9 >SPEC/CNGRNT 2 7 . 2 8 3 9 . 2 8 1 0 . 4 0 1 2 . 8 6 1 6 . 4 9 2 2 . 1 8 1 0 . 2 0 %CNGRNT 5 8 . 2 3 7 6 . 8 8 5 8 . 8 2 5 7 . 8 0 5 8 . 3 4 6 4 . 3 5 3 8 . 8 8 . S P E C I F I C 5 5 . 7 2 5 7 . 7 5 4 1 . 6 8 3 2 . 4 1 3 6 . 9 1 4 3 . 7 4 2 2 . 9 3 ; P O S / S P E C / C N G R N T 1 5 . 9 5 2 4 . 6 5 2 . 6 4 4 . 4 9 5 . 0 3 3 . 6 5 0 . 0 0 I t may be p o s s i b l e i n t h e f u t u r e t o d e c r e a s e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s by s t a n d a r d i z i n g t h e c o n t e n t t a u g h t by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , l e s s o n p l a n s w r i t t e n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d be g i v e n t o e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s . T h e s e l e s s o n s w o u l d become t h e c o n t e n t f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d i n s i s t on h a v i n g some a u t h o r i t y t o f i t t h e s e l e s s o n p l a n s i n t o p r e - s e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h i n g u n i t . T h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h 98 c a u t i o n h o w e v e r , a s t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s u a l l y h a s l i t t l e o r no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f c o n t e n t t o s t u d e n t s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o h a s l i t t l e t o s a y a b o u t t h e t i m i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t . One must remember t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e n o t c a r r i e d o n w i t h i n c l o s e d l a b o r a t o r i e s b u t r a t h e r w i t h i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . I t may e a s i l y be t h e p u b l i c ' s c h o i c e n o t t o a l l o w r e s e a r c h t o be c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l ' s i f c e r t a i n r h y t h m s a n d r o u t i n e s a r e j e o p a r d i z e d . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d be c a r e f u l n o t t o o v e r s t e p h i s / h e r b o u n d s , b u t s i m p l y t r y t o c o n t r o l what h e / s h e c a n r i g h t f u l l y c o n t r o l . P e r h a p s t h e r e was some m e r i t t o t h e i d e a s p r o p o s e d by D e l Rey (1971) i n t h a t , c l o s e d s k i l l s a n d o p e n s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t m o d a l i t i e s o f f e e d b a c k i n o r d e r f o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h o s e s k i l l s t o t a k e p l a c e . A s was s u g g e s t e d p r e v i o u s l y , s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be an o p e n s k i l l . D e l Rey (1971) s t a t e d t h a t t h e e n h a n c e m e n t o f t h e l e a r n i n g o f o p e n s k i l l s c o u l d t a k e p l a c e by d e l i v e r i n g k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s t o t h e s t u d e n t ( t e a c h e r ) . T h e a u t h o r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t v i d e o t a p e d f e e d b a c k was p e r h a p s n o t i n d i c a t e d i n r e l a y i n g k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s f e e d b a c k a n d w o u l d t h e r e f o r e , n o t be a s e f f e c t i v e a s a p r o f i l i n g m o d a l i t y w h i c h d i d d i s p l a y s u c h r e s u l t s o f p e r f o r m a n c e e x c l u c s i v e l y . D e l R e y ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s s e r v e d a s a l e g i t i m a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n when i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s m a l l q u a n t i t a t i v e c h a n g e s i n f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s n o t e d i n t h e r e s u l t s . The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s ' a p p a r e n t p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e p r o f i l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y m i g h t a l s o be e x p l a i n e d by t h e n o t i o n o f o p e n / c l o s e d s k i l l i m p r o v e m e n t a s a f u n c t i o n o f f e e d b a c k m o d a l i t y . I t was a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s w e r e c a p a b l e o f g e n e r a t i n g t h e i r own h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s a s M o o r e , S c h a u t a n d F r i t z g e s (1978) s u g g e s t e d was p o s s i b l e . T h e s e t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d no c o a c h i n g on t h e s t r a t e g i e s r e q u i r e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s - o n l y d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r p r e s e n t b e h a v i o r s a n d g o a l s r e g a r d i n g i d e a l b e h a v i o r s . F r o m t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i t was a s s u m e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a w a r e n e s s l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s w o u l d be a b l e t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own m o s t s u i t a b l e s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e f e e d b a c k p r i n c i p l e s . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s d i d h a p p e n t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . The s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r o f i l e g r o u p showed some p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s t h a t were n o t e v i d e n t i n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s a n d s i m i l a r l y made comments r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f t a r g e t e d f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s t h a t t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s d i d n o t . When t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e e x a m i n e d a n d t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l i s a l s o t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e r e l a t i v e u n o b t r u s i v e n e s s o f c o m p u t e r a s s i s t e d f e e d b a c k p r o f i l i n g u s i n g t h e C T F A P S - P E i n s t r u m e n t a p p e a r s a s an a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o o t h e r m e t h o d s . A l t h o u g h v i d e o t a p i n g was n o t s e e n by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a s t h r e a t e n i n g , i t was s e e n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s i n g t h e e q u i p m e n t a s much more o f an i n c o n v e n i e n c e t h a n t h e p r o f i l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y o r s i m p l e o b s e r v a t i o n a n d a n e c d o t a l r e c o r d i n g . T h e p r i v a c y a n d a u t o n o m y o f t h e s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r , a l t h o u g h n o t p e r c e i v e d by t h e s u b j e c t s a s h a v i n g b e e n v i o l a t e d , w o u l d be e v e n l e s s d i s t u r b e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o f i l i n g . I t m i g h t be a d d e d t h a t t h e r e p o r t i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a f t e r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n s was a l s o 100 f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e p r o f i l i n g i n s t r u m e n t . No e x t r a e q u i p m e n t was n e e d e d t o r e l a y i n f o r m a t i o n . A s w e l l , t h e t i m e s p e n t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r was a l m o s t e n t i r e l y d e v o t e d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e v i d e o t a p e m e t h o d o l o g y demanded t h a t some o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e t i m e be s p e n t w o r k i n g w i t h e q u i p m e n t , e s t a b l i s h i n g a t t e n t i o n c u e s a n d s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e d a t a f r o m t h e s e g m e n t s o f t h e v i d e o t a p e v i e w e d . When one c o n s i d e r s t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s o f s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s who h a v e t h e i r own t e a c h i n g , c o a c h i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s , t h e a d v o c a t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l l y c o m p a t i b l e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t seems a p p r o p r i a t e . In a d d i t i o n , s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t may be b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y a d v i s o r who must s p e n d c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e t r a v e l l i n g f r o m s c h o o l t o s c h o o l a n d who may n o t h a v e t h e t i m e o r f a c i l i t i e s t o u s e a v i d e o t a p i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s As m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d when f o r m u l a t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n a s k e d w h i c h o f t h e f e e d b a c k m e t h o d o l o g i e s u s e d was t h e m o s t e f f i c a c i o u s . A s t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s d i d n o t p r o d u c e a n d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , one m i g h t j u s t l y c o n c l u d e t h a t a l l m e t h o d s were o f e q u a l v a l u e . H o w e v e r , a f t e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s i t was e v i d e n t t h a t b o t h v i d e o t a p i n g a n d p r o f i l i n g p r o d u c e d i n c r e a s e s i n p o s i t i v e t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s w h i c h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l means d i d n o t . Q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a l s o showed t h a t s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s h a d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e v i d e o t a p e d a n d p r o f i l e d 101 f e e d b a c k m e t h o d o l o g i e s . I f t h e u n c o n t r o l l a b l e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a l s o t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n one must be v e r y c a u t i o u s a b o u t r e j e c t i n g e i t h e r t h e p r o f i l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y o r t h e v i d e o t a p i n g m e t h o d o l o g y o n t h e b a s i s t h a t n e i t h e r was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n a m e t h o d p r o f e s s e d t o be i n e f f e c t i v e a n d i n n e e d o f i m p r o v e m e n t s . T h i s s t u d y h a s p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s m e t h o d s o f d e l i v e r i n g f e e d b a c k t o s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s a n d a l s o i m p r o v i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i d e n t i f y a m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h a c c u r a t e , w e l l -f o c u s e d p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k a n d m i n i m a l c u l t u r a l i n t r u s i o n s s u c h t h a t an i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s was e f f i c i e n t l y c r e a t e d . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a p r o f i l e d f e e d b a c k m e t h o d o l o g y was a s e f f e c t i v e a s v i d e o d t a p e d f e e d b a c k m e t h o d s and c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t h o d s and s h o u l d be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d a s a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . 102 R E F E R E N C E S A b e l , F . J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . E n h a n c i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t o r s . H o u s t o n , T X , F e b r u a r y 1 5 -1 8 , 1 9 8 7 . A c h e s o n , K. A . & G a l l , M. D. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . T e c h n i q u e s i n t h e C l i n i c a l  S u p e r v i s i o n o f T e a c h e r s : P r e s e r v i c e a n d I n s e r v i c e  A p p l i c a t i o n s . New Y o r k : Longman I n c . A t i e n z a , L . J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . VTR W o r k s h o p : S m a l l F o r m a t V i d e o . S w i t z e r l a n d : UNESCO. B a r r e t t , K. R . , A l l i s o n , P . C . & B e l l , R. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . What p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s s e e i n a u n g u i d e d f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e : A f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 7 ( 1 ) , 1 2 - 2 1 . B a t e s k y , J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . I n c r e a s i n g t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s u s i n g t h e H u n t e r l e s s o n d e s i g n . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ,  R e c r e a t i o n a n d D a n c e , 5 8 ( 7 ) , 8 9 - 9 3 . B e l l , R . , B a r r e t t , K. R. & A l l i s o n , P . C . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . What p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s s e e i n an u n g u i d e d , e a r l y f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 , 8 1 - 9 0 . B r o p h y , J . E . ( 1 9 8 1 a ) . T e a c h e r p r a i s e : A f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 5 1 ( 1 ) , 5 - 3 2 . B r o p h y , J . E . ( 1 9 8 1 b ) . On p r a i s i n g e f f e c t i v e l y . T h e E l e m e n t a r y  S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 8 1 , 2 6 9 - 2 7 8 . B u l l o u g h , R. V . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . A c c o m o d a t i o n a n d t e n s i o n : T e a c h e r s , t e a c h e r r o l e and t h e c u l t u r e o f t e a c h i n g . In J . Smyth ( E d . ) . E d u c a t i n g T e a c h e r s : C h a n g i n g t h e N a t u r e o f P e d a g o g i c a l  K n o w l e d g e . New Y o r k : F a l m e r P r e s s . C a m e r o n , W. A . & C o t r e l l , C . J . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Remote f e e d b a c k t e c h n i q u e s f o r i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . E R I C S e a r c h S e r v i c e s . C a r l s o n , B . R. & M c K e n z i e , T . L . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . C o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y f o r r e c o r d i n g , s t o r i n g , a n d a n a l y z i n g t e m p o r a l d a t a i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y s e t t i n g s . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 , 2 4 - 2 9 . C h a n c e , C . & K r a j e w s k i , B . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . V i d e o t a p i n g : A s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t t e c h n i q u e f o r p r e s e r v i c e a n d i n s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s . ER IC S e a r c h S e r v i c e s . 103 C h e f f e r s , J . T . F . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C h e f f e r ' s a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e F l a n d e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s s y s t e m ( C A F I A S ) . In P . W. D a r s t , V . H . M a n c i n i & D. B . Z a k r a j s e k . S y s t e m a t i c O b s e r v a t i o n  I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . West P o i n t , NY: L e i s u r e P r e s s . C o l e , J . L . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . F o l l o w - u p i n t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , R e c r e a t i o n a n d D a n c e , J u n e , 5 9 - 6 0 , 6 3 . C o x , R. L . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g s p o r t . I n M. P i e r o n a n d G . G r a h a m ( E d s . ) . S p o r t P e d a g o g y . C h a m p a i g n , I L : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . C u b a n , L . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P e r s i s t e n t i n s t r u c t i o n : T h e h i g h - s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m 1900 - 1 9 8 0 . P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , O c t o b e r , 1 1 3 - 1 1 8 . C u s i m a n o , B . E . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E f f e c t s o f s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t a n d g o a l s e t t i n g on v e r b a l b e h a v i o r o f e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 6 , 166 - 1 7 3 . D a r s t , P . W. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . E f f e c t s o f c o m p e t e n c y - b a s e d i n t e r v e n t i o n on s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r a n d p u p i l b e h a v i o r . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 4 7 ( 3 ) , 336 - 3 4 5 . D a r s t , P . W . , M a n c i n i , V . H . & Z a k r a j s e k , D. B . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S y s t e m a t i c O b s e r v a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . West P o i n t , NY: L e i s u r e P r e s s . D a r s t , P . W . , Z a k r a j s e k , D. B . & M a n c i n i , V . H . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . A n a l y z i n g  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d S p o r t I n s t r u c t i o n . C h a m p a i g n , I L : Human K i n e t i c s B o o k s . D e l R e y , P . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A p p r o p r i a t e f e e d b a c k f o r o p e n and c l o s e d s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . Q u e s t , 4 2 - 4 5 . D u n b a r , R. R. & O ' S u l l i v a n , M. M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . E f f e c t s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n o n d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f b o y s a n d g i r l s i n e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , 5 , 1 6 6 - 1 7 5 . F i g l e y , G . E . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . D e t e r m i n a n t s o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 ( 4 ) , 2 2 9 - 2 4 0 . F r a n k s , I. M . , J o h n s o n , R. B . & S i n c l a i r , G . D. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o m p u t e r i z e d c o a c h i n g a n a l y s i s s y s t e m f o r r e c o r d i n g b e h a v i o r i n s p o r t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . J o u r n a l o f  T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 1 ) , 2 3 - 3 2 . F r e i b e r g , H . J . & Waxman, H . C . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . A l t e r n a t i v e f e e d b a c k a p p r o a c h e s f o r i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , 3 9 ( 4 ) , 8 - 1 4 . 104 F r e n c h , R . , L a v a y , B . & H e n d e r s o n , H . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T a k e a l a p . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , W i n t e r , 1 8 0 - 1 8 5 . F u l l a n , M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The M e a n i n g o f E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : O I S E P r e s s . G a n g s t e a d , S . K. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r : An a p p l i e d b e h a v i o r a n a l y s i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e N o r t h e r n R o c k y M o u n t a i n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n . J a c k s o n H o l e , WY, O c t o b e r 1 3 - 1 5 . G r a n t , B . C , B a l l a r d , K. D. & G l y n n , T . L . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . T e a c h e r f e e d b a c k i n t e r v e n t i o n , m o t o r - o n - t a s k b e h a v i o r , a n d s u c c e s s f u l t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 9 , 123 - 1 3 9 . G o d b o u t , P . , B r u n e l l e , J . & T o u s i g n a n t , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A c a d e m i c l e a r n i n g t i m e i n e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y f o r E x e r c i s e a n d S p o r t , 5 4 ( 1 ) , 1 1 - 1 9 . G o l d b e r g e r , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . D i r e c t s t y l e s o f t e a c h i n g a n d p s y c h o m o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e . In T . J . T e m p l i n a n d J . K. O l s o n ( E d s . ) . T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n • C h a m p a i g n I L : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . G o l d b e r g e r , M. & G e r n e y , P . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . T h e e f f e c t s o f d i r e c t t e a c h i n g s t y l e s on m o t o r s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n o f f i f t h g r a d e c h i l d r e n . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y f o r E x e r c i s e a n d S p o r t , 5 7 ( 3 ) , 2 1 5 - 2 1 9 . G o o d l a d , J . I. ( 1 9 8 3 a ) . A s t u d y o f s c h o o l i n g : Some f i n d i n g s and h y p o t h e s e s . P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , M a r c h , 4 6 5 - 4 7 0 . G o o d l a d , J . ' I . ( 1 9 8 3 b ) . A s t u d y o f s c h o o l i n g : Some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s c h o o l i m p r o v e m e n t . P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , A p r i l , 5 5 2 - 5 5 8 . G r i f f i n , P . S . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . " G y m n a s t i c s i s a g i r l ' s t h i n g " : S t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s i n a m i d d l e s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s u n i t . I n T . J . T e m p l i n a n d J . K. O l s o n ( E d s . ) . T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . C h a m p a i g n , I L : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . G r i f f i n , P . S . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . B o y ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t y l e s i n a m i d d l e s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a m s p o r t s u n i t . J o u r n a l o f  T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 , 1 0 0 - 1 1 0 . H a i l , G . E . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . C o m p u t e r p r o c e s s i n g a n d f e e d b a c k o f i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s d a t a f o r t e a c h e r s . J o u r n a l o f C l a s s r o o m  I n t e r a c t i o n , 1 3 ( 2 ) , 3 2 - 3 7 . 105 H a l l , H . K . , W e i n b e r g , R. S . & J a c k s o n , A . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E f f e c t s o f g o a l s p e c i f i c i t y , g o a l d i f f i c u l t y a n d i n f o r m a t i o n f e e d b a c k on e n d u r a n c e p e r f o r m a n c e . J o u r n a l o f S p o r t P s y c h o l o g y , 9 ( 1 ) , 4 3 - 5 4 . H a r g r e a v e s , A . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y a n d t h e c u l t u r e o f t e a c h i n g . In G . M i l b u r n , I. G o o d s o n & R. C l a r k ( E d s . ) . R e - I n t e r p r e t i n g C u r r i c u l u m R e s e a r c h : Images a n d A r g u m e n t s . L o n d o n , O n t a r i o : H i t h o u s e P r e s s . H u n t e r , M. C . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . M a s t e r y T e a c h i n g . E l S e g u n d o , C A : T I P P u b l i c a t i o n s . H u n t e r , M. C . & R u s s e l l , D. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . How c a n I p l a n more e f f e c t i v e l e s s o n s ? M a d e l i n e H u n t e r S p e a k s t o B . C . T e a c h e r s . V i c t o r i a , B . C : U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n . H a w k i n s , A . , W e i g a n d , R. L . & L a n d i n , D . K. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C a t a l o g u i n g t h e c o l l e c t i v e w i s d o m o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s . J o u r n a l o f  T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 ( 4 ) , 2 4 1 - 2 5 5 . H u b e r t y , C . J . & M o r r i s , J . D. ( 1 9 8 9 ) . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s v e r s u s m u l t i p l e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u i l e t i n , 1 0 5 ( 2 ) , 3 0 2 - 3 0 8 . I m w o l d , C . H . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . D e v e l o p i n g f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h a t e a c h - r e t e a c h c y c l e . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , 4 1 ( 2 ) , 7 2 - 7 6 . J o h n s o n , R. B . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . D e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a c o m p u t e r i z e d c o a c h a n a l y s i s i n s t r u m e n t . M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d R e c r e a t i o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L i e b e r m a n , A . & M i l l e r , L . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . T e a c h e r s , T h e i r W o r l d a n d  T h e i r W o r k . A l e x a n d r i a , V A : A S C D . L i n d , P . R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f f o u r r a t i n g s y s t e m s f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s . In B . L . Howe a n d J . J . J a c k s o n , T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s R e s e a r c h . U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . 6 0 - 6 7 . L o c k e , L . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . R T E : A r e v i e w o f t h e r e v i e w s . J o u r n a l o f  T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , M o n o g r a p h 2, 4 5 - 5 2 . L o r t i e , D. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . S c h o o l T e a c h e r : A S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d y . C h i c a g o , I L : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . L o u c k s , S . F . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A t l a s t : Some g o o d news f r o m a s t u d y o f s c h o o l i m p r o v e m e n t . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 4 1 ( 3 ) , 4 - 5 . L u k e , M. D. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . U s i n g m i c r o c o m p u t e r s f o r an o n - s i t e a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . CAHPER  J o u r n a l , M a r c h - A p r i l , 1 7 - 2 0 . 106 L u k e , M. D. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . A n a l y s i s o f c l a s s management i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . CAHPER J o u r n a l , M a y / J u n e , 1 0 - 1 3 . L u k e , M. D. ( 1 9 8 9 ) . R e s e a r c h o n c l a s s management and o r g a n i z a t i o n : R e v i e w w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . Q u e s t , 4 1 , 5 5 - 6 7 . M a g i l l , R. A . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . M o t o r L e a r n i n g : C o n c e p t s a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s . D u b u q u e , I A : Wm. C . Brown P u b l i s h e r s . M a n c i n i , V . H . , C l a r k , E . K. & W u e s t , D. A . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . S h o r t - and l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s o f s u p e r v i s o r y f e e d b a c k o n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f an i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e f i e l d h o c k e y c o a c h . J o u r n a l  o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 6 , 4 0 4 - 4 1 0 . M a n c i n i , V . H . , W u e s t , D. A . & v a n d e r M a r s , H . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Use o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n u n d e r g r a d u a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , 5 , 2 2 - 3 3 . M a r t i n , F . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I n c r e a s i n g p o s i t i v e t e a c h e r a c t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . ERIC S e a r c h S e r v i c e s . M a r t i n e k , T . J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C r e a t i n g G o l e m a n d G a l a t e a e f f e c t s d u r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n : A s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In T . J . T e m p l i n a n d J . K. O l s o n ( E d s . ) . T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . C h a m p a i g n I L : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . M a r t i n e k , T . J . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s : An a t t r i b u t i o n a l m o d e l f o r e x p l a i n i n g t e a c h e r e x p e c t a n c y e f f e c t s . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , 8 , 3 1 8 - 3 2 8 . M a r t i n e k , T . J . & B u t t , K. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . An a p p l i c a t i o n o f an a c t i o n r e s e a r c h m o d e l f o r c h a n g i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . J o u r n a l  o f T e a c h i n g In P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 7 , 2 1 4 - 2 2 0 . M c B r i d e , R. E . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . An i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f a s y s t e m a t i c t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g m o d e l i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 , 3 - 1 6 . M c K e a c h i e , W. J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e r o l e o f f a c u l t y e v a l u a t i o n i n e n h a n c i n g c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g . N a t i o n a l F o r u m : P h i K a p p a P h i  J o u r n a l , 6 3 ( 2 ) , 3 7 - 3 9 . M e t z l e r , M. W. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . U s i n g a c a d e m i c l e a r n i n g t i m e i n p r o c e s s -p r o d u c t s t u d i e s w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g u n i t s . In T . J . T e m p l i n a n d J . K. O l s o n ( E d s . ) . T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n . C h a m p a i g n , I L : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . M e t z l e r , M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . D e v e l o p i n g t e a c h i n g s k i l l s : A s y s t e m a t i c s e q u e n c e . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , R e c r e a t i o n a n d  D a n c e , J a n u a r y . 107 M o o r e , J . W . , S c h a u t , J . & F r i t z g e s , C . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f f e e d b a c k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h t o i n s t r u c t i o n on t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 7 0 ( 2 ) , 2 0 0 - 2 0 8 . M o r i t z , W. & M a r t i n - R e y n o l d s , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . S p l i t s c r e e n v i d e o -t a p i n g : t h e g e n i e i n t h e b o t t l e . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 3 7 ( 5 ) , 3 9 6 - 3 9 9 . M o s s t o n , M. & A s h w o r t h , S . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . T e a c h i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . C o l u m b u s , O h i o : M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g C o . O c a n s e y , R. T . A . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . I m p r o v i n g t h e e x p l i c i t n e s s o f v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o f u n i v e r s i t y s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n F o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n W o r l d C o n v e n t i o n . Q u e b e c , C a n a d a , J u n e 1 4 - 1 8 . O c a n s e y , R. T . A . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e e f f e c t s o f a b e h a v i o r a l m o d e l o f s u p e r v i s i o n on t h e s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r s o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 1 ) , 4 6 - 6 2 . O c a n s e y , R. T . A . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . A s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o o r g a n i z i n g d a t a g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g m o n i t o r i n g s e s s i o n s i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 4 ) , 3 1 2 - 3 1 7 . O ' N e i l l , G . P . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . T e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s : A r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 3 ( 1 ) , 1 6 2 - 1 8 5 . P a e s e , P . C . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e e f f e c t o f f e e d b a c k on a c a d e m i c l e a r n i n g t i m e ( P . E . m o t o r ) i n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s e s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n A l l i a n c e f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , R e c r e a t i o n a n d D a n c e . H o u s t o n T X , A p r i l 2 6 . P a e s e , P . C . ( 1 9 8 4 a ) . T h e e f f e c t s o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d a s e l f a s s e s s m e n t t e c h n i q u e on t h e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . J o u r n a l o f  T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 3 ( 2 ) , 5 1 - 5 8 . P a e s e , P . C . ( 1 9 8 4 b ) . S t u d e n t t e a c h i n g s u p e r v i s i o n : Where we a r e a n d w h e r e we s h o u l d b e . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , 4 1 ( 2 ) , 9 0 - 9 4 . P a e s e , P . C . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . A n a l y z i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n s a n d t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r e s e r v i c e i n t e r n s . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , 4 4 ( 3 ) , F a l l , 3 4 9 - 3 5 4 . P e n m a n , K. A . , B a r t z , D. & D a v i s , R. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . R e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an i n s t a n t r e p l a y v i d e o t a p e r e c o r d e r i n t e a c h i n g t r a m p o l i n e . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 3 9 ( 4 ) , 1 0 6 0 - 1 0 6 2 . 108 P e r l b e r g , A . & O ' B r y a n t , D . C . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e u s e o f v i d e o - t a p e r e c o r d i n g a n d m i c r o - t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o i m p r o v e i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n l e v e l . ERIC S e a r c h S e r v i c e s . P l a c e k , J . K. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o n c e p t i o n s o f s u c c e s s i n t e a c h i n g : B u s y , h a p p y a n d g o o d . In T . J . T e m p l i n a n d J . K. O l s o n ( E d s . ) . T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . C h a m p a i g n I L : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . P l a c e k , J , K. & L o c k e , L . F . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . R e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n : New k n o w l e d g e a n d c a u t i o u s o p t i m i s m . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 3 7 ( 4 ) . R a n d a l l , L . E . & I m w o l d , C . H . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . T h e e f f e c t o f an i n t e r v e n t i o n on a c a d e m i c l e a r n i n g t i m e p r o v i d e d by p r e -s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 , 2 7 1 - 2 7 9 . R i c k l i , R. & S m i t h , G . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . V i d e o t a p e f e e d b a c k e f f e c t s on t e n n i s s e r v i n g f o r m . P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r S k i l l s , 5 0 , 8 9 5 -9 0 1 . R i f e , F . , S h u t e , S . & D o d d s , P . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A L T - P E v e r s i o n s I a n d I I : E v a l u a t i o n o f a s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , 4 , 1 3 4 - 1 4 2 . R i k a r d , G . L . ( 1 9 9 1 ) . T h e s h o r t t e r m r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e a c h e r f e e d b a c k and s t u d e n t p r a c t i c e . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 0 , 2 7 5 - 2 8 5 . R i n k , J . E . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T e a c h i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n F o r L e a r n i n g . S t . L o u i s , MO: T i m e s M i r r o r / Mosby C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g . R o n k o w s k i , S . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . When t h e o b s e r v e d b e c o m e s t h e o b s e r v e r . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l * C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f S t a t e s on I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n . San D i e g o , C A . November 2 0 - 2 4 , 1 9 8 7 . R o s e n t h a l , R. a n d J a c o b s o n , L . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . P y g m a l i o n i n t h e  C l a s s r o o m . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n . R o t h s t e i n , A . L . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . E f f e c t i v e u s e o f v i d e o t a p e r e p l a y i n l e a r n i n g m o t o r s k i l l s . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d  R e c r e a t i o n , F e b r u a r y , 5 9 - 6 0 . R u s s e l l , T . L . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . What d o e s p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g t e a c h ? E d u c a t i o n C a n a d a , 1 9 ( 1 ) , 5 - 1 1 . S c h e m p p , P . G . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . B e c o m i n g a b e t t e r t e a c h e r : An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 4 , 1 5 8 - 1 6 6 . 109 S c h e m p p , P . G . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . What do y o u s a y t o a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ? J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , R e c r e a t i o n a n d D a n c e , F e b r u a r y , 2 2 - 2 4 . S c h w a g e r , S . M. & A n d e r s o n , W. G . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . In T . J . T e m p l i n a n d J . K. O l s o n ( E d s . ) . T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . C h a m p a i g n I L : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . S h a v e l s o n , R. J . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . S t a t i s t i c a l R e a s o n i n g F o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l  S c i e n c e s . B o s t o n : A l l y n a n d B a c o n I n c . S i e d e n t o p , D. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . D e v e l o p i n g T e a c h i n g S k i l I s In P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n . P a l o A l t o , C A : M a y f i e l d P u b l i s h i n g C o . S i e d e n t o p , D. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . D e v e l o p i n g T e a c h i n g S k i l I s I n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n . P a l o A l t o , C A : M a y f i e l d P u b l i s h i n g C o . S i e d e n t o p , D. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e g r e a t t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n l e g e n d . In P r o c e e d i n g s o f a C o n f e r e n c e on t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n  o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n T e a c h e r s . A t h e n s GA: T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a . S i e d e n t o p , D . , B i r d w e l l , D. & M e t z l e r , M. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h t o m e a s u r i n g t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e AAHPERD C o n v e n t i o n . New O r l e a n s , M a r c h , 1 9 7 9 . S i m , L . J . & S t e w a r t , C . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e e f f e c t s o f v i d e o t a p e f e e d b a c k on t h e s t a n d i n g b r o a d jump p e r f o r m a n c e s o f m i l d l y and m o d e r a t e l y m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d a d u l t s . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , 4 1 ( 4 ) , 2 1 - 2 9 . S i n c l a i r , G . D. ( 1 9 8 9 ) . F e e d b a c k a n a l y s i s p r o f i l e ( F A P ) . In P . W. D a r s t , D. B . Z a k r a j s e k & V . H . M a n c i n i . A n a l y z i n g P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n and S p o r t I n s t r u c t i o n . C h a m p a i g n , I L : Human K i n e t i c s B o o k s . S m i t h , R. E . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . P r i n c i p l e s o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t a n d p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k . In J . M. W i l l i a m s ( E d . ) . A p p l i e d S p o r t  P s y c h o l o g y . P a l o A l t o , C A : M a y f i e l d P u b l i s h i n g C o . S n y d e r , K. J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 3 8 ( 7 ) , 5 2 1 - 5 2 4 . T a g g a r t , A . C . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e s y s t e m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e a c h i n g s k i l l s : A s e q u e n c e o f p l a n n e d p e d a g o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 1 ) , 7 3 - 8 6 . T a n n e h i l l , D. & Z a k r a j s e k , D. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . W h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g i n s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n s e c o n d a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 1 ) , 1 - 1 2 . 110 T i n n i n g , R. I. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . S t u d e n t t e a c h i n g a n d t h e p e d a g o g y o f n e c e s s i t y . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 7 , 82 - 8 9 . T u c k m a n , B . W. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . F e e d b a c k a n d t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s . P h i D e l t a  K a p p a n , J a n u a r y , 3 4 1 - 3 4 4 . T u c k m a n , B . W. & Y a t e s , D . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . E v a l u a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t f e e d b a c k s t r a t e g y f o r c h a n g i n g t e a c h e r s t y l e . J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 7 4 ( 2 ) , N o v . / D e c , 7 4 - 7 7 . T y e , K. A . & T y e , B . B . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . T e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n and s c h o o l r e f o r m . P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , 6 5 ( 1 ) . v a n d e r M a r s , H . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e e f f e c t s o f a u d i o - c u e i n g on s e l e c t e d t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s o f an e x p e r i e n c e d e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 1 ) , 6 4 - 7 2 . W e r n e r , W. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . P r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e d t i m e . T h e A l b e r t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 3 4 ( 2 ) , J u n e , 9 0 - 1 0 8 . W e r n e r , P . & R i n k , J . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . C a s e s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s e c o n d g r a d e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f  T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 4 ) , 2 8 0 - 2 9 7 . W i l l i a m s o n , K. M . , O ' S u l l i v a n , M. M. & J a c k s o n , J . J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e e f f e c t s o f m o n i t o r i n g on t h e v e r b a l f e e d b a c k o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s . CAHPER J o u r n a l , S e p t . - O c t . , 8 - 1 3 . I l l APPENDIX A - THE COMPUTERIZED TEACHING FEEDBACK ANALYSIS P R O F I L E SYSTEM - P H Y S I C A L EDUCATION T h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s w e r e u s e d t o c r e a t e t h e c o m p u t e r i z e d f e e d b a c k p r o f i l i n g i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h e c o n c e p t o f f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r p r o f i l i n g was d i s c u s s e d by S i n c l a i r (1989) a s i t p e r t a i n e d t o c o a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s . T h e i d e a o f u s i n g a c o m p u t e r t o c o d e , s t o r e a n d a n a l y z e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s o f c o a c h e s h a s b e e n t h e f o c u s o f many s t u d i e s . H o w e v e r , t h e c o m p u t e r i z e d c o a c h i n g a n a l y s i s s y s t e m (CCAS) ( F r a n k s , J o h n s o n & S i n c l a i r , 1988) l e d t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . C T F A P S - P E was c e r t a i n l y n o t a s c o m p l e x a s CCAS o r a s d e t a i l e d a s FAP b u t b o t h m o d e l s a d d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r p r o f i l e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t o o k on t h e m e a n i n g o f t e a c h i n g o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h t e n d e d t o e n h a n c e s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e a n d a c h i e v e m e n t . E f f e c t i v e F e e d b a c k was deemed t o mean f e e d b a c k g i v e n t h a t r e s u l t s i n t h e i n t e n d e d g o a l o f i n s t r u c t i o n b e i n g r e a l i z e d . In t h e c a s e o f t e a c h i n g t h i s w o u l d t r a n s l a t e a s i m p r o v e m e n t s i n s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e r e was no e v a l u a t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k a c t u a l l y p r o d u c e s s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t - o n l y t h a t i t was d e l i v e r e d . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y , t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k were b r o a d l y g r o u p e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o r c o n t i n u u m s . A) N a t u r e o f f e e d b a c k - p o s i t i v e , c o r r e c t i v e , n e g a t i v e , c o m b i n a t i o n s B) C o n t e n t o f f e e d b a c k - s p e c i f i c , g e n e r a l C) C o n g r u e n c y o f f e e d b a c k - c o n g r u e n t , o f f - t a s k D) A r e n a i n w h i c h f e e d b a c k was g i v e n - g r o u p d i r e c t e d , i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c 112 T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s o r c o n t i n u u m s o f f e e d b a c k were d e f i n e d a n d d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e a n d / o r t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e c o m p o n e n t s . I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r p r o f i l e s c o n s i s t e d o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r w i t h a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e u s e o f t h e s e t y p e s . A . T h e N a t u r e o f F e e d b a c k P o s i t i v e F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983) was f e e d b a c k g i v e n by i n s t r u c t o r s c o n c e r n i n g t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t w e r e d o n e w e l l o r c o r r e c t l y . No m e n t i o n was made o f e r r o r o r l i m i t a t i o n s . I t was f e l t t h a t , i f a s t u d e n t was n o t t o l d what a s p e c t s o f a p e r f o r m a n c e h e / s h e was d o i n g c o r r e c t l y t h e n h e / s h e was v e r y l i k e l y t o c h a n g e t h a t a s p e c t - p e r h a p s t o an i n c o r r e c t a c t i o n . C o r r e c t i v e F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was i n t e n d e d t o p o i n t o u t a n d / o r c o r r e c t s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e e r r o r s . No m e n t i o n was made o f t h o s e a s p e c t s o f p e r f o r m a n c e d o n e c o r r e c t l y . The e n t i r e e m p h a s i s o f t h e comment was on i n c o r r e c t c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e a c t i o n a n d / o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h o s e a s p e c t s a n d / o r p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r c o r r e c t i o n . T h i s t y p e o f f e e d b a c k h a s b e e n shown t o be e f f e c t i v e w i t h c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s , b u t s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k . P o s i t i v e / C o r r e c t i v e F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983) was s i m p l y f e e d b a c k w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d b o t h t h e c o r r e c t a n d i n c o r r e c t e l e m e n t s o f a p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e same comment o r u t t e r a n c e . T h i s t y p e o f f e e d b a c k was c o n s i d e r e d t h e most e f f e c t i v e . N e g a t i v e / C o r r e c t i v e F e e d b a c k ( R i n k , 1985) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h was c o r r e c t i v e i n n a t u r e , a n d p e r h a p s i n t e n t , b u t was n a s t y , n a g g i n g o r d e m e a n i n g i n t o n e . T h e v a l u e o f t h i s t y p e o f f e e d b a c k had t o be q u e s t i o n e d a n d was p e r h a p s l i m i t e d a t b e s t . N e g a t i v e F e e d b a c k ( R i n k , 1985) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h was n a s t y , n a g g i n g o r d e m e a n i n g i n t o n e w h i l e c o n t a i n i n g no s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h may h a v e h e l p e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o i m p r o v e h i s / h e r p e r f o r m a n c e o r b e h a v i o r . N a m e - c a l l i n g a n d s w e a r i n g w o u l d be e x a m p l e s . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( S i e d e n t o p , 1 9 8 3 ; R i n k , 1985) h a v e i m p l i e d t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e was q u i t e i n e f f e c t i v e i n t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g a n d s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be a v o i d e d . B . T h e C o n t e n t o f F e e d b a c k S p e c i f i c F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1 9 8 3 ; R i n k , 1985) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h was q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d o b j e c t i v e . I t p r o v i d e d t h e r e c i p i e n t w i t h some u s e a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t m a i n t a i n i n g o r i m p r o v i n g h i s / h e r p e r f o r m a n c e . S p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y a n s w e r e d one o f , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 113 a) Why was t h e p e r f o r m a n c e g o o d ? ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) b) Why was t h e p e r f o r m a n c e n o t g o o d ? ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) c ) How c a n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s t a y g o o d ? ( p r e s c r i p t i v e ) d) How c a n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e be i m p r o v e d ? ( p r e s c r i p t i v e ) G e n e r a l F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1 9 8 3 ; R i n k , 1985) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h p r o v i d e d no u s e a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f p e r f o r m a n c e b u t r a t h e r was r e g a r d e d e d a s p r a i s e o r e n c o u r a g e m e n t ( o r i n a n e g a t i v e s e n s e - d i s c o u r a g e m e n t ) u s e d f o r m o t i v a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s o r p e r h a p s t o d e s i s t b e h a v i o r . A l t h o u g h g e n e r a l f e e d b a c k may h a v e i t s p l a c e , i t was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s e f f e c t i v e a s s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k i n c h a n g i n g p e r f o r m a n c e b e h a v i o r s a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . C . T h e C o n g r u e n c y o f F e e d b a c k C o n g r u e n t F e e d b a c k ( R i n k , 1985) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e a s p e c t o f t h e p e r f o r m e d t a s k on w h i c h h e / s h e was a s k e d t o f o c u s . In a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s , f e e d b a c k comments w h i c h r e l a t e d c l o s e l y t o t e a c h i n g p o i n t s m e n t i o n e d j u s t p r e v i o u s l y w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c o n g r u e n t . M o s t , i f n o t a l l , f e e d b a c k comments s h o u l d be c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e t a s k a n d i t s p e r f o r m a n c e . O f f - T a s k F e e d b a c k ( S i n c l a i r , 1989) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t d i d n o t r e l a t e t o t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e p e r f o r m e d t a s k on w h i c h h e / s h e was a s k e d t o f o c u s . O f f - t a s k f e e d b a c k was g e n e r a l l y n o t c o n s i d e r e d v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n c h a n g i n g p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e b e h a v i o r s a n d i t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a v o i d e d . D. T h e A r e n a i n W h i c h F e e d b a c k was D e l i v e r e d G r o u p - D i r e c t e d F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983) was f e e d b a c k w h i c h was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r an e n t i r e c l a s s o r s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s . I f t h e r e were l a r g e numbers o f s t u d e n t s i n a c l a s s , s u c h t h a t i n d i v i d u a l f e e d b a c k became i m p o s s i b l e f o r e v e r y o n e , g r o u p - d i r e c t e d f e e d b a c k may h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e . G r o u p - d i r e c t e d a l s o h a d o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s and s h o u l d , by no means be c o n s i d e r e d i n e f f e c t i v e . I n d i v i d u a l / P u b l i c F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983) was f e e d b a c k g i v e n t o an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t i n a s e t t i n g w h e r e o t h e r s c o u l d c l e a r l y h e a r t h e c o m m e n t s . F e e d b a c k w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n d i v i d u a l / p u b l i c i f t h e t e a c h e r comment was d i r e c t e d t o a s p e c i f i c s t u d e n t w o r k i n g w i t h a g r o u p o f two o r more s t u d e n t s o r d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f i n a c t i v i t y o r t e a c h e r t a l k s u c h t h a t " o v e r h e a r i n g " by o t h e r s was f a c i l i t a t e d . A t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l t h i s was n o t deemed t o be an e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ( R i n k , 1 9 8 5 ) . 114 I n d i v i d u a l / P r i v a t e F e e d b a c k ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983) was f e e d b a c k g i v e n t o an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t i n a s e t t i n g w h e r e o t h e r s c o u l d n o t o v e r h e a r t h e comments and a c c o r d i n g t o R i n k (1985) was m o s t e f f e c t i v e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . I n a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l / p r i v a t e f e e d b a c k was c a t e g o r i z e d a s s u c h when i t was g i v e n t o an i n d i v i d u a l w h i l e w o r k i n g w i t h one p a r t n e r o n l y a n d / o r d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f t o t a l c l a s s a c t i v i t y s u c h t h a t " o v e r h e a r i n g " by a n y s t u d e n t o t h e r t h a n t h e p a r t n e r was i m p r o b a b l e . I f o b v i o u s a t t e m p t s were made by t h e t e a c h e r t o c o n c e a l t h e f e e d b a c k comments ( i . e . t h r o u g h l o w e r i n g o f t h e v o i c e , r e m o v a l o f t h e s t u d e n t f r o m t h e g r o u p , w a i t i n g f o r c l a s s a c t i v i t y t o r e s u m e ) t h e n t h i s w o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a s an i n d i v i d u a l / p r i v a t e f e e d b a c k comment . A f i n a l d e f i n i t i o n s h o u l d p e r h a p s be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s e x h i b i t a w i d e v a r i e t y o f v e r b a l b e h a v i o r d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a l e s s o n i t s h o u l d be made v e r y c l e a r t h a t o n l y t h o s e comments w h i c h r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f m a i n t a i n i n g o r a l t e r i n g t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e , were r e g a r d e d a s f e e d b a c k . A r e s t a t e m e n t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s o r a r e v i e w o f t e a c h i n g p o i n t s was n o t r e g a r d e d a s f e e d b a c k u n l e s s t h e t e a c h e r s t a t e d c l e a r l y , p r i o r t o t h e r e v i e w , t h a t t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d / o r t e a c h i n g p o i n t s had n o t b e e n h e e d e d t h u s c a u s i n g t h e o b s e r v e d p e r f o r m a n c e o r t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d h a v e b e e n m o d i f i e d by p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e p o i n t s . T h i s r e c o r d i n g p r o t o c o l d i m i n i s h e d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n s t a n c e s w h e r e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was r e q u i r e d t o p a s s j u d g e m e n t on " i m p l i e d " f e e d b a c k c o m m e n t s . In g e n e r a l , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r u s e o f p o s i t i v e , p o s i t i v e / c o r r e c t i v e , s p e c i f i c , c o n g r u e n t and i n d i v i d u a l / p r i v a t e f e e d b a c k . T h e h i g h e r t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e s e t y p e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r e d a s r e s p e c t i v e l y o p p o s e d t o n e g a t i v e , n e g a t i v e / c o r r e c t i v e ( c o r r e c t i v e ) , * g e n e r a l , o f f - t a s k and i n d i v i d u a l / p u b l i c f e e d b a c k , t h e b e t t e r ( S i e d e n t o p , 1 9 8 3 ; R i n k , 1985) . 115 THE C T F A P S - P E T A L L Y SHEET USED FOR HAND-SCORING AND O N - S I T E A N A L Y S I S NAME SCHOOL GRADE A C T I V I T Y V I S I T # # STUDENTS GENDER C L A S S LENGTH SCORED BY T A P E / O N - S I T E INDIV IDUAL GROUP P R I V A T E P U B L I C P O S I T I V E P O S I T I V E CORRECTIVE CORRECTIVE N E G A T I V E C O R R E C T I V E N E G A T I V E S P E C I F I C GENERAL CONGRUENT O F F - T A S K 116 APPENDIX B - THE C T F A P S - P E COMPUTER PROGRAM A s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f r e c o r d i n g d a t a , m a n i p u l a t i n g d a t a , s t o r i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n , a n d f i n a l l y o u t p u t t i n g t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t i s q u i t e s i m p l e i n p r i n c i p l e a n d one t h a t was b e s t h a n d l e d by t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f a c o m p u t e r . T h e b e h a v i o r s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e c o d e d a s n u m b e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s a n d s u b c a t e g o r i e s o f f e e d b a c k d e s c r i b e d a n d d e f i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g A p p e n d i x A . O n c e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s had b e e n made o p e r a t i o n a l , t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m was c o n s t r u c t e d and t a i l o r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e n t e r i n g o f c o d e d f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s e i t h e r f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s made f r o m v i d e o t a p e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s o r f r o m o n - s i t e r e c o r d i n g . T h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d t o r e q u e s t a n d r e c o g n i z e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r f e e d b a c k comments w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s s t u d i e d . A f t e r t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n f o r one comment was c o m p l e t e t h e p r o g r a m a l l o w e d f o r more f e e d b a c k d a t a t o be e n t e r e d o r f o r a n a l y s i s a n d t h e o u t p u t o f r e s u l t s . B e f o r e o u t p u t t i n g t h e r e s u l t s , t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m c a l c u l a t e d t h e number o f f e e d b a c k comments made p e r m i n u t e o f c l a s s t i m e i n a v a r i e t y o f c a t e g o r i e s . A s w e l l p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k were c o m p u t e d . I f r e q u e s t e d t h e p r o g r a m a l s o d i s p l a y e d a p r i n t e d o u t p u t o f a l l f e e d b a c k comments made d u r i n g any p a r t o f t h e l e s s o n o r d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e l e s s o n , c o m p l e t e w i t h d e t a i l e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h c o m m e n t . T h i s f e a t u r e a l l o w e d f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s u s e d w i t h i n one c o m m e n t . T h e number o f v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e more c o m p l e x t r e n d s i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s . 117 10 CLS 20 A=0: B = 0 : C=0: D=0: E=0: F=0: G=0: H=0: 1=0: J=0: K=0: L=0: M=0: P=0: Q=0 30 AA=0: BB=0: CC=0: DD=0: EE=0: FF=0: GG=0: HH=0: 11=0: JJ=0: KK=0: LL=0 40 DIM ARENA (150 ) , NATURE(150), CONTENT (150), CNGRUENCY( 150 ) , SEGMENT! 150 ) 50 : 60 : 70 PRINT "COMPUTERIZED TEACHING FEEDBACK ANALYSIS FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATORS":PRINT: PRINT 80 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT: INPUT "NEW ENTRY Y/N"; RSP$ 90 IF RSP$ = "Y" THEN 100 ELSE 1470 100 CLS 110 PRINT "COMPUTERIZED TEACHING FEEDBACK ANALYSIS FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATORS":PRINT :PRINT 120 INPUT "DATE - " ; DTES 130 INPUT "TEACHER NAME - " ; NMES 140 INPUT "TREATMENT GROUP - ";GR$ 150 INPUT "SCHOOL - ";SCH$ 160 INPUT "OBSERVATION # - ";0BS 170 INPUT "OBSERVER NAME - ";OBS$ 180 INPUT "ACTIVITY - ";ACT$ 190 INPUT "GRADE LEVEL - ";GR 200 INPUT "SEX OF STUDENTS - ";SEX$ 210 : 220 : 230 GOTO 1470 240 N = 1 : G O T O 3 0 0 250 : 260 : 270 N = N+l 280 : 290 : 300 CLS 310 PRINT "AS FEEDBACK COMMENTS OCCUR ON THE VIDEOTAPE, PLEASE CODE" 320 PRINT "THEM IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING 4 CATEGORIES." 330 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT 340 PRINT "COMMENT # - " ;N 350 FOR X = 1 TO 1000: NEXT X 360 : 370 : 380 PRINT "ARENA": PRINT 390 PRINT " 1. CLASS/GROUP" 400 PRINT " 2. INDIVIDUAL - PUBLIC" 410 PRINT " 3. INDIVIDUAL - PRIVATE" 420 PRINT 430 INPUT "ENTER NO. CHOICE"; ARENA(N) 435 IF ARENA(N)<1 OR ARENA(N)>3 THEN 300 ELSE 440 440 IF ARENA(N)=1 THEN A=A+1 450 IF ARENA(N)=2 THEN B=B+1 460 IF ARENA(N)=3 THEN C=C+1 470 : 480 : 118 490 CLS 500 PRINT NATURE PRINT BACK UP" POSITIVE" CORRECTIVE" POSITIVE/CORRECTIVE' NEGATIVE/CORRECTIVE' NEGATIVE" 510 PRINT 520 PRINT 530 PRINT 540 PRINT 550 PRINT 560 PRINT 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I I I t 570 PRINT 580 INPUT "ENTER NO. CHOICE"; NATURE(N) 585 IF NATURE(N)>5 THEN 490 ELSE 590 590 IF NATURE(N)=0 AND ARENA(N)=1 THEN A=A-1: GOTO 300 600 IF NATURE(N)=0 AND ARENA(N)=2 THEN B=B-1: GOTO 300 610 IF NATURE(N)=0 AND ARENA(N)=3 THEN C=C-1: GOTO 300 620 IF NATURE(N)=1 THEN D=D+1 630 IF NATURE(N)=2 THEN E=E+1 640 IF NATURE(N)=3 THEN F=F+1 650 IF NATURE(N)=4 THEN G=G+1 660 IF NATURE(N)=5 THEN H=H+1 670 : 680 : 690 CLS 700 PRINT "CONTENT": PRINT 710 PRINT " 0. BACK UP" 720 PRINT " 1. SPECIFIC" 730 PRINT " 2. GENERAL" 740 PRINT 750 INPUT "ENTER NO. CHOICE"; CONTENT(N) 755 IF CONTENT(N)>2 THEN 690 ELSE 760 760 IF CONTENT(N)=0 AND NATURE(N)=1 THEN D=D-1: GOTO 490 770 IF CONTENT(N)=0 AND NATURE(N)=2 THEN E=E-1: GOTO 490 780 IF CONTENT(N)=0 AND NATURE(N)=3 THEN F=F-1: GOTO 490 790 IF CONTENT(N)=0 AND NATURE(N)=4 THEN G=G-1: GOTO 490 800 IF CONTENT(N)=0 AND NATURE(N)=5 THEN H=H-1: GOTO 490 810 IF C0NTENT(N)=1 THEN 1=1+1 820 IF CONTENT(N)=2 THEN J=J+1 . 830 : 840 : 850 CLS 860 PRINT "CONGRUENCY": PRINT 870 PRINT " 0. BACK UP" 880 PRINT " 1. CONGRUENT" 890 PRINT " 2. OFF-TASK" 900 PRINT 910 INPUT "ENTER NO. CHOICE"; CNGRUENCY(N) 915 IF CNGRUENCY(N)>2 THEN 850 ELSE 920 920 IF CNGRUENCY(N)=0 AND CONTENT(N)=l THEN 1=1-1: GOTO 690 930 IF CNGRUENCY(N)=0 AND CONTENT(N)=2 THEN J=J-1: GOTO 690 940 IF CNGRUENCY(N)=1 THEN K=K+1 950 IF CNGRUENCY(N)=2 THEN L=L+1 960 : 970 : 119 980 CLS 990 PRINT "CLASS 1000 PRINT " 1010 1020 1030 1040 1045 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1315 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF INPUT SEGMENT(N)>3 SEGMENT(N)=0 SEGMENT(N)=0 SEGMENT(N)=1 SEGMENT(N)=2 SEGMENT!N)=3 SEGMENT(N)=2 ARENA(N)=1 ARENA(N)=2 SEGMENT": PRINT 0. BACK UP" 1. ADMINISTRATIVE" 2. SKILLS & DRILLS" 3. GAMES" "ENTER NO. CHOICE - ";SEGMENT(N) THEN 980 ELSE 1050 AND CNGRUENCY(N)=1 THEN K=K-1: AND CNGRUENCY(N)=2 THEN L=L-1 THEN M=M+1 THEN P=P+1 THEN Q=Q+1 THEN 1110 ELSE 1240 THEN AA=AA+1 THEN BB=BB+1 GOTO 850 GOTO 850 ARENACN)=3 THEN CC=CC+1 NATURE(N)=1 THEN DD=DD+1 NATURE(N)=2 THEN EE=EE+1 NATURE!N)=3 THEN FF=FF+1 NATURE(N)=4 THEN GG=GG+1 NATURE!N)=5 THEN HH=HH+1 C0NTENT(N)=1 THEN 11=11+1 C0NTENT(N)=2 THEN JJ=JJ+1 CNGRUENCY(N)=1 THEN KK=KK+1 CNGRUENCY(N)=2 THEN LL=LL+1 CLS PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT INPUT IF "ANOTHER 0. 1. 2. COMMENT?": BACK UP" YES" NO" PRINT 'ENTER NO. CHOICE"; BACK BACK>2 THEN 1250 ELSE 1320 IF BACK=0 AND SEGMENT!N)=l THEN IF BACK=0 AND SEGMENT!N)=2 THEN IF BACK=0 AND SEGMENT!N)=2 THEN IF BACK = 1 THEN 270 IF BACK = 2 THEN 1390 M=M-1 P=P-1 Q=Q-1 GOTO GOTO GOTO 980 980 980 CLS INPUT INPUT INPUT INPUT INPUT "CLASS SIZE - " ;SIZE "LENGTH OF CLASS - ";DURATION "ADMINISTRATIVE/WARM-UP TIME - " ;AD "SKILLS AND DRILLS TIME - ";SD "GAMES AND INDEPENDENT PRACTICE TIME - " ;GT 120 1470 CLS 1480 PRINT "CTFAPS-PE MENU (CHOOSE ONE ITEM)":PRINT:PRINT 1490 PRINT " 1 . DISPLAY SUMMARIZED RESULTS" 1500 PRINT " 2 . PRINT ALL RESULTS" 1510 PRINT " 3 . PRINT SUMMARIZED RESULTS ONLY" 1520 PRINT " 4 . PRINT COMMENT BY COMMENT RESULTS ONLY" 1530 PRINT " 5 . INPUT TEACHER DATA" 1540 PRINT "6. INPUT ADDITIONAL TEACHER DATA" 1550 PRINT " 7 . SAVE DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION" 1560 PRINT " 8 . SAVE FEEDBACK DATA ENTERED" 1570 PRINT " 9 . RETRIEVE A DATA FILE" 1580 PRINT "10 . PRINT RESULTS FROM SKILLS AND DRILLS SEGMENT" 1590 PRINT "11 . PACK UP THE PLANTATION" 1600 PRINT 1610 INPUT "ENTER NO. CHOICE"; RESULTS 1620 IF RESULTS=11 THEN 5200 ELSE 1630 1630 IF RESULTS = 1 THEN 2640 1640 IF RESULTS = 2 THEN 2840 1650 IF RESULTS = 3 THEN 2840 1660 IF RESULTS = 4 THEN 2840 1670 IF RESULTS = 5 THEN 240 1680 IF RESULTS = 6 THEN 270 1690 IF RESULTS = 7 THEN 1700 ELSE 1920 1700 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT "ENTER THE DATA FILENAME UNDER WHICH TO SAVE." 1710 PRINT:PRINT "THE FORMAT USED SHOULD BE STUDENT TEACHER INITIALS (2 LETTERS) 1720 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY OBSERVER INITIALS (2 LETTERS)" 1730 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY THE 2-LETTER CODE FOR DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (DE)" 1740 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY THE NUMBER CODE FOR THE TREATMENT GROUP (1-PR/2-VD/3-CO) 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY PRINT "FOR A TOTAL PRINT:PRINT: INPUT OPEN FLFLDETO? FOR PRINT #1,DTES PRINT #1,NME$ PRINT #1,GRS PRINT #1,SCH$ PRINT #1,OBS PRINT #l,OBSS PRINT #1,ACT$ PRINT #1,GR PRINT #1,SEX$ CLOSE GOTO 1470 THE OBSERVATION NUMBER OF 8 CHARACTERS IN THE "ENTER FILENAME NOW . OUTPUT AS 1 (1 / 2 / 3) " FILENAME" , . " ; FLFLDETOS 121 1920 IF RESULTS = 8 THEN 1930 ELSE 2460 1930 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT "ENTER THE DATA FILENAME UNDER WHICH TO SAVE." 1940 PRINT:PRINT "THE FORMAT USED SHOULD BE STUDENT TEACHER INITIALS (2 LETTERS) I I 1950 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY OBSERVER INITIALS (2 LETTERS)" 1960 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY THE 2-LETTER CODE FOR DATA INFORMATION (DA)" 1970 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY THE NUMBER CODE FOR THE TREATMENT GROUP (1-PR/2-VD/3-CO) tt 1980 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY THE OBSERVATION NUMBER (1 / 2 / 3) " 1990 PRINT "FOR A TOTAL OF 8 CHARACTERS IN THE FILENAME" 2000 PRINT:PRINT: INPUT "ENTER FILENAME NOW . . . " ; FLFLDATOS 2010 OPEN FLFLDAT05 FOR OUTPUT AS 1 2020 PRINT #1 A 2030 PRINT #1 AA 2040 PRINT #1 B 2050 PRINT #1 BB 2060 PRINT #1 C 2070 PRINT #1 CC 2080 PRINT #1 D 2090 PRINT #1 DD 2100 PRINT #1 E 2110 PRINT #1 EE 2120 PRINT #1 F 2130 PRINT #1 FF 2140 PRINT #1 G 2150 PRINT #1 GG 2160 PRINT #1 H 2170 PRINT #1 HH 2180 PRINT #1 ,1 2190 PRINT #1 II 2200 PRINT #1 , J 2210 PRINT #1 , JJ 2220 PRINT #1 .K 2230 PRINT #1 ,KK 2240 PRINT #1 ,L 2250 PRINT #1 .LL 2260 PRINT #1 ,M 2270 PRINT #1 ,N 2280 PRINT #1 ,P 2290 PRINT #1 ,Q 2300 PRINT #1 ,SIZE 2310 PRINT #1 ,DURATION 2320 PRINT #1 , AD 2330 PRINT #1 ,SD 2340 PRINT #1 ,GT 2350 FOR X = 1 TO N 2360 PRINT #1 ,ARENA(X) 2370 PRINT #1 ,NATURE(X) 2380 PRINT #1 ,CONTENT(X) 2390 PRINT #1 ,CNGRUENCY(X) 2400 PRINT #1 , SEGMENT(X) 2410 NEXT X 2420 CLOSE 2430 GOTO 1470 2440 : 2450 : 122 2460 CLS 2470 IF RESULTS = 9 THEN 2480 ELSE 2840 2480 INPUT "ENTER 8-CHARACTER DEMOGRAPHIC FILE NAME TO RETRIEVE"; FLFLDETO$ 2490 INPUT "ENTER 8-CHARACTER FEEDBACK DATA FILE NAME TO RETRIEVE"; FLFLDATOS 2500 OPEN FLFLDETOS FOR INPUT AS 1 2510 IF EOF(l) THEN 2530 2520 INPUT #1,DTE$,NME$,GR$,SCH$,OBS,OBSS,ACTS,GR,SEX$ 2530 CLOSE 2540 OPEN FLFLDATOS FOR INPUT AS 1 2550 INPUT in ,A ,AA,B,BB,C,CC,D,DD,E,EE ,F ,FF ,G,GG,H,HH, I , I I , J , J J ,K ,KK,L ,LL ,M,N,P , Q,SIZE,DURATION,AD,SD,GT 2560 FOR X = 1 TO N INPUT #1,ARENA(X),NATURE(X),CONTENT(X),CNGRUENCY(X),SEGMENT(X) IF EOF(l) THEN 2590 ELSE 2600 CLOSE NEXT X GOTO 1470 2570 2580 2590 2600 2610 2620 2630 2640 2650 CLS PRINT "COMPUTERIZED TEACHING FEEDBACK ANALYSIS FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATORS":PRIN T:PRINT 2660 PRINT 2670 2680 2690 2700 2710 2720 2730 2740 2750 2760 2770 2780 2790 2800 2810 2820 2830 PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT:PRINT PRINT "# OF "STUDENT TEACHER - ";NME$;" "DATE OF OBSERVATION - " ;DTE$ ; " "TREATMENT GROUP - " ;GRS;" "ACTIVITY - " ;ACTS ; " "CLASS SIZE - " ; S IZE ; " PRINT:PRINT FEEDBACK COMMENTS MADE PRINT "# OF INDVDL/PRVTE FB'S MADE PRINT "# POSITIVE FB COMMENTS MADE PRINT "it CORRECTIVE FB COMMTS MADE PRINT "# POSITVE/CORRCTV FB'S MADE PRINT "# SPECIFIC FB COMMENTS MADE PRINT "# CONGRUENT FB CMMENTS MADE PRINT "# FB'S IN SKILLS & DRILLS SEGMENT -FOR X = 1 TO 50000!: NEXT X GOTO 1470 OBSERVER - ";OBS$ OBSERVATION # -SCHOOL - ";SCH$ GRADE - " ;GR;" SEX -CLASS PERIOD DURATION -";OBS ";SEXS ";DURATION 123 2840 CLS 2850 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 2860 LPRINT "COMPUTERIZED TEACHING FEEDBACK ANALYSIS FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATORS":LPR INT:LPRINT 2870 LPRINT "STUDENT TEACHER - ";NME$;" OBSERVER - ";OBS$ 2880 LPRINT "DATE OF OBSERVATION - " ;DTE$ ; " OBSERVATION # - ";OBS 2890 LPRINT "TREATMENT GROUP - " ;GR$ ; " SCHOOL - ";SCH§ 2900 LPRINT "ACTIVITY - " ; A C T $ ; " GRADE - " ;GR; " SEX - ";SEX$ 2910 IF RESULTS = 10 THEN 2920 ELSE 2980 2920 A=AA: B=BB: C=CC: D=DD: E=EE: F=FF: G=GG: H=HH: 1=11: J=JJ: K=KK: L=LL: DUR ATI0N=SD 2930 LPRINT "CLASS SIZE - " ; S IZE ; " SKILLS/DRILLS DURATION - ";SD 2940 LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT 2950 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(18); 2960 LPRINT "NUMBER OF FEEDBACK COMMENTS MADE IN SEGMENT - ";KK+LL 2970 GOTO 3090 2980 LPRINT "CLASS SIZE - " ; S IZE ; " CLASS PERIOD DURATION - ";DURATION 2990 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(19); 3000 LPRINT:LPRINT:LPRINT 3010 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR5(18); 3020 LPRINT "NUMBER OF FEEDBACK COMMENTS MADE IN LESSON - " :N 3030 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(19); 3040 : 3050 : 3060 IF RESULTS = 4 THEN 4940 3070 : 3080 : 124 3090 FOR X=l TO 5: LPRINT: NEXT X 3100 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(18); 3110 LPRINT "ARENA IN WHICH FEEDBACK WAS GIVEN" 3120 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(19); 3130 LPRINT:LPRINT 3140 LPRINT " NUMBER OF COMMENTS CODED IN THIS CATEGORY - ";A+B+C 3150 LPRINT " #/STUDENT E)*100))/100 3160 LPRINT " ^/MINUTE ATION)*100))/100 3170 LPRINT " #/STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -E/DURATION)-100000!))/100 3180 LPRINT 3190 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHRS(1S); 3200 LPRINT " 3210 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHRS(19); 3220 LPRINT 3230 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 3240 LPRINT " COMMENTS DIRECTED TO CLASS/GROUP -A+B+C))*1000))/10;" %" 3250 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(19); 3260 LPRINT " #/STUDENT 00 3270 LPRINT " #/MINUTE ))/100 3280 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -)*100000!))/100 3290 LPRINT 3300 LPRINT:LPRINT NO. ";(INT(((A+B+C)/SIZ ";(INT(((A+B+C)/DUR ";(INT(((A+B+C)/SIZ PERCENTAGE" • A •' ;(INT((A/( ";( INT( (A/SIZE)- ;100) )/l " ; ( INK (A/DURATIONV'-lOO ";(INT((A/SIZE/DURATION 125 3310 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(18): „ „ „ , 3320 LPRINT " COMMENTS DIRECTED TO INDIVIDUALS - ";B+C;" ";(INT((( B+C)/(A+B+C))*1000))/10;" %" 3330 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(19); 3340 LPRINT " #/STUDENT ))/100 3350 LPRINT " #/MINUTE *100))/100 3360 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -TION)*100000!))/100 3370 LPRINT 3380 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 3390 LPRINT " COMMENTS DIRECTED INDIVID/PUBLIC - " ; B ; " B+C))*1000))/10;" %" 3400 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(19); 3410 LPRINT " #/STUDENT 00 3420 LPRINT " #/MINUTE ))/ibo 3430 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -)* 100000!))/100 3440 LPRINT 3450 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(18); 3460 LPRINT " COMMENTS DIRECTED INDIVID/PRIVATE - " ; C ; " B+C))*1000))/10;" %" 3470 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(19); 3480 LPRINT " ^/STUDENT 00 3490 LPRINT " #/'MINUTE ))/100 3500 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -)*100000!))/100 3510 : 3520 : 3530 FOR X=l TO 15: LPRINT: NEXT X 3540 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 3550 LPRINT "NATURE OF THE FEEDBACK GIVEN" 3560 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR3(19); 3570 LPRINT 3580 LPRINT " NUMBER OF COMMENTS CODED IN THIS CATEGORY - ";D+E+F+G+H 3590 LPRINT " #/STUDENT - ";(INK((D+E+F+G+H) /SIZE)*100))/100 3600 LPRINT " #/MINUTE - ";(INT(((D+E+F+G+H) /DURATION)-100))/100 3610 LPRINT " ^//STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) - " ; ( INK ((D+E+F+.G+H) /SIZE/DURATION)-100000!))/100 3620 LPRINT ( INK ((B+C)/SIZE)-100 ( INK ((B+C)/DURATION) ( INK ((B+C) / SIZE/DURA "; ( INT((B/ ( ( I N K ( B / S I Z E ) * 1 0 0 ) ) / l ( INK (B/DURATION)'H00 (INK(B/SIZE/DURATION "; ( INT((C/ ( (INT((C/SIZE)- :100))/1 (INK(C/DURATION)*100 (INK(C/SIZE/DURATION 126 3630 LPRINT CHRS 3640 LPRINT " 3650 LPRINT 3660 LPRINT " D+E+F+G+H))*1000 3670 LPRINT CHRS 3680 LPRINT " 00 3690 LPRINT " ))/100 3700 LPRINT " )*100000!))/100 3710 LPRINT 3720 LPRINT CHRS 3730 LPRINT " D+E+F+G+H))"1000 3740 LPRINT CHR$ 3750 LPRINT " 00 3 760 LPRINT " ))/100 3770 LPRINT " )*100000!))/100 3780 LPRINT 3 790 LPRINT CHRS 3800 LPRINT " D+E+F+G+H))*1000 3810 LPRINT CHRS 3820 LPRINT " 00 3830 LPRINT " ))/100 3840 LPRINT " )*100000! ) )/100 3850 LPRINT 3860 LPRINT CHR$ 3870 LPRINT " D+E+F+G+H))*1000 3880 LPRINT CHRS 3890 LPRINT " 00 3900 LPRINT " ))/100 3910 LPRINT " )*100000!))/100 3920 LPRINT 3930 LPRINT CHR$ 3940 LPRINT " D+E+F+G+H))*1000 3950 LPRINT CHRS 3960 LPRINT " 100 (27);CHR$(18); COMMENTS OF A POSITIVE NATURE ) )/10;" %" (27);CHR$(19); #/STUDENT #/MINUTE /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) (27);CHR$(18); COMMENTS OF A CORRECTIVE NATURE )) /10;" %" (27);CHR$(19); #/STUDENT #/MINUTE /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) (27);CHRS(18); COMMENTS OF A POS/CORRCTV NATURE ))/10;" %" (27);CHR$(19): #/STUDENT #/MINUTE /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) (27 ) ;CHR§(18 ) ; COMMENTS OF A NEG/CORRCTV NATURE ) )/10;" %" (27);CHR$(19); #/STUDENT #/MINUTE /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) (27);CHR$(18) ; COMMENTS OF A NEGATIVE NATURE ) )/10;" %" (27);CHR$(19); #/STUDENT NO. " ; D ; " PERCENTAGE" ";(INT((D/( (INT((D/SIZE)*100))/1 (INT((D/DURATION)*100 (INT((D/SIZE/DURATION " ; E ; " ;(INT((E/( ( INT((E/SIZE) i 100))/l (INK(E/DURATION)-100 ( INK (E/SIZE/DURATION .p . t » r » " ; ( INT((F/( ";(INT((F/SIZE) ; , ;100))/1 " ; ( INK (F/DURATION)':100 " ; ( INK (F/SIZE/DURATION ";(INT((G/SIZE)--:=100))/1 " ; ( INK (G/DURATION)"100 " ; ( INK (G/SIZE/DURATION " ; H ; " ";(INT((H/( " ; ( INK(H/SIZE) ' ! : 100! ))/ 127 #/MINUTE /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) 3970 LPRINT " ))/100 3980 LPRINT " )*100000!))/100 3990 : 4000 : 4010 FOR X=l TO 5: LPRINT: NEXT X 4020 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 4030 LPRINT "CONTENT OF THE FEEDBACK GIVEN" 4040 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(19); 4050 LPRINT NUMBER OF COMMENTS CODED IN THIS CATEGORY -it I STUDENT ";(INT((H/DURATION)*100 " ; (INTUH/SIZE/DURATION #/MINUTE ^/STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -4060 LPRINT " 4070 LPRINT " *100)) /100 4080 LPRINT " ION)*100))/100 4090 LPRINT " DURATION)*100000!))/100 4100 LPRINT 4110 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(18); 4120 LPRINT " 4130 LPRINT 4140 LPRINT " COMMENTS WITH SPECIFIC CONTENT I+J))*1000))/10;" %" 4150 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(19); 4160 LPRINT " ^/STUDENT 00 4170 LPRINT " #/MINUTE ))/100 4180 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) )*100000!))/100 4190 LPRINT 4200 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(18); 4210 LPRINT " COMMENTS WITH GENERAL CONTENT I+J))*1000))/10;" %" 4220 LPRINT CHP-.S (27);CHRS (19); 4230 LPRINT " #/STUDENT 00 4240 LPRINT " #/MINUTE ))/100 4250 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) )*100000!))/100 4260 : 4270 : ";I+J ";( INT(((I+J)/SIZE) ";(INT(((I+J)/DURAT ";(INT(((I+J)/SIZE/ NO. PERCENTAGE" ";I;" ";( INT((I/( ";(INT((I/SIZE)*100))/1 ";(INT((I/DURATION)-100 " ; (INK(I/SIZE/DURATION • J •' " ; ( INT(( j/( ";(INT((J/SIZE)*100))/1 ";(INT((J/DURATION)*100 " ; ( INK (J/SIZE/DURATION 128 4280 FOR X=l TO 12: LPRINT: NEXT X 4290 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 4300 LPRINT "CONGRUENCY OF THE FEEDBACK GIVEN" 4310 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(19); 4320 LPRINT NUMBER OF COMMENTS CODED IN THIS CATEGORY -^/STUDENT #/MINUTE ^/STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -4330 LPRINT " 4340 LPRINT " *100))/100 4350 LPRINT " ION)*100))/100 4360 LPRINT " DURATION)*100000!))/100 4370 LPRINT 4380 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 4390 LPRINT " 4400 LPRINT 4410 LPRINT " COMMENTS CONGRUENT WITH FOCUS K+L))-1000))/10;" %" 4420 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(19); 4430 LPRINT " ^/STUDENT 00 4440 LPRINT " #/MINUTE ))/100 4450 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) )*100000!))/100 4460 LPRINT 4470 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHRS(18); 4480 LPRINT " COMMENTS OFF-TASK WITH FOCUS K+L))-1000) )/10;" %" 4490 LPRINT CHRS(27) ;CHR$U9) ; 4500 LPRINT " ^/STUDENT 00 4510 LPRINT " #/MINUTE ))/100 4520 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) )*100000!) )/100 4530 IF RESULTS = 10 THEN 1470 ELSE 4540 4540 : 4550 : ";K+L ";(INT(((K+L)/SIZE) ";(INT(((K+L)/DURAT ";(INT(((K+L)/SIZE/ NO. PERCENTAGE" " ; K ; " . ";( INT((K/( ";(INT((K/SIZE)*100))/1 " ; ( INK (K/DURATION)--100 " : ( INK (K/SIZE/DURATION 9 5 " ; ( INT((L/( ";(INT((L/SIZE)*100))/1 " ; (INT( (L/DURATION)--100 ";(INK(L/SIZE/DURATION 129 4560 FOR X=l TO 5: LPRINT: NEXT X 4570 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(18); 4580 LPRINT "CLASS SEGMENT IN WHICH THE FEEDBACK IS GIVEN" 4590 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(19); 4600 LPRINT 4610 LPRINT " NUMBER OF COMMENTS CODED IN THIS CATEGORY - ";M+P+Q 4620 LPRINT " ^/STUDENT E)*100) )/100 4630 LPRINT " ^/MINUTE ATION)*100))/100 4640 LPRINT " #/STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -E/DURATION)*100000!))/100 4650 LPRINT 4660 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(18); 4670 LPRINT " 4680 LPRINT 4690 LPRINT " ADMINISTRATION TIME /DURATION)*1000))/10;M %" 4700 LPRINT " COMMENTS OF ADMINISTRATION M+P+Q))*1000))/10;" %" 4710 LPRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(19); 4720 LPRINT " ^/STUDENT 00 4730 LPRINT " ^/MINUTE 4740 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -0 0 ! ) ) / 1 0 0 4750 LPRINT 4760 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(18); 4770 LPRINT " SKILLS AND DRILLS TIME /DURATION)*1000))/10;" %" 4780 LPRINT " COMMENTS ABOUT SKILLS/DRILLS M+P+Q))*1000))/10;" %" 4790 LPRINT CHR$(2 7);CHRS(19); 4800 LPRINT " #/STUDENT 00 4810 LPRINT " #/MINUTE 4820 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -00! ) )/100 4830 LPRINT 4840 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(18); 4850 LPRINT " GAMES AND INDPNDT PRACTICE TIME -/DURATION)*1000))/10;" %" 4860 LPRINT " COMMENTS DURING GAMES SEGMENT M + P + Q ) ) * 1 0 0 0 ) ) / 1 0 ; " % " 4870 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHRS(19); 4880 LPRINT " #/STUDENT 00 4890 LPRINT " #/MINUTE 4900 LPRINT " /STUDENT/MINUTE (x 1000) -0 0 ! ) ) / 1 0 0 4910 : 4920 : " ; ( INT( ( (M+P+Q)/S IZ ";(INT(((M+P+Q)/DUR ";(INT(((M+P+Q)/SIZ NO.. ;AD;" ; M ; " PERCENTAGE" ";(INT((AD " ; ( INK CM/ ( ;(INT((M/SIZE)*100))/1 ;(INT((M/AD)*100))/100 ;(INT((M/SIZE/AD)"1000 ;SD;' . p . it " ; ( INK (SD ";(INT((P/( ; (INT((P/SIZE)*100)) /1 ;(INT((P/SD)*100))/100 ; (INK(P/SIZE/SD)*1000 ; G T ; " ; Q ; " ";(INT((GT ' ; (INT((Q/( ; ( I N T ( ( Q / S I Z E ) * 1 0 0 ) ) / 1 ; ( I N T ( ( Q / G T ) * 1 0 0 ) ) / 1 0 0 ; ( INK(Q/SIZE/GT)*1000 130 4930 FOR X=l TO 15: LPRINT: NEXT X 4940 LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT 4950 IF RESULTS=3 THEN 1470 4960 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(18); 4970 LPRINT " COMMENT # ARENA NATURE CONTENT CONGRUENCY S EGMENT" 4980 LPRINT CHRS(27);CHR$(19); 4990 LPRINT 5000 FOR X = 1 TO N 5010 IF ARENA(X)=1 THEN ARENAS="CL/GROUP" 5020 IF ARENA(X)=2 THEN ARENAS-'IND/PUBL" 5030 IF ARENA(X)=3 THEN ARENAS-'IND/PRVT" 5040 IF NATURE(X)=1 THEN NATURES="POSITIVE" 5050 IF NATURE(X)=2 THEN NATURES="CORRECTV" 5060 IF NATURE(X)=3 THEN NATURES="POS/CORR" 5070 IF NATURE(X)=4 THEN NATURE$="NEG/CORR" 5080 IF NATURE(X)=5 THEN NATURES="NEGATIVE" 5090 IF CONTENT(X)=l THEN CONTENTS="SPECIFIC" 5100 IF CONTENT(X)=2 THEN CONTENT$="GENERAL-" 5110 IF CNGRUENCY(X)=1 THEN CNGRUENCY$="CNGRUENT" 5120 IF CNGRUENCY(X)=2 THEN CNGRUENCY$="OFF-TASK" 5130 IF SEGMENT(X)=1 THEN SEGMENT$= "ADMN/WRMUP" 5140 IF SEGMENT(X)=2 THEN SEGMENT$= "SKLL/DRLLS" 5150 IF SEGMENT(X)=3 THEN SEGMENT§= "GAME PLAY" 5160 LPRINT " " : X ; " ";ARENAS;" ";NATURES;" ";CONTENT$;" ";CNG RUENCYS;" ";SEGMENTS 5170 LPRINT 5180 NEXT X 5190 GOTO 1470 5200 END 131 APPENDIX C - PROTOCOL FOR INTERVENTION SESSIONS WITH S U B J E C T S L i s t e d b e l o w a r e t h e t h r e e p r o t o c o l s u s e d d u r i n g t h e f e e d b a c k i n t e r v e n t i o n s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y . N o t e t h a t t h e r e was no s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e a m o n g s t t h e t h r e e p r o t o c o l s u s e d . O r i g i n a l l y t h e v i d e o t a p e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p was t o s p e n d e n o u g h t i m e i n t h e f e e d b a c k s e s s i o n s t o v i e w an e n t i r e l e s s o n w h i l e t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f e e d b a c k g r o u p were t o h a v e no i n t e r a c t i o n a t a l l w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e s t u d y . T h e s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g p r o f i l e f e e d b a c k w o u l d h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e n d 10 t o 15 m i n u t e s w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w h i l e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e p r o f i l e was r e v i e w e d . I t seemed v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h e t i m e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e f e e d b a c k s e s s i o n s may h a v e h a d an e f f e c t on s u b s e q u e n t t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s s o t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y . An a t t e m p t was made t o s p e n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n t i m e (15 m i n u t e s ) w i t h a l l s u b j e c t s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p t h a t t h e y were i n . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e h e l p e d t o e l i m i n a t e e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s o r t i m e f a v o r t i s m . a) E x a m p l e F e e d b a c k S e s s i o n f o r t h e P r o f i l e G r o u p i ) R e s e a r c h e r i n i t i a t e d t h e s e s s i o n by d i s p l a y i n g a g e n e r a l p r o f i l e ( w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s ) a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n ( o r m a i n t e n a n c e o f ) t h e h i g h l i g h t e d f e e d b a c k t y p e s was m o s t d e s i r e d . (A c o p y o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was g i v e n t q a l l t e a c h e r s o n e a c h v i s i t ) . i i ) R e s e a r c h e r i n d i c a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r t h a t when e x a m i n i n g t h e CBBP f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p o r t i o n o f t h e c l a s s h e / s h e s h o u l d f o c u s on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f h i s / h e r own u s e o f t h e s e v a r i o u s d e s i r e d t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e u n d e s i r e d t y p e s . 132 i i i ) The p r o f i l e was t h e n e x a m i n e d w i t h some c l a r i f i c a t i o n a s t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and m e a n i n g ( i . e . how t o r e a d t h e p r o f i l e ) . i v ) A f t e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o f i l e (5 m i n u t e s ) t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n s w e r e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n q u e s t i o n s on t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k d e s i r a b l e . S p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s w h e r e d e s i r e d t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k were o r w e r e n o t u s e d d u r i n g t h e c l a s s w e r e n o t e m p h a s i z e d o r r e f e r r e d t o . T h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r was a s k e d t o draw h i s / h e r own c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d o n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n . v ) T h e r e s e a r c h e r t h e n a d d r e s s e d a n y n o n - f e e d b a c k - r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r h a d r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e (5 m i n u t e s ) . v i ) A t e n t a t i v e t i m e f o r t h e n e x t v i d e o t a p i n g s e s s i o n was a r r a n g e d . b) E x a m p l e F e e d b a c k S e s s i o n f o r t h e V i d e o t a p e G r o u p i ) T h i s s t e p i n t h e p r o t o c o l was u s e d f o r a l l g r o u p s , ( s e e P r o f i l e g r o u p p r o t o c o l ) i i ) R e s e a r c h e r i n d i c a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r t h a t when v i e w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s e g m e n t o f t h e v i d e o t a p e d l e s s o n (as d e f i n e d p r e v i o u s l y ) h e / s h e s h o u l d f o c u s on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f h i s / h e r own u s e o f t h e s e v a r i o u s d e s i r e d t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e u n d e s i r e d t y p e s . i i i ) T h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e v i d e o t a p e was t h e n v i e w e d w i t h no a d d i t i o n a l comments m a d e . i v ) A f t e r v i e w i n g t h e v i d e o t a p e (5 m i n u t e s ) t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n s w e r e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n q u e s t i o n s on t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k d e s i r a b l e . S p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s w h e r e d e s i r e d t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k w e r e o r were n o t u s e d d u r i n g t h e c l a s s were n o t e m p h a s i z e d o r r e f e r r e d t o . T h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r was a s k e d t o draw h i s / h e r own c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on t h e d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n . v ) T h i s s t e p i n t h e p r o t o c o l was u s e d f o r a l l g r o u p s , ( s e e P r o f i l e g r o u p p r o t o c o l ) v i ) T h i s s t e p i n t h e p r o t o c o l was u s e d f o r a l l g r o u p s , ( s e e P r o f i l e g r o u p p r o t o c o l ) 133 c ) E x a m p l e F e e d b a c k S e s s i o n f o r t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l G r o u p i ) T h i s s t e p i n t h e p r o t o c o l was u s e d f o r a l l g r o u p s , ( s e e P r o f i l e g r o u p p r o t o c o l ) i i ) R e s e a r c h e r i n d i c a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r t h a t when e x a m i n i n g t h e o u t l i n e r e v i e w f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p o r t i o n o f t h e c l a s s h e / s h e s h o u l d t h i n k a b o u t h i s / h e r own u s e o f t h e s e v a r i o u s d e s i r e d t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e u n d e s i r e d t y p e s . i i i ) T h e w r i t t e n o u t l i n e o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p o r t i o n o f t h e c l a s s was t h e n r e v i e w e d ( d e s c r i p t i v e o n l y i . e . what h a p p e n e d i n t h e c l a s s a n d i n what o r d e r ) . i v ) A f t e r a r e v i e w o f t h e l e s s o n p l a n o u t l i n e (5 m i n u t e s ) t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n s w e r e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n q u e s t i o n s on t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k d e s i r a b l e . S p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s w h e r e d e s i r e d t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k were o r were n o t u s e d d u r i n g t h e c l a s s were n o t e m p h a s i z e d o r r e f e r r e d t o . T h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r was a s k e d t o draw h i s / h e r own c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on t h e d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n . v) T h i s s t e p i n t h e p r o t o c o l was u s e d f o r a l l g r o u p s , ( s e e P r o f i l e g r o u p p r o t o c o l ) v i ) T h i s s t e p i n t h e p r o t o c o l was u s e d f o r a l l g r o u p s , ( s e e P r o f i l e g r o u p p r o t o c o l ) To a c c o m o d a t e i m m e d i a t e p e r f o r m a n c e f e e d b a c k t o e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s a f t e r t h e l e s s o n t a u g h t , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s u p p l i e d a t e l e v i s i o n m o n i t o r , a p p r o p r i a t e c a b l e s , c o r d s and a c a m c o r d e r / V C R f o r t h e v i d e o t a p e g r o u p . O n - s i t e , h a n d - s c o r e d p r o f i l e s ( t o be m a c h i n e - s c o r e d l a t e r ) w e r e made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p r o f i l e g r o u p . 134 APPENDIX D - CONTENT FOR I N I T I A L S U B J E C T B R I E F I N G SESSION A p p r o x i m a t e l y two weeks a f t e r o b t a i n i n g v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y a n d a b o u t two m o n t h s b e f o r e t h e i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n m e t h o d s c l a s s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . E i g h t e e n o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s s e r v e d a s s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a c t e d a s an a n t i c i p a t o r y s e t f o r t h e s t u d y u n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t n o t a l l o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f , a n d g u i d e l i n e s f o r , e f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r y w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y be c o v e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e . I t was f e l t a l s o t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d s e r v e a s a common f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l l c l a s s members r e g a r d i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f f e e d b a c k c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . As n o t e d i n A p p e n d i x C , e a c h i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o t o c o l e m p l o y e d a t w o - p a g e h a n d o u t o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e g o a l s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r y i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s r o o m . An a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f A p p e n d i x D s e r v e d a s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d o u t u s e d i n t h e p o s t l e s s o n c o n f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s u b j e c t s . A . IMPORTANCE OF FEEDBACK IN P . E . INSTRUCTION 1 . C i t e d a s an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t f o r e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n 2 . P l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n c l a s s management a) a i d s i n a c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n b) k e e p s s t u d e n t s o n t a s k c ) k e e p s t e a c h e r c l o s e t o p o t e n t i a l s a f e t y p r o b l e m s d) c l a r i f i e s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t a s k e) h e l p s t e a c h e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e " w i t h - i t - n e s s " 135 3. P r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e a t t e m p t e d s k i l l o r t h e a t t e m p t made a t a p a r t i c u l a r movement 4 . A i d s i n m o d i f y i n g s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r 5 . A i d s i n m o d i f y i n g t h e p s y c h o m o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s t u d e n t 6. E n h a n c e s l e a r n i n g - i n f a c t l e a r n i n g d o e s n o t t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s 7 . A i d s i n m o d i f y i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s t u d e n t 8. E f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k b u i l d s s e l f - e s t e e m i n s t u d e n t s 9 . P o s i t i v e M o d e l i n g c a n o c c u r a s a r e s u l t 10. A c t s a s a means o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t 11. A c t s a s a s o u r c e o f k n o w l e d g e and i n f o r m a t i o n 12. A c t s a s a s o u r c e o f m o t i v a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g B . D E F I N I T I O N S OF TYPES OF FEEDBACK 1. C l a r i t y - r e f e r s t o p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h f b t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e d e s i r e d p e r f o r m a n c e . 2. P o s i t i v e ( S i e d e n t o p ) - f b c o n c e r n i n g t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t were d o n e w e l l o r c o r r e c t l y . 3. P o s i t i v e ( R i n k ) - g e n e r a l f b s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o m o t i v a t e a n d e n c o u r a g e r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n . 4 . C o r r e c t i v e ( S i e d e n t o p ) - f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s i n t e n d e d t o c o r r e c t s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e e r r o r s . A l s o c a l l e d P R E S C R I P T I V E f e e d b a c k . 5 . C o r r e c t i v e ( R i n k ) - f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on what t o do a n d what n o t t o d o . A l s o c a l l e d P R E S C R I P T I V E f e e d b a c k . 6. N e g a t i v e - f b w h i c h b e l i t t l e s t h e s t u d e n t by r i d i c u l i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . 136 7 . S p e c i f i c -8 . G e n e r a l f b w h i c h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d o b j e c t i v e . I t p r o v i d e s t h e r e c i p i e n t w i t h some u s e a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . I f t h i s f b d o e s n o t t r y t o c o r r e c t b u t m e r e l y p r o v i d e o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s D E S C R I P T I V E f b . f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s no u s e a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n b u t r a t h e r c a n be r e g a r d e d a s p r a i s e o r e n c o u r a g e m e n t u s e d f o r m o t i v a t i o n o r t o d e s i s t b e h a v i o r . 9 . R e d u n d a n t - f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t s . 1 0 . E v a l u a t i v e ( R i n k ) - f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e v a l u e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . T h e g o o d n e s s o r b a d n e s s , T i g h t n e s s o r w r o n g n e s s . 1 1 . V a l u e ( S i e d e n t o p ) - f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t why a p a r t i c u l a r p e r f o r m a n c e a s p e c t was g o o d o r b a d . 1 2 . C o n g r u e n t ( R i n k ) / O n - T a s k ( S i n c l a i r ) - f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e a s p e c t o f t h e t a s k on w h i c h h e / s h e was a s k e d t o f o c u s . 1 3 . I n c o n g r u e n t / O f f - T a s k - f b w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a s p e c t s o f t h e t a s k o t h e r t h a n t h o s e on w h i c h h e / s h e was a s k e d t o f o c u s . 1 4 . G r o u p - D i r e c t e d ( S i e d e n t o p ) - f b w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r an e n t i r e c l a s s o r s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s . A l t h o u g h i t i s G r o u p - d i r e c t e d i t c o u l d i n f a c t be g i v e n t o an i n d i v i d u a l p u b l i c l y . 1 5 . I n d i v i d u a l / P u b l i c - f b g i v e n t o a n i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t i n a s e t t i n g w h e r e o t h e r s c a n c l e a r l y h e a r t h e c o m m e n t s . 1 6 . I n d i v i d u a l / P r i v a t e - f b g i v e n t o an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t i n a s e t t i n g w h e r e o t h e r s c a n n o t o v e r h e a r t h e c o m m e n t s . 1 7 . C o n c u r r e n t - f b t h a t i s g i v e n t o a s t u d e n t a b o u t a t a s k w h i l e t h e y a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r f o r m i n g t h a t t a s k . 137 1 8 . T e r m i n a l / I m m e d i a t e - f b t h a t i s p r o v i d e d t o a r e c i p i e n t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t a s k s u c h t h a t no o t h e r a t t e m p t s a t t h e s k i l l h a v e b e e n p e r f o r m e d i n t h e i n t e r i m . 1 9 . T e r m i n a l / D e l a y e d - f b t h a t i s p r o v i d e d t o a r e c i p i e n t some t i m e a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t a s k s u c h t h a t s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s a t t h e t a s k h a v e b e e n p e r f o r m e d p r i o r t o a n y f e e d b a c k r e c e i v e d . C . T Y P E S OF FEEDBACK USED BY STUDENT TEACHERS 1 . E x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s h a v e a s t r o n g t e n d a n c y t o u s e c o r r e c t i v e f b a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y . 2. S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s i n P . E . u s e l i m i t e d r a t e s o f c o r r e c t i v e f b b u t a l m o s t n e v e r r e a c t t o s k i l l s t h a t a r e d o n e r i g h t o r d o n e w e l l . 3 . N e g a t i v e f b f o r s k i l l a t t e m p t s i s h a r d l y e v e r u s e d . 4 . S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s i n P . E . u s e v e r y l i t t l e g r o u p - d i r e c t e d f b . 5 . E l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e more f b t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h a n do U n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s who p r o v i d e more f b t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h a n S e c o n d a r y P . E . t e a c h e r s . D. G U I D E L I N E S FOR E F F E C T I V E USE OF FEEDBACK 1. C o r r e c t i v e f b i s n o t a l w a y s n e g a t i v e b u t i t c a n c r e a t e an e r r o r - c e n t e r e d c l i m a t e . 2. A p o s i t i v e f b f o c u s s h o u l d be a d o p t e d . ( i . e . a f o c u s t h a t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a s p e c t s o f movement p e r f o r m e d c o r r e c t l y ) . 3 . S p e c i f i c f b i s more e f f e c t i v e f o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s o r s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r - l e v e l s k i l l s t h a n i s g e n e r a l f e e d b a c k . 4 . N e g a t i v e f b s h o u l d n e v e r be u s e d a n d c e r t a i n l y n o t u s e d p u b l i c l y . 5 . R e s e a r c h shows t h a t 4 p o s i t i v e f b s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d be made f o r e v e r y c o r r e c t i v e f b comment ( S i e d e n t o p , 1 9 8 3 ) . 6 . I d e a l l y a n i n s t r u c t o r s h o u l d g i v e 4 - 5 f b comments p e r m i n u t e i n a s e c o n d a r y P . E . c l a s s . 7 . R e d u n d a n t f b s h o u l d be a v o i d e d a s much a s p o s s i b l e e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s i n t e n d e d t o be p r e s c r i p t i v e . 138 8 . A s a g e n e r a l r u l e , 50 - 70 p e r c e n t o f f b s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d c o n t a i n s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . 9 . G r o u p - d i r e c t e d f b s h o u l d be u s e d s p a r i n g l y i n k e y s i t u a t i o n s - p r o b a b l y no more t h a n 1 o u t o f 10 c o m m e n t s . 1 0 . 90% o f f b comments a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l i n P . E . s h o u l d be p r i v a t e c o m m e n t s . 1 1 . T h e i n s t r u c t o r s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o g i v e 5 f b comments t o e a c h s t u d e n t d u r i n g a 30 m i n u t e c l a s s . 1 2 . C o n c u r r e n t f b s h o u l d be u s e d f a r l e s s o f t e n t h a n t e r m i n a l f b - u s u a l l y i n " w a l k - t h r o u g h " s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n f u l l s p e e d s i t u a t i o n s . 1 3 . G e n e r a l l y , t h e s o o n e r f e e d b a c k c a n be g i v e n a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t a s k , t h e b e t t e r . 1 4 . A l m o s t a l l , i f n o t a l l , f b comments s h o u l d be c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i n t e n d e d f o c u s . T h e y s h o u l d be o n - t a s k . TYPES OF FEEDBACK USEAGE ON WHICH INFO WILL BE GIVEN 1. C o n g r u e n t a s o p p o s e d t o I n c o n g r u e n t f b 2 . S p e c i f i c a s o p p o s e d t o G e n e r a l f b 3 . P o s i t i v e ( d e v e l o p m e n t a l ) a s o p p o s e d t o C o r r e c t i v e f b 4 . I n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e a s o p p o s e d t o I n d i v i d u a l p u b l i c f b T h e h i g h e r t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c o n g r u e n t , s p e c i f i c , p o s i t i v e , i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r e d t h e b e t t e r . 139 APPENDIX E - VAL IDATION OF C T F A P S - P E T h e d e f i n i t i o n s a n d e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i c e s A a n d D were u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i n i t i a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f FAP ( C T F A P S - P E ) . T h e same i n f o r m a t i o n was l a t e r r e f e r r e d t o when c h e c k s f o r i n t e r - a n d i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y were d o n e t h r o u g h o u t , a n d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t u d y . P r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y t h e C T F A P S - P E i n s t r u m e n t was v a l i d a t e d by a c h i e v i n g i n t e r - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y g r e a t e r t h a n 80 %. The d e f i n i t i o n s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t e a c h i n g f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s w e r e m o d i f i e d u n t i l some d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n c y c o u l d be a c h i e v e d i n c o d i n g t h e f e e d b a c k p r a c t i c e s o f s t u d e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s s e e n on v i d e o t a p e d r e c o r d i n g s . Two 1 2 - m i n u t e s e g m e n t s f r o m two d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s were c o d e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e s t u d y and two k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s . T h e f i r s t s e g m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f 22 s e p a r a t e f e e d b a c k comments d e l i v e r e d by t h e o b s e r v e d t e a c h e r t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s . E a c h f e e d b a c k comment was t o be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was a t o t a l o f 88 p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t o r d i s a g r e e m e n t . U s i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c d e s c r i b e d by H a w k i n s , W i e g a n d a n d L a n d i n (1985) and J o h n s o n ( 1 9 8 9 ) , e a c h o b s e r v e r was c o m p a r e d t o e a c h o t h e r o b s e r v e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e t w o . F i n a l l y , a g r o u p a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e shown h e r e . 140 1 . A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n O b s e r v e r #1 a n d t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r % A g r e e m e n t = # o f A g r e e m e n t s / # o f E p i s o d e s = 7 4 / 8 8 = 8 4 . 2 % 2 . A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n O b s e r v e r #2 a n d t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r % A g r e e m e n t = 7 5 / 8 8 = 8 5 . 2 % 3 . A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n O b s e r v e r #1 and O b s e r v e r #2 % A g r e e m e n t = 7 5 / 8 8 = 8 5 . 2 % 4. A g r e e m e n t a m o n g s t a l l o b s e r v e r s % A g r e e m e n t = # o f u n a n i m o u s a g r e e m e n t s / # o f e p i s o d e s = 7 2 / 8 8 = 8 1 . 8 % T h e s e c o n d t e a c h i n g segment c o n s i s t e d o f 25 t e a c h e r f e e d b a c k comments w h i c h were c o d e d i n t h e same manner a s i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e g m e n t , h o w e v e r , t h i s t i m e t h e i n t e r - o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r f e e d b a c k c a t e g o r i e s was c a l c u l a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : 1 . A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n O b s e r v e r #1 a n d t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r a) N a t u r e - 19 / 25 = 76 % b) C o n t e n t - 23 / 25 = 92 % c ) C o n g r u e n c y - 19 / 25 = 76 % d) A r e n a - 21 / 25 = 84 % e) T o t a l - 82 / 100 = 82 % 2 . A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n O b s e r v e r #2 a n d t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r a) N a t u r e - 18 / 25 = 72 % b) C o n t e n t - 24 / 25 = 96 % c ) C o n g r u e n c y - 23 / 25 = 92 % d) A r e n a - 21 / 25 = 84 % e) T o t a l - 86 / 100 = 86 % 141 3 . A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n O b s e r v e r #1 a n d O b s e r v e r #2 a) N a t u r e - 17 / 25 = 68 % b) C o n t e n t - 22 / 25 = 88 % c ) C o n g r u e n c y - 18 / 25 = 72 % d) A r e n a - 20 / 25 = 80 % e) T o t a l - 11 I 100 = 77 % T h e a v e r a g e a g r e e m e n t f o r t h i s t e a c h i n g s e g m e n t was c a l c u l a t e d t o be 8 1 . 7 %. Two weeks a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y t h e same two t e a c h i n g s e g m e n t s were a g a i n v i e w e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . T h e b e h a v i o r s c o d e d i n t h e l a t t e r e p i s o d e a g r e e d (92 %) w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s o r i g i n a l r a t i n g s d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y p o s s e s s e d by t h e C T F A P S - P E i n s t r u m e n t . I n t e r - o b s e r v e r a n d i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k s were d o n e a g a i n a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s t u d y f r o m t h e v i d e o t a p e d o b s e r v a t i o n s . L e s s o n s e g m e n t s t a u g h t by one s u b j e c t , r a n d o m l y c h o s e n f r o m e a c h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p and c o n s i s t i n g o f 25 f e e d b a c k e p i s o d e s ( a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ) , were c o d e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and two i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s ( n o t t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s u s e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t ) . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d w i t h t a p e d l e s s o n s e g m e n t s f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . In t o t a l , n i n e v i d e o t a p e d 2 5 - f e e d b a c k s e g m e n t s w e r e c o d e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a n d t h e o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r s . T h e p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c ( J o h n s o n , 1989) was a g a i n u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e two t y p e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k s a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g summary . 142 POST - EXPERIMENT R E L I A B I L I T Y CHECKS ON DEPENDENT SCORES SUBJ# SESS# #POINTS INTRA% INTER#3% INTER#4 5 1 1 25X4 93 62 74 9 1 25X4 96 70 71 15 1 25X4 98 84 88 2 2 25X4 90 83 81 8 2 25X4 94 83 84 17 2 25X4 88 79 81 5 3 25X4 93 84 88 11 3 25X4 90 88 83 15 3 25X4 84 80 86 MEAN PERCENTAGE AGREEMENTS 91.8% 79.2% 81.8% (STANDARD DEVIAT IONS) ( 4 . 3 ) ( 8 . 2 ) ( 5 . 9 ) A s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r h a n d - s c o r e d , o n - s i t e p r o f i l e s were k e p t a n d p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n t h e P r o f i l e g r o u p a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t two o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . T h e r e were some d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e v a r i o u s p e r c e n t a g e s o f f e e d b a c k t y p e s d e t e r m i n e d by h a n d - s c o r i n g o n - s i t e a n d t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m c o m p u t e r s c o r i n g i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e a n a l y s i s l a b o r a t o r y . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e n o t l a r g e e n o u g h t o be s e e n a s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d s i n f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s o f t h e s u b j e c t s , h o w e v e r . T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h was g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s a f t e r t h e l e s s o n s may n o t h a v e shown e x a c t l y t h e same p e r c e n t a g e s o f f e e d b a c k t h a t were e v e n t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p u t e r s c o r i n g b u t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d i d g i v e an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f e e d b a c k t e n d a n c i e s . 143 T A B L E 15 - D I S C R E P A N C I E S IN RESULTS OBTAINED FROM O N - S I T E HAND-SCORED P R O F I L E S AND COMPUTER-SCORED P R O F I L E S DONE IN THE PERFORMANCE A N A L Y S I S LABORATORY MEASURED AS D I F F E R E N C E S IN P E R C E N T A G E S . SESSION # 1 S U B J E C T INDVDL I N D / P R V T SPEC CNGRNT POS POS-CORR CORR 1 16 36 12 41 11 12 22 2 1 1 6 30 10 3 6 3 0 0 1 21 0 3 3 4 4 21 15 23 5 1 6 D 6 7 6 19 6 5 0 6 TOTAL 28 64 53 121 31 19 43 MEANS 5 . 6 1 2 . 8 1 0 . 6 2 4 . 2 6 . 2 3 . 8 8 . 6 S T . D E V . 6 . 4 1 5 . 3 7 .2 1 2 . 8 4 . 4 4 . 8 7 . 6 SESSION TOTAL - 359 SESSION MEAN - 1 0 . 2 6 STANDARD i DEVIAT ION - 1 0 . 2 1 SESSION # 2 S U B J E C T INDVDL I N D / P R V T SPEC CNGRNT POS POS-CORR CORR 1 1 7 27 0 5 1 1 2 1 6 15 2 5 0 4 3 6 7 16 6 3 3 0 4 9 14 1 17 2 3 0 5 4 10 15 14 0 1 0 6 0 1 17 15 9 4 3 TOTAL 21 45 91 54 24 12 8 MEANS 3 . 5 7 . 5 1 5 . 2 9 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 3 S T . D E V . 3 . 5 4 . 3 8 . 3 7 . 3 3 .1 1 .6 1 .8 SESSION TOTAL - 255 SESSION MEAN - 6 . 0 7 STANDARD DEVIATION - 6 . 1 7 O V E R A L L TOTAL - 614 O V E R A L L MEAN DISCREPANCY - 7 . 9 7 PERCENTAGE POINTS STANDARD DEVIAT ION - 8 . 5 0 T h e i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y when u s i n g t h e two i n s t r u m e n t s was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c . P o i n t s o f D i s a g r e e m e n t % D i s a g r e e m e n t = X 100 P o i n t s o f A g r e e m e n t + P o i n t s o f D i s a g r e e m e n t 614 / 7610 X 100 8 . 0 7 % D i s a g r e e m e n t ( 9 1 . 9 3 % A g r e e m e n t ) 144 APPENDIX F - UNSOLIC ITED COMMENTS FROM S U B J E C T S REGARDING THEIR R E S P E C T I V E TREATMENT METHODS D u r i n g t h e t i m e s e t a s i d e f o r p o s t - o b s e r v a t i o n c o n f e r e n c i n g t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o comment o p e n l y on how t h e y f e l t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f e e d b a c k t r e a t m e n t was a f f e c t i n g them o r how t h e y f e l t a b o u t t h e l e s s o n t h e y h a d j u s t t a u g h t . As p o i n t e d o u t i n A p p e n d i x C , t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w o u l d n o t comment on t h e i r f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s b u t w o u l d comment on a n y o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g i f t i m e r e m a i n e d i n t h e 15 m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e f e e d b a c k p r o t o c o l was c o m p l e t e d . T h i s d i d n o t p r e c l u d e t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m o f f e r i n g comments r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own f e e d b a c k b e h a v i o r s , h o w e v e r . K e e p i n m i n d a l s o t h a t a l l comments made by s u b j e c t s i n t h e p o s t - o b s e r v a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e s o c c u r e d a f t e r t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r had g o n e o v e r t h e F e e d b a c k P r i n c i p l e s h a n d o u t a n d a s k e d t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r t o f o c u s on t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e h a n d o u t a s h e / s h e r e c e i v e d t h e r e s p e c t i v e f e e d b a c k i n t e r v e n t i o n . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s a p p e n d i x a r e t h e u n s o l i c i t e d a n e c d o t a l comments made by t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y . The comments h a v e b e e n o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t r e a t m e n t g r o u p , s e s s i o n a n d s u b j e c t number s o t h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e f l a v o r o f t h e comments may be n o t e d a s t h e y o c c u r e d o v e r t i m e and a s t h e y d i f f e r e d f r o m g r o u p t o g r o u p . S t u d e n t t e a c h e r comments a r e shown i n UPPER CASE c h a r a c t e r s . R e s e a r c h e r comments a r e shown i n l o w e r c a s e c h a r a c t e r s . 145 1 . P R O F I L E GROUP - SESSION #1 S U B J E C T #1 "THIS IS R E A L L Y AMAZING. I HAD NO IDEA THAT I GAVE THIS KIND OF FEEDBACK TO S T U D E N T S . I GUESS THAT I NEVER EVEN THOUGHT ABOUT FEEDBACK B E F O R E . I MEAN, I KNOW THAT IT IS IMPORTANT, BUT I DON'T R E A L L Y THINK ABOUT IT WHEN I 'M T E A C H I N G . THIS WILL R E A L L Y HELP ME TO BE AWARE OF HOW MUCH MORE I CAN T E L L THE STUDENTS ABOUT WHAT IT IS THEY ARE D O I N G . " " IS THIS PRETTY GOOD? HOW DOES THIS LOOK COMPARED TO HOW I SHOULD B E ? " " t h e r e may n o t be a p e r f e c t p i c t u r e o f what a f e e d b a c k p r o f i l e s h o u l d l o o k l i k e . T h i s i s a s much a n i n d i c a t i o n o f y o u r t e a c h i n g s t y l e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s a n y t h i n g . You g a v e many p r i v a t e comments t o i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c l o s e q u a r t e r s o f t h e c l a s s . T h a t was i m p r e s s i v e . T h e c o n t e n t o f y o u r f e e d b a c k was a l s o q u i t e s p e c i f i c c o m p a r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g . " "I GUESS THAT I COULD G I V E MORE P O S I T I V E FEEDBACK TO STUDENTS THAN I DO. I WASN'T AWARE THAT I CONCENTRATED ON THEIR FAULTS AS MUCH AS I D O . " "THIS IS R E A L L Y H E L P F U L TO KNOW T H I S . " S U B J E C T #2 "HOW DO I READ THIS NOW?" " t h e p r o f i l e shows y o u t h e number o f f e e d b a c k comments t h a t y o u made i n t h e c l a s s and t h e n t h e n u m b e r s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f e a c h o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s t h a t I h a v e c h o s e n t o c a t e g o r i z e . F o r i n s t a n c e , 78% o f t h e comments y o u made were d i r e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s a s o p p o s e d t o a g r o u p o r t o t h e e n t i r e c l a s s . " "I S E E . SO MOST OF MY FEEDBACK IS P U B L I C . IS THAT B A D ? " " n o t n e c e s s a r i l y . You know y o u r s t u d e n t s b e t t e r t h a n a n y o n e a n d y o u know w h i c h o n e s r e s p o n d w e l l t o p u b l i c f e e d b a c k . As w e l l , i t ' s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o s e c l u d e y o u r comments when s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g i n p a i r s o r g r o u p s . H o p e f u l l y t h e p r o f i l e w i l l p o i n t o u t t h a t a l t e r n a t e e f f e c t i v e t y p e s c a n be u s e d a s w e l l when a n d i f t h e o c c a s i o n p r e s e n t s i t s e l f a n d t h a t we s h o u l d n ' t j u s t a s s u m e t h a t we c a n f o l l o w t h e same f e e d b a c k p a t t e r n w i t h e v e r y s t u d e n t . " " T H A T ' S R E A L L Y GOOD TO KNOW. I GUESS THAT I COULD BE T E L L I N G THE STUDENTS MORE P O S I T I V E THINGS TOO OR AT L E A S T INCLUDING THAT IN MY CORRECTIVE COMMENTS . . . I NEED TO G I V E MORE INFORMATION AS W E L L ; I 'M PRETTY GENERAL I G U E S S . " "I THINK THAT THIS WILL R E A L L Y HELP TO KNOW WHAT TYPES OF FEEDBACK I U S E . I ' L L PROBABLY BE MORE AWARE OF WHAT I SAY TO THEM IN C L A S S . " 146 S U B J E C T #3 "SO WHAT DOES A L L OF T H I S MEAN?" " t h e p r o f i l e s i m p l y shows y o u t h e number o f f e e d b a c k comments t h a t y o u made d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c l a s s . I t a l s o c a t e g o r i z e s e a c h comment u n d e r t h e f o u r b r o a d g r o u p i n g s a n d t e l l s y o u t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f e a c h t y p e u s e d . F o r e x a m p l e , 60% o f y o u r comments were p o s i t i v e o r f o c u s e d on what t h e s t u d e n t s were d o i n g c o r r e c t l y . " " O H , I S E E . THE TOTALS ARE THE SAME FOR EACH GROUP, SO EACH COMMENT HAS A COMPONENT FROM EACH OF THE FOUR C A T E G O R I E S . " "HOW DOES MY P R O F I L E LOOK? WHAT SHOULD I BE AIMING FOR IN THE WAY I G I V E FEEDBACK IN A C L A S S ? " " i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e x a m i n e y o u r own t e a c h i n g s t y l e and y o u r l e s s o n o b j e c t i v e s a s w e l l a s s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i l e y o u l o o k a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r o f i l e . No one p r o f i l e w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e v e r y t e a c h e r o f e v e r y c l a s s . T h e p r o f i l e m i g h t j u s t be an i n d i c a t i o n o f how t h i n g s went t h a t d a y w i t h t h o s e s t u d e n t s i n t h a t a c t i v i t y . The s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e s f r o m day t o d a y a n d s o s h o u l d y o u r f e e d b a c k p a t t e r n s . E v e n t h o u g h t h i s i s t h e c a s e , i t may be w i s e t o f o c u s on c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e s i n s t e a d o f a l w a y s t r y i n g t o c o r r e c t e r r o r s , a n d t o be p r i v a t e w i t h comments w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e , and t o g i v e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h r e l a t e s t o t h e f o c u s o f t h e a s s i g n m e n t o r l e s s o n more o f t e n t h a n n o t . " "I CAN S E E THAT I SHOULD TRY TO BE MORE S P E C I F I C WITH SOME OF MY COMMENTS. I D I D N ' T R E A L I Z E THAT I WAS SO G E N E R A L . A L S O , I THINK THAT IT WOULD BE GOOD TO INCLUDE BOTH P O S I T I V E AND CORRECTIVE A S P E C T S IN THE SAME COMMENT. I H A V E N ' T DONE MUCH OF T H A T . I CAN S E E THE VALUE IN DOING THAT SORT OF T H I N G . " "THIS HAS BEEN G R E A T . I THINK THAT THIS IS GOING TO BE R E A L L Y USEFUL FOR ME IN IMPROVING HOW I G I V E F E E D B A C K . " S U B J E C T #4 "I WANTED THE C L A S S TO BE VERY STRUCTURED BECAUSE WE HAD SO L I T T L E ROOM TO WORK - I WANTED TO MAKE SURE THAT EVERYONE WAS DOING SOMETHING A L L THE T I M E . IT MAY NOT HAVE BEEN THE BEST WAY TO DO THINGS BUT EVERYBODY WAS DOING SOMETHING ANYWAY." "WHAT IS MEANT BY CONGRUENT FEEDBACK A G A I N ? " " i f y o u r f e e d b a c k r e l a t e s t o t h e f o c u s o r e m p h a s i s o r o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l e s s o n o r i n s t r u c t i o n t h e n i t i s c o n g r u e n t . i f y o u comment on s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u h a v e n ' t e x p l i c i t l y t o l d t h e s t u d e n t s t h e n i t i s o f f - t a s k f e e d b a c k . d o n ' t t h i n k o f o f f - t a s k f e e d b a c k a s b e i n g t h e n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o r t o t a l l y b e c a u s e p e r h a p s i t c o u l d be u s e f u l i f o n l y y o u had g i v e n more o f a f o c u s t o b e g i n w i t h . Once y o u h a v e commented on t h i s new p o i n t t h e n s u b s e q u e n t comments on t h e same b e h a v i o r w i l l be c o n g r u e n t , h o w e v e r . " 147 "EVEN IF THE COMMENT IS MADE P R I V A T E L Y ? " " g o o d q u e s t i o n . i t w o u l d be s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n g r u e n t o n l y f o r t h o s e p e o p l e who h e a r d t h e i n i t i a l c o m m e n t . i t w o u l d s t i l l be o f f - t a s k f o r t h o s e who d i d n ' t h e a r i t t h e f i r s t t i m e . " "I GAVE MORE INDIV IDUAL COMMENTS BECAUSE I D I D N ' T WANT TO STOP THE C L A S S A WHOLE BUNCH OF TIMES AND THEN RESTART T H E M . THE ROOM WAS SO SMALL AND IT J U S T SEEMED L I K E IT WOULD BE L E S S CONFUSING TO DO THINGS THAT WAY - THAN STOPPING EVERYBODY EVERY T IME I WANTED TO G I V E THEM F E E D B A C K . " S U B J E C T #5 "THIS IS R E A L L Y N E A T . I A P P R E C I A T E THE TIME THAT YOU ARE SPENDING TO COME OUT AND V I S I T THE ME AND THE OTHER STUDENT T E A C H E R S . IT IS I N T E R E S T I N G TO GO OVER THIS P R O F I L E TO S E E YOUR IMPRESSIONS OF WHAT I DID IN C L A S S AS FAR AS FEEDBACK G O E S . Y O U ' V E GONE TO A LOT OF WORK." "I D O N ' T WANT TO SOUND U N A P P R E C I A T I V E OR PUT YOU DOWN FOR WHAT YOU ARE TRYING TO DO BUT DO YOU R E A L L Y THINK THAT YOU WILL A C T U A L L Y FIND ANY S I G N I F I C A N T R E S U L T S FROM DOING THIS STUDY? I S N ' T IT D I F F I C U L T TO BE ACCURATE WITH YOUR T A L L Y I N G AND CODING WHILE YOU ARE WATCHING A C L A S S ? I ' V E FOUND, FROM DOING PROJECTS L I K E THIS IN OTHER C O U R S E S , THAT IT IS R E A L L Y TOUGH TO HEAR TEACHER COMMENTS IN THE CLASSROOM AND THEN BE A B L E TO ANALYZE THEM SO THAT THEY MEAN A N Y T H I N G . " "I KNOW THAT I SOUND S K E P T I C A L BUT I 'M S T I L L VERY I N T E R E S T E D IN WHAT YOU ARE DOING AND I 'M GLAD TO BE A B L E TO H E L P . " S U B J E C T #6 "WHAT DOES THE P R O F I L E MEAN E X A C T L Y ? HOW DO I READ I T ? " " t h e p r o f i l e s h o u l d be u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k t h a t y o u u s e d i n t o d a y ' s l e s s o n . I t may be i n d i c a t i v e o f y o u r t e a c h i n g s t y l e o r t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o r t h e t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s t h a t y o u h a v e i n t h e c l a s s . Y o u a r e t h e b e s t j u d g e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t any c h a n g e s s h o u l d be made i n y o u r f e e d b a c k p a t t e r n s g i v e n t h e s e f a c t o r s . E a c h f e e d b a c k comment t h a t y o u make c a n be c o d e d i n one s e c t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . The p r o f i l e shows y o u t h e number o f comments t h a t were made i n t h e c l a s s a n d t h e n what p e r c e n t a g e o f t h o s e comments were p o s i t i v e , s p e c i f i c , e t c . " " IS THIS ABOUT WHERE I SHOULD BE ON MY F E E D B A C K " " a g a i n , t h e r e may n o t be any r i g h t o r wrong t o t h i s . T h e p o i n t s t o k e e p i n m i n d a r e t h a t p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k i s e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e i t l e t s t h e s t u d e n t s know what t h e y a r e a l r e a d y d o i n g c o r r e c t l y s o t h e y d o n ' t h a v e t o c h a n g e t h o s e a s p e c t s . F o r a 148 v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s s t u d e n t s may n o t r e s p o n d w e l l t o comments made p u b l i c l y b u t t h a t c a n ' t a l w a y s be c o n t r o l l e d i n a P . E . c l a s s s o we do t h e b e s t we c a n . S t u d e n t s who a r e no l o n g e r n o v i c e p e r f o r m e r s n e e d more t h a n g e n e r a l comments t o h e l p them i m p r o v e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d t h e y a l s o n e e d f e e d b a c k on t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h e y a r e c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n w h i c h , b e l i e v e i t o r n o t , a r e p r o b a b l y t h e p o i n t s t h a t y o u a s k e d them t o f o c u s o n i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . " "MOST OF MY FEEDBACK IS PUBLIC BY THE LOOK OF THINGS . . . AND I NEED TO BE MORE S P E C I F I C . . . T E L L THEM WHY I 'M SAYING 'GOOD' OR ' B A D ' I G U E S S . I MUST T E L L THEM WHAT THEY ARE DOING WRONG QUITE A B IT TOO . . . MAYBE I SHOULD POINT OUT OTHER THINGS MORE O F T E N . " "THIS HAS BEEN R E A L L Y H E L P F U L . IT HELPS TO BE AWARE OF WHAT I AM SAYING TO THE S T U D E N T S . " 2 . V I D E O T A P E GROUP - SESSION #1 S U B J E C T #7 " IT WAS I N T E R E S T I N G (TO WATCH MYSELF ON T A P E ) . R E A L I Z E THAT I DID WHAT I DID WHEN I WAS T E A C H I N G . " D I D N ' T " i n what s e n s e ? " "A LOT OF THE TIME I WAS F A I R L Y Q U I E T . " "I D I D N ' T R E A L I Z E THAT I D I D N ' T SAY VERY MUCH. THERE WAS A LOT OF THE T IME THAT I WALKED AROUND AND OBSERVED BUT I D I D N ' T DO ANYTHING. I D I D N ' T MAKE ANY COMMENTS AT A L L . I THINK THAT I COULD HAVE MADE MORE COMMENTS ON WHAT THE STUDENTS WERE D O I N G . " S U B J E C T #8 "I WAS SURPRISED BY MY V O I C E ON THE T A P E . IT SEEMED SO HIGH OR LOUD OR SOMETHING. IT SEEMED D I F F E R E N T SOMEHOW." " t h e FM m i c r o p h o n e may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t i n p a r t . I t ' s f a i r l y s e n s i t i v e . I w o u l d n ' t w o r r y t o o much t h o u g h . Y o u r v o l u m e seemed q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e w h i l e y o u were t e a c h i n g . " "I GUESS THAT MY POINT IS THAT I SOUNDED VERY HESITANT OR T E N T A T I V E WHEN I WAS G IV ING INSTRUCTIONS OR D I R E C T I N G THE S T U D E N T S . I ' V E HAD TO WORK ON THAT B E F O R E . I WILL HAVE TO KEEP WORKING ON THAT . . . BEING MORE A G G R E S S I V E OR A S S E R T I V E . . . SOUND MORE FORCEFUL OR SOMETHING WHEN I T E L L THEM TO DO SOMETHING. I ALSO NOTICED THAT I SAID ' O . K . ' QU ITE A FEW TIMES - I THOUGHT THAT I HAD GOTTEN OVER T H A T , BECAUSE I USED TO DO IT A L O T . " "THIS IS R E A L L Y GOOD FOR ME TO S E E MYSELF IN A TEACHING S ITUATION . . . TO S E E SOME OF THE THINGS THAT I A C T U A L L Y DO IN FRONT OF THE C L A S S . " 149 S U B J E C T #9 " IT WAS QUITE B E N E F I C I A L FOR ME TO S E E THE T A P E . I WAS A B L E TO VIEW AN ENT IRE SEGMENT SPENT WITH ONE GROUP OF STUDENTS AT MY PARTICULAR S T A T I O N . " "I NOTICED THAT I SPENT QUITE A B I T OF TIME WITH ONE STUDENT TRYING TO HELP HIM WITH THE HEADSTAND. AT L E A S T I MOVED AROUND THOUGH, SO THAT I COULD KEEP AN E Y E ON A L L OF THE OTHER STUDENTS WHILE I WORKED WITH HIM, SO THAT WAS GOOD I TH INK. I T ' S IS D I F F I C U L T TO KNOW WHEN TO SORT OF " G I V E UP" ON A STUDENT T H A T ' S HAVING TROUBLE SO THAT YOU CAN HELP OTHERS AS W E L L . IT J U S T SEEMS L I K E YOU INVEST A L L OF THIS T IME AND YOU DON'T S E E ANY PROGRESS . . . AND YOU THINK THAT MAYBE J U S T ANOTHER FEW MINUTES WILL H E L P . IF YOU WALK AWAY FROM THIS STUDENT WITHOUT G E T T I N G HIM GOING THEN I T ' S HARD TO J U S T I F Y ANY OF THE T IME YOU SPENT WITH HIM . . . YET YOU F E E L GUILTY THAT YOU H A V E N ' T HELPED OTHERS THAT MAY HAVE NEEDED YOUR TIME AS W E L L . " ( t h e " g a m b l e r ' s s y n d r o m e " ) S U B J E C T #10 "THE G I R L S D I D N ' T SEEM TO BE DOING AS MANY OF THEIR ROUTINES AS I WOULD HAVE L I K E D TO S E E . THEY WERE P R A C T I C I N G S K I L L S BUT THEY WEREN'T A C T U A L L Y PUTTING THEM TOGETHER TO GET T E S T E D . " " c o u l d i t be t h a t h a v i n g a s t r a n g e r i n t h e c l a s s w i t h a v i d e o c a m e r a i n t i m i d a t e d them o r i n h i b i t e d t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o do r o u t i n e s ? " " P O S S I B L Y , BUT I DON'T THINK S O . I THINK THAT THEY J U S T WEREN'T READY TO BE T E S T E D . THEY DON'T P R A C T I C E THEIR ENT IRE ROUTINES ENOUGH . . . ONLY INDIV IDUAL S K I L L S , SO THEY DON'T F E E L COMFORTABLE PUTTING IT A L L TOGETHER . . . E S P E C I A L L Y FOR A T E S T . " S U B J E C T #11 "THAT SURE D O E S N ' T SOUND L I K E ME . J U S T K IDDING, I S N ' T THAT WHAT PEOPLE USUALLY SAY WHEN THEY S E E THEMSELVES ON V I D E O T A P E ? " "THAT WAS I N T E R E S T I N G . THIS IS A TOUGH C L A S S TO T E A C H . MY SCHOOL ADVISOR HAS TOLD ME THAT HE H A S N ' T HAD A CLASS THIS TOUGH IN A LONG T I M E , IF E V E R . " " S K I L L T E S T I N G IS A TOUGH THING TO DO WHEN IT IS DONE BY THE T E A C H E R . THERE ARE A LOT OF OTHER THINGS GOING O N . " "I TRY TO FOCUS ON THE PROCESS RATHER THAN THE OUTCOME. I LOOK AT HOW THE STUDENTS ARE PERFORMING AS MUCH AS WHAT THEY A C H I E V E . " 150 S U B J E C T #12 " IT WAS H E L P F U L TO S E E HOW THINGS WENT IN MY C L A S S . SOMETIMES YOU THINK THAT THINGS ARE GOING O . K . BUT REALLY THEY ARE NOT AND SOMETIMES THEY ARE NOT AS BAD AS THEY SEEM TO BE WHEN THEY ARE A C T U A L L Y HAPPENING. WATCHING A V I D E O T A P E OF THE LESSON IS GOOD BECAUSE IT HELPS YOU TO S E E WHAT R E A L L Y WENT O N . " "I WASN'T REALLY SURPRISED BY WHAT I SAW BUT I KNOW THAT I CAN IMPROVE ON A COUPLE OF THINGS THAT I MAY NOT HAVE R E A L I Z E D WITHOUT VIEWING THE V I D E O T A P E . IT WAS D E F I N I T E L Y H E L P F U L . " 3 . CONVENTIONAL GROUP - SESSION #1 S U B J E C T #13 " I T ' S H E L P F U L TO HEAR ABOUT WHAT I 'M DOING FROM ANOTHER P E R S O N . I THINK THAT I HAVE IMPROVED FROM THE TEACHING THAT I DID BEFORE CHRISTMAS IN OUR METHODS C L A S S . " "I S T I L L NEED TO WORK ON SOME THINGS BUT I 'M F E E L I N G MORE COMFORTABLE THAN I USED TO WITH WHAT I 'M A B L E TO DO IN P . E . " S U B J E C T #14 "THINGS HAPPENED SO QUICKLY IN THIS C L A S S . I KNOW THAT I WAS GIV ING FEEDBACK BUT I D I D N ' T HAVE TIME TO THINK ABOUT THE T Y P E I WAS U S I N G . THERE WERE SO MANY STUDENTS THAT NEEDED HELP WHILE THE MUSIC WAS PLAYING THAT I J U S T DID WHAT WAS N A T U R A L . I TR IED TO INSTRUCT WHILE I MOVED THEM AROUND. AT TIMES IT SEEMED CONFUSING FOR BOTH THEM AND M E . I HOPE EVERYONE HAD FUN AND LEARNED A FEW T H I N G S . " "I D I D N ' T EVEN THINK ABOUT THE FM MIC AFTER A W H I L E . I D I D N ' T HAVE T IME TO NOTICE IT I G U E S S . I DON'T THINK THAT THE KIDS WERE A F F E C T E D BY THE CAMERA E I T H E R . THEY WERE BUSY ENOUGH THAT THEY J U S T FORGOT ABOUT IT AND D I D N ' T WORRY ABOUT I T . " S U B J E C T #15 "How d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t y o u c l a s s ? I w o u l d i m a g i n e t h a t y o u a r e f a i r l y p l e a s e d w i t h y o u r i n s t r u c t i o n ? " " Y E S , THAT WASN'T TOO BAD BUT I WOULD HAVE L I K E D TO HAVE SEEN THE G I R L S GET ' I N T O I T ' A L I T T L E B I T MORE THAN WHAT THEY D I D . " " t h e s t u d e n t s were r e a s o n a b l y a c t i v e t h o u g h . Y o u a d d r e s s e d t h a t by u s i n g s t a g g e r e d s t a r t s t o r u n y o u r d r i l l s w h i c h r e a l l y r e d u c e d t h e amount o f w a i t - t i m e t h a t s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d . Y o u r e m p h a s i s seemed t o be q u a l i t y o f movement more t h a n q u a n t i t y a n y w a y . T h a t ' s f a i r l y i m p o r t a n t i n d a n c e and g y m n a s t i c s I g u e s s . " 151 "I S T I L L THINK THAT THE G IRLS COULD HAVE SHOWN MORE EXCITEMENT OR ENTHUSIASM FOR WHAT WE WERE DOING. THINGS GOT A L I T T L E BETTER AFTER THE ' P U S H - T U R N - P U S H - T U R N ' D R I L L BECAUSE THEY A L L CHANTED IN UNISON SORT OF THE WAY I HAD INTENDED A L L THE D R I L L S TO RUN. I THINK T H A T ' S WHAT I MEAN BY MORE ' INTO I T ' . " "DID YOU S E E ANY PROBLEMS WITH THE C L A S S OR WITH WHAT I WAS DOING?" " t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t I n o t i c e d was s o t r i v i a l I h a t e t o m e n t i o n i t . I t h o u g h t a t one t i m e t h a t y o u seemed t o s i t u a t e y o u r s e l f on a l i n e down t h e m i d d l e o f t h e gym a n d t h a t y o u o n l y g o t a c h a n c e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a s e l e c t few s t u d e n t s a s t h e y p a s s e d b y . J u s t a s I was t h i n k i n g t h i s h o w e v e r , y o u s t a r t e d t o a l s o move f r o m s i d e t o s i d e t o a c c o m o d a t e m o s t , i f n o t a l l , o f t h e o t h e r g i r l s a s w e l l . I t h i n k t h a t y o u r m o b i l i t y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i s n a t u r a l f o r y o u a n d t h a t y o u c a n a c h i e v e i t w i t h o u t i t l o o k i n g l i k e a d e l i b e r a t e t h i n g . " "I WILL THINK ABOUT THAT NEXT TIME . . . TRYING TO MOVE ABOUT THE FLOOR SO THAT I CAN S E E EVERYONE A L I T T L E B E T T E R . " S U B J E C T #16 " P R E T T Y WILD E H ? " "I D I D N ' T HAVE A CHANCE TO USE A LOT OF FEEDBACK IN THIS CLASS BUT I CAN S E E WHERE IT IS IMPORTANT TO THINK ABOUT WHAT YOU SAY TO THE STUDENTS ABOUT THEIR PERFORMANCE. I KNOW FROM COACHING THAT THE KIDS DON'T GET BETTER J U S T BY C H A N C E . YOU HAVE TO L E T THEM KNOW WHAT THEY ARE DOING OUT T H E R E . " S U B J E C T #17 "I R E A L I Z E THAT YOU C A N ' T COMMENT S P E C I F I C A L L Y ON THE FEEDBACK THAT I GAVE TO STUDENTS DURING THE CLASS BUT HOW DO YOU F E E L THE C L A S S WENT OTHER THAN T H A T ? " " t h i n g s went q u i t e w e l l . You seem t o be i n c o n t r o l o f what g o e s on e v e n t h o u g h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n d u c i v e t o c o n t r o l . Y o u r r a p p o r t i s g o o d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t y o u c a r e a b o u t them a n d how t h e y d o . Y o u must h a v e had some d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m s w i t h a c o u p l e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t one t i m e . . . y o u seemed t o be v e r y v i g i l a n t o f t h e g r o u p d u r i n g t h e w a r m - u p and c i r c u l a t e d w e l l t o d e m o n s t r a t e y o u r ' w i t h -i t - n e s s ' . " "DID YOU NOTICE ANYTHING NEGATIVE ABOUT THE C L A S S ? " " n o t h i n g r e a l l y g l a r i n g . How d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e c l a s s ? " "I F E E L BETTER ABOUT IT THAN THE LAST C L A S S THAT I HAD WITH THIS GROUP. THEY CAN BE SORT OF TOUGH. Y O U ' R E RIGHT I HAVE HAD SOME PROBLEMS WITH THEM SO I HAVE TO KEEP A CLOSE EYE ON THEM FROM TIME TO T I M E . " S U B J E C T #18 no comments were made by t h e s u b j e c t r e g a r d i n g f e e d b a c k u s e d i n t h e c l a s s p e r i o d . " O V E R A L L , WHAT DID YOU THINK ABOUT THE CLASS . . . DID IT GO O . K . ? " " i t seemed t o . Y o u h a v e a l o t o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s and t h e c l a s s p e r i o d i s l o n g e r t h a n one o f t e n s e e s . I t h i n k t h a t y o u d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t y o u were i n c o n t r o l w h i l e n o t c o m p r o m i s i n g what seemed t o be a g o o d r a p p o r t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . You c h a l l e n g e d t h e s t u d e n t s on what t h e y were t h i n k i n g a b o u t when t h e y were w a i t i n g t o p e r f o r m t h e movement t a s k s o r s k i l l s . I t h o u g h t t h a t was g o o d . P . E . t e a c h e r s f o r g e t t o g e t s t u d e n t s t o u s e t h e i r w a i t t i m e p r o d u c t i v e l y . " " I ' V E BEEN TOLD THAT I WASTE A LOT OF TIME IN CLASS . THAT MY INSTRUCTIONS ARE TOO LONG AND THAT I DON'T KEEP THE KIDS A C T I V E ENOUGH. DID YOU NOTICE IF THAT WENT BETTER TODAY? DID YOU NOTICE IF I WAS USING MY TIME E F F I C I E N T L Y TODAY AND WERE THE KIDS A C T I V E A L O T ? " " y o u made e f f o r t s t o k e e p t h e s t u d e n t s m o v i n g I t h i n k . F o r i n s t a n c e y o u o r g a n i z e d t h e c l a s s i n t o g r o u p s and y o u s e n t one g r o u p o f f t o work w h i l e y o u o r g a n i z e d t h e s e c o n d g r o u p . I t h i n k t h a t y o u h a v e shown e f f o r t i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e i s s u e . You a l s o i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r - g u i d e d , w h o l e - c l a s s d r i l l s i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e g m e n t o f y o u r c l a s s w h i c h h e l p e d t o r e d u c e s t u d e n t w a i t - t i m e . " " T H A T ' S G R E A T . IT R E A L L Y HELPS TO HEAR SOME P O S I T I V E COMMENTS ABOUT MY T E A C H I N G . I 'M TRYING TO IMPROVE BUT I NEVER KNOW IF I HAVE BECAUSE MY WEAK POINTS ARE THE ONLY THINGS E M P H A S I Z E D . 4 . P R O F I L E GROUP - SESSION #2 S U B J E C T #1 t h i s s u b j e c t was n o t e m o t i o n a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r t e a c h i n g t o d a y . t h e r e had b e e n a f a m i l y e m e r g e n c y on t h e weekend and t h e s u b j e c t was u n d e r s t a n d a b l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h c o n c e r n . t h e s u b j e c t a t t e m p t e d t o l o o k i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e l e s s o n p r o f i l e b u t i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t v e r y much o f i t s a n k i n . 153 "MY LESSON DID NOT GO AS SMOOTHLY AS I WOULD HAVE L I K E D TODAY. I HAD NO P A T I E N C E WITH THE STUDENTS AND I WAS NOT WILLING TO T A K E ANY ' F O O L I N G AROUND' IN C L A S S . I GUESS THAT MUST HAVE SHOWN THROUGH." S U B J E C T #2 "I THINK THAT I HAVE IMPROVED QUITE A B IT S INCE THE L A S T LESSON IN THE WAY THAT I G I V E FEEDBACK TO THE S T U D E N T S . BY THE LOOK OF MY P R O F I L E I GAVE MORE P R I V A T E FEEDBACK AND I CONCENTRATED A B IT MORE ON WHAT THE STUDENTS WERE DOING C O R R E C T L Y . IT LOOKS L I K E MY FEEDBACK WAS MORE S P E C I F I C TODAY AS W E L L . I THINK THAT IT IS EASIER TO G I V E GOOD FEEDBACK IN AN A C T I V I T Y L I K E T O D A Y ' S MORESO THAN L A S T T I M E . " S U B J E C T #3 "SO WHAT CHANGES HAVE HAPPENED S INCE THE L A S T TIME WITH REGARD TO MY FEEDBACK? I GUESS I GAVE MORE P U B L I C FEEDBACK THAN THE L A S T T IME BUT S INCE THE KIDS WERE WORKING IN P A I R S , I C O U L D N ' T R E A L L Y HELP THAT - WHENEVER I SAID SOMETHING TO ONE OF THEM THE OTHER PARTNER AUTOMATICALLY HEARD THE COMMENT T O O . " "I DID HAVE SOME P O S I T I V E - C O R R E C T I V E COMMENTS THIS T I M E . I GUESS T H A T ' S O . K . " " i d o n ' t t h i n k t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g wrong w i t h l e t t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s know what t h e y a r e d o i n g c o r r e c t l y w h i l e y o u a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o r r e c t i n g e r r o r s . " "MY COMMENTS WERE ALSO MORE S P E C I F I C THAN LAST T I M E . B E S I D E S PRAIS ING THE KIDS I WAS ALSO T E L L I N G THEM WHY I WAS PRAIS ING T H E M . LAST TIME MOST OF MY P O S I T I V E COMMENTS WERE J U S T P R A I S E FOR DOING A GOOD J O B . THIS TIME I WENT FURTHER THAN THAT "CONGRUENCY IS ABOUT THE SAME AND THAT MEANS. . . ? " " i t means t h a t y o u g a v e f e e d b a c k t o t h e s t u d e n t s on t h e p o i n t s t h a t y o u t o l d them t o f o c u s on a n d t h e r e ' s two t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y t o do t h a t . . . " . MAKING SURE THAT I G I V E THEM POINTS TO FOCUS ON AND THEN MAKING SURE THAT I G I V E THEM FEEDBACK ON THOSE P O I N T S . " S U B J E C T #4 "THERE IS SOME D I F F E R E N C E IN MY CONGRUENT COMMENTS. EVERYTHING E L S E IS ABOUT THE S A M E . " "I WAS HARDLY AWARE OF THE CAMERA AT A L L . I J U S T DO EVERYTHING THE WAY I NORMALLY WOULD - J U S T AS IF YOU WEREN'T H E R E . MY FEEDBACK TO THE STUDENTS IS THE SAME NO MATTER WHETHER ANYONE IS IN MY CLASS TO OBSERVE OR N O T . " 154 S U B J E C T #5 " k e e p i n m i n d when y o u l o o k a t y o u r p r o f i l e what i t i s t h a t i am c o d i n g . i c o d e y o u r f e e d b a c k comments a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s on t h e h a n d o u t s h e e t . " " I ' M MORE AWARE OF THE CAMERA AND THE MIC WHEN IT IS ON THE SAME L E V E L OR IN THE SAME ROOM AS I 'M TEACHING I N . WHEN YOU WERE IN THE BLEACHERS I WASN'T AWARE OF IT AT A L L . EVEN THOUGH I WAS QUITE AWARE OF THE CAMERA, I DON'T THINK THAT I A L T E R E D THE AMOUNT OR T Y P E OF FEEDBACK THAT I GAVE THE S T U D E N T S . " " A F T E R S E E I N G THE P R O F I L E , IT LOOKS L I K E I DID A C T U A L L Y G I V E MORE FEEDBACK TODAY THAN IN THE L A S T LESSON O B S E R V E D . MAYBE THAT HAS SOMETHING TO DO WITH THE FACT THAT T O D A Y ' S A C T I V I T Y IS A MORE I N D I V I D U A L I Z E D T Y P E OF A C T I V I T Y AND I 'M A B L E TO COMMENT ON VERY S P E C I F I C A C T I O N S . ALTHOUGH, I GUESS THE A C T I V I T Y LAST T IME WAS PRETTY I N D I V I D U A L I Z E D TOO, HOWEVER IT IS MORE COMPLEX - THERE ARE A LOT OF ACTIONS OR MOVEMENTS IN ONE R O U T I N E . I T ' S HARD TO COMMENT ON EACH MANEUVRE UNLESS YOU STOP THE STUDENT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE R O U T I N E . " "I HAD MORE O F F - T A S K FEEDBACK - WHY DO YOU THINK THAT I S ? " " i d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t y o u were a s e x p l i c i t a b o u t g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , a n d p o i n t s o f e m p h a s i s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f c l a s s a s y o u c o u l d h a v e b e e n . t h a t may n o t be n e c e s s a r y b u t t h a t i s t h e way i c o d e y o u r f e e d b a c k . i f t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o r e l a t e f e e d b a c k comments t o t h e n i c o d e them a s o f f - t a s k . " "I SUPPOSE IT IS IMPORTANT TO G I V E THE STUDENTS A FOCUS AT THE BEGINNING OF A C L A S S BECAUSE THERE IS NOTHING TO PROVE THAT THEY DON'T FORGET IMPORTANT POINTS FROM LESSON TO L E S S O N . " S U B J E C T #6 "THERE HAS BEEN SOME CHANGES FROM THE L A S T P R O F I L E . I ' V E USED SOME OF THE INFORMATION FROM THE LAST CONFERENCE I T H I N K , PLUS I TRY TO INCORPORATE SOME OF THE THINGS I ' V E DONE IN COACHING AND GIV ING FEEDBACK T H E R E . I ' V E ALWAYS BEEN AWARE OF THE FEEDBACK THAT I G I V E WHEN I 'M TEACHING OR COACHING - I DON'T KNOW WHETHER S E E I N G THE P R O F I L E HAS MADE ME ANY MORE AWARE OR NOT. I ALWAYS TRY TO MAKE MY FEEDBACK S P E C I F I C . L I K E I SAID I DO TRY TO USE THE INFORMATION WHERE I CAN T H O U G H . " "I THINK THE REASON THAT MY FEEDBACK IS L E S S CORRECTIVE THIS T IME IS BECAUSE THE STUDENTS ARE G E T T I N G BETTER AT THEIR TECHNIQUE IN THE VARIOUS L I F T S . I CAN FIND MORE P O S I T I V E THINGS TO S A Y . " "I HAVE NOTICED THOUGH, THAT S INCE MY ADVISOR SAT IN OUR LAST CONFERENCE THAT I 'M STARTING TO GET MORE P O S I T I V E FEEDBACK ABOUT MY TEACHING - SO I WON'T LOSE THE GOOD THINGS THAT I 'M DOING A L R E A D Y . " 155 5. V I D E O T A P E GROUP - SESSION #2 S U B J E C T #7 " IT WAS R E A L L Y H E L P F U L TO S E E THE V I D E O T A P E . I WAS AWARE OF THE CAMERA AND THE MIC AT THE VERY BEGINNING BUT AFTER THAT I FORGOT ABOUT IT C O M P L E T E L Y . EVEN.WHEN I LOOKED UP ON STAGE AND SAW THE CAMERA I S T I L L FORGOT THAT I WAS WEARING THE M I C . THE STUDENTS WERE THE SAME WAY I T H I N K . THEY WERE J U S T ACTING NORMAL, EVEN WHEN THEY WERE RIGHT IN FRONT OF THE CAMERA. A LOT OF STUDENTS WEREN'T EVEN AWARE THAT I WAS WEARING THE M I C . " S U B J E C T #8 "SOME OF THE STUDENTS WERE QUITE AWARE THAT THE CAMERA WAS IN THE ROOM TODAY. IT D I D N ' T CAUSE ANY PROBLEMS T H O U G H . " "I SPENT A LOT OF T IME WITH ONE OF THE STUDENTS AT THE END OF CLASS BUT I THINK THAT SHE NEEDED THE EXTRA T I M E . SHE SEEMED TO BE HAVING A LOT OF TROUBLE GETT ING THE S T E P S IN THE RIGHT O R D E R . " "I WOULD BE I N T E R E S T E D TO S E E HOW THINGS WENT AT THE BEGINNING OF THE C L A S S P E R I O D . I HAVE BEEN HAVING TROUBLE G E T T I N G THE CLASS ORGANIZED AND STARTED ON T I M E . " " I F THE TIME SHOWING ON THE VIDEO MONITOR IS CORRECT THEN I THINK THAT I DID A FA IRLY GOOD JOB IN STARTING THE A C T I V I T Y WHEN I WAS SUPPOSED T O . " S U B J E C T #9 "I D I D N ' T G IVE THAT MUCH FEEDBACK IN THAT PARTICULAR SEGMENT OF THE T A P E . I SPENT MOST OF MY TIME WORKING WITH J U S T ONE STUDENT BECAUSE THAT STUDENT D I D N ' T HAVE A PARTNER. I THINK THAT ANY FEEDBACK THAT I GAVE IN THAT SEGMENT OF THE CLASS WENT IN THAT S T U D E N T ' S D I R E C T I O N . " " IT IS QUITE H E L P F U L TO S E E THE V I D E O T A P E THOUGH. IT IS GOOD TO S E E WHAT THE REST OF THE C L A S S IS DOING WHEN I 'M WORKING WITH J U S T ONE OR TWO STUDENTS I N D I V I D U A L L Y . I THINK THAT I NEED TO WATCH A COUPLE OF THEM A L I T T L E B IT MORE C L O S E L Y IN THE F U T U R E . S U B J E C T #10 "I D I D N ' T USE A LOT OF S P E C I F I C FEEDBACK IN THIS C L A S S , BUT NOT BECAUSE I D I D N ' T WANT TO - I J U S T WANTED TO KEEP THIS GROUP OF STUDENTS UNDER CONTROL AND I WAS ONLY TRYING TO GET AROUND TO EVERYONE TO KEEP THEM S E T T L E D DOWN. IT WAS A J O K E R E A L L Y . SOME OF THE GUYS IN THAT C L A S S ARE SO IMMATURE. MY GRADE EIGHT GIRLS A R E N ' T BOTHERED AT A L L BY THE VIDEO CAMERA AND THEN T H E S E GUYS 156 ARE IN GRADE 10 AND THEY ACT L I K E L I T T L E KIDS IN FRONT OF I T . BUT I T ' S NOT J U S T THE CAMERA EITHER B E C A U S E THEY ACT L I K E THAT MOST OF THE T I M E . " "ANYWAY, I D I D N ' T HAVE A LOT OF T IME TO SPEND WITH ANY ONE STUDENT TO G I V E THEM A LOT OF S P E C I F I C F E E D B A C K . " S U B J E C T #11 "WELL THERE WERE NO SURPRISES ON THE T A P E . THINGS APPEARED TO GO PRETTY WELL AS I P E R C E I V E D THEM TO GO WHILE I WAS ACTUALLY I N S T R U C T I N G . " S U B J E C T #12 " I N T E R E S T I N G i IT SEEMS L I K E I D I D N ' T G I V E THAT MUCH FEEDBACK TO THE STUDENTS TODAY. I DON'T THINK THAT IT WAS BECAUSE I WAS BEING V IDEOTAPED E I T H E R . I WASN'T R E A L L Y AWARE OF THE CAMERA OR THE MIC AND I DON'T THINK THAT I A L T E R E D THE TYPE OF FEEDBACK THAT I WOULD G I V E BECAUSE YOU WERE H E R E . " 6 . CONVENTIONAL GROUP - SESSION #2 S U B J E C T #13 " I ' M SORRY THAT THIS WASN'T A VERY GOOD CLASS FOR YOU TO V I D E O T A P E . I KNOW THAT I DID NOT GET TO G I V E A LOT OF FEEDBACK DURING THE L E S S O N . I 'M D E F I N I T E L Y GOING TO HAVE TO WORK ON SOME A S P E C T S OF THIS A C T I V I T Y AT HOME ON THE WEEKEND. HOPEFULLY BY NEXT WEEK I CAN BE RUNNING THE WHOLE C L A S S BY M Y S E L F . " S U B J E C T #14 "I THINK THAT THIS WAS A D I F F E R E N T GROUP OF KIDS THAN YOU SAW DURING THE LAST T A P I N G . THIS C L A S S HAS MORE BOYS AND THEY DON'T SEEM TO GET INTO IT QUITE SO MUCH. THEY ARE IMPROVING THOUGH. IT WOULD HELP IF THE OTHER TEACHERS GOT AROUND TO MORE GROUPS A L I T T L E MORE O F T E N . I CAN ONLY GET TO SO MANY WHEN THEY ARE A C T U A L L Y PERFORMING AND SO OFTEN MY FEEDBACK IS R U S H E D . " 157 SUBJECT #15 "how d i d the c l a s s go today?" " I WAS VERY AWARE OF THE FEEDBACK THAT I GAVE THE STUDENTS IN TODAY'S LESSON. EVERY TIME THAT I GAVE A COMMENT I WAS THINKING HOW I COULD MAKE IT MORE MEANINGFUL - SO THAT THEY WOULD GET SOMETHING OUT OF IT . . . S O THAT IT WOULD HELP THEM TO GET BETTER AT WHAT THEY WERE DOING." "that's i n t e r e s t i n g . not many of the other student teachers t a l k about t h e i r awareness of feedback useage. do you th i n k about the feedback that you give i n other c l a s s e s too?" "YES, AND I REALLY B E L I E V E THAT I T WOULD BE D I F F I C U L T NOT TO THINK ABOUT FEEDBACK GIVEN I F YOU WERE A SUBJECT IN A STUDY L I K E T H I S . " "HOW DO YOU THINK MY CLASS WENT TODAY?" "very w e l l - you are a very confident teacher. you are e n t h u s i a s t i c and seem to have a very good time working w i t h the k i d s . you have no d i f f i c u l t y t a k i n g charge and assuming the appropriate r o l e i n a team-teaching s i t u a t i o n . i t a l s o seems that you have prepared w e l l f o r the c l a s s e s that you teach - you always seem to know your content. you a l s o get your students organized q u i c k l y at the beginning of c l a s s and then again when you have a t r a n s i t i o n from one a c t i v i t y to the next." "THANKYOU. I T ' S NICE TO HEAR COMMENTS FROM OTHER PEOPLE AS WELL AS MY ADVISORS. THEY GIVE ME A LOT OF FEEDBACK AND I TRY TO PUT IT INTO ACTION. I T ' S GOOD TO HEAR THAT THE THINGS I'M TRYING TO DO SEEM TO BE WORKING." SUBJECT #16 "OVERALL I FELT THAT THE LESSON WENT PRETTY WELL. I T ' S ALWAYS NICE TO GET THAT FIRST ONE IN THE WEEK UNDER MY BELT. I HAD A CHANCE TO GIVE A LOT OF FEEDBACK TODAY WHICH WILL BE NICE FOR YOU." "MY ADVISOR SAID THAT I COULD HAVE BROUGHT THE STUDENTS IN A L I T T L E CLOSER WHEN I GAVE MY DEMONSTRATION AND THAT I COULD HAVE GONE RIGHT THROUGH THE PROCEDURE FROM START TO F I N I S H WITHOUT ANY ASIDES JUST SO THE STUDENTS COULD SEE THE WHOLE THING IN ITS ENTIRETY." "THE GROUPS WORKED PRETTY WELL. THOSE GUYS IN THE BACK CORNER WERE A L I T T L E ROWDY BUT I ' L L MAKE SURE THAT THEY KNOW ALL THIS STUFF BEFORE I T ' S OVER." 158 SUBJECT #17 "I'M NOT SURE THAT I GAVE A LOT OF FEEDBACK TODAY." " a r e y o u a w a r e o f t h e c a m e r a a n d m i c a s y o u t e a c h y o u r l e s s o n ? " "NOT REALLY. SOMETIMES I GUESS I AM WHEN I'M IN BETWEEN STUDENTS, BUT NOT WHEN I'M TALKING TO THE STUDENTS. THAT'S NOT ON MY MIND THEN." " I DON'T THINK THAT I TRY TO ALTER THE TYPE OF FEEDBACK I GIVE JUST BECAUSE YOU ARE HERE. I THINK THAT THE ONLY THING THAT REALLY ALTERS THE TYPE OF FEEDBACK THAT I GIVE IS THE SITUATION. IF THE STUDENT NEEDS TO BE CORRECTED THEN I WILL GIVE HIM CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK. IF THE STUDENT NEEDS SPECIFIC INFORMATION THEN I WILL TRY TO GIVE SPECIFIC FEEDBACK. THIS HAPPENS WHETHER I'M BEING OBSERVED OR NOT." SUBJECT #18 " I THINK THE LESSON WENT O.K. THE WARM-UP WAS PRETTY ACTIVE AND THE STUDENTS STAYED THAT WAY THROUGHOUT THE LESSON. I DIDN'T DO A LOT OF INSTRUCTION TODAY BUT I GUESS THAT I STILL GAVE SOME FEEDBACK WHILE THEY WERE PLAYING THEIR GAMES." "I FELT MORE RELAXED IN TODAY'S LESSON THAN I DID DURING THE LAST OBSERVATION. THE THINGS I SAID PROBABLY WERE MORE HELPFUL TO THE CLASS THAN THE LAST TIME." CATEGORIZATION OF THE UNSOLICITED COMMENTS COMMENTS PROFILE VIDEOTAPE CONVENTIONAL ABOUT TARGETED 31 3 4 FEEDBACK ABOUT AWARENESS 6 3 10 OF FEEDBACK USED ABOUT INTEREST IN THE STUDY OR 12 7 9 IN OWN PROGRESS ABOUT INTERPRETATION 8 0 0 ABOUT AWARENESS OF OTHER 7 20 13 BEHAVIORS ABOUT STUDENTS 4 10 12 TOTALS 68 43 48 159 APPENDIX G - S U B J E C T QUESTIONNAIRE A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t u d y , comments made by t h e s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f a n y p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r c h a n g e s a d d e d some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d and a s s i s t e d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . As w e l l , comments made by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a b o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e s a n d m e t h o d o l o g y h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h o f t h i s n a t u r e . In t h i s a p p e n d i x a c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n a i r e g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s i s f o u n d a l o n g w i t h t h e comments m a d e . The comments a r e c a t e g o r i z e d by q u e s t i o n number a n d by t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . 160 A s y o u w i l l be r e c e i v i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a f t e r t h e f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y , I w o u l d f i r s t o f a l l l i k e t o t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r t i m e , e f f o r t a n d c o o p e r a t i o n ( a l l a b o v e a n d b e y o n d t h e c a l l o f d u t y ) i n m a k i n g t h i s s t u d y b o t h s u c c e s s f u l a n d e n j o y a b l e f o r me. I hope t h a t y o u w i l l b e n e f i t a s much f r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , y o u h a v e r e c e i v e d (and a r e y e t t o r e c e i v e ) a s I h a v e i n c o l l e c t i n g t h e d a t a a n d i n o b s e r v i n g y o u t e a c h . I f a t a l l p o s s i b l e , I w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e y o u r comments on t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s r e g a r d i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e f e e d b a c k s t u d y . I f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t e a c h e r s and t h e r e f o r e , y o u a r e u n d e r no o b l i g a t i o n t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . I f , h o w e v e r , y o u do d e c i d e t o comment b r i e f l y on o n e , s e v e r a l o r a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w , p l e a s e p l a c e t h e c o m p l e t e d f o r m i n t h e s t a m p e d , s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e a t t a c h e d , and m a i l i t p r i o r t o M a r c h 3 1 . O t h e r t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n w h i c h y o u p a r t i c i p a t e d , a l l a s p e c t s o f t h i s f o r m w i l l r e m a i n t o t a l l y a n o n y m o u s s o I i n v i t e y o u t o be a s c a n d i d a s y o u w i s h . T h a n k s a g a i n . 1 . D i d a n y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t y o u r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y c a u s e y o u t o be more a w a r e o f t h e f e e d b a c k y o u d e l i v e r e d t o s t u d e n t s , t h a n w o u l d n o r m a l l y be t h e c a s e ? 2 . I f YES p l e a s e s p e c i f y w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n c r e a t e d t h i s a w a r e n e s s f o r y o u . ( i . e 2 - p a g e f e e d b a c k h a n d o u t , v i d e o t a p e s v i e w e d , h a n d - s c o r e d p r o f i l e s e x a m i n e d , d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r ) . 161 3. I f t h e awareness of your own feedback b e h a v i o r s d i d change as a r e s u l t of an a s p e c t of t h e s t u d y , d i d you attempt t o change your t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s i n any way because of t h a t awareness? I n d i c a t e any b e h a v i o r s t h a t you a l t e r e d ( i . e . p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n , f r e q u e n c y o f comments, a t t e m p t s t o d i s t r i b u t e comments more e v e n l y amongst s t u d e n t s , a t t e m p t s t o be more s p e c i f i c and/or congruent w i t h comments e t c . ) . 4 . I f you d i d attempt changes i n your t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s as a r e s u l t of your awareness of feedback used w i t h s t u d e n t s , do you t h i n k t h o s e changes added t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of your l e s s o n or t o your i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s ? 5. Comment on your f e e l i n g s about b e i n g o b s e r v e d by a non-a d v i s o r ( i . e . a r e s e a r c h person) w h i l e t e a c h i n g a P.E. l e s s o n . 6. Comment on your f e e l i n g s about b e i n g v i d e o t a p e d w h i l e t e a c h i n g a P.E. l e s s o n . 7 . Comment on your f e e l i n g s about w e a r i n g an FM mic w h i l e t e a c h i n g a P.E. l e s s o n . 8 . P l e a s e comment on your p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t f e e l i n g s o r r e a c t i o n s t o your b e i n g v i d e t a p e d o r w i r e d w i t h the FM . mic. A l s o comment on t h e s t u d e n t f e e l i n g s about t h e pr e s e n c e o f a r e s e a r c h p e r s o n i n t h e c l a s s . 162 Given below are the responses to the items i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 1. Question #1 a) P r o f i l e Group -i ) Yes, to r e i n f o r c e what students are doing c o r r e c t l y and so they continue to do t h a t behavior c o r r e c t l y . i i ) Yes. i i i ) Yes, a l i t t l e . I t seemed to r e i n f o r c e the use of p o s i t i v e feedback i n subsequent c l a s s e s . i v ) Yes. v) Yes. b) Videotape Group -i ) Yes, I would not have spent as much time t h i n k i n g about feedback i f I had not been i n v o l v e d i n the study. i i ) Yes. i i i ) Yes. i v ) A b s o l u t e l y . Being conscious of the i n t e n t i o n of your study guided me to be more aware of the types of feedback t h a t I gave my s t u d e n t s . I d i d focus on a couple of types of feedback t h a t I would normally have d e l i v e r e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . v) Yes, you see t h i n g s on the videotape that you don't r e a l i z e you are doing. c) Conventional Group -i ) No i i ) No, I t r i e d to go about the lessons as n a t u r a l l y as p o s s i b l e . i i i ) How c o u l d I not have gained any i n f o r m a t i o n ( r e : feedback)? Your handout on feedback types and s t y l e s e t c . made me more aware of these v a r i o u s modes of feedback (enhanced awareness). i v ) Not r e a l l y . Time c o n s t r a i n t s d i d not allow me to go over the handout i n f o r m a t i o n again to any great degree. 2. Question #2 a) P r o f i l e Group -i ) The hand-scored p r o f i l e s examined and the d i s c u s s i o n s with the r e s e a r c h e r . i i ) The two-page feedback handout, the hand-scored p r o f i l e s examined and e s p e c i a l l y the d i s c u s s i o n s with the r e s e a r c h e r . i i i ) The hand-scored feedback p r o f i l e s . i v ) The hand-scored p r o f i l e s examined and the d i s c u s s i o n s with the r e s e a r c h e r . v) Our b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s about the i n f o r m a t i o n you gathered on the t a l l y sheets were most i n f o r m a t i v e . E s p e c i a l l y because we h e l d our d i s c u s s i o n s immediately a f t e r the l e s s o n ( i m p o r t a n t ! ) . 163 b) Videotape Group -i ) The best awareness came from the handout on feedback and second was the computerized p r o f i l e . i i ) From the videotapes viewed. i i i ) Both the feedback handout page and the videotape. You r e a l i z e how vague feedback can become - f o r example, not s p e c i f i c to a person or to an area that they could improve on or even what they . d i d c o r r e c t l y . i v ) The two-page handout, videotapes and d i s c u s s i o n s with the researcher created t h i s awareness. v) Mainly from the videotapes. c) Conventional Group -i ) The two-page feedback handout and through the d i s c u s s i o n s with the researcher. 3 . Question #3 a) P r o f i l e Group -i ) I t r i e d to give p r i v a t e feedback as w e l l as p u b l i c feedback. Also I t r i e d to evenly d i s t r i b u t e p o s i t i v e , c o r r e c t i v e and p o s i t i v e / c o r r e c t i v e comments. i i ) I attempted to make my feedback more s p e c i f i c and congruent with the focus of the task. i i i ) I don't t h i n k t h a t I changed my behavior as a r e s u l t of the feedback I r e c e i v e d . i v ) Yes. I t r i e d to increase the frequency of my feedback comments and I t r i e d to d i s t r i b u t e the comments more evenly amongst the students. As w e l l , I attempted to be more s p e c i f i c and congruent with my comments to the students. v) I made a conscious e f f o r t to give feedback that was both p o s i t i v e and c o r r e c t i v e . Also I t r i e d to be more s p e c i f i c with my feedback. b) Videotape Group -i ) My feedback behavior was a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y . I t h i n k I gave more comments and I t r i e d to make them more s p e c i f i c . i i ) I changed the nature of my comments during the c l a s s - from being comments that were very negative to the c l a s s atmosphere to comments that promoted more enjoyment and a p o s i t i v e atmosphere. i i i ) I attempted to d i s t r i b u t e comments among students - whether they were great a t h l e t e s or not - i n an e f f o r t to avoid f a v o r i n g . I made myself aware of s p e c i f i c feedback. i v ) I c e r t a i n l y attempted to change my behavior by making that change of behavior more frequent. That i s , the change of behavior was more or l e s s the frequency that I used s p e c i f i c behaviors. v) Yes, I attempted to d i s t r i b u t e comments more evenly' amongst students and not to remain s i l e n t f o r such long periods of time. 164 c) C o n v e n t i o n a l Group -i ) My awareness was enhanced . I t r i e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s f a c t o r i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n i n g o f s t u d e n t s , and was more c o n s c i o u s about t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f comments. Q u e s t i o n #4 a) P r o f i l e Group -i ) Y e s . They t h r i v e on f e e d b a c k . i i ) Y e s , t h e changes t h a t I made added t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f my l e s s o n and t o my i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s . i i i ) Y e s , t h e changes added t o b o t h bu t moreso i n c r e a s e d my p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s . i v ) D e f i n i t e l y , p o s i t i v e and c o r r e c t i v e comments a r e most e f f e c t i v e - I ' l l be aware o f u s i n g t h i s t y p e o f f eedback c o n s i s t e n t l y f rom now on i n my l e s s o n s . b) V i d e o t a p e Group -i ) There were p o s i t i v e changes t o my l e s s o n s as a r e s u l t and t h e changes a f f e c t e d my i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s - f o r example , I o b s e r v e d them more i n o r d e r t o g i v e them some f e e d b a c k . i i ) Y e s . The c l a s s i n q u e s t i o n changed from b e i n g a t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e t o one i n w h i c h t h e r e was enjoyment on my p a r t and t h e p a r t o f t he s t u d e n t s . i i i ) Y e s . Once you make a comment you see t h e s t u d e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e on i m p r o v i n g t h a t p o i n t . W h a t ' s funny i s t h a t t h e y c o n c e n t r a t e so ha rd t h e y l o s e t h e a b i l i t y t o do someth ing t h a t t hey d i d r i g h t b e f o r e . i v ) A b s o l u t e l y . Feedback i s some th ing t h a t made my l e s s o n s more e f f e c t i v e . The q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f t h e s u g g e s t e d methods o f f eedback added t o t h e r e s u l t s o f my l e s s o n s . v) Y e s , I b e l i e v e t hey d i d . Any t i m e t h a t you r e c e i v e f eedback i t i s bound t o h e l p . c ) C o n v e n t i o n a l Group -i ) Y e s . I t go t more s t u d e n t s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the c l a s s and t h e i r r a p p o r t w i t h me and mine w i t h them was enhanced ( i . e . t a l k i n g w i t h them more o u t s i d e o f c l a s s ) . Q u e s t i o n #5 a) P r o f i l e Group -i ) The s u p p o r t i v e good n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r a l l o w e d me t o no t o n l y f e e l a t e a s e , bu t t o f o r g e t t h a t he was even t h e r e . i i ) G e n e r a l l y I f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e . However , I was more aware and s e l f - c r i t i c a l when t h e o b s e r v e r was i n my p e r i p h e r a l v i s i o n . i i i ) I t d i d not b o t h e r me a t a l l . I was unaware o f the camera and t h e o b s e r v e r . 165 i v ) At times I forgot about being observed but mostly I was conscious of the camera. v) I appreciated the a d d i t i o n a l feedback from somebody i n the f i e l d who wasn't o f f i c i a l l y marking me. I f e l t l e s s nervous. b) Videotape Group -i ) I enjoyed being part of a research p r o j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , I f e l t t hat the d i s c u s s i o n s with the researcher about teaching were very i n f o r m a t i v e . i i ) No problem. The f a c t that i t was a non-advisor made the p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n q u i t e easy. i i i ) No problem. I q u i t e enjoyed i t . Often I fo r g o t that the researcher was even there. i v ) Non-threatening, i n f a c t , very comforting and ple a s u r a b l e . The researcher i s a very l i k e a b l e person that i s considerate and p r o f e s s i o n a l . The researcher observed a part of my teaching that I f e l t comfortable w i t h . The researcher gave a l o t of p o s i t i v e feedback and c o n s t r u c t i v e feedback on teaching s t r a t e g i e s . I f he was to give feedback on what was a c t u a l l y being observed then I may have been l e s s comfortable. v) Does not bother me at a l l . One gets used to a number of d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s watching you as you teach. One soon gets used to t h i s . c) Conventional Group -i ) No problems. I f e l t very at ease because I saw the researcher to be someone who was there to help me, not to c r i t c i z e me. i i ) There wasn't a lack of ease because the videotaping was done very u n o b t r u s i v e l y . A l s o , the researcher was very f r e i n d l y and easy to work wi t h . i i i ) I didn't f e e l threatened, anxious or too nervous because the researcher was considerate towards the way that I was f e e l i n g . 6. Question #6 a) P r o f i l e Group -i ) A f t e r I began my lesson I fo r g o t i t was there f o r the most p a r t . i i ) I was q u i t e comfortable during my gymnastics lesson because the video recorder was away from me ( i n the b l e a c h e r s ) . I was q u i t e aware and f e l t awkward during weight t r a i n i n g because the video recorder was r i g h t next to me at times (I was aware of my p o s i t i o n i n g ) . i i i ) Did not bother me at a l l . I was unaware of the camera and the observer. iv ) I was j u s t a b i t nervous about being videotaped. v) No problem. The relaxed p e r s o n a l i t y of the researcher a l s o made me f e e l r e l a x e d . 166 b) V i d e o t a p e G r o u p -i ) I am v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e gym ( c l a s s r o o m ) a n d b e i n g v i d e o t a p e d was n o t a p r o b l e m . i i ) No p r o b l e m . F o r most o f t h e c l a s s I f o r g o t i t was b e i n g d o n e . i i i ) A g a i n , I q u i t e e n j o y e d i t . I t h i n k t h a t more v i d e o t a p e f e e d b a c k w o u l d h e l p i n t h e f u t u r e a n y w a y . i v ) The v i d e o t a p e d i d n o t b o t h e r me a t a l l . I w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t a l l my l e s s o n s were v i d e o t a p e d . T h e r e i s a l o t t o l e a r n f r o m p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . v ) I d o n ' t m i n d i t a t a l l . We w e r e a l l v i d e o t a p e d i n o u r P . E . c l a s s a t U B C . Y o u s o o n f o r g e t t h a t t h e m i c r o p h o n e a n d c a m e r a a r e e v e n t h e r e . c ) C o n v e n t i o n a l G r o u p -i ) No p r o b l e m . I f e l t v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e . i i ) I f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e . i i i ) I was n e r v o u s a t f i r s t , b u t s o o n f o r g o t a b o u t i t when t h e l e s s o n s t a r t e d . 7 . Q u e s t i o n #7 a) P r o f i l e G r o u p -i ) A g a i n , I f o r g o t a b o u t i t a f t e r a few m i n u t e s . i i ) I t was no p r o b l e m . I d i d n ' t m i n d i t a t a l l e x c e p t t h a t I was q u i t e a w a r e a t t i m e s when I w o u l d g o o f up my d i r e c t i o n s / i n s t r u c t i o n s / f e e d b a c k . i i i ) No p r o b l e m . S o m e t i m e s I w o r r i e d a b o u t w h i s t l i n g t o o l o u d l y . i v ) I f e l t a l r i g h t a b o u t i t . v ) I f e l t r e l a x e d a b o u t i t . b) V i d e o t a p e G r o u p -i ) The o n l y t i m e t h a t I knew i t was t h e r e was when I had t o p u t i t on and t a k e i t o f f . i i ) I f t h e s t u d e n t s d i d n ' t comment on t h e m i c o c c a s i o n a l l y , I ' d l i k e l y h a v e f o r g o t t e n i t . i i i ) You r e a l i z e a l l t h e s i l l y comments t h a t y o u make and a r e n o t e v e n aware o f them a f t e r w a r d s when y o u v i e w t h e v i d e o t a p e . I f o u n d t h a t t h e m i c was c o m p a c t e n o u g h t h a t i t was n o t a b o t h e r . i v ) T h e FM m i c d i d n o t h i n d e r my P . E . l e s s o n i n any w a y . v) One s o o n f o r g e t s t h a t i t i s t h e r e . c ) C o n v e n t i o n a l G r o u p -i ) I f e l t v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . i i ) I t o n l y r e a l l y a f f e c t e d me when t h e s t u d e n t s were c o m m e n t i n g on i t , o t h e r w i s e I f o r g o t a b o u t i t . i i i ) I was a p p r e h e n s i v e a t f i r s t b u t i t was s m a l l and l i g h t so i t was n o t b o t h e r s o m e . 167 8. Question #8 a) P r o f i l e Group -i ) They were curious at f i r s t , but soon completely ignored i t . i i ) For the most p a r t , my students didn't make a bi g deal about me being "wired" or taped. They asked what i t was f o r and I explained the researcher's presence ( b r i e f l y ) . I do not t h i n k that they gave any thought to a 'researcher' being i n the c l a s s . Do they even know what a 'research student' i s ? They were only grade e i g h t s . i i i ) There were no noticed e f f e c t s on the students. iv ) I don't t h i n k that they were bothered by the FM mic or the research person i n c l a s s . In f a c t they may have stayed on task more than usual because of the camera. v) For the most part they were barely aware that the research person was there. I acted l i k e i t was no big deal - they reacted l i k e w i s e . b) Videotape Group -i ) They were curious as to what the mic was, who the researcher was and why he was here. They were r e a l l y concerned when I had to d i s c i p l i n e them when the mic was on. i i ) I was s u r p r i s e d at how l i t t l e they reacted to i t . i i i ) My grade e i g h t s responded w e l l - i n other words there was no response. My grade 10's were a l l too aware of i t and made f o o l s of themselves. I guess i t s that time of l i f e . i v ) The students had very l i t t l e r e a c t i o n to my being videotaped. Most students d i d not n o t i c e the w i r e l e s s mic. v) Students have become used to having an observer i n the classroom. I b e l i e v e that they soon f o r g o t that the camera and the mic were there. c) Conventional Group -i ) The k i d s got a k i c k out of i t , and a f t e r the novelty wore o f f they resumed being grade eight students. i i ) The kids asked about the mic and the video camera but they soon got used to i t and i t didn't a f f e c t t h e i r l e a r n i n g . i i i ) Kids do not possess a lengthy a t t e n t i o n span to begin w i t h , so the presence of the researcher provided them with a reason to be even more d i s t r a c t e d . I am aware of how students o f t e n act out because of another person/camera i n the room so I was prepared f o r i t and set the stage f o r any p o t e n t i a l d i s r u p t i o n s . Management t e s t - no problems! 168 APPENDIX H - CONSENT FORMS P r i o r to the study, volunteer subjects were acquired from the Secondary P h y s i c a l Education Methods c l a s s w i t h i n the Faculty of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The subject consent forms b r i e f l y described the study, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the time i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r those p r e s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l educators who volunteered f o r the feedback i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Two copies of the consent form i t s e l f were made a v a i l a b l e to the prospective v o l u n t e e r s . One copy was signed and returned to the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The other was kept by the sub j e c t . I t was stated c l e a r l y both v e r b a l l y and i n w r i t i n g t h a t the subjects could, without f e a r of r e p r i s a l , withdraw from the study at any time. Nineteen subjects volunteered and only one withdrew. The subject that withdrew from the study f e l t that personal time c o n s t r a i n t s plus the perceived demands of the study would a f f e c t subsequent teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The withdrawal occured p r i o r any observations so i t had no e f f e c t on the study or the f i n a l r e s u l t s and i n f a c t f a c i l i t a t e d equal group s i z e s as the subject's group o r i g i n a l l y had seven members and thus ended up with s i x as i n the other groups. An agency consent form was a l s o sent to the p r i n c i p a l s of the schools where subjects were to conduct t h e i r student teaching practicum. Again, the p r i n c i p a l s received a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r part i n the study and two copies of the consent form, one of which was to be returned to the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Copies of the study d e s c r i p t i o n s and the consent forms are included i n t h i s appendix. 169 APPENDIX I - OBSERVATION AND INTERVENTION SCHEDULE Perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t and time-consuming aspects of the feedback study were arranging and scheduling f o r observation times and u l t i m a t e l y t r a v e l l i n g to v i s i t the student teacher subjects i n t h e i r schools. A t o t a l of 54 v i s i t s to observe teachers were made between the dates of February 11, 1991 and March 28, 1991. The time t h a t elapsed between v i s i t s to i n d i v i d u a l subjects w i t h i n the three treatment groups v a r i e d f o r a number of reasons. I n i t i a l l y , a l l student teachers d i d not assume teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at the same times or at the same rates of takeover. This meant that some student.teachers could not be scheduled f o r observations u n t i l two or three weeks i n t o the study. Teaching P r o f e s s i o n a l days and scheduled school breaks a l s o d i c t a t e d changes i n the supervisory c y c l e . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i s r u p t i o n i n the scheduling of observation times was the Vancouver School teachers' s t r i k e which kept seven of the student teacher subjects out of the schools from February 19, 1991 to March 4, 1991 i n c l u s i v e . Although the s t r i k e d i d not cause any major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n scheduling observations, i t d i d play havoc with the consistency of the v i s i t s i n that the time between v i s i t s v a r i e d g r e a t l y as a r e s u l t . For example, the number of calendar days between the f i r s t two v i s i t s f o r the P r o f i l e group ranged from 7 to 32 (X = 18.7, s = 9.35). When the elapsed time was c a l c u l a t e d i n a c t u a l school days, however, the d i f f e r e n c e s and the v a r i a t i o n s decreased. 174 The e l a p s e d s c h o o l t i m e s ( i n days) between the f i r s t and second v i s i t s f o r the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t groups were as f o l l o w s : P r o f i l e group - "x = 10.2, s = 3.71 V i d e o t a p e group - )( = 13.0, s = 3.52 C o n v e n t i o n a l group - x" = 10.2, s = 3.06 The e l a p s e d s c h o o l t i m e s ( i n days) between th e second and t h i r d s c h o o l v i s i t s f o r t h e t h r e e groups were: P r o f i l e group - X* = 7.5, s = 4.81 V i d e o t a p e group - X = 8.7, s = 3.61 • C o n v e n t i o n a l group - X = 6.0, s = 1.10 F i n a l l y , t h e e l a p s e d s c h o o l time between th e f i r s t and f i n a l v i s i t s by t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n the study were as f o l l o w s : P r o f i l e group - X = 17.8, s = 5.31 V i d e o t a p e group - X = 21.7 , s = 6.25 C o n v e n t i o n a l group - "x = 16.3, s = 3.61 The e l a p s e d t i m e s e x p e r i e n c e d by each of t h e t r e a t m e n t groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from one a n o t h e r as p o i n t e d out i n the ANOVA summary below. 1. E l a p s e d s c h o o l time between th e f i r s t arid second v i s i t s . (F = 3.07; df = 2, 15; p > .05) 2. E l a p s e d s c h o o l time between th e second and t h i r d v i s i t s . (F = 0.87; df = 2, 15; p > .05) 3. E l a p s e d s c h o o l t i m e between th e f i r s t and t h i r d v i s i t s . (F = 1.70; df = 2, 15; p > .05) A complete s c h e d u l e of the v i s i t a t i o n s done i n t h e s t u d y , i n c l u d i n g d a t e s , t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s and e l a p s e d s c h o o l t i m e and e l a p s e d c a l e n d a r time s i n c e a p r e v i o u s v i s i t i s f e a t u r e d on t h e f i n a l pages of t h i s a ppendix. 175 DATE SUBJECT # GROUP M l l / 0 2 / 9 1 5 PRO 17 CON T12/02/91 11 VID 10 V I D W13/02/91 15 CON TH14/02/91 12 VID 3 PRO F15/02/91 16 CON M18/02/91 13 CON 9 VID T19/02/91 8 VID 1 PRO W27/02/91 6 PRO 18 CON 2 PRO F01/03/91 7 VID M04/03/91 1 PRO T05/03/91 11 VID W06/03/91 8 V I D 10 V I D TH07/03/91 14 CON F08/ 0 3 / 9 1 13 CON 4 PRO M l l / 0 3 / 9 1 16 CON 15 CON KM TRAVELLED DAYS ELAPSED FROM HOME OR SCHOOL REAL PRIOR SCHOOL TIME TIME 18 0 0 0 0 0 42 0 0 102 0 0 19 0 0 5 0 0 10 0 0 16 0 0 27 0 0 48 0 0 88 0 0 5 3 0 0 25 0 0 0 0 0 58 0 0 33 0 0 51 9 13 42 15 21 88 11 15 90 16 22 67 0 0 27 14 18 18 0 0 16 7 24 4 9 26 176 DATE SUBJECT # GROUP T12/03/91 6 PRO 18 CON 3 PRO W13/03/91 9 VID 7 VID TH14/03/91 12 VID 8 VID F15/03/91 5 PRO 17 CON 4 PRO M18/03/91 16 CON 11 VID T19/03/91 14 CON 13 CON W20/03/91 2 PRO 15 CON 7 VID TH21/03/91 6 PRO 18 CON 3 PRO F22/03/91 5 PRO 17 CON 4 PRO M25/03/91 9 VID KM TRAVELLED DAYS ELAPSED FROM HOME OR SCHOOL REAL PRIOR SCHOOL TIME TIME 25 9 13 0 9 13 15 9 26 62 17 23 88 8 12 5 11 28 83 11 15 18 14 32 0 14 32 8 5 7 16 5 7 45 9 13 67 8 12 40 7 11 49 15 21 38 7 9 41 5 7 25 .7 9 0 7 9 15 7 9 18 5 7 0 5 7 8 5 7 62 7 11 177 DATE SUBJECT # G R O U P T26/03/91 14 C O N 2 P R O W27/03/91 1 P R O 10 VID TH28/03/91 12 VID T O T A L S M E A N S S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N S KM T R A V E L L E D D A Y S E L A P S E D F R O M HOME OR S C H O O L R E A L P R I O R S C H O O L T I M E T I M E 67 5 7 51 4 6 51 17 23 53 15 21 5 10 14 1902 KM 338 550 67.9 K M / D A Y 9.4 15.3 48.6 3.8 7.7 178 APPENDIX J - INTERCORRELATIONS AMONGST OUTCOME VARIABLES Refer t o Table 1 i n Chapter IV f o r the key to the v a r i o u s outcome v a r i a b l e s . #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #1 1.000 #2 0.539 1.000 #3 0.508 0.500 1.000 #4 0.903 0.635 0 .813 1. 000 #5 0.614 0.915 0.632 0.732 1.000 #6 0.852 0.696 0 .747 0.842 0.810 1.000 #7 0.846 0.614 0.423 0.765 0.630 • 0.817 1. 000 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #8 1.000 #9 0.302 1.000 #10 -0.595 -0.823 1. 000 #11 0.683 0 . 287 -0 .358 1.000 #12 0.425 0.605 -0.766 0.299 1.000 #1.3 0.750 0 .307 -0.447 0.766 0.624 1.000 #14 0.845 0 . 383 -0.601 0.696 0.450 0.840 1.000 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #1 0.886 0.474 -0.242 0.192 0.011 0.221 0.327 #2 0.259 0.784 -0.720 -0.037 0.309 -0 .044 0.171 #3 0.063 0.001 0.063 0.061 0.120 0.571 0.248 #4 0.265 0.161 0.071 0.605 0.089 0.674 0.575 #5 0 . 342 0.607 -0.299 -0 . 018 0.469 0.089 0.204 #6 0 .275 0.186 0 .226 0.616 0.490 0.722 0.675 #7 0.350 0.315 -0.174 0.594 0.268 0.589 0.925 179 

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